SOLID MECHANICS Volume 7 Series Editor:


Solid Mechanics Division. Facility 0/ Engineering University a/Waterloo Waterloo. Ontario. Canada N2L 3Gl

Finite Element Analysis of Composite Laminates
by 0.0. OCHOA

Aims and Scope of the Series The fundamental questions arising in mechanics are: Why? How? and How much? The aim of this series is to provide lucid accounts written by authoritative researchers giving vision and insight in answering these questions on the subject of mechanics as it relates to solids. The scope of the series covers the entire spectrum of solid mechanics. Thus it includes the foundation of mechanics; variational formulations; computational mechanics; statics, kinematics and dynamics of rigid and elastic bodies; vibrations of solids and structures; dynamical systems and chaos; the theories of elasticity, plasticity and viscoelasticity; composite materials; rods, beams, shells and membranes; structural control and stability; soils, rocks and geomechanics; fracture; tribology: experimental mechanics; biomechanics and machine design. The median level of presentation is the first year graduate student. Some texts are monographs defining the current state of the field; others are accessible to final year undergraduates; but essentially the emphasis is on readability and clarity.


Texas A&M University.
Texas. U.S.A.

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Kluwer Academic Publishers
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ISBN 0-7923-1125-6 ColIk. pap .... ' 1. COIiPOS 1te ... t er- tee t prop,rt 18,--Mlth.8.t lea I ecuets . 2. Finite e t ... nt _ethod. 3. Llllllln.u'J aaterlals-Mechanlca' prop,,-tles--Mlth ••• t rca t lIodels. 1. J. N. (Junuthull Naru1.h.). 1945• II. 'r t t te • Ill. ser te s . TA419.9.C6033 1992 820. r: 1892--dc20 92-2SS02


ISBN 0·7923·1125·6

About the Authors
Dr, Ozden Ochoa is a professor of Mechanical Engineering at Tex .. AkM University. Her research in composite. focuses on a broad range of problems in mechanics of composite structures, with application. in aerospace, automotive and construction industries. She authored over sixty publications on these topic •. She taught shortcourses on the finite element method and principle. of composite s. Dr. Ochoa serve. on national technical committees of Aerospace, Applied Mechanica, and Petroleum Division. of American Society of Mechanical Engineers. At Tex .. A&M University, she serve. as a faculty advisor to Engineering Scholars Program, University lIonors Program, and Accelerated BS/MS Program, She i. a member of the Center for Mechanics of Composites and the Offshore Technology Research Center. Dr. Ochoa i. recognized as a 1991 University Honors Teacher/Scholar award recipient. Dr. Reddy is the first holder of the Olear S. Wyall, Jr. Endowed Chair in Mechanical Engineering at Texas A&M University. Prior to the current appointment, he was the Clifton C. Garvin Chaired Prof« •• or of Engineering Science and Mechanics at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. He authored over 150 journal papers and six books on the theory and application. of the finite element method, refined theories of laminated composite plates and shell. and their finite element analyses, computational fluid mechanics, numerical heat transfer, and applied mathematics, Dr. Reddyserves on the editorial boards of a dozen journals, including: Journal of Applied Meehaniel, Inlernational Joumal for Numerical Melhod. in Engin.ering, and Journal 0/ .. Technology and Re ... rch, He received the 1983 Walter L. Huber R •• earch Prize from the American Society of Civil Engineers and 199t 1V0rcuter Reed lVarner M.da' of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. lie i. a Fellow of the American Academy of Mechanics, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Society of Civil Engineers, and the Aeronautical Society of India.

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4·1 Introduction 2.4·4 Equations of motion 2.5·2 Kinematics 2. of composite laminates 2.4·3 Displacements and drains 2.5·1 A review of refined plate theories 2.4·2 Assumptions of the theory 2.2·1 Definitions 2.4·5 Laminate constitutive equations 2.2 Present study xi 1 1 3 3 5 5 5 5 6 11 12 12 References 2 Mechanic.4 The classicallaminaled plate theory 2. of motion 13 13 18 21 24 24 27 27 .1 Introduction 1.1 Introduction 2.3 Orthotropic lamina 2.2·2 Constitutive relations 2.5 First-Order Shear deformation theory. 2.2 Anisotropic elasticity 2.Contents Preface· 1 Overview 1.5·3 Equation.

...........................6-3 Governing equations •............ 121 121 122 123 128 131......•...4 First-order shear deformation theory 3.......•.3 Classical laminated plate theory 3.5-3 Solution methods Cor nonlinear algebraic equations 3....2-2 Loading 5................•.......•......•.•...•.••..•................ and discussion 5.•.2-5 Result...6-1 Background .....5 Computational aspects 3..• 63 63 65 67 69 73 73 74 93 102 105 initiation and progression ...7-3 Numerical model 5..2 Damage mechanisms 4..............5-2 Computation oC strains and ..3·4 Observations .•..4-4 Shear locking 3.2-2 Interply damage: delaminations ........4-1 Preliminary comments 5.•..........•.......••.... 4... 3...•.....•............7-5 Results for C4 panel. 3 Finite element analysis of composite laminates •......... 2.....2-2 Modeling consideration •...1 Introduction .........4-1 Governing equation 3...7-4 Failure analysis 5.........6-1 Introduction 5.•... analysis ...7-2 Experimental study 5....•...........4-3 The dynamic case ...2-3 Computational models 5........•......... 2..............2-1 Basic Ceatures . 3......•.•............•...6-2 Displacements and strains ......yjii 2...........tresses 3...•.....•.. 5.•.. 5.. around loaded hole 5.•..•••........3-3 Nonlinear model..... 5....6 Continuum formulation 3.....................3-2 Finite element model 3............•.....•..... 3......3-2 Computational models 5....... 5...3-1 4......3 Failure 4...7 Postbuckling response and progressive failure 5.. .•..•............... 5.................6 The layerwise theory oC Reddy ..............•...............•..............••....5-2 Numerical models 5............•..•...•...•.....•...... 5.. 3......7-1 Preliminary comments 3..2 The finite element method ...3-3 Results 5.•.•..•.......•.....•...3-1 Governing equations 3......•...•..6 First-Ply Failure analysis oC composite laminates ......2-1 Intra-ply damage ..•..7-2 Linear bending and vibration 3.•.•••....6-5 Summary and conclusions ...•...•.........4·2 Numerical models and discussion 5.....•.. 111 111 114 114 116 ix 4..•.......2 Modeling of delamination.7-4 Buckling analysis ReCerences 4 Failure: Damage 5.....5 Environmental effect.6-2 Problem description : 5......•...............5-1 Evaluation of element matrices and numerical integration 3.•.3 Cutouts in composites 5..•••..........3-1 Introduction _ 5.....7-3 Geometric nonlinear analyses 3........ 3.•............. 5....6-3 Procedure for first ply failure analysis ...... 3.......... 5.......•• 31 31 31 33 34 37 37 38 38 39 45 45 46 52 53 53 54 57 62 ...•.......... 131 131 131 133 135 136 137 138 138 140 143 148 148 148 149 155 155 155 158 161 161 162 162 164 175 175 175 175 176 178 179 185 3.. 3...••.7-1 Introduction ...... ReCerences .•...••••.......3-2 4....4 Woven prepregs 5.........7 Numerical examples 3.......5-1 Introduction 5.•.•.5-3 Discussion of the results 5.3-3 References II Case Studie criteria General commenla _ Independent failure criteria Polynomial Cailure criteria .......•••....•...•.....•..... 2..•...7-6 Results for CI0 panel _ of the reeults ..6-4 Numerical models and discussion of results ...4-2 Finite element model....2-4 Simulation of damage site 5.. 4.•.2-1 Preliminary comments 5......•••...•.........•.•..1 Introduction 4...•..1 Introduction 5......

.. Nigel Hollingworth (Kluwer) for the encouragement and support in publishing Ihe monograph. O.••...h04 and J.. O... theories of composite plates and shells. M. ned4V .ity of Waterloo for his technical as well aa editorial comments and for suggesting improvements.. The authors are very thankful to Mrs. The application of composite materials to engineering componenls has spurred a major effort to analyze structural components made from Ihem.8-2 Computational model 5.. 188 188 189 191 194 199 5. are plates and shells. under water. Gladwell of the Unive". The authors also wish to thank Dr. Y.. N. The authors are very grateful to Professor G. N. Vanessa McCoy of the Department of Engineering Science and Mechanit. Composite materials provide unique advantages over their metallic counterparh. Without the patience and cooperalion of Mra.... Reddy (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) in reading the manuscript and offering useful suggestions during the preparation of the manuscript. L...8 Progressive failure of laminates 5.... Detailed coverage of the basic mechanics of composite materials...Conjenh x 5. To lake advantage of the full potential of composite materials. structural theories. and finite element models of composite laminates. bulthey also present complex and challenging problems to analysts and d~signers.. McCoy. for typing of the manuscript. The present monograph h .. the objective of introducing the mechanics concepts. O. S. and automotive structures. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the help of Mr. and the finite element method are avoided in the interest of providing a general background nee es sary for engineers to analyze composite used in aerospace.8-1 Background 5. Blacksburg. The most common structural element. it would not have been possible to publish this monograph..7-7 Results for H4 panel 187 in bending .8-3 Results and discussion References Subject Index Preface Composite materials are increa.. An accurate modelling of stress fields and failures is of paramount importance in the design of such component •.. structural analysts and designers must have accurate mathematical models and design methods at their disposal.

corrosion resistance.Chapter One Overview 1. sports equipment. space structures.1 Introduction The phrase 'composite material' refers to a material that i. medical prosthetic devices. With the increased use of fiber-reinforced composites in structural components. consider rectangular blocks of isotropic and anisotropic (monoclinic) materials. Some of the properties that can be improved by forming a composite material are: stiffness. Structures made of such material. Most man-made composite materials are made from two materials: a reinforcement material and a parent or matrix material. strength. weight. including aircraft and submarine structures. formed by combining two or more materials on a macroscopic scale. For example. are called composite structures. When an isotropic block is subjected to pure shear stress. for example. Unlike isotropic materials. Under . They are most suitable in applications that require high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. Composite materials are fabricated to have beUer engineering properties than the conventional materials. it develops only normal strain and no shear strains. studies involving the behavior of components made of composites are receiving considerable attention. Composite materials are finding applications in a variety of systems. anisotropic materials exhibit complicated mechanical behavior. and electronic circuit board •. fatigue life and wear resistance. The analytical study and design of composite materials requires knowledge of anisotropic elasticity. structural theories and failure/damage criteria. it develops only shear strain and no normal strains. if an isotropic block is subjected to normal stress. thermal properties. metals. Functional requirements and economic considerations of design are forcing engineers to seek reliable and accurate yet economical methods of determining static and dynamic characteristics of the structural component •. Similarly. automobiles.

1. representation oC true loads and boundary conditions can be achieved to any desired closeness in a numerical model.. modeling oC physical Ieatures. R. Washington. R. We share our experiences in terms of guidelines and recommendations throughout the book. D. damage and failure criteria in composite laminates.. postbuckling response and failure of composi te laminates are discussed by considering specific examples.2 Present study The objective of Ihis monograph is to present Ihe laminated plate theories and their finite element models to study the deformation. C. References Most real world problems involving composite structures do not admit exact solutions. M. 01 Compo. woven composites. and evaluation of approaches used to formulate and predict the response of composite structures. ' Normal sires« of a physical process. Gros. while focussing on fundamental aspects of finite element modeling of composite laminales. Joints. requiring one to find approximate. The method is the most powerful numerical tool available today for predicting the response of composite structures. In the formulation and analysis of any mathematical model 1. Shear JtreJl botropic material AniJotropic material Figure 1. Anisotropic constitutive relations and laminate plate theories arc also reviewed.1-1. formally Hemisphere. a block made of an anisotropic material deforms differently (rom an isotropic block. Washington. Jones. post computation of strains and stresses. environmental effects.1-1 Deformation of isotropic and anisotropic material elements subjected to normal and shear stresses (broken lines denote undeformed geometry). One may consult the list of references provided at the end of each chapter to gain further insight into mechanics and materials aspects and for advanced modeling of composites structures (see (1-8J and references therein). New York (1979) . M. D. 1. cutouts. strength and failure of composite structures. approximation of some parameters and accurate representation of others docs not lead to realistic modeling of the overall problem. Finally. Christensen.ile Ma!eriat. it develops normal strains in addition to shear strain: a normal stress similarly produces shear strain as well as normal strain. but representative solutions. as shown in Fig. John Wiley & Sons. Mechanic. Chapter 4 introduce. However. of Compo.. Numerical evaluation of element coefficient matrices. such as the analytical descriptions. Materiat. we should include all appropriate details ccnslstent with the objective of the study. Emphasis is placed on engineering aspects. Washington. For example. Scripta Book Company. Chapter 5 i. One must accurately represent the kinematics of deformation as well as the material behavior.. the representation of material properties Ipbysical constants) is inevitably an approximation which demands careful physical measurements. C. dedicated to Case studies involving various aspects and types of composite structures. (1975).. The finite element method is an effective approximate method of obtaining numerical solutions to boundary-value. Mechanic. initial-value and eigen-value problems. D. When a shear stress is applied to an anisotropic body. Chapter 2 is devoted to the introduction oC the definitions and terminology used in composite materials and structures. Finite element models of laminated composite plates are presented in Chapter 3. and sample examples of laminated plates in bending and vibration are discussed. effective analysis tools. now Taylor & Francis.identical loads. C.

New York (1984). and determine the initiation and growth mechanism. correctly. Agarwal.ite. in Applied MechaniCl. 0/ Compo.d Co. J. Plat. Amsterdam (1991). can lead to incorrect results and conclusion •• In the present study. We will review basic assumptiona. 8. C. VA 24061. Krishna Moorthy. 37..i. A Unified Micromechanic. ?f . Lecture Notes. e. with the hope of using existing knowledge of metal. If the component is a heterogeneous anisotropic medium. N. an appropriate structural theory that account.mpo. Ani. Berlin (1988).. failure criteria to determine if the structure has failed. N. between homogeneous and heterogeneous material systems. we identify the difference. The traditional undergraduate engineering education that emphasizes isotropic materials. R~ddy. we will slart with the study of their constitutive behavior.. of Laminated in Solid. and making deductions from them.L~minat. and Broulman. Structure. John Wiley & Sons. AIechanic. Whitney.2 Anisotropic 2. D. nomic. and K.. Vol. Energy and Variational WIley and Sons. we must have a proper structural theory to model the Itiffne .An41"". predict the sire •• fields. Mural T.g. N. Aboudi. study constitutive relations of composite materials. J. Virginia Polytechmc Institute and State University..). B.ite Materiar" Approach. and derive structural theories of composite laminates.flte LaminAte.i. Micromechani" (1987.ign. or . also see Chapters 14 and 15 in: Finite Element Analy. we shall focus on the fundamental. of Defect. Meehaniel of Coml'0. M. 6.. First. Structural Method. PA (1987). Drawing analogies between isotropic and anisotropic media. October 1988. 5. J. Reddy. Elsevier.i.. Analy. L. J. The study of anisotropic elasticity and structural theories used to analyze composite laminates constitute the topics for this chapter. for desired kinematics. J.. Lancaster. New York (1980).. of Fiber John Tech- 3. Reddy.. 4. of different failure •. lllacksburg. of aniectrcpic elasticity and a study of the mechanics of composite laminates. and Performance Compo. J. metals.: Theory and AnalplI.. Springer-Verlag..1 Int-roduction Analysis of structures made of composite materiels requires a knowledge of anisotropic elasticity. and a numerical method to solve the boundary-value problem associated with the structure. Mechanics oj Composite Laminates 2. N. 2.. Seethararnu (eds.otropic Nijhoff ' Martinus ' The Hague Chapter Two 7.. S. for Engineering lJ. is neither adequate nor appropriate for analyzing this new dass of engineered material systems.2-1 Definitions elasticity Since we seek a fundamental understanding the mechanics of composites materials.

Note that (2. = E331 = 2£23. . Uh = Chj(j Isotropic MOlerjals: m=m'. Also note that the single subscript notation for stress and strain components is based on the convention. .." (11 £1 = = 0'11.0'3) denote the normal stresses and (1T-4. Of anisotropic and heterogeneous.US. and when they are constant throughout the material it is homogeneous.2. That is. £4 0'( . we distinguish between isotropic and anisotropic materials. the physical properties at A will remain invariant for any arbitrary rotation of axes. 0'22t 0'3 £3 = u3l. transverse) stresses. a given material property can have different values in different directions.2-1) is an abbreviation of the proper tensor form of Hooke's law. and it can be expressed as.I.. = 2f131 = 2£12 (2. (cr" cr2.: 0'23.m Figure 2.U6) denote shear stresses. An aniloiropic rnaterial is one which exhibits material properties that are directionally dependent. U6) are the inplane stresses and (cr3' cr" cr5) are the out-of-plane (Le. anisotropic and homogeneous.A material is said to be homogeneou6 if the material properties remain unchanged throughout. = 1.2-1 with a coordinate system with its origin at A..2-2).2) Here (0"110"2. Next. isotropic and heterogeneous (or inhomogeneous).:.2-1 Definitions of isotropic and anisotropic materials (. . Note that a material can be isotropic and homogeneous. A material is said to be isotropic if all its material properties at a point are Independent of the direction. We note that Chi are entries in the k-th row and j-th column of a 6 X 6 square matrix. the material properties are a function of position. if one refers to point A in an isotropic medium of Figure 2. Figure 2. A linear rela. 0"6 £6 = 0']2 E2 --:: E22.2-2 Constitutive relations In =A rn' = material property mea.2 . namely (see [1-5]).tion between the six stresses and six strains is known as the generalized Hooke's law. heterogeneous. fIb 0'2::::::.y) system (x'. Chi are not components of a second-order Lensor. 2. 0'5 £6 = O'Il. Anisotropic Materials: m''/.fUred witlt respect A material pro~ny measured wilh respect /0 10 "It 'he (x.. it is customary to describe the state of deformation by six. In a heterogeneous system. Similar terminology is used for the strain components. . We shan discuss various special cases of anisotropic materials in the next section.6) (2.. namely.2 -1) where Chj are known as the elasiie coefficient.y'} sJston In a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system (see Figure 2. components of strain and stress.e. however. l.2-2 Components of stress and strain in a rectangular cartesian coordinate system. When Chi are functions of position the material i. three normal and three shear components.

rum· c. (2. of . Cij are not all independent of each other. they arc symmetric for materials for which the strain energy density function U. The stiITness coefficients C. we consider the strain energy density of the material which may be expressed as Some anisotropic materials may possess material symmetries and their constitutive behavior can b.s o C55 o C'6 eu C36 n " f3 (2_2 .5) we arrive at the expression Note thai the out-of-plane shear stresses. are independent normal strains and the inplane shear strain.thotropic..2. (2. and the number of elastie coefficients for such materials reduces to 13. the elastic coefficients Cii relating the Cartesian components of stress and strain depend on the coordinate system (:1:1 . C. When the elastic coefficients at a point have the same values for every pair of coordinate systems which are mirror images of each other in a certain plane.9) . The number of independent constants depends on the material constitution.E.2-5) into Eq.2 -7) Note that there are no interactions between extensional and shear components for ortholropic materials when loaded along the material coordinates. o (2. The stress-strain relations for an orthotropic material are given by C13 C23 C33 0 0 0 C •• 0 0 0 (2. i.2.3) To illustrate this. In matrix form Eq. (2.i3). then they are independent of the coordinate system and the material is said to be isotropic. '. in general. Referred to another Cartesian coordinate system (i1o. such that (2. '6 f• I"J e '3 0 Css o o (2. there are only 21 independent elastic constants for anisotropic materials..!Iym.2-1) into equation (2.2·.. 1£ the plane of symmetry is Zs = 2 K "- (2. First we show that Ctj = Cjl.A' Because of this symmetry.9 The thirty six coefficient.2-7) that. for an orthotropic material may be expressed in terms of the engineering constants by (see Reddy [4]) •ym. then the number of independent elastic coefficients can b. C _ 1.2::3) used.2 ..2-6) and (2. for the material 0. from Eq. the constitutive relations become: CII C12 Cn CI3 C'3 C33 0 0 0 C•• 0 0 0 U. It is understood from Eq.e elastic coefficients are eii' and in general eii I Cij.8) '.. we conclude that CAi C.2 -4) we obtain Substituting equation (2. reduced 10 nine.5 C65 C36 C6. C . '5 f6 C66 U. Z2.lllltic "mmetr. = {'-"$rd<y 10 II (2. If a material system has three mutually perpendicular planes of elastic symmetry. of for U. (2. If eij = Cij. Substituting = ~Cn f."'12"11 53 - tlE. C65 c. Such materials are referred to as o. namely 0'4 and 0'5.2-1) can be expressed as = o o m~ CII CI2 C" en C23 C33 e" e" e" C2• C25 C26 C3.2-6) By comparing expressions (2. that plane is called a plan.rial..2-3).2-4) and integrating.2-1). Materials with one plane of symmetry are called monoclinic mat. C35 C.. th. described with fewer than 21 constants. . that is.1that point.

C12).') ar.II c••= G'3. there are only five independent coefficients. and 1-2 planes. :t3) of a single orthotropic I. Vi' is the Poisson'. 3-1..".) denotes the material coordinate system and ("'10. We note that a fiber-reinforced composite is strong along the fibers and weak in the directions transverse to the fibers. ratio for transverse strain in the i -th direction when stressed in tl~ei-th direction Vij = -~. In the next section."3) ("'. 2.10) Cll = (1 -11311113 - 2V21V32VlJ + 11)(1 E(1-1I) .. If we assume that aU fibers in a lamina are almost parallel.e sh~ar moduli in the 2·3.11) The bars over the" 's. G3. er.rallel to the fiber direction. Qea (2. The stress-strain relations for an isotropic material have the form.E. If the.2 . and it can be described in terms of two elastic coefficients. denotes Young's moduli in the ith-material direction.. Cu = G12 (2..ely i.E3 ll.turd problem (see Figure 2. (~] 8:: ~] {::} o <. <i and (G23.3 -1) (2.2 .in one of the planes of elastic symmetry of an orthotrop1C ma. A = 11112"21 V21V32 css = G E."2.211) (2. materi"! is isotrop!c .5(CIl . we present constitutive equations for an ortholropic layer. The three material directions (. which is used to describe the structure made of composite materials.3 Orthotropie lamina The inplane stress-strain relations in material coordinates (Zl' Z2. and .2 -13) wh~re E. . respectively. for an isotropic material there are infinite number of planes of elastic symmetry (or no preferred direction). then the stress-strain relationship takes the form CIl A fiber-reinforced composite material is an anisotropic material because it possesses different moduli along the liber direction and transverse to it.lI.).3-1). If '"I denotes the coordinate normal to the plane of isotropy.i. a thin layer) are C" C" C23 C23 C'2 6 0 0 0 slim. It IS referred to as a tran .z) denotes the coordinate system used to formulate Ihe governing equations of Ihe slru.otropic material system. where c•• 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C'6 c = 0.""''''') are taken perpendicular to the three planes of elastic symmetry. ii1W] (2.e.3-1 Coordinate system used for the description of the structure the fiber direction.. G i.tenal system.. These two coefficients are related to Young's Modulus E and Poisson's ratio v by = Figure 2. we can characterize: it as a homogeneous orthotropic material. (Z"Z2.5(CIl .2 -12) where 6 0.C.mina [i.. CIl 012 Oll . = Finally. ~or this class. Thus.ym.2v)' 0" = (1 + 11)(1 liE ."1.'s and Q's are introduced here 10 distinguish them from the corresponding variables referred to the coordinate system ('"" z" .). with the material coordinate axis "'I being p .

4-3 Displacements and strains -sin6]{<T4} cos8 Us (2. Q22 = __ E_2__ 1- V121121 Q12=~' _ VI21121 1 Q66 = G12 (2. The classical plate theory is adequate for the analysis of thin plates.". are aligned with the principal material dl:echon 1. A refinement to the classical laminate theory i8 provided by the fird-order . e. of the la~mnate.3 .. 0/ Compolitt. involves the following assumptions: straight lines perpendicular to the midplane before deformation remain (1) straigh~. transverse normal atrain is zero). the vanishing of E •• and . plates made of advanced fiber.) are an order of magnitude smaller than in-plane .. The neglect of fu leads to the omission of Uu because the product of lu and (Tn is zero in the total potential energy of the plate. (6'bu2. of each layer i. the classical laminate theory developed here is not to be used for composites that are likely to fail in transverse shear or delamination. The claHical laminated plate theorr (CLPT) is an extensjon of the classical plate theory to laminated plates. whereas in reality they arc weaker in the transverse direction. In the present section we develop the classical laminated plate theory. and (3) normal to the midsurface after deformation. In most applications the thickness of a larni":ate is small compared to the planar dimensions. The Kirchhoff-Love hypothesi..3b) where 0 denotes the angle between the positive e-axis and the positive ii-axis measured counter-clockwise direction. den?ted .2) displacements are assumed to vary linearly through the thickness and the tranlverse displacement is assumed to be constant through the thickness (i. . (2. The composite laminae are bonded together to form ~ laminate with desired thickness and stiffness.4 The 2. The clas.s.trell-reduced diffn esse» because they are ?blai~ed from Cij ?y setting (T33 = 0 in Eq.ructure..cosOsinO 2 sin26 C052 8 cosOsin6 cos2 -2co. (2) inextensible. whose elastic to shear modulus ratios (EJ/G13 and EJ/G2S) are very large.'.inO 2cosO. (0'1.. the angle 0 will be referred to . which will be discussed in Section 2.O'". t~. irrespective of the lamination angles.U6).... 2.0'3) = (O'z:. 2.tre. Hereafter.3 .il' In this study.'" 6N to the laminate coordinate.uzy): U:} [ = cos2 6 sin e . ~oordinat. Although the transverse shear and normalstresoes (<T.:s are obtained from the three-dimensional elasticity theory by making assu~ptJOns concernin. for the inplane Itr..3a) The Kirchhoff-Love hypothesis i.). They are related to the engineering constants In the following manner QIl = __ E_I__ 1Vl21121 .3 .Anal. . in composite materials. a refined theory is used. However.. espedally when the transverse deformation is negligible. are susceptible to thickness failures because their effedive transverse shear moduli (G13 and G23) are significantly smaller than the Young's moduli (EI) along the fiber direction. the lamination angle.e transformation equations are employed to obtain the stres5~S m material coordinates. Thus. <T. When the classical laminated plate theory i8 not applicable.icallaminated plate theory i. by two orders of magnitude compared to the inplane dimensions. Thus. "y. lead to the neglect of <Tn and "'••. In this theory. for the transverse .0'2. <T. two-dimensional theories arc used to analyze composite laminates for stresses. and Eu. in terms of stresses in the global (T.4-1 classical laminated plate theory Introduction Fiber-reinforced composites are manufactured in the form of thin sheets called laminae or layers. are also an order of magnitude smaller than the allowable.2-9). . The two-dimensional theori. When the material directions are not aligned with the c~ordmate system (""y. En. Laminatu 12 13 The Qi. \Ve assume that • the layers are perfectly • the material bonded together. O2.tresse. 2.4-2 Assumptions of the theory . the inplane Consider a plate of total thickness h composed of N orthotropic layers with their principal material coordinates oriented at angles 01. linearly elastic and has three planes of malerial ..g the variation of displacements and/or stresses through the thlc~nes. where the thickness of the laminate is small. (2. the material directions are always aligned with ~he fiber directions. found to be adequate for most application. z) used to describe the boundary-value problem asso'dated with a st. Therefo:e.3-1) are referred to as the plane . the classical laminate theory does not account for transverse deformation and stress ~tate. For orthotropic layers and laminates constructed from orthotropic laminae. the material slrength al/owabl ..in6 ] e- sin2 8 {~4} = [c?s68 0'6 Sin Ud (2. These three assumptions lead to the neglect of the transverse strains. used in the derivation of the elassieel Iaminated plate theory. This amounts to assuming that plates are "infinitely" rigid in the transverse direction. N?te that the fibers in the lamina.hear deformation plate theory (FSDT).5.

1/>1 is the rotation of a transverse normal about the y-axis.w) are the displacement.4-1). I) = v(".y. u. Ihe midplane of the laminate)..4 . v.t) Ul(Z.y.y. The first two assumptions of the Kirchhoff hypothesis require that the displacements (UI.y.) I) = u(".8w/8y.4 . .U3) are the components of the displacement vector (2. it allows us to replace a laminate with an equivalent single layer whose material coefficients are Figure 2.e.z By 8w (2.z. including the interfaces of dissimilar-material layers.U2. u" us) to be such that (see Figure 2. located at the point (o:. (2.y.y.y. The third assumption of the Kirchhoff hypothesis implies that the rotations 1/>1 and 1/>2 are equal 10 . we tacitly assumed that the strains are continuous through the thickness. of a point on the xy-plane (i.l) .2) and are the unit vectors along the (O:.4 . respectively.4 .3) where (u. t) = w("..t) u2(".l) 8w = u(z.t) .z az = v(z.y.z. l) + z4>I(Z..8w/Ox and .y.l) + z4>. • the strains are small. moves after deformation to the position ('" + Ul.y.II.y.e.l) (2.material layers. This assumption plays a significant role in developing laminate theories.z. • each Jayer is of uniform thickness.4-2 The stress resultants on an arbitrary edge of a laminate. orlhotropic)..II..(x.y-plane coincides with the midplane of the laminate. for bending of thin laminate •.e.t) = W(a:.z.4) Thus the displacement field of the classical plate theory becomes Figure 2.y.t) It is important to note that in using the kinematic assumptions of a singlelayer theory to model a laminated plate composed of multiple layers of possibly dissimilar.4-1 The Kirchhoff-Love hypothesi. A point P. U2(".e.1) The laminate coordinate system is chosen such that the ".AflcUr'U of Compo~ite LAminate' 14 1~ symmetry [i.z.) in the undeformed plate.5) U3(X.(".Z) coordinates. (2. and 1/>2 is the rotation of the transverse normal about the ".4 .t) us(". Fiber direction (e.y.z.y.-axis and t denotes time. y + U" • + us) where (Ul.

3) 2 . respectively. '8y '0.4 . (~~)'.y. lJ.till (0:. 8~ 0u3) " z = !(0u2 + {}.U3) are the total displacement components along ("10".4 . 8". Hence.. and terms that are indeed negligible (or the class of problems one wishes 10 study should be discarded.4-6) as follows: 0u3 0u3 imposed (2.E~O).4-10) show. to the laminate coordinates (". Here we consider plate problems that involve moderate rotations (say 10°-15°).7) The single subscript nolation used in Eq s.trel.8z2 2 O'w fu . and %1 = e. (2.. Ous) 8.n . as will be shown in the following sections. we can simplify Eq."3) coordinates.2. the assumption restricts the use oC the theory to model global response characteristics.8. 2 8" . (2. Under the restrictions (2.2' a.9) '<1°) = ~+ 8".hearin~ of the midplane and are called the membrane llrainl.:1:3). (2.f~O») the &trains associated with the stretching aad denote inplane . the following terms associated with rolations of transverse normals. .4-5) can now be comrelations (2.8) by Eqs.4-8). However.. %2 = y. Once the displacement field of a continuous body is known.train •• field (2. Note that ( UI. (2. _ 1 (OUI lJu.. (0u1)2 8y' 0u10u1 8". (2.8 w 8y' (I) _ 2 ! (~2.4 . o( (". ' fz.4-9) are called the ~on K arm'. The slrains in Eq.e.4-10) are of the general form..4 -10) (8UI)2 0". i. the strains in the body can be computed using the strain-displacement relations (see Reddy [4]).f~I»are the curvature s.y) only.0u28U2 /h'oy« UN (OU3)' a.z are the coordinates used to describe the deformation of the body.+2 8u.6) Here summation on repeated subscript (m) is implied.8y are small but not negligible. 8". . 2 lJz lJy 0u3 + Ou.. (2.1') fl l f"~/h'+2 Ou _ 8U3 1 (8U3) 2 . that the membrane strains. f'j The strains in Eq.. . 1 (0u a.f~I). interfaces) accurately. + OUj + OumOum) 2 O"'j 0". and it does not represent the interlaminar . 8y 1.. (2.11) «1 (2.fl (I) = .i = 1.4 -13) .. The '1u&Otitle •• = (fP . stresses at the lamin .4 .. %3 = .+ Ou.4-10) and (2.4-7) and 1') (1 . We restrict our study to problems with small strains.4-11) refer. 8. ---- !(Ow)' . j.U2.4 . O"'j (i.Y and curvatures for the classical laminate Iheory have the following explicit form: On3)2 (8U3)2 ( 0".4-6) are nonlinear functions of the displacement gradients. (2. (2.E"~a. for slrains .16 17 averaged over the laminate thickness.4-9): The strains associated with the displacement puted using the von Karman strain-displacement =! (Ou. Equation (2.te. « 1 (2. The nonlinear part of the strains should be examined closely. V_ 2)'.4 -12) Here flO)= (f\O). + /h' + /h'a. En ~ 0u38u3) f.) '" ("'10"'. (i. Strain. Both 0) and are function. a.3) (2. in Eq.e. Oy (2.

