The History of Music Education at Kamehameha Elementary School: The First Twenty Five Years (1888–1913

By Gayla S. Traylor

Music has always been integral to the curriculum at the Kamehameha Schools. Since the School’s opening in 1888, this discipline has been fully supported by both the organization’s board of trustees and administration, making Kamehameha Schools atypical among educational institutions here in the state of Hawai‘i. Much credit is due to the founder and benefactress of the schools, Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop. Her philosophy and love for music, children and education set in motion a rich heritage and legacy that has benefited Hawaiians for 113 years. To understand why music education has always been advocated and sustained at the Kamehameha Schools throughout the years of changing educational philosophies, trends and methods, one must get to know the person of Bernice Pauahi Bishop and her husband, Charles Reed Bishop.

History of Bernice Pauahi Päkï Bishop Bernice Pauahi Päkï Bishop, great-granddaughter of King Kamehameha I, was born in Honolulu on December 19, 1831. Her ali‘i (royal) parents were High Chief Abner Ke‘ehu Päkï and High Chiefess Laura Kanaholo Konia. She received her education from the age of eight to eighteen at a boarding school called “The Chiefs’ Children’s School” that was located near the site of the present State Capitol. Amos Starr Cooke and his wife, Juliette Montague Cooke were hired by

King Kamehameha III to teach the royal children. The Cookes were Calvanist Congregational missionaries who sailed from Boston, Massachusetts in 1837. All subjects in school (arithmetic, algebra, geometry, geography, astronomy, chemistry, literature, spelling and history) was taught in English so that the native Hawaiian students would have to learn to speak, read and write English as a second language (Williams, 1992 ).

Pauahi was trained well in music and her love for the art form developed at the Chiefs’ Children’s School. Her Western music education most likely began with her learning to sing songs familiar to the Cookes, either hymns or secular melodies and ditties. Some of it also took place in the Singing School at Kawaiaha‘o Church (Zisk,2000), the nearby chapel (Cooke, J. 1841, 1846). These Singing Schools, mostly attended by Hawaiians, were popular institutions. They were established by Hiram Bingham and various other missionaries in the 1820’s, and scores of them were scattered throughout the islands (Kanahele, 1986). The hymnals used were printed in Hawaiian, such as the Hïmeni Kamali‘i or “Hymns for Young People” (Kanahele, 1979).

Pauahi learned to read music and play the piano and accordion. She was accomplished enough to teach the younger female students to play the piano and sing. She led the


singing of the school choir on the melodeon (a small organ popular in the 19th century – Oxford, 1996) at Sunday evening service in the drawing room of King Kamehameha III’s palace (Osorio & Young, 1997). There is no record that Pauahi composed or arranged music like her hänai (adopted) sister, Lydia Lili‘uokalani (last monarch of the Hawaiian kingdom) who was recognized in later years as a distinguished composer (Kanahele, 1986). Pauahi’s relationship with Lili‘uoklani and her involvement in musical activities played an important part in developing her character and her approach to life and this would later influence the decision making of her vast estate.

Pauahi met Charles Reed Bishop, an American businessman from Glen Falls, New York in 1847. Hoping that their daughter would marry Lot Kauäiwa, later to become Kamehameha V, Pauahi’s parents were not in favor of the courtship of Pauahi and Mr. Bishop. Against her parents wishes, Pauahi at the age of 18, went ahead and married the 28 year old Charles Reed Bishop. Because of his wisdom, honesty and devotion to their daughter, Päkï and Konia would eventually accept Pauahi’s marriage to Charles (Williams, 1992).

Mr. Bishop was a highly successful businessman whose knowledge, skills and determination made him one of the richest men in all Hawai‘i. His business ventures included land investment, agriculture, retail, establishment of a museum and Hawai‘i’s first bank. Mr. Bishop also served in many governmental positions, including advisor to the last five Hawaiian monarchs (Galuteria, 1999).


Mr. and Mrs. Bishop soon became the social and cultural leaders of Honolulu. People gathered at their home for meetings, receptions, dances, reading and conversation. Pauahi was also known to frequently host recitals in her home and enjoyed inviting friends and neighbors for impromptu musical entertainment (Williams, 1992). She gave piano lessons until the death of her father but continued her other musical pursuits through the rest of her life. She was an enthusiastic member of Honolulu’s Amateur Musical Society and sang often with this and other community groups. The singing society’s repertoire, in the 1850’s and 1860’s, ranged from parlor ballads to operettas and oratorios. Modern Hawaiian music did not fully emerge until the 1870’s (Kanahele, 1986).

