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How the gas pressure is

produced?
LESSON 4-
Understanding
the
Gas pressure, temperature and
volume in terms of gas
molecules.
Based on the assumptions of
The kinetic theory of gases was kinetic theory of gases ,
proposed to explain the gas laws. molecules of a gas will occupy
The basic assumptions are: the entire available space and
collisions occur between
molecules and the walls of
container.
Imagine a molecule of mass m
approaching one wall with
velocity , v .
1. All gases are made up of a
very large
number of tiny molecules.
2. These molecules are
constantly moving
around randomly at high
speeds.
3. The molecules collide Its momentum = mv.
elastically with anything they It rebounds with velocity (-v)
meet. If they hit the inner because it experiences an elastic
walls of the container , they collision.
bounce off again at the same Its momentum now is - mv.
speed. So the change of momentum =
4. The molecules are so small 2mv
and so far apart that they According to Newton’s second
almost never collide with law of motion ,
each other. So the volume of force is exerted on the wall of
the gas molecules container because force is the
themselves is negligible with rate change of momentum ( F =
the volume of container, that change of momentum )
is, almost all the gas is time
empty space. As the result gas pressure is
5. They do not exert any forces produced because by the
on each other , but move definition of pressure;
randomly. There is no Pressure is Force per unit area
intermolecular attractive (P=F)
forces. Intermolecular forces
of repulsion act only during A
collisions between Hence the gas pressure in the
molecules; the duration of container is the total force ,
collisions is negligible produced by the collision
compare compared with the between molecules and the walls
time interval between of container.
collisions.

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The higher the average velocity pump
of the molecules in the gas, the V α T P 1. Hot- air
balloon
greater pressure exerted by the
gas. Charl V1 = V2
es T1 T2
What happen when a gas is P α T V 1.Car
tyres
heated? after a
Press P1 = P2 long drive
become
ure T1 T2 very firm.

Boyle’s Law

Boyle’s law states that “ For a fixed


mass at constant temperature, the
As a gas is heated , the pressure of gas is inversely
molecules move faster because proportional to its volume”
the kinetic energy of the gas
molecules is proportional to the Or P α1 if T constant
temperature of the gas. As the V
result the pressure of the gas Where P=
increases if the volume of the pressure
gas is fixed. V = volume
and T =
Therefore a fixed mass of a gas temperature
in a container has three Or P=k
characteristics ,i.e pressure, V
volume and temperature. The PV = k
relationship between these
P1 V 1 =
characteristics can be explained
by the three gas laws. P2 V 2
The three gas laws are shown in
the following table.

Gas Relations const Applica


law hip ant tion
Pα 1 T 1.The
bubbles
V formed
or by a fish
expand
Boyle P1V1 = as they
P2V2 floats
towards
the
surface. Example 1
2. Bicycle

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A mixture of air and petrol vapour is Example 4
drawn into the cylinder of a car
engine when the cylinder volume is A balloon is filled by a gas at
120 cm3 . Its pressure is then 1.0 atmospheric pressure. The balloon is
atm. The valve closes and mixture is later immersed in water until its
compressed until its volume is 15 volume becomes 2 of its initial
cm3. What is its pressure now volume. What
5
Solution is the depth of the balloon?

[ Atmospheric pressure= 10 m of
water ]

Example 2 Solution

An air bubble has a volume 2.0 cm3


at a depth 40m in the sea. What is
the volume of the air bubble when it
reaches the surface of the sea water. Example 5
[ Assume the atmospheric pressure
is equivalent to
10 m of water ] Figure (a) shows a glass tube closed
at one end
Solution with 15 cm of mercury in a inverted
position . The
length of air column is 30 cm. Figure
(b) shows the
tube at a horizontal positions with
the length of air
column is L.
[ Atmospheric pressure = 75 cm
Hg ].
Example 3

A 500 cm 3 beaker is inverted and


immersed in water at a depth of 2.5
m. What is the volume of water in
the beaker at the depth of the
water?