4 . Ow + 8w x> (2.14) w '" lPw / 8t'.. bul also the form of the boundary conditions consistent with the equations of motion.4 . IR where Ihe underlined lerms are the von Karman notation. = IoU. often omitted because it i. one is required to write expressions Corthe appropriate energy of the body. transverse load.15b) 8w On = 8% n. The same commenl applies 10 Ihe second term on the right hand side of Eq •. 2. (2.. the principle of virtual displacements. For a fixed value of %. The principle of virtual displacements states that if a body is in (slatic or dynamic) equilibrium. The essential [i.4-4 Equations of motion . Eq. (2. namely. are the Coree and moment r . u. Coree) condition. In matrix where.4-2)..AnClly. and the governing equations of motion are obtained by summing forces and moments..:: \ {O'I } (2.4 -17) (0'1 = Un.} = I. w. (2. { NI } q is the distributed (see Figure 2.4 -18) The second term on the right side of the equality in the first two equations of Eq. :: (essential) M" (natural) (2. ) . (2. a representative volume element of the body is isolated with all its applied and reactive forces (i. we omit the details. Thus.e . 8NI + 8N. (2. small in comparison 10 the rou and I. N. 0"2 = O'nt 0"6 = D'zr) and Ii are the mass inertias { ~. !_: { !} T. e.4 -154) (2. for example.4 -19a) (2. al noted earlier..• Newton's laws)." N. In certain cases.20..e . of rot.trains. called the inerti .. The advantage of the energy principles is that they yield not only the equations of motion. The vector mechanics approach is closer to physical intuition. + 8N.. and they are independent of the lamination scheme.2 pd. in energy methods. the strains vary only with respect to the z and y coordinates. (2. (Ni..4-12) takes the form nonlinear . sets of equations of motion..4 -16) We note from Eq...4 .e . In vector mechanics. Here we use an energy principle. and summarize the equation.e .• geometric) and natural the theory are given by (see Reddy 14]): boundary (i. term. where [see Figure 2.:: t {O'I } .• not to dwell too much on fine theoretical points).4-14) that the strains vary linearly through the laminate thickness..• a free-body diagram is used). bul closely related. = Iov _ II 8w I)" By I)y (2. In the interest oCbrevity and consistent with the objectives of the book [i.v term •.. (2.4-15).4-15) i. { MI !:: } = f=. The energy principles require the minimization of the total potential energy (or maximizalion of Ihe total complementary energy) to derive the equations of motion and associated boundary conditions.. Mi). the total virtual work done by all externally applied and internally generated forces in moving through their respective virtual displacements must be zero (see Reddy 14]). ullanls The equations of motion of a solid body can be derived using either energy principles or vector mechanics (i. and il i. The total virtual work is equal to the sum of the internal virtual work and the virtual work done by external force a.4 -1gb) Q". the two methods may give different. of motion resulting from the principle of virlual displacements (see 14]): Z: = f=. _ h(}W 8x 8y 8x 8N.u of Compo.tite Laminate.4-2) u.

n. both referred to the laminate coordinate s.aic. = 0 at z = " Q..ita k".n. the integr . we obtain Ihe first three equations in (2. we obtain (N .A.4-21) can also be derived from the equations elasticity (in the absence of body forces]. + 2Men... of motion of 3-D where Ail denote the extensional . + MI(n! + Q2n. are left as an ONI 0" + + ONI ~ lou _ II OW By a" By substituting the stre .trains «!O).246) . = P7fi2 Aii = '=1 E Q~.4 . and n.a. Since Q~:l constant within each layer.4-15) without the nonlinear term.4 .. _ {}z - P 81' 8Z u.206) of the Integrating Eq.n.) (2.po. 2. M. of NA ~ Nln! + N. The boundary conditions on tfu. (1''1.tiffnesses.) + M.<P)... ) (2. B16 M.. y and z directions and summing moments about the" and y axes: Similarly. Equations (2. 8t1z BUell BtTn _ 82ul 0'". relate the Coree and moment resu!tanh ON.23..22.4 .)(ZHI - N z.4-21) without the rotatory inertia terms.22 . Mlln.4-22) by z and integrating over the two equations.) aMI ax + OMI _ QI ~ 12 OW _ Ilu {}y 0".4 . equations (2. (2. Ui in terms olstrains <i.226) inate coordinates.236) where QI and Q2 are the transverse shear forces.244) where Q~%) are the material stiffnesses of the k-th lamina. The detail. 8y 8y {MI} ~ (BIl M. ~ Min! M •• ~ (M.... We can solve the fourth and fifth equations in (2. + OM2 _ Q2 ~ I.4-17) and carrying out the indicated integration with respect to z.Nlln.. of a laminate: .+ 7h au.4 .20 21 Mec.n. and Bii ..t Du D12 Du D12 D ]{ D:: D" D2S Du (2.n: + 2N. (2..i. ~). - n:l - 0" + !!!l! 8y + Ou. 8y ON. (2. and Un are O'z*= a. __ Ii ~ By Oy 8QI A" + ~g_~ q = loW + Oy rl} N2 N5 (2..". .n. (2. N •• ~ (N.4-5 Laminate The laminate constitutive constitutive equation.. ~ 10.4 . as referred to the lam- 7h + oY + 8z . into Eq. substitute the expressions into the third equation of (2.2 A21 All] <1°) + (BIl A2s B12 Bu A .4-22) with respect to z over the thickness of the plate (-~. Ou.4-21) for QI and Q2. 0.4 .tion over are the thickness can be carried out easily. in the linear case.~I) (2. 7h + By.(0) e BII] B" B68 rIO)} f50) B12 B" B ]{ B:: B5I B21 ll :t(I)} <~I) l) :t(Il} .tiffnes ses.P7fi2 Ou.. We obtain. are the direction plate.21) ~ (All A12 All Au A.4-21) and obtain the third equation in (2. ~ Qln. OM•• n:l (2. .- ±2" h tru = qat z= 2' trn h = 0 at z =-2' h cosines of the unit normal on the boundary It should be noted that the vector mechanics approach would have given the following equations. by multiplying the equations plate thicknes •• we obtain the remaining exercise to Ihe interested reader. Dol the bending the bending-extensional coupling stiffness . + Ne(n! - Ou.4 .n. OM.4 .OW _ Ilv 0". by summing Iorces along the "'. Mi) to the . (2. BI2 B12 B22 B26 rIO)} + ( . and n. Com.

) sin' 0 cos' 0 + Q22 co.4-27) may be uncoupled from Eq.3()y + D'6l}"..4 8 QI.4<15).in' 8 cos' 8 + Q'2 sin4 8 QI2 = (Ql1 + Q22 . w) for the purpose of developing either analytical or displacement finite element models.4-23).29) . (2. In that cue Eqs. the force and moment resultants from Eq.::~) D'6 ((j1 Note that QI.%1+1) are the thickness coordinates of the bottom and top of the k-th layer.~~) Q.4 ( DIG 0.4 .4 .J 1 + IIlJyIJI' + B12~ 03w +A26~+ A66 (~+~) + BII (.) 0.4 . (2..) are the material stiffnesses of the k-th layer referred to the material coordinates (flo .' + 2( DJ2 + 2D6.2Q.~~) [AI'~: + A"~ + B. are zero. In the second step. :'" [AI6:: +B66 (-2::..QI2 . w.) can be expressed in lerms of the Q~.::~) _ {)'w .' Oy' + D" ()y' trw O'w ) 8'w .) + B'I ( . For the uncoupled case. The first step is to introduce the strain-displacement relations (2.812 (1Ju 1Jv) + B'2ay + B'G ay + a. the transverse deflection w under applied transverse force q is governed by =..81' + lJylJI' O'v) Equations (2. (2.iJl .clockwise from the positive Z1-axis to the positive :i:l-axis.27) O'v Ql1 = QIl cos· 8 + 2(QI2 .4 _ 28) + 1)(0.~~) (-2 :::u)] +A26 (~ +~) (2.4 .4-10) for the strains into the laminate constitutive equations (2. whereas Q~. - 04w trw trw] [Dl1 0".4-26) and (2.2QGs) 'in3 8 cos 8 + (Q12 .3).Bii 0 an~ the applied inplane displacements and forces are sere.' 8 Qu = (QJI + Q22 .) are the transformed material stiffnesses referred to the laminate coordinates (:tl.y)] +21J:~ [BJ6~:+B26~ +B6S (~+~) + + ~y~)+ D6I (-2:::U)] DI6 (.0 = U:. 8..s)sin' 8 cos' 8 + Q•• (sin4 8 + cos4 0) ::' [Bl1~ +Dls + B18 (~ +~) + DlJ (.4 . v. al2 + II a".l.4QGs)sin' 8 cos' 8 + Q12(sin4 8 + cos4 8) Q22 .:C2. and (%1.24d) = I. 22 23 (2.I +~ +B12 ( -~~~) = 10IJt' + B" ( . If. (2. The result is a system of three differential equations in three displacements (u)v. (2.ti.) [sec Eq.~:~) I· R66 (2. which is aligned with the fiber direction (see Figure 2..Ql1 sin' 0 + 2(Q12 + 2Q. +DI' ( .w).26) 3w where N is the number of layers in the laminate.OI' a'u a (-2 ::. (2.s) . = (Ql1-Q12 .L 2Q. + D2' ( (J3u ~y~)+ Du ( -2 ::.~:~) + D12 (.4-27) can be solved independently for the inpl~e displacements u and '" and Eq.2Q•• ) sin 0 cos' 0 + (QI' Q22+ 2Q ss)sin'Oco.."2.3-1).4-26) and (2. then u and v WIll be IdentIcally zero. solved for the transverse deflection. oj Compo.4-15) can be expressed in terms of the displacements (u.4 .4-23) are introduced into the equations of motion (2.25) (-2::.1.2Q12 .~:~) + Bn (. The material stiffnesses Q~.y)] + N(w) +q (2.tite Laminale..J] (2.ay3 + N(w) + q = 10812 (2. \Ve obtain: [Ou + ail Bl'a.Q" + 2Qs5) sin 8 co. The equations of motion in Eq s.4-28) can b.24c) +B1& ( -~:~.X3)' The lamination angle 9 is measured counter.3-1)J by the following transformation equations (the superscript k is omitted for brevity).Ana.4-28) when the extensional-bending coupling stiffness es Bi. (2.

yielding an equivalent single-layer plate theory. and type of structure (i.z) in the laminate.2).j 0.hear deformation theory. and others [15. For the orthotropic case D. as shown recently by Reddy [10J. depend on the constituent ply properties.4-3): shear correction factors are dimensionless quantities introduced to account for the discrepancy between the constant atate of shear strains in the first-order theory and the quadratic or higher-order distribution of shear . the displacements and strains are continuous through the laminate thickness (i.An.y) (-3!') (4)1 + :) + z4>2 + z3 (-3~')(4)2 + :) (2.5 First-order shear deformation theory = = = = 2.5 .y) + z4>l('". and for the isotropic case Dll = D22 = D.(:I:.min.o). Krishna Murty [29J.z) U2("'Y'Z) = u("'y) + z4>l + z3 = v(".y.5-2) was also considered by others [26-35].y) = u(".V. the original idea of such an expansion can be found in earlier works by Basset [11].y.Z) u. but is restricted to isotropic plates. and thus requires shear correction factors. higher-order displacement field of the type in Equation (2. Hildebrand et al. 2. The technical note of Krishna Murty [29] suggested a general. geometry and boundary conditions) [17-19J. For example. who studied the effect of shear deformation on bending and Creevibration response of simply supported rectangular laminates according to the first-order shear deformation theory.ponte Lamiaste. In the displacement-based theories. U1(X. [12]. single-valued at interfaces of layers). but cast the approach in terms of the thickness-averaged displacement field.y.UI) are the displacements of a point on the midplane (". in general. The principle of virtual displacements or the method of moments is used to derive the equations of equilibrium. and DIS D26 = 0. The first-order shear deformation theory is known more commonly as "the Mindlin plate theory". The moat widely used displacement based theory is the fi. the third-order theory of Reddy [24. lIencky [t3J. (2. The work of Stavsky [20] was extended to anisotropic laminates by Yang.U"U3) denole the displacements of a point (. The theory was extended in [25J to include the von Karman strains. In these theories the displacement or stress components are expanded as linear combinations of the thickness coordinate and undetermined functions of position in the reference surface. The works of Vlasov [26J. Reddy'.25] is based on the displacement field U1(r. (U. Jemeilita [27J. and Levinson [30] were restricted to isotropic plates.Y). Stavsky [20] extended the first-order shear deformation theory of isotropic plates to plates laminated of isotropic layers of dissimilar materials. The governing equations are derived either using virtual work principles or by weighted-integrals of the 3 -D stress-equilibrium equations through the thickness of the laminate . and (4)1. and Heucky [131. where D = Eh' /12(1 _ . The theories based on displacement expansion can be found in the works of Basset [Ll]. and A16 A. 0/ Com.Z) = w(".y. x )Raxes. The work of Schmidt [28] also accounts for the von Karman strains. the shear correction factors. Murthy [32] used the same approach to obtain the equilibrium equations. For composite laminates.Z) = w(z. t-order . Mindlin [14].y) The displacement field accommodates the vanishing of transverse shear strain.5-2).2) U3("'y. Second and higher-order plate theories involve higher-order expansions of the displacement field. The theory is based on the displacement field in Eq.5-1 A review of reHned plate theories Numerous plate theories that include transverse shear deformations are documented ill the lileralure (see Ihe review articles in [6-10)).train. (and hence stresses) on the top and bottom of a laminate. All displacement-based theories up to and including third-order theories can be obtained from a single displacement field. In this study we consider plate theories based on assumed displacement expansions.. The displacement field used by Dhimaraddi and Stevens [331 is the same as that used by Levinson and Reddy but recast in terms of different variables which are convenient in a finite element model development.. respectively.y) where (UI. and Schmidt [28J and Levinson [30] used the equilibrium equations based on the method or moments..(x.5 -1) U3(Z. (2. + z4>. This leads to a discontinuous interlaminar stress field because of different elastic coefficients at layer interfaces when the constitutive equations are used to compute the stresses.4IyuJ' of CompoJ'it~ Ltl. in the elasticity theory.e.6 0.e. The displacement field of the Iype in Equation (2.ctu 24 Mechonie. the three components of the displacement vector are expanded in power series of the thickness coordinate and unknown functions.16]."y. lamination scheme. D12 + 2Dss = 2D. The firstorder shear deformation theory yields a constant value of transverse shear strain through the thickness of the plate.y)..23]. In all single-layer plate theories. and Thomas 112]. Norris and Stavsky [21] and Whitney and Pagano [22. Schmidt [28].4>2) arc the rotations of the transverse normal about the (y.z) = u(x. The . Hildebrand. this reduces the 3-D elasticity problem to a two-dimensional (2-D) one.y. Reissner.

. fncre:ased accuracy without a. >.sarilly remain perpendicular to the midsurfaee. 8"" >'. and 9..40) Third-order theory of Reddy [24] in (2. we have Classical theory of Eq.5-3) by assigning proper values to the constants.. = "I.n increase in computational effort) theory. and are the rolations of a transverse normal aboul the y. =0 (2.. 2. (2. are undetermined functions.) = '8. . v.' "'2 =v 8w •• "3(""Y") + >'. but it doe. quadratic variation of transverse shear strains within each layer and r. p. = 1.40) (i = .3) Displacement-based. given by (2.p3 + 7. (2. ) = 0.=-31. one of the three assumptions of the cl. called tracerJ: Q. = 1" = 0.' 4 ( "'. "'I.p.4-5): 0=-1.5 . (2.5 .+8y of motion of the first-order theory are The displacement fields of many other single-layer third-order theories deduced from the displacement field (2. '!'!>us.i. . 8W) (2.trains through thickness.5 . 8" + (3.4.5 . sical laminate theory is removed: a straight line normal to the midplane of the laminate remains straight and inexteneible after deformation.P) = O. based on the following displacement field [36]. The thirdorder theory {i. =0.&-2 Kinematics In the first-order shear deformation.5b) + 8". A.5-2): " (0) (8w) au 8v 8w 8w =a. 8N.pres."" + >. . shear deformation ( 8w) "'. ).p. =7.. z = u e. >.. and . >. The von Karman strains associated with the displacement field (2.. Thus.5-3) (see Table I of Reddy ]10])..) directions. 8.%'83. where "'I and ~2 are the rotations of a transverse normal. 2 812 (2. it doe.5. . LamiMtel Ilroi7l-con.2 4 8. w) denote the midplane displacement components in the (""y. .5 . (2. + az 8y + (3''''2 + >.+a. It i. respectively. (3 = I.e. Here we ( develop the first-order shear deformation theory for laminated plates.5-1)] of" teeaeverse normal are independent of ~ and ~. and . {J = I. (2.~o)= of motion 8w + "'.6..and e-axes. = 8v (i = 1. single-layer theories more refined than third-order are not considered in the literature because they are cumbersome and the increase in accuracy is outweighed by the increase in the number of unknowns.(3 = 1.. + 7' 9. 0/ Compolit.. = 0.°8t2 + I 1 a ".4b) where theory ]15. 7 = I.• . "'. [eee Eq. ()". 8"" 8"" 0= 0.5) 2 (2.8y'" . 8.31. 8y .. theory + o.5-1): a Second-order =7.• .~O) +! 8y2a..5-1)... For example.5 . The displacement field of the first-order shear deformation theory i. 7= " (0) +2 1 (8w) 8. =w 8w •• u. .%..1.lenl Ihird-order theory ]10] is by far the most general technical of plates. 9.+8.26 27 MechAnie. 2 .~O) = 0 .<~') = (I) 8"" 8y =0.nla the true distribution of the .5 .) . (2. The first-order theory ia by far the most efficient (i. not require shear correction factors. = 7 = >.(3=>'=7=>'. + 8Na _ 1 a'1). The displacement fields of various single-layer theories can be obtained from Eq..+'8. = 0. .e. the rotations ~I and ~. First-order theory of Eq.2.5-3 Equations The equation. I Here (u. (2.. theory with cubic terms of the thickness coordinate) yield.4d) can be 2.~O) = iJw + "'.1.5-6 .~') =0 . . Dol neee. '" (. "I () y.~')= 0 8y (2.~O) + ••1') 8u = 8.y. = .16]: a = 0.p. All of the generalized displacements are functions of only " and y.. + "I' 9... >.5-1) are Eq.

rPnl ¢n. +DI6-+D26-+D6S 0" Oy (04)1 --+Oy 0</>.).)] .'J~Q(k>dZ I} tJ -h (i)'=45) ' ! 0".) Qn = (QS5 .) in the material coordinates by 8 BI6-+B"-+B.17).' B + Q44 sin' B (2.Zk) (2.5 -11) 8% + 7iii + OQ~ N(w) + q = I. [A4S (: + </>.c"ic:.8b) The transverse shear forces Qi can be expressed in terms of the displacements (2. .4.. and I. The boundary (2.5. 0/ Compolite LomillG:lu 8%+ OQI OMI ONs ON.> in the The material stiffnesses Q~. Un.</>1 The equations of motion (2.5·· 6d) (2.5 -9) where A-. a. 0" + 8w )] Ass ( 0.) + Ass (: + 4>1)] + ~ [A •• (~ + </>.5 -15) O</>I O</>.[ A45(aw -+</>. + </>1 02</>1 = 1.Q . =ltat2 a'" +1.5 -14) = Kij k=1 t lJ . 8y and Kii are the shear correction coefficients.I1.5·- 8a) Mn. I Ntu.. (essential) (2.4-16) and (2.t s. T QI.6) can be expressed in terms of the displacement.) = ay-Q.5 . (2.81' + II 812 O'l!. and </>.7) and (Ni. 8x Oy Oy (au -+Oy Oy 0.5.28 29 Meell. respectively. are related to the QI.) +D ·-+D 8</>1 Ox 0" l1 12- O</>.5 .. Un.5 .4-20)J conditions for the first order theory are of the form [see Eq. as.5 .W. +Dta (a</>I -+ a</>2)] +.[au 0" 8x 8v 8y (au -+Oy Oy 0" 8v) ) (2.u4)dz T (2. )cosBainB QS5 = Qn co. laminate coordinate.10) -8 [au 811-+812-+BI6 8.7fi2 8Ms _ Q _ 1 8'u 1 O'</>I 8x + Oy 11 at' + • 8t' OM. are the same as those defined by Eqs.6e) (2.4-18). (natural) (2.5 .6b) (2. u. _ 1 8'" 7iii - ·Ot' + 181' I 8'4>.. O'W (2.81' 8'</>. (u. N(w). w. • f-: (us.=K.) as: OMs where 8%+ (QbQ.M.6. (2. ) (2.>(Zk+1 .

The nodal values through the thick· ness are functions of the inplane coordinates (".. of the strains with the el as tic stifTnesses from the two layers at the interface) can be = . (2.II.6-2 Displacements and .Z) For crthotropic plates.. Because of this local nature of tJ. it has a data structure that saves computational time while giving exactly Ihe same results {or comparable meshes (see Robbins and Reddy [38·40)).II)' Each layer of the theory can be treated either as a mathematical or a physical layer. I..j = 0... the product. 2.5-13). z.o. ply-dropoff.!J. A.. compared to the conventional 3-D displacement finite element model.. involving (W'~I'~2)' can be solved independent of equations (2. B. While the same interpolation functions are used in Eq.).w) at the nodes througb the thickness (see Fig. of R. and (UJ. This implies that all transverse strains will be discontinuous at layer interfaces. The most significant aspect of Ihe tA.3.5-12) and (2.trains The layerwise theory of Reddy is based on the following displacement expansion through the laminate thickness.5-16) take the form In the analysis o{ composite laminates with embedded delamination. Eqs. (2. and model delaminations.. The {unctions +J are the g106. and Eqs. defined (see Reddy [4[) in terms of the Lagrange interpolation functions associated with the layers connected to the J·th interface through the laminate thickness... giving the flexibility to the analyst to treat several physical layers as a sublaminate wherever necessary (for computational saving). (2. in which the displacements are expanded within each layer using the Lagrange family of finite elements.5-15)·(2. N is the number of subdivision. ply splits..y)+J(z) (2.5-17) and (2. expressed as.ddv is that.6 .5-18) simplify to = L U{(".6-1).5-16). the displacements are continuous through the thickness. the laminate stiffnesses Au. N "'(".e.6-1) for all three displacements for simplicity. Eqs. and A45 are zero. In this case.B. one must use a theory baaed on 3-D kinematics and develop a computational model that is more efficient than Ihe convenlional 3-D finite element model.6-1). DIS. free edges. ply terminations (i.. WJ) denote the nodal values of (". the number of nodes in the finite elemenl discretization) tbrough the thickness of the laminate and IIiJ are known functions of the thickne •• coordinate.6 The 2. Summation on repeated indices i. and so on. 2. Therefore.g.5-14)-(2.6-1 layerwise theory of Reddy Background For uncoupled laminates [i. the interlaminar transverse stresses computed from the layer constitutive equations [i. The i-th displacement component i. or region.2. D. (2. . II = 0). These requirements motivated Reddy [371 to propose a novellayerwise theory.. (e. or 3-D stress fields.5-14).y)IIiJ(z) J~I = U/(:r:. independent interpolation of the displacements (especially "3) can be used.tion function..e.. bul their derivatives with respect to z are discontinuous.. (2.)1 2.. implied in Eq. VJ.1 interpol.e. (2.1) where i 1.

.6-3." da.) (2. t z dz.AnalJfI1:" 0/ Com~itt L4minatu 32 ..6 . -AI' Q.. We have = 1.11•• ) will be discontinuous at layer interfaces because of the difference in material properties of adjacent layers. We us. 2. t z Q.11.. VI. (2. where and the resultants are defined by M! = JA/' 11 1(.." (z)" 1 J (. plate theories as special cases. WJ) can be derived using the principle of virtual displacements. The element aspect ratio in the layerwise models is restricted to only two dimensions.) .fW. h..N.2a) I JA/' I I JA/' I K. i.IJ continuous.bles (Ul.6 . d.6-3} consist of 3N two-dimensional differential equations in 3N varia.pJ Equations (2.-+oy8!:. = _A/. IV ). single-layer.. Here we consider a laminated composite plate with total thickness the strain-displacement relations of the von Karman nonlinear theory.fz:. K. including the top . = JA/' 11'-d d..2. as opposed to three-dimensions in the conventional 3-D finite elements. the interlarninar stress distributions can be determined accurately. . = az = WJTz. t. = ~ + ~ (i!'!:) 8y2fJy 2 = BV Wi ay 8w J -I-! 2ay (~IVJ ". where N denotes the number of interfaces.2.. ay (2.=0 (WJ) Figure 2_6-1 Kinematics of Reddy's layerwise theory. . The layerwise laminate theory also yields the conventional. e.t at least one element per physical layer is used.6-1) can be appropriately selected... IJ .6 .I1S" d.3c) The value of N in Eq. An advantage of the layerwise theory is that it requires only 2-0 finite elements. as shown by Reddy [37J.. N is less than the number of physical layers in the laminate. = 1. The resulting theory will have 3N variables and 3N two-dimensional differential equations.) will be continuous but the inplane stresses (11. + O~J _ Q{ + NI =0 (2.6 . I = JAIl -AI' ~~ 11. The Inplane strains (fz. = _A/.3b) OMI o. of equilibrium of the layerwi.S. S-d• I ' Q.e theory are: -u[ 1 2_u -U1-----.t::rI'1 1 8M{ 8:0 + 8MI _ 8y Qf = 0 QI (2.J) (OWJ wJ).. 1 _A/.I1. I = jA/t -h~ 11'-d <.6-3 Governing y N -1 equations The governing equations for the nodal variables (UJ.. The equation. VJ. When N is chosen such th.6) d. (t .)dz.{ for I OMI . The sublaminate concept can be used to model several layers as one equivalent single layer. (2.5) = JAIl I1 d.

pp. and Kulkarni. M. • af Laminated 6. G. P. 0' 25. CT (1970). pp.• "A Higher-Order Theory of Plate Deformation. R.. 23 (3). • • 11.• "Simplified Analysis of Static Shear Factors (or Beam. M . pp. pp. 881-896 (1984). lB. J. Factors for Laminated 2.• "Notes on tbe Foundations oC the Theory of SmaU Displacements of Orthotropic SheUs " NASA TN-1833 Washington. Y. Exten~ion and Fle. 17 {5}. G . pp. . Akd. References 1. M . 525-529 (Oct. J. K. 0' a' an Ani. Vlesov. 4.• "Uber die Berucksichtigung der Schubverzerrung in ebenen Plattell. and Raciti. in terms of the interface displacement functions (UI• VI. 105-166 (1965).. 13. A . Plates" • Shock and 0' N. E. S. R. and Structure...• Structural Ana/y. N . using the layer constitutive equations and strain-displacement relations.ces o( the laminate. • • 24." Journal Applied Mechanic s.. 72-766 (1947). pp. 665-684 (1966).. Ollendorlf and M. 34 )5 Mechanic. Lancaster. F. New York (1981). 20 {9/10}. B . S. Par I: Shear Effects and Buckling" AIAA Journal 21 (7) pp. 745-752 (1984).. pp. of Nonhomogeneous Cross Section. 31-38 15. Inertia and Shear on Flexural Motions of APplied Mechani .• Theary Elallicity Day. Whitney. Rotprawy Inzynie . F. M ." Journal of Compo.• "Influence of Rotatory of Isotropic. N . J.i. McGraw-Hill.ophlCal 7hm.. Yang.• and Thomas. (1963).• "Shear Correction Plates. J. Lekhnitski. 3-17 (1990). 2. in Applied Mechanicl. 51...• "Recent Advances in Analysis of Laminated Beams and Plates.Q!.ilf! Laminate. E . Kapania. Elsevier.• "Technicena leoria plyt S'redniej Grcbosci. S. pp.ite Material •• 3. R. and Structure. A . S. DC (1919). Ncor. Elastic Plates. Nauk SSR. 27.• "A Review of Refined Theories of Laminated Vibration Dig"t. N ."ure of Cylindrical and Spherical Thill Elastic Shells. (London) Ser.j.rnotional Journal of Solid..a Nauk. pp.. A. 677-686 (1990). 01 Compome Lamiuiu and boltom f. J. 21. 1B1 (6).• Christensen.• Theary a' Anjlatropic Method" 18_ Whitney. • • 9. 1-13 (1989). H. and Burton. J. Heterogeneous Plates Having 20. K. 23. C . N.• Mathematical New York 1965). 483-499 (1975). expressed.Analy.• "A Higher-Order Theory o( Plate Deformation. Part II: Vibrations and Wave Propagation" AIAA Journal.• Energy ond Vori. Ambertsumyen. D.lo. WI). San Francisco. R. 433-480 (1890). pp..on.. n. Mindlin.. PA (1987). pp. 1031-1036 Composite 10. "Recent Advances in Analysis of Laminated Beams and Plates. Reddy. ). 923-934 (1989). 3.• "On. pp. "A Simple Higher-Order Theory for Laminated Plates. Sokolnikolf( I. NY. Part 1: Homogeneous Plates. N." Journal (1951). pp. J. Hencky. Whitney. Palda A'aclem. Christensen. D. Y'I "On the Theory oC Symmetrically tbe Same Thickness Variation of the Elastic Moduli. in Applied MechaniCl Ani.lionol Wiley and Sons. Reddy. 0/ Compo. 534-547 (July 1969)..• "Ob uravneniyakh teovii isgiba plastinok (on the Equations on Ihe Theory of Bending of Plates)." lnt.• Reissner. •• • 7. 1973)..• "Shear Correction Factors for Orthotropic Laminates Under Static Load. 4. B. t~e." AIAA Journal. W .• and we.• "A General Non-Linear Third-Order Theory of Plates with Transverse Shear Deformation. 10. pp. 10. 935-946 (1989)." Journal (1970).SfJ. Part 2: Laminated Plate . Reddy. I h.otropic Plate. OTN. 25 (6) pp. Bert. 16.• Norris. J. M . 42 (1) pp.ticity 2nd Ed. pp. G . 102-109 (1958). Whitney. 302-304 (1973).ac!. V ." Journal of Applied Mechanic •• 40 (I)." Applied MechaniCl Review.• "Shear Deformation in Heterogeneous Applied Mochaniel. J . C.l •• 7." Izv. N. "Elastic Wave Propagation in Heterogeneous Plate ..• and Stavsky.. E. E. Reddy. Kapania. F . B.• and Wu. Schwerin Memorial Volume. The finite element model of the layerwise theory Ie presented in [38J. nomic. 26. 498-499 {1979}." Journal a/ Nan-Linear Mechanic. Reiner (Ed s.• "A Refined Nonlinear Theory o( Plates witb Transverse Shear Deformation. K. D . R. International Journal of Solid. 27 (7). S . Reddy. kie. 19. H. W." in Topic. H. The resultants M!. 22.• "The Effect oC Transverse Shear Deformation in the Bending oC Laminated Plates." Journol of APplied Mechanic •• 44 (4). 37 (4).atropic Plalel S.l of Compo. K. S. 669-676 (1977). Hildebrand. S. and Raciti. 12. Chatterjee. D. 17.. Jemeilita. Joumol of Applied Mechanic •• 44 (4).. . and Pagano." Tngenieu-Archiv (current name: Archive 0/ Applied Mechanica) 16 pp.K! can b. 663-668 (1977). C..• "Assessment of Shear Deformation Theories for Multilayered Composite Plates.. pp.ite Maten. Abir. Theary a' Ela. M .. Anisotropic Plates. A." Journ. 22 (7). M . K. of the Royal Society. Staveky. •• 8." (Technical Theory of Plates with Moderate Thickness). J. ElaJtic Body Holden• • Technomic • Westport John Tech• 14. M .

II." Mechanic. The Rayleigh-Ritz and Galerkin methods can also be used to determine approximate analytical solutions. Murthy. for Aero. V. N. J. D. Di Sciuva..36 28." Alii Accad Sci.. 1981). pp. 35." Modeling and Scientific Computing. and Delaminations in Thick Composite Laminates. The equilibrium model. Narosa Publishing House. "The Effects of Kinematic Assumptions on Computed Strain Energy Release Rates for Delaminated Composite Plates. Finite Element Analysis of Composite Laminates 32. Krishna Murty (eds. "On Refined Theories of Composite pp. N. the Levy solutions).. Ren.ite. 33. [\. J. 1·37 (Nov. 36.. where all governing equations are expressed in terms oC the displacements [see. Krishna Murty. . Among the three types oC models."A New Theory of Laminated nologv." Compo. pp. 7 (6).4-29»).. and Reddy. 15 (12). Re." Journal Indu. pp. Reddy. Among the numerical methods available for the solution of differential equations defined over arbitrary domains.4-26)-(2. N. J. J. 1984). "A I1igher Order Theory for Free Vibration of Orthotropic. N. are based on the principle of virtual forces. There are several types of finite element models developed for plate theories. J. 173-180 (1987). but they too are limited to simple geometries because oC the difficulty in eonstructing the approximation fundions for complicated geometries. Schmidt. "Higher Order Theory for Vibration AIAA Journal. "An Improved Transverse Shear Deformation Theory for Laminated Anisotropic Plates. V. Robbins. for example. 51. 0' Theory of Plates with Transverse Shear Mathemalic. P. J... Meccanica. Blacksburg.2. "On the Modeling of Free-Edge Stress Field. H. 1903. the displacement finite element models are most natural and commonly used in core-nercial finite element programs. the Navier solutione] or with two opposite edges simply supported and the remaining edges having arbitrary boundary conditions (i.." Research Report No. 27 (1). 343-350 of Laminated Chapter 3 31." Communication" in Applied Numerical Method.. (ii) mixed and hybrid models. in Engineering. The mixed and hybrid finite element models are based on modified or mixed variational statements of the plate theories.e.. "Modeling of Thick Composites Using a Layer-Wise Laminate Theory.pace Application. (2. N. 25. 3. 26 (3). New Delhi (1992). 195-198 (Mar. 279-295 (1984). the finite element method i.. the most effective method.earch Communication. pp.4) of arbitrary geometries and boundary conditions cannot be solved in closed form." Mechanic. VA. in which both displacements and stresses are independently approximated. Eqs. pp.e. 37. and (iii) equilibrium models.lrial (1977). 1991. 39. of Elastic (1980). Analytical solutions oC plate theories are available (see Reddy [1-5]) mostly for rectangular plates with all edges simply supported (i. 225-239 (1986). 5. CCMS-91-10. R... 118. Societv. TodaV.. 37 34. pp. K. Robbins. 0' 3. The displacement finite element models of plate theories are based on the principles of virtual displacements.ite Structure.. Plate. and Laminated Rectangular Plates. 1823-1824 (1977). 38. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 40. Homogeneous. "Generalization of Two-Dimensional Theories of Laminated Composite Plates. M. Seide. and Reddy. 23-38 of Thick Plates. "An Accurate. D. in press. pp." Journal Applied Mechanic. V. H. Reddy. G. M. A brieC introduction to the finite element method is presented in Section 3. Laminates.1 Introduction The partial differential equations governing composite laminates (see Section 2. 30. D." in Compo. pp. A. L. Dhimaraddi. "An Improved Approximate Theory for the Bending Plates.." Science and Tech." 29. and Stevens. J. Robbins. M. A." NASA Technical Paper. The use of numerical methods facilitates the solution oC these equations for problems of practical importance. Simple Theory of the Statics and Dynamics Plates. also to appear in: International Journal for Numerical Method. "A Refined Nonlinear Deformation. Levinson. Torino. These can be grouped into three major categories: (i) displacement models.. 451-466 (1980). 230·238 (1990). and Reddy. V. Reddy and A.. pp. "A Refined Transverse Shear Defor-mation Theory for Multilayered Anisotropic Plates.)..

a geometrically complicated domain i. Over each finite element. and (ii) the representation of the solution u by equations of the form (3. tions for . The generation of approximation functions is made convenient by dividing the domain into finite elements and restricting the choice to polynomials. In the finite element method.. of Compo"te Ltlminatu 39 The objective of this chapter is to review the basic idea of the finite element method and develop the displacement finite element models of the classical laminated plate theory (CLPT) and the first-order shear deformation plate theory (FSDT).e. The subdivision of a domain into elements is termed finite element di>cretizalion.. and We can write u(:r:) '" U. the finite element mesh is an approximation to 'the domain. The collection of the clements is called the finite element m •• h of the domain. we identify the approximation Iunc- Apart from the two basic features.6. II) over each element by linear polynomials of the form (see Reddy [2. In general. at element interfaces. depending on the variational method used to satisfy the governing equation.. 3..) at element interlaces (i. (i) the discretization of a domain into a Bet of finite elements. the solution of the governing equations is approximated by a linear combination of undetermined parameters and preselected approximation functions. there can be several different finite element model.Analy.2 The finite element method of the finite element method (see Reddy [2. tions for the nodal value.. see Reddy [2.. its physical properties and initial and boundary conditions.I) (3.(x) = ..("') (3. of the function being sought. or material region over which the governing equations are to be solved. Since the domain is divided into" sel of elements. Since the solution is represented by polynomials on each element. Therefore. of a given equation.2-2 Modeling considerations Finite element analysis of a structural problem is a numerical analysis of the mathematical model used to represent the behavior of the structure. While there i.(.7])." .. It is this feature that gave the finite element method such remarkable success in the modeling and simulation of practical engineering problems.ppropriate interpolation n polynomials.2 . almost always polynomials. the method of Rayleigh-Ritz. so systematic that it can be divided into a set of logical steps that can be implemented on a digital computer and can be used to solve a wide range of problems by merely changing the data input defining Ihe domain. The finite element analysis of a problem i. and "'i(z) are the interpolation function •• For example.. by interpolating).=1 L UN.I) in Iwodimensional problems using triangular finite elements consists of representing the domain with triangular elements and then approximating the function u(z. represents the finite element interpolant of u on a typical element 0'.2-1 Basic features The finite element method is the most powerful numerical technique ever devised for solving solid and structural mechanics problems in geometrically complicated regions. collocation.6]) u. +b. only one finite element method.n equivalent form. represented as a collection of sub domains that allow an easy construction of the approximation functions. and possibly its derivatives.. emblv of elements. given differential equation is recast in .. the finite element method is a general numerical method in which . called finite element.+cy= 3 . over each element and the parameters are determined such that the variational statement is satisfied in each element.6)).g. emb1v of elements).tions i. Uj is the value of U... The number of equ .2) 1.. which were discussed in Chapter 2. fnnction u(z. The satisfaction of the variational statement leads to a set of algebraic relations among the parameters Uj of an element. practical only if the calculations are carried on a computer. equal to the number of unknown nodal value •. The procedure of putting the elements together is called the a. The finite element method typically entails the solntion of a very large number of equ . The finite element models are then used to analyze several laminate problems. they are put together into their original positions using continuity of U.e.. The finite element other method shares: technique is endowed with two distinct features that no where U.2-1). called a weighted-integral or variational statement. By representing the solution in terms of its values at the nodes of the element (i..I'.2 -1) 3. n element as . the linear finite element approximation of ... suhdomain. finite element modeling involves assumptions concerning the representation of the . a continuous approximation of the solution of the whole can be obtained only by imposing the continuity of the finite element solution.. . Thus the method requires so much computation that it i.=1 LUNi(z.. The word domain is used to denote the physical system. U1 The finite element method can be regarded as a technique of generating approximation functions for variational methods of approximation (e. The domain of the problem is viewed as a collection of nonintersecting simple subdomains. 2. and so on. least squares. at the j-th node. Galerkin. We begin with the discussion 3.

and may consist of one or more orders and types of elements (e. Here we discuss several aspects of finite element model development. This type of refinement (a) The h-refinement co.2-1 The two types of mesh refinemenls in finite element analysis. ion me. An analyst with physical insight into the process being simulated can make a better choice of elements and mesh for the problem at hand than one who does not ha.._-l -lI 2. If the plate element is based on the classical plate theory.h refinemenl. linear and quadratic. When a plane elasticity element js connected to a beam element. especially in regions of large gradients. and evaluate the results thus obtained in the light of physical understanding and approximate analytical and/or experimental information. exploit symmetries available in the problem.2-1b).. ratio of the smallest side to the largest side of an element). 3. few elements] or refined (i. Within the above the physical insight... Refine the mesh by replacing existing elements by elements of higher order (see Figure 3. _L ~_ 1 1.e. problemdependent. A good knowledge oC the basic equations governing the deformation oC the structure and its finite element model enable the development of a good mathematical model of the actual process.e. and load representations are given (from Reddy 16]). It should be noted Ihat the choice of elements and mesh i.g. This is called the h-ver. A judicious choice of element order and type could save computational cost for a given accuracy in the results. mesh refinements. The h.-:- 1 I . the mesh used can be [i. Mesh refinemenls involve several oplions. and the degrees of freedom oC the connected elements are incompatible {because . p-refinement (refinement with higher-order elements).. p-ve in which elements are subdivided into two or more replaced by higher-order elements in other places. linear elements or quadratic elements) is easy because elements of the same degree are compatible with each other.2-1a). The mesh should nol con lain elements with very large aspect ratios (i.. These results can be used to guide subsequent mesh refinements and analyses. (a) h-refinement {refinement with the Same order of elements}. The mesh should be such thai large gradients in the solution (displacements and/or stresses) are adequalely represented. For example... One should start with a coarse mesh that meets Ihe three requirements listed above. local mesh refinenot placed adjacent to very I I _L 1--1"'---1-.h refinement is one elements in some place.e. There are many problems in solid and structural mechanics in which it is necessary to combine elements of different kind s. .ion m es h refinement. and Generally. Valid assumptions can be made only if one has a qualitative understanding of how the structure behaves..-r-- 1 I I- +. menla should be such that very small elements are large elements.. Generation of meshes of single element type (i.e.. Melli generation Generation of a finite element mesh of a given structure guidelines listed below: should follow the is called the p-ve . Reline the mesh by subdividing existing elements into two or more elements of the same type (see Figure 3. Guidelines concerning element geometries. ion me. What works well for one problem may nol work well for another. of freedom at the connecting nodes. (6) The p-refinement Figure 3. triangular and quadrilaleral). domain and Lf-t'~ I -l.. 2-D plate bending elements can be connected 10 a I-D beam element. the beam element should be one based on the EulerBernoulli beam theory so that they have the same degree.. many elements). The mesh should represent the geometry of the computational load representation accurately.40 41 geometry of the structure and its behavior..