The Bishops traveled extensively during the years 1875 and 1876. Their destinations included the United States, Canada and Europe. After attending symphonic concerts in New York and in Europe as well as various presentations and the opera, Pauahi became dissatisfied with how little Honolulu had to offer as far as fine musical events. She longed for the quality of music and art that only a metropolis could really offer. Pauahi had to be content with the band music of Henry Berger, who had arrived in Hawai‘i in 1872, and the occasional visiting concert pianist or singer (Kanahele, 1986).


In April 1884, Pauahi Bishop was diagnosed with terminal breast cancer. As the last direct descendant of Kamehameha the Great, Pauahi had inherited large parcels of land from her parents (16,000 acres), her aunt ‘Akahi (9,557 acres) and her cousin Ruth Ke‘elikölani (353,000 acres) making her the richest and largest landowner in Hawai’i (Williams, 1992). Being childless and having no close relatives, she set to write a will to bequeath her estate to the founding of “two schools, each for boarding and day scholars, one for boys and one for girls, to be known as, and called the Kamehameha Schools” (Bishop, B. 1883). She would “hänai (adopt) the children of her people and make them her heirs” (Kanahele, 1986). Princess Pauahi died at the age of 52 on October 16, 1884.

Charles Reed Bishop, Education Reformer Mr. Charles Reed Bishop was an active member and then President of the Hawai‘i Board of Education. His role in education reform strongly influenced the content of Mrs. Bishop’s will. Through discussions and involvement with her husband’s activities, Pauahi became aware of the concerns he had pertaining to the educational situation in Hawai‘i. He was deeply distressed with the conditions of the schools, and the social problems and practical needs of the Hawaiian populace (Kanahele, 1986).


The English language movement in the island schools started in 1851 and quickly began to pick up momentum throughout the islands (Odgers, 1933). In his 1878 report to the Legislative Assembly (Sheldon), Mr. Bishop noted that “the popular demand is for English”. Another major section of the report dealt with the “manual labor” program which was becoming popular in the United States mainland. Aware of the newest theories and practices in American education, Mr. Bishop strongly believed this program would “promote health and industrious habits” of the Hawaiian people (Kanahele, 1986).

The idea was to give three or four hours a day to intellectual studies and from two to three hours to manual labor (Woodward, 1969). Girls were taught sewing and other domestic arts while the boys did farm work in school gardens. Through these activities, “industriousness” (how a student should carry out his responsibilities as an individual and as a citizen contributing to the common good) would be developed into the character of the students (Kanahele, 1986).

The Kamehameha Schools With all these considerations and influences, Bernice Pauahi Bishop set up a trust and wrote her Will and Codicils as to how her estate was to be managed and the Kamehameha Schools to be run. Her Estate would “establish institutions which should be of lasting benefit to her country; and also to honor the name Kamehameha, the most conspicuous name in Polynesian history” (Bishop, C. 1888). Mrs. Bishop foresaw the need for Hawaiians to be adequately equipped to compete with other nationalities and to be successful through education, moral character,


intelligence and industry (Bishop, B. 1883). For her, character building and preparation for earning a living were of the utmost importance.

On November 4, 1887, the Manual Department (Kamehameha School for Boys) held opening exercises with 40 students present (Kent, 1964). The ages of the boys ranged from 13 years and up. The first Board of Trustees for the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Estate, chaired by Charles Reed Bishop (Kent, 1964), governed the schools, very mindful of the wishes and concerns of Mrs. Bishop. The school was to be run as an English immersion school (Zisk, 2000), to promote Christian values and to have a three year manual curriculum program (Kanahele, 1986). On December 19, 1894, the Kamehameha School for Girls, with a similar course study of three years, was formally dedicated (Kanahele, 1986).

