A Project Report On Library Management System

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology

In Information Technology
By Amit Saurabh Dhasmana, Ankit Sharma, Kushan Thapar & Ankur Kumar Under the Guidance of Mrs. Ritu Pal (I.T. Co-ordinator)

Department of Information Technology DIT School of Engineering Approved by A.I.C.T.E. Affiliated to U.P. Technical University, Lucknow
Greater Noida - 201306 Batch : 2007-2011

DIT SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING Approved by A.I.C.T.E., New Delhi Affiliated to U.P. Technical University, Lucknow Greater Noida – 201306.

DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Amit Saurabh Dhasmana, Ankit Sharma, Kushan Thapar & Ankur Kumar
(0729113006, 0729113008, 0729113019, 0729113009) of the third year B.Tech. (I.T.) have carried out a

project work on “Library Management System” under the guidance of Mrs. Ritu Pal I.T. Co-ordinator for the partial fulfillment of the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Information Technology in DIT School of Engineering, Gr. Noida (Affiliated to U.P. Technology University, Lucknow) is a bonafide record of work done by them during the year 2009-2010

Head of the Department Signature with date

Internal Guide: Signature with date Mrs. Ritu Pal (I.T. Co-ordinator)

They deserve special acknowledgement for willingly enabling us to work for realizing one of the major ambitions of our life. We are thankful to MRS. It was a productive experience to work under Mrs. We are beholden to our parents and other family members for their blessings and encouragement. We would like to accredit our other faculty members also for their contribution in providing us with information.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This project report has been made possible through the direct and indirect cooperation of various persons for whom we wish to express our appreciation and gratitude. We owe a great intellectual debt to him for the inspiration & stimulating insight provided by him. Amit Saurabh Dhasmana Ankit Sharma Kushan Thapar Ankur Kumar . RITU PAL (CO-ORDINATOR) who allowed us to work under his guidance to gain competent knowledge. We are heartily thankful to management of ‘DIT School of Engineering’ (DITSE) for providing us the opportunity to develop the given project as the part of Information Systems lab work. Ritu Pal who was a beacon of light and provided valuable guidance throughout the project. without which we would not have compiled this project. to complete our project report.

1 Entity-Relationship Diagram 4.2 Future Enhancements 8. Design description 4. Testing 7.2 Project Features 1.1 Conclusion 8.1 About the Project 1.2 Use Case Diagram 5.3 Problem Statement 2. Conclusion & Future Scope 8. References . Requirement analysis 4.Benefit Analysis 6. Feasibility Study 3.TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Introduction 1. Cost .

INTRODUCTION .

This collection and services are used by people who choose not to — or cannot afford to — purchase an extensive collection themselves. LIBRARY MANAGEMENT Basic tasks in library management include the planning of acquisitions (which materials the library should acquire. it means a collection of books. organized for use.ABOUT THE PROJECT TOPIC: LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM LIBRARY A library is a collection of information resources and services. by purchase or otherwise). and the development and implementation of outreach services and reading-enhancement services (such as adult literacy and children's programming). and developing and administering library computer systems. patron borrowing of materials. the deaccessioning of materials. each group to handle a particular section in library-be it issuing books. or who require professional assistance with their research. In the more traditional sense. who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have. adding member details etc. or private individual. LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Initially LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS involved intervention of man. These systems were very time consuming and . and maintained by a public body. The systems employed several different groups of people. library classification of acquired materials. preservation of materials (especially rare and fragile archival materials such as manuscripts). institution. More long-term issues include the planning of the construction of new libraries or extensions to existing ones.