1 the rotational degree of freedom of Ihe beam element has no counterpart in the elasticity element). Such element. Neither combination enforces Interelement continuity of the solution. one must construct a special element that makes the transition from the 2·-D plane elasticity element to the 1--D beam element. and (b) mesh refinemenl with trensitjon elements. mesh refinements by h-venion or p-version will improve the representation of Ihe specified bo~ndary force.traud Value lit I :1 : conditioru: I J and J (a) Figure 3. i. This is done in such a way that Ihe work done by the nodal forces on the finite elemenl nodal displacements is equal to tbe work done by the distributed force in moving through the displacement. replaced by a . (b) Use o( constraint conditions.)."!Ih compatible elements.2-2 Connections between different order elements. Use of linear elements. O( course.ilion elemenl. distributed force should not be evaluated using four-node linear elements. When the displacement of the body is modeled by a set of finite e1emenls. Also.42 4. (al Use of transition elements.2-2b). The accuracy of the solution depends on Ihe elemenl Iype and mesh used to represent the domain and the represenlation of actual forces. Figure 3. for example. (a) Mesh re~nemenl . The other way is to impose a condition that constrains the midside node to have Ihe same value as that at the node of the lower-order element (see Figure 3./ <.2-3 Node t = Average 0/ the valuel of Nodel Examples of local mesh refinements. say linear and quadratic elements.el of nodal forcee. if the solution is approximated using Ihe nine-node quadratic elements.2-3 shows a few examples oC such refinements.2-2 . the force dislribution must be modeled also.2-4). Ihe nodal contributions of a.. To accomplish local mesh refinements it may be necessary to combine elements of different orders. Figure 3. (6) Load reprelfnlalion Suppose that a solid body is subject to a distributive force on its boundary.. Element (a) 1+1+ 1+1+ (b) Con. are called !ran. One way is to use transition elements which have different number of nodes on different sides of the element (see Figure 3._ 3 2 \ Linear I Element TranJitlon 1 / !Quadrahc Element !\/ f-H+ H-H.. There are two ways to combine elements of different orders. For example. . to represent a curved boundary will change the actual distribution (see Figure 3.e. Ihe load vector due to distributed force should be computed usmg the interpolation (unctions of the element used 10 represent the solution.

Obviously. As a general rule. Since most practical problems are approximated in their engineering formulations. Of course.e.4-4. When a choice is made between the two values. the larger value is recommended. Another type of singularity one encounters in the analysis of boundary-value problems i. a solid plate in contact with a circular disc generates a reactive force that can be represented either as a point load or as a locally distributed force. one must note that the true boundary condition is replaced by an approximate condition. both the force and displacement degrees of frcedom may be specified.ingular points and disregard the force boundary condition. displacement) boundary condition at the . In the finite element analysis.4-2. Figure 3.4-19)-(2.3 Classical 3. Ns) and (Mb M2. (2.. The closene •• of the approximate boundary condition to the Irue one depends on the size of the clement containing the point. one cannot impose both boundary conditions at the same point. In other words. Impo. In summary.3 -lb) (3.3-1 laminated plate theory Governing equations Another situation where a boundary force is subject to different types of approximations is contact between two bodies. A sine distribution might be more realistic representation of the actual force. one should not be overly concerned with the numerical accuracy of the solution. one must make a choice between Ihe two values or take a weighted average of the two. at a few nodal points of the mesh.3 -la) 0/ boundary condition. of the classical laminated plate theory are [see Eq •.44 45 pose the geometric (i. and the governing equations of motion were derived in Section 2. Representation of the contact force between deformable bodies as a point load is an approximation of the true distribution.. For example. A feel for the relative proportions and directions of various errors introduced into the analysis helps the finite element practitioner to make a decision on when to stop refining a mesh. the equilibrium equation. For static case. In any case. N2. scientific (or engineering) knowledge and practical experience with a given class of problems is an essential part of any approximate analysis. one should im- (3. of specified boundary forces in the finite element 3.2-4 Representatiun analysis.4-21)J: (3. Such points are called 8ingular point3.3-Ie) where (N. the specification of two different values of a displacement or force variable al the same boundary point. It is often necessary to make a mesh refinement in the vidnity of the singular point to obtain an acceptable solution.) are force and moment resultants defined .4-15) and (2.ition The classical laminated plale Iheory is an extension of the Kirchhoff plate theory of Ihin isotropic plates 10 laminated plates. if the true situation in a problem is that the force boundary conditions are imposed and the geomelric boundary conditions are a result of ii. as it represents the more conservative choice. M. The assumptions of the Kirchhoff plate theory were discussed in Section 2. In most problems one encounters situations where the portion of the boundaryan which forces are specified has points in common with the portion of the boundary on which the displacements are specified. then consideration musl be given to the former one.

ile EI . the weight Cunctions for the three equations have the meaning of virtual variations (6u. (2. This is necessary in order to derive a set of linearly independent algebraic relations among the nodal displacements and forces. y..3-1) correspond to equilibrium of forces in the three coordinate directions.. A. account for the nonlinear expression N(w) in Eq.) are the direction cosines of the unit normal on the boundary I" of the element domain We note that the expression in the parenthesis of the boundary integral denotes the inplane normal force n·.3 .3 . Since the statement holds Corany arbitrary choice of the weight function. (2. by using integration-by-parts (or the gradient theorem): where (n. Here we develop the finite element model of Eqs.i. (3. and (2) the approximation of the displacements. (z. . the weak form or Eq. in Eqs.3!! Lcminate.. (3. weaker continuity) of the dependent the original differential equations (3. Wed Form The principle of virtual displacements (see Reddy [2]) naturally gives the weak form of the differential equations in (3. using ideas from the interpolation theory.-+N.6vd.Ns 86v N2) dxdy _ f N.3-1a). one can choose a. To reduce the differentiability of the interpolation functions used in the finite element approximation of u. 6w)..!:.2b) The equations of equilibrium can be expressed in terms of the displacements (u.. Alternatively. v. Each equation is multiplied by an appropriate weight function and integrated over a typical element. Multiply and integrate over the element domain fl' : it with a weight Cunction 6. and N.3-1) can be constructed as described here. and w. n.4-26)-(2. (3.3-1).e. Following the same procedure following weak Corms. The time-dependent ease will also be discussed in the sequel.2-1). and derivation of the algebraic equations among the nodal displacements and forces using the weighted-integral statements. These two steps are discussed in detail in the following paragraphs. Consider the first equation in (3.. functions for the weight function as there are Recall that N. Hence. v and w. The three equations in (3. we return to the nonlinear case [i.. and Ns are functions of the derivatives of the displacement. is traded to the weight function 6.{I:: {I:: 8W) 8y 8 +8y (8w N.8:: Ow) 8y nodal values in the expansion of the displacement component associated with the equation.4-17) and N(w) is nonlinear expression defined in Eq. linearly independent... u.3-1) and develop the finite element model of the linear equations. 0/ Compo. + 8y Jr' (3.v. (3.3-4) is called the weak form of Eq....4-16): (3.24) N(w) = -8 (8W N. The weighted. the differentiation on N. assuming that the force and moment resultants are known in terms of the displacements.3-la) differentiability (i. o~ f Jo• {)" (i!!.3-3) become. Hence.3 .. In the first step. (3. Once the linear model is discussed. (2. called the weak form. Both approaches give exactly the same weighted-integral statement.3-1b) because it requires less variables (u. 46 47 Fi. the dependent variables are approximated by appropriate finite clement interpolations of the form (3. integral form. (3. the differential equations to be solved are recast in a weighted.4) Equation (3.3-1)J and derive the nonlinear finite element model.3-2 Finite element model 0= 1[ n' {IN. and they are substituted into the weak form of the equations to obtain the algebraic relations among the nodal values of the displacements and forces. (3. ---{Ix 8Ne] dxdy 8y (3.5) . (3.3) The development of the finite element model of the equations follows two basic steps: (1) the construction of weighted-integral statements of the equations. 3.w) than we obtain the and (3. 6u. respectively.3-Ie).e.3-1). In the second step.4-28)J. For simplicity of exposition.3 .2-1). The weight function has the meaning of a virlual variation in the displacement component..ARc/y. we omit the nonlinear term N(w) in the third equation of (3. 6.-+N.. for Eqs.w) [see Eqs. z).v. using the laminate constitutive equations.integral statement can be derived either directly from the governing equations or from the principle of virtual displacements. Eq.r.a many different.

y)..3-1) i. is not included in the interpolation.3-7) for (". These equations can be expressed in the form.. - L L Ki.q. (3.3-4)(3. the i-th algebraic equation of each weak form.3-1 (taken from Table 7.9a) (3. respec- This choice of interpolation of (n.3-6). The displacements of the form. For linear Lagrange interpolation of (u. the resulting element violates the inter element continuity of the slope of the transverse displacement.2.. obtained by substituting expressions (3... and 6" ".. as indicated in Figure 3..3-6).. w) are approximated over an element by interpolations U = L 1£jvlj(x.3. Hence..and m = 16. . whereas the nonconforming element has a total of five degrees of freedom per node. it can be concluded that vi.. (1£.=1 3 ...(x.y) (3. .v) and Cl_ interpolation of ware required to develop a plate bending element of the classical plate theory when using the weak forms in Eqs. where 6v and 6w are the virtual variations of the displacements tively.' Oy' Ow and 82w /JxDy (3. of freedom per element.=1 L c.96) 10. n(l) 8..9 of Reddy [7]. are associated with the element 0'. = 1.2.) denote the nodal values of (". and therefore such elements are called conforming elemenu.3 -lOa) or [K'IW} where a -. (3.3 . and Hermite interpolation funelions are presented in Table 3. N2) em Based on the order of differentiation in Eqs. oil /3 t. + ~. it i. If the mixed derivative.(/l) Ff = 0.i into Eqs.y) j=) ..7J).v. w) guarantees continuity of (n.6v = vi. and 6w q. Clearly.' N. (3. (3.n(a) (3..w.. The conforming element has a total of six degrees of freedom per node. o = 10. where m > 0 is the order of the derivatives included in the interpolation.3 -7) Here (1£. also lee Reddy [6)).v) and c. .p. . The Hermite interpolation functions for the conforming plate element are obtained hy taking the tensor product of the Hermite cubic polynomials associated with the Euler-Bernoulli beam element (see [6)). 40. denote the nodal values of wand its derivatives. called generalizrd di'pI4cement. v = L Vjvlj(x. The Lagrange interpolation is one in which only the function is interpolated..lOb) and stiffne. (see [6. The finite elements developed using the Lagrange type interpolation are called CO elements.3-4)-(3. whereas the Hermite interpolation is one in which the function and its derivatives are interpolated.3 -8) coefficients Kf/ = n(2) = 4 and n(3) = 16. CO-interpolation of (".3 .3-6). There are two basic types of interpolation functions that are used in finite element analyses..3 . are the Lagrange interpolation functions and q.10).v. This give. /3=1. and fini te elements developed using Hermite type interpolation are called elements. ~. The variablesl1f are defined by .~) at the interface of elements. 0= (:is.. The finite element model of Eqs.3 4)-(3.11.3-1.d. (:.. We obtain... + 0:. we have n :. termed a nonconforming elemenl.v) and Hermite cubic interpolation of w using four-node rectangular clements.{F'} = {O} (3. All nodal displacements and rotations..) Ns dxdy dxdy - fro Nnvlid• fro Nn.i are the Hermite interpolation function.s = 1.. (3. There are a total of (2n + m) nodal degree.=1 m W~ .AAdl"iI 0/ CompoJite Laminate" 48 49 The Lagrange interpolation Iuncfiona "'. Inlerpolalion and finite element model v and w. In this case 4 the four nodal values associated with ware: Ow 10. = = .

.(l + Il'Itt'rpoIatJoa raJldtoes !(l'" .(I .. Quadratic ~...n • If(~o IJ.0+ + i".)l("".2) + '1'1.~) ...4) (ar and ~ are the si&:~ or 1M rectangular ekrncnt) -x. SI (3.)(1-.v... . . •. II Side nude.(~+ ~Y(n.. t(1 .v._.=(y-y. . (u.('.2) I) For node i(i= 1•. ".11. "'1.... . 'I.-:)(1_..(" + ~.11) and ------La3faoge eiemenrs: Linear Quadratic EIe .'..) 1(1+ ~i..0 Table 3. t.J"IJ.) are the global coordinates of the center of the element)..f(""..}(I ~'11/.)(1. .) Nodei(. (b) Conforming element ~i.. -t "')~("'" "..:::1. ) KIa = .(~u.1)(1J1O+ ~=(x l~... ~Yw. m 0 Hermite cubic dt'mt'l1l: Interpolallon f\lpCtiOM for \lariable II derwanve dt'nvntive defivallve aulae aula" a u/aE a" 1 i\<! . ~...1)("11 + 1)(2 + 1..)(l.1) Scrcdl(Mty clement.1)'1.~2 . (a) Nonconforming element (u.-1) Corner nude Side ncoe.. -2)".)(I-. ~II=H 'Jnw"".".4) Inlerpolahon functions variable II dematl~ all/aE. (or !(~.w..)'(~~I ..'/Jy'N (a.0 tnlerior nude :0 ~(I" . ~. ~).w.(I·n:.(.rt/.. .II ~ "'1.-1) - .1)('10+ I) 1)~("tI....pi a /J. 2)(rl + IJ. -I'+-"I'''Y ua) d d (1_ .fC'1'1.3-1 The Lagrange and Hermite interpolation functions for the plate bending elements «({i.3 . t). It.. . .' I. derivative '.~... and (x"y...)(l + . ~.. (3.~~) !~~. "" 0 Side noOC.2) -T'~..)/h For node .n.(.p.)/.3-1 Plate bending elements of the classical plate theory.. " frn.{~ -'-h(~ I ~y(~~./J.1)(7/ + 1J.') !~~. Cd denote the coordinates of the i-th node oC the element.~~)(I t 17"..1)1 .) Comer node Stdc node.3 -12) Figure 3...

.3-14) require evaluation of integrals over each element domain.4 -ld. (2.e. assuming that all resultants are functions of spatial coordinates only) in Eq.4-13)J are to be included in the finite element model.y).4 . Then the displacement and force boundary conditions of the problem are imposed on the assembled system of equations and the equations are solved for nodal displacements of the total mesh. (3. the same as that used for the classical laminated plate theory in Section 3. 'I'his completes the development laminated plate theory. (at/>. The additional stiffness coefficients for the nonlinear model are: .) + 8q.... The strain.y..tions methods.) dxdy dxdy (3.. exact evaluation of the integrals by conventional methods is not possible.Ie) (3. -Ij) 8y dd X y. (2.6) (3. _ (8N6 3.Nsj + 8y N2j 8t/. (8tP.) (3.4 . except that the resulting algebraic equations (3. which will be discussed in Section 3. (2. the procedure discussed above does not change.4-5) can be used to determine the total displacements at a point (".y. such integrals are evaluated using numerical integra..3 -13) where K~~ = I [8q. and their derivatives are computed using their values from the previous iteration. the expressions involving the dependent variable..3 -156) The nonlinear algebraic equations of the nonlinear model are solved by iterative methods.3-3 Nonlinear model 8" + 8N2) = 0 ay (3..3 -14) All other coefficients are zero.j)] 'J In.2. z).(8-Q1 + {j. 0. (2.52 Fi"ite Elemen.3. the displacement finite element models of the first-order shear deformation theory are presented.. N + 81/.t Aul. K30 'j = 2Ko3 j.y.j + Ns 8q. 8y 0. 8. 1I K'j23 = 2 In.6) (3. In iterative methods.5-2.. so that the integrals can be evaluated (by numerical integration methods).e.. 8Q2 -+N(w)+q 8y ) =0 . The procedure used i..j = 1I 21n.j + N2 8q.4 First-order 3.3-12)-(3.1. and balance of nodal forces. The equilibrium equations of the first-order theory are obtained by omitting the time-derivative terms (i..N 13 K.z:.. (Nl aq.1V1. We will discuss numerical evaluation of iutegruls in Section 3.4-1 Governing shear deformation theory equations Equations (3.. 8" 8y 8y 8" 8y (0 = 1. Additional discussion of the strain and stre •• computation in finite element analyses is given in Section 3. In finite element computer programs.3 -15 . The computation of the coefficients in Eq. When the element geometry is nonrectangular or the integrands are complicated functions of the coordinates (z:. . 3. a.3-7) can be used to determine displacements d any arbitrary point (".3-10) will be nonlinear.. (2. of the finite element model of the classical 1 Nr = 2An • (8W) 8" 2 1 + 2An (aw) 8y 2 + Al6 8" 8waw 8y (I = 1.5-6): _ (8N1 + 8Na) = 8.3·10) of an element are assembled by using the interelement continuity of the nodal displacement. First we conaider the static equilibrium equations of the theory.O).6) (3. Equations (3.z) can be computed using the displacement field and they can be transformed to lamina coordinates using the transformation in Eq.4-12) and stresses in the global [i. and the displacement field in Eq.5-1.3-3).5-3.) If the von Karman nonlinear strains [see Eq. (N6 8q. I In this section. problem) coordinates (.2.

= • L"j1Pi(:e.5) (3.= .311) 0= 0= -N. J. (3.4-2) for (u.6 &te given by (3.p.tituting Eq s.p.)..y) </>..= . the plate bending element of the first-order plate theory is a CO element. One call use linear.d.Anal. dxdy 1 N« •.. (3. i: S].=1 a K'a = In.Na)d Tz xy d LVj1Pi(:e. ay dxdy - ( -QI £o~8xa. quadratic.y). r- (3.4 .. the fourth by 6</>1. + -a y At.. "Ii [J. .p.q ) -ay + EN' M..) -N. 8.p.y) (3. D.{F'} = {O} are defined by (a = 1.4 ... . .4>"</>2) element model of the first-order theory.4-2 Finite element model Sub. (8tP. For the linear case.3d) (3..y). + W. Thus.VtW'~11~2) are approximated as. f {J".Q.Qa) dxd Y '8y' J dxd where .</>.3.p.4a) We note that the force and moment resultants contain. domain ne is given by. . .. the third by 6w. L LKij /I=lj=1 into Eq.. and Q1i for a = 1.p. + BY 2. + t/I.=1 n KIa .n' (8tP. a.2.d.MS· . r1 M•• .3c) (3. ..36) (3. they can all be approximated using the Lagrange interpolation functions. 3. . = j=1 </>1 = j~l i: SJ.Q.</>..4-5) The coefficients N.2. ) dxdy 0= 0= dxdy ( £oe8z-M..5) (3.QI) -8 y at/l.M2i + . K. Y (3. a +. £n·{J.!... The displacement. + t/I.(6) where the stiffness and force coefficient.4-1) can be obtained in the same manner as described for the classical laminated plate theory. (a = 1. the second by 6v.+8y Ii [J. j=1 n ..2. we obtain the finite fJ fJ l!. and the fifth by 6</>2.p..pi are Lagrange family of interpolation functions. at the most.w. M.4-1) over a typical f (8tP.pj(".!.m D/ Compo6ite Laminatu 54 55 The weak forms of Eqs.4 .f (8tP.. or [K']{l!.Na1.• Qa) 8z BY a ¥'.p.4 . Once again we use integration-by-parts to trade differentiation from the resultants to the weight functions to obtain the weak forms.Masj + Ot/l. + at/l.N ) Sa dd XY dd X W= L Wj'lPj(". -Ff = 0. element f Kia = In.p..4 ...4-3).=In.4 .) .'} . the weak form of Eqs.2..d.4 . Therefore. or higher-order interpolation functions.5 and 1= 1. y (3.i = In. .< I' (8.. (3.j (a.4 .v.p.Ma1'+8tP. (u. multiplied by 6".pj(Z. r1 Mnt/l. 2.y) ..2) K4a . r1 Qn. 1 (--'-MI o' f)z + a.p.d.QaIj Tz + [J. only the first derivatives of the dependent variables (u..p.. 5.w.. The first equation i.Qa) 8y 2.

1/.I).I)J each can be represented RS IL product of a function of time 1 and a function ot coordinates (e.y) ft . which are then further approximated to obtain algebr'.(t).c equation. and for the nine.y) ...node rectangular element is used. .4-1). In developing the finite element equations.~.p.y.(t). In developing the finite clement models (3. it i. 80/>. = BI28"'..3-10) and (3.node element they are 45 X 45 (see Figure 3.(z. tization. + u/iii' Bo/>. 3.4-5)-(3. This leads to a set of ordinary differential equations in time.p.I}." = E v.4 .6.1I) are omitted (for the uncoupled case). 80/>. and the equations are solved for the nodal values of the displacements..4-28) and (2.s 0. For the dynamic case. using numerical integration methods (see Section 3.y..=1 i: S](t). 4 = DII 0.ite MI Laminatu 56 57 I.. the element stiffness matrices are of the order 20 X 20. w.4--4) of the classical and first-order shear theories. the nonlinear coefficients in Eqs.w(."I/.5-2. in general.3-15) arc also valid for the first-order shear deformation theory.62 = j=) i: 8. Once the finite element equations of all elements are available. 1. 8y + BI•·8z &.(z. the stiffness matrices will be of orders 12 X 12 and 27 x 27 for the linear and quadratic rectangular elements.. of the generalized displacements are now treated as funetions of lime I.~(". for the nodal values at a fixed time. The approximation of the time derivatives is known . When the Iour.v(z. respectively (see 11..4-1 The (jl plate bending elements of the first-order shear deform . we considered only the slatic case. = B 8". In fact.5-1).tP"tP.(Z.8) n where the nodal value.y.8-13]).w.6) The geometric nonlinearity (in the von Karman sense) can be included in the lame manner as was done for the classical laminate theory.=1 1..4-2) can be used to determine the displacements.t). . [u(z. II. (3.(z. as discussed in more detail in Section 3.. (3. we first approximate the spatial variation of (u.tU 0/ Compo. If the inplane degrees of freedom (u. MI'· I 5 1.• tion plate theory. = . + D16 /iii 80/>.I). (3.w = E w..62) for an arbitrarily fixed lime t > o.II) ft .(I)o/>. 1/): U = E .~1 . Figure 3.).Anc'l'. B &. called the . and stresses at any point inside the element e.1/) (3.5-12)(2. of freedom: (u. ' M = DW8i/ + D.4-7) are evaluated. 9'J1o 1. often assumed that the variable. they are put together by using the continuity of the nodal displacements and the balance of nodal forces. II 0. Equations (3. Each node has the following degree.4 .5-16) to develop the finite element model •. The coefficients in Eq. This step i.. M..tPl(Z. strains..emidi..4-26)-(2.v.l/) ft .. we should consider the equations of motion (2.4-3 The dynarnle case All other coefficients are zero. For time dependent problem. Then the boundary conditions on displacements and/or forces are applied on the assembled system of equations.(I}"i(Z..

matrix whose coefficients are given below: (3.5-12)-(2.• to determine the value of inplane compressive Coree at which the plate buckles). (BVi BV.4 -13) For buckling analysis (i . where 61 is the time step.5-12)-(2. (3. given by (3.I I ¥-'I •. (3. the ratio oC actual buckling load to the Equation (3.tiffne.4-9) takes the form oC an eigenvalue problem. + BV. we assume periodic motion and replace the acceleration vector by.4--13) with the stability matrix [SO] and. . matrix and F' is the force vector in Eq.•.10' I [N 81/J.tcrdizalion ("alial These two stages oC approximation are discussed Then Eq.4-9) should be represented in term. the solution vectors {~} and {. in time for (Uj. and [M'] is the mas. "ima! of 5n ordina. M. the .~I = In. I 8" 7h 2 8y 8ii + N.11) Temp01'II1 (lime) app. in this case represents applied inplane forces.4 .tiffness) matrix [S'J i.44b).5-16) in a.ry differential equation. in O' for t:> 0 (3.4. (3.~2= 0. (2. {A} to sero and obtain the problem [see Eq. [see Figure 3.. For the first order theory. + N BV.12) = (.-9) can be reduced to appropriate form depending on the type of analysis. In the Newmark integration scheme.Vj. The atability matrix eomes from the geometric nonlinearity oC Eq. (3.1 ¥'J Z d Y.9) where [K'] is the element . oC the solution itself to obtain algebraic equations relating the solution {~} at time (I + 61) to the solution at lime t. ij s" (3. (3. ) [oj M14 . + .•I"d ii M22 = Mll M23 = 0 ij ij. For natural vibration problems.. 7iii 8y 7h .re approximated by the expressiona..lOa) [OJ and [see the right-hand sides of Eqs. Semidi. M. [OJ [0] [0] [OJ [OJ [0] [0] [0] (3. we replace the masa matrix in Eq.4 . (3.} at time 1 1)61 a. the time derivativea oC the solution in Eq.81/1.5-16)] [5'] = [0] [0] M..1/1.Wj.4 . below.5-14): Substitution of Eq.4 -14) where (NI• N2.2 with the buckling load ~. ij M21 = 0.6..1/1.Jn~ 1 .4-4)].4 -15b) The eigenvalue ). approzima'ion) results (3.4-8) into the weak form of Eq •.4 -lOb) ii . Ns) are applied inplane force. (3.4 -16) [K']{~'} = {F'}. (2.4 -15 . For static analysis.4-2).)] d d • 0..BV.. (2. II (3.Sj.01/1.4 .. (3.tability (or geometric . we set Ihe acceleration vector..58 59 as the temporal approzimaiion.n For the transient response.d"dy . I. (3. . where t [OJ [OJ ·lIm.~3= 0 • MIl = O.SJ): [K·]{~'} + [M'){A'} = {F'} .

.21) where "'max denotes maximum natural frequency of the structure being analyzed. and "( are parameters that control the accuracy and stability of the scheme.tatic anaIysi.t and second derivatives of {. and the subscript. Such schemes are called condilionall. (3.+1' Thil procedure il repealed unlil for any lime steps. error can grow from one time step to the next. (3.4 -19) = n6t. for an element (see Reddy [6]). as we solve Eq. (3. {A}. obtained with the same finite element mesh .) -II{{A}. Since Eqs.tability of the Newmark scheme depends on the choice of the values for a and "(. Only when a = "(= 1/2.}..+IJ _ (61)' -2(3. . and '" = (1 . Thi. indicates that the vectors are evaluated at th •• -th tim. (3..o. {il}. oj Compo. If the error is bounded for all tim . -1I5{li}.+.) (3. the initial conditions on {.rion i.+1 = (. and I](J'+1 = IKJ. Eq. we then take {6}o = {OJ.(t)} and {A(t)} are used to compute {il}o and {Alc for each elemenl of the entire mesh.4 . where.o. the seheme is .+I + a31MJHb + adA}.1 t = 0 : (3.4-2 A rectangular plate and shear forces. the time incremenl 61 must be chosen such that the following . Tbus... at time. a..4-17) represent approximeficns of the actual solution vector.. + as{li}. 60 61 + 1(1 - a){6.fora~2'i'<a 1 (3.. valid for an element. {A}Hl where "I = {A}.51 + 1(1 - _ "(Hil}. Bq. step (i.}. the time step number.4-9) and (3. bounded only if certain restrictions on the time step are met. embled condilions.}HI. we obtain the following algebraic equations (3.4-18b) are carried out for an elemenl.tdilit.o. + a{6. afler imposing the boundary for Ihe solution at lime 1. (3. in- Nole thai dicated in .4-18) represenls a time-marching scheme. and [k'J = {Fe} are as in a . (3.4-180. 61<61er = 1 [2w~ax(a-i') j-i .nd the applied force is assumed 10 be zero al t = 0.+1 . denote.•+! = {F}HI + [MJHI(a3{il}.'a6Ie.m.o. {. . assumed that {F}o = {OJ. {li}'+1 = 113({. error il introduced into the solution {.6t).4 -18a) where {il}HI denot •• the value of {~} at time t ~ (.{. cril. operation. we use ooly either Itable or conditionally . .e. !fthe initial conditionsare eero. The numerical . I = . element with applied inplane compressive Using Eqe.a)6t. For the lint lime step. Ihe fir.A fled. = {A}. number of Eq.20) Often iii. + attli}.aid to be UnlIable.o. such lime-approximalion Ichemea are .4-17).4 .4 .} and {A}... For other choices of these parameters.. 1)61. + lIz{li}. . il the scheme unconditionally liable. that used for the transient analysis. (3.) i.4-18a) for different times.. They are solved.aid to be . For some schemes. !f Ihe error grows unboundedly with time.4 -17) Once the solution {~} is known al lime 1. the error i.. {.}'+IJ6t + "({A}.+1 can be computed from + + {il}.table schemes.tdl e s c".}.} (velocily and accelerations) at 1. met: Figure 3.}o = {OJ.Ji~~LDminllle.+! = {ill.18b) {F} •.o.. Of course.+! Therefore. . + 1)61. (3. The acceleration vector {li}o is computed from Eq.4-9) 0.o.

sary in order to give guidelines for the development of new elements and to allow a more complete analysis of existing elements. the energy due to hansverse shear ... Furtbermore. the shear stiffness matrix must be singular. Numerically this is equivalent to a constraint condition which requires that the product of the shear stiffness matrix and the displacement vector be zero.5-1) amounts to determining the area under the curve G( z). and discrete Kirchhoff methods [24J.4-4 Shear locking The displacement.. require the evaluation of integrals. mOlt commonly used due to the fact that it give. Evaluation of the integral (3. ease of implementation. only a few have been reasonably successful [19-21J.tructures. with the evaluation integral. hybrid formul ..2) to as the where WI (1 = 1. large [i. '7 = 0 (3. Shear locking is due to tbe inability of shear deformable elements to accurately model the curvatures within an element under a state of Zero transverse shearing atrain. then by applying the technique to several popular plate elements based on tbe firat-order tbeory. by .e. known as . th. the reader may consult Reference 16. those with nine or fewer nodes) is not satisfactory when the span-to-thickness ratio of the elements i. For additional details. yidding displacements that are too small compared to the true solution. a function defined in 11:5 " :5 h. the area under the curve is approximated as the weighted sum. (conditionally ( conditionally !. called quadratu"" is employed to evaluate such integrals . One way to achieve the singularity of the shear stiffness matrix is to use an order of numerical integration lower than is necessary to evaluate the integral. poinl4..."mpling point.5-1) wbere G(. For thin plates. Some oC them are listed here: 1. Consider an integral expression of the form. Linear acceleration 3.e.. Recently. for illustrative purposes. are often complicated and the domains on which they are defined are irregular [i. good accuracy with le ..'7 = ~ = f ' '7 = i Q = difference method Q = ~ ... can be integrated exactly. The integrands of these integral. and the plate elements based on the first-order theory become excessively atiff.62 63 The parameters a and '7 in the Newmark time approximation seheme (3. reduced integration of shear atiffnesse.)dz (3.2.tudying the form olthe constraints. G(z)dz • • = WIG("I) +W2G(Z2) + . i. exactly. and computational efficiency. of locking behavior based upon measures of aingularity of the shear stiffness matrix [25.21J. we can determine their performance when used to model thin .26J.e."0" 3.5 . Oonetant-everage 2.he"r locking. or b .. Thi. necessary. number of independent Ihear condraints Imposed on an element in the thin plate limit.4-17) can be chosen to yield several well-known finite difference ecbeeces.N) are celled the weight. those with no derivative.22) "". computational time wben compared to other metbods (see Reddy [6]). and there is still much room for improvement in terms of accuracy.based Co·plate elements (i. Therefore. and other criteria. These :1.) i.e. Numerical integration. is nee . f.trains must vanish. we can gain a more complete understandingoltbe locking behavior of plate elements leading to new insight. . Unfortunately. method i. If tbe form of the shear conatrainto in an element are known. The Gausi-Legendre quadrature i.Ii Computational aspects of element matrice. This type of behavior. In all numerical integration methods. not rectangular).+ wNG("'N) = 1=1 1:U1IG(ZI) N (3. and definitive eonclueions regarding the origin of locking phenomena and the effecls of reduced integration. Averill and Reddy [16J presented a new simple analylicaltecbnique for identifying the exact form of the shear constraints that are impoeed on an element when its aide-to-thickn . in the literature. Central acceleration method method (stable scheme): stable): stable): Q obeervatione led to explanation. The various means employed to alleviate shear locking in plate elements include reduced integration [17-19J. in order to obtain & non-trivial solution. ratio is very large. briefly described here to familiarize the reader with the concept of numerical integration. and "1 are referred .&-1 Evaluation The evaluation of element coefficients. All auch methods seek to find a polynomial approximation of the integrand because polynomial. Thus. for example the stiffness and mass matrices.. tions [22J. of a one dimensional lG(. has plagued shear deformable elements •ince their inception (see (16)). We begin... assumed strain techniques [23J.4 . A better understanding of locking phenomena. When thin plates are modeled by plate finite elements with shear deformation. thin plates). and numerical integration 3. There are several numerical methods of evaluating the integrals. precluding tbe evaluation by analytical mean •. to name only a few. the shearing strains '4 and '5 are required to vanish. the accuracy of the lew-order elements of this type (i. inc1uded as generalized displacements] of the first·order shear deformation plate theory are among the simplest available in the literature. mixed formulations [20. Of the large number of new displacement-based finite elements (or the first-order shear deformation theory.

where G(T) is the transformed JJ (3. not an even number.6) G(r) = G(O:(T»..e.ent Aft4I. point.y)d. not the same as those .) is the natural coordinate .64 65 Fi.)drda = I..4-5). When ~i = .5 . where N x N is the Gau •• quadrature rule used to evaluate the ..trains and stres.dy Jo. then N = to evaluate the integral exactly. which can be approximated = JOM I G(r. JI G(T)dT = -I = wIG(TIl - + w. The Gauss quadrature is given hy The tran. [~l = 3. a 2 X 2 Gaussian quadrature (i.. us to transform integral expr. then N should be equal to the nearest integer value greater than (p + 1)/2.t degree p in r or a. the exact value of the integral when G(.se."ion. The coordinate transfcrmation between :r: and T should be such that the interval (a. termed as the reduced inlegralion. Then the on . (r. in the displacement finite element models.ubparametric formulation. it i.. defined locally in an element.1). involving the global coordinate. . and defined over the element domain O· as those in terms of the local coordinate. on the two sides of the interface.a)drda formula: (3.a) defined over the master element OM: /.... The transformation of an element domain 0' to the square domain OM. of the 2 x 2 Gau •• rule. where (T.e. In order to integrate a polynomial of degree p exactly.s coefficients.tiffne.1) or less. are evaluated in each element by differentiating the displacements (3. the IIrain. " polynomial of highe.. WI are chosen such that the sum of the N appropriately weighted values of the function G(z) yield.y = . the .) .38] showed that the . To numerically evaluate the area integrals that arise in the finite element analysi. .b) is mapped into the interval (-1. The interpolation functions ~.oparametric formulation. such as those found in the element matrices of Eq.. The approximation of the geometry is accomplished. For example..6-2 Computation of . in much the same way as the solution... ZI and the weight. of a problem.•1G(. Since. by interpolating the geometry of the element domain 0': If G(r. and the reduced integration points are called the Barlow point. -1 ~ T ~ 1. called the maIler element. the base point. Barlow [37.+ WNG(TN) - - = ~ VJIG(rJ) ~- I G(". in general.malled integeT greateT than (p+l)/2.) (3.5 . so that the Gauss quadrature can be used.a) ~ 1. This reduced order integration rule i. the formulation is called an i.3-12) and (3. point •.pj used in the approximation oC the dependent variables (i.4-2).) + ..4) where (.. When p + 1 Once the nodal value. have been obtained by solving the assembled equation.J=l E WIWJG(rl"J) (3.n. along a boundary common to two elements.) i... of generalized displacement.. take different value. for a quadratic rectangular element the Barlow point.. The Gauss points and weights can be found in tabular form in any book on numerical analysiB (Bee Reddy [6]).itc Elem.. N 2) exactly integrates a polynomial of third order and 3 x 3 quadrature exactly integrates a polynomial of fifth order..train. the linear rectangular plate bending element of the fil'llt-order theory requires 2 x 2 integration to evaluate the bending otiffne. If m < n. Here.train.. The new coordinate T.. used in the approximation of the geometry are.formation (3. iB called a natural or normalized coordinate. strain continuity aero •• the element boundaries is not ensured.J(T) J(T) is the Jacobian of the transformation and NiB the number of Gau . That is.=1 f Yi~j(T. the solution to the problem].. and hence stre .= j=1 f "i~i(r.4) lIN -I -I G(r."y) are the global coordinates used in the formulation of the finite element equations. the element domains must be transformed to the square domain -1 ~ (T. are at the Gaus.. requires approximation of the geometry.G{r.ystem. and it i.5-4) allow. For example.)d. can be computed at any point in the element.5-5) by the Gauss quadrature (3. m = n). known as a .5 . However. points. and hence stresses are continuous within an element.tre •••• are the most accurate if they are computed at the (N -1) X (N -1) Gaus. only the displacements are continuous aero •• the element boundariea. including the nodes. . exactly.train.point integration (or 1 x 1) should be used to evaluate the &train.. Although the . Before selecting an integration order 1 one must examine each term in the expression Cor the integrand (which includes the Jacobian of the transformaticn} and determine the polynomial order. a brief discussion on the computation of strains and stresses it preaented.5 .train.e.) is a polynomial of degree p = (2N ..3) integrand. (3. Similarly... In the Gauss quadrature..pi (i. and . the number of Gauss points N should be taken as equal to the . and stre .

