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ASIA-PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP on Clean Development and Climate

This textbook has been prepared by Japanese electric power companies as a

contribution to “PGT-06-01: Best Practices for Power Generation” one of the
activities undertaken by the ‘Power Generation and Power Distribution Task Force’ in
the context of the ASIA-PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP on Clean Development and
Climate. The textbook describes important issues associated with maintaining, and
enhancing, levels of heat efficiency at a coal-fired thermal power plants, and
constitutes a summary of matters of which all technicians working in power
generation plants need to be aware. It would give us considerable satisfaction if this
textbook provides useful guidance to technicians in the course of day-to-day
operations, and in the carrying out of maintenance, at coal-fired thermal power plants.
In the course of preparing this textbook, we have quoted extracts from books and
Bulletins of the Thermal and Nuclear Power Engineering Society. The authors
would like to extend their warmest appreciation to individual writers of these books
and Bulletins, as well as to the Societies itself, for their willingness to provide such
valuable information, and thus to make this textbook possible.

April, 2007
The Federation of Electric Power Companies of Japan
ASIA-PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP on Clean Development and Climate

List of Authors (Titles Dispensed and Omitted and Listed in Random Order)
Kazuhiro Sakai: Section Manager, Affair Infrastructure Sec. Thermal Power Dept.
Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc.
Satoshi Tanishima: Manager, Planning Group, Thermal Power Department,
Tokyo Electric Power Company
Kenichiro Kawashima: Deputy Manager, Planning Group, Thermal Power Department,
Tokyo Electric Power Company,
Tatsurou Yamaoka: Manager, Overseas Project Group, Thermal Power Plant Engineering Center,
Thermal Power Department,
Tokyo Electric Power Company
Shinichi Taniguchi: Mechanical Engineering & Asset Management Strategist, Overseas Project Group,
Thermal Power Department,
Tokyo Electric Power Company
Terunori Kobayashi: Manager, Operations & Maintenance Section, Thermal Power Department,
Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc.
Noriyuki Sonoda: Assistant Manager, Thermal Power Administration Sect. Power Generation Div.
The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc.
Susumu Sakata: Staff Assistant Manager, Thermal Power Mechanical Engineering Sect. Power
Generation Div.
The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc.
Shin Katayama: Assistant Manager, Technical Section, Karatsu Power Station,
Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc.
Takashi Maruta: Technical Section, Karatsu Power Station, Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc.
Takashi Naganuma: Senior Research Engineer, Environment And Chemistry Engineering Group,
Research Laboratory,
Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc.
Yoshiaki Fukuzawa: Manager, Plant Management Group No.1, Thermal Power Dept.
Electric Power Development Co., Ltd.
Yoshitaka Oka: Assistant Manager, Plant Management Group No.1, Thermal Power Dept.
Electric Power Development Co., Ltd.

‫ޛ‬Thermal and Nuclear Power Engineering Society‫ޜ‬

Masaru Wakao: Deputy General Manager, Thermal Power Department, Thermal And Nuclear
Power Engineering Society

Masato Hasegawa: Manager, Siting and Environment,
The Federation of Electric Power Companies
Hirofumi Kazuno: Deputy General Manager, Siting and Environment,
The Federation of Electric Power Companies
Tomoaki Koga: Manager, Engineering Department,
The Federation of Electric Power Companies
Yasunori Eitoku: Manager, Engineering Department,
The Federation of Electric Power Companies
Masato Ishimura: Deputy General Manager, Engineering Department, The Federation of
Electric Power Companies
ASIA-PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP on Clean Development and Climate

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Summary of Thermal Power Generation in Japan ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 1

1.1 History of Electric Power Companies in Japan ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 1
1.2 History of the Power Plant and the Role of Thermal Power Generation in Japan ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 1
1.3 Movements in Thermal Efficiency of Thermal Power Plants in Japan and Outlook ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 7
for Thermal Power Generation Technology in the Future

Chapter 2 Functional and Operational Control of Thermal Power Plants ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 12

2.1 Operation Control ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 12
2.2 Power Supply Operations ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 22
2.3 Start-up and Stop Operation Control ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 25
2.4 Performance Management ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 39
2.5 Example of Operation Control and Performance Management ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 57
(Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc)
2.6 Combustion of Coal ࡮࡮࡮࡮103
2.7 Examples for the Operation of Soot Blowers ࡮࡮࡮࡮133

Chapter 3 Maintenance and Efficiency Control of Thermal Power Plants ࡮࡮࡮࡮142

3.1 Maintenance and Administration of Aged Thermal Power Plants ࡮࡮࡮࡮142
3.2 Boilers and Auxiliary Machines ࡮࡮࡮࡮163
3.3 Water Quality Control of Boiler ࡮࡮࡮࡮200
3.4 Turbines and Auxiliary Machines ࡮࡮࡮࡮263
3.5 Power Generators ࡮࡮࡮࡮330
3.6 Efficiency and Operation Improvement of Thermal Power Plants ࡮࡮࡮࡮366

Chapter 4 Environmental Preservation Provision of Facilities ࡮࡮࡮࡮376

4.1 Environmental Preservation Measures of Thermal Power Plants ࡮࡮࡮࡮376
4.2 Dust Precipitator ࡮࡮࡮࡮393
4.3 Desulphurization Equipment ࡮࡮࡮࡮409
4.4 Denitrification Equipment ࡮࡮࡮࡮427
4.5 Maintenance of Environmental Protection System ࡮࡮࡮࡮448
4.6 Waste Treatment and Effective Use ࡮࡮࡮࡮457

1. Summary of thermal power generation in Japan
1.1 History of electric power companies in Japan
Electricity supply in Japan is carried out by independent regional electric power companies, which require close
communication to operate efficiently. In 1952, the nine major electric power companies established the Federation
of Electric Power Companies (FEPC) to promote smooth operations within the industry. Since then, the FEPC has
played an important role as a base for communication between the power companies and as a forum for
exchanging ideas on the evolution of the environment in the electricity industry. The FEPC undertakes various
activities aimed at ensuring operations of the electricity industry in keeping with the development of the country
as a whole.

With the restoration of Okinawa to Japan in 1972, the Okinawa Electric Power Company resumed its
participation in Japan's electric power industry, becoming a full FEPC member in March 2000.

Fig. 1.1-1 Service Areas by Company

1.2 History of the power plant and the role of thermal power generation in Japan
Electricity consumption in Japan has expanded almost consistently after the world war Τ. Further, in recent
years, the need has intensified for a comfortable life as seen in the progression of computerization and the
proliferation of air conditioners, and even though the Japanese economy has entered a stable growth period,
electric power demand shows no signs of slowing down. In addition, new problems are starting to appear as the
demand increases.
Let consider the current situation and future of electricity consumption.
Due to the betterment of people's living standards, comfortable living is sought and the role of electricity in
living starting with air conditioning is growing increasingly. Moreover, due to the progression of a highly
intelligent community as a result of IT innovation including the computer and communication, the role of
electricity is increasing in all aspects of industry and living. From these facts, over the course of time, the
percentage of electricity consumption among consumption of other energies (electrification ratio) is running high.
Although the electric power demand is dependent on the trends in the business climate and those in politics and
the community, even in recent years when the Japanese economy has entered a stable growth period, it continues
to increase due to the progression of computerization and the proliferation of air conditioners.
Electric power in Japan is supplied mainly by thermal (oil, LNG, coal, etc.), hydro, and nuclear power
generation. There are 1,300 or more power plants in all parts of Japan to meet the electric power demand
growing steadily due to an upsurge in the desire to seek comfortable living, computerization, graying, etc.

Ratio of electric power accounting for primary energies

(electrification ratio)
PJ (Petajoules=1015J)
Domestic supply of primary energies

denotes the percentage that electric power accounts for (Fiscal )

(Note) 1PJ equals a heating value of about 25,800 kl of crude oil.
Source: Comprehensive Energy Statistics (2003 version)

Fig.1.2-1: Ratio of electric power accounting for primary energies

(electrification ratio)

The role of electric energy, being useful and easy to use, is intensifying year after year, and the ratio of electric
energy to the consumption of all energies has now reached about 40%.

Track record and outlook of power generated by source.

(Hundred million kWh)

Nuclear power Oil, etc. Coal

Natural gas Hydro Geothermal power
(LNG) generation and new
Power generated yearly

(Note) 1. Oil, etc. includes LPG, other gases and bituminous mixtures. (Fiscal)
2. Due to rounding off, there may be cases where the total value Source: Outline of Fiscal 2005 Supply Program
does not equal 100%. (March 2005) and others
3. Total of 10 electric power companies. Power received is included.
4. The numeric values in the graph represent the segment share (%).

Fig.1.2-2: Track record and outlook of power generated by Source.

Power generated increases with each passing year, and we cope with the demand for increasing electric power
while planning departure from the use of oil through the use of nuclear energy, natural gas (LPG), etc.

As our lives become convenient and rich, the role of electricity serving in our lives continues to expand. The
amount of electricity usage varies significantly depending on the time period of the day and the season.
When we look at the electric consumption on an annual basis, in recent years, the growth in the summer season
is significant due to air conditioning, and when we look at it on a daily basis, the maximum consumption is
marked at about 2:00 p.m. when the heat in midsummer reaches its peak. The difference between the maximum
and the minimum values of electricity consumption is more and more on an increasing trend. The increase in
home air conditioners has a significant effect on this.
On the other hand, electricity is an energy that is impossible to be stored. Although a plant that generates
electric power is built to the peak of demand (maximum electric power demand), when the electric power demand
varies significantly according to season and time period, efficiency in the utilization of the power plant lowers,
and as a result, the cost to deliver the electricity will be comparatively high.


Movements in how electricity is used over one day in midsummer
(Million kW) (Merging of 10 electric power companies)

July 20, 2004

July 24, 2001
August 25, 1995

August 7, 1990

August 29, 1995

July 31, 1975

(Note) Merging of 9 electric power companies Survey conducted by the Federation of Electric Power
only in 1975 Companies of Japan

Fig. 1.2-3 Movements in how the electricity is used over one day in midsummer

For electric power demand, there is a significant difference between daytime and nighttime in one day. This
reflects the fact that while a good amount of electricity is used by plants and offices in the daytime, industrial
activities are not performed much at night. In addition, even in the daytime, the amount of electricity used
decreases from 12:00 to 13:00 p.m. when plants and offices are in a lunch break.
During the day on a hot summer day, electric power demand for air conditioning increases. The consumption at
the peak in the daytime reaches about 2 times that in the time period in a day when the consumption is lowest.


Movements in how the electricity is used over one year

(Million kW) (Merging of 10 electric power companies)

(All-time maximum)

Fiscal 2001
Fiscal 2004

Fiscal 1995
Fiscal 1990
Fiscal 1985

Fiscal 1975

Fiscal 1968

Fiscal 1967

(Note) Merging of 9 electric power companies before Survey conducted by the Federation of Electric Power
1975 Companies of Japan

Fig.1.2-4: Movements in how the electricity is used over one year

When we look at electric power demand on a month-by-month basis, there is a big change in how the electricity
is used even through one year. Electricity demand registered its peak during the summer season of fiscal 1968,
and currently, there are 2 peaks in the summer and the winter in conjunction with the upsurge in electric power
demand used for heating in winter. In particular, the increase in the peak in summer is remarkable, showing a big
gap compared with spring and autumn when there is low demand for air conditioning. The gap in electric power
demand due to the season will cause the efficiency of the utilization rate of plant to lower together with scale-up
of the gap due to the time period, and will contribute to increasing the cost to deliver the electricity to the

[Combination in response to the characteristics of the source]

Although the amount of electricity usage varies, as it is impossible to store the electricity, and it is necessary to
adjust the amount of electricity to be generated with reference to the electric power demand. Electric power
companies combine a variety of electric power generation systems for the purpose of meeting electric power
demand that varies every moment.

Efforts to cope with peak electric power demand

During the day when electricity is used in large amounts, a power plant must generate high-volume electricity.
Provision for peak electric power demand is made by an oil-fired thermal power and pumped-storage
hydroelectric power generation, which are excellent in coping with electric power demand that can vary.

Supplying base electric power demand

On the other hand, base electric power demand is supplied by nuclear power generation and hydro power
generation (run-off river type) taking the power generation cost and environment load into account.

Combined use of sources

Further, in Japan, most energy resources rely on imports from abroad. To supply electricity with stability in the

future as well, taking the limited fossil resources, global environmental issues, further economics, etc. into
account, we intend to combine the resources in well-balanced way making use of characteristics of each type of
power generation including hydro, thermal, and nuclear, thereby dispersing the risk by not relying on one source.

Electricity demand varies during the day or at night even in one day. In electric utilities, the features of hydro,
thermal, and nuclear power generation such as operation characteristics, economics, and efforts to cope with
global environmental issues are judged comprehensively to combine various kinds of sources in an optimum
Equalizing pool-type hydroelectric power
Supply capacity to cope hydro
with peak electric power Water reservoir-type
demand hydro


Supply capacity to cope

with middle electric
power demand
LNG, LPG, and other gases


Nuclear power

Supply capacity to cope

with base electric power Run-off river-type hydro/geothermal power generation

Fig.1.2-5: Combination of sources for electric power demand

Table 1.2-1: Characteristics of respective sources and optimum combination

Power generation Supply capacity Characteristics
Pumped-storage Supply capacity to Finds application as a supply capacity to cope with sudden
hydroelectric power cope with peak fluctuation in demand and peak demand because it copes very
electric power easily with fluctuation in electric power demand.
Equalizing pool-type Supply capacity to Although the initial cost is high, this is excellent
hydro cope with peak economically from the viewpoint of average service life, and
Water reservoir-type electric power because it copes extremely easily with fluctuation in electric
hydro demand power demand, this type finds application as a supply
capacity for peak demand.
Oil-fired thermal Supply capacity to Although the running cost is relatively high, the capital cost is
power cope with peak low and it is excellent in coping with fluctuation in electric
electric power power demand, thereby finding application as a supply
demand capacity for peak demand.
LNG, LPG, and other Supply capacity to The running cost is low, and with respect to the capital cost as
gas-fired thermal cope with middle well, it is cheaper than a coal-fired thermal power and it is
power electric power excellent in coping with fluctuation in electric power demand,
demand thereby finding application as a supply capacity for middle
Coal-fired thermal Supply capacity to Although the capital cost is high, it copes more easily than
power cope with base and nuclear power with fluctuation in electric power demand,
middle electric power thereby finding application as a supply capacity for
demands intermediate demand between that for base demand and that
for middle demand.
Nuclear power Supply capacity to Although the capital cost is high, the running cost is low,
cope with base whereby this can perform the operation at a high utilization
electric power rate as a supply capacity for base demand.
Run-off river-type Supply capacity to Although the initial cost is high, it is excellent economically
hydro power cope with base from the viewpoint of average service life, and it finds
generation electric power application as a supply capacity for base demand.
Supply capacity for peak demand: A source whose amount of electricity to be generated can easily be
Supply capacity for middle demand: A source that has the two features of peak electric power demand and
base electric power demand
Supply capacity for base demand: A source that supplies a constant volume of electricity

1.3 Movements in thermal efficiency of thermal power plants in Japan and outlook for thermal
power generation technology in the future

Since the first Rankine cycle-based thermal (steam) power generation plant (Steam pressure: 0.59MPa (gage)
(6atg), 7.5kW (10HP) was manufactured by Charles A. Persons in 1884, the thermal efficiency of steam power
generation plants has improved significantly together with improvement of steam conditions (higher
temperature/higher pressure) and larger capacity.
In Japan as well, LNG-fired supercritical pressure (SC) plants whose main steam pressure was 24.3 MPa (gage)
(246 atg) and whose main/reheat steam temperature was 538/566 C came into operation in the form of Tokyo
Electric Power Company's Anegasaki thermal plant Unit No.1 in 1967. Subsequently, similar steam conditions
were adopted for coal-fired plants, and in 1989, 2-stage reheat LNG-fired Ultra Supercritical pressure (USC)
thermal power generation whose main steam pressure was 31.0 MPa (gage) (316atg) and whose ultra-
supercritical-pressure/high-pressure/middle-pressure steam temperature was 566/566/566 C came into operation
at CHUBU Electric Power Company's Kawagoe thermal power plant Unit No.1. As described earlier,
improvement of steam conditions has been planned steadily. However, in recent years, the growth of steam
conditions has become relatively slow, and as shown in the figure, the thermal efficiency of steam power
generation moves at little over 40%.
Slowdown trends in rise of thermal efficiency of thermal (steam) power generation achieved a significant
change through the introduction of LNG combined cycle power generation using a full-scale exhaust heat
recovery system with a turbine inlet temperature (TIT) of the 1100- C-class gas turbine as a core at TOHOKU
Electric Power Company's Higashi Niigata Unit group No.3 in 1984. As shown in the figure, through the
adoption of combined cycle power generation system combining the Brayton cycle (gas turbine) and the Rankine
cycle (steam turbine), the thermal efficiency of the thermal power plant rose in a stroke to about 44%. TIT of gas
turbines for commercial use has risen at a rate of about 20 C/year on average due to progression of cooling
technology and development of heat-resistant materials. In November 1999, the advanced combined cycle
power generation cycle (ACC) consisting mainly of a 1,450- C-class gas turbine begun commercial operation at
TOHOKU Electric Power Company's Higashi Niigata Unit group No.4-1, and 50% thermal efficiency, having
which had been a dream for a long time in the thermal power generation sector, was attained. During this period,
a number of LNG combined cycle power generation plants were introduced one after another, and attained an
excellent track record of operation with high thermal efficiency, load change, etc. The installed capacity of LNG
combined cycle power generation at the end of 2001 reached 22 million kW in total across the 6 Electric Power
Companies & 21 groups, coming to account for 17% of the installed capacity of all commercial-use thermal
power generation.
Currently, in addition, TOKYO Electric Power Company's Futtsu thermal power plant Unit group 3 & group 4,
Shinagawa thermal power plant Unit group No.1, Kawasaki thermal power plant Unit group No.1, TOHOKU
Electric Power Company's Unit group No.4-2, etc. are in the advanced stage of construction, and the thermal
efficiency of ACC under construction is planned to be 50 to 53%.
On the other hand, with respect to coal-fired thermal power, improvement in the steam condition of coal-fired
USC thermal power generation continues steadily such as at CHUBU Electric Power Company's Hekinan thermal
power plant Unit No.3 (main steam pressure: 24.1 MPa (gage) (246 atg), main/reheat steam temperature:
538/593 C), Electric Power Development Company's Matsuura thermal power plant Unit No.2, HOKURIKU
Electric Power Company's Nanao Ohta thermal power plant Unit No.2 (main steam pressure: 24.1 MPa (gage)
(246 atg), main/reheat steam temperature: 593/593 C), TOHOKU Electric Power Company's Haramachi thermal
power plant Unit No.2, CHUGOKU Electric Power Company's Misumi power plant Unit No.1 (main steam
pressure: 24.5 MPa (gage) (250atg), main/reheat steam pressure: 600/600 C), Electric Power Development
Company's Tachibanawan thermal power plant Unit No. 1 & No.2 (main steam pressure: 25 Mpa (gage) (255atg),
main/reheat steam pressure: 600/610 C), which have started operation.
In addition, pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) combined cycle generation plants combining
expansion and steam turbines started operation at HOKKAIDO Electric Power Company's Tomatoh Atsuma Unit
No.3 in 1998, CHUGOKU Electric Power Company's Oosaki Unit No.1-1 in 2000, and KYUSHU Electric Power
Company's Kanda Unit No.1 in 2001. Through these, the thermal efficiency of coal-fired thermal power plants
reached about 43%.
Combined cycle power generation Kawasaki
(Gas/Steam turbine)
Gross thermal efficiency [%] HHV

Yokohama #7, 8
Shinkokura#2 Anesaki#1 Kashima#5
Kawagoe#1 Hitachinaka#1


Steam power generation

(Boiler/Steam turbine)

Fiscal year
Fig.1.3-1: Developments in thermal efficiency of thermal power generation

Table 1.3-1: Major coal-fired thermal power generation plants in Japan (1959 - 1985)
Electric power Approved Manufacturer Operation
Era No. Power plant Unit Steam conditions
company output Boiler Turbine Generator started from
Sumitomo joint electric
1 Niihamanishi Unit No.1 75 10.0MPa-538 C/538 C MHI MHI Electric 1959-08
power co., Ltd
Babcock- GE, Hitachi,
2 Tohoku Sendai Unit No.1 175 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C Hitachi, Ltd. 1959-10
Hitachi K.K. Ltd.
3 Kyushu Minato Unit No.1 156 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C MHI MHI Electric 1960-09
4 Tohoku Sendai Unit No.2 175 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1960-11
Hitachi K.K.
5 Chugoku Mizushima Unit No.1 125 12.5MPa-538 C/538 C Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1961-11
Hitachi K.K.
6 Tohoku Sendai Unit No.3 175 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1962-06
Hitachi K.K.
Sumitomo joint electric
7 Niihamanishi Unit No.2 75 10.0MPa-538 C/538 C MHI MHI Electric 0962-07
power co., Ltd
8 Chugoku Mizushima Unit No.2 156 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1963-08
Hitachi K.K.
9 Kyushu Omura Unit No.2 156 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C MHI MHI Electric 1964-08
Toshiba Toshiba
10 Shikoku Saijo Unit No.1 156 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C MHI 1965-11
Corp. Corp.
11 Chugoku Shimonoseki Unit No.1 175 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C MHI MHI Electric 1967-03
Before Corp.
1975 Babcock-
12 J-POWER Takehara Unit No.1 250 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1967-07
Hitachi K.K.
Toshiba Toshiba
13 Hokkaido Naie Unit No.1 175 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C IHI 1968-06
Corp. Corp.
14 J-POWER Takasago Unit No.1 250 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C MHI MHI Electric 1968-07
15 J-POWER Takasago Unit No.2 250 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C MHI MHI Electric 1969-01
16 Hokkaido Naie Unit No.2 175 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C IHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1970-02

17 Shikoku Saijo Unit No.2 250 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C IHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1970-06
Jyoban Joint
18 Nakoso Unit No.7 250 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C MHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1970-10
Power Co.
Tobata Co-
Tobata Co-operative Mitsubishi
19 Thermal Power Unit No.2 156 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C MHI MHI Electric 1971-06
Thermal Power
Company, Inc. Corp.
Company, Inc.
20 Toyama Kyodo Toyamashinko Unit No.1 250 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1971-09
Hitachi K.K.
21 Toyama Kyodo Toyamashinko Unit No.2 250 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1972-06
Hitachi K.K.
Sumitomo joint electric
22 Mibugawa Unit No.1 250 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C MHI MHI Electric 1975-03
power co., Ltd
23 Hokkaido Sagawa Unit No.3 125 12.5MPa-538 C/538 C MHI Fuji Fuji 1977-06
Sakata kyodo
Sakata kyodo
power Toshiba Toshiba
24 power company, Unit No.1 350 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C MHI 1977-10
company, Corp. Corp.
Sakata kyodo
Sakata kyodo
25 power company, Unit No.2 350 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C MHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1978-10
Tomatoh Babcock- Toshiba Toshiba
26 Hokkaido Unit No.1 350 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C 1980-10
Atsuma Hitachi K.K. Corp. Corp.
1976 to 27 J-POWER Matsushima Unit No.1 500 24.1MPa-538 C/538 C MHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1981-01
1985 Toshiba Toshiba
28 J-POWER Matsushima Unit No.2 500 24.1MPa-538 C/538 C MHI 1981-06
Corp. Corp.
29 Hokkaido Sagawa Unit No.4 125 17.7MPa-538 C/538 C KHI Fuji Fuji 1982-05
30 J-POWER Takehara Unit No.3 700 24.1MPa-538 C/538 C Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1983-03
Hitachi K.K.
Jyoban Joint
31 Nakoso Unit No.8 600 24.1MPa-538 C/566 C MHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1983-09
Power Co.
Jyoban Joint Toshiba Toshiba
32 Nakoso Unit No.9 600 24.1MPa-538 C/566 C IHI 1983-12
Power Co. Corp. Corp.
33 Hokkaido Unit No.2 600 24.1MPa-538 C/566 C IHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1985-10

Table 1.3-2: Major coal-fired thermal power generation plants in Japan (1986 - 2005)
Electric power Approved Manufacturer Operation
Era No. Power plant Unit Steam conditions
company output Boiler Turbine Generator started from
Toshiba Toshiba
34 Chugoku Shinonoda Unit No.1 500 24.1MPa-538 C/566 C IHI 1986-04
Corp. Corp.
35 J-POWER Ishikawa Unit No.1 156 18.6MPa-566 C/566 C KHI Fuji Fuji 1986-11
Toshiba Toshiba
36 Chugoku Shinonoda Unit No.2 500 24.1MPa-538 C/566 C IHI 1987-01
Corp. Corp.
37 J-POWER Ishikawa Unit No.2 156 18.6MPa-566 C/566 C KHI Fuji Fuji 1987-03

38 Kyushu Matsuura Unit No.1 700 24.1MPa-538 C/566 C MHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1989-06
Babcock- Mitsubishi
39 J-POWER Matsuura Unit No.1 1000 24.1MPa-538 C/566 C MHI 1990-06
Hitachi K.K. Electric Corp.
Toshiba Toshiba
40 Chubu Hekinan Unit No.1 700 24.1MPa-538 C/566 C MHI 1991-10
Corp. Corp.
Toshiba Toshiba
41 Hokuriku Tsuruga Unit No.1 500 24.1MPa-566 C/566 C MHI 1991-10
Corp. Corp.
42 Chubu Hekinan Unit No.2 700 24.1MPa-538 C/566 C Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1992-06
Hitachi K.K.
From Mitsubishi
1986 to 43 Chubu Hekinan Unit No.3 700 24.1MPa-538 C/593 C IHI MHI 1993-04
Electric Corp.
1995 Babcock-
44 Tohoku Noshiro Unit No.1 600 24.5MPa-538 C/566 C Fuji Fuji 1993-06
Hitachi K.K.
45 Okinawa Gushikawa Unit No.1 156 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C KHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1994-03
46 Soma Kyodo Shinchi Unit No.1 1000 24.1MPa-538 C/566 C Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1994-07
Hitachi K.K.
Toshiba Toshiba
47 Tohoku Noshiro Unit No.2 600 24.1MPa-566 C/593 C IHI 1994-12
Corp. Corp.
Babcock- Mitsubishi
48 Hokuriku Nanao Ohta Unit No.1 500 24.1MPa-566 C/593 C MHI 1995-03
Hitachi K.K. Electric Corp.
Babcock- Mitsubishi
49 Okinawa Gushikawa Unit No.2 156 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C MHI 1995-03
Hitachi K.K. Electric Corp.
50 J-POWER Takehara Unit No.2 350 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1995-06
Hitachi K.K.
Toshiba Toshiba
51 Soma Kyodo Shinchi Unit No.2 1000 24.1MPa-538 C/566 C MHI 1995-07
Corp. Corp.
Toshiba Toshiba
52 Kyushu Reihoku Unit No.1 700 24.1MPa-566 C/566 C IHI 1995-12
Corp. Corp.
Babcock- Mitsubishi
53 J-POWER Matsuura Unit No.2 1000 24.1MPa-593 C/593 C MHI 1997-07
Hitachi K.K. Electric Corp.
Toshiba Toshiba
54 Tohoku Haramachi Unit No.1 1000 24.1MPa-566 C/593 C MHI 1997-07
Corp. Corp.
Tomatoh Mitsubishi
55 Hokkaido Unit No.3 85 16.6MPa-566 C/538 C MHI MHI 1998-03
Atsuma Electric Corp.
56 Chugoku Misumi Unit No.1 1000 24.5MPa-600 C/600 C MHI MHI 1998-06
Electric Corp.
Toshiba Toshiba
57 Hokuriku Nanao Ohta Unit No.2 700 24.1MPa-593 C/593 C IHI 1998-07
Corp. Corp.
58 Tohoku Haramachi Unit No.2 1000 24.1MPa-600 C/600 C Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1998-07
Hitachi K.K.
Babcock- Toshiba Toshiba
59 Shikoku Tachibana wan Unit No.1 700 24.1MPa-566 C/593 C 2000-06
Hitachi K.K. Corp. Corp.
60 J-POWER Tachibana wan Unit No.1 1050 25.0MPa-600 C/610 C IHI GE 2000-07
Corp., GE
Toshiba Toshiba
61 Hokuriku Tsuruga Unit No.2 700 24.1MPa-593 C/593 C MHI 2000-09
Corp. Corp.
Babcock- Mitsubishi
62 J-POWER Tachibana wan Unit No.2 1050 25.0MPa-600 C/610 C MHI 2000-12
Hitachi K.K. Electric Corp.
From Babcock-
63 Chugoku Osaki Unit No.1 250 16.6MPa-566 C/593 C Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 2000-12
1996 to Hitachi K.K.
2005 New Unit GT: ALSTOM Toshiba
64 Kyushu Kanda 360 24.1MPa-566 C/593 C IHI 2001-07
No.1 ST: TOSHIBA Corp.
Toshiba Toshiba
65 Chubu Hekinan Unit No.4 1000 24.1MPa-566 C/593 C IHI 2001-11
Corp. Corp.
66 Okinawa Kin Unit No.1 220 16.6MPa-566 C/566 C MHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 2002-02
67 J-POWER Isogo Unit No.1 600 25.0MPa-600 C/610 C IHI Fuji 2002-04
68 Hokkaido Unit No.4 700 25.0MPa-600 C/600 C IHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 2002-06
Toshiba Toshiba
69 Chubu Hekinan Unit No.5 1000 24.1MPa-566 C/593 C IHI 2002-11
Corp. Corp.
70 Okinawa Kin Unit No.2 220 16.6MPa-566 C/566 C MHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 2003-05
Toshiba Toshiba
71 Kyushu Reihoku Unit No.2 700 24.1MPa-593 C/593 C MHI 2003-06
Corp. Corp.
72 Tokyo Hitachinaka Unit No.1 1000 24.5MPa-600 C/600 C Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 2003-12
Hitachi K.K.
73 Tokyo Hirono Unit No.5 600 24.5MPa-600 C/600 C MHI MHI 2004-07
Electric Corp.
74 Kansai Maizuru Unit No.1 900 24.1MPa-595 C/595 C MHI MHI 2004-08
Electric Corp.

Technical development, in general, aims at higher efficiency of power generation for the purpose of reducing
the environmental load and CO2 emission; however, concrete issues include the following:
(1) High-temperature gas turbine aiming at further improvement of thermal efficiency of combined cycle power
(2) Making coal utilization technology starting with coal gasification combined cycle power generation system
more sophisticated
Thermal power plants consist of a boiler, turbine, and generator, and the efficiency of power generation was
increased through the larger capacity of the configuration of the basic equipment and sophistication of running
conditions (mainly higher temperature and pressure of the stem cycle system). Gross thermal efficiency was
increased from about 30% 40 years ago to 40% currently. This 40% was achieved by the ultra-supercritical
pressure power generation system. For the purpose of increasing the efficiency further, the development of
combined cycle power generation technology is in progress. Through this development, we can aim at 50%
efficiency. This technology aims, in addition to the conventional steam cycle, to combine the gas turbine cycle to
improve the efficiency of power generation comprehensively through power generation from both cycles.
Combined cycle power generation using natural gas is becoming mainstream in new thermal power generation
technology as combined cycle power generation. Further, the development of a ceramic turbine blade is in
progress to improve the efficiency by causing higher temperature. With respect to the use of coal related to the
reduction of CO2 emission, although the pulverized coal combustion system has been adopted in recent years for
the purpose of improving efficiency, the integrated coal gratification combined cycle (IGCC) is the target of
development to improve efficiency further.
The fluidized bed generation system is a generation system that uses fluidized bed combustion. The
commercialization of fluidized bed combustion was propelled as a combustion system of flame-resistant materials.
However, in recent years, the excellent environmental characteristics of fluidized bed combustion, such as
desulfurization in furnace and low NOx combustion, are receiving attention. From the viewpoint of improving
efficiency, the development and commercialization of the pressurized fluidized bed combined cycle generation
system (PFBC) are in progress. In light of its intrinsic characteristics, it is also considered that it will pave the
way for mixed fuel power generation with coal and biomass (especially waste).


2 Functional and Operational Control of Thermal Power Plants

2.1.1 Operation control
Since safe and economical operation is carried out at thermal power stations while carefully
checking environmental problems, there are many points that operators must judge to take
appropriate measures. Therefore, a large load is applied to operators in case of an emergency.
Therefore, it is necessary to automate emergency manual operations to be taken against faults, as
well as to automate normal manual operations in order to minimize operators’ judgments. To keep
the final protection of the plant, it is absolutely required to take appropriate measures for the plant
A unit protection device is installed to protect each unit if a fault occurs in any unit and it
becomes difficult to continue safe operation of the unit. This unit protection device is called the
“unit trip interlock.” Basically, the unit trip interlock is classified into the boiler protection
interlock (MFT), turbine protection interlock (MTS), and generator protection interlock (86G).
These interlock systems may vary depending on the manufacturer’s design. In principle,
however, the once-through unit boiler, turbine, and generator are mutually interlocked. Figure 35
shows an example of the trip interlock system. Boiler protection interlock (MFT)

This boiler protection interlock is intended to shut down the fuel supply to stop the boiler if it
becomes difficult to continue stable combustion of the boiler. The conditions for tripping of this
interlock may vary slightly depending on the type of boiler, that is, whether it is drum boiler or a
once-through unit boiler. Generally, these conditions are fuel pressure drop, high furnace pressure,
stopping of two ventilating fans, protection of the reheating unit, supply water flow rate drop, and
drum level drop. In addition to these conditions, unit emergency stop and turbine/generator trip
conditions are interlocked. According to the boiler model, further conditions are interlocked. Turbine protection interlock (MTS)

If it becomes difficult to continue stable operation of the turbine, the solenoid is operated to stop
the turbine. The conditions for tripping of this interlock are turbine overspeed, thrust error,
bearing hydraulic pressure drop, and degree of vacuum drop, etc. In addition to these conditions,
the unit emergency stop, turbine manual stop, and generator trip conditions are interlocked.
Description A-type interlock circuit
If a problem occurs on the
turbine side and the turbine is Problem on generator Generator trip
tripped (each turbine valve is side Any of the thrust, hydraulic
A type

pressure, or exhaust speed is faulty.

opened), the generator and boiler
Problem on turbine Turbine trip
are stopped conditionally. This side Conditions for protection of
system is that the T-G and T-B are the reheater
not tripped if the conditions are Fire extinguishing of
not satisfied. Problem on boiler side
This system is mainly used for
units designed by Ebasco.

Basic interlock circuit Description B-type interlock circuit

If a problem occurs on the
Problem on Generator trip turbine side and the turbine is Problem on generator Generator trip
generator side side
B type

tripped (each turbine valve is

opened), the generator and boiler
Problem on turbine Turbine trip
Problem on Turbine trip are stopped immediately. side
turbine side In this group, a circuit to
immediately extinguish fire in the Fire extinguishing of
boiler if a problem occurs on the Problem on boiler side
Problem on Fire extinguishing boiler
generator side is added.
boiler side of boiler

Description C-type interlock circuit

If a problem occurs in any of the
boiler, turbine, or generator, Problem on generator Generator trip
mutual interlock is activated to side
C type

trip the unit completely.

Problem on turbine Turbine trip
This interlock where the turbine side
is tripped immediately if a
problem occurs in the boiler is a Fire extinguishing of
characteristic feature, which Problem on boiler side
cannot be seen in the A type or B

Fig. 35 Examples of trip interlock systems

12 Generator protection interlock (86G)
A status where stable operation of the generator or transformer is difficult is detected by the
protective device or protective relay. After this, the generator is disconnected from the system and
the turbine is tripped to stop the generator at the same time. The conditions for detection of the
protection are ratio differentiation of the generator, loss of excitation, ratio differentiation of the
ground fault or transformer, impulse hydraulic pressure, overexcitation, etc. In addition to these
conditions, the high/low frequency of the system and the protection of the bus-bar are interlocked. Protection device tests during operation

The important point during plant operation is that the plant can be stopped safely in case of an
emergency. To maintain this safety, it is necessary to periodically check the operation status of
various safety prevention apparatus installed for protection of the plant. Table 3 shows examples
of the protection device tests.

Table 3 Examples of protection device tests

Inspection test item Frequency Contents of test
Main turbine Valve tests
(1) Main steam stop valve Twice/week The valves are manually opened or closed one by one from the central control
room to check the valve operation and open/closed indication lamp operation.

(2) Intercept valve, reheated Twice/week The valves of each system are manually opened or closed from the central
steam stop valve, combined control room to check the valve operation and open/closed indication lamp
reheat valve operation.
Protection device tests
(1) Lock-out Once/week After the operation of the emergency shutdown device has been removed, the
(Oil trip) test handle is operated to check the operation of the oil trip mechanism.
(2) Thrust failure protection trip Once/week After the operation of the thrust failure protection device has been removed,
the test handle is operated to check the operation of the thrust bearing wear
trip mechanism.
Extraction check valve test Twice/week Valves are manually opened or closed with the test handle or switch to check
the valve operation and open/closed indication lamp operation.

Oil pump automatic starting test Once/week The hydraulic pressure is decreased using the testing equipment in the
simulated mode to check the automatic startup at the set hydraulic pressure
levels of the auxiliary oil pump, emergency oil pump, and turning oil pump.

Main oil tank oil level alarm test Once/week The indication rod of the oil gauge is moved up or down to check the alarm

Turbine Valve test Once/week The high-pressure and low-pressure steam stop valves are opened or closed
driven feed manually to check the operation of the valve and open/close unit.
pump Protection device tests
(1) Overspeed trip Once/month After the trip circuit has been removed, the RPM is increased in the simulated
mode to check the overspeed trip set hydraulic pressure level.
(2) Bearing hydraulic pressure Once/month After the trip circuit has been removed, the bearing oil pressure is decreased
drop trip in the simulated mode to check the trip set hydraulic pressure level.
(3) Thrust failure protection trip Once/month After the trip circuit has been removed, the thrust position is moved in the
simulated mode to check the trip set hydraulic pressure level.
Oil pump auto starting test Once/month The hydraulic pressure is decreased using the testing equipment in the
simulated mode to check the automatic startup at the set hydraulic pressure
levels of the extra main oil pump and emergency oil pump.
Spare feed water pump (motor Once/month The pump is manually started at the work site, and a load is applied to check
drive) starting test the operation of the auxiliary oil pump and minimum flow recirculating valve.
Seal oil Emergency pump automatic Once/week The discharge pressure and differential pressure of the seal oil are decreased
equipment starting test using the testing equipment in the simulated mode to check the alarm
(Seal oil discharge pressure, low operation and auto startup at the set hydraulic pressure level.
differential pressure alarm test)
Vacuum drop alarm test of Once/month The vacuum level is decreased using the testing equipment in the simulated
vacuum tank mode to check the alarm operation.

2.1.2 Boiler operation control during normal operation
It must be strongly attempted to find the error status early and to prevent problems during
normal unit operation in order to maintain stable operation status.
The actions to be actually taken are basically classified into the inspection at the work field, and the sampling and
evaluation of the operation records. It is important to take these actions daily in order to check status change in
the early phase, and this leads to appropriate actions and measures being taken in a timely manner. Inspection at the work field
As a rule, the inspection interval must be every work shift. Walkaround inspection of the boiler
main unit parts and boiler auxiliary devices is carried out. The inspection results must be kept.
If any problem symptom is observed, it is necessary to grasp any status change as time elapses.
Generally, walkaround inspection is carried out according to the checklist. In addition to this
inspection, further inspection points, such as unusual noise, unusual odor, or discoloration must
also be inspected.
The combustion status inside the furnace must also be checked during walkaround inspection.
However, if the type of coal to be used is changed, the inspection must be carried out with special
One of the points to inspect the status of clinker and ash sticking to each heat transfer surface
inside the furnace is to check whether or not excessive development or accumulation exists. The
other point is that the contamination status of each heat transfer surface is checked with the
secular change in the operation data stated on the next page to appropriately operate the soot
blower or wall deslagger. When the type of coal to be used is changed, these points become
particularly important. Sampling and evaluation of operation records
To grasp the secular change in the boiler static characteristics and to evaluate performance,
records of the boiler operated at its rated output are sampled periodically.
In daily operation, it is basically checked whether or not the balance among the feed water flow
rate, fuel flow rate, and air flow rate is correct.
As deviation of the boiler input command to the output command and deviation of the water/fuel
ratio and air/fuel ratio are checked, it is possible to judge whether or not the balance is correct.
Additionally, it must be strongly attempted to check changes in the make-up water quantity in
order to find any boiler tube leak in the early phase.
In the coal-fired boiler, the characteristics of the boiler may change greatly according to the coal
properties. The heat absorption distribution of the furnace, SH, and RH is changed according to
the combustibility of the coal or slagging/fouling ability. According to the contamination degree of
the heat transfer surface, the exhaust gas temperature increases and it adversely affects the boiler
efficiency. Therefore, the heat absorption status of each heat transfer surface is grasped by
checking the following points.
Changes in control parameters using the RH temperature control or SH temperature control
Changes in the gas temperature of each part of the rear gas duct including the gas temperature at the
outlet of the ECO.
The soot blower and wall deslagger can be operated at efficient intervals.
Since changes in coal properties may affect the characteristics of the exhaust gas (NOx, unburned matter in ash,
etc.), it is necessary to grasp the characteristics if the type of coal to be used is changed.
If an imbalance occurs in the metal temperature distribution of each part of the furnace, SH, and RH or in the
steam temperature distribution of each part of the SH and RH, it is thought that changes in combustion status may
be the cause. Therefore, it is necessary to check the damper opening of the wind box at the work field.
Since an increase in the AH differential pressure may greatly affect the drive power of the ventilating equipment
or the operation tolerance, it is important to grasp the secular change.
Normally, the AH soot blower is operated at intervals of work shifts (three times/day). If the AH differential
pressure increases, appropriate measures to shorten the interval are taken.

If the AH differential pressure becomes excessively large (normally, the reference level is the
planned value multiplied by “1.5”) or if the ventilating equipment capacity reaches its limit, it must
be investigated whether to water wash the AH.
For the pressure loss of the water and steam systems (particularly pressure loss of the furnace),
the increased speed caused by the secular change is grasped and it is used as a factor to judge the
chemical washing timing, etc. Others
It is important to strictly control the water quality during boiler operation including startup
according to the standard for water treatment.

2.1.3 Auxiliary units of the boiler

Generally, the auxiliary units of the boiler are the feed water, ventilation, and fuel systems.
This section describes the ventilating equipment, air preheater, and coal pulverizer of the coal-fired
boiler plant. Ventilating equipment

In the coal-fired boiler, a balanced air ventilation system is generally utilized to achieve the
following purposes.
1) The furnace pressure is maintained at a constant level to maintain combustion stability.
2) The furnace pressure is maintained at atmospheric pressure or lower in order to prevent coal ash from leaking
A centrifugal type or an axial flow type ventilating equipment (fan) is utilized. The control
system of the centrifugal ventilating equipment is the inlet damper control, inlet vane control, RPM
control, or a combination of them. The control system of the axial-flow ventilating equipment is
the moving blade variable control, inlet vane control, RPM control, etc. With these controls, the
process values for an object are controlled. The following lists up cautions operation.
Axial flow type: According to the characteristics of the ventilating equipment, there is a surging area. If the
operation point enters this surging area, the pressure and gas volume are changed rapidly
accompanied by vibration, causing damage to the unit.
Centrifugal type: There is no clear operation impossible area as described for the axial flow type. However,
the operation may become unstable in a low-load area, causing vibration or noise of the
(1) Induced draft fan (IDF)
This fan is intended to keep the furnace pressure at a constant level of atmospheric pressure or lower. To
prevent wear caused by coal ash, a dust removal equipment (EP, etc.) is installed downstream. Basically,
the PID control is used to control the furnace pressure. In many induced draft fans, the air flow rate signal
is used as an advance signal.
(2) Forced draft fan (FDF)
This fan is intended to feed the combustion air (secondary air) to the boiler. The air flow rate for
combustion is controlled by the combustion volume command from the boiler control unit and the
correction signal from the O2 control of the exhaust gas at the outlet of the boiler.
When two systems, that is, the ventilation system and air pre-heater, are installed in the boiler, the IDF is
interlocked with the FDF in the same system. There are many examples where the other fans are also
stopped if one fan is stopped.
This interlock is intended to prevent overheating of the gas temperature at the outlet of the air pre-heater
and decreasing in the air temperature at the outlet since an imbalance occurs between the air volume and
gas volume passing through the air pre-heater if the IDF or FDF is stopped.
(3) Primary air fan (PAF)
This fan is intended to feed the air (primary air) used to transfer the coal from the coal-pulverizing
machine to the burner.


Boiler Boiler


Primary air Mill

Fig. 9 Cold primary air system Fig. 10 Hot primary air system

Moving vane auto Moving vane auto Moving vane auto

operation command operation command operation command
of A-induction fan of A-forced draft fan of B-induction fan

A-air pre-heater B-air pre-heater A-induction fan A-forced draft fan B-induction fan
startup startup startup startup startup
60s 60s 60s

Moving vane of
A-induction fan fully Auto operation of Auto operation of
closed moving vane of moving vane of
A-induction fan A-forced draft fan

Moving vane of Moving vane of

A-induction fan fully B-induction fan fully
closed closed

Moving vane auto

operation command
of B-forced draft fan

B-forced draft fan Ventilation system

startup startup completion

Auto operation of Auto operation of

moving vane of moving vane of
B-induction fan B-forced draft fan

Moving vane of
B-forced draft fan
fully closed

Fig. 11 Example of ventilation system startup sequence

Moving vane of A-induction Moving vane of B-induction Ventilation system

A-induction fan fully fan stop B-induction fan fully fan stop stop completion
closed 30s closed

Moving vane of A-forced draft fan Moving vane of B-forced draft fan
A-forced draft fan stop B-forced draft fan stop
fully closed fully closed

Fig. 12 Example of ventilation system stop sequence

The primary air also has the purpose of drying raw coal to allow easy pulverizing of raw coal to be
loaded into the coal-pulverizing machine in addition to the purpose of transferring the pulverized
The primary air temperature at the inlet of the coal-pulverizing machine is 180 C to 250 C. The
fan installation places and the number of fans to be installed in the cold primary air system are
different from those of the hot primary air system.
In the cold primary air system, one or two fans are installed on the upstream side of the air
pre-heater regardless of the number of coal-pulverizing machines. This fan is intended to control
the primary air duct pressure. On the other hand, in the hot primary air system, one fan specific
to one coal-pulverizing machine is installed on the downstream side of the air pre-heater. This fan
is intended to control the primary air flow rate.
Figures 9 and 10 show an outline of each system. Additionally, Figs. 11 and 12 show examples of
the startup sequence and stop sequence of the ventilation system, respectively. Air pre-heater (GAH)

This air pre-heater is intended to increase the combustion air temperature and to collect the heat
of the exhaust gas at the outlet of the boiler. Generally, a regeneration-type air pre-heater is
utilized where hot gas and air are alternately made to contact the heat transfer materials called
“elements” to exchange the heat. There are two kinds of systems available: the Ljungstrom system
in which the elements are rotated, and the Rothemuhle system in which the elements are fixed and
an air duct called a hood” is rotated.
Figures 13 and 14 each show GAH, respectively. Normally, the GAH is separated into two sections, that is, the
hot gas-passing section and the combustion air-passing section.
In the coal-burning boiler with the cold primary air system, the air side is separated into the primary and
secondary sections. The following describes cautions on operation of the regeneration-type air pre-heater.
1) Air leak

Center section on
high-temperature side
Sector plate on high-temperature side Primary air outlet
Gas inlet Guide bearing Secondary air outlet
Lubricant circulation
Soot blower on
Sensor drive unit
high-temperature side

Rotor drive unit

Heating element

Soot blower on low-temperature side

Main pedestal

Side pedestal

Connecting duct

Pin rack Gas
Center section on low-temperature side
Rotor post Secondary air
Primary air Support bearing inlet

Fig.13 Example of Ljungstrom-type GAH

Secondary air outlet

Gas inlet

Primary air outlet

Collar seal

Soot blower
Primary air hood
Sealing frame
Secondary air hood

Stator Hood drive unit

Heat transfer surface
Main shaft Pin rack

Secondary gas outlet

Primary gas outlet

Primary air inlet

Secondary air Rotation unit


Fig. 14 Example of Rothemuhle-type GHA

In the regenerative air pre-heater, air leaking to the gas side cannot be avoided due to its structure.
Therefore, it is required to adjust the seal appropriately.
Recently, as the capacity of the unit becomes large, the element diameter also becomes large. Additionally,
the thermal deformation volume becomes large. The leak volume cannot be suppressed by the fixed seal.
Therefore, an automatic seal adjustment unit is installed. If the air leak volume is too large, it’s necessary
to be cautious that the FDF, PAF, and IDF are overloaded.
Additionally, if the gap of the seal mechanism is made excessively narrow, the seal mechanism may make
contacts, causing current value hunting or overload of the GAH motor.
2) GAH differential pressure
If the temperature at the low-temperature part of the element decreases to a level close to the sulfuric acid
dew point, ash and SO3 chemical compounds are accumulated and the element is blocked. Additionally,
as the operation time elapses, the GAH differential pressure increases. It is difficult to remove the ash and
SO3 chemical compounds by the soot blow. Therefore, water washing is needed. It is very important to
always keep the temperature of the low-temperature part over appropriate temperature level or more.
(The temperature is controlled by the steam type air pre-heater.)
3) Fire of GAH element
If any combustible materials (used cables at the factory, wood chips, soot including unburned matter, etc.)
exist on the GAH element, a fire may occur due to the oxygen concentration and atmospheric temperature.
The risk of fire is the highest when a boiler with high oxygen concentration is started up or during boiler
Great attention should be taken since past cases also occurred while these two timings.
The following describes fire prevention measures.
1) No combustible materials shall be put on the element.
2) The element shall always be kept clean by the soot blow.
Additionally, it is also important to establish operation procedures if a fire occurs in the GAH. Coal-pulverizer (Mill)

This coal-pulverizer is designed to pulverize coal to a fine particle size diameter necessary to burn
it by the burner. Generally, this machine is called “mill.” In the coal-burning boiler, this mill is
one of the important auxiliary units that greatly affect the operation characteristics of the plant.
The mill is classified into two types of the coal-pulverizing method, that is, the vertical mill (roller
mill, etc.) and the horizontal mill (tube mill, etc.).
Figures15 and 16 show overall diagrams of typical mills. The mill is composed of a duct, damper,
primary air chamber, seal unit, pulverizing unit, separator, pyrite emission unit, and pulverized
fuel pipe. In any mill, raw coal is dried, pulverized, coarse grain is separated, and transferred
continuously inside the mill.
Generally, the combustion volume is adjusted by changing the feed coal volume to be loaded into
the mill in the vertical mill. Additionally, the combustion volume is controlled by changing the
primary air flow rate passing through the mill in the horizontal mill. In the horizontal mill, the
feed coal volume is controlled to keep the coal seam level inside the mill drum at a constant level.
The following describes cautions on operation.
1) Remaining coal stop
In the normal mill stop cycle, after the temperature inside the mill has been lowered, the coal feed is
stopped and the coal remaining inside the mill is purged in that order.

Pulverized coal outlet

Motor for rotary classifier

Rotary classifier
Reject chute

Coal feed pipe

Roller pressurizing unit


Table segment
Primary air port

Primary air inlet


Speed reducer

Fig. 15 Example of vertical mill (Roller mill)

Coal feed
Pulverized pipe
Pulverized fuel pipe coal outlet

Coarse grain separator

Primary air inlet

Pulverized fuel pipe
Coal feed pipe


Mill drum

Fig. 16 Example of horizontal mill (Tube mill)

If the mill is stopped in case of an emergency, the above steps cannot be performed correctly. Pulverized
coal and raw coal exist inside the mill in relatively high-temperature status. Therefore, great caution shall
be taken since nature conservation or mill explosion may occur. This risk increases as the volatile
components included in the raw coal are large.
To prevent a fire inside the mill or to extinguish a fire, inert gas (inert steam) injection equipment or
fire-extinguishing water injection equipment are often installed. It is necessary to establish procedures if
the mill is stopped in case of an emergency.
2) Mill motor overload
When using coal (coal with low HGI) with poor grindability in the roller mill, the mill motor may be
overloaded. In this case, the coal feed volume needs to be limited.
3) Temperature at mill outlet
If surface moisture of raw coal that is stored in an outdoor coal yard is high due to rain or other factors, raw
coal drying, pulverizing, and transfering processes are not performed smoothly. As a result, an accident
occurs which the inside of the mill is filled with coal. This phenomenon occurs if the mill differential
pressure increases. (In the tube mill, the current value of the mill motor is lowered.)
In the initial indication, it is shown that the temperature at the mill output is decreased.
If the temperature at the mill output decreases excessively and it cannot be maintained, appropriate
measures are needed to limit to the coal feed volume.
4) A/C
The weight ratio of the primary air volume that is the air for transfer of the pulverized coal to the
pulverized coal volume is called “A/C (Air/Coal).” Generally, the mill is operated at an A/C range of
approximately 1.8 to 3.0. If the A/C becomes high (the concentration of the pulverized coal is thin), the
naturalness of the pulverized coal is lost, causing an accidental fire.
Recently, a burner that allows stable combustion even though the A/C is high is put into practice.
However, if the A/C becomes high when using a burner other than such a burner, it is necessary to perform
combustion aid using the pilot ignition burner.
5) Flow velocity inside the pulverized coal pipe
The flow velocity inside the pulverized coal pipe from the mill to the burner shall satisfy the following
1. This flow velocity shall be the flame propagation velocity. (The flame propagation velocity is
determined by the A/C and the volatile components included in the coal.)
2. This flow velocity shall be faster than the level at which pulverized coal is not subsided or accumulated
inside the pipe.
3. This flow velocity shall be slower than the level at which the inside of the pipe wears out.
Therefore, a velocity ranging from 18 to 30 m/s is generally used. The flow velocity inside the pipe is
almost determined by the primary air flow rate. However, the primary air flow rate shall not be
excessively decreased.

