ASIA-PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP on Clean Development and Climate

This textbook has been prepared by Japanese electric power companies as a
contribution to “PGT-06-01: Best Practices for Power Generation” one of the
activities undertaken by the ‘Power Generation and Power Distribution Task Force’ in
the context of the ASIA-PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP on Clean Development and
Climate. The textbook describes important issues associated with maintaining, and
enhancing, levels of heat efficiency at a coal-fired thermal power plants, and
constitutes a summary of matters of which all technicians working in power
generation plants need to be aware. It would give us considerable satisfaction if this
textbook provides useful guidance to technicians in the course of day-to-day
operations, and in the carrying out of maintenance, at coal-fired thermal power plants.
In the course of preparing this textbook, we have quoted extracts from books and
Bulletins of the Thermal and Nuclear Power Engineering Society. The authors
would like to extend their warmest appreciation to individual writers of these books
and Bulletins, as well as to the Societies itself, for their willingness to provide such
valuable information, and thus to make this textbook possible.
April, 2007
The Federation of Electric Power Companies of Japan
ASIA-PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP on Clean Development and Climate
List of Authors (Titles Dispensed and Omitted and Listed in Random Order)
Kazuhiro Sakai: Section Manager, Affair Infrastructure Sec. Thermal Power Dept.
Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc.
Satoshi Tanishima: Manager, Planning Group, Thermal Power Department,
Tokyo Electric Power Company
Kenichiro Kawashima: Deputy Manager, Planning Group, Thermal Power Department,
Tokyo Electric Power Company,
Tatsurou Yamaoka: Manager, Overseas Project Group, Thermal Power Plant Engineering Center,
Thermal Power Department,
Tokyo Electric Power Company
Shinichi Taniguchi: Mechanical Engineering & Asset Management Strategist, Overseas Project Group,
Thermal Power Department,
Tokyo Electric Power Company
Terunori Kobayashi: Manager, Operations & Maintenance Section, Thermal Power Department,
Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc.
Noriyuki Sonoda: Assistant Manager, Thermal Power Administration Sect. Power Generation Div.
The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc.
Susumu Sakata: Staff Assistant Manager, Thermal Power Mechanical Engineering Sect. Power
Generation Div.
The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc.
Shin Katayama: Assistant Manager, Technical Section, Karatsu Power Station,
Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc.
Takashi Maruta: Technical Section, Karatsu Power Station, Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc.
Takashi Naganuma: Senior Research Engineer, Environment And Chemistry Engineering Group,
Research Laboratory,
Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc.
Yoshiaki Fukuzawa: Manager, Plant Management Group No.1, Thermal Power Dept.
Electric Power Development Co., Ltd.
Yoshitaka Oka: Assistant Manager, Plant Management Group No.1, Thermal Power Dept.
Electric Power Development Co., Ltd.
ޛThermal and Nuclear Power Engineering Societyޜ
Masaru Wakao: Deputy General Manager, Thermal Power Department, Thermal And Nuclear
Power Engineering Society
ޛSecretariatޜ
Masato Hasegawa: Manager, Siting and Environment,
The Federation of Electric Power Companies
Hirofumi Kazuno: Deputy General Manager, Siting and Environment,
The Federation of Electric Power Companies
Tomoaki Koga: Manager, Engineering Department,
The Federation of Electric Power Companies
Yasunori Eitoku: Manager, Engineering Department,
The Federation of Electric Power Companies
Masato Ishimura: Deputy General Manager, Engineering Department, The Federation of
Electric Power Companies
ASIA-PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP on Clean Development and Climate
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Summary of Thermal Power Generation in Japan ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 1
1.1 History of Electric Power Companies in Japan ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 1
1.2 History of the Power Plant and the Role of Thermal Power Generation in Japan ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 1
1.3 Movements in Thermal Efficiency of Thermal Power Plants in Japan and Outlook ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 7
for Thermal Power Generation Technology in the Future
Chapter 2 Functional and Operational Control of Thermal Power Plants ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 12
2.1 Operation Control ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 12
2.2 Power Supply Operations ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 22
2.3 Start-up and Stop Operation Control ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 25
2.4 Performance Management ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 39
2.5 Example of Operation Control and Performance Management ࡮࡮࡮࡮ 57
(Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc)
2.6 Combustion of Coal ࡮࡮࡮࡮103
2.7 Examples for the Operation of Soot Blowers ࡮࡮࡮࡮133
Chapter 3 Maintenance and Efficiency Control of Thermal Power Plants ࡮࡮࡮࡮142
3.1 Maintenance and Administration of Aged Thermal Power Plants ࡮࡮࡮࡮142
3.2 Boilers and Auxiliary Machines ࡮࡮࡮࡮163
3.3 Water Quality Control of Boiler ࡮࡮࡮࡮200
3.4 Turbines and Auxiliary Machines ࡮࡮࡮࡮263
3.5 Power Generators ࡮࡮࡮࡮330
3.6 Efficiency and Operation Improvement of Thermal Power Plants ࡮࡮࡮࡮366
Chapter 4 Environmental Preservation Provision of Facilities ࡮࡮࡮࡮376
4.1 Environmental Preservation Measures of Thermal Power Plants ࡮࡮࡮࡮376
4.2 Dust Precipitator ࡮࡮࡮࡮393
4.3 Desulphurization Equipment ࡮࡮࡮࡮409
4.4 Denitrification Equipment ࡮࡮࡮࡮427
4.5 Maintenance of Environmental Protection System ࡮࡮࡮࡮448
4.6 Waste Treatment and Effective Use ࡮࡮࡮࡮457
References
1. Summary of thermal power generation in Japan
1.1 History of electric power companies in Japan
Electricity supply in Japan is carried out by independent regional electric power companies, which require close
communication to operate efficiently. In 1952, the nine major electric power companies established the Federation
of Electric Power Companies (FEPC) to promote smooth operations within the industry. Since then, the FEPC has
played an important role as a base for communication between the power companies and as a forum for
exchanging ideas on the evolution of the environment in the electricity industry. The FEPC undertakes various
activities aimed at ensuring operations of the electricity industry in keeping with the development of the country
as a whole.
With the restoration of Okinawa to Japan in 1972, the Okinawa Electric Power Company resumed its
participation in Japan's electric power industry, becoming a full FEPC member in March 2000.
Fig. 1.1-1 Service Areas by Company
1.2 History of the power plant and the role of thermal power generation in Japan
Electricity consumption in Japan has expanded almost consistently after the world war Τ. Further, in recent
years, the need has intensified for a comfortable life as seen in the progression of computerization and the
proliferation of air conditioners, and even though the Japanese economy has entered a stable growth period,
electric power demand shows no signs of slowing down. In addition, new problems are starting to appear as the
demand increases.
Let consider the current situation and future of electricity consumption.
Due to the betterment of people's living standards, comfortable living is sought and the role of electricity in
living starting with air conditioning is growing increasingly. Moreover, due to the progression of a highly
intelligent community as a result of IT innovation including the computer and communication, the role of
electricity is increasing in all aspects of industry and living. From these facts, over the course of time, the
percentage of electricity consumption among consumption of other energies (electrification ratio) is running high.
Although the electric power demand is dependent on the trends in the business climate and those in politics and
the community, even in recent years when the Japanese economy has entered a stable growth period, it continues
to increase due to the progression of computerization and the proliferation of air conditioners.
1
Electric power in Japan is supplied mainly by thermal (oil, LNG, coal, etc.), hydro, and nuclear power
generation. There are 1,300 or more power plants in all parts of Japan to meet the electric power demand
growing steadily due to an upsurge in the desire to seek comfortable living, computerization, graying, etc.
Ratio of electric power accounting for primary energies
(electrification ratio)
PJ (Petajoules=10
15
J)
D
o
m
e
s
t
i
c

s
u
p
p
l
y

o
f

p
r
i
m
a
r
y

e
n
e
r
g
i
e
s
(Fiscal ) denotes the percentage that electric power accounts for
(Note) 1PJ equals a heating value of about 25,800 kl of crude oil.
Source: Comprehensive Energy Statistics (2003 version)
Fig.1.2-1: Ratio of electric power accounting for primary energies
(electrification ratio)
The role of electric energy, being useful and easy to use, is intensifying year after year, and the ratio of electric
energy to the consumption of all energies has now reached about 40%.
2
Track record and outlook of power generated by source.
(Hundred million kWh)
Nuclear power
Oil, etc. Coal
P
o
w
e
r

g
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

y
e
a
r
l
y

Natural gas
(LNG)
Geothermal power
generation and new
Hydro
3
Fig.1.2-2: Track record and outlook of power generated by Source.
(Fiscal)
(Note) 1. Oil, etc. includes LPG, other gases and bituminous mixtures.
2. Due to rounding off, there may be cases where the total value
does not equal 100%.
3. Total of 10 electric power companies. Power received is included.
The numer 4. ic values in the graph represent the segment share (%).
Source: Outline of Fiscal 2005 Supply Program
(March 2005) and others
Power generated increases with each passing year, and we cope with the demand for increasing electric power
while planning departure from the use of oil through the use of nuclear energy, natural gas (LPG), etc.
As our lives become convenient and rich, the role of electricity serving in our lives continues to expand. The
amount of electricity usage varies significantly depending on the time period of the day and the season.
When we look at the electric consumption on an annual basis, in recent years, the growth in the summer season
is significant due to air conditioning, and when we look at it on a daily basis, the maximum consumption is
marked at about 2:00 p.m. when the heat in midsummer reaches its peak. The difference between the maximum
and the minimum values of electricity consumption is more and more on an increasing trend. The increase in
home air conditioners has a significant effect on this.
On the other hand, electricity is an energy that is impossible to be stored. Although a plant that generates
electric power is built to the peak of demand (maximum electric power demand), when the electric power demand
varies significantly according to season and time period, efficiency in the utilization of the power plant lowers,
and as a result, the cost to deliver the electricity will be comparatively high.

(Merging of 10 electric power companies)
(Million kW)
Movements in how electricity is used over one day in midsummer
July 20, 2004
August 25, 1995
July 24, 2001
August 7, 1990
August 29, 1995
July 31, 1975
4
Fig. 1.2-3 Movements in how the electricity is used over one day in midsummer
Survey conducted by the Federation of Electric Power
Companies of Japan
(Time)
(Note) Merging of 9 electric power companies
only in 1975
For electric power demand, there is a significant difference between daytime and nighttime in one day. This
reflects the fact that while a good amount of electricity is used by plants and offices in the daytime, industrial
activities are not performed much at night. In addition, even in the daytime, the amount of electricity used
decreases from 12:00 to 13:00 p.m. when plants and offices are in a lunch break.
During the day on a hot summer day, electric power demand for air conditioning increases. The consumption at
the peak in the daytime reaches about 2 times that in the time period in a day when the consumption is lowest.

(Merging of 10 electric power companies) (Million kW)
Movements in how the electricity is used over one year
(All-time maximum)
Fiscal 2001
Fiscal 2004
Fiscal 1995
Fiscal 1985
Fiscal 1990
Fiscal 1975
Fiscal 1968
Fiscal 1967
(Month)
5