3-15)]. the solution vector from the previous itention r i. also known as the Pi. (3. computed from the equilibrium equation. (3.86) Note th .3-3. Diree! il. (cr ). (2. Therefore.ose.• r = 0).t iteration i. Thus.5-9) are found to be very accurate. (3.-th iteration. in the direct iteration 8% + {)cr. the failure criteria used in laminate analysis (see Chapter 5) require stresses and strains in the lamina (or principal material) coordinates. constitutive) relations. substituted into Eq.O' .. alter imposing boundary conditions.5-9) with respect to • giv .5-10) to determine .5--11) for the solution. which can b.5-13) or the equilibrium equations of 3-D elasticity. (3. It i. In order to obtain strains and dresses in the material coordinates. Therefore. using the strain transformation equations similar to Eq. At the beginning of the iteration (i . + acr" 0 {6}'+1 = [K({£l}')tl{F} (3. along the principal coordinates of the layer (lamina) as discussed in Section 2...5 .5 -13) {Jcr • • 8z + aa" + {Jy acr. (3.. Eq. we need to transform the strains and stresses to material coordinates associated with each layer.O'. (2..5-5) are transformed to the lamina strain II i. the coefficients Kij (hence K't/) are evaluated using the solution {ll from the previous iteration. Here we discuss two iterative method. Suppose that the assembled nonlinear finite element equations are of the form.5 -Sa) (3.. and the solution at the (. at the Barlow points: The stiffne •• matrix [K) cannot be evaluated because it depend. (3..5 -7a) Note that the element stiffne.5 .4-4) is nonlinear and unsymmetric when the nonlinear (von Karman) atrain. the assembled equations will be nonlinear and unsymmetric. and the solution al (. Differentiation of these values at the Barlow points yields the ..3-12) (or 3..~ + {Jy 8y Ocr.s matrix in Eqs. The assembled nonlinear equations must be solved. = 0 a. For example.•.. used to evaluate the Itiffn ••• matrix. are included [.66 67 Note Ihat the displacements in the finite element models are referred to the global coordinates (". 8cr•• In the direct iteration method.t [QI matrix represents the matrix of material stiffn... by an iterative method. (3. that are commonly used.trains there in the global coordinates. based on our qualitative understanding of the solution behavior... determined by solving the equation [see Reddy [61 and Zienkiewicz and Taylor [39]). which seeks an approximate solution to the algebraic equations by lineariaaticn. referred to the material coordinates. 1) .5 -10) (3. (3.11-3 Solution methods for nonlinear algebraic equations O:}= [ cos' 8 sin28 -2co080in8 sin28 coa28 cos8si08 -cosBsin8 ] 2 co. ~~!:1.5 -11) <8 E5 (3... O. (aee Reddy [2]).3-3): Integration of Eq •. (3.e. on the unknown solution {£l}.ani method. we assume a solution {ll}O.ration melhod (3.5 -12) where {£l}' denotes the solution at .96) (3. + 1)-.) can be computed only through stressstrain (i.. ) can be computed through either the constitutive equations (3. While the Inplane stresses (cr••• crn• cr.5 -76) [K({M)]{£l} = {F} Then the lamina constitutive equations are used to compute the stresses.y •• ). we evaluate [K) using an a •• umed solution vector {£l} and iteratively solve Eq.sin' 8) -oin8j{"} cos 8 r} E2 (3. found that for homogeneous plates and thin laminat •• the str .4-10) or (2. oe.5 . az + Ocr.8sin8 {~4}=[C?S8 fS slnB 2( co02 8 .5-12): + Y (3. the transverse stresses (O'u. However.#.1 iteration is obtained by solving Eq. First the global strains " in Eqs. {Jz =0 = method. {£l}O= to} for the large-deflection bending would reduce the nonlinear stiffness matrix to a .

. (3. t . sumed to be small.traln. generalized displacements) The Newlon-Raphson iterative method is based on the Taylor series expansion of the algebraic equations (3.I.on iteration method [i.traln.5 -1gb) The ilerative solution of Eq. nol symmetric. Such an approach i. Ie•• Ihan a certain preselected value. and (3.5 -14) :E18j+1I' 1=1 where N is the total number of primary unknowns in the finite element mesh.{6.e. (3.n strains. and the geometry updated between load incremenls.y+1 ..S-19a) i. 3. umption.6 Continuum formulation (3.. There are two incremento. Thus. in continuum problems (s ee (15)): (1) Total Lagrangian formulation and (2) Updated Lagrangian formulation.nll.tu 68 69 linear one.. there can be a computational saving.tiffn . during the theory with the von Karmll.ulb. kept con. the t.5 -17) (3.5-13) would yield the linear solution of the problem at the end of the first iteration. the geometric&l change.16b) where [K(T i.5 -19..t iteralion <. Newton-R.... yield good re.. Expanding .5-11) about the known solution {8y. the total load on the structure must be applied increment&lly.5-14) i. In these formulationa.. (3.tant «(or a preselected number of iteration.p. .) :E18i+1-8112 1=1 N N + 1)-. malriz (or geometric stiffness matrix). all of the quantities are referred to a fixed configuration.164) + [KT('{M} + O( (M})' (3. we have {56. Nole that at the beginning o( each iteration the tangent stillness matrix and residual vector must be updated using the latest available solution {8}. (3..tiffne •• matrix i. (3.) but the resldual vector is updated during the iteration. If the tangent .5-16b). we shell term the elements based on such assumption . {£l.m 0/ Compo6ite Lami". The iteration is continued [i. and moderately large deflections and rotations..l formulations that are used to determine the deformation and stres.5-11) in the form. For additional details on iterative methods. it can be .. g . Finite elements based on these considerations will be called continuum .ame way .5-14)( in Eq. the geometry o( the continuum [structure) is assumed to remain unchanged during the loading.} = _[KT(-I{RY = [KT({8nJ-I({F} and the tot&l solution at (r .A ao/.. (say 10-') (3.5 -18) {M} = {6. laminated . In the nonlinear formulation based on a Ia.e.{F} =0 {8Y. formulated with variational prlneiplea.5 ... we obtain (3. called modified Newto. applied.5-13) is solved in each iteration] until the difference between {8y and {8}r+1 reduces to a preselected error tolerance. (3. For small . oymmetric even if [K] i. and changes [81J{8}2 {R}]r({A}r+1 { 8 }')' + .\ - ({8y+1 .5-19) i. the configuration [i. satisfied or the residual {R} [me ... From Eq. and the material is treated as linearly elastic. the displacements and rotations are . [KTI' However.Iem. (3.}') is given by (3. [:i~i] evaluated at{8} = {8y (3.[K({8}r)]{6. thea .. we rewrite Eq. continued untillhe convergence criteria in Eq. {R} '" [KI{8} where {R} denotes the residual. (3. ured in the . state. In this study.}') In linear an&lysis.5 -15) {R} about {OJ = {R} = {RY 1 + 2! or 0".. To describe the method.. {RY 2 + [:i~ir L.Rapluon method. geometry] of the strudure for the current load increment is determined from a previously known configuration.. in problems with large displacements and ..{8}'. (especially for the Rib method) the reader is asked to consult References 15 and 39--41. must be taken into account before next increment ofload i. the solution error in Eq. the geometry of the structure change.. Eq.5 ..hoWD that [KT] i.. In such problems..e. The error criterion is of the form (other error crileria can also be used): For structural problem. In the Tot&l Lagrangian formulation.

481.. ~n t~e Updated Lagrangian formulation.'.') = 1£(".2(". II) +:92(". .10. The element has 40 degrees of freedom. Therefore. and [KLJ and [KNLJ are the linear and nonlinear stiffness matrices.11.') = "(:1>.displacement transformation matrices.9.48])..9'(". the element will be referred to as QIlD40.11) (3. {R} is the residual force vector. are determined with respeel to the reference configuration.hell element (lee (44. .11) + .3) . For additional deta.92) [KLi [KNLJ = In·[BL]T[OJ[BLldV I = In·[BNLf[r][BNLldV I = (3.7-3 . {I where as 10 and the rotations the following coefficients " II "II} are interpolated with polynomials (3. as well as the nodal stress values. Therefore the stresses used in the nonlinear stiffness expression.6 ..) a bilinear polynomial with the coefficients. referred to [44.6 .11) "2('". the reader i. [01 is the constitutive elasticity matrix. The nodal coordinates are updated using the incremental solution to generate the new reference state.. The degenerate 3-D shell element (see Figure 3. (3.11.. [51 is the matrix of 2nd PielaKirchhoff stress components.5-2).) and the midside nodes are assigned (10.'..2."" The element stiffness and force vectors are defined by 1£'(". .6 . In the Updated Lagrangian formulation.2) Next.11.92).4) are expanded with "3(:1>.....11)+ ..6-1) ean admit moderately large displacements and rolalions.6-1 The degenerated 3-D shell element [KNLJ = I (BNLf[5][BNLJdV In· {F} = In· I [BL1T{5}dV (3. respectively.11) +.. The nonlinear stiffness matrix and nodal point stresses at time I are expressed by the following equations over an element O' in the original (undeformed) configuration: Figure 3.2. 5. {F} is the external load vector. Applications of the element are included in Section 3.5) containing (9.11) The in-plane displacements (". the geometry of the structure £rom the previous increment is updated using the solution of the current increment.6) The corner nodes are assigned seven degr . 2.v) and the coefficients (.U} is the incremental displacement vector.1) where i refers to the current iteration number.'(". the latest known deformed conflguration 18 used as the reference state to determine the next configuration.6. The general form of the incremental equations of equilibrium in these two formulations is given by A specific example of the continuum formulation is provided by the Ahm~dZienkiewicz degenerated . s of freedom (.ils on the formulation of the element. and the updated configuration is used as the reference configuration for the next increment.. the strain displacement relations are written in terms of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor and 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor.70 71 in the displacement and stre •• field.') = v( . are the Cauchy slresses. and {5} il the vector of these stresses. In the Total Lagrangian formulation. we present a continuum element formulation of a second-order plate theory with an eight-noded quadrilateral plate element. {Ll. which is obtained hom 3-D elasticity equations by invoking the same assumptions aa those used in the flrstorder shear deformation plate/shell theory [see Sec.6 .. {F} In· I [BLf{r}dV (3. The following expressions are assumed for the displacement field of the element [see Ochoa [491): where [BLJ and [BNLJ are linear and nonlinear strain.

6 -7a) (3. "n = 1. [e] into two parts. the effect of geometric nonlinearity on deflections.. and •• seaa the imporlance of geometric nonlinearity. '7. Tn order to avoid 'element locking' for thin shell structures.2. coefficients.5 E2. The Jacobian matrix.8a) (3.y2) (" To evaluate the volume integrals in the element matrices of Eqs.'7-1 Preliminary examples comments If..y2) '7.. (3. one without transverse shear moduli [CJII.ussian points through the thickness should be added.(. epoxy are used in the first few examples: 1.(z'. The terms in ( may be neglected. reviewed in Sections 3. GI2 = Gu = 0. It is recommended that one should use inlegration schemes with increasing order until an efficienl yet adequate one is selected.5-10)J. and are of the form. This increases the computation time as the number of layers is increased. The finite element model.6 E2. In nonlinear out certain modeling aspects. EdEz typical of a high. uz:.. Naturally. The following Iwo sela of material properties. = 0.) for the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) are taken to he 5/6 [see Eq..7 -1) equations The interlaminar stresses (uu.1/) (2. the integration through the thickness involves individual lamina.6-2) and (3. Gu = 0. C•• and C.5-10).3 and 3.e.'7 Numerical 3. In this formulation. ( being the thickness coordinate.z2. Ga.5-8a). (3. 3.25. the following laminate (3. Hence we split the constitutive matrix. (see [44. The shear correction factors (KI. Two example. In the present study we assume that the Jacobian matrix is independent of ( in the evaluation of element matrices and the internal nodal force vector.25 = 0. Gn 2. EI/ E3 = 40.t A". These include: the use of symmetry boundary conditions in quarter plate models. in general. '7. = 25. and the integration should be performed separately for each layer.(z2.Iatic and dynamic problems. bri. = Kl.. and the determination of critical buckling loads..2) and for antisymmetric stiffnesses are zero: angle-ply laminates.A.8e) We note that for antlsymmetrie cross-ply laminates. (-8/8 .48]). Since we are dealing with laminated composite plate element.) are computed from the constitutive equations (3.. Lominau.4 are used to: analyze laminated composite plates.48J are included.y2) = f.~.2.7 ..7 .)•••• .6-3). (). is a function of the local coordinate.< All layers are assumed to have the same thickne •• and orthotropic material properties in the malerial principal directions. Even though selective reduced inlegralion is used to prevent shear locking in .. we employ the Gauss quadrature described earlier.5). The present discussion ia focused on illustrating certain intereoling features characteristic of composite laminates.. The displacement field (3. it may be necessary to use higher order quadrature in order 10 accurately evaluate the nonlinear stiff De.O"u) are computed from the equilibrium (3. this should not be practiced as a 'blanket rule'.ilt. GI2 = Gu = 0. provided the thickneee to curvature ratios are small. modulus graphite- '7•• = h(z2. this is not possible with some of the commercial computer programs that do not give the user any options on integration rules.6 -7c) o•• ~ h(z2.n. of the application of the continuum shell elements [44.. terms involving Cu.5-9) and (3.. = I.)••••. selected so that a good representation of interlaminar stresses is possible. An alternative is to perform explicit integration through the thickness and reduce the problem to a 2-D one. the inplane stresses (UUJu". (3..2 E2..6 -7b) (3.') (3.8b) (3.6-4) of the QHD40 element i. assess the accuracy of various single-layer theories. Note that the constitutive matrix [eJ varies from layer to layer and is not a continuous function in the thickness direction. terms are retained in [ .(.3) .6 .it 0/ Compo. 'I. Full inlegration is used 10 evaluate the stiffness coefficients containing [C]..6 .ull.. we use reduced Inegration in evaluating the stiffness coefficients associated with the transverse shear deformation (i. and Ihey are of the form. 1112 11)2 = 0..5 E2.. (e. Then the Jacobian matrix [JJ becomes independent of ( and explicit integration can be employed.. the following laminate stiffnesses are identically zero: (0·/90·/0·/90·/ . and reduced integration is used for those containing [CJ. 7J Finite Blma.'.z. and the other with only transverse shear moduli [CJ•.y) = 1.

. -I .911) 1.ry conditions is important (see Reddy [50]).135) 1.882) 0.331(2. as can be seen from Table 3. rps "'" == = °° r-r-r- '" Iii 20 "1 iT. rp. (a) 5S·1: Cross-ply laminates. the classical plate theory underpredicts deflections and stresses. The analytical solutions were obtained using the L~vy type solution procedure (see [3.729) 0.minates with different boundary conditions and subjected to transverse distributed sinusoidal load of intensity qo are presented in Table 3..386(0.238(1.652(2. In general..533) 7. and Fe-free.659(7. the edges parallel to the x-axis are simply supported (SS). = 0.027(2..7'-1 symmetry JI '$ Ln r"T s ofl n Ls "'" =0 -.450) 4.031(3.. The bending.782(3.385) 0.480) 3.395(7. They can b. no generalised displacements are specified on a free edge.stretching coupling coefficients (i.814(3.914(0.) become smaller as the number of layero is inereased. = 0. N No..729) S5CC 0. Bi. = 0.550(2. 3..034(2.384(7. Other two edges are subjected to various types of boundary conditions: S-simply supported.. Boundary conditions for simply-supported cross-ply and anti. [see Fig.615) 0..74 75 3.009) 4.665) 1.948(7.7-1 Comparison theories for plates with load (a/h of the finite element and analytical solutions of various anlisymmetric cress-ply (0/90/ .686(0. (b) SS·2: Angle-ply laminates.167) 2. use of proper 'simply· supported' bound .348(4. and both SS·1 and SS-2 yield almost the same solution.169(0.324(1. 786( 1.7-2 Linear bending and vibration elemenll analysis Ezampl .611(5. symmetric angle-ply laminates.725) 7. y I s = = n_l (b) SS-2 Lines --r---' [N Solution·· ill Theory FSDT CPT FSDT CPT FSDT FSDT CPT FSDT CPT FSDT CPT FSDT SSS5 1.009) 2.648(1.009) 4.7-1.009) 4.863(5. ) laminated square various boundary conditions and transverse sinusoidal 10. The 'simplysupported' boundary conditions are different for different lamination schemes. The finite element results are in good agreement with the analytical solutions. I£ the SS.417(0.692) 2. The finite element solution.442) 2. all generalized displacements are set to zero.723) 1.853) Figure 3.616(0.442) 4.611(5.444(0.7-1 for boundary conditions). of layers).e.800) 1.4]).. w =0.459(1.node quadratic FSDT elements in the quarter plate (see Figure 3..e.043(1..798(3. I n__l (a) SS-l -. =0 n: u.863(5.657(0. ply laminates).648(1. '" Because of the bending ••tretching coupling (Bll -10 for antisymmetric crossply and BlI 0 for antisymmetric angle.028) 1. the Navier) solution.708) SSFF 2.ply laminatee the resulting solutions will be different.064) 6. Cclamped. In the clamped case.71). At an edge with normal with normal n: u" =0.652(2. with laminate v s n The maximum bending deflections and stresses of antisymmetric cross-ply square la. In all cases.523) 0.7-2.167) 3.777) 2.237) 1.915) 0.---I nJI n * n s r" -:I: At a line of Illmmet".157) 2. or the SS·2 boundary conditions are used to analyze antisymmetric cross. Table 3.1 boundary conditions are used to analyze the angle-ply laminates.429) 4.694(1. deduced from the exact (i. W n: Un = 0.232(4.403) 3.: ___ :Il 2 "1 At a line of Illmmetrll At an edge with normal with normal n: u... were obtained using a 4 X 4 mesh of CLPT and 2 x 2 mesh of nine.157) 6.656) 0.. material 1.

model i~ not accept~ble.350 10.911 15.643 14. It WlII.821 18.310 54.000 0.171 65.185 45.281 1.087 4) 45.supported.229 34.127 1.4800 0.798 46.770 27.531 1.136 19.326 33.716 "Mesh used in Ih.747 38.614 4x4 11.848 14..jPjE)/h.770 11. antisymmetrie.686 109.318 12.node quadratic in a quarter plate (N = No.877 15.122 33.278 15. alh '0' = 10).300 10.Ply S~.50 0..474 0.358 11.958 0.592 0. Table 3.664 Full Plate (4 X Analytical solution 11.883 73.610 10.793 15.269 48.913 44.538 11.890 0.845 0.568 19. square lB.Ezh'r' .948 0.927 33.943 11.701 0.196 0.007 35.000 551 1.758 11.610 15.703 0.189 0.748 36.495 48.ymmetric angle-ply laminates. No.247 20.50 "The first.7-2 Effecl of boundary layer entlsymmetric 76 77 Table conditions on the bending response oC twocross-ply and angle-ply square laminates unload (Ui = der uniform transverse ".059 solutions i7. of two-layer anti.7-3 Nondimensionalized fundamental frequencies ( OJ simply-supported.375 0.490 14.493 17.740 45.112 11. even wtth proper symmetry conditions.0000 0.553 49. according to the shear deformation theory (material 2).632 0.AftGI.119 9. cross-ply square plates according deformation theory (material 2).fPiE) of to the shear Quarter 1 Plale Models 2x2 14.396 0.478 53.782 11. eross·ply.274 0.000 0.819 34.803 44.692 are from [ shown later in this section that the quarter pl~t.llllnates.846 11.537 10.817 15. full plate.7-4 First four nondimensionalized &equencies.647 15. "--- .777 10. of layers).893 0.21 14.125 0.594 9.676 47.669 32.656 31.880 15.103 17.447 89.673 It should be noted that the full plate and quarter plate.361 36.~SS-~~2 1.591 0.172 18.0 0.0 0.300 45.order theory is used with 2 x 2 mesh of nine.582 26.210 19.267 76. 4x4 8x8 Exact 4x4 100 10 8x8 Exact 4x4 10 8x8 Exact Table 3.25 0.602 50.176 18.274 0.000 1. model.462 16.568 9.631 0.561 25.536 0.859 11.301 61.397 0.033 11. wit~ aasoc~ated symmetry houndary conditions give identical results for linear analyst •.717 9.777 9.000 0.650 68. N alh 100 2 4x4 10 8x8 Exact 4x4 100 4 8x8 Exact 10.994 47. of simply. cii = O1a'(.950 1.375 0.034 16. of layers 100 2 10 5 100 4 10 5 100 10 10 5 alh 1 X = '1!-.100 "'22 2 10 0.25 0.393 46.647 17.880 18.172 20.897 11.911 11.u 0/ Compolite Laminatf!l 3.416 0. .846 20.475 0.358 10.883 14.654 0.000 elements 10 W12 (£.787 0.610 15.955 0. in the geometncally nonhnear analyst.648 1.000 5521.278 14.313 71.125 Angle. Source· 4x4 8x8 Ezact 0111 N ~ 0.033 14.348 105.813 1.

5 . antisymmetric cross-ply square plates for the three values of the side-to-thickness ratio.6) i.439 14. It is clear that the finite element model does not predict the higher modes as accurately as the first mode. representative of thin. 'exact solutions are from [4]). the quadratic terms are restrained.305 25. ~:: = 2. This i.263 14.052 25. antisymmelric angle-ply (-450/450/ . Since a larger system of equations is solved in a 4 X 4 mesh compared to a 2 X 2 mesh. therefore. (with SS·2 boundary conditions). The finite element solutions were obtained using a 4 x 4 mesh in a quarter plate.174 FEM Exact FEM Exact 0 0 10 ZO 30 40 !IO S bd 100 110 3. Additionally.811 14.800 14. 32 degree-of. with eontinuum element QHD-IO Next. with N a/h 10 Source" FEM Exact CLPT 14. The mesh is refined to demonstrate solution convergence.273 19.'1-2 Normalized transverse displacement versus side-to-thickness tio for cylindrical bending of (0/90) and (0/90/0) laminates.7-2. 3.7-4 contains the first four modes for the same case.7-5 contains the fundamental natural frequencies of simply-supported (SS..2).471 19. A refined mesh would increase Ihe accuracy of the higher modes considerably more than the fundamental mode.7-3 contains the finite element results for free vibro.621 19. indicating that a quarter plate symmetry exists {or antisymmelric angle.. The finite element solution converges to the analytical solution [4] as the mesh is refined.289 25.freedom e1emenll are used 10 obtain these solutions. bending ra- 1: Cylindrieal - 25.7-5 Nondimensionalized fundamental frequencies. the performance of the QHD40 continuum element (see See. Table 3.5.297 25.584 HSDT 13.287 13.e.318 25.order shear deformaton theory (FSDT). GI3 = Gu. and bending of simply-supported square and rectangular plates are considered..7R 79 Table 3.636 25. Cylindrical bending of a plate.lions of simplysupported (SS-I). A 4 x 4 mesh in a full plate is equivalent 10 2 x 2 mesh in the quarter plate. Iii = ~.731 14.044 14. This is allowable in these particular cases because the quadratic terms do nol significantly affect the results. For the simply-supported plates.e.7 . the calculated maximum normalized (transverse) displacement ill i. and 3-D e1as· ticity. some small difference is expected in the two sets or values. layer theories.25 (3. In Figure 3. square lam- W/O= without W ZZTERMS W/O Z2 w. 3. the biaxial symmetry is used and only a quadrant of the plate is modeled. presented as a (unction of the ratio of length to thieknees (S) of the plate.264 FSDT 13. with a sinusoidally distributed transverse load. "12 = I'Js = 0.7-1) give the same result •. The malerial properties (of a lamina) used throughout are those of a high modulus graphitejepozy material: .176 Firot consider the cylindrical bending of a (0/90) laminale. not true in the first example considered. demonstrated by comparing results to those obtained by dassicallaminated plate theory (CLPT). the influence of distorled elements on Ihe solution accuracy is demonstrated.266 Ezampl.ply laminates for the free vibration case. Results demonstrate .217 13. obtained using full plate models agreed with those obtained by quarter plate model. Table 3.863 14. For cylindrical bending the plate is modeled with a row of 20 elements (i. For symmetric laminates. 20 x 1 mesh). Eumple. the first.: = 25. In all cases the classical plate theory overpredicts the frequencies compared to the first-order shear deformalion Iheory (i. FSDT).. ).ff" (or 6 & simply supported entisymmetrie angle-ply (-45/45/ inates (material 2. Table 3.4) Alliayero are of equal thickness. ) square laminates as predicted by the three single. moderately thick and thick plates. . The result.618 19. It is noted that the full plate model and quarter plate model with proper symmetry conditions (see Fig.... Figure W4 3 I (0/90' ( TERMS 0/90) (0 0/0 WORWlO ZZTERMS 2100 10 10 100 FEM Exact 1.

through the thickne •• variation of the normalized transverse . The stressee and dieplacements are presented as a function of side-to-thickness ratio for square laminatee.0) are presented in Figure. The present finite element results are compared with those obtained by Pagano [52] and the classical plate theory.d . doe. Bumpl..tres.. Figure 3. the z· terms.aminate wilh without differences obtained with and without qu. Figure 3. Note that a.7-7a and 3.ticity solution of Pagano [51].... Thick lamin .d pl.. such as the first order shear deformation theory discussed in Section 3.4 (0/90) I. For example. In Figure 3. Transverse shear strese variation . the calculated normalized in-plane stress variation i. "t (z. tlie correlation between the finite element and elasticity solution iB greatly improved. es differ by 35 per cenl when computed with. Next. terms.t.. e. and displacements.. = bending The effect of distorted elements is also studied.7-6a and 3.4. A mesh of distorted elements has a much more adverse effect on the calculated transverse shear stresses than on the calculated inplane Blre.' Figure 3.7-3. the values are not as accuralely determined as those obtained with the regular meshes. we consider cylindrical bending of a square (0/90/0) laminate. The lower aspect ratio represents a thick plate and..I lo. which is based on a CI-continuou.7-4 Normalized transverse of (0/90/0) laminates..y) = (0. The effect of including quadratic terms in the finile element solution is..r ..75 contains the normalized in-plane .nate s This example deals witb a eimply-supported. = 10.7-3 Normalized inplan e stress (iT •• ) for cylindrical bending of a (0/90) laminate (8 = 4). Since the transverse stresses are based on equilibrium considerations.ami. with respect to s... greatest for the lower values of S. und. rectangular (0/90/0) laminate.. much more pronounced in strelBes than in displacements. presented for S = 4.upport. the side-to-thickn . are compared to the ela.7-6b for a square laminate with S = 4. therefore. Results are obtained for the relatively coarse meshes shown in Figure 3. Once again.. Note that maximum etre . !: Simplv-. ) for cylindrical (a) S ~ 1." '10 -. at (z. it seems the mesh .. The present results are compared with tbe elasticity solution in Table 3. The transverse normal stress variation Un through the thickness i.. presented in Figures 3. (b) S 10.7-6. are better modeled by thick plate theori •• . not fall within the range of application of the current formulation. A. ./2) and in-plane shear sire •• variation . The correlation between the finite element and elasticity results improves when the plate represents thin to moderately thick geometries.7-7. The difference i. varied from 4 to 10..ted plate.inu. -20 .hear stre . for S = 4 a difference of 12 per cent i.y) (0... at the edge of the plate.ti.. displacement field through the thickness. u. S = 4 to 100.7-4 illuBtrate. = FEM (OIl()401- 1111 . The 3-D elasticity solution of Pagano [51] gives a nearly quadratic variation of the normalized inplane displacement.oid.. expected. eonsequently. Solutions are obtained for side-to-thickness ratios. ) at the simply-supported boundary for S = 4 and 10. shear stress (iT . variation through the thickne •• at the centre of the laminate. ratio i.ding .s (0/90/0) I. and wilhoul.hl Figure 3.7-7b for square laminales. (. 3. the stre •• e.!I() 81 .. noted. and compared to the elasticity solutions in Table 3. -.7-8. The streeses are normalized as lin = aulO-2 at the center of the plate and as u.

__ j -..y of Pagano Bolution r ·-----1 . 7.... (a) Transverse shear stress.S ·. 3..:-2- ."'" F.).------IB2022Gr. . i7 (0. I . '.ty solution 3 of 1'0.>' -4 'S ·S Figure Figure 3.) of a simply-supported square (0/90/0) laminate.0.. _ .. ..).! -.4/2.~(0.L.O-Z.lastici. (a) S = 4.. /.82 83 Z (al EL S~4 5 •j . . .22--20 -18 ..S FE" ::0::..) for cylindrical bending of symmetric cross-ply laminates. -16·14·12:~tO -8 ·6 ·4 -2 . """"'" (bl 1521 ------- --..---./ _.7··5 Normalized inplane stress (0-.' _- ...94no 152 JEL--::-:r' FEM(QH040) -'-' _. BL "" Blastieit...- --_----.. . (b) Inplane shear stress i7.7-8 Normalized transverse and inplane shear stresses (8'22.S (b) s 10 . (b) S = 10..! b...

1 -1 -J -. it•• it•• 51/_ S . i.672 0.185 0. and displacements for simply-supported (0/90/0) laminate under transverse sinusoidal load.0213 0.0215 0.352 0.0843 0.374 0.7-7 Normalized transverse normal stress.7-6 Normalized .552 0. .178 0.292 0.0234 0.0240 0.123 0.O± ~) (0.375 0.542 0.Ires.500 0. iT.395 0. (I' 0.7-8 .282 0.o.0280 0.385 0.0828 0.539 0.539 (t.529 0.O) 0. 0/ Componte Laminrde.308 0.e.367 0.560 0.L f----+-+- 10 . 0)..130 0.0827 0.541 0.556 0.0812 0.0233 0.±~) 0.0217 0.755 0.288 0.391 0.210 0.0842 0.0938 0.0465 0. it.±~) 0.O) (t.296 0. (a) iT.541 0.164 0.414 0.' 2 mesh) 20 FBM (6 X 6 mesh) Elaslicity_ FEM (2 X 2 mesh) FEM (6 X 6 mesh) Elasticity FEM (2 x 2 mesh) FEM (6 X 6 mesh) E1astidty CLPT 50 -5 100 (b) Figure 3.393 0.181 0.531 0.0803 0.251 0. 84 85 Table 3.0448 0.0910 0.0224 0.561 0. aquar. MESH A MESHB FEM meshes of distorted elements.395 0.189 0. MESHC Figure 3.0954 0.211 0_123 0.598 0.0289 0.J 4 Approach FEM (2 x 2 mesh) FEM (6 x 6 mesh) Elaaticity FEM (2 X 2 mesh) FEM (6 X 6 mesh) Elasticity FEM (2 X (M.369 0.238 0.5 iT.206 0.An.9 \0.0505 0.l67 0. . (b) iT.393 0.0213 0.174 0.392 0.279 0. (h~. z). t.0823 (a) 0 -.590 0.566 0.0289 0.0216 0..i.180 (O.357 0. for simply-supported square cross-ply laminat e.387 0.