Mill system startup Mill system Mill system stop

conditions satisfied startup

Lubricant unit startup Pilot ignition Cool air damper open

Rotary classifier startup burner ignition Hot air damper closed Pilot ignition burner Cool air damper open
Roller pressurizing unit ignition Hot air damper closed
Coal gate open
Mill inlet temperature
below specified value
Mill stop coal feed volume Mill outlet temperature
All mill outlet dampers open/Mill seal air damper open below specified value
Primary air shut-off/Regulation damper open

Mill warning Coal gate close/Coal feeder stop

Seal differential pressure/Primary air volume/Waiting for mill
temperature conditions satisfied

Mill purge
Mill motor startup

Coal supply Mill outlet Mill motor/roller pressurizing unit/rotary classifier stop
volume above Coal feeder startup temperature above
specified value specified value
Primary air shutoff/Regulation damper close All mill outlet dampers
Initial coal feed completion
Mill inlet seal air damper close

Pilot ignition burner OFF

Pilot ignition burner Auto operation of coal feeder
fire-extinguishing command SS

Fig. 17 Example of vertical mill startup Fig. 18 Example of vertical mill stop

Since the combustion volume rather than the primary air volume is controlled in the horizontal mill, the
auxiliary air damper is opened to keep the minimum flow velocity inside the pipe if the flow velocity
6) Coal feed volume and coal consumption volume
When the mill is operated at a constant load, a relationship is established in which the coal feed volume is
equivalent to the coal consumption volume (combustion volume). However, this relationship is not
established when the mill is started or stopped or when the mill load varies.
Precise grasping of the combustion volume is an essential condition for boiler control. In particular, it is
absolutely necessary to control the steam temperature in the once-through boiler. Generally, the
combustion volume is measured by the coal supply machine. However, when the mill is started up, the
coal supply start does not meet the coal consumption start.
In the control system, when the mill is started up or stopped, the simulated coal consumption signal is used
as combustion volume in order to adjust the coal consumption close to the coal consumption characteristics
suitable for actual conditions. The coal consumption characteristics may vary depending on the type of
coal. Changes in steam temperature and exhaust gas O2 may occur when the mill is started up or stopped.
Therefore, these points must be taken into consideration.
7) Mill pyrite
Rocks or other foreign objects other than the raw coal supplied to the mill are discharged to the outside of
the mill without being pulverized. These discharged foreign objects are called “pyrites.” In the
horizontal mill, such foreign objects are not discharged to the outside and they are accumulated as materials
for pulverizing. In the vertical mill, pyrites are snapped from the primary air port inside the mill to the
primary air chamber, and then they are discharged to the outside. If this processing unit malfunctions,
pyrites and coal are accumulated in the primary air chamber. As a result, a fire may occur by the hot
primary air. Therefore, it is important to check that the pyrite-processing unit functions correctly.
According to the circumstances, the mill needs to be stopped.
Figures 17 and 18 show examples of the vertical mill startup sequence and stop sequence.

2.2 Power Supply Operations
Electric power demand is not always constant and it varies greatly depending on the season or time zone.
Since the daily electric power demand varies as time elapses as shown in the daily load curves stated in Fig. 27,
it is necessary to supply electric power corresponding to the demand that varies every moment.
Additionally, since the economy and followingness of each power generation method differ from each other, it
is also necessary to generate electric power with an appropriate combination of power generation methods by
taking their features into consideration. When the daily load is classified into the base load, middle load, and
peak load, each load is classified into the relevant power generation method as described below.

Pumping-up hydraulic power


(Electric power)

Oil fired power


LNG fired power

Run-off-river Nuclear power Coal fired
hydraulic power power


Fig. 27 Example of daily load curves and combination of power generation methods by time zone

(1) Base load

Since the variation in load is small and the utilization factor is high, large capacity thermal power, nuclear
power, and run-off-river hydraulic power, which can be operated continuously for an extended period of time and
has an excellent efficiency, are operated.
(2) Middle load
This middle load has intermediate characteristics between the base load and peak load. Since electric energy
larger than that of the peak load is required, the middle capacity thermal power, which is relatively economical
and has excellent start/stop characteristics, is used.
(3) Peak load
Since the load varies greatly in the peak load range, the excellent adjustment capability of electric power
generation and frequent start/stop ability are required.
Additionally, it is necessary that the operation time is short and the utilization factor is small.
Therefore, even though the efficiency is slightly sacrificed, pondage type hydraulic power or reservoir type
hydraulic power having less construction cost, or pumping-up hydraulic power or gas turbine having excellent
peak characteristics can be operated.
The following describes the typical operation method of a thermal power plant during daytime and nighttime.

2.2.1 Output adjustment by load dispatching operation

Since the electric power demand is changed every moment as described previously, it is necessary to supply
electric power corresponding to this demand. Since changes in electric power demand cannot be adjusted by
hydraulic power alone, it is also necessary to adjust the output using the thermal power generation plant. The
operation is performed using the following auto control together with the output adjustment based on the power
supply command.
(1) Automatic frequency control (AFC)
The system frequency varies due to an unbalance between electric power generation and demand. Therefore,
the generator output is adjusted so that the frequency of the electric power system is kept within the specified
(2) Economical load dispatching control (ELD or EDC)
The load is dispatched so that the general power generation cost for each power generation unit becomes the
lowest price.

2.2.2 Minimum load operation

As nuclear power generation is used for the base load operation to the daily electric power demand, the
minimum load operation of the thermal power plants is conducted to adjust the supply capacity to the electric
power demand during daytime and nighttime. Therefore, this minimum load operation becomes important, as
well as stop operation during nighttime. In particular, it is required to enable lower minimum load operation of a
large capacity plant and to improve the power generation efficiency in a low load area.
The minimum load may vary depending on the fuel, capacity, main machine, and/or auxiliary machines of the
plant. However, the minimum load is generally 10 to 40% of the rated output.
The following describes the typical subjects and considerations related to the turbine during minimum load
(1) Steam flow rate
If the steam flow rate decreases, a local overheating problem occurs due to an unbalance of the flow rate
between the boiler overheating unit and reheater. Therefore, the steam temperature, gas temperature, and
evaporation tube wall temperature need to be considered. In the case of a once-through boiler, it is necessary to
keep a supply water volume of 25 to 30% or more of the maximum evaporation volume in order to ensure the
stable flow inside the evaporation tube constituting the water wall of the furnace.
(2) Wetness of turbine exhaust chamber
If the reheating steam temperature drops or the vacuum degree of the condenser increases during low-load
operation, the wetness of the exhaust chamber may increase. Since this wetness may corrode the vane in the
final stage of the low-pressure turbine, it is absolutely necessary to conduct the operation by taking the wetness
into consideration.
(3) Temperature of turbine exhaust chamber
The vacuum degree of the condenser tends to be high during low-load operation. This may cause the
temperature of the exhaust chamber to lower and adversely affect the vibration and differential expansion.
Furthermore, the steam flow rate may decrease at an extremely low output ranging from 5 to 10% of the rated
output. Therefore, the temperature of the turbine exhaust chamber may increase due to windage loss.
Generally, to prevent this problem, the water is continuously sprayed into the exhaust chamber to decrease the
However, the continuous water spray may corrode the vane at the final stage. Therefore, great care should be
taken for this point.
(4) Drain control of feed water heater
The drain from the feed water heater must be collected to the feed water heater at the lower stage as much as
possible in order to improve the thermal efficiency. Therefore, the pressure inside the feed water heater
decreases in the low-load operation area and the pressure difference inside each feed water heater decreases. If
the pressure difference inside the unit among the feed water heaters decreases, it becomes difficult to discharge the
drain to the feed water heater at the lower stage. To prevent such a problem, great care should be taken, such as
switching of the collection destination to the condenser, etc.
(5) Control of boiler feed water pump
Since the supply water flow rate decreases during low load operation, the discharge flow rate of the boiler feed
water pump also decreases. If the supply water flow rate of the boiler becomes less than the re-circulation flow
rate of the pump, the operation enters a status whereby the minimum flow rate of the pump is maintained by the
re-circulation control valve. Therefore, great care should be taken since the control valve is damaged if the
pump is operated for an extended period of time in the above status. Additionally, when using the turbine driven
feed water pump, great care should be exerted so that the pump is not operated at a speed close to its critical

2.2.3 Leading power factor operation

In recent power systems, as the capacity of the extra-high voltage power transmission line or power
transmission line increases and the difference in generated power during daytime greatly differs from that during
nighttime, the leading power factor operation of the reactive power control is conducted so that the operation is
performed by changing the tap of the inductive phase modifying equipment (reactor or synchronous phase
modifier) or by operating the synchronous generator using the advancing power factor.
The leading power factor operation of the generator means that the field current of the generator decreases by
utilizing the characteristics of the synchronous machine and the operation is performed using the advancing power
factor to absorb the reactive power of the power system. The following describes the problems and notes when
performing the leading power factor operation of the generator.
(1) Stability drop due to low excitation
When the leading power factor operation is performed, the internal induced voltage becomes small.
As a result, the internal phase angle increases and synchronizing power decreases, causing the stability to lower.
The stability is determined by the terminal voltage and reactance of the generator, as well as the external
impedance. Therefore, when performing the leading power factor operation, it is necessary that the under
excitation limit (UEL) of the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) is set at a position where both the allowable limit
by the possible output curve of the generator and the static stability limit of the system are satisfied to prevent the
loss of synchronism.
(2) Temperature increase of iron core and mechanical part
If the leak magnetic flux entering the iron core end part of the stator increases, the temperature increases due to
the eddy current induced by the elements making up the iron core end part. Therefore, even though the stator
end part of the turbine generator uses a structure that suppresses the temperature increase, it is necessary to
conduct the operation with the possible output curve area of the generator by taking changes in the stator iron core
temperature, stator coil temperature, and cooling gas temperature into consideration.
Figure 29 shows an example of the generator output curve.
Curve AB: Limited by magnetic field temperature.
Curve BC: Limited by armature temperature.
Curve CC: Limited by armature iron core end temperature.
Reactive power [pu]

Active power (pu)

Under excitation limit (UEL)


Fig. 29 Generator output curve

2.3 Start-up and Stop Operation Control
2.3.1 Start pattern
Electric power demand changes not only throughout the year, but also weekly and daily.
A thermal power unit start or stop in order to adjust its output to flexibly correspond to changes in power demand.
The unit has the following start patterns from unit stop to unit start.
(1) Cold start
The unit is started after it has been stopped for an extended period of time, such as for periodic inspection.
(2) Weekly start and stop (WSS)
In WSS, the unit is stopped at nighttime on a Friday or on a Saturday when the electric power demand
decreases, and then it is started early on Monday morning when the electric power demand starts increasing.
The stop time is 12 to 36 hrs. Figure 2 shows an example of this schedule.


Main steam

Main steam



Fig. 2 Weekly start and stop schedule

(3) Daily start and stop

The unit is stopped at midnight, and then started the next morning so that the power generation corresponds to
differences in electric power demand between daytime and nighttime. The stop time is from 6 to 12 hrs. Figure
3 shows an example of the daily start and stop schedule.
This daily start and stop is necessary because efficient operation of the power system is achieved by increasing
the base load units, such as nuclear or large capacity thermal power generation.
In this daily start and stop operation, the adverse effects on the unit service life and supply reliability should be
considered. In the first case, thermal stress on the turbine rotor is a particularly problem.


Main steam
Main steam



Fig. 3 Daily start and stop schedule

(This thermal stress is caused by differences in temperature between the steam and turbine rotor when the unit
is started. Normally, this temperature difference is called “mismatch temperature”.) According to the low cycle
fatigue index (LCFI) of the turbine rotor, the number of yearly start and stop cycles is limited to take measures
against this problem. In the second case, the start and stop time is short and the operation reliability needs to be
kept at a high level.
To solve these problems, it is necessary to take appropriate measures, such as improvement of the unit
reliability, omission of operation steps, and/or review of standards.
(4) Quick start
This quick start is used to restart the unit after it has been stopped for a short time (about less than 6 hrs.) due to
system problems or power control. Normally, the quick start is called “very hot start”.
In this case, the thermal stress of the turbine requires special attention.
The metal temperature of each part meets the steam temperature immediately before the trip. However, since
the boiler and piping after restarting are cooled as the stop time elapses, the steam temperature is mismatched with
the metal temperature due to decrease of the steam temperature and throttle of the control valve. Therefore, it is
preferable that the steam temperature is increased to a high temperature level and the speed is increased rapidly,
and the parallel and load are increased.

2.3.2 Starting of unit

Figure 4 shows an outline of the start steps of the coal burning supercritical pressure voltage transformation
once-through plant. The following describes the operating procedures and provides notes on each start step.
(1) Determination of start schedule
The period of time required to start the unit is determined by the boiler or turbine status. As described in
Table 1, the unit start mode is determined by the metal temperature at the first stage of the turbine. As the time
required for each event is added, the overall time required for the start process is calculated.
In the start schedule, the parallel schedule time is determined to the base point. Based on the start time
required described above, the schedule time, such as boiler ignition, turbine start, and full load achievement is

Main steam Output


Water quality check

Low-pressure cleanup

Preparations for turbine start

Condensed water cleanup and vacuum increase

Preparations for
Boiler cold cleanup

pressure increase
Temperature increase/
Preparations for boiler ignition
High-pressure cleanup

Boiler hot cleanup

Boiler ignition

Turbine start/speed up
Preparations for unit start

Voltage transformation start

BFP M/T change-over

Wet/dry change-over

Coal single fuel firing

Coal charging start

Power supply
Water quality check

Parallel/ Output Output

output increase II increase III
increase 1

Fig. 4 Unit start steps (Cold start)

Table 1 Example of start modes
Start type Very hot start Hot start Warm 2 start Warm 1 start Cold start
Item Unit (Stopped for 2 hrs.) (Stopped for 8 hrs.) (Stopped for 32 hrs.) (Stopped for 56 hrs.) (Stopped for 150
Metal temperature at 1st stage C 460 - 390 – 460 340 – 390 230 – 340 - 230
Main steam pressure MPa 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5
Planned values at start

Main steam temperature C 510 470 410 410 400

Reheating steam C 505 480 377 289 200
Steam temperature at 1st C 438 391 315 315 301
Metal temperature at 1st C 494 453 368 326 216
Mismatch temperature C -56 -62 -53 -11 +85
Turbine speed up ratio rpm/min. 300 300 150 150 100
Low-speed heat soak time min. 0 0 0 0 20
High-speed heat soak time min. 0 0 0 0 55
Initial load volume % 3 3 3 3 3
Initial load holding time min. 0 0 15 15 60

The boiler start mode is determined by the fluid temperature at the inlet of the water separator, and it is then
used for the fuel program for start or start by-pass valve control.
(2) Preparations for unit start
Inspect and check each part so that the work during unit stop is completed and there is no obstacle hindering the
Confirm that units related to common facilities are being operated correctly or that they are ready for operation.
Confirm that the interlock, alarm device, and monitoring instrument function correctly, and that the fuel and
demineralized water necessary to start are maintained.
(3) Pre-boiler cleanup
In the once-through boiler, it is necessary to supply high purity water from the start.
Therefore, cleanup is carried out to remove impurities (particularly, iron content) from each system prior to the
In the pre-boiler cleanup, the vacuum in the condenser is increased, and then the condenser system,
low-pressure supply water system, and high-pressure supply water system are cleaned up from the upstream side
in order.
In each system, the circulation operation is carried out through the condensate demineralizer so that the water
quality becomes the standard value or less after the standard to pass the water to the condensate demineralizer has
been satisfied using the blow outside the system.
Additionally, the turning operation of the turbine is performed to prevent deflection of the turbine rotor before
increasing the vacuum.
(4) Boiler cold cleanup
When the water quality in the pre-boiler satisfies the boiler passing water standard, the water is fed to the boiler
to perform the cleanup at a normal temperature. Table 2 shows the water quality standard when the once-through
boiler is started.
After the boiler has been filled with water (this work is not needed when the boiler filled with water has been
stored), the blow outside the system is performed through the drain system of the water separator. After the
water quality of the blow water has satisfied the standard for the water passed to the condensate demineralizer, the
circulation operation is performed until the water quality is the standard value or less through the condensate
(5) Preparations for boiler ignition
The supply water system is changed from the cleanup status to the boiler ignition status.
The ventilation system is started to purge the furnace. The remaining unburnt gas is purged at a specified air
flow rate for a specified period of time in order to prevent explosion in the boiler furnace. (Example, 30% MCR
flow rate for 5 min.)
The fuel system for start (oil or gas) is started up to check the system for leak.
Generally, light oil is used for the start.
(Note) Cleanup is essential for a cold start. The cleanup is usually omitted for the WSS or DSS start. The operation often
enters the ignition preparations from the low-pressure cleanup circulation status during unit stop.
(6) Boiler ignition and hot cleanup
After the boiler has been ignited, the temperature is increased to the target temperature of the hot cleanup (fluid
temperature at the outlet of the furnace is approx. 150 C.). The temperature is kept at this cleanup target

temperature. If the water quality becomes the standard value or less, the temperature increase is restarted.
(7) Temperature increase and pressure increase
The temperature increase and pressure increase of the boiler are performed to achieve the steam conditions at
turbine start determined by the turbine start mode. By adjusting the fuel charging volume, the start bypass valve
and drain valve in the steam system, the temperature increase and pressure increase are completed within the
target time.
The feed water flow rate and air flow rate are controlled to their minimum flow rates. At this time, the
re-heater protection (prevention of burning) and the thick wall part protection (relaxing of thermal stress) exist as
limitation items when started. The former is limited by the gas temperature at the outlet of the furnace, as well
as the fuel charging volume. The latter is limited by the temperature increase ratio at the inlet of the water
separator and the outlet of the super heater.
(8) Preparations for turbine start
In the cold start, the metal temperature of each turbine part decreases to a level close to room temperature.
When starting the turbine in this status, thermal stress occurs as a result of the difference in temperature when
compared to the steam.

Table 2 Water quality at starting of once-through boiler (When the volatile substance process applies.)
Temperature increase/pressure
Circulation before ignition Load operation
Process increase circulation (42)
(Boiler cold cleanup) [1/2MCR or less]

(Boiler hot cleanup)

Greater than Greater than Greater than
Greater than Greater than Greater than
Max. operating pressure (MPa) 15 and 20 or 15 and 20 or 15 and 20 or
20 20 20
less less less
19 19 19
Economizer pH (at 25 C) 8.5 – 9.6 ( ) 9.0 – 9.6 8.5 – 9.6 ( ) 9.0 – 9.6 8.5 – 9.6 ( ) 9.0 – 9.6
inlet 11 19
Electric conductivity (mS/m) ( )( ) (at 25 C) 0.1 or less 0.1 or less 0.1 or less 0.1 or less 0.1 or less 0.1 or less
11 19
(!S/m) ( )( ) (at 25 C) 100 or less 100 or less 100 or less 100 or less 100 or less 100 or less
36 38
Dissolved oxygen (!gO/l) 40 or less ( ) 20 or less ( ) 10 or less 10 or less 7 or less 7 or less
Feed water

Iron (!gFe/l) 200 or less 100 or less 100 or less 50 or less 30 or less 30 or less
Copper (!gCl/l) 20 or less 20 or less 20 or less 10 or less 5 or less 5 or less
38 38
Hydrazine (!gN2H4/l) 20 or more ( ) 20 or more ( ) 20 or more 20 or more 10 or more 10 or more
Silica (!gSiO2/l) 30 or less 30 or less 30 or less 30 or less 30 or less 30 or less
11 19
Furnace Electric conductivity (mS/m) ( )( ) (at 25 C) 0.1 or less 0.1 or less 0.1 or less 0.1 or less - -
11 19
water wall (!S/m) ( )( ) (at 25 C) 100 or less 100 or less 100 or less 100 or less - -
outlet 40 41
Iron (!gFe/l) 300 or less 300 or less 200 or less ( ) 100 or less ( ) - -
Note This value becomes the target according to the boiler shape.
When starting the unit after it has been stopped for a long period of time, it is preferable to adjust the hydrazine concentration to a higher level in order to promote forming
of a protective coat inside the system.
At this time, the hydrazine is dissociated in the water and it exists as the hydrazinium ion (N2H5 ).
The target concentration of the iron is 100!gFe/l or less.
The target concentration of the iron is 50!gFe/l or less.
This shows an abbreviation of the maximum continuous rating that means the maximum continuous load.

To reduce this thermal stress, the warming of the casing and control valve must be carried out before starting
the turbine.
Additionally, it is important to check for faulty parts, such as the shaft position or eccentricity using the turbine
monitor instruments before starting the turbine through turning.
(9) Turbine start and speed up
Items to be considered most at turbine start are thermal stress and vibration problems.
Therefore, the warming (heat soak) is performed until the rotor temperature reaches the transition temperature
[temperature, at which the mechanical properties of the material lower rapidly (becomes fragile)] to prevent the
fragility of the turbine rotor from being broken or to reduce the thermal stress of the rotor surface and the stress at
the center of the rotor.
This heat soak is classified into two groups. The first group is the low-speed heat soak in which the turbine is
started with low-speed RPM kept in order to prevent the turbine rotor from being broken. The second group is
the high-speed heat soak in which the turbine is started at a rated RPM to prevent excessive thermal stress of the
rotor as the parallel and output increase.
As described above, the heat soak time and speed up rate are determined by considering the thermal stress in
order to control the service life of the rotor.
Additionally, it is necessary to determine a start schedule most suitable for the turbine so that vibration is
To determine this turbine start schedule, the start load operation chart (mismatch chart) is provided. The heat
soak time and speed up rate are usually determined by the metal temperature at the first stage, as well as the main
steam temperature and pressure when the turbine is started up.
Table 1 shows examples of the speed up rate and heat soak time in each start mode. It is important that the
turbine is started according to the schedule created based on this chart and the operation is performed while
carefully checking the steam temperature so that the difference in temperature between the internal and external

metal surfaces of each turbine part and the steam temperature change ratio do not exceed their limit values.
The vibration and expansion difference are monitored during increasing of the turbine RPM.
Great care should be taken as the amplitude tends to be large at a speed close to the critical speed of the rotor.
In the boiler, as the turbine speed increases, the fuel charging volume is adjusted to keep the necessary steam
volume. For a cold start, the fuel charging volume is minimized before starting the turbine in order to reduce the
thermal stress applied to the turbine. It is also necessary to prevent excessive increase of the main steam
temperature by suppressing the increase of the fuel charging volume during speed up to the minimally required
(10) Preparations for parallel
If heavy oil facilities are provided, light oil is changed to heavy oil before starting parallel output. Variations
in main steam temperature and main steam pressure are checked when changing light oil to heavy oil.
It must be checked that the ash processing facility, desulfurization facility, and denitration facility have been
started and they are in standby mode before charging the coal after parallel output has been started.
If the coal on the belt of each coal supply machine is discharged, each coal supply machine needs to be put in
coal on status.
(11) Parallel, output increase 1
When the turbine reaches the rated RPM, the generator voltage is increased to its rating, and then the turbine is
synchronized with the system to put in parallel status.
After the initial output is kept using the initial output volume corresponding to the turbine start mode, the
output increases to 20%ECR.
In the output increase process, the turbine valve is changed, the low-pressure/high-pressure feed water heater is
started, and the coal burner at the first stage is started.
Variations in main steam pressure in the process utilizing the bleed air and in the coal charging process are
checked carefully while the output is increasing. Additionally, it is also necessary to carefully check the NOx
and SOx control after the coal has been charged.
After the output has reached approx. 20%ECR, the boiler supply water pump is changed from the electric drive
(M-BFP) to the turbine drive (T-BFP). After that, the power at the station is changed (start transformation "
station transformation).
(12) Output increase II
The output increases to 50%ECR. The wet/dry of the boiler is changed at an output of approx. 25%ECR (the
boiler status is changed from recirculation to once-through status and the control system is also changed to
once-through control). By changing the wet/dry of the boiler, the boiler circulation pump (BCP) is stopped.
According to the voltage transformation mode, the main steam pressure starts increasing at an output of approx.
30%ECR. This operation is controlled by the boiler input command. However, in the output and main steam
pressure increase process after the wet/dry has been changed to “dry”, it is necessary to carefully check the
balance between the feed water flow rate and fuel flow rate, as well as variations in the steam temperature of each
As the output increases, the coal burners are ignited in order and the oil burners are turned off to burn only coal.
Additionally, the second T-BPP unit is put in the service in status.
After the output has reached 50%ECR, the stable operation of the unit is checked and the water quality of each
part is checked. When the water quality satisfies the standard value, the drain is collected from the high/low
pressure supply water heater.
(13) Output increase III
The output increases to 100%ECR. As the output increases, the coal burners are ignited in order.
After the output has reached 100%, the operation status of the unit is checked and the patrol inspection is
performed at the work field to check that no errors exist. After that, load dispatching ferry is done.

2.3.3 Stopping of unit

When stopping the unit, the output is decreased sequentially according to the stop schedule in which the stop
period, heat radiation cooling during this period, and operation conditions for next start are taken into
The stop method is classified into four groups as described below. Figure 5 shows an outline of the stop steps.
1) Normal turbine stop & boiler hot bank
This stop method is used to stop the unit according to the standard (normal) stop schedule, such as the
weekly start and stop and the daily start and stop.

2) Boiler forced cooling stop
This stop method is used to cool the boiler in a short time to ensure work safety during boiler related repair
work (in-furnace work or repair of pressure resistant parts, etc.).
The normal operation is performed until the units are put in the parallel-off status. After the units have
been put in the parallel-off status, water and air are fed continuously to cool the boiler.
3) Turbine forced cooling stop
This stop method is used to cool the turbine in a short time to ensure work safety if repair work needing the
turbine oil pump stop is needed.
The main steam pressure is normally kept at a higher level than the normal level corresponding to the
output drop, and the main steam temperature and reheating steam temperature are decreased to a lower
level than the normal target temperature to stop the units. Figure 6 shows a typical stop pattern.
In this case, boiler forced cooling needs to be performed for safety reasons.
4) Boiler & turbine forced cooling stop
This stop method is used to cool both the boiler and turbine when stopping the unit accompanying the
periodic inspection.
The following describes the operating procedures and cautions for the stop step.
(1) Preparations for unit stop
After the unit stop schedule has been determined, heavy oil warming and steam type air pre-heater (SAH) are
started when using heavy oil.

Dry/wet change-over
Starting of preparations
for unit stop

Oil burner ignition

BFPT/M change-over
Coal single fuel firing

Boiler off
Turbine trip
Output drop start
Voltage transformation start

Boiler hot bank retention

Boiler forced cooling Vacuum


Output drop I Output drop II drop III

Fig. 5 Unit stop steps (Normal turbine stop)


Load Temperature

Re-heating steam temperature

Main steam
Load temperature

Main steam

RPM 1%/min.


Load drop start Parallel-off.
360 min

Fig. 6 Example of turbine forced cooling stop

Additionally, the preparations for auxiliary steam supply from another boiler or a boiler in the plant are
(2) Output drop I
The output drops to 50%ECR.
When the output is approximately 95%ECR, the main steam pressure starts dropping according to the voltage
transformation mode. According to the output drop, the coal burners are turned off sequentially.
(3) Output drop II
The output drops to 20%ECR.
According to the output drop, the oil burners are ignited and coal burners are turned off.
Additionally, the first T-BFP unit is put in the service out status.
The drain tank level of the water separator increases when the output is approximately 25%
ECR. The BCP is started to change-over the dry/wet.
After the M-BFP has been put in the service in status, the second T-BFP is put in the service out status.
The output reaches 20%ECR. The transition to heavy oil single fuel firing is completed and the power
change-over in the plant (station transformation " start transformation) is completed.
(4) Output drop III, parallel-off
The output is dropped to the parallel-off target value (5%ECR).
The high-pressure/low-pressure supply water heater is stopped according to the output drop.
Additionally, oil burners are turned off in order.
When the output reaches the parallel-off target value, the parallel-off is performed.
(5) Turbine trip, boiler off
After completion of parallel-off, the turbine is tripped. After checking that the auxiliary steam is changed to
another boiler or a boiler in the plant, all oil burners are turned off.
When the burner purge is completed after the final burner has been turned off, the MFT is then operated to
check that all fuels are shut off completely.
After the MFT has been operated, the furnace purge is performed for 5 min.

2.3.4 Stopping of boiler

There are two kinds of boiler stop methods after parallel-off, that is, boiler hot bank stop and boiler forced

cooling stop.
The above stop methods are carried out according to the schedules even though there is a difference between
the plan stop and work stop. In addition to the above stop methods, there is a stop method by the MFT operation
during unit operation.
(1) Normal stop
When the unit stop schedule is determined, heavy oil warming or SAH is started according to the output drop
schedule time. The preparations are made so that the auxiliary steam can be supplied from another boiler or a
boiler in the plant.
When the output drop is started, the coal burners are turned off in order according to the decrease of the fuel
flow rate. When the output is approximately 95%ECR, the main steam pressure also drops according to the
voltage transformation program.
In particular, the balance among the supply water, fuel, and air (boiler input command, water-fuel ratio, air-fuel
ratio) should be checked carefully.
The heavy oil burners are ignited in order when the output becomes 50% or less. If the preparations for
ignition of the heavy oil burners are not in time, the output is kept at 50%ECR.
When the output becomes approximately 25%ECR, the drain tank level of the water separator increases. As
the BCP is started, the dry/wet is changed over.
The output reaches 20%ECR. Check that the transition to heavy oil single fuel firing is completed and the
power change-over in the plant (station transformation " start transformation) is completed. After checking the
above, the output drops to the parallel-off target value (5%ECR).
After the output has reached the parallel-off target value, the parallel-off is performed, and then the turbine is
After checking that the auxiliary steam is changed to another boiler or a boiler in the plant, all oil burners are
turned off.
When the burner purge is completed after the final burner has been turned off, the MFT is then operated to
check that all fuels are shut off completely. After the MFT has been operated, the furnace purge (after purge) is
performed for 5 min.
(2) Stopping of boiler hot bank
After the MFT has been operated and the furnace purge has been completed, the ventilation system and
water/steam system are sealed to minimize the heat loss of the boiler as preparations for restart.
The contents of the stop operation are described in clause 1.3-(5).
The result data of the boiler pressure drop rate and steam temperature drop rate during hot bank is grasped. If
the drop rate is excessively fast, check whether any leak comes from the start bypass valve, or the main
steam/super-heater drain valve.
Heat or pressure remains in the boiler during hot bank. As a rule, the operation and adjustment of the boiler
system valve, and the inspection and work of the equipment leading to the boiler system valve, and the opening of
the manhole must not be performed.
(3) Boiler forced cooling stop
Before conducting the inspection work or periodic inspection work related to the boiler, forcibly cool the boiler
to stop it in order to enable safe work on the turbine side.
The contents of the stop operation are described in clause 1.3-(6).
After forced cooling has been completed, the boiler storage status may vary depending on the stop purpose.
Table 6 shows examples of storage methods (except for plant that the oxygen process applies to the water
Actually, water filled status or nitrogen disused status often occurs. In this case, the boiler water is blown
completely after the forced cooling has been completed, and then the boiler is stored in the dry status.
(4) Measures for MFT operation
The operators must understand the causes of the MFT operations fully. If MFT occurs, check that the
protection interlock functions properly. Additionally, the boiler must not be restarted until the cause of the MFT
has been located and corrective action has been taken.
The following describes the measures to be taken after the MFT has been activated when the operation of the
auxiliary machine in the ventilation system is continued.
1) Check items after MFT
The fuel shut-off valve, burner valve, and SH/RH spray valve are closed.
The auxiliary machines are tripped. (Mill, coal supply machine, PAF, and RFP, etc.)
The mill hot air gate and damper are closed.
The burner complete off alarm signal send items through the television set inside the furnace.
2) The air flow rate is the furnace purge air flow rate (normally, 30% of MCR flow rate). The furnace is
purged for 5 min. or longer.
3) The auxiliary steam supply is changed to another boiler or a boiler in the plant.
4) To prevent fire caused by spontaneous ignition, the air is flown at the minimum air flow rate to purge
the flammable contents of the coal remaining in the mill and pulverized coal pipe in order to cool the
inside of the mill (volatile purge). If a mill inert system is provided, the mill is made inert to prevent a
5) Each part of the boiler is inspected visually to check that no faults exist. In particular, when the MFT
is operated from the high-output, the solenoid escape valve (PCV) may be activated. Therefore, it is
necessary to check that no leak exists after activation.
6) After the cause of the MFT has been found and corrective measures have been taken, the operation is
restarted. At this time, if it takes long to locate the cause, it is possible to stop main auxiliary machines
in the ventilation system, but the damper in the gas duct is put in the natural ventilation status (to purge
the volatile content).
7) After the pilot torch has been ignited, oil remaining in the trip burner is purged.
8) Coal remaining in the mill is purged after parallel. Additionally, if the mill clearing system is provided,
the remaining coal is processed by the clearing when the preparations for pyrite processing unit are
Table 6 Example of storage methods in case of once-through boiler stop
Stop period 1 2 3 4
48 hrs. or less 48 hrs. to 1 week 1 week or more to 1 month 1 month or more
Boiler main body Hot banking Nitrogen sealing storage or Nitrogen sealing storage or Nitrogen sealing storage or
From economizer to (Valve is closed with water filling storage water filling storage water filling storage
outlet of water normal operation kept.) N2H4 50 – 100 mg/# N2H4 100 – 300 mg/# N2H4 300 – 500 mg/#
Super-heater and Same as above. Same as left. Nitrogen sealing storage Nitrogen sealing storage
re-heater (Re-heater: Dry storage) (Re-heater: Dry storage)

If the auxiliary machine in the ventilation system is tripped, the furnace must be purged after the damper in the
gas duct has been put in the natural ventilation status. Additionally, when all power supplies are lost, it is
checked that the fuel is shut-off and the back-up operation of the AH is performed by the air motor and that the
damper in the gas duct is put in the natural ventilation status.
(5) Operation of Soot Blower When Unit Is Not Used 㨪Boiler clinker removal㨪
When working inside the furnace during the suspension of boiler operation, it is necessary to conduct clinker
removal before paralleling off in order to ensure safety against clinker fall.
2.3.5 Concept of turbine start
Thermal power generation facilities in Japan were originally positioned for adjustment of the load. However,
thermal power generation actually comprises approximately 60% of all capacity, and this output will continue to
be important in the future. Additionally, thermal power generation facilities are considered increasingly
important for stable energy supply.
Thermal power generation facilities are classified into two groups, combined power generation facilities having
high efficiency and excellent operability, and conventional power generation facilities utilizing various fuels and
having rich operation results. Continuing the operation of conventional power generation facilities is important
in order to maintain a range of energy sources, and there are plans worldwide to construct thermal power
generation plants mainly using coal. Since coal is dispersed worldwide and its deposits are abundant,
conventional thermal power generation plants are being constructed.
It is desirable to increase the capacity of conventional power generation facilities and to improve their
efficiency levels in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In 2000, commercial operation started of
Tachibana Bay Plant, controlled by Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. This state-of-the-art large capacity
plant (1,050MW) has a main steam pressure level of 25MPa and a temperature of 600 C, and utilizing high steam
conditions with a re-heating steam temperature of 610 C.
However, the turbine has many small gaps and is rotated at high speed and high temperature. Therefore,
rubbing or excessive thermal stress occurs, causing damage to the unit.
For this reason, utilization of the proper operation method and monitoring method is more important by
considering extension of the periodic inspection, which has been utilized recently.
As the number of new plant being constructed in Japan is decreasing rapidly, and the construction and
maintenance of power generation plants are shifting overseas, the remote monitoring service business is started.
The following items can be monitored by the manufacturers in their own country. Reduction of thermal stress

Thermal stress occurs inside the steam turbine caused by differences between the temperature of each steam
turbine part and the steam temperature to be ventilated.
The cautions on the turbine start plan is that this thermal stress occurring in the rotor and casing is reduced.
The thermal stress of the high-pressure rotor operated under the severest conditions is monitored to control the
LCFI (Low Cycle Fatigue Index). To monitor this thermal stress, the metal temperature at the outlet of the first
stage of the turbine is determined as a representative measurement point. This measured metal temperature
value is used to make the judgment.
According to the metal temperature at the first stage achieved by natural cooling during the stop time and the
turbine plan ventilation temperature, which has been adjusted with the boiler side beforehand, the start mode is
classified into those described in Table 7. As the stop time is longer, the start time also becomes longer.

Table 7 Examples of start mode classifications and stop time levels

Start mode Stop time Remarks
Very hot start Stopped for up to 4 hrs. from
immediately after turbine trip.
Hot start Stopped for 8 to 11 hrs. DSS: Parallel-off at midnight and parallel-in the next
Warm start I Stopped for 32 hrs. WSS I: Parallel-off at midnight on Saturday and parallel-in on
Monday morning.
Warm start II Stopped for 56 hrs. WSS II: Parallel-off at midnight on Friday and parallel-in ion
Monday morning.
Cold start Stopped for 150 hrs. or longer Stopped for 1 week or longer.:page 15

RPM: 3600 rpm Load: 100%

Vacuum degree

Main steam pressure

(Vacuum pump start) (Preparations for ignition M - BFP start/Ignition) (Parallel-in (initial
(Condensate water cleanup) (Low-pressure cleanup) (Turbine start) load holding))
(High-pressure cleanup) (Rub check) (M/T change-over)
(Boiler cold cleanup) (Low-speed heat soak) (2nd T-BFP turn ON)
(Boiler hot cleanup) (Speed up start)

Fig. 19 Example of typical start

As described above, the natural cooling is started and the rotor temperature is changed according to the turbine
stop time. The typical start mode is classified into various typical classes because the operation mode is
classified into patterns by operation style. To relax the thermal stress that occurs as a result of the difference in
temperature between the main steam and rotor, it is necessary to adjust the start method.
As described above, since the time needed for the start is different from the stop time, it is important to grasp
the start time for the power supply plan.
Figure 19 shows the events in the typical cold start processes. The following introduces the main monitoring
items in the start process.
(1) Pre-warming
In the cold start in which the turbine is started from almost room temperature, warming of the high-pressure
turbine is needed to reduce the thermal stress. The metal temperature after the first stage is controlled. This
pre-warming is intended to reduce the brittleness of the rotor even though it depends on the material.
(2) All-around flow operation
To reduce the thermal stress of the construction, casing close to the nozzle at the first stage or nozzle during
ventilation, the all-around flow operation (full-arc operation) is performed. When using the machine control
method (MHC), the sub-valve of the MSV is opened to perform.
When using the individual oil tube method using the electric control method (EHC), all control valves are opened
slightly to perform this method. At approximately 7% of the load after starting, the partial insertion operation is
started. Figure 20 shows the relationship between the opening of the control valves and load during this partial

insertion operation as an example of the voltage transformation operation.

Main steam
Control valves
Fully opened.

4th valve
1st to 3rd


Fig. 20 Example of pressure and control valves opening during voltage transformation operation

(3) Low-speed heat soak operation

In the cold start, the heat soak operation is performed by the steam passing through the turbine in the status that
the heat transfer effect is high. This operation is performed by taking the critical RPM of the generator having
the lowest critical speed into consideration. This RPM is generally about 800 rpm.
(4) High-speed heat soak
When the RPM reaches the rated RPM, the heat soak operation is started to further heat up the turbine evenly.
At this time, since the heat transfer effect becomes high together with the stream flow rate, the initial load holding
time may be extended. Other limited factors related to start

Important items to be monitored other than factors related to the thermal stress are those related to the vibration
and elongation difference. The following shows items related to the vibration.
(1) Eccentricity
In an example 700MW-plant, the maximum diameter of the steam turbine shaft is approximately 500mm, a
large diameter. The span between the bearings is approximately 6m. Therefore, to suppress the bend of the
rotor, it is necessary that the turning is generally performed for approximately 10 hrs. or more to set the
eccentricity to the standard value or less.

Table 8 Vibration control values

Detection location Shaft Bearing Remarks
Detection RPM 3000rpm/3600rpm 1500rpm/1800rpm 3000rpm/3600rpm 1500rpm/1800rpm
Rated speed or
12.5 17.5 6.2 8.7
Alarm value
Less than rated
15 21 7.5 10.5
Stop value 25 35 12.5 17.5

(2) Vibration limit value

The turbine speed must pass through various critical speed ranges including the generator until the turbine
reaches the rated RPM. Additionally, since the turbine is a large high-speed rotating unit, the vibration may
increase due to the eccentricity and bearing lubrication status or small imbalance.
Therefore, it is necessary to set the alarm value and stop value, which are the control value or less as shown in
Table 8 according to “Technical standard for thermal power generation facilities” and “Electric technical standard
for steam turbine for thermal power generation and standard for generator vibration”.
Furthermore, the control is used by which the vibration amplitude and vibration increase rate are determined as
parameters and the control is classified into the safe zone, alarm zone, and trip zone. In this control, the
previously described three zones are classified into “critical speed range or less”, “critical speed range”, and
“critical speed or more” by the RPM range to control the turbine vibration by computer.


Oil temperature

Turning $ RPM of Rated Control valve

disengagement rating RPM change-over
Oil temperature

Continuous turning

Equivalent to control valve Turbine $ RPM of Turning

change-over load trip rating start

Fig. 21 Example of bearing lubricant oil temperature setting and monitoring

(3) Oil temperature

It is important to control the lubricant oil temperature in order to form a stable lubricant film, to protect the
bearing, and to prevent oil whip. The temperature width shown in Fig. 21 is set to change the control value
according to the turbine operation status (RPM).
(4) Metal temperature
It is important to monitor the bearing metal temperature for protection of the bearing metal. The temperature
monitoring conditions may vary depending on the bearing shape, such as thrust bearing, oval journal bearing, or
tilting pad journal bearing. Additionally, it is also important to monitor rapid changes in metal temperature.
(5) Vacuum degree in exhaust chamber
If the vacuum degree is much higher than the design value (pressure inside the condenser is too low), the
low-pressure casing is deformed, causing rubbing to occur. Additionally, as the vacuum degree decreases, the
vibration stress at the final stage increases.
(6) Temperature in exhaust chamber
It is further important to control the temperature around the final stage as the vane at the final stage is made
longer. Measures for protection of the final stage, such as use of casing spray are taken so that flexibility of the
operation is not lost.
(7) Limitations on wetness
Monitoring is important for protection of erosion on the vane at the final stage. Even though the wetness at
the outlet of the final stage is generally controlled in a range of 8 to 12%, it is necessary to take appropriate
measures or to perform the monitoring in a range exceeding this wetness range. The start point of the expansion
curve of the re-heating part, that is, the pressure and temperature of the re-heating steam must be monitored.
Figure 22 shows a conceptional diagram of the typical wetness limitation curve expressed by the equivalent
re-heating steam pressure line that indicates the re-heating steam conditions for wetness of 12%. The lower
portion of each re-heating pressure curve shows the operable range.

The lower portion of each re-heating steam pressure shows
the operable range.

Vacuum degree
Equivalent re-heating steam
pressure line

Re-heating steam temperature

Fig. 22 Concept of wetness limit curve

Under the operation conditions, the motion that comes and goes between the wet area and dry area is called
“dry and wet alternation”. However, it is important that coming and going between the wet area and dry area are
eliminated at the final stage or L-1 (stage one before the final stage). Impurities in the steam may accumulate in
the nozzle and on the vane due to dry and wet alternation, causing corrosion to occur.
Allowable time


Fig. 23 Concept of frequency limit curve (example of rating 3600rpm)

(8) Frequency limit value

The principal vibration of the vane at the final stage is designed so that it is separated well properly to the rated
RPM. However, the operation may be performed with the principal vibration beyond the rated RPM as the effect
on the system side is received.
Figure 23 shows the frequency limit curve. The control of the service life is %tf/Tfo & 1.0” and the operation
needs to be performed without exceeding this formula.
t f : Cumulative operation time at frequency (f).
Tf0 : Allowable operation time at frequency (f).

High and medium pressure rotor
expansion direction Low pressure rotor expansion direction

Thrust bearing Low pressure expansion difference meter

High pressure expansion
difference meter

High Medium Low pressure A Low pressure B

pressure pressure

High and medium

High and medium pressure casing
(Second bearing base)
pressure bearing base Low pressure A Low pressure B
Combined with low pressure
on front casing casing

High and medium pressure and low pressure A Low pressure B expansion
expansion direction direction

Fig. 24 Example of casing and rotor expansion directions

(9) Expansion difference

The rotor is warmed earlier than the casing at startup, on start.
Figure 24 shows a concept of the rotor and casing moving directions as a typical example of three casing types.
The difference in expansion between the rotor and casing may become the biggest on the anti-generator side of the
high pressure turbine and the generator side of the low pressure B turbine. The elongation difference meter is
provided on these parts as shown in the drawing to monitor them.
Figure 25 shows an example of the monitoring method. Rotor long means that the rotor is extended longer
than the casing. Rotor short is opposite to rotor long. The green mark shows the status that the turbine rotor is
kept pushed against the front side in the cold condition.
The red band shows the area causing contact in the axial direction.
As the rotor is rotated, it is pulled by centrifugal force in the circumferential direction and it is then shortened.

Red band band Red band
1st alarm point

2nd alarm point

Max. rotor short

Max. rotor long

Fig. 25 Example of limitations on expansion difference

That is, even though the rotor does not enter the red band on the long side during operation, it is extended as it
is released from the centrifugal force in the stop process.
As a result, the rotor may enter the red band area.
On the contrary, when the rotor is started in a status close to the short side before the RPM is increased, it may
advance toward the rotor short side as the RPM is further increased.
This width shows the portion between the red mark and the first alarm point, and the orange band.

2. 4 Performance Management
2.4.1 Grasping of performance
In the performance control of thermal power plants, the constant, accurate grasping of unit operation, and
working to improve thermal efficiency are most important.
As a method to grasp performance, the deviation from the desired value which can be expected as long as the
equipment is operated normally including the acceptance performance test results etc., and also initial design
values at the start of operations are controlled. This desired value comprises operation status values such as the
temperature and pressure of each part, and performance values such as unit efficiency and boiler efficiency. The
latter performance values change by external conditions and therefore revision of the same conditions is necessary
for making comparisons. Setting of coefficients for revision may be performed by theoretical calculation or by
Next, in order to reasonably maintain facility performance in thermal power plants, in general, daily control is
made so that appropriate measures may be taken by monitoring the operation status. By monitoring the necessary
control items by instruments, daily operation log, calculators, etc., abnormal conditions are detected early and by
conducting operation and maintenance properly, efforts are made to perform reference value operations.
On the other hand, every day operation conditions are grasped from operation records and typical items which
affect performance (condenser vacuum degree deviation, exhaust gas temperature, exhaust gas O2) are plotted by
day, ten days, month in graphs, and the trend controlled. Especially, in regard to power plants with coal energy and
such where coal quantity, quality cannot be grasped in real time, the plant situation is grasped by trend control.
Also, to evaluate performance and thermal efficiency improvement measures at the time of regular inspection,
performance test items (high pressure turbine internal efficiency, air preheater efficiency, feed water heaters, etc.)
were grasped and simultaneous records taken on the overall unit for detailed control.

2.4.2 Grasping of equipment performance

To control performance changes of the unit, unit performance tests were conducted regularly, and efficient
operation, maintenance and improvement of facilities are being undertaken.
In general, performance tests were conducted with minimum output, 2/4 output, 3/4 output and rated output and
items such as plant thermal efficiency are being measured. Heat input and output of a thermal power plant

An example of fuel, electric output, and various losses of a thermal power plant is shown in Fig. The major part
of fuel consumed in boiler combustion is used for the generating of steam. This steam is sent to the turbine but a
little over ten percent of the heat quantity are discarded into the atmosphere as exhaust gas. Steam that flows into
the turbine expands inside the turbine and works to rotate the generator to generate electric power. During this
time, a part of the work becomes mechanical loss such as by bearings, etc. and also becomes generator loss. The
steam which has expanded with the turbine exhaust pressure flows into the condenser where it is cooled to
become condensed water while the heat quantity possessed by the steam is discharged into the cooling water of
the condenser.

Heat loss by exhaust gas

Cycle loss loss Generator
loss In-station

Turbine end Gross electric Net electric output (F)

Boiler fuel output (D) output
(A) (E)
Turbine room heat
(B) Heat discharge
loss (G) to

Boiler auxiliary
steam (C)

With oil fired thermal power use boilers, furnaces into which air is forced drafted by a force draft fan are widely
adopted. With this system, operation is performed with the pressure inside of the furnace or flue higher than the
atmospheric pressure and therefore caution must be exercised on leakage of gas and measures taken. Also, in the
case of coal fired boilers, blast furnace gas or coke oven gas burning boilers, a balanced draft system in which the
gas pressure inside the furnace is maintained slightly lower than the atmospheric pressure by an induced draft fan
is mainly adopted.
The reason for this is that with coal fired boilers, consideration is made for ash leakage and with blast furnace
gas and coke oven gas fired boilers, the fuel gas containing a large amount of CO is hazardous and the supplied
pressure of fuel gas is low.
With boiler capacity becoming greater, the consumed motive power of force draft fans and induced draft fans also
becomes greater and therefore it becomes necessary to restrain the draft loss of the convective heat transfer
surface to a suitable value. Table shows an example of draft loss of respective parts of a large capacity
boiler of the coal fired balanced draft system.

Table 2.4.2 .1Example of draft loss of a boiler (Calculated values at maximum continuous load)

Draft loss
Air (secondary) side pressure loss
Forced draft fan inlet air duct and silencer 0.54
Forced draft fan outlet air duct 0.43
Air preheater 1.37
Air preheater outlet - Burner wind box inlet air duct 0.59
Burner wind box 1.47

Total 4.40

Gas side pressure loss 1.37

Superheater - Economizer 1.03
NOx remover 1.52
Air preheater 1.59
Gas, gas heater, and electrostatic precipitator 0.84
Economizer outlet - Induced draft - fan inlet flue and silencer 1.06
Induced draft fan outlet flue and chimney

Total 7.41

Total pressure loss of air and gas 11.81

40 Boiler
When calculating boiler efficiency, it is necessary to clarify whether the standard of the fuel calorific value is of
a high level calorific value containing latent heat of vaporization at the time the moisture from hydrogen in the
fuel becomes steam or whether it is of a low level calorific value in which latent heat of vaporization is deducted
from the high level calorific value.
In this chapter, explanation is provided with high level calorific value as the standard.
As a method to obtain boiler efficiency, the quantity of heat which is transferred to the feed water in the boiler
and used to generate steam is compared with the heat quantity which should be generated by the combustion of
the fuel fed to the furnace. This is called the heat input output method and is expressed by the following

Ws (h0 - hl)
Boiler efficiency " ! 100% (1)
Gf Hh
Where WS is the boiler steam quantity kg/h, h0, h1 is the generated steam and feed water enthalpy kJ/kg, Gf is
the fuel consumed quantity kg/h, and Hh is the high level calorific value of fuel kJ/kg.
As another method, the boiler heat loss is calculated from the exhaust gas temperature and the exhaust gas
amount after passing the entire generating surface of the boiler, (the outlet if there is an air preheater) and by
deducting this from 100%, the boiler efficiency is obtained. This is called the heat loss method and is calculated
by the formula mentioned later. The heat loss becomes less as the exhaust gas temperature is lowered and boiler
efficiency rises but for this a larger air preheater generating surface is required and facility expenses increase.
Additionally, in the case where fuel containing sulfuric
content is used, the problem of low temperature corrosion (sulfuric corrosion) occurs and therefore it is important
to select a suitable exhaust gas temperature in planning the boiler. In current boilers, the exhaust gas temperature
is set at 130 - 150#C with coal and heavy oil (crude oil) fuel, at 165#C with high sulfuric content heavy oil, etc,
and around
100#C with gas fuel but with certain fuels, normally an environment preserving device (Electric dust collector,
desulfurizing equipment) is installed for the back wash and therefore it is necessary to optimize the exhaust gas
temperature in the entire facility including this.
(1) Dry exhaust gas loss L1
Out of the heat loss by the exhaust gas discharged from the outlet of the boiler (air preheater), when the portion
by latent heat of dry gas is assumed to be:
Gdry : Dry gas amount per 1 kg of fuel kg/kg
Cg : Average specific heat of dry gas ѳ㧝.0 kJ/kg#C
tg : Air preheater outlet exhaust gas temperature #C
to : Boiler efficiency standard temperature #C
Gdry Cs (ts - to)
L1 " ! 100% ( 2)
(2) Loss L2 by hydrogen moisture in the fuel
Out of the heat loss by the exhaust gas exhausted from the boiler (air preheater) outlet, the loss caused by
evaporation of the moisture produced from hydrogen in the fuel and the contained moisture during combustion of
the fuel and moreover the loss caused by heating up to the temperature of exhaust gas and discharged:
Mf : Moisture produced from hydrogen in 1 kg of fuel and the moisture kg/kg contained in the fuel
$hR : Latent heat of vaporization contained in moisture ѳ 2,500 J/Ks
Cm : Average specific heat of steam ѳ 1.9 J/kg#C
Cw : Specific heat of water at reference temperature ѳ4.2kJ/kg#C
Mf ($hR % Cm - ts - Cw - ts)
L2 " ! 100% (3)

(3) Loss L3 by moisture in the air
Out of the heat loss by the exhaust gas which is discharged from the boiler (air preheater) outlet, the loss caused
by latent heat of moisture contained in the air for combustion is assumed to be:
MA : Moisture contained in air for combustion per 1 kg of fuel, whereby:
MaCa (ts - to)
L3 " ! 100% ( 4)
(4) Loss L4 by radiation heat
It is difficult to accurately obtain the heat loss radiated into the atmosphere from the peripheral walls of the
boiler and appurtenant facilities. This loss becomes proportionally smaller with large capacity boilers because
their surface area becomes relatively smaller and also because the radiation heat amount is roughly constant
irrespective of the load; the proportion of loss becomes smaller as the load becomes larger.
(5) Loss L5 by unburned fuel gas
This is the heat loss due to the combustible gas remaining such as CO in the fuel gas because of incomplete
23,700 ! C (CO)
L5 " ! ! 100% (5)
Hh (CO 2) % (CO)

23,700 : Lost heat amount kJ/kg when carbon becomes CO by incomplete combustion of
carbon in the fuel
C : Combusted carbon amount kg/kg in 1 kg of fuel
(CO, CO2 ) : CO and CO2 density vol. % in exhaust gas
Besides the above, there is combustible gas loss by unburned hydro-carbons and H2 but these are of minute
amounts which can be neglected in current commercial use boilers.

(6) Loss L6 by combustion residue

This is heat loss mainly by unburned carbon in the combustion residue by combustion of solid fuel.
33,900 ! C'
L6 " ! 100% ( 6)

33,900 : Combusted heat amount KJ/Kg of carbon
C’ : Unburned carbon amount KJ/Kg per 1 kg of fuel
This heat loss in liquid and gaseous fuel is negligible.
(7) Other loss L7
Besides the above, there are small losses such as by carrying out of combusted ash or steam atomizing or heat
losses which cannot be measured or for which the cause is unknown and these are treated as other losses. Errors
of measuring instruments may be included in this loss.
From the above heat losses, boiler efficiency may be expressed by the following equation
Boiler efficiency " 100 & ' Li (7 )
l "1

Table shows examples of boiler efficiency and heat loss of commercial use boilers for exclusive firing
of heavy (crude) oil, of natural gas and of coal.
With natural gas, the hydrogen content during combustion is approximately double that of heavy (crude) oil and
therefore the loss by hydrogen moisture content during combustion is great. Since the exhaust gas temperature is
low, dry exhaust gas loss is small but boiler efficiency becomes approximately 2% lower compared with heavy
(crude) oil. Also with coal, the hydrogen content during combustion is even less than that of heavy (crude) oil and
therefore even when loss by unburned carbon is considered, boiler efficiency tends to become the highest among
the three fuels. However, coal characteristics will differ greatly by origin and caution must be exercised in the
evaluation of its efficiency.