But with the help of this system. The system we have designed gives correct solutions of our problems in less time.required a lot of paper work and maintenance. This sometimes results in insufficient handling of books and records thereby increasing complexity. Need is the mother of invention. Through this system we can find a better management scheme. add members and books in our library as well as we can modify the details of any book or the concerned member (if required). we can easily issue and return books. reducing the labour. time etc will increase the effectiveness and efficiency. we have designed a computer based library management system. Thus. It takes lesser time for solving our problems and is much easier and safer. NEW LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS From our past experiences we have seen that manual management is difficult and moreover inefficient. Earlier it was very difficult for man to maintain books and the records related to those books. We can also display the records related to any book or the member (in this case it is student) if the situation demands. on the whole. Thus. so there was the need of designing such a system for the management of library tasks which was all the more a very tedious task for a man to manage. . This system helps us to carry out all the tasks related to library in an efficient manner. cost.

delete detail and display details. issue books and return books. modify. 3) We have three main optionsa) Student details consisting of add detail. c) Exit – to close the current process. b) Book details consisting of add. delete. 9) The student who has got the book issued can only return the book.PROJECT FEATURES The objective behind this project is for automating the manual library of a University. modify detail. Our library management system is going to have the following functionsFUNCTIONS OF LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM : 1) On the login form the system requests to enter a password to display the components. 7) The project takes the current system date as the date of issue and calculates date of due. PROBLEM STATEMENT . display book details. 2) After typing the password we can get our options displayed. 8) We can save the student as well as the book information. 6) Books from general section are issued to all but TBL books are issued only for their respective courses. b) Book for 1/4/10 days (that is books in general section). 10) Only a registered user (that is the student) can get the books issued. 5) A book can be issued in two waysa) Book for TBL. 4) A student of any course can get books issued.

The system should be stand alone in nature.  The due date for return of the books is stamped on the book.  A limitation is imposed on the number of books a student can issue.  The student information is displayed using the bar code detector. RETURN OF BOOKS:  Any person can return the issue of books. .  The information is saved and the corresponding updating take place in database. A software has to be developed for automating the manual library of a university. QUERY PROCESSING:  Availability of a particular book  Availability of book of any particular author.. It should be designed to provide functionality’s as explained below: ISSUE OF BOOKS:  A student of any course should be able to get books issued.

ANALYSIS ANALYSIS .

and questionnaires are examples.Analysis is a detailed study of the various operations performed by a system and their relationship within and outside the system. the next step is to decide how the problem might be solved. Such model includes DFD’s. During analysis. The various steps of requirement analysis are: 1. Dataflow diagrams. system design. Bias in data collection and interpretation can be a problem. we move from the logical to the physical aspects of the life cycle. and transactions handled by the present system. data entities. 4. on-site observations. 2. The inconsistencies and ambiguities have been identified and corrected. experience and commonsense are required for collection of the information needed to do the analysis. Thus in. The interview is commonly used tool in analysis. DRAW THE CONTEXT DIAGRAM: The context diagram is a simple model that defines the boundaries and interfaces of the proposed system with the external world. It requires special skills and sensitivity to the subjects being interviewed. MODEL THE REQUIREMENTS: This process usually consists of various graphical representations of the function. Hence. 3. decision points. external entities and relationship between them. training. interviews. One aspect of analysis is defining the boundaries of the system and determining whether or not a candidate system should consider other related system. Once analysis is completed. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROTOTYPE: We can use users’ feedback to continuously modify the prototype until the user is satisfied. E-R diagrams. data are collected on the available files. FINALISE THE REQUIREMENTS: After modeling the requirements we will have better understanding of the system behaviour. . a prototype helps the client to visualize the proposed system and increase the understanding of requirements.

FEASIBILITY STUDY FEASIBILITY STUDY .

it must answer three key questions: • Is there a new and a better way to do the job that it will benefit the user? • What are the costs and savings of the alternative(s)? • What is recommended? The most successful system projects are not necessarily the biggest or most visible in a business but rather than truly meets user expectations. the study often presupposes that when the feasibility document is being prepared. If benefits outweigh costs then the decision is made to design and implement the system. further justification or alteration in the proposed system will have to be made if it is to have a change of being approved. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY: It is the most frequently used method for evaluating the effectiveness of a candidate system.if the feasibility study is to serve as decision document. software. This is an ongoing effort that improves in accuracy at each phase of the system life cycle.then running another application could overload the system or require additional hardware. etc. Otherwise. Feasibility study is broadly divided into three parts: • Economic feasibility • Technical feasibility • Operational feasibility 1. This involves financial . TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY: Technical feasibility centers on the exciting computer system (hardware. the analyst is in a position to evaluate solutions. 2.Many feasibility studies are disillusioning for both users and analysts. if the current computer is operating at 80 percent capacity-an arbitrary ceiling. most studies tend to overlook the confusion inherent in the system development-the constraints and assumed attitudes . Most projects fail because of inflated expectations than for any reason. First. That is expected from the candidate system and compares them with costs. Second.) and to what extent it can support the proposed edition for example.

