Epistemology Unit Test PART A

Rationalists: Empiricists:


1 x 15 = 15 marks

Believes that knowledge is achieved through reason, for senses are not reliable. Knowledge is acquired through the senses, physical belief.

World World of the Invisible World of the Invisible World of the Visible World of the Visible

PLATO’s Intellectual Journey What Is Known Forms, Universal concepts Assumptions, relations, concepts Objects perceived by senses Images

King of Knowing Knowing Thinking Believing Imagining and Dreaming

Pyrrah of Elis - Famous Greek sceptic. Taught nothing can be known. Senses are unreliable for it is changing and Reason is no help because it uses the senses. Plato - Dreaming Believing Thinking Knowing Physical world unreliable, world of Forms is invisible and perfect, unchanging, use of reason. Rationalist. Aristotle – Use of INDUCTIVE REASONING. Empiricist. Locke – Sense Experience SensationImpression in mindReflectionIdeas Empiricist. Experiences cause ideas which turn into knowledge Hume – Scepticism. Challenged idea of CAUSALITY. It does not make sense, for it can not be proven (just because something happened in the past, does not mean it will reoccur) Empiricist. Kant – Both sense and Reason is knowledge Posteriori and Priori is used together. Descartes – DEDUCTIVE REASONING Everything must derive from a previous true statement. Rationalist. Chomsky – Observed 4 year olds. Discovered that language is knowledge that humans are born with, universal. Rationalist. Causality Cause and effect relationship between events Theory of Opposition - Every proposition of argument has an equally supported proposition of argument. A PrioriIndependent of experience A Posteriori Dependant of experience Scepticism Questioning attitude, does not accept any assumptions until justified. Doubt Evaluates info and challenges understanding of reality Direct Knowledge: Simple knowledge, aquired through direct sences and nothing else.  You have experiencing simple knowledge reading this page. Indirect Knowledge: Complex knowledge, aquired by the use of reason to connect gathered direct knowledge.  You see chair legs. You sit on the chair but see no chairlegs, but you know they are still there.

Inductive reasoning – It is Yellow, long, curved, edible, and has a banana smell. It must be a Banana. (Particular observations  Generalization) Deductive reasoning – All men are mortal
Socrates is a man Therefore, Socrates is mortal (all statements must durrive from a previous true statement. Generalization Particular)

PART B Paragraph

10 x 3 = 30 marks

1. Truman Show + Descartes. Essay 2. Empiricism VS Rationalism How do you understand the world? 3. Truth What is it? Why is it important?
Things to know about Truman and Descartes:  Did he enjoy the reality of Seahaven? Did he enjoy it once he realized it was fake? What did he do?  When and how is he sceptic?  How does Descartes’ Evil Demon relate to Truman and Seahaven?  Allegory of the cave VS Truman  How does Truman go from Emperialist to Rationalist? What are his beliefs after that? Goals?  How is Truman deceived throughout his life? How can he avoid this, how did he. Empiricism VS Rationalism  Empiricism gains its knowledge solely from Physical means, senses. Rationalism uses Reason and deductions.  Philosopher of your choice? Why?  What kind of knowledge is used in each? Truth    Truth can be facts that are justified or verified universally among us. Important to know where our lives are headed, and to not be deceived, make deductions. How is truth relevant to perception?

PERCEPTION Common-Sense Realism – What you see is what you get. Truth is the physical world around you, senses. Independent Representative Theory of Perception – Can not understand the external physical world as is, we create ideas of it. Semi- Independent Subjective Idealism – Things only exist that are perceived, generated an idea. Dependent Phenomenalism – Uses the senses for raw experience, then uses reason to judge and perceive. Semi-dependent TRUTH Theory of Correspondence- Belief is true when it agrees with the physical world or a factual statement. Theory of Coherence – Belief is true when constant with an already existing belief or body of knowledge Pragmatic – Belief is true when it is of utility (grants pleasure/happiness/usefulness)

Part C Surprise!!! Perhaps General Nature of Epistemology? Prepare to make connections!

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