Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

Volume I Integrated Report

GERI Campus, Race Course Road, Vadodara 390 007, India.

Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

Volume I Integrated Report

Prepared by :

Vadodara

For :

GERI Campus, Race Course Road, Vadodara 390 007, India.

Sponsored by :

Ahmedabad

Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

PROJECT TEAM
Senior Advisors Prof. S.S. Merh Dr. B.N. Desai Prof. Vidyut Joshi Prof. V. Subramanian Sh. V. Ramachandran

Working groups Geo-environment

Prof. S.S. Merh, Chairman, Research Advisory Council Wadia Institute of Himalayan Research, Dehradun. Prof. S.M. Pandya, Head Dept. of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot. Dr. Diwakar Sharma, Ecologist Gujarat Ecological Society, Vadodara. Prof. S.J. Pathak, Reader Dept. of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot. Dr. Dilip K. Datta, Associate Ecologist Gujarat Ecological Society, Vadodara. Dr. (Mrs.) Anjana Desai, Reader Dr. Pranav Vyas, Lecturer, Dept. of Microbiology & Biotechnology, MSU, Vadodara. Dr. J.M. Trivedi, Lecturer, Sir P.P. Inst. of Science, Bhavnagar Univ., Bhavnagar. Shri Anil Soni, Consultant. Shri A.D. Dholakia, Research Scientist Fisheries Research Stn., GAU, Sikka, Jamnagar. Shri S. Majumdar, Consultant, Calcutta. Shri N.K. Mehta, Leader Consultant group, Vadodara. Prof. K.K. Khakhar, Head, Dept. of Economics, Saurashtra University, Rajkot. Prof. Vidyut Joshi, Vice-Chancellor, Bhavnagar University. Red Cross Society, Bhavnagar. Prof. Vidyut Joshi, Vice-Chancellor, Bhavnagar University.

Vegetation

(Phytosociology)

Physico-chemical studies

(Heavy metals)

Microbiology

(Pathogens)

Benthic fauna (Macroinvertebrates)

(Foraminifera) Offshore hydrobiology

Socio-economic studies

(Health & hygiene) Communication package

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

Coordinator Analysis & integration

Prof. N.D. Chhaya Shri Hasmukh Shah Dr. S. Bandyopadhyay Dr. Dilip K. Datta Dr. A.M. Dixit Shri P.K. Chopra Dr. Diwakar Sharma Shri Jayendra J. Lakhmapurkar

............................................................................................................................................. Gujarat Ecological Society 16, Tana Apartment, Ellorapark, Subhanpura Road, Vadodara - 390 007 Ph. 383341, 383329, Fax. 340036

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

FOREWORD
There are only a few places in the world where ship-breaking activity of old vessels is being undertaken and the material thus obtained is being disposed off as scrap for reprocessing. AlangSosiya Ship-breaking yard in Gujarat is one of them. It is a unique place, perhaps the largest yard of its kind in the world for this type of operation. This is because the tidal regime here is one of the highest in the world and hence at the spring tide, ships of any size could be towed up to a highest point along the shore. After the tide recedes, the ship virtually remains on the land for nearly two weeks until the next spring tide comes. During this period, intensive ship-breaking activity is carried out. The magnitude of operation in the yard is so large that it has taken the shape of an industry of its kind with a sizable population dependant for its livelihood on this activity. The entire operation generates substantial revenue to Gujarat State. Colonies of the human settlement have developed in the vicinity of the yard with their associated economic and health side effects. While the activity in itself is important because it must be carried out at some suitable place near the sea, its short-term and long-term consequences on the ecology of the sea-shore, on its physiography, geomorphology, environmental features, fauna and flora, surrounding vegetation etc., must be studied and understood. Moreover there is further scope of socioeconomic study with its related features such as demography, land-use, living condition of workers, industrial safety and health and hygiene. Gujarat Ecology Commission (GEC), Vadodara, asked the Gujarat Ecological Society - an NGO to carry out an intensive study on "Ecological restoration and planing for this ship-breaking yard". The project was sponsored by the Gujarat Maritime Board, Ahmedabad. The project team was identified, which included 5 senior advisors - all of them well known in their fields of specialization - and 9 working groups on geoenvironment, vegetation, physio-chemical studies, microbiology, benthic fauna, offshore hydrography, socio-economic studies, communication package and coordination. An

analysis and integration team was also involved and this consisted of Shri Hasmukh Shah, Chairman, GEC, with 5 other members. With such a composition of the team, the study covered practically every aspect which included regional setup of the study area, history and development of ship-breaking activity, geoenviromental features, vegetation, intertidal ecology, offshore hydrobiology, heavy metal pollution, socio-economic study of the people involved, environmental management plan etc. The Gujarat Ecological Society has fulfilled its task admirably and has finalised an integrated report (Volume 1). Before bringing it in its present form, the contents of the report were presented and discussed in a workshop held at Vadodara. The report is intended to be used and implemented by the Gujarat Maritime Board. It is supported at the end by a bibliography and relevant annexes. With the background noted above, I am pleased to give my admiration to the report, which I have gone through with interest. In my entire scientific career now lasting for more than 40 years, I have seldom came across an administrator developing such a keen interest in science and particularly in shore ecology and environment. Mr. Hasmukh Shah is truly an exception. In the discussions I have found him extremely knowledgeable on different aspects of ecology and biological features. His deep interest in this study and his pleasant persuasion have prompted so many well-known scientists from different disciplines to take part in the investigations and in the formulation of the report. In my opinion, the report is exhaustive and one of its kind to give an account of different aspects of ecological restoration of the ship-breaking yard. It will undoubtedly serve as a model to carry out similar studies elsewhere in any other part of the world. The report is well written. It is easy to read and understand. I am sure, in addition to fully serving the purpose for which it is intended, it will stimulate other institutions and agencies to produce similar exhaustive studies so essential for the protection and conservation of different components of our country's environment.