An estimate should be made of how strong a reaction the user staff is likely to have towards the development of a computerized system. 3. and computers have been known to facilitate change. transfers. and computer has been known to facilitate change. Thus our system is operationally feasible also. and changes in employee hob status. If the budget I serious constraint. OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY: People are inherently resistant to change. It is common knowledge that computer installations have something to do with turnover.consideration to accommodate technical enhancements. then the project is judged not feasible. There is no doubt that the people are inherently resistant to change. retraining. As far as our system is concerned it is only going to benefit the staff of the library in their daily routine work. . As in today's world all the work is computerized because of computerization people only get benefits.

. DESIGN DESCRIPTION ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM .

However it important to first construct E-R diagrams so that the designers have an idea of what they are working to fix.Entity-Relationship (E-R) diagram model data instead of the flow of data. E-R diagrams layout the structure of the data used by the TO-BE system without tying it to the computer system such as existing databases. which separates them from Data Flow Diagrams. SEMES USE CASE ANALYSIS BRAN . Modeling data is one of the most important steps involved in designing a successful system.

An actor is represents a user or another system that will interact with the system you are modelling. A use case is an external view of the system that represents some action the user might perform in order to complete a task. Student . A use case diagram displays the relationship among actors and use cases. The two main components of a use case diagram are use cases and actors.A use case is a set of scenarios that describing an interaction between a user and a system. Use Case Context diagram:- Log In Add New Student Update/Delete Student Add a Book Update/Delete Book Librarian Search for Book Check-In Book Check-Out Book Pay Late Fee View Book Detail View Student Detail Search for Student The above diagram reveals the high-level functionality of the system.

Check availability of book. Name: Check-In Book. Check whether check-out is completed or not. Carry out manipulation task according to requirement. Name: Check-Out Book. Description: Librarians and Student are responsible for check-out book. Essential process: Identify user by login process. Use case’s description is as shown below:Name: Add/Edit/Delete Student record. Actors: Librarian. checkout and all search operations. Actors: Librarian Result: The details of the student get updated. Check student details are updated or not. Search for required book. . Description: Only librarians are responsible for adding/editing/deleting student record. check-in. Name: Add/Edit/Delete Book item. Description: Only librarians are responsible for adding/editing/deleting student record. Display required book details. The student refers to an end-user of the system who is a member of the library and a student at the university. Actors: Librarian Result: The details of the book get updated. Essential process: Identify Librarian or Student by login process. Actors: Librarian. Student Result: Check-out confirmed.Here in this system. the primary user of the system is librarian who is responsible for user creation. Name: Search for book. Student Result: Book details should be displayed. Essential process: Identify Librarian or Student by login process. book item creation. Carry out manipulation task according to requirement. Essential process: Identify user by login process. Description: Librarians and Student are responsible for search book. Check book details are updated or not.

Essential process: Identify Librarian or Student by login process. Student Result: Specific book-details should be displayed in terms of call number. Name: View student detail. Student Result: Check-in confirmed. . Actors: Librarian. Overdue alert Name: Display book-detail. phone number. Actors: Librarian. Description: When the librarian or student searches book for borrow at that time the system shows the details of the book. Search a specific student. Description: Librarian can select a student record for detail view.Description: Librarians and Student are responsible for check-in book. books issued by that student with the issue date & due date. late fees etc… Essential process: Identify Librarian or Student by login process. Actors: Librarian Result: Specific student details displayed in terms of student id. title. Essential process: Identify Librarian or Student by login process. Check whether check-in is completed or not.. Search a specific book. Display book-detail. author etc.. View student detail.

