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Chaudhry Rahmat Ali

Chaudhry Rahmat Ali, founder of the Pakistan National Movement, was


born in 1895. From his early childhood, Rahmat Ali showed signs of
great promise as a student. After completing his schooling, he joined
the Islamia College of Lahore in order to get his Bachelor of Arts
degree. Rahmat Ali finished education in England, obtaining MA and
LLB with honors from the universities of Cambridge and Dublin.

It was during the years 1930 through 1933, that he seemed to have
established the Pakistan National Movement, with its headquarter at
Cambridge. On January 28, 1933, he issued his first memorable
pamphlet "Now or Never; Are we to live or perish forever?" He coined
the word "Pakistan" for 30 million Muslims who live in the five northern
units of India; Punjab, North West Frontier (Afghan) Province,
Kashmir, Sindh and Baluchistan. The pamphlet also gave reasons for
the establishment of Pakistan as a separate nation. He spoke of an
independent homeland for Muslims, Pakistan, in the northern units of
India, "Bang-i-Islam" for Muslims in Bengal, and "Usmanistan" for the
Muslims in Hyderabad-Deccan.

Chaudhry Rahmat Ali propagated the Scheme of Pakistan with a


missionary zeal since its inception in 1933. In August 1947, Pakistan
came to be established and in 1948 Chaudhry Rahmat Ali visited
Pakistan. Later he proceeded to England to champion the cause of
Kashmir through the United Nations.

Sick and weak, he died on February 12, 1951.

Bogyoke (General) Aung San

Aung San was born to U Pha, a lawyer, and his wife Daw
Suu in Natmauk, Magwedistrict, in central Burma on 13th Feb 1915.
His family was already well known in the Burmese resistance
movement; his great uncle Bo Min Yaung fought against
theBritish annexation of Burma in 1886.

Aung San received his primary education at


a Buddhist monastic school in Natmauk, and secondary education
at Yenangyaung High School. He went to Rangoon University (now
the University of Yangon) and received a B.A. degree in English
Literature, Modern History, and Political Science in 1938. After Aung
San entered Rangoon University in 1933, he quickly became a student
leader. He was elected to the executive committee of the Rangoon
University Students' Union (RUSU). He then became editor of their
magazine Oway (Peacock's Call).

In February 1936, he was threatened with expulsion from the


university, along with U Nu, for refusing to reveal the name of the
author of the article Hell Hound At Large, which criticized a senior
University official. This led to the Second University
Students' Strike and the university authorities subsequently retracted
their expulsion orders. In 1938, Aung San was elected president of
both the RUSU and the All-Burma Students Union (ABSU), formed
after the strike spread to Mandalay. In the same year, the government
appointed him as a student representative on the Rangoon University
Act Amendment Committee.

In October 1938, Aung San left his law classes and entered national
politics. At this point, he was anti-British, and staunchly anti-
imperialist. He became a Thakin (lord or master — a politically
motivated title that proclaimed that the Burmese people were the true
masters of their country, not the colonial rulers who had usurped the
title for their exclusive use) when he joined the Dobama Asiayone (Our
Burma Union), and acted as their general secretary until August 1940.
While in this role, he helped organize a series of countrywide strikes
that became known as Htaung thoun ya byei ayeidawbon (the '1300
Revolution', named after the Burmese calendar year).

He also helped found another nationalist organization, Bama-htwet-yat


Gaing (the Freedom Bloc), by forming an alliance between the
Dobama, the ABSU, politically active monks and Dr Ba
Maw's Sinyètha(Poor Man's) Party, and became its general secretary.
What remains relatively unknown is the fact that he also became a
founder member and first secretary-general of the Communist Party of
Burma (CPB) in August 1939. Shortly afterwards he co-founded the
People's Revolutionary Party, renamed theSocialist Party after
the Second World War. In March 1940, he attended the Indian
National CongressAssembly in Ramgarh, India. However, the
government issued a warrant for his arrest due to Thakin attempts to
organize a revolt against the British and he had to flee Burma. He
went first to China, seeking assistance from the government
there (China was still under nationalist government during WWII), but
he was intercepted by the Japanese military occupiers in Amoy, and
was convinced by them to go to Japan instead.