629 0. (j. The present method i.B 100 Mesh C _--.573 0.4).0253 0.0081 0.628 0.612 0.623 O) 3.521 0.0828 0.0143 0.s. for simply supported rectangular (0/90/0) laminate.625 0.0) 0.282 0.174 0.802 0.00928 0. '. ±~) I ('.153 0.603 0.590 0.0213 (~.0300 0.h c Elasticity FEM (2 x 2 m eeh) FEM (6 x 6 mesh) 50 FEM (Reddy) Elasticit y Mesh A Mesh B 50 I 0..529 0.303 0.0505 0.0312 0. Approach Me.0421 0.839 n e I S Approach FEM (2 x 2 m .82 r.107 0.. !r'.531 Elaatitity FEM (2 x 2 m .395 0.210 0..0192 0.416 0.432 0. presented in Table 3.81 Fi.604 0.531 0.439 0.0284 0. because the mesh is fine enough to represent the load distribution as well as the kinemalics of deformation accurately.0363 0..393 0. 3.0221 0.0431 0.00837 0.357 0.0516 0.0093 0.0251 0.610 0. compared to those obtained using elasticity solution [53].0299 0.605 0.0485 0.812 0.506 0.0297 0.7-8.402 0. particularly for ratio.581 0.290 0.1-1 Normalized stresses and displacements for simply-supported (0/90/0) laminates with various side-to-thickness ratio.539 0.503 Mesh A Mesh B 10 Mesh e Elasticity Mesh A Elasticity FEM (2 x 2 mesh) FEM (6 x 6 mesh) 20 FEM (Reddy) ~~~~ 0.431 0.556 0.0823 0:418 0.' Table Table 3.122 0.0259 0.00856 0.603 0.00848 0.180 0.650 0. of S >.0152 0.hA Mesh <i .±~) (0.0248 0.995 1.539 0.0121 0.629 0. S .0239 0. Ii.919 0.509 0.•• with respect to z at the point (o:.0689 0.624 0.hA Me. 0.0086 0.00959 0.709 2.436 0.0102 . .502 0.440 ii.178 0.0552 0. Correlation with elasticity is quite good.0.420 0.431 0.416 0.141 0.0938 0.0216 0.530 0.126 0.520 0.541 0.0357 0.198 0.119 0.254 0.0300 0.0231 0.O) 1(. Traneverse shear .7-9 for a rectangular laminate (a X b) with b = 3a and S = 4.443 0.0) 0.657 0.0391 0.286 0.y) = (a/2.524 0.669 0.0110 0.tion ".620 0.10.130 0.578 0. Mesh C give! significantly improved transverse stresses.0276 0.445 0. h) FEM (6 x 6 mesh) 100 FEM (Reddy) CLPT Me.552 Ii.574 0. A full range or resulls i.±~) 0.378 0.0055 0.596 0.O.0083 ii•• 0.180 0.395 0'111 1li 2.O) (!.0084 0.0237 0.657 0.415 0.666 0.585 0.00 0. element.7~~ 0.533 0. ±~) (!.0212 0.473 2.410 0.0842 0.0252 Mesh B 20 Me.!.378 0.176 0.507 0.0286 0.625 0.473 (O.7-8 Normalized .393 0. 1 A .tr •• s vari .229 0.58 2.628 0.628 0.0113 0.tre •••• and displacement.0259 0.O.55 3.0296 0.0123 0.128 0. In each of these cases.359 0.0226 0.177 0.123 0. sinusoidal transverseload [distorted meshes).414 0.439 0.437 0.515 0.±~) 0..449 0.. square (S) and 3.0108 W (0.0108 0. This is especially apparent in comparing results obtained for mesh A 10 those obtained for mesh C.0101 0.0252 0.±~) 0.he Elasticity Me.0686 0. ulI:lI u•• 0.0127 0..198 0.0364 aa" (O.539 0.0334 0. with various slde-to-thiekeees ratios (S) and sinusoidal transverse load. having a laper ratio of 2 to 1 are used.659 0.726 0.434 0.0525 0.0289 0.0112 0.755 0.114 0.0290 0.409 0.206 0.0234 0.1. !.279 0.508 0. ~.lement [see See.190 0.596 0.591 0.0281 0.180 +__:__ -_:___ must be refined enough to approximate equilibrium conditions.O. '.293 0..437 0.0216 0.0083 0.545 0.288 0. 4 FEM (Reddy) 4 Mesh Elasticity Eluticity FEM (2 x 2 mesh) FEM (6 x 6 mesh) 10 FEM (Reddy) 0.O) 0.185 0.0121 0.539 Elasticity CLPT -- 0.0253 0. 8.302 0.0472 0.0108 0.357 0.571 0.199 0.385 0.ile Ere .0110 0.____ _!:!~Ucity 0.112 0.0213 0.200 0.0080 0. and to those obtained by Reddy [10J using the first-order shear deformation bending .0344 0.0880 0..217 0.420 0.292 0. h) FEM (6 x 6 mesh) I ( •••• !J.0125 0.181 0.0278 0.00878 0.0119 0.304 0.. 0) is presented in Figure 3.433 0.0160 0.866 0.

u..minat .2 r----+----~I----~---+----~----~1_~--~~ .. Error in normalized transverse shear .. 0. eide-tc-thickne •• r .7-11 An ezorn..tio. For this particular problem.1v..t element locking i. subjected to sinusoidally distributed transverse load. Full integration is used for both meshes (aee Fig. A thick plate (L/ H 4) is modeled using two finite element meshes that differ only in the refinement through the thickness. 3. . needed to minimize .3 '. loperwile Figure 3.. however.7-11 by giving percentage error in calculated value. S. reduced integration i. . .. . exact solutions eDst for the following three theories: 1) 3-D elasticity theory [521. not" problem.. z).4 ..ullo are compared in Figur •• ••••• VI. 0:: 35 30 .5 FEM (OHO'O) 0 25 20 15 F R tI Normalized transverse shear stress. (!. 2) elassical laminate theory (denoted CLPT)." 0/ Compo. solutions heve been obtained for the present geometry uling reduced integration and full integration.I '. for simply-supported cross-ply (0/90/0) rectangular laminate (b 30..Ana. .imply supported. Consider a . . S 4). problem (see [36]). side-to -thickness ratio for simply-supported cross-ply (0/90/0) laminates. cro •• -ply (0/90/0) laminated plate.7-10 Error in normalized transverse displacement and inplane stresses vs.0:: 0:: III -.7-12): = . \ o .04 \ 40 a. clementi filii!.. The exact solutions from these three theories will be compared with the layerwise finite element oolution of thi.rse .ideration... 10 20 30 40 50 S 60 70 eo 90 100 1£ 0: W It: 30 25 20 15 10 .itt Laminatu 88 89 " . Figure 3. \ A.rrors in eeleulated tran.v.. side-to-thickness ratio for simply-supported cross-ply .pparent the.7-9 = = 10 5 45 40 35 '" J Figure 3. VI. The re. .. square. a final con.7-10 and 3. and 3) first order shear deformation theory (denoted FSDT) [2J. It il ..l. of displaeements and .

correspond to the 2 x 2 x 2 integration points within the domain of each layer of each element.) through the thickness of a simply-supporled. iT. in the xy-plane and 3 quadratic line elements through the thickness (one quadratic subdivision for each material layer).00 One 2-D quadratic Laqranqian element with three quadrauc layers Ihrough the thickness 0..6 0.2 0. square (0/90/0) laminate under sinusoidal transver se load (L/ H 4). Figure.4 0. 0.__. iT..8 1. cross-ply (0/90/0) laminate under sinusoidal transverse load. 3..33 0.__..:::::.._..8 -0. a total of 441 global degr ..6__.7-12 Finite dement meshes of layerwise dements used for the analysis of a simply-supported.67 . iT..... " total of 969 global degrees of freedom .L:. -0.. ) through Transverse Normal Stress Figure 3. Mesh 2: A 2 x 2 uniform 2-D mesh of eight-node quadratic elements in the xy-plane and six quadratic line elements through the thickness (two quadratic subdivisions for each material layer).....2 0..7-13 Distribution of inplane normal sire •• (iT..2 0.0 0.__-'-~.7-14 Distribution of transverse normal stress (0'.6 -0.__.67 --Exact 3-D Elasiticity • Layer-wise Mesh 1 o Layer-wise Mesh 2 x Figure 3. Mesh 2 differs from Mesh 1 in only in doubling the number of through-thickness elements.7-16 show the distribution of various stresses (iT. The finite element mesh shown here is Mesh 1.. of freedom.) through the thickness of a simply-supported. The reduced GaulS point. _ -0.7-13 through 3. square..0 The stresses are computed via the constitutive relations at the reduced Gauss points for each finite element.6 0.. FSDT 0..8 In-plane Normal Stress Figure 3. . = 1...P'J' 0....4 __.L-~.90 91 Mesh 1: A 2 x 2 uniform 2-D mesh of eight-node quadratic element.0 0..00 0.4 0.. square (0/90/0) laminate under sinusoidal transverse load (L/ H = 4).33 0..00 -- -cr. 1.00 L.

distributions predicted by the single-layer theories (CLPT and FSDT) Ihow considerable error for this thick plate... i.00 -o Exact 3-D ElaS:ic.3 ·0. .. To illustrate the point we analyze an antisymmetric eros s. The geometry ond boundary conditions for the pinned and hinged cases are shown in Fig. ) through the thickness ofa simply-supported.67 I ..7-15 Distribution of transverse shear stress (CT..B").. square (0/90/0) laminate under sinusoidal transverse load (L/ If " 4). A.)q. Ezample.7-13 through 3. maximum.. layerwise smooth shear Itressea using relatively coarse refinement through the thickness.. are computed at . H (3.1 ·0.5) 1 1i.. 1It2 = 1123 = 1113 = 0..FSDT (eQuil) ..25 = 1.33 s. = ..... stress es can also be computed (or the layerwise model.7 .00 0. closest to the position where each ....tre. along with the corresponding reduced Gau. ue given by N 0... depending on the lamination scheme and boundary conditions (s ee [53.FSDT 0.105662(~) = 1.A.= . exhibit quite different nonlinear behavior. simply-supported.. G12 Gn = 2.7-10 Unlike isotropic metallic plates.. Note that the tranlverse sheer stresses in CLPT and FSDT are computed via integration o( the equilibrium equations.PT {equil} N 0. (A. the ..(B.33 .7-16.67 I the thickness of the plate at the reduced Gauss point.. E2 E3 = E2. found as shown in Figures 3.7-3 Geometric nonlinear analyse. and subjected to uniformly distributed trans· verse load.4 Figure 3.B A 0.2 -0. the Itres.. All &tres.L2 H H2 ' s.-FSDT Excellent agreement between the layerwise finite element solution and the exact three-dimensional elasticity solution i. . 3.. with th_ laminate dementi 0. -CLP'i<!quil) Layer-wise Mesh 2 - .05 o Transverse Shear Stress Figure 3..894338(~) -0. where)l i.tresses are shown here.35]).5 G13 = G12.7-17.25 1.(A. For example. 3.. z) q.Anal"...ply square laminate (90· /0·) with two opposite edges pinned or hinged and the other two edges free.1 0.15 ·0. The nondimeneionalised stresse.L' 1i = ..00 -0.. = . Thus (or mesh 1. while (or mesh 2. .. . composite plate.2 ·0.A.L . the total thickness and L is the length of the laminate.0 Transverse Shear Stress Distribution of transverse shear stress (uu) through the thickness 01.e.7-4): El __25. (A. and q. only the constitutive transverse shear . z) . The material properites used are the same as those used by Sun and Chin [53): ·0.tre •• i. I ~ - • o - Mesh 1 Mesh 2 are computed at 12 different points through the thickness.-. however.00 ·0. the intensity of the sinusoidally distributed transverse load. thus yielding continuous. (3. The equilibrium she .s points.ix differenl points through the thickne . The material properties used here are the same as those listed in Eq. 0/ Compo!iie Laminlitt! 92 1. the geometric nonlinear effects conld be very sig· nificant even at small loads and deflections. square (0/90/0) laminate under sinusoidal transverse load (L/ II = 4).

850 4.00 -141.7-9.609 -1..7 -7) For small value. luger than the Bll-expression.078 -2. the nonlinear solution ie larger than the linear solution for small values oC the load. of the nonlinear bending &Daly.845 ·1. the expression containing All coefficient i.02 0.402 ·3..7-18.35 -4..710 2.50 EI ~ 20 M.940 the firat-order shear deformable elements are presented in Table 3.0 4.705 2.4 in.56 59. the .. Table 3.100 1.00 Pinned Nonlinear" -0. Thus. For a negative load. Thi •• tiffen.(5) square plate (4 = 1000 mm.190 -7. GI2 (3." . the plate strip is essentially in pure bending and the axial force NI i.075 -3. E2 = 1. Pinned Linear" -0.370 -4. For hinged easel.618 -0.3 4 = Gu = Gn = 0.05 0.550 3. smaller than thelineu solution.88 -2.25 0.04 0.550 · [ .. small compared to the expression containing BII coefficient.858 1.65 68. and NI become. To illustrate this point..94 9S / -p If! Illllql Hinged become.920 ·16. II = 2 l .075 2.75 1.370 4. e.. positive. 3.41 ·1. BII < 0 (3.82 30.0 The result.0 3.233 -1. The load deflection curve.5 in.0 5. (on all without dU 1 (dW) 2] d. The quarter plate Iymmetry associated with S5-2 hold.665 ·3.50 ·35. Therefore the deflection i.00 -235.7 .r analysi •.87 -35.00 -94. 21 -0.33 0.6) 0. + 2" d:c + BlI d. negative for o < :t < 4..673 0. it is given by "For negative 10M values. the solution is independent of the sign of the applied 10M..87 35.7-17 Geometry and boundary condition.005 0.159 -0. Hence.555 -0.858 -1.. the load is increased.675 e. lower than that for the case of positive 10M.0 2.00 75.034 1. the S5-2 boundary conditions must be used to analyze antisymmelric angle-ply laminales.16 24. approximately equal to zero. For a pinned plate strip. for a (90/0) laminated pl .470 -0..255 -0.327 1.75 -23.i.332 2. positive.te . bending-stretching coupling. for the first few 10M steps are shown in Fig.4 M. of the positive 10M. A.870 -2.01 0. II = 0.00 ·75. this yields a larger axial force and therefore a stiffer .847 0.710 ·2.69 49. ayer (45/ .5.33 Hinged Figure 3.16 -24.235 -0. the axial force Nl is not aero.475 0. iii l&.minate under uni- = w/h Pinned Nonlinearl 0.532 3.386 -0. Ni is compressive and increases the transverse deflection analogous to the transverse deflection of a plate strip under an axial compressive load and a transverse load. 0. a tw .69 -49_56 -59..429 -0. which i.10 0.7 Msi = 9 in. the All-expression The behavior described above does not occur for simply supported edges) laminates with 55-lor 55-2 boundary conditions or for laminate.trip under uniformly distributed transverse 10M.25 ·47. for linear analysis but does not hold for geometrically nonlinea.i. BII ~ i.82 -30..70 -11.954 1.i.117 3.480 ·0.tructure than for tbe positive load c. b = 1.65 ·68.7-9 Nonlinear cylindrical bending of a (90/0) formly distributed transverse 10M. u. 1IJ2 = 0..e I" e. and the two terms in NI add..03 0. Therefore. noted earller.125 Load r.tructure and the nonlinear solution become.00 -188.920 16. A. NI = All f For positive load values.525 3.429 0.190 7...

. 3.7-19 However. As noted earlier.7 -10.. 3.-co.-----------.0 p (90/0) /' The Ioad-deflectlon curves obtained £rom the quarter-plate and full-plate analyses are shown in Fig.0 ~ = I. ~ . (3.olulion is of the form Linear s Figure . .0 2. "12 = "U = Gu = 10 = V2S = 0.106) theory indicate Figure 3.riI mm). the assumed ..ymmetry conditions are derived £rom the Navier solution fot the linear theory.. 3.0-. of 2 X 2 and 4 X 4 nine-node quadratic elements baaed on the firat-order .0 c _.g: t.0 3.7-9) implies the following condilions along the symmetry lines (i._~. (3.7 . reapedively. = t) 0.b/2) = 0. Meshe. I. 0..-. " n ~2.5-1 (3.-CO'T 7rZ • 11"2 fry Load-deflection curves for the bending of an antisymmetric ply laminated plate strip with pinned edges .. For Ihe angle-ply case.. E3 = 20 GPa. G12 Gu =4 GPa.b/2) =0 (3..J j (45/-45) 5-2 5 .• '" Y for the linear problem: .7-1). with uniform !ransverse load and the following layer properties iR analyzed: . 0. clear £rom the result.:d.7 .-~-1. the boundary that on NI and N3 for the nonlinear Effect or full and quarter plate modeling on the nonlinear response of a simply-supported square laminate under uniformly distributed transverse load. Thie discrepancy can be explained (see [53]) in the light of the symmetry conditions used to model Ihe quarter plate..8) -.. .._----~.) __ ~" ')'/ . lI"Z 'try T' where the coordinate system i. ~ 1.~~~T'"T..b/2) = <p2(z.. fixed al the lower lert corner of the laminate (see Fig.0 i'""I'''T-~. It i. (3.0 "(.7-18 u=U 11 IlD-.7-19..5 .7 .96 91 Fiaite Ekme •.. sin ~ b 2."1' - w = W sin ~ lin ~ . conditions N2(""b/2) = MI(z. The discrepancy increases with the intensity of the transverse load. A...0 Maximum deflection w -» / I I 4.c EI = 250 GPa. -p load (lbs/in) p 3. cross- = V cos ...~:-:. b <PI = 51 2 cos ~ • a sin ~ 1..hear deformation plate theory are used 10 model the quarter and full plate s.•.oj .9) o ==- luNplale model ~~:~~erplale model I I I a ! d I ! 6 <P3 = 5 s. .. that the use of quarter plate model with the symmetry conditiona of 55-2 [see Fig.. the .0 1.25 GPa.7-1) yielda larger deflections than those obtained £rom the full plate model.n -. The solution in Eq.

3 = Vu = 0. e'emenll E. This i.(a/2. results that are in excellent agreement with the experimental data of Zaghloul and Kennedy [54J.8 Pressure 1. It should b. noted that this phenomenon is not observed in erose-ply lamina..37 lOS psi. Figures 3.2 (psi) 1..7-22 was analyzed for its large displacement respon •• with four 9-node elements and sixteen 4-nod.13) The isotropic spherical shell panel shown in Fig.4 -Experimental (ReI. = b = 12 in.98 99 N.= b = 12 in. (Ret.28 10 psi. with nonzero inplane force.~) are nol specified. about 120).'(""/I1) f 0 specifying plate model is used wilhout Nt and N2 on the".0 3./b) N. crol.. ical plate bending element underpredicts deflection. attributed to inaccuracies in the representation of the material stiffness ea aa well as the actual boundary conditions of the experiment. are not in as good agreement with the experimental data. respectively.1 0.8282 x 108 psi.8315 G'2 = GIS = G23 = 0. For the clamped.7-20 Load-deflection E. 3.7 . The following geometric and material parameters are used: . -ply laminate: For the simply supported orthotropic plate. h = 0. .2395.. the finite element result. (3. 31) = A'2~2 .b/2) When a quarter . The quarter plate with zero inplane forces N. 54) and II = ~ lines.1I) = A12"2b2cos2(11..7 . In the above examples.3 . X Eumpl . elements. = V23 = VIS = 0. and N2.11) =~ 0.7-21 contain the load-deflection curves obtained by applying the nonlinear laminate element to a simply-supported ortholropic plate and a damped cross-ply (0/90/90/0) laminate.{ ..element analysis that they are (being ----cLPT (ReI. G12 = Gu = Gu = 0. h . the shear deformation element yield.. the quarter and full plate models give the same results for the cross-ply laminales (with SS-I boundary conditions). = 3 lOs psi. E2 = 1.. ./r . il is implied in the finite.7-20 and 3. even for this lhin plate (5 i. i.0. square.32 X X 8 X curves for the bending of a simply-supported.-ply laminate. 54 ) -o--FSDT the natural boundary conditions) specified 10 be zero because u(f.096 in. free. = 1. orthotropic plate under uniform tran.138 in.e.. The next two examples deal with the nonlinear bending of square plates with all four edges either simply supported or clamped..3125 V'2 X 10· psi..6 2. V12 = V.!! c o Lineaf"Y' 'iii '" Q> . tropic plate: Figure d .7 . Drill. in one-quarter of the shell (see [47]).2W' CO.lI) and v(z. we considered the nonlinear bending of rectangular laminated plates with two opposite edges supported and other two edge... while the c1.tes. and N2 is more flexible than the on.Y il 0. E2 = 1.verse load • (3.2 > c '" l! I- 0.12) Cro. In both plates a uniform transverse load is used. N. 2W2 f 0 (3.0.. with tontinuum 10' psi. The geometry and material properties used are given below.(z.

.14) used are: = 0 on "'1 "'2 = 0 .0 2.9017 in. = w = . 0. a = 30. "12 = 0. The modified Rib method." 0. and subjected to uniform internal pressure (s ee [47]).. "U = "23 = "12 R = 1000 in. ~ e " > " c: " 0.. = 10· poi.= 0.9154 in.. which automatically determines the load increments. is used.2.0 Center 1.... .Aul. = G.7-23. 31) .--.. . Figure 3. = 0.5 wlh 3. (3..3 0.4 HoI 55 J " ~ .7-22 also includes the results of Bathe and Ho [531.. isotropic. .2 Figure 3. .= 50 in. h = 3.. Gu = 25.0 O.7 -16) The One quarter of the shell panel wu modelled with four 9-node shell elements.z 10 ~ . .0 Pressure (psi) EdE.7-21 Load-dellection curves for the bending o{ a clamped. Figure 3.5 Deflection.0 3. E The boundary " = 1>1 conditions 11K) 101 = 104 psi.5 r-""--. 54) -9-node Pre~ent study ---4-node 1471 • Bathe & l a c: 0. C23/E. . equeee.. simply supported at ito edge.u 0/ Compoliu Lamiutu R = 100 in.7-22 contains plots of the load-deflection curves obtained using the shell element..~FSDT (Ref. The material and geometric parameters used are: 2.7 . Load-deftection CUrve for the bending of a simply-supported.1 Next. 3.5 2..3 5 .) (3.25. 54 ) -.3.S 1.. -Experimental (Ref. h = 1 in. symmetric erose-ply (0/90/90/0) plate under uniform transverse load. (3.1 = 0 on j "'1 =a (3. geometric nonlinear response of the shell panel is ShOWDin Fig.. = w = ¢2 = 0 on = 0 "=. "=..7 -15.5.. ..7 .--. we consider a two-layer (-45/45°) laminated apherieal ehell panel. E.15b) 15 " = 1>2 = 0 on "'2 = a Figure 3. Cu/E. = 0. spherical shell panel subjected to a point load at the center .--'--..7-22 .---'--r-""--." 'il o 0.. ----CLPT (Ref.

7-10 3 The eff.129 90. to thickne .7-10 with the analytical solutions [4]...422 14. = 0. = VIS = 0.172 36.82.480 19.) FSDT CLPT FSDT CLPT FSDT CLPT - Figure 3.292 7.970 60.7 -17) G2I/& = 0.\ i.49 Allhough a closed-form solution of the buckling . = 0) of antisymmetric crosl-ply square laminat •• including various boundary conditions.r theory (FSDT). = of the nonlinear analysis (Sec.imply supported. Ga/E.ct of sid.667 7.467 12. Nt = N..7-10)] used to obtain that lolution cannot he used for the nonlinear analysi. o the label denote the boundary conditions on the edges.. Th.338 23.181 60. 3.616 U16 5.226 16. simply-supported laminate 10. limit load..191 16.hS.234 7..833 36..406 SSCC 9.916 37. The critical buckling load. in l.tter on bet..094 6. analysis 3.174 19. taken to be Ih.106 21. Most often the critical buckling load.1c Blom. used to (45/ .102 103 FiA.620 11. The results are The sam. without modification. where . Both the eigenvalue and used.quations . pressure lead. b.833 ~ '" 2 . The material properties used are: Et/E2 = 40. the nondinonlinear equilibrium approaches are s.064 17. = 0. geometry as in the example (..949 37.• ) is investigated using the finite element model based on the first-ord.486 14.520 11.141 12. The effecl of orlhotropy and number of layers on the nondimensicnal buckling load.45) under uniform inplane load N2 menaional load. = b = 1000 mm.869 18.52..7-23 Load-delleclion curve for the bending of a simply-aupported. (3.328 14.650 23.. n compared in Table 3. can also be determined from geometric nonlinear analy.203 6.420 6.719 5.J 10 6 10 10 Center Deflection (in.7-3) analyze .. " oS '" ii 2 c -e . For the nonlinear .292 5.406 33. the third the edge " = .. (lV2 = N2b' !(E.141 SSFC 4. = 6. F = fre.647 36..24...869 11.106 11.nt the analytical and finite element results is excellent.1 AnaIr'" notation lelt .. of simply-supporled square laminates (0·/90·/0·/ ." No.. (3. where the critical buckling load i.216 90. critical buckling load.616 6.457 55FS 4.i. oC b/h layers Theory FSDT CLPT SSFF 3. II 0. angle-ply (-45/45) spherical shell panel under transvera.422 5555 8.661 17.7-4 Buckling Another interesting characteristic of composite laminat •• i. and the fourth on the edge " = .384 25.\ (N/m). "23 Gu = Gu. The agreem..85 . are determined through an eigenvalue analysi s. C = damped.xists [4] for ihis case.203 8. 5 0 . = Table 3. /2 /2). their behevioe under ccmpreesive loads. h = 2 mm) i.384 5SSC 9.. first t. ratio on the dimensionl .25 1It2 OPa. The following is u •• d: S = .. the S8-2 boundary conditions (see Eq.

O:J:---~-~-~-~-~----:-I 0. of 55-1 type are used with a 2 X 2 mesh oC nine-node elements in a quarter plate. J. .e.0 Maximum delleclion w (mm) 5. C. 2. in fad. Figure 3.ite Structu res: Theoru and Analv.0 fundamental eigenvalue 0. VA 24061. New York (1984).i. also Bee Chaplers 14 and 15 in: Finite Element Analy."i analysis. 3.7-24 The post-buckling response oC a simply-supported (55-2) square.0 Figure 3.0 2.. Reddy. 2. N . Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.].7-26 Maximum deflection (mm) Load-deflection curve. " o -' C.\ (N/m) are shown in Fig. 3.---------(45/-45) fun plate 1. The geometry and material properties used are the same u in the previous example. The values of the critical buckling load given by the closed-Corm solutions based on the eigenvalue analysis are shown on the 1.i. N2... four laminates are analyzed. 5.J 0. and the results are presented in Fig. The critical buckling loads predicted by both the nonlinear and eigenvalue analy. and K. antisymmetric angle-ply (-45/45) la.i. 37. N. John Wiley.. Springer-Verlag.0 w 6. and nonlinear analy. October 1988.0 4.. are perCormed using 4 x 4 mesh oC nine node elements in Cull plate models.0 O. Vol. . square. N.0. the full plate and quarter plate models give the same results.7-24. C&IIehe eigenvalues t are not repreBentative oC the critical buckling load. the boundary conditions have to allow Cor the applied loeds.5 _ • nonlinear eigenvalue analysis analysis 3.. Reddy. load-deflection curve for comparison. agree with each other.. in Applied Mechanic. ) laminated plates under inplane load N2 = 6.minate under uniform inplane force. In thill case.. J.104 1(}.wo points to remove the rigid body modes in the nonlinear analysis. there are no apparent limit points Cor the lemlnatee analyzed._ 4 layers -. NI = 0 and N2 = N.. Lecture Notes. N. It il clear that in thi. p N2• = References The results of a nonlinear analysis of anti-symmetric cross-ply (0/90/ .0 !: N Z (0/90/ . antisymmetric cross-ply laminaled plate under uniform compressive inplane force. Blacksburg.6 fayors .0 2 layers _.0 4._ 8 layers o• 0• " o '" 1.0 1. J. for Engineering Delign. u and" must be constrained at t. of Laminated Compo. Berlin (1988)..25. In order to assess the effect of number oC layers.7-25. Seetharamu [eds. In the full plate model. Reddy. Energ. Both the eigenvalue analy. ond Variational Method.. for the bending of a simply-supported.5 ---l I I I liI2. Mechanic. Krishna Moorthy.. The simply-supported boundary condition.) .iI.

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the reduction in the load carrying capacity of the cracked ply is computed and the elastic modulus of the cracked ply is reduced correspondingly. which as a first step determine. considerable progress has been made in understanding the initiation and evolution of various damage modes.Chapter 4 Failure: Damage Initiation and Progression 4. it i. strength and IHe of a laminate. Masters and Reifsnider 11 J and Highsmith and Reifsnider 12J performed both experimental and analytical work to understand the effect of matrix cracking on the stiffness reduction of composite laminate •. In order to determine the load carrying capacity and service life of a composite structure. and they result in the loss of stiffne •• and strength of the material. Then. necessary to predict the initiation and evolution of damage. For example. As a result. fiber fractures. it is said to have 'failed'. When a structure or a component ceases to carry out ils intended function. resulting in " reduction of the load-carrying capacity of the laminate. These effects. But this understanding hILS been limited to simple geometry and loading conditions.1 Introduction Under service conditions. As these microcracks grow in size and number. they coalesce and develop into debonds. They developed a one dimensional shear-lag model. much of the research has been directed towards understanding the effect of an isolated damage mode such as matrix cracking or delamination on the stiffness. the microcracks observed within a layer constitute damage. are termed damage. A brief review of these developments Is presented here. Besides. the inplane stress normal to the cracked surface in the cracked ply of a laminate. laminated composite strudures develop matrix cracks. which cause permanent 10•• of integrity within the laminate. the load-carrying capacity and the service life of the structure is reduced. and delaminatlons. In the last decade. fiber-matrix debonds. 111 . The classical laminate analysis is used to calculate overall stiffness properties of the laminate.

Daniel et al. and the principle of minimum complementary energy is employed to find an optimal approximation. The unknown constants are determined experimentally. The stiffness reduction is computed £rom the two dimensional . Vn (after matrix cracking). Hence. The task becomes even more complicated if one has to take into account stresses induced due to in which the cracks .e. we require a failure analysis technique that can capture both inplane and interleminar stress components and allow for the Interaction of various damage modes. as a function of applied load and lamina properties. He developed a set DC four equations £Orthe four inplane stiffness coefficients... such as the finite element method to be able to predict the failure behavior or ccmposite structures accurately. obtained by this procedure. continuum appro . They found that delamination usually nucleates from the tip of a transverse crack and spreads along the length in both directions to join an adjacent crack. which sati.4J used .112 113 Talreja [3. [6. ReiCsnider et al. Chan and Ochoa [11. However. They developed closed form solutions for the matrix crack density. Ell E2.fy equilibrium and all boundary . such as matrix cracking and fiber breakage in quasi-Iaotrcplc graphite/epoxy laminates. the present day analytical techniques cannot handle the combined effect of various damage modes acting concurrently on composite structures with complex configuration subjected to combined loading conditions. damage initiation and evolution in composite laminates is governed by a three dimensional state of stress and complex interaction of various damage modes. [131 studied the relationship of delamination to other damage mode.dimensional finite element model to calculate interlaminar stresses and strain energy release rates Corthe study or free-edge delamination in composite laminates subjected to tension. The effect of delamination on stiffness and strength is not as well understood as the effect of matrix cracking.. i. in terms of the stiffness coefficients of the un-cracked lamina and four unknown constants. O'Brien [8.9] analyzed local delaminations and studied their influence on tensile stiffness of composite considered as microstructural entities with tensorial characteristics.71 investigated the progressive matrix caracking of eros. thermal loading and moisture absorption. Hashin [5J used a variational approach to predict the stiffness reduction due to matrix cracking in a symmetric cross-ply laminate under tensile and inplane shear loading. Figure 4. He also studied [10J the effect of delamination on the strength of unnotched quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminates. stress distributions and reduced stiff· nesses of damaged plies. .nd interface conditions are constructed..1-1 Various failures at different scales. However. bending and torsional loads. Most of the above analyses are based on a two-dimensional state of stress. one has to resort to numerical techniques. ply composite laminates both analytically and experimentally. in order to predict the failure behavior of composite laminates accurately.. Admissible stre •• system. Most of the effort in the area of delamination is directed towards predicting the initiation and growth of delamination.tre •• field.12J presented a two. Therefore. as well as of the entire laminate. G12.