Charles Reed Bishop played a key role in establishing the Kamehameha Schools. In early years money was not always available for constructing the necessary school buildings. During those lean years, Mr. Bishop gave generously of his personal fortune (Galuteria, 1999). It was at this time, he funded the construction of the first classroom building of the Manual Department. This facility was named Bishop Hall and still stands as part of the Bishop Museum complex. As a trustee, Mr. Bishop purposed to spend as much time as he could with the teachers and the students (Handicraft; Vol. 1, No.9). He felt “teaching” to be the most useful work (Galuteria, 1999). He wanted those students who did well in their schoolwork to be trained as teachers. [e.g. Charles E. King, prolific arranger and composer of Hawaiian music, was part of the first graduating class of 1891 of the Manual School. After furthering his education at the Oswego

Normal School in New York, King returned to Kamehameha to teach woodworking and music (Osorio & Young, 1997)]. Through the use of their knowledge and personal good character, Mr. Bishop believed that teachers would exert a positive influence on their students (Galuteria, 1999).

The Preparatory Department Charles Reed Bishop’s special contribution to Kamehameha was the founding of the Preparatory Department. He saw many young Hawaiian boys with no home or hope of attending school. Unfortunately, His wife’s Will did not include a school for younger children. But again, Mr. Bishop used his personal finances to fund the building that housed the Preparatory Department (Galuteria, 1999) and on October 29, 1888, the Preparatory Department began with 20 boys in attendance (Reamer, 1888). The Preparatory Department began as a boarding school for young Hawaiian boys between the ages of seven and twelve years. They were “well cared for and were taught good morals and manners. Cleanliness and neatness were stressed. Instruction was given in English, numbers, drawing, penmanship and singing”. The course of study prepared the young Hawaiians to advance to the Manual School (Reamer, 1889).

The original site of the Kamehameha Schools, which included the Schools for Boys and Girls and the Preparatory Department, was located at the entrance of Kalihi Valley (South King Street

area) below Kapälama Heights. The Preparatory Department was

situated on the Mauka-Ewa corner of the campus. Today, the Farrington High School campus, Kamehameha Housing and Bishop Museum exists on the original campus site (Galuteria, 1999).

Miss Carrie A. Reamer, appointed Principal (Kent, 1964), advertised the school (Handicraft, Dec. ‘89) as a “Home School for Small Hawaiian Boys” (Reamer). The classroom teachers were responsible for both academic instruction and dormitory supervision. The teachers’ resided on the premises and were in constant contact with the students during meals, in the classroom, in the playhouse and at night. Recitations took place for two hours in the morning and the afternoon.


Daily sewing lessons were given and the students were responsible for light domestic duties and ground maintenance (Handicraft, April ‘89).

Music Education at the Preparatory Department for Boys At the Preparatory Department, singing lessons along with the subjects of English, numbers, drawing, and penmanship were given special attention and viewed as important (Handicraft, Dec. ‘89). An article taken from the January, 1889 Handicraft Journal referred to the singing classes held at the Manual Department but could have also applied to the Preparatory Department’s philosophy on vocal instruction. The article is as follows: “Chorus singing receives its fair share of attention at Kamehameha School. There are very few solo voices among the pupils, but all sing in the choruses. The influence of good music on a school must be itself good; and it is the purpose of the teachers of singing to familiarize the pupils with standard music. They hold that even for simple exercises selections should be made from works of merit. Beethoven and Handel have furnished exercises for them; and on Founder’s Day (Dec. 19 - Mrs. Bishop’s birthday which provides the occasion for the school community to honor their founder) the boys sang “The Heavens are Telling” from Haydn’s Creation, arranged as a Te Deum by Dudley Buck; as well as one of Mendelssohn’s four-part songs.”

While there were music specialists for both the Boys’ and Girls’ schools, the responsibility of vocal instruction at the Preparatory Department fell on the classroom teachers. This runs in accordance with the statement that vocal music instruction was conducted by classroom teachers in the United States during the late 1800’s (McLain, 2000).

During its first year of instruction (1888–1889), the Preparatory Department was run by Principal Carrie A. Reamer (Kent, 1964) and her teaching assistants Miss Iretta Hight, and Miss Lillian Lyman (Handicraft, Jan. ‘89). Miss Hight came from Romeo, Michigan and was educated at Oberlin College (KSB Register, 1887). She gave singing lessons twice a day, 15 minutes each session. The first session was in the morning at 9:00 and then again during the afternoon at 1:00 (Reamer, 1888). There is no record as to what method (note or rote) was used and what songs were taught that first year. However, being that the school was English immersion, Christian value based and that the teachers hired were from the United States (Handicraft, Oct. ‘93), methods used could possibly have come from the any of the accepted graded music series that were popular during the late 1880’s (Mark & Gary, 1999). Songs taught were probably American folk tunes and hymns.

