photo Credits

Page 8 Charlie Parker

Page 29 Gerry Mulligan

Page 46 John Coltrane

Page 55 Sonny Rollins

Page 59 Sonny Rollins

Page 65 Grover Washington Jr.

Page 71 Charlie Parker

Page 82 Sonny Rollins

William P Gonlieb/Rema Ltd. David RedferniRetna Ltd. David RedferniRetna Ltd. Andy FreebergiRema Ltd. Andy FreebergiRetna Ltd. Scott Weiner/Retna Ltd. William P. Cortlieb/Retna Ltd. David Redfern/Retna Ltd.

Cover design by Mike Bell

Interior design and layout by Len Vogler

Copyright © 1989 by Amsco Publications,

A Division of Music Sales Corporation, New York, NY.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be

reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means including information storage and retrieval systems,

without permission in writing from the publisher

except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in a review.

Order No. AM 71374

US International Standard Book Number: 0.8256.2551.3 UK International Standard Book Number: 0.7119.1507.5

Exclusive Distributors:

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

Seven Ways to Approach This Book Ten Practice Guidelines

Interval Exercises Major Thirds

Perfect Fourths Tritones

Perfect Fifths

Minor Sixths

Major Sixths

Minor Sevenths

Major Sevenths Octaves

Minor Thirds Scale Exercises

Major-Scale Exercises Harmonic Minor Ascending Melodic Minor Diminished

Whole Tone

Blues

Major-Scale Exercises Chromatic-Scale Exercises Seventh-Chord Exercises Miscellaneous Exercises

4 5 5 9 9 9

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 47 66 72

Seven Ways to Approach This Book

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• Interval Exercises takes you progressively through all intervals larger than a major second and smaller than an octave. The object here is to smooth out the technique for successful skips (short and wide) throughout the range. In addition, this section will help you become a truly "omnidirectional" player by helping you to think forward, backward, and perhaps even inside-out.

INTRODUCTION

Ever since my first music lessons, I have been searching for a comprehensive book that is both challenging at all levels and enjoyable to use. Over a decade later, I am still searching. When my own students began expressing a similar need, I realized it was time to write.

The result is a series of exercises designed to rid the fingers of note prejudice--the favoring of certain note combinations or areas of the instrument based on

. familiarity. I know from experience how easy it is to fall into this trap. With diligent practice, the student of this book will be able to approach all musicwhether written or improvised, regardless of style or genre-with a new command of the instrument. The book is divided into four sections:

• The Scale Exercises explore the many combinations available in both the major and chromatic scales. The Major-Scale Exercises should be practiced in all twelve keys. Several additional scales and an illustrative transposition for the first exercise are provided.

• Seventh-Chord Exercises is a condensed study of ten different chords used in jazz and jazz-related music. This section addresses the harmonic applications of interval drilling, which are essential tools for the mastery of chord improvisation. Examples of transposition are provided.

• Miscellaneous Exercises offers a sampling of the many ideas utilizing combinations of the interval, scale, and chord studies. Feel free to develop your own drills using this section as a catalyst.

The notation throughout most of the book is enharmonic, and accidentals are used according to convenience. Double sharps and double flats are avoided entirely. All exercises begin on the root; go up to the highest note (high F or below) and down to the lowest note (low B~ or above) contained within the current interval, scale, or chord structure; and return to the root.

To successfully exploit the following exercises, you should:

• Follow the "Ten Practice Guidelines."

• Set your own goals.

• Practice every day. Practicing an hour each day is more beneficial than practicing seven hours once a week.

Whether you are an amateur or a seasoned professional, I am certain that you and Saxophone Technique will get along famously. Happy practicing

(and playing).

4

--I I

Seven Ways to Approach This Book

1. Practice two or three different exercises in each section every day.

2. Use one or two exercises to run through the entire gamut of variations in articulations and dynamics specified in the "Ten Practice Guidelines."

3. Trouble shoot: Ever experience concert dyslexia? Neighbors complaining

about your inaccurate arpeggios? Does the band think you have the dreaded -Iew~ Chromatic Stutters? There's a section for you.

4. Read through an entire section without stopping.

5. Memorize the exercise you find most difficult. \

6. Make a cassette of an entire practice session once a week to monitor your G,r I ,.. ~)

ry, ~"l'il\ , . /..

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7. Try playing the music upside-down. Seriously. ~~~ ""J.. iNOto.. •

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1. Finger the entire exercise before you playa note. Try to hear and visualize i) the notes as you finger them. This will help you develop a feel for the exercise and aid in rote memorization.

2. Practice with a metronome to eliminate all guesswork concerning tempo.

Honest rhythm is essential to good musicianship.

3. Always start out playing extremely slowly, and take your time building up speed. It is common for musicians to rush through their practice thinking that they are emulating their various fast-fingered mentors. Developing an advanced technique means paying attention to detail. Give yourself a chance to think about the next note.

4. Always complete an entire section before stopping to work on trouble spots. Be sure to remember where you need work-whether it is two notes or ten bars-and go back to cycle that section before moving on. Following is an excerpt from an exercise on perfect fourths. Parentheses indicate potential cycle areas within the exercise which are isolated in the second part of the example.

a b

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5. Apply a variety of articulations. The following example demonstrates possible phrasings for triplets and sixteenth notes and one such phrasing for a complete exercise.

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6. Apply a variety of dynamics: pianissimo for the entire exercise; alternating measures of forte and piano; or piano to mezzo forte in the first octave, mezzo forte to forte in the second octave, back to mezzo forte and finally piano to finish, as illustrated in this example.