[ Atmospheric pressure= 10 m of
water ]
What is the length , L?
Solution
Solution

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Figure(a)
Figure(b)

What is the pressure in both the


containers W and X attain
equilibrium.
Example 6
Solution
The diagram shows 10 cm of air
column trapped in a glass tube by 5
cm of mercury.

Boyle’s Law and the kinetic


Later mercury is added into the glass theory of gases.
tube until the length of the air
trapped becomes 8 cm. Imaging a sample of gas being
What is the new length of the compressed , with the temperature
mercury column? staying constant.
[ The atmospheric pressure = 75 cm The average kinetic energy of the
Hg ] molecules of the gas remains
unchanged but they are now
Solution confined to a smaller space.
The molecules are squeezed closer
together. As a result , the frequency
of collisions between the molecules
and the walls of the container
increases .
Therefore , the force increases
resulting in a corresponding increase
in the pressure of the gas. P↑= F↑
Example 7 A
i.e. as volume decreases , pressure
Figure (a) shows two containers W increases
and X which are separated a pipe. At
the beginning , the container W of
volume 150 cm3 contains gas at a To investigate the relationship
pressure of 200 kPa. The container X between the pressure ,P and
of volume 50 cm3 contains a volume, V of gas at constant
vacuum. temperature.
Figure (b) shows the pipe is opened.
Hypothesis : When the gas pressure
continues to increase , its volume
will continue to decrease.
Variables :

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Manipulated ; Pressure of air trapped
Responding ; Volume of air Charle’s Law
Constant ; Mass and temperature of
air inside the Charles’s law states that “ For a fixed
syringe. mass at constant pressure, the
Apparatus/ material : A 100 cm3 volume of gas is directly
syringe, ruler, weight, clip , retort proportional to its absolute
stand. temperature”
Arrangement of apparatus:
V αT Where V = Volume
V = KT T = Absolute
temperature
V =K
T
V1 =
V2
T1

Procedure:
Measure the distance between the 0
cm3 and 100 cm3 marked are
marked onto the syringe scale by Example 8
using a ruler = L
Calculate the cross-sectional area, A A sample of gas has a volume 100
of the piston , A = 100 cm3 at 20o C. To what temperature
L would you have to heat if you
Record the atmospheric pressure wanted to double the volume to 200
when the position of the piston at 0 cm3 .
cm3 marked = Po
A weight of mass m is placed onto Solution
the piston.
Record the reading of the syringe =
V
Calculate the pressure of the trapped
air , P
P = Po + mg
A
The experiment is repeated for 5
times with different value of m.
Tabulate the data: Example 9
P
V The diagram shows a glass tube
Analyse the data: containing some trapped air inside it.
Plot a graph V against P At 17o C , the vertical column of
trapped air is 29 cm.

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Constant ; Mass and air pressure in
the capillary tube.
Apparatus/ material : thermometer,
capillary tube , beaker, retort stand,
Bunsen burner, tripod stand, wire
gauze, ruler, sulphuric acid ,water
and ice. Arrangement of apparatus:
What is the vertical column of
trapped air at a temperature of
57oC ?

Solution

Charle’s Law and the kinetic


theory of gases.

In fixed mass of gas at constant


pressure, the frequency of collisions
between the gas molecules and the
walls container is constant.
As the gas is heated , the molecules
move faster. They collide with the
walls more frequently and at greater
speed. Procedure:
So they exert a larger pressure on The internal cross-sectional area of
the walls of the containers. the capillary tube is recorded = A
As a result , the gas will expand if it Ice is placed into the water and
is able to. This allows molecules to these are continuously stirred .
spread out a little which reduces the The temperature , θ . of water , and
number of collisions per second with the vertical column , L of trapped air
each unit area of the walls. are recorded and measured.
The gas continues to expand until Calculate the volume , V of trapped
the pressure is back to its original air V = AL
value. The experiment is repeated for 5
i.e. if temperature is increased but times with different value of θ
pressure stays the same, the volume Tabulate the data:
must increase. θ
V
To investigate the relationship Analyse the data:
between the temperature ,T and Plot a graph V against θ
volume, V of gas at constant
pressure.