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

New Delhi December, 1997

S.Z. Qasim Ph.D., D.Sc.(Wales), F.N.A. Sc., F.A.Sc., F.N.A. Former Member, Planning Commission Govt. of India.

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

PREFACE
An ecological study aimed at the development of a restoration and management plan is distinctive in many ways. It takes into account all aspects of natural and social sciences, emphasises interrelationships among different critical factors and strives to develop an understanding of what it means to the complex web of living systems of which human beings form an integral part. While a sectoral approach would lead to the study of water quality, air quality, soil quality etc. and their direct bearing on human beings (sanctified through the use of prescribed standards), a holistic approach would rather adopt a systems study emphasising the processes, functions and salient features. Water, air, land and their associated living beings are, therefore, studied as integral parts of different ecosystems which, in turn, have a certain relativity with their adjacent ecosystems. Admittedly, this is an uphill task but what emerges from such efforts is a much clearer perception of the changes taking place within a system - its nature, pace and degree of freedom for human interventions. The present assignment was a unique challenge to us. There were no models available since shipbreaking is an activity which is in the last two decades mostly confined to the developing world where little concern or capacity exists for conducting such studies. Secondly, little is known about the ecological conditions of the Alang-Sosiya ship-breaking yard (ASSBY) except that it experiences one of the highest tidal regimes of the world, thanks to its being located at the mouth of the Gulf of Khambhat. Finally, the sheer scale of activities, its contribution to the State exchequer and the peculiar socio-economic conditions of the people associated with this industry provide a complexity that will have a serious bearing on any management plan that may be sought to be implemented. The design of this study, therefore, is also quite unique. Initially, a macrolevel understanding is sought by exploring the regional setup in terms of geology, climate, physiography, oceanographic features etc. - factors which manifest at this scale and determines the large-scale vegetation structure.

Logically, therefore, a detailed survey of the vegetation - its diversity of species, distribution and status - provides the baseline ecological scenario of the region. Thereafter, a series of detailed micro-level studies were undertaken to determine the impact of ship-breaking activities on the onshore ecosystem, intertidal zone and offshore region. In the aquatic system, emphasis has been laid on the benthic forms, the sedentary nature of which make them particularly vulnerable to any perturbation in their environment. Apart from the macro forms, an ubiquitous group of shelled protozoa - the foraminifera - has also been studied. These are quick to respond to environmental changes because of their small size, prolific reproduction and adaptation to a wide range of habitats and, therefore, may provide a useful tool for future biomonitoring of the region. A particularly critical issue of heavy metal pollution has been examined in detail. Also, a successful effort has been made to identify microbes that may have the potential for degradation of oil and hydrocarbons. However, it must be realised that only a beginning has been made, a baseline information created and opinion generated in different quarters. These efforts need to be sustained, strengthened and reoriented as one goes along. The proposed management plan, therefore, is a blue print for a first order intervention which also provides a communication package for generating awareness among different sections of people associated with the acitivity, develop an understanding of the stakes involved and provide a participatory mechanism for the successful restoration of ASSBY through a plan, managed largely by the stakeholders and people themselves.

(Hasmukh Shah) Place: Vadodara Date: October, 1997

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Shipbreaking activity is confined only to a few locations in the world. While it started in US and UK after the Second World War, issues related to environmental pollution, increase in wages and increased availability of steel scrap at competitive prices, shifted the activity to relatively less industrialised countries such as Spain, Italy and Turkey. Since the late eighties, Asian countries emerged as major shipbreaking countries in the world. Currently, India, Bangladesh, China and Pakistan share 92% of the total tonnage broken. Among these, India ranks top with about 33% of the total tonnage broken followed by Bangladesh (29%), Pakistan (20%) and China (9%). In India, Gujarat Maritime Board (GMB) is the overall custodian for the world's largest shipbreaking yard located at Alang. Alang is about 21º 24' N and 72º 12' E in Talaja block, along the Western side of gulf of Khambhat, at a distance of about 50 Km from Bhavnagar, the district headquarters. Alang-Sosiya Shipbreaking Yard (ASSBY) experiences semi-arid to subhumid tropical climate with precipitation about 570 mm and average 32 rainy days a year. The mean maximum temperature during summer is about 40ºC and mean minimum temperature during winter is around 12ºC. The site falls in distinct high tidal amplitude zone (highest high tide-12 m), has silt free beach condition, and the seabed dries up very quickly during the ebb period. These characteristics along with availability of cheap labour and ready market have made Alang a highly suitable site for shipbreaking. The ASSBY comprises of 183 plots of different sizes. The first ship was beached at Alang on February, 13, 1983. In 1996-97 a total of 280 ships were beached and 25.94 lakh light displacement tonnage (LDT) was broken. Almost 70% of total vessels and 90% of the total LDT broken during 1995 at ASSBY were of three major types, viz., Tankers, Cargo Carriers and Bulk Carriers. The total ship-breaking activities encompass offshore, littoral, and on-shore zones. The offshore processing starts with the arrival of a ship at Alang anchorage, when personnel from customs department, agents, marine surveyors and the buyer inspect the vessel. The major shipbreaking

