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produced?

LESSON 4-

Understanding

the

Gas pressure, temperature and

volume in terms of gas

molecules.

Based on the assumptions of

The kinetic theory of gases was kinetic theory of gases ,

proposed to explain the gas laws. molecules of a gas will occupy

The basic assumptions are: the entire available space and

collisions occur between

molecules and the walls of

container.

Imagine a molecule of mass m

approaching one wall with

velocity , v .

1. All gases are made up of a

very large

number of tiny molecules.

2. These molecules are

constantly moving

around randomly at high

speeds.

3. The molecules collide Its momentum = mv.

elastically with anything they It rebounds with velocity (-v)

meet. If they hit the inner because it experiences an elastic

walls of the container , they collision.

bounce off again at the same Its momentum now is - mv.

speed. So the change of momentum =

4. The molecules are so small 2mv

and so far apart that they According to Newton’s second

almost never collide with law of motion ,

each other. So the volume of force is exerted on the wall of

the gas molecules container because force is the

themselves is negligible with rate change of momentum ( F =

the volume of container, that change of momentum )

is, almost all the gas is time

empty space. As the result gas pressure is

5. They do not exert any forces produced because by the

on each other , but move definition of pressure;

randomly. There is no Pressure is Force per unit area

intermolecular attractive (P=F)

forces. Intermolecular forces

of repulsion act only during A

collisions between Hence the gas pressure in the

molecules; the duration of container is the total force ,

collisions is negligible produced by the collision

compare compared with the between molecules and the walls

time interval between of container.

collisions.

27

The higher the average velocity pump

of the molecules in the gas, the V α T P 1. Hot- air

balloon

greater pressure exerted by the

gas. Charl V1 = V2

es T1 T2

What happen when a gas is P α T V 1.Car

tyres

heated? after a

Press P1 = P2 long drive

become

ure T1 T2 very firm.

Boyle’s Law

mass at constant temperature, the

As a gas is heated , the pressure of gas is inversely

molecules move faster because proportional to its volume”

the kinetic energy of the gas

molecules is proportional to the Or P α1 if T constant

temperature of the gas. As the V

result the pressure of the gas Where P=

increases if the volume of the pressure

gas is fixed. V = volume

and T =

Therefore a fixed mass of a gas temperature

in a container has three Or P=k

characteristics ,i.e pressure, V

volume and temperature. The PV = k

relationship between these

P1 V 1 =

characteristics can be explained

by the three gas laws. P2 V 2

The three gas laws are shown in

the following table.

law hip ant tion

Pα 1 T 1.The

bubbles

V formed

or by a fish

expand

Boyle P1V1 = as they

P2V2 floats

towards

the

surface. Example 1

2. Bicycle

28

A mixture of air and petrol vapour is Example 4

drawn into the cylinder of a car

engine when the cylinder volume is A balloon is filled by a gas at

120 cm3 . Its pressure is then 1.0 atmospheric pressure. The balloon is

atm. The valve closes and mixture is later immersed in water until its

compressed until its volume is 15 volume becomes 2 of its initial

cm3. What is its pressure now volume. What

5

Solution is the depth of the balloon?

[ Atmospheric pressure= 10 m of

water ]

Example 2 Solution

at a depth 40m in the sea. What is

the volume of the air bubble when it

reaches the surface of the sea water. Example 5

[ Assume the atmospheric pressure

is equivalent to

10 m of water ] Figure (a) shows a glass tube closed

at one end

Solution with 15 cm of mercury in a inverted

position . The

length of air column is 30 cm. Figure

(b) shows the

tube at a horizontal positions with

the length of air

column is L.

[ Atmospheric pressure = 75 cm

Hg ].

Example 3

immersed in water at a depth of 2.5

m. What is the volume of water in

the beaker at the depth of the

water?

[ Atmospheric pressure= 10 m of

water ]

What is the length , L?

Solution

Solution

29

Figure(a)

Figure(b)

containers W and X attain

equilibrium.

Example 6

Solution

The diagram shows 10 cm of air

column trapped in a glass tube by 5

cm of mercury.

Later mercury is added into the glass theory of gases.

tube until the length of the air

trapped becomes 8 cm. Imaging a sample of gas being

What is the new length of the compressed , with the temperature

mercury column? staying constant.

[ The atmospheric pressure = 75 cm The average kinetic energy of the

Hg ] molecules of the gas remains

unchanged but they are now

Solution confined to a smaller space.

The molecules are squeezed closer

together. As a result , the frequency

of collisions between the molecules

and the walls of the container

increases .