such as decrease in payroll costs caused by a reduction in personnel or a decrease in inventory costs. they are called intangible.COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS For any new software project. in most of the cases projects are different and hence past experience alone may not be enough. and other quantifiable costs needed to develop and implement an IS solution. they include the loss of customer goodwill or employee morale caused by errors and disruptions arising from the installation of a new system. Intangible benefits are harder to estimate. So we have considered these categories for the purpose of cost benefit analysis:     Hardware cost Personnel cost Facility cost Operating cost . If benefits outweigh the costs then the decision is made to design and implement the system. A number of estimation techniques have been developed and are having following attributes in common:  Project scope must be established in advance  Software metrics are used as a basis from which estimates are made  The project is broken into small pieces which are estimated individually If costs and benefits can be quantified. it is necessary to know how much it will cost to develop and how much development time it will take. Estimation techniques This is also known as cost-benefit analysis. In many cases estimates are made using past experience as the only guide. Such benefits as better customer service or faster and more accurate information for management fall into this category. they are called tangible. Tangible benefits are favorable results. if not. The procedure is to determine the benefits and savings that are expected from a candidate system and compare them with costs. Intangible costs are difficult to quantify. employee salaries. However. These estimates are needed before development is initiated. Examples of tangible costs are the costs of hardware and software.

TESTING .

By examining the result. Exercise all logical decisions on their true and false side. 2. Analyst develop test cases that result in executing every instruction in the program or module. Using white box testing methods. Strategies for testing software  Code testing or dynamic testing This strategy examines the logic of the program. the software engineer can derive test cases that: 1. Then test cases are developed for each condition and submitted for processing. the analysts can determine whether the program performs according to its specified requirements. which were not discovered previously in the system. So we can say that testing is an activity in which a system or the results is observed and recorded and evaluation is made up. every path through the program is tested . 4. . The purpose of system testing is to identify and correct errors.SYSTEM TESTING “Testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of finding errors” During system testing the system to be tested is executed with a set of test cases and the output of the system for the test cases is evaluated to determine if the system is performing as expected.  Specification testing or static testing The analysts examine the specifications stating what the program should do and how it should perform under various conditions. that is . 3. WHITE BOX TESTING White box testing sometimes called glass box testing or structural testing. Guarantee that all independent paths within a module have been executed at least once. Exercise internal data structures to ensure their val idity. is a test case design method that uses the control structure of the procedural design to derive test cases. Execute all loops at their boundaries and within their optional bounds.

It enables to derive sets of input conditions that will fully exercise all functional requirements for a program. 2. focusses on the functional requirements of the software. 4. Incorrect or missing functions Interface errors Errors in data structures or external data base access Behaviour or performance errors Initialization and termination errors . It is a complementary approach that is likely to uncover a different class of errors than white box methods. 5. Black box testing attempts to find errors in the following categories: 1. also called behavioral testing or functional testing.BLACK BOX TESTING Black box testing. 3.

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE .

4. 3. It is fully automated system and thus no manual searching or manipulation of records is required. and mitigating factors are described. Software project scope must be unambiguous and understandable at the management and technical levels. 1. efficiency and effectiveness. This project is very useful for students as they can access the required books anytime. FUTURE ENHANCEMENT Since this project has been designed as a part of syllabus of various courses. All information is centrally stored in a database that avoids data redundancy. . That is. It provides automated systems. We look forward for developing more advanced software and a refined version of the same project by increasing its functionality. 2. It saves manual working and time and provides instant information about any book or the member (that is the student). constraints and limitations are noted. We leave all this as a part of enhancements to be made in the future. A statement of software scope must be bounced. The use of this project is also that a lot of manual work is reduced and a high service is achieved. scarcity of deep knowledge and practicality has left certain aspects where further enhancement is possible in the near future.CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE The first software project management activity is the determination of software scope. quantitative data are stated explicitly. Certain improvements can also be made in the field of security by creating a more secure mechanism for faculty identification.

REFERENCES .

Pressman  “Management Information System” By: O’Brien . Roger S.REFERENCES  “Software Engineering” By: KK Agarwal  “Informatics Practice” By: Sumita Arora.