processes are accomplished at the littoral zone. These mainly include the removal of superstructures and cutting of the ship's hull, engine and the propeller. After the removal of electrical and other miscellaneous items, the vessel is cut vertically by oxygen-LPG torches into big blocks. These blocks of about 10 tonnes drop onto the beach. The dismantled pieces are pulled on to the shore with the help of winches during the low tide. Activities in the on-shore zone mainly comprise of cutting the big blocks into smaller transportable pieces, and transferring these smaller blocks to the desired destination. The ASSBY has reinforced growth of downstream industries like re-rolling, oxygen-manufacturing and LPG bottling plants within Alang-BhavnagarSihor triangle However, the nature of operation itself has its own ecological hazards. The compaction and contamination of sediments in the littoral zone, the dispersal of pollutants and other material that is released during shipbreaking process (such as petroleum hydrocarbons, solid wastes, heavy metals and other toxic materials) in the off-shore and intertidal zones, the bio-accumulation and biomagnification of pollutants in the tissue of marine biota, the unplanned development of infrastructure, and concentration of human population on the fragile on-shore zones are some of the area of concern. These are serious issues and are now viewed with concern at all levels since these processes, although slow, may damage the ecosystems irreversibly. This ecological study, aimed at the development of a restoration and management plan for ASSBY area, has been carried out by the Gujarat Ecological Society (GES) under the aegis of Gujarat Ecology Commission (GEC) at the instance of GMB. GMB's enlightened approach to offer ASSBY for scrutiny is a rare phenomenon among any sector of polluting activity - industrial or otherwise. A holistic approach was adopted to analyse shipbreaking activities from ecological point of view. Environment experts from all over India were consulted for designing the study as well as for preparation of the management plan. Initially a macrolevel understanding was sought by exploring the regional set-up in terms of geology, climate, physiography etc. Thereafter, a series of detailed

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

microlevel studies were undertaken by multidisciplinary teams to determine the impact of shipbreaking activities on the onshore, intertidal and offshore regions. Three rounds of samples were collected from the offshore region covering postmonsoon, winter and pre-monsoon seasons, while ecological data from the onshore and intertidal regions was collected for about nine months (i.e., excluding the monsoon period). The data collected was grouped as: N-Control i.e., 15 km north of ASSBY; N-ASSBY i.e., Sosiya; M-ASSBY i.e., middle ASSBY; S-ASSBY i.e., south ASSBY; and, S-Control i.e., 25 km south of ASSBY.

OFFSHORE HYDROBIOLOGICAL FEATURES The spatial and seasonal variations of the temperature, pH and salinity of the offshore water were not significant. Total suspended matter (TSM) for the surface waters ranged from 14.62995 mg/l while that of bottom waters varied from 43.2-4010 mg/l. The dissolved oxygen (DO) varied from 5.3 to 7.85 mg/l between seasons and sites but the difference between sites was not significant. BOD was highest in post-monsoon season at the offshore sites of ASSBY (6.6 mg/l), suggesting loading through increase surface runoff. There was significant variation between pre-monsoon and post-monsoon nitrogen and phosphorus at any given site. However, between control sites and ASSBY sites variation was insignificant. Higher concentration of chlorophyll a was recorded during the post-monsoon period (1.07 - 2.67 µg/l) compared to the winter (0.5 - 0.8 µg/l) and premonsoon (0.5 - 1.7 µg/l). Similarly, phytoplankton was highest during the post-monsoon (11,500 164,800 /l) and much lower during the winter and pre-monsoon periods (3,200 - 19,600 /l). There was also a distinct shift in the dominance of major groups of phytoplankton over the different seasons. Phaeophytin concentration was usually low (< 2 µg/l) in the offshore waters. However, there was a distinct increase in the phaeophytin level (2.5 5.25 µg/l) during the winter season. There was no significant variation between the control sites and the sites within ASSBY. A maximum of 13 zooplankton groups were recorded during winters, which reduced to 7 during the pre-monsoons. The population of zooplankton was high in winter (603 - 4,620/ml) and premonsoon (208 - 19,70/ml) seasons. There was also a definite increase in the zooplankton biomass from winter (0.31 - 1.74 ml/100m3) to pre-monsoon (1.32 - 3.55 ml/100m3), possibly due to the dominance of salps and fish larvae. A total of 48 species of recent benthic foraminifera belonging to 25 genera under 13 family were identified. The N-Control transect was the most healthy. The size reduction of certain forams like Ammonia spp. indicates ecological degradation of the region