The school year 1889–1890 saw Miss Nancy J. Malone as the Preparatory Department’s Principal and Miss Lillian Lyman, Miss N. Johnston, and Miss L. Carter as assisting instructors (Handicraft, Sept. ’89). Unfortunately, there is no record of which teacher conducted the singing lessons. Presentations of what the students had learned throughout the year were shared at the end of the year exercises to an audience made up of parents, friends and invited guests. The first program consisted of sacred and secular songs, as well as recitations and demonstrations. It was held in the recitation rooms of the Preparatory School on Wednesday, June 25, 1890 at 2 p.m. (Handicraft, June ’90). The program was as follows:


Song Concert Recitation Prayer Song Language Concert Recitation Song Recitation Arithmetic Concert Recitation Song Reading and Oral Exercises Song Concert Recitation Song

Jesus Bids Us Shine Psalm CXXXIX

If I Come to Jesus Third Grade Second Grade Now Play This Is a Field of Grass Boys Wanted by Wm. Vanatta Second Grade Third Grade Swing Cradle First Grade Pass Me Not First Grade Dare To Do Right

The Preparatory School saw frequent changes to the teaching staff. One reason might be that the responsibility of teaching during the school day and having to provide constant care for the young boys in a boarding situation took its toll on the teacher’s health (Oleson, 1892) and/or willingness to continue in this type of an environment. Records show that many staff changes took place mid-year and do not give any indication of which teacher gave vocal instruction during the school years of 1890–1891 and 1891–1892 (Handicraft, Sept. ‘90; Feb. ‘91; Sept. ‘91).

A quote taken from the Handicraft Journal in September 1890, compares the necessity of the practice of basic skills to become proficient on the rip-saw in workshop, to the practice one must


put into music. “In music, the experienced teacher insists that the pupil spend an hour or more each day, for months, even years, on exercises only…” (Handicraft, Sept. ‘90). Again, this goes to show what the prevailing philosophy on music education might have been for both the Manual and Preparatory Schools at Kamehameha.

The teaching staff for the school year 1891–1892 was made up of Miss R. Hoppin , Miss E. T. Adams and Miss A. E. Knapp both from the Oswego Normal School in New York (Handicraft; Feb. ‘91, Sept. ‘91, Oct. ‘91,). In the October 1892 edition of the Handicraft Journal, Miss Hoppin was listed as a piano soloist on one of the Schools’ programs. She might have also been the teacher in charge of vocal instruction at the Preparatory Department. The year end exercises revealed an emphasis on songs that reflected the content of the students’ academic studies. The songs that were shared were all secular in nature: The Cheerful Carpenter, Merrily Oh, The Hungry Spider, Cuckoo and Whip-po’-Will (Handicraft, June 1892; p. 3). Students from the Preparatory School joined the students from the Boys’ and Girls’ schools for almost all special events. Either it was to participate as a performer or just as an attendee. The students had the opportunity of listening to a visiting artist perform on campus. Familiar with what a “fiddle” was, all students were enamoured with the Stradivarius owned and performed on by Madame Musin (Handicraft, June ‘92). Their exposure to fine musicians and instruments could not but enhance the students’ appreciation for quality music. The June 1892 edition of the Handicraft quoted Martin Luther, again reflecting Kamehameha’s philosophy on music and the building of moral character, “Music is a master which makes the people softer and milder, more polite and


more rational. It is a beautiful and noble gift of God. I would not part with what little I know of it for a great deal.”