(Note) Merging of 9 electric power companies before
1975
Survey conducted by the Federation of Electric Power
Companies of Japan
Fig.1.2-4: Movements in how the electricity is used over one year
When we look at electric power demand on a month-by-month basis, there is a big change in how the electricity
is used even through one year. Electricity demand registered its peak during the summer season of fiscal 1968,
and currently, there are 2 peaks in the summer and the winter in conjunction with the upsurge in electric power
demand used for heating in winter. In particular, the increase in the peak in summer is remarkable, showing a big
gap compared with spring and autumn when there is low demand for air conditioning. The gap in electric power
demand due to the season will cause the efficiency of the utilization rate of plant to lower together with scale-up
of the gap due to the time period, and will contribute to increasing the cost to deliver the electricity to the
consumer.
[Combination in response to the characteristics of the source]
Although the amount of electricity usage varies, as it is impossible to store the electricity, and it is necessary to
adjust the amount of electricity to be generated with reference to the electric power demand. Electric power
companies combine a variety of electric power generation systems for the purpose of meeting electric power
demand that varies every moment.
c Efforts to cope with peak electric power demand
During the day when electricity is used in large amounts, a power plant must generate high-volume electricity.
Provision for peak electric power demand is made by an oil-fired thermal power and pumped-storage
hydroelectric power generation, which are excellent in coping with electric power demand that can vary.
c Supplying base electric power demand
On the other hand, base electric power demand is supplied by nuclear power generation and hydro power
generation (run-off river type) taking the power generation cost and environment load into account.
c Combined use of sources
Further, in Japan, most energy resources rely on imports from abroad. To supply electricity with stability in the
future as well, taking the limited fossil resources, global environmental issues, further economics, etc. into
account, we intend to combine the resources in well-balanced way making use of characteristics of each type of
power generation including hydro, thermal, and nuclear, thereby dispersing the risk by not relying on one source.
Electricity demand varies during the day or at night even in one day. In electric utilities, the features of hydro,
thermal, and nuclear power generation such as operation characteristics, economics, and efforts to cope with
global environmental issues are judged comprehensively to combine various kinds of sources in an optimum
balance.
Pumped-storage
hydroelectric power
Equalizing pool-type
hydro
Water reservoir-type
hydro
Supply capacity to cope
with peak electric power
demand
Oil
Supply capacity to cope
with middle electric
power demand
LNG, LPG, and other gases
Coal
Nuclear power
Supply capacity to cope
with base electric power
demand
Run-off river-type hydro/geothermal power generation
(Time)
Fig.1.2-5: Combination of sources for electric power demand
Table 1.2-1: Characteristics of respective sources and optimum combination
Power generation
system
Supply capacity Characteristics
Pumped-storage
hydroelectric power
Supply capacity to
cope with peak
electric power
demand
Finds application as a supply capacity to cope with sudden
fluctuation in demand and peak demand because it copes very
easily with fluctuation in electric power demand.
Equalizing pool-type
hydro
Water reservoir-type
hydro
Supply capacity to
cope with peak
electric power
demand
Although the initial cost is high, this is excellent
economically from the viewpoint of average service life, and
because it copes extremely easily with fluctuation in electric
power demand, this type finds application as a supply
capacity for peak demand.
Oil-fired thermal
power
Supply capacity to
cope with peak
electric power
demand
Although the running cost is relatively high, the capital cost is
low and it is excellent in coping with fluctuation in electric
power demand, thereby finding application as a supply
capacity for peak demand.
LNG, LPG, and other
gas-fired thermal
power
Supply capacity to
cope with middle
electric power
demand
The running cost is low, and with respect to the capital cost as
well, it is cheaper than a coal-fired thermal power and it is
excellent in coping with fluctuation in electric power demand,
thereby finding application as a supply capacity for middle
demand.
Coal-fired thermal
power
Supply capacity to
cope with base and
middle electric power
demands
Although the capital cost is high, it copes more easily than
nuclear power with fluctuation in electric power demand,
thereby finding application as a supply capacity for
intermediate demand between that for base demand and that
for middle demand.
6
7
Nuclear power Supply capacity to
cope with base
electric power
demand
Although the capital cost is high, the running cost is low,
whereby this can perform the operation at a high utilization
rate as a supply capacity for base demand.
Run-off river-type
hydro power
generation
Supply capacity to
cope with base
electric power
demand
Although the initial cost is high, it is excellent economically
from the viewpoint of average service life, and it finds
application as a supply capacity for base demand.
Supply capacity for peak demand: A source whose amount of electricity to be generated can easily be
adjusted
Supply capacity for middle demand: A source that has the two features of peak electric power demand and
base electric power demand
Supply capacity for base demand: A source that supplies a constant volume of electricity
1.3 Movements in thermal efficiency of thermal power plants in Japan and outlook for thermal
power generation technology in the future
Since the first Rankine cycle-based thermal (steam) power generation plant (Steam pressure: 0.59MPa (gage)
(6atg), 7.5kW (10HP) was manufactured by Charles A. Persons in 1884, the thermal efficiency of steam power
generation plants has improved significantly together with improvement of steam conditions (higher
temperature/higher pressure) and larger capacity.
In Japan as well, LNG-fired supercritical pressure (SC) plants whose main steam pressure was 24.3 MPa (gage)
(246 atg) and whose main/reheat steam temperature was 538/566 qC came into operation in the form of Tokyo
Electric Power Company's Anegasaki thermal plant Unit No.1 in 1967. Subsequently, similar steam conditions
were adopted for coal-fired plants, and in 1989, 2-stage reheat LNG-fired Ultra Supercritical pressure (USC)
thermal power generation whose main steam pressure was 31.0 MPa (gage) (316atg) and whose ultra-
supercritical-pressure/high-pressure/middle-pressure steam temperature was 566/566/566 qC came into operation
at CHUBU Electric Power Company's Kawagoe thermal power plant Unit No.1. As described earlier,
improvement of steam conditions has been planned steadily. However, in recent years, the growth of steam
conditions has become relatively slow, and as shown in the figure, the thermal efficiency of steam power
generation moves at little over 40%.
Slowdown trends in rise of thermal efficiency of thermal (steam) power generation achieved a significant
change through the introduction of LNG combined cycle power generation using a full-scale exhaust heat
recovery system with a turbine inlet temperature (TIT) of the 1100-qC-class gas turbine as a core at TOHOKU
Electric Power Company's Higashi Niigata Unit group No.3 in 1984. As shown in the figure, through the
adoption of combined cycle power generation system combining the Brayton cycle (gas turbine) and the Rankine
cycle (steam turbine), the thermal efficiency of the thermal power plant rose in a stroke to about 44%. TIT of gas
turbines for commercial use has risen at a rate of about 20qC/year on average due to progression of cooling
technology and development of heat-resistant materials. In November 1999, the advanced combined cycle
power generation cycle (ACC) consisting mainly of a 1,450-qC-class gas turbine begun commercial operation at
TOHOKU Electric Power Company's Higashi Niigata Unit group No.4-1, and 50% thermal efficiency, having
which had been a dream for a long time in the thermal power generation sector, was attained. During this period,
a number of LNG combined cycle power generation plants were introduced one after another, and attained an
excellent track record of operation with high thermal efficiency, load change, etc. The installed capacity of LNG
combined cycle power generation at the end of 2001 reached 22 million kW in total across the 6 Electric Power
Companies & 21 groups, coming to account for 17% of the installed capacity of all commercial-use thermal
power generation.
Currently, in addition, TOKYO Electric Power Company's Futtsu thermal power plant Unit group 3 & group 4,
Shinagawa thermal power plant Unit group No.1, Kawasaki thermal power plant Unit group No.1, TOHOKU
Electric Power Company's Unit group No.4-2, etc. are in the advanced stage of construction, and the thermal
efficiency of ACC under construction is planned to be 50 to 53%.
On the other hand, with respect to coal-fired thermal power, improvement in the steam condition of coal-fired
USC thermal power generation continues steadily such as at CHUBU Electric Power Company's Hekinan thermal
power plant Unit No.3 (main steam pressure: 24.1 MPa (gage) (246 atg), main/reheat steam temperature:
538/593qC), Electric Power Development Company's Matsuura thermal power plant Unit No.2, HOKURIKU
Electric Power Company's Nanao Ohta thermal power plant Unit No.2 (main steam pressure: 24.1 MPa (gage)
(246 atg), main/reheat steam temperature: 593/593qC), TOHOKU Electric Power Company's Haramachi thermal
power plant Unit No.2, CHUGOKU Electric Power Company's Misumi power plant Unit No.1 (main steam
pressure: 24.5 MPa (gage) (250atg), main/reheat steam pressure: 600/600qC), Electric Power Development
Company's Tachibanawan thermal power plant Unit No. 1 & No.2 (main steam pressure: 25 Mpa (gage) (255atg),
main/reheat steam pressure: 600/610qC), which have started operation.
In addition, pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) combined cycle generation plants combining
expansion and steam turbines started operation at HOKKAIDO Electric Power Company's Tomatoh Atsuma Unit
No.3 in 1998, CHUGOKU Electric Power Company's Oosaki Unit No.1-1 in 2000, and KYUSHU Electric Power
Company's Kanda Unit No.1 in 2001. Through these, the thermal efficiency of coal-fired thermal power plants
reached about 43%.
Combined cycle power generation
(Gas/Steam turbine)
Higashiniigata#4
Kawasaki
G
r
o
s
s

t
h
e
r
m
a
l

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

[
%
]

H
H
V Himeichi#5
Higashiniigata#3
Yokohama #7, 8
Kashima#5 Anesaki#1
Shinkokura#2
Chiba#2
Chiba#1
Hitachinaka#1
Kawagoe#1
Kanda#1
Steam power generation
(Boiler/Steam turbine)
Fiscal year
Fig.1.3-1: Developments in thermal efficiency of thermal power generation
8
9
Table 1.3-1: Major coal-fired thermal power generation plants in Japan (1959 - 1985)
Manufacturer
Era No.
Electric power
company
Power plant Unit
Approved
output
Steam conditions
Boiler Turbine Generator
Operation
started from
1
Sumitomo joint electric
power co., Ltd
Niihamanishi Unit No.1 75 10.0MPa-538qC/538qC MHI MHI
Mitsubishi
Electric
Corp.
1959-08
2 Tohoku Sendai Unit No.1 175 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
GE, Hitachi,
Ltd.
Hitachi, Ltd. 1959-10
3 Kyushu Minato Unit No.1 156 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC MHI MHI
Mitsubishi
Electric
Corp.
1960-09
4 Tohoku Sendai Unit No.2 175 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1960-11
5 Chugoku Mizushima Unit No.1 125 12.5MPa-538qC/538qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1961-11
6 Tohoku Sendai Unit No.3 175 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1962-06
7
Sumitomo joint electric
power co., Ltd
Niihamanishi Unit No.2 75 10.0MPa-538qC/538qC MHI MHI
Mitsubishi
Electric
Corp.
0962-07
8 Chugoku Mizushima Unit No.2 156 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1963-08
9 Kyushu Omura Unit No.2 156 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC MHI MHI
Mitsubishi
Electric
Corp.
1964-08
10 Shikoku Saijo Unit No.1 156 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC MHI
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
1965-11
11 Chugoku Shimonoseki Unit No.1 175 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC MHI MHI
Mitsubishi
Electric
Corp.
1967-03
12 J-POWER Takehara Unit No.1 250 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1967-07
13 Hokkaido Naie Unit No.1 175 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC IHI
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
1968-06
14 J-POWER Takasago Unit No.1 250 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC MHI MHI
Mitsubishi
Electric
Corp.
1968-07
15 J-POWER Takasago Unit No.2 250 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC MHI MHI
Mitsubishi
Electric
Corp.
1969-01
16 Hokkaido Naie Unit No.2 175 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC IHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1970-02
17 Shikoku Saijo Unit No.2 250 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC IHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1970-06
18
Jyoban Joint
Power Co.
Nakoso Unit No.7 250 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC MHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1970-10
19
Tobata Co-operative
Thermal Power
Company, Inc.
Tobata Co-
operative
Thermal Power
Company, Inc.
Unit No.2 156 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC MHI MHI
Mitsubishi
Electric
Corp.
1971-06
20 Toyama Kyodo Toyamashinko Unit No.1 250 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1971-09
21 Toyama Kyodo Toyamashinko Unit No.2 250 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1972-06
Before
1975
22
Sumitomo joint electric
power co., Ltd
Mibugawa Unit No.1 250 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC MHI MHI
Mitsubishi
Electric
Corp.
1975-03
23 Hokkaido Sagawa Unit No.3 125 12.5MPa-538qC/538qC MHI Fuji Fuji 1977-06
24
Sakata kyodo
power company,
Ltd.
Sakata kyodo
power
company,
Ltd.
Unit No.1 350 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC MHI
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
1977-10
25
Sakata kyodo
power company,
Ltd.
Sakata kyodo
power
company,
Ltd.
Unit No.2 350 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC MHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1978-10
26 Hokkaido
Tomatoh
Atsuma
Unit No.1 350 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
1980-10
27 J-POWER Matsushima Unit No.1 500 24.1MPa-538qC/538qC MHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1981-01
28 J-POWER Matsushima Unit No.2 500 24.1MPa-538qC/538qC MHI
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
1981-06
29 Hokkaido Sagawa Unit No.4 125 17.7MPa-538qC/538qC KHI Fuji Fuji 1982-05
30 J-POWER Takehara Unit No.3 700 24.1MPa-538qC/538qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1983-03
31
Jyoban Joint
Power Co.
Nakoso Unit No.8 600 24.1MPa-538qC/566qC MHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1983-09
32
Jyoban Joint
Power Co.
Nakoso Unit No.9 600 24.1MPa-538qC/566qC IHI
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
1983-12
From
1976 to
1985
33 Hokkaido
Tomatoh
Atsuma
Unit No.2 600 24.1MPa-538qC/566qC IHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1985-10
10
Table 1.3-2: Major coal-fired thermal power generation plants in Japan (1986 - 2005)
Manufacturer
Era No.
Electric power
company
Power plant Unit
Approved
output
Steam conditions
Boiler Turbine Generator
Operation
started from
34 Chugoku Shinonoda Unit No.1 500 24.1MPa-538qC/566qC IHI
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
1986-04
35 J-POWER Ishikawa Unit No.1 156 18.6MPa-566qC/566qC KHI Fuji Fuji 1986-11
36 Chugoku Shinonoda Unit No.2 500 24.1MPa-538qC/566qC IHI
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
1987-01
37 J-POWER Ishikawa Unit No.2 156 18.6MPa-566qC/566qC KHI Fuji Fuji 1987-03
38 Kyushu Matsuura Unit No.1 700 24.1MPa-538qC/566qC MHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1989-06
39 J-POWER Matsuura Unit No.1 1000 24.1MPa-538qC/566qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
MHI
Mitsubishi
Electric Corp.
1990-06
40 Chubu Hekinan Unit No.1 700 24.1MPa-538qC/566qC MHI
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
1991-10
41 Hokuriku Tsuruga Unit No.1 500 24.1MPa-566qC/566qC MHI
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
1991-10
42 Chubu Hekinan Unit No.2 700 24.1MPa-538qC/566qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1992-06
43 Chubu Hekinan Unit No.3 700 24.1MPa-538qC/593qC IHI MHI
Mitsubishi
Electric Corp.
1993-04
44 Tohoku Noshiro Unit No.1 600 24.5MPa-538qC/566qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
Fuji Fuji 1993-06
45 Okinawa Gushikawa Unit No.1 156 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC KHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1994-03
46 Soma Kyodo Shinchi Unit No.1 1000 24.1MPa-538qC/566qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1994-07
47 Tohoku Noshiro Unit No.2 600 24.1MPa-566qC/593qC IHI
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
1994-12
48 Hokuriku Nanao Ohta Unit No.1 500 24.1MPa-566qC/593qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
MHI
Mitsubishi
Electric Corp.
1995-03
49 Okinawa Gushikawa Unit No.2 156 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
MHI
Mitsubishi
Electric Corp.
1995-03
50 J-POWER Takehara Unit No.2 350 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1995-06
51 Soma Kyodo Shinchi Unit No.2 1000 24.1MPa-538qC/566qC MHI
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
1995-07
From
1986 to
1995
52 Kyushu Reihoku Unit No.1 700 24.1MPa-566qC/566qC IHI
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
1995-12
53 J-POWER Matsuura Unit No.2 1000 24.1MPa-593qC/593qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
MHI
Mitsubishi
Electric Corp.
1997-07
54 Tohoku Haramachi Unit No.1 1000 24.1MPa-566qC/593qC MHI
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
1997-07
55 Hokkaido
Tomatoh
Atsuma
Unit No.3 85 16.6MPa-566qC/538qC MHI MHI
Mitsubishi
Electric Corp.
1998-03
56 Chugoku Misumi Unit No.1 1000 24.5MPa-600qC/600qC MHI MHI
Mitsubishi
Electric Corp.
1998-06
57 Hokuriku Nanao Ohta Unit No.2 700 24.1MPa-593qC/593qC IHI
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
1998-07
58 Tohoku Haramachi Unit No.2 1000 24.1MPa-600qC/600qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 1998-07
59 Shikoku Tachibana wan Unit No.1 700 24.1MPa-566qC/593qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
2000-06
60 J-POWER Tachibana wan Unit No.1 1050 25.0MPa-600qC/610qC IHI
Toshiba
Corp., GE
GE 2000-07
61 Hokuriku Tsuruga Unit No.2 700 24.1MPa-593qC/593qC MHI
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
2000-09
62 J-POWER Tachibana wan Unit No.2 1050 25.0MPa-600qC/610qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
MHI
Mitsubishi
Electric Corp.
2000-12
63 Chugoku Osaki Unit No.1 250 16.6MPa-566qC/593qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 2000-12
64 Kyushu Kanda
New Unit
No.1
360 24.1MPa-566qC/593qC IHI
GT: ALSTOM
ST: TOSHIBA
Toshiba
Corp.
2001-07
65 Chubu Hekinan Unit No.4 1000 24.1MPa-566qC/593qC IHI
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
2001-11
66 Okinawa Kin Unit No.1 220 16.6MPa-566qC/566qC MHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 2002-02
67 J-POWER Isogo Unit No.1 600 25.0MPa-600qC/610qC IHI
Fuji
SIEMENS
Fuji 2002-04
68 Hokkaido
Tomatoh
Atsuma
Unit No.4 700 25.0MPa-600qC/600qC IHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 2002-06
69 Chubu Hekinan Unit No.5 1000 24.1MPa-566qC/593qC IHI
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
2002-11
70 Okinawa Kin Unit No.2 220 16.6MPa-566qC/566qC MHI Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 2003-05
71 Kyushu Reihoku Unit No.2 700 24.1MPa-593qC/593qC MHI
Toshiba
Corp.
Toshiba
Corp.
2003-06
72 Tokyo Hitachinaka Unit No.1 1000 24.5MPa-600qC/600qC
Babcock-
Hitachi K.K.
Hitachi, Ltd. Hitachi, Ltd. 2003-12
73 Tokyo Hirono Unit No.5 600 24.5MPa-600qC/600qC MHI MHI
Mitsubishi
Electric Corp.
2004-07
From
1996 to
2005
74 Kansai Maizuru Unit No.1 900 24.1MPa-595qC/595qC MHI MHI
Mitsubishi
Electric Corp.
2004-08
11
Technical development, in general, aims at higher efficiency of power generation for the purpose of reducing
the environmental load and CO2 emission; however, concrete issues include the following:
(1) High-temperature gas turbine aiming at further improvement of thermal efficiency of combined cycle power
generation
(2) Making coal utilization technology starting with coal gasification combined cycle power generation system
more sophisticated
Thermal power plants consist of a boiler, turbine, and generator, and the efficiency of power generation was
increased through the larger capacity of the configuration of the basic equipment and sophistication of running
conditions (mainly higher temperature and pressure of the stem cycle system). Gross thermal efficiency was
increased from about 30% 40 years ago to 40% currently. This 40% was achieved by the ultra-supercritical
pressure power generation system. For the purpose of increasing the efficiency further, the development of
combined cycle power generation technology is in progress. Through this development, we can aim at 50%
efficiency. This technology aims, in addition to the conventional steam cycle, to combine the gas turbine cycle to
improve the efficiency of power generation comprehensively through power generation from both cycles.
Combined cycle power generation using natural gas is becoming mainstream in new thermal power generation
technology as combined cycle power generation. Further, the development of a ceramic turbine blade is in
progress to improve the efficiency by causing higher temperature. With respect to the use of coal related to the
reduction of CO2 emission, although the pulverized coal combustion system has been adopted in recent years for
the purpose of improving efficiency, the integrated coal gratification combined cycle (IGCC) is the target of
development to improve efficiency further.
The fluidized bed generation system is a generation system that uses fluidized bed combustion. The
commercialization of fluidized bed combustion was propelled as a combustion system of flame-resistant materials.
However, in recent years, the excellent environmental characteristics of fluidized bed combustion, such as
desulfurization in furnace and low NOx combustion, are receiving attention. From the viewpoint of improving
efficiency, the development and commercialization of the pressurized fluidized bed combined cycle generation
system (PFBC) are in progress. In light of its intrinsic characteristics, it is also considered that it will pave the
way for mixed fuel power generation with coal and biomass (especially waste).
I.
2 Functional and Operational Control of Thermal Power Plants
2.1.1 Operation control
Since safe and economical operation is carried out at thermal power stations while carefully
checking environmental problems, there are many points that operators must judge to take
appropriate measures. Therefore, a large load is applied to operators in case of an emergency.
Therefore, it is necessary to automate emergency manual operations to be taken against faults, as
well as to automate normal manual operations in order to minimize operators’ judgments. To keep
the final protection of the plant, it is absolutely required to take appropriate measures for the plant
facilities.
A unit protection device is installed to protect each unit if a fault occurs in any unit and it
becomes difficult to continue safe operation of the unit. This unit protection device is called the
“unit trip interlock.” Basically, the unit trip interlock is classified into the boiler protection
interlock (MFT), turbine protection interlock (MTS), and generator protection interlock (86G).
These interlock systems may vary depending on the manufacturer’s design. In principle,
however, the once-through unit boiler, turbine, and generator are mutually interlocked. Figure 35
shows an example of the trip interlock system.
2.1.1.1 Boiler protection interlock (MFT)
This boiler protection interlock is intended to shut down the fuel supply to stop the boiler if it
becomes difficult to continue stable combustion of the boiler. The conditions for tripping of this
interlock may vary slightly depending on the type of boiler, that is, whether it is drum boiler or a
once-through unit boiler. Generally, these conditions are fuel pressure drop, high furnace pressure,
stopping of two ventilating fans, protection of the reheating unit, supply water flow rate drop, and
drum level drop. In addition to these conditions, unit emergency stop and turbine/generator trip
conditions are interlocked. According to the boiler model, further conditions are interlocked.
2.1.1.2 Turbine protection interlock (MTS)
If it becomes difficult to continue stable operation of the turbine, the solenoid is operated to stop
the turbine. The conditions for tripping of this interlock are turbine overspeed, thrust error,
bearing hydraulic pressure drop, and degree of vacuum drop, etc. In addition to these conditions,
the unit emergency stop, turbine manual stop, and generator trip conditions are interlocked.
Basic interlock circuit
Problem on
generator side
Problem on
turbine side
Generator trip
Turbine trip
Fire extinguishing
of boiler
A