REGIONAL SET-UP The gulf of Khambhat is located at the broadest part of the continental shelf. In the western seaboard of the country. Geoclimatically the ASSBY is a water scarce region. Shetrunji is the only major river that meets the Gulf on the east coast of Saurashtra and is about 10 km towards the south of ASSBY. Manar and Jaspara are two seasonal rivers that meet the gulf through the ASSBY. Stratigraphically, Tertiary Gaj formations dominate which contain saline ground water though, Deccan Traps do form isolated pockets of sweet water aquifers with limited potential. High suspended sediments in the gulf are largely attributed to inflow of the rivers into the Gulf. High tidal amplitude and funnelling action makes tidal water to migrate across the gulf. Flushing action take place on mouth of the gulf during ebb tides, releasing sediments into the Arabian Sea. The area is covered by dry deciduous vegetation that is largely overexploited. A total of 433 species of wild and cultivated plants, including 365 dicots and 68 monocots, were recorded from the four blocks of the study area viz., I-Alang-Sosiya, IIMithivirdi, III-Gopnath-Saltanpar and, IVBhandaria-Talaja belt. Of these 136 species (111 dicots and 25 monocots) were common in all the four blocks. The cultivated plant species contributed about 58% of the total plant species in block I, II and III, which increase to 78% in block IV, indicating a pressure on natural vegetation in block IV. A fairly high number (109) of exotic species were recorded. Avicennia marina, was the only mangrove species observed in blocks II and III, with poor population density.

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

HEAVY METAL POLLUTION Heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cr) were estimated both from water (dissolved) and sediments of intertidal, and from offshore zones (both suspended and bottom sediments). Higher concentration of Fe and Mn were recorded from waters of the ASSBY areas as compared to the control sites. Similarly, all the measured heavy metals recorded relatively higher concentration in the sediments at ASSBY compared to the control sites. This is particularly high at the coastline of M-ASSBY. However, the Igeo values show that, the sediment quality lies between unpolluted to moderately polluted category with respect to Fe, Mn and Cu. The sediments are not polluted with respect to Zn, Pb and Ni concentration. It may be noted that since the sediments in and around Alang have the potential to trap a large quantity of heavy metals, they are still mostly unpolluted. However, the sediments may show higher pollution if kept unmonitored for a long time.

at S-Control. The species composition of NASSBY was similar to S-ASSBY (71%). The bacterial population from S-ASSBY was more salt tolerant as the viable count on different media was highest (18) for this site. Similarly bacteria of different physiological types (Agarolytic, Chitinolytic and Cellulolytic) was highest (0.67, 56.3 and 36 respectively for the three types) at this site. The maximum capacity (76%) to degrade PHC-oil was also observed from a culture obtained from this site.

ON SHORE VEGETATION Phytosociology study was undertaken through plot sampling in four localities along the coastline, which were stratified based on the distance from ASSBY. Three tree species viz. Acacia leucophloea and Azardiracta indica at N-Control, and Avicennia marina were recorded at Ghogha. Out of the six shrub species recorded, half (Calotropis, Prosopis juliflora and Zizyphus nummularia) were of medium to large size. The density of medium to large shrubs ranged from 31.8 to 764.3 individuals (or bunch) per hectare. It was maximum at S-ASSBY and N-ASSBY and minimum at N-Control. Desmosatchya bipinnata was the most dominating grass both in terms of frequency and cover, followed by Cenchrus ciliaris. The vegetation of N-ASSBY was 69% similar (Ellenberg's index) to S-ASSBY and 63% to NControl site. These studies indicate that the variation in species composition and abundance does not have any correlation with ASSBY activities. Instead, it is the variation in substratum, type of shore and activities of villagers that have caused differences in the species composition and abundance at the three sites.

INTERTIDAL ECOLOGY The study indicate minor spatial and seasonal variations in salinity, pH and DO, dissolved phosphorus and nitrogen. However, BOD, COD and oil-PHC were higher in ASSBY region compared to the control sites, suggesting high load of organic matter in the littoral zone. Population and biomass of macrobenthos on soft substrates was higher at N-Control and S-Control sites compared to ASSBY areas. The group diversity varied among groups (Molluscs, Polychaetes, Crustaceans and Others) and among different (upper, middle and lower) zones. Species diversity was highest (1.8) in the upper intertidal zone at S-Control and minimum (0.1) in the lower intertidal zone at N-ASSBY. N-Control was relatively similar (Sorenson's Index) to N-ASSBY (67%) and S-ASSBY (64%). A total of 23 macrobenthic species on rocky substrates were recorded of which maximum species (16), population and biomass was recorded

SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS Socioeconomic conditions of the workers at ASSBY and the economic impacts of shipbreaking industry on the neighbourhood villages were examined by the social scientists through surveys, organisation of medical camp and empirical observations. Of the total established

