STRATEGII DE DEZVOLTARE A IMM-URILOR DIN ROMANIA IN SITUATIA ECONOMICA ACTUALA autor: Dumitriu Adelina Nicoleta, asist.

univ.drd., Universitatea RomanoAmericana, Bucuresti, Romania, ade_kws@yahoo.com
Abstract: Privind in urma, putem spune ca sectorul privat s-a dezvoltat si a ridicat nivelul economiei nationale foarte mult. Sectorul privat a reprezentat o prioritate in toata aceasta perioada de tranzitie, prin cele doua modalitati de dezvoltare ale sale: transformarea întreprinderilor de stat în firme private si înfiin area de noi firme. S-a observat totodata o dominatie a activitatii intreprinderilor mici si mijlocii in comert si servicii, detinand o pozitie mai slaba in industrie si transporturi. Aceasta s-a intamplat deoarece a crescut puternic sectorul tertiar si s-a permis lansarea in afaceri cu un capital de pornire relativ mic. Toate acestea au dus la o crestere a competitivitatii, la necesitatea unei mai bune informari, previzionari, coordonari si la existenta unor stranse relatii la nivelul IMM-urilor. Managerul IMM-ului trebuie sa cunoasca foarte bine in primul rand functiile managementului (previziunea,organizarea,coordonarea si controlul) cat si strategiile de dezvoltare. Planificarea strategic reprezint un element determinant în supravie uirea unei mici afaceri. Practicarea unei afaceri f r un plan strategic este f r sens, cu atât mai mult cu cât firmele mici au un avantaj natural asupra celor mari: cicluri de produc ie mai scurte, o arie geografic specific drept pia , o baz bine definit de clien i. In 2009 in Romania, din cauza situatiei economice globale, s-a impus schimbarea strategiilor de dezvoltare adoptate pana in prezent, o abordare diferita fata de 2008. Anumite IMM-uri cu obiect diferit de activitate si-au exprimat clar parerile in legatura cu schimbarea tacticii pe 2009, cu o mai mare concentrare pe imbunatatirea relatiilor cu clientii, cu axarea masiv pe investitii si restructurare, cu diversificarea domeniului de activitate. In urma mai multor sondaje de opinie realizate la nivelul managerial al imm-ului, s-a demonstrat ca in continuare in 2009 si dupa aceea, in 2010 se va merge pe strategii de dezvoltare, pe planuri startegice chiar daca acestea s-au schimbat fata de ultimul an: se restrang cheltuielile, se diversifica domeniul de activitate, se merge pe imbunatatirea relatiilor cu clientii si nu numai, se evita distrugerea unei piete formata in ultimii zece ani. Toate acestea pentru a supravietui si pentru a trece cat mai usor peste aceasta perioada de criza economica. Abstract: Looking back, we can tell that the private sector has developed and raised very much the level of national economy. The private sector represented a priority in all this period of transition, by its two modalities of development: the transformation of state enterprises in private enterprises and setting up new enterprises. It was also observed a domination of the activity of SME in commerce and services, and less in industry and transport. It all happened due to the fact that the third sector grew stronger and launching into business with a start capital relatively low was permitted. All these things led to an increase of competition, a necessity of a better information, prediction, coordination and strong relationship between the SME. The manager of SME must know first of all, very good, the functions of the management( the prediction, the organization, the coordination and control) and also the strategies of development. The strategic planning represents an essential element in the survival of a small enterprise. Practicing a business without a strategic plan has no sense, further more when small enterprises have a natural advantage over the big ones: shorter production cycles, a specific geographic area as target, a well defined base of clients. In Romania, in 2009, due to the global economical situation, it was imposed the changing of the strategies of developement adopted until now, a different approach versus 2008. Some SME with different object of activity expressed clearly their oppinion regarding changing the startegy for 2009, with a bigger concentration on improving the relationship with the clients, with their focus on investitions and restructure, and diversifying the field of activity.

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cum ar fi efectivele de salariati. Conceptul general de IMM.mod de dezvoltare. s-a impus o reevaluare a situatiei actuale si o schimbare de gandire manageriala. crearea de noi locuri de munca si nu in ultimul rand o amenajare teritoriala echilibrata. sondaj de opinie. a planului strategic. vorbim de entitati economice a caror clasificare se face in prima instanta in functie de numarul de salariati. de mijloace comerciale insuficiente. relatiile cu furnizorii. procesele de productie si de distributie. Corpul lucrarii: I. existenta unui sistem de informare direct. sounding of opinion. In timp. Imaginea potentialului economic este dat de aportul intreprinderilor mici si mijlocii in realizarea unor indicatori. All these are made for surviving and for overcoming as much as easier possible this period of economic crises. Factorii care privesc intreprinzatorul sunt abilitatile operationale folosite in realizarea unor activitati ca marketing-ul. Key words: SME. Totusi intreprinderi mici si mijlocii prezinta si elemente de vulnerabilitate pentru ca ele dispun de un capital redus. Totusi incepand cu anul 2008 si pana in prezent s-a constatat o scadere a activitatii imm-urilor si s-a impus o schimbare radicala a modului de abordare. previzionarea vanzarilor. de imposibilitatea realizarii unor investitii sistematice si de protectia salariatilor relativ redusa. resursele de sistem adica gradul de complexitate a sistemelor informationale. de marimea profitului si marimea