Hypothesis : When the temperature


of a gas increases , its volume
increases too.
Variables :
Manipulated ; Air temperature
Responding ; Volume of air

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Solution

The Pressure Law

The pressure law states that “ For a


fixed mass at constant volume, the
pressure of gas is directly
proportional to its absolute
temperature” The pressure Law and the
kinetic theory of gases.
P αT Where P = Pressure
P = KT T = Absolute The sample of gas is kept at constant
temperature
volume.
P =K
T As the temperature of the gas rises,
its molecules move more rapidly.
P1 = As the result, they collide with the
P2
walls of the container at higher
T1
frequency , the change of
momentum is greater ,and so the
force they exert on the walls is
larger.
As a consequence, the force and
hence the pressure increases.
P↑= F↑
Example 10 A
i.e. as temperatures increases ,
A motorist blows up her car tyres to pressure increases
a pressure of 5.4 atm on a cold
morning when the temperature is -3o
C. What will be the pressure in the To investigate the relationship
tyres on a hot day if the temperature between the temperature ,T and
is 27o C pressure, P of gas at constant
volume.
Solution
Hypothesis : When the temperature
of a gas increases , its pressure
increases too.
Variables :
Manipulated ; Temperature of the
Example 11 trapped air
Responding ;
A cylinder of oxygen at 27o C has a Constant ; Mass and volume of
gas pressure at 3 x 106 Pa. What is trapped air
the temperature of the oxygen if the Apparatus/ material : thermometer,
cylinder is cooled and the new round flask , beaker, retort stand,
pressure of the gas is 2.73 x 106 Pa. Bunsen burner, tripod stand, wire

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gauze, ruler, Bourdon gauge, rubber Based on Charle’s Law and the
tube, wooden block, water and ice. Pressure law, at the absolute zero
Arrangement of apparatus: temperature the volume and the
pressure of the gas become zero.
If absolute zero temperature is
related to the kinetic energy of
molecules, then we might expect
that there would be a temperature
where the molecules would be
stationary and their kinetic energy
would be zero. At absolute zero the
kinetic energy of molecules is a
minimum. No object can be cooled to
a lower temperature than this.

Procedure:
The mixture of water and ice is
stirred continuously until the
temperature of the bath is steady.
By using thermometer the
temperature of the trapped air is
recorded , θ
By using Bourdon Gauge the
pressure of the trapped air is
recorded , P
The experiment is repeated for 5
times with different value of θ
Tabulate the data:
θ
P
Analyse the data:
Plot a graph P against θ

Absolute Temperature,T

The Kelvin scale is known as the


absolute temperature scale.
θ o C = ( θ + 273 ) K
The absolute zero temperature of
-273 oC or 0 K is the lowest possible
temperature that could be attained.

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negligible compared with the
time interval between
collisions

2 Some gas trapped in a cylinder is


compressed at constant
temperature by a piston. Which
of the following is not change?

A Mass
B Density
C Pressure
D Molecular spacing

3 Why does the pressure of a fixed


mass of gas increase when it is
heated at a constant volume?

A The number of the molecules


increases
B The density of the molecules
increases
C The average mass of the
molecules
increases
D The average speed of the
molecules
Increases

4 The diagram shows a model to


demonstrate the behaviour of
gas molecules.
When the piston is vibrated more
rapidly, the wooden disc is forced
further up the tube.
TUTORIA Weight have to be placed on the
disc to return it to its original
L4 position.
1 Which statement is a basic
assumption of the kinetic theory
of gases?

A The collisions between


molecules are not elastic
B The kinetic energy of
molecules increases when
the temperature decreases The model represents what
C At a particular temperature, happens to a gas when it is
all molecules in a gas travel
at equal speeds in random
motions
D The duration of collisions
between molecules is A heated then cooled

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B heated then compressed C The molecules of trapped air
C cooled then heated are getting bigger
D cooled then compressed D The trapped air molecules
are hitting the piston more
5 The figure shows a model to often
show a gas pressure in two
different situations. The balls are
released from a same height. 7 A 5 cm3 balloon is filled by a gas
at a pressure of 1 x 105 Pa .
When the balloon is filled by 20
cm3 of the gas, what is the new
pressure of the gas?