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

30,000 workforce of ASSBY, 94.5% belongs to poor farmer families of three states viz., UP, Orissa and Bihar. They are literate people (literacy 76%) and in search of better emplyoment opportunities have migrated to this area without their families. Although, 40% of the workers are staying at ASSBY site for more than six years, an average worker has strong family ties and visits his native place at least once a year. A large percentage of workers (90%) earn more than Rs. 2,000 per month and have a tendency to save (average annual saving -Rs. 10,000) to assist the large families in their native place. An average worker does not stint on food and generally manages to remain physically fit. He seems to shun all luxuries and lives in subhuman conditions. Most of the workers have an average of about 3 sq. m space per person and huddle together in small huts which have neither any ventilation and electric lights nor proper toilet facilities. Poor hygienic and cramped living conditions of workers was also revealed at the medical camp where high presence of both MB (infectious) and PB (non infectious) types of leprosy cases were observed. As far as safety standards are concerned negligible attentions is paid either by workers or by plot management. The establishment of ASSBY apparently has no reference to the development of the area economy and looks as a graft over the region. Nevertheless growth of ASSBY has exerted positive impact on nearby villages in terms of employment generation bringing about almost full emplyoment in its neighbourhood. Land use pattern of the nearby villages is also changing as some of the agricultural land parcels, particularly those adjacent to road or more favourably exposed to the site of ASSBY, are being brought under non agriculture uses and as a result the land price in some of the nearby villages has appreciated significantly.

ultimately damage the living organisms and impair vital ecological functions, a management plan for ASSBY is proposed with overall objectives to maintain (or restore) the conditions of the marine ecosystem, ensure sustained economic development and provide healthy living conditions. The major recommendations are as follows:

MANAGEMENT OF THE MARINE ECOSYSTEM 1. Check the high loading of organic matter in the coastal water by the development of proper sanitation facilities, provision for appropriate sewerage system and treatment mechanism. Control the high levels of Oil and PHC by minimising spills. The entire system of offloading of oil should be reviewed by GMB and suitable measures may be adopted for eliminating spillage at any stage. GMB should provide for surprise inspection of the plots to check any spillage of oil. Installation and management of common incineration facility for the proper disposal of non-recoverable residue by GMB. The task of monitoring the intertidal area for oil-PHC may be entrusted to an independent agency like Bhavnagar University or CSMCRI. Control of heavy metal pollution be experimented with a system of dry-docking (after a detailed technical feasibility study) in which a plot will have walls on two sides and a lock-gate opening into the sea. The base could be covered by a tough synthetic material and the entire space cleaned before another ship is allowed in. In any case disturbance to sediments should be kept to the bare minimum and no dredging should be carried out. Creation of dumps for solid waste by GMB at regular distance behind the plots and arrange for segregation and disposal of such materials.

2.

3.

4.

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN As is obvious from the data, the levels of pollutants do not exhibit any drastic change spatially and temporally. However, it is noted that the levels of some pollutants are higher in the ASSBY region as compared to the control sites. Therefore, in order to prevent further building up of pollutants in the coastal waters and sediments, which might

5.

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

6.

Protect and conserve biodiversity in and around ASSBY. Monitoring task may be assigned to Bhavnagar University, for which, if necessary, its laboratory and other infrastructure may be augmented/upgraded Avoid introduction of alien species by declaring, clinically examining and putting under appropriate quarantine measures, any life form that is brought by these ships. A certificate to this effect may be obtained from the seller of the ship.

conservancy and general upkeep of houses. 13. Undertake measures to meet the total drinking water requirement of 8.9 Mm3 as given in the additional report. The cost estimate for this task is around Rs. 50.3 crores. Create a green belt of indigenous species with the help of the forest Dept of State Government in the area, between the plots and workers' residential quarters, which is not put to agricultural use.

7.

14.

MEASURES FOR UPGRADATION OF ACTIVITIES 8. Development of backyards contiguous to their current plots, but on the onshore zone so that second and third order of cutting, removal of paint, and storage of material and equipment etc. can be performed there. This will minimise the entry of waste generated into the sea. Modernise and mechanise the operations, enhance the skills end efficiency of the work force by training so as to take additional load of shipbreaking done by maintaining the work force at the current level.

MONITORING AND EVALUATION 15. Periodic checks for heavy metals and other non-biodegradable organics (such as PCBs) in the different tissues (particularly liver, brain and muscles) of fishes (such as bombay duck, hilsa) and crustaceans (shrimps, lobsters) be carried out at regular intervals to monitor ecosystem health and its potential effects on human health. Entrust the regular monitoring of physicochemical and biological parameters to independent agencies such as CSMCRI, Bhavnagar University, NIO.

9.

16.

MEASURES FOR IMPROVING HUMAN HABITATION 10. Early development of a clean and hygienic residential accommodation beyond the main road and not close to the Shipbreaking Yard by GMB. This will require about 50 ha of total land and about Rs. 103 crores of fund. As regards housing, locations may be selected north of CRZ zone. If there are any insurmountable problems in acquiring land there, marginal adjustments may be made in CRZ line Management of township by shipbreakers in small clusters depending on workforce of each plot. GMB's personnel, however, should inspect and supervise sanitation,

ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT 17. Declaration of ASSBY as notified area, called Alang Area Development Authority (ADA), by the Government of Gujarat. It should be properly governed by a crosssectoral implementing agency. A separate goal-oriented Division/Cell (say Alang Environment Management Cell) dedicated to the implementation and monitoring of the management plan may be created within the ADA. This Cell should be constituted with its own functional sections for the planning, implementation, monitoring and co-ordination of the various activities proposed to be taken up. The proposed cell will facilitate appropriate coordination and integration within and outside the GMB working system.

