# PROBLEM SOLVING IN MATHEMATICS

**WORKSHOP FOR CLASSES 8 AND 9
**

OFFERED JOINTLY BY

RISHI VALLEY SCHOOL, A.P., & INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE, BANGALORE

8–10 AUGUST, 2008

1. Arri+izins

A cryptarithm is a coded arithmetic problem, in which some or all of the digits have been

replaced by letters; your task is to decode the code. (The arithmetic is done in base ten.)

App-1. Find all four digit numbers n with the following property: The digits of 4n are

the same as those of n, but arranged in the reverse order. That is, solve the following

cryptarithm: ABCD × 4 = DCBA.

App-2. Find all four digit numbers n with the following property: The digits of 9n are

the same as those of n, but arranged in the reverse order. That is, solve the following

cryptarithm: ABCD × 9 = DCBA.

App-3. In the preceding problem, what happens if 9 is replaced by 3? By 5? By 7?

App-4. Find all possible ways of writing 100 as a diﬀerence of two perfect squares.

App-5. Solve the following cryptarithm: TWO× TWO = THREE.

App-6. Solve the following cryptarithm: ABCDEF × 5 = FABCDE.

App-7. Determine, with proof, the central element of a 3 × 3 magic square made using

the numbers 1, 2, 3, . . . , 8, 9. (In a magic square, the row sums, the column sums,

and the sums of the two main diagonals are all the same.)

App-8. The ﬁgure shown represents a 4 × 4

magic square. Show that its entries a, b,

c, d obey the relation a + b = c + d.

Find other such properties of 4 × 4

magic squares.

a b

c d

2. Aioinn.

Alg-1. Find a formula for the sum of the ﬁrst n positive integers. Prove your formula in

at least two diﬀerent ways.

Alg-2. Show that the sum of the ﬁrst n positive odd integers is n

2

. (Example: For n = 4,

we have: 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 = 16 = 4

2

.) Find at least two diﬀerent proofs.

1

2 PROBLEM SOLVING WORKSHOP

Alg-3. Use the identity n

3

− (n − 1)

3

= 3n

2

− 3n + 1 to show that

1

2

+ 2

2

+ 3

2

+ · · · + (n − 1)

2

+ n

2

=

n(n + 1)(2n + 1)

6

.

Alg-4. Factorize the expression a

4

+ 4. Use your answer to ﬁnd the prime factors of the

numbers 15

4

+ 4 = 50629 and 25

4

+ 4 = 390629.

Alg-5. Factorize the expression a

5

+ a

4

+ 1. Use your answer to ﬁnd the prime factors of

the number 6

5

+ 6

4

+ 1 = 9073.

Alg-6. Study the following relations and ﬁnd a generalized statement, with proof:

1 + 2 = 3,

4 + 5 + 6 = 7 + 8,

9 + 10 + 11 + 12 = 13 + 14 + 15,

16 + 17 + 18 + 19 + 20 = 21 + 22 + 23 + 24, . . . .

Alg-7. Find the remainder when x

100

− 2x

51

+ 1 is divided by x

2

− 1.

Alg-8. Given two numbers u, v, denote their sum and product by s and p, respectively

(s = u +v, p = uv). Further, denote the sum of the n

th

powers of u and v by a

n

(i.e.,

a

n

= u

n

+ v

n

). Establish the following relation, true for all positive integers n:

a

n+2

= sa

n+1

− pa

n

.

Alg-9. Use the result proved above to show that the integer closest to the non-integral

number

1 +

√

2

n

is the number

1 +

√

2

n

+

1 −

√

2

n

.

Alg-10. Showthat the integer closest to

1 +

√

2

n

is 2 more than a multiple of 4 for every

positive integer n.

3. EiixiN+.nv Nixnin Tnionv

Notation: Let a, b, c, n, . . . be integers.

• If a is a divisor of b, we write a | b. Example: 3 | 9, 11 | 66, n | (n

2

− n).

• If a is not a divisor of b, we write a ∤ b. Example: 2 ∤ 3, 5 ∤ 17, n ∤ (n

2

+ 1).

• The greatest common divisor of a, b (also called the “highest common factor”) is

denoted by otn(a, b). Example: otn(25, 35) = 5, otn(21, 25) = 1.

• If otn(a, b) = 1 we say that a, b are coprime. Example: 21, 25 are coprime.

• If a − b is divisible by c, we write: a ≡ b (mod c). Example: 17 ≡ 11 (mod 3),

25 ≡ 9 (mod 8).

We shall take for granted, i.e., without proof, the Fundamental Theoremof Arithmetic, which

states: “Each positive integer greater than 1 can be expressed in just one way as a product

of prime numbers”.

PROBLEM SOLVING IN MATHEMATICS 3

NumT-1. Prove that:

(a) The sum of any two consecutive odd integers is a multiple of 4.