The fiber fracture and pull out modesv as highlighted in Figure 4. Matrix cracks are the most common of these local failures because the strength of the matrix is considerably lower than that of the reinforcing fibers. where a debond parallel 10 the direction of the fibers separates the constituents from each other. Figure 4. 4.2-1) • Matrix crack. Figure 4.2-2) Figure 4. 4.2-1) (sec Fig. However. may be localized. The first failure always initiates at a micro-level and gradually evolves into a macro defect or damage mode. all the layers in the laminate readjust the load/strain they carry in order to adequately redistribute the stress released by the damage modes. The failure modes begin at a. when the objective is to predict the failure behavior of a laminate. fiber pull out.1-1 shows various failures at different scales. The main ditriclllty in mathematical modeling of damage is due to the different geometric scales that are involved in the initiation and progression of damage. Therefore. however. thus eliminating the support provided by the matrix to the fibers in that region.2-1) (see Fig.2-2 Matrix cracks. and filler fracture.2-1 Intra-ply ruee he nisrus damage The common damage modes that one observes within a ply are: • Fiber-matrix • Fiber fracture • Fiber pull-out deb on ding (sec Fig. Figures 4.2 Damage 4. . ns they initiate. 1.2-3 illustrates the simultaneous formation of matrix cracks and fiber-matrix debonding around a hole drilled in a graphite epoxy coupon. At the micro-level the focus is on the fiber and the matrix and fiber/matrix interface. Note that these modes occur sirnultaneously or within seconds of each other.2-1. in general. it becomes prolribitivr-ly difficult to focus attention on the events taking place at the micro-level. ply level. at macro-level the focus is on the global response of the structure.2-1 to 4.2*-1 Fiber matrix (It'bonding. they lead to catastrophic failures of the laminate. 4. (see Fig.2-3 illustrate that inplane events are not confined to the plane in which they originate. Figure 4. attention is focussed on ply-level failures. However. 4. The next common occurrence is the fiber-matrix debond. ill the failure analysis of laminated composite structures.Analy"" 0/ Compon!e Lanwvates III Failure: Damagt Initiation and Progreuion.

then they coalesce nnd lead to delamina tious at an interface between layers (sec Fig..~iOll and Prog1¥'uion Figure 4.. 117 Failurt. the X . the width of delamination is given [e. matrix cracks form randomly.: Dama. to the stacking sequence.2-2 4.!.ray diffraction technique combined with an enhancer may give an indication about the width). To model delami nat ions.e. one needs to know their geonu-t ry [i.2-5).r. the adjacent layers rake on additional loads and go through damage initiation and evolution processes.g. Figure 4. [II gr-nerni . Intcrply As a layer weakens with the onset of the damage modes discussed earlier. First. ["ading. any symme t r y present d11(. The length of the delamination is assumed to be equal to the dimension of the entire free edge' (see Fig. and g('r)rndry is lost. This assumption is valid fur laminates with straight edges.2-4). When a circular free edge is encountered. if multi ple dclaminatn. .2-3 Through dnrnngc: the thickness delaminafions dclarnIuations (drilled hole cross section).2-5 Edge' delamination. For an edge dclamma tron problem. s {'Xl<'.2-4 Transverse cracks and delamination. irngth and width} which is usu ally TInt known for interior dclarninat ions. Figure 4. the desr ript ion of the delamination geometry becomes cumber-some.lIt. 4. InihjJ.

elf-. an SEM photograph of woven carbob-carbon composite subjected to in-situ three point bending load. which are the failure modes in tension for these laminates. the strain energy release rates do not give meaningful trends.. experiments should be designed to observe which Interface fall. Usually in these cases Poisson '5 ratio mismatch or the presence of a geometric discontinuity are the culprits. damage under applied loads. when the delamination crosses a ply. However. Invariably. delaminalions are usually not . also form III laminates subjected to inplane tensile and compressive loads. a laminate with 90· layers separated by O· layers will fail at a higher load than a laminate with 90' layers grouped . quarter-point) elements as wen as a refined mesh of shear deformable-non-singular elements work equally well [l1J. Tool. These matrix cracks coalesce. so small that matrix microcracks form first in the 90· layer s. as a function of delamination size when the delamination growth is within a single interface.layer (0/90). laminate cannot be generalized to other laminates of arbitrary orientation. Such an approach may provide additional understanding about the extent of the delamination zone. sequ~nce illustrates bril1i~ntly the tranlvers~ cra_ck formation. Delamination. For example. It i. Figure 4. a realistic mathematical model may be built for analysis. and the delamination Bur£ace is two dimensional. delaminations initiate at a free edge such as a bolt hole or an unloaded edge and propagate inward. causing dclamina~ion. By using loading chambers to test lR-. load carrying capacity is limited under general loading. 1 I . Our experience indicate.11M 119 It is essential to integrate explorative testing with numerical simulation in ~hese probl~ms. form transverse cracks. they grow along weakest directions. that singularity (i. the predictions of delamination growth will be inaccurate. observed are primarily due to the low interlaminar shear and norm:u stre?gths asso~iated wit~ brittle composites [see [141). first and how the progression unfold s.imilar crack growths. The multiple delamination.. '" (0/90/90/0) laminate pulled along the zero degree laminae. Figure 4. However. The rule of thumb IS to keep the element size about a quarter to one. most . Extreme Care should be ex:rcised in the analytical modeling of the delamination front: If the number of finite clements used in the vicinity oC the delamination front are Jnadequa.te. address two dimensional characterization of this growth.2-t1 In-situ three point bend loading of a carbon-carbon SEM chamber. laminate in . When a delamination front crosses a ply.t. although this laminate IS not recommended In real structures since .2-7 Damage accumulation in symmetric Figure 4. about.:1 cross-ply laminates. and propagate to the (0/90) interface. It may be appropriate to look at trends of strain energy release ut . In composite materials. 90" 900 ~:~~~ :.j I ness of the layer. such as the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope are inv"!uable in providing inf?rIl'. and with such an understanding. In the majority of cases. Theae observations Cor the four. Since the modulus of the 90·-layer in the load direction i. delamination geometry become. Figure 4.ation. three dimensional. as appr?priate. One can observe and take p~otographs of the prcgression of damage within a ply or through the laminate thickness. Fur example.tudie.. The presence of many 900 layers next to each other. This stacking.2-7 depicts a four-layer (0/90). versus 900 layers separated by O· layers.e.half the thick- A typical example of damage accumulation is provided by a symmetric crossply laminate. has a profound difference on how the damage progresses and the failure load is reached. more meaningful to determine the change in the strain energy of the total laminate with respect to the load.2-6 depict.Utu thin laminates with SEM.

In this case. a lamina is assumed to be homogeneous and the mechanical behavior ia characterized by a set of equivalent or effective moduli and strength properties. There are many proposed theories to predict the on-set of failures and their progression (see [17-25]). Since the failure criteria are intended to predict the macroscopic failures. at this stage we are interested in a given layer. Ideally speaking.2-8). If the allowable . in the phenomenological approach. a 3-D or layerwise model is desirable. a collection of laminae separate from the laminate and undergo buckling.. the quadratic polynomial criteria consist of parameters that must be experimentally determined. the lamina properties are determined experimentally by conducting tesls on " single lamina or a laminate.3-1 General comments Laminates subjected to inplane compressive loads exhibit further complications in the form of sublaminat e buckling (see Fig. if the stress in a loading direction versus the transverse is substantial enough to exceed the allowable stres s. A brief discussion on various damage modes. Eventually. damage modes are dependent on loading./0. for example. Once the mechanical properties of the ply are known the initial failure of the ply within a laminate or structure can be predicted by applying an appropriate failure criterion. Thus by reducing the material stiffnesses by a certain amount. an understanding of damage modes and damage accumulation../(0/45/90/ .16-3501 under com- . Most of the failure criteria are based on the stress state in a lamina. has a 4. then we proceed to check the other layers. Rather. The subsequent failure prediction require. we account for the loss of stiffness. The failure criteria. model of the laminate is necessary to determine three.2 8 The [0. panels and tubes do not exhibit typical structural buckling behavior since they tend to fail at a more localized region through the initiation of sublaminate failure modes. these parameters are difficult to determine with certainity. Often. In the case where all 90' layers are placed together. When an allowable is exceeded in a given layer. An excellent example is the case of a tube shot with a bullet (see [16]). together. In general.AnalliJil of Compolite Laminate. In the micro-mechanics approach. yet there are some salient features that one may look for rather than treating these options as potential "curve fitting the data" exercises. the engineering constants responsible for the particular mode of failure are degraded (i. The side from which the bullet exits always displays simultaneous presence of eublaminate formation and debonding around the damaged/penetrated site. Figure 4.45)..e. The reduction of stiffnesses is another area where care and compromise should support the reality or the situation. When an allowable is exceeded.] laminate preasive load: sublaminale buckling. of H. stacking sequence. As discussed in Section 4. we do not know the extent of the damage and exact mode of failure at that stage.tress/strain is not exceeded. and specimen geometry. reduced) by a predetermined magnitude. The impact loads usually create a eublaminate at the opposite side from the load application. 4. The stiffness reduction is carried out within a layer and within a . This phenomena is also observed in laminates subjected to impact loads. damage accumulation and failure criteria is presented in the sequel.2. The selection from such an abundant menu seems impossible. the laminate much softer region in the center and cannot carry as much load. These properties can be obtained either by a micro-mechanics approach or by a phenomenological approach. the lamina properties are predicted in terms of the constituent (fiber. As discussed in Chapter 2.dimensional stress/strain fields. matrix) properties by using a mathematical model. an accurate kinematic. these layers fracture after buckling (see [15]). the microscale event of the split of a single fiber from the surrounding matrix cannot be determined. 120 121 Failure: Damage Initiation and Progreuiofl.3 Failure criterill 4. Hence.

respectively. (. (3) are negative. the strain criterion is a. <2. (X'Tt Y.3) directions. 4.lli 121J. E5t Ee) Me shear strain components. and failure is usually progressive rather than catastrophic and instantaneous. <. which are normal strain strengthB in compression along the (1. the tensor polynomial criterion proposed by T. Failure criteria for composite materials can be classified into two group. in tension (T) along the (1. The fracture mechanics laws to study crack growth are primarily developed for homogeneous isotropic material systems. the growth of delamination. F. Often such a criterion is expressed in terms of the strain energy release rates. In index notation. Thus.c. cannot be modeled unless the kinematic model ia three-dimensional.O'jO'k +. Y. and (ii) polynomial failure criteria. 4. they should be compared with (X. (4. The major problem is that the constitutive matrix is not known precisely at the strain level. (E4. due to the statistical variations in obtaining stresses from strains. they should be compared with (Xc.S)(lTd S)(O'G - T)(O'. S.2.. ZT) are the lamina normal strength. error introduced through assumed material stiffnesses can grow with local steps. T) are the shear strengths in the (23. and (R. Yc. ts) Borethe normal strain components. a criterion for the growth of delamination is required.+ F'ilT'O'i or. £5 ~ Sf (4.alYlu 0/ Compluite LIlf7Unatu 122 12l Foilu7'(: D4m4ge Initiatio" aftd Prog7'(IIion single finite element at selected integration points. difficult to generate. and it is not as drastic as discarding an entire layer. £2 ~ YeT ..3-2 Independent failure criteria In the maximum strain criterion.. the failure criterion can only determine the on-set of delamination •. + T) = 0 where (U11 0'2.XT)(O'] + XC)(1T2 .. we obtain . failure is assumed to occur if anyone of the following conditions are satisfied: +2F220'~ Particular + F20'2 + F30'3 + 2F12O'l0'2 + 2FuO'IITS + 2Fu0'20'S + FIlO'~ + FnO': + FUITI + FssO': + F. E2..3-3 Polynomial failure criteria The most general polynomial failure criterion for composite material. respectively. These are discussed below. 13. 12) planes. used only to check whether a1lowables are exceeded. Since damage accumulation is cumulative.2. All other polynomial failure criteria are degenerate cases of this criterion. 0'3) are the normal stress components. When (El.:T.R)(O'. us) are shear stress components. Z.) are the shear strain strength. (XT' YT. 1£ experimental data is available.YT)(0'2 + Yc)(O's . namely: (i) independent failure criteria. 0'3) are of compressive nature..3) directions.80'~ + .ZT)(O'S + Zc) (4.3-1) T Maximum stress (polynomial) criterion The maximum can also be expressed as a. stiffness reduction is made point wise. It should be noted that the failure criterion i.C).3) directions. In the case of delaminations. In addition. (Uf" Us.jklT.3 . Zc). laminate requires further study. \Vhen (at. YT.2. and (R. 13. Additional discussion of stiffness reduction procedure is given in Chapter 5. Comparing Eq.lTl The maximum stress and maximum strain criteria belong to this category. which are normal strengths in compression (C) along the (1. 12) planes. ~ 1 . following condition. ~ R. in the (23. the tensor polynomial failure criterion is expressed as: 1'".3-4) with Eq. calculation of stresses £rom strains oC . In the maximum stress criterion.c. using fracture mechanics concepts. Us ~ ZT. in more explicit form.An. S" T.~ 1 (4. 0'2 ~ O'~ ~ R (4. 3) cases of the above criterion 0'] ~ XT. Thus the fracture mechanics concepts without any homogenization do not hold for composite material system s. tensor polynomial criterion as: stress criterion Us ~ S 0'& ~ (0'] . + F'. Hence.. are satisfied. A few comments are in order on strain versus stress based criteria.3are discussed below.3 . The stress based data i. failure is assumed to occur if any oC the <.2) if3~ZfT' ifs~Tf where (f1. ~ Xcr . more accurate measure since it is directly obtained from the strain gages. respedively.4) ("'( -. + R)(lTs .3-3) and ignoring the higher order terms in both the equations.2. ZIT) are the lamina normal strain strengths in tension along the (1.0'.3) [18l). (4. 0'2. However. i.

( z.F2• F2F• = --2(4. = R.)2 + ("s)' ~ 1 Ii T + (1 . ) ("2 + 1(5.. criterion can be expressed a. F.train (polynomial) criterion The maximum . 512. --+.. = --2- The remaining strength constants are zeros..2) "'' ' (4.train criterion can be expressed as a tensor polynomial criterion: (EI .+ .5.5) 1 --+12513 -.)(E..2) "1"2. R. compressive strengths in the 1. .ite Lamin.) = 0 Using the compliance matrix and the constitutive (4.1 (51352' 512).Ate. we can be express Eq.3 ..". .)«4 + 14)«5 .(.5. + 5. = =Si.".tioa Fu=513_1_+ 511XTXC .(.C)(f..3-6) in the form of equation (4. YT. - 5')("1 . 1 F6I=T2"."s) 2 0"1 + (IYT .3 .-YC "2 1) (4. = YTYC ..c)x (4. 1) + ("4)2 + (". + 5. oj Com-po. . - T. are the components of compliance matrix. ."2)2 ".A ~A Ir. F.Anal) . FIF2 FJ2 --2-.(5511522 523) FA ".C)(E2 . S. All other strength tensor terms are zero. in the maximum . Ft. XT.3 directions.3 directions.X.2 . Maximum . Zc are the «4 - R.522 I'PT 2 522 2 S225u FIF.. and FIA. 513_1_+ 51252..T are the shear strengths in the 23. Fu I YTYc . Fn 1 = 1 ZTZC ._1_ 533 ZTZC -sr. 2 511533 +1) FfFf 1 F.Y. = ZTZC .. F22 = F. Initi.)«.2 .2. (xf + (V)' + (~)' Hoffman'8 criterion . = XTXC .9) s where 1 1 S. + Y. criterion..-YTYC -!( 5f. + . .(.A -..I) XT 5.. etc.Xc .Za)(f. 5.A are the expressions given for Flo F2. + Z.)(".2.3 .) 2 1 + 2" (5..f)' + (¥)' ~1 Hoffman's criterion is expressed as . Xc. + 5r 2 I . ZT are the tensile atrengthl in the 1. Tsai-Hill's criterion Hili'. + .2.3-3) as: relation.6) In the above expression SII. 1 ..)( •• + T. Yc. 13.. 124 125 FtJilne: Dam.2)"1"'+ (7ir + ('.T)(EI + X.3-8) 1 2" (5 • + S.T)(f. 12 planes.x. Zc . respectively.."d P"'fN . io" Fll = x:.

. However.3 -14) F._!__ Xc i F.Tsai-Wu's criterion The T ..bilily to predict = X' 1 i F" = Y' .3 -12) where Gr.XTXC tensor terms are zero.. Y. the values of FI. and Fij : criterion for the FI where = XT _!__ .. = R' iF •• = 1 52 i F.. criterion i... in damage mode..ilure F. F.. M. Yc. respectively. Ihal have modes of failures..4 = R' iF ss 1 = 52 i Faa = 1 T2 i 1 Fu = 2 JXTXCYTYC . i (4. without regard to the mode of recenl years these criteri .. + 2.....3 . 1 = T' i 1 Compressive: Ul=-- F12 FIS = -~2 (1. (4. a special case of the tensor polynomial following choice of the paramelers F. YT. are zero. = _!_ YT 2. Hashin [23J suggested a set of failure criteri . X' Y' = -~ 2 _!_) Z.. . + _!_ _ 2. l-k (4.16) . Fu = Z2 i 1 1 (4. = 2... G. and D'.3 . (see the .2 = YTYC i Fu = ZTZC F.3 . The values of X.3 . Fibe. therefore.13) It should be noted thai in Hill'.. ZT or as Xc. = 0 FH Hashin's criteria The criteria reviewed above were to predict initial failures.10) Hoffman'. 1( 1 1 1) (4..0'. do nol appear. i-Wu criterion is given by (4. These are reviewed resin modulus and k is volume fraction ratio. Yc' ZT _!__ Zc 1 Fl1 = XTXC 1 1 i F. Zc depending upon the sign of 0'1.. _ 2. criterion the linear terms in CT..tri~ f. have been also used to identify [20)).3 -11) Other strength FIS = 1 1 1 1 2 JXTXCZTZC 2v'YTYCZTZC F'3 = -2' ZTZC + YTYC . Sirength lensors for this criterion are: F..) X' Y' (4.15) (_!_ + Z· 1.. F. Z are laken as either XT. failure Tensile: originally developed failure. = -~ 2 All olher strength (2.) Y' Z· X' Tensile: tensor terms are zero. and F.

.ll:eifsnider (Ed. 5. "Analysis of Local Delamination... RF6386. J.. Failure Analysis of Composite Laminates with Transverse Shear. pp. A. 469-478 (1987). Brookfield Center. R." Journal oj Compo.. Highsmith. E.nce on Ezpenmental Mechamc" Part I.. O'Brien T. 40-62 (1982). STP 775. ... and Their Influence on Composite Laminate Behavior" Delamin. "Delaminatio~ Under Tension. Delaware.. L.. E. ting and De. "Characterization of Delamination Onset and Growth in a Composite Laminate. STP 877. Talreja. I. 0' 13 Reifsnider •• . G... 3. pp. Y. 1992. Reddy. AFFDL-TR-72-71. pp.J [or Compo. 355-375 (1985). Robbins Stresses W.." P . Material" J. K.. S.. 17.. 121-136 (1985).. pp. ICF6. Reddy. 25 (3).ite A~at. of Sizth Int. and Chan.. 0. of Mat. Reifsnider. Philadelphia. (SESA. Johnson.3 -18) Recently. J. S. Honolulu.. Materi. 18.. 14. A Variational Approach.Compressive: :0 [(~~f + D. December 4-10.. Structur . S. STP 775.." Proce..ll.)..c. Newark. Verlag." Local.ite Mat~rialJ T. P.tion and De&onding Material. 393-405 (1990). Sandhu. 2. J. "A First-Ply Failure Anal. O'Brien T. Reddy. A'merican Society for Testing Materials. L. W." Journal of Comp.. Structure" 19.. Reddy and K. 0.rial. College Station. L. 9.riall. Graphite/Epoxy L. A. of the fnd American Societ~ Compo. 1.mational Conf." Technical Report.. 7. K. (1982). 93-105 (1977). 0. II.ria!. pp. 44.I" 19.. K.ri. Ochoa. Y.. O.). 371-93 (1987).- 6. "A Survey of Failure Theories Materials. Hashin.ite Mat. American Society for Testing Matenals.. K. A. Application of the failure criteria described here for the prediction of first-ply-failure and progressive failure loads are presented in Chapter 5.on-Linear.. "Stiffness-Reduction Mechanisms in Composite Laminates.. SpringerD.~/ + ui ul = 1 . Philadelphia.2 (4... O'Brien T. M... J. and Reifsnider.. Ed... of Isotropic and Anisotropic a' M. pp. O.. 282-297 (1985). and Reschke. Ochoa. R. "Analysis of Cracked Laminatea: chani . in Compo. and Reddy. J. 11. N.. in Quasi-I~otrop{c Graphite-Epoxy Laminates. "Assessment of Free Edge Due to 15. pp. J. The resuhs of these studiea will be discussed in the sequel. Reddy and his colleagues [17-19] studied first· ply failures in composite laminate.ding.. Texas A&M University." Lam- 12. Ed. 1987. STP 775.'edingl oj the SESA/JSME Joint Confer.. Hawaii. "A Parametric Study of Strain Energy Release Rates of Compression Members.. 227-255 (1992). Ochoa. W. and Ochoa. and Pandey. and Lee.aminates. CT). rch.. Henneke. American Society for Testing Materials. pp.. K. L. and Structure." Compute . "Delamination .' K. "The Effect of Delamination on the Tensile Strength of Unnotched: Quasi~Isotropic. 236-243." Compo. S. pp. and Engblom. 151-163 (1989).rials. "Therrnomeehanical Response Characterization of High Temperature Structures. Philadelphia. N. Cbaracterization Computational of Lam_inates MechaniC".it. W. W... N. J. 12 (2). K.. S. a' 20. "Transverse Cracking and Stiffness Reduction in Composite inates.. 22-24." Journal Compo. in Composite Laminates Technology & R .lamination +ud T2 us)+ (U\~~S)2 U2US) -1 (4. Sept. Aikens. L. Heidelberg. K. Compo~ttu SCience and Technology. and Moore. and Daniel.rial'. . N. O.ign (Fourth Conference).. pp. O." Joum. Y. 6.. ASTM STP 617." Damage in Compo.1 Compo. 140-167 (1982). W. pp. (ul + ul +ul- 0' [th. 11. American Society for Testing and Materials. 1984. 4. . L. American Society for Testing Mat.." Report No. 103-117 (1982). References 1. Daniel. ] (. MaI. pp. Masters. "Progressive Transverse Cracking of Crossply Composite Laminates. 98-102 (1990). "Residual Stiffness Properties of Cracked Composite Laminates. March 1991. Bending and Torsion Loads." Journal of Compo. N. pp. II. Ochoa. J." Damag.3-17) 8." Damage in Compo." Proceeding. pp.. pp. 0.0. L. Lee. 0. Germany. Philadelphia. 1225-1243 (1990). 16. and Stinchcomb.Aft-cham". Reifsnider (eds. 10.. and Reifsnider. Ed. New Delhi. L.rence on Froctur.. "An Investigation of Cumulative Damage Development in Quasi-Isotropic Graphite/Epoxy Laminates. Talreja. 24. pp. "Damage Development Under Monotonic Loading. 1·14 (1991).sis of Composite Laminates. and Reddy. M. using the first order shear deformation theory with von Karman nonlinearity [18]. "Damage Tolerance of Composite Tubes Under Compressive Loading. Q. N. TX. W. R. Chan.. J. Mat. "Linear and ~. Z. "Analysis of Interlaminar ~Ild Failures Using a Layer-Wise Laminate Theory..

Mat. 1966). Herakovich (eds. L . paper No.• and Tsal. F . Recent Advanc .it.• from a tape and fabric. 28. 18. G.1 Introduction Additional Papers on Failure and Progressive Failure Studies: In this chapter we discus.• "A Progressive Failure Model of Composite L .L 1969). P .tite Material.. Apri 8-10. (July 1984).. J.2-1. Petit.• and Knight! Jr . F. of the IUTAM Symposium held at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. A typical form of these defects is interlaminar delamination. 2 (1). and the damage often extends into many layers of the laminate.• and Waddoups.. are prone to delamination during manufacturing operations such as drilling. This difference in the lamina architecture influences failure progression and therefore the load varying ability of the laminate. and Mater. AI AA{ AS M E / ASC E / AH S / ASC 24th Structur . W . Ccmposite . The laminates are manufactured from different types of preprege. S. 556-577 (1991). S.ite Material s. Quite often drilling causes delaminated regions around the circumference of the hole. W . "A New Look at Commonly Used Failure Theories in Composite Laminat . Sandhu. Z. S.• "A Progressive Damage Model for Laminated Composites Containing Stre. 1991.. Baltimore. The propagation of these delaminations is one of the most serious problems in failure of composite parts :lJ. 4 (2). Soni.• "A Comparative Study of Failure Envelops in Composite Laminates.• and Sun. Engelstad." in Mechaniu oj Compo. Soul.. Hashin and C. C . R. S. 5.. S. Behavior of Laminated Composites. H.• Sendeckyj. Yamada. S.s Concentrations. J. 31. (Proceeding.• and Gallo. E . 329-334 (1980). 171 (1983)... W ." 5.. Conference." Technical Report..2-1. T ." SAMPE Quarterly 19. S. P .86 em x 3. i. pp.2--1 Preliminary 29.• "Nonlinear Elastic Behavior of Unidirectional Composite Laminates.. Journal 0/ Ap- 24." AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS{ASC 32nd Structure •• Structural Dynamic •• and Material. R . 1.. The holes in the remaining specimens exhibited induced backside del ami131 . F_ K . Tsai. Tsai. Oompcsite Materials.. "A Method of Predicting the Nonlinear Journal 0/ Compo. Z .• "A Survey of Macroscopic Failure Criteria ala. Hashin.rial •• 3 (Fcb. Hahn. pp. E. (July 1988). Y . (July 1973). N . T.• and Tang. M.• "Strength of Laminated AIAA Journal. D . 34-42 (1983).• "Failure Strength of Nonlinearly Elastic Composite Laminates Containing a Pin Loaded Hole. The objective of these case studies is to bring out certain physical features that influence design of composite structures. 21. C. T .5 in (22.ite Material. 27. and Ch .• "Post buckling Response and Failure Prediction of Flat Rectanllu ar Grpahite-Epoxy Plates Loaded in Axial Compression. August 16-19. Chang. S. H.. P.. pp. Tan. 1982). Pergamon Press. the results of specific composite structural problems that are analyzed using the theories and computational models developed in the previous chapters.].21." Journal 0/ Rein/orced Pltuties and Compo.• "Compression Respanse of Laminated Composites Containing an Open Hole. pp. as shown in Table 5.. 1987).• "Failure Criteria for Unidirectional plied Mechanic •• 41.minates Containing Openings. M . L . New York.• N. Here we illustrate a simple simulation of this practically important problem with two selected laminates. 30. A single 3/16 in (• and Azzi. Chang. S. they are valuable in the design of similar laminates.." Journal 0/ Compo. (Sept.ite Materiab. MD. for Composite Materi- 22. Con/erence.76 mm) diameter hole is drilled in each of the 9 in x 1. Chapter 5 Case Studies 5.e . AIAA-91-0910-CP.• "Modeling of the Failure Process in Notched Laminates. Advanced composite material. p. AFWAL-TR-84-4025. 23. 32. 25. While the conclusions drawn in each case apply to that particular as shown in Figure 5.2 Modeling of delaminations comments around loaded holes 26. R. 25. In some specimens the holes are drilled to perfection and they are referred to as "control" holes." Journal 0/ Compo.81 em) test coupons. These delaminations are generally worse on the drill exit side of the laminate. pp. 296-301 (Feb. K. V.. 33.• Reddy. 119-189 (1982).• Lessard." Journal 0/ Compo.ite Material s. K." Journal 0/ Compo. Structural Dynami .

cornprr-ssj ng t he material along its path.007 in (.2-1 Drilling induced fastener hole delamination.0055 in_(. L_ __ _l_(_2. in addition to the COUpOIl> and uthers replace tilt: pin with various load distributiuns.gure .2--'1. In the resting configur atiou .4 GPa) 0. At higher loads..8 Msi (5.1. Table I I 5.. around the circumference of the bole [2. Experimentally obtained loads (or a pin loaded coupon are presented in Table 5. A photograph of the loading mechanism [tension-bearing] is pr-esented in Figure 5.4 GPa) 5.1·1 Msi (35. 5.2-2. Thus.nations.:!-3.6 ki'i) I -W8~ Stress in Pin (185 ~IPa) 2·151(.2 ·1 Laminates used in the drilling study. ~ Drill Exit Side Figure 5. Thus nodal loads that reprr-sent 70% tension load are applied along the right end of the coupon t c represent the top grip of the tes t iug frame. FatigU~1 Configuration 18 Ply Tape Ply Fabric I Bearing Maximum I I ~ 5:iOOib. 18 Ply Tape 10/~45/_OL=_451~/45/901 ~ 24 ~I.2--2 Loading The pin loaded coupon under tension i!> simulated with a finite element model. 10 Ply Fabric 45.6 kN) ·12001\" _~~87 110 6380lb.2-2 Pin Bearing Static Test Results fur Control Load at _failure I Coupons.178 mm) Figure 5. (15. the test frame exerts 30% of the t ot al tension load at the pin . as shown ill r. . the effects of the pin contact are represented as an evenly distributed pressure. the pin applies a compressive force on the coupon.-1 GP. I Load 3500 Ib.!l_~_I<~!l__I:IPuL~ k~L_~ There are several opticus in modeling the load t rnuefer Lt'lWC("Il the pin and hole.80 Msi (5.38 ~Isi (35.2-2. The action of the pill is simulated by a distributed load applied to its contact surface.2-2 Bearing-tension fatigue test frame. the pin pe-ne t ra tes into the coupon. rather than modeling the pin it self.14 1I1. The results reported are an average of nine tests for each configuration with a control hole.i (165. A schematic of the test coupon and its loads is shewn in Fi~. Some of the more elaborate methods include physically modeling the actual pin. such as a sinusoidal one.5 GPa) 0.:1(23. 'llris assumpticn of half pin contact leads to a uniform p ress ure dis t ri Lu t iun in Front of the pin and ItO load behind the pin. As the testing frame pulls the coupon and frame assembly in tension.31. Table Properties 5. where lJ denotes the diameter of the hole 5.139 mm) IO/( ±45)~~_ 5.5 GPa) 1.5D).5 GPa) 0.i (35.03 I D.) 0. The avcrugc &iLC is the dclarninations are controlled to be twice the hule diameter (2D) and one and half times the hole diameter (1.!IOj.3 0.

Ut'Studlt'3 5. about the y and l: axes. (fJw/fJ£.nal~. y = a lim-}. 3.1]. all five degrees of freedom are bet to zero). 3.n. ·130 nodes and 2150 degrees of freedom before the application of boundary conditions. The element formulation is based all the classical pl at e theory assumptions: (1) thickness is small in compur-ison to plane dimcnsjon s. Figure 5. uw/By).11t l. Each nude has five degrees of freedom (see Fig.2 3 Computut icuul models Finite clement analysis is performed on a microcomputer with a 11S DOS based program. /~--------~-+------------~~ --~0·':. Since the coupon geometry.2-·3 Actual pin loading and its numerical simulation.7 1) are applied along the bottom line of the computational domain [i. and assumed d elumination shape are symmetric about the long axis of the sperimen .I' II' C.t . Symmetry boundary conditions (SS~I.d in the stlldy. The model has 378 dements. (1) all dieplacement s are small in comp arison to the plate t lucknese: (:\) a ~trajght line normal to surface remains straight after deformation. assumed load distribution... Algor [. is used as the computational domain. . a 11 al f symmetry mudd. ~PI I P-L'I+P} Figure Figure 5.3 2).2 -5 The finite dement mcs h usc.t u] COrnpOHh: Lam1nll. u}: one out-of-plane displacement (w)j and two rotuticns. as shown in Figure 5.. a slugle ucde ou the left end i~ fully cons t ruined (Le. respectively. :H'e Fig. (5) each material layer is linearly elastic.3 la): two in-plane displacernent s [u . Displuccrneut s U and v are constrained at the fixt·d end of the model. To remove the rigid body modes .2-4 A schematic of loads on test coupon.4. A fou r node -omposi te plate ('IC01(. (4) intcrlaminar transverse normal and shear stresses are neglected..2-5.e.ascd on t1w assumptions of clussh-al plate theory is used (see Sec. 3.(11 J o.

a value of 1000 psi (6. Figure 5.. eomplications in the development of numerical models.. Thus by varying the properties in these three zones. 24010 '1 B71190 '264000 Static Control Fatigue Control 1. The four curves of Figure 5.2~ Definition of delaminalion zones. and 012 in damaged layers are reduced to low values.5D delamination regions are created by assigning undamaged material properties 10 zones A and B and reduced material properties to zone C.2-7 Inplane normal slress. which could be critical near the holes edge.2-4 5. B. As shown in Figure 5. Since Ihe aetual magnitudes of the moduli of the damaged material are not known. 5. of the coupon are given reduced properties. these two-dimensional models give insight into the conditions surrounding the hole. It i.t an interrace is assumed to be annular.2-5 Result. or drill exit side. Two effeetive delamination zone diameters of 1. Note Ihal the stre •• is zero in laminae 12-18 for l.0D delamination region is crealed by assigning undamaged material properties to zone A and reduced properties to zones Band C.e Sludle. Zone A represenls the region of the coupon which. in this ideal case. with the inner diameter being the diameter D of the hole. Ihe Ihrough-the-thickness transverse atressee.0D region. during fatigue load. 0/ Compo. In the numerical model. representing coupons with control holes.2-7 show the stress distributions of coupons with control hole and. Despite these shortcomings.0D hole s. 120000 r-----------------------. while zone B represent. the damaged region on Ihe bottom side. l. are nol included in this planar model. it is observed that 30% to 40% of the coupon thickness from the drill exit side contained delaminated layers. CB A Figure 5. and discussion The actual damage zones caused by drilling have been documented through the use of both X .2-6.5D and 2D are studied.2-9. This creale. noted Ihal the inhomogeneity of the delaminated material in the damaged zones around Ihe hole is not accurately represented by an element under the assumption of linear elastic behavior. The corresponding stress contour plots {or the element located on Ihe hole boundary directly in front of the pin in the 18-ply·tape (0/45/0/ 45/0/45/90/ .0D delamination. 5.2-7 illustrates the through-the-thickness variations of the inplane normal stress un. and they are found to be of different size. and C are given undamaged material properfies in the model.89 X 10· N/m2) is used to approximate zero stiffness.5D and 2. This location is asso- . The stress distribution of a control coupon subjected 10 sialic failure load is also shown. Zones A.ite Laminote. From the study of optical micrographs. the 2. the moduli Eh E2..SD Ilelnm 2. the damage region a. we can use one mesh to represent the damaged and undamaged coupons. Simulation oC damage sites 136 137 Co.2-8 and 5. Under Ihe assumption that a delaminated layer is much less stiffer than a bonded or undamaged layer. specimen are shown in Figs.C7n. the 2. As an approximation. Secondly.rail and ultrasonic C-scans.b=====dJ 3 Layer Number 10 11 12 13 14 15 lB 17 18 Figure 5. Models that represent 1. shape and length. The models presented above are two-dimensional linear approximations of the states of etre •• in the coupons.5D and 2.0D Delnm '-------1 '380000 . remains unchanged for all magnitudes of delamination.A not"i. contours through the thickness for 18 ply tape laminate (evaluated in element 2 located at O· around the hole).45/90).5D diameter region. zone C represents the 1. Similarly.

and l. 7 and 11 in coupons with delamination.._ _ _ _ 1 . 16358..1..2-0 1. Figure 45001 5. -95920.2-10 Through-Ihe-Ihickness variation of (un) for 10 ply fabric leminate (evaluated in element 2 located at 0° around the hole).. The difference in the contour plots are attributed to the influence of the simulated backside damage.9'05 724'17..... The earlier research activities evaluated the effecla of single circular and elliplical cutouts [5-11J.49'05 2.8e<l!l5 1. The presence of multiple layers as well as the anisotropy of the material system establishes a new challenge in terms of optimizing the cutout goemetry. Fa __ Sialic • t.2-9 illustrate the distribution of stress around the hole for a specimen with control hal.2-8 and 5._ _J __ ._..AnalrsU oj Compolite Laminate. This confirms the experimentally ohserved phenomena that fabric configuration provides more resistance to delamination (see Table 5. A cutout may provide a passage for hydraulic linea. respectively. 44429. . -11711. __ L-_~ __ -'-_--' __ .. ~ -iI_ '13_ 5.. -39791. and on a larger scale.3 Cutouts in composite. IW Call.5D hole: stress (un) tape laminate. Similar results are presented in Figure 5. avionic harnesses. contours in the lop layer (0°) of 18 ply ----Contrci CanIroI 10112 • .5DDIIam ~DDIIam . -67950.le·05 1.6e·05 1. 1.2-10 for the IO·ply·fabric (O/(±45).2-2). Studiu ciated with the drill exit side with delaminations where very low moduli values are used.. Figures 5.)..~ EFigure 5. ·2_ '" !.5D delaminated zone.5e·05 1. coupons. Note that the inplane stresses are much smaller in the fabric coupons versus the tape coupons. 11. An increase in the magnitudes of the compressive and tensile stresses is observed in laminae Ii..2-8 Control hole: stre •• (uu) contours in the top layer (0°) ofl8 ply tape laminate.3-1 Introduction An area of critical stress fields for load-carrying members is near cutouts. an access door in an aircraft fuselage. 2..J 10 5 8 Layer Number Figure 5.

pidy • Jo where q is the distributed edge load. 'I). The selected stacking sequences for the 9 in x lin coupons are: (0/45/ . is employed.3-2 Computational model. on the identification of localised high stre •• and strain region. 45/0/90)2 •.69 GPa. Eight-noded shell elements with reduced integration. Primary emphasis i.3-1 The eight-noded shell and twenty-noded brick elements. ¥. . Patran II soflware [14] i.3-1 (also Bee Fig. Degrees of Freedom: u.d is simulated as a distributed load applied along the e-axis at the edge of the specimen. Parametric studies are undertaken to reflect the differences in the selection of stacking sequences.w 1IIIl:~Cll o~ement Figure 20 brick clement 1 5.45/90)2. (3. E2 = 8. The material system used is IM7/977-2. Figure 5. and !I axes. Symmetry boundary conditions are imposed along the .140 141 Ctue Studiu The present discussion will focus on the study of flat tensile coupons with multiple cutouts and a hat stiffened panel with a cutout in the web section [12. then converted to .13].13]). neutral file.3-2 Global to local transformation. Two-dimensional.pi is the interpolation function at element node i. three displacements and two rotations as presented in Figure 5. and solid elements with twenty nodes. only eight integration points for the EI = 160. Effects of transverse shear are included in the formulation in the same way as in the first order shear deformation plate theory. where q is the magnitude of the uniformly distributed load and b is the width of the element..6-1).. The iscparametric interpolation function used for the displacements is based on the corner and midaide node •. a general purpose FEM code for structural analysis [see [15]).45/90)2. S8RS.325. The shell element has five degrees offreedom per node.3-14): F. The solid element presented in Figure 5. the corner node. GI2 = 4.v.. "12 = 0. The neutral file i. The distributed edge load is then translated to consistent nodal loads using Eq. 3. and thus. The values of stress and strain are extrapolated from the integration points to the nodes. cutout size. (V. The tensile loa. (45/5. carry q6/6 and the midslde nodes take on 4qb/6. Reduced integration is used with 2 X 2 Geusslan quadrature points. eight-noded elements with reduced integration are used to evaluate the in-plane stress and strain response of the test coupons with three aligned cutouts that are subjected to axial tension loads. used as input to ABAQUS. Due to the biaxial symmetry of the problem.6 GPa. and geometry (see [12. (0/45/ ..3-1 is a quadratic isoparametric serendipity element.~ = (I q. 6 is the length of the element side along the !I-axis. C3D20R. in order 10 warn the designer of potential hazard •. with the following properties: reduced integration element are used. and . namely. Evaluating the integral for a uniformly distributed load along the width of a quadratic element. used to develop the nodal and element geometry. Once again. are used from the ABAQUS element Iihrary. we obtain That is. only one quarter of the specimen is modeled.48 GPa.

the magnitudes of 0"11 in the 0· layer in different laminates are illustrated in Figure 5. The boundary conditions for the three dimensional region are obtained from the displacements of the two-dimenaionel global model./45/0.7 mm diameter cutout through each web center. laminate. 1£ the laminate is modeled with a solid element per lamina. In analyzing the specimens with circular cutouts and subjected to • inplane tensile load..3-5a and 5.4 mm vertical from the panel.3-3 Results The following observations are based on investigation of flat coupon."'A'" • -. The cutout i.45/0/90)'.. For the 50% cutout siee (inerea se from 6. This loading is representative of the in-flight loading incurred by a otiffenned wing skin. Figure I) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 ANGULAR POSITION AROUND CUTOUT (dec. Figure 5.2% for the O' ply. with cutouts. are altered by varying the 'tacking sequence oC a laminate. '-.45/0/45/0). with a 12. However. 1800 1620 1440 __ .Ano/y"i" 0/ Compo"ite Lomin4h!1 142 143 When high stress regions are identified at a particular location._ 360 180 0 Figure 6.3-3 Hal .3-2 illustrates the global-to-local remodeling schematically. The refinement allow. a decrease oC peak value by 10% in the 90' ply for hoth the (0/45/ . The angular position is measured counter-clockwise from the loading axis. The skin configuration is a (45/ .45/90). Similarly. positioned 79. it is observed that the layup (0/45/45/90)21 results in a decrease of 0"11 by 7. The in-plane stre •• field. a layup of (45/0. the tran •• eree . then that region i.3-5b indicate the influence oCthe diameter change. and is located 25./45) ie used. Stress contour plots in Figs. The stiffener web is three layers of ±45' fabric. 6 • around Ihe cutoul.-. 'I'hls response is due to the raet that the cutouts are closer to each other as well as to the edges oCthe specimen.35 mm to 9. 5. in other words. This approach increases the efficiency oC the simulation since only a part oC the two dimensional model is considered for the three dimensional enelyele. •••• 0".. 27. Corfurther study. For example.. . 45/-45/0/9015 0/45/-45/902S 45/0/-45/90}S 90/-45/45/015 J' 1260 . the calculation of both Ihe inplene and inlerlaminar sire •• field •• which may help inlerpret potential failure modes. 1080 w W _J (f) > 900 720 (n \. •• how. circular cutout. In a first-order shell kinematics. the stress increase i.3% for "22 in the 90' ply. and the (45/ . layup •.-.4 mm from each panel edge.3-4 as a function of the angular position. a straight line before deformation remains straight after deformation.) 80 90 Next we consider the response of a hat-stiffened panel of Figure 5.3-4 Variation of stress 0"11 around the cutout on O· ply for various laminates and 0.9% Cor "11 in the O' ply and 17. 5.25in. then the constraints imposed by shell kinematics are no longer valid. remodeled wilh Ihree-dimensionallwenty-noded brick element. The lIange is reinforced with 0' plies.5 mm diameter). It Is observed that the str ••• intensity around the cutout within each ply Increases with the sise of the culout. Shell clements are used in the modeling throughout the structure..tiffened panel.3-3 with a cutoul in Ihe web section subjected 10 bending loads. one should use caution in converting the shell displacement field to boundary conditions Cor the solid model.45/90/45/0/45/0/ .J (/) a:: 540 .