activelor. Cuvinte cheie: IMM. desfacerea. abilitatile manageriale ale intreprinzatorului si abilitatile strategice ale intreprinzatorului in identificare apnctelor tari si slabe ale firmei pentru a aplica cele mai bune metode si tehnici si a realiza obiectivele propuse. obiectivele si gradul de convergenta dintre obiectivele individuale si cele ale intreprinderii. in 2010 the trend will be going towards the development stategies. planificare strategica. Toate aceste schimbari le-am aflat de la manageri care deja s-au lovit de problemele aparute intr-o situatie dificila din punct de vedere economic. fie ea si economica atrage dupa sine numeroase alte schimbari la care managerul trebuie sa fie receptiv daca vrea ca afacerea lui sa supravietuiasca. in cadrul unor IMM-uri cu obiect diferit de activitate. exportul. printr-un sondaj de opinie. managerial reorientation Clasificare JEL: M. the damaging of a market formed in the last ten years will be avoided. o mai buna gestiune a resurselor umane. mai ales in cele puternic dezvoltate. In ultimii ani s-a inregistrat o crestere spectaculoasa a ponderii intreprinderilor mici si mijlocii in majoritatea tarilor. Avantajele semnificative ale intrepriderilor mici si mijlocii sunt gradul mare de adaptabilitate la cererile pietei. analiza resurselor disponibile. strategic planning. strategic plans. de dificultati tehnico-tehnologice pentru a face fata concurentei sectoarelor de varf ca tehnologie. sa mearga mai departe. Acesti factori vizeaza pe de o parte intreprinderea si pe de alta parte intreprinzatorul. cota de piata. a proiectelor in curs. volumul de investitii. de planificare si control si resursele de afaceri care inseamna baza de clienti. Concluzia a fost ca o schimbare. capacitatea mare de inovare determinata de competitie si concurenta. M10 Introducere: In Romania s-a inregistrat o crestere spectaculoasa in ultimii ani a ponderii IMM-urilor. competitivity. productia. reorientare manageriala. the relationship with the clients will be improved and not only. the field of activity will diversify. prin studii efectuate la nivel managerial.1. intr-o situatie de criza in care supravietuieste numai cel care se reinventeaza si isi schimb strategia de dezvoltare. tipul de produs. cifra de afaceri.Based on numerous polls made on the managerial level of the SME. competitivitate. In general cand vorbim de intreprinderi mici si mijlocii. Factorii care vizeaza intreprinderea pot fi resursele financiare proprii sau atrase. a fluxurilor de numerar si a necesarului de capital. s-a stabilit a exita o serie de factori care determina succesul sau esecul intreprinderilor mici si mijlocii. Inafara de evaluarea corecta a tuturor acestor factori si a impactului lor. S-a observat totodata o dominatie a activitatii 2 . se mai impune si urmarirea atenta si analiza evolutiei costurilor. valoarea adaugata. structura organizatorica simplificata ce conduce la un cost scazut si la o circulatie corecta a informatiilor si deciziilor. Daca pana acum s-au folosit anumite strategii de dezvoltare. de cifra de afaceri. was demonstrated that in 2009 and after . resursele de personal care inseamna atat numarul cat si calitatea acestora. even if they have changed versus last year: expences are being reduced.

pentru a stimula crearea de cât mai multe IMM. Pentru cre terea IMM în România au trebuit întrunite urm toarele condi ii: 1. un creator de activit i. controlabil . rata infla iei mic sau oricum.Dup ³American Small Business´ întreprinz torul este o persoan ce organizeaz . asupra firmei pe care o conduce. Mul i întreprinz tori au r bdare. Urm torii parametrii economici influen eaz în mod pozitiv dezvoltarea IMM: cursul de schimb al Leului stabil. posedând capital. crearea unei re ele interna ionale care s furnizeze metode de acces la pie ele financiare. Dezvoltarea IMM în România a reprezentat cheia cre terii economice i a ocup rii for ei de munc disponibilizat prin restructurarea sectorului de stat. propulsat de o idee. Birocra ie redus i un echilibru între infrastructura legal de func ionare a IMM i promovarea unei politici liberale. 3. infla ia instabil . LONGENECKER define te întreprinz torul ca un individ care. Afacerea este o extensie a propriilor dorin e. 5. stabilirea unui sistem de pl i eficient. practicat de B ncile Comerciale. Întreprinz torul este foarte inovativ. de acces nediscriminatoriu. Importan a finan rii IMM decurge din necesitatea descentraliz rii pie elor care s reuneasc un num r semnificativ de competitori. inabilitatea b ncilor în evaluarea planurilor de afaceri ale IMM. 2. în dublu sens. într-o m sur mai mare sau mai mic . for de munc . pozitiv sau negativ. pe diferite pie e interne i externe. incluzând modalit ile de demarare în afaceri. întrucât i în prezent cele mai multe IMM se confrunt cu lipsa oric rei surse de informa ii în domeniul afacerilor. Accesul la ³know-how´. Întreprinz torul demareaz i conduce o afacere pentru a. întrucât deciziile acestuia se r sfrâng. nivelul dobânzilor. IMM-ul. Un studiu efectuat în SUA pe un e antion de 500 de întreprinz tori i 500 de manageri a relevat c întreprinz torul posed o dorin mult mai mare comparativ cu managerul. În acest context au fost puse in practica de-a lungul anilor cele doua modalit i de dezvoltare: y transformarea întreprinderilor de stat în firme private. cunoa terea conceptelor de baz ale economiei de pia .2. y înfiin area de noi firme. cunoscutul economist J. în primul rând. I. Un întreprinz tor reprezint . Rezultatele studiului arat c întreprinz torul posed o dorin mai mare de cunoa tere. Stabilitate macroeconomic . întreprinz torul dispune de puterea de a surmonta rezisten a pe care mediul social o opune întotdeauna schimb rii i agen ilor s i. Promovarea i dezvoltarea sectorului privat a reprezentat o prioritate major pentru România în toata aceast perioad de tranzi ie la economia de pia . Întreprinz torul este o persoan cu reac ii rapide. Accesul la finan are al IMM care. programe de preg tire pe domenii de activitate. dirijeaz i î i asum riscurile ce decurg din afacerile firmei. în opozi ie cu managerul clasic care se ocup de dirijarea i func ionarea întreprinderilor existente. creator de noi produse. rezonabil. IMM reprezenta un suport sigur pentru demonopolizarea i restructurarea întreprinderilor de stat. Astfel. 