(b) The sum of any three consecutive integers is a multiple of 3.

(c) The sum of four consecutive integers is never a multiple of 4.

(d) The sum of any ﬁve consecutive integers is a multiple of 5.

(e) Find, with proof, a generalization based on the previous three problems.

NumT-2. Rules of divisibility. Let a number be given in base ten.

(a) Justify the rules for checking divisibility of the number by 4 and by 8.

(b) Justify the rules for checking divisibility of the number by 9 and by 11.

NumT-3. Diﬀerence of two perfect squares.

(a) Can 50 be written as a diﬀerence of two perfect squares?

(b) Determine the set of all positive integers n which can be written as a diﬀerence

of two perfect squares.

(c) Determine the integer n between 1 and 1000 that can be written as a diﬀerence

of two perfect squares in the largest number of ways.

NumT-4. Find all positive integers n for which n

2

+ 36n is a perfect square.

NumT-5. We wish to write each positive integer n as a sum of two or more consecutive

positive integers. Example: We can write 12 as 3 +4 +5, and 13 as 6 +7. For which

n can we do this?

NumT-6. Show that 3 | n

3

− n for all integers n.

NumT-7. Show that 5 | n

5

− n for all integers n.

NumT-8. Is it true that 4 | n

4

− n for all integers n?

NumT-9. Showthat the units and tens digits of a perfect square cannot both be odd. (The

number is assumed to be written in base ten.)

NumT-10. Find all prime numbers p which are 1 less than a perfect square.

NumT-11. Find all prime numbers p which are 1 less than a perfect cube.

NumT-12. Show that if n is composite, then so is 2

n

− 1. Deduce that if 2

n

− 1 is prime,

then so is n.

NumT-13. Showthat if n is odd and greater than 1, then 2

n

+1 is composite. Deduce that

if 2

n

+ 1 is prime, then n is a power of 2.

NumT-14. Suppose that a, b are a pair of positive coprime integers, and that ab is a perfect

square. Show that both a and b are perfect squares.

NumT-15. Find all integer sided rectangles with the property that the area is numerically

equal to the perimeter.

NumT-16. The radius and height of a given right circular cylinder are integers, and the

volume of the cylinder is numerically equal to 8 times the total surface area of the

cylinder. Find the least possible volume of the cylinder.

NumT-17. Find all pairs (a, b) of positive integers such that

1

a

+

1

b

=

1

50

.

4 PROBLEM SOLVING WORKSHOP

NumT-18. Divisor function. For any positive integer n, let d(n) denote its number of

divisors, with 1 and n included. Example: d(1) = 1, d(2) = 2, d(10) = 4.

(a) Determine all the integers n between 1 and 1000 for which d(n) = 3.

(b) Determine all the integers n between 1 and 1000 for which d(n) = 6.

(c) Determine all the integers n between 1 and 1000 for which d(n) is odd.

(d) For which value of n between 1 and 1000 will d(n) be the largest?

NumT-19. Pythagorean triples.

(a) Let a, b, c be three positive integers such that a

2

+ b

2

= c

2

. The triple (a, b, c) is

called a Pythagorean triple (PT). Example: (3, 4, 5) is a Pythagorean triple. If

a, b, c are coprime, then the triple is called a Primitive Pythagorean triple (PPT).

So (3, 4, 5) is a PPT, but (6, 8, 10) is only a PT. Show that the following recipé

produces inﬁnitely many PPTs:

Choose any positive odd integer n, and compute the fraction

1

n

+

1

n+2

. Write the sum

as

a

b

where a, b are coprime positive integers. Then (a, b, b + 2) is a PPT.

Example: The choice n = 3 yields the PPT (8, 15, 17).

(b) Let (a, b, c) be a PPT. Show that 60 | abc.

NumT-20. Triangular numbers.

(a) The quantity t

n

:=

1

2

n(n+1) is calledthe n

th

triangular number. So the triangular

numbers are 1, 3, 6, 10, . . .. Find the set of n for which t

n

− 1 is a multiple of 5,

and show that t

n

− 2 is never a multiple of 5.

(b) Find the cycle length of the remainders when t

n

is divided by 6, and show

that t

n

− 2 is never a multiple of 6.

NumT-21. Can the product of two consecutive positive integers be a perfect square?

NumT-22. Can we ﬁnd two non-zero perfect squares in the ratio 1 : 2?

NumT-23. Can we ﬁnd two non-zero perfect squares in the ratio 1 : 3?

NumT-24. Can we ﬁnd positive integers a, b, c such that a

2

+ b

2

= 3c

2

?

NumT-25. Can we ﬁnd three distinct perfect squares in arithmetic progression?

4. Gioxi+nv

Geom-1. Medians of a triangle.

(a) Showthat the medians of a triangle meet ina point whichtrisects eachmedian.