t
y
p
e

Description
If a problem occurs on the
turbine side and the turbine is
tripped (each turbine valve is
opened), the generator and boiler
are stopped conditionally. This
system is that the T-G and T-B are
not tripped if the conditions are
not satisfied.
This system is mainly used for
units designed by Ebasco.
A-type interlock circuit
Problem on generator
side
Problem on turbine
side
Problem on boiler side
Generator trip
Turbine trip
Fire extinguishing of
boiler
Any of the thrust, hydraulic
pressure, or exhaust speed is faulty.
Conditions for protection of
the reheater
Description
If a problem occurs on the
turbine side and the turbine is
tripped (each turbine valve is
opened), the generator and boiler
are stopped immediately.
In this group, a circuit to
immediately extinguish fire in the
boiler if a problem occurs on the
generator side is added.
B-type interlock circuit
Problem on generator
side
Problem on turbine
side
Problem on boiler side
Generator trip
Turbine trip
Fire extinguishing of
boiler
Description
If a problem occurs in any of the
boiler, turbine, or generator,
mutual interlock is activated to
trip the unit completely.
This interlock where the turbine
is tripped immediately if a
problem occurs in the boiler is a
characteristic feature, which
cannot be seen in the A type or B
type.
C-type interlock circuit
Problem on generator
side
Problem on turbine
side
Problem on boiler side
Generator trip
Turbine trip
Fire extinguishing of
boiler
B