4. demareaz i conduce o afacere. intreprinzatorul si managerul În literatura de specialitate exist mai multe defini ii ale întreprinz torului. abilitate de a trece peste situa ii incerte. Întreprinz torul este asem nat cu omulorchestr . fluctua ii ale cursului de schimb al leului. planificarea activit ii.intreprinderilor mici si mijlocii in comert si servicii. considera ie pentru ceilal i i 3 . scopuri personale i o mare ambi ie. 6. Mul i speciali ti v d în întreprinz tor un creator.i îndeplini obiectivele personale. proprietar i executant al întreprinderii sale. Regim fiscal încurajator. Suport institu ional i formularea unei politici coerente na ionale privind IMM. un realizator de lucruri noi. echipamente i diverse facilit i. Pentru a putea realiza acest deziderat. el aplic creativ strategii i modalit i de conducere. detinand o pozitie mai slaba in industrie si transporturi. asocierea fiind incurajata si protejata prin lege tocmai pentru a mari rezistenta competitionala. O tendinta de asociere a intreprinderilor mici si mijlocii datorita dificultatilor financiare s-a observat in multe tari dezvoltate din punct de vedere economic. crearea i dezvoltarea unei întreprinderi. datorit unor factori cum ar fi: riscul valutar ridicat. a personalit ii fiec ruia. El percepe rapid i precoce posibilit ile unui produs sau unei pie e pe care le valorific prin ini ierea. Aceasta s-a intamplat deoarece a crescut puternic sectorul tertiar si s-a permis lansarea in afaceri cu un capital de pornire relativ mic. în România era si este destul de dificil. ca o parte a procesului de transform ri i stabilitate social prin crearea clasei de mijloc a societ ii ce dispune de o flexibilitate economic i faciliteaz activitatea de cercetare tiin ific i dezvoltare.

utilizarea studiilor de marketing pentru fundamentarea strategiei alese. Ave i o influen pozitiv asupra celorlal i? 2. Selec ia produselor 5. elaborarea planului de afaceri ca document care sintetizeaz concep ia dezvolt rii viitoare a întreprinderii. Managerul tipic are tendin a ca prin munca lui s dea r spuns la întreb rile: y Ce resurse trebuie s controlez? y Ce structur determin rela iile organiza iei noastre cu pia a? y Cum pot s minimizez impactul celorlal i prin abilitatea mea spre performan ? y Care este oportunitatea imediat ? Întreprinz torul are alt spectru al întreb rilor. coordonarea. Dintre func iile conduc torului. Pute i s v adapta i la situa ii schimb toare? 8. organizarea. depinzând de perspectivele de supravie uire. Între manageri i întreprinz tori exist o serie de diferen e i din punctul de vedere al naturii activit ii pe care o desf oar i. primul pas ce precede planificarea este decizia întreprenorial . abilitate i cuno tin e despre pia . Plan de ac iune în elept întocmit 3. constituie procesul prin care resursele acesteia sunt alocate i folosite pentru realizarea în condi ii de eficien a obiectivelor fixate. vânz rile.i focalizeze aten ia conduc torul unei IMM în exercitarea func iei sale previzionale sunt: definirea strategiei de asamblare a evolu iei viitoare a întreprinderii. Studiu atent al pie elor 2. Sunte i un bun organizator? 5. consolidare i dezvoltare ale ei. previziunea vânz rilor. Rela ii strânse cu furnizorii 7. dot rile ce trebuie utilizate foarte bine 4. Pute i s v asuma i responsabilit i? 4. deoarece întreprinz torul este un om de afaceri. Controlul judicios al utiliz rii creditelor 8. el ia toate deciziile. de modul în care este efectuat demersul previzional i de concluziile la care se ajunge în urma acestuia.posed mare energie creatoare. întreprinz torul are dorin e mai mici comparativ cu managerul clasic. a factorilor de produc ie ± for a de munc i capitalul ± i. cea de-a doua func ie a conduc torului întreprinderii. personalul. consumatori i dorin ele acestora. Decizia trebuie s se bazeze pe o proprie evaluare a îndemân rii i abilit ii. ini iaz rela iile de afaceri. Localizare strategic în func ie de pia 6. 4 . Poate fi sigur personalul de dumneavoastr ? 7. Selec ia personalului 10. Controlul în ceea ce prive te investi iile. PREVIZIUNEA este cea mai important . În ceea ce prive te suportul social. Pute i rezista la diferite predici? Oricum. controlul. i anume: y Unde exist oportunitate? y Cum pot s st pânesc aceast oportunitate? y De ce resurse am nevoie? y Cum pot s câ tig controlul asupra lor? y Care structur este cea mai bun ? Succesul întreprinz torului presupune mult flexibilitate. materializate în strategia evolu iei viitoare a întreprinderii. a produc iei. Selec ia clien ilor i concentrarea pe pia 9. Studii efectuate asupra mai multor IMM arat c 9 din 10 IMM falimentate datorit unui management inadecvat. Se cunoa te c lipsa de experien managerial constituie cauza primar a falimentului numeroaselor IMM. Principalele probleme asupra c rora trebuie s . mai ales. Sunte i un conduc tor adecvat)? 3. Crearea i conducerea unor IMM performante cere din partea întreprinz torului luarea în considerare a func iilor managementului firmei: previziunea. al modului de ac iune în cadrul firmei. ORGANIZAREA. Planificarea programelor de vânz ri. în final. Exist o serie de întreb ri pe care trebuie s i le pun orice întreprinz tor: 1. Pute i s g si i solu ii rapide la cele mai nea teptate probleme? 6. Conducerea eficient de c tre întreprinz tor a firmei sale presupune: 1.