11.

12.

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

18.

Issuing of permit by GMB to only those ships with necessary environmental clearance in terms of hazardous and toxic chemicals, exotic species, etc. Continuous environmental monitoring by an independent agency, like NIO, CSMCRI, Bhavnagar Univ. and NEERI, and report to GMB for necessary action. Provision of infrastructure to shipbreakers by GMB, in both intertidal and onshore regions to increase the working efficiency and to control the pollution load (oils, heavy metals and solid wastes). Cutting of the hull by shipbreakers into large blocks and carry those blocks to backyards for further action to avoid prolonged activities in the fragile intertidal zone. They should immediately collect all the combustible material and incinerate those to minimise the chances of pollution spread in onshore, intertidal and finally offshore regions.

19.

20.

21.

AWARENESS PROGRAMME 22. There are basically four interest groups directly involved in shipbreaking activity, viz. Gujarat Maritime Board (GMB), the shipbreakers-plot owners, the workers or labourers and the villagers in ASSBY area. Depending upon their concern, interest and level of knowledge about sustainable development, different awareness packages for these four groups are proposed.

GMB may constitute a working group consisting of representatives of GMB, shipbreakers and experts in the field to examine the suggestions made here to decide on long term planning for shipbreaking industry at Alang.

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

LIST OF TABLES
No. 1.1 1.2 1.3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 8.1 8.2 Title Overall summary of gross tonnage broken by major ship-breaking countries (1990-1995) Percentage share in the world total Gross tonnage broken in World and in India during 1975-1995 LDT broken at ASSBY since its inception Type of Ships broken at ASSBY during 1995 Global availability of ships and tonnage for breaking by ship type Costing (based on thumb-rules) per LDT at ASSBY Stratigraphy of the Bhavnagar-Ghogha coastal segment Tertiary-Quaternary stratigraphic sequence around Gopnath-Methla area Stratigraphic sequences N-E of Gopnath coastal segment Hydrogeological conditions in the coastal segments Chemical quality of ground water Characteristics of the stream longitudinal profiles Statistical parameters of beach sands Time differences for peak tides with reference to high tide at Bhavnagar Jetty Seasonal wave height at different location along the coast Clay mineralogical percentages in suspended sediment The flora of Alang-Sosiya complex and its surrounding Dominant floral families in the four blocks Habitwise distribution of wild and cultivated (cult.) plant species in the four blocks Cultivated crops in the Alang-Sosiya complex and its surroundings Site characteristics of Alang-Sosiya complex and its surroundings Absolute frequency (AF) and Relative frequency (RF) of large shrubs species Absolute density/ha (AD) and Relative density (RD in %) of large shrubs species Absolute frequency (AF) and Relative frequency (RF) of small shrubs species Absolute cover (AC) and Relative cover (RC) of small shrubs species Absolute frequency (AF) and Relative frequency (RF) of grass species Absolute cover (AC) and Relative cover (RC) of grass species Similarity of vegetation between different sites Average Intertidal macrobenthic population (no/sq m) for self abstracts Similarity index of macrobenthos in soft substratum Species abundance of rocky intertidal macrofauna at sampling site Population of macrobenthos in intertidal zone with rocky substratum Similarity index of macrobenthos in rocky substratum Enumeration of bacteria of different physiological types from the soil samples near Alang Identification of isolate 2 from the soil sediment of M-ASSBY Temperature (ºC) variation of offshore water pH variation in offshore water Salinity (ppt) variation in offshore water Suspended Solids (mg/l) in offshore water DO in offshore water Variation in Phytoplankton at different stations at Alang Variation in Zooplankton at different stations at Alang Fish landing data (kg/yr) at the neighbourhood of ASSBY Distribution of major dissolved heavy metals in the intertidal zone Distribution of heavy metals in the sediments of intertidal zone PN 2 2 3 15 15 16 16 24 21 25 26 27 31 32 36 38 40 45 46 47 48 51 52 52 54 54 56 56 57 67 71 72 73 74 77 78 84 84 84 85 86 86 97 98 100 101

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

No. 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 8.17 8.18 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 9.16 9.17 9.18 9.19 9.20 9.21 9.22 9.23 9.24 9.25 9.26 9.27 9.28 9.29 9.30 9.31

Title Distribution of Fe (µg/g) in the sediments Distribution of Mn (µg/g) in the sediments Distribution of Zn (µg/g) in sediments Distribution of Cu (µg/g) in sediments Distribution of Pb (µg/g) in sediments Distribution of Ni (µg/g) in sediments Concentration of metals (µg/g) in standard shales Correlation coefficient matrix for bottom sediments Correlation coefficient matrix for suspended sediments Metal ratio for Fe and Mn relative to standard shale Metal ratio for Zn and Cu relative to standard shale Metal ratio for Pb and Ni relative to standard shale Igeo class with respect to sediment quality (Müller 1979) Igeo values for Fe and Mn at Alang Igeo values for Zn and Cu at Alang Igeo values for Pb and Ni at Alang Proximity of villages to ASSBY Population change in the neighbouring villages of ASSBY Distribution of workers in neighbouring villages of ASSBY Workers of neighbouring villages employed in service sector of ASSBY Number of households engaged in ASSBY related activities Change in land prices in neighbouring villages of ASSBY Category of workers involved in ship breaking activity Statewise Distribution of workers Worker's occupation at their native places Demography of workers' families at their native places Workers family house types at their native places House ownership of workers at their native places Agewise distribution of workers Marital status of workers Educational levels of workers Annual income of workers Annual savings of workers Monthly expenditure of workers on housing Accommodation types used by workers Average floor space available to a worker in a hut Workers staying with families at Alang Preference of workers for staying with their families in a housing colony at Alang Worker's length of stay at Alang Worker's job status Expenditure of workers on food items Expenditure on refreshment items Pathogens population in the waters of ASSBY Number of leprosy cases among the workers of different states Incidence of Diseases Frequency of Diseases in last one year Accidents occurred to workers