Therefore , the force increases

resulting in a corresponding increase

in the pressure of the gas. P↑= F↑

Example 7 A

i.e. as volume decreases , pressure

Figure (a) shows two containers W increases

and X which are separated a pipe. At

the beginning , the container W of

volume 150 cm3 contains gas at a To investigate the relationship

pressure of 200 kPa. The container X between the pressure ,P and

of volume 50 cm3 contains a volume, V of gas at constant

vacuum. temperature.

Figure (b) shows the pipe is opened.

Hypothesis : When the gas pressure

continues to increase , its volume

will continue to decrease.

Variables :

30

Manipulated ; Pressure of air trapped

Responding ; Volume of air Charle’s Law

Constant ; Mass and temperature of

air inside the Charles’s law states that “ For a fixed

syringe. mass at constant pressure, the

Apparatus/ material : A 100 cm3 volume of gas is directly

syringe, ruler, weight, clip , retort proportional to its absolute

stand. temperature”

Arrangement of apparatus:

V αT Where V = Volume

V = KT T = Absolute

temperature

V =K

T

V1 =

V2

T1

Procedure:

Measure the distance between the 0

cm3 and 100 cm3 marked are

marked onto the syringe scale by Example 8

using a ruler = L

Calculate the cross-sectional area, A A sample of gas has a volume 100

of the piston , A = 100 cm3 at 20o C. To what temperature

L would you have to heat if you

Record the atmospheric pressure wanted to double the volume to 200

when the position of the piston at 0 cm3 .

cm3 marked = Po

A weight of mass m is placed onto Solution

the piston.

Record the reading of the syringe =

V

Calculate the pressure of the trapped

air , P

P = Po + mg

A

The experiment is repeated for 5

times with different value of m.

Tabulate the data: Example 9

P

V The diagram shows a glass tube

Analyse the data: containing some trapped air inside it.

Plot a graph V against P At 17o C , the vertical column of

trapped air is 29 cm.

31

Constant ; Mass and air pressure in

the capillary tube.

Apparatus/ material : thermometer,

capillary tube , beaker, retort stand,

Bunsen burner, tripod stand, wire

gauze, ruler, sulphuric acid ,water

and ice. Arrangement of apparatus:

What is the vertical column of

trapped air at a temperature of

57oC ?

Solution

theory of gases.

pressure, the frequency of collisions

between the gas molecules and the

walls container is constant.

As the gas is heated , the molecules

move faster. They collide with the

walls more frequently and at greater

speed. Procedure:

So they exert a larger pressure on The internal cross-sectional area of

the walls of the containers. the capillary tube is recorded = A

As a result , the gas will expand if it Ice is placed into the water and

is able to. This allows molecules to these are continuously stirred .

spread out a little which reduces the The temperature , θ . of water , and

number of collisions per second with the vertical column , L of trapped air

each unit area of the walls. are recorded and measured.

The gas continues to expand until Calculate the volume , V of trapped

the pressure is back to its original air V = AL

value. The experiment is repeated for 5

i.e. if temperature is increased but times with different value of θ

pressure stays the same, the volume Tabulate the data:

must increase. θ

V

To investigate the relationship Analyse the data:

between the temperature ,T and Plot a graph V against θ

volume, V of gas at constant

pressure.

of a gas increases , its volume

increases too.

Variables :

Manipulated ; Air temperature

Responding ; Volume of air

32

Solution

fixed mass at constant volume, the

pressure of gas is directly

proportional to its absolute

temperature” The pressure Law and the

kinetic theory of gases.

P αT Where P = Pressure

P = KT T = Absolute The sample of gas is kept at constant

temperature

volume.

P =K

T As the temperature of the gas rises,

its molecules move more rapidly.

P1 = As the result, they collide with the

P2

walls of the container at higher

T1

frequency , the change of

momentum is greater ,and so the

force they exert on the walls is

larger.

As a consequence, the force and

hence the pressure increases.

P↑= F↑

Example 10 A

i.e. as temperatures increases ,

A motorist blows up her car tyres to pressure increases

a pressure of 5.4 atm on a cold

morning when the temperature is -3o

C. What will be the pressure in the To investigate the relationship

tyres on a hot day if the temperature between the temperature ,T and

is 27o C pressure, P of gas at constant

volume.

Solution

Hypothesis : When the temperature

of a gas increases , its pressure

increases too.