Ca urmare a functionarii acestor intreprinderi in conditiile actiunii asupra lor a unor factori de vulnerabilitate. Aceast func ie a managerului. care const în înregistrarea i compararea performan elor cu obiectivele planificate. compararea acestora cu obiectivele stabilite prin planurile i programele întreprinderii. Prezentarea generala a strategiilor. 3. 5 . orientarea unitar a activit ii acestora spre îndeplinirea obiectivelor întreprinderii. Strategii de inovare 1. desemnarea responsabilit ilor de conducere a grupelor de activit i.Îndeplinirea corespunz toare a acestei func ii la scara întreprinderii presupune urm toarele: stabilirea activit ilor necesare îndeplinirii misiunii i obiectivelor întreprinderii. gruparea logic a activit ilor în subansambluri specializate în efectuarea unor atribu ii i sarcini similare sau apropiate. materializat în ac iunile de corectare a abaterilor constatate. In schema de mai jos se prezinta o clasificare secventiala a strategiilor mai importante care pot fi adoptate de intreprinderile mici si mijlocii pentru a-si putea mentine prezenta pe piata in conditii de rentabilitate. organizarea activit ilor de birou. Potrivit experientei intreprinderilor mici si mijlocii competitive. Strategii de diversificare Strategiide internationalizare In conditiile in care se apreciaza ca factorii de vulnerabilitate raman o amenintare permanenta pentru activitatea intreprinderii.1. constatarea abaterilor i luarea m surilor colective pentru reducerea pân la anulare a acestor abateri ii asigurarea îndeplinirii obiectivelor. II. adoptarea unor strategii adecvate trebuie sa urmareasca maximizarea sanselor de supravietuire pe piata in conditiile functionarii lor in cadrul unor economii nationale in care concurenta se situeaza pe prim plan. organizarea activit ii de baz . intreprinderile mici si mijlocii joaca un rol important in satisfacerea cerintelor consumatorilor. Func ia de control exercitat de conduc tor are dou componente: una pasiv . 2.const în m surarea performan elor înregistrate în activitatea subordona ilor. 2. precum i în eviden ierea abaterilor. Asigurarea dezvoltarii lor in conditiile unei economii concurentiale necesita adoptarea unor strategii adecvate in raport cu particularitatile prezente si perspectivele de dezvoltare viitoare. Potrivit acestei scheme. Ultima func ie a managerului . in vederea atenuarii actiunilor acestora. organizarea activit ii auxiliare.Folosirea strategiilor pentru dezvoltarea activitatii economice a IMM II. Avem organizarea structural . intreprinderile mici si mijlocii trebuie sa adopte in primul rand strategii de inovare care pot sa le asigure un potential de supravietuire pe durate mari de timp. Clasificarea secventiala a strategiilor ce pot fi adoptate de intreprinderile mici si mijlocii. una activ . si care vor crea strategii de diversificare si de internationalizare.CONTROLUL . intreprinderile pot adopta asa numitele strategii de intarire a activitatii prin adoptarea unor strategii de specializare sau de gestiune a dependentei. const în ansamblul ac iunilor pe care acesta le desf oar pentru armonizarea eforturilor individuale i colective ale subordona ilor s i. In conditiile unei economii de piata. COORDONAREA. se pot adopta asa numitele strategii de redesfasurare a activitatii. Strategii de intarire Strategii de specializare Strategii de gestiune a dependentei Este asigurata supravietuirea intreprinderii? DA NU Strategii de redesfasurare 1.

Se va evita distrugerea unei piete formata in ani de zile prin politica de preturi de ultima ora. Anul 2009 este vazut ca un an in care trebuie sa ne pregatim cat mai bine pentru reintoarcerea cresterii economice . Unele IMM-uri pariaza pe cresterea cifrei de afaceri si lansarea unor noi domenii de activitate. O alta decizie tactica este aceea de axare pe produse de nisa. Se poate evita disponibilizara personalului cu grad mare de specializare si care poate fi greu de gasit ulterior. Este o strategie de business foarte cunoscuta theoretic. ³Ce actiuni trebuiesc evitate in continuare?´ si sa incercat gasirea unui raspuns cat mai bun. datorita boomului economic. ³Cum s-au adaptat IMMurile la schimbarea rapida de plan ce a trebuit fi facuta?´ . au insemnat ani in care cifra de afaceri si volumul vanzarilor au crescut spectaculos. B). De aceea. ca datorita situatiei dificile pe care o traverseaza economia romaneasca si nu numai. Relatia cu furnizorii externi este mult mai stransa si mai legata. Va fi o perioada grea. daca acest lucru nu va fi posibil. au fost nevoita sa schimbe abordarea 2009 fata de 2008. C). 6 . In viitor se va merge pe investitii (dar nu foarte mari) in principal si restructurare. mai ales prim prisma cererilor de reducere a preturilor si cresterea termenelor de plata. dar insufficient aplicata in mediul de afaceri romanesc (sa nu pierzi foarte multa energie corectand greseli). Difera abordarea 2008 fata de 2009? Sunt aproape diametral opuse. adica planuri alternative care sa-i ajute sa reactioneze rapid la schimbarile de pe piata. si in special de 2008. F. D). E). munca si specializare. Se va evita pe cat posibil efectuarea de lucrari fara siguranta platii la timp. dependenta pe care o avem unii fata de ceilalti fiind mult mai pregnanta acum. cheltuielile si mai ales investitiile vor fi monitorizate mult mai atent si pe alocuri sistate. Eventualele investitii vor fi facute in alte echipamente de productie. In al doilea rand. Se va evita abordarea proiectelor