Table Examples of heat loss by boiler efficiency (Calculated values by rated loads)

Heavy (crude) oil Natural gas Coal exclusive

exclusive boiler exclusive boiler boiler
Exhaust gas temperature #C 140 99 135
(Air preheater outlet)
Excessive air factor 1.14 1.16 1.20
(Air preheater outlet)
Boiler heat loss
Dry exhaust gas loss % 4.33 2.70 4.31
Loss by hydrogen content during % 6.53 10.19 4.03
Loss by moisture content in air % 0.07 0.05 0.09
Loss by radiation heat % 0.17 0.17 0.17
Loss by unburned fuel gas % 0.00 0.00 0.00
Loss by combustion residue % 0.00 0.00 0.52
Other losses % 1.00 1.00 1.50
Total % 12.10 14.11 10.62
Boiler efficiency % 87.90 85.89 89.38
(Higher calorific value standard)
Boiler efficiency (Higher calorific value standard) (%)

Coal fired boiler

Heavy (crude) oil firing boiler

Natural gas fired boiler

Boiler load (%)

Fig. Relation between boiler efficiency and boiler load

Also, in general, with heavy (crude oil) fired boilers, the air preheater low temperature end average metal
temperature is controlled by a steam type air preheater and as a result, the lowering of exhaust gas temperature at
low load is small and boiler efficiency becomes maximum between the rated load where excessive air factor is
low to 75% load.
On the other hand, with exclusive natural gas fired boilers and exclusive coal fired boilers, the exhaust gas
temperature drops greatly with lowering of load and therefore boiler efficiency tends to become maximum with a
load of around 50 to 75%. At loads lower than this, boiler efficiency tends to drop because of the increase in dry
exhaust gas loss by the increased excessive air factor and increase in radiation loss. (Fig. 2.4.2)

43 Steam Turbine
Turbine performance (turbine room performance, turbine plant performance) is expressed with the use of the
terms, heat rate, thermal efficiency, internal efficiency, etc.
(1) Heat rate, thermal efficiency, steam consumption ratio
Turbine heat rate is the quantity of heat required to produce 1 kWh of electricity and is expressed by the
following equations.
1. In the case of non-reheat turbines
Q Gsis & Gwiw & Geie
HR " " (1)
Ls Ls

2. In the case of reheat turbines (Fig.

Q Gsis & Gwiw % Gr (ir & ir' ) & Geie
HR " " ( 2)
Ls Ls

LP turbine Turbine HP turbine

Boiler auxiliary
steam etc.

#1 Heater 2 Heater #3 Heater Deaerator #5 Heater #6 Heater

Condenser pump

Low pressure pump Feed water pump

Fig. 2 .4.2.3-1 Turbine reheat cycle

HR : Turbine heat rate (kJ/kWh)
Q : Quantity of heat consumed by the turbine (kJ/h)
Lg : Generator end electric output (kW)
GS : Turbine inflow steam quantity (kg/h)
iS : Turbine inflow steam enthalpy (kJ/kg)
GW : Feed water quantity to boiler (kg/h)
iw : Feed water enthalpy to boiler (kJ/kg)
Go : Quantity of steam to outside of turbine plant such as boiler auxiliary steam (kg/h)
io : Steam enthalpy to outside of turbine plant such as boiler auxiliary steam
Gr : Quantity of reheated steam
ir : Medium pressure turbine flow in steam enthalpy (kJ/kg)
ir’ : High pressure turbine outlet steam enthalpy (kJ/kg)
The definition of turbine heat rate may be expressed in two ways, either gross or net, depending on whether
feed water pump drive motive power is considered or not.

a. In the case of feed water pump electric drive
Gross Heat Rate " (3)
Net Heat Rate " ( 4)

b. In the case of water feed pump turbine drive

Gross Heat Rate " (5)
Net Heat Rate " ( 6)
Where LBFP : Motive power required for feed water pump
Turbine thermal efficiency t is expressed by the following equation.
(t" ! 100% (7)
According to Fig. 1, this is
(t" ! 100% (8)
( B) & (C )

Moreover, the following definitions are used to express efficiency of the generation plant.
Gross plant thermal efficiency " ! 100% (9)
( A)
(F )
Net plant heat efficiency " ! 100% (10)
( A)
The two factors which affect turbine heat rate and thermal efficiency are steam conditions of boiler steam
production, condenser vacuum degree, feed water temperature and feed water heating steps, etc. namely the heat
cycle conditions are the performance of the turbine itself. Fig. shows the trends of unit capacity and
thermal efficiency of commercial use reheating turbines.

Vacuum degree 5.1 kPaa (722 mmHg)

Turbine thermal efficiency (%)

31 MPa class

24 MPa class

16.6 MPa

12.5 MPa class

10 MPa class

Output (MW)

Fig. Unit capacity and turbine thermal efficiency

(2) Turbine internal efficiency, turbine efficiency
To express the performance of the turbine itself, turbine internal efficiency and turbine efficiency are used.
Internal efficiency i is expressed by the ratio between steam adiabatic heat drop Ho (Theoretical work load of
zero loss steam) and heat drop Hg effectively used.
( i " Hg / Ho ! 100 % (11)
Figure shows the steam condition (Pressure, enthalpy functions) in the case of the reheating turbine
and the internal efficiency of the high pressure turbine, medium pressure turbine and low pressure turbine are
expressed by the following quotation.

Px: Turbine main steam check valve inlet
P0: 1st step nozzle inlet Saturation line
P1: High pressure turbine outlet
Pr: Before medium pressure turbine reheat
stop valve
P2: Medium pressure 1st step inlet
P3: Medium pressure turbine outlet
P4: Low pressure turbine inlet
P5: Low pressure exhaust (Condenser inlet)
$EL: Exhaust loss

Fig. 5 Reheating turbine steam expanded diagram (i-s diagram)

High pressure turbine

H eH i s & ir'
( IH " " (12)
H o H i s & i1

Medium pressure turbine

H el ir & i4
( It " " (13)
H o l i r & i3

Low pressure turbine

H eL i4 & i6
( IL " " (14)
H o L i 4 & i5
Turbine efficiency is the ratio between theoretical work and effective work, and is the product of internal
efficiency and mechanical efficiency. The relation between the turbine efficiency r of a back pressure turbine or
a simple condenser turbine and the steam specific consumption SR (Kg/kWh) is as follows:
GS 3,600
SR " " (15)
PS He(t(s
GS : Inflow steam quantity (Kg/h)
Pg : Generator output (KW)
Ho : Adiabatic heat drop inside turbine (KJ/kg)
ǯg : Generator efficiency

(3) Heat balance (Heat balance diagram) Steam expanded diagram
Figure 5 is an example of a reheating turbine heat expanded diagram. The pressure, temperature, enthalpy or
quantity of steam of each part of the turbine, based on the expanded diagram shown in the diagram are called the
heat balance diagram. Figure shows a 1,000,000 kW heat balance diagram. The manner of steam
expansion, the condition of steam at each part, turbine extraction, etc, are normally obtained by performance
calculation by turbine makers. The heat balance around the feed water heater periphery is calculated by the
following procedures.

Medium Low pressure Low pressure

pressure turbine turbine (A)

turbine turbine (B)

Make up water

BFP turbine pump

Grand steam

booster pump

Boiler feed water pump Drain pump

Feed water booster pump

Fig. Example of 1,000 MW supercritical pressure turbine heat balance

(1) Piping pressure drop from the turbine extraction point to the feed water heater is normally maintained at
around 5% of the pressure (2.5 - 12%).
(2) Temperature inside the feed water heater becomes the saturation temperature of the extraction pressure.
(3) The feed water heater outlet feed water temperature is selected to be 2.5 to 5#C lower than the saturation
temperature inside the heater and feed water heater to be designed. (In the case of a direct contact type such
as a deaerator, the outlet feed water temperature is to be the same as the saturation temperature and also in
the case where the extraction temperature is fairly higher than the saturation temperature in reheating steam
turbines, etc., this temperature may be utilized with a superheat reducing section provided inside the feed
water heater with the feed water selected to be 0 - 3#C higher than the saturation temperature. (Refer to
Chapter 2, Clause 3.4)
(4) When a drain cooler is provided in the water feed heater, the drain outlet temperature is designed to be 5 to
10#C higher than the water feed temperature.
(5) Taking the No. 5 heater in Fig. 2 as an example, the extraction amount necessary for the water feed heater
is obtained by the following procedure. (However, the heat discharge loss is to be neglected.)
Gx (ix-i14) = Gw(i12-i11)-Gd(i13-i14)
Gx : Extraction quantity (Heated steam quantity)
ix : Extraction enthalpy
Gw : Feed water quantity
i11 : Feed water heater inlet feed water enthalpy
i12 : Feed water heater outlet feed water enthalpy
Gd : Inflow drain quantity
i13 : Inflow drain enthalpy
i14 : Outflow drain enthalpy

47 generator
(1) Available output curve
Figure shows an example of available generation output curve. This curve is divided into parts (A),
(B), and (C).

Lagging phase
Leading phase

Fig. Available output curve

(A) Range restricted by rotor coil temperature

(B) Range restricted by stator temperature
(C) Range restricted by stator core end part temperature

1) Range restricted by rotor coil temperature

The restrictions by rotor coil temperature may be obtained under the conditions of a constant field current.
Namely, this may be obtained by the V curves shown in Fig. 36, whereas a line parallel to the axis of the
ordinate is drawn through field current 1f at the rated load and rated power factor, and the intersecting point of the
line with the respective V curve power factor is plotted on the MW-MVAR coordinate to obtain the restriction by
rotor coil density.

voltage=Rated Voltage
Output (MVA)

Field current (A)

Fig. V curve

2) Range restricted by stator coil temperature
Restriction by the stator coil temperature may be obtained from constant conditions of the stator current. It
becomes a circle which passes through rated point P with the origin point as the center of the circle.

3) Range restricted by the stator core end part temperature
The cause for increasing of temperature of the stator core end part in the leading phase range is that the
composite magnetic flux from the magnetic flux by stator coil end magnetomotive force and the magnetic flux by
rotor coil end magnetomotive force increase with a lower excitation (leading power factor) and the eddy current of
the core end part becomes greater. This upper limit is higher with machines with a larger short circuit ratio but
with recent large capacity machines with large electrical charge, the end part temperature increase tends to become
large and therefore overheating is prevented by core end magnetic shield, core end slit, core end stage,
non-magnetic finger plate, non-magnetic rotor coil retaining ring, etc.
(2) Resistance capacity to short period overload
Loads exceeding the available output curve even though for short periods will result in a rapid increase of
temperature and therefore repeated overload operation is not desirable because the service life of the generator
coil will be shortened, but there is a permissible range in which the insulation is not greatly affected. Table shows the overload permissible limit specified by ANSI C50-13.

Table Short period overload resistant amounts

Time (seconds) 10 30 60 120
Armature current (%) 226 154 130 116
Field voltage (%) 208 146 125 112

(3) Continuous unbalanced load resistance

When a generator is operated under unbalance load or by single phase load, a negative phase current flows in
the stator coil and as a result, the revolving field which revolves in the opposite direction at the same speed turns
off the rotor and an eddy current of double frequency flows on the surface of the rotor and the rotor wedge and the
rotor overheats. Especially in the part in which the eddy current concentrates, if the unbalance becomes serious,
burning may result by local overheating.
The permissible limit of continuous unbalanced load is greatly affected by the material and structure of the
equipment and cannot be specified in one manner. Table shows the permissible limit proposed
recently by ANSI where limitations are made more severe with large capacity machines.

Table Unbalanced load resistance

Continuous unbalanced Short period unbalanced load
load I2t*
Indirect cooling loss 10 30
Direct cooling loss 8 10
- 800 MVA
801 – 960 MVA I 2t
951 – 1,200 MVA 6 = 10 – 0.00625 (MVA – 800)
1,201 – 1,500 MVA 5
*I2 (P.U.) t (Seconds)

(4) Short period unbalanced load resistance

At the time of short period unbalance load such as by one-line ground and line short circuit, the double
frequency eddy current flows on the rotor surface and the rotor overheats for the same reason mentioned in clause
6.3. The most severe failure by rotor overheating is line short circuiting.
Where the negative phase current is /2, a failure continuation time of 1 second, the temperature rise of the rotor
is proportional to t / 2 tdt but with consideration of equivalent negative phase current/2SQ which gives the same
)o 2
temperature rise in t seconds, adopting of /22sqt as the scale is widely accepted.
With large capacity machines, the rotor is of light weight compared with the capacity, and therefore the
reduction of relative thermal capacity was considered and i22t<30 for indirect cooling machines and i22t/*10 was
generally adopted but with the recent super large capacity generators, the limitations shown in Table 3 have been
proposed to ANSI.
(5) Efficiency
Generator loss consists of core loss, mechanical loss, stator I2R loss, stray load loss, and world magnetic I2R

1. Core loss
If the used material is assumed to be the same, core loss relates to magnetic flux density, frequency, and stator
core weight, and with their increase, core loss increases.
2. Mechanical loss
Mechanical loss consists of bearing friction loss and windage loss. Since windage loss is proportional to gas
density, the windage loss of hydrogen cooling machines is extremely smaller than that of air cooling machines.
This is one of the advantages of the hydrogen cooling machine. Bearing friction loss increases in an exponential
function manner with increases in revolutions and journal diameter.
3. Stator I2R loss and stray load loss
Stator I2R loss is proportional to the square of the stator current and stator coil average length/coil cross
sectional area. In addition, surface loss is affected by void length and winding pitch, becoming smallest with a
5/6 winding pitch and loss decreases as void length increases.
4. Field I2R R Loss
Field I2R Loss is proportional to the square of the field current and field resistance but as shown in the V curve
of Fig. 36, more field current becomes necessary with the same output as the power factor becomes lower and loss
Figure shows the generator efficiency and changes in efficiency by partial load of a typical capacity
generator. As shown in this figure, in general, in the case of standard specification generators, efficiency tends to
become better with larger capacity. Also, in regard to partial load, core loss and mechanical loss are constant and
therefore efficiency rapidly worsens with low load but in the case of hydrogen cooling machines, lowering of gas
pressure inside the machine and operating at low load is possible and as a result, windage loss decreases and
normally, the maximum efficiency rate is displayed at 70 - 80% load.
Generator efficiency (%)

Load (%)

Fig. efficiency curve Condenser facilities

Vacuum degree control of condenser facilities, causes of vacuum degree lowering and their judgment, as well as
restoring means and the appropriate number of circulating pumps to be operated are decided.
(1) Desired value of vacuum degree
In regard to the daily desired vacuum degree of condensers, a control value is set against the design value when
the respective units are installed.
Figure shows the philosophy on desired values. The control width of the vacuum degree is set with
consideration of accuracy of instrumentation, cleanliness of tubing, and dispersion of the performance record.
With an increase in the vacuum degree when the cooling water temperature is low, turbine specific heat changes

from decreasing to increasing and since there is a risk of problem occurrence in the facilities, the vacuum degree
is controlled so that it does not exceed the efficiency limit vacuum degree.
(2) Facility control
By the frequency of operation and data measurements of the respective facilities, difference control of the
desired value of the vacuum degree is being conducted.
The following shows the general control items.
Operation control of the ball cleaning device
Control of electrolytic protection device
Measuring of vacuum pump extraction quantity
Control of instrumentations
Tubing brushing cleaning
Cleaning of the inlet channel and circulating pump chamber
(3) Disposition to adopt when deviation is seen from the desired value of the vacuum degree
First, check to see if there is any abnormal condition of instrumentation and when confirming, pay attention to
the following points.
Drain accumulation in the detection piping
Temperature compensation if the standard temperature differs between the mercury vacuum gauge and
the atmospheric pressure gauge.
Difference between the atmospheric pressure compensated vacuum degree and the transmitter side.
Whether there is any abnormal condition in the correlation between the atmospheric compensation value
of the mercury vacuum degree gauge and the respective temperatures of the exhaust room and hotwell.
Any abnormal condition of the mercury vacuum degree and atmospheric temperature gauge at the time
of periodic checking.

Upper limit of
vacuum degree
Efficiency limit vacuum
degree Vacuum degree
desired value
Lower limit of
vacuum degree

Turbine specific heat consumption Sea water temperature (#C)

correction coefficient (%)

Area A--- Desired value (Design value ± )

Area B --- Area in which checking of the vacuum degree related instruments
should be checked.
Area C--- Area in which cause should be investigated and measures

Fig. Philosophy on desired value of vacuum degree.

(4) Investigation method of cause for deviation of vacuum degree from the desired value
When a deviation seen from the vacuum desired value is found with measuring instruments in a normal state, in
general, investigate the following.
1.Increase in leak in quantity of air
The lowering of the vacuum degree occurs when leak in exceeds the extraction capacity of the vacuum pump.
2.Lowering of cleanliness of tubing
With no increase in the leak in air amount and with the vacuum pump found to be normal, the cause of lowering
of the vacuum degree is often caused by the lowering of cleanliness of the tubing.
3.Lowering of the cooling water volume
When the cooling water volume drops, an increase of difference in the cooling water inlet, outlet temperature
( T), increase of CWP discharge pressure, and lowering of the condenser water chamber level occurs, and an
abnormality of the condenser side (tubing clogging, siphon cut-off, etc.), abnormality of the CWP side ‘CWP

performance lowering, CWP chamber water level lowering, check washing valve seat leak, etc. are conceivable.
4.Abnormality of the vacuum pump
When an abnormality of the vacuum pump is seen, conduct changeover testing with a spare machine and
compare the respective air extraction amount and vacuum degree.
Also, since the seal water relations of the vacuum pump greatly affect the vacuum degree, pay attention to the
following points.
a. Increase in seal water temperature by contamination of the seal water cooler, increase of bearing
cooling water temperature.
b. Shortage of seal water by abnormality of the seal water pump, clogging of the discharge strainer of
the pump, etc.
c. Lowering of water level by malfunctioning of float valve for seal water tank water level adjustment
5.Increase of condenser heat load
The desired value of the vacuum degree is calculated from the design heat load, cooling water amount, and
heating surface, etc. and if the heat load increases above the design value, even if the cooling water volume and
others are in accordance with designed values, the vacuum degree decreases. Especially, with the once-through
boiler unit, leakage of the respective bypass valves from the start-up bypass system to the condenser causes
lowering of thermal efficiency and care should be exercised.
(5) Performance curve
The vacuum degree of the condenser is affected by the condenser load, cooling water inlet temperature, and
cooling water volume. Condenser pressure is obtained from saturation steam temperature ts.

Q t 2 & t1
t s " t1 % " t1 % (1)
1 1
Gc ! c p ! + ! (1 & p ) 1& p
e e
A! K
p" (2)
Gc ! c p ! +
Figure shows an example of the condenser performance curve. The condenser pressure change at the time of
changes in condenser heat load and cooling water inlet temperature when the cooling water volume is constant is
shown. When the condenser pressure is recorded by the elapse of time in this curve, the contamination coefficient,
etc. of the cooling pipe may be assumed. This curve is a straight line at the time of no load to a certain load. When
the condenser load is small or the inner pressure is low, the condenser pressure is restricted by the performance of
the air extraction device and there are cases where the pressure to be obtained by equation (1) cannot be obtained.

Fig. Assumed performance curve of the condenser High pressure water feed heater

In a condition with a constant rated output, to measure the water feed outlet terminal temperature difference
(T.D.) as well as the drain outlet temperature difference (D.C.), the following data items are collected, evaluated
and countermeasures executed.
Water feed temperature (inlet, outlet) of the respective high pressure water feed heater
Extraction temperature, pressure of the respective high pressure water feed heater
Drain outlet temperature of the respective high pressure water feed heater
Inner pressure of the respective high pressure water feed heater
Drain flow rate of the respective high pressure water feed heater
Drain level of the respective high pressure water feed heater
Drain water level adjusting valve opening of the respective high pressure water feed heater
Water feed pressure loss
The water feed outlet terminal temperature difference (T.D.) and the outlet temperature difference (D.C.) are
obtained from the following equations
D.C= Td-TW (IN)
T.D. : Water feed outlet terminal temperature difference (#C)
D.C. : Drain outlet temperature difference (#C)
TS  : Saturation temperature ( C) to water feed heater inlet steam pressure
TW (OUT) : Water feed outlet temperature ( C)
Td : Drain outlet temperature ( C)
TW (IN) : Water feed outlet temperature ( C)
(1) The effect by the water feed heater performance on the turbine cycle
a. The number of water feed heater units and temperature increase
Although decided with consideration of the heater output and economy, in general, from an economical aspect,
6 to 8 heaters are installed for 200 MW and over. There is a close connection between the number of water feed
heaters and temperature increase and in regard to water feed temperature rise per unit of water feed heater, it is

desirable to raise the temperature evenly with heaters of less than the reheating point in the one step reheating
cycle. From the aspect of performance, it is optimal to plan to increase the average temperature rise at the low
pressure feed water heater rather than to increase the temperature of the feed water reheater by extraction from the
reheating pump.
This temperature rise is restricted by the thermal stress, etc. of the water chamber and normally, the increase is
suppressed to around 20 to 75 C.
(2) Effect by terminal temperature difference (T.D.) change
To obtain the effect on turbine heat rate by T.D. changes, the extraction quantity changes to the respective water
heat heater T.D. change are calculated, and with the turbine inlet steam quantity kept constant, the heat rate may
be obtained from the extraction quantity change and output quantity change. The following shows an example of
calculation in regard to a high pressure feed water heater.
a. Trial calculation data
Subject unit 600MW
At rated output, when T.D. is +3 C
b. Trial calculation results
Decrease of extraction quantity by T.D. increase

Turbine room input heat increase by reheated steam quantity increase by extraction quantity decrease by
T.D increase

Exhaust quantity increase by extraction quantity decrease by T.D. increase

Increase of exhaust loss heat quantity by exhaust quantity increase

Output heat decrease from the turbine room by feed water temperature decreasing

Increase of turbine room consumption Q


G: Flow rate kg/h

T: Temperature C
I: Enthalpy kcal/kg
CRH, HRH : Low, high temperature
reheated steam
EXT : Extraction
EXH : Exhaust
FW : Water feed
I, O : Inlet, outlet
COND : Condensed water

Output change


Turbine room thermal efficiency HR after T.D. increase

Reference heat

Reference output
Reference specific heat Reference
consumption (HR) output

Reference output

Heat rate change ratio

Gross thermal efficiency change quantity Boiler exhaust gas control

Together with the reduction of boiler exhaust gas loss and saving of fuel expenses, to reduce the running costs
of boiler operation and maintenance expenses, and repair expenses, and attempt to improve overall efficiency,
control values are set on the AH low temperature part average temperature, exhaust gas temperature control
exhaust gas O2 value, and AH air leakage ratio and control are executed.
(1) AH low temperature average temperature control
In accordance with the sulfuric contents in the used fuel, the optimum value is set for each boiler with sulfuric

acid dew point measurement etc. as a reference and upon confirming the corrosion situation of the AH element,
etc. staged lowering is attempted. It is desirable to set the average temperature control value at the maximum
point of sulfuric acid condensation quantity in accordance with the sulfur contents of the used fuel but reduction
should not be made in one stroke but in stages with consideration of the following points and confirming that
there are no problems.
Deviation of the theoretical value and actual record value of the sulfuric acid dew point
The relation between the sulfur contents in the fuel and produced SO3 density.
Local metal temperature drop by unbalance of gas temperature distribution
(2) Exhaust gas temperature control
The AH outlet exhaust gas temperature differs greatly by boiler according to the boiler and AH structure, and
the kind of fuel and since it fluctuates greatly by factors such as load and atmospheric temperature and air leakage
of AH, it is difficult to set a standard but it is set upon executing of countermeasures on temperature decrease of
exhaust gas by each boiler, conducting an actual machine test with the AH element in the best condition, with the
air leakage in the minimum condition and based on these results, with exhaust gas control data as a reference and
with the atmospheric pressure as the parameter. The deviating trend to the control value is grasped and when the
deviation is large and continuous, the following deviation factors are analyzed and appropriate measures are to be
Lowering of exhaust gas temperature by increase in AH air leakage amount
Aging deterioration by corrosion, wear of AH, and rising of exhaust gas temperature by lowering of AH
performance by staining of the heating surface, etc.
Increase of exhaust gas temperature incident to dry gas quantity increase by Combustion gas O2 (Excess
air factor)
Those by characteristic changes of the fuel.
(3) Control of exhaust gas O2
The Eco outlet combustion gas O2 differs by each boiler, depending on the boiler, combustion method, and type
of fuel. Therefore, a combustion test is to be made after improvement of combustion facility or after periodic
inspection as required, O2 distribution is to be measured, abnormality of instruments, inappropriateness of
detection point, faulty combustion, etc., deviation factors from control values are to be analyzed, and if a large
deviation situation continues, the O2 meter, burner tip, and body, and damper are to be checked for combustion air
or exhaust gas O2 distribution is to be measured and suitable measures taken.
(4) AH air leakage ratio
The temperature of the gas which passes the boiler will differ depending on the boiler condition (cold boiler hot
boiler, etc.) which in turn effects changes in the amount of heat deformation. Therefore, to prevent leakage of
AH air, the setting of respective seals is calculated in advance and the gap value is set in a cold boiler condition so
that the clearance becomes minimum in rated load operation but a certain amount of leakage is unavoidable.
However, with the new type AH, with the improvement of the seal plate supporting method and additions to the
seal section, direct leakage from the seal gap has been improved compared with the old type. Furthermore, to
reduce leakage from the high temperature side radial seal which was the greatest leakage factor during operation,
a sensor drive system of the high temperature side sector plate has been developed. With this system, the rotor
shaft side that controls the gap between the sector plate and seal to a minimum under any boiler operation
condition is structured so that it constantly follows the contraction-expansion of the rotor, and control is conducted
so that only the gap of the rotor periphery and sector plate outer end section gap becomes minimum.

2.5 Example of Operation Control and Performance Management (Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc)
2.5.1 Overview of Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc.
Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc. was established in May 1951 to supply electricity in the Hokkaido region.
With an area of about 83,500km2 and a population of 5.7 million, Hokkaido is flourishing in agriculture, fishery and
tourism. The capital city, Sapporo, with a population of 1.7 million, located at 45 degrees at north latitude, once hosted
the winter Olympics in 1972, and has held “Sapporo Snow Festival” every February visited by numerous visitors
including those from foreign countries.
Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc., established on May 1, 1951, has the headquarters in Sapporo and has been
engaged in electric power generation, transmission and distribution by about 5,800 employees. Table 2.5.1-1shows the
electric energy sale, the supply facilities and transmission and distribution facilities.

Electric energy demand Total 30,833 GWh

Year 2005 Electric light 11,540 GWh
Electric power 2,218 GWh
Specific scale 17,075 GWh
Supply facilities Total 66 places 6,505 MW
Hydro-electric power station 53 places 1,231 MW
Thermal power station 12 places 4,115 MW
Nuclear power station 1 place 1,158 MW
Transmission and distribution facilities Transmission distance 8,230 km
Transforming station 369 places 19,300 MVA
Distribution line distance 66,753 km

Table 2.5.1-1

The company has 12 thermal power stations. The breakdown is shown in Table 2.5.2.

Steam power station 6 places 3,900 MW

Gas turbine power station 1 places 148 MW
Internal combustion power station 4 places 17.4 MW
Geothermal power station 1 places 50 MW

Table 2.5.1-2

Fig. 2.5.1 Thermal Power Stations of Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc.

Okhotsk Sea

Japan Sea power station
Naie power station
Onbetsu power station
Date power station Sapporo
Tomatouatsuma power station

Tomakomai power station

Mori power station
Pacific Ocean
Shiriuti power station

2.5.2Overview of Coal Thermal Power Station
The steam power stations are six places include seven units of coal thermal power stations in three places. The outline of the facilities of these seven units is shown in Table 2.5.3.

Start of Authorized Boiler Turbine Unit

Main steam Reheat steam Boiler type
operation output efficiency efficiency efficiency
Name Fuel
Pressure Temperature Temperature
Date MW
(MPa) (͠) (͠)
No.1 unit Oct., 1980 350 16.6 566 538 Natural circulation 87.28 45.03 39.41
No.2 unit Oct., 1985 600 Foreign 24.1 538 566 Supercritical once-through 87.91 47.70 41.93
coal Ultra supercritical
No.4 unit Jun., 2002 700 25.0 600 600 88.73 49.83 44.21
No.1 unit May, 1968 175 16.6 566 538 Natural circulation 87.08 45.14 39.26
No.2 unit Feb., 1970 175 Domestic 16.6 566 538 Natural circulation 87.08 45.55 39.40
No.3 unit Jun., 1977 125 coal 12.5 538 538 Natural circulation 85.72 43.63 37.41
No.4 unit May, 1982 125 17.7 538 538 Subcritical once-through 86.27 45.40 39.16

Table 2.5.2

2.5.3Practice in Tomatouatuma Power Station Organization and Service
This power station is operated by 102 personnel in three divisions. The operation of environmental facilities has been outsourced to the affiliated companies. Fig. 2.5.3-1 shows the
organization and service.

Power Station Organization and Operation /Management System

Power Station Organization Operation /Management of Power Stations
For operation of power stations, the following shall be conducted under the supervision based on the
regulations and policies stipulated by the head office (Thermal Power Dept.)
Station manager

1. Oversight, communication, PR related power station management

Deputy manager 2. Operation/ management of generation facilities (except Environment Engineering related)
Business staff 3. Management of fuel
4. Compilation, analysis, management of operation history data
5. Investigation, test planning and execution for operation/performance of facilities
Generation Div. Management staff 6. Press release and public hearing
7. General affairs, emergency/disaster office, PR, document control, administration
8. Personnel affairs, education, labor, welfare, safety and health
Operation staff 9. Accounts, land management
10. Other items not supervised by other divisions

1. Supervision, communication, PR, investigation planning/execution of environmental conservation

Environment matters
Environment Engineering Staff 2. Operation/management of smoke, feed/waste water, ash handling facilities, environment
Engineering Div. monitoring facilities.
3. Investigation, test planning and execution for operation/performance of facilities
Facility Staff 4. Treatment/management, utilization planning/execution of waste after generation
5. Analysis management, chemical investigation of fuel, boiler water, etc
6. Accident prevention/safety for hazardous materials

Machinery staff
Planning and management of maintenance, repair of facilities and daily maintenance as well as
Maintenance repair and maintenance works
Measurement staff
Main generation related operations outsourced to other companies
࡮Cleaning, greening, security, port management
࡮Coal stock, transportation, ash handling work
࡮Operation and monitoring of smoke, feed/waste water facilities
࡮Chemical analysis work
࡮Daily maintenance / inspection work

59 Operation System
The power station consists of two rooms: the central control room where the boiler, turbine and generator are operated,
and the centralized management room where the environmental facilities are operated. The detail is shown in Fig.

Generation manager Environment

engineering manager

Administration Central control unit Engineering assistant Facility assistant manager

deputy manager manager
+ Operation + +
7 personnel 4 personnel 6 personnel
Control of BTG manager + × 5 groups Operation Operation management of
generation facilities management of environmental facilities
Operators (8 environmental facilities

Operation of BTG
Centralized management
generation facilities
room (operation is
outsourced to affiliated

Daytime shift (11


leader + 8 × 4 groups


Operation of
environmental facilities

Fig. 2.5.3-2

2.5.4. Management for Operating Power Station

Various kinds of managements have been carried out in accordance with the standards set forth in “Steam Power
Generation Facilities Maintenance and Service Manual”. Operation Management

The “Steam Power Generation Facilities Maintenance and Service Manual” stipulates the operation management
standard (Table 2.5.4-1), setting standard for control and permissible values for trial operation (Table 2.5.4-2), etc.
In addition to usual monitoring by operators, the plant operation conditions are input into computers (see Fig. 2.5.4-3:
System Configuration) for proper control.

‫ ޚ‬Examples of management documents

- Daily report (Table 2.5.4-4):One hour value (24 points), maximum-, minimum-, average values, and
one-day energy amount for the management items
- Monthly report (Table 2.5.4-5):Boiler and turbine maintenance logs, month-end generation records, etc.

Table 2.5.4-1 Operational Management Standard

Measure location Record frequency

Control values
Operation management items Unit under normal Indicator 1/ 1/ 1/ As Remarks
values Recorder
operation day month year needed
office Site
Daily and Paralle – parallel off (Start sending air – stop for
Operation time Hrs/min. monthly house boiler)
Daily and Rated output
Generated energy MWh monthly 24 hours
Generator output MW Max value Rated output Maximum value within 1 hour
Main stop valve steam Max value Rated value Sum up monthly the operation time 5% over rated
pressure 1.05 pressure
Main stop valve steam Max value Rated value + Sum up monthly the operation time at 8!C, 14!C,
temperature 8!C 28!C over rated temperature.
Reheat stop valve steam Max value Rated value
pressure 1.05
Reheat stop valve steam Max value Rated value + Sum up monthly the operation time at 8!C, 14!C,
temperature 8!C 28!C over rated temperature.
Max value Smaller one of
Main steam flow rate t/h the MCR or
turbine intake
Condenser vacuum mmHg Min value Min operation Atmospheric pressure corrected value
Coal (humidity) t Monthly

Crude oil kl total

Heavy oil kl For generation
Orimulsion t

Diesel oil kl
Max value JEAC3717 Bearing * Over rated
Turbine vibration amplitude 1/100mm caution value* No. Shaft Under 12.5
Amplitude Bearing Under 6.25

Measure location Record frequency
Control values
Operation management items Unit under normal Indicator 1/ 1/ 1/ As Remarks
values Recoder
operation day month year needed
office Site
pH (25!C) Average Water quality According to “thermal power station water
Silica "gSiO2/l value standard value management manual”
quality "S/cm
pH (25!C)
Silica "gSiO2/l
Feed water
quality "S/cm
Dissolve O2 "gO/l
RBOT minute - Over 70 mins. According to “turbine oil management manual”
All oxidization mgKOH/g Under 0.3
Lubricate Impurities mg/100ml Under 10
oil for Kinetic viscosity mm2/s (New oil
turbine (40!C) standard) # 10%
Water content mg/l Under 500
Color phase ASTM Under 4
Unit Gross % Calculate
efficiency Net value
Boiler drum water level mm Highest, Warning value
Boiler drum pressure MPa Maximum Rated 1.05
Superheater spray flow rate t/h Maximum Max operation
Reheater spray flow rate t/h Maximum Max operation
Turbine ejector pressure MPa Maximum Rated 1.05
Turbine ejector temperature !C Maximum Rated + 8!C
Bearing inlet oil pressure MPa Minimum Warning value
Bearing outlet oil pressure !C Maximum Warning value
Turbine contro oil pressure MPa Minimum Warning value

Measure location Record frequency
Control values
Operation management items Unit under normal Indicator 1/ 1/ 1/ As Remarks
values Recorder
operation day month year needed
office Site
Control valve opness % Maximum Max operation Also possible with cum angel
mm Maximum Managed by difference expansion warming value
Expansion of turbine shaft
for more than 2 casings
Expansion of turbine shaft mm Maximum
Expansion of turbine shaft, mm Maximum Warning value
More than 2 casings
Turbine speed rpm Maximum Rated 1.05

Table 2.5.4-2
Setting Standard for Control and Permissible Values for Trial Operation
Control value standard setting Permissible value standard
Items Unit Remarks
for trail operation setting for trail operation
Generator load MW Rated output Rated output $
(referred to as “rated” (referred to as “rated”
hereafter) hereafter)
Economizer inlet feed water MPa Design pressure for rated Design pressure for rated $ !

Superheater inlet or main steam Steam pressure for rated Steam pressure for rated $ !
Reheater outlet steam Design steam pressure for Design steam pressure for $
rated rated 1.05
Economizer inlet feed water !C Design temperature for rated MCR or max operation value $ !

Superheater inlet or main steam Design temperature for rated Design temp for rated + 8!C <
Reheater outlet steam Design temperature for rated Design temp for rated + 8!C <

Main steam t/h Design flow rate for rated MCR or turbine intake amount $ !
Flow rate

Feed water Design flow rate for rated MCR $

Superheater spray Design flow rate for rated MCR or max operation value $ !
Reheater spray Design flow rate for rated MCR or max operation value $ !
Drum water level mm Design water level for rated Warning value $% !
Economizer gas oxygen % Object value for rated Warming value (low) %
Furnace kPa Design value for rated Warning value $%
Forced fan outlet pressure Design value for rated Fan rated value $ !
Pulverizer inner pressure (For vertical Design value for rated Minimum flow speed (For % !
mill, pressure difference of primary vertical mill, mill pressure
fan) difference corresponding to
min. flow speed)
Pulverizer coal surface Design value for rated Tube mill: Warning value % or !

Wind box Design value for rated Equilibrium: lower limit, % !
pressureized: MCR
Gas mixing fan Design value for rated MCR $ !
Gas recirculating fan Design value for rated Fan rated value $ !
Induced fan inlet pressure Design value for rated Fan rated value $ !
Air preheater gas outlet/inlet Design value for rated MCR or max operation value $ !
Reheater inlet !C Design value for rated MCR $ !
Combustion gas !C

(superheater outlet)
Air preheater inlet Design value for rated MCR or max operation value $ !
Air preheater outlet Design value for rated MCR or max operation value $ !

Air preheater outlet !C Design value for rated MCR or max operation value $ !
Air !C

Pulverizer inlet Design value for rated Max operation value $ !

Pulverizer outlet Design value for rated Warning value $ !
Auxiliary equipment motor A Rated current of motor Rated current of motor $
Auxiliary equipment bearing temperature !C Operation value for rated Warning value or max $ !
operation value

Inlet feed water temperature !C Design value for pump Highest operation value $
Design value for pump $
Turbine driven feed

Feed water flow rate t/h Pump rated value !

Feed water inlet pressure MPa Design value for pump NPSH or minimum value %
(Booster inlet pressure:
Feed water outlet pressure MPa Design value for pump Rated value or warning value %
(whole pumping process +
pump inlet: MCR)

Control value standard setting Permissible value standard

Items Unit Remarks
for trail operation setting for trail operation
Boiler water circulating pump inlet/outlet MPa Design value for pump Warning value (low) %
pressure differential
Rotation speed rpm Design value for rated Design turbine rotation $% !
Turbine driven feed pump

Feed water flow rate t/h Design value for rated Pump rated value $
Feed water outlet pressure MPa Design value for rated Warning value or min %
operation value
Steam inlet pressure MPa Design value for rated Turbine design pressure 1.05 $ !
Steam inlet temperature !C Design value for rated Turbine design temperature + < !

Coal consumption t/h Design value for rated Rated value for pulverizer $ !
Burner pressure MPa Design value for rated Warning value % !

Temperature !C Design value for rated Warning value $ !

de oil

Flow rate t/h Design value for rated MCR or facility’s max $ !
Fuel pump outlet pressure MPa Design value for rated Pump rated value $ !
Fuel pump

Explanation of signs in “Remarks” column

$: To be operated at or under permissible value (For warning value only, under permissible value)
%: To be operated at or over permissible value (For warning value only, over permissible value)
$%: To be operated within the range of permissible value
!: No description as control value is necessary required
<: To be operated under the permitted level

Control value standard setting Permissible value standard
Items Unit Remarks
for trail operation setting for trail operation
Generator load MW Rated output Rated output $
(referred to as “rated” (referred to as “rated”
hereafter) hereafter)
Main steam MPa Steam pressure for rated Steam pressure for rated $
First stage outlet Design steam pressure for Design pressure for rated $ !

rated 1.05
High-pressure turbine outlet Design steam pressure for Design pressure for rated $ !
rated 1.05
Reheater outlet steam Design steam pressure for Design pressure for rated $
rated 1.05
Main steam !C Steam temperature for rated Steam temperature for rated + <
High-pressure turbine Design steam temperature for Design steam temperature for < !

rated rated
Reheat steam Steam temperature for rated Steam temperature for rated + <
Exhaust room Saturation steam temp for Warning value $
design vacuum
Control oil MPa Design oil pressure for rated Warning value % !

Bearing oil Design oil pressure for rated %

Control valve operness (cum angle) % (deg) Design openness for rated Max operation value $ !
Condenser vacuum kPa Design vacuum Max operation value %
Difference expansion mm Design difference expansion Warning value $ !
for rated
Thrust bearing !C Supply oil temperature Warning value $
Bearing return oil

+ 20!C
Radial bearing Supply oil temperature Warning value $
+ 20!C

Vibration (shaft / bearing) 1/100 At or under warning value Caution value in JEAC3717 $
Pressure MPa Design pressure for rated Maximum operation value $ !
Air bleed

Temperature !C Design temperature for rated $ !

Explanation of signs in “Remarks” column

$: To be operated at or under permissible value (For warning value only, under permissible value)
%: To be operated at or over permissible value (For warning value only, over permissible value)
$%: To be operated within the range of permissible value
!: No description as control value is necessary required
<: To be operated under the permitted level

Fig 2.5.4-3
Appendix 3㪄2

Schematic of Thermal Performance / Heat Management System

Head Office Calculation Center

Power Station
Thermal Power Dept
Input from other depts.

Input for unsystemized power stations

Data link to other depts.

Plant control system Performance management system Heat management system

Performance Performance Business transaction
Unit calculator management system management system automation calculators Large computers
Temperature sensor Heat management
Pressure sensor Data statistic data
Lsw, etc transmission

Unit calculator process functions

(1)Operation history
(2)Operation condition monitor (1) Heat management data check
(3)Plant efficiency analysis (2) Compilation, calculations
(4)Start/stop loss management Performance management Business terminal Performance management (3) Report output
Business terminal
(5)Equipment management terminal terminal
(6)Turbine thermal stress calculate
(7)Unit start/stop
Display current Output various Distribution
Ex. Tomato-Atsuma Unit No.2 output of each monthly reports
(1) Operation history generator
(2)Operation condition search Submit to government
(1) Heat management data check output
(3)Plant efficiency analysis agencies
(2) Monthly report output (Specified formats)
Boiler/turbine maintenance diary (4)Start/stop loss management
preparation (5)Auxiliary equipment
operation time,
start/stop times

Table 2.5.4-4


Monthly Report (Table 2.5.4-5)…..Boiler and Turbine Maintenance Log, Month-end Generation Record, etc

April, 2004

Month Eng Generation Record

Items This month After last inspection Cumulative total
Hr – Min (B) 15837 – 35
Generation time 720 – 00 18821 - 02
(T) 15837 - 35
MWh 447,775 (B) 10,853,339 12,348,254
Generated output
(T) 10,853,339
0 (B) 6 34
Startup times times
(T) 6
Fuel Coal (w) t 144,001 3,558,145
Consumption Diesel oil kl 16.3 1,650.4
Gross efficiency % 42.64
Net efficiency % 40.70

This month After last inspection

Main steam Reheat steam Main steam Reheat steam
Time operated with steam pressure hours - (B) 0- 01
5% over rated pressure
0 - 00
min (T) 0- 01
Time operated with steam temp hours - (B) 0- 00 (B) 0- 00
8!C over rated temperature
0 - 00 0 - 00
min (T) 0- 00 (T) 0- 00
Time operated with steam temp hours - (B) 0- 00 (B) 0- 00
14!C over rated temperature
0 - 00 0 - 00
min (T) 0- 00 (T) 0- 00
Time operated with steam temp hours - (B) 0- 00 (B) 0- 00
28!C over rated temperature
0 - 00 0 - 00
min (T) 0- 00 (T) 0- 00

Water Quality Management Record

Control value Measured value
8.5 – 9.0 8.82
pH (25!C) AVT
9.3 – 9.5 -
Silica "gSiO2/l 20 $ 3
Electric operation 0.2 $ 0.05
conductivity AVT
operation 0.3 $ -
Dissolved operation 20 – 200 $ 100.0
oxygen AVT
operation 7$ -

74 Management System by Computer
(1) Functions of unit computer
" Input of unit operation conditions, and display and print-out of necessary data
" Output of daily reports needed for daily management
" Data collection and efficiency calculation needed for performance management
" Calculation of turbine thermal stress
" Start/stop of the unit
(2) Functions of performance management system
" Tabulation of statistical thermal management data and transmission of them to the headquarters
" Collection of performance test data and thermal efficiency calculation
" Accumulation of major operation condition values of the unit
& Retrieval of operation condition values and trend monitoring are available
& Turbine efficiency calculation, condenser cleanliness calculation, management of heat exchanger
operation conditions, management of major equipment operating hours, etc
" Management of start/stop loss
" Document-output aid in the designated form
(3) Plant management system
" Tabulation of operation data from all the power stations
" Output of various monthly and yearly reports in and out of the company
(Major report data: generated energy, thermal efficiency, in-station ratio, utilization ratio, fuel
consumption performance, etc) Other Management

(1) Start/stop loss management
The start/stop loss, which does not serve for generation, is properly managed because the fuel, in-house
electricity and supplementary steam amount used for start/stop largely affect the efficiency and costs.

(2) Periodical Equipment Tests

Protection devices and other equipment are periodically tested to check for correct operation.
" Turbine-valve stick prevention test
" Protection device operation test (oil pump automatic startup and thrust wear test, emergency speed
governor lockout test)
" Startup test of emergency power supply device (gas turbine)
" Periodical switching to backup machine Daily Inspection of Facilities (patrol)

The patrol of facilities, items and the patrol method are stipulated in Table 2.5.8. Usually, daily and priority patrols are
carried out by the operator once per shift. Also the patrol by managers and the safety-focused patrols are carried out as

Shift time and patrol time

22:00 8:00 16:00 22:00
Shift 1 Shift 2 Shift 3
Patrol ! ! !
Specific patrol "

Daily Inspection Standard
Facilities Items Method Remarks
1 / day 3 / day
Drum safety valve, superheater
Boiler Tentacle, visual,
safety valve, reheater safety Leakage
safety valve hearing
valve, etc
Defects in hangers Visual
Main Main steam, reheat steam, feed
Vibration Tentacle, hearing
piping water, condenser pipings, etc
Leakage Visual, hearing
Furnace Inside furnace condition
Situations inside Visual, hearing
Forced draft fan, induceddraft Vibration, unusual Heavy oil pump for power
Tentacle, hearing
Main fan, gas recirculating fan, gas sound stations using such fuel,
rotating mixing fan, boiler water pump, Temperature rise, orimulsion for Shiriuchi PS
machine Tentacle, smell,
feed water pump (MD, TD), oil surface, oil only
(excluding visual
pulverizer, heavy oil pump, leakage
steam orimulsion pump, circulating
turbine) Leakage from
water pump, condenser pump, Visual
gland part
condenser booster pump, etc
Vibration, unusual
Tentacle, hearing
sound from valve
Main stop valve, control valve,
Main Steam leak from
reheat stop valve, intermediate Visual, hearing
valves valve gland
prevention valve
Abnormality in
Tentacle, hearing
Vibration unusual
Tentacle, see, hear
sound, temperature
Steam leak from
Visual, hearing
Steam turbine
Oil drain from
Loosening of nut,
Visual, tentacle
Main heat Feed water heater, deaerator, Leakage Visual, hearing
exchanger cooling tower, etc Water level Visual
Usual sound,
Main body, collector ring, Visual, hearing,
Generator vibration,
excitation board, etc tentacle, smell
Auto voltage adjuster, relay Usual sound,
Relays Visual, hearing, smell
board, power board, etc smell
Usual sound,
Breaker C/C, L/C, MCS Visual, hearing, smell
Usual sound,
Hydrogent cooler, seal oil vibration, Visual, hearing,
seal oil
equipment, etc smell, tentacle, smell
Armature Usual sound,
Visual, hearing,
cooling Amature cooling equipment vibration,
tentacle, smell
equipment smell
Usual sound,
Main Main, house, startup, vibration,
Visual, hearing, smell
transformer transformers smell,

Table 2.5.4-6

d. Performance Management
2.5.5 Efficiency management on a daily basis
(1) Maintenance of proper operation by condition monitor, equipment patrol, record meters, diary record.
Observe whether the output, pressure, temperature, flow rate of steam, condenser vacuum, fuel consumption are
properly maintained.
(2) Operation for performance maintenance
࡮ Condenser vacuum is maintained by reflecting the cleanliness management in the operation of backwashing,
a ball washing equipment.
࡮ Reduction of exhaust gas loss is improved as heat collection of each section is promoted by operation of
boiler as well as preheater soot blower. Performance test

(1) Objective
Operation data and thermal efficiency is to be obtained after unit is kept constant, eliminating as many external factors
as possible for affecting the efficiency fluctuations so as to compare the against changes and conditions before/after
periodic inspection. (See Appendix 2.5-1Steam Power Station Performance Test Manual)
(2) Frequency
Before periodical inspection 100% load
After periodical inspection 100% load or needed for operation
(3) Management items
1. Thermal efficiency (measured value, corrected value)
࡮ Gross thermal efficiency
࡮ Net thermal efficiency
࡮ Auxiliary power ratio
࡮ Boiled room efficiency
࡮ Turbine room efficiency
2. Boiler room heat loss
Heat loss is calculated by adding various losses, such as, dry gas loss, loss caused by water and hydrogen
content in fuel, unburned matter loss, etc
3. Efficiency correction
Test results are kept in a constant condition by adjusting the values such atmospheric temperature, steam
temperature/pressure, condenser vacuum and etc to design values.
4. Preparation of control charts
Test results are displayed in charts and, for significant changes, analysis is done.
(4) Results of performance test
The results and records of the performance test conducted at Tomato-atsuma coal fired power plant are shown in table
2.5.5-1. Additionally an actual example of performance control chart administrated at the same power plant is shown
in table 2.5.2-2.

Table 2.5.5-1

Maintenance Division Environmental Engineering Division Electricity Power Generation Division
Deputy Deputy Manager Deputy Manager Deputy Manager person
Director Manager Steam Steam Manager Environmental Environmental Manager in (Central control room)
Computer operation management
Drum Equipment Facilities Engineering charge A B C D E

Transition in Thermal Efficiency (Generating End) in 2007 [for December]

The thermal efficiency of each unit has no problem within the control range.
No. 1 Unit Utilization Previous
control chart (3 method)
factor fiscal year under survey
efficiency (thermal efficiency)
upper limit 38.65
average value 37.88
lower limit 37.10

efficiency (month) (amount of change)

38.28 upper limit 0.95
Thermal efficiency coefficient of
Beginning 38.03 average value 0.96
Middle 38.61
variation use End 38.19


No. 2 Unit Utilization Previous

factor fiscal year
Thermal efficiency efficiency (month)
Beginning 41.68 (thermal efficiency)
Middle 40.63 upper limit 41.19
End 39.96 average value 40.43
lower limit 39.68

coefficient of
use (amount of change)
upper limit 0.93
Thermal efficiency bowl cleansing stop to vacuum down average value 0.28


No. 4 Unit Utilization Previous

factor fiscal year

(thermal efficiency)
Thermal efficiency upper limit 43.78
average value 42.98
lower limit 42.18

efficiency (month)
43.73 (amount of change)
Beginning 43.60
Middle 43.90
upper limit 0.98
Variation of thermal efficiency End 43.70 average value 0.30
periodical check


Table 2.5.5-2

Appendix 2.5-1
Steam Power Stations Performance Test Manual
April 1, 1995
Revised June 1, 2004 (First revision)
(Jurisdiction) Thermal Power Department

I. General
1. Objective of Performance Test
2. Implementation of Performance Test

II. Methods for Performance Test

1. Operational Condition for Testing
2. Measurement of Test Data
3. Measuring Equipment
4. Measurement Data and Calculation Methods

Υ. Analysis of Test Data

1. Calculation Processing and Control charts
2. Preparation of charts

1. Steam Power Generation Steam Schematic
2. Thermal Efficiency Calculation Equations
3. Performance Test Results (Actual)

Steam Power Stations Performance Test Manual

This manual is to introduce standardized procedure for performance test methods for steam power stations based on
"Thermal Power Station Operation and Maintenance Regulations."

I. General
(1) Objective of Performance Test
The objective of performance test is to grasp the performance of each steam power station, to use such information in
daily operation and maintenance and to improve the energy efficiency in heat and electricity generated.

2. Implementation of Performance Test

(1) Responsibility for Implementation
Planning, implementation, consideration for performance test is done by each steam power station.
(2) Time and Number of Tests
a. Test time and number are shown in the table below. As for the load needed for operation, appropriate load
is be set based on the operational condition of each unit.
b. In the event a question arises against test results, re-test shall be conducted.
c. Flexible operation shall be done in case a test cannot be conducted in a certain load condition due to load
dispatching reasons and others, conducting such test on next occasion.

Test load
4/4 load Load needed for operation (minimum)
Test time
Before periodic inspection (Note) One time -
After periodic inspection (Note) One time One time
Note: Periodic inspection means regular maintenance company inspection and intermediate inspection.

(3) Performance Test

Calculation methods of various efficiency indexes for grasping performance of steam power stations are as shown in
the table below, whereas heat input-output methods are primarily applied for heavy/crude oil, bituminous mixture and
PFBC thermal units and loss methods for coal-fired thermal units.
Additional calculation methods are to be used as secondary methods, for reference in consideration of efficiency.

Items Test name Boiler room Turbine room Gas turbine room
Plant efficiency
Plant applied (Primary) efficiency efficiency efficiency
Heavy/crude oil Heat
Heat input/output Heat input/output
Bituminous mix input/output Heat
method method
PFBC method standard Heat input/output
method (Boiler room
Coal-fired Loss method efficiency) ˜
Loss method -
thermal power standard (Turbine room

(4) Measurement of Data

For testing, the main fuel is to be exclusively combusted and measurement of data is to be conducted after the
operational condition has become steady.
For more details, "II Methods for Performance Test;1.Operational Condition for Testing and 2.Measurement of Test

Data" is to be referred to. For measuring equipment largely affecting the test results, required precision needs to be
ensured. (Confer II Methods for Performance Test;3.Measuring Equipment)
(5) Analysis of Measured Data
Each thermal efficiency indexes are calculated from measured data and their results are analyzed using control charts.
(6) Report and Response to Test Results
Test results are to be immediately reported related authorities along with considerations. In the event any major
performance decrease is observed, necessary measures are taken.