(b) Show that the medians of a triangle divide its area into six equal parts.

(c) Show that from the medians of a triangle one can construct a triangle whose

area is

3

4

of the area of the original triangle.

Geom-2. Let D be the midpoint of side BC of an arbitrary triangle ABC; then △ABD and

△ACD have equal area. Show how to dissect △ABD into a minimum number of

parts which can be reassembled to cover △ACD.

Geom-3. In △ABC, the midpoint of BC is D, and the midpoint of AD is E. Line BE when

extended meets AC in F. Find the ratio in which F divides AC.

PROBLEM SOLVING IN MATHEMATICS 5

Geom-4. Generalize the previous problem: let D be the midpoint of BC, as earlier, and

let E divide AD so that AE : ED = α. Let BE when extended meet AC in F, and let

AF : FC = β. Express β in terms of α.

Geom-5. Show that the internal bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite

side in the ratio of the adjacent sides.

Geom-6. Triangle ABC is isosceles, with AB = AC, and ∠B = 2∠A. Prove that AB : BC =

1

2

(

√

5 + 1). (In other words, AB : BC is the golden ratio.)

Geom-7. Find the sumof the interior angles of a star polygon with (a) 5, (b) 7, (c) 8 sides.

Geom-8. Within a square ABCD we locate a point P such that ∠PCD = ∠PDC = 15

◦

.

Prove that △APB is equilateral.

Geom-9. Show that the altitudes of a triangle meet in a point.

Geom-10. In △ABC, let the altitudes be AD, BE, CF, and let H be the point where the

altitudes meet. Show that H is the incenter of △DEF.

Geom-11. Let ABCD be a quadrilateral.

(a) Show that AC ⊥ BD if and only if AB

2

+ CD

2

= BC

2

+ AD

2

.

(b) Show that AC ⊥ BD if and only if the medians of ABCD have equal length.

(A median of a quadrilateral is the segment joining the midpoints of a pair of

opposite sides.)

Geom-12. A convex quadrilateral is cut by its two medians into four parts. Show that

the four parts can be assembled into a parallelogram.

Geom-13. When a sheet of paper is folded, why is the crease a straight line?

Geom-14. Given two ﬁxed points A, B, and a variable line ℓ through B. Find the locus of

the feet of the perpendiculars from A to ℓ.

Geom-15. Given two ﬁxed points A, B, and a variable line ℓ through B. Find the locus of

the image of A under reﬂection in ℓ.

Geom-16. Let A, B be points on a given line ℓ. Consider pairs of circles that touch ℓ at A,

B, respectively, and also touch each other at some point P. Find the locus of P.

Geom-17. Giventwocircles C

1

andC

2

withcenters O

1

andO

2

, ﬁndthe locus of midpoints

of the segment X

1

X

2

, where X

1

is a point on C

1

and X

2

is a point on C

2

.

Geom-18. Triangle ABC is arbitrary, and M is the midpoint of its base BC. Squares ABEF

and ACGH are drawn, both lying outside the triangle, and their centers are P and

Q, respectively.

(a) Show that PM = QM, and PM ⊥ QM.

(b) Show that FH = 2 AM, and FH ⊥ AM.

Geom-19. Let a, b, c, d be the sides of a quadrilateral with area ∆. Prove that:

(a) ∆ ≤

1

2

(ab + cd);

(b) ∆ ≤

1

2

(ac + bd);

(c) ∆ ≤

1

2

(a + c)(b + d).

6 PROBLEM SOLVING WORKSHOP

Geom-20. Let the altitudes of △ABC be AD, BE, CF, and let themmeet at H (the orthocen-

ter). Show that △AHB, △BHC, △CHA, △ABC have equal circumradii. Also show

that AH · HD = BH · HE = CH · HF.

Geom-21. Given that the midpoints of the altitudes of a triangle lie in a straight line, ﬁnd

the angles of the triangle.

5. CoxniN.+onits

Notation: In the problems below, n represents any positive integer.

Comb-1. Show that a convex n-sided polygon has

1

2

n(n − 3) diagonals. (Here n ≥ 3.)

Comb-2. The party.

(a) At a party which has two or more persons, introductions are done, and some

people shake hands. Show that at the end there will be two people who have

shaken hands with the same number of people.

(b) Show that the number of people who shake hands with an odd number of

people is an even number.

Comb-3. Each integer from1 till 9 is colored Red or Green. Showthat three integers a, b, c

can be found, all with the same color, and with a, b, c in arithmetic progression (i.e.,

with a − b = b − c).

Can this claim be made if we do this with the integers from 1 till 8?

Comb-4. Showthat in any group of 6 persons, one can ﬁnd 3 persons, all of whomknow

one another, or none of whom know one another.