particularizate si se va merge pe cat posibil pe realizarea produselor de serie. Strategia ³fara compromisuri la calitate´ este una care functioneaza mereu in conditii de restriste financiara.II. Anul 2009 difera in primul mult prin valoarea investitiilor si a cheltuililor prognozate. acum in 2009 ne confruntam cu o scadere puternica. Daca in 2008 produsele se vindeau aproape singure. se incearca macar situarea undeva intre volumele din 2006 si cele din 2007. Trebuie evitata distrugerea unei echipe formata in ani de training. Majoritatea previziunilor. cea mai afectata este capacitatea de previzionare.credem ca acest lucru se va intampla la jumatatea anului viitor. in teritoriu. investitiile importante in dezvoltare se amana pentru 2010. Totodata putem aborda strategia de diversificare a domeniului de activitate. planurilor strategice de anul trecut au trebuit fi revazute si modificate anul acesta. spre deosebire de anii anteriori. ca si 2007 de altfel. si nu in inlocuirea vechilor utilaje. Daca 2008. care sa largeasca aria de activitate. ceea ce poate duce la investitii intr-o noua linie tehnologica. Atentia catre client si catre sectorul de service este mult mai mare anul acesta decat in 2008. in paralel cu mentinerea unul nivel satisfacator al volumului de vanzari. acum se simte nevoia recalcularii lor. nu se va merge pe rducerea activitatii sau restrangerea investitiilor ci pe controlul riscurilor legate de atingerea obiectivelor.) Cativa manageri au adoptat pentru 2009 tactica de implementare a obiectivelor. sa modifice planul strategic. Pentru cei care au trasat primele linii strategice anul trecut.1. A. abordarea de acum cere o strategie a vanzarilor mult mai intensa si mult mai orientata pe client si pe vanzarea directa. cu cca. Acesta este un obiect mai mult decat indraznet intr-un moment in care majoritatea firmelor isi ingheata investitiile majore in tehnologie si spera sa mentine pentru moment produsele si portofoliul de clienti existent. Strategii de dezvoltare ce au fost luate sau ce se impun a fi luate in viitorul apropiat de catre IMM-uri Majoritatea IMM-urilor (managerilor) pe care le-am analizat si intervievat au raspuns in unanimitate. Dintr-un anumit punct de vedere. valoarea stocurilor si viteaza lor de inlocuire va fi mult mai mica datorita vanzarilor mai mici.. Alti manageri se concentreaza foarte mult pe imbunatatirea relatiilor cu clientii si pe marirea gamei de servicii.) Unele IMM-uri aleg totusi reducerea costurilor de personal si de marketing. 70-80% anual. Este nevoie de un echilibru intre termenele de plata de la furnizori si clienti. Se vor oferi noi facilitate de plata clientilor. Se mai spera atingerea in acest an nivelul anului 2007. indiferent de obiectul de activitate. S-au pus numeroase intrebari cum ar fi: ³cum s-a schimbat strategia in ultimul an?´. de atragerea de clienti noi prin investitii in marketing online (cele mai mici costuri). De asemenea. Cele mai indraznete obiective atinse in viitorul apropiat ar fi de achizitionare de noi utilaje. sa accepte faptul ca in vremuri de criza.

2006 ÄGestiune hotelier i de restaurant Sinteze. E posibil ca incepand cu a doua jumatate a anului viitor sa incepem sa simtim primele semne ale unei oarecare revigorari economice. Editura Sylvi.1994.. Bucuresti Barbulescu Constantin. Planificarea strategica pentru intreprinderi mici. prin adoptarea strategiei de diversificare (majoritatea IMM-urilor au luat-o deja in calcul sau cel putin o au in vizor considerand ca este una dintre cele mai pertinente abordari strategice pentru acest moment de criza).. dar acum acest lucru nu este posibil. Economia Romaniei. Bucuresti Laporta Bertand.cu ce ne integram?.2001. In momentul acesta. 2002. Manageri&management. prin evitarea luarii unor decizii gresite cu privire la strategia adopatata. Constituie o provocare pentru managerii IMM-urilor sa se mentina pe piata.L¶entreprise strategique Amalbert M. vanzari etc. editura Economica. printr-o politica manageriala extrem de atenta si de chibzuita. Bucuresti. editura Economica. 1999. Murlis H..). editura Economica.1998. Strategie des petites et moyennes entreprises Encyclopedies de gestion. 1993 . Pana acum se putea transfera o parte din aceasta responsabilitate si catre alte departamente/sectoare din companie (financiar. Strategia de crestere. responsabilitatea esecului sau succesului revine aproape in exclusivitate echipei manageriale..1987. Gavrila T. Economie d¶entreprise. Bucuresti Russu Corneliu..Economia si gestiunea intreprinderii. Editura Economica. Reward Management. Editura Economica.N. Bibliografie Allaire Jean. editura Economica. Pana atunci trebuie sa invatam cu totii sa supravietuim.1999. Barbulescu C. pe care vom putea insa sa il trecem cu bine. Editura Teora. Marin A. Niculescu M. Bucuresti Marin Dinu.. ASE. Farsiritu Mihaela.. Paris Armstrong M. Managementul Intreprinderilor mici si mijlocii. Bucuresti Verboncu Ion.1999. Sisteme strategice ale intreprinderii. London.. 7 . 1989. In prezent si in viitorul apropiat IMM-urile inregistreaza si vor inregistra o stagnare daca nu chiar o scadere.Concluzii Credem ca anul acesta va fi un an foarte greu.. Bucuresti Cook Kenneth K.Intreprinderile mici si mijlocii. Bucuresti Lupu Nicolae. teste-gril i cazuri practice´. Bucuresti Lavalette G. Ciocarlan D.. Iar aceasta o vom face printr-o abordare mult mai precauta. sa treaca cu bine peste aceasta perioada si sa previzioneze o redresare lenta in 2010.2000.