II. Methods for Performance Test

1. Operational Condition for Testing
(1) Main fuel is to be exclusively combusted and operational condition shall be steady.
(2) Load shall be controlled to be constant by load limiter or the openness of control valve.
(3) The same burner is to be used for the same testing load.
(4) Auxiliary steam extraction to other units shall be stopped.
(5) Soot blower needs to be completed before test, otherwise efficiency correction for steam extraction is to be
(6) Furnace bottom ash need be cleared before test if such affects the results.
(7) Pure water supply to make-up tank shall be stopped.
(8) Other matters are the same as normal operation.
2. Measurement of Test Data
(1) One hour before measurement, operational condition is to be set in testing load, confirming the steady
condition of each part, measurement is to be commenced.
(2) Measurement of record is conducted for 2 hours, every 30 minutes. Measurement of fuel consumption,
however, is to be conducted for 4 hours for obtaining precise values.
(3) Measurement of Fuel Consumption
• Coal··········Sum of measurements of each coal scale, not taking into consideration the changes in coal
level in the hopper.
• Fuel oil ·····See flowmeter.
(4) Sampling of Fuel
• Coal··········Considering the coal consumed in one test as 1 log, sample out 60 units of 500g specimen for
1 lot using auto-sampler of each coal scale (or equal time interval) and prepare 1
specimen for one test.
In case specimen sampling is impossible due to structural reasons for coal scale such
as sealed type, sampling is done using other proper methods.
• Fuel oil ·····Sample out 1 specimen for one test from lines after the tank outlet.
(5) Measurement of generator output is done using signals from the generator input into the plant management
system. (When such plant management system in not installed, integrated power meter in central control
room is to be used)
(6) Sampling of Ash (Only for coal-fired thermal power plant)
1 specimen for one test is sampled out from EP representing hopper or furnace bottom. In case, unburned
matter for MC or PC collected ash cannot be ascertained by EP ash, sample should be taken from MC and

(7) Sampling of exhaust gas is to be done at Eco outlet and designated point of AH outlet for analysis by Orsat
method or corresponding methods.
For PFBC unit, analysis is conducted between boiler outlet and gas turbine inlet.
(8) Items for Specimen Analysis are as follows;
Analysis of specimen is based on “Fuel Quality Test Manual.”

Type of fuel Coal Heavy Bituminous mix Remarks

Analysis items crude oil
Calorific value ! ! ! High standard
Density - ! !

Humidity ! - -
Moisture ! Industrial analysis
Ash content ! - -

Carbon ! Elemental analysis


Hydrogen !
Nitrogen !
Combustive sulfur !
CO2 ! Orsat corresponding methods
Exhausted gas analysis

CO !
O2 !
AH outlet O2 !
Boiler outlet O2 ! - - PFBC Unit
Furnace clinker ! - -
Unburned matter analysis

EP ash ! - -
MC ash " - -
PC ash " - -

(Note) ! : Items to be analyzed

: Items analyzed when loss method is applied
" : Items analyzed as necessary
! : Items not analyzed
(9) Test procedure
It is as shown below:

Test Procedure
Time 0 1H 2H 3H 4H 5H 6H
Test load
Coal sampling
Fuel consumption record
Heavy/crude oil, ash sample
Gas analysis

3. Measurement Equipment
(1) Precision of Meters
Measuring equipment shall be arranged according to the table, grasping its precision.
Input minimum
Measuring Precision /
Measurement items Unit value (min. meter Remarks
position tolerance

Carbon % ! 0.01% 0.03% No water base

Fuel analysis

Hydrogen ! 0.01% 0.15%

Nitrogen ! 0.01% 0.06%


AH outlet gas temp "C ! (Central 1"C #0.5"C

FDF inlet air temp (dry ball)

! (Central #0.005Mpa
Main steam MPa 0.01Mpa (1atg)*

control) (#0.5atg)*

Reheat steam


"C ! (Central 1"C #0.5"C

Main steam

Reheat steam

*The brackets show the minimum reading values of equipment for power stations requiring meter reading.

(2) Correction of Measuring Equipment

The following correction shall be done to measuring equipment.
a. Until testing time conducted after periodic inspection
All measuring instruments used for measurement
b. Until other testing time
Coal scale and other instruments deemed necessary
4. Measurement Data and Calculation Methods
For calculation of each thermal efficiency figure, the measurement data and calculation methods shown in Appendix 5
are to be used. No irrelevant data need be used for calculation.
III. Analysis of Test Data
1. Data Processing and Control charts
The measured data are to be filled in and gathered in Performance Test Measurement Record (Appendix 4), and each
thermal efficiency figure in Performance Test Results (Appendix 1). In addition, Control charts (Appendix 2) are to be
prepared for consideration of each unit’s performance.

2. Preparation of Control Charts

Control charts are prepared to determine whether the plant is in a steady condition or not, using JIS Z-9021,
“Shewhart Control chart.”
(1) Application of Control chart
a. Applied to 4 items, namely, gross efficiency, boiler room efficiency, turbine room efficiency, auxiliary
power ratio.
b. Control charts are prepared for each item above for load profile of 4/4 and needed.
(2) Control Limit
For control limit used for control charts, 3 sigma method (allowing 3 times of standard deviation range above and
below expected value) is to be adopted.
• Upper Control Limit (UCL) = Expected value + (3$Standard deviation)
• Lower Control Limit (LCL) = Expected value – (3$Standard deviation)
In order to obtain control values, test needs to be conducted a few times, and the estimated value from the
results can be used.
(3) Judgment by Control Chart
Control chart is useful for recognizing unit’s deviation from controlled condition. Generally, when the measured
values are within the control limit lines, units are considered as normal. If these are beyond the limit lines, it is viewed
as abnormal, requiring clarification. The following cases need caution.
a. One point is located beyond the control limit.
b. 9 points are on the same side of the center line.
c. 6 points have increased or decreased.
d. 14 points are rising and falling alternately.
e. Of the consecutive 3 points, 2 points are in the domain of 2 ! and 3 ! or beyond.
f. Of the consecutive 5 points, 5 points are in the domain of ! and 2 ! or beyond.
g. Consecutive 15 points are in the domain of # !.
h. Consecutive 8 points are in the domain beyond # !.
The conventional control lines (center line and control limit line) can be insufficient as a standard in case unit
condition changes. In such a case, a new control line needs to be provided using the recent data as auxiliary

<Thermal Efficiency Calculation Equation> Appendix - 2
1. Definition of boiler room efficiency, turbine room efficiency, unit thermal efficiency
(1) Boiler room efficiency (%B)
Diagram 1 From unit thermal equilibrium line diagram, boiler room efficiency is defined as follows. Also,
auxiliary input heat into boiler system QEX is defined as input heat or negative output heat in some cases. Here, the
latter concept is adopted, viewing only fuel combustion heat as input heat.

QTS (Output heat) QRS (Output heat)

QO (Output heat) Qf (Fuel combustion heat)

QG Turbine heat generating
system Boiler system
(Generator output)
QEX (Boiler auxiliary heat input)

QTL (Heat loss) QBL (Heat loss)

Diagram 1 Unit Heat Equilibrium

Boiler room efficiency can be calculated as follows based on heat equilibrium of boiler system;
Qf + QEX = QO + QBS + QBL
Qf – QBL = QO + QBS – QEX


Boiler room efficiency %B ' (1 - )'
Qf Qf

Loss method Heat input-output method

(2) Turbine room efficiency ( T)
Consider turbine room input heat as boiler room output heat QO, focus only on generator output as turbine room
Turbine room efficiency can be calculated as based on heat equilibrium of turbine system;
Turbine room efficiency %T ' (1 )'

Loss method Heat input-output method

(3) Unit Thermal Efficiency ( P)

Unit thermal efficiency is the product of boiler room efficiency multiplied by turbine room efficiency.
Unit thermal efficiency %P ' %B $ %T ' $
(Heat input-output standard method)
' $ ·································· (1)
(Note) Conventionally, Unit thermal efficiency by heat input-output method has been calculated as
%P '

However, the steam generated in the unit system is used outside, the heat value of such steam must be incorporated
into the calculation. Therefore, Equation (1) can represent the heat input-output method unit thermal efficiency.
Theoretically, heat input-output method and loss method should compute out the same results.
(4) Boundary of Boiler and Turbine Systems
Boundary of boiler and turbine systems are shown in Diagram 2.

Turbine system Boiler system

WEj # iEj SH

WHR # iHR Qf # QEX

Heat loss
Heavy oil
Heavy oil

WFW # iFW Atomize

AH steam
Exhaust gas

WSAH # iSAH SAH Combusted air

WSAH # iSAHD Heater

WSC # iSC SC (qsc)


Diagram 2 Boundary of Boiler and Turbine Systems

2. Calculation Method of Boiler Room Efficiency
(1) Heat input-output method boiler room efficiency ( Bi)


%Bi ' $ 100[%] Qf ' Hf ( Mf

Qf :Fuel combustion heat [kJ/h]

QEX :Boiler auxiliary input heat [kJ/h]
QO :Boiler room output heat (For generation) [kJ/h]
QBS : (Heating, etc) [kJ/h]
Hf :Fuel higher heating value [kJ/h]
Mf :Fuel consumption [kg/h]

QO=WMS · iMS+WHR · WEj · iEj–WSS · iSS–WRS · iRS–WLR · iLR–WFW ·


WMS : Main stop valve inlet steam flow rate [kg/h]

iMS : enthalpy [kJ/kg]
WHR : High temp reheat steam flow rate [kg/h]
iHR : enthalpy [kJ/kg]
WEj : Ejector driving steam flow rate [kg/h]
iEj : enthalpy [kJ/kg]
WSS : Superheater spray water flow rate [kg/h]
iSS : enthalpy [kJ/kg]
WRS : Reheater spray water flow rate [kg/h]
iRS : enthalpy [kJ/kg]
WLR : Low temp reheating steam flow rate [kg/h]
iLR : enthalpy [kJ/kg]
WFW : Final feed water heater outlet flow rate [kg/h]
iFW : enthalpy [kJ/kg]
WSAH : SAH heating steam flow rate [kg/h]
iSAH : enthalpy [kJ/kg]
iSAHD : SAH drain enthalpy [kJ/kg]
WSC : SC heating steam flow rate [kg/h]
iSC : enthalpy [kJ/kg]
iSCD : SC drain enthalpy [kJ/kg]

QBS ' )qsc*2 ! )qsc*1
(qsc)1 : Heating value brought by feed water at SC inlet [kJ/h]
(qsc)2 : Heavy oil heating and atomizing steam generated at SC [kJ/h]

QEX ' WSAH (Note) ) iSAH - iSAHD * & WSC ) iSC - iSCD *

(Note) WSAH and WSC show steam flow from other units, own unit being 0.

Main Stop Valve Inlet Steam Flow Rate (WMS)

WBS : Boiler air ejecting heater etc. flow rate [kg/h]
WCL : Cycle leak rate [kg/h]
WBD : Continuous blow rate [kg/h]
WMU : Make-up water [kg/h]

Low Temp Reheat Steam Flow Rate (WLR)

WLR ' WMS - WHL - +WHi

WHL : High pressure turbine leak [kg/h]
WHi : Leakage from low temp reheat steam pipe [kg/h]

High Temp Reheat Steam Flow Rate (WHR)


(2) Loss Method Standard Boiler Room Efficiency ( B1)
% B1 ' 1 ! ! L CL ! L BD ! L AT ! L EX
"Li : Boiler heat loss total [kJ/kg · fuel]

+ Li ' L g & L w & L as & L ASH & L co & L Rd & L UB & L AH

a. Lg Dry gas heat loss

L g ' C g ( -M gt & )m ! 1*M at ,)t g ! t a *

[kJ/kg · fuel]

Cg : Dry gas specific heat 1.38 [kJ/m3N · K]

Mgt : Theoretical combustion gas amount [m3N/kg · fuel]
m : Eco outlet air excess coefficient
Mat : Theoretical air amount [m3N/kg · fuel]
tg : AH outlet gas temperature ["C]
ta : Air temperature (FD inlet temperature) ["C]

b. Lw Loss due to Water Content, Hydrogen Combusted Water in Fuel

L w ' )Ww & Wh *)i g ! t a * [kJ/kg · fuel]

Ww : Water content in fuel [kg/kg · fuel]

Wh : Hydrogen combusted water in fuel [kg/kg · fuel]
ig : Steam enthalpy at steam pressure 10.1kPa, tg (AH outlet gas temperature) "C
ta : Air temperature ["C] (same value as water enthalpy [kJ/kg]=ta)

c. Las Loss due to air humidity

L as ' 1.29Z ( m ( M at )t g ! t a * [kJ/kg · fuel]

Z : Absolute humidity [kg/kg]

Cs : Steam specific heat 1.88 [kJ/kg · K]

d. LASH Ash sensible heat loss

) *
2 )800 ! t a * & 100 ! PBOT )t g ! t a *0/ [kJ/kg · fuel]
100 1 100 100 .

CASH : Ash specific heat 1.05 [kJ/kg · K]

A : Ash content in fuel [%]
PBOT : Furnace bottom ash falling rate [%]

e. Lco Heat loss due to unburned fuel

L co ' H co ( -M gt & )m ! 1*M at ,(

4CO5 [kJ/kg · fuel]

Hco : CO combustion heat [kJ/m3N]

[CO] : Volume ratio of CO [%]
(Orsat analysis value at Eco outlet)

f. LRd Heat loss due to radiation

(According to A.M.B.A. Standard Radiation Loss Chart in ASME Power Test Code)

g. LUB Heat loss due to unburned matter in ash

A u
L UB ' Hc ( ( [kJ/kg · fuel]
100 100 ! u

Hc : Carbon heating value 33,900 [kJ/kg]

u : Average unburned matter in ash [%]

h. LAH Heat loss due to AH air leakage

L AH ' C a )1 & 1.61Z * ( ( -M gt & )m ! 1*M at ,)t g ! t a * [kJ/kg · fuel]

Ca : Specific heat of air (=CS) 1.30 [kJ/m3N · K]

: AH inlet gas amount standard air leaking ratio [%]

i. LCL Cycle Leakage Heating Value Loss
1 WCL ) iFW ! t a *
L CL ' (
2 Qf
WCL : Cycle leakage flow rate [kg/h]
iFW : Final feed water heater outlet feet water enthalpy [kJ/kg]

j. LBD Heat loss due to continuous blow

WBD ) iFW ! t a *
L BD '
WBD : Continuous blow amount [kg/h]
iBD : enthalpy [kJ/kg]

k. LAT Heat loss due to atomizing steam

WAT ) iFW t a *
L AT !
WAT : Atomizing steam flow rate [kg/h]

l. LEX Other heat loss

In case any loss is found other than a.~k., it is totaled and considered as other heat loss as a whole.

Theoretical air Mat

1 ' / o( , $
Mat ! &8.89c( ) 26.7- h ( * ) 3.33s (# [m3N/kg · fuel]
100 % . 8+ "
0100 1 u
c( ! c 2 W1
A2 Combustion carbon amount [%]
100 100 u
0100 1
h( ! h 2 W1

0100 1 / 100A ,
o( ! o 2 W1
[%] o ! 100 -- c ) h ) n ) * [%]
100 . 100 W1 *+

0100 1
s( ! s 2 W1

c : Carbon
h : Hydrogen
Fuel elemental analysis value (No water basis) [%]
n : Nitrogen
s : Combustive sulfur
o : Oxygen [%]
W1 : Fuel inherent moisture [%]

Air Excess Coefficient m

' 0O 1 0.50CO 1$
21 79& 2 #
% 0N 2 1 "
In this regard, however,
(N2)=100 {(CO2)+(CO)+(O2)}

(O2) :
(CO2) : Indicating volume ratio in dry combustion gas
(CO) : [%]

(N2) : O2, CO2, CO are Orsat analysis

Theoretical Dry Gas Amount Mgt

1 ' / o( , $
M gt ! &8.89c( ) 21.1- h ( * ) 3.33s ( ) 0.8n (# [m3N/kg · fuel]
100 % . 8+ "
0100 1
n( ! n 2 W1


Hydrogen combustion moisture in fuel Wh and water content in fuel WW

9h (
Wh ! [kg/kg · fuel]

WW ! W1
) W2
[kg/kg · fuel]
100 100 W2

W2 : Surface humidity of coal [%]

Absolute Humidity Z
Z ! 0.622 2 [kg/kg] Ps ! PW 0.0008 2 Pa 2 0Td TW 1
Pa Ps
Pa : Atmosphere pressure [kPa]
Ps : Steam pressure [kPa]
PW : Saturated steam pressure for wet-bulb temperature [kPa]
Td : Dry-bulb temperature (=Ta) [3C]
TW : Wet-bulb temperature [3C]

AH Air Leakage Ratio (Eco outlet gas amount basis)

0O 2 1out 0O 2 1in 2 100
21 0O 2 1out
(O2) out : AH outlet O2 [%]
(O2) in: Eco outlet O2 [%]

3. Calculation Method of Turbine Room Efficiency

5T ! 2 100 [%]

QG : Generator output (=860 · PG) [kJ/h]

PG : 6 [kWh]
QTS : Turbine output heat [kJ/h]

4. Calculation Method of Unit Thermal Efficiency

(1) Gross unit thermal efficiency ( P)
a. Unit thermal efficiency based on heat input-output method (!Pi)
5 Pi ! 2 K2 100 [%]
K : Modification coefficient (See IV, exposition, “calculation processing”)
b. Unit thermal efficiency based on heat loss method (!P1)
5 P1 ! 5 B1 25 T / 100 [%]

(2) Auxiliary Power Ratio ( )
7 PG
8! 2 100 [%]
PGH : House transformer power [kWh]
PG : Total of generator output of each unit [kWh]
PCM : Common auxiliary power [kWh]

(Note) Auxiliary power consists of the common auxiliary power proportionately divided by each unit’s generator
output added by house transformer power.

(3) Net Unit Efficiency ( P’)

/ 8 ,
5 P ( ! 5 P 2 -1 * [%]
. 100 +

5. Correction of Calculated Thermal Efficiency

The following correction is conducted for calculated thermal efficiency.
(1) Boiler room efficiency ( B)
a. Atmosphere temperature correction
b. Fuel surface humidity correction
c. Fuel hydrogen content correction
d. Fuel inherent moisture correction
(2) Turbine room efficiency ( T)
e. Main steam pressure correction
f. Main steam temperature correction
g. Spray water correction
h. Reheat system pressure loss correction
i. Reheat steam temperature correction
j. Condenser vacuum correction
k. Generator power factor correction

6. Various Constants in Calculation
(1) Thermal efficiency is calculated with higher heating value standard.
(2) Standard temperature for thermal efficiency is FDF inlet and atmosphere temperature.
(3) Dry gas specific heat shall be 1.38 kJ/m3N · K from JIS B-8222.
(4) Specific heat for dry air and air shall be 1.30 kJ/m3N · K from JIS B-8222.
(5) Enthalpy for exhaust gas steam shall be calculated with steam partial pressure as 10.1kPa.
(6) Heating value of carbon shall be 33,900kJ/kg from JIS B-8222.
(7) Heating value of carbon monoxide shall be 12,610 kJ/kg from JIS B-8222.
(8) Specific heat of steam shall be 1.88 kJ/kg · K from “Heat Management Handbook.”
(9) Specific heat of ash is 1.05 kJ/kg · K from “Heat Management Handbook.”
(10) Cycle leakage loss shall be equally shared by boiler and turbine system, finally leaked to the outside of system at
final feed water heater outlet.
(11) Make-up water, air sensible heat and fuel sensible heat shall be 0.

7. Calculation Standard for Main Steam Flow Rate

In this manual, feed water flowmeter standard shall be adopted. Other standards can be used provided sufficient
precision is ensured. (Grounds for adopting feed water flowmeter standard is as mentioned below)
Moreover, for grasping the deviation error of feed water flowmeter standard, it is desired that main steam flow
rate for high pressure turbine first-stage pressure standard, condenser flowmeter standard, etc is used as reference.
The calculation method of main steam flow rate using high pressure turbine first-stage pressure standard by means
of regression line will be explained later.

(1) Calculation Standards for main steam flow rate are as follows;
a. Main steam flowmeter standard
b. Condenser flowmeter standard
c. Feed water flowmeter standard (Adopted in JIS B-8222 and this manual)
(2) Comparison of each calculation standard
a. Main steam flowmeter standard has a weaker reliability than other methods since steam itself is compressive
b. Condenser flowmeter standard ensures high precision due to its low temperature and pressure when used, but
the feed water heater drain flow rate needs to be calculated with low-precision flowmeter or heat balance
calculation, thus showing lower reliability.
c. Feed water flowmeter standard has a problem of deviation error caused by scale attaching to the flowmeter’s
flow nozzle, but precision is thought to be higher than the aforementioned standards.

8. AH Air Leakage
According to the boiler boundary in Diagram 2, exhaust gas analysis is done at AH outlet, but in reality, to
eliminate the influence of combustion air leaking in, it is done at Eco outlet.
Along with this, AH air leakage ratio is measured to obtain the heat loss due to AH air leakage.

9. Calculation Method of High Pressure Turbine First-Stage Pressure Standard Steam Flow Rate by
Regression Line
(1) Preparation Procedure
a. At each generator output, high-pressure turbine firs-stage pressure (P) and feed water flowmeter standard main
steam flow rate (WMS) are measured.
(Note 1) High-pressure turbine firs-stage pressure is measured with meters capable of reading minute fluctuations
such as expanded pressure meter, transmitter output voltage.
(Note 2) Main steam flow rate is calculated after density correction of each flow rate.
b. Regression line for high-pressure turbine firs-stage pressure (P) and feed water flowmeter standard main steam flow
rate (WMS) are calculated.
This regression line is applied to performance tests conducted from this point on, calculating main steam flow
(2) Calculation Example
Main steam flow
Example of measurement results
rate (WMS) Generator High-pressure Main steam
SH spray
output turbine flow rate WMi
firs-stage [t/h]
pressure Pi
MCR 13.0 580.470
4/4 11.4 514.760
3/4 8.4 370.680
2/4 5.8 242.880
Feed water flow
rate Minimum 3.5 152.810

Calculation procedure
a. Calculate S1= Pi2 ( Pi)2/n. S1=60.928
2 2
b. Calculate S2= (WMsi) [ (WMsi)] /n. S2=128,557.61
c. Calculate S3= Pi (WMsi) Pi (WMsi)/n. S3=2,796.953
d. Calculate P= Pi/n. P = 8.42
e. Calculate WMS= (WMsi)/n. WMS=372.32
f. From above,

S3 / S3 ,
WMS ! P ) -- WMS P ** WMS=45.9059P 14.2074
S1 . S1 +

Calculating regression line.

g. Calculating the correlation function !,
/ S 2 ,2
9 ! -- 3 *
* =0.9994
. S1 2 S 2 +

Because coal has a variety of physical and chemical properties compared with other fossil fuels (heavy oil or
gas) according to the difference in generation conditions, the burning process (ignition and combustibility) and
exhaust-gas composition after combustion vary with the type of coal.
In this seminar, pulverized coal combustion is described generally: how coal properties affect combustion, the
concept of combustion, combustion equipment, and the development of combustion technology.

2.6.1 How Coal Property Affects Pulverized Coal Combustion

For the preliminary evaluation of coal as fuel, we generally conduct a proximate analysis, an ultimate analysis
and an ash content analysis of coal. The detailed analyses of coal are described in “II-1 Coal”. This section
discusses how the coal properties relate to combustibility, grindability, slagging/fouling and abrasion
characteristics, etc. when coal is evaluated as a fuel burned in pulverized coal burning boilers. Relation of Coal Property to Ignitability and Combustibility

Certain items are used to evaluate the ignitability and combustibility of coal: the fuel ratio and coal rank, the
volatile matter and calorific value, the adhesiveness and agglomeration, etc.
(1) Fuel Ratio and Coal Rank
The fuel ratio has traditionally been used as the simplest standard to evaluate the ignitability and combustibility
of coal. The fuel ratio means the weight ratio of fixed-carbon to the volatile matter. Generally speaking, the higher
the fuel ratio of coal, the poorer the ignitability and the slower the combustion speed. It can be said that coal with
a fuel ratio 2.5-3.0 is preferable for pulverized coal burning boilers in order to lower unburned losses.
The coal rank means the degree of coalification, which is classified according to the physical and chemical
properties of coal.
As shown in Table 1, the coal rank is categorized into brown coal, sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal and
anthracite coal according to the order of coalification, on the basis of a calorific value, fixed carbon amount,
volatile matter amount, and agglomeration characteristic.

Table 1 Coal Rank (ASTM Standard)

Item Range of fixed Range of volatile Range of calorific value Agglomeration
carbon matter (constant wet characteristic
Class Group (dry coal/no-mineral (dry coal/no-mineral coal/no-mineral base
base %) base %) kcal/kg)
I. Anthracite coal 1. High anthracite coal 98 2 -
2. Anthracite coal 92 / <98 2</ 8 - Not exist
3. Semi-anthracite coal 86 / <92 8 < / 14 -
II. Bituminous coal 1. Low volatile 78 / <86 14 < / 22 -
bituminous coal
2. Semi-volatile 69 / 78 22 < / 31 -
bituminous coal
3. A High volatile < 69 31 < 7,780
bituminous coal Generally, exist
4. B High volatile - - 7,220 / <7,780
bituminous coal
5. C High volatile - - 6,390 / < 7,220
bituminous coal 5,830 / < 6,390 Exist
III. Sub-bituminous 1. A Sub-bituminous - - 5,830 / < 6,390
coal coal
2. B Sub-bituminous - - 5,280 / < 5,830 Not exist
3. C Sub-bituminous - - 4,610 / < 5,280
IV. Brown coal 1. A. Brown coal - - 3,500 / < 4,610
2. B. Brown coal - - < 3,500 Not exist

Anthracite refers to coal with non-agglomeration characteristics, low volatile matter, and a fuel ratio of more
than 6, and it is poor in ignitability and combustibility. Sub-bituminous coal and brown coal, whose fuel ratio is
less than 1, are excellent in ignitability and combustibility, but poor in mill grindability (explained later) and have
slagging/fouling characteristics. Therefore, bituminous coal, whose fuel ratio is intermediate, is generally used in
pulverized coal burning boilers. The bituminous coal is classified into five types as below, and the higher the rank
the poorer in ignitability and combustibility.
(1) Low volatile matter bituminous coal (the fuel ratio is approx. 4)
(2) Medium volatile matter bituminous coal (the fuel ratio is approx. 2.8)
(3) A high volatile matter bituminous coal (the fuel ratio is approx. 1.5)
(4) B high volatile matter bituminous coal (the fuel ratio is approx. 1.2)
(5) C high volatile matter bituminous coal (the fuel ratio is approx 1.1)
(2) Volatile Matter and Calorific Value
Ignitability evaluation of coal itself is generally performed in accordance with the volatile matter amount and
the calorific value contained in coal. In general, when the volatile matter amount is less than 20%, it is necessary
to consider some methods to stabilize the ignitability. The following expression has traditionally been used as the
ignitability index:
[(raw coal calorific value kcal/kg) - 81 x (fixed carbon %)]
Ignitability index =
(volatile matter %) + (moisture %)
The ignitability index, which can be used as a judgment criterion of the ignition difficulty of coal with much
surface moisture, indicates discharged moisture and a calorific value of volatile matter. When the ignitability
index is 35 or less, it is said some measures for ignitability improvement should be taken.
(3) Adherence and Agglomeration Characteristics
Coal adherence means a property of the cake-like expansion of coal when it is heated, and is usually judged by
a button index. Coal with a high button index requires special attention because fuel-fines adhere to or clog in a
burner nozzle or unburned hydrocarbon increases due to fuel-fines blended in the process of combustion. For coal
with a button index of 6-7 or more, it is necessary to consider special designs to prevent these problems. Relation of Coal Property to Grindability and Dryness

In general, pulverized coal combustion is characterized by pulverizing coal to 50-100µm and drying and
burning it. The point of this combustion lies in the selection of the coal pulverization degree so that the coal can
be burned out in a combustion chamber. As aforementioned, the coal combustibility greatly varies with the coal
rank. The following shows the type of coal and the grading required for combustion.
(1) Anthracite coal <10-15% (200 mesh = 74µm residual amount)
(2) Bituminous coal <15-35% (-ditto-)
(3) Semi-bituminous coal <35-45% (-ditto-)
(4) Brown coal <45-55% (-ditto-)
The difficulty in coal grinding is usually evaluated by the HGI (Hardgrove Grindability Index) and the moisture
based on the ASTM standard.
(1) HGI
Because linking the coal component analytical values to the HGI tends to have many errors, it is preferable to
directly measure the HGI to gauge coal grindability. The rough standard of grindability is as follows. The higher
the HGI, the easier the grinding.
(1) Coal with a fuel ratio of approx. 1.0 is 35-45 in HGI
(2) Coal with a fuel ratio of approx. 2.0 is 45-75 in HGI
(3) Coal with a fuel ratio of approx 3.0 is 75-100 in HGI
Because the smaller the HGI, the poorer the grindability and because large-sized mills are required, a HGI of
more than 40 is preferable.
(2) Moisture
The mill grinding capability is affected by total moisture including surface- and inherent moisture.
High-moisture content causes a lack of dryness in the mill, decreases the classification efficiency in the mill and
accordingly lowers the mill grinding capability. From this viewpoint, the total moisture contained in coal is
preferably 20% or less. Slagging Characteristic and Ash Property

Slagging is a phenomenon whereby coal ash (slag) melted in the boiler furnace adheres to the radiant
heat-transfer surface in the furnace, and is cooled, solidified, and built-up. The following coal properties relate to
the degree of slagging:
(1) Ash Melting Temperature
Slagging results from the fact that coal ash melted in the furnace bumps against the heat-transfer surface and
adheres to it before solidifying. Slagging is judged by whether the ash melting temperature is higher or lower than
the gas temperature in the proximity of the heat-transfer surface. Such a problem is rarely seen with coal with a
melting temperature exceeding 1300͠ in pulverized coal burning boilers.
(2) Ash Content
In the case of coal with strong slagging characteristics, the slag accumulation amount is proportional to the ash
amount input into the furnace. Because the ash amount input into the furnace is proportional to the ash-content
amount per coal calorie, the coal with high ash-content and low calorie requires more attention.
(3) Ash Alkaline Ratio
The ash alkaline ratio is defined by the following expression using the figures showing the ratio of the basicity
component to the acidic component in ash.
(Fe2O3 ! CaO ! MgO ! Na2O ! K2O)
Ash alkaline ratio =
SiO2 ! Al2O3 ! TiO2
The large ash alkaline ratio means an increased slagging characteristic because low-melting oxides and
compound salt are easily generated. It is generally said that the slagging characteristic is small if the ash alkaline
ratio is 0.5 or less.
This is also identified by the color of ash: much SiO2 and Al3O3 show white, much CaO shows yellow, much
Fe2O3 shows red, and much Fe2O3 and CaO show pink to purple. That is to say, as the ash color changes from
white to reddish, the ash slagging characteristic becomes stronger.
(4) Fe2O3/CaO Ratio and S-content in Coal
When the ratio of Fe2O3 to CaO in ash is approx. 0.3-3, low-melting compounds tend to be generated. This fact
can become a supplementary judgment criterion of the ash alkaline ratio.
Also, when the S-content in ash is large, Fe generates basicity components and low-melting sulfuric acid complex
salt, increasing the slagging characteristic. The S-content in ash is preferably 2% or less for preventing slagging
problems. Fouling and Ash Property

Fouling means a phenomenon whereby coal ash in the gaseous or melting state condenses, adheres to and
builds up on the convective heat-transfer surface of the superheater or the reheater at the rear of the furnace. The
following coal content affects fouling:
(1) Basicity component in Ash
The most influential on fouling is basicity substances including Na. Sufficient care should be taken over coal
with a large content of Na2O, K2O, Cl, CaO, etc., especially that with a large Na2O content.
(2) S-content in coal
S-content in coal develops the occurrence of fouling by generating basicity components and low-melting
sulfuric acid complex salt. Abrasion and Coal Properties

Pulverized coal burning boilers will cause the abrasion of grinders (mills) or pulverized coal pipes, and also of
the backside convective heat-transfer surface by fly ash.
The influential mineral matter causing mill abrasion is quartz, pyrite, etc. When judged from the analytical values,
the content of quartz, Fe2O3 and S-content become its criterion.
The abrasion degree by fly ash is largely affected by the hardness, density and granularity of fly ash. When
judging the abrasion degree based on the coal properties, the following mineral matter in ash should be focused
(1) Quartz ( -SiO2: Mohs hardness = 7)
(2) Cristobalite (SiO2: Mohs hardness = 7)
(3) Mullite (3Al2O3 & SiO2: Mohs hardness = 7.5)
(4) Hematite (Fe2O3: Mohs hardness = 6)
(5) Anorthite (CaAl2Si2O3: Mohs hardness = 6)

2.6.2 Concept of Pulverized Coal Combustion
When coal is pulverized in the grinder (mill) and float-fired in the pulverized state, the ignition time and
combustion time are extremely shortened and the burner combustion can become just like heavy oil or gas fuel is
being burned. This is the greatest characteristic of pulverized coal combustion. In the following section, the
combustion mechanism and characteristics of pulverized coal are explained. Combustion Mechanism of Pulverized Coal

The model of pulverized coal burning flames is shown in Fig. 1.
The primary air and pulverized coal blown into the furnace from the coal compartment are heated by radiant
heat from both the surrounding flames and the high-temperature slag adhering to the furnace wall, and then start
igniting and burning, forming a primary combustion area. The primary combustion area is mainly an area where
volatile matter in coal is burned. And there, CH4, H2, CO etc. volatized from coal grains are mixed with oxygen in
the primary air diffused from the surroundings, forming flames around the grains. The secondary burning area is
mainly a char burning area, where unburned gases and chars flowing from the primary combustion area are
burned by a diffusive mixture with a secondary air blown from the supplementary air compartment.

Large grain size

Ash + unburned

Small grain size Ash

Coal grainsVolatile matter burning area Char burning area completion

Volatile matter Primary burning area Secondary burning area

discharge (Volatile matter Char burning area
Supplementary air

burning area)

Ignitability NOx generation Burnout

characteristic characteristic

Primary burning area

Qpd [Primary air/coal ratio]
Secondary burning area
QS = [Q total = Qp] Q : Burning quantity

Fig. 1 Model of pulverized coal burning flame

Char burning means the combustion of oxygen and carbon diffused from the surfaces or fine pores of chars, and
the burning velocity is extremely slow compared with that of volatile matter. Therefore, char burnout time
accounts for approx. 80-90% of the total coal burnout time.
In the flame model in Fig.1, the points of pulverized coal combustion we must note are the ignitability, burnout
characteristic and NOx generation characteristic.
These points are closely related to the performance and operability of pulverized coal burning boilers. The
ignitability and burnout characteristic are discussed in this section and the NOx generation characteristic is
discussed in Section 2.3.
(1) Ignitability
The ignition difficulty in pulverized coal greatly varies with the coal properties. According to the individual
coal properties, we will evaluate the burner type, selection of burner design specifications, necessity of auxiliary
burners, and a minimum load which can completely burn coal.
The surface temperature of pulverized coal blown into the furnace rises by its own flame and by the radiant heat
from other high-temperature heat sources in the furnace, and after it reaches a certain level, the coal is ignited, as
commonly explained in the radiant ignition theories. This temperature causing ignition is defined as radiant
ignition temperature. Coal with a higher ignition temperature needs radiant heat from a higher temperature heat
source, and hence stable ignition in the furnace is difficult, causing unstable combustion or increased unburned
hydrocarbon due to the fluctuation of the ignition point. Therefore, special design consideration is required.

Radiant ignition temperature ( C)

Mirror blend


Volatile matter (ash-free basis) (%)

Fig. 2 Relation between volatile matter and radiant ignition temperature

Figure 2 summarizes the relation between the volatile matter in coal and the radiant ignition temperature, when
a small amount of pulverized coal is forcibly fed into the electric furnace in which the temperature can be freely
changed, and is ignited instantly raising shining flames where the ignition temperature is defined as the radiant
ignition temperature.
As shown in the Fig., the radiant ignition temperature drops along with the increase of volatile matter content.
Though the coal with the same amount of volatile matter content shows a variation in r30 C of the radiant
ignition temperature, this variation is considered to be attributed mainly to the difference in the quality of the
volatile matter or calorific values.
The rate of the volatile matter content in domestic coal used in thermal power stations in our country and of
imported coal ranges from 30-50% based on the ash-free basis whereas the radiant ignition temperature ranges
from 600-700 C. From our past experiences, ordinary pulverized coal burning boilers have almost no problem
with the combustion of coal whose radiant ignition temperature is 750 C or less.
Figure 2 shows the comparison of ignitability among coal with different properties, but actual pulverized coal is
transferred by the primary air and continuously blown into the furnace, as shown in Fig.1.
Now let’s consider the ignition of pulverized coal grain assemblages which float and flow with minute intervals
in the primary air flow. The coal grain assemblages in the pulverized coal plume are initially ignited by an igniter.
After the igniter goes off, the grains temperature rises with a time lapse under the heat balance, where the sum of
the calorific value of own flame, the radiant heat from other heat sources and the chemical reaction in the coal
grain assemblages is equivalent to the calorific value which can raise the temperatures of coal grain assemblages
and the primary air around it.

Symbol Pulverized coal

Brand (200/mesh passes)

Pacific Ocean coal

Daido coal

Amount of coal
Ignition distance (m/m)

1. Air temperature Normal


Air flow rate

Temperature in furnace ( C)

Fig. 3 Relation between temperature in furnace and ignition distance

When the surface temperature of the grains in a coal grain assemblage exceeds the coal radiant ignition
temperature, they are ignited, and this position is called the ignition distance from the burner. Because the smaller
the grain intervals in the coal grain assemblage (the grains density is high), the larger the radiant heat from other
burning coal grains, and the smaller the air heat capacity around the coal grains, so the coal grain temperature is
apt to rise and the ignition distance becomes shorter. On the other hand, if the intervals among coal grains are too
small (the coal grains density is too high), it is difficult for the radiant heat from other heat sources to penetrate the
core, and because the oxygen consumption of the grain assemblage exceeds the oxygen amount supplied in the
primary air, it is difficult for the combustion to continue. So the ignition distance, on the contrary, becomes larger.
Thus, the pulverized coal assemblage in the primary air flow has the optimum ignition point for the coal grain
density (the inverse number of primary air/coal ratio).
Also, as you understand easily, pulverized coal ignition is strongly affected by ambient temperature.
As shown in Fig.3, the ignition distance of coal with lower volatile matter drastically increases along with the
ambient temperature drop, compared with that of coal with high volatile matter.
This ignition distance increases due to the ambient temperature drop coinciding with the fact that the lower the
load on the pulverized coal burning boiler, the worse the ignition stability.
Burning velocity coefficient K* (g/cm S)

H coal

G coal

A coal D coal

B coal

Ambient gas temperature = 1,200 C

Ambient oxygen density = 0.04 ala

Fuel ratio (-)

Fig. 4 Relation between burning velocity coefficient and fuel ratio

(2) Burnout Characteristic of Pulverized Coal

The burnout characteristic of pulverized coal is important data to predict the amount of unburned hydrocarbon
generated in pulverized coal burning boilers, to select the degree of necessary coal fineness to maintain unburned
hydrocarbon at a low level, and to determine the furnace dimensions. The burnout characteristic of pulverized coal
greatly varies with coal properties.
Figure4 shows the result when coal grains with various properties are suspended with platinum wire in an
electric furnace, and their combustion-decrease characteristics are measured by microbalance under the condition
of constant oxygen density and gas temperature.
The combustion velocity coefficient K* is represented in the following expression:

(Wo " WE )
K* # ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! (1)
n$Do 2T
K*:combustion velocity coefficient (g/cm2•s)
W: grain weight (g)
D: grain size (cm)
T: combustion period (s)
n: the number of grains (pieces)
Suffixes: O: before combustion E: after combustion

In this figure the larger the coal fuel ratio (the ratio of fixed carbon to volatile matter), the smaller the
combustion velocity coefficient. The coefficient of the coal with a high fuel ratio is approx. 1/2-1/5 that of the coal
with a low fuel ratio.
Because, in actual pulverized coal burning boilers, the gas/coal grain temperature and oxygen density change
when coal moves from the burner exit to the furnace exit, and the combustion is largely rate-controlled by
diffusion resistance in the higher temperature area, as well as by chemical reaction resistance in the lower
temperature area. So it is not appropriate to use the burning velocity coefficient K*, which has been measured
under a certain condition, for the calculation of the burnout in the boiler furnace.
The combustion of pulverized coal grains in the furnace is as per the following expression, where the grain size
is Dp:
d , ro$ 3)
* DP '' # "$DP & K & P ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! (2)
d- + 6 (
1 1 1
# % ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! (3)
K KO K f
Where, the signs are as follows:
K: general combustion velocity coefficient (g/cm2 s)
Kf: combustion velocity coefficient when the oxygen diffusion density in
the gas film is dominant (g/cm2 s)
Kc: combustion velocity coefficient when the chemical reaction rate of
the grain surface is dominant (g/cm2 s)
P: oxygen pressure (atm)
Dp: coal grain size (cm)
ro: specific gravity of coal grain (g/cm3)
-: burning time (s)
The general burning velocity coefficient ‘K’ varies depending on the coal properties in addition to the grain size
and burning area gas temperature. Therefore, in order to lower unburned losses in a pulverized coal burning boiler,
we must know the characteristics of pulverized coal grain’s K, coal grain size Dp (coal fineness), in-furnace
retention time -, and gas temperature distribution and oxygen density distribution in the furnace, and then
determine the furnace dimensions or pulverized coal facilities.
Figure 5 shows the trajectory of the flame axis obtained by simulations of heat-transfer flow in the furnace
using the aforementioned expressions (2) and (3), and the calculation results of the unburned hydrocarbon by
applying the calculation of the gas & oxygen density distribution. The combustion rapidly proceeds in the area
approx. five meters high above the burner toward the furnace exit, but it becomes slower in the area approx. 10
meters high, and the combustion reaction almost does not proceed in the area exceeding 20 meters high due to the
gas temperature drop. Therefore, this suggests that in order to improve the burning efficiency of pulverized coal, it
is more effective to reduce the coal grain size by increasing the coal fineness rather than to lengthen the retention
time in the furnace. Combustion Calculation

(1) Coal Calorific Value
The coal calorific value means calories (kcal) generated when a unit amount (1kg) is completely burned out,
and is defined as two types below:
(1) High heating value (HHV) or gross calorific value (GCV)
(2) Low heating value (LHV) or net calorific value (NCV)

Fuel ratio
Air Primary 82 C/secondary 312 C

Height from the center of the burner

Coal fineness
(200 mesh pass / 100 mesh

Unburned carbon ratio

Fig. 5 Relation between coal fineness and unburned hydrocarbon
The coal calorific value generally means a high heating value, and the measuring method is stipulated in JIS M
The high heating value includes the steam-condensing latent heat (approx. 600kcal/kg) generated by burning
water (W) and hydrogen (H) in coal. However, because in the actual combustion in boilers, this steam is
discharged from the stack without condensing, the latent heat cannot be utilized and the actual coal calorific value
reduces by this amount. The calorific value from which this latent heat has been subtracted is called a low heating
value, and is calculated by the following expression without relying on the actual measurement. (H and W are
LHV = HHV – 6(9H + W) (kcal/kg)
The calorific value is a very important item for combustion calculation. Especially, when it comes to coal, the
calorific values and individual components vary largely with the type of coal - even the same type of coal varies
with the mining layers. So, we must use the results from the same sample for combustion calculation and for all
analytical values.
Many types of calculation formulas can be considered to obtain the calorific value using the coal analytical
values, but those formulas may have omitted complex, chemically-bound heat during coal combustion, or been
determined by natural experiences. So they cannot be applied to every type of coal with high accuracy. Their
values should only be utilized temporarily when the calorific value has not been calculated yet.

Table 2 Component characteristics related to combustion

Molecular weight
Molecular Specific weight Specific constitution
Component Approx.
symbol Exact value kg/Nm3 Nm3kg
Carbon C 12 12.011 - -
Hydrogen H2 2 2.016 0.08997 11.12698
Sulfur S 32 32.064 - -
Oxygen O2 32 31.999 1.42897 0.69980
Nitrogen N2 28 28.013 1.25041 0.79974
Water vapor H2O 18 18.015 0.80374 1.24419
Sulfur dioxide SO2 64 64.053 2.92659 0.34169
Air - 29 28.964 1.29298 0.77341
Carbon dioxide CO2 44 44.010 1.97682 0.50586

The following expressions are typical examples of calorific value calculation in the ultimate analysis and
proximate analysis of coal.
1. Dulong’s expression (from the result of the ultimate analysis of coal)
HHV = 81C + 342.5(H-O/8) + 22.5S (kcal/kg)
Where, C, H, O and S show the wt% of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur, respectively.
2. Kosaka’s expression (from the result of proximate analysis of coal)
HHV = 81Cf + (96 - . ! W) ! (Vm + W) (kcal/kg)
Where, Cf, W and Vm show the wt% of fixed carbon, moisture, and volatile matter, respectively, and is
the coefficient of moisture and is used as the following values:
When W<5.0 = 6.5
When W/5.0 = 5.0

(2) Combustion Air Flow Rate and Combustion Gas Flow Rate
In order to burn fuel completely, it is necessary to supply necessary and adequate air (oxygen) for combustion.
In actual combustion, air and fuel are not mixed ideally and it is difficult to burn fuel completely by the
theoretically necessary combustion air flow rate alone, hence a proper combustion air flow rate is supplied as an
excess air flow rate depending on the fuel in addition to this theoretical combustion air flow rate. Especially, for
pulverized coal burning, a more excessive air flow rate is needed (for bituminous coal with high volatile matter, it
is approx. 1.2-1.25 in the air ratio) because the combustion characteristic is poorer than that of heavy oil or gas
due to the larger-sized, solid grains with the slow combustion velocity.
Though the major components of coal consist of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S)
etc., the combustible components are carbon, hydrogen and sulfur, each of which is completely burned to become
carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), respectively. The entire oxygen in coal is
considered to become water (water vapor) by combining with hydrogen during the combustion.

Table 3 List of Component Combustion Values

Theoretical dry air flow rate Combustion Theoretical Moisture
product dry gas flow amount
Component O2 N2 Air
Upper row: kg/kg Lower row Nm3/kg
Carbon C (CO2)
2.67 8.83 11.50 3.67 12.50 -
1.87 7.02 8.89 1.87 8.89 -
Hydrogen H2 (H2O)
8.00 26.48 34.48 9.00 26.48 9.00
5.60 21.06 26.66 11.19 21.06 11.19
Oxygen O2 -1.00 -3.31 -4.31 - -3.31 -
-0.70 -2.63 -3.33 - -2.63 -
Sulfur S (SO2)
1.00 3.31 4.31 2.00 5.31 -
0.70 2.63 3.33 0.69 3.33 -
Nitrogen N2 - - - - 1.00 -
- - - - 0.80 -
Moisture W - - - - - 1.00
- - - - - 1.24

1. Calculation expressions of combustion air- and gas-flow rates in the ultimate analysis of coal
The combustion air flow rate needed for coal combustion and the generating combustion gas flow rate can
be calculated by the ultimate analysis using the list of component combustion values shown in Table 2. The
calculation results of component combustion are summarized in Table 3.
In this case, it is assumed that air consists of oxygen and nitrogen in a weight ratio of approx. 23.2% and
76.8% each and in a volume ratio of approx. 21% and 79% each.
The following shows the calculation process of the combustion air- and gas- flow rates regarding carbon
in the list, as well as regarding other components.
1 mol C + 1mol O2 = 1mol CO2
12 kgC + 32 kgO2 = 44 kgCO2
Necessary O2 for C 1kg is:
32 2.667
# 2.667 kg or # 1.867 Nm 3
12 1.429
CO2 generation by combustion of C 1kg is:
44 3.667
# 3.667 kg or # 1.867 Nm 3
12 1.977
The theoretical dry air flow rate of C 1kg is:
2.667 0 # 11.496 or
1.867 0 # 8.891Nm 3
N2 in C 1kg of the theoretical dry air is:

2.667 0 # 8.829 or
1.867 0 # 7.024 Nm 3
Theoretically generating combustion gas flow rate of C 1kg is:
CO2 + N2 = 3.667 + 8.829 = 12.496 kg
Or = 1.867 + 7.024 = 8.891Nm3
From the component combustion values shown in Table 2, the theoretical dry air flow rate (Ado) per kg is
represented in the following expression:
6 03
Ado # 11.50C % 34.54H " 1 % 4.31 & S (kg/kg)
5 82
6 03
Ado' # 8.89 & C % 26.7 4H " 1 % 3.33 & S (Nm3/kg)
5 82
Likewise, the theoretical dry gas flow rate (Gdo) is obtained by the following expression:
6 03
Gdo # 12.50C % 26.54H " 1 % 5.31S % N (kg/kg)
5 82
6 03
Gdo' # 8.89C % 21.14H " 1 % 3.33S % 0.80 N (Nm3/kg)
5 82
Supposing that the moisture included in the burning air is Xa (absolute temperature, kg/kg and dry air),
the water vapor flow rate (Wa) is represented in the following expression:
Wa =Xa ! Ado (kg/kg) or
Wa’ = 1.61Xa ! Ado’ (Nm3/kg)
The generating water vapor flow rate (Wf) by the combustion of moisture and hydrogen during burning is
represented in the following expression:
Wf = 9H + W (kg/kg) or
Wf’ = 11.19H + 1.244W (Nm3/kg)
The theoretical wet gas flow rate (Gwo) by which the theoretical dry gas flow rate and the entire water
vapor flow rate are added up is obtained from the following expression:
Gwo = Gdo + W + Wa (kg/kg) or
Gwo’ = Gdo’ + Wf’ + Wa’ (Nm3/kg)
Supposing that the aforementioned air ratio (actual combustion air flow rate plus excess air/theoretical air
ratio) is m, the actual wet air flow rate (Aw) is represented in the following expression:
Aw = m(1 + Xa)Ao (kg/kg) or
Aw’ = m(1+1.61Xa)Ao’ (Nm3/kg)
The actual dry gas flow rate (Gd) and wet gas flow rate (Gw) are obtained from the following expression:
Gd = Gdo + (m-1) ! Ado (kg/kg) or
Gd’ = Gdo’ + (m-1) ! Ado’ (Nm3/kg)
Gw = Gd + Wf + m ! Wa (kg/kg) or
Gw’ = Gd’ + Wf’ m ! Wa’ (Nm3/kg)

2. Exhaust gas component

As aforementioned, if O2 1mol is supplied to C 1mol, CO2 1mol is generated. However, if air is supplied,
exhaust gas consisting of 21% of CO2 and 79% of N2 generates if C is completely burned because the air
consists of 21% of O2 and 79% of N2 (volume ratio). Thus, if the fuel is C alone, the upper limit of CO2 in
the exhaust gas becomes 21% theoretically.
However, in fuel combustion, the exhaust gas component increases while the ratio of CO2 is relatively
smaller due to the other components (S, N, etc) or the excess air flow rate (O2, N2). In this case, the
theoretical CO2 content ratio (CO2max) and the actual CO2 content ratio are obtained by the following
expression. Here, CO is 0, and also what has been taken into account in the actual gas analysis (liquid
absorption method) is that SO2 gas is absorbed together with CO2 and quantified.
CO2max = (1.867C + 0.69S)/Gdo’ 0 100 (dry vol%)
CO2 = (1.867C + 0.69S)/Gdo’ 0 100 (dry vol%)
Also, the other composition in the actual burning gas is obtained from the following expression:
O2 = 21(m-1)Ado’/Gd’ (dry vol%)
N2 = (0.8N + 0.79m ! Ado’)/Gd’0100 (dry vol%)
H2O = (Gw’-Gd’)/Gw’0100 (wet vol%) Generation Mechanism of Nitrogen Oxide

As shown in previous Fig. 1, the pulverized coal burning area is divided into the primary combustion area,
where coal volatile matter is burned, and the secondary combustion areas, where mainly chars are burned. Each
area contains Thermal NOx (NOx which is defined in the Zeldvich mechanism), Prompt NOx (NOx, which is
oxidized after airborne nitrogen combines with hydrocarbon to become NHi compound, and then generates), and
Fuel NOx (NOx which generates by the oxidization of N in fuel). These NOx, which generate in the above
mentioned areas, have the potential to become an NHi compound and to be partially reduced to N2 under the
intervention of hydrocarbon in the insufficient oxygen area at the rear of the combustion area.
N content (%: daf conversion)

Australian G

Japanese A

Chinese D coal

Reactor temperature ( C)
Fig. 6 Relation between the residual nitrogen content in chars and the primary reactor temperature

Base condition

Japanese A coal Chinese D coal

Air ratio in the primary reactor = 0.41
Residual O2 = 3%

Reactor temperature (%)

Fig. 7 Relation between NOx generation amount and reactor temperature

Reactor temperature = 1,350 C South African

Air ratio in the primary reactor = coal
0.41 O1.56%N
Residual O2 =3%
Japanese B
1.1%N Canadian F
Chinese D 1.03%N
Australian coal
Japanese A C coal 0.85%N
coal 1.59%N

Fuel ratio (-)

Fig. 8 Relation between NOx generation amount and coal properties

Japanese A coal
Residual O2 = 3%
Secondary reactor temperature =
1,350 C
Air ratio in the primary reactor =

Primary reactor temperature ( C)

Fig. 9 Relation between Nox generation amount and primary reactor temperature
Thus, the NOx generation characteristic of coal fuel, which includes much organic nitrogen, has an extremely
complex reaction pattern compared with conventional gas or oil fuel. In this section, we will consider the NOx
generation mechanism of fundamental pulverized-coal in the reactor pipe.
First, Fig. 6 shows the volatile matter of organic nitrogen included in coal and its content ratio to char.
According to this Fig., the organic nitrogen ratio included in carbonized char is almost the same as that in raw
coal. This means that both the volatile matter in coal and the char include organic nitrogen almost evenly. Also,
the following shows the investigation result of NOx generation characteristics when pulverized coal is burned in
the primary- and secondary combustion areas separately with two electric-heating-type magnetic reactive pipes
connected by a quartz joint.
Figure 7 shows the comparison of NOx generation amounts in these areas by using (Ar+O2) and (N2+O2) as
combustion carrier gas.
This difference in both areas can be considered to be Thermal NOx (Prompt NOx is included). From the figure,
it is considered that almost all generation is accounted for by Fuel NOx when the reactor temperature is below
1400 C while 25-30% is accounted for by Thermal NOx when the reactor temperature is 1600 C.
Figure 8 shows the comparison of NOx generation amounts when the type of coal is changed under the
primary- and secondary reactors temperature of 1350 C.
The relation between the type of coal and the NOx generation amount cannot be determined by the organic
nitrogen content alone in coal. Rather, it seems to be more understandable by the fuel ratio.
Figure 9 shows the relation between the primary reactor temperature and the NOx generation amount, where
the primary reactor air ratio is set to 0.41.
According to this figure, in the volatile matter burning area of the primary reactor, the higher the reactor
temperature, the lower the NOx generation amount. This phenomenon is seen only in an air-short reductive
atmosphere. Because, generally, the higher the temperature, the greater the volatile amount of carbon hydride and
organic nitrogen in coal, it is considered that when the actual air ratio in the burning area of the primary reactor
further decreases, the NOx generation amount will be lowered.