t
y
p
e

C

t
y
p
e

Problem on
boiler side
Fig. 35 Examples of trip interlock systems
12
13
2.1.1.3 Generator protection interlock (86G)
A status where stable operation of the generator or transformer is difficult is detected by the
protective device or protective relay. After this, the generator is disconnected from the system and
the turbine is tripped to stop the generator at the same time. The conditions for detection of the
protection are ratio differentiation of the generator, loss of excitation, ratio differentiation of the
ground fault or transformer, impulse hydraulic pressure, overexcitation, etc. In addition to these
conditions, the high/low frequency of the system and the protection of the bus-bar are interlocked.
2.1.1.4 Protection device tests during operation
The important point during plant operation is that the plant can be stopped safely in case of an
emergency. To maintain this safety, it is necessary to periodically check the operation status of
various safety prevention apparatus installed for protection of the plant. Table 3 shows examples
of the protection device tests.
Table 3 Examples of protection device tests
Inspection test item Frequency Contents of test
Valve tests
(1) Main steam stop valve Twice/week The valves are manually opened or closed one by one from the central control
room to check the valve operation and open/closed indication lamp operation.
(2) Intercept valve, reheated
steam stop valve, combined
reheat valve
Twice/week The valves of each system are manually opened or closed from the central
control room to check the valve operation and open/closed indication lamp
operation.
Protection device tests
(1) Lock-out
(Oil trip)
Once/week After the operation of the emergency shutdown device has been removed, the
test handle is operated to check the operation of the oil trip mechanism.
(2) Thrust failure protection trip Once/week After the operation of the thrust failure protection device has been removed,
the test handle is operated to check the operation of the thrust bearing wear
trip mechanism.
Extraction check valve test Twice/week Valves are manually opened or closed with the test handle or switch to check
the valve operation and open/closed indication lamp operation.
Oil pump automatic starting test Once/week The hydraulic pressure is decreased using the testing equipment in the
simulated mode to check the automatic startup at the set hydraulic pressure
levels of the auxiliary oil pump, emergency oil pump, and turning oil pump.
Main turbine
Main oil tank oil level alarm test Once/week The indication rod of the oil gauge is moved up or down to check the alarm
operation.
Valve test Once/week The high-pressure and low-pressure steam stop valves are opened or closed
manually to check the operation of the valve and open/close unit.
Protection device tests
(1) Overspeed trip Once/month After the trip circuit has been removed, the RPM is increased in the simulated
mode to check the overspeed trip set hydraulic pressure level.
(2) Bearing hydraulic pressure
drop trip
Once/month After the trip circuit has been removed, the bearing oil pressure is decreased
in the simulated mode to check the trip set hydraulic pressure level.
(3) Thrust failure protection trip Once/month After the trip circuit has been removed, the thrust position is moved in the
simulated mode to check the trip set hydraulic pressure level.
Oil pump auto starting test Once/month The hydraulic pressure is decreased using the testing equipment in the
simulated mode to check the automatic startup at the set hydraulic pressure
levels of the extra main oil pump and emergency oil pump.
Turbine
driven feed
pump
Spare feed water pump (motor
drive) starting test
Once/month The pump is manually started at the work site, and a load is applied to check
the operation of the auxiliary oil pump and minimum flow recirculating valve.
Emergency pump automatic
starting test
(Seal oil discharge pressure, low
differential pressure alarm test)
Once/week The discharge pressure and differential pressure of the seal oil are decreased
using the testing equipment in the simulated mode to check the alarm
operation and auto startup at the set hydraulic pressure level.
Seal oil
equipment
Vacuum drop alarm test of
vacuum tank
Once/month The vacuum level is decreased using the testing equipment in the simulated
mode to check the alarm operation.
I.
14
2.1.2 Boiler operation control during normal operation
It must be strongly attempted to find the error status early and to prevent problems during
normal unit operation in order to maintain stable operation status.
The actions to be actually taken are basically classified into the inspection at the work field, and the sampling and
evaluation of the operation records. It is important to take these actions daily in order to check status change in
the early phase, and this leads to appropriate actions and measures being taken in a timely manner.
2.1.2.1 Inspection at the work field
As a rule, the inspection interval must be every work shift. Walkaround inspection of the boiler
main unit parts and boiler auxiliary devices is carried out. The inspection results must be kept.
If any problem symptom is observed, it is necessary to grasp any status change as time elapses.
Generally, walkaround inspection is carried out according to the checklist. In addition to this
inspection, further inspection points, such as unusual noise, unusual odor, or discoloration must
also be inspected.
The combustion status inside the furnace must also be checked during walkaround inspection.
However, if the type of coal to be used is changed, the inspection must be carried out with special
attention.
One of the points to inspect the status of clinker and ash sticking to each heat transfer surface
inside the furnace is to check whether or not excessive development or accumulation exists. The
other point is that the contamination status of each heat transfer surface is checked with the
secular change in the operation data stated on the next page to appropriately operate the soot
blower or wall deslagger. When the type of coal to be used is changed, these points become
particularly important.
2.1.2.2 Sampling and evaluation of operation records
To grasp the secular change in the boiler static characteristics and to evaluate performance,
records of the boiler operated at its rated output are sampled periodically.
In daily operation, it is basically checked whether or not the balance among the feed water flow
rate, fuel flow rate, and air flow rate is correct.
As deviation of the boiler input command to the output command and deviation of the water/fuel
ratio and air/fuel ratio are checked, it is possible to judge whether or not the balance is correct.
Additionally, it must be strongly attempted to check changes in the make-up water quantity in
order to find any boiler tube leak in the early phase.
In the coal-fired boiler, the characteristics of the boiler may change greatly according to the coal
properties. The heat absorption distribution of the furnace, SH, and RH is changed according to
the combustibility of the coal or slagging/fouling ability. According to the contamination degree of
the heat transfer surface, the exhaust gas temperature increases and it adversely affects the boiler
efficiency. Therefore, the heat absorption status of each heat transfer surface is grasped by
checking the following points.
x Changes in control parameters using the RH temperature control or SH temperature control
x Changes in the gas temperature of each part of the rear gas duct including the gas temperature at the
outlet of the ECO.
The soot blower and wall deslagger can be operated at efficient intervals.
Since changes in coal properties may affect the characteristics of the exhaust gas (NOx, unburned matter in ash,
etc.), it is necessary to grasp the characteristics if the type of coal to be used is changed.
If an imbalance occurs in the metal temperature distribution of each part of the furnace, SH, and RH or in the
steam temperature distribution of each part of the SH and RH, it is thought that changes in combustion status may
be the cause. Therefore, it is necessary to check the damper opening of the wind box at the work field.
Since an increase in the AH differential pressure may greatly affect the drive power of the ventilating equipment
or the operation tolerance, it is important to grasp the secular change.
Normally, the AH soot blower is operated at intervals of work shifts (three times/day). If the AH differential
pressure increases, appropriate measures to shorten the interval are taken.
15
If the AH differential pressure becomes excessively large (normally, the reference level is the
planned value multiplied by “1.5”) or if the ventilating equipment capacity reaches its limit, it must
be investigated whether to water wash the AH.
For the pressure loss of the water and steam systems (particularly pressure loss of the furnace),
the increased speed caused by the secular change is grasped and it is used as a factor to judge the
chemical washing timing, etc.
2.1.2.3 Others
It is important to strictly control the water quality during boiler operation including startup
according to the standard for water treatment.
2.1.3 Auxiliary units of the boiler
Generally, the auxiliary units of the boiler are the feed water, ventilation, and fuel systems.
This section describes the ventilating equipment, air preheater, and coal pulverizer of the coal-fired
boiler plant.
2.1.3.1 Ventilating equipment
In the coal-fired boiler, a balanced air ventilation system is generally utilized to achieve the
following purposes.
1) The furnace pressure is maintained at a constant level to maintain combustion stability.
2) The furnace pressure is maintained at atmospheric pressure or lower in order to prevent coal ash from leaking
outside.
A centrifugal type or an axial flow type ventilating equipment (fan) is utilized. The control
system of the centrifugal ventilating equipment is the inlet damper control, inlet vane control, RPM
control, or a combination of them. The control system of the axial-flow ventilating equipment is
the moving blade variable control, inlet vane control, RPM control, etc. With these controls, the
process values for an object are controlled. The following lists up cautions operation.
Axial flow type: According to the characteristics of the ventilating equipment, there is a surging area. If the
operation point enters this surging area, the pressure and gas volume are changed rapidly
accompanied by vibration, causing damage to the unit.
Centrifugal type: There is no clear operation impossible area as described for the axial flow type. However,
the operation may become unstable in a low-load area, causing vibration or noise of the
duct.
(1) Induced draft fan (IDF)
This fan is intended to keep the furnace pressure at a constant level of atmospheric pressure or lower. To
prevent wear caused by coal ash, a dust removal equipment (EP, etc.) is installed downstream. Basically,
the PID control is used to control the furnace pressure. In many induced draft fans, the air flow rate signal
is used as an advance signal.
(2) Forced draft fan (FDF)
This fan is intended to feed the combustion air (secondary air) to the boiler. The air flow rate for
combustion is controlled by the combustion volume command from the boiler control unit and the
correction signal from the O2 control of the exhaust gas at the outlet of the boiler.
When two systems, that is, the ventilation system and air pre-heater, are installed in the boiler, the IDF is
interlocked with the FDF in the same system. There are many examples where the other fans are also
stopped if one fan is stopped.
This interlock is intended to prevent overheating of the gas temperature at the outlet of the air pre-heater
and decreasing in the air temperature at the outlet since an imbalance occurs between the air volume and
gas volume passing through the air pre-heater if the IDF or FDF is stopped.
(3) Primary air fan (PAF)
This fan is intended to feed the air (primary air) used to transfer the coal from the coal-pulverizing
machine to the burner.
I.
16
Fig. 9 Cold primary air system
Fig. 10 Hot primary air system
Boiler
Boiler
Gas
Secondary
air
Mill
Primary air
Mill
Moving vane auto
operation command
of B-induction fan
A-air pre-heater
startup
B-air pre-heater
startup
Moving vane of
A-induction fan fully
closed
A-induction fan
startup
Auto operation of
moving vane of
A-induction fan
Moving vane of
A-induction fan fully
closed
Moving vane auto
operation command
of A-induction fan
A-forced draft fan
startup
Auto operation of
moving vane of
A-forced draft fan
Moving vane of
B-induction fan fully
closed
Moving vane auto
operation command
of A-forced draft fan
B-induction fan
startup
60s 60s
Auto operation of
moving vane of
B-induction fan
Moving vane of
B-forced draft fan
fully closed
Moving vane auto
operation command
of B-forced draft fan
B-forced draft fan
startup
Auto operation of
moving vane of
B-forced draft fan
Ventilation system
startup completion
60s
Fig. 11 Example of ventilation system startup sequence
Moving vane of
A-induction fan fully
closed
A-induction
fan stop
A-forced draft fan
stop
30s
Moving vane of
B-induction fan fully
closed
Moving vane of
B-forced draft fan
fully closed
B-induction
fan stop
Ventilation system
stop completion
B-forced draft fan
stop
Moving vane of
A-forced draft fan
fully closed
Fig. 12 Example of ventilation system stop sequence
The primary air also has the purpose of drying raw coal to allow easy pulverizing of raw coal to be
loaded into the coal-pulverizing machine in addition to the purpose of transferring the pulverized
coal.
The primary air temperature at the inlet of the coal-pulverizing machine is 180qC to 250qC. The
fan installation places and the number of fans to be installed in the cold primary air system are
different from those of the hot primary air system.
In the cold primary air system, one or two fans are installed on the upstream side of the air
pre-heater regardless of the number of coal-pulverizing machines. This fan is intended to control
the primary air duct pressure. On the other hand, in the hot primary air system, one fan specific
to one coal-pulverizing machine is installed on the downstream side of the air pre-heater. This fan
is intended to control the primary air flow rate.
Figures 9 and 10 show an outline of each system. Additionally, Figs. 11 and 12 show examples of
the startup sequence and stop sequence of the ventilation system, respectively.
2.1.3.2 Air pre-heater (GAH)
This air pre-heater is intended to increase the combustion air temperature and to collect the heat
of the exhaust gas at the outlet of the boiler. Generally, a regeneration-type air pre-heater is
utilized where hot gas and air are alternately made to contact the heat transfer materials called
“elements” to exchange the heat. There are two kinds of systems available: the Ljungstrom system
in which the elements are rotated, and the Rothemuhle system in which the elements are fixed and
an air duct called a hood” is rotated.
Figures 13 and 14 each show GAH, respectively. Normally, the GAH is separated into two sections, that is, the
hot gas-passing section and the combustion air-passing section.
In the coal-burning boiler with the cold primary air system, the air side is separated into the primary and
secondary sections. The following describes cautions on operation of the regeneration-type air pre-heater.
1) Air leak
Center section on
high-temperature side
17
In the regenerative air pre-heater, air leaking to the gas side cannot be avoided due to its structure.
Fig.13 Example of Ljungstrom-type GAH
Fig. 14 Example of Rothemuhle-type GHA
Sector plate on high-temperature side Primary air outlet
Gas inlet Guide bearing Secondary air outlet
Lubricant circulation
unit
Soot blower on
high-temperature side
Sensor drive unit
Rotor drive unit
Heating element
Soot blower on low-temperature side
Main pedestal
Side pedestal
Connecting duct
Rotor
Pin rack Gas
outlet
Center section on low-temperature side
Rotor post Secondary air
inlet
Primary air
inlet
Support bearing
Secondary air outlet
Gas inlet
Primary air outlet
Collar seal
Soot blower
Primary air hood
Sealing frame
Secondary air hood
Stator Hood drive unit
Heat transfer surface
Pin rack Main shaft
Secondary gas outlet
Primary gas outlet
Primary air inlet
Secondary air
inlet
Rotation unit
I.
18
lement diameter also becomes large. Additionally,
ssively narrow, the seal mechanism may make
2)
-temperature part of the element decreases to a level close to the sulfuric acid
3)
terials (used cables at the factory, wood chips, soot including unburned matter, etc.)
ntion should be taken since past cases also occurred while these two timings.
ment.
.
ures if a fire occurs in the GAH.
2.1.3.3 Coal-pulverizer (Mill)
igned to pulverize coal to a fine particle size diameter necessary to burn
it
r
m
al mills. The mill is composed of a duct, damper,
pr
olume is adjusted by changing the feed coal volume to be loaded into
th
cycle, after the temperature inside the mill has been lowered, the coal feed is
Therefore, it is required to adjust the seal appropriately.
Recently, as the capacity of the unit becomes large, the e
the thermal deformation volume becomes large. The leak volume cannot be suppressed by the fixed seal.
Therefore, an automatic seal adjustment unit is installed. If the air leak volume is too large, it’s necessary
to be cautious that the FDF, PAF, and IDF are overloaded.
Additionally, if the gap of the seal mechanism is made exce
contacts, causing current value hunting or overload of the GAH motor.
GAH differential pressure
If the temperature at the low
dew point, ash and SO3 chemical compounds are accumulated and the element is blocked. Additionally,
as the operation time elapses, the GAH differential pressure increases. It is difficult to remove the ash and
SO3 chemical compounds by the soot blow. Therefore, water washing is needed. It is very important to
always keep the temperature of the low-temperature part over appropriate temperature level or more.
(The temperature is controlled by the steam type air pre-heater.)
Fire of GAH element
If any combustible ma
exist on the GAH element, a fire may occur due to the oxygen concentration and atmospheric temperature.
The risk of fire is the highest when a boiler with high oxygen concentration is started up or during boiler
banking.
Great atte
The following describes fire prevention measures.
1) No combustible materials shall be put on the ele
2) The element shall always be kept clean by the soot blow
Additionally, it is also important to establish operation proced
This coal-pulverizer is des
by the burner. Generally, this machine is called “mill.” In the coal-burning boiler, this mill is
one of the important auxiliary units that greatly affect the operation characteristics of the plant.
The mill is classified into two types of the coal-pulverizing method, that is, the vertical mill (rolle
ill, etc.) and the horizontal mill (tube mill, etc.).
Figures15 and 16 show overall diagrams of typic
imary air chamber, seal unit, pulverizing unit, separator, pyrite emission unit, and pulverized
fuel pipe. In any mill, raw coal is dried, pulverized, coarse grain is separated, and transferred
continuously inside the mill.
Generally, the combustion v
e mill in the vertical mill. Additionally, the combustion volume is controlled by changing the
primary air flow rate passing through the mill in the horizontal mill. In the horizontal mill, the
feed coal volume is controlled to keep the coal seam level inside the mill drum at a constant level.
The following describes cautions on operation.
1) Remaining coal stop
In the normal mill stop
stopped and the coal remaining inside the mill is purged in that order.
19
Pulverized coal outlet
Coal
feed
port
Motor for rotary classifier
Rotary classifier
Housing
Reject chute
Coal feed pipe
Roller pressurizing unit
Roller
Table segment
Primary air port
Table
Primary air inlet
Motor
Speed reducer
Fig. 15 Example of vertical mill (Roller mill)
Fig. 16 Example of horizontal mill (Tube mill)
If the mill is stopped in case of an emergency, the above steps cannot be performed correctly. Pulverized
coal and raw coal exist inside the mill in relatively high-temperature status. Therefore, great caution shall
be taken since nature conservation or mill explosion may occur. This risk increases as the volatile
components included in the raw coal are large.
To prevent a fire inside the mill or to extinguish a fire, inert gas (inert steam) injection equipment or
fire-extinguishing water injection equipment are often installed. It is necessary to establish procedures if
the mill is stopped in case of an emergency.
2) Mill motor overload
When using coal (coal with low HGI) with poor grindability in the roller mill, the mill motor may be
Primary air inlet
Pulverized fuel pipe
Coal feed pipe
Pulverized fuel pipe
Coal feed
pipe Pulverized
coal outlet
Coarse grain separator
Motor
Mill drum
I.
overloaded. In this case, the coal feed volume needs to be limited.
3) Temperature at mill outlet
If surface moisture of raw coal that is stored in an outdoor coal yard is high due to rain or other factors, raw
coal drying, pulverizing, and transfering processes are not performed smoothly. As a result, an accident
occurs which the inside of the mill is filled with coal. This phenomenon occurs if the mill differential
pressure increases. (In the tube mill, the current value of the mill motor is lowered.)
In the initial indication, it is shown that the temperature at the mill output is decreased.
If the temperature at the mill output decreases excessively and it cannot be maintained, appropriate
measures are needed to limit to the coal feed volume.
4) A/C
The weight ratio of the primary air volume that is the air for transfer of the pulverized coal to the
pulverized coal volume is called “A/C (Air/Coal).” Generally, the mill is operated at an A/C range of
approximately 1.8 to 3.0. If the A/C becomes high (the concentration of the pulverized coal is thin), the
naturalness of the pulverized coal is lost, causing an accidental fire.
Recently, a burner that allows stable combustion even though the A/C is high is put into practice.
However, if the A/C becomes high when using a burner other than such a burner, it is necessary to perform
combustion aid using the pilot ignition burner.
5) Flow velocity inside the pulverized coal pipe
The flow velocity inside the pulverized coal pipe from the mill to the burner shall satisfy the following
conditions.
1. This flow velocity shall be the flame propagation velocity. (The flame propagation velocity is
determined by the A/C and the volatile components included in the coal.)
2. This flow velocity shall be faster than the level at which pulverized coal is not subsided or accumulated
inside the pipe.
3. This flow velocity shall be slower than the level at which the inside of the pipe wears out.
Therefore, a velocity ranging from 18 to 30 m/s is generally used. The flow velocity inside the pipe is
almost determined by the primary air flow rate. However, the primary air flow rate shall not be
excessively decreased.
20
Pilot ignition
burner ignition
Cool air damper open
Hot air damper closed
All mill outlet dampers open/Mill seal air damper open
Primary air shut-off/Regulation damper open
Mill warning
Seal differential pressure/Primary air volume/Waiting for mill
temperature conditions satisfied
Mill motor startup
Coal supply
volume above
specified value
Coal feeder startup
Mill outlet
temperature above
specified value
Initial coal feed completion
Pilot ignition burner
fire-extinguishing command
Lubricant unit startup
Rotary classifier startup
Roller pressurizing unit
startup
Coal gate open
Mill system
startup
Mill system startup
conditions satisfied
Auto operation of coal feeder
SS
Mill stop coal feed volume
Pilot ignition burner
ignition
Coal gate close/Coal feeder stop
Mill purge
Mill motor/roller pressurizing unit/rotary classifier stop
Primary air shutoff/Regulation damper close All mill outlet dampers
close
Mill inlet seal air damper close
Cool air damper open
Hot air damper closed
Mill inlet temperature
below specified value
Mill outlet temperature
below specified value
Pilot ignition burner OFF
Mill system stop
Fig. 17 Example of vertical mill startup Fig. 18 Example of vertical mill stop
Since the combustion volume rather than the primary air volume is controlled in the horizontal mill, the
auxiliary air damper is opened to keep the minimum flow velocity inside the pipe if the flow velocity
decreases.
6) Coal feed volume and coal consumption volume
When the mill is operated at a constant load, a relationship is established in which the coal feed volume is
equivalent to the coal consumption volume (combustion volume). However, this relationship is not
established when the mill is started or stopped or when the mill load varies.
Precise grasping of the combustion volume is an essential condition for boiler control. In particular, it is
21
absolutely necessary to control the steam temperature in the once-through boiler. Generally, the
combustion volume is measured by the coal supply machine. However, when the mill is started up, the
coal supply start does not meet the coal consumption start.
In the control system, when the mill is started up or stopped, the simulated coal consumption signal is used
as combustion volume in order to adjust the coal consumption close to the coal consumption characteristics
suitable for actual conditions. The coal consumption characteristics may vary depending on the type of
coal. Changes in steam temperature and exhaust gas O2 may occur when the mill is started up or stopped.
Therefore, these points must be taken into consideration.
7) Mill pyrite
Rocks or other foreign objects other than the raw coal supplied to the mill are discharged to the outside of
the mill without being pulverized. These discharged foreign objects are called “pyrites.” In the
horizontal mill, such foreign objects are not discharged to the outside and they are accumulated as materials
for pulverizing. In the vertical mill, pyrites are snapped from the primary air port inside the mill to the
primary air chamber, and then they are discharged to the outside. If this processing unit malfunctions,
pyrites and coal are accumulated in the primary air chamber. As a result, a fire may occur by the hot
primary air. Therefore, it is important to check that the pyrite-processing unit functions correctly.
According to the circumstances, the mill needs to be stopped.
Figures 17 and 18 show examples of the vertical mill startup sequence and stop sequence.
2.2 Power Supply Operations
Electric power demand is not always constant and it varies greatly depending on the season or time zone.
Since the daily electric power demand varies as time elapses as shown in the daily load curves stated in Fig. 27,
it is necessary to supply electric power corresponding to the demand that varies every moment.
Additionally, since the economy and followingness of each power generation method differ from each other, it
is also necessary to generate electric power with an appropriate combination of power generation methods by
taking their features into consideration. When the daily load is classified into the base load, middle load, and
peak load, each load is classified into the relevant power generation method as described below.
Pumping-up hydraulic power
Adjustable
hydraulic
power
P
e
a
k
Pumping-up
hydraulic
power
(
E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c