and less in industry and transport. prediction. the relationship with the clients will be improved and not only. However since 2008 and until now there was a decrease of the activity of SMEs and that imposed a radical change of its approach. a well defined base of clients. very good. even if they have changed versus last year: expences are being reduced. All these things led to an increase of competition. The conclusion was that a change. strategic plans. we can tell that the private sector has developed and raised very much the level of national economy. inside the SMEs with different object of activity. in 2009. Key words: SME. through a survey. We have heard all these changes from managers who already have been facing problems which appeared in an economically difficult situation. and diversifying the field of activity.ROMANIA¶S SMEs DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES IN THE CURRENT ECONOMICAL SITUATION Abstract: Looking back. Generally when we talk about SME we talk about economic entities whose classification is made in the first place according to the number of employees. to the turnover. If until now several strategies for development have been used. 8 . strategic planning. a different approach versus 2008. due to the global economical situation. a necessity of a better information. with their focus on investitions and restructure. the coordination and control) and also the strategies of development. The strategic planning represents an essential element in the survival of a small enterprise. coordination and strong relationship between the SME. to go further. with a bigger concentration on improving the relationship with the clients. studies conducted at the managerial level. Some SME with different object of activity expressed clearly their oppinion regarding changing the startegy for 2009. sounding of opinion. It was also observed a domination of the activity of SME in commerce and services. All these are made for surviving and for overcoming as much as easier possible this period of economic crises. it was imposed a review of the current situation and a change in the management thinking. a specific geographic area as target. In Romania. of the strategic plan and projects in progress. competitivity. the damaging of a market formed in the last ten years will be avoided. in 2010 the trend will be going towards the development stategies. to the value of profit and assets value. It all happened due to the fact that the third sector grew stronger and launching into business with a start capital relatively low was permitted. be it an economical one will lead to numerous other changes to which the manager must be responsive if he wishes his business to survive. managerial reorientation Clasificare JEL: M. by its two modalities of development: the transformation of state enterprises in private enterprises and setting up new enterprises. Based on numerous polls made on the managerial level of the SME. The private sector represented a priority in all this period of transition. Practicing a business without a strategic plan has no sense. further more when small enterprises have a natural advantage over the big ones: shorter production cycles. the field of activity will diversify. in a crisis situation in which only the one who reinvents himself and changes the development strategy survives. it was imposed the changing of the strategies of developement adopted until now. was demonstrated that in 2009 and after . The manager of SME must know first of all. M10 Introduction: Romania has registered a spectacular growth of the shares of SMEs in the recent years. the functions of the management( the prediction. the organization.

creating an international network to provide methods to access the financial markets. the establishment of an efficient payment system. 4.1. it is also required careful monitoring and analyzing the evolution of cost. fluctuation of exchange rate of RON. In this context have been put into practice over the years the two ways of development: ‡ the transformation of state enterprises in private companies. the existence of a direct information system. Promoting and developing private sector has been a major priority for Romania throughout this period of transition to market economy. especially in the developed ones. sales forecasting. The image of the economic potential is given by the contribution of small and medium enterprises in the pursuit of some indicators such as number of employees. These factors aim on one hand the enterprise and on the other hand the developer. Macroeconomic stability. planning and control and resources of business meaning customer base. the level of interests. way of development. exports. the association being encouraged and protected by law in order to increase the competition resistance. controlled. inability of banks in assessing business plans of SMEs. training programs by fields of activity. The following economic parameters affect in a positive way the development of SMEs: the exchange rate stable. inflation unstable. share market. having a weaker position in industry and transportation. SMEs represent a secure support against monopoly and restructuring of state enterprises. as part of the process of transformation and social stability by creating a middle class society that has an economic flexibility and facilitates the scientific research and development activity. Besides the correct evaluation of all these factors and their impact. staff resources meaning both their number and quality. production. 9 . value added. reasonably. Institutional support and formulate a coherent national policy on SME. charged by commercial banks. The general concept of SMEs. creating new jobs and last but not least a balanced territorial arrangement. The factors related to the developer are operational skills used in carrying out activities as marketing. of the impossibility of realization of systematic investment and protection of employees relatively low. the objectives and the degree of convergence between the individual objectives and the enterprise¶s ones. There was also a domination of the activity of small and medium enterprises in commerce and services. Access to finance of SMEs which in Romania was and still is quite difficult due to factors such as high risk rate. sale. insufficient commercial means. low inflation or whatever. This happened because the tertiary sector grew strongly and it was allowed to launch a business with a startup capital relatively small. Meanwhile was set to exit a number of factors that determine success or failure of small and medium enterprises.I. The importance of SME financing results from the need of decentralization of the markets bringing together a significant number of competitors. business planning. whereas at present most SMEs are facing with the absence of any sources of information in business. amount of investment. 3. However small and medium enterprises present also elements of vulnerability because they have a low capital. A tendency of association of small and medium enterprises because of financial difficulties was observed in many economically developed countries. cash flow and capital needs. the management skills of the developer and the strategic skills of the developer in identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the company in order to apply the best methods and techniques and to achieve the objectives. simplified organizational structure that leads to a low cost and a correct movement of information and decisions. including how to start business. product type. relationships with suppliers. turnover. 2. The significant advantages of small and medium enterprises are high adaptability to market demands. technical and technological difficulties to face competition as industry leading technology. Factors which concern the company may be own financial resources or attracted. high innovation capacity determined by the competition and competitiveness. analysis of available resources. For SME growth in Romania the following conditions have to meet: 1. Access to know-how. the processes of production and distribution. knowledge of basic concepts of market economy. system resources that is the degree of complexity of information systems. In the last years it was recorded a spectacular growth of share of small and medium enterprises in most of the countries. a better management of human resources. ‡ establishment of new companies SME development in Romania was the key to economic growth and employment of the working force restructured by the state sector.