Comb-5. I write the numbers 1, 2, 3, . . . , 50 on a blackboard. Then I select any two of the

numbers, say a and b, and replace them by their diﬀerence, |a − b|. I repeat this till

there is just one number left on the board. Show that this number is odd.

Comb-6. Can the shape at the right (it shows a

chessboard with two squares cut away)

be covered using 31 dominoes?

(Adomino is a 2×1 rectangle, i.e., the

shape ).

Comb-7. Can 25 rectangles shaped be used to cover a 10 × 10 square?

Comb-8. There are ﬁve tetrominoes (shapes made by gluing four unit squares edge wise):

Straight L T Z Square

The area occupied by these ﬁve tetrominoes is 20 unit

2

. Can they be used to

make a 4 × 5 rectangle?

PROBLEM SOLVING IN MATHEMATICS 7

Comb-9. The ﬁve tetrominoes (see above) are named as indicated (straight, L, T, Z,

square). Show that using 25 T-tetrominoes one cannot make a 10 × 10 square.

Comb-10. Showthat one cannot make a 8×8 square using 15 T-tetrominoes and 1 square

tetromino.

Comb-11. Consider the ﬁve letters A, D, I, V, Y. Imagine that we arrange them into a ﬁve

letter “word” in all possible ways. (Two of the ways are AVIDY and VAIDY.)

Then we arrange all these “words” in alphabetical order, the way they would be

arranged in a dictionary. So the very ﬁrst word on the list would be ADIVY, and

the last one would be YVIDA. Howmany words lie between DIVYAand VIDYA?

Comb-12. The six faces of a cube must each be colored, but Red and Green are the only

colors available. In how many diﬀerent ways can I color the faces of the cube?

(Two colorings are considered to be the same if I can hold two cubes colored in

the two ways in such a way that they look the same.)

Comb-13. Given a △ABC, let P

1

, P

2

, . . . , P

n

be n distinct points on the side BC, and let the

segments AP

1

, AP

2

, . . . , AP

n

be drawn. Find, in terms of n, the number of triangles

formed by the line segments in this ﬁgure.

6. INioi.ii+iis

Ineq-1. Which is larger,

√

2 or

3

√

3?

Ineq-2. Which is larger,

√

2 +

√

7 or

√

3 +

√

6?

Ineq-3. Which is larger, 1.0001 +

1

1.0001

or 1.0002 +

1

1.0002

?

Ineq-4. Which is larger, 99

100

or 100

99

?

Ineq-5. Show that if a, b are positive numbers such that a + b = 10, then ab ≤ 25.

Ineq-6. Let x be any positive number. Show that x +

1

x

≥ 2.

Ineq-7. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers. Show that (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) ≥ 8abc.

Ineq-8. Let a, b, c, d be non-negative numbers. Show that

(a + c)(b + d) ≥

√

ab +

√

cd.

Ineq-9. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers. Show that

a

b + c

+

b

c + a

+

c

a + b

≥

3

2

.

Ineq-10. If a, b are two sides of a triangle, what is the largest area that the triangle may

have? What can be said about the length of the third side?

Ineq-11. Given two points A, B, let M be the midpoint of AB. Prove that for every point

P in space, we have: |PA − PB| < 2PM < PA + PB.

Ineq-12. For any triangle, let t be the ratio of the lengths of the medians to the perimeter

of the triangle. Show that

3

4

< t < 1. Can either of the extreme values be realized

by any triangle?

Ineq-13. Arectangle is inscribedina circle of radius R. Showthat the area of the rectangle

does not exceed 2R

2

.

8 PROBLEM SOLVING WORKSHOP

Ineq-14. The perimeter of a triangle is given to be 20 units, and one side is required to

be 8 units in length. What should be the lengths of the other two sides for the area

to be a maximum?

Ineq-15. The sides a, b, c of △ABC satisfy the relation a

2

+ b

2

+ c

2

= ab + bc + ca. Is the

triangle necessarily equilateral?

Ineq-16. Let a, b, c be the sides of a triangle with area ∆. Show that a

2

+ b

2

+ c

2

≥ 4

√

3∆.

Ineq-17. Let R be the radius of the circumcircle of a triangle, and let r be the radius of

the incircle. Show that R ≥ 2r.

7. FiNt+ioNs .Nn I+in.+ioN

FunQ-1. The four numbers game. Given any quadruple (a, b, c, d) of integers, we per-

form the following operation on it, which we call f :

(a, b, c, d)

f

−→ (|a − b|, |b − c|, |c − d|, |d − a|) .

Example: (1, 2, 3, 10)

f

−→ (1, 1, 7, 9). Now we let f act on the new quadruple:

(1, 2, 3, 10)

f

−→ (1, 1, 7, 9)

f

−→ (0, 6, 2, 8)

f

−→ (6, 4, 6, 8)

f

−→ · · · .