p
o
w
e
r
)
Oil fired power
(Energy)
M
i
d
d
l
e
LNG fired power
B
a
s
e
22
Fig. 27 Example of daily load curves and combination of power generation methods by time zone
(1) Base load
Since the variation in load is small and the utilization factor is high, large capacity thermal power, nuclear
power, and run-off-river hydraulic power, which can be operated continuously for an extended period of time and
has an excellent efficiency, are operated.
(2) Middle load
This middle load has intermediate characteristics between the base load and peak load. Since electric energy
larger than that of the peak load is required, the middle capacity thermal power, which is relatively economical
and has excellent start/stop characteristics, is used.
(3) Peak load
Since the load varies greatly in the peak load range, the excellent adjustment capability of electric power
generation and frequent start/stop ability are required.
Additionally, it is necessary that the operation time is short and the utilization factor is small.
Therefore, even though the efficiency is slightly sacrificed, pondage type hydraulic power or reservoir type
hydraulic power having less construction cost, or pumping-up hydraulic power or gas turbine having excellent
peak characteristics can be operated.
The following describes the typical operation method of a thermal power plant during daytime and nighttime.
2.2.1 Output adjustment by load dispatching operation
Since the electric power demand is changed every moment as described previously, it is necessary to supply
electric power corresponding to this demand. Since changes in electric power demand cannot be adjusted by
hydraulic power alone, it is also necessary to adjust the output using the thermal power generation plant. The
operation is performed using the following auto control together with the output adjustment based on the power
supply command.
(1) Automatic frequency control (AFC)
The system frequency varies due to an unbalance between electric power generation and demand. Therefore,
the generator output is adjusted so that the frequency of the electric power system is kept within the specified
value.
(2) Economical load dispatching control (ELD or EDC)
The load is dispatched so that the general power generation cost for each power generation unit becomes the
(Time)
Run-off-river
hydraulic power
Coal fired
power
Nuclear power
23
lowest price.
2.2.2 Minimum load operation
As nuclear power generation is used for the base load operation to the daily electric power demand, the
minimum load operation of the thermal power plants is conducted to adjust the supply capacity to the electric
power demand during daytime and nighttime. Therefore, this minimum load operation becomes important, as
well as stop operation during nighttime. In particular, it is required to enable lower minimum load operation of a
large capacity plant and to improve the power generation efficiency in a low load area.
The minimum load may vary depending on the fuel, capacity, main machine, and/or auxiliary machines of the
plant. However, the minimum load is generally 10 to 40% of the rated output.
The following describes the typical subjects and considerations related to the turbine during minimum load
operation.
(1) Steam flow rate
If the steam flow rate decreases, a local overheating problem occurs due to an unbalance of the flow rate
between the boiler overheating unit and reheater. Therefore, the steam temperature, gas temperature, and
evaporation tube wall temperature need to be considered. In the case of a once-through boiler, it is necessary to
keep a supply water volume of 25 to 30% or more of the maximum evaporation volume in order to ensure the
stable flow inside the evaporation tube constituting the water wall of the furnace.
(2) Wetness of turbine exhaust chamber
If the reheating steam temperature drops or the vacuum degree of the condenser increases during low-load
operation, the wetness of the exhaust chamber may increase. Since this wetness may corrode the vane in the
final stage of the low-pressure turbine, it is absolutely necessary to conduct the operation by taking the wetness
into consideration.
(3) Temperature of turbine exhaust chamber
The vacuum degree of the condenser tends to be high during low-load operation. This may cause the
temperature of the exhaust chamber to lower and adversely affect the vibration and differential expansion.
Furthermore, the steam flow rate may decrease at an extremely low output ranging from 5 to 10% of the rated
output. Therefore, the temperature of the turbine exhaust chamber may increase due to windage loss.
Generally, to prevent this problem, the water is continuously sprayed into the exhaust chamber to decrease the
temperature.
However, the continuous water spray may corrode the vane at the final stage. Therefore, great care should be
taken for this point.
(4) Drain control of feed water heater
The drain from the feed water heater must be collected to the feed water heater at the lower stage as much as
possible in order to improve the thermal efficiency. Therefore, the pressure inside the feed water heater
decreases in the low-load operation area and the pressure difference inside each feed water heater decreases. If
the pressure difference inside the unit among the feed water heaters decreases, it becomes difficult to discharge the
drain to the feed water heater at the lower stage. To prevent such a problem, great care should be taken, such as
switching of the collection destination to the condenser, etc.
(5) Control of boiler feed water pump
Since the supply water flow rate decreases during low load operation, the discharge flow rate of the boiler feed
water pump also decreases. If the supply water flow rate of the boiler becomes less than the re-circulation flow
rate of the pump, the operation enters a status whereby the minimum flow rate of the pump is maintained by the
re-circulation control valve. Therefore, great care should be taken since the control valve is damaged if the
pump is operated for an extended period of time in the above status. Additionally, when using the turbine driven
feed water pump, great care should be exerted so that the pump is not operated at a speed close to its critical
speed.
2.2.3 Leading power factor operation
In recent power systems, as the capacity of the extra-high voltage power transmission line or power
transmission line increases and the difference in generated power during daytime greatly differs from that during
nighttime, the leading power factor operation of the reactive power control is conducted so that the operation is
performed by changing the tap of the inductive phase modifying equipment (reactor or synchronous phase
modifier) or by operating the synchronous generator using the advancing power factor.
The leading power factor operation of the generator means that the field current of the generator decreases by
utilizing the characteristics of the synchronous machine and the operation is performed using the advancing power
factor to absorb the reactive power of the power system. The following describes the problems and notes when
performing the leading power factor operation of the generator.
(1) Stability drop due to low excitation
When the leading power factor operation is performed, the internal induced voltage becomes small.
As a result, the internal phase angle increases and synchronizing power decreases, causing the stability to lower.
The stability is determined by the terminal voltage and reactance of the generator, as well as the external
impedance. Therefore, when performing the leading power factor operation, it is necessary that the under
excitation limit (UEL) of the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) is set at a position where both the allowable limit
by the possible output curve of the generator and the static stability limit of the system are satisfied to prevent the
loss of synchronism.
(2) Temperature increase of iron core and mechanical part
If the leak magnetic flux entering the iron core end part of the stator increases, the temperature increases due to
the eddy current induced by the elements making up the iron core end part. Therefore, even though the stator
end part of the turbine generator uses a structure that suppresses the temperature increase, it is necessary to
conduct the operation with the possible output curve area of the generator by taking changes in the stator iron core
temperature, stator coil temperature, and cooling gas temperature into consideration.
Figure 29 shows an example of the generator output curve.
24
Curve AB: Limited by magnetic field temperature.
Curve BC: Limited by armature temperature.
Curve CC: Limited by armature iron core end temperature.
D
e
l
a
y
R
e
a
c
t
i
v
e

p
o
w
e
r

[
p
u
]
Active power (pu)
Under excitation limit (UEL)
A
d
v
a
n
c
e
Fig. 29 Generator output curve
2.3 Start-up and Stop Operation Control
2.3.1 Start pattern
Electric power demand changes not only throughout the year, but also weekly and daily.
A thermal power unit start or stop in order to adjust its output to flexibly correspond to changes in power demand.
The unit has the following start patterns from unit stop to unit start.
(1) Cold start
The unit is started after it has been stopped for an extended period of time, such as for periodic inspection.
(2) Weekly start and stop (WSS)
In WSS, the unit is stopped at nighttime on a Friday or on a Saturday when the electric power demand
decreases, and then it is started early on Monday morning when the electric power demand starts increasing.
The stop time is 12 to 36 hrs. Figure 2 shows an example of this schedule.
Output
Main steam
temperature
Main steam
pressure
25
Fig. 3 Daily start and stop schedule
Fig. 2 Weekly start and stop schedule
(3) Daily start and stop
The unit is stopped at midnight, and then started the next morning so that the power generation corresponds to
differences in electric power demand between daytime and nighttime. The stop time is from 6 to 12 hrs. Figure
3 shows an example of the daily start and stop schedule.
This daily start and stop is necessary because efficient operation of the power system is achieved by increasing
the base load units, such as nuclear or large capacity thermal power generation.
In this daily start and stop operation, the adverse effects on the unit service life and supply reliability should be
considered. In the first case, thermal stress on the turbine rotor is a particularly problem.
I
g
n
i
t
i
o
n
P
a
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a
l
l
e
l
-
o
f
f
S
t
a
r
t
P
a
r
a
l
l
e
l
Output
Main steam
temperature
Main steam
pressure
P
a
r
a
l
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l
-
o
f
f
P
a
r
a
l
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I
g
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S
t
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t
26
(This thermal stress is caused by d es eam and turbine rotor when the unit
is
roblems, it is necessary to take appropriate measures, such as improvement of the unit
re
used to restart the unit after it has been stopped for a short time (about less than 6 hrs.) due to
sy
diately before the trip. However, since
th
.3.2 Starting of unit
tline of the start steps of the coal burning supercritical pressure voltage transformation
on
he unit is determined by the boiler or turbine status. As described in
Ta
ed on the start time
re
ifferenc in temperature between the st
started. Normally, this temperature difference is called “mismatch temperature”.) According to the low cycle
fatigue index (LCFI) of the turbine rotor, the number of yearly start and stop cycles is limited to take measures
against this problem. In the second case, the start and stop time is short and the operation reliability needs to be
kept at a high level.
To solve these p
liability, omission of operation steps, and/or review of standards.
(4) Quick start
This quick start is
stem problems or power control. Normally, the quick start is called “very hot start”.
In this case, the thermal stress of the turbine requires special attention.
The metal temperature of each part meets the steam temperature imme
e boiler and piping after restarting are cooled as the stop time elapses, the steam temperature is mismatched with
the metal temperature due to decrease of the steam temperature and throttle of the control valve. Therefore, it is
preferable that the steam temperature is increased to a high temperature level and the speed is increased rapidly,
and the parallel and load are increased.
2
Figure 4 shows an ou
ce-through plant. The following describes the operating procedures and provides notes on each start step.
(1) Determination of start schedule
The period of time required to start t
ble 1, the unit start mode is determined by the metal temperature at the first stage of the turbine. As the time
required for each event is added, the overall time required for the start process is calculated.
In the start schedule, the parallel schedule time is determined to the base point. Bas
quired described above, the schedule time, such as boiler ignition, turbine start, and full load achievement is
determined.
Fig. 4 Unit start steps (Cold start)
Water quality check
Main steam
pressure
RPM
Output
P
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c
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Parallel/
output
increase 1
Output
increase II
Output
increase III
V
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27
Table 1 Example of start modes
Start type
Item Unit
Very hot start
(Stopped for 2 hrs.)
Hot start
(Stopped for 8 hrs.)
Warm 2 start
(Stopped for 32 hrs.)
Warm 1 start
(Stopped for 56 hrs.)
Cold start
(Stopped for 150
hrs.)
Metal temperature at 1st stage qC 460 - 390 – 460 340 – 390 230 – 340 - 230
Main steam pressure MPa 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5
Main steam temperature qC 510 470 410 410 400
Reheating steam
temperature
qC 505 480 377 289 200
Steam temperature at 1st
stage
qC 438 391 315 315 301
Metal temperature at 1st
stage
qC 494 453 368 326 216
P
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a
t