PN 103 103 103 103 103 104 104 107 107 109 109 109 110 111 111 111 114 116 117 118 118 119 120 121 121 122 122 122 123 123 123 124 124 125 125 127 127 127 128 128 128 129 129 130 131 131 132

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

9.32 9.33 10.1 10.2 10.3

Weight status of ASSBY workers by age and height Distribution of workers having below normal weight Summary of various parameters of intertidal and offshore areas Contents, periodicity and agencies for monitoring Action plan for environmental management of ASSBY area

132 132 135 150 151

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

LIST OF FIGURES
No. 1.1. 2.1 2.2 2.3 3.1 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 6.20 6.21 6.22 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Title Gross tonnage of ship broken in the world and share of India Location map of the study area Rainfall in Gujarat Location of Gulf vis-a-vis continental shelf Numbers and LDT of shipbroken at ASSBY Structural set-up of Gulf of Khambhat Geology around Alang Drainage pattern around Alang Coastal landforms around Alang Bathymetry of Gulf of Khambhat Tidal amplitude in Gulf of Khambhat Mineralogy around Gulf of Khambhat Comparison of vegetation in ASSBY region between 1985 & 1998 Categorisation of the study area for vegetation study Avicennia marina seedling density at various localities on coast Shrub density at various localities on coast. Percentage of shrub cover at various localities on coast Percentage of grass cover at various localities on coast. Salinity variation of water in littoral zone. pH variation of water in intertidal zone DO variation of water in intertidal zone BOD variation of water in intertidal zone COD variation of water in intertidal zone Oil-PHC variation of water in intertidal zone PO4-P variation of water in intertidal zone Total N variation of water in intertidal zone NH4-N variation of water in intertidal zone NO3-N variation of water in intertidal zone NO2-N variation of water in intertidal zone Population of macrobenthic community Biomass of macrobenthic community. Species groups in different intertidal zones with different proportions Taxa richness of macrobenthic community Diversity (Shannon Weiner) index of macrobenthic community Total number of species in the intertidal zone Population macrobenthic community on rocky substrate Biomass of macrobenthic community on rocky substrate Viable count of bacteria on different media Viable count of the bacteria in unpolluted sea water BHC Oil degradation by consortium of micro-organisms Variation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in offshore water Variation of NO3-N content in offshore water Variation of NO2-N content in offshore water Variation of NH4-N content in offshore water Variation of PO4-P content in offshore water Variation of Oil-PHC content in offshore water Variation of Chlorophyll-a content in offshore water PN 3 10 11 12 14 22 23 28 30 35 39 39 43 44 53 53 55 55 61 61 61 62 62 62 63 63 63 64 64 66 69 69 70 70 71 73 74 76 76 77 87 88 90 91 92 93 94

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

7.8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 9.1 10.1 10.2

Variation of Phaeophytin content in offshore water Zn concentration in bottom sediments Cu concentration in bottom sediments Pb concentration in bottom sediments Zn concentration in suspended sediments Cu concentration in suspended sediments Pb concentration in suspended sediments Neighbouring villages of ASSBY Integrated environmental cause effect relationship Summary of recommendations for ASSBY

96 105 105 105 106 106 106 115 138 153

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

LIST OF PLATES
No. 2.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 5.1 5.2 5.3 7.1 7.2 7.3 9.1 Title IRS image of the Bhavnagar-Gopnath segment, Gulf of Khambhat Cranes lifting large iron block Large iron blocks being cut into smaller blocks A view of Alang-Sosiya shipbreaking yard A RS (LANDSAT MSS) view of the region around ASSBY in February 1985 A RS (IRS LISS III) view of the region around ASSBY in January 1998 Thickets of Prosopis around ASSBY Van Veen type grab sampler Narrow mouth sampling bottle for oil Heron Trantor net for zooplankton sampling Slum dwelling around ASSBY P. N. 9 19 19 20 42 42 49 83 83 83 126