Showthat no matter which four integers we start with, at some point we reach the

quadruple (0, 0, 0, 0).

FunQ-2. Deﬁne a function f on the positive integers thus: f (n) is the sum of the squares

of the digits of n (with n written in base ten). Example: f (25) = 2

2

+ 5

2

= 29.

Starting with any positive integer n we compute f (n), then we apply f to the

output, then again, etc. Show that the resulting sequence of values either gets

ﬁxed at 1, or settles into a cycle. Example: Starting with 25 we get the sequence:

25, 29, 85, 89, 145, 42, 20, 4, 16, 37, 58, 89, 145, 42, 20, 4, 16, 37, . . ..

FunQ-3. For any positive integer n, let f (n) = n + sum of digits of n. (All operations are

in base ten.) Let S be the range of f , i.e., the set of all possible values of f .

(a) Show that 53 is not in S.

(b) Find the largest two digit number not in S.

FunQ-4. Let there be n pebbles in a heap (n > 1). I divide the heap in any way I wish, say

with a pebbles in one heap, and b pebbles in the other heap. Each time I do this, I

record the value of ab on a sheet of paper. I repeat this with each heap remaining:

I divide it into two heaps, and record the product of the number of pebbles in the

two heaps. In the end each pebble is by itself, so no more division can be done.

Now I add the numbers recorded on the sheet. Show that I will get the same sum

no matter which way the various divisions are done.

FunQ-5. Find a function f from N into N, such that f ◦ f (n) = 2n for all n in N.

6
Alg-4.. 25 are coprime. Alg-7. • If a is a divisor of b. Factorize the expression a5 + a4 + 1.
3. we write a | b. 25) = 1. 9 + 10 + 11 + 12 = 13 + 14 + 15. Use the identity n3 − (n − 1)3 = 3n2 − 3n + 1 to show that 12 + 22 + 32 + · · · + (n − 1)2 + n2 = n(n + 1)(2n + 1) . Example: 2 ∤ 3.
.. • If a − b is divisible by c. Example: 3 | 9.2
PROBLEM SOLVING WORKSHOP
Alg-3. n. Alg-5. b) = 1 we say that a. Alg-8. 35) = 5. Establish the following relation. the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. denote the sum of the nth powers of u and v by an (i. 25 ≡ 9 (mod 8). n | (n2 − n). (21.
We shall take for granted. without proof. . respectively (s = u + v. we write a ∤ b. . 4 + 5 + 6 = 7 + 8. Example: 21. .. b are coprime.
• If a is not a divisor of b. true for all positive integers n: an+2 = san+1 − pan .
• The greatest common divisor of a. Show that the integer closest to 1 + 2 is 2 more than a multiple of 4 for every positive integer n. 11 | 66. we write: a ≡ b (mod c). p = uv). Alg-6. with proof: 1 + 2 = 3. Given two numbers u. Example: (25. . denote their sum and product by s and p. b). Factorize the expression a4 + 4. Study the following relations and ﬁnd a generalized statement.. c. Further. E N T Notation: Let a. Use your answer to ﬁnd the prime factors of the number 65 + 64 + 1 = 9073. i. Alg-9. • If (a. b.e. √ n Alg-10.. which states: “Each positive integer greater than 1 can be expressed in just one way as a product of prime numbers”.e. b (also called the “highest common factor”) is denoted by (a. an = un + vn ). n ∤ (n2 + 1). Use your answer to ﬁnd the prime factors of the numbers 154 + 4 = 50629 and 254 + 4 = 390629. 16 + 17 + 18 + 19 + 20 = 21 + 22 + 23 + 24. Use the result proved above to show that the integer closest to the non-integral √ n number 1 + 2 is the number √ n √ n 1+ 2 + 1− 2 . Example: 17 ≡ 11 (mod 3). Find the remainder when x100 − 2x51 + 1 is divided by x2 − 1. v. 5 ∤ 17. be integers.