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t

Mismatch temperature qC -56 -62 -53 -11 +85
Turbine speed up ratio rpm/min. 300 300 150 150 100
Low-speed heat soak time min. 0 0 0 0 20
High-speed heat soak time min. 0 0 0 0 55
Initial load volume % 3 3 3 3 3
Initial load holding time min. 0 0 15 15 60
The boiler start mode is determined by the fluid temperature at the inlet of the water separator, and it is then
used for the fuel program for start or start by-pass valve control.
(2) Preparations for unit start
Inspect and check each part so that the work during unit stop is completed and there is no obstacle hindering the
start.
Confirm that units related to common facilities are being operated correctly or that they are ready for operation.
Confirm that the interlock, alarm device, and monitoring instrument function correctly, and that the fuel and
demineralized water necessary to start are maintained.
(3) Pre-boiler cleanup
In the once-through boiler, it is necessary to supply high purity water from the start.
Therefore, cleanup is carried out to remove impurities (particularly, iron content) from each system prior to the
ignition.
In the pre-boiler cleanup, the vacuum in the condenser is increased, and then the condenser system,
low-pressure supply water system, and high-pressure supply water system are cleaned up from the upstream side
in order.
In each system, the circulation operation is carried out through the condensate demineralizer so that the water
quality becomes the standard value or less after the standard to pass the water to the condensate demineralizer has
been satisfied using the blow outside the system.
Additionally, the turning operation of the turbine is performed to prevent deflection of the turbine rotor before
increasing the vacuum.
(4) Boiler cold cleanup
When the water quality in the pre-boiler satisfies the boiler passing water standard, the water is fed to the boiler
to perform the cleanup at a normal temperature. Table 2 shows the water quality standard when the once-through
boiler is started.
After the boiler has been filled with water (this work is not needed when the boiler filled with water has been
stored), the blow outside the system is performed through the drain system of the water separator. After the
water quality of the blow water has satisfied the standard for the water passed to the condensate demineralizer, the
circulation operation is performed until the water quality is the standard value or less through the condensate
demineralizer.
(5) Preparations for boiler ignition
The supply water system is changed from the cleanup status to the boiler ignition status.
The ventilation system is started to purge the furnace. The remaining unburnt gas is purged at a specified air
flow rate for a specified period of time in order to prevent explosion in the boiler furnace. (Example, 30% MCR
flow rate for 5 min.)
The fuel system for start (oil or gas) is started up to check the system for leak.
Generally, light oil is used for the start.
(Note) Cleanup is essential for a cold start. The cleanup is usually omitted for the WSS or DSS start. The operation often
enters the ignition preparations from the low-pressure cleanup circulation status during unit stop.
(6) Boiler ignition and hot cleanup
After the boiler has been ignited, the temperature is increased to the target temperature of the hot cleanup (fluid
temperature at the outlet of the furnace is approx. 150qC.). The temperature is kept at this cleanup target
28
temperature. If the water quality becomes the standard value or less, the temperature increase is restarted.
(7) Temperature increase and pressure increase
The temperature increase and pressure increase of the boiler are performed to achieve the steam conditions at
turbine start determined by the turbine start mode. By adjusting the fuel charging volume, the start bypass valve
and drain valve in the steam system, the temperature increase and pressure increase are completed within the
target time.
The feed water flow rate and air flow rate are controlled to their minimum flow rates. At this time, the
re-heater protection (prevention of burning) and the thick wall part protection (relaxing of thermal stress) exist as
limitation items when started. The former is limited by the gas temperature at the outlet of the furnace, as well
as the fuel charging volume. The latter is limited by the temperature increase ratio at the inlet of the water
separator and the outlet of the super heater.
(8) Preparations for turbine start
In the cold start, the metal temperature of each turbine part decreases to a level close to room temperature.
When starting the turbine in this status, thermal stress occurs as a result of the difference in temperature when
compared to the steam.
Table 2 Water quality at starting of once-through boiler (When the volatile substance process applies.)
Process
Circulation before ignition
(Boiler cold cleanup)
Temperature increase/pressure
increase circulation
(Boiler hot cleanup)
Load operation
[1/2MCR
(42)
or less]
C
l
a
s
s

Max. operating pressure (MPa)
Greater than
15 and 20 or
less
Greater than
20
Greater than
15 and 20 or
less
Greater than
20
Greater than
15 and 20 or
less
Greater than
20
pH (at 25qC) 8.5 – 9.6 (
19
) 9.0 – 9.6 8.5 – 9.6 (
19
) 9.0 – 9.6 8.5 – 9.6 (
19
) 9.0 – 9.6
Electric conductivity (mS/m) (
11
)(
19
) (at 25qC)
(PS/m) (
11
)(
19
) (at 25qC)
0.1 or less
100 or less
0.1 or less
100 or less
0.1 or less
100 or less
0.1 or less
100 or less
0.1 or less
100 or less
0.1 or less
100 or less
Dissolved oxygen (PgO/l) 40 or less (
36
) 20 or less (
38
) 10 or less 10 or less 7 or less 7 or less
Iron (PgFe/l) 200 or less 100 or less 100 or less 50 or less 30 or less 30 or less
Copper (PgCl/l) 20 or less 20 or less 20 or less 10 or less 5 or less 5 or less
Hydrazine (PgN
2
H
4
/l) 20 or more (
38
) 20 or more (
38
) 20 or more 20 or more 10 or more 10 or more
Economizer
inlet
Silica (PgSiO
2
/l) 30 or less 30 or less 30 or less 30 or less 30 or less 30 or less
Electric conductivity (mS/m) (
11
)(
19
) (at 25qC)
(PS/m) (
11
)(
19
) (at 25qC)
0.1 or less
100 or less
0.1 or less
100 or less
0.1 or less
100 or less
0.1 or less
100 or less
-
-
-
-
F
e
e
d

w
a
t
e
r

Furnace
water wall
outlet
Iron (PgFe/l) 300 or less 300 or less 200 or less (
40
) 100 or less (
41
) - -
Note
(38)
This value becomes the target according to the boiler shape.
(39)
When starting the unit after it has been stopped for a long period of time, it is preferable to adjust the hydrazine concentration to a higher level in order to promote forming
of a protective coat inside the system.
At this time, the hydrazine is dissociated in the water and it exists as the hydrazinium ion (N
2
H
5
+
).
(40)
The target concentration of the iron is 100PgFe/l or less.
(41)
The target concentration of the iron is 50PgFe/l or less.
(42)
This shows an abbreviation of the maximum continuous rating that means the maximum continuous load.
To reduce this thermal stress, the warming of the casing and control valve must be carried out before starting
the turbine.
Additionally, it is important to check for faulty parts, such as the shaft position or eccentricity using the turbine
monitor instruments before starting the turbine through turning.
(9) Turbine start and speed up
Items to be considered most at turbine start are thermal stress and vibration problems.
Therefore, the warming (heat soak) is performed until the rotor temperature reaches the transition temperature
[temperature, at which the mechanical properties of the material lower rapidly (becomes fragile)] to prevent the
fragility of the turbine rotor from being broken or to reduce the thermal stress of the rotor surface and the stress at
the center of the rotor.
This heat soak is classified into two groups. The first group is the low-speed heat soak in which the turbine is
started with low-speed RPM kept in order to prevent the turbine rotor from being broken. The second group is
the high-speed heat soak in which the turbine is started at a rated RPM to prevent excessive thermal stress of the
rotor as the parallel and output increase.
As described above, the heat soak time and speed up rate are determined by considering the thermal stress in
order to control the service life of the rotor.
Additionally, it is necessary to determine a start schedule most suitable for the turbine so that vibration is
minimized.
To determine this turbine start schedule, the start load operation chart (mismatch chart) is provided. The heat
soak time and speed up rate are usually determined by the metal temperature at the first stage, as well as the main
steam temperature and pressure when the turbine is started up.
Table 1 shows examples of the speed up rate and heat soak time in each start mode. It is important that the
turbine is started according to the schedule created based on this chart and the operation is performed while
carefully checking the steam temperature so that the difference in temperature between the internal and external
29
metal surfaces of each turbine part and the steam temperature change ratio do not exceed their limit values.
The vibration and expansion difference are monitored during increasing of the turbine RPM.
Great care should be taken as the amplitude tends to be large at a speed close to the critical speed of the rotor.
In the boiler, as the turbine speed increases, the fuel charging volume is adjusted to keep the necessary steam
volume. For a cold start, the fuel charging volume is minimized before starting the turbine in order to reduce the
thermal stress applied to the turbine. It is also necessary to prevent excessive increase of the main steam
temperature by suppressing the increase of the fuel charging volume during speed up to the minimally required
level.
(10) Preparations for parallel
If heavy oil facilities are provided, light oil is changed to heavy oil before starting parallel output. Variations
in main steam temperature and main steam pressure are checked when changing light oil to heavy oil.
It must be checked that the ash processing facility, desulfurization facility, and denitration facility have been
started and they are in standby mode before charging the coal after parallel output has been started.
If the coal on the belt of each coal supply machine is discharged, each coal supply machine needs to be put in
coal on status.
(11) Parallel, output increase 1
When the turbine reaches the rated RPM, the generator voltage is increased to its rating, and then the turbine is
synchronized with the system to put in parallel status.
After the initial output is kept using the initial output volume corresponding to the turbine start mode, the
output increases to 20%ECR.
In the output increase process, the turbine valve is changed, the low-pressure/high-pressure feed water heater is
started, and the coal burner at the first stage is started.
Variations in main steam pressure in the process utilizing the bleed air and in the coal charging process are
checked carefully while the output is increasing. Additionally, it is also necessary to carefully check the NOx
and SOx control after the coal has been charged.
After the output has reached approx. 20%ECR, the boiler supply water pump is changed from the electric drive
(M-BFP) to the turbine drive (T-BFP). After that, the power at the station is changed (start transformation o
station transformation).
(12) Output increase II
The output increases to 50%ECR. The wet/dry of the boiler is changed at an output of approx. 25%ECR (the
boiler status is changed from recirculation to once-through status and the control system is also changed to
once-through control). By changing the wet/dry of the boiler, the boiler circulation pump (BCP) is stopped.
According to the voltage transformation mode, the main steam pressure starts increasing at an output of approx.
30%ECR. This operation is controlled by the boiler input command. However, in the output and main steam
pressure increase process after the wet/dry has been changed to “dry”, it is necessary to carefully check the
balance between the feed water flow rate and fuel flow rate, as well as variations in the steam temperature of each
part.
As the output increases, the coal burners are ignited in order and the oil burners are turned off to burn only coal.
Additionally, the second T-BPP unit is put in the service in status.
After the output has reached 50%ECR, the stable operation of the unit is checked and the water quality of each
part is checked. When the water quality satisfies the standard value, the drain is collected from the high/low
pressure supply water heater.
(13) Output increase III
The output increases to 100%ECR. As the output increases, the coal burners are ignited in order.
After the output has reached 100%, the operation status of the unit is checked and the patrol inspection is
performed at the work field to check that no errors exist. After that, load dispatching ferry is done.
2.3.3 Stopping of unit
When stopping the unit, the output is decreased sequentially according to the stop schedule in which the stop
period, heat radiation cooling during this period, and operation conditions for next start are taken into
consideration.
The stop method is classified into four groups as described below. Figure 5 shows an outline of the stop steps.
1) Normal turbine stop & boiler hot bank
This stop method is used to stop the unit according to the standard (normal) stop schedule, such as the
weekly start and stop and the daily start and stop.
2) Boiler forced cooling stop
This stop method is used to cool the boiler in a short time to ensure work safety during boiler related repair
work (in-furnace work or repair of pressure resistant parts, etc.).
The normal operation is performed until the units are put in the parallel-off status. After the units have
been put in the parallel-off status, water and air are fed continuously to cool the boiler.
3) Turbine forced cooling stop
This stop method is used to cool the turbine in a short time to ensure work safety if repair work needing the
turbine oil pump stop is needed.
The main steam pressure is normally kept at a higher level than the normal level corresponding to the
output drop, and the main steam temperature and reheating steam temperature are decreased to a lower
level than the normal target temperature to stop the units. Figure 6 shows a typical stop pattern.
In this case, boiler forced cooling needs to be performed for safety reasons.
4) Boiler & turbine forced cooling stop
This stop method is used to cool both the boiler and turbine when stopping the unit accompanying the
periodic inspection.
The following describes the operating procedures and cautions for the stop step.
(1) Preparations for unit stop
After the unit stop schedule has been determined, heavy oil warming and steam type air pre-heater (SAH) are
started when using heavy oil.
Output
D
r
y
/
w
e
t