A 1.0 x 105 Pa B 4.0 x


4
10 Pa
C 2.5 x 104Pa D 4 x 103 Pa
The model shows that , the E 5x 103 Pa
pressure of gas in a container
increases when 8 The graph shows the pressure, P
of a gas varies with the volume
A the speed of molecules of the gas, V at a constant mass
increases and temperature.
B the temperature of the gas
increases
C the number of molecules
striking the walls per second
increases

6 The diagram shows a syringe is


placed in hot water. The outlet of
the syringe is sealed.

What is the value of Vx?

A 6 x 10-3 B 8 x10-3
C 1.6 x 10-2 D 4 x10-
2

E 8 x10-2

9A bubble of air is
formed at the base
of a lake.
At that moment, its volume is 30
Why the piston begins to rise cm3 and it experiences a
when the syringe when is placed pressure of 190 of cm Hg. What
in the hot water? is the volume of the bubble when
it reaches the surface of the sea.
A The walls of syringe is [ The atmospheric pressure =
expanding 76 cm of Hg ]
B More molecules are created
by the hot water
A 25 cm3 B 50 cm3

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C 75 cm3 D 100 cm3
E 150 cm3

10 An air bubble of volume 0.1 cm3


is released from a depth of 20 m
in a lake. What is the volume of
the bubble when it reaches the
surface of the lake ?
[ The atmospheric pressure = When the pipe is opened , what
10 m of water ] is the new pressure of the gas?

A 0.01 cm3 B 0.03 A 17 cm Hg B 23 cm Hg


3
cm C 28 cm Hg D 31 cm Hg
C 0.1 cm3 D 0.3 cm3 E 35 cm Hg
E 0.6 cm3
14 Figure (a) shows a J-shaped
11 An air bubble of capacity 0.4 contains 6 cm3 of air trapped by
mm3 is formed at the base of mercury .
the sea. When the bubble Figure (b) shows more mercury is
reaches the surface of the sea poured into the open tube of the
,its volume is 1.6 mm3. What is J-shaped until the level differ by
the depth of the sea? 150 cm.
[ The atmospheric pressure = [ The atmospheric pressure = 75
10 m of water ] cm of mercury ]

A 10 m B 20m
C 30m D
40m E 50m

12 A balloon is filled by a gas at


atmospheric pressure. The Figure(a) Figure(b)
balloon is later immersed in
water at a depth of 40 m. What is the volume, V of the
The volume of the balloon trapped air ?
becomes …………. A 1.0 cm3 B 2.0 cm3
[ The atmospheric pressure = C 3.0 cm3 D 12.0 cm3
10 m of water ]
E 18.0 cm3
A 5 times of its initial volume
B 4 times of its initial volume 15 The figure shows three different
C 1 of its initial volume situations of a trapped column of
4 air in a tube by using 5 cm of
D 1 of its initial volume mercury.
5 P1 , P2 and P3 is pressure of
trapped air ,whereas h1, h2 and h3
13 The diagram shows two is the length of trapped air.
containers J and K which are
separated by a pipe.

37
What is the value of x ?
Which of the following is true? [ The atmospheric pressure = 75
cm of
P1 P2 P3 h1 h2 h3 mercury ]
A high lower Mode lower high lower
er rate er A 21.8 cm B 23.4
B Mod high lowe Mode lower high cm C 25.0 cm D
e er r rate er
rate 26.7 cm E 28.6 cm
C Mod lower high Mode high lower
e er rate er 18 The air bubbles formed in base of
rate a lake expand as they float
D high mod lowe lower high Mode towards the surface because
er e r er rate
rate
A the density of the water
16 Figure shows a gas is trapped by increases as the depth of
5 cm of mercury in a glass tube. water increases.
Later mercury is added into the B the pressure of the water
glass tube until the length of the increases as the depth of
gas trapped becomes water increases.
8 cm. C the temperature of the water
increases as the depth of
water lake increases.