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7. If you have learned notes in the altissimo range (above high F), include them in all of the exercises

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8. Practice the exercises in this book in tandem with tone work:"

• Long tones in extreme upper and lower registers.

• Harmonic overtone series.

• Long tones with dynamic shifts.

• Trouble spots; for example, middle C to D#.

9. Spend twice as much time on those exercises or key signatures you find most difficult. Remember, you are not giving yourself a concert.

10. Try to practice (and play) with musicians who are more advanced than you.

Forming practice partnerships can be one of the most rewarding ways to learn.

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INTERVAL EXERCISES

Interual is the term used to express the difference in pitch between any two notes whether played consecutively or simultaneously. If you are not already familiar with the look and sound of all of the intervals smaller than an octave, follow the suggestions below before proceeding.

First, write and memorize all twelve intervals using C as the root, then C#, D and so on. Be sure to use both sharps and flats, because most intervals, though they might sound the same, have two different names and functions in harmony. For example, C to G# is an augmented fifth, while C to A~ is a minor sixth. It will help to dissect each interval into half and whole steps; for example, a minor third equals three half-steps or one and a half whole-steps.

Second, listen to intervals using the following methods: Use a piano or synthesizer to gain an aural and visual overview of all intervals; quiz yourself by closing your eyes and playing random note combinations to identify; sing familiar melodies and analyze their harmonic structure; listen to the intervals and chords in traffic sounds. It is important to be able to hear intervals and identify them instantly.

Finally, there are a number of publications available that focus exclusively on music theory and harmony for players at all levels. Whatever it takes, become fluent in reading, transposing, and identifying intervals.

Most sections of this book use one interval, scale, or chord to demonstrate patterns to be applied to all intervals, scales, or chords. The forty-five Interval Exercises employ minor thirds as the template interval for each pattern. You can either apply these exercises to the one interval at a time or apply one exercise at a time to all intervals. Though both methods yield the same net

result, I prefer the latter for its sonic diversity and as an aid in rote memorization ..

The example below illustrates Exercise 1 applied to intervals between a minor third and an octave. You can also apply all the exercises to intervals larger than an octave. Each line indicates the proper beginning, middle turnaround, and ending of the given pattern.

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S CALE EXERCISES

Major-Scale Exercises

Practice the forty-two Major-Scale Exercises in all twelve major keys. Exercise 1 transposed to E-flat reads as follows.

You can also apply the same exercises to other scales, some of which are shown below.

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Practice the forty-two exercises using these scales (and other scales of your choosing) transposed to every key. In some cases you will only need to do minimal transposing. For instance, the C whole-tone scale is identical to the whole-tone scales in D, E, F-sharp, G, and A-sharp, and the C-sharp whole-tone scale is identical to the whole-tone sc'ale in D-sharp, F, G, A, and B. In other words, only one transposition (up or down a half step) will be necessary for the whole-tone scale. I have not included the major-scale modes (Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolian, and Locrian) because all six modes are defined by the major-scale key signature. If, however, after exhausting the various combinations available, you still crave more variety, feel free to practice these exercises using the roots of the modes as your beginning and end points.

Here is Exercise 16 applied to the C-sharp whole-tone scale.

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When you apply the forty-two template exercises in this section to all of the major scales plus all of the minor, diminished, whole-tone, and blues scales, there are 2,226 possible exercises available. By adding other scales, articulation and dynamic variations, and upper register extensions, you can stay busy for the rest of your life!

Major-Scale Exercises

1.

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Chromatic-Scale Exercises

Diligent practice of the Chromatic-Scale Exercises is essential to developing total dexterity and unprejudiced technique. Remember that half the battle is thinking ahead. Be ready for at least the four notes following the note you are currently playing. Give special attention to the area between A (with the octave key off) and middle E (with the octave key on). Transposition of the ChromaticScale Exercises is unnecessary.

1.

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47

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S EVENTH -CHORD EXERCISES

This section contains chords and arpeggios often associated with jazz. The following ten exercises on CM7 are the templates for further chord studies.

1.

2. ~ijjjJjJjjJjrrl~Pr~E~rtrtEtl

3

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Here are the ten previous exercises transposed to E.

1. ;"1 fJ J~ ;;rrJtet; or ~ I JJJj j. II

~ - a :J

2. ,i##1 J1JjjJrrrr~rlrrErtrt(tft[1

.33

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Transpose the ten exercises to all twelve major keys.

This next example illustrates ten different seventh chords in C. Exercise 1 (a straightforward arpeggio) is applied to each chord and shown in the adjacent measures.

69

CM7 t

i C Major Seventh . :=I ff t!:. t!:.1'- ~

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CM7+ ~

, C Major Seventh, Augmented Fifth ~ .#rJ:tft f

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C7

, C Dominant Seventh

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Cm7

i _C Minor Seventh

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Cm6

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Cm(M7) ~

j C Mino<, Major Seventh :=I;p d-~~t~

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Cm7~ 5(C.07)

C Minor Seventh, Diminished Fifth

f) (C Half-Diminished Seventh)

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70

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MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES

The Miscellaneous Exercises combine elements of the previous sections, but are in most cases technically and harmonically more advanced. Some patterns may prove to be catalysts for further exploration; others are simply finger etudes. Transpose each exercise to a variety of keys or starting points wherever possible.

1.

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---

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72

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