Japanese A coal
Residual O2 = 3%
Secondary reactor temperature =
1,350 C
Air ratio in the primary reactor =

Retention time (S) in primary reactor

Fig. 10 Relation between Nox generation amount and retention time in primary reactor

Coal Japanese A Char

Residual O2 = 3%
Reactor temperature = 1,350 C

Air ratio (-) in primary reactor

Fig. 11 Comparison of NOx generation amounts between coal and char

Figure 10 shows the variation of the NOx generation amount by setting the air ratio in the primary reactor to
According to this, the longer the coal retention time in the volatile matter burning area of the primary reactor,
the lower the NOx generation amount. This is likely because the organic nitrogen gas (NH3, HCN) etc. generated
in the air-short volatile matter burning area is partially reduced to N2 due to the existence of unburned gas.
Figure 11 shows the relation between the NOx generation amount and the air ratio in the primary reactor.
According to this, the NOx generation amount is largely changed by the air ratio in the primary reactor.

2.6.3 Pulverized Coal Combustion Equipment

The pulverized coal combustion equipment mainly consists of a stoker, coal pulverizer (mill), pulverized-coal
pipe, pulverized-coal burner and furnace (these are fuel supply- and combustion equipment behind the bunker);
and of a primary draft fan (PAF) and air preheater (AH) (these are primary draft equipment).
The above equipments are described below: Pulverized Coal Burning Method

The pulverized coal burning method generally employed is classified into two types: (1) according to the burner
arrangement and (2) according to the method of pulverized coal feed (direct/indirect).
(1) Classification according to burner arrangement
The combustion method is classified into the following according to the relation between the furnace and the
burner arrangement.
Figure 12 shows the combustion method according to the burner arrangement.

(1) Front firing (2) Opposed (3) Tangential (4) Vertical

firing firing firing
(Lateral side)

(Front side)

(Lateral side)
(Surface side)

Fig. 12 Combustion methods according to burner arrangement

1. Horizontal firing (horizontal combustion)
The method, where burners are placed at the front or rear of the furnace wall, is called a front firing or rear
firing method, while the method, where burners are placed at both the front and rear sides of the walls, is

called an opposed firing method. In these methods, circling motions are given to combustion air to shorten
flames and the fuel and air are circulated and mixed, thereby forming high temperature flames.

2. Tangential corner firing

In this method, burners are placed at the four corners of the furnace, from which pulverized coal and air
are injected tangentially into a virtual circle in the center of the furnace. Each burner independently forms a
flame while the entire flame is swirling slowly in the furnace to form a single flame (fireball), featuring a
long flame trajectory and slow combustion.



preheater Induced draft fan

Electric dust

Forced draft fan

Secondary air Steam air preheater

Primary draft fan
Coal Coal pulverizer
Seal air fan

Primary air Fig. 13 Direct combustion method

3. Vertical firing (vertical combustion)

Burners are installed downward from the ceiling of the lower furnace, where pulverized coal and air are
injected downward once, but the flames flow upward while burning. Since the frame trajectory adopts a
U-shape, it is also called U-firing. In this method, because the combustion time can be longer and the
radiation from flames is received at the burner, the burner’s heat load becomes larger, and because the
pulverized coal injection speed can be lowered, the combustibility and ignitability are better. This is
generally suitable for coal such as anthracite whose combustibility is poor.

(2) Classification According to Pulverized Coal Feed Method

The pulverized coal burning system is classified into the following according to the difference in pulverized
coal feed methods:
(1) Direct combustion method (direct system)
(2) Storing combustion method (bin system)
The direct combustion system, which has had rich achievements, has generally been employed as a standard of
boilers for bituminous coal with high volatile matter.
On the other hand, the bin system has been employed since long ago for the purpose of combustion
improvement in boilers for anthracite coal with low volatile matter of approx. 15% or less. Each method has the
following characteristics:

1. System of combustion method

In the case of the direct combustion method (Fig.13), coal from the bunker is flow-controlled and fed to
the mill by the stoker. Next, the pulverized coal, which has been ground in the mill and dried, is directly
transferred and fed to the burner by the primary air through the pulverized-coal pipe. Hence, the fuel
system and arrangement after the mill are simple.
Though, in the case of the bin system there are various patterns, this example (Fig.14) shows the system
which uses exhaust gas for transferring and drying pulverized coal in the mill.
The bin system is fundamentally different from the direct combustion method in terms of the system after
the mill, and is more or less complex, having more devices. To dry pulverized coal in the mill, combusted
exhaust-gases taken from the entrance and exit of the air preheater are utilized, and each amount of the
gases is adjusted so that they reach the necessary temperature at the mill entrance.
The gas-mixed pulverized coal from the mill is separated into pulverized coal and exhaust gas when it
passes through the cyclone (primary) and the bag filter (secondary). The pulverized coal captured here is
stored in the bin while the exhaust gas is returned to the air preheater exit by the exhaust fan.
The pulverized coal is transferred by the pulverized-coal stoker from the bin to the burner entrance, where
it is blended with the primary air and fed into the burner.

2. Operability
In the direct combustion method, the mill operation and burner operation are directly interlocked, and the
load operation is restricted both by the mill operation (the minimum mill load and the dynamics including
mill startup) and by the combustibility at the burner.

Bag filter
Bunker Stack

Exhaust fan

Screw conveyor

Induced draft
Coal fan

Pulverized-coal Electric dust
air preheater
bin collector

Stoker Forced draft facfan

Steam air preheater

Primary draft fan

Distributor Secondary air

Primary air Fig. 14 Bin system for pulverized coal

In the bin system, coal grinding and drying in the mill and combustion at the burner can be separated, so
there is no operation restriction by the mill in terms of the load operation, but the combustion alone at the
burner is restricted. This is a little more advantageous than the direct combustion method.

3. Combustibility
In the direct combustion method, when a mill load is low, the air/fuel ratio becomes larger as the load is
lowered, thereby combustibility is apt to worsen.
In the bin system, as aforementioned, grinding and drying in the mill and the pulverized coal input to the
burner can be independently operated (however, within the bin’s capacity), and the coal moisture
evaporated in the mill is discharged outside the system. Therefore, the burner can ensure the optimal, dried
primary air/ratio with high to low load. This is especially much better for combustibility with a low load
than in the direct combustion method. However, the direct combustion method can also maintain
combustibility equivalent to that in the bin system by employing a high turndown burner (where an
air-pulverized coal mixture is separated into thick and thin types to burn).

4. Maintainability
In the direct combustion method, the greater the number of mills, the more frequent the maintenance and
services of the mills, but it is possible to schedule the intervals of maintenance and services by installing
backup mills.
In the bin system, the mill’s maintenance and services become easier because the number of mills can be
reduced. And mills can be halted for a short time (depending on the bin capacity), during which
maintenance is possible. However, the frequency of maintenance and services for other devices (a cyclone,
bag filter, exhaust fan, etc) increases.

5. Safety
In the direct combustion method, special safety measures are not needed because there is no pulverized
coal storage, whereas in the bin system, strict safety measures (sealing the bin by inert gas, installing
electrostatic, explosion-proof-type explosion doors, enhancing monitor systems, arranging fire
extinguishing equipment, etc.) are required in order to prevent pulverized coal in the bin from sparking and
exploding. Furnace
Furnaces must fulfill certain functions: to convert the chemical energy of fuel into thermal energy effectively,
that is to say, to have combustion equipment (a chamber) to burn fuel completely; and to let the internal can-water
absorb generated heat through the surrounding water pipes. For these purposes, furnaces must be equipped with
the proper type and quantity of burners according to the fuel, and have the appropriate shape and space to
completely burn fuel, as well as the structure to withstand the thermal load.

bituminous coal Heavy oil

Fig. 15 Conceptual comparison of fuel and furnace size

Especially, because the coal (pulverized coal) combustibility is fairly inferior to that of other fuels (heavy oil,
gas, etc.), a larger sized chamber (furnace) is required. The furnace size must be selected by taking into account
the combustibility and also the slagging characteristic of coal (ash adherence to the furnace).
Figure 15 shows the comparison between the type of fuel and furnace size.
As shown in the comparison between the type of coal (coal rank) and furnace size in Fig. 16, the furnace size
varies largely with the type of coal. The difference in some furnaces is larger than that in fuels (typical bituminous
coal and heavy oil).
For recent furnace walls, a welded wall structure, where both pipes are welded by a fin or a weld metal to
ensure air tightness of the furnace, has been employed to decrease heat losses and repair costs. Pulverized Coal Burner

The coal combustion method generally employed is mainly classified into two types: the grate-type combustion
method in which coal is not ground; and the burner combustion method in which coal is pulverized into minute
grains by the coal pulverizer and float-fired in the air.
Though the former features relatively less power consumption and less flying ash, it is not suitable as
combustion equipment for large capacity boilers.
On the other hand, the latter uses pulverized-coal burners to feed pulverized coal into the furnace and burn it.
Compared with the grate-type combustion method, this has many advantages: (1) excess air is less and the
combustion efficiency is high, (2) adjustment of load and combustion is easier and ignition and extinguishing time
is shorter, (3) automatic control is easier, and (4) combustion by mixing with liquid- or gas fuel is easier.

Bituminous coal Semi-bituminous
with medium Brown coal Brown coal
coal with high Brown coal
volatile matter with low Na with medium
volatile matter with High Na

Fig. 16 Conceptual comparison of coal rank and furnace size

In the pulverized coal burner, a premixed airflow of both the pulverized coal ground by the pulverizer and the
primary air is injected into the furnace through a boxy or cylindrical nozzle, and from the vicinity of this nozzle,
the secondary air heated by the air preheater is blown in. The pulverized coal, which has been injected together
with the primary air, diffuses rapidly while slowing the speed after coming out of the nozzle, and is ignited and
burned while mixing with the secondary air from the outside by receiving radiant heat from the high-temperature
furnace wall and flames. The flow rate of the mixed gas of pulverized coal and primary air is set by taking into
account the flame velocity and the pulverized coal settling velocity.
Figures 17-19 show the structures of typical pulverized coal burners. The burners in Figs. 17 and 18 have been
designed so that the rotating device gives rotating motions to the mixed gas of pulverized coal and primary air.
The pulverized coal burner in Fig. 19, called a tangential tilting burner, has been designed so that the nozzle of
the burner tip moves up and down each at the angle of approx. 30 degrees to adjust steam temperature.
Either burner is usually equipped with an ignition burner in the center or the side.
The pulverized coal burner requires maintenance because the tip is especially apt to be deformed and damaged
by receiving radiant heat in the furnace and vulnerable to abrasion by pulverized coal. Therefore, recently new
techniques have been developed for durability improvement, such as lining the burner with material (made into a
tile form) - ceramic etc. with high heat and abrasion resistance -, or flame-spray coating the surface. Some of them
have been practically used.

Air adjustment handle


Ignition burner
Air cylinder


Air cylinder

Heavy oil burner

Pulverized coal

Pulverized coal


Air register (circular type)

Inspection window

Fig. 17 Circular burner

In addition to the abovementioned durability, the following functions are required for pulverized coal burners:
(1) Low NOx combustibility
(2) High turndown
The background is: nowadays we must comply with strict environmental regulations; our country has been
importing coal from all over the world, hence we must deal with such various properties of foreign coal; the need
for coal-fired power as intermediate-load thermal power has been rising because nuclear power generation has
recently increased and the difference between the day and night power demands has increased.
Next, a representative low NOx burner is described below:
Figure 20 shows the structure of a DF inter-vane pulverized coal burner.
The secondary air is supplied toward the burner throat through two independent channels so that flames are
stabilized and the mixture of fuel and secondary air can be adjusted. The circular nozzle, from which fuel is
injected, consists of an outer casing and a combustion liner. Each end of the nozzle is narrowed down so that the
fuel concentrates on the center of the axis. The end of the combustion liner can be moved toward the axis, thereby
adjusting the mixture of fuel and secondary air.
Figure 21 shows the structure of the NR burner.
The pulverized-coal nozzle is placed in the center of the burner. On the concentric circle of the outer periphery,
a cylindrical nozzle is mounted to supply inner-peripheral burning-air. Furthermore, outside of this, a
burning-air-rotating device is installed to adjust outer-peripheral burning-air. Around the periphery of the
pulverized-coal nozzle tip, a ceramic-made flame-stabilizer ring is mounted so that minute vortices can be
generated in the pulverized coal flow, enabling quick ignition of the pulverized coal, and stabilizing
high-temperature reduction flames of excess fuel.

Shroud ring

outer casing
combustion liner
Oil burner

Tertiary damper
Front Vane support
plate plate
Tertiary air pipe Vane

Fig. 18 Inter-vane type burner

Secondary air
(heavy oil burner)

Pulverized coal +
primary air

Secondary air
(heavy oil burner)

Fig. 19 Tangential tilting burner

Figure 22 shows a pulverized coal PM burner.

This burner utilizes the characteristic that NOx generating during pulverized-coal combustion decreases at both
the thick/thin pulverized-coal density sides after the primary air/coal weight ratio reaches 3-4. That is to say, by
installing a distributor at the burner entrance, the air-fuel mixture, whose usual primary-air/coal weight ratio is 2-3,
is divided into the higher and lower mixtures of the pulverized coal density, and is fed into the furnace through
separate nozzles and burned so that NOx becomes lowest.
The high-turndown burner, in principle, divides the air-fuel mixture of pulverized coal into thick and thin

mixtures. Though with common burners, the pulverized coal density becomes lower and the ignition stability
worsens when the burner load is lower, this high-turndown burner maintains better ignition stability with this thick
mixture even when the burner load is low.

Primary air + pulverized coal

Burner tile cooling air

Separate plate

Combustion liner Moving

combustion Flow divider
driving device
Heavy oil entrance liner

Pitot tube
Primary air + pulverized coal

Combustion Heavy oil burner

liner Inner secondary air
Purge air connection inlet Outer secondary air
Secondary-air vane casing
opening/closing device Inner-vane
Furnace front
Tertiary air damper Heat sealed plate wall and furnace
wall pipe
Secondary-air vane
Inner-vane opening/closing device
Secondary air
Tertiary air pipe
Pulverized coal entrance manifold

Heat pipe

Fig. 20 DF inter-vane pulverized coal burner

Figures 23 and 24 show high-turndown burners. The aforementioned PM is also a high-turndown burner.
The burner in Fig. 23 is called a split burner. The burner body has a diaphragm and the nozzle tip has a deflector.
When a primary-air-fuel mixture flows through the bend section of the burner entrance, the high mixture (bend
outer-periphery side) and the low mixture (inner-periphery side) of the pulverized coal density are divided by the
centrifugal force of the pulverized coal.

Pilot torch High-performance

combustion-air circling path

Flame stabilizing
(with ceramic parts)

Guide sleeve

Pulverized coal + Outer-periphery

primary air combustion air
combustion air
Fig. 21 NR burner

Fig. 22
Pulverized coal PM

Burner front side Burner side face Variable separator

Coal nozzle tip Horizontal diaphragm

Seal plate Coal nozzle
Thick mixture

Thin mixture No kicker


Fig. 23 Split burner

Pulverized coal entrance
(primary air)

High load position

Low load position

Low load position

High load

(2) (3)




Tertiary air Secondary air

(1) Split damper (2) Traverse-mounted cyclone (3) Cyclone

exit damper (4) Pilot torch (5) Swirler (6) Burner nozzle (7) Oil
burner (8) Tertiary damper (9) Low load nozzle

Fig. 24 Wide-range burner

In the wide-range burner in Fig.24, the traverse-mounted separator on the burner entrance separates the
pulverized coal flow into high-density and low-density.

Mill outlet damper


Oil pressure
load equipment

Separator body

Body liner
Pull ring

Fig. 25 Bowl mill Coal Pulverizer (hereafter referred to as mill)

The coal pulverizer is the most important equipment to govern the operability and reliability of coal burning
boilers. Therefore, an optimum mill type must be selected from the comprehensive viewpoint according to the
coal properties and the operation conditions. The mills are classified broadly according to the grinding method,
structure, and draft method. As far as the mills used in thermal power stations are concerned, they can be
classified into the following:
(1) Upright mill
(2) Hammer mill and beater wheel mill
Upright mills are suitable for bituminous coal, semi-bituminous coal and part of brown coal; tube mills and
beater wheel mills are used for high-ash content coal; and hammer mills are used for high-moisture brown coal.
Nowadays, domestic coal burning boilers mainly use an upright mill for the following reasons:
1) It can be used for broad types of coal and is suitable for bituminous and semi-bituminous coal burned in
domestic boilers.
2) It needs low consumption power.
3) It is easy to adjust the pulverization degree and start/stop, and excellent in load responsiveness.
4) Necessary floor space is smaller and noise is smaller.
(1) Upright Mill
1. Structure
Figures 25-29 show the structures of various types of upright mills.
The upright mills mainly consist of a reducer section, grinding and drying section, and coarse grain separator
Raw coal (1)
Pulverized coal



Hot air

(1) Pulverized-coal pipe (2) Vane driving equipment

(3) Coarse-grain separator vane (4) Reject shoot
(5) Stoker pipe (6) Grinding roller (three pieces)
(7) Roller pressurizer (8) Air port ring
(9) Table segment (10) Grinding table
(11) Foreign substance discharge scraper
(12) Foreign substance discharge hole (13)Reducer
Fig. 26 Upright MBF mill: drawing of whole assembly
Coal, which is fed from the stoker through the stoker pipe positioned in the center of the mill, falls into the
rotating bowl (table), and is spread by centrifugal force, forming a coal layer. This coal layer is inserted between
the roll and the segment liner on the bowl (table), and ground by the roll with the grinding load applied to the roll
by the loading device.
The pulverized coal is blown up by hot air, which is fed by the periphery of the grinding section, and classified
by the upper classifier while being dried. There are two types of classifiers: a fixed type cyclone separator and a
rotary separator. Nowadays, the rotary separator (Fig. 29) is often used because of high combustion efficiency and
energy saving. This provides a high pulverization degree of more than 90% by 200-mesh passing.
The foreign substances and pyrite mixed in coal fall from the air blow section to beneath the bowl, and are
discharged by the scraper into the pyrite hopper through the pyrite discharge pipe.


Primary air

and drain

Fig. 27 Cross-sectional view of large scale E mill

Mill exit stop-valve

Stoker pipe entrance section

Mill upper

Coarse grain
Sealing air piping
support leg

Loading rod
seal Spring frame
Pressure frame Grinding Spring
Loading rod -roller Mill intermediate
ring seat housing
Grinding ring
Throat ring
Lower housing Ring seat
Pyrite Yoke Primary air inlet

Pyrite box

seal air Gear box

Fig. 28

Nowadays, coal burning boilers have often employed pressure mills whose abrasive exhausters need not be
repaired. For these mills, seal air is supplied to prevent pulverized coal leak. Also as a measure to prevent coal
blockage in the stoker pipe, a rotary-type pipe is mounted.

Raw coal

Stoker pipe
Classifier driving
Outlet port

Rotary type classifier

loading device Hot-air inlet

Pull ring


Fig. 29 MRS type bowl mill

2. Operation and maintenance

The operation of upright mills is simple and start/stop operation can be completely automated.
Also, the wide range of the mill operation load adjustment is important for coal boiler operability.
The upright mill is available for 40-50% turndown, but recently some types of upright mills have become
available for high-turndown operation up to 30% or less.
For mills operation, the maintenance of abrasive parts is also extremely important. So, studies have been
conducted to develop abrasion-resistant materials and to simplify the replacement of roll rings, liners, etc. As for
the material of rolls, in addition to conventional abrasion-resistant cast iron, curing cladding-welding material
with several times abrasion-resistance of cast iron has also been used.
Because the life of the grinding section varies with the coal properties and the operation conditions, etc, it is
necessary to measure periodically the abrasion depth of the rolls or segments of each plant and to schedule the
intervals of replacement. Generally, rolls/rings/liners replacement is conducted in such a manner that one unit of
extra mill per boiler is installed, and maintenance intervals are set, and each mill is maintained sequentially.

Fig. 30 Tube mill

Fig. 31 Structure of horizontal-type bowl mill

Pulverized coal + gas mixture

Hot gas + coal

Pulverizer housing

Pulverizer wheel
Hot air (for sealing)

Coal pulverizer
gate mill gage Abrasion-resistant
Primary grinder

Bearing Driving machine

Fig.32 Beater wheel mill

(2) Hammer mill and beater wheel mill
The hammer mill is a machine that smashes coal with the beating impacts of many hammers or heads rotated at
high-speed. This is used for inferior coal (high moisture coal, brown coal) or to grind coal coarsely. (Fig.32)
Many hammer mills have been used for brown-coal burning boilers in Europe and Australia, but our country
has no application example. Stoker
The stoker is equipment which plays an essential role to determine the combustion rate corresponding to the
load variation and maintain the optimum air/fuel ratio in the coal combustion system.
The most important point when selecting a stoker is that it feeds the correct amount of coal into the pulverizer
from the bunker or silo smoothly and uniformly according to the fuel demand signals.
The following are the types and characteristics of stokers commonly used for pulverized coal boilers.
(1) Belt-type volumetric feeder
This stoker, using rubber belts, has a stable feeding capacity because coal is cut out equally in width and height.
With little interruption of coal feeding and good maintainability, this is generally used for pulverized coal
combustion equipment. Since this is a volume-control type, the coal weight sometimes varies according to the
coal density variation.

(2) Belt-type gravimetric feeder
Figure 33 shows the structure of the belt-type gravimetric feeder.
This is a belt-type stoker equipped with a measuring mechanism with a load cell. Because the fuel demand can
be met based on the coal weight and the feeding is exact and stable, the fuel variation caused by the coal density is
Thus, because the fuel is correctly controlled and the weight and flow measurements are highly accurate and
maintainability is also excellent, this is suitable for sophisticated plant control with a calculator. Primary Draft Equipment

In the direct combustion method, the primary air is used for not only burning pulverized coal, but also drying
and transferring it to the burner in the mill.
In the primary draft system, the primary draft fan (PAF) is placed in two methods relative to the air preheater
(AH) according to the air temperature: a Cold Primary Air Fan method (PAF is installed upstream of the AH,
dealing with cold air) and a Hot Primary Air Fan method (PAF is installed downstream of the AH in the upstream
of the mill, dealing with hot air).
Figure 34 shows the comparison among these circuits.
(1) Comparison between Cold PAF and Hot PAF methods
1. PAF capacity
Cold PAF has a capacity to deal with a primary air flow rate of all mills by one to two PAFs (depending on the
number of draft circuits) regardless of the number of mills.
Coal entrance

(from bunker)

Dresser coupling Measuring span roller

Measuring module
Puddle switch for on-belt coal
Entrance door
Measuring shortage monitor
Entrance gate Head pulley Illuminating lamp
End plate roller
(fixed type)

Measuring span

Exit door

Belt scraper
Coal exit

Cell preening
(to mill)

Cleaning conveyor Tension pulley Cleaning-conveyor

take-up pulley Support roller
Seal air manifold chain sprocket
Cleaning conveyor
Belt take-up adjust screw chain take-up

Fig. 33 Belt-type gravimetric feeder

On the other hand, Hot PAF is installed in the one PAF - one mill base and the capacity is one mill’s worth of
the primary air amount, so the same number of units as that of mills is required.
Comparing the total capacities (power) of each method, the Hot PAF method, which deals with hot air, has
larger capacity.
2. AH type
In the Cold PAF method, the air pressure in the primary air circuit is higher than that in the secondary air circuit,
so the AH flow path must be divided into two: for the primary and for the secondary.
The AH is mainly classified into two: an integrated type and a separate type, as shown in Fig. 35. For common
pulverized coal burning boilers, the integrated AH type is often employed because the duct and AH placement
become simpler and the necessary space is smaller.
In the Hot PAF method, the air pressure in the primary air circuit is lower than that in the secondary circuit, so
the AH flow path need not be separated for the primary and the secondary. Figure 34 shows a standard type of AH,
through which the total air flow rate of the primary and secondary air circuits passes AH and then the primary hot
air diverges to be absorbed by PAF.
3. Operation power

Cold PAF method Hot PAF method

Mill Mill


Primary hot air

Primary cold air

Secondary air

Secondary air
Primary hot
Primary cold air



Fig. 34 Comparison of PAF systems

When operated with high load using many mills, the Cold PAF method has high fan efficiency because fewer
PAFs deal with the primary air flow rate necessary for the operation of all moving mills, and the power
consumption is smaller than that of Hot PAF since cold air is dealt with.
On the contrary, when operated with low load using fewer mills, the Hot PAF method consumes smaller power
in total than that of the Cold PAF method (if the Cold PAF efficiency drops notably with low load) because the
idling mill’s PAFs can be stopped and the fan efficiency of the moving PAFs is as high as that during high load
operation with the high mill load.
4. Operability
Integrated type
Separate type
Twin flow type Tri-sector type
From boiler From boiler From boiler
To mill To To
To boiler mill mill
To boiler
To boiler

Inner Outer Three- way split

periphery periphery

From FDF From

From From From From
From IDF From IDF From IDF
Secondary air
Secondary air
Gas Gas
Primary air Gas

Primary air Primary air

Primary air Distribution adjustment of gas flow Distribution adjustment of gas flow
rate to primary- and secondary AHs rate to primary- and secondary air
Positive- and inverse rotations
temperature are available and large change
can be available sides can be available
control alone is possible
Duct work Slightly complex Relatively simple Relatively simple

Construction cost, power

cost and air leak amount Almost same

Fig. 35 Comparison of AH types in Cold PAF method

When the mill load and moisture in coal are changed, the necessary temperature at the mill entrance is changed.
The Hot PAF is affected directly by this temperature change and its operation point changes. However, the Cold
PAF is always constant in cold air. Even when necessary temperature at the mill entrance is changed (a change in
the ratio of hot air to cold air), the Cold PAF is less affected by air volume and air pressure fluctuation, and easily

5. Economic efficiency
As for equipment cost, AH is higher and PAF is lower in the Cold PAF method than in the Hot PAF method, but
these cannot simply be compared because, as a matter of fact, they largely vary with equipment arrangement, duct
work, etc. As for operation power, the efficiency is reversed depending on the operation load area, as
aforementioned, so it is necessary to estimate the economic effect comprehensively, including operation patterns,
to decide the path to be taken.
Generally speaking, high-capacity, exclusive coal-combustion boilers often employ the Cold PAF method while
small-capacity boilers with fewer mills or co-combustion boilers often employ the Hot PAF method.
(2) PAF placement and type
In the Cold PAF method, there are two ways to place PAF: in series with FDF or in parallel with FDF. The
comparison between them is shown in Table 4.
Regarding the PAF types, a centrifugal type has traditionally been used because the air pressure required by
PAF is high and flat across the entire area as shown in Fig. 36 and because the conventional axial-flow fans could
not be enlarged or improved in performance to prevent surging.
Nowadays, the axial-flow fans have been improved against surging characteristics, and some of them have been
provided with a casing treatment suitable for the rotating-blade tips to enhance the fan efficiency. Bunker
The design of bunkers must be fully considered so that they do not cause coal retention or blockage because
such bunker problems are crucial issues causing a load decrease or unit trip in the power stations.
(1) Design of bunker
1. Capacity
The bunker capacity is determined by the following expressions:
The coal amount stored within an available feeding time is:
Vc #
Hence, the bunker capacity becomes V #
(8 / 100)
However, V: bunker capacity (m3)
Vc: storage capacity (m3)
Q: feeding capacity (conveyor capacity) (t/h)
T: available feeding time (h)
!: coal volume specific gravity (foreign coal generally has approx. 0.8) (t/m3)
8: volumetric efficiency (the ratio of storage capacity to bunker capacity is generally 0.6-1.0)
Table 4 Comparison between PAF layouts
System type PAF-FDF series configuration PAF/FDF parallel configuration

System structure

Boiler Mill Boiler Mill

FDF air flow rate is larger but PAF air FDF air flow rate decreases by the
pressure decreases by the amount of amount of PAF air flow rate compared
Fundamental characteristics
FDF discharged air pressure compared with the method described at left.
with the method described at right.
The method with a higher economic effect should be employed by taking into
account the characteristics of primary- and secondary air flow rates and air
Selection criterion
pressure required by the pulverized coal combustion equipment as well as the
characteristics of fans (varies with the types).

2. Bunker shape
Generally, there are two types of bunkers: a conical shape and a pyramidal shape. They are almost the same in
flow characteristics in a bunker, but the conical shape is excellent in the space-occupation rate while the pyramidal
shape is excellent in strength.
3. Inclination angle of hopper wall face
In order for coal to assume an arch shape and not to cause blockage in the bunker, the arch bending moment
must be large. Because the arch bending moment is proportional to the squared distance between the fulcrums and
to the load applied to the arch, the cross-sectional area of the exit and the inclination angle of the wall face must
be more or less large. Generally, an angle of more than 70 degrees has been employed.

Characteristic of
conventional type PAF
(large type) (With casing
Air pressure H (mmH2O)



Necessary Q-H characteristic

Conventional type PAF (without casing treatment)

Air flow rate Q (m /min.)

Fig. 36 PAF characteristic improvement provided with casing treatment

4. Bunker exit
Though the bunker exit is restricted by the diameter of the downspout or the stoker, the larger the bunker exit,
the better blockage prevention. There is a method to enlarge the cross-sectional area of the main bunker exit by
installing a sub-bunker under the bunker.
5. Material
Almost all bunkers are made of steel plates. The bunker exit, where blockage is most apt to occur, is usually
provided with a lining of high corrosion resistant stainless steel or polymeric synthetic resin. Also, Gunite is
sometimes used as a lining material on the vertical section by taking into account the resistance to abrasion.

Adhesive coal
Non adhesive

Plug flow Mass flow

(core flow)

Fig. 37 Plug flow and mass flow

(2) Flow form and the determination factors

There are two types of coal flow forms: a plug flow (core flow) and a mass flow.
In the plug flow, as shown in Fig.37, the coal near the bunker wall does not move but the coal in or around the
center only flows out. On the contrary, in the mass flow, the coal in the bunker gradually flows out from the lower
position of the bunker.

Therefore, the mass flow does not retain coal for a long time in the bunker, but the plug flow always retains
coal in the lower position in the bunker.
The flow form is mainly determined by the following factors:
1. Type of coal
Adhesive coal is apt to take the plug flow pattern, causing blockage.

2. Inclination angle of hopper wall face

It is confirmed by the experiments that if the inclination angle of the wall face exceeds 65-70 degrees, the
flow separates into a mass flow and a plug flow.

3. Material for bunker inner face

When corrosion-prone material, such as steel plates, is used for a bunker inner face, corroded portions cause
an adherence phenomenon, resulting in the retention or blockage of coal. Hence, corrosion resistant material is
usually used: the inner face is often provided with a lining of high corrosion resistant stainless steel or
polymeric synthetic resin to prevent corrosion.
(3) Coal properties and blockage
1. Repose angle
The larger the coal grains the more often blockage occurs. The coal flow is affected by grain size distribution,
ash and clay contents and moisture as mentioned below (Fig. 38).
cross-sectional area of the exit (gkm s)
Bunker discharge flow-rate per
Repose angle

Moisture (%) Repose angle (degree)

Fig. 38 Repose angle and blockage

2. Grain size distribution

The finer the grains, the more blockage is apt to occur, though slightly different according to the moisture
3. Ash and clay contents
Ash and clay contents are no problem if their surface moisture is slight. But if it is large, adherence occurs,
resulting in blockage.
4. Moisture
Moisture (especially surface moisture) is a crucial factor. The smaller the grain, the larger the influence, and
10-15% moisture has the highest possibility of causing blockage. However, when exceeding this rate, on the
contrary, adhesiveness decreases. This means that when moisture is slight, it exists as a film over a grain surface,
causing surface friction among coal grains, whereas when moisture increases, this film breaks, developing
lubricating action.
(4) Blockage prevention measures
As aforementioned, blockage can be significantly prevented by bunker specifications by considering the coal
flow- and hopper discharge characteristics, but the following methods are also effective for blockage:
(1) Blending coal
(2) Installing a corner plate
(3) Providing a poking hole and a hammering seat
(4) Installing an air-blaster
(5) Installing a vibrator

2.7 Examples for the Operation of Soot Blowers

Reduction of Steam Volume by Revising the Operation of

Low Load Soot Blowers㩷 in Tsuruga Thermal Power Plant
The Sun
Shift C
Power Generation Environment
Tsuruga Thermal Power Plant
Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Ltd.

䃁 Keywords: radiation, prevention of thermal loss due to thermal conduction

䃁 Outline of the Theme
Rapid surges electric load are frequently observed early in the morning at coal thermal power plants. For
Unit 1 of Tsuruga Thermal Power Plant, when an electric load range of less than 250 MW continued for 8
hours or more, all soot blowers were activated to uplift the electric load. In this project, an examination was
to determine which soot blowers should be turned on to improve the soot blower operations and maintain the
electric load the volume of steam at appropriate levels.

䃁 Period of the Study (April 2001 – March 2003)

䍃 Planning: 6 months (April – September 2001)
䍃 Measures Taken: 12 months (October 2001 – September 2002)
䍃 Assessment of Results: 6 months (October 2002 – March 2003)
䃁 Outline of Tsuruga Thermal Power Plant
䍃 Production: Electricity (Unit 1: 500 MW, Unit 2: 700 MW)
䍃 Employees: 107
䍃 Annual consumption of energy (as of FY2002)
Coal: 2,294,398 (ton)
Heavy Oil: 3,355 (kl)
䃁 Outline of the Facility

High temperature
reheated steam pipe
Detailed drawing
Main steam pipe of the boiler

WW3 level
WW2 level

WW1 level
Condenser Low temperature Boiler
reheated steam pipe
Soot blower
Main water feed pipe
Water feed
Fig. 1: Outline of the Facility

1.㩷 Background of the Theme Selection
There is a growing gap in electricity consumption between daytime and nighttime. Even in coal thermal
power plants, electric load adjustment is frequently performed excluding the high electric load time. In Unit
1 of Tsuruga Thermal Power Plant, all soot blowers set up in the plant used to be turned on to uplift the
power from the low electric load range to the high electric load range to compensate for the gap in the
electric demand. Before doing so, the unit was subject to be in low electric load operation for 2 hours and
45 minutes before starting the blowers. The way the soot blowers are used is subject to a revision in this
project to smoothen the shift from the low electric load to the high electric load range, to minimize the
transition time of electric load restriction and to lower the volume of steam consumed.

2.㩷 Current Conditions and Analysis

(1) Current Conditions
a. Aim and Type of Soot Blowers
Coal contains 10% ash, and combustion of coal generates even more ash. When the ash is deposited in the
steam pipe, the heat transfer performance decreases. The thicker the ash layer on the pipe, the greater the
heat transfer performance deteriorates causing a decrease in steam temperature. The ash layer is not
uniformly distributed throughout the pipe, but attaches in a random manner on the inner wall of the pipe.
This causes difference in temperature of the metal surface of the pipe, increases thermal stress and may
damage to the pipe. In order to remove the ash, a soot blower is used. As shown in Fig. 2 and 3, a lance
tube rotates and moves forward driven by a motor and injects high pressure steam from the nozzle attached to
it to clean the thermal transfer surface of the boiler.

Swivel tube Steam pipe


Ash (deposits)
Fig. 2 Appearance of a Furnace Soot Blower


Lance tube Ash (deposits)

Steam valve

Fig. 3: Appearance of a Long Soot Blower

Table 1 shows the types of soot blowers. The blowers are installed as shown in Fig. 1 considering the
balance of collecting thermal energy by the boiler.
Table 1: Types of Soot Blowers
Nos. of Moving Steam
Type R.P.M.
Units distance consumption
Furnace soot
Furnace (WW) 54 290(mm) 1.0(rpm) 35.5(kg/pc.)
Superheater (SH) 16
Long soot Reheater (RH) 10
7,950(mm) 16.9(rpm) 656.5(kg/pc.)
blower Rear thermal
transmission part
Air preheater 䌁䌈 2 2,540(mm) 䋭 7,300(kg/pc.)
Total 90 䋭 䋭 24,240(kg)

b. Operation of Soot Blowers
Figures 4, 5 and 6 show the process of operating a soot blower, rotation mode and the relationship between
the stain indicator and the soot blower respectively. In the high electric load range (250 MW or above), the
stain indicator is calculated to express the condition of ash deposited onto the thermal transfer surface, to
automatically operate the soot blower to the ash deposit areas only. However, in the low electric load range
(less than 250 MW), the stain indicator calculation is unreliable, necessitating operation of all soot blowers,
otherwise ash cannot be removed completely from all the areas of the thermal transmission area, causing
temperature surge of the metal surfaces and widened difference in the internal wall temperature of the

transmission surfaces

Decrease of thermal

surface temperature
Combustion of coal

Attachment of ash

Increase of metal
Increase of coal
to the thermal

Soot blowing

Fig. 4: Process of Soot Blowing

"Operation Mode" "Soot Blower to be Operated"

Soot Blower Start Graph
Sequence Control All units Stop

Automatic Area of ash deposits (of over Stain Indicator Graph

Combustion Control and above the designated stain
indicator level)
Load of 250 MW or above

Fig. 5: Operation Mode of Soot Blowers Fig. 6: Soot Blower and Stain Indicators

(2) Analysis of the Current Conditions

In the electric load range shown in Fig. 7, the thermal collection performance of the furnace is not balanced.
If a soot blower is used, the boiler is subject to a disturbance and hence, the areas for which soot blowing is
prohibited are designated. If the low electric load condition continues for 8 hours or more after all soot
blowers are operated before decreasing the electric load to the low electric load area, the thermal
transmission surface is stained with uneven distribution of ash deposits. Thus, the duration of 2 hours and
45 minutes is set during which the low electric load condition is maintained, and, after 2 hours and 45
minutes, soot blowing is conducted using all soot blowers. (See Fig. 8)

The ranges in which soot

Generator Output (MW)

Generator Output (MW)

blowing is prohibited Starts all Starts all

soot blowers soot blowers

8 hours or more 2 hours and

45 minutes

Fig. 7: Soot Blowing Prohibition Zones Fig.8: Timing of Soot Blowing

3.㩷 Progress of Actions
(1) Organization
At Tsuruga Thermal Power Plant, ‘decreasing the power generation cost’ and ‘enhancing the reliability of the
power generation facilities’ prioritized. In line with this policy, a series of actions was implemented to
further decrease the power generation cost.
(2) Setting Targets
When an electric load is uplifted by starting soot blowers at a constant electric load of 125 MW after
confirming that the low electric load range of less than 250 MW continues for 8 hours or more, which soot
blowers should be used is determined to reduce the number of soot blowers to be used for removing ash and
hence to reduce steam consumption. The reduction target is set for each group of furnaces, superheaters and
reheaters by considering the balance of thermal collection performance.

Current steam consumption: 24,240 kg/time Target steam consumption: 8,500 kg/time
(reduction of 65%)

(3) Challenges and Examinations

Coal thermal power plants use various types of coal to generate electricity. The degree of ash deposited
and combustion performance greatly vary from coal-to-coal. An important indicator for determining the
combustion performance of coal includes the combustion ratio, which is expressed by the ratio of fixed
carbon and volatile matter content.
Combustion ratio = Fixed carbon/Volatile matter content
Coals are categorized in terms of the combustion ratio to examine the part where soot blowing should be
Table 2: Combustibility of Coal
Coal Combustibility Ash content SH and RH sides
Highly combustible coal Low High SH/RH side
Standard coal
Low combustible coal High Low Furnace side

4.㩷 Measures Taken

(1) Selection of Soot Blower Group
After considering the coal categories and combustibility shown in Table 2, a soot blower operation test was
conducted to two patterns as shown in Fig. 9 and 10.
[Pattern 1] Test Group 1: (A), (E) and (C) [Pattern 2] Test Group 3: (A), (B) and (C)
Test Group 2: (C), (D) and (F)

? WW3 level WW3 level

WW2 level WW2 level

WW1 level WW1 level

Fig. 9: Soot Blower Operation Pattern 1 Fig. 10: Soot Blower Operation Pattern 2

The coal shown in Table 3 was used as the representative coal categorized by the combustion ratio and the
test was conducted on Test Group 1, 2 and 3 to determine the response of automatic control of the boiler
against a change in the electric load. In addition, refer to a Fig. 11 about Test Process.

Table 3: Representative Coal Categorized by Coal Type
Highly combustible coal Standard Coal Low combustible coal
Test Group 1 Mora Coal (Mra) Hunter Valley Coal (HV) Prima Coal
Test Group 2 Country of origin: Australia Country of origin: Australia Country of origin: Indonesia
Test Group 3 Combustion ratio: 1.99 Combustion ratio: 1.57 Combustion ratio: 1.21

(2) Test Process

䍃 All soot blowers are started at the electric load of 250 MW or above before decreasing it.
䍃 After decreasing the electric load, the electric load of 250 MW or below is maintained for at least 8 hours,
and then the electric load of 125 MW is maintained for at least 4 hours.
䍃 Soot blowing of either Pattern 1 or 2.
䍃 The electric load is uplifted up to 360 MW.

- To reduce the electric load

retention time Confirm the response
- To reproduce stain condition of of automatic control of
Generator Output (MW)

the thermal transmission surface boilers

under the low electric load range

Starts all
soot blowers - Remove ash on the thermal
transmission surface

Maintain for at least 8 hours

Maintain for
at least 4 hours Start a start blower of either
one of Test Group 1, 2 or 3.

Fig. 11: Test Process

(3) Criteria for Determining the Response of the Automatic Control of Boilers to the Shift of the Load
䍃 The temperature of the main steam must not deviate greatly from the set values along with the increase in
electric load.
䍃 The reheated steam temperature of which set values are subject to change along with the shift of the electric
load must not deviate greatly from the set values.
䍃 The difference of the internal wall temperature of the furnace must be within the controlled temperature of

(4) Examination of the Location of Ash Attachment

Considering the characteristics of coal, ash is likely to attach to the locations shown in Fig. 12. In the low
electric load zone, air tends to be excessively supplied and combustibility is enhanced. Thus, ash generated
from the combustion of even highly combustible coal is likely to deposit on the furnace side. For
combusting highly combustible coal, it is effective to operate all soot blowers of the furnace shown in Pattern
2. However, the coal contains a lot of ash and soot blowing only on the furnace side involves decreasing the
main steam temperature and widening the gap of the temperature on the surface area.

Highly combustible coal

Shift to the
furnace in low
electric load zone


Low combustible coal

Fig. 12: Location of Ash Deposit Anticipated

(5) Results
Table 4 indicates the results of the test for highly combustible coal, standard coal and low combustible coal.

Table 4: Test Results by Coal Type

Test group Soot blower group Highly Combustible Coal Standard Coal Low Combustible Coal
Mra Hv Pr
1 (A) → (E) → (G) 㬍 (*1) 䂾 䋭
2 (C) → (D) → (F) 䂾 䂾 䋭
3 (A) → (B) → (C) 䃁 䃁 䃁
* The temperature gap on the rear wall surface: 168.9㷄 (max.)

Table 5: Burner Angle Change Program for Highly Combustible Coal

Upper limit: +30㷄
䇼Front View䇽 䇼Side View䇽
Burner Angle (㫦)

Burner angle

Lower limit: 䋭30㷄 Before change

After change
Fig. 13 Coal Burner Angle Change

Load (MW)
a. Test Group 1
(a) Highly Combustible Coal
The temperature difference on the surface exceeding its controlled value is largely attributable to the
burner angle when the electric load was increased from 180 MW to 250 MW, which caused a change in the
flow of gas to affect the thermal collection performance on the furnace side. For the reason, the burner
angle program was changed to that shown in Table 5 to remove such gaps and continue the following tests.
In addition, coverage of coal burner angle change is shown in Fig. 13.
(b) Standard Coal
Good results were obtained without any particular problems.

b. Test Group 2 and 3
(a) Highly Combustible Coal
After the burner angle program was changed, the temperature gap on the surface area was able to be
restricted and good results were obtained.

(b) Standard Coal

Good results were obtained without any particular problems.
(c) Low Combustible Coal
For Test Group 3, good results were obtained without any particular problems.

(6) Assessment of the Response of Automatic Control of Boiler to the Load Shift
As a representative of all coal categories, the response to the electric load shift for main steam temperature
(MST) and reheated steam temperature (RST) when all soot blowers are operated for highly combustible coal
are shown in Table 6, 7 and 8. For Test Group 3, the soot blower of the furnace was operated only.
Though the decrease in main steam and reheated steam temperature just after starting the soot blower was
slightly larger than that when all soot blowers were turned on, the difference was narrowed gradually as the
electric load went up. The performance was favorable with no adverse effects on the increase of the electric

Table 6: MST and RST before and after the Operation of Soot Blowers
Set temperature Temperature before Temperature after starting Temperature
Soot blower
(㷄) starting a soot blower (㷄) a soot blower (㷄) decrease (㷄)
All 566 (constant)/ 552/525 529/495 䂥23/䂥30
varies depending on
(A)→(B)→(C) 559/521 519/476 䂥40/䂥45
electric load

Table 7: Response to the Load Shift of Table 8: Response to the Load Shift of
Main Steam Temperature Reheated Steam Temperature
Reheated Steam Temperature (㷄)
Main Steam Temperature (㷄)

Good response observed. Good response observed.

Set Values for the Main Set Values for the Reheated
Steam Temperature Steam Temperature
All soot blowers used. All soot blowers used.
Furnace soot blower is Furnace soot blower is
used only. used only.

Generator Output (MW) Generator Output (MW)

Table 9: Temperature Difference on the Surface
in Increasing the Electric Load

Temperature Difference on All soot blowers used.

the Surface (㷄) Furnace soot blower
is used only.
All soot blowers of the
furnace can be applied.

Table 10: Steam Volume of Soot Blowers

Generator Output (MW)

Steam Volume (kg)

Decreased by 22,323 kg

All Test Test Test

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3

For all coal categories, it was confirmed that the response of automatic control of boiler against the electric
load shift was good when all soot blowers of the furnace were used only.
As to the temperature difference on the surface, the values were all within the controlled limit and good
results were obtained.

5.㩷 Effectiveness of the Measures

(1) Reduction of Steam Consumption used by the Soot Blowers
Table 11: Effects of Improving Soot Blower Operation
Before After Results
Blowing time 2 hours and 45 minutes 45 minutes Curtailed by 2 hours
Response of the main
No problems No problems 䋭
steam temperature
Response of the reheated
No problems No problems 䋭
steam temperature
Steam consumption 24,240䋨䌫䌧䋩 1,917䋨䌫䌧䋩 Reduced by 92%

a. Reduction of Annual Steam Consumption

Reduction of 1,451,000 (kg) of annual steam consumption achieved.

(equivalent to 130 kl/year of crude oil)
Calculation Formula of Converting Steam Consumption to Crude Oil Consumption


(Calculation Conditions)
㩷 䍃 Enthalpy of the sot blower steam source: 3,140 (kJ/kg)
㩷 䍃 Calorific power of crude oil: 38.2㬍106 (kJ/kl)
㩷 䍃 Boiler efficiency: 90%
㩷 䍃 Number of times of changing the electric load: Once in two days or 65 times a year (except for summer
and winter time)

6.㩷 Summary
For all coal categories, use of furnace soot blowers in low electric load conditions only in low electric load
conditions did not reveal any problems in increasing the electric load, and the automatic control of boilers
functioned well. We were successful in reduction of soot blower steam consumption in response to the
change of operation mode of the coal thermal power generation system.

7.㩷 Future Plans

To anticipate future diversification in coal procurement, we will attempt to achieve a stable power supply and
reduce costs through energy saving after examining all operating conditions. At the same time, we will
raise the mind toward energy saving and address measures against it.

3 Maintenance an Efficiency Control of Thermal Power Plants
3.1 Maintenance management of aged thermal power plants
The time (nominal life) when degradation in function and performance of the major equipment constituting a
thermal power plant appears remarkably and recovery of function and performance requires costs overstepping the
bounds of maintenance for ordinary operation is about 30 to 40 years.
For small- to medium-capacity machines constructed from the 30s to the 40s of the Showa period, almost 30
years have elapsed since they begun commercial operation, and, with respect to large-capacity machines
constructed and brought into operation from the middle of the 40s, 20 years or more have elapsed, whereby aging
of thermal power plants as a whole is proceeding.
On the other hand, although we are pushing ahead with the development of new sources responding to the
growth of electricity demand (maximum electricity demand), we have problems such as difficulty of site selection,
more distant locations, longer periods for development, etc.
For this reason, renovating and renewing these aged thermal power plants efficiently and having them show
continuous activity as valuable leading sources in areas of high demand constitute important issues from the
viewpoint of securing supply capacity and cost reduction.

3.1.1 How to carry out maintenance of aged thermal power plants (increasing longevity)
How to carry out maintenance of aged thermal power plants leads to studies and judgments being carried out
from comprehensive viewpoints such as a source program into the future including nuclear, hydro, etc.,
positioning and role in terms of a power generation program, outlook regarding the renovation costs required to
upkeep function and soundness, trends in fuel costs according to power generation efficiency and fuel class,
outlook for the introduction of alternative sources, trends in technological development, etc. to define the direction.
However, the current course of action is broadly divided into the following two items (Fig. 3.1.1):
(1) Maintaining operation through the renewal of deteriorated plant equipment (increasing longevity)
This is a direct extension of matters that we have implemented conventionally as measures against age
deterioration, and plans continuance of operation (increasing longevity) for about 60 years (within the
range where substantial renovation of civil and construction equipment such as piles and foundations is
not required).
(2) Maintaining operation through repowering, replacement, etc. (increasing longevity)
(3) Planning the continuance of operation (increasing longevity) through repowering, replacement, etc.
allowing an increase in the scale of output, improvement of power generation efficiency, improvement
of operational function, environmental betterment, etc. is to be carried out in conjunction with the
renewal of deteriorated plants (The target is mainly small- to medium-capacity plants).

3.1.2 Maintaining operation through the renewal of deteriorated plant equipment (increasing
The actual service life of plant equipment differs from its nominal design life and it is significantly dependent
on good or poor operation and maintenance. With respect to thermal power plants, for the purpose of keeping
their function and performance at an established level, the scope of inspection, method and frequency are defined
on an equipment-by-equipment basis as a standard, and patrols, routine checks, periodic inspections, and service
and maintenance (repair, replacement, etc.) are performed according to such standard.
Further, as to aged thermal power plants, in addition to these items, precise inspection for the pressure part of
the boiler, turbine rotor, casing, major valves and rotor power generator, remaining life assessment, renewal of
deteriorated equipment and portions, addition of equipment function to respond to demand-supply operation, and
strengthening and enhancement of durability are planned simultaneously.
[Measures to
[Background] [Background] [Needs] increase longevity] [Destination]
Maintaining operation
Developing Long-term operation increasing longevity through the renewal of
program program (prolonging life) deteriorated equipment
Power generation [Measures to Stable supply
increase longevity] Cost reduction

Fig. 3.1.1: How to carry out the maintenance of aged thermal power plant (increasing longevity)

Maintenance of [Example]
aged thermal power Operation Operation control Monitoring of life consumption of high-
temperature thick part of boiler and turbine
plant Monitoring of Diagnosis of boiler combustion
operation status Monitoring of vibration of large rotating
Enhancement of operation control Trip test of safety device
Routine inspection/test
and supervisory function Routine replacement of auxiliary machine
Reduction of load on equipment Vibration of auxiliary rotating machine
Early detection of problems Patrol Operation status of auxiliary machine
Opening of control valve
Daily simplified

Maintenance Inspection & repair Periodic inspection, [Example]

program service, maintenance High-temperature pressure-
resistant part of boiler and
Securing of soundness of High-speed rotor of turbine
Experience of and information on Precise inspection,
plant equipment Insulation of generator
Upkeep of function and maintenance for aged thermal power diagnosis of plant
Long-term reliability level plant
Securing of economics (Problems, renewal of equipment,
operation program renovation)
Renovation technology (modernization
Inspection technology, remaining life
assessment technology [Example]
Increasing longevity program
Renewal and renovation of
administration support system
Improvement of deteriorated equipment and parts
proof stress [Example]
Improvement of control
Renovation program performance, strengthening of
Improvement of supervisory function
function Automation, improvement of control
Track record of operation

Fig. 3.1.2: Maintenance of aged thermal power plant

(continuance of operation through renewal of aged equipment (increasing longevity))

For this reason, even if the plant reaches its nominal design life, there is still considerable practical operation
life of a major plant, and, as to the reliability of the entire plant as well, it is understood from long-term experience
of operation and maintenance that continuance of operation (increasing longevity) may be possible at relatively
low cost.
Basically, although this is a direct extension of matters that we have implemented conventionally as measures
against aged deterioration, for the purpose of maintaining stable operation while securing the economics, it is
necessary to push ahead with understanding and preserving (recovering from deterioration) the function,
performance and soundness of plant equipment more efficiently than conventionally, and it is requested that plant
diagnosis (deterioration diagnosis, remaining life assessment) technology, renovation technology, trouble
information, etc. be used to further push ahead with critical classified renovation according to the operation period
and operational method. [Fig. 3.1.2]
From here, we introduce developments in operation and maintenance of aged thermal power plants in the past,
renewal conditions of aged machines, devices and portions, inspection technology and remaining life assessment
technology, examples of large renovation for maintaining operation (increasing longevity), acceleration of the
time necessary for periodic inspection that tends to become longer with aging, a work program support system for
critical classified renovation, status of efforts to cope with the increase in longevity of aged thermal power plants
in U.S.A., etc. Operation & maintenance status of aged thermal power plants (from the 50s to the early 60s of
the Showa period)
Aged thermal power plants were originally designed to operate continuously (operation to cover the base load).