and that ab is a perfect square. (d) The sum of any ﬁve consecutive integers is a multiple of 5. NumT-14.
. For which n can we do this? NumT-6. The radius and height of a given right circular cylinder are integers. then 2n + 1 is composite. NumT-12. NumT-5. Diﬀerence of two perfect squares. (b) Justify the rules for checking divisibility of the number by 9 and by 11. NumT-17. and 13 as 6 + 7. NumT-13. Prove that: (a) The sum of any two consecutive odd integers is a multiple of 4. We wish to write each positive integer n as a sum of two or more consecutive positive integers. NumT-15. Rules of divisibility. a generalization based on the previous three problems. Find the least possible volume of the cylinder. Show that 3 | n3 − n for all integers n. (b) The sum of any three consecutive integers is a multiple of 3. b are a pair of positive coprime integers. Let a number be given in base ten. Find all pairs (a. NumT-16. Deduce that if 2n − 1 is prime. (c) Determine the integer n between 1 and 1000 that can be written as a diﬀerence of two perfect squares in the largest number of ways. (The number is assumed to be written in base ten. Is it true that 4 | n4 − n for all integers n? NumT-9. with proof. Show that if n is composite. Suppose that a.PROBLEM SOLVING IN MATHEMATICS
3
NumT-1. Deduce that if 2n + 1 is prime. and the volume of the cylinder is numerically equal to 8 times the total surface area of the cylinder. NumT-4. Example: We can write 12 as 3 + 4 + 5.)
NumT-10. then so is 2n − 1. Show that if n is odd and greater than 1. NumT-11. Find all prime numbers p which are 1 less than a perfect cube. (a) Can 50 be written as a diﬀerence of two perfect squares? (b) Determine the set of all positive integers n which can be written as a diﬀerence of two perfect squares. (a) Justify the rules for checking divisibility of the number by 4 and by 8. NumT-2.
NumT-8. (e) Find. Find all prime numbers p which are 1 less than a perfect square. Find all integer sided rectangles with the property that the area is numerically equal to the perimeter. Show that the units and tens digits of a perfect square cannot both be odd. (c) The sum of four consecutive integers is never a multiple of 4. NumT-3. Show that both a and b are perfect squares. b) of positive integers such that
1 a
+
1 b
=
1 50 . then n is a power of 2. Find all positive integers n for which n2 + 36n is a perfect square. Show that 5 | n5 − n for all integers n. NumT-7. then so is n.

Example: d(1) = 1. Write the sum a as b where a. and the midpoint of AD is E. Triangular numbers. . but (6. Show that 60 | abc. b. 10) is only a PT. Geom-3. (b) Find the cycle length of the remainders when tn is divided by 6. (c) Show that from the medians of a triangle one can construct a triangle whose 3 area is 4 of the area of the original triangle. b. (c) Determine all the integers n between 1 and 1000 for which d(n) is odd.
. Medians of a triangle. Find the set of n for which tn − 1 is a multiple of 5. For any positive integer n. d(2) = 2. 8. b + 2) is a PPT. 3. c) be a PPT. Can we ﬁnd two non-zero perfect squares in the ratio 1 : 2? NumT-23. with 1 and n included. and compute the fraction n + n+2 .
NumT-21. (b) Determine all the integers n between 1 and 1000 for which d(n) = 6. In △ABC. 15. Example: The choice n = 3 yields the PPT (8. Show that the following recipé produces inﬁnitely many PPTs: 1 1 Choose any positive odd integer n. Then (a. then the triple is called a Primitive Pythagorean triple (PPT). 4. (a) The quantity tn := 1 n(n+1) is called the nth triangular number. let d(n) denote its number of divisors. then △ABD and △ACD have equal area. d(10) = 4. b. c be three positive integers such that a2 + b2 = c2 . b. Can we ﬁnd two non-zero perfect squares in the ratio 1 : 3? NumT-24. (a) Show that the medians of a triangle meet in a point which trisects each median. . Pythagorean triples. 5) is a PPT. 4. Can the product of two consecutive positive integers be a perfect square? NumT-22. So the triangular 2 numbers are 1.. (b) Show that the medians of a triangle divide its area into six equal parts. (a) Determine all the integers n between 1 and 1000 for which d(n) = 3. Line BE when extended meets AC in F. NumT-20. 10. b. Find the ratio in which F divides AC. If a. c such that a2 + b2 = 3c2 ? NumT-25. The triple (a. c are coprime. (d) For which value of n between 1 and 1000 will d(n) be the largest? NumT-19. . the midpoint of BC is D. Example: (3. G Geom-1. 17). (a) Let a. (b) Let (a. So (3.4
PROBLEM SOLVING WORKSHOP
NumT-18. 5) is a Pythagorean triple. and show that tn − 2 is never a multiple of 5. b. Divisor function. Let D be the midpoint of side BC of an arbitrary triangle ABC. c) is called a Pythagorean triple (PT). Can we ﬁnd positive integers a. 6. and show that tn − 2 is never a multiple of 6. b are coprime positive integers. Geom-2. Can we ﬁnd three distinct perfect squares in arithmetic progression?
4. Show how to dissect △ABD into a minimum number of parts which can be reassembled to cover △ACD.