19 Figure (a) shows a partially


inflated balloon is placed under a
bell jar.
Figure (b) shows a vacuum pump
is turned on for several minutes
and the volume of the balloon
[ The atmospheric pressure = 75 increases.
cm of mercury ]

What is the length of mercury is


added?

A 10 cm B 15 cm
C 20 cm D 25 cm
E 30 cm

17 The figure shows an air column


trapped in a capillary tube by 5 Figure(a)
cm of mercury. The capillary tube Figure(b)
at two different situations.
Which pressure changes occur
within the bell jar and within the
balloon?

38
22 The diagram shows a glass tube
Pressure Pressure containing some trapped air
change change inside it. At 27o C , the vertical
in the bell jar in the column of trapped air is 9 cm.
balloon

A decrease
decrease
B decrease
increase
C increase
decrease
D increase What is the vertical column of
increase trapped air at a temperature of
67oC ?
20 The table shows the readings of A 5.8 cm B 8.3 cm
the volume ,V C 10.2 cm D 12.5
of a gas at different cm
temperature, T. The gas is at a E 15.6 cm
fixed mass and constant
pressure. 23 Figure (a) shows a cylinder
containing gas at temperature
V/ 150 300 30o C . The height of the cylinder
cm3 is P.
T/o -23 X Figure (b) shows the gas in the
C cylinder is heated so that it
expands to a height 3P.
What is the value of X ?

A -227oC B -46oC
C 46oC D 227oC
E 500oC

21 The diagram shows a glass tube


containing some trapped air
inside it. At 27o C , the vertical
column of trapped air is 10 cm. What is the final temperature of
the gas?
A 90oC B 180oC
o
C 303 C D 636oC
o
E 819 C

24 Which of the following graph


shows the relationship between
the gas pressure, P and the
temperature ,T for a mass of gas
What is the temperature of with fixed volume?
trapped air is heated when the
vertical column of trapped air is
10.9 cm ?

A 42oC B 480C
C 540C D 57oC
E 62oC

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B have the zero mass
C move in random motion
D have their minimum kinetic
energy

28 The absolute zero temperature is


the temperature at which

A ice melts
B water freezes
C the mass of gas becomes
zero
D the pressure of the gas
becomes zero

29 The diagram shows an


arrangement of apparatus which
25 Before a long journey, the air in a is used by a student to
car tyre has pressure of 128 kPa determine the relationship
and a temperature of between the pressure and
27o C . After the journey the air volume of gas at constant
pressure in the tyre is 132 kPa. temperature.
Which expression determines the
temperature of air in the tyre
after the journey?
[ Assume the volume of the tyre
is constant ]

A ( 27 + 273 )o C (a) What will happen to the


reading of the Bourdon
B 132 x 27 o
C gauge if the piston is
128 pushed forward into the
syringe?
o
C 128 x 27 C
132 …………………………………...
(b) The law involved to
D 132 x 300 -273 o
C determine the relationship
128 between the pressure and
volume of gas at constant
temperature.

E 128 x 300 - 273 o


C …………………………………
132 …………
(c) Sketch the graph pressure
against volume of the gas.
26 The absolute zero temperature

A 0o C B 0K
C 0o F D –273 K

27 If a gas is cooled to absolute zero (d) The student obtains the


temperature , the gas molecules pressure of the gas is 1.12
X 105 Pa when the volume
A are far apart of the syringe is 45 cm3.