c
h
a
n
g
e
-
o
v
e
r
S
t
a
r
t
i
n
g

o
f

p
r
e
p
a
r
a
t
i
o
n
s
f
o
r

u
n
i
t

s
t
o
p
30
Fig. 5 Unit stop steps (Normal turbine stop)
O
u
t
p
u
t

d
r
o
p

s
t
a
r
t
V
o
l
t
a
g
e

t
r
a
n
s
f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n

s
t
a
r
t
Output drop I
Output drop II
Output
drop III
O
i
l

b
u
r
n
e
r

i
g
n
i
t
i
o
n
B
F
P
T
/
M

c
h
a
n
g
e
-
o
v
e
r
P
a
r
a
l
l
e
l
-
o
f
f
C
o
a
l

s
i
n
g
l
e

f
u
e
l

f
i
r
i
n
g
B
o
i
l
e
r

o
f
f
T
u
r
b
i
n
e

t
r
i
p
Vacuum
retention
Boiler hot bank
Boiler forced cooling
Vacuum
break
Pressure
31
Fig. 6 Example of turbine forced cooling stop
Additionally, the preparations for auxiliary steam supply from another boiler or a boiler in the plant are
performed.
(2) Output drop I
The output drops to 50%ECR.
When the output is approximately 95%ECR, the main steam pressure starts dropping according to the voltage
transformation mode. According to the output drop, the coal burners are turned off sequentially.
(3) Output drop II
The output drops to 20%ECR.
According to the output drop, the oil burners are ignited and coal burners are turned off.
Additionally, the first T-BFP unit is put in the service out status.
The drain tank level of the water separator increases when the output is approximately 25%
ECR. The BCP is started to change-over the dry/wet.
After the M-BFP has been put in the service in status, the second T-BFP is put in the service out status.
The output reaches 20%ECR. The transition to heavy oil single fuel firing is completed and the power
change-over in the plant (station transformation o start transformation) is completed.
(4) Output drop III, parallel-off
The output is dropped to the parallel-off target value (5%ECR).
The high-pressure/low-pressure supply water heater is stopped according to the output drop.
Additionally, oil burners are turned off in order.
When the output reaches the parallel-off target value, the parallel-off is performed.
(5) Turbine trip, boiler off
After completion of parallel-off, the turbine is tripped. After checking that the auxiliary steam is changed to
another boiler or a boiler in the plant, all oil burners are turned off.
When the burner purge is completed after the final burner has been turned off, the MFT is then operated to
check that all fuels are shut off completely.
After the MFT has been operated, the furnace purge is performed for 5 min.
2.3.4 Stopping of boiler
There are two kinds of boiler stop methods after parallel-off, that is, boiler hot bank stop and boiler forced
Load
Temperature
Re-heating steam temperature
Main steam
temperature
Load
Main steam
pressure
1%/min.
RPM
RPM
0.5%/min.
Time
Load drop start Parallel-off.
360 min
32
cooling stop.
The above stop methods are carried out according to the schedules even though there is a difference between
the plan stop and work stop. In addition to the above stop methods, there is a stop method by the MFT operation
during unit operation.
(1) Normal stop
When the unit stop schedule is determined, heavy oil warming or SAH is started according to the output drop
schedule time. The preparations are made so that the auxiliary steam can be supplied from another boiler or a
boiler in the plant.
When the output drop is started, the coal burners are turned off in order according to the decrease of the fuel
flow rate. When the output is approximately 95%ECR, the main steam pressure also drops according to the
voltage transformation program.
In particular, the balance among the supply water, fuel, and air (boiler input command, water-fuel ratio, air-fuel
ratio) should be checked carefully.
The heavy oil burners are ignited in order when the output becomes 50% or less. If the preparations for
ignition of the heavy oil burners are not in time, the output is kept at 50%ECR.
When the output becomes approximately 25%ECR, the drain tank level of the water separator increases. As
the BCP is started, the dry/wet is changed over.
The output reaches 20%ECR. Check that the transition to heavy oil single fuel firing is completed and the
power change-over in the plant (station transformation o start transformation) is completed. After checking the
above, the output drops to the parallel-off target value (5%ECR).
After the output has reached the parallel-off target value, the parallel-off is performed, and then the turbine is
tripped.
After checking that the auxiliary steam is changed to another boiler or a boiler in the plant, all oil burners are
turned off.
When the burner purge is completed after the final burner has been turned off, the MFT is then operated to
check that all fuels are shut off completely. After the MFT has been operated, the furnace purge (after purge) is
performed for 5 min.
(2) Stopping of boiler hot bank
After the MFT has been operated and the furnace purge has been completed, the ventilation system and
water/steam system are sealed to minimize the heat loss of the boiler as preparations for restart.
The contents of the stop operation are described in clause 1.3-(5).
The result data of the boiler pressure drop rate and steam temperature drop rate during hot bank is grasped. If
the drop rate is excessively fast, check whether any leak comes from the start bypass valve, or the main
steam/super-heater drain valve.
Heat or pressure remains in the boiler during hot bank. As a rule, the operation and adjustment of the boiler
system valve, and the inspection and work of the equipment leading to the boiler system valve, and the opening of
the manhole must not be performed.
(3) Boiler forced cooling stop
Before conducting the inspection work or periodic inspection work related to the boiler, forcibly cool the boiler
to stop it in order to enable safe work on the turbine side.
The contents of the stop operation are described in clause 1.3-(6).
After forced cooling has been completed, the boiler storage status may vary depending on the stop purpose.
Table 6 shows examples of storage methods (except for plant that the oxygen process applies to the water
process).
Actually, water filled status or nitrogen disused status often occurs. In this case, the boiler water is blown
completely after the forced cooling has been completed, and then the boiler is stored in the dry status.
(4) Measures for MFT operation
The operators must understand the causes of the MFT operations fully. If MFT occurs, check that the
protection interlock functions properly. Additionally, the boiler must not be restarted until the cause of the MFT
has been located and corrective action has been taken.
The following describes the measures to be taken after the MFT has been activated when the operation of the
auxiliary machine in the ventilation system is continued.
1) Check items after MFT
x The fuel shut-off valve, burner valve, and SH/RH spray valve are closed.
x The auxiliary machines are tripped. (Mill, coal supply machine, PAF, and RFP, etc.)
33
x The mill hot air gate and damper are closed.
x The burner complete off alarm signal send items through the television set inside the furnace.
2) The air flow rate is the furnace purge air flow rate (normally, 30% of MCR flow rate). The furnace is
purged for 5 min. or longer.
3) The auxiliary steam supply is changed to another boiler or a boiler in the plant.
4) To prevent fire caused by spontaneous ignition, the air is flown at the minimum air flow rate to purge
the flammable contents of the coal remaining in the mill and pulverized coal pipe in order to cool the
inside of the mill (volatile purge). If a mill inert system is provided, the mill is made inert to prevent a
fire.
5) Each part of the boiler is inspected visually to check that no faults exist. In particular, when the MFT
is operated from the high-output, the solenoid escape valve (PCV) may be activated. Therefore, it is
necessary to check that no leak exists after activation.
6) After the cause of the MFT has been found and corrective measures have been taken, the operation is
restarted. At this time, if it takes long to locate the cause, it is possible to stop main auxiliary machines
in the ventilation system, but the damper in the gas duct is put in the natural ventilation status (to purge
the volatile content).
7) After the pilot torch has been ignited, oil remaining in the trip burner is purged.
8) Coal remaining in the mill is purged after parallel. Additionally, if the mill clearing system is provided,
the remaining coal is processed by the clearing when the preparations for pyrite processing unit are
completed.
Table 6 Example of storage methods in case of once-through boiler stop
1 2 3 4 Stop period
Item
48 hrs. or less 48 hrs. to 1 week 1 week or more to 1 month 1 month or more
Boiler main body
From economizer to
outlet of water
separator
Hot banking
(Valve is closed with
normal operation kept.)
Nitrogen sealing storage or
water filling storage
N
2
H
4
50 – 100 mg/O
Nitrogen sealing storage or
water filling storage
N
2
H
4
100 – 300 mg/O
Nitrogen sealing storage or
water filling storage
N
2
H
4
300 – 500 mg/O
Super-heater and
re-heater
Same as above. Same as left. Nitrogen sealing storage
(Re-heater: Dry storage)
Nitrogen sealing storage
(Re-heater: Dry storage)
If the auxiliary machine in the ventilation system is tripped, the furnace must be purged after the damper in the
gas duct has been put in the natural ventilation status. Additionally, when all power supplies are lost, it is
checked that the fuel is shut-off and the back-up operation of the AH is performed by the air motor and that the
damper in the gas duct is put in the natural ventilation status.
(5) Operation of Soot Blower When Unit Is Not Used 㨪Boiler clinker removal㨪
When working inside the furnace during the suspension of boiler operation, it is necessary to conduct clinker
removal before paralleling off in order to ensure safety against clinker fall.
2.3.5 Concept of turbine start
Thermal power generation facilities in Japan were originally positioned for adjustment of the load. However,
thermal power generation actually comprises approximately 60% of all capacity, and this output will continue to
be important in the future. Additionally, thermal power generation facilities are considered increasingly
important for stable energy supply.
Thermal power generation facilities are classified into two groups, combined power generation facilities having
high efficiency and excellent operability, and conventional power generation facilities utilizing various fuels and
having rich operation results. Continuing the operation of conventional power generation facilities is important
in order to maintain a range of energy sources, and there are plans worldwide to construct thermal power
generation plants mainly using coal. Since coal is dispersed worldwide and its deposits are abundant,
conventional thermal power generation plants are being constructed.
It is desirable to increase the capacity of conventional power generation facilities and to improve their
efficiency levels in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In 2000, commercial operation started of
Tachibana Bay Plant, controlled by Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. This state-of-the-art large capacity
plant (1,050MW) has a main steam pressure level of 25MPa and a temperature of 600 qC, and utilizing high steam
conditions with a re-heating steam temperature of 610 qC.
However, the turbine has many small gaps and is rotated at high speed and high temperature. Therefore,
rubbing or excessive thermal stress occurs, causing damage to the unit.
For this reason, utilization of the proper operation method and monitoring method is more important by
considering extension of the periodic inspection, which has been utilized recently.
As the number of new plant being constructed in Japan is decreasing rapidly, and the construction and
maintenance of power generation plants are shifting overseas, the remote monitoring service business is started.
The following items can be monitored by the manufacturers in their own country.
2.3.5.1 Reduction of thermal stress
Thermal stress occurs inside the steam turbine caused by differences between the temperature of each steam
turbine part and the steam temperature to be ventilated.
The cautions on the turbine start plan is that this thermal stress occurring in the rotor and casing is reduced.
The thermal stress of the high-pressure rotor operated under the severest conditions is monitored to control the
LCFI (Low Cycle Fatigue Index). To monitor this thermal stress, the metal temperature at the outlet of the first
stage of the turbine is determined as a representative measurement point. This measured metal temperature
value is used to make the judgment.
According to the metal temperature at the first stage achieved by natural cooling during the stop time and the
turbine plan ventilation temperature, which has been adjusted with the boiler side beforehand, the start mode is
classified into those described in Table 7. As the stop time is longer, the start time also becomes longer.
Table 7 Examples of start mode classifications and stop time levels
Start mode Stop time Remarks
Very hot start Stopped for up to 4 hrs. from
immediately after turbine trip.
Hot start Stopped for 8 to 11 hrs. DSS: Parallel-off at midnight and parallel-in the next
morning.
Warm start I Stopped for 32 hrs. WSS I: Parallel-off at midnight on Saturday and parallel-in on
Monday morning.
Warm start II Stopped for 56 hrs. WSS II: Parallel-off at midnight on Friday and parallel-in ion
Monday morning.
Cold start Stopped for 150 hrs. or longer Stopped for 1 week or longer.:page 15
RPM: 3600 rpm Load: 100%
Vacuum degree
Main steam pressure
(Preparations for ignition M - BFP start/Ignition) (Vacuum pump start)
(Parallel-in (initial
load holding)) (Low-pressure cleanup) (Condensate water cleanup)
(Turbine start)
(High-pressure cleanup) (M/T change-over) (Rub check)
(Boiler cold cleanup) (Low-speed heat soak)
(2nd T-BFP turn ON)
(Boiler hot cleanup) (Speed up start)
Fig. 19 Example of typical start
As described above, the natural cooling is started and the rotor temperature is changed according to the turbine
stop time. The typical start mode is classified into various typical classes because the operation mode is
classified into patterns by operation style. To relax the thermal stress that occurs as a result of the difference in
temperature between the main steam and rotor, it is necessary to adjust the start method.
As described above, since the time needed for the start is different from the stop time, it is important to grasp
the start time for the power supply plan.
Figure 19 shows the events in the typical cold start processes. The following introduces the main monitoring
items in the start process.
(1) Pre-warming
In the cold start in which the turbine is started from almost room temperature, warming of the high-pressure
turbine is needed to reduce the thermal stress. The metal temperature after the first stage is controlled. This
pre-warming is intended to reduce the brittleness of the rotor even though it depends on the material.
(2) All-around flow operation
To reduce the thermal stress of the construction, casing close to the nozzle at the first stage or nozzle during
ventilation, the all-around flow operation (full-arc operation) is performed. When using the machine control
method (MHC), the sub-valve of the MSV is opened to perform.
When using the individual oil tube method using the electric control method (EHC), all control valves are opened
slightly to perform this method. At approximately 7% of the load after starting, the partial insertion operation is
started. Figure 20 shows the relationship between the opening of the control valves and load during this partial
34
insertion operation as an example of the voltage transformation operation.
M
a
i
n

s
t
e
a
m
p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
C
o
n
t
r
o
l

v
a
l
v
e
s
o
p
e
n
i
n
g
Fully opened.
4th valve
1st to 3rd
valve
Load
Fig. 20 Example of pressure and control valves opening during voltage transformation operation
(3) Low-speed heat soak operation
In the cold start, the heat soak operation is performed by the steam passing through the turbine in the status that
the heat transfer effect is high. This operation is performed by taking the critical RPM of the generator having
the lowest critical speed into consideration. This RPMis generally about 800 rpm.
(4) High-speed heat soak
When the RPM reaches the rated RPM, the heat soak operation is started to further heat up the turbine evenly.
At this time, since the heat transfer effect becomes high together with the stream flow rate, the initial load holding
time may be extended.
2.3.5.2 Other limited factors related to start
Important items to be monitored other than factors related to the thermal stress are those related to the vibration
and elongation difference. The following shows items related to the vibration.
(1) Eccentricity
In an example 700MW-plant, the maximum diameter of the steam turbine shaft is approximately 500mm, a
large diameter. The span between the bearings is approximately 6m. Therefore, to suppress the bend of the
rotor, it is necessary that the turning is generally performed for approximately 10 hrs. or more to set the
eccentricity to the standard value or less.
Table 8 Vibration control values
Detection location Shaft Bearing Remarks
Detection RPM 3000rpm/3600rpm 1500rpm/1800rpm 3000rpm/3600rpm 1500rpm/1800rpm
12.5 17.5 6.2 8.7
Rated speed or
more
Alarm value
15 21 7.5 10.5
Less than rated
speed
Stop value 25 35 12.5 17.5
(2) Vibration limit value
The turbine speed must pass through various critical speed ranges including the generator until the turbine
reaches the rated RPM. Additionally, since the turbine is a large high-speed rotating unit, the vibration may
increase due to the eccentricity and bearing lubrication status or small imbalance.
Therefore, it is necessary to set the alarm value and stop value, which are the control value or less as shown in
Table 8 according to “Technical standard for thermal power generation facilities” and “Electric technical standard
for steam turbine for thermal power generation and standard for generator vibration”.
Furthermore, the control is used by which the vibration amplitude and vibration increase rate are determined as
parameters and the control is classified into the safe zone, alarm zone, and trip zone. In this control, the
previously described three zones are classified into “critical speed range or less”, “critical speed range”, and
“critical speed or more” by the RPM range to control the turbine vibration by computer.
35
Start
O
i
l