) 2 Geom-7. (b) Show that FH = 2 AM. and also touch each other at some point P. B.PROBLEM SOLVING IN MATHEMATICS
5
Geom-4. B. Show that the four parts can be assembled into a parallelogram. Geom-15. (b) 7. (c) 8 sides. BE. Within a square ABCD we locate a point P such that ∠PCD = ∠PDC = 15◦ . Find the sum of the interior angles of a star polygon with (a) 5. and M is the midpoint of its base BC. d be the sides of a quadrilateral with area ∆. Geom-16. Prove that: 1 (a) ∆ ≤ 2 (ab + cd). and a variable line ℓ through B. and let E divide AD so that AE : ED = α. Let ABCD be a quadrilateral. Geom-8. ﬁnd the locus of midpoints of the segment X1 X2 . and their centers are P and Q. Geom-10. Express β in terms of α. Consider pairs of circles that touch ℓ at A. Generalize the previous problem: let D be the midpoint of BC. CF. (In other words. both lying outside the triangle. B. Find the locus of the image of A under reﬂection in ℓ.
1 (b) ∆ ≤ 2 (ac + bd). and let AF : FC = β. Let a. with AB = AC. Find the locus of the feet of the perpendiculars from A to ℓ. Show that the altitudes of a triangle meet in a point. In △ABC. why is the crease a straight line? Geom-14. Prove that △APB is equilateral.
.)
Geom-12. When a sheet of paper is folded. and ∠B = 2∠A. Squares ABEF and ACGH are drawn. Geom-18. A convex quadrilateral is cut by its two medians into four parts. Geom-5. where X1 is a point on C1 and X2 is a point on C2 . Geom-19. Show that the internal bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite side in the ratio of the adjacent sides. b. Show that H is the incenter of △DEF. Geom-6. Given two ﬁxed points A. Geom-17. and FH ⊥ AM. B be points on a given line ℓ. (a) Show that AC ⊥ BD if and only if AB2 + CD2 = BC2 + AD2 . Geom-9. Given two ﬁxed points A. Geom-13. Find the locus of P. respectively. Triangle ABC is arbitrary. as earlier. √ Triangle ABC is isosceles. Let A. Geom-11. (A median of a quadrilateral is the segment joining the midpoints of a pair of opposite sides. Given two circles C1 and C2 with centers O1 and O2 . AB : BC is the golden ratio. Prove that AB : BC = 1 ( 5 + 1). let the altitudes be AD. Let BE when extended meet AC in F. 1 (c) ∆ ≤ 2 (a + c)(b + d). respectively.
(b) Show that AC ⊥ BD if and only if the medians of ABCD have equal length. c. and PM ⊥ QM. (a) Show that PM = QM. and a variable line ℓ through B. and let H be the point where the altitudes meet.

) 2 Comb-2. CF. i.. and some people shake hands. b. b. and let them meet at H (the orthocenter). Show that in any group of 6 persons. c in arithmetic progression (i. Geom-21. Comb-1. Show that a convex n-sided polygon has 1 n(n − 3) diagonals. Given that the midpoints of the altitudes of a triangle lie in a straight line. ﬁnd the angles of the triangle. 3. Comb-3. and with a. with a − b = b − c). 50 on a blackboard. △BHC. Let the altitudes of △ABC be AD. shape
Comb-7. Then I select any two of the numbers.
5. c can be found. The party. (a) At a party which has two or more persons. one can ﬁnd 3 persons. . Also show that AH · HD = BH · HE = CH · HF. Show that this number is odd. △ABC have equal circumradii. I write the numbers 1. and replace them by their diﬀerence. Show that three integers a. . |a − b|. Comb-6. introductions are done. Each integer from 1 till 9 is colored Red or Green. 2.6
PROBLEM SOLVING WORKSHOP
Geom-20. all with the same color.e. (b) Show that the number of people who shake hands with an odd number of people is an even number. Show that △AHB. n represents any positive integer. Can this claim be made if we do this with the integers from 1 till 8? Comb-4. Can the shape at the right (it shows a chessboard with two squares cut away) be covered using 31 dominoes? (A domino is a 2 × 1 rectangle.. I repeat this till there is just one number left on the board. Can 25 rectangles shaped
be used to cover a 10 × 10 square?
Comb-8. △CHA. There are ﬁve tetrominoes (shapes made by gluing four unit squares edge wise):
Straight
L
T
Z
Square
The area occupied by these ﬁve tetrominoes is 20 unit2 . the ). . Can they be used to make a 4 × 5 rectangle?
. Show that at the end there will be two people who have shaken hands with the same number of people.e. or none of whom know one another. BE. say a and b. . all of whom know one another. (Here n ≥ 3. C Notation: In the problems below. Comb-5.