In the year 1892–1893, the faculty for the school consisted of Principal Nancy J. Malone, and teaching assistants Miss E. Halstead, Miss R. Hoppin, and Miss A. E. Knapp. Mentioned earlier was the suggestion that Miss Hoppin might have been the vocal instructor because of her ability to play the piano. Further down in this section, Miss Halstead is also listed as a faculty performer on an evening program. She could have very well been given the responsibility of vocal instruction during this year but there is nothing on record to indicate this. Students from the Preparatory Department have always joined the older boys for the Friday evening “entertainments” held at the Manual Department. Students from both schools learned songs from a common repertoire that included school-related songs as well as traditional folk tunes. On the first Friday evening of the new school year, boys from the Preparatory Department joined the all-school sing-a-longs, listened to the older students sing in the Glee Club and enjoyed faculty and special guest performances (Handicraft, Oct. ‘92). The program for that evening was:

1. Kamehameha Song 2. Annie Laurie 3. The White Squall 4. The Bull Frog 5. Nut Brown Maiden 6. Anchored 7. Lihue, with Warble

School Glee Club Mr. L. C. Lyman School Glee Club Mr. Williams Glee Club

8. Steal Away 9. The Danube River 10. Daniel 11. The Arrow and the Song 12. Polly Wolly 13. The Diva Waltz 14. Top, Tip, Top

School Mr. Ruevsky Glee Club Mr. Williams Glee Club Miss Halstead Glee Club

On another Friday evening program, both schools observed Christopher Columbus Day by presenting music, readings and recitations in his honor. The Preparatory students participated in the following all-school songs: Brightest and Best, God Bless Our Native Land, Kamehameha Song (ibid.). Other than Principal Malone, the 1893–1894 teaching staff of the Preparatory Department had all new instructors. They were Miss L. E. Appleton, Miss J. T. Bates and Miss E. H. Bicknell (Handicraft, Sept. ‘93). There is no record who the vocal instructor could have been. At the 1893 Maui Teachers Convention, Maui educators, Miss Bessie Mundon and Mr. Dickinson gave a presentation of “Tonic Sol-Fa” (ibid.). It was later indicated (Clymer, 1897) that this method (Mark & Gary, 1999) was the accepted style of teaching the reading of music notation in the islands (Clymer, 1897). This method might have been used by the Preparatory Department but then again, there is no actual record.


The song Jingle Bells, sung with a “lively disposition”, was mentioned in a letter to the Handicraft editor from a Manual Department graduate attending Oswego Normal School in New York (Handcraft, Sept. ‘93). Over a span of 107 years, this song has not yet lost its popularity with young people and is always sung with great enthusiasm.

An article in the Handicraft Oct. ’93 issue poses the question, “Where do teachers for the schools throughout the kingdom come from?” The article continues and gives the answer. “The betterpaid class are largely imported; another class is made up of chance material on hand; while the graduates of our schools “piece out” the remainder.” For most of its early history, Kamehameha Schools purposed to hire teachers from the United States. The belief was that students would profit most from a contemporary, English based teaching system.

On April 7, 1894 at Kawaiaha‘o Church, a benefit concert sponsored by the Kamehameha Schools included the Preparatory students who sang soprano and alto parts in the School Chorus, revealing that part singing was included in the vocal instruction (Handicraft, May ‘94). Preparatory students performed with the School Chorus on Man in the Moon’s Ball, Catastrophe and Kamehameha Song (school alma mater). The Preparatory students also performed by themselves on A July Day and The Happy Miller. The boys from the Preparatory Department continued to join the Manual Department students for weekly Friday evening programs. Under the direction of Henry Berger, KSB bandmaster and music supervisor of KSG music teachers (Osorio & Young, 1997), the older students provided instrumental music (Handicraft, May ‘94).


A separate note in the May ’94 Handicraft mentioned “Some of the little boys were found back of the carriage house the other day with their faces all blackened with charcoal. When asked what they were doing, replied, “We are going to have a show.” Friday night’s entertainment was not lost on even the youngest.” This weekly exposure to vocal and instrumental music, recitations and simple dramatizations and the opportunities to perform could not help but increase the appreciation of the interpretive arts in all those who participated in these programs and concerts.

From Fall 1894 to Spring of 1897, there is no mention of individuals who taught music for the Preparatory Department. However, there were many reports on the musical activities involving the Preparatory students, and testimonies affirming that music education in the school was operating in full strength. “…teachers of the three Kamehameha schools have organized a musical club with meets every Friday evening (Handicraft, March ’95). In the middle of the night, “two of our smaller boys… willingly denying themselves much needed sleep that they might give enjoyment by means of the “guitar” of home manufacture now so popular at the Preparatory” (ibid.). Preparatory Chorus participates in Founder’s Day Exercises (Handicraft, Dec. ’95) Twenty one Preparatory boys attended the first concert by the Kamehameha Girls School in the city, at Independence Park Pavilion (Handicraft, Feb. ’96). Preparatory boys participate in concerts and services with older students (Handicraft, May ’96; June ’96).