Variables :

Manipulated ; Temperature of the

Example 11 trapped air

Responding ;

A cylinder of oxygen at 27o C has a Constant ; Mass and volume of

gas pressure at 3 x 106 Pa. What is trapped air

the temperature of the oxygen if the Apparatus/ material : thermometer,

cylinder is cooled and the new round flask , beaker, retort stand,

pressure of the gas is 2.73 x 106 Pa. Bunsen burner, tripod stand, wire

33

gauze, ruler, Bourdon gauge, rubber Based on Charle’s Law and the

tube, wooden block, water and ice. Pressure law, at the absolute zero

Arrangement of apparatus: temperature the volume and the

pressure of the gas become zero.

If absolute zero temperature is

related to the kinetic energy of

molecules, then we might expect

that there would be a temperature

where the molecules would be

stationary and their kinetic energy

would be zero. At absolute zero the

kinetic energy of molecules is a

minimum. No object can be cooled to

a lower temperature than this.

Procedure:

The mixture of water and ice is

stirred continuously until the

temperature of the bath is steady.

By using thermometer the

temperature of the trapped air is

recorded , θ

By using Bourdon Gauge the

pressure of the trapped air is

recorded , P

The experiment is repeated for 5

times with different value of θ

Tabulate the data:

θ

P

Analyse the data:

Plot a graph P against θ

Absolute Temperature,T

absolute temperature scale.

θ o C = ( θ + 273 ) K

The absolute zero temperature of

-273 oC or 0 K is the lowest possible

temperature that could be attained.

34

negligible compared with the

time interval between

collisions

compressed at constant

temperature by a piston. Which

of the following is not change?

A Mass

B Density

C Pressure

D Molecular spacing

mass of gas increase when it is

heated at a constant volume?

increases

B The density of the molecules

increases

C The average mass of the

molecules

increases

D The average speed of the

molecules

Increases

demonstrate the behaviour of

gas molecules.

When the piston is vibrated more

rapidly, the wooden disc is forced

further up the tube.

TUTORIA Weight have to be placed on the

disc to return it to its original

L4 position.

1 Which statement is a basic

assumption of the kinetic theory

of gases?

molecules are not elastic

B The kinetic energy of

molecules increases when

the temperature decreases The model represents what

C At a particular temperature, happens to a gas when it is

all molecules in a gas travel

at equal speeds in random

motions

D The duration of collisions

between molecules is A heated then cooled

35

B heated then compressed C The molecules of trapped air

C cooled then heated are getting bigger

D cooled then compressed D The trapped air molecules

are hitting the piston more

5 The figure shows a model to often

show a gas pressure in two

different situations. The balls are

released from a same height. 7 A 5 cm3 balloon is filled by a gas

at a pressure of 1 x 105 Pa .

When the balloon is filled by 20

cm3 of the gas, what is the new

pressure of the gas?

4

10 Pa

C 2.5 x 104Pa D 4 x 103 Pa

The model shows that , the E 5x 103 Pa

pressure of gas in a container

increases when 8 The graph shows the pressure, P

of a gas varies with the volume

A the speed of molecules of the gas, V at a constant mass

increases and temperature.

B the temperature of the gas

increases

C the number of molecules

striking the walls per second

increases

placed in hot water. The outlet of

the syringe is sealed.

A 6 x 10-3 B 8 x10-3

C 1.6 x 10-2 D 4 x10-

2

E 8 x10-2

9A bubble of air is

formed at the base

of a lake.

At that moment, its volume is 30

Why the piston begins to rise cm3 and it experiences a

when the syringe when is placed pressure of 190 of cm Hg. What

in the hot water? is the volume of the bubble when

it reaches the surface of the sea.

A The walls of syringe is [ The atmospheric pressure =

expanding 76 cm of Hg ]

B More molecules are created

by the hot water

A 25 cm3 B 50 cm3

36

C 75 cm3 D 100 cm3

E 150 cm3

is released from a depth of 20 m

in a lake. What is the volume of

the bubble when it reaches the

surface of the lake ?

[ The atmospheric pressure = When the pipe is opened , what

10 m of water ] is the new pressure of the gas?

3

cm C 28 cm Hg D 31 cm Hg

C 0.1 cm3 D 0.3 cm3 E 35 cm Hg

E 0.6 cm3

14 Figure (a) shows a J-shaped

11 An air bubble of capacity 0.4 contains 6 cm3 of air trapped by

mm3 is formed at the base of mercury .

the sea. When the bubble Figure (b) shows more mercury is

reaches the surface of the sea poured into the open tube of the

,its volume is 1.6 mm3. What is J-shaped until the level differ by

the depth of the sea? 150 cm.

