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Equipment since year 1969. The large current rectifier equipment provides DC power for electrolytic process of electro-chemical, aluminum & graphite industries. BHEL have so far supplied more than 60 units of about 16,00,000 Kilowatt rectifiers for caustic soda, aluminum smelter and graphite furnaces. Some of the special features of the large Current Silicon Power Rectifier Equipment are listed below: y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Compact and Rugged design PLC controlled Rectifier (Hot standby option available) HMI for control, annunciation, status display Interface with customer SCADA possible Operates in both current and power control modes High Efficiency Accuracy of control + 1% Uniform current sharing Large safety margins in Design Easy maintenance and monitoring Single rectifier unit up to 60 KA Auto/Rectifier Transformer & IPT Transductors ± housed in single tank Externally mounted on-load tap-changer Non magnetic aluminium rectifier structure FRP covers to avoid eddy current losses Steel shields Suitable for tropical conditions Choice of cooling
A rectifier equipment comprises an assembly of semiconductor diodes mounted on heat sinks along with series connected fuse and surge voltage protection components, all suitably enclosed and a separately mounted transformer. Additional items, such as interconnections, control cubicles, switchgear, AC/DC measuring system, AC/DC bus bars are included in scope of supply when required. For large current applications above 25kA, important advantages are gained by mounting the rectifier assembly in close association with the transformer known as 'Rectiformer' by combining the two units into an integral equipment (a) The space requirement is considerably reduced (d) Both preparatory & erection work at site is minimized (c) AC. bus bars connections are reduced to minimum.
at a slow heating rate and then graphitized at higher than 2700° C. The system. or d. Eng. Chem. Mich. will work. 41 (2).. Extruded green carbon shapes for electrolytic process (chlorine and magnesium) anodes are formulated from calcined petroleum coke and coal tar pitch. Amorphous carbon makes the transition to its crystalline allotropic form. Dow changed over from a. at temperatures in the range of 2500° to 3000° C.Dow Chemical is now using direct current to make graphite at its plant in Midland.. 1963.c. The higher the temperature. The . when it raised graphitizing power from about 2500 kw.p046 Publication Date: January 1963 Copyright © 1963 AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY . the more complete is the degree of graphitization. designed by Westinghouse. and transforms it for use by the furnaces. rectifies incoming threephase a. For the furnaces. News.c. These are baked to 800° C.1021/cen-v041n002.c. The ultimate goal is to increase capacity and to raise the temperature in the graphitizing furnaces. either a. graphite. pp 46±47 DOI: 10. to about 4000 kw.c.
Equipment can be designed to suit any special duty cycles or over loads upon request. Ratings Rectifier equipment can be supplied from the smallest size upwards with any combination of output current and voltage. The voltage equalizing effect of the IPT enables the two star group to share the current & 120 degree conduction occurs 12 Pulse circuits : For 12 pulse working two 6 pulse rectifier circuits. Cooling Transformer Oil Natural (ON) Oil Natural Air Forced (ONAF) Oil Forced Air Forced (OFAF) Oil Forced Water Forced (OFWF) Rectifier Natural Forced Air Forced air with air to water heat exchanger DM water forced with AM water to raw water heat exchanger Basic Connection The choice of connections depends partly upon the DC voltage required. the neutral points of which are connected through an inter-phase transformer. This is usually achieved by having star-delta primaries. Double Star (6 pulse) with this connection the 6 phase secondary windings are separated in two opposed star groups. two equipment or two groups of equipment to be phase by 30 degree from each other.Industrial applications of large current rectifiers: y y y y y y Factory general DC supplies DC supplies to industrial Machines & processes Electro-plating Aluminum smelting Caustic Soda plant Graphite furnace. of 6 or 12 pulse rectifier. . pulse numbers greater than 12 can be obtained by suitable phase shifted a no. They are available for light or heavy industrial service with overloads in accordance with IEC 146-1973 Typical overload class II ± 150% for 60secs once in 24 hours. 3 Phase bridge (6 pulse) the double way connection gives a 6 phase rectification with a 120 degree conduction angle. This is most commonly used for industrial power supplies. On very large installations. however it is determined by a combination of efficiency and cost considerations.
and are designed so that internal component failure cannot cause damage. For Rectifier Cooling Failure Air /Water temperature Supply failure Over Current/Short circuit Over Voltage Diode failure For Transformer Buchholz gas and surge Over Current Oil temperature high & excess Winding temperature high & excess .Protection The rectifier and transformer are protected against over current surge voltage and excess temperatures. etc. Additional protective circuitry can be provided when specified.