40
Calculate the pressure of …………………………………
the gas when the volume ………
of the syringe becomes 30
cm3. …………………………………
………
(b) Calculate
30 Figure (a) shows an air-tight (i) the pressure exerted
piston which traps a quantity of by the weight M on the
air in a cylinder which has a surface of the piston.
cross-sectional area 5 x 10-4 m2.
Figure (b) shows a weight ,M of
mass 1.2 kg is placed onto the
piston. The length of air trapped
is h. (ii) the pressure of air
[ The atmospheric pressure = trapped.
1.02 x 105 Nm-2 , the mass of the
piston is neglected ]

(c) When the weight M is


changed , the length of air
trapped , h also changed.
(i) State the relationship
between the mass of
weight M and the length
of air trapped , h .
……………………………………
(a) Based on the kinetic theory
…………
of gases explain
(i) how the air molecules
……………………………………
result in a pressure
…………
exerted by the air on
(ii) Sketch a graph of mass
the walls of the
of weight M against the
cylinder and the
length of air trapped , h .
piston.

…………………………………
………

…………………………………
………

…………………………………
………

…………………………………
………

.........................................
................
31 The diagram shows beaker is
inverted and immersed in water
(ii) why the pressure of the
at a depth, h from the water
trapped air increases
surface,
when the weight M is
placed onto the piston.

41
………………………………………………
(d) If the volume of the beaker
is 500 cm3 and L = 150
cm3 ,determine the value of
h.
[ Atmospheric pressure= 10
m of water ]

(a) By using the kinetic theory


of gases explain how the air
molecules result in a 32 The diagram shows a manometer
pressure exerted by the air is connected to a gas tank. When
on the walls the clip is opened the positions
of the beaker? of mercury level at point X and Y
are 45 cm and 25 cm
…………………………………… respectively. The temperature of
………… the gas is 127oC.
[ Atmospheric pressure = 75 cm
…………………………………… of Hg ]
…………
(b) Sketch the graph to show the
relationship between the
following physical quantities:

(i) Pressure of water , Pw and


depth of water h .

(a) Determine the pressure


(i) at point X

(ii) Pressure of air trapped , (ii) of the gas in the gas tank
Pa and depth of water h .

(b) When the gas is cooled down


to T oC,
the mercury level , Y
increasing and X decreasing
(iii) Pressure of air trapped , until X and Y at same level.
Pa and the volume of air (i) Based on the kinetic
trapped L . theory of gases explain
why the mercury level X
(c) Name the law involved in (b) decreased, when the gas
(iii). is cooled down

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(a) (b)
………………………………… Figure 1
……

…………………………………
……

…………………………………
……
(a) (b)
………………………………… Figure 2
…….
(a) (i) Observe Figure 1 and
………………………………… Figure 2
……. and state one similarity
between the volume of
(ii) What is the pressure of air in the balloon and the
the gas at To C? capillary tube

………………………………………...
…………………………………
……...
………………………………………...
(iii) Calculate the value of T. (ii) Compare the mass of air
in Figure 1(a) and Figure
1 (b).

………………………………
…..........

........................................
(iv) Name the law involved in ................
b(iii). (b) (i) Based on the observation
in (a)(i) and the comparison
in (a)(ii), give a
………………………………………... relationship between the
physical
33 Figure 1 shows a balloon is quantities involved.
tightly fastened to the open end
of a test tube mouth of a balloon
before and after the test tube is ………………………………………..
heated. (ii) Name the law involved in
Figure 2 shows air is trapped b(i)
inside a capillary tube by a bead
of sulfuric acid before and after
the capillary tube is heated. ……………………………………
…..
(iii) Based on the kinetic
theory of gases explain
how the law in b(i) is
occurred.

………………………………………

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34 The diagram shows air bubbles
formed by
an air pump in an aquarium.

Observe the positions of each of


air bubbles and its size.
Based on the observations:

(a) State one suitable


inference that can be made.
(b) State one appropriate
hypothesis for an
investigation.
(c) With the use of apparatus
such as 100 cm3 syringe,
weight, and other apparatus ,
describe an experimental
framework to test your
hypothesis.
In your description , state
clearly the following:
(i) Aim of the experiment
(ii) Variables in the
experiment
(iii) List of apparatus and
materials
(iv) Arrangement of the
apparatus
(v) The procedure of the
experiment
which include the
method of
controlling the
manipulated variable
and the method of
measuring the
responding variable.
(vi) Way you would
tabulate the data
(vii)Way you would analysis
the data

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