[ The atmospheric pressure = [ The atmospheric pressure = 75

10 m of water ] cm of mercury ]

A 10 m B 20m

C 30m D

40m E 50m

atmospheric pressure. The Figure(a) Figure(b)

balloon is later immersed in

water at a depth of 40 m. What is the volume, V of the

The volume of the balloon trapped air ?

becomes …………. A 1.0 cm3 B 2.0 cm3

[ The atmospheric pressure = C 3.0 cm3 D 12.0 cm3

10 m of water ]

E 18.0 cm3

A 5 times of its initial volume

B 4 times of its initial volume 15 The figure shows three different

C 1 of its initial volume situations of a trapped column of

4 air in a tube by using 5 cm of

D 1 of its initial volume mercury.

5 P1 , P2 and P3 is pressure of

trapped air ,whereas h1, h2 and h3

13 The diagram shows two is the length of trapped air.

containers J and K which are

separated by a pipe.

37

What is the value of x ?

Which of the following is true? [ The atmospheric pressure = 75

cm of

P1 P2 P3 h1 h2 h3 mercury ]

A high lower Mode lower high lower

er rate er A 21.8 cm B 23.4

B Mod high lowe Mode lower high cm C 25.0 cm D

e er r rate er

rate 26.7 cm E 28.6 cm

C Mod lower high Mode high lower

e er rate er 18 The air bubbles formed in base of

rate a lake expand as they float

D high mod lowe lower high Mode towards the surface because

er e r er rate

rate

A the density of the water

16 Figure shows a gas is trapped by increases as the depth of

5 cm of mercury in a glass tube. water increases.

Later mercury is added into the B the pressure of the water

glass tube until the length of the increases as the depth of

gas trapped becomes water increases.

8 cm. C the temperature of the water

increases as the depth of

water lake increases.

inflated balloon is placed under a

bell jar.

Figure (b) shows a vacuum pump

is turned on for several minutes

and the volume of the balloon

[ The atmospheric pressure = 75 increases.

cm of mercury ]

added?

A 10 cm B 15 cm

C 20 cm D 25 cm

E 30 cm

trapped in a capillary tube by 5 Figure(a)

cm of mercury. The capillary tube Figure(b)

at two different situations.

Which pressure changes occur

within the bell jar and within the

balloon?

38

22 The diagram shows a glass tube

Pressure Pressure containing some trapped air

change change inside it. At 27o C , the vertical

in the bell jar in the column of trapped air is 9 cm.

balloon

A decrease

decrease

B decrease

increase

C increase

decrease

D increase What is the vertical column of

increase trapped air at a temperature of

67oC ?

20 The table shows the readings of A 5.8 cm B 8.3 cm

the volume ,V C 10.2 cm D 12.5

of a gas at different cm

temperature, T. The gas is at a E 15.6 cm

fixed mass and constant

pressure. 23 Figure (a) shows a cylinder

containing gas at temperature

V/ 150 300 30o C . The height of the cylinder

cm3 is P.

T/o -23 X Figure (b) shows the gas in the

C cylinder is heated so that it

expands to a height 3P.

What is the value of X ?

A -227oC B -46oC

C 46oC D 227oC

E 500oC

containing some trapped air

inside it. At 27o C , the vertical

column of trapped air is 10 cm. What is the final temperature of

the gas?

A 90oC B 180oC

o

C 303 C D 636oC

o

E 819 C

shows the relationship between

the gas pressure, P and the

temperature ,T for a mass of gas

What is the temperature of with fixed volume?

trapped air is heated when the

vertical column of trapped air is

10.9 cm ?

A 42oC B 480C

C 540C D 57oC

E 62oC

39

B have the zero mass

C move in random motion

D have their minimum kinetic

energy

the temperature at which

A ice melts

B water freezes

C the mass of gas becomes

zero

D the pressure of the gas

becomes zero

arrangement of apparatus which

25 Before a long journey, the air in a is used by a student to

car tyre has pressure of 128 kPa determine the relationship

and a temperature of between the pressure and

27o C . After the journey the air volume of gas at constant

pressure in the tyre is 132 kPa. temperature.

Which expression determines the

temperature of air in the tyre

after the journey?

[ Assume the volume of the tyre

is constant ]

reading of the Bourdon

B 132 x 27 o

C gauge if the piston is

128 pushed forward into the

syringe?

o

C 128 x 27 C

132 …………………………………...

(b) The law involved to

D 132 x 300 -273 o

C determine the relationship

128 between the pressure and

volume of gas at constant

temperature.

C …………………………………

132 …………

(c) Sketch the graph pressure

against volume of the gas.