(September) 50 Showa period = 1975
10 thousand kW

1970 (September)

1960 (January 36)

Fig. How electricity is used in a day (example)

Equalizing pool type Table Precise inspection (representative
Water reservoir-type hydro
hydroelectric power example)
Plant Portion to be Inspection method
Pumped-storage Oil Steam Rotor Visual inspection with bore scope
power turbine Ultrasonic testing
Magnetic particle testing
Moving blade Ultrasonic testing
Measurement of lifting amount of
LNG, LPG and
stud part
other gases
Casing Structure examination of
Coal representative point (macro)
Boiler Superheater Ultrasonic testing (weld point)
Nuclear and reheater Tube removal examination from a
power tube representative point
Drum Radiographic test
Main steam
Run-off river-type hydro pipe Ultrasonic testing
Reheat steam
(Time) pipe
Generator Rotor Visual inspection with bore scope
Fig. How electricity is used in a day Ultrasonic testing
(representative example) Magnetic particle testing
Transformer Main body Oil leak test
Dissolved gas analysis
Electric Rotor Liquid penetrant detection test
motor Insulation diagnosis

Base load operation was carried out at the initial stage of construction. However, because of subsequent changes
in the demand-supply structure, that is to say, an increase in demand (maximum electricity demand), a widening
of the gap in demand-supply between day and night, and an increase of the segment share of nuclear power
generation, base load operation handed over its role to nuclear power and large-capacity thermal machines. As a
result, the operation pattern has changed to the operation of a middle-sized thermal power plant positively bearing
adjustment between demand and supply, i.e., the operation pattern under which load change, reduction of
minimum load, frequent start up and shut down, etc. are performed.

Table Remaining life diagnosis

Remaining life diagnosis
Plant Portion to be inspected Diagnosis portion
Boiler Boiler tube Select the portion whose design Destruction inspection
Furnace evaporation tube temperature is 450͠ or more and (Conduct a creep breaking test to
Superheater tube the harshest (shortest design life) evaluate the result by means of the
Reheater tube portion in terms of design out of Larson-Miller method.)
Boiler header the target portions shown on the Structural examinations
Furnace evaporation header left.
Superheater header (Take the time when cumulative
Reheater header operation time reaches 100,000
hours as a guideline.)
Steam turbine Axle Select the portion whose design Non-destructive inspection
High-pressure axle temperature is 450͠ or more and Hardness measurement
Medium-pressure axle the harshest (shortest design life) Material degradation measurement
Casing portion in terms of design out of Metallic structure test
High-pressure internal casing target portions shown on the left.
High-pressure external casing (Take the time when cumulative
Medium-pressure internal casing operation time reaches 100,000
Medium-pressure external casing hours as a guideline.)
Major valves

Table Examples of improvement in medium-capacity machines
[Improvement in durability of plant]
• Improvement of suspended superheater of boiler (Fig.
• Improvement of shape of disk base part of steam turbine rotor (Fig.
• Reduction in stress of steam turbine casing (improvement of shape) (Fig.
• Improvement of spray at exhaust chamber of steam turbine (Fig.
[Expansion of operation controllability and supervisory function]
Improvement and enhancement of supervisory function for those
that have high frequency of control at start up and shut down
that have simultaneous operation
that have difficulty in adjustment
• Making the control of the boiler burner remote or automatic
• Making the control of the drain valve and auxiliary machines of the boiler and turbine remote
• Automatic start up of turbine from central operating panel (TSC)
• Making the oil temperature control on the turbine bearing automated from a central operating panel
• Making the injection of feed water and chemicals automatic from a central operating panel
• Installation of furnace gas thermometer
• Installation of turbine bearing a metal thermometer
For the purposes of securing the reliability and performing strict demand supply adjustment operation such as
DSS (daily start up and shut down), etc. of the plant equipment designed originally based on the premise of base
load operation given that aging progresses, we have basically planned :
• An operation pattern that will contribute to demand-supply adjustment sufficiently and where start-up and shut-
down loss is minimized
• Securing of strength and allowance of a plant sufficient to cope with thermal stress, repeated stress arising from
start up, shut down, load change, etc. and creep damage associated with secular use
• Improvement of operability and enrichment of supervisory function so that the operator can cope with the
situation within limited time and simultaneous operation
• Early detection and handling when there is an abnormal condition in the plant
• Establishment of optimum operation pattern through operation testing
• Precise inspection and remaining life assessment for plants whose cumulative operation time has exceeded
100,000 hours (Table, 2)
• Improvement of plant durability (Table, 4)
• Improvement of operability and controllability, enhancement of monitoring function (Table, 4)
Curvature Curvature
Processed point
radius radius

(a)Processing example (b) Example of new shape

Fig. Improvement of suspended superheater Fig. Improvement of shape of disk base part
of boiler of steam turbine rotor

Casing corner part

Steam guide

Processing diagram of corner part

Packing casing cone
Final-stage blade
Fig. Reduction in stress of steam turbine Fig. Improvement of spray at exhaust chamber
casing (improvement of the shape of casing) of steam turbine Renewal status of plant equipment in aged thermal power plants

The Thermal and Nuclear Power Engineering Society (Kanto affiliate) conducted a survey on the renewal status of
plant equipment for thermal power plants (commercial thermal, joint thermal and private thermal) whose
cumulative operating hours exceeded 100,000 hours in 1991 on a nationwide scale, and the results of such survey
have been summarized as the “Report of a fact-finding survey on the renewal of thermal plants that have for a
long time (January 1993).”

Table Examples of improvement in large- [Before improvement] [After improvement]
capacity machines (Constant-pressure supercritical once-
through system)
[Improvement of plant durability]
• Improvement of superheater header part of boiler (Fig. 9)
• Processing of membrane-end part of boiler (Fig. 10)
• Improvement of structure of surrounding wall tie-bar of boiler (Fig.
• Improvement of passing-through part at boiler tube wall (Fig. 12)
• Improvement of support system for main piping of boiler (Fig. 13)
• Reinforcement of start system valve of boiler (Fig. 14)
• Reinforcement of feed water control valve of boiler (Fig. 15)
[Improvement of controllability and enhancement of supervisory .
function] (a) Bringing header tube nozzle to flexible structure
Improvement of controllability to plan the improvement of
controllability at start up/shut down and when the load changes Corner R processing
• Digitization of APC control
• Automation of boiler automatic burner
• Expansion of automatic start-up control range of turbine
• Improvement of controllability on the drain level of feed water
• Bringing auxiliaries to group control (master)
• Addition of life supervisory function for thick pressure-resistant part (b) Corner R processing of header tube nozzle part
of boiler
• Automation, enhancement of supervisory function and man-machine
Fig. Improvement of superheater header
communication part of boiler
Membrane bar Membrane bar
Tie-bar clip wall tube

Tie-bar Tie-bar

R processing of membrane bar stop-end part

Fig. Improvement of structure of surrounding Fig. Processing of membrane-end part of
wall tie-bar of boiler boiler U band
Stop-end refresh processing
Outlet header of reheater (padding + R processing)
Tube leg

Old toe

Tube leg
Torque bracket New toe

Improvement of structure of tube leg at wall passing-through part
Fig. Improvement of passing-through
part at boiler tube wall
Shear lag

(a) Current structure (b) Improved structure

Fig. Improvement of support system for main
piping of boiler

Z-type valve Angle valve

Fig. Reinforcement of start system valve

of boiler

The following are the reasons for renewal according to the equipment of each plant, renewal rate and equipment
whose renewal due to “deterioration and damage” exceeds 20% extracted from such report:
(1) Boiler plant related (Fig.
Furnace tube
Renewal rate: About 36%
Renewal time: From less than 40,000 hours to 200,000 hours
The renewal peak falls within the range of 100,000 to 200,000 hours.
! Superheater 1st
Renewal rate: About 25%
Renewal time: From less than 40,000 hours to 200,000 hours or more
The renewal peak falls within the range of 120,000 to 140,000 hours.
Reason for renewal: As many renewals have been performed after 120,000 hours, conceivable reasons for
renewal are creep damage, external high-temperature corrosion and ash erosion.
" Superheater 2nd to 4th
Renewal rate: 2nd About 56%
3rd About 66%
4th About 70%
Renewal time: 2nd: From less than 40,000 hours to 200,000 hours or more
The renewal peak falls within the range of 100,000 to 120,000 hours.
3rd and 4th: From 60,000 hours to 160,000 hours
The renewal peak falls within the range of 80,000 to 100,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: As there are many renewals for those whose main steam temperature is 550°C or
more, for those for WSS (weekly start up and shut down) operation and for heavy
oil-fired ones, conceivable reasons for renewal are creep damage and high-
temperature corrosion.
# Superheater weld joint with dissimilar materials
Renewal rate: About 47%
Renewal time: From less than 40,000 hours to 180,000 hours.
The renewal peak falls within the range of 80,000 hours to 160,000 hours.
Reason for renewal: As there are many renewals for those whose main steam temperature is high and for
heavy oil-fired ones, conceivable reasons for renewal are creep damage, thermal
stress fatigue and high-temperature corrosion.

Multistage pressure reducing

Single-seat globe valve Multistage pressure-reducing valve

Fig. Reinforcement of boiler feedwater control valve

$ Reheater 1st & 2nd
Renewal rate: 1st About 60%
2nd About 62%
Renewal time: Renewals are distributed widely at 60,000 hours or more.
The renewal peak falls within the range of 120,000 hours to 160,000 hours for the 1st
superheater and within the range of 100,000 hours to 120,000 hours for the 2nd
Reasons for renewal: From the viewpoint of the number of start ups, steam temperature, conceivable
reasons for renewal are creep and thermal stress fatigue.
% Reheater weld joint with dissimilar materials
Renewal rate: About 60%
Renewal time: 1st From 60,000 hours to 180,000 hours
The renewal peak falls within the range of 100,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
2nd From 60,000 hours to 120,000 hours

The renewal peak falls within the range of 80,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: From the fact that there are many renewals of those whose steam pressure is high for
both the 1st and 2nd reheater, and in the case of the 1st reheater, there are many
renewals of those for DSS operation, a conceivable reason for renewal is thermal
stress fatigue.
& Valves
Renewal time: Form less than 40,000 hours to 180,000 hours
The renewal peak falls within the range of 100,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: From the fact that there are many renewals of those with many start ups, a
conceivable reason for renewal is seat leak.
' Electrostatic precipitator (discharge electrode, collecting plate, hammering device, charging equipment
Renewal rate: Discharge electrode About 57%

Degradation Damage Performance

damage prevention Regulation upgrading
Economizer tube
Furnace tube
Superheater – 1st
Superheater – 2nd
Superheater – 3rd
Superheater – 4th
Superheater – Mixed fitting
1st reheater – 1st
1st reheater – 2nd
1st reheater – Mixed fitting
2nd reheater – 1st
2nd reheater – 2nd
2nd reheater – Mixed fitting
1st superheater inlet header
1st superheater outlet header
2nd superheater inlet header
2nd superheater outlet header
3rd superheater inlet header
3rd superheater outlet header
4th superheater inlet header
4th superheater outlet header
1st reheater inlet header
1st reheater outlet header
2nd reheater inlet header
2nd reheater outlet header
Economizer inlet header
Names of renewed equipments

Economizer outlet header

Main steam pipe
Main steam pipe T࡮Y piece
Reheat steam pipe
Reheat steam pipe T࡮Y piece
Boiler circulation pump
Drum safety valve
Furnace outlet safety valve
Superheater outlet safety valve
Reheater outlet safety valve
Start-up system line safety valve
High-pressure system valves
Start-up system valves
Fuel oil pump
Coal pulverizer
Mill exhauster
Fuel oil tank heater
Fuel oil tank bottom plate
Forced draft fan
Induced draft fan
Gas recirculation draft fan
Gas-mixing draft fan
Discharge electrode for electrostatic precipitator
Electrostatic precipitator collecting plate
Electrostatic precipitator hammering device
Electrostatic precipitator charging equipment (P/P)
EP ash-handling ash flow pump
EP ash-handling blower
EP ash-handling ash feed pipe
Air compressor for control
Auxiliary air compressor
Air compressor for soot blower
NOx removal plant catalysis
Bottom ash-handling jet pump
Bottom ash-handling ash flow pipe
Duct expansion
Desulfurization system absorber
Desulfurization system oxidation tower
Desulfurization system G/G heater
Desulfurization system pump
Desulfurization system fan

Renewal rate (%)

Fig. Reason for renewal and renewal rate by boiler system equipment

Collecting plate: About 46% Renewal time: From less than 40,000 hours to 180,000
Hammering device: About 39% hours or more
Charging equipment (P/P) About 29% The renewal peak falls within the range of 100,000
hours to 120,000 hours.
( Duct extension
Degradation Damage Performance
damage prevention Regulation upgrading
High-pressure external casing
Medium-pressure external casing
Low-pressure external casing
High-pressure internal casing
Medium-pressure internal casing
Low-pressure internal casing
High-pressure external casing high-temperature bolt
Medium-pressure external casing high-temperature bolt
High-pressure internal casing high-temperature bolt
Medium-pressure internal casing high-temperature bolt
High-pressure rotor
Medium-pressure rotor
Low-pressure rotor
High-pressure-stage rotating blade
Medium-pressure-stage rotating blade
Low-pressure-stage rotating blade
High-pressure-stage stationary blade
Medium-pressure-stage stationary blade
Low-pressure-stage stationary blade
Main steam stop valve valve box
Control valve valve box
Reheat steam stop valve valve box
Intercept valve valve box
Names of renewed equipments

Combined reheat valve valve box

Main steam stop valve high-temperature bolt
Control valve high-temperature bolt
Reheat steam stop valve high-temperature bolt
Intercept valve high-temperature bolt
Combined reheat valve high-temperature bolt
High-pressure rotor thrust bearing
Medium-pressure rotor thrust bearing
Low-pressure rotor thrust bearing
High-pressure rotor journal bearing
Medium-pressure rotor journal bearing
Low-pressure rotor journal bearing
Mechanical governor-mechanism set
BFPT external casing
BFPT internal casing
BFPT high-temperature bolt
BFPT rotor
BFPT rotating blade
BFPT stationary blade
Booster feed water pump
Feed water pump
Condenser tube
Condenser body expansion joint
Condenser electrochemical protector
Condenser cleaning device
Vacuum pump
Condenser pump
Circulating water pump
Sea water cooler
High-pressure feed water heater
Low-pressure feed water heater
Feed water system valve
Main steam system valve
Reheat steam system valve

Renewal rate (%)

Fig. Reason for renewal and renewal rate by turbine system equipment
Renewal rate: About 63%
Renewal time: From less than 40,000 hours to 180,000 hours or more
The renewal peak falls within the range of 100,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
There are many renewals of those with DSS, WSS and high-sulfur heavy oil.

(2) Turbine system related (Fig.

Internal casing High-pressure internal casing
Renewal rate: About 12%
Renewal time: As the number of renewed units is few, a peak does not appear clearly.
In the range of 120,000 hours to 180,000 hours, there is small growing trend.
! High-temperature bolt (bolt that tightens horizontal flange of casing)
Renewal rate: For high-pressure internal casing: About 58%
For high-pressure external casing: About 39%
For medium-pressure internal casing: About 51%
For medium-pressure external casing: About 22%
Renewal time: For high-pressure internal casing
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 140,000 hours.
High-pressure external casing
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 140,000 hours.
For medium-pressure internal casing
Many renewals were performed within the range of 60,000 hours to 160,000 hours.
For medium-pressure external casing
As the number of renewed units is few, a peak does not appear clearly.
Reason for renewal: As many renewals were performed for those with many start ups and shut downs,
conceivable reasons for renewal are high-temperature creep and fatigue.
" Rotor (high-pressure, medium-pressure)
Renewal rate: High-pressure axle About 14%
Medium-pressure axle About 34%
Renewal time: As the number of renewed units is few, a peak does not appear clearly.
There are many renewals associated with improvement of performance.
# Rotating blade
High-/Medium-pressure-stage rotating blade
Renewal rate: High-pressure stage About 40%
Medium-pressure stage About 64%
Renewal time: Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 100,000 hours.
There are many renewals associated with performance upgrading.
Low-pressure-stage rotating blade
Renewal rate: About 35%
Renewal time: Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 160,000 hours.
$ Main steam valve valve box
Renewal rate: Main steam stop valve About 15%
Control valve About 15%
Renewal time: Main steam stop valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 100,000 hours to 160,000 hours.
Control valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 120,000 hours to 180,000 hours
% High-temperature bolt (bolt that tightens upper bonnet of steam valve)
Main steam stop valve
Renewal rate: Main steam stop valve About 53%
Control valve About 52%
Combined reheat valve About 69%
Reheat steam stop valve About 72%
Intercept valve About 63%
Renewal time: Main steam stop valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 100,000 hours.
Control valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 100,000 hours.
Combined reheat valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 100,000 hours.
Reheat steam stop valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
Intercept valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 140,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: Many renewals were performed for those whose steam temperature is high, and those
with many DSS and WSS, so conceivable reasons for renewal are high-temperature
creep and fatigue.
& Turbine bearing
Renewal rate: Low-pressure rotor thrust About 22%
High-pressure rotor journal About 37%
Low-pressure rotor journal About 25%
Renewal time: Low-pressure rotor thrust
As the number of renewed units is few, a peak does not appear clearly.
High-pressure rotor journal, low-pressure rotor journal
Although renewals were performed within a wide time period range, relatively many
renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 140,000 hours.
' Condenser Tube, body expansion joint
Renewal rate: Tube About 66%
Body expansion joint About 36%
Renewal time: Tube
Many renewals were performed from the initial stage of after operation start.
Body expansion joint
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 100,000 hours.
( Feed water heater
Renewal rate: High-pressure feed water heater About 33%
Low-pressure feed water heater About 24%
Renewal time: High-pressure feed water heater
Many renewals were performed with the range of 100,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
Low-pressure feed water heater
Many renewals were performed with the range of 80,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
(3) Electric plant related (Fig.
Generator Rewinding of rotor
Renewal rate: About 27%
Renewal time: Relatively many renewals were performed within the range of 100,000 hours to
160,000 hours.
There are many renewals of those with DSS.
Reasons for renewal: A conceivable reason for renewal is insulation degradation of the winding.
! Exciter Motor, AVR
Renewal rate: Motor About 23%
AVR About 53%
Renewal time: Motor:
Relatively many renewals were performed within the range of 100,000 hours to
160,000 hours.
The number of renewed units increases suddenly from 80,000 hours and continues to
180,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: Generally, many renewals were performed on large-capacity units and those for DSS.
Conceivable reasons for renewal are insulation degradation of the winding or aging
of the equipment.
" High-voltage motor Rewinding of stator coil
Renewal rate: Outdoors About 43% Indoors About 39%
Renewal time: Relatively many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to
140,000 hours.
There is a trend of increasing renewal of those for DSS.
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons for renewal are insulation degradation of the winding.
# Control center
Renewal rate: About 28%
Renewal time: Many renewals were performed at 100,000 hours or more.
There is a trend of increasing renewal of those for DSS.
Reasons for renewal: A conceivable reason for renewal is deterioration of major parts (NFB, thermal relay,
conductor, etc.)
$ Supervisory control panel Central electric supervisory panel, protective relay panel
Renewal rate: Central electric supervisory panel About 19%
Protective relay About 25%
Renewal timing: With respect to the protective relay panel, there is a trend of increasing renewal from
120,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons for renewal are aging of the relay, drop in reliability and type
change for the purpose of improving operation accuracy (from the
electromagnetic/mechanical to stationary type).
% Power supply system Storage battery, rectifier, uninterruptible power supply system
Renewal rate: Storage battery About 81%
Rectifier About 48%
Uninterruptible power supply system About 22%
Renewal time: The number of renewed units increases suddenly from 80,000 hors or more.
Reasons for renewal: For the storage battery, a conceivable reason for renewal is deterioration of the
electrode plate, separator, etc.
For the rectifier, renewal was performed due to deterioration and in conjunction with
replacement of the storage battery.
For the uninterruptible power supply system, conceivable reasons for renewal are
deterioration and renewal associated with capacity increase, and system change
(making the control system redundant , making the control system free from
instantaneous disconnection) for improvement of reliability

Degradation Damage Performance
damage prevention Regulation upgrading
Replacement of generator stator
Rewinding of generator stator
Replacement of generator rotor
Rewinding of generator rotor
Generator hydrogen gas cooler
Generator stator cooling system
Generator hydrogen gas shaft seal oil system
Generator lead bushing
Generator for exciter
Motor for exciter
Rectifier for exciter
Exciter AVR
Cooling system for exciter
Isolated-phase bus support bushing
Isolated-phase bus wall passing-through bushing
Outdoor high-voltage motor
Rewinding of outdoor high-voltage motor stator coil
Outdoor high-voltage motor rotor
Names of renewed equipments

Indoor high-voltage motor

Rewinding of indoor high-voltage motor stator coil
Indoor high-voltage motor rotor
Set of metal-clad panel
Metal-clad circuit breaker body
Set of power center panel
Power center circuit breaker body
Set of control center panel
Central electricity supervisory control panel
Protective relay panel
Power supply system storage battery
Power supply system rectifier
Uninterruptible power supply system
Main transformer lead bushing
Main transformer-cooling system
House transformer main lead bushing
House transformer-cooling system
Starting transformer main lead bushing
Starting transformer-cooling system
Special high-voltage switch circuit breaker
Special high-voltage switch disconnecting switch
Special high-voltage switch support bushing
Special high-voltage switch wall passing-through bushing
Special high-voltage OF cable
Special high-voltage CV cable
High-voltage power cable
Low-voltage power cable
Control cable

Renewal rate (%)

Fig. Reasons for renewal and renewal rate by electric plant equipment

& Main transformer Cooling system

Renewal rate: About 30%
Renewal time: The number of renewed unit increases suddenly from 80,000 hors or more.
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons for renewal are corrosion of elements and oil leak.
' Cable High-voltage cable
Renewal rate: About 49%
Renewal time: There are many renewals performed at 100,000 hours or more.
Cable with high renewal rate
Breakdown by insulation class by class: Butyl rubber 70%
Cross-linked polyethylene 27%
Breakdown by plant condition: Air/Culvert 48%
Pipe line 35%

Degradation Damage Performance
damage prevention Regulation upgrading
Unit interlock
Auxiliary machine interlock
Combustion control unit
Feed water control unit
Steam temperature control unit
Burner control unit
Governor control unit
Tb monitor vibration diagnosis system
TB monitor shaft vibration meter
Tb monitor shaft eccentricity meter
Tb monitor shaft position meter
Tb monitor revolution meter
Tb monitor difference expansion meter
Tb monitor cam position meter
Unit computer
Data logger computer
Environmental data-processing computer
Fuel control computer
Water quality control analyzer
Fuel analyzer
Exhaust gas NOx analyzer
Names of renewed equipments

Exhaust gas SOx analyzer

Exhaust gas O2 analyzer
Exhaust gas CO analyzer
Exhaust gas dust analyzer
Leak oil monitor analyzer
Flammable gas monitor analyzer
NH3 monitor analyzer
Waste water COD analyzer
Waste water PH analyzer
Feed water system actuator
Fuel system actuator
Starting bypass system actuator
Air system actuator
Exhaust gas system actuator
Air dryer for control
Air pressure-reducing system for control
Feed water flow transmitter
Main steam flow transmitter
Spray flow transmitter
Fuel oil flow transmitter
Fuel gas flow transmitter
Main steam pressure transmitter
Fuel oil pressure transmitter
Fuel gas pressure transmitter
Drum-level transmitter
Deaerator-level transmitter
Feed water flow element
Main steam flow element
Fuel oil flow element
Fuel gas flow element
Conveyor scale

Renewal rate (%)

Fig. Reasons for renewal and renewal rate by instrumentation control plant

(4) Instrumentation control plant related (Fig.

Control unit
Renewal rate: Unit interlock About 18%
Auxiliary machine interlock About 14%
Combustion control unit About 68%
Feed water control unit About 66%
Steam temperature control unit About 67%
Burner control unit About 44%
Governor control unit About 32%
Renewal time: Renewal of any of equipment was performed within the range of 60,000 hours to
160,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: For renewal due to degradation damage, conceivable reasons for renewal are failure

due to deterioration of the signal conversion unit, indication mechanism, etc. of each
controller and increasing difficulty in procuring parts because of discontinuance of
production of similar equipment.
For the renewal due to performance upgrading, many renewals were performed due
to nationalization of imported products or due to change from an air or mechanical
system to an electric or digital type, and it is conceivable that many renewals had the
objective of conversion to APC or full automation, etc.
! Turbine monitor
Renewal rate: Vibration diagnosis system About 57%
Shaft vibration meter About 67%
Shaft eccentricity meter About 65%
Shaft position meter About 57%
Revolution meter About 49%
Difference expansion meter About 60%
Cam position meter About 56%
Renewal timing: Renewal of any equipment falls within the range of 40,000 hours to 180,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: There are many renewals due to degradation damage and damage prevention.
Conceivable reasons for renewal are failure attributable to the deterioration of each
sensor, conversion amplifier, reorder, etc. or increasing difficulty in procuring parts
because of discontinuance of production of similar equipment.
" Computer
Renewal rate: Unit computer About 59%
Data logger computer About 32%
Environmental data-processing computer About 41%
Fuel control computer About 22%
Renewal time: Unit computer
Within the range of 60,000 hours to 180,000 hours
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons that there are many renewals due to degradation damage are
failure attributable to the deterioration of the calculation unit, each sensor, memory,
typewriter, etc. or increasing difficulty in procuring parts because of discontinuance
of production of similar equipment.
# Analyzer
Renewal rate: Water quality control analyzer About 71%
Fuel analyzer About 48%
Exhaust gas NOx analyzer About 79%
Exhaust gas SOx analyzer About 78%
Exhaust gas O2 analyzer About 82%
Exhaust gas CO analyzer About 29%
Exhaust gas dust analyzer About 34%
Leak oil monitor analyzer About 9%
Flammable gas analyzer About 49%
NH3 analyzer About 35%
Waste water COD analyzer About 30%
Waste water pH meter About 35%
Renewal time: The renewal of the water quality analyzer, fuel analyzer and exhaust gas NOx
analyzer falls within the range of 20,000/30,000 hours to 180,000 hours.
The renewal of exhaust gas SOx analyzer, exhaust gas O2 analyzer, exhaust gas CO
analyzer, flammable gas analyzer, NH3 analyzer, waste water COD analyzer and
waste water pH meter falls within the range of 40,000 hours to 80,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons that there are many renewals due to degradation damage are
failure attributable to deterioration of the calculation unit, each sensor, memory,
typewriter, etc. or increasing difficulty in procuring parts because of discontinuance
of production of similar equipment.
$ Actuator
Renewal rate: Feed water system actuator About 37%
Fuel system actuator About 29%
Starting bypass system actuator About 17%
Air system actuator About 36%
Exhaust gas system actuator About 37%
Renewal time: The renewal of feed water system, air system and exhaust gas system actuator falls
within the range of 60,000 hours to 180,000 hours.

Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons that there are many renewals due to degradation damage are
occurrence of many failures attributable to deterioration of the control mechanism,
positioner, etc. or increasing difficulty in procuring the parts because of
discontinuance of production of similar equipment.
% Air source for control, air dryer, air pressure-reducing system
Renewal rate: Air dryer About 42%
Air pressure-reducing system About 17%
Renewal time: The renewal falls within the range of 40,000 hours to 140,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons for renewal are occurrence of many failures as a result of
deterioration owing to change of the control mechanism, tower, etc. or increasing
difficulty in procuring parts because of discontinuance of production of similar
& Transmitter
Renewal rate: Feed water flow transmitter About 65%
Main steam flow transmitter About 61%
Spray flow transmitter About 61%
Fuel oil flow transmitter About 50%
Fuel gas flow transmitter About 45%
Main steam pressure transmitter About 63%
Fuel oil pressure transmitter About 54%
Fuel gas pressure transmitter About 44%
Drum-level transmitter About 60%
Deaerator-level transmitter About 57%
Feed water flow element About 12%
Main steam flow element About 8%
Fuel oil flow element About 22%
Fuel gas flow element About 7%
Conveyor scale About 33%
Renewal time: Renewals of feed water flow, spray flow, fuel oil flow, fuel oil pressure, drum level,
and deaerator-level transmitters fall within the range of 60,000 hours to 180,000
Renewals of main steam flow and main steam pressure transmitters fall within the
range of 40,000 hours to 200,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: With respect to degradation damage and damage prevention, conceivable reasons for
renewal are occurrence of many failures due to deterioration of each sensor, signal
converter, etc. or increasing difficulty in procuring parts because of discontinuance of
production of similar equipment.
With respect to performance upgrading, conceivable reasons for renewal are
performance upgrading of equipment and shift of control equipment to the electric
type or digital type. Inspection technology/remaining life assessment technology

Although the strength design of a boiler’s pressure part to be used under
high temperature and high pressure is performed based on the 100,000-hour creep strength of the material to be
used, from the facts that units whose cumulative operation hours reach 100,000 hours are starting to appear, and
problems with thermal power units with years of service such as breakage of the steam turbine rotor, cracks in the
steam turbine casing, etc. were reported in U.S.A., etc., from about the beginning of the 50s of the Showa period,
interest in the assessment of soundness, recovery from deterioration and renovation technology for the major
structural portions of major equipment in thermal units with years of service has grown.
For thermal power generation technology, technical advances such as upsizing, higher temperature and pressure,
etc. moved forward rapidly after World War II, and the age deterioration phenomenon itself was worldwide
unknown area. For this reason, at present, virtually every technology developed and having become operational,
such as deterioration characteristics of the material with years of service, mechanism of age deterioration,
inspection technology and inspection equipment for deterioration diagnosis, remaining life assessment technology,
renovation technology for recovery from deterioration, deterioration progress supervisory technology, etc., is
unknown and not yet developed, constituting technical issues that we must address. From the 50s of the Showa
period toward the 60s, inspection and assessment technology and remaining life assessment technology coping
with deterioration phenomena that became obvious with time were developed and became operational, and at the
present time, the focus of its development has shifted to labor saving, automation, broader use of robots, etc. In
addition, development and practical use of operation supervisory/diagnosis technology for the purposes of
strengthening and enhancing the operation supervisory aspect is being pushed forward.

[1] Boiler equipment
Age deterioration phenomena that became obvious in major structural parts of boiler plants (representative
(1) Long-duration high-temperature creep, high-temperature oxidation/steam oxidation
Final SH, RH pipe damage
In particular, downgraded portion of points subjected to material change, in-furnace points subjected to
material change
(2) Repeated fatigue due to thermal stress
Damage of evaporation pipe
Cracks originating from weld zone of fittings adhered to pipe
Damage originated from weld zones of burner, wind box, inspection hole mounting frame
Cracks originating from weld zone of slit-type fin
Crack due to corrosion fatigue from internal surface of pipe at nose, deflection arch and deflection parts.
SH, RH pipes
Crack originating from weld zone of fixing spacer fixture
Evaporation pipe, SH and RH pipes (non-heated part)
Crack originating from toe part of stub weld
Leak of boiler combustion exhaust gas
Seal structural part at intersection part between boiler nose part wall and furnace back wall-suspended pipe
Corner part of side wall part of front and rear wall pipes at heat recovery part
Header guard of RH, Eco, etc. of heat recovery part
Header around furnace bottom and seal structure part of ceiling wall passing-through part at GR port guard
Tube bending part such as TV, inspection hole, burner, manhole, etc.
(3) Repeated fatigue due to long-duration high-temperature creep, thermal stress
Superheater, reheater header
Crack at weld zone of nozzle
Main steam piping
Crack originating from internal part of weld zone
Crack at weld zone of branch piping nozzle
Inspection technology and assessment technology having became operational (representative example)
Boiler tube diagnosis UT system
(Target: Superheater, reheater)
Major piping diagnosis robot (target: major steam pipe)
Stack casing inspection robot
Remaining life assessment by means of destruction test
(targets: evaporation pipe, economizer tube, superheater tube, reheat tube)
Remaining life diagnosis by means of stress analysis
(Targets: T & Y pieces of major piping, weld zone of tube-adhered fixture, fin-mounting area of tube, support
lug part of tube, header stub)
Remaining life assessment by means of non-destructive test (A parameter method, void area rate, crystal grain
(Targets: drum, header, header stub)
[2] Turbine equipment
Age deterioration phenomena that became obvious in the major structure of turbine plant (representative
Breakage of high-pressure rotor
Surface crack at base R part of high-pressure rotor 1st-stage wheel
Bending of medium-pressure ROBIN rotor
Crack at low-pressure rotor wheel stud part
SCC of low-pressure rotor shrink-fit wheel part
Lifting of high-pressure part rotating blade
Erosion and crack on rotating blade of low-pressure part
Crack on final-stage rotating blade racing wire
Nozzle erosion
Crack on rotating blade tenon
Surface crack on corner part of high- & low-pressure housings
Crack on medium-pressure housing (origin: repaired weld zone)
Breakage of the high temperature bolt and damage to the bolt screw thread.
Crack on major valve casing (origin: repaired weld zone, internal defect)
Inspection technology having became operational (representative example)
Rotor center hole ultrasonic flaw detection technology
Rotor center hole magnetic particle flaw detection technology
Rotor center hole hardness-measuring technology
Rotor center hole replica-sampling technology
Rotor & casing embrittlement diagnosis technology
Blade stud part inspection technology
Tenon ultrasonic flaw detection technology
Rotor wheel ultrasonic flaw detection technology
High-temperature bolt (stud bolt) ultrasonic flaw detection technology
Remaining life diagnosis technology having been commercialized
Rotor, casing, major valve body (crack occurrence assessment, crack propagation assessment)
Rotating blade (lifting)

Hydraulic jack Fig.

Concept in
Side top header support structure
Step rod
dismantling of
Oil jack
Boiler, front
Boiler steel
furnace wall by
frame means of jack
Hoisting Collector
bar (!140) beam down construction
U bolt
Side wall top
Rear wall

(!100) header Jack down

In furnace
Side wall
Front wall

Burner wind box

(3) Electrical equipment

Age deterioration phenomena having become obvious (representative example)
Crack on end ring (18Mn-5Cr steel) of generator rotor
Wedge crack on generator rotor
Generation of copper powder of generator rotor coil
Drop in insulation of generator rotor coil
Drop in insulation of generator stator coil
Water leakage from generator stator coil
Inspection technology and life diagnosis technology having become operational (representative example)
Ultrasonic flaw detection technology for end ring of generator rotor
Measurement of looseness of wedge of the generator rotator
Generator stator-winding diagnosis
Generator rotator diagnosis
Analysis on dissolved gas in oil of major transformer
High-voltage motor insulation diagnosis
High-voltage cable insulation diagnosis
(4) Measurement & control equipment
Diagnosis technology having become operational (representative example)
Control system diagnosis system
Standard maintenance tool
(5) Operation supervisory, diagnosis technology (representative example)
Operation support system (alarm guidance)
On-site problem detection system
Boiler combustion diagnosis system
High-pressure feed water heater tube leakage detection system
Patrol support by means of trend supervisory on operation data and alarm
Simplified vibration diagnosis of rotating auxiliary machines (pump, blower)
Valve control by means of handy terminal
Portable ultrasonic leak detector (high-pressure heater, drain valve)
Leakage detector by means of infrared camera (boiler casing)
Boiler wall thick part life diagnosis (main steam pipe T piece, circulation pump casing) Large-scale renovation examples (renovation of boiler furnace)

For the purpose of responding to electric power demand-supply adjustment, from about the mid-50s of the
Showa period, modification of machines designed for the base load to the DSS model was made, and full-scale
high-frequency start-up & shut-down operation has been performed.
As the number of start ups and shut downs increases, many cracks on the boiler tube and leakages started to

appear in all areas of boilers, and, for this reason, inspection and repair result in longer time and higher cost. In
particular, heavy damage is found in the metallic substance weld zone of furnace pipe walls, furnace headers and
nozzle weld zones at the reheater header due to fatigue and creep, and fundamental measures are becoming
In the future, as these portions are important components of boilers, it is impossible to take fundamental
measures through partial renovation. In addition, from the viewpoint that cost and work will be enormous,
complete blanket renovation of furnace evaporation pipes, headers, etc. is starting to be carried out.
2nd superheater Reheat pipe
pipe (replaced) (replaced) Steam separator
Generator output (added)
Main steam temperature
Main steam pressure

evaporation pipe 1st superheater
Fig. (replaced)
Outline drawing of Control unit
r(replaced) Evaporator
renovation work for Change of control system
Himeji No.2 casing Economizer
thermal power Unit
No.2 boiler.
Feed water Boiler circulation
pump (added)

Together with this renovation, partial renovation of an accessory plant was performed so that such boilers also
have cutting-edge performance. Further, for the purposes of shortening the renovation construction work period
and securing safety in construction work, the development and introduction of new construction such as jack
down construction (Fig. are sought.
(1) Examples of structural improvement measures associated with renovation
(1) Modify the boiler from the skin casing structure to the membrane wall structure to plan a reduction in
thermal stress.
(2) Modify the boiler from a weld construction consisting of the furnace wall and tension plate to a slide
structure to plan the reduction in thermal stress.
(3) Cause the header nozzle part to have sufficient flexibility to plan the reduction in thermal stress.
(4) Modify the furnace wall passing-through part to the double-sleeve structure to avoid a concentration of
(5) Make the root of the nozzle and weld zone at the fine end smooth to relieve the concentration of stress.
(2) Renovation work examples
In the KANSAI Electric Company’s Himeji No.2 thermal power plant Unit No.2 (325 MW), a subcritical pressure
boiler that began commercial operation in 1964, from 1992 to 1993 blanket replacement of the boiler was carried
out. This unit was originally oil fired; however, in 1980, modification to convert it to LNG fired was made and
since then, this boiler has served as base thermal power. Since its start of commercial operation, this plant has
operated for about 170,000 hours (number of start ups and shut downs: 662), and in addition to normal age
deterioration, due to the fact that this plant has been used for DSS operation from 1985, life consumption due to
low-cycle fatigue advanced in all areas of the boiler, minor problems occurred frequently, and the time required
for inspection and repair increased. Then, as a result of study of a repair program according to the increasing
longevity program, as it is more advantageous to replace the furnace water wall part completely than to repeat
minor repairs in terms of cost, then it was decided to carry out total replacement. Further, together with
renovation, performance upgrading including improvement of thermal efficiency and acceleration of the time
required for start up is planned through modification from a constant-pressure to a variable-pressure operation
method. (Fig. Technology and construction method for shortening of the term of periodic inspection work
In addition to the peak in the summer season, for the purpose of responding to firm growth of demand in the
winter season, the timing of periodic inspections tends to be concentrated in spring and autumn. On the other hand,
the term of periodic inspection work tends to become longer due to the increase in the amount of repairs
associated with aging of plants, and in the future, as the aging of large-capacity machines will also proceed,
further efforts to shorten the term of periodic inspection work are sought.
As a method to plan the shortening of the term of periodic inspection work, in addition to the effective
classification and planning of repair work associated with aging, improvement of construction method that
includes the following are also pursued.
Improvement of work efficiency through mechanization and broader use of robots
Improvement of work efficiency through labor-saving tools
Cutback in amount of works through blanket replacement of large parts (service, repair, etc.)
In addition, measures will be also be implemented from the viewpoint of the plant (Table, including:
Earlier start of work through forced cooling stop of the turbine
Improvement of workability through scale-up of manholes

Table Improvement examples for shortening of the term of periodic inspection work
Examples Outline
Adoption of forced cooling system for turbine Introduce the outside air into high- and medium-pressure casings through the injection of cooling
air or by means of vacuum pump to shorten the cooling time.
Adopt a high-performance oil-flushing system. Use the flushing system with a fine-mesh filter.
Have gas turbine rotor spares. Have the gas turbine rotor of the combined-cycle generator as a spare to replace it at periodic
Have steam turbine rotor spares. Have the steam turbine rotor for geothermal heat as a spare to replace it at periodic inspection.
Adopt a gas turbine static blade-sealing alignment system. Although alignment at replacement was performed at the manufacturer’s factory, alignment has
become available through installation of the system at site.
Adopt a casing-tightening hydraulic bolt. Change the high-pressure turbine casing-tightening bolt from the shrink-fit type to the hydraulic
tension type.
Modify from MHG to EHG. —
Have one set of EHG parts spares. Have one set of EHG parts as spares to replace them at inspection.
Additionally install an overhead traveling crane. Install an overhead traveling crane additionally.
Making the overhead traveling crane faster. Make traveling and hoisting speed faster to plan effective use of the crane.
Develop scaffolding at the furnace bottom part. Carry in one set of folded stages from the furnace bottom to extend it on the furnace bottom.
Adopt a mobile clinker hopper. Change the clinker hopper to the mobile type to facilitate carry-in of scaffolding.
Adopt a turbine rotor dry horning unit. Change the work form from manual work to work with the horning unit to plan greater efficiency of
Adopt a hydraulic torque wrench. Adopt the hydraulic torque wrench for crossover pipe flange-tightening work at low-pressure casing.
Install a lifting unit for dismantling of major valves. Adopt a simplified lifting unit for lifting work of the main check valve, etc. to plan greater
efficiency of work.
Adopt a hydraulic bolt for coupling. Tighten the coupling by means of a hydraulic tension bolt.
Improve in-furnace scaffolding. Change the scaffolding from steel pipe scaffolding to steel fit scaffolding.
Install a floor for carry-in of boiler materials. Install an out-furnace stage for carry-in of in-furnace scaffolding and for material storage space.
Install a shutter at the boiler sound isolation wall opening. Install an opening at the sound isolation wall of the boiler to facilitate carry-in of materials, etc.
Conduct dismantling and inspection work on the electric valve with greater efficiency. Change the power supply connection of the electric valve to the connector system.
Contrive dismantling and assembling jigs for the coil-end cover of the generator. Fix the bottom cover to the jig and then cause it to rotate to facilitate removal.
Adopt an ultrasonic expansion-measuring instrument Measure expansion of bolts by means of the ultrasonic measuring instrument.
Turbine blade clearance-measuring device Insert the sensor into the clearance between the turbine blades to perform automatic measurement to
process its data.
Adopt a laser-type centering measuring device. Measure turbine alignment by means of a laser to calculate the corrected value automatically.
Adopt a turbine casing lifting-level supervisory unit. Monitor parallelism of the housing to be lifted by installing an ultrasonic-type distance sensor at 4
corners to measure it.
Install a crane for light parts. In addition to an overhead traveling crane, install a crane for lifting light parts.
Rotor center hole horning unit Unit that performs horning of the turbine rotor center hole automatically.
Adopt a hydraulic jack for dismantling of housing. Cause the measuring sensors installed at 4 corners of the housing to synchronize with the hydraulic
jack to lift it horizontally.
Adopt a jig for groove alignment of the boiler-cooling wall pipe. Jig for groove alignment of boiler water-cooling wall pipe.
Upsize the boiler manhole. Upsize the bore of the boiler manhole to plan greater efficiency.
Develop an internal surface inspection system of the boiler header part. Insert it through the header inspection hole to make observation by means of TV and observation
with an optical microscope.

159 Support system for creating a work plan for increasing longevity
In order to continue stable operation of an aged thermal power plant after 20 years or more from its construction
and start of operation. While maintaining the economics and its function, identifying the function, performance
and soundness of equipment and presentation (recovery from deterioration) are performed more efficiently than
For this reason, a support system to create a work plan for increasing longevity that takes plant reliability and
economics into account has generally been introduced and made use of.
Creation of a work plan for increasing longevity is performed along each step of flow in Fig.
Selection of critical equipment (Fig.
Assuming that the service period will be 60 years, the operation time, 400,000 hours and the number of start
ups and shut downs, 5,000, select equipment for which remaining life control is believed to be necessary out of all
equipment comprising the unit. Assess the probability of the occurrence of failure, effect of failure on output when
it occurs, term of recovery work and cost, safety (social influence level), etc. comprehensively by means of the
FMEA technique.
! Investigation of the background of accidents and failures
Collect and organize the records of accidents and failures regarding the selected critical equipment, and
investigate the failure mode, life consumption factor, etc. during a long-term service period.
" Breakdown and defragmentation of equipment (selection of critical points)
Select critical equipment.

Investigate history of accidents and failures.

Break down and defragment equipment.

Select the critical portion.

Select remaining life calculation measures.

Calculate the unit life consumption rate.

Operation history
Future operation conditions
Marginal processing value

Calculate remaining life.

Unit price table

Create a long-term maintenance program list.

Carry out profit calculation.

Create a work program list for increasing longevity.

Fig. Flow in creation of work program plan list for increasing longevity work
Measuring device
Electric device
Boiler system
Turbine system
Effect-level assessment

Life Initial Final Effect on Degree of difficulty of General assessment

recovery from failure Safety
Equipment consumption failure failure of failure output
Term of Recovery Critical
occurrence recovery Score
factor mode mode cost equipment
(100 points or
Creep, low- Progression of
Rotor manufacturing Burst
cycle fatigue defect
High-pressure turbine

Creep, low- Crack Leakage

External casing cycle fatigue
Creep, low-
Internal casing Crack Leakage
cycle fatigue
Creep, low-
Nozzle chamber Crack Leakage
cycle fatigue
Axial inclination
1st blade ring Creep Deformation Abnormal

Fig. Example of critical equipment selection

Break down the selected critical equipment to the group that conceivably has the same structure, function, and
design condition, and then defragment them based on the detailed structure to select “Point to which maintenance
control should be performed based on life assessment.”
# Selection of critical portion (Fig. 24)
Critical point :
Dummy groove
Critical portion :
Heat group groove Critical point : Center hole
bottom Critical portion : Control stage bottom
Initial failure mode : Crack Initial failure mode : Crack Critical point : Rotor body
Life consumption factor: Life consumption factor: Critical portion : Central part and others
Low-cycle fatigue Creep + Low-cycle Initial failure mode : Deformation
Low-cycle fatigue + fatigue Deterioration of
High-cycle fatigue characteristics
Life consumption factor :
Creep, softening,

High-pressure stage Ultrahigh-pressure stage

Governor side
GEN side
Control stage

Critical point: Ultrahigh-pressure 1st-stage blade grove

Critical point :
High-pressure final- Rotating blade
(a) Critical portion : Blade groove shoulder
stage blade groove corner
Critical portion :
1st tooth blade groove Outlet side
Inlet side Initial failure mode : Crack
shoulder corner
Life consumption factor: Creep, High-cycle fatigue
Initial failure mode : Crack
creep + high-cycle fatigue
Life consumption factor:
(b) Critical portion : Contact surface at rotating
Stress corrosion crack,
blade root
corrosion fatigue Initial failure mode : Crack
Life consumption factor : Fretting fatigue
(a) (b)

Fig. Example of critical portion in high-pressure turbine rotor

Expand the critical points to the portion level further to extract the portions where occurrence of failure is possible
during a long-term service period to select the portions that are the target of remaining life control as a critical
portion from them.
$ Selection of remaining life calculation method
Remaining life calculation methods can be divided broadly into following 4 methods:
Theory analysis method (non-destructive diagnosis method)
Destruction test method
Statistical method
Trend control method
Out of these 4 methods, select the most adequate method corresponding to the initial failure mode and life
consumption factor.
% Calculation of life consumption unit rate
Using the respective methods, obtain the amount of life consumption per 1,000 hours of operation (!c) or amount
of life consumption per one start up and shut down (!f).

Calculate unit life consumption rate.

Calculate remaining life.


Limit processing

Consumed life

Future Consumed life

conditions Remaining life
FEM analysis Life assessment curve

Life (Year)
unit life

Fig. Calculate remaining

Life consumption unit life
history life.

Table Example of plan list for increasing longevity (Unit: million yen)
System 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010
Boiler related 2226 83 62 15 35 10 268 3356 17 44 17
Turbine related 712 85 1 35 37 83 95 1203 103 21 70
Electric related 12 14 2 406 828 374 54 116
Measurement related 12 20 70 300 320
Total 3002 168 77 50 74 93 789 5457 494 419 523

Optimum renewal fiscal year

Uniform annual cost of maintenance cost

Uniform annual cost of renewal

Fiscal year in A.D.

Fig. Example of profit calculation result

& Calculation of remaining life (Fig.

(1) Calculation of consumption life
Cumulative operation time
! = !c + !f " Cumulative number of start ups and shut downs
(2) Establishment of marginal processing value
The marginal processing value is a consumption life value that determines:
࡮start timing of inspection
࡮implementation timing of re-diagnosis
࡮implementation timing of repair and replacement
And it is established in accordance with the equipment and portion.
(3) Establishment of future operation conditions
Based on the power generation plan, the annual estimated operation hours (Ta) and estimated number of
start ups and shut downs (Na) are assumed to calculate the future operating conditions by multiplying such
number by life consumption unit.
(4) Calculation of remaining life
Remaining life indicates the years until the unit reaches limit processing value and is calculated by means
Limit processing value $ consumption life
Remaining life (years) =
!c " Ta/1000 # !f " Na
' Creation of long-term maintenance program list
A long-term maintenance program list represents the maintenance cost within the assumed service period on a
year-by-year basis, and the maintenance cost is calculated from the cost required for inspection, diagnosis, repair
and replacement on a portion-by-portion basis and the quantity of the corresponding portion.
(1) Entry of unit price
Study the most adequate inspection, diagnosis, repair and replacement methods on a portion-by-portion
basis to select its unit price from unit price list that this system has to enter it.
(2) Creation of long-term maintenance plan list
There are 2 types of long-term maintenance plan list, on a portion-by-portion basis and equipment-by-
equipment basis, and clearly shows the fiscal year when inspection, diagnosis, repair and replacement are
required and the respective costs.
( Implementation of profitability calculation (Fig.
Study the selection whose renewal of equipment or partial repair is required, and select the most economical
renewal timing in the case of equipment renewal, as well as the optimum replacement range combining mutual
) Creation of longer life work plan list (Table
With respect to all critical equipment, calculate the maintenance cost required within the future assumed service
period, and an increasing longevity work plan list is obtained by summing such costs.

3.2.1 Causes of damage to boiler equipment
(1) Trend of damage
An example of analysis of the ratio of aged deterioration damage for each component of a boiler and the
damage ratio of its pressure-retaining parts by each cause are shown in Fig. 3.2.1-1. Such pressure-retaining
components as the furnace wall, super-heater, re-heater, economizer, piping, etc. account for 67% of the entire
boiler equipment. Thermal fatigue, corrosion fatigue, and creep damage account for 83% of the causes of total
damage. As measures to improve the reliability of thermal power generation plants, it is important to prevent such
fatigue, corrosion fatigue, and creep damage from occurring to such pressure-retaining components.

Others Corrosion
14% 5%
Non-pressure-retai Wear
Furnace 5%
ning components
Fan Ratio of occurrence Cause of damage to Thermal
Creep pressure-retaining
10% of failure for each fatigue/
15% components
component of boiler corrosion
equipment fatigue
Valves 68%

Piping SH/RH/ECO
16% 20%

Fig. 3.2.1-1 Ratio of the components becoming defective/ratio of cause of damage

Drop in bearing force
Deterioration caused by use for a long
period of time Swelling out Creep Rupture by
of materials Deformation rupture spouting
Change in material quality
Defective materials

Clogging inside the piping

caused by foreign
Overheating Imbalanced flow of fluid
within the piping
Adherence/growth of scale
within the piping

Corrosion by high

Corrosion Corrosion by low Excessive increase

temperature in load stress Rupture
Corrosion of the inner caused by the caused by
surface of tank caused by decrease in static stress
filled water effective thickness
Erosion by ash
Wear Wear by high-velocity air
flow within the component

Thermal fatigue Rupture

Fatigue Occurrence/growth caused by
Mechanical fatigue of crack(s) fatigue

Fatigue occurring under Rupture by

Corrosion the environment of the Occurrence/growth corrosion
fatigue inner surface of the tank of crack(s) fatigue
caused by filled water

Fig. 3.2.1-2 Cause of damage to boiler equipment

(2) Cause of damage

The types of damage generally experienced with the pressure-retaining components of the boiler equipment are
shown in Fig. 3.2.1-2 for convenience.

3.2.2 Example of damage and measures to improve bearing force

Examples of typical damage experienced so far and measures taken to improve the bearing force are explained
(1) Creep and creep rupture
Each pressure-retaining component of boiler equipment has been designed to have a creep rupture strength of
100,000 hours or longer. However, should the component be overheated beyond the designed temperature range
for any reason, or should any decrease in thickness advance, creep damage may advance within a very short
period time resulting in rupture. Typical causes of damage found in the examples are summarized as follows:
Overheating due to an extreme decrease in flow rate within the piping caused by clogging with of
foreign matters or by peeling off or accumulation of steam oxidation scale.
Temperature rise at the piping wall caused by the growth of scale adhered to the inner surface of the
pipes of the furnace evaporation piping, or the growth of porous-type scale with low heat
transmission efficiency
For the accumulation of steam oxidation scale within the stainless steel piping of the super-heater, etc. and
accumulated at the U-bend, it is considered effective to suppress the scale from growing if fine-grade steel is
employed or the inner surface of the piping is shot blasted. Creep damage includes creep created over
considerably long hours because the inner-pressure stress increases by the decreased thickness caused by
high-temperature corrosion, etc. A lot of damage has been found caused by the scale adhering to the inner surface
of the pipes of furnace evaporating piping. Standard water quality control of the supply water and tank water and
implementation of proper acid cleaning is an important task. To determine the timing of acid cleaning, monitoring
of the pipe wall temperature by a pulling-out check of the pipes at the time of regular inspection or by using a
Cordal-thermocouple (embedded thermocouple) is available.
(2) Thermal fatigue
Thermal fatigue occurs by the repeated effects of high thermal stress that is generated by the temperature
differences among the member materials. The thermal fatigue generated by the start/stop operation of boiler
equipment or by load fluctuation is a type of low-cycle fatigue in general. The surface of the broken part by
thermal fatigue is uneven and rougher than that caused by mechanical fatigue where high-cycle fatigue is
accompanied by vibration, etc. The surface of the cracked part is normally open to some extent. The causes
generating thermal stress vary depending on the structure of each component of the boiler equipment. Examples
of portions where thermal fatigue occurs and measures to reduce the stress are shown in Table 3.2.2-1 in a
concrete fashion.
(3) Corrosion fatigue
In the case of the inner water supply system of furnace, economizer, etc., such corrosion fatigue as cracking
generated not only from the outside of the piping but also from the inside has been experienced. Corrosion fatigue
is a phenomenon in which fatigue cracks are generated and grow because the strength against fatigue declines
remarkably to a larger degree than the same in an air atmosphere, when the metal receives stress repeatedly in a
corrosive environment. It is basically generated on the portion where thermal stress, etc. is large.
As a typical example of the relationship between thermal fatigue and corrosion fatigue, the tension plate and
welded portion of the furnace wall are shown in Fig. 3.2.2-1.
At the portion where the tension plate has been welded directly to the furnace wall, thermal stress is generated
by the temperature difference between the tension plate and the furnace wall in the direction of the piping axis and
to right angles of the piping axis. The maximum stress is generated on the welded portion of the tension plate on
the external face of piping. Thermal fatigue cracks are generated on the toe of the weld where stress concentrates.
On the other hand, stress is generated on the rear side of the weld on the inner surface of the piping. The stress
on the inner surface of the piping is smaller in general than that on the outer surface.