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
AAS AD ADA ADB AF ASSBY BOD CEC CMFRI COD Cr. CRZ CSMCRI Cult. DO EAF GBH GIDC GMB GPCB ICP km LDO LDT LPG m meq Min MoU MPN NGO NIO ONGC PCB PHC RD RF SPC TBT TSM Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Absolute Density Alang Area Development Authority Asian Development Bank Absolute Frequency Alang Sosiya Ship-breaking Yard Biological Oxygen Demand Cation Exchange Capacity Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute Chemical Oxygen Demand Crore/Crores Coastal Regulation Zone Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute Cultivated Dissolved Oxygen Electric Arc Furnace Girth at Breast Height Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation Gujarat Maritime Board Gujarat Pollution Control Board Inductively Coupled Plasma Kilometres Light Diesel Oils Light Displacement tonnage Liquefied Petroleum Gas Metres Milli equivalent Minutes Memorandum of Understanding Most Probable Number Non Government Organisation National Institute of Oceanography Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Polychlorinated Biphenyl Petroleum Hydro Carbon Relative Density Relative Frequency Standard Plate Count Tri-Butyle Tin Total Suspended Matter

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

CONTENTS
FOREWORD PREFACE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF PLATES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5 2. 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 4. 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 INTRODUCTION Global scenario of ship-breaking The Indian perspective About this study Background Aims and objectives Approach Methodology (components and scope) Chapter scheme STUDY AREA Location Regional setup Climate Geological setting Hydrogeology Oceanographic features Vegetation ALANG-SOSIYA SHIP-BREAKING YARD (ASSBY) Historical perspective Present status Modus operandi Products of shipbreaking GEOENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES Geology Structural setup Stratigraphy Hydrogeology Geomorphology Drainage Landform Coastal deposits Offshore: The Gulf of Khambhat Bathymetry Tides and tidal currents Waves Nature of tidal sediments III V VI XII XV XVII XVIII 1 1 3 5 5 5 5 6 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 13 13 14 14 14 17 17 21 21 21 21 25 27 27 29 32 34 34 34 38 38

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

5. 5.1 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6 5.3.7 5.4 6. 6.1 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.3 6.3.1 6.3.2 6.4 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.5 6.5.1 6.5.2 6.5.3 6.5.4 6.6 7. 7.1 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.2.4 7.2.5 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.4

VEGETATION Vegetation change detection using RS data Floristic composition Methodology Floral abundance Phytosociology Sampling Data collection Data analysis Trees Shrub Grass Similarity index Conclusion INTERTIDAL ECOLOGY Methodology Sampling Data analysis Physico-chemical properties of water Salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) BOD, COD and oil-PHC Dissoved phosphorus and nitrogen Physico-chemical properties of sediments Particulate nitrogen and phosphorus pH and oil-PHC Macrobenthic community Macrobenthos on soft substrates Macrobenthos on rocky substrates Microbial communities Methods Total number of bacteria Physiological types Oil related microbes Conclusion OFFSHORE HYDROBIOLOGICAL FEATURES Methodology Sampling strategy Field and laboratory techniques Physico-chemical features Temperature, pH and salinity Total suspended matter (TSM) DO and BOD Nitrogen and phosphorus Oil-PHC Biological features Phytoplankton pigments Phytoplankton Zooplankton Benthos

41 41 41 41 45 48 50 50 50 50 50 54 54 57 58 58 59 59 60 60 60 60 65 65 65 65 65 71 75 75 75 75 77 78 80 80 80 81 82 82 85 86 86 89 89 89 95 97 98

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

7.3.5 7.4 7.5 8. 8.1 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.3 8.3.1 8.3.2 8.4 9. 9.1 9.2 9.2.1 9.2.2 9.2.3 9.2.4 9.3 9.3.1 9.3.2 9.3.3 9.3.4 9.3.5 9.3.6 9.3.7 10. 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.3.1 10.3.2 10.4 10.4.1 10.4.2 10.4.3 10.5 10.5.1 10.5.2 10.5.3 10.5.4 10.6

Fishery Impact of ASSBY on the offshore ecosystem Conclusion HEAVY METAL POLLUTION Intertidal zone Methods Heavy metal distribution Offshore zone Methods Nature of sediments Heavy metal concentration in sediments Interelemental relationship Quantification of heavy metals Conclusion SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS Methodology Neighbouring villages Demography Amenities and infrastructure Employment due to ASSBY Land use pattern Profile of workers Composition Literacy Income pattern Living conditions Victuals Health and hygiene Industrial safety ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN Need of a management plan Objectives of the management plan Management of the marine ecosystem Measures for pollution control Protection of biodiversity Measures for upgradation of activities Development of backyards Mechanisation and improvement of skills Safety measures Measures for improving human habitation Township development Location Water demands and supply Green belt Monitoring and evaluation

98 99 99 100 100 100 100 101 101 101 102 107 108 112 113 113 116 116 116 117 119 120 120 123 124 125 128 130 133 134 134 137 139 139 141 142 142 142 143 144 144 147 148 148 149

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Ecological Restoration and Planning for Alang-Sosiya Ship-Breaking Yard, Gujarat

10.6.1 10.6.2 10.7 10.7.1 10.7.2 10.8 10.9 10.9.1 10.9.2 10.9.3 10.9.4 10.9.5

Monitoring of ecosystem health Monitoring and regulation of shipbreaking activities Management responsibilities Related to shipbreaking activities Related to socio-economic conditions Organisation of implementation Awareness programme Contents for awareness packages Awareness package for GMB officials Awareness package for shipbreaking management Awareness package for workers Other groups BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNEXES

149 150 150 154 154 155 155 155 156 157 157 158 160 166

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