On 19 July 1947, a gang of armed paramilitaries of former Prime


Minister U Saw broke into the Secretariat Building in downtown
Rangoon during a meeting of the Executive Council (the shadow
government established by the British in preparation for the transfer of
power) and assassinated Aung San and six of his cabinet ministers,
including his older brother Ba Win, father of Sein Win leader of
the government-in-exile, the National Coalition Government of the
Union of Burma (NCGUB). A cabinet secretary and a bodyguard were
also killed. U Saw was subsequently tried and hanged. During his trial
a number of middle-ranking British army officers were implicated in
the plot; they also were tried and imprisoned. The British Council
representative in Rangoon was also heavily implicated but was allowed
to leave the country. Rumours of higher-level British involvement,
and/or involvement by Ne Win, Aung San's long-term rival for
leadership within the AFPFL, are unproven and probably unfounded.

Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini was born on September 24, 1902,


according to most sources. The title Ayatollah (the Sign of God)
reflected his scholarly religious standing in the Shia Islamic tradition.
His first name, Ruhollah (the Spirit of God), is a common name in spite
of its religious meaning, and his last name is taken from his birthplace,
the town of Khomein, which is about 200 miles south of Tehran, Iran's
capital city. His father, Mustapha Musavi, was the chief cleric (those
with religious authority) of the town and was murdered only five
months after the birth of Ruhollah. The child was raised by his mother
(Hajar) and aunt (Sahebeh), both of whom died when Ruhollah was
about fifteen years old.
Ayatollah Khomeini

Ayatollah Khomeini’s life after childhood went through three different


phases. The first phase, from 1908 to 1962, was marked mainly by
training, teaching, and writing in the field of Islamic studies. At the
age of six he began to study the Koran, Islam's holy book, and also
elementary Persian, an ancient language of Iran. Later, he completed
his studies in Islamic law, ethics, and spiritual philosophy under the
supervision of Ayatollah Abdul Karim Haeri-ye Yazdi, in Qom, where he
also got married and had two sons and three daughters. Although
during this scholarly phase of his life Khomeini was not politically
active, the nature of his studies, teachings, and writings revealed that
he firmly believed in political activism by clerics (religious leaders).

The second phase of Khomeini's life, from 1962 to 1979, was marked
by political activism which was greatly influenced by his strict, religious
interpretation of Shia Islam. He practically launched his fight against
the shah's regime (the king's rule) in 1962, which led to the eruption
of a religious and political rebellion on June 5, 1963. This date
(fifteenth of Khurdad in the Iranian solar calendar) is regarded by the
revolutionists as the turning point in the history of the Islamic
movement in Iran. The shah's bloody crushing of the uprising was
followed by the exile (forced removal) of Khomeini in 1964, first to
Iraq then to France.

Khomeini's religious and political ideas became more extreme and his
entry into active political opposition reflected a combination of events
in his life. First, the deaths of the two leading Iranian religious leaders
left leadership open to Khomeini. Second, although ever since the rise
of Reza Shah Pahlavi (1878–1944) to power in the 1920s, the clerical
class had been on the defensive because of his movements away from
certain religious policies. And third, the shah's granting of diplomatic
privileges to the American military personnel in 1964 was viewed as
insulting to the Iranian sense of national independence.
The third phase of Khomeini's life began with his return to Iran from
exile on February 1, 1979, after Muhammad Reza Shah had been
forced to step down two weeks earlier. On February 11 revolutionary
forces loyal to Khomeini seized power in Iran, and Khomeini emerged
as the founder and the supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

From the perspective of Khomeini and his followers, the Iranian


Revolution went through several "revolutionary" phases. The first
phase began with Khomeini's appointment of Mehdi Bazargan as the
head of the "provisional government" on February 5, 1979, and ended
with his fall on November 6, two days after the capture of the U.S.
embassy (the U.S. headquarters in Iran).