26 The absolute zero temperature

A 0o C B 0K

C 0o F D –273 K

temperature , the gas molecules pressure of the gas is 1.12

X 105 Pa when the volume

A are far apart of the syringe is 45 cm3.

40

Calculate the pressure of …………………………………

the gas when the volume ………

of the syringe becomes 30

cm3. …………………………………

………

(b) Calculate

30 Figure (a) shows an air-tight (i) the pressure exerted

piston which traps a quantity of by the weight M on the

air in a cylinder which has a surface of the piston.

cross-sectional area 5 x 10-4 m2.

Figure (b) shows a weight ,M of

mass 1.2 kg is placed onto the

piston. The length of air trapped

is h. (ii) the pressure of air

[ The atmospheric pressure = trapped.

1.02 x 105 Nm-2 , the mass of the

piston is neglected ]

changed , the length of air

trapped , h also changed.

(i) State the relationship

between the mass of

weight M and the length

of air trapped , h .

……………………………………

(a) Based on the kinetic theory

…………

of gases explain

(i) how the air molecules

……………………………………

result in a pressure

…………

exerted by the air on

(ii) Sketch a graph of mass

the walls of the

of weight M against the

cylinder and the

length of air trapped , h .

piston.

…………………………………

………

…………………………………

………

…………………………………

………

…………………………………

………

.........................................

................

31 The diagram shows beaker is

inverted and immersed in water

(ii) why the pressure of the

at a depth, h from the water

trapped air increases

surface,

when the weight M is

placed onto the piston.

41

………………………………………………

(d) If the volume of the beaker

is 500 cm3 and L = 150

cm3 ,determine the value of

h.

[ Atmospheric pressure= 10

m of water ]

of gases explain how the air

molecules result in a 32 The diagram shows a manometer

pressure exerted by the air is connected to a gas tank. When

on the walls the clip is opened the positions

of the beaker? of mercury level at point X and Y

are 45 cm and 25 cm

…………………………………… respectively. The temperature of

………… the gas is 127oC.

[ Atmospheric pressure = 75 cm

…………………………………… of Hg ]

…………

(b) Sketch the graph to show the

relationship between the

following physical quantities:

depth of water h .

(i) at point X

(ii) Pressure of air trapped , (ii) of the gas in the gas tank

Pa and depth of water h .

to T oC,

the mercury level , Y

increasing and X decreasing

(iii) Pressure of air trapped , until X and Y at same level.

Pa and the volume of air (i) Based on the kinetic

trapped L . theory of gases explain

why the mercury level X

(c) Name the law involved in (b) decreased, when the gas

(iii). is cooled down

42

(a) (b)

………………………………… Figure 1

……

…………………………………

……

…………………………………

……

(a) (b)

………………………………… Figure 2

…….

(a) (i) Observe Figure 1 and

………………………………… Figure 2

……. and state one similarity

between the volume of

(ii) What is the pressure of air in the balloon and the

the gas at To C? capillary tube

………………………………………...

…………………………………

……...

………………………………………...

(iii) Calculate the value of T. (ii) Compare the mass of air

in Figure 1(a) and Figure

1 (b).

………………………………

…..........

........................................

(iv) Name the law involved in ................

b(iii). (b) (i) Based on the observation

in (a)(i) and the comparison

in (a)(ii), give a

………………………………………... relationship between the

physical

33 Figure 1 shows a balloon is quantities involved.

tightly fastened to the open end

of a test tube mouth of a balloon

before and after the test tube is ………………………………………..

heated. (ii) Name the law involved in

Figure 2 shows air is trapped b(i)

inside a capillary tube by a bead

of sulfuric acid before and after

the capillary tube is heated. ……………………………………

…..

(iii) Based on the kinetic

theory of gases explain

how the law in b(i) is

occurred.

………………………………………

43

34 The diagram shows air bubbles

formed by

an air pump in an aquarium.

air bubbles and its size.

Based on the observations:

inference that can be made.

(b) State one appropriate

hypothesis for an

investigation.

(c) With the use of apparatus

such as 100 cm3 syringe,

weight, and other apparatus ,

describe an experimental

framework to test your

hypothesis.

In your description , state

clearly the following:

(i) Aim of the experiment

(ii) Variables in the

experiment

(iii) List of apparatus and

materials

(iv) Arrangement of the

apparatus

(v) The procedure of the

experiment

which include the

method of

controlling the

manipulated variable

and the method of

measuring the

responding variable.

(vi) Way you would

tabulate the data

(vii)Way you would analysis

the data

44

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