The developer is a person with fast reactions and double effect. facilities to be used very well 4. ability to overcome uncertain situations.5. It is known that lack of 10 . Creation and management of a performing SME requires from the developer to consider the company¶s management functions: forecast. equipment and various facilities. he creatively applies strategies and ways of management. Reduced bureaucracy and a balance between the legal infrastructure for the operation of SMEs and promote a liberal policy of non-discriminatory access. of each one¶s personality. Selection of clients and focus on market 9. creating and developing an enterprise. Close relations with suppliers 7. Selection of staff 10. The developer is very innovative. labor. Thus. Based on ³American Small Business´ the developer is a person who organizes. propelled by an idea. initiates and leads a business. To achieve this goal. control. possessing capital. LONGENECKER defines the developer as an individual who.S on a sample of 500 entrepreneurs and 500 managers revealed that the developer has a much higher desire compared to the manager. A study made in the U. personal purposes and ambition. skill and knowledge about the market. 6. Action plan wisely drafted 3. owner and executor of his undertaking. Judicious control of use of credits 8. directs and assumes the risks arising from business affairs. Many experts see in the entrepreneur a creator. the developer and manager In the recommended literature there are several definitions of the entrepreneur. on different internal and external markets. consideration for others and possess high energy creativity. I. An entrepreneur is primarily a scorer of new things. Many entrepreneurs have patience. The typical manager has the tendency that trough this work to give answers to the questions: ‡ What resources do I need to control? ‡ What structure determines the relations of our organization with the market? ‡ How can I minimize the impact of the others by my ability to performance? ‡ What is the immediate opportunity? The developer has another range of questions. a creator of activities. Control in terms of investment.2. The results of this study show that the developer has a greater desire to knowledge. The developer is similar to man-band. the famous economist J. organization. consumers and their desires. Business is an extension of his own desires. positive or negative over the company he leads. Selection of products 5. Tax incentive to encourage creation of more SMEs. Careful study of the markets 2. Regarding social support. Between managers and entrepreneurs are a number of differences also in terms of the nature of the business they conduct and especially in the way of action in the company. creator of new products. The developer initiates and leads a business to fulfill personal goals. sales. in contrast to the classical manager dealing with routing and operation of existing enterprises. He quickly and early perceives the possibilities of a product or a market which he turns to account by initiating. Planning sales programs. Strategic location based on the market 6. and these are: ‡ Where there is opportunity? ‡ How can I master this opportunity? ‡ What resources do I need? ‡ How can I gain control over them? ‡ What structure is the best? Entrepreneur¶s success implies much flexibility. to a greater or lower level. Effective leadership by the entrepreneur of his company includes: 1. the developer desires are lower compared to the classic manager. personnel. since its decisions are reflective. SME's. coordination. the developer has the power to overcome the resistance that the social environment always opposes to change and its agents.

managerial experience is the primary cause of bankruptcy of many SMEs. Overview of strategies. the basic activity organization. which consists of recording and comparing performance with planned objectives.1. The decision should be based on an assessment of their own of ability because the developer is a business man. the designation of responsibilities for management of groups of activities. enterprises may adopt the so-called strategy of strengthening the business through the adoption of strategies of specialization and 11 . small and medium enterprises must first adopt the innovation strategies that may provide a potential for survival during big periods time. There are a number of questions which an entrepreneur should ask himself: 1. Are you a good organizer? 5. This function of the manager.labor and capital -and finally. ORGANIZATION. As a result of functioning of these enterprises in terms of their share of factors of vulnerability. materialized in the actions of correcting the deviations noted. Amongst the functions of the leader. The control function exercised by the leader has two components: a passive one. The main issues on which a SMEs leader needs to focus his attention in exercising its forecasting functions are: defining the strategy of assembling of future evolution of the enterprise. initiates business relations. In terms of a market economy. production. the second function of the leader. represents the process by which its resources are allocated and used in order to achieve efficiency in the settled objectives. finding deviations and taking collective measures for reduction till cancellation of such deviations and ensuring the achievement of the objectives. in order to mitigate their actions. Can you take responsibilities? 4. use of marketing studies to substantiate the chosen strategy. of the way the forecast procedure and its conclusions materialized in the future evolution strategy of the enterprise depending on their survival. Can your staff be sure of you? 7. Can you resist to various lectures? Anyway. uniform orientation of their work towards achieving the objectives of the company. Can you adapt to changing situations? 8. consists of all actions which he undertakes to harmonize individual and collective efforts of his subordinates. We have the structural organization. Do you have a positive influence on others? 2. Can you find quick solutions to the most unexpected problems? 6. Based on this scheme. developing the business plan as a document that summarizes the design of future development of the company. comparing them with the objectives set by the plans and programs. Studies on multiple SMEs show that 9 out of 10 SME have been bankrupted due to inadequate management. Are you a fit leader? 3. grouping activities into logical subassemblies specializing in performing duties and tasks similar or close. the adoption of appropriate strategies should aim to maximize the chances of survival on the market in terms of functionality in the context of national economies in which competition is in the foreground. forecast sales. the organization of office activities. The usage of the strategies for economic development activity of SME II. II. FORECAST IS the most important. Ensuring their development in terms of a competitive economy requires the adoption of appropriate strategies in relation to the current particularities and future growth prospects. development and consolidation of them.CONTROL. Last function of the manager . the first step preceding the planning is entrepreneurial decision. small and medium enterprises play an important role in meeting consumer demands. The diagram below presents a sequential classification of most important strategies that may be adopted by small and medium enterprises in order to keep their presence on the market in terms of profitability. he takes all the decisions. factors of production . and stressing deviations. COORDINATION. the organization of ancillary activities. and an active one. The right fulfillment of this function at the company level includes the following: setting activities needed to achieve the mission and objectives.consists in measuring the performance recorded in subordinates¶ activity. According to the experience of competitive small and medium enterprises.