The second revolution was marked by the elimination of mainly


nationalist forces, or forces devoted to the interests of a culture. As
early as August 20, 1979, twenty-two newspapers that clashed with
Khomeini's views were ordered closed. In terms of foreign policy, the
landmarks of the second revolution were the destruction of U.S.-Iran
relations and the admission of the shah to the United States on
October 22, 1979. Two weeks later, Khomeini instructed Iranian
students to "expand with all their might their attacks against the
United States" in order to force the extradition (legal surrender) of the
shah. The seizure of the American embassy on November 4 led to 444
days of agonizing dispute between the United States and Iran until the
release of the hostages on January 21, 1981.

The so-called third revolution began with Khomeini's dismissal of


President Abul Hassan Bani-Sadr on June 22, 1981. Bani-Sadr's fate
was a result of Khomeini's determination to eliminate from power any
individual or group that could stand in the way of the ideal Islamic
Republic of Iran. This government, however, had yet to be molded
thoroughly according to his interpretation of Islam. In terms of foreign
policy, the main characteristics of the third revolution were the
continuation of the Iraq-Iran war, expanded efforts to export the
"Islamic revolution," and increasing relations with the Soviet Union, a
once-powerful nation that was made up of Russia and several other
smaller nations.

The revolution began going through yet a fourth phase in late 1982.
Domestically, the clerical class had combined its control, prevented
land distribution, and promoted the role of the private citizens.
Internationally, Iran sought a means of ending its status as an outcast
and tried to distance itself from terrorist groups. It expanded
commercial relations with Western Europe, China, Japan, and Turkey
and reduced interaction with the Soviet Union. Iran also claimed that
the door was open for re-establishing relations with the United States.

In November of 1986 President Ronald Reagan (1911–) admitted that


the United States had secretly supplied some arms to Iran for their
war against Iraq. This controversy led to a lengthy governmental
investigation to see if federal laws had been violated in what would
become known as the Iran-Contra affair.

In 1988 Khomeini and Iran accepted a cease-fire with Iraq after being
pressured by the United Nations, a multi-national, peace-keeping
organization. On February 14, 1989, Khomeini sentenced writer
Salman Rushdie (1947–) to death, without a trial, in a legal ruling
called a fatwa. Khomeini deemed Rushdie's novel "The Satanic Verses"
to be blasphemous, or insulting to God, because of its unflattering
portrait of Islam.

Before his death from cancer in Iran on June 3, 1989, Khomeini


designated President Ali Khamenei to succeed him. Khomeini is still a
popular figure to Iranians. Each year on the anniversary of his death,
hundreds of thousands of people attend a ceremony at his shrine at
the Behesht-e-Zahra cemetery.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, also known as "Quaid-e-Azam" in the history of


India, is not only a great leader of Muslims of Indian sub-continent but
he also holds an important position in the row of world politicians. The
thing that distinguishes him from others leaders of the world is that he
used Britain's constitution to defeat Britains and won independence for
his nation although he had to face stiff resistance from British
government and great opposition from the Hindus' Indian National
Congress.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born in Karachi on 25th December 1876.


His father's name was Poonja Jinnah, who was a merchant. He
received his primary education from "Sindh Mudrasatul-Islam" in
Karachi. After completing his primary education, he left for England,
where he got admission in law and soon become a barrister. After
completing his education, he came back to India and helped his father
to overcome financial crises. Once Jinnah decided to give up his
education but then he realized his mistake and started his education
again.

After coming back to India, he went to Bombay to start his practice. In


the beginning, he faced some problems in getting cases but even at
that time he refused to accept anyone's help and soon overcome this
crisis. In the begging Jinnah was a great supporter of Hindu-Muslim
unity, so, he joined All India National Congress. In 1913 Jinnah joined
Muslim League and took an active part to make it effective.

Mao Te Tsung