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A seminar on

Interconnection of Electrical Energy Storage System For

Power Quality Improvement

II M. Tech (EPS), III Semester
ROLL NO. : 09121D0704

Under the esteemed guidance of

Assistant Professor
Department of EEE, SVEC

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Sree Sainathnagar,A.Rangampet,Tirupathi-

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Energy Storage Device

Types of Supercapacitor

General Block Diagram of a DC-DC Converter

Addition of Control System for Regulation of
Output Voltage

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Buck Converter

Boost Converter



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With the Development of renewable energy power generation,
microgrid, we effectively meet the growing power demand.

Energy storage system based on supercapacitor , cannot only

be energy buffer but also improve the power quality of power

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 The energy storage is playing an increasingly important
role in the electrical power system

 The different types of energy storage systems are

1) Photovoltaic generation system (PVGS)
2) Fuel cell generation system (FCGS)
3) Battery
4) Supercapacitors(SC)

 Relative on these energy storage concerns it were simulated

different dc/dc converters, using the ATP Program to observe
their behavior on different parameters variations, such as: duty
cycle, switching frequency, and capacitance.

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Electrical energy storage methods

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Supercapacitors are an advanced version of capacitors with
unique ability to combine energy storage capabilities.

These robust devices can be charged and discharged 1000s of

times and will typically outlast a battery.

Life span will be 10 years or more.

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Specific Energy= (U*I*t)/m v=Voltage
Specific Power= (U*I)/m t=Time(sec)

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 The principle of supercapacitors is based on the creation of
an electrochemical double layer by accumulation of electrical
charges at the interface between an ionic solution (electrolyte)
and an electronic conductive material (electrode)
Store charge non- Faradaically

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 Pseudocapacitor store charge faradaically through the
transfer of charge between electrode and electrolyte.

 This faradaic processes may allow pseudocapacitor to

achieve greater capacitances and energy densities.

 The electrode materials that are used to store charge is

pseudocapacirtors are

1) conducting polymers

2) Metal oxides

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 The hybrid capacitor consists of a activated carbon cathode
layer and the carbonaceous anode layer and a separator.

 It store charge by faradaic and non-Faradaic processes

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 Can be charged and discharged almost an unlimited number
of times

 High power density

 Do not release any thermal heat during discharge

 There is no danger of overcharging; when fully charged the

supercapacitor simply quits accepting a charge

 Operating temperature range as great as between -50C

and 85C

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 For load leveling in electric and hybrid vehicles as well as
in traction domain.

 Telecommunications

 Power Quality

capacitors EDCL batteries

Energy density wh/kg < 0.1 3 100

Power density w/kg 107 106 100

Time of charge (s) 10-3-10-6 0.3-30 >1000

Time of discharge (s) 10-3-10-6 0.3-30 1000-10000

Typical lifetime (years) 30 30 5

Efficiency (%) 95 85-98 70-85
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 General Block Diagram of a DC-DC

A dc/dc converter is a device that accepts a dc input voltage

and produces a dc output voltage.

Typically the output produced is at a different voltage level

than the input.

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vg = unregulated dc voltage

PWM=pulse width modulation

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The model implemented in Alternative Transients Program(ATP)

Model of the buck chopper implemented in ATPDraw

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 To evaluate the quality of the converter output waveform can
be expressed by using the Fourier analysis data to calculate
the total harmonic distortion (THD) in relative

 Firstly, the influence of the duty cycle variation on the total

harmonic distortion of the output voltage is investigated.

Vo= α Vs where α = Ton /(Ton+Toff )

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0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
THDv 3.67 3.26 2.85 2.44 2.04 1.63 1.22 0.81 0.41

Table 1

Graph for the Variation of THDV with the duty cycle

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 We can be observe that the output voltage is lower on
delta=0.1 that means a directly proportionality between
output voltage waveform and duty cycle

Variation of the voltage and current for α =0.1,fsw=1000Hz

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 The quality of the output waveform is improved at the
same time the output voltage is increased.

Variation of the voltage and current for α =0.9,fsw=1000Hz

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 Secondly, the influence of the switching frequency variation
on the total harmonic distortion of the output voltage is
 The variation of THDv with the switching frequency is shown
below figure

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The boost converter (step-up converter) is a power
converter with an output dc voltage greater than its input dc

Model of the boost chopper implemented in ATPDraw

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0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
THDv 0.41 0.82 1.22 1.63 2.04 2.45 2.86 3.31 3.80

Graph for Variation of the THDV with the duty cycle .

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Variation of the voltage and current
for delta =0.5, fsw=10000Hz,

Variation of the voltage and current

for delta =0.8, fsw=10000Hz,

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 The simulations realized using the ATP Program

 For the buck converter, variation of the duty cycle

decreases the ripple.

 For the boost it has a different variation because the

replies also influenced by capacitance value giving the
boost operation.

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[1] R. Rotaru, "Interconnection of electrical energy storage systems for
power quality improvement" graduation project, Department of. Power
Systems, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, 2008.

[2] M. Brenna, G. C. Lazaroiu, E. Tironi, “High Power Quality and DG

Integrated Low Voltage dc Distribution System”, in Proc. IEEE Power
Engineering Society General Meeting 2006, June 18-22, Montreal,
Canada, pp. 6

[3] Francis P.Malaspina and Fort Pierce, Fla. Supercapacitor Electrode and
Method of Fabrication Thereory, 1990

[4] Marie-Francoise, J.-N. Gualous, H. Berthon, A., Supercapacitor

thermal- and electrical-behaviour modelling using ANN, IEE
Proceedings on Electric Power Applications, vol. 153, no. 2, pag. 252-

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[6] N. Mohan, T. Undeland, W. Robbins, Power Electronics, John Wiley &
Sons, 2003.

[7] A. Kislovski, R. Redl, and N. Sokal, Dynamic Analysis of Switching-

Mode DC/DC Converters, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1994.

[8] IEEE recommended practice for monitoring electric power quality,

IEEE Standard 1159, 1995

[9] . Miller, M. Everett, “Ultracapacitor Augmentation Of the Vehicle 14V Electrical

System to Support Auxiliary 42V Subsystems,” The 14th International Seminar on
Double Layer Capacitors and Hybrid Energy Storage Devices, Deerfield Beach, USA,
Dec. 2004.

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