It is worthy to note that in a report to Principal Ida May Pope (1894-1914) (Kent, 1964), Kamehameha School for Girls Music Teacher Cordelia Clymer speaks in length on the instruction of note reading, vocal exercises, tone production, pronunciation and enunciation. She also expressed her disapproval of the “Tonic Sol-Fa” method of teaching note reading. She taught it in part because it was the accepted method in the islands but used it in conjunction with another “eclectic system of reading, chiefly to learn to read by measuring intervals with the eye” (Clymer, 1897).

Both the Oct. ’98 and Nov. ‘98 issues of the Handicraft Journal printed an article on the Preparatory School mentioning that daily vocal classes now “occupied the hour from two to three p.m.” In the Dec. 98 issue, teaching songs by the rote method was mentioned for the first time. “All the boys of the Preparatory have been spending a part of their time in school, lately, in “learning words” which, being interpreted, means that they have been learning the words of the songs to be sung on Founder’s Day and Christmas.” From 1897 to 1908, various references are found as to what individual teachers taught Preparatory music.


Between the years of 1897–1900, Miss Eugene Thomas was the instructor of grades 5 and 6, and of music (Krusen, 1900).


School year of 1901–1902: Miss Maude Post of Denver taught grades 3 and 4, and music (Knapp, 1902).


School year of 1903–1904: There is mention of a specialist who improves the standard for Music and Drawing but no name is given (Smith, 1904)


School year of 1904–1905: Mrs. Stanley Livingston substitutes for ailing Miss Knapp and teaches grades 5 and 6, and music (Knapp, 1905).


School years of 1906–1907, 1907-1908: Miss Eugene Thomas returns after a year leave of absence to resume teaching grades 5 and 6, and music (Knapp, 1907 and 1908).


School year of 1908–1909: Miss Jessie Newsom of Oakland substitutes for Miss Eugene Thomas and teaches grades 5 and 6, and music (Knapp, 1909).


School year of 1908–1909: Miss Estella Roe of Teacher’s College, Columbia University, New York takes the place of Miss Jessie Newson and takes on the responsibility of teaching grades 5 and 6, and music (Perrott, 1910).


Fall, 1909 – Spring, 1913: Miss Estella Roe continues to teach music for a total of four years of music instruction.

In the 1913 Annual Report for the Manual Department, Mr. George A. Andrus, teacher of mathematics and music, gave a special report. He proposed the creation of a “music department” at the Schools. The music teacher of the Manual Department would head the music department and “only teach the subject of music and supervise the music teachers of the Girls’ and

Preparatory schools”. Kamehameha Schools President Perley L. Horne presented the proposal to the Board of Trustees later that year. He recommended that the music staff be reorganized with one person in charge of the three departments and that separate teachers be retained for each department. In the same special report of 1913, Andrus defended that music developed the character of the student. “If you let a boy give expression of the best that is in him, you can develop him along other lines much better” (Andrus, 1913).


In the first twenty-five years of its existence, the Kamehameha Schools have been an arena for music education to flourish, affecting the lives of all those who were a part of the institution. Strong support from the various school administrators allowed the music teachers throughout the years, to apply their knowledge, skill and expertise in the classroom. This dedication to excellence led to quality vocal and instrumental instruction. School programs, chapel services, special events and concerts provided outlets for students to share and demonstrate all they had learned. Family members of students and the Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian community-at-large


were recipients of these musical outpourings. Historical accounts confirm that all who attended these events between the years of 1888 through 1913, appreciated and enjoyed the diverse musical offerings of the young Hawaiian students. Mrs. Bishop would be pleased to see that her legacy, vision, and love for music has not only been perpetuated but has flourished under the care of the staff and students of the Kamehameha Schools.


Abate, F. (Ed.). (1996). The Oxford Dictionary and Thesaurus (American ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. Andrus, G. (1913). Special Report. Honolulu, Hawai‘i: Manual Department, Kamehameha School for Boys.