Table 3.2.2-1 Portions where thermal stress is generated and measures to reduce the stress
Portion where fatigue damage Mechanism of generation of
Portion Measures to reduce stress
occurs stress
Ԙ Furnace wall If the boiler water temperature Arrange the fin edge in a large
should change upon boiler arch shape
start/stop operations, temperature R-machining of fin edge
difference occurs between the

Cool water
furnace wall and the sub-wall or
between the sub-wall and the rear
smoke duct wall, which generates
stress on the fin edge of the R-machining
(9) 2 A h Arch
furnace wall.
ԙ Furnace wall seal box weld If the boiler water temperature Change the shape of the seal box
should change upon boiler corner to an arch.
of stress
start/stop operations, temperature Bend the seal box side in 2 steps.
difference occurs between the
furnace wall piping and the seal 2-step
box, by which stress concentrates
R corner
Tool box at the corner.

Ԛ Fixtures mounted on furnace If the boiler water temperature Change the structure of the
wall should change upon boiler furnace wall piping and mounted
Tension plate start/stop operations, temperature fixture to a sliding structure.
difference occurs between the Tension plate

furnace wall piping and the

mounted fixture, which generates
stress on the welded portion.


ԛ End bar and skin casing for The entire portion tends to deform Change the structure of the
the hole of the ceiling End bar
Welded portion due to the temperature difference ceiling piping and end bar to a
between the front- and rear-end sliding structure.
the ceiling
Piping on

bards at the ceiling hole, but is Change the skin casing to a 2-step
locked by the ceiling piping, bent type.
resulting in the generation of 2-step-type skin
stress on the welded portion. Due casing
End bar
to the temperature difference
Deformation between the end bar and the skin Piping on
the ceiling
casing, cracking occurs on the
skin casing.
Ԝ Skin casing below Due to the temperature difference Change the skin casing to 2-step
economizer between the wall piping projected bellow type.
surrounding the rear smoke duct
and hopper, stress is generated on
the skin casing, resulting in

Damage caused by heat fatigue Damage caused by corrosive fatigue

Generation of Generation of
high stress high stress

Low expansion Low expansion

Tension plate Tension plate

High expansion

Fig.9 Typical example of Fig.10 Generation status of

heat and corrosive fatigue incompatiblility at the end
portion of straight-finned

Table 3.2.2-1 Portion where thermal stress is generated and measures to reduce the stress
Portion where fatigue damage Mechanism of generation of
Portion Measures to reduce stress
occurs stress
ԝ Nozzle of super-heater and Temperature difference occurs Change the nozzles to the
re-heating pipe head between the nozzles during flexible type.
start/stop operations, and bending
stress is generated on the welded
Piping on
portion that has been locked Flexible
the ceiling between the nozzles and ceiling

Ԟ Joint welded by dissimilar Due to the difference in the By using Inconel-family welding
metals carbon content, carbon migrates electrodes and by reducing the
to the metal to be welded from linear expansion difference,
linear thermal
Coefficient of

Inconel welding
low-alloy steel, yielding a reduce the stress. Prevent the

decarbonized layer as a result, strength from declining by
and the strength on the low-alloy preventing the carbon from
side declines. By the difference in migrating.
thermal expansion between the
SUS rod austenitic stainless steel to be
welded and the low-alloy base Welding at factory
SUS steel
Cr-Mo steel
steel, thermal stress is generated using Inconel welding
on the portion welded. Because of
its high temperature, creep
damage also occurs.
ԟ Saddle spacer welding Within a structure supported by a Employ a flexible spacer.
portion spacer fixed by welding to the Slide
Welding-type hanging pipe of the
saddle Fixed
super-heater/re-heater, thermal
stress is generated on the Flexible saddle
spacer-welded portion due to the
temperature difference between
the upper and the lower pipes.
Ԡ Welded portion of If the air vent pipe and drain pipe Change the small-diameter pipe
small-diameter nozzle of pipe of pipe header are the type of to a flexible type. The form of
header (29) Pi i ti such structure as being locked in nozzle of pipe heater should be
Piping the housing hole, thermal stress is butt welding type.
reaction Flexible bending
generated at the welded portion of piping
the nozzle of pipe header.
Hole to
be fixed

Portion where fatigue damage Mechanism of generation of
Portion Measures to reduce stress
occurs stress
ԡ Welded portion to fix the Due to the temperature difference Separate the anchor plate to fit it
anchor plate Portion where
between the anchor plate and by full arc welding and make the
cracking occurs furnace wall piping occurring by size smaller.
Filler plate
start/stop operations of a boiler, Anchor plate
Tie bar Stand-off
stress concentrates at the welded Stopper
portion of the anchor plate. Filler plate
Anchor plate

Ԣ Membrane-edge connecting Due to the temperature difference Refresh the connection membrane
waterwall and cage walls between the waterwall and cage edge and provide R-machining to
Membrane piping occurring by start/stop the welding stop end.
Portion operations, stress concentrates at
Waterwall where Membrane
pipe cracking the connection and membrane
occurs edge. Waterwall

ԣ Welded liner of Stopper
Desuper-heater main
body nozzle By the ON/OFF injection from Change the structure of the spray
super-heater/desuper-heater Liner the spray nozzle of the nozzle and improve the method of
super-heater/desuper-heater, the fixing the liner by changing to the
Forepart of

liner is bumped and stress pin type.

the tank

Support Support
Base pipe ring concentrates at the liner-welded Desuper-heater main body Spray structure
Protection cylinder Support Protection nozzle
portion. cylinder
(pin type)

Fitting of liner
(Welding type) Pin
Portion where
cracking occurs Stopper Pin

Ԥ Measures against damage to Main Portion where

Temperature difference occurs on Change the support lag to shear
main piping support lag piping cracking occurs the supports inside and outside lag.
the thermal insulator, and excess Shear Hanging
stress concentrates at the
support-welded potion.
material Thermal
Band material

ԥ Ceiling hole Due to the temperature difference Use a sleeve through the ceiling
between the crown and the hole and avoid direct welding of
piping, stress concentrates the crown to the piping.
causing cracking to occur. Crown
To add a


Ԧ Connection of loop pipes When there is a temperature Use a sliding spacer at the portion
difference at operation start, where high temperature is
Tie rod Sliding spacer
cracking occurs at the portion transmitted and to avoid any
where a linkage fixture has been locking. Change the tie lag in the
installed due to stress rear heat transmission portion to
concentration. an oval-shaped lag to soften the
Hanging loop
pipe concentration of stress.

(Single lag) (Oval lag)

ԧ Inner casing of ceiling The corner casing cannot absorb Use a corrugated-type expansion
enclosure the expansion force from 3 sides, at the corner.
and cracking causes gas leakage. expansion

Pipe header Pipe header

at furnace at furnace
front wall side wall

However, in a corrosive environment, strength against fatigue declines, which causes cracking at the inner face
within a pipe by corrosion fatigue.
As a characteristic of a cracked surface caused by corrosion fatigue, many cracks are accompanied by pits
caused by the corrosion along the cracks.
As basic countermeasures, such actions to soften the thermal stress are considered important. In such a case, it
is required to change the tension plate support to a sliding type and improve the structure so that the thermal stress
may be softened.
Examples of other corrosion fatigue are introduced below:
ԘStraight fin end of economizer piping (Fig. 3.2.2-2)
The occurrence of cracking was experienced at the straight fin end of the economizer piping, caused by thermal
stress accompanied by intermittent water supply in order to keep the drum at a constant level at the operation start
of the boiler.
Cracking has started from the inner surface of the piping. Corrosive fatigue is the cause.
ԙLigament of the pipe header at the inlet of the economizer (Fig. 3.2.2-3)
The occurrence of cracking was experienced at the ligament of the pipe header at the inlet of the economizer
due to the same cause as above. This was also caused by corrosion fatigue.
(4) Mechanical fatigue
In the case of mechanical fatigue, the cracking is a type of transgranular cracking in general. The ruptured face
has a fine fatigue face, and no extension by rupture was detected.

Pipe header at the

inlet of economizer

Nozzle at outside furnace Pipe header at

outside furnace

Fig. 3.2.2-3 Example of corrosion fatigue of the inner ligament of the pipe header nozzle at the inlet of the
(5) High-temperature corrosion
The surface stainless steel pipe affected by high-temperature corrosion has been damaged by corrosion in a
pockmarked fashion. The corroded portion is composed of an oxide layer – a polysulfide layer – a carbonized
layer – base metal from the outer piping surface. From the viewpoint of microstructure, the corroded and
carbonized structure of grain boundary is found. A drop in expansion as well as a drop in strength can be

Table 3.2.2-2 Classification of measures to improve bearing force
Phenomenon Cause Measures Subject portion

Creep Aged strength drop Assessment of Pipe header of super-heater/re-heater,

by creep at welded remaining life by replica, main-/high-temperature longitudinal
portion ultrasonic testing, TDFD, re-heating steam piping, around welded
ELFOSS, UT inspection portion, elbow/Y-piece-welded portion

Restriction on Add flexibility Pipe header stub, finish of sealing

elongation by heat
Expansion of casing
Piping-supporting fixture, back-stay
Fatigue prevention fixture
(including creep Shape the stress R-machining, chamfering, Fin-end portion, pipe header lid at the
fatigue) concentrates change of shape corner of the burner wall box, expansion
for the smoke duct
Thermal shock Change of shape, improvement Desuper-heater spray, small-diameter
of material, improvement of the piping with main piping (drain pressure
shapes of seat and piping tank)

Dissimilar metal Inconel solvent Joint of different piping material, fixture of

welding (SUS/Cr-Mo) different material

Corrosion fatigue Change of structure and Fixture welded to furnace wall piping,
shape, water quality ligament at the inlet of the economizer

High-temperature Improvement of bearing Super-heater, re-heater

fatigue, oxidation force of material, addition Furnace wall
Corrosion of extra welding

Oxidation of steam Fine-particle SUS material Super-heater, re-heater

(SUS piping) Inner face shot blast

Wear Coal ash, soot blow Protector, pipe thermal Furnace wall, super-heater, re-heater

(6) Low-temperature corrosion

The AH element, seal plate, etc. are main damaged caused by low-temperature corrosion. It has been reported
that the expansion at the AH outlet, damper, etc. were affected by sulfuric acid corrosion when HS oil had been
In addition, such an example was reported where corrosion was generated on the outer surface of the furnace or
the furnace wall of the rear smoke duct caused by condensed sulfuric acid in the steam-condensed water while the
boiler was kept at standstill.
(7) Measures to improve bearing force
As explained above, the components composing the boiler equipment receive various types of damage
depending on the environment of use, most of which are combinations of several damaging factors. With respect
to such damage, various measures to improve the bearing force, which are classified and detailed in Table 3.2.2-2,
have been taken.

3.2.3 Technology to assess the remaining life

The methods to assess the remaining life of boiler equipment can be divided into the following 3 types:
Stress analysis method such as the finite element method, etc.
Destructive test method
Non-destructive test method
Except the stress analysis method, it is not possible to assess the remaining life if you use only any one of above
methods. Assessment of remaining life is carried out by combining the methods.
(1) Stress analysis method
This is a method of obtaining the life consumption by calculation based on the equipment subjected to
assessment, the geometric shape of the part, the operation history such as temperature, stress, etc., the strength
against creep rupture, and the properties of the materials. The finite element method using a computer makes it
possible to analyze the stress of a complex structure.
With respect to the properties of the material to be used for the analysis, it is required to include the safety ratio
in the laboratory data to some extent considering possible variations of the properties. Therefore, the assessment
result leans towards the safe side.
With respect to such operation history as the temperature, stress, etc. to be used for the analysis, calculation is
performed by dividing the operation history into several typical patterns. In order to cope with the recent complex
operation history, the remaining life is sometimes assessed by installing a life-monitoring device at the pipe
header at the outlet of the super-heater, water separator, boiler circulation pump, etc.
(2) Destructive test method
This is a method of estimating the remaining life through various types of destructive tests by taking out test
specimens from the components actually put under operation. This test method is usually employed for
components (typically, the boiler tube) from which test specimens can be easily taken out. The advantage of this
method is that the remaining life of a given material can be assessed directly, including its history at the time of
manufacture, even if the temperature or stress history of the material in the past is not made clear. The
disadvantage is that sampling is required, the portion where the test specimen has been taken out needs to be
repaired, and time and expense are required for creep rupture testing, fatigue testing, etc.
As a measure making it possible to perform destructive testing by using much smaller test specimens,
destructive testing through a miniature test is available. As shown in Fig. 3.2.3-1, its effectiveness has been
Conventional test specimen

Miniature test specimen

Miniature test specimen

Conventional test
Stress (MPa)


Time of rupture
Comparison of strength against creep rupture between a conventional
test specimen of 1 Cr 0.5 Mo Steel and a miniature test specimen

Fig. 3.2.3-1 Miniature creep rupture test

(3) Non-destructive test method

The advantage of the non-destructive test method is that any critical component with respect to the stress can be
assessed in a short time without sampling. This test is used together with the assessment of remaining life through
stress analysis.
This method varies depending on the material quality or state of damage to the subject component. In Table
3.2.3-1, the non-destructive assessment method for creep damage and fatigue damage is shown.

Table 3.2.3-1 Non-destructive method of assessing the remaining life of components affected by creep/fatigue damage
Method as described Low-alloy steel Steel
Subject in Attachment 3 of the
Method of assessing remaining life
damage Electricity Utilities Welded Welded
Base metal Base metal
Industry Law portion portion
Creep Deposition intergranular distance
! ! !
damage method
Hardness-measuring method ! ! !
Structure comparison method ! ! !
AC electric resistance method ! !
Void (cavity) area ratio method ! !
Void density method ! !
A-parameter method ! ! ! !
Crystal grain deformation method ! !
Carbide structure-measuring method ! ! !
Ultrasonic method ! ! !
Structure-quantifying method ! ! ! !
CMA density spectrum method ! ! ! !
Fatigue Microscopic-crack method ! ! !

ԘCreep damage
(a) Deposition intergranular distance method
This method is used for the assessment of creep damage of low-alloy steel base metal. Low-alloy steel is a
material whose strength against creep has been raised by depositions and shows ductile creep damage. When used
for many hours in a high-temperature atmosphere, the intergranular distance of this disposition becomes larger
and, at the same time, resistance against deformation declines, causing the creep to accelerate. This phenomenon
is represented by the creep distortion–time curve in general. The change depends on the temperature and stress of
the subject component. By measuring the intergranular distance between particles of disposition, the creep
distortion at the time of assessment can be obtained. Therefore, the behavior of creep distortion thereafter can be
predicted, and the creep remaining life can be assessed. The intergranular distance of disposition is obtained by
image processing of the replica taken out from the subject component using an electrolytic discharge-type
scanning electron microscope (Fig. 3.2, 3-2).

Replica line

Mean free-path
Creep rate constant

Scanning-type electron
microscope Average intergranular
distance ("m)
Fig. 3.2.3-2 Disposition intergranular distance method

(b) Hardness-measuring method
The crystal grains of 9 Cr base metal steel are very fine, and this base metal has a hard structure of initial
hardness. Different from low-alloy steel, no metallic structural change can be detected even when creep damage
grows. However, its hardness tends to drop gradually.
Therefore, by measuring the hardness and referring to the master curve that indicates the relationship between
the hardness and the amount of damage, the life consumption ratio can be assessed (Fig. 3.2.3-2).


The amount of creep damage

Fig. 3.2.3-2 Hardness-measuring method

(c) Structure comparison method

This method is very effective for the assessment of components affected by low-alloy steel welding heat that
indicates fragile creep damage. Comprehensive assessment of life is carried out by comparing the standard
structure corresponding to the life consumption ratio by taking out the replica/extracted replica from the
component subjected to assessment and by using 3 parameters of deposition distribution pertaining to mechanical
damage such as creep voids or microscopic-cracks generated as the creep damage grows, optical microscopic
structure pertaining to the change in the distribution of the metallic structure, or carbide using various types of
microscopes and the change in the shape or size of the deposed carbide.
As shown in Fig. 3.2.3-3, the factors for assessment of respective damage are divided into 3 steps or 4 steps. By
combining them, the life consumption ratio is estimated comprehensively within a range of 8 categories. For
example, when mechanical damage is IID, the microscopic structure is IIIM, and deposition distribution is IIP, the
comprehensive damage category of the life consumption ratio by creep rupture is estimated to be E, namely 50 –
By combining various factors for assessment of life, assessment with high precision becomes possible in the
entire range covering the first half and second half of life.

Replica Extracted replica

Component surface
(etched surface)

Scanning-type electron Optical microscope Analysis electron

microscope microscope

Creep cavity Micro-crack Metal structure Disposition

Life consumption
Damage factors Comprehensive ratio by creep
Microscopic Deposition
damage breakage (%)
damage structure

Fig. 3.2.3-3 Structure comparison method

(d) AC electric resistance method

This method is effective for the assessment of creep damage of components affected by welding heat
(hereinafter referred to as the HAZ portion) of low-alloy steel and 9 Cr steel.

Material not Material damaged

used yet by creep
Voltage drop ratio defined by
initial value

Life consumption ratio by creep breakage (%)

Fig. 3.2.3-4 AC electric resistance method

The creep damage of the component affected by welding heat from these steels is a type of fragile damage and
generates creep voids at the grain boundary. As the generation of voids increases, the electric resistance tends to
become stronger (Fig. 3.2.3-4). The amount of damage is assessed by using the electric resistance ratio of unused
material and the electric resistance ratio of the component being assessed, and by referring to the master curve
indicating the relationship with the amount of damage. Assessment accuracy has been improved by making it

easier to grasp the level of damage proximate to the surface by using an alternative current. In addition, it is
required in this method to spot weld a platinum wire to the subject component. If an electrode has once been
installed, building of a scaffold, thermal insulation, removal/restoration of the exterior plate, and polishing of the
subject component for inspection are not required thereafter. Therefore, the costs for inspection can be reduced. In
addition, it is possible to make measurement at any time during operation. This method can also be used for
monitoring the main piping, etc.
(e) Void (cavity) area ratio method
As shown in Fig. 3.2.3-5, voids are generated at the grain boundary when the HAZ portion of low-alloy steel or
9 Cr steel is affected by creep damage. The number of voids increases as the damage grows. The voids become a
crack after growing/combining (namely, the area of voids increases), and finally result in the rupture of the
component material. In this method, the ratio between the total area of voids generated within the observation
visual field and the total observation visual area is defined as a void (cavity) area ratio. Using this ratio together
with the master curve prepared by its correlation with the degree of creep damage, the life is assessed in this
method (Fig. 3.2.3-5).

electron microscope

W elding metal (570$C)

Cavity area ratio S0

Regression curve
99% reliable section
99% reliable section of
creep damage ratio

Creep damage ratio #c

Fig. 3.2.3-5 Void (cavity) area ratio method

Incidentally, the behavior to generate voids is different in such low-alloy steels as 2.25 Cr-1 Mo steel, etc. and 9
Cr steel. It is required to use the master curve suitable for the respective type of steel.
(f) Void density method
The ratio between the number of voids in the observation visual field and the observation area is defined as
cavity density. Referring to the master curve indicating the relationship between the cavity density and the amount
of damage, assessment of the life of the component subjected to assessment is carried out in this method.
(g) A-parameter method
This is a method to be used for the assessment of creep damage at the HAZ portion of low-alloy steel. This
method was developed by English researchers. Creep voids generated as creep damage grows are generated at the
grain boundary. Draw an optional scanning line in the metal structure of the subject component. The ratio of the
number of grain boundaries where voids have been generated against the number of grain boundaries that
intersect this scanning line is defined as the A-parameter. The life of the component subjected to assessment is
assessed in this method by referring to the master curve indicating its relationship with the amount of damage (Fig.

Amount of creep damage (%)
Relationship between A-parameter and life
consumption ratio by creep rupture

Fig. 3.2.3-6 A-parameter method

(h) Crystal grain deformation method

The base material of low-alloy steel used for boiler equipment has been made considerably soft considering
easiness of machining and welding. Therefore, level of generation of voids when receiving creep damage is lower
than that of the HAZ portion, but instead plastic deformation generates easily. Under such circumstances, the
crystal grain is expanded gradually to be long and narrow in the applied stress direction and becomes uniform.
The level of this uniform style is quantified by the standard deviation of the frequency distribution of the
maximum-diameter angle (an angle created by the direction of the maximum diameter of the crystal grain and the
direction of applied stress). This is a method of assessing the life using this standard deviation and the master
curve prepared by the correlation with the degree of creep damage (Fig. 3.2.3-7).

Deformation count Sm (degree)


Direction of stress
Applied to the assessment of creep damage of Cr-Mo steel
base metal
(a) New material Method of assessing the remaining life focusing on the fact
Piping material (500-650$C) that the crystal grain deforms as the creep damage grows
Heat transmission pipe material (570-600$C)

Direction of stress Deformation Regression curve

coefficient Sm 99% reliable section
(standard deviation) 99% reliable section of creep
damage ratio +/- 0.09


Creep damage ratio #c

(b) Material damaged
by creep [Relationship between deformation
coefficient and creep damage ratio]

Fig. 3.2.3-7 Assessment of creep damage to Cr-Mo steel base metal through the crystal grain deformation method

(i) Carbide structure-measuring method

The base metal of low-alloy steel used for a boiler and the HAZ portion makes such structural changes as
deposition of carbide, condensation/large sizing, etc. as the creep grows. The structure of carbide also changes. At
the initial stage of life, there is a lot of Cr-enriched carbide represented by M‫ޓ‬ . However, as the damage grows,
it changes to Mo-enriched carbide such as M‫ޓ‬C. This method focuses on such structural changes of carbide. In
this method, life is assessed using the master curve prepared in the correlation between the weight ratio of Mo/Cr
and the degree of creep damage.
The Mo/Cr weight ratio is obtained by taking out very a small amount of specimen from the component
subjected to assessment, extracting carbide by dissolving it in a suitable device, and measuring the weight of Cr
and Mo by high-frequency plasma emission-analyzing apparatus. Figure 3.2.3-8 shows an example of the master
curve of this method, which shows stress dependency.
(j) Ultrasonic method
Upon the incidence of ultrasonic waves into the component, rear scatter noise is generated. Because the noise
characteristics correspond to the number of generated voids and/or microscopic-cracks of the damaged component,
it is quantified to specify this as a parameter to assess creep damage (noise value). Taking the noise wave after the
incidence of ultrasonic waves from the component surface to the 1st bottom echo, and by carrying out power
spectrum analysis, the area within a certain frequency range is calculated to define it as the noise value. The
assessment flow in the ultrasonic method is shown in Fig. 3.2.3-9.
HAZ-reproduced component with SR
: Application of reaction

Mo/Cr weight ratio

Creep life ratio t/tr
(Carbide structure-measuring method)

Fig. 3.2.3-8 Carbide structure-measuring method

(a) New material (unused)

Amplitude (dB)

Data measurement of Noise

Noise value Life assessment
component for assessment analysis

Comparison of noise between

component for assessment
Frequency (MHz) No fine cracks are detected. and unused material
Oscilloscope PC
Pulse receiver (b) Material damaged by creep
Certified curve
Amplitude (dB)

Noise value

Noise value ratio

Search Frequency (MHz) Fine cracks are
unit detected.

analyzer st
1 bottom echo Life ratio
Component for

Fig. 3.2.3-9 Life assessment flow in ultrasonic method

(k) Other methods to assess creep remaining life

In the remarks column of Attachment 3 as explained above, it is stated that the “Application of any other
method than the above is permitted on the condition that it is recognized (by a committee with participation of
people of experience or academic standing) to have accuracy equivalent to the above methods. Various methods
other than the above have been developed. The names of such methods are mentioned below.
a) Structure-quantifying method
The following 2 means are included:
M‫ޓ‬C deposition ratio
Spheroidizing ratio of carbide
b) CMA (Computer-aided X-ray Microscopic-analyzer)
Density spectrum method
ԙFatigue damage
(a) Microscopic-crack method (Replica method, MT copying method, etc.)
The methods for life assessment against creep damage as explained above are the methods of assessing the life
against fatigue damage to the carbon steel, base metal, or HAZ portion.
If these components receive fatigue damage, microscopic-cracking of a level that can be observed by replicas
only at the initial stage of fatigue life occurs, grows, and finally grows to a crack that can be detected by a
non-destructive test such as PT, MT, etc. Therefore, the life can be assessed by detecting such microscopic-cracks
by a replica. Figure 3.2.3-10 shows life assessment curves.

Magnetic powder
copying film

Magnetic powder

Oxidation scale

Maximum length of crack measured by

Carbon steel welding stop end

MT copying method (mm)

Average value curve

99% reliability curve

Crack detection

Life consumption ratio by the generation of

macro-cracks (%)
Maximum length of crack measured by

Low-alloy steel welding stop end

Average value curve
MT copying method (mm)

99% reliability curve


Life consumption ratio by the generation of

macro-cracks (%)

Fig. 3.2.3-10 Microscopic-crack method (MT copying method)

3.2.4 Development and automation of inspection technology

With respect to the regular inspection of boiler equipment, the use of high efficiency, high-precision assessment
devices has been required under such circumstances where the inspection process needs to be simplified,
inspectors are getting old, 3K jobs (dirty, dangerous, and tough jobs) need to be eliminated, and damage needs to
be quantitatively assessed corresponding to a requirement to rationalize aged boiler maintenance in line with the
liberalization of electric power. In Table 3.2.4-1, various types of inspection methods and related automation are
(1) Type IV cracks of high-temperature thick wall pipe of large diameter
Cracks occurring to the boiler pipe header and to the welded portion of the thick wall main piping of large
diameter are classified according to the locations of occurrence and are shown in Fig. 3.2.4-1. The cracks
frequently experienced as creep damage are Type III and Type IV damage and are respectively characterized as
damage to the rough-grain areas and fine-grain areas of the HAZ portion.

Table 3.2.4-1 Various types of inspection methods and related automation
Method of inspection and
Subject Damage to material Automation
Furnace waterwall (1) Thermal fatigue of PT, MT Automatic inspection
piping piping external metals UT from outside furnace device using a
(2) Inner piping corrosion High-frequency array UT multi-sensor within the
fatigue Spiral UT furnace
Coil of (1) Creep Replica method, hardness Void recognition device by
super-heater, method image processing
re-heater, and (2) Fatigue PT, MT
economizer Replica method
(microscopic method)
(3) High-temperature Inner piping UT Automatic-measuring
corrosion, wear, and robot
thickness decrease
(3) Steam oxidation scale High-precision UT
(4) Wear of horizontal High-velocity laser Automatic inspection unit
heat-transferring method
piping Inner piping UT
UT thickness gage for
narrow portion
Pipe header and (1) Type IV crack, inner TOFD method Image-processing device
main piping crack Electronic focus sector
Ultrasonic noise method

W elding material
Base material Base material

Transmitter Surface Diffracted Receiver

wave wave

Wave diffracted on
the crack top

Wave diffracted on
the crack bottom
Type I: Crack in welded metal
Type II: Crack classified as Type I, which has expanded from Wave reflected
on the bottom
the welded portion to the portion affected by heat
(HAZ) Crack
Type III: Damage to the rough-grain area of the portion Diffracted
affected by heat (HAZ) wave
Type IV: Damage from the fine-grain area of the portion
affected by heat (HAZ) to the range of the partially Direct reflection wave (same as conventional one)
transformed area

Fig. 3.2.4-1 Fig. 3.2.4-2 Principles of TOFD method

Classification of damage to a welded portion

Type III damage (damage in a rough-grain area) appears on the external surface of a pipe, whereas Type IV
damage (damage in a fine-grain area) occurs within a thick wall pipe and expands toward the surface. Impure
substances contained in the steel play an important role in Type IV cracks.
(2) Inspection method for Type IV cracks
Typical inspection methods for Type IV cracks occurring within a pipe having a thick wall are explained below.
The inspection method is used alone or jointly with other methods.
ԘTOFD method
As an inspection technology able to assess Type IV cracks occurring from the inside of a thick wall precisely
and quantitatively, the TOFD (Time of Flight Diffraction) method has been developed and put to practical use,
which is an ultrasonic wave flaw detection method using 2 search units for transmission and receipt. A comparison
with the conventional angle beam method is shown in Fig. 3.2.4-2.
The conventional method was in principle designed so as to catch reflecting echoes from a defect. Therefore,
there were some cases where inspection was not possible depending on the direction of the crack. It was also

difficult to capture the defect size in a quantitative manner.
On the other hand, the TOFD method catches the wave diffracted from the tip end of a crack. Therefore, it is
not affected by the direction of the defect. In addition, it can assess the length (depth) of a crack based on the
transmission time of the diffracted wave. As a result, inspection in a precise and quantitative fashion has become
ԙElectronic focus sector scan ultrasonic testing
The principles of measurement by ELFOSS UT are shown in Fig. 3.2.4-3. This device can perform wide-angle
scanning by focusing an ultrasonic wave beam through the delay circuit to improve resolution and defect
inspection accuracy. Two search units are used for the TOFD method, whereas this device has such a characteristic
that inspection of the narrow portion is made possible because wide-angle flaw detection is performed by only 1
search unit.

Trigger pulse
for activation

Delay circuit


Angle of

Electronic focusing by Sector scan by delay Electronic focus sector
delay circuit circuit scan
If the activation timing of If the activation timing of If the timing and duration
the vibrator is the vibrator is changed at of the activation of the
changed with the the same interval, the vibrator is changed from
same interval in the ultrasonic wave beam is time to time, the direction
right and left deflected. In addition, the can be changed
directions, an deflection angle can be continuously by focusing
ultrasonic wave freely set by the duration an ultrasonic wave beam.
beam focuses. In of the timing.
addition, the focal
depth can be freely
set by the duration of
the timing.

Fig. 3.2.4-3 Principles of ELFOSS UT

ԚUltrasonic noise method
As explained in the section on the method of assessing remaining life pertaining to creep damage, such features
as noise intensity rises in the case of a material with voids or microscopic-cracks being utilized in the ultrasonic
noise method. Early assessment has become possible for Type IV damage occurring within the welded joints of
high-temperature thick wall pipes of large diameter. In addition, by scanning the search unit in the right-angle
direction against the weld line and by installing a time gate in the direction of plate thickness, map images of the
damaged portion can be obtained through divided measurements as shown in Fig. 3.2.4-4.

Scan a search unit and apply gate by Clarification of the points of damage
splitting the corresponding time width. for image processing

Scanning Direction to move search unit (mm)

Time split gate

Plate thickness
direction (mm)

Deposited metal Base material

Base material portion
Portion affected by Portion affected
Portion affected
weld heat by weld heat by weld heat
Deposited metal Base material
portion Example of flaw detection result
The noise value is displayed on a color map.

Fig. 3.2.4.-4 Image processing of flaw detection results through the ultrasonic noise method

3.2.5 Chemical cleaning

(1) Purpose and timing of chemical cleaning
ԘPurpose of chemical cleaning
The purpose of carrying out chemical cleaning of boiler equipment is to remove any and all foreign materials
and scale adhering to inner face of the evaporation piping during construction or operation of the boiler, thereby
preventing any problems from occurring to the boiler, to recover its efficiency and maintain it under good
The purpose of chemical cleaning performed during the construction of boiler equipment is to remove any and
all mill scale adhered during the manufacture of the boiler piping and fat and oil adhered during installation, to
remove any foreign materials entered such as sand, etc., and to prevent any problems from occurring during
operation thereafter.
Although impure substances brought into the boiler equipment when installing a condensate demineralizer or
improving water treatment are reduced, these substances still remain as scale adhering to the inner piping due to
the following causes:
(a) Intrusion of corrosive substances through the water supply system and their adherence to the water supply
(b) Condensation and deposition of dissolved salts
(c) Corrosion of the materials of the boiler piping
Such impure substances cause overheating of the piping materials, generation of scaling, formation of local
cells, or corrosion due to condensed salts and lead to future swelling out or explosion of the piping.
As shown in Table 3.2.5-1, the thermal conductivity of scale largely varies depending on its chemical
ingredients. Because the size of scale is smaller than that of piping materials, adhered scale blocks thermal
conduction causing overheating or heat loss of piping materials.

Table 3.2.5-1 Thermal conductivity of metal and scale

Type Thermal conductivity (W/m࡮K)
Mild steel 45 ~ 70
Scale containing silicate as its major ingredient 0.2 ~ 0.5
Scale containing iron oxide as its major ingredient 0.9 ~ 2.3
Fat and oil 0.1
Water 0.6

The water vapor oxidized scale generated in the steam system peels off during operation and accumulates in the
U-shape pipe of the super-heater piping, resulting in its explosion. Its fragments may fly over to the turbine and
damage the blade.

ԙTiming of chemical cleaning
For the timing of chemical cleaning after the start of operation of boiler equipment, the boiler manufacturer
specifies the standards of cleaning depending on the amount and thickness of adhered scale. On the other hand,
the operators at electric power companies also specify their own respective standards. The standards commonly
used for cleaning are shown in Table 3.2.5-2. The value mentioned there is only a general guideline. Therefore, it
is desirable if an independent cleaning timing is established. In addition, this value should be determined based on
the portion where the maximum amount of scale adheres to individual boiler equipment. Full care should be paid
to any change in the portion where the maximum amount of scale adhered due to a change in the boiler operation
method or fuel change.

Table 3.2.5-2 Amount and thickness of adhered scale for which chemical cleaning is required
Normal pressure
Beyond boundary
8Mpa class 12Mpa class 18Mpa class
! 90 ~ 135 75 ~ 105
Coal-fired boiler !
! 400 ~ 450 250 ~ 350
Coal/oil 90 ~ 120 75 ~ 105 60 ~ 90
mixture-fired !
boiler 300 ~ 400 250 ~ 350 200 ~ 300
75 ~ 105 60 ~ 90 45 ~ 75 24 ~ 36
Oil-fired boiler
250 ~ 350 200 ~ 300 150 ~ 250 80 ~ 120
Gas-fired boiler Same as above Same as above Same as above Same as above
Note 1) The upper row in each column indicates the amount of adhered scale (mg/cm²), the and lower row indicates the scale
thickness ("m).
Note 2) The amount of adhered scale is the value at the flame side (180q of the inner evaporation piping.
Note 3) The amount of a once-through boiler of 18 Mpa class or smaller shall be 2/3 of the value shown in above table.
Note 4) Even if the actual values are less than above, it is recommended to carry out chemical cleaning when the boiler has been
operated for 50,000 hours or longer.

(2) Nature of scale

The scale adhered to new boiler equipment is mostly mill scale (magnetite: Fe‫ޓ‬O‫ )ޓ‬generated during the course
of pipe manufacturing. On the other hand, the nature of scale largely varies depending on the quality of the supply
water or refill water, treatment of the supply water or boiler water or materials of low-/the high-pressure supply
water heat transmission piping of a heater between the steam condenser and the boiler. Even with the same boiler,
the amount and ingredients of scale vary depending on the sampling position or whether it is the flame
side/furnace material side. Table 3.2.-3 shows examples of analyzed scale ingredients in the evaporation piping
and steam system. Its characteristics are outlined below:
(a) With respect to boilers A, B, and C using a heater of copper alloy steel in the water supply system, the scale
contains copper.
(b) With respect to boilers B and C, such refractory scale as white ZnAl‫ޓ‬ O‫(ޓ‬zinc aluminate) or NiFe‫ޓ‬O‫(ޓ‬nickel
ferrite) called spinel scale may be generated if zinc (Zn), Aluminum (Al), and/or nickel (Ni) is contained.
(c) The scale of boilers D, E, and F using a heater for the steel piping in the water supply system is mostly iron
oxide (Fe‫ޓ‬O‫ޓ‬ ).
(d) Boilers D, E, and F are of same high-pressure, once-through type, but the boiler water treatment for boilers D
and E is AVT (all volatile treatment) to remove Fe‫ޓ‬O‫(ޓ‬magnetite). As shown in Photo 3.2.5-1, the scale has
a corrugated surface.

Table 3.2.5-3 Examples of chemically analyzed scale ingredients
adhering Chemical content
Boiler Pipe specimen (mg/cm2)


by acid




A Right-side wall pipe 65.3 58.3 1.9 1.1 <0.1 <0.1 10.3 13.3 10.6 - - - 2.1
B Front wall pipe 25.4 33.0 34.5 15.1 0.7 14.5 <0.1 <0.1 0.3 - - - 0.2
C Front wall pipe 20.4 73.0 2.8 10.0 0.9 <0.1 0.8 1.7 4.9 - - - 1.9
D Front wall pipe 24.1 97.5 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.1 - 1.8 - 0.7 <0.1
E Front wall pipe 23.4 97.9 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 - - - - - - 0.7
F Front wall pipe 9.6 97.9 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.2 - - - 0.5 <0.1
G Secondary 38.4
65.9 <0.1 <0.1 - 11.3 - - <0.1 17.8 1.5 1.7 0.3
H Re-heater 125.0 95.4 <0.1 <0.02 <0.1 <0.2 - <0.4 - 1.8 0.9 0.4 1.3
I Main steam pipe 125.3 88.1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 3.3 0.8 <0.5 -
Note 1) A: Boiler for own power generation (VU-60) 6.8 MPa 60 t/h
B: Forced circulation boiler (Mitsubishi) 19.2 MPa 860 t/h
C: Natural circulation boiler (Hitachi) 17.2 MPa 1,135 t/h
D: Once-through boiler 26.3 MPa 1,640 t/h
E: Pressure-variable once-through boiler (AVT) 25.0 MPa 2,300 t/h
F: Pressure-variable once-through boiler (CWT) 25.0 MPa 2,300 t/h
G: Once-through boiler (super-heater piping: SUS316HTB) 26.9 MPa 1,500 t/h
H: Pressure-variable once-through boiler (re-heater piping:STBA24) 25.0 MPa 2,300 t/h
I: Once-through boiler (main steam piping:STBA24) 25.0 MPa 1,900 t/h
Note 2) A –F: Adhered amount on flame side
G – I: Adhered amount around entire circumference




Photo 3.2.5-1: Corrugated scale of AVT treatment Photo 3.2.5-2: Steam-oxidized scale
boiler (x 100 magnification)
With respect to boiler E, fine-grain Fe‫ޓ‬O‫ޓ‬from CWT (combined water treatment) adheres to the magnetite, and
the scale has smooth surface.
(e) Boilers G, H, and I generate vapor-type scale. Cr-Mo steel (low-alloy steel) has been used for these
boilers. Two-layer scale, called steam-oxidized scale; one in the neighborhood of piping materials with a
high content of chromium and the other at steam side with a high content of iron oxide are generated as
shown in Photo 3.2.5-2.

Table 3.2.5-4 Operation of a boiler and required cleaning process

Cleaning with

Cleaning with

Final washing
Washing with

Washing with

Prevention of
Cleaning by

with water

rust by

During construction
Copper content: high
Copper content: low
Copper content: none
Remarks : Implement. Implement if necessary.

(3) Cleaning method

ԘCleaning process
The cleaning method varies depending on the operation of the boiler equipment or the ingredients of the scale.
Typical cleaning processes are shown in Table 3.2.5-4.
(a) Boiler during construction
The main purpose of cleaning is to remove mill scale, oil and fat, and/or foreign materials. In these years, the
degreasing process is mostly omitted by adding degreasing agent during acid cleaning.
(b) Boiler after operation
i) Starting from acid cleaning of the scale mainly containing ferrous, hardening ingredients and/or a small
amount of copper, copper-dissolving/-enclosing agent is added during acid cleaning if copper is
ii) Before acid cleaning, ammonia cleaning is performed as pretreatment in order to dissolve the copper
In lieu of the above i) and ii) cleaning, chelating cleaning is sometimes carried out. Its cleaning process is:
Ferrous removal cooling copper removal/rust prevention washing with water
(4) Planning and implementation of cleaning
Planning of cleaning includes understanding the overall structure of the subject boiler, studying the cleaning
specifications through investigation of scale, selection of a method of treating wastewater, and planning the
implementation method. The planning procedures are shown in Fig. 3.2.5-1.

Investigation of the subject of cleaning

! Specifications and materials of the unit

! State of evaporation amount, pressure, Planning of cleaning specifications and
operation hours, etc. requirements
! State of water treatment control such as
quality of supply water, quality of boiler ! Planning of cleaning process
water, chemicals used, etc. ! Planning of treatment of wastewater and
! Practical experiences in cleaning exhaust gas
! Type of fuel ! Approval of power source, water supply
source, heat source, etc.
Investigation of scale ! Preparation of cleaning flow and work
! Scale ingredients ! Checking of the safety and sanitary level
! Amount of adhered scale related to construction and training
! Scale generation rate
! Deterioration level of the material Implementation


! Visual inspection
Dissolution test ! Amount of corrosion to be checked
by a test piece
! Scale dissolution test ! Amount of scale removed by
! Material deterioration test cleaning
! Investigation of customer’s
environmental conditions such as
wastewater standards, etc. Summary
! Availability of wastewater treatment
equipment at customer side ! Report of cleaning implemented
! Experimental wastewater treatment ! Advice regarding maintenance and
water treatment method
Study of wastewater treatment system ! Checking of operation after cleaning

Fig. 3.2.5-1 Flow of chemical cleaning planning for boilers

Ԙ Guideline for implementation

Items to be considered when planning a guideline for implementation are given below:
(a) Outline of the unit subjected to cleaning
(b) Scope of cleaning and amount of cleanser
(c) Handling of components not subjected to cleaning
(d) Relationship between actual construction and temporary construction, size, quantity
(e) Types of cleaning chemicals, density and cleaning conditions
(f) Cleaning process and criteria for determining the completion of cleaning
(g) Method of checking and inspecting the effect of cleaning
(h) Method of receiving waste cleaning fluid and procedures to treat it
(i) Utilities (pure water, steam, power, air, etc.)
(j) Flow of each process, temporary storing place, and piping route
(k) Outline and detailed process
An example of the cleaning system for typical-type boiler equipment is shown in Fig. 3.2.5-2.

N2 gas Actual construction line
Temporary Temporary construction
Steam drum level gage Pressure gage

Flow meter
supply line

Side wall

Side wall

Mixing header
Mixing heater

Inspection nipple

Draw Hydrazine pump

Pure water
Circulation pump
injection pump



Fig. 3.2.5-2 Flow of cleaning system of the natural circulation-type boiler

Actual construction line

Main steam piping Temporary construction line
Level gage
Pressure gage
Main closing
valve of turbine Flow meter

SH Water-filling pump N2H4 tank Sampling


Steam N2H4 pump

Water-sealing pump for the components not subjected to cleaning


Test piece seat

Ceiling wall Blow line

Mixing heater
Ejector tank
water Circulation pump
Chemicals From tank-lorry
injection pump


High-pressure supply Main supply water piping

water super-heater
Pure water

To blow line

Fig. 3.2.5-3 Flow of cleaning a once-through boiler

3.2.6 Circulation Pump
(1) Preventive maintenance of circulation pump
Circulation pumps for boilers have been employed for boiler equipment having a capacity of 150 MW or more
since around 1955. The circulation pump is divided into the injection type and the glandless type (canned motor
type, submerged motor type). Currently, about 400 units of these 2 types of pumps are operated for domestic
thermal power generation. Many non-conformance events occurred at the initial stage of introduction. As a result
of structural improvement and completion of the details for inspection items thereafter, such non-conformance
events have been drastically reduced and the reliability has been largely improved. However, 30 years have
already passed since the installation of some circulation pumps as shown in Fig. 3.2.6-1. Some of them are being
replaced gradually, but more than half of them have been used for 15 years or longer. The preventive maintenance
of such units has become a critical issue. (The descriptions from the next section are examples of circulation
pumps made by Fuji Electric.)
Number of delivered units (unit)

Total number
of units

30 years or 25 ~ 29 20 ~ 24 15 ~ 19 10 ~ 14 5~9 0~4

longer years years years years years years

Fig. 3.2.6-1 Years of operation after delivery

Pump case Motor case

(Renewal cycle: 35 – 40 years) (Renewal cycle: 35 – 40 years)
Generation of Expansion of in-low
Abnormal sound
cracks clearance
Abnormal vibration
Deformation of gasket
Steam leakage, water
Uneven tightening
Warming shortage
Cavity abnormal
Impeller (Renewal cycle: 25 – 30 years) Overlapping of thermal
temperature rise
insulation materials
Generation of
Abnormal vibration
Renewal cycle of journal bearing
Sleeve plate: 8 – 12 years
Pad: 16 – 20 years
Heat exchanger Abnormal wear Abnormal
(Renewal cycle: 35 – 40 years) Lift/peeling off of sound/abnormal
Accumulation of bearing material vibration
Cavity temperature
Water leakage
of welded portion Stator (Renewal cycle: 25 – 30 years)
Wear of press ring
Rotor (Renewal cycle: 25 – 30 years) Abnormal sound
Popping out of Deflection of Abnormal vibration
rotor bar ammeter Shortened life of
corrosion, or wear
Corrosion/wear of Abnormal sound ! coil
of steel core
steel core Abnormal vibration
Renewal cycle of coil winding
Renewal cycle of thrust bearing PVC: 8 years
Thrust plate: 8 – 12 years XLPE: 12 – 16 years
Pad: 16 – 20 years Wear of coil wire
! Slipping down of coil Insulation drop
Abnormal wear Abnormal ! Loosened cleat wire Ground
Lift/peeling off of sound/abnormal ! Deterioration of
fault/unstable life
bearing material vibration insulation materials

Fig. 3.2.6-2 Deterioration of main parts and renewal cycle

ԘNon-conformance events
As explained above, non-conformance events have been reduced to date, and the reliability of the circulation
pump of boiler has been largely improved. However, there still remain many plants for which no structural
improvement has been implemented so far. It is required therefore to recheck the non-conformance events in the
past and reflect their results in the completion of details of inspection items and on the plan for repair.
Non-conformance events of major parts are outlined in Fig. 3.2.6-2, which shows the deterioration phenomena
and renewal cycle of major parts (renewal cycle with addition of the effect of the bearing force improvement plan
to the past experiences).
ԙGuideline for implementation of preventive maintenance and inspection
Inspection items are divided into “general inspection items” and “special inspection items.” General inspection
mainly involves visual inspection, whereas non-destructive testing is the main item of special inspection, which
should be started from the 10th year after the start of operation to obtain remaining life assessment data.
Concretely, the target regular inspection cycle should be set at 4 years, and a long-term plan of “details for
checking/inspection items” and “details for repair items ”should be developed Items to be implemented should
be confirmed at the start of the respective regular inspection.
ԚConcept of measures for improvement of bearing force and examples of implementation
Measures for improvement of bearing force of the circulation pump of boiler equipment are promoted under the
2 concepts below, aiming to respond to any change in the operation method of power generation plants
(conversion to WSS/DSS), extension of the inspection cycle, and prolongation of operation life:
(a) Improvement of structure, materials, and work method
(b) Enrichment of inspection items (early detection of non-conformance and early countermeasures)
Typical examples of implementation are shown below:
i) Forged pump case
The conventional pump case was a cast product of the volute type. As a measure to improve the bearing
force of the pump case, a spherical-shape forged pump case has been employed for about 15 years.
Compared with the volute-type cast pump case, the spherical-shape forged pump case is simple in its
configuration and the reliability of its materials is high. It is suitable for a plant with frequent start/stop
operations in a high-temperature, high-pressure atmosphere (plants using DSS, etc.)
ii) The motor stator coil has been changed to cross-linked polyethylene wire.
Coils manufactured before 1980 were made of PVC wire, which involved the issue that the rewinding
cycle was short because hardening/fragility of the insulation coat was accelerated due to reduction of
the plasticizer.
iii) Employment of a single-basket-shaped stator of the closed slit type
The double-basket-shaped stator of the open slit type was used as a standard stator in the past. DSS
operation (repeated transient vibration torque and/or thermal stress at the start of operation) was not
considered in its structure. As a measure for DDS operation, a single rotor of the closed slit type has
been employed.
iv) Implementation of special precise inspection
Visual inspection is more than enough for the initial stage of plant operation (within 10 years). However,
after 10 years when the renewal cycle timing of parts approaches, special precise inspection mainly
composed of non-destructive testing is carried out in addition to visual inspection. Through early
detection of and early action against any non-conformance by determining the timing of renewal, the
life of parts can be prolonged.

3.2.7 Fan
(1) Measures to improve reliability and guideline for maintenance and inspection
The present time is called a maintenance age. The number of social systems and production systems subjected
to maintenance are accumulating at a continuously increasing speed. According to a certain trial calculation, the
ratio of costs for maintenance was 10% of social capital investment during the 1970s, whereas it increased to 30%
during the 1990s and to 50% by 2020. Under these circumstances, maintenance costs keep increasing; how to
cope with this in a quantitative manner, how to improve cost efficiency keeping improvement of reliability, and
how to select the type of acceptable maintenance have become serious issues.
Because the fans installed at power generation plants are kept in operation for a long period of time from the
start of operation until the time they are disposed of, the accumulated number of units has been increasing. It is
required to make clear what inspection items are to be applied to these fans and to implement them under a
controlled cycle and implement feedback and feedforward without any reserve. Because efficiency and
rationalization of maintenance costs is directly linked to the management, it is required to develop a general image
of maintenance, determine what is presently missing, and implement these items in a well-planned manner.
ԘAxial fan
As boiler capacity becomes larger, the rotating-type variable axial fan suitable for large-capacity boilers with
reduced power consumption under partial load has been widely used as a ventilating fan for power generation
equipment other than FDF, IDF, PAF, BUF, and high-temperature GRF. Control for improvement of reliability is
further required, because the structure of the rotating-type variable mechanism is complex and the number of parts
is larger than the same of the centrifugal fan.
As a result of measures taken for the improvement of reliability [1] with consideration paid to the problems
with axial FDF experienced over a period of 15 years since 1970, the employment of axial fans started, and the
problem occurrence ratio has been suppressed to its minimum. However, in view of the facts that the installation
of axial fans increased from 1985 onward when many thermal power generation plants were constructed, and that
its usage has expanded, it is desirable to carry out precise inspection of fans used for many years in order to
further secure their reliability.
ԙCentrifugal fan
Although the reliability of centrifugal fan has been improved, many fans have already been in use for 20 years
or longer. It is required to plan and implement measures to improve their reliability further taking into account any
aged deterioration or any change in operation from what was expected at the start of operation.
Because the operation of thermal power generation plants corresponds to the peak power generation capacity,
the number of start/stop operations has increased, which, as a result, requires the improvement of the bearing force
of impellers, bearings, and couplings.
(a) Stress change occurs at the impeller caused by the change in RPM due to start/stop of operations.
Especially with GRF, low-cycle fatigue occurs due to repeated thermal expansion caused by temperature
fluctuation. If you start the operation of GRF at room temperature, the temperature of the intake gas
rapidly changes and the vibration becomes several times larger for some time than the vibration
experienced under stable, steady operation. This is an effect of the difference in thermal expansion
caused by the temperature difference among the components of the impeller. When the temperature of
the impeller becomes stable after continuing operation in a stable gas temperature atmosphere, the
amplification of vibration gradually lowers and the operation becomes stable. In particular, when a
riveted joint is used, this phenomenon frequently appears. Therefore, if a riveted structure has been used
for the impeller, it is recommended to change it to a welded structure and remodel the connection of the
impeller to the shaft/hub to a reaming bolt connection structure from the rivet-fixed type. Because the
effect of thermal distortion concentrates on the riveted structure, non-destructive testing needs to be
carried out for the components concerned when the fan is not in use or regular inspection is carried out.
In the case of the structure of the axis–boss shrink fit, any vibration that may be caused by the decrease
in the shrink-fit margin or loosening due to the transitional difference in temperature distribution is of
concern. It may be required to increase the shrink-fit margin or change to an integrated rotor of the
If the level of adherence of the mating portion of the axis–boss shrink-fit structure changes as the time
passes, that the vibration may become stronger or the torque transmission ability may drop are concerns.
Ultrasonic waves can be used to test the level of such adherence. Figure 3.2.7-1 shows the inspection
principles when a clearance is available for testing.
(b) Any fatigue damage that occurs to the face of the tooth at the gear coupling due to start/stop operations
is also a concern. Complete inspection is required. It is recommended to change to a tooth face with
improved bearing force or to a flexible coupling having no contact with the face of the tooth.

(c) Stress occurring at the impeller is strong. When carrying out non-destructive testing at regular
inspection, such a case is found where the portions and number of occurrences of damage increase as
time passes. In case there is concern that complete reliability may not be secured through regular
inspection or repair only, it is required to change to an impeller of a type whose generated stress has
been reduced by increasing its wall thickness or improving its welding quality.
ԚPrecise inspection of large-sized fan
Large-sized fans are disassembled and maintained at each regular inspection. Items subjected to precise
inspection of the respective parts of the centrifugal fan that can be implemented for such aged deterioration
phenomena as corrosion, wear, cracking, etc. are shown in Table 1. Because problems with large-sized fans can
lead to operation stop of the unit or to load limit, it is recommended to carry out full assessment at respective
regular inspection, etc.
The fan is equipped with attachment devices other than the main unit such as the lubricating device, silencer,
measuring apparatus, etc. It is required to secure the reliability of these devices as well as securing the reliability
of the main unit. For inspection of the main unit, disassembling, which requires many processes, is necessary.
Because fewer processes are required for disassembling inspection of attachment devices, it is recommended to
carry out regular maintenance once a year.

Impeller hub


Mating portion Assess the output of the echo from

the hub bottom (Bn) and from the
Hub shaft bottom (W).