b c 3 a + + ≥ . How many words lie between DIVYA and VIDYA? Comb-12. let t be the ratio of the lengths of the medians to the perimeter of the triangle.0001 +
1 1. b are positive numbers such that a + b = 10.0002 +
Ineq-4. Which is larger. 99100 or 10099 ? 1 ≥ 2. APn be drawn.
6. c. the number of triangles formed by the line segments in this ﬁgure.PROBLEM SOLVING IN MATHEMATICS
7
Comb-9. Can either of the extreme values be realized 4 by any triangle? Ineq-13. Prove that for every point P in space. For any triangle. Given two points A.) Comb-13. Let a. L. Which is larger. what is the largest area that the triangle may have? What can be said about the length of the third side?
Ineq-11. Show that x + Ineq-9. Pn be n distinct points on the side BC. b. AP2 . Ineq-2. Y. c be non-negative numbers. . let P1 . . Ineq-6. A rectangle is inscribed in a circle of radius R. Let a. The six faces of a cube must each be colored.) Then we arrange all these “words” in alphabetical order. V. Ineq-12. (Two of the ways are AVIDY and VAIDY. So the very ﬁrst word on the list would be ADIVY.
. and let the segments AP1 . Find. I Ineq-1. d be non-negative numbers. Imagine that we arrange them into a ﬁve letter “word” in all possible ways. in terms of n. Given a △ABC. we have: |PA − PB| < 2PM < PA + PB. b. √ √ 2 or 2+ √ 3 √ 3? √ 3+ √ 6?
1 1. Z. Show that (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) ≥ 8abc. Show that Ineq-5. Show that if a. Let x be any positive number. 1. . Comb-11. I. b+c c+a a+b 2 Ineq-10. Consider the ﬁve letters A. . b. Which is larger. . x Ineq-7. the way they would be arranged in a dictionary. Show that 3 < t < 1. B. c be non-negative numbers. Show that one cannot make a 8 × 8 square using 15 T-tetrominoes and 1 square tetromino. . Comb-10. √ √ Ineq-8. but Red and Green are the only colors available. . square). then ab ≤ 25.0002 ?
7 or
Ineq-3. Let a. Show that (a + c)(b + d) ≥ ab + cd. If a.0001
or 1. T. P2 . Show that using 25 T-tetrominoes one cannot make a 10 × 10 square. Show that the area of the rectangle does not exceed 2R2 . let M be the midpoint of AB. b are two sides of a triangle. and the last one would be YVIDA. D. . The ﬁve tetrominoes (see above) are named as indicated (straight. In how many diﬀerent ways can I color the faces of the cube? (Two colorings are considered to be the same if I can hold two cubes colored in the two ways in such a way that they look the same. Which is larger.

c. such that f ◦ f (n) = 2n for all n in N. 89. 1. Find a function f from N into N. 20. .
f f f f f f
. Each time I do this.e. Show that the resulting sequence of values either gets ﬁxed at 1. FunQ-2. 4. 10) −→ (1. b. (b) Find the largest two digit number not in S. 9). or settles into a cycle. 3. Show that no matter which four integers we start with. 8) −→ · · · . . 20. c of △ABC satisfy the relation a2 + b2 + c2 = ab + bc + ca. 16. FunQ-5. d) of integers. 42. (a) Show that 53 is not in S. 37. 1. 0. etc. Now we let f act on the new quadruple: (1. The four numbers game. so no more division can be done. 85. 0. Show that a2 + b2 + c2 ≥ 4 3∆. b. Let R be the radius of the circumcircle of a triangle. we perform the following operation on it. which we call f : (a. I record the value of ab on a sheet of paper. let f (n) = n + sum of digits of n. and let r be the radius of the incircle. c. 29. F I FunQ-1. Ineq-17. Show that I will get the same sum no matter which way the various divisions are done. 58. 0). . Show that R ≥ 2r. In the end each pebble is by itself. 8) −→ (6. the set of all possible values of f . i. 7. Is the triangle necessarily equilateral? √ Ineq-16. 89. |b − c|.) Let S be the range of f . For any positive integer n. The sides a. FunQ-4. 2. 42. The perimeter of a triangle is given to be 20 units.. 6. and one side is required to be 8 units in length. 145. Now I add the numbers recorded on the sheet. 7. 4. I divide the heap in any way I wish. FunQ-3. Let there be n pebbles in a heap (n > 1). c be the sides of a triangle with area ∆. . and record the product of the number of pebbles in the two heaps. then again. Given any quadruple (a. b. I repeat this with each heap remaining: I divide it into two heaps. say with a pebbles in one heap. 2. 7. 3. 2. then we apply f to the output. Example: f (25) = 22 + 52 = 29. Let a. 145. and b pebbles in the other heap. 16. b. Starting with any positive integer n we compute f (n). 6. Example: (1. 37. 10) −→ (1. |c − d|. 4. at some point we reach the quadruple (0. 9) −→ (0.8
PROBLEM SOLVING WORKSHOP
Ineq-14. d) −→ (|a − b|. Example: Starting with 25 we get the sequence: 25. |d − a|) . Deﬁne a function f on the positive integers thus: f (n) is the sum of the squares of the digits of n (with n written in base ten). What should be the lengths of the other two sides for the area to be a maximum? Ineq-15. (All operations are in base ten.