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‫ﺫ‪ .

‬ﺍﻟﻐﺰﻳﺰﺍﻝ‬

‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺩ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬

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‫) ﺗﻤﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻭﺣﻠﻮﻝ (‬
‫  

  ‪" #$ % &' (') "    ! :‬‬
‫ 
( * ‪1417-1996: +,- '(.‬‬
‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ) ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ‪11‬ﺹ ‪(145‬‬
‫ﺳﺆﺍﻝ‬
‫ﺗﺮﺩ ﺣﺰﻣﺔ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺒﻌﺜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ ﻋﻤﻮﺩﻳﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺗﻀﻢ ‪ n =106‬ﺷﻘﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (1‬ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ‪θ =0‬؟‬
‫ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﻳﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺃﺻﻔﺮ‪ -‬ﺑﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﺣﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﻟﻸﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﻓﻬﻮ‬
‫ﻳﺘﺮﻛﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﺑﻘﻌﺔ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺃﺻﻔﺮ‪ -‬ﺑﺮﺗﻘﺎﻟﻲ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﺳﻴﻔﺴﺮ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺳﻨﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﻻﺣﻘﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺳﺆﺍﻝ‬
‫‪ (2‬ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﻒ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ K=1‬ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺣﺰﺍﺕ ‪ :‬ﺣﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺧﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺣﺰﺓ ﺻﻔﺮﺍﺀ ) ﺍﻟﺤﺰﺗﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻀﺮﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺃﻗﻞ ﺇﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺮﺍﺀ(‪.‬ﻧﻌﻄﻲ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺔ ﻟﻺﺷﻌﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ‪λR = 0,615µm; λ J = 0,589µm; λV = 0,568µm :‬‬

‫ﺍﺣﺴﺐ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺯﻭﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻻﻧﺤﺮﺍﻑ ‪ θV ;θ J ;θ R‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻟﻼﺿﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻺﺷﻌﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫‪sin θ i = K .λi .n‬‬

‫ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻧﻄﺒﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺣﺰﺓ ‪:‬‬

‫‪sin θV = K .λV .n = 1.0568.10 −6.10 6 = 0,568 ⇒ θV = 34,5°‬‬
‫‪θ R = 37,95°‬‬

‫ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻧﺠﺪ ‪θ J = 36,1° :‬‬
‫‪ (3‬ﺑﻴﻦ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻴﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺗﺒﺔ‪K = 2‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﻠﻘﺔ ﻝ ‪ sin θ‬ﺃﻗﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻣﻦ ‪ 1‬ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ‪= 1,76‬‬
‫‪λ.n‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻴﻒ ﺫﻭ ﺭﺗﺒﺔ ‪2‬‬

‫≤ ‪K .λ.n ≤ 1 ⇒ K‬‬

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‫‪ (4‬ﻧﻀﻊ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﺭﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﺠﻤﻌﺔ ﻻ ﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ f ‘ = 30cm :‬ﻣﺤﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ‬
‫‪ (1.4‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ‪ E‬ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺒﻌﺚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺩﻳﻮﻡ‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ‬

‫‪ (2.4‬ﺍﺣﺴﺐ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﻒ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﻔﻠﻪ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﻒ ‪F’R F’ V :‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫‪:‬‬
‫‬‫‪-‬‬

‫) ‪X 1R − X 1V = f '.n.(λ R − λV‬‬
‫‪X 1R − X 1V = 0,3.10 6.(0,615 − 0,568).10 −6 = 0,014m = 14mm‬‬

‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ) ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‪ 13‬ﺹ ‪(145‬‬
‫ﻧﻀﻲﺀ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺣﺰﻣﺔ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺃﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺟﺘﻬﺎ ‪ λ = 528nm = 5,28.10 m‬ﻭﻓﻖ‬
‫‪−7‬‬

‫ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ‪ θ = 0‬ﻓﻨﻼﺣﻆ ﺃﻥ ﺯﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻧﺤﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻟﻺﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺣﺰﻣﺔ ﺭﺗﺒﺘﻬﺎ ‪ K =2‬ﻫﻲ‬
‫‪. 25°‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺍﺣﺴﺐ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻘﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻠﻴﻤﺘﺮ‪.‬‬

‫‪K .λ‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫‪K .λ 2.0,528.10 −6‬‬
‫=‪a‬‬
‫=‬
‫‪= 2,5.10 −6 m = 2,5µm‬‬
‫‪sin θ‬‬
‫‪sin 25‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
‫‪n = = 400mm −1‬‬
‫‪a‬‬

‫= ‪sin θ = K .λ .n‬‬

‫ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ‬

‫‪ (2‬ﺃﻭﺟﺪ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺯﻭﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻧﺤﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ ﻻﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ‪K =1‬‬
‫‪K=3‬‬

‫‪−9‬‬

‫‪1.528.10‬‬
‫‪⇒ θ 1 = 12,2°‬‬
‫‪2,5.10 −6‬‬

‫=‬

‫‪λ‬‬
‫‪a‬‬

‫= ‪sin θ1 = 1.λ .n‬‬

‫‪3.λ 3..528.10 −9‬‬
‫=‬
‫‪⇒ θ 3 = 39,31°‬‬
‫‪a‬‬
‫‪2,5.10 −6‬‬

‫= ‪sin θ 3‬‬

‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ  ) ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ ‪14‬ﺹ ‪(145‬‬
‫ﻧﻀﻲﺀ ﺷﺒﻜﺔ ﺧﻄﻮﺗﻬﺎ ‪ a = 10-3 mm‬ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺣﺰﺓ ﺿﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻀﻊ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻋﺪﺳﺔ ﻻ ﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ‪ f ‘ = 1.20m‬ﻣﺤﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺮﻱ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ ﻭﺷﺎﺷﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺒﺆﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺳﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻧﻌﻄﻲ ‪ :‬ﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻔﺴﺠﻲ ‪ λV = 400nm‬ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ‪λR = 800nm‬‬
‫‪ (1‬ﺍﺣﺴﺐ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﻒ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻟﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪. K =1‬‬

‫‪ (2‬ﺃﻭﺟﺪ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻂ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﻮﺀﻳﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻔﺴﺠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ‪ K =1‬ﻭ‪K=2‬‬

‫ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ‬

‫‪sin θ1R = 1.λ R .n = 0,8‬‬

‫‪θ1R = 53,1°‬‬
‫‪sin θ1V = 1.λV . .n = 0,4‬‬
‫‪θ1V = 23,57°‬‬

‫‪sinθ2R = 2.λR .n = 2.0,8.10 .10 〉1‬‬
‫‪6‬‬

‫‪−6‬‬

‫‪sinθ2V = 2.λV .n = 2.0,4.10 .10 = 0.8‬‬
‫‪6‬‬

‫‪−6‬‬

‫‪θ2V = 53,1°‬‬

‫‪ (3‬ﻗﺎﺭﻥ ‪ X1R‬ﻭ ‪ X2V‬ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ؟‬
‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺑﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ‪ θ‬ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻓﺎﻥ‬

‫‪x1r=f’.tanθ1r‬‬
‫‪x1r =1,36m‬‬
‫‪x2v=f’tanθ2v‬‬
‫‪x2v= 1,49m‬‬
‫ﺗﻘﺘﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﻔﺴﺠﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ K =2‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺗﺒﺔ ‪ K =1‬ﻟﻠﻀﻮﺀ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺮ ‪.‬‬
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