Fig. 3.2.7-1 Assessment of the degree of adherence of hub/shaft

(2) Cause of life consumption

As the causes of consumption of life of the fan, corrosion, wear, fatigue, etc. can be mentioned.
Because power generation plants are located near the sea, corrosion caused by salt needs to be taken into
consideration. For the intake of atmospheric air by FDF and PAF, it is required to assess the strength of the
silencer against corrosion. Caution is required to be paid to the pit generation of aluminum alloy used for the
rotating blade of the axial fan caused by salt corrosion and clogging created between slide clearances. With
respect to IDF and BUF, because drain with strong corrosive features is generated when the moisture contained in
the gas condenses while the gas temperature drops when the fan is not in use, it is required to make assessment in
this respect.
With respect to wear, there is a record of a survey conducted in USA. As a result of a large-scale survey to
clarify the cause of problems conducted by EPRI s! t! in order to improve the reliability of coal-fired thermal
power generation plants, it was found that IDF was one of the most serious causes for drops in operation
The main cause of problems with IDF was wear caused by the fly ash contained in the exhaust gas. Researches
of the following items are presently under way in order to improve the wear resistance of IDF:
(a) Characteristics and level of wear of the fan at power generation plants and related costs required for
countermeasures against it
(b) Improvement of computer models to estimate the wear damage to the fan
(c) Assessment of the effect of relative wear by various types of fly ash
(d) Assessment of the cost for the armor system of the blade-shaped centrifugal fan that can be replaced on
The researches are mainly focused on the centrifugal blade-type fan, which cannot in most cases be applied
directly to the axial fan, which is the mainstream in Japan.
Axial-type IDF, many of which have been introduced in Japan from around 1985, have already been used for
10 years or longer. It is considered that such study will become necessary as the same EPRI conducted for wear.
Fatigue is divided into low-cycle fatigue caused by start/stop operations and high-cycle fatigue occurring during
normal operation. It is required to fully assess the rotating blade of the axial fan because damage to it is highly
expected. A study is required to be conducted for low-cycle fatigue if the frequency of start/stop operations has
increased in the course of the change in the operation method to more than when the unit was initially installed.
3.2.8 Corrosion of boiler equipment occurring in its water zone and countermeasures against it
The purposes of controlling thermal power generation plants by establishing a reference value for each item of
water supply, boiler water, and steam is to prevent any problems from occurring to the equipment composing the
thermal power generation plant caused by corrosion and/or scale due to the quality of water used and to continue
the operation of the plant in a safe and smooth manner. As the pressure and temperature of the main steam rise
higher, the thermal efficiency of the plant becomes higher. However, the plant is likely to be affected by corrosion
or scale, and the level of such effect becomes higher. Therefore, water quality control is an important task that
affects the thermal efficiency and operation efficiency of the unit.
While the water treatment engineering of boiler equipment has remarkably advanced in these years, accidents
often occur from thermal power generation plants caused by the water used by aged equipment or DDS
operation. Those staff responsible for water quality and the staff in charge of operation and maintenance of the
plant are required to understand the importance of water quality control and endeavor to improve it.
Problems arising from water are roughly divided into issues of corrosion, fragility, (cracking) and scale. As
shown in Fig. 3.2.8, most of the problems relating to water occur when multiple causes are combined. Upon
occurrence of any problem, its cause must be analyzed and assessed in detail to establish adequate
An outline of various types of problem and their causes, handling, and preventive measures is given below.

Defective design and construction Attack by ammonia

Inadequate materials Erosion of turbine
Defective design of orifice Oxidization of steam Clogging
Clogging with foreign Insufficient flow rate Rise in differential
materials pressure Drop in efficiency
Adherence of scale
Uneven thermal load Thermal conduction
Corrosion of entire unit was blocked Opening by
Corrosion of partial unit swelling-out
Alkali corrosion
Defective operation maintenance breakage
Carry over Fragile crack caused by
Defective storage
Leakage of seawater hydrogen
Defective water treatment
Crack caused by stress
Defective control of

Fig. 3.2.8 Problems and related causes

(1) Problem caused by adhered scale and countermeasures against it

ԘProblem caused by overheating
In the period in which raw water was used for refilling, hard contents contained in the raw water were deposited
on the evaporation unit as white scale of calcium carbonate, which caused overheating problems of the
evaporation piping due to its thermal resistance. Currently, due to advanced technology in the manufacture of pure
water, dissolved contents from the materials in the condensed water supply system change to scale and adhere to
the evaporation unit.
The main ingredients of the scale are magnetite (Fe͆O͇), copper, etc. By carrying out chemical cleaning of the

boiler equipment at an adequate timing, it is very seldom that the evaporation piping is damaged by overheating
due to the thermal resistance of the scale itself.

Cross section of scale

Appearance of the portion

of leakage
Photo 3.2.8-1 Example 1 of problem caused by overheating due to adherence of scale
The causes of problems by overheating due to scale adhering to the evaporation piping occurring in these years
are considered to be as follows:
(a) Due to improper water control, very soft magnetite scale is generated and grows to form a steam layer in
the clearances among the scale layers.
(b) A steam layer is formed in the portion in which the scale has been peeled off from the steel face and
lifted due to the temperature fluctuation caused by start/stop operations of the boiler equipment under a
condition where a relatively large amount of scale has adhered.
(c) If the amount of Cu, ZnO, CaO, etc. has become very large within a given scale layer when the
composition of scale largely fluctuates due to the change in quality of the supply water, the scale is
peeled off from that portion, film boiling occurs there, and a steam layer is formed as a result.
(d) When any scale remains in the chemical cleaning process of boiler equipment and any clearance is
created between the piping materials and the scale, that portion becomes a hot spot and a steam layer is
formed there. Almost all of these problems occur after the operation of the plant has started.
Photo 3.2.8-1 shows an example in which the scale has swelled out and broken open in an oval shape within the
furnace of the evaporation piping (STB42) located on the upper side of the burner. This is a case where heat
conduction is blocked when soft-type scale (200 – 250 Ǵm) has adhered to the inner face of the piping, peeled off
within the layers, and lifted and opened due to the excessive rise in the metal temperature of the piping. In the area
surrounding the opening, many cracks are generated in the pipe shaft direction. As countermeasures against this,
the generation of soft-type scale is suppressed by the removal of scale through chemical cleaning, reduction of
melted oxygen in the condensed water and in the drain system of the low-pressure supply water heater,
deoxidization at the time of starting operation, etc.


(Scale thickness 0.33 – 0.49 mm)

Appearance of the portion
of leakage Cross section of scale
Photo 3.2.8-2 Example 2 of problem caused by overheating due to adherence of scale

Photo 3.2.8-2 is an example of a case the scale was overheated, swelled out, and opened within a very short
period of time (creep breakage in a short time); as a result, the unit was operated under such a condition that the
amount of scale adhered to the inner piping exceeded the amount for which chemical cleaning was required
(thickness 450 Ǵm, amount of adherence 85 mg/cms), the scale layers adhered to the inner piping were peeled

off and lifted, and heat conduction was blocked by the steam layers generated between the scale layers. As
countermeasures against this, it is required to capture the level of scale growth by regular pipe sampling
inspection and determine the adequate timing of chemical cleaning.
ԙCorrugated scale
At a plant where volatile matter treatment is undertaken as a method of treating supply water, there are many
experiences where the scale adhered to the inner evaporation piping of a furnace shows a corrugated pattern.
Especially with respect to the supercritical sliding-pressure once-through boiler, the average rate of flow in the
piping becomes higher. Therefore, scale with this corrugated appearance increases the break-through resistance of
the furnace, which may cause problems in operation. The cause of the generation of such corrugated scale has not
yet been clarified. The scale is considered to be generated under such a condition that chemical factors and fluid
dynamics factors have been combined. Namely, dissolution and deposition of the component materials in a
high-temperature, high-pressure atmosphere as chemical factors and cyclic structural change of turbulent
boundary layers as fluid dynamic factors are considered combined, whereby such corrugated scale was generated.
Photo 3.2.8-3 shows an example of the corrugated scale generated within a supercritical sliding-pressure
once-through boiler. In this case, the amount of adhered scale is not so great that chemical cleaning is required,
but problems in operation have occurred because the break-through resistance became stronger due to the shape of
such scale. As countermeasures, the scale is removed by chemical cleaning in order to reduce the break-through
resistance. Thereafter, it was clarified that the generation of such corrugated scale could be suppressed by
changing the supply water treatment to oxygen treatment, according to certain European literature ̼! z{!and the
test results of oxygen treatment verification carried out in Japan zs!. This oxygen treatment method has the
advantage of a reduction in running costs, including the prevention of such corrugated scale from being generated.
Therefore, this oxygen treatment method is currently being rapidly introduced to once-through boilers in Japan.

of flow

Adhered scale (inside of furnace)

Photo 3.2.8-3 Adherence of corrugated scale

ԚScale adhering to the components

There is such a case where an increase in break-through resistance and fault movement is caused by the
considerable amount of magnetite scale partially adhering to such components as the orifice for flow rate
adjustment at the inlet of the evaporation piping of the forced circulation boiler, the spray water control valves of
the super-heater and re-heater, the drain control valve of the supply water heater, the flow meter for the supply
water (flow nozzle), and the high-pressure supply water system (strainer of the water supply pump, rectifying
cylinder of the high-pressure supply water heater, heater piping), etc. This scale adheres to portions where there is
no thermal load, which however is present in the evaporation piping. It is considered that the adherence of scale is
a phenomenon that occurs when chemical factors, fluid dynamic factors, and static electric factors (charged
grains) are combined.

Iron concentration (µg/l)

Temperature ("C)
Fig. 3.2.8-1 Solubility curve of magnetite

Because the main ingredient in the chemical factors is magnetite and scale is generated at portions with such
high temperatures as 180͠ or more, and as one can reason by analogy from the solubility curve zs! in Fig.
3.2.8-1, the portion where scale has adhered becomes oversaturated by the degree of solution of magnetite under
such temperatures and becomes an area where fine grains of magnetite are created. As fluid dynamic factors, the
scale has adhered to the portion whose boundary layers proximate to the metal surface are thinner than other
portions in the high rate of flow in the area in which the flow path has become narrower. This indicates that the
scale adheres to such portions with high probability of the created magnetite fine grains colliding with the metal
surface. As static electrical factors, when such oxide as magnetite is submerged into water, the surface of the oxide
is charged and comes to have electrical potential (zeta potential) by certain type of static electrical phenomenon.
The intensity level of this electrical potential is related to the characteristics of the grain surface. If the grain size
becomes smaller, the characteristics of the surface become stronger. Namely, the activity of the surface becomes
especially strong immediately after the fine grains of magnetite are created. Because scale is generated to such
portions where the various factors above are combined, the scale does not always adhere to the same portions of
similar plants.
Photo 3.2.8-4 shows an example of a unit that has become uncontrollable due to adhered and solidified
magnetite scale in the high-velocity portion of the stem throttle of control valve for the spray water of the
Photo 3.2.8-5 shows an example of scale containing copper as its main ingredient selectively adhered and
solidified at the orifice inlet of the water drum where the flow rate has been reduced. In this case, the copper
content dissolved from the supply water heater equipped with copper alloy piping due to a failure in the supply
water treatment was brought into the boiler and selectively adhered to the orifice.

Photo 3.2.8-4 Example of scale adhered to control valve


Photo 3.2.8-5 Example of scale adhered to orifice

Such a failure in supply water treatment can be avoided by improving the treatment system. The adherence of
magnetite scale as mentioned above occurs even in such area where supply water treatment has been carried out
properly. Even by changing the conditions of the portion to which the scale has adhered (for example, change in
the pH, hydrazine density, etc.), only the adhering portion changes its location to some extent, and it does not lead
to any satisfactory solution. As a measure to resolve this issue of scale adherence, oxygen treatment, which has
been employed as a countermeasure against corrugated scale, is effective.
Photo 3.2.8-6 shows an example of improvement for the removal of magnetite scale adhered to the rectifying
cylinder of a high-pressure supply water heater at a power generation plant where oxygen treatment has been
adopted. Such problems as efficiency drop, vibration, etc. caused by magnetite scale adhered to the impeller of the
water supply pump have also been resolved by oxygen treatment.

Volatile matter treatment Oxygen treatment

Photo 3.2.8-6 Example of scale adhering to rectifying cylinder of high-pressure supply water heater
(1) Corrosion at the furnace water-wall tube of coal-fired boilers
It has been known from long ago that strong corrosion occurs at the furnace wall of coal-fired boilers by flame
impingement (flames hit the waterwall piping directly in the neighborhood of the burner zone)!z̷!
In such a case, it is considered that the area exposed to flames is locally placed under low oxygen partial
pressure, because a lot of unburned carbon, FeSͅ, etc. are contained in the adhered ash. As shown in the chemical
formula below, FeSͅ contained in the adhered ash reacts with the Fe contained in the waterwall piping to yield
FeS. Because FeS contains more grid defects than such oxides as Fe͆O͇, the protective capability of the coat
becomes poorer, causing strong corrosion.
Recently, many cases are found such as the 2-step-type combustion process being employed for many boilers
for power generation as a measure to satisfy low NOx yield. In such a process, the area in the neighborhood of
burner zone becomes an atmosphere of low oxygen partial pressure containing HͅS. Figure 3.2.8-2 shows the
impact of air ratio on the balanced structure of gas when Datong (Chinese) coal containing 0.63% S is burned at
1300͠. When the air ratio is 0.8 or less, it is obvious that a lot of reduced contents such as Hͅ, CO, HͅS, etc. is
contained in the combustion gas. In particular, when such coal containing a lot of S content is used as fuel, the
HͅS density becomes higher, creating a severe corrosive environment. Corrosion of the furnace waterwall piping
caused by high-temperature sulfide becomes a critical issue. Coal combustion gas is composed of COͅ, CO, HͅO,
HͅS, COS, Nͅ, etc. As a result, the environment has become a family of so-called C-H-O-S. The critical factors of
corrosion are oxygen partial pressure and sulfur partial pressure in the atmosphere. In an atmosphere where the
oxygen partial pressure is high, oxidation plays a leading role in the corrosion of materials, whereas in an
atmosphere where the sulfur partial pressure is high, sulfuration plays a leading role. In an atmosphere where
oxidation is the leading player, the protective characteristic of the oxidized coat becomes excellent, resulting in a
negligible level of corrosion. On the other hand, in an atmosphere where sulfuration is the leading player, the
protective characteristic of the sulfide coat becomes remarkably poor, resulting in strong corrosion.
With respect to the corrosion occurring in an atmosphere of low oxygen partial pressure and high sulfur partial
pressure, it is considered that the reaction mentioned below is the leading player.

Datong coal (S content: 0.63%)
Combustion gas temperature: 1300"C

Air ratio
Fig. 3.2.8-2 Impact of air ratio on the balanced structure of combustion gas at 1300͠

H2S + Fe Fes + H2 ...........................................................................................................(7)
2CO + SO2 + Fe FeS + 2CO2 ..........................................................................................(8)

This corrosion gradually grows to complete corrosion in general. At a portion where repeated thermal stress is
strong, the corrosion may grow in a groove shape in the direction of the circumference (which is called
“elephant-hide alligator-skin cracking”).
Other than the above corrosion, it has been reported that corrosion involving such vitriols as XͅSO͇, XͅSͅO͊
(X: Na or K), etc. contained in the adhered ash or pyrosulfate can occur when the SO͆ density in the combustion
gas is high z̸!. However, cases of corrosion of the waterwall piping by these alkali compounds are not reported
very frequently.
In UK where coal containing lot of Cl is used, acceleration of corrosion of waterwall piping caused by HCl
contained in the combustion gas has been reported. Because the coal currently used in Japan contains a very small
amount of Cl, no corrosion caused by HCl contained in the combustion gas has been reported to date. From the
standpoint that poor-quality coal may be used in future as fuels to be used diversify, it will be required to capture
well the influence of HCl on corrosion.

ԙExamples of corrosion and countermeasures
A cross section of corrosion of the furnace waterwall piping of a coal-fired boiler that occurred in which the
2-step combustion process has been employed in order to reduce NOx is shown in Photo 3.2.8-7. The flame side
has been evenly corroded, and the amount of corrosion was 0.15 – 2.00 mm/year.

Flame side

Photo 3.2.8-7 Cross

section of corroded
potion of furnace
waterwall piping

Photo 3.2.8-8 includes EPMA photographs of corrosive scale. The scale in the outer layer is composed of FeS,
whereas the inner layer is composed of a mixture in which Fe͆O͇ is the main content. It is typical corrosion in an
atmosphere of low oxygen containing a considerable amount of HͅS. In the neighborhood of the waterwall piping
surface where strong corrosion occurred, it is indicated that the content of HͅS in the combustion gas was 300
ppm, Hͅ was 1.5%, and CO was 6.1%, and the air ratio at the moment of combustion was 1 or less.
An example of groove-shape corrosion of the waterwall piping is shown in Photo 3.2.8-9. The appearance of
the corrosion is similar to that occurring at heavy oil-fired boilers. The causes of such groove-shape corrosion
are considered to be follows. Namely, the oxidized coat on the piping surface has cracked by repeated thermal
stress arising from any combination of adhered substances to the inner piping (Fe͆O͇), condensation of air
bubbles, or local falling off of scale from the surface of the furnace piping. It is considered that corrosive gas
entered through the cracks and that the corrosion was accelerated at this gas-entered portion zs!.
Considerable actions to prevent corrosion of waterwall piping are as follows:
(a) Measures to be taken in the design
(b) Selection of materials
(c) Employment of surface treatment
The most effective action is the use of coal with a lower S content. Such actions as employment of low-NOx
burners, use of fined coal to promote complete combustion, increase in the oxygen partial pressure on the piping
surface by filling boundary air (to create an air curtain along the waterwall piping) over the waterwall piping
surface, etc. are also considered effective z̻! z̼!.
Photo 3.2.8-10 shows the EPMA observation result of the scale on the piping surface before and after filling of
boundary air. By filling of air, the scale mainly containing sulfide has changed to scale mainly containing oxide.
As measures against groove-shape corrosion, suppression of the generation of substances adhering to the inner
portions through thoroughgoing water treatment or prevention of air bubbles from condensation by employing
rifle pipes is considered effective s{!.

Na: X-ray image

Fe: X-ray image S: X-ray image

C: X-ray image Cl: X-ray image

O: X-ray image K: X-ray image

Photo 3.2.8-8 EPMA observation result of corrosive scale on waterwall piping

Photo 3.2.8-9 Appearance of groove-shape corrosion of waterwall piping in the neighborhood of the burner

With respect to the materials, use of the double piping system composed of an outer pipe made of materials
excellent in corrosion resistance such as SUS 347 H, SUS 310 S, etc. and an inner pipe made of carbon steel is
considered sz!. These materials have been already put to practical use where the materials are exposed to severe
combustion gas containing HͅS and HCl ss!.
For surface treatment, chromizing treatment by raising the Cr density by having Cr diffuse and penetrate is
effective for prevention of corrosion also. In addition, thermal spray coating of corrosive materials by plasma
thermal spray is effective for prevention of corrosion. Thermal spray process using 50 Cr – 50 Ni as its material
has been put to practical use.
In the case of thermal spray, however, entry of gas into the layer of the metal/thermal spray cannot be avoided.
This process has not yet been put to practical use as a permanent countermeasure.

O: X-ray image
Before filling
boundary air

Fe: X-ray image S: X-ray image

After filling
boundary air

O: X-ray image

Fe: X-ray image S: X-ray image

Photo 3.2.8-10 EPMA observation result of corrosive scale adhering to waterwall piping before and after filling
boundary air

3.3 Water Chemistry for the Boiler
3.3.1 Transition and Summary of Water Treatment Technology
The current water treatment technology we use in Japan derives from the U.S., introduced together with the
so-called ‘new type of thermal power’ system. Transition of 170K-Class Water Treatment
A 170K-class unit was imported and installed at Osaka Power Plant. The boiler used was a forced circulation
type made by Combustion Engineering. Water treatment using the 170K-class unit showed a series of problems,
and the method used for water treatment changed several times.
(1) Initial Criteria for Water treatment
The initial criteria under which water quality was controlled in Osaka Power Plant are shown in Table 1.
Caustic treatment was used, in which sodium hydroxide and sodium phosphate were injected into the boiler water.
(2) Hide-Outs and Turbine Scales
Power generating efficiency decreased due to the hide-out of phosphate ions in the boiler water (and subsequent
increase in pH), and also due to deposition of sodium phosphate scales to the turbine blades (See Table 3.3.1-1).
Consequently, the downwash of the scale at the time of turbine start up contaminated the condensate water . To
eliminate the hide-out, disodium salt was used and the phosphate ion concentration was maintained at 0.2 - 2.0
ppm, which was the upper limit that Osaka Power Plant was able to manage.
However, hide-outs still existed and it was relatively difficult to control pH at an appropriate level.
1) Low Phosphate Treatment
In early 1961, a test for treating water with low phosphate treatment started. Following the results, monobasic
sodium salt was used, but since it failed to reduce the pH to the threshold limit value of GA1, i.e. 8.5 to 9.5, the
value remained to be 9.5 to 10.0.
In September 1961, Mr. Grabowski of C.E. made a presentation at the New Nagoya Power Plant and Thermal
Power Division of Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc. and showed that reducing boiler corrosion does not
necessarily require increasing pH, but the key is to protect the magnetite protection coating. He also pointed out
that Coordinated Phosphate Treatment requires the pH value to be maintained at the 9.5 to 10.0 level only (as
experienced by a boiler manufactured by C.E.) and suggested keeping the concentration of phosphate ions on the
concentration curves of trisodium salt and pH.

Table 3.3.1-1: Example of Analysis of Depositions on the Turbine Blades at Osaka Power Plant (Unit: %)
Ignition Loss SiO2 Fe2O3 Na2O CuO PO4
High Pressure Moving Blade 1st to 4.1 1.5 36.4 38.2 3.1 45.6
4th stages
* Medium Pressure Static Blade 10.0 16.0 14.5 49.0 - 23.8
1st to 4th stages
* Medium Pressure Moving Blade 20.3 23.7 15.1 58.4 6.4 0.2
3rd to 5th stages
Medium Pressure Moving Blade 24.2 23.9 19.8 49.7 1.7 0.5
6th to 8th stages
Medium Pressure Static Blade 8th 17.0 12.3 48.7 41.8 2.6 0.2
to 9th stages
Medium Pressure Static Blade 10th 10.4 2.9 61.3 40.1 3.7 0.8
Medium Pressure Static Blade 11th 13.3 3.1 53.5 42.3 1.7 0.2
Medium Pressure Moving Blade 22.1 9.0 34.8 63.9 1.4 0.1
13th stage
Low Pressure Static Blade 1st to 2.1 1.9 84.7 5.8 5.0 0.2
3rd stages
Low Pressure Moving Blade 2nd 2.2 1.9 54.5 6.7 7.2 0.1
(Blade composition: 12 stages for High Pressure and 13 stages for Medium Pressure and 6 stages for Low Pressure)
* As shown in the original document

2) All volatile Treatment
Mr. Grabowski also showed a method involving the use of volatile chemicals to treat boiler water. He noted (1)
the use of volatile chemicals requires thorough monitoring of any condenser leakage and assurance of pre-boiler
system operation, (2) if a leakage occurs, phosphate salts must immediately be injected, (3) the phosphate salts
work effectively against the leakage of sea water at a concentration of 5ppm or above, below which they are
ineffective and (4) after reaching the cationic conductivity of 0.5µS/cm, the phosphate salt must be kept at 10 to
15 ppm.
He also instructed that the cationic conductivity of boiler water be maintained at 2 to 3µS/cm during normal
operation and to feedwater at a pH of 8.8 to 9.2.
Ratio of silica contained in steam to that in water (%)

Water Quality
Average pH Silica (ppm.)

Pressure (psig)
Fig. 3.3.1-1: Impact of Pressure, pH and Concentration of Silica in Water to the Ratio of Silica under the Steam
Generation Volume of 5lb/h and in Static Condition

1 Distribution ratio by Jacklin & Bronar

Acceptable Concentration of Silica in Boiler

5 Coulter, et al: pH 7.8 - 9.0

Water (SiO2, ppm.)

(Silica Concentration in Steam:

0.02 ppm.)

Drum Pressure (kg/cm2G)

Fig 3.3.1-2: Curve of Acceptable Silica Concentration in Boiler Water

Acceptable silica concentration in boiler water in
order to retain silica concentration in steam to 0.02
ppm or below

Silica (ppm.)

All volatile
treatment: pH:
approx. 9.0

Pressure (psig)
Fig. 3.3.1-3: Acceptable Silica Concentration in Boiler Water (by C.E.)
(3) Shift of Criteria for Condensate water and Make-up water
The reference pH value shown by Gilbert for condensate water and make-up water at Osaka Power Plant was
8.6 to 8.8. The value depends on the volume of ammonia generated by the decomposition of hydrazine. However,
an increase of hydrazine injection caused a surge of pH to nearly 9.0. Gilbert explained that ammonia would
attack the copper alloy condenser tube if the pH value of ACD was high. In this case, the value should be kept to
8.8. However, the company also explained that if the pH of ACD were below 9.8, the pH of the condensed and
make-up water might be around 8.6 to 9.0.
So as criteria for pH and hydrazine concentrations, the ceiling was set to 0.05 ppm for hydrazine and 8.9 for pH
respectively, so that they can be maintained at these levels, even when there is a load variation. As it is difficult to
limit the hydrazine concentration to 0.01 ppm or below in a stable manner, and as there is concern regarding the
accuracy of the analysis, the lower limit of hydrazine concentration was set as 0.01 ppm.
(4) Silica and Silica Purge
In order to avoid bad influence to a turbine by silica scales, it is necessary to limit the volume of silica
contained in steam. As for the limit, the following three reports were issued in the U.S.:
1) Experience shows silica in steam should be contained to 0.03 ppm or below to avoid any scales being
deposited to the turbine.
2) No deposits was found in the low- and medium-pressure turbine blades of a turbine with 150MW, 170k and
550 C when the silica concentration in the high pressure turbine exhaust was retained to approx. 0.01 to
0.02 ppm.
3) Experience shows no silica is deposited on turbine blades when the silica concentration is kept at 0.02 ppm or below.

Indicates silica concentration should be kept

below this line during normal operation to
Silica Concentration (SiO2 ppm)

avoid any deposits.

Indicates silica concentration can reach this
line when a turbine is restarted after regular
repair or when it is rapidly operated.
However, the concentration should be
closer to the real line and close attention
should be paid to the concentration of silica
in moisture.

Drum Pressure (kg/cm2 C)

Fig. 3.3.1-4: Boiler Pressure and Maximum Permissible Silica Concentration Limit in Boiler Water

Table 3.3.1-2: Maximum Permissible Total Soluble Solid Material in Steam (Unit: ppb)
Permissible Permissible Permissible
Material Concentration for Concentration for Concentration for
Continuous Operation Conditioned Operation Intermittent Operation
NaCl 400 2000 4000
Na2SO4 400 2000 4500
Na3PO4 60 150 300
NaOH 30 60 150
SiO2 8 20 45
Total 898 4230 8995
Table 3.3.1-3: Example of Measurement for Drum Carry-Over in the U.S.
Name of Power Plant Chestexfield Ashtabula
Load 170 MW
Drum Pressure 2600 psig 2500 psig
Na Concentration of Boiler Water 7.5 ppm 10.6 ppm
Concentration in Steam 0.0021 ppm 0.0029 ppm
Carry-Over Ratio 0.028% 0.027%
NaCl Concentration of Boiler Water 9.4 ppm 15.3 ppm
Maximum Carry-Over Ratio 0.057% 0.047%
Referring to the above reports, the concentration of silica was set to 0.02 ppm or below.
The tolerance of silica concentration in boiler water depends on the ratio of silica distribution in saturated steam.
It also depends on pressure and pH, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1-1. Based on the distribution ratio, Fig. 3.3.1-2 is drawn
and C.E used Fig. 3.3.1-3.
In Fig. 3.3.1-2, the silica concentration is 0.18 to 0.19 ppm under the pressure of 186 to 188k and a pH of 7.8 to
9. From these data, the silica concentration was set as 0.2 ppm.
As the silica concentration in boiler water tends to rise when the boiler starts operation, due to the silica scale
deposited on the turbine low-pressure blades being washed away by wet steam, a silica purge must be
implemented to raise pressure by blowing the boiler, while ensuring the silica concentration is limited to within
the designated value. This is the main cause of delays and increased load when starting the drum type boiler.
Therefore, looser values were set, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1-4, for the concentration of silica when starting a boiler.
The silica-washing device installed in a drum manufactured by Babcock-Hitachi K.K. showed a remarkable
ability to reduce the silica concentration in steam, doubling the permissible concentration of silica in the boiler.
(5) Total Soluble Solid Materials
As for the total soluble solid materials, the following reports were issued in the U.S.:
1) Fig.3.3.1-2 shows the permissible concentration for continuous operation (the maximum concentration that
does not cause significant silica deposit after operating a turbine for 8,000 hours), the permissible
concentration for conditioned operation (the maximum concentration after repeated stopping and restarting
or under such operation conditions as variable pressure operation) and the permissible concentration for
intermittent operation (the maximum concentration that does not cause any silica deposits for a relatively
short turbine operating period). The permissible concentration for continuous operation is approx. 1 ppm.
2) No significant silica deposits were observed in the concentration range of 0.1 to 0.2 ppm.
3) In order to operate a turbine without any washing for an extended period, the silica concentration must be
controlled to 0.05 ppm or below.
Experience at Himeji No. 2 Power Plant showed that deposits were rarely seen when a turbine was operated
with cationic conductivity of 0.3µS or below. This corresponds to a silica concentration of 0.05 ppm.
Based on the above, the cationic conductivity and the silica concentration were determined as 0.3K-µS/cm or
below and 0.05 ppm or below, respectively.
In order to determine the limit value for the total solid materials in the boiler water, the carry-over ratio of the
drum should be considered. With this in mind, the following data is issued:
1) The design value is 0.25%.
2) The value measured in the U.S. is 0.05% or so, as shown in Table 3.3.1-3.
3) The value measured in Himeji No. 3 Power Plant was approx. 0.15%.
Based on the above, the value was determined as 0.2%, taking safety into consideration, and the total solid
materials in boiler water was set as 25 ppm.
As the measurement of water quality under the all volatile treatment is 5K-µS/cm, or 10K/µS/cm at worst, the
total solid materials in boiler water was determined as 10 ppm.

First stage low temperature reheated steam
Second stage low temperature reheated steam
Ignition Fourth steam
Combined Normal values

Time (h)
Fig. 3.3.1-5: Trend of Hydrogen Concentration
after chemical cleaning

No. 2 bearing vibration increased

by three-hundredth.
Loads decreased by 3MW.

High temperature reheated steam (ppb)

Fig. 3.3.1-6: Hydrogen Concentration when Two First

Stage Blades of Curtiss Turbine Flied Apart

Permittivity of
Cation-Exchange Resin

t Exit of WW
Entrance of ECO
Second stage low temperature

reheated steam

KC-floc used

Fig. 3.3.1-7: Electrical Conductivity and Hydrogen when

Water Starts to Pass Through a Filter
OH- in Boiler Water (ppm) (as CaCO3)

Throttle Pressure (kg/cm2)

: Crater-shaped corrosion observed at least once
!: No crater-shaped corrosion observed
This is a chart indicating the relationship between the alkali level of
hydroxy-ions in boiler water and pressure. The safe and unsafe domains for a
boiler showing crater-shaped corrosion are indicated as a dotted line.

Fig. 3.3.1-8: Relationship of Alkali Level and

Crater-shaped Corrosion

(6) Hydrogen
As for hydrogen, it only indicates the corrosion condition of a tube and no measures can be taken based on it .
The generation of hydrogen can be determined as stable, because it remains commensurate with the surface
area, regardless of the volume of steam generated. Thus, it seems normal that the hydrogen concentration doubles
when the flow decreases by half.
As seen in the example where the hydrogen concentration is 2 to 4 ppb under stable operation, the chemical
reaction of iron and water continues to a certain extent, even under stable operation. This means the magnetite
coating undergoes a cycle of damage and recovery to a certain extent.
Increased hydrogen generation tells that the following events are happening:
1) The magnetite coating incurs significant damage. : E.g.: After chemical cleaning, the magnetite coating is
removed and thus hydrogen increases, returning to the normal level as the coating is formed (Fig. 3.3.1-5).
2) A new steel surface has appeared. : E.g.: Iron powder is generated by the flying apart of turbine blade; a
new metal surface appears on it, on which a chemical reaction progresses rapidly (Fig. 3.3.1-6).
3) The metal temperature has surged abnormally. : There is a report that the hydrogen concentration increased
by about 10 ppb when a reheating pipe caused creep damage for a relatively short period.
4) Organic materials (sugars) inputted have been decomposed (Fig. 3.3.1-7): There is a report that fine resin
leaked out from a condensate demineralization tower when water was introduced into it immediately after
replenishing the resin.
(7) Malfunctioning of Boilers in the U.S.
Table 3.3.1-4 indicates the result of investigations by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
on 116 boilers in the U.S. from 1950 to 1959. As stated in the table, 40% of boiler showed some pipe damage,
while 28% of boilers caused crater-shaped corrosion, which is considered alkali corrosion. Fig. 3.3.1-8 shows the
relationship between crater-shaped corrosion and hydroxy-ions, expressly showing how the concentration of the
latter may decline as pressure goes up.

Table 3.3.1-4: Outline of 116 Boilers in Use
No. of Boiler % No. of Boiler %
Manufacturer Deaeration unit
A 42 36 Used 89 77
B 49 42 Not used 27 23
C 14 12 Final treatment of makeup
D 8 7 water
E 3 3 Deionizer is used. 50 43
Pressure (kg/cm2) Steam evaporator is used. 66 57
63 or below 13 11 Boiler water treatment
64-91 21 18 Sodium sulfite 80 69
92-126 53 46 Hydrazine 41 35
127-155 26 22 Caustic soda 81 70
156 or above 3 3 Phosphate 111 96
Capacity Potassium salt 3 3
90 or above 6 5 Organics 13 11
90-225 33 28 Condensate water treatment
225-337 26 23 Morpholine 76 65
337-450 28 24 Cyclohexylamine 12 10
450 or above 23 20 Ammonia 12 10
Overheat Temperature ( C) Problems
427 or below 0 0 No corrosion losses 70 60
427-496 15 13 observed to pipes
496-552 80 69 Crater-type corrosions 32 28
552 or above 21 18 (20 to 23% are of
Reheating Temperature ( C) hindrance.)
496 or below 0 0 Burnout due to overheat 5 4
496-552 68 59 Bubbles observed 2 2
552 or below 3 2 Overheat at the top of 1 1
No reheating 46 39 pipes
Fuel Orifice 13 11
Fine charcoal powder 72 62 Others
Gas 36 31 Pitting corrosion of 2 2
Oil 4 3.5 header
Others 4 3.5 Pitting corrosion of 3 2
(chain grate-fed charcoal and coal)
suspending metals
Year of Operation Corrosion of separation 2 2
Before 1950 7 6 tube
1950 4 3 Attachment to header 5 4
1951 5 4 Corrosion of feed heater 13 11
1952 7 6 Turbine attachments 9 8
1953 18 16 (Water-soluble
1954 28 24 9)
1955 18 16 Carry-over of silica 3 3
1956 11 9 Acid washing
1957 7 6 With acid washing 34 29
1958 8 7 No acid washing 82 71
1959 3 3 With initial acid washing 45
Economizer No initial acid washing 37
Used 101 87 Total number of acid
Not used 15 13 washings
Once 44
(Initial acid
washing 22)
Twice 14
(Initial acid
washing 7)
Three times 21
(Initial acid
washing 13)
Four times 2
(Initial acid
washing 2)
Five times 1
(Initial acid
washing 1)
For users, chemical cleaning to prevent any damage, for manufactures, designs to avoid hot spots or fluidity
hindrances, for consultants, the removal of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide from the
pre-boiler, curtailment of dissolving iron and copper and research into controlling the pH level are requested.

Temperature of Boiler Water and Pipe

Concentration of NaOH (ppm)

Materials ( F)


Mother Water of
Boiler Water

boundary Film

Fig. 3.3.1-9: Heat Transmission Film and Concentrated

Film at the Heat Transmission Surface
Alkali Corrosion
Brittleness against
Stress Corrosion

of Cases


Fig. 3.3.1-10: Accidents Occurring to Power Generation Boiler Pipes

(8) Alkali Corrosion
Sodium hydroxide was used to control pH in the boiler water. As Fig. 3.3.1-9 indicates, a boundary film was
formed around the boiler pipes of the heat transfer surface where boiling occurred. The sodium hydroxide in the
boiler water increased in concentration because it was left on the heat transfer surface as the water boiled up. As
sodium hydroxide has high solubility, it was not deposited on the surface, but instead, a film of highly
concentrated sodium hydroxide formed. According to an example of calculation , a 100k-class boiler containing
100 ppm of sodium hydroxide shows the temperature of inner surface of a pipe is increased by 5°F when it is
heated at comparatively low heat flow rate of 25,000 BTU/ft2࡮h, boosting the sodium hydroxide concentration by
Another report shows that the temperature of the inner surface of the pipe is increased by 30 C at some hot
spots . The occurrence of such hot spots is considered attributable to film boiling that is likely to occur due to the
enlargement of heat flux in a large-sized boiler, steam blanket, lack of flow rate, inappropriate burner positioning,
contact of flame due to insufficient combustion control, biased combustion and gas flow, inclusion of slabs in the
welded parts, blow holes and lack of fusion.
Sodium hydroxide can result in corrosion of steel at a concentration of 5%. When the concentration reaches 5%
or above, it dissolved the protective oxide layer, causing the inner metal surface to become exposed and corroding
it due to the reaction of water and steel. The hydrogen generated by the reaction penetrates into and damages the
In Japan, alkali corrosion cases were also reported. As Fig. 3.3.1-10 shows, statistically speaking, this has been
responsible for the highest proportion of boiler accidents having occurred to date.
The alkali corrosion is otherwise known as a caustic attack, or in the U.S., as crater-shaped corrosion, due to its
shape. These differ from conventional caustic embitterment.
After such accidents, the injection of sodium hydroxide was stopped. Thereafter, a new finding was reported:
namely that hideout of phosphate ions causes not trisodium phosphate but 2.65-sodium biphosphate at 689F and
2.85-sodium biphosphate at 572F respectively. This means 0.35 to 0.15 of trisodium phosphate in the system is in
the form of sodium hydroxide. It thus emerged that phosphate containing sodium less than 2.6 sodium
biphosphate should be used.
However, even if such phosphate is used, it was found that pH in boiler water increased past this level due to
trisodium phosphate. The cause was identified as a leakage of sodium from a deionized water system. In order to
avoid leakage, a double-bed operation was used to place the deionized water system just after regeneration to the
latter stage. Due to the fact that the movement of the system used at the latter stage to the front stage resulted in a
more significant leakage, a mixed type system was installed at the latter stage to use it dedicated to a polisher.
Thanks to such measurements, no further alkali corrosion has been reported since 1963.
(9) Shift to All volatile treatment
The No. 2 boiler of the Karita Power Plant (a 170k forced circulation boiler) started its operation in June 1959
showed alkali corrosion to evaporator tube at the 3,700th hour. This was attributable to sodium hydroxide and the
use of the chemical was stopped. The investigation showed that powder scale was attached to its turbine blades,
especially the final stage of the medium-pressure turbine, mainly consisting of sodium bicarbonate. Gilbert
suggested the use of sodium acid phosphate to maintain the pH level of boiler water and make-up water at around
8.5 to 9.5. The phosphate ion was dramatically reduced two days after feeding phosphate ions into the drum. As
this resulted in heightened conductivity of saturated steam and carryover to the turbine, the use of phosphate ions
was terminated in February 1960.
As the volume of hydrazine was maintained, the pH level of boiler water was lower by 0.4 to 0.5 than that of
make-up water, which was well below 8.5 and maintained at that level.
Regarding the risk of leakage within the condenser, trisodium phosphate is fed and a drum blow operation is
started. After repairing the leakage, the concentration of phosphate ions decreased to 0.0 ppm.
In the U.S, all volatile treatment was used due to the heavy carryover having occurred, and an ambiguous trial
just to maintain turbine operation started. For them, there was no choice other than the use of the treatment

Table 3.3.1-5: pH Control Methods of the Pressure Boiler of 130kg/cm2 or above by C.E.
How to Adjust pH No. of Boilers
(1) Caustic Based pH10.5 to 11.0
(Caustic alkali and phosphate ions are used.)
(2) Low Caustic Control pH10.0 to 10.5
(Same as above)
(3) Cordinated Phosphate – pH Control pH10.0 to 10.5
(Coordinated phosphate treatment is used and caustic alkali is not used.)
(4) All volatile treatment: pH 8.5-9.0
(Hydrazine and ammonia treatment is used and no solid chemicals are used.)

(10) Chemicals Fed into the Drum

To avoid alkali corrosions, no free sodium hydroxide should exist and the pH should be minimized. However,
decreasing the pH level is not desirable in preventing oxygen corrosion and sodium hydroxide helps the removal
of magnesium as sludge during leakage into a condenser. To maintain pH at a certain desired level, the phosphate
ion concentration should be increased, but doing so can stain turbine blades. Therefore, where the increase of pH
is not abandoned, sodium hydroxide should be used to prevent the turbine blades from deposit. In order to avoid
both turbine scale and alkali corrosion, only volatile chemicals should be used, although doing so is not safe for
preventing the seawater leakage of the condenser.
There is no single medicine to cure all such difficulties. Thus, it was decided to implement a comprehensive
examination of conditions surrounding the boilers to decide which priority should be chosen and favored. Table
3.3.1-5 shows the experience of the U.S. in 1959.
(11) Problems in All volatile treatment
At the Kansai Electric Power Company, the use of volatile chemicals was applied to all units of 250KW or
above. However, there were reports of white laminated scales deposited in a boiler, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1-11, with
total thickness of 0.4mm and a total of around 11 to 12 white laminations. Each ingredient, especially the 11 to 12
layers of copper and zinc, corresponded to the number of white laminations. There were some 86 instances of
seawater leakage within the condenser, of which 10 were serious. This also corresponds to the number of white
layers. The total calcium and magnesium content was 1 to 4% in the form of CaO, which is several times larger
than other boilers. Rice associated the generation of hydrogen to decreased pH, due to leakage of the condenser,
causing accelerated corrosion. He also determined that the corrosion became uncontrollable when volatile
chemicals were used, and that no hydrogen corrosion would occur when coordinated phosphate treatment was
used. O’Neal also commented that coordinated phosphate treatment was used in lieu of volatile chemicals to avoid
any hydrogen embitterment.

Scale Thickness Base Material of Scale

Approx. 15% All volatile

Approx. 80%

Approx. 10%

Scale Thickness (when scanned in an oblique directions)

(Source: Kurosawa et al.)

Fig. 3.3.1-11: Microscopic Diagram of Scales on the Burner Side


Number of Boilers in Operation

125K Class

170K Class
140K Class

Fig. 3.3.1-12: Trend of High Pressure Boilers
Percentage in the Entire Treatments %

Sodium phosphate

All volatile treatment

Potassium salt

Fig. 3.3.1-13: Trend of Boiler Water Treatment

Dick revealed that all volatile treatment is not a panacea against water damage accidents, because there were
reports of significant water wall tube trouble occurring in some boilers subjected to all volatile treatment.
Decker disagreed with the use of all volatile treatment on drum type boilers, stating that such treatment was
rarely beneficial to them.
Every few years, an accident involving increased differential pressure to a forced circulation boiler with all
volatile treatment happens due to the attachment of scales to the orifice installed at the inlet of water pipes. This is
likely to occur just after chemical cleaning and the likelihood of such incident is based on how the initial
crystallization occurs. The scale present consists of mainly magnetite. As anti-scale measures, (i) removal and
cleaning, (ii) modification of the orifice shape, (iii) change of the orifice material to soft steel, and low phosphate
treatment were carried out.
Subsequently in 1970, of four heavy oil boilers of virtually the same design, two treated by volatile chemicals
were involved in an accident, while another, although not involved in an accident, was affected by a zinc scale
attachments on a considerable scale. On the other hand, boilers subjected to low phosphate treatment showed no
such zinc scale deposits. It was considered that the use of low phosphate treatment not only stops zinc deposits but
also decomposes part of the zinc oxide deposits into zinc phosphate.
Thus, conventional method of all volatile treatment was switched to phosphate treatment at boilers used mainly
by Electric Power Development Co. Ltd. Table 3.3.1-6 shows a comparison performance comparison featuring the
scale generation behaviors of 23 boilers before and after changing the mode of water treatment. As the table
shows, 4 units showed that phosphate treatment worked well in reducing the generation of scales. No unit showed
an increase of scale when phosphate treatment was used in lieu of all volatile treatment. Even taking into
consideration the change in operating conditions, phosphate treatment showed a reduction of scale generation. It
was therefore considered that phosphate treatment was applicable for restricting scale deposits in the generating
tubes of a boiler.

Table 3.3.1-6: Survey on Boilers whose Water Treatment Method was Switched from
All volatile treatment to Low Phosphate Treatment
Start of When Phosphate Materials for the Condenser Materials for the Feed Heater
Unit Capacity Furnace Circulation Operation Treatment was
No. (MW) Type Method (Year/ Started Condensate water Part Air Cooling Part Low Pressure Part High Pressure Part
Month) (Year/Month)
36 375 Single Natural 47.11 53.3 Aluminum brass Nickel-plated Aluminum brass Monel metal
aluminum brass
65 156 Divided Natural 39.8 48.1 Aluminum brass Cupronickel Copper arsenate Monel metal
66 156 Divided Natural 41.2 45.3 Aluminum brass Cupronickel Copper arsenate Monel metal
67 350 Divided Natural 44.1 51.5 Aluminum brass Monel metal Aluminum brass Carbon steel
70 156 Divided Natural 39.6 53.2 (50.6P"A) Aluminum brass Cupronickel Copper arsenate Monel metal
78 156 Divided Natural 48.4 53.5 Aluminum brass Titanium Aluminum brass Alloy steel
Carbon steel
86 250 Divided Natural 42.7 49.4 Aluminum brass Cupronickel Aluminum brass Alloy steel
87 250 Divided Forced 43.7 52.6 Aluminum brass Nickel-plated Aluminum brass Alloy steel
aluminum brass
88 250 Divided Forced 44.1 52.2 Aluminum brass Nickel-plated Aluminum brass Alloy steel
aluminum brass
89 265 Divided Natural 42.5 47.5 Aluminum brass Titanium Copper arsenate Carbon steel
90 265 Divided Natural 44.9 50.10 Aluminum brass Titanium Copper arsenate Carbon steel
106 350 Divided Natural 47.2 54.1 BKCB Titanium Aluminum brass Carbon steel
108 265 Divided Forced 35.10 54.11 Aluminum brass Nickel-plated Copper arsenate Monel metal
aluminum brass
109 265 Divided Forced 37.9 54.10 Aluminum brass Titanium Copper arsenate Monel metal
112 350 Divided Forced 41.7 53.6 Aluminum brass Titanium Copper arsenate Alloy steel
113 350 Divided Natural 42.1 55.12 Aluminum brass Titanium Copper arsenate Alloy steel
118 350 Divided Forced 43.1 53.7 Aluminum brass Aluminum brass Aluminum brass Alloy steel
122 250 Single Forced 45.6 54.1 Aluminum brass Cupronickel Aluminum brass Alloy steel
147 350 Divided Natural 44.9 53.6 Aluminum brass Titanium Aluminum brass Alloy steel
Carbon steel
148 350 Divided Natural 45.1 55.12 Aluminum brass Titanium Aluminum brass Carbon steel
168 250 Divided Natural 46.1 51.3 Aluminum brass Cupronickel Aluminum brass Carbon steel
169 350 Single Forced 48.1 53.12 Aluminum brass Cupronickel Aluminum brass Carbon steel
181 400 Single Forced 52.9 56.3 Aluminum brass Titanium Aluminum brass Carbon steel

Table 3.3.1-7: Corrosion Damage Reported in the U.S. on Drum Boilers (125k Class or above)
New damage Number of units in Ratio of annual
reported operation damage occurred
1955-1960 48 219 3.6%
1961-1965 39 385 2.0
1966-1970 27 481 1.1
* Corrosion newly discovered

(12) Water Treatment and Boiler Accidents in the U.S.

Fig. 3.3.1-12 shows statistics concerning high pressure boiler damage reported in the U.S. up to 1970. Fig.
3.3.1-13 also shows a shift of boiler water treatment methods. It shows that the use of sodium hydroxide keeps
declining, while that of sodium phosphate is on the rise. All volatile treatment peaked in 1963 (25%) and declined
thereafter, falling as low as 5% in 1970.
Table 3.3.1-7 shows the trend of boiler corrosion, in terms of year on year decline. However, even recently, 1%
of boilers used today are prone to corrosion damage. As Table 3.3.1-8 shows, 170k-class boilers tend to corrode,
even when volatile chemicals are used to treat the boiler water. This ratio is relatively high compared with other
classes, indicating why this type of treatment was declined.
However, a few cases of damage allegedly occurred due to the all volatile treatment not showing any evidence
of boiler water contamination. The users believed that the all volatile treatment maintained the deionized water at
the specified level. Experience supports the theory that it was the boiler design making it prone to corrosion)
although Klein considers such an idea to be illogical.
Boiler corrosion cases in the U.S. peaked in the early 1960s, when various reports were submitted by both users
and consultants. They reported that corrosion was caused by (i) basically inappropriate boiler design, (ii) contact
of flames, (iii) insufficient circulation of boiler water and (iv) excessive evaporation speed. A few users suggested
that strict control should be imposed to the heat load exposed to furnaces. Appearance of Subcritical Pressure Once-through Boilers and the Necessity of Condensate
Water Treatments
As the type of boiler evolves from natural circulation to forced circulation to once-through types, stricter water
treatment technologies have been called for.
A once-through boiler requires departure from the conventional type of water treatment technology, because all
foreign matter introduced to the boiler, together with the feed water, tend to become deposits on boiler tube and
turbine blade.
A once-through boiler requires ultra pure water, which contains a concentration of solid substances as low as
just 5 to 500 ppb. In order to obtain such low concentrations, it is necessary to avoid mixing solid substances into
the feed water.
Generally speaking, the following are considered sources of solid substances into feed water :
! Solid substances derived from construction phase
! A mixture of cooling water into the system, due to leakage of the condenser
! Corrosion products derived from the feed water system
! Solid substances in supplementary feed
! Solution of resin from the deionized water system
Among them, leakage of the condenser occupies the largest part. To eliminate this, condensate purification
equipment is installed. This unit is relatively effective in removing dissolving metal.
When an equilibrium between the protective coating on the metal surface and the water contacting it is lost, due,
for example, to load fluctuation, and system start-up and stoppage, the volume of corrosion products contained in
feed water rapidly increases.
In order to maintain the stability of the metal surface during a system stoppage, the system should be carefully
protected while not in use, with the use of hydrazine water of high pH and nitrogen sealed in tubes.
At the same time, a clean-up operation should be implemented before the system restarts operation. As for the
solution of resin from the deionized water unit, resin slightly dissolves into water during the initial phase of the
unit start-up, until it reaches a stable condition, meaning fine-powdered resin mingles into the supplementary feed.
The effects thereof were not the subjects of research in 1959. In those days, it was considered that installation of a
fine pore filter before and after a condensate purification equipment was effective in removing fine powder resin.
As chemicals capable of solidifying must not be used, hydrazine, ammonia and amines should be used.
However, amines are not recommended because they decompose at high pressure.

Table 3.3.1-8: Damages to Boilers by Pressure and by the Water Treatment Method
Pressure 125k Class 140k Class 170k Class Total
All volatile treatment 5 7 11 23
Sodium Phosphate Treatment 12 3 8 23
Sodium Hydroxide Treatment 41 18 4 63
Potassium Salt Treatment 5 5 - 10
Total 63 33 23 119

The No. 2 Boiler of the Himeji No. 2 Power Plant was imported from the U.S. and commenced comercial
operation in 1964. Table 3.3.1-9 shows the water quality standards, set based on actual operation performance.
This boiler uses hydrazine and ammonia injected into the outlet of its condensate purification equipment and
ammonia into the outlet of its deaeration unit.
(1) Condensate purification equipment
Condensate purification equipment normally consists of a mixed bed condensate demineralization tower and
filters placed in front of it. Some act as a polisher of supplementary feed.
The following three major objectives are associated with the use of condensate purification equipment:
1) To prevent damage to the entire system due to the leakage of a condenser
2) To purify the supplementary feed
3) To remove corrosion products from the feed water system
The secondary objectives include:
1) to purify various drain water before it enters into the system, and
2) to purify the system during the initial start-up and shutdown operations.
Contamination of ion-exchange resin by metal oxides and pressure loss of the condensate demineralization
tower impose significant impacts to the system when a high-speed ion exchange takes place. Due to this, a filter is
installed just before the tower to remove them and prevent the ion-exchange resin from deterioration.
As for appropriate materials to use for the filter, cellulose, diatomite, leaf-type and other fine pore filters are
As for the condensate water condensate demineralization tower, although the impact of dissolved resin to the
tower has not yet been clearly identified, some say that the use of a filter, which puts after the demineralization
tower, can eliminate leakage from the tower. Himeji No. 2 Power Plant employs a combination of filters made by
United Filters, Inc. and Permutite Company. The label said the design conductivity was 0.2µS/cm, and that design
silica, iron and copper concentrations were 7 ppb, 5 ppb and 5 ppb respectively, although these are not guaranteed
The imported item of Himeji No. 2 Power Plant uses a horizontal leaf type pre-coat filter and Solka floc

BW-100 and -40 were used at a ratio of 1 to 1 as filtering agents. The agents heavily leaked out, were deposited on
the resin surface of the condensate demineralization tower caused pressure loss of the tower. The reasons for the
leakage were attributed to leaf-end gaps, the distance of leaf hubs, the non-parallel arrangement of the same,
variations in the water flow, an excessive design flow rate and the screen structure. The pressure loss exceeded the
design value, after pre-coating, it was attributable to the excessive flow rate and an overly small shaft and shaft
hole diameter. To eliminate the pressure loss, the system underwent renovation, but the loss still exceeded the
design value. So, other filter unit was added.
It is believed that the black carbon precipitated to the boiler tube when the filtering agent leaked in large
The condensate demineralization tower showed resin leakage, which was attributable to the gap of the disc
strainers, the distances between a disc strainer and the strainer plate and between the strainer plate and a bottom
In addition, sending resin to the regeneration tank led to massive amounts of residual resin accumulating at the
bottom of the tower, resulting in an insufficient regeneration process and imbalances between the cation and anion
resins. This was due to a structural defect at the bottom of the tower.
As the pressure loss of the condensate demineralization tower became abnormally high, resin with less than 60
mesh was filtrated using a filter (Permatite Q and S-1). The total annual fraction ratio came to approx. 45%, with
the ratio of damaged anion resin particularly high. As for the cause of the fractured resin, this was found to be
attributable to the relatively high design flow rate of 119m/h (51). Due to such experiences, a flow rate of 80m/h
was recommended.
However, despite such measures, the water purity showed no improvement. Even after investigation by a
Japanese condensate demineralizer manufacturer, no causes were identified. So, the staff was so desperate for help
that they used a sieve to remove small resins, whereupon the water purity showed improvement.

Table 3.3.1-9: Criteria for a Once-through Boiler

Subcritical Supercritical
Pressure Pressure
Condensate water Cl- ppm 0 0
O2 ppb 40 40
Demineralized Electrical Conductivity µS 0.2 0.2
Condensate water
Feed Water pH 9.0-9.5 9.2-9.7
O2 ppb 5 5
N2H4 ppb 5-30 5-30
Cationic conductivity #S/cm 0.2 0.2
Fe ppb 10 10
Cu ppb 5 3
SiO2 ppb 20 10
Values not shown in the form of a range (a ~ b) are the maximum allowable values.

(2) Cleanup
(Inlet of an economizer in front of a
boiler unit of Himeji No. 2 Power Plant)