. ) in 0·.15 3.. Therefore. The peak "11 levels in Ihe 0·... Figure 5.5 2. KTt by which a comparison or the various geometries is made.25 in. even though the strese concentration faclor i. the critical de.. square 45/90h. ("11) conlour". ) in 90· layer of Ihe (0/45/ . _ '..·h. laminate under tensile load..ling 10 note the KT values in Ihe ±45° plies are . higher.21 8. Table 5.22 3.3~ Stre •• (1711) eontours of 0.ignificantly higher. for circular culouts in (0/45/ .144 145 0 0 Cue Sfu .45/90h.26 Square Diamond r'C. laminate . and -45· layers and (1722/ . It i. cutout.Iress concentration factor.. and 90· plies in Table 5. (a) 0. 450."'.92 7. cutout.II'::' Figure 5.08 2. (b) 0. inlere.375in... .. '• s -I. in O· ply and "22 stre .3-15 Slr~".Ire •• e.. 10 represent a global .:'.15 ·45 4. 45 .45·. The peak "11 .3·1. cutout for (0/45/ - . laminates under tensile load.56 2.ign criterion i•• till based on the "11 stre •• e..34 3.53 Culoul Shape Circular (a) 0 2.3-1 Values of (1711/17 . in Ihe 90· ply are normalized by their respedive far field value. apparent that Ihe best choice for a cutoul shape would be a square..45/90h. it i.n' t. in Ihe ±45° plies are aclually one-half the values of "'11 in the 00 ply. The stre •• concenlration result. -45·.25in. -45 plies and "22 level. in the 90· ply.99 90 2. In all plies. :::. 45 4. are tabulated for Ihe 0·.

and COlli ain primarily ~c·l. In the hat stiffened panel. while the (901 . in Figure 5..' ~ .3-8 1 C STRl ~(. It is interesting to note thnt the (0/15/ .. the shear stresses arc an order of magnitude less than the normal stress. peak rru occurs at '" = 74'. the cutouts are located in the web se-ction \\ hich contains three layers uf ::t. .. peak r1'zzoccurs at a-45°. stress levels of C!zz are reported at one ply thickness (187 I" m) and two ply thicknesses (374 I" 111).should note that it has a singularity there. f-- I I I i '.3-fi. Stress contou-s in the . Peak values of Un ncar the free edge arc evaluated in each of the four layups with 6. laminate has "u st. contours in 15° ply 1)[ 0.45/90). while the angle fur (90/. Therefore. at which the peak interl amin ar normal stress occurs.tifrf'!l('r web. for (45/ . st resses . Uzz.! 15 MPn) )0 Peak (0'.:~5 mrn circular cutout. Then' arc still conccutretions of stresses at the corners. stress along Oe ply.3-7 Cutout reference angle.45/45/0)'.u. (J'u is of primary concern. Another bu t the 0": ply l I failure rucde of interest is delamination caused by interlnmin ar shear and O"y.J Figure 5. is 90'. tile cvidence su pport s the use of diamond shaped cutouts in rq~i('1ls of it st ruc ture which are p nmarilv 111 shear j'Jiu:mg. Fur the specimen geometry and loading. and normal stress.) stresses at one ply thickness from cutout edge for various laminates. rcspr-rti vely.45/45/0)z.3~·9 and 5.j' fibers Figure 5.z. For the (0/45/.. shown in Figure 5. Although stress levels are low due to low input loads.45/91J). These peak values are plotted through the thickness for each stacking sequence and respective angle Q in Figures 5. Unique to each sterking sequence is the angle Q.3-8. laminate bas an overall reduced st ress through the thi cknoss. L _ ..")::l ply arc shewn in figure 5.3 9 St rese (0'11) ~. of the Rather than giving rise to dominant is distributed between stress singularities at the the L I cut ou t .til> 117 The is apparent corners fad that when st resses studyillg at the corners s tress of the square around are the the not a major cutout concern shown the contours squar-e singularities r ~ I .rcss that is large. cirt-ul nr cutout ill hat .J .1" laminate.1.3"-7. i / I Ct ~1 . Figure 5. laminates. Therefore.5 in.~5') cloth. The web sec tion mostl y carries shear stresses throughout.:~-10 f!g the Circular and diamond r u t out . redistributes the stress such that these singularities are reduced.15/0/90)" and (15/0/ . (lu (I'll. In analyzing Uzz near the free edge vi the cu t out .15/90):. However. onr.

de Lllmmatu I. For this scenario. in the presence of cross-oyer debonds and crimp angles within a unit cell.4-1 Prulirninary comments The analytical techniques presented here address the constituent interactions. namely. we will use numerical simulations of the unit cell to illustrate the changes in the moduli in the presence of these defects. debonds and weave misalignment. In order to increase the density. this corresponds to a square cutout oriented 0° from the material axis. In general. A quarter model of the cell is presented in Figure 5. As can be seen. Since the experimental observations using microscopy are restricted to one plane at a time. many details through the depth cannot be observed. For the demonstrated case of tensile loading. weak bonds may he beneficial because they resist crack propagation and thus delay fracture. It is improper to assume that the above cited features are all detrimental.A nlll~. it is most desirable to use a rectangular geometry with sides parallel and perpendicular to the principal stress directions.3-10 Stress (Ull) contours in 45° ply of 0.19]) of the laminate. a bundle crossover region of 800 IJ In In brittle material systems. parameters of importance in modeling constitutive behavior are largely dictated by processing methods. as illustrated in Figure 5.4-2 Numerical models and discussion of the results Figure 5. it is important to assess the status of a laminate before mechanical and thermal service loads are applied.die. diamond stiffener web. and between layers. 5. such as 2-D woven carbon-carbon composites. There are many interfaces in a woven composite that are affected. As illustrated in the specific case of a panel with an attached stiffener to sustain out-of-plane loads. between the fiber and matrix in a bundle. Note that these architectural defects were briefly discussed in Chapter 4. In fact. square with a side of 2300 11 m. the processing of carbon-carbon composites s tur t s with a regular cure cycle of graphite reinforced thermoset matrix.brittle material systems. are accommodated in the computational models of the unit cell. The statistical characteristics generated through images taken from SEM. Therefore.4-1. The defect features. which arc observed experimentally and interpreted statistically. The ingenuity of the project lies in the idealization of the geometry and the constituent behavior of a repetitive unit cell of an eight harneu 6atin wecue. and processed through an image analyzer.5 in. This process is repeated until a desired density of the structural component is achieved.3-4 Observat ions It can be deduced that in a composite structure.4-2. prepreg. Shrinkage observed during carbonization of the matrix.4 \Vovcn I'repregs 5. Then the laminate is heated (pyrolysis) to high temperatures of about 2800° F at which the matrix material converts to char. further infiltration with resin is required.tu o[ Compo. and the presence of an oxidation protection coating adds an additional interface (see [16. The two-dimensional unit cell used here reflects the results of substantial statistical data obtained from scanning electron microscope (SEAl) observations to generate realistic dimensions for voids. a dominant percentage of fibers should be aligned with the principal stress directions. which has a thickness of a single layer [s ee [20]). In addition. For an effective composite design.17]). On the other hand. and residual stresses produced during several cycles of infiltration and heating result in a laminate which exhibits both matrix cracks and weak interfacial bonds. are built into the finite element model of the unit cell. if a cutout is required in the design. it is not always best to choose a circular cutout. in an average sense. strong emphasis should be placed on obtaining statistical data to support the numerical modeling of possible defects within a unit cell (or a representative volume) of the laminate. these weak bonds result in a low shear modulus of the laminate. called a . the plane of and the plane through the thickness (see [18. the ±45° fiber orientation with a diamond cutout (a square oriented 45° to the material axis) proves to be an efficient cutout. Therefore a two-dimensional unit cell may be developed based on SBM observations in two orthogonal planes. For . between bundles. the stress in the web is predominantly shear. 5.jH CtlUl Stll. cutout in hat 5. The unit cell is approximated by R. Since these anomalies affect the mechanical and material response.

-I_o-+_+-__ ""H.t:=.-I-"T T r rr *r._ 1.M.--r II I I A. The debond in the initial calculations is treated as an isotropic material with a very low elastic modulus.+---J-...-1--+ -+--+--+---1-....-~ I I I I I I I -. ~ y L ~ Vend 1 til-rl-I-I--~ I..2 .~ III~+-l--lI IIIII I I I I IIIII I I I -+ -+-...001 Ezz...--~ __ - _..~-+-+--I--+--+. The material properties used in the analysis are given in Table 5..0006 "'12 . -+--+-------+---~ +.----r--.-..3 0.4-1. -+--+-~_~_-+..i.- I I I I I I I I I t. these values account for the influence of the crimp angle (see [21)). it is treated as a homogeneous. -+..+--11 H H++-+--j---+---l----+ '__--+-+--tlll!-+-+++-+--+--~ ...r I I I IIIII I I I I I I IIIII I I I luy -r t--i-t-iIIIH++-t-t--+--t+-.---I------..__ ~.rameters.150 151 is modeled with an adjacent de bond of length 240 Il m. Since the material near the crossover region consists of warp and fill yarns.-- ux -+.___ - --4.4-1 Material properties used in the unit cell... ttll.. However. The material properties of the bundle crossover section are taken to be those of a specially orthotrcplc material. .__.._ -l-.. warp ~illing" b[_ .-+.. Otlhntro:)ic _ l_-_==:J Figure 5. specially orthotropic material. Table (b) Debonds and variations in a woven lemma 5.----Cen EU. pa.1 0.-+.. II~ -I----I-~_1_ --+._.--4.l\ndrJ" II I I I I I I I I I I J.7_l_ rl'1 If.1 0._..-.--+. .-....4-2 Finite element mesh of the unit cell. Debond 0.i 14..4-1 \Voven lamina.~ Figure 5.... I I I I I t--i-t-ittttt++-t-t---t--t- Fu~R~ (a) Schematic of a woven unit cell t---t--I t.Msi 14.-f..001 G12'~!i..-1-..-+-.

. This subroutine enables the incremental analysis to check for failure strain in each element.. Bilinear interpolation functions are used for the displacements. The nonlinear geometric option with a special user-developed material subroutine is used.. Figure 30 to 5.t each load increment is carried out prior to load incrementation.------------------------------------------.4-3 Global stress-strain unit cell. appropriate material coefficients are reduced and residual stresses are calculated.152 153 Cue StUie' The four-node transverse shear deformation shell element. The element has six degrees of freedom. ~ rJi " Increment 6 20 a . As can be observed. the load carrying ability is significantly reduced due to the presence of a debond {or strains greater than 0. at each integration point and at each load level.4 3.It 'ult : 1500~t ''\llt : )( 0 0 1000 2000 Global Figure 5. . Equilibrium iteration a. Uniform displacements in the e-dlrectlon are used to simulate tensile loads at the right edge..002 in/in. per node. (IJE) cu! t = 2500 4000 Ex 5000 6000 response at difTerent strain allowable. Reduced integration (i.ll 0 o 10 + • t'11 t e- 2000 J. in the Figure 5.4-5 Stress ( . The failure criterion based on allowable strain is used.4-4 Stress (a. The stress-strain curves are presented in Figure 5. In the event of failure. 3000 no void 2000ue . . ) in unit cell subjected to tension. is selected for the models. the biaxial symmetry is used to model a quarter of the unit cell with 196 elements and 225 nodes. ) in unit cell subjected to iii :.: iO . one point rule) is employed to compute the strains and stresses.e. three displacernenta and three rotations. S4R of ABAQUS program library. For tensile loads. 40..

<T12 and <T22 are presented in Figures 5. long in the a-direction (see Figure 5._- / __ Wt / effects thout 1600 ~ 1400 ~ 1200 1000 . The hot/wet [aervice] conditions are 82' C and 90% relalive humidity. The ambient (room) conditions consist of a temperature of 22' C and 10% relative humidity (RII).5-2 Numerical models 0.154 155 Cue Shuiie. used 10 calculate interlaminar stresses. and bygroscopic load. have significant impact on the lamina properties.5 Environmentnl 5. quadrilateral element with three degrees of freedom [u.001 0.16 Msi is recommended (see Figure 5.4-6. and moduli oflaminates. In order to observe the effects of hygrothermal gradient. A quasi-three dimensional finite element model developed by Chan and Ochoa 123} i. The processing anomalies. which are measured in microns. Since the actual laminate consists of many layers of the woven fabric with random defects. the full unit cell is modeled. a rectangular laminate. 5. The significance of processing related defects is illustrated clearly in the evaluation of elastic moduli for the unit cell..4-4 througb 5. (see 122)). Extreme care should be taken to understand a prepreg architecture and processing quality before any structural modeling is attempted. For the in-plane normal atreeses. the use of an effective shear moduli of 1.0005 0. Similarly. Multipoint constraints are used on the remaining sides so that they deform as a straight line. 5. w) per node.4-7). v. In this work. Note tbat the inplane sbear stress distribution around the debond is antisymmetric. An unsymmetric (0. the effective modulus {rom Figure 5._---- 800 600 400 ~ o ff ff // 1'/ Here we review some results Cor unsymmetric composite laminates subjected to mechanical. and the symmetric (0. The approach brings out the importance of "scaling" in composite structures.5-} Introduction void Figure 2200 2000 1800 5. The shear load is simulated by applying displacements in the e-direction to tbe top surface and fixing the bottom surface. on the deformed shape.) in unit cell subjected to tension. 'I'hue./452). The cross-section of the laminate in the y .0025 shear strain Figure 5. tension and torsion tesh were performed under different environmental conditions.5-·1 ) is used. thermal.)T laminate is considered. the influence of the debond on the stress distribution is easily observed. In order to capture the response under shear load. failure modes.002 0. A uniform strain . the displacement gradients are neglected with respect to the a-direction./45.4-6 Stress (<T.0015 0. the reduction in stress magnitudes in the presence oC a debond is quite prevalent.- void --/ // /With _. it is appropriate to calculate an effective elastic modulus that can be used all a layer modulus for laminate analysis. laminate is used as the baseline. which in turn will affect the structural response of a component. The shear stress-strain response to the pure shear loading condition is shown in Figure 5. .4-7 Shear stresa-strain response with and without void.4-7. Typical stress contours of <Til.4-3 can be interpreted as 10 Msi.z plane is modeled using an eight-node isoparametric. Hence. Once again._- .

in the e-direction is applied to simulate the tension load. Z/H Figure 5.J\mhiP'1t.38 IO'GP" 10BGPa Figure 5.1 := .to- •~ U) . G12 = Gzs al properties X for the IM7 /977. OF Hot/We:. refined . --<>-- • U~-- -: 0 5.t likely to start.ymmetric half of the 7/.(J '). the full eross-sectjcn ahould be modeled for torsion loads.~ '" '" e E 50 -100 -150 21)0 -c C' 0 Ambient. s of laminate oymmelry.52 X 10-7(m/m)rC. laminate subjected .ymmetric laminates are not .traight along the length (i._ 2~ -250 . the .78 X graphite epoxy are used EI = 3..1 OJ D... the mesh i.. 0 50 0 1. . eoneist of 88 element. Note that the origin i. Therefore. for unaymmetric laminatea.0 OJ) -I r--·----· ---. distribution.. they have initial curvature).86 X IO'GPa "12 = "23 = "13 = 0.5-1 Schematic of the finite element model of a rectangular laminate.5-2. a2 = as = 1. P2 = Ps = 0. Figure 5.4392 X 10-' = O.z aection should be modeled.156 157 Cue Stuie:.4 0.U • & 40~--~~--~-L~------~---~~~~~ U.e . The boundary condition. The finile element meshes used for the half and full model. 5.5 .325 = 9.. Kz.1) 1 SO 100 5::'_ T n.5-2. respectlvely.~ . 5. Each layer is modeled with a single element through its thlckness.2 E.oY2 ---. It should be noted that un. = 1.350 . Torsion loads are applied as a constant twisting curvature.146 10X 2 (5.5-1)..5 -. for (02/452). PI = Gn = 9. with 303 node. o Norrnotir cd ii1id'ness.. The finite element mesh uaed in the quarter model consists of 44 elements with 156 nodes.OO(m/m)/%M. are shown in Fig. located at the center. and 176 elements with 589 nodea.5-2 Finite element mesh for tension model (see Fig.e. c r' I F II -~'~Y Z L Torsion Tension Only the shaded areas are modeled (b) When simulating a tenaion load on aymmetrie laminates. au .Hot/Wet. However. In all cases. en -.5-3 Interlaminar stre •• distribution to a tension load. we assume that the atrea. are aymmetric about the midplane. The mesh used to model the unaymmetric laminate subjected to tension ia presented in Figure 5. for the three model.. 300 -0' 0.. The following material in the analysi •.t trt •• . a quarter of the laminate can be modeled. Regardl .Q..t the free edge where delamination i. mo.

Under hot/wet conditlons.-. L_~_~. '0 -50 _~'"./4S. .. at the 45/45 interface nearest the center of the cro •• -section (see Fig. Figures 5.158 159 11. predicted to be completely straight at a strain level of 0.(.______.5-4 Interlaminar normal stre..s Figure 5.5-5 present the stre •• di.__________. . . .tr ../4S..• Hal/Wet . distribution.5-3 Discussion of the results 4BO 41.r :. are not symmetric. tbe largest tensile interlaminar . .. - .._ -_.' . -.-_ Ambient The interlaminar stresses for the symmetric laminate are presented in Figure 5.------<>. 2 .8 distribution subjecled to a tension load. occurs at tbe 0/45 interrace for botb ambient and hot/wet condition •. nearly straight.minar normal stresl occurs at the 45/0 interlace under ambient condltlcns. ~ . the laminate i. 5. at 45/0.~ .4. -100 b . observed al % interface and the largest compre . Tbe highest interlaminar shear stre . . • . '.tres. ive interlaminar . ./45..6 _-0-. Z/H Figure 5. --0 .5-4). Hot/Wei ----''-<>------<0 so __ -0-- Amhient o ----0- .04.. -------e--_ •.)T laminate Figure 5.00 -3S0L3----_~2-~~-~I----0L--· Norrnolized Ihicknnas 1 . the normal stre •• of largest magnitude occur. for the unsymmetric laminate subjected to an applied strain of 0.:. .l 0 1 lhickne s s. oC the interlaminar stresses are greatly increased when the hygrothermal efFech are included. the maximum interlaminar shear occurs at the 0/45 interface (see Fig.1 -1 Norrnali7nr.5-4 and 5. The laminate i.200 -2~O -:SOO -" ~~~ .2 ' -:-1 o_L3-~-_~2-~~--I-~----'-O-~~1 Ii Nor-rnulized Thickness.1. Under hot/wet ccnditlcns.5-5 Interlaminar shear .. Note that the magnitude..J ~)~) .5-5). .5-6 Interlaminar normal . -_ 0_ Ambient . atrain level.)T laminate sub- 15 3() 15 -I LO 1 /: / f/~l '-' . for (O.lT laminate . Z/II . distribution jected 10 a tension load..4 10..54)T _ N -1 ~() 2. Note that unlike the previcus str . ISO IDa for (O. there is a positive trUt which identifies this region as a possible delamination site. L/H 2 3 -. - 0--.0001 in/in.. distributions. • 2.tres.5-3.•._\--e---\ . At the % interrace nearest to the center of the cross-section. i. At thi. o 22. these . for (O. 5.6 ~2 --96 ___ () .tribution.000123 in/in.tress distribution subjected to a torsion load.. 150 1 ()5 60 "t) Q_ 352 -• !lot/Wet ''.__ -I .0 9.. The largest interla. - -3. Under hot/wet conditions.tre •• occur.

The geomelric nonlinearity in the sense of von Karman Isee Sec.. Therefore.2 .JG 0 ::'7. 5. These interlaminar stresses can cause delamination and fiber-matrix interface damage. 7/H .5-7 Inlerlaminar shear stress distribution jected to a torsion load.5-8 presents the interlaminar stresses for the symmetric laminate.160 161 1 fi2 ~ Cue Studie. 5.1 11:\ H 15. ~ From these finite element results we ean observe several trends. A significant increase in this sires.5·6 and 5. - fur ~)I~nt -.5-8 Interlaminar stress distribution to a torsion load. is observed upon addition of Ihe hygrolhermal gradients. nol much progress has been reported on analytical or numerical techniques for the failure analysis of composite structures while accounting ror geometric nonlinearity. the hygrothermalloads cause an increase in the interlaminar shear stres •. . This stress is increased at one of these 45/0 interface. The literature reviewed in the next paragraph provides a background for this study.minar shear stress and antisymmetric for the interlaminar normal stress.Z/II o ) j Figure 5.s. This symmetry is loot when the hot/wet conditions are applied. for an unsymmetric laminate they are unsymmetric. can be attributed to this increase in interleminar stress. Under tension. 2. The highest positive interlaminar normal stress occurs at the % interface nearest to the top surface. The highest interlaminar shear stress OCCUril at the 0/45 interlace.6 First-ply failure analysis of composite laminates -. the hygrothermal loads cause an increase in the interlaminar normal stresses for the symmetric and unsymmetric laminates. the decrease in the torsional resistance.). n 0 " 135. Under torsion. for (04/454)T laminate sub- Figure 5. For a symmet- () H ric laminate subjected to either tension or torsion. 11 G '"' e I] 4 (I. Note that these trends foeus on the material oystem and loading selected in the present example •.. L (" :}7 :) ). Eqs.4-9)) and transverse shear deformation etrect in Ihe sense of the first order kinematics are included.Q. Torlion Figures 5.0 107"~ 800 :x In V> " U1 (.. of composite laminates subjected to inplane and bending loads. The maximum interlaminar shear occurs at the 45/0 interfaces. when the bygrothermal gradients are applied.5-7 contain plots of the interlaminar transverse normal and shear stress distributions for the unsymmetric laminate.)0 -2 ~) 300 "' ~ c- L 575 -850 -1 Normalized 0 1 lhickne ss. The high interlaminar normal stress in the unsyrnmetric laminates subject to tension leads to catastrophic brittle failure. In this section. Although the literature i. The largest interlaminar normal stress occurs al the 45/45 interface away from the midplane.6-1 Introduction The design of composite structures requires prediction of the maximum load thai a laminate can withstand before il fails. Addition of the hot/wet condition results in an upward shift of the curve. observed during testing. N ole that these stre. lIot/W~t Figure 5. and decreased at the other 45/0 interface when the hygrothermal gradients are applied. (2.s distributions are symmetric for the interla. we present the first-ply failure analysis result. Under the hot/wet conditions there is a general increase in this stre.~ -f) "1 -!O n t-lor nutbz ed T'IIC~t1(:?SS. the stress distributions are either symmetric or antisymmetric. rich in linear elastic analysis of composite structures.4. for (02/452)T laminate subjected o 0.



The first series of analytical solutions Cortint ply failure loads were presented by Turvey [24.29J (or symmelric and antisymmetric composite laminates with simply supported boundary conditions. The analytical solutions are based on Reddy's third-order small defleclion laminated plate theory [30J. The first finite element procedure for the prediction of first ply failure loads of composite laminates subjected to transverse and in plane (tensile) loading was presented by Reddy and Pandey [31J. In that study, the effect of geometric nordinearity was nol considered. Turvey and Osman [32J presenled results for the first- ply failure loads of composite laminates subjected to uniform transverse load, including geometric nonlinearity. In their analysis, they have made use of the Dynamic Relaxation (DR) technique.

procedure. In the nonlinear failure analysiB, equilibrium steps used in the iterative procedure are listed here: Step 1 Find the displacement field


iB reqnired.



for .. small initial load

Step 2 Find the str .. ses in the global coordinates

(.,..,.,..,tT ... .,.... a•• ) ii;; in material

Step 3 Transform the global stressee to the [see Eq. (2.3-2)J Step 4 Find the maximum Step 5 Check whether failure index, F

A first-ply failure analysis is carried out by Reddy and Reddy [33J and the displacements and atresaea are computed using the finite element method. The results of this study are discussed here. 5.6-2 Problem description
Flat rectangular laminates of dimensions 9 in. x5 in. and made of T300/5208 graphite epoxy material are analyzed for first· ply failure loads. A total of four laminates with different lamination schemes are analyzed for three different types of loads, namely: (1) uniformly distributed transverse load, (2) concentraled transverse load acting al Ihe center oC the plate, and (3) in plane tensile load acting on the shorter edge of the laminate. Both simply supported and clamped boundary condition. arc used for the failure analysis. In addition to the failure criteria presented in Chapter 4 (Sec. 4.3), the following three failure criteria, namely (1) maximum 2-D strain (independent) (2) maximum strain (polynomial) with 3-dimensional state of strain, and (3) maximum strain (independent) with 3dimensional state of strain are used (see [33]). The 3-dimensional.tate of strain is achieved by relaxing the condition of inextensibility of transverse normals, which was assumed in deriving the firBt order shear deformation theory [34J (Bee Sec. 2.4-3). The present discussion is based on the work reported in [33J. The displacement finile element model of the first order shear deformation plate theory developed in Chapter 3 (also see [34-37]), is used in the analysis. It consists of Lagrange isoparametric rectangular elements with five degrees of freedom (u, v, w, (PI, 4>2) per node. Reduced integration is used for the shear stilInesses to avoid shear locking. The Newton-Raphson iteration procedure is used to solve the nonlinear algebraic equations,

the laminate

has failed or not (i.e., F?: 1)

Step 6 If F < 1, increase the load; and if F to make F= 1 Step 1 Repeat

?: 1, decrease

the load proportionately,

Steps 1 to 6 until the laminate

The maximum failure index is determined by carrying out a sequential search at certain chosen points within the laminate. The search sequence i. as Iollows: (1) Consider (2) Consider (3) Consider (4) Consider the first element oC the finite element mesh the first GauBs point within the element the first ply (from bottom the bottom of the current to top) of the laminate ply

(5) Find the failure index at that location (6) Check whether this i. greater than the previous value

(7) If yes, then store the element number, GauBB point number, ply number, location in the ply and the failure index, and go to the next location (middle of the ply, top oC the ply, so on.) (8) If answer in (6) iB no, then do not store the failure data, location and repeat (5) to (8) (9) Go to the next ply (10) Go to the next GausB point (11) Go to the next element (12) Continue the search among all the elements in the finite element mesh for the maximum failure index. but go to the next

5.6-3 Procedure for first ply failure analysis
The first. ply failure analysis is based on the assumption that a given ply will fail if the failure index, F, at any point within the ply reaches a value of unity. The failure index is defined as F F;tT, + F;jtT,tTj (see Sec. 4.3-2). The first-plj' failure load computation in the linear formulation does not require an iterative




6.6-4 Numerical models and discussion of results The laminate. considered for first ply failure analysis are made of T300/5208 graphite-epoxy [pre-preg] material, whose propertieo are taken as follows:

E, = 19.20 x 10· psi, G'2 = 0.82 x 10' psi,

E2 = 1.56 )( 108 psi, G13 = 0.82 x 10' psi,

E. = 1.56 x 108 poi, G2. = 0.49 x 10' psi,
= 0.49, YT = ZT = 6.35 x 10' S = T = 12.60 x 10' psi, psi,
j' ~lt'mt'nt


= 0.24,

= 0.24,


XT = 219.50 x 10'


Xc = 246.00 psi,

10' psi, psi,






Yc = Zc = 6.35 x 10'

R = 9.80 x 10'

Ply thickness,

h = 0.005 in.

(5.6-1) The The



Four lamination schemes are used in the present first ply failure analysis. individual laminates are labelled A - D for future reference in this section, following four laminated plates from [331 are selected for discussion: A: symmetric symmetric symmetric angle-ply cross-ply laminate, laminate, (45/ - 45/45)T

2 2 4


9 8




5 2

11 10




B: C: D:

quasi-isotropic cross-ply

laminate, laminate,

(45/ - 45/90/0/45/90/ (0/90/0/90)T

- 45/0).







39 3'


where t denotes total laminate and, denotes symmetric laminate. The geometry, coordinate system, and the ply numbering scheme within the laminate are shown in Figure 5.6-1a. Two types of finite element meshes are used in the analysis: (i) 6 x 3 (Figure 5.6-1b) and (ii) 9 x 5 (Figure 5.6-lc). The first mesh i. used in a quarter of the plate for the failure analysi. of cross-ply laminates C and D. The second mesh is for" full plate and is used for the failure analysis of laminates A and B. Laminates with all edges simply supported aly=O,bj or all edges clamped are used: (5.6 - 2) (5.6-3)








25 24

30 29


14 13 12 II


8 2

17 16

-- -

45 43 42 41

33 32 31


SSl:u=w=<p,=O CCI : u =u=w =


.. 1.,=O,a

"'1 = "'2 = 0


22 21 9"

17 26



= O,a and II = O,b conditions

For quarter symmetry, the following boundary metry are used (see Fig. 5.6-2):

along the lines of sym5.6-1 The geometry, coordinate system and ply numbering scheme used.



= 0 al y = ~





"1 = 0

at z = z



(5.6 - 4)



y y

6.6-1 Linear and nonlinear first ply failure load. for laminat .. A and B under uniformly distributed transverl. load with 551 boundary condition.
Failure criterion
Maximum IlreM

•• -o

..• ,..,
U"'Y-"W" ' ....


Laminat.e ~


FGP 45 35 4 3 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 1 4 2 4 1 1 4 4 4

1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1


21151.1(.) 289014U(b)

.,""L (a1551



Maximum abain (p) T,ai.Hill Hoft'man Tsai-Wu

(b) eel

3418133.< 24285.3 2Tt28eO.l 24131 28ts775.0 23241.9

14.18T 51.382 15.368


1 3

14.271 5U45 1t.198 55.151
141.572 58.638

11 45 11 4S 11 45

3 1

1 4 1 3 3 3 1


5.6-2 Boundary transverse

conditions load. (a)


for full and quarter (b) CCl.







24719,) 3045155.1

Maximum .train(i)

22108.8 3835494.7

14.785 52.448 15.968

For the in-plane loading case, two types of boundary conditions are used: (1) hinged and (2) clamped on the left edge. The other edge is on a roller support in both case •. The details of these support condition. are shown in Figure 5.6-3.

Maximum at.rain(p3D) Maximum .'tain(i3D)

19800.5 2784.268.'

45 39 4. 7 45

3 3 1

1U18 520448 15.968

1 3 1 3 16 18 1 18 18 10 10 18 1 16 1 16 1 16

1 3 1 3 3 3 1
! 3



2210U 3135494.1

45 7

z (al

v=w=.y~O •• te B 45/.45/90/0/45/'0/-45[0) Muimnm .trCII{p) 21112.3 23 4.020 9889.1 7 1.'56 Maximum ItraJn(p) 1974.1 45 3.838 1952.8 1.974 1 Taai.HlU , 4.016 2212.8 23 8883.1 T 1.989 Hofmn 2185.1 23 4.02' 1.957 9710.8 3t Tui.Wu 2245.2 1.135 45 Maximum It.rcII(i) 10047.3 2362.• 9897.6 Maximum Itrain(i)
2083.7 9885.4 1820.1


1 4 1 2 1 4 4 4 1 4 4

3 3 3

1.180 U33 !.97.
3.838 1.969 3.352 1.850


3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1

28 7 45 1 4. 45 to 1

(b) Maximum .hain(p3D)


5.6-3 Boundary conditions for full and quarter plate. subjected to Inplane (tensile) loading. (a) Hinged-end boundary conditions. (b) Clamped-end boundary conditions.