to accept that in times of crisis. A). C). II. to amend the strategic plan.management dependence. will not go on reducing the activity or restrict investment activity but on controlling the risks related to achieving objectives. and which will create strategies for diversification and internationalization. B). strategic plans from the last year had to be reviewed and amended this year. To be avoided as much as possible work production without payment on time. This is something more than daring in a time where most companies are freezing their major investments in technology and hope to maintain for the time being the products and existing portfolio of clients. Specialization Strategies 3. The most daring goals achieved in the near future would be of purchasing new machines. Will be avoided destruction of a market formed during 12 .2. Other managers are very much focused on improving relationships with customers and on increasing range of services. It will be avoided the approach of custom projects and the focus will be as much as possible on the achievement of the serial products. Also we can approach the strategy of diversifying the field of activity. theoretically well known but insufficient applied in Romanian business environment (not to lose a lot of energy correcting mistakes). It will offer new payment facilities for customers. For those who have drawn the first strategic lines last year. Development strategies that have been taken or that are required to be taken in the near future by the majority of SMEs The majority of SMEs (managers) that we analyzed and interviewed unanimously answered. It is a very popular business. Some managers have adopted for 2009 the tactic of implementation of goals. From a certain point of view. which can lead to investment in a new technological line. regardless of their activity. Most forecasts. Innovation Strategies 1. The future will be based mainly on investments (but not too large) and restructuring. Strategies for diversification 2. Strategies of internationalization Under the conditions in which it is appreciated that vulnerability factors remain a permanent threat to business enterprise." How did the SMEs adapt to the quick change of plan which had to be done? ". Strengthening Strategies 2. the most affected is the ability to forecast. "What actions should be avoided next?" and finding the best answer was looked for. The strategy "quality without compromise" is one that always works in terms of financial tribulation. that due to difficult situation that the Romanian economy is facing and not only. were forced to change their approach in 2009 versus 2008. meaning alternative plans that would help them to react quickly to market changes. D). Numerous questions have been asked such as: ³How the strategy has changed in the last year? ". Management of dependence strategies Is assured the survival of the YES enterprise? NO Redevelopment strategies 1. Sequential classification of strategies that can be adopted by small and medium enterprises. now it is needed their recalculation. may be adopted so-called strategy of redevelopment of activity. Another tactical decision is to focus on niche products.

meant years when the turnover and volume of sales have risen spectacularly. Will be a tough time. but now this is not possible. in the same time with maintaining a satisfactory level of sales volume. 70-80% annually. Some SMEs are betting on growth in turnover and launching new fields of activity. It is required a balance between the terms of payment from suppliers and customers. now in 2009 we are facing a strong decline. Still exists hope that this year will achieve the level of year 2007. Currently and in the near future SMEs register and will register a stagnation. by avoiding taking wrong decisions on the adopted strategy by adopting the strategy of diversification (the majority of SMEs have already taken into account or at least have it in mind considering it is one of the most relevant strategic approach for this time of crisis). and not in replacement of old machines. if not a decline. through a policy of management extremely careful and cautious. at least it will be tried to locate somewhere between the volumes of 2006 and the 2007. especially through the angle of the demands to reduce prices and increase the terms of payment.). the current approach requires a much more intense strategy of sales and more focused on customer and direct sales in territory. to attract new clients through investments in online marketing (the lowest costs). the dependency which we have on each other is much more obvious now. because of the economic boom. If in 2008 the products were sold almost by themselves. It's possible that starting with the second half of next year to start feeling the first signs of some economic revitalizing. to broaden the field of activity. E). with approx. which we can overcome well. Can be avoided disposing personnel with highly specialized degree which could be difficult to find later. Until then we must all learn to survive . Any investments will be made in production equipment. The 2009 differs first of all by value of investments and the expected expenses... sales. F. 13 . the responsibility of failure or success rests almost exclusively to the management team. major investments in development are postponed to 2010. Also. etc. Relationship with external suppliers is more closely related and bonded. Until now it was able to transfer some of this responsibility to other departments / sectors of the company (financial. especially 2008. if this will not be possible. In this moment. expenses and investments in particular will be monitored more closely and locally suspended. Therefore. It is a challenge for managers of SMEs to maintain on the market to go well over this period and to predict a slow recovery in 2010. Second of all. Conclusions We believe that this year will be a very difficult year. Attention to the client and the service sector is much higher this year than in 2008. labor and specialization. And we will do this through a more cautious approach. Does the approach in 2009 differ from 2008? They are almost diametrically opposed.we believe that this will happen in the middle of next year.the years by an updated policy of price.) Some SMEs still choose reducing personnel costs and marketing. unlike previous years. Has to be avoided the destruction of a team formed in years of training. If 2008 as well as 2007. The year 2009 is seen as a year in which we must prepare as best as we can for the return of the economic growth . value of the stocks and their replacement will be much smaller due to lower sales.

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