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Handicraft Journal (1898, October). pp. 1, 2. Handicraft Journal (1898, November). p. 2. Handicraft Journal (1910, January). pp. 2, 5. Horne, P. (1912). Principal’s Annual Report to the Trustees of the Estate of Mrs. Bernice Pauahi Bishop. Honolulu, Hawai‘i: Kamehameha School for Boys. Kamehameha School For Boys Register (1887). Kanahele, G. (1979). Hawaiian Music and Musicians, An Illustrated History, quoted in Kanahele, G. (1986). Pauahi, The Kamehameha Legacy, p. 47. Kanahele, G. (1986). Pauahi, The Kamehameha Legacy, pp. 46-48, 150-151, 153-159, 168-170. Kent, H. (1962). An Album of Likenesses – Bernice Pauahi Bishop and Charles Reed Bishop. Honolulu, Hawai‘i: Kamehameha Schools. Kent, H. (1964; Revised 1993, 1999). List of Trustees, Presidents, Principals, and Significant Dates, President of the Kamehameha Schools Knapp, A. (1902). Annual Report, June 30, 1901 – June 30, 1902, (p. 2). Honolulu, Hawai‘i: Preparatory Department, Kamehameha School For Boys. Knapp, A. (1905). Annual Report, June 30, 1901 – June 30, 1902, (p. 1). Honolulu, Hawai‘i: Preparatory Department, Kamehameha School For Boys. Knapp, A. (1907). Annual Report, Year Ending June 30, 1907, (p. 1). Honolulu, Hawai‘i: Preparatory Department, Kamehameha School For Boys. Knapp, A. (1908). Annual Report, Ending June 30, 1908, (p. 2). Honolulu, Hawai‘i: Preparatory Department, Kamehameha School For Boys. Knapp, A. (1909). Annual Report, Year Ending June 30, 1909, (p. 2). Honolulu, Hawai‘i: Preparatory Department, Kamehameha School For Boys.


Krusen, A. (1900). Principal Report, Year Ending June 30, 1900, To the Trustees Under the Will of Bernice Pauahi Bishop, (p. 3). Honolulu, Hawai‘i: Preparatory Department, Kamehameha School For Boys. Mark, M. & Gary, C. (1999). A History of American Music Education, pp. 173-181. McLain, B. (2000). Unit Three Lecture Notes from Music 601: “History of Music Education”, (p. 1). Honolulu, Hawai‘i: Graduate Music Department, University of Hawai‘i. Odgers, G. A. (1933). Education in Hawai‘i, 1820-1893, quoted in Kanahele, G. (1986). Pauahi, The Kamehameha Legacy, p. 154. Oleson, W. (1892). Principal’s Annual Report to the Trustees of the Estate of Hon. Mrs. B. P. Bishop, (p. 4). Honolulu, Hawai‘i: Manual Department, Kamehameha School For Boys. Osorio, J. & Young, K. (1997). Music, Past and Present, at Kamehameha Schools: Lei Mele No Pauahi, pp. x, xi, 9, 11. Perrott, F. (1910). Annual Report, Year Ending June 30, 1910, (p. 1). Honolulu, Hawai‘i: Preparatory Department, Kamehameha School For Boys. Pukui, M. & Elbert S. (1986). Hawaiian Dictionary (revised and enlarged ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press Reamer, C. (1888). Principal’s Report to the Board of Trustees of under the Will of Bernice Pauahi Bishop, (p. 2). Honolulu, Hawai‘i: Preparatory Department, Kamehameha School For Boys. Reamer, C. (1889, January). Advertisement in the Handicraft Journal. Biennieal Report of the President of the Board of Education, to the Legislative Assembly of 1878, Reign of His Majesty Kaläkaua – Fifth Year, printed by H. L. Sheldon, quoted in Kanahele, G. (1986). Pauahi, The Kamehameha Legacy. Smith, Miss (1904). Annual Report to Acting Principal, Mr. U. Thompson of the Manual Department, (p. 1). Honolulu, Hawai‘i: Preparatory Department, Kamehameha School For Boys. Williams, J. (1992). Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop, pp. 4, 6, 21, 24, 26, 30, 40, 49-50, 52, 54, ,66, 74, 79.


Woodward, C. M.. (1969). The Manual Training School, quoted in Kanahele, G. (1986). Pauahi, The Kamehameha Legacy, p. 156. Zisk, J. (2000). - Interview of Kamehameha Schools Archivist by Author, Honolulu, Hawai‘i: Kamehameha Schools.


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