M.aximum ItraiD(i3D)

.251.8 2083.7 9885.4



18 1 10

found to be 173 time. increased.6-1 and 5.7S3 B.(p) Maximum . for laminate. 5.fi83 8. for laminate B (16Iayera).ionalized = (F/ E2)(n/h)4] FGP = Failed gau •• point FPL = Failed ply w = Center deflection (in.&i-Wu 'U7n. are discussed here.trel..6-2) that the large deflection formulation i. e load with SSt boundary condition are shown in Table. no longer valid in ...583 Tni-Wu Maximum shes.0 795511.583 8.730 B..216 42.7 time.180 45.558 53.v. D (90/0/90/0) Maximum .683 48.044 8.4 18592.train(i) Maximum ...train 791457.D are presented for three differeal kind.948 8. it should be noted here that the non-dimensionalieed center deflection of thin laminates (3. The significant fe&tures of the results specific to the type of loading and boundary condition. This shows that the difference between the linear and nonlinear failure loads decrea.9 21071.(i) MUlmQm . In these table.. the linear failure load for laminate A (3 layers).6 Muimum Itttu(i) Maximum .868 7.5 19932.train(i3D) 964904.9 12212.2 m44.16K 169 Cu. How.~ c.11 811(25.978 L.1 180006.1 18592.6-1a) first-ply failure load [FLD 8.IS6 46.597 49.ver.5 807807.3 _ 8.7 1143G.'.174 46.1158 50.425 8. of loads: (1) uniformly distributed transverse load.min.1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 1 I I T..4 _____ 8. FLD CDF t. (3) uniformly distributed in plane (tensile) load acling on the shorter edge of the laminate.8 4U58 a.732 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 • 4 4 4 4 (a) = Linear failure load (b) = Nonlinear (p) = Polynomial (i) failure load criterion criterion criterion criterion with 3-Dimensional state of strain of ..1111 48.. (i3D) 4 • 4 4 • • 3 3 3 3 3 with 3-Dimenaionalstate .868 4B.r .8 8..2 12339.5 20204.train(p) Taal-HiU Hoffman 105814~.6-2 Linear and nonlinear first ply failure load. (2) eoneentrated iransve.5 21071.978 8.2 1164Ui 1001900.6-1 and 5.1 1058146._.6 1051787.4 811833.. -_.710 '483815. . Table 5.321 sharply as the thickne •• of the laminate i.155 42.4 21071. Stud .875 41.i.3 10800.582 50. 40 time.031 8.:_ The nonlinear failure load i.rni •• te C (0/80/80/0) 11363...3 789853.:.742 8.216 ~:_L~L.) 45. and only 4. for laminate D (4Iaycrs). of laminat .9 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 4 1 4 4 4 • • • 3 3 3 1 3 = Non-dimen.223 8.Failure nite:ion Marlmum erre•• (p) Maximum Ilrain(p) Tnl·HiII 1 The results for the linear and nonlinear finl ply failure analy.train(p3D) Maximum Itrain 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 3 • = Independent 4 4 4 4 4 (p3D) = Polynomial (i3D) = Independent 19970.train(i) Maximum atrain(p3D) Maximum . 5.875 19834.B08 53..241 I '1FELT 1 I FGP 1 1 1 1 1 I IFPL !FL 96154.seload acling al lhe center of the laminale. A .6-2.5 807807.2 12339. 85 time.d t..7 Holtman 11370. Two different kinds of boundary conditions are used.4 791487.716 50.3. 4layero) is so large [see Table. the following notation is used: CDF = Non-dimensionalized F =:' First-ply center deflection (CDF = wI") 3 3 3 1 3 I failure load (psi) FEL = Failed element FL = Failed location FLD (see Fig. 5._.3 49. lood with SSl boundo'1' condition n The resulls for the uniformly diatributed transve .1 1 1 1 1 1 I 4 1 1 • • • •• • • 4 4 S 3 3 3 3 3 3 Uni/orm/v dutribut.2 11480. for laminate C (4 layera). C and D uniformly distributed transverse load with S Sl boundary condition.

As far as the thicker laminales (16 layers) are concerned. are the midpoint of the longer side of the laminate.4 tim •• for laminate B (symmetric quasi-isotropic).train(p) 3630.308 2J 21 21 21 1 I I • I I I I . and within the laminate for thick (16 layer) laminates.l0) 35T6.5 6155.tre·•• (i) Maximum strain{i) Mu:imum straln(p3D) T9809. which are small compared to the SSt boundary condition.Wu Maximum ..5( 13e152I Muirnum FEL rGP.3D) 4064.45/90/0/4&/90/.6-6.. for a given load the non-linear model predicts much smaller deflections than the linear model.6··4.201 68. 170 111 CGle St.1 75597.303 2. ) 51.2 10137<1.i/e edge load 14.6-5 and 5.8113 1. The failure locations do not show any definite trend.8 1845059.d~. for both linear and nonlinear failure analysis..~ FLD Failure criterion _____ c-_~C Maximum Ilresl(p) 75488.. and only 1.1 &301. For thin laminates and linear analysis.tres. see [33]) the linear and nonlinear failure load.2 4048.209 2. T.344 51.8 6248. CDr (0/90/90/0) .107 30 I 30 I 30 I 30 2 .T23 12.8536.836 }. the failure takes place mostly at the bottom of the laminate.078 1.2 1 30 I 45 45 30 45 45 45 • 2 4 I I 2 I I I 1 3 I 3 3 3 J 1 3 I 3 3 • 3 3 • 3 3 I I IS 4 I 1 i I 1-. Uniformly di'lribuled lran .993 68.iS7 11. 10 times for laminate D (antisymmetric cross-ply). The linear and nonlinear failure loads are exactly the same for laminates Band C.034 60. load wilh CCI boundarv condition Table 5. This shows that the difference between the linear and nonlinear failure loads is smaller for clamped boundary conditions than for the simply supported boundary conditions. for laminate. and for thick and nonlinear analysis it is within the laminate.7 1308668.5 times the linear failure load for laminate D.2 11741.933 1. r. A and B under uniformly distributed transveree load with CCI boundary condition.126 11.(i) srse.042 SU04 11.215 46 '0 • I 2 1 3 I 3 Tlai-Wu Maximum ..1 4554.24' 11.1 5336. The nonlinear failure load is found to be 18 times the linear failure load for laminate A (symmetric angle-ply).• (b) 4 4 Itrain(p) 88692. The results for the uniformly distributed in plane tensile load acting on the smaller edge of the laminate with damped-end boundary condition show that (the results are not included here. as it deflects.lrpI:~ 1-'1 3 I 3 3 I 3 I 3 I 3 .!.1 4&·Um Hoffman 3811.6 Maximum strain(i.102 10. A formulation based on large deflectlon-Ierge rotation theory might describe the failure behavior of such thin laminates more accurately.1 5330. Hence. The failure location follows the same trend as Corhinged-end boundary conditions.4 358]. Uniformly di.1 21 21 21 • • 4 4 4 13 4 4 4 I 1 I Maximum Itrain(i) Maximum strain(p3D) 4054.2 8650U 1426237.175 11.285 1.9 21 21 21 21 21 21 • 3 3 I I I I I I 1 I I Tlai. The failure locations are at the corners for all types of laminates.854 1.2 The results for the uniformly distributed transverse load with CCI boundary condition are shown in Table 5.0 3630.6 1845059. at the bottom of the laminate.1138 1.lribuled jnp/.5 1741423. the difference between the linear and non-linear failure loads stems from the fact that the non-linear formulation accounts for the actual stiffening of the plat. The nonlinear failure load is found to be 1. This indicates the difference between the linear and the nonlinear failure loads is small for inplane tensile load. are found to be almost the same for all laminates. 15 time.3015 1. and smaller deflections in turn give rise to less severe stress fields and large first ply failure load s. or within the laminate.867 11.296 1.215 52.o &291.981 51.3 • 2 4 Tlai.08-6 The results for the uniformly distributed in plane (tensile) load acting on the smaller edge of the laminated with hinged end boundary condition are shown in Tables 5. mostly at the boltom for thin (3 or 4 layer) laminates.723 12.15 1.283 21 3 3 I I 3 3 ~ I I 3 I 1 I I I I I I 21 21 21 21 . and they differ slightly for laminate A.0 134.301 2.863 1.209 1.6-3 and 5.HllI Hoffman 76509.4 1384452. The most frequently occurring failure location.086 ten. for laminate C (symmetric cross-ply).2 Maximum strain(i3D) Lemlne Itre •• (p) 101374.0 1... or at the lop of the laminate where the external load is applied.18186. Maximum Maximum te B (4-5/. this regime.0 61.2 514U 1. but the mosl frequently occurring locations are: (1) the center of the plate and (2) the corners of the plate.6-3 Linear and nonlinear firsl ply failure load.

0 103<938. 1 1 I 1 1 1 5 5 5 6 1 1 I 1 1 2 2 1 1 Lamin~t' D Maximum etre•• (p) Maximum 30366.'57 5.3 19105.2 108728302.080 3.' 'r.9.1 108726302.train(i) Maximum IItrain{p30) Maximum Ilrain(ilO) 28364.8 CDF 18.155 2.602 3.traln(p) s.5 • • I I 4 I 4 I 1 1 0.ln(p3D) Muimum .) 91705026.1 1119279. 0.WII Maximum 30412.775 2.1 1176280. 1150)34. 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 T.416 Maximllm drell(i) Maximum ..954 3.2 1179279.2 27354.500 5. 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 .427 atress(p) 117t6l9.1 283271.un(i) Maximum .838 19.2 88127961.416 • 3 3 I 1 I 1 1 I Mu.2 1171619.<29 0.2 231578.731 16.6-4 Linear and nonlinear lirst ply failure load.357 16.261 19.745 16.321 6.429 1145218.663 19.3 314040.314 t'EL Lamin.420 5. Maximum .4 92514844.'1& 0. Fellure criterion Table 5.2 3 16 _-< 1 < 1 < I 3 1 Maximum Lamln..1 91954106.394 5.42.645 19.1.902 101171513.4 312428.139 18.427 0. i-Hill Hoffman T..321 6.739 .2 1185182.031 2.7 Maximum 304'0.388 3.2 1160134. . 8(. !GP 2 2 2 I FPL 1 1 < 1 < 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 FL 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 FLD Lamin .u.5 284937.2 19032..4'6 0. SI.376 0..426 0.1 86127951.8 283307.7 .3 1 I I 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I 1 I I 3 3 3 3 ILrain(p) 14.7 287298.962 2.0 1150134.8 312180.0 19031.5 1 1 I 1 I 1 1 I I 3 16 3 16 3 16 3 15 4 1 3 3 3 3 3 Tlai.2 1167367.956 2.428 5.433 5.7 106177173..1 30358.980 2..U8 19.315 6.740 16.340 5. for laminates A and B under inplane tensile load with hinged boundary condition.• 1 .imum strain{p3D) 27354.2 1107317.train(p) 19103.tre.train(iSD) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1176280./.2 1185182.trnl(p) 5.6 Hoffman 30367.149 L Tau·11i11 '6 3 1& 3 3 I 3 I 3 1 3 1 3 I 3 1 3 I 3 Maximum strain(p) Tw-Hill HofFman T.403 5.t'l! C (0/90/90/0 Mnimam Maximum .ximum Maximum .2 256184.2 • 5 6 • 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 6 6 6 5 6 6 5 2 2 2 2 2 .602 2.3 314040..1 91T26868. Table 5.5 1 1 --- _!_!_~ .ai-Wu Maximum atren(l) Maximum .n T.3 313110. for laminates a and D uniformly distributed transverse load with aal boundary condition.1 91728808. B ('5/·45/10/0/<5/90/.ai-W .. Failure crituioD FLD 19025.41' 0.aj_·lIill HoR'ma. 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 •.7 19050..803 5.te A 1170502 I CDF 4.9S( 2.0 19105.7 17142.6-6 Linear and nonlinear fint ply failure load.2 0.775 3.5 312154.422 0.37i 0.1 3 16 3 10341138.2 256184.8(b) t401lS883.5 28<937.Lre•• (i) aLrain(i) 30359.500 5.train(i3D) 919&4105.hen(i) Maximum Ihain(i) Maximum drain{p3D) Maximum .3 1145218.2 311331.' 284591.414 0..357 16.&36 19.2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 I~ 4 .641 (90/0/'0/0) 16.647 17.'5/0) 0.&03 5.(5/'.2 s .s(p) .602 3.& 1150134..172 173 C.3ge 5..5 1 • 3 3 3 3 3 Maximum strain{i3D) 30490.'r .8 281201.6 94081883.427 0. 2.422 0.2 101726302.38B 3..031 3.427 0.622 19.7 108726302.1 92514644.3 U025.433 5.502 FEL 5 5 FGP 2 2 2 2 FPL 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 I I FL 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 M.149 14.396 6.

1.3 1119U2ZU 11116355&.ai·Wu Maximum .1 5286t." and conclusions 11.Il9 l.trcss{p) Maximum 5train(p) Tni-HiU HofFman T.0 tha.647 1. shear deformation theories and their computational models have been discu •• ed in Chapter 3.833 1. The loaded ends of the panels were clamped by fixtures during te.119 1.174 175 Therefore. 1 1 I 1 1 I 3 3 18 1 1 1 . Each panel was loaded in axial compression using a 1.3 85866845..8 111439506.(i) Maximum .831·Wu 58815952.5 1111916225.min~I' C (0/90/90/0 Muimum .4 85849814.9 85814161. which are purely phenomenlogicel in nature. 111508402.000 k. in part due to the differenee in the formulation of the criteria.839 l111817188.119 1. SI". Variou.8 68837672.005 1. and negligible for inplane loading with clamped end.JG75.839 1. Reddy and Knight [39.119 1.832 111886430. criteria may predict differ. i. simply supported by knife-edge restraints to .i) for the transverse Young's modulus.train(p3D) Maximum ..ted composit •• trudur ••.5 58860818.33 MN (300 kips) capacity hydraulic tesling machin e.15 1. discussed in the previous section . and .3 1.t different failur.trel.5 Cor 1.1-1 Introduction response and progressive failure 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1.6 • 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1.14 mm (0.3 .119 ~. w.rization of failur. and clamped boundary conditions.2 85679276.0 GPa (19. The study makes comparisons between the experimentallyobtained and analytically-determined post buckling response of composite panels._'-"- The pootbuckling and Iailure characteristies of fiat.6 100204590. i. for laminates C and D under inplane tensile load with hinged boundary condition..840 1. Typical lamina properti •• for this graphite-epoxy ..832 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 Mwmum .i) for the longitudlnal Young's modulus.tudy by Starn •• and Rou •• [38J.train(i3D) 1.890 It.38 for the major Poisson's Maximum .839 1.nt failur.840 1.9 100204590.2 111183556. It i.1-2 Experimental study 1 1 Hoffman T . shear deformation plate and shell formulations are n ee ded to provide information regarding the through-thickn •••• trength of composite struclure •. with and without holes.i12 1.119 1. found to be large for transverse loading.5 1111508402.4 GPa (930 ksi) for the in-plan •• hear modulus..renc. and smell for thick (16 layer) laminate.. 6.sallable unidlrectional Thornel 300 graphite-fiber tapes pre-Impregnated with 450· K cure Narmco 5208 thermosetting epoxy resin. in which the transverse shear .9 1 1 1 1 In this section.810 I FEL I FGP I FPL 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 l' FL I I I L.4.s(i) Maximum Itrain(i) Maximum . Indeed.. 1 I 5.415 l. The diff.837 1.647 1. modes of composite panels.0055 in.ystem are 131.0 75301306.0 58837572.r.6-6 Linear and nonlinear first ply failure load. 5.4 58863722. considerably le •• for inplane loading with hinged end. Tbe panels were Iabricated from commercially .. rectangular graphite-epoxy panels.39]) composlte laminates loaded in compre •• ion rail due to high interlaminar .839 1. - Failure c:ritcfion FLO \ 1111120623..) for the lamina thickness.imply supported boundary condition. it is found that (see [38.15 85868715.1 1. 3 3 3 3 3 3 l l 3 3 3 l l 1 I 1.2 111886430.9 111439506. 0.414 1.9 1 1 I I I 1 I 18 18 18 18 l' 1.258 1.3 111877188.3 111439508.ttaIn(l) Maximum Ihain{p3D) Maximum . discuss a recent study by Engeletad. also found that the diff.T Postbuckling 5.cts are neglected. Iarge for thin (3 or 4 layer) laminate. i.r.411 of the postbuckllng response of •• veral graphite-epoxy panele loaded in axial compression.0 GPa (1.832 Laminate 0 (90/0/90/0) LUg 58118298.(12 1. composite laminates may fail due to transverse str •• se•.. and loaded in axial compression have been examined in an experimental .119 857047&4.. Because of low transverse moduli and strengths relative to inplane ones.ff.832 1. between the linear and the nonlinear Iailure load.840 • 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 • 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 The result.1 1 I I 1 1 1 I 18 18 18 l' 3 l .833 1.4 The classical Iamination theory. Thi.trcu(p) Maxlmum stra. i.ting and the unloaded edges w.0 58812816. loads Cor a given laminat e. and TIII.train(i3D) '--------- 58873448.415 1.5 111920523. 13.2 85679276. may aid in the charact. often u •• d to analyze lamina.6-5 Summary Table 5.i-HiII 111~3_~~~~~ _1. Insight gained by using these formulation.

':) ~=I • ~=I • 3 Dc I.7-1) (e. (3.. Panel H4 is identical to Panel CI0 except for a 1. 24-ply quasi-isotropic laminate. after deformation.0 in.. bul nol normal. can be expressed as [s•• Eq. of the buckling mode in a transverse shear failure mode (see [38]). CI0 and H4 in Reference 38. and {P} are defined by Eq s. and are measured with respect to the original undefermed configuration.«H'-(. The following three panels. (2. denoled C4. Panel C4 ie 50. Panel CI0 i. Q.5 in. [KLI. 2. (5. 9CR.) from on. a~d 8 is the lamina orientation angle (lee Fig.nts in the material coordinat •• . [C] is the constitutive . All matrix elements refer to the deformed . The shell element is obtained from Ihe Ihr •• -dimensional solid element by imposing two constraints: (1) straight line. the extemalload vector. the following laminate . diameter) hole located 19. normal to the midsurface before deformation remain straight. 5.7 ."12"21 . The finite element model used in [39] i.7- 2) In the •• equations.75 in. [E] = 2 [DI = Here (.placement tran. nodal lin.valuating {F}).8 em by 14. for the kth lamina [c'] = f([QI. called a 3-D degenerated shell element.6-1)] equilibrium equations for an element are of the form [d. Mosl panels exhibiled poslbuckling slrength and failed along .5 in.tiffn ••••• [see Eq. The final incremental Eq. failed along a Iransverse line passing through the hole.8). a continuum-based formulation of a laminated 3-D degenerated shell element. [BL] and [BNL] are linear and nonlinear .6-4): in an element. (2.6). The third panel. [C']~ is the constitutive matrix principal material coordinates. e Stadie..Iasticity matrix. (2) the Iransverse normal components of strain. We use Gau •• quadrature Finite element models of these panels were developed using 9-node quadrilateral shell elements. 24-ply crthctroplc laminate. wide).) P . [A] = "=1 1P E[C]. and hence stress. and = -___§__. transverse half-wav e. In the process of .4-24)]. but explicit integration in the thickne •• direction.6-2)-(3. are analyzed. «:+. and one transveree half-wave.4) ([KL] + (KNL]){6U} = {R} .4-1)." different failure mode was observed for some of the 24-ply panels wilh holes.91 em diameter (0. long by 5..<:) of the kth lamina. These assumptions turn a 3-D theory into a 2-D theory. These panel. of Chao and Reddy [40]. is the thickness Dc 1. Panel H4 was observed in the le.7 -1) Q . Thus the thickne •• direction integration for matricee [K£I and [KNL] give.1 em (7. are ignored in the development. which has the form. 1"12"21 Q 12 = "12E2 Q22 = __ E_2_ 1 . and failed soon after buckling.tat.formation matrices. wide). (H5/02/ ± 45/02/ ± 45/0/90) •. (±45/0/90h. However. (3.{F} (5. g. Panel C4 was observed in the test to buckle into two longitudinal half-wave.«:+1 ..1112"21 ' 1 . (5.7-3 Numerical models [KLI = I [BLIT[C][BLldV 10' [KNLI = I [BNL][C][BNLldV 10' {F} = 10' I [BL]{5}dV (5. For an orthotropic lamina. 3. prevent the panels from buckling .0 in.8 em by 17.J76 J77 C. 50. are Ihe plan.t 10 buckle into four longitudinal half-waves and one Iransverse half-wave with Ihe hole located near the buckle crest of the second longitudinal half-wave. [KNL]. The incremental equations of a continuous medium are formulated on the principle of virtual dlsplacements and the total Lagrangian description [see Sec. Panel CI0 was observed in Ihe tesl to buckle into four longitudinal half-waves and on. [KNLI. {5} i. and the resulting shell element i. The nonlinear formulation admits large displacements and rolations of the shell element and small strains since the thickness does not change and the normal does not distort. of the loaded edges and along Ihe panel centerline.. used in the membrane directions of Ih •• hell.0 em (20. 1P .7 .train-di.. and the present analytical results compared wilh the experimental results of Reference 38. i.0 in. the integrals in equation (5. a vector of 2nd Piola-Kirchhoff stre ••••• and {R} i. wide columns.3-2)1 QII where {6U} is the vector of nodal incremental displacements [KL]. stress-reduced elastic coefllci. long and 7.8 em (20.3) coordinate of the bottom P is the in the number of laminae.

The total numbers of g-node quadrilateral elements in the finite element model.7-1 Finite element meshes used for panels C4 and H4.. Figure 5. .is at the . an analytical progre •• ive failur.jlur. Figure 5. 5.j. then the longitudinal modulus EI ILl that point is reduced to zero. out-ofplane deflection w near a point of maximum deflection.7-5 Results for C4 panel test. G23. The modeling approach is based on using six elements per buckle half-wave in each direction. 5. respectively. and H4 are 72. point. then the following expressions are used to determine the failure mode: Q .6).178 179 In r.7-3).7-2. Gaus. to G23. After nonIineariterative displacement convergence is achieved. Q65 = (G2S)K .am. This allows efficient progrcss past the critical buckling point.3-1) and (4. 5. normalized by the analytical end shortening u'" at buckling (Fig. H4. 4. Thus both panels have 6 elements aero •• the panel width.ality.7-1b.y. Hence. we assumed an initial geometric imperfection. the maximum stress and Tsai-Wu.7-4 Fnilure analysis The end shortening of the panel is monitored as in a compression f.Wu criterion. Qse = G12 (5.. engineering material properties are updated as Iailure progresse •. This model bas four "rings" of elements around the hole with each "ring" subdivided into 16 elements. the load is increased." ~ 1). identify the maximum Hi. Thus 81 corresponds to the modulus E}. typically the same shape 88 the first linear buckling mode. CIO. a reduction in lamina .e.z) coordinates at the middle of each layer ILt each Gaus. exceed. For example. due to the presence of the bole. was applied to that point which changed the resultant A B . and restart the nonlinear analy. 5. reduction. point. if the 0'1 sires.. and H... a consequence o!thi. For the Ts. point. [see Sec. At each load step. recompute laminate stif£ncsses. are used [see Eqs. and 124.7 -6) The largest Hi term i. If failure occurs (i. the finite element model of Panel C4 consists of 12 ninenode quadrilateral elements along the panel length. if failure occurs. To model this effect.3-10»). E21 G13.7-1& shows the model used {or the C4 specimen. H5 to G)3. Gaus.. = (G13)K . of Panels C4. defined to be that load for which the panel undergoes shortening for small increments of load.7-2a). H2 to &. The finite element model of Panel H4 is different. 2. = F'0'2 + F22O'~ ( for the maximum stre •• criterion. to G23• A.. HI = FIO'I + FuO': H. normalized by the panel .t results from Reference 38 and finite element results for Panel C4 are shown in Figure 5. as shown in Figure 5.7 . An outline of the steps used is given below: 1. Transform 3..tiffn ••••• of equation (5.D laminate . the longitudinal tensile strength XT. proceed to the next load step. Any other closed form criteria could have been used. Comparlacn between le. If no failure occurs.5) where El.tep. reduce the appropriate lamina moduli at that GIlU&. The large end Two failure criteria. point . but does not affect the results in the poetbuckling range. . 144. calculate stresses in the global (z. selected as the dominant failure mode and the corresponding modulus is reduced to zero. laminate failure occurs due to propagation of damage a. G12 are the engineering lamina properties and K is the shear correction factor taken to be 5/6. In order to proceed beyond the critical buckling point in the analysis of each panel. load i. teehnlque is included in the nonlinear analy. 5. V12. The amplitude of each mode was selected to be 1-5% of the total laminate thickness. are u sed in the selected failure criterion. If failure occurred at a.tiffnes. Compute the etreeses to the material coordinate s. The figure shown end shortening u. (4.. H--+++-HI/C4 spec:imcn model the failure index. while that of Panel CI0 has 24 along the length. load .

train . plot of the nnalyt Ie n l reauttR (b) frlngeR [r"". normalized by tbe analytical buckling load p. are determined using the constitutive relation.tre •• e. In addition. see Fig.tre .7-2c). The .. thai .7-3b shows a photograph o{ the Moire-fringe pattern from ReCerence 38 corresponding to the out-of-plane deflection.7-2b) and high longitudinal strains from front and back surCaces (nearly three times the analytical buckling strain.7-4 shews the distribulion of Ihe peak u. have the same pattern over the entire panel. (Fig. ~~------2~..1Pcr. at an applied load of 2. These results indicate that the out-of-plane deflections from both test and analy. . in the figure represent te... The circle... distribution. for both the in-plane and transverse components. the longitudinal surface strain •• near a point of maximum out-of-plane deflection.1P er. T~ese are all shown a. Figure 5.1 p. This distribution indicate.r. 5. the transverae shear stre •• distributions are obtained by integrating the equilibrium equations and using the in-plane .7-3 Comparison of experimental (Moir6) and analytical deflection pat lerns {or specimen C4. Figure 6.. Figure 5. Figure 5.i. out-of-plane Figure 1i. ...7-2c). ".p". 5. in each layer of the laminate are analytically evaluated using the nonlinear reeults in order to determine the (allure loads. l ~ . and the curves denote the results of the nonlinear finite element analyses.. from the constitutive relations. Stres. stresl through the thickne •• direction " normalized by Ihe laminate thickne.t data. IJ8 (a] End shortening (b) Out-oC-pJane deflection Jr------------------PIp'. a functions of the applied load P. The postbuckli~ response exhibits large out-of-plane deflections (nearly three times the panel thlckness. _U-alnS!811'1 \ .." h for P = 2..• _0 Jr-----------------~ I .7--2 Postbuckling response characteristics of specimen C4..7-3a shows a contour plot oC the out-of-plane deflection...---e-/~-r~OL------J (e) Surface strains.7-50. It is clear that the O· layers carry the highest transverse shear load. 5. normalized by the analytical buckling . see Fig. Both patterns indicate two longitudinal half-waves with a buckling-mode nodal line at panel midlength. observed during the testing of Panel C4 at the lame load..7-2b). ulucr wll .. over the entire panel in the third layer oC the laminate (IL O· ply) for an applied load of 2..:01"'" MoO U . shows the distribution axial stre •• u . 5.180 IHI Cue Stdie. ~O o - Analysis o TeRt -Analysis o Test °O~--~----~2----~1~~4 End shortening. generated from the nonlinear analysi.. thickness j (Fig.Figure 5. These experimental and finite element results agree well up to failure of the panel..r.~~Iil)a) Goulou.

8u! 8" liz aU! + lh2 II" II.. = Figure 5. give very similar results.distributions (0· ply) of the C4 specimen. (7% .1P". distribution through the thickness ksi ylb 200 JDO (a) Contour "lot (b) Stress distributions midlength. • _ ~ (lIu! a close examination of the Figure 5.7-6b indicates the redistribution of this transverse shear stress in this O· ply at panel midlength for three values of the applied load. After buckling. At the buckling load. and the dashed curves denote the transverse shearing stress distributions obtalned from the equilibrium equations.1 P. Figure 5. Although the axial stress is large. the transverse shear stresses ern redistribute towards the edges of the panel. the peak transverse shear stress occurs near the center of the panel. The solid curves represent the transverse shear stress distributions obtained using the constitutive relations. Xc = 1138 MPa (165 ksi) in compression].7-5 Axial stress.. The peak values of the transverse shear stress fTot approach the material allowable value of S = T = 62 MPa (9ksi) for P 2.0 10~ O. through in the third layer from (0) Stress distributions midlength..Analrlu of Compolitl Laminatu IS2 IS. across panel .0. Both method. of specimen C4. IXT = 1400 MPa (203 ksi) in tension. y/b (a) Contour plot of axial stress distributions.~~D6~-O~8--. + ~~ + II..2 8. .J high compressive axial stresses occur along the longitudinal edges of the panel. Figure 5. the axial stress is nearly uniform across the panel. a.. zlh Un. aU2 + au. This distribution indicates that high transverse shear stresses occur along the buckling-mode nodal line. across panel This failure mode can be further explained Green-Lagrange strain component £u. over the entire panel in the third layer of the laminate (a o· ply) for an applied load of 2. 600 Figure 1i. indicating the panel fails due to transverse shear stress.7-6a shows the diJtribution of the transverse shear stress trz. MPa ksi Figure 5..'------:O'::2-. the values are well below the material allowable value. II" Q. T -4 Transve-rse shear stress.7-5b indicates the redistribution of the axial stress in thie O· ply at panel midlcngth for three values of the applied load. in the third layer from the surface .7-6 Transverse shear stress.. distributions the surface (0· ply) of the C4 specimen.. At the buckling load.7-7) ... aU3) (5.

I/.7-6 Results UI(:I:. The Moire fringe re.. A linear buckling analysis show. using the maximum . 1/) + ZlfJI . respectively. However. Each nodal lin.Wu criterion failure index..s and 'I'sai. and in-plane shear strength of T 69. s time. z) = v(z.7-7b show that the Ts. A i.7-10b. leads to the conclusion that the transverse shearing strain lzz is the dominant one.7 -8) along Substituting equations (5. field of the first-order shear deformation 11.1 8:1: 8".7-8b present comparison.+ -q.. S'UN' for CIO panel in conjunction with the displacement theory Eq. of end shortening U and out-of-plene deflection w..7-8a and 5. U2( results agree extremely well with the experimental results. The re. and the second mode four. 5.7 ksi).4 hi).7-7b present the progressive failure results for Panel C4.11) q. (5. the other allowable. Figure 5.' UIl (a) Figure End shortening. of numerical and experimental value. Ihe cros.. First-ply faIlure Progressive -failurp. This location is identified as the failure load. faflurr PIPer .how.-seclional area.44P .l~------. The quantity ~ (out-of-plane deflection gradient) is largest along a buckling-mode nodal line and the quantity ~ (related to the membrane strain) is largest along the panel edges. the specimen length.002 -Analysis o Teat .9 MPa (11._.Z) = U(:I:.002 .j-Wu criterion estimates the experimental failure more closely than the maximum stre •• criterion. as for Panel C4. the maximum stres! criterion results do not agree as well. are as follows: transverse tensile strength of XT = 80.. In the •• figure. the diatribution of (In in layer 22 (a 0° ply).. response wit (b) characteristics Out-of-plane of specimen deflection. CIO. mode 1 and mode 2 eigenvectors was used to assist in the change that occurs at the critical buckling load £rom the three baH-wave to the four half wave mod e. ----PIPet 11.7-90. =2 - 1( q" 8w 8u + -. o Teat • Test failure I _ ~!~'!::8iV o Teat • Test fai III A transverse shear failure mechanism develops for thi.7-9b illustrates the distribution at the experimental failure load (1. For this panel the T. as seen previously for Panel C4. that the first mode has three longiludinal half-wave. This is attributed 10 the presence of stress interaction terms in the Tsai. .oo~ o !:-O------.. not as good as in the C4 specimen because extracting nonnormalized experimental data from Reference 38 Was difficult. failure results of specimen The progressive failure results for Panel CI0 are shown in Figures 5.5% panel thickn . and L i.5-1)J ref. E is the Iaminete longitudinal modulus.Z) = "'("'. Agreement i.0 MPa (10. an inability to support additional load.7-7 Progressive failure criterion. we obtain and noting that f .ulta are similar to those obtained for Panel C4.7 . "u 2 4 u1ucr 6 8 10 12 4 (b) Tsai-Wu 6 u/uer 10 12 (a) Maximum Figure stress Iailure criterion 5. In addition to the strengths already mentioned. ) (5. Figures 5.7-8) into equation a buckling-mode nodal line.2 .7-7) U3("'.I/.0 ksi).tre. . in the buckling mode develops the high transverse shear stre •• es with the peak at the midlength of the panel..9) Figures 5. (2. from Reference 38 in the postbuckling' range exhibited four half-wave •• Thua a linear combination of 1.2 = 0 (5.7-7a and 5. PlEA .004 o Test = = .7-10a and 5..7-8 Postbuckling utt.ult. transverse compressive strength of Xu 189.Wu failure criteria.0 MPa (27. A similar examination of the other transverse shearing strain . where the three peak (In nodal line concentrations can be seen. panel. C4.I/.7-7a and 5.184 ISS Cu.l/) + Zq. Figure 5. 3r------------------. At some point in the analysis a dramatic change in slope indicat . Figure. ) across the panel width.

ulL (a) End shortening.. ... Analysts should notelhat if uniformly reduced or selective reduced integration were used in the analysis of this panel.. Maximum stress failure criterion. These re..~. • (a) Contour plot Figure 5.urfa ces) acrose the panel at the hole for a load of O. --:~..% . .. "XU the longitudinal . 0. tics of specimen H4. model was used to proceed inlo the post buckling range... . (both top and boltom .1-1 Results for H4 panel .7-9 o... Figure 5. .-1.ults are in good agreement with experimental results from Reference 38...w D. T.~~..~-. across panel -_..• ~.~B_. Linear buckling and postbuckling out-of-plane dellection mode . ..OO2~----D~. -.. PTo9F . ~ e (e) Surface strains at PIP cr = 1.90. DD~----~O.OO~.~.. respectively. . it would predict spurious modes.0.OO.1-11 Postbuekling response characte ...002 e .... I II ksi MPa 17...7-12a and 5.~. A~lYslS laAI •• O. for this panel are shown in Figures 5.2:--:0.-O~. F . One can see that four longitudinal half·wlLves develop in the post buckled range. (a) Figure 5.. o • T"l ""'_ PlEA '.e ·60 The H4 specimen was analyzed to investigate deformation and failure of a panel with a hole.hape.... (b) Tsai-Wu failure criterion.s .39P ..90P .--~ .... An imperfection of 1% of panel thickness time.004r-----------.~~._~o:'...39 ..J. PlEA 0.0)3 . These occur because of zero energy modes. tT~."'~~. Figures 5. ull uIl TestFaw.----Istptr I ~..0)3 ylb (b) Stress distributions midlength.eos .... distributions in the twenty-second layer from the surface (0· ply) of the CIO specimen. 11. ·. (b) ylb Surface strains at PIPer = 0.. uf specimen CI0.urfaee strains.OO4~--~O."" '.000 PlEA .OO< oD~-:D:'. o • Tl!'!iIlr.. and 1..~~=-~. and lack of restraint of the model around the Figure 5.blu..J Transverse shear stress.~-.. Iu.7-11a contains a comparison of end shortening obtained numerically and experimentally.~.. ..--~~~~-O~ ...1-10 Progressive failure result.IR6 187 Cue StHic.7-llb and 5. 0.7-lle ..':'.7-12b.:--~O.

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