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
Continuous
turning
Control valve
change-over
36
Fig. 21 Example of bearing lubricant oil temperature setting and monitoring
(3) Oil temperature
It is important to control the lubricant oil temperature in order to form a stable lubricant film, to protect the
bearing, and to prevent oil whip. The temperature width shown in Fig. 21 is set to change the control value
according to the turbine operation status (RPM).
(4) Metal temperature
It is important to monitor the bearing metal temperature for protection of the bearing metal. The temperature
monitoring conditions may vary depending on the bearing shape, such as thrust bearing, oval journal bearing, or
tilting pad journal bearing. Additionally, it is also important to monitor rapid changes in metal temperature.
(5) Vacuum degree in exhaust chamber
If the vacuum degree is much higher than the design value (pressure inside the condenser is too low), the
low-pressure casing is deformed, causing rubbing to occur. Additionally, as the vacuum degree decreases, the
vibration stress at the final stage increases.
(6) Temperature in exhaust chamber
It is further important to control the temperature around the final stage as the vane at the final stage is made
longer. Measures for protection of the final stage, such as use of casing spray are taken so that flexibility of the
operation is not lost.
(7) Limitations on wetness
Monitoring is important for protection of erosion on the vane at the final stage. Even though the wetness at
the outlet of the final stage is generally controlled in a range of 8 to 12%, it is necessary to take appropriate
measures or to perform the monitoring in a range exceeding this wetness range. The start point of the expansion
curve of the re-heating part, that is, the pressure and temperature of the re-heating steam must be monitored.
Figure 22 shows a conceptional diagram of the typical wetness limitation curve expressed by the equivalent
re-heating steam pressure line that indicates the re-heating steam conditions for wetness of 12%. The lower
portion of each re-heating pressure curve shows the operable range.
Turning
disengagement
Rated
RPM
D RPM of
rating
Stop
O
i
l

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
Continuous turning
Equivalent to control valve
change-over load
D RPM of
rating
Turning
start
Turbine
trip
The lower portion of each re-heating steam pressure shows
the operable range.
V
a
c
u
u
m

d
e
g
r
e
e
Equivalent re-heating steam
pressure line
37
Fig. 22 Concept of wetness limit curve
Re-heating steam temperature
Under the operation conditions, the motion that comes and goes between the wet area and dry area is called
“dry and wet alternation”. However, it is important that coming and going between the wet area and dry area are
eliminated at the final stage or L-1 (stage one before the final stage). Impurities in the steam may accumulate in
the nozzle and on the vane due to dry and wet alternation, causing corrosion to occur.
A
l
l
o
w
a
b
l
e

t
i
m
e

Frequency
Fig. 23 Concept of frequency limit curve (example of rating 3600rpm)
(8) Frequency limit value
The principal vibration of the vane at the final stage is designed so that it is separated well properly to the rated
RPM. However, the operation may be performed with the principal vibration beyond the rated RPM as the effect
on the system side is received.
Figure 23 shows the frequency limit curve. The control of the service life is 6tf/Tfo d 1.0” and the operation
needs to be performed without exceeding this formula.
t f : Cumulative operation time at frequency (f).
Tf0 : Allowable operation time at frequency (f).
High and medium pressure rotor
expansion direction Low pressure rotor expansion direction
Low pressure expansion difference meter
Thrust bearing
High pressure expansion
difference meter
Low pressure B High
pressure
Low pressure A Medium
pressure
High and medium
pressure casing
High and medium
pressure bearing base
on front
(Second bearing base)
Low pressure B
casing
Low pressure A
casing
Combined with low pressure
casing
Low pressure B expansion
direction
38
Fig. 24 Example of casing and rotor expansion directions
High and medium pressure and low pressure A
expansion direction
(9) Expansion difference
The rotor is warmed earlier than the casing at startup, on start.
Figure 24 shows a concept of the rotor and casing moving directions as a typical example of three casing types.
The difference in expansion between the rotor and casing may become the biggest on the anti-generator side of the
high pressure turbine and the generator side of the low pressure B turbine. The elongation difference meter is
provided on these parts as shown in the drawing to monitor them.
Figure 25 shows an example of the monitoring method. Rotor long means that the rotor is extended longer
than the casing. Rotor short is opposite to rotor long. The green mark shows the status that the turbine rotor is
kept pushed against the front side in the cold condition.
The red band shows the area causing contact in the axial direction.
As the rotor is rotated, it is pulled by centrifugal force in the circumferential direction and it is then shortened.
G
r
e
e
n
m
a
r
k
R
e
d
m
a
r
k
Orange
band Red band
Red band
1
s
t

a
l
a
r
m

p
o
i
n
t
2
n
d

a
l
a
r
m

p
o
i
n
t
Max. rotor short
Max. rotor long
Fig. 25 Example of limitations on expansion difference
That is, even though the rotor does not enter the red band on the long side during operation, it is extended as it
is released from the centrifugal force in the stop process.
As a result, the rotor may enter the red band area.
On the contrary, when the rotor is started in a status close to the short side before the RPM is increased, it may
advance toward the rotor short side as the RPM is further increased.
This width shows the portion between the red mark and the first alarm point, and the orange band.
2. 4 Performance Management
2.4.1 Grasping of performance
In the performance control of thermal power plants, the constant, accurate grasping of unit operation, and
working to improve thermal efficiency are most important.
As a method to grasp performance, the deviation from the desired value which can be expected as long as the
equipment is operated normally including the acceptance performance test results etc., and also initial design
values at the start of operations are controlled. This desired value comprises operation status values such as the
temperature and pressure of each part, and performance values such as unit efficiency and boiler efficiency. The
latter performance values change by external conditions and therefore revision of the same conditions is necessary
for making comparisons. Setting of coefficients for revision may be performed by theoretical calculation or by
testing.
Next, in order to reasonably maintain facility performance in thermal power plants, in general, daily control is
made so that appropriate measures may be taken by monitoring the operation status. By monitoring the necessary
control items by instruments, daily operation log, calculators, etc., abnormal conditions are detected early and by
conducting operation and maintenance properly, efforts are made to perform reference value operations.
On the other hand, every day operation conditions are grasped from operation records and typical items which
affect performance (condenser vacuum degree deviation, exhaust gas temperature, exhaust gas O
2
) are plotted by
day, ten days, month in graphs, and the trend controlled. Especially, in regard to power plants with coal energy and
such where coal quantity, quality cannot be grasped in real time, the plant situation is grasped by trend control.
Also, to evaluate performance and thermal efficiency improvement measures at the time of regular inspection,
performance test items (high pressure turbine internal efficiency, air preheater efficiency, feed water heaters, etc.)
were grasped and simultaneous records taken on the overall unit for detailed control.
2.4.2 Grasping of equipment performance
To control performance changes of the unit, unit performance tests were conducted regularly, and efficient
operation, maintenance and improvement of facilities are being undertaken.
In general, performance tests were conducted with minimum output, 2/4 output, 3/4 output and rated output and
items such as plant thermal efficiency are being measured.
2.4.2.1 Heat input and output of a thermal power plant
An example of fuel, electric output, and various losses of a thermal power plant is shown in Fig. 2.4.2.1. The major part
of fuel consumed in boiler combustion is used for the generating of steam. This steam is sent to the turbine but a
little over ten percent of the heat quantity are discarded into the atmosphere as exhaust gas. Steam that flows into
the turbine expands inside the turbine and works to rotate the generator to generate electric power. During this
time, a part of the work becomes mechanical loss such as by bearings, etc. and also becomes generator loss. The
steam which has expanded with the turbine exhaust pressure flows into the condenser where it is cooled to
become condensed water while the heat quantity possessed by the steam is discharged into the cooling water of
the condenser.
39
Fig.2.4.2.1
Heat loss by exhaust gas
Mechanical
loss
Generator
loss
Cycle loss
In-station
motive
power
Turbine end
output (D)
Gross electric
output
Net electric output (F)
Boiler fuel
(A)
(E)
Turbine room heat
input
(B) Heat discharge
loss (G) to
condenser
Boiler auxiliary
steam (C)
40
With oil fired thermal power use boilers, furnaces into which air is forced drafted by a force draft fan are widely
adopted. With this system, operation is performed with the pressure inside of the furnace or flue higher than the
atmospheric pressure and therefore caution must be exercised on leakage of gas and measures taken. Also, in the
case of coal fired boilers, blast furnace gas or coke oven gas burning boilers, a balanced draft system in which the
gas pressure inside the furnace is maintained slightly lower than the atmospheric pressure by an induced draft fan
is mainly adopted.
The reason for this is that with coal fired boilers, consideration is made for ash leakage and with blast furnace
gas and coke oven gas fired boilers, the fuel gas containing a large amount of CO is hazardous and the supplied
pressure of fuel gas is low.
With boiler capacity becoming greater, the consumed motive power of force draft fans and induced draft fans also
becomes greater and therefore it becomes necessary to restrain the draft loss of the convective heat transfer
surface to a suitable value. Table 2.4.2.1 shows an example of draft loss of respective parts of a large capacity
boiler of the coal fired balanced draft system.


Table 2.4.2 .1Example of draft loss of a boiler (Calculated values at maximum continuous load)

Items
Draft loss
kPa
Air (secondary) side pressure loss
Forced draft fan inlet air duct and silencer 0.54
Forced draft fan outlet air duct 0.43
Air preheater 1.37
Air preheater outlet - Burner wind box inlet air duct 0.59
Burner wind box 1.47

Total


4.40

Gas side pressure loss 1.37
Superheater - Economizer 1.03
NOx remover 1.52
Air preheater 1.59
Gas, gas heater, and electrostatic precipitator 0.84
Economizer outlet - Induced draft - fan inlet flue and silencer 1.06
Induced draft fan outlet flue and chimney

Total


7.41
Total pressure loss of air and gas 11.81

2.4.2.2 Boiler
When calculating boiler efficiency, it is necessary to clarify whether the standard of the fuel calorific value is of
a high level calorific value containing latent heat of vaporization at the time the moisture from hydrogen in the
fuel becomes steam or whether it is of a low level calorific value in which latent heat of vaporization is deducted
from the high level calorific value.
In this chapter, explanation is provided with high level calorific value as the standard.
As a method to obtain boiler efficiency, the quantity of heat which is transferred to the feed water in the boiler
and used to generate steam is compared with the heat quantity which should be generated by the combustion of
the fuel fed to the furnace. This is called the heat input output method and is expressed by the following
equation.

) 1 ( % 100
) h - (h W
efficiency Boiler
l 0 s
× =
h f H G

Where WS is the boiler steam quantity kg/h, h
0
, h
1
is the generated steam and feed water enthalpy kJ/kg, G
f
is
the fuel consumed quantity kg/h, and H
h
is the high level calorific value of fuel kJ/kg.
As another method, the boiler heat loss is calculated from the exhaust gas temperature and the exhaust gas
amount after passing the entire generating surface of the boiler, (the outlet if there is an air preheater) and by
deducting this from 100%, the boiler efficiency is obtained. This is called the heat loss method and is calculated
by the formula mentioned later. The heat loss becomes less as the exhaust gas temperature is lowered and boiler
efficiency rises but for this a larger air preheater generating surface is required and facility expenses increase.
Additionally, in the case where fuel containing sulfuric
content is used, the problem of low temperature corrosion (sulfuric corrosion) occurs and therefore it is important
to select a suitable exhaust gas temperature in planning the boiler. In current boilers, the exhaust gas temperature
is set at 130 - 150°C with coal and heavy oil (crude oil) fuel, at 165°C with high sulfuric content heavy oil, etc,
and around
100°C with gas fuel but with certain fuels, normally an environment preserving device (Electric dust collector,
desulfurizing equipment) is installed for the back wash and therefore it is necessary to optimize the exhaust gas
temperature in the entire facility including this.
(1) Dry exhaust gas loss L
1
Out of the heat loss by the exhaust gas discharged from the outlet of the boiler (air preheater), when the portion
by latent heat of dry gas is assumed to be:
G
dry
: Dry gas amount per 1 kg of fuel kg/kg
C
g
: Average specific heat of dry gas ѳ㧝.0 kJ/kg°C
t
g
: Air preheater outlet exhaust gas temperature °C
t
o
: Boiler efficiency standard temperature °C
) 2 ( % 100
) t - (t C G
L
o s s dry
1 × =
h H

(2) Loss L
2
by hydrogen moisture in the fuel
Out of the heat loss by the exhaust gas exhausted from the boiler (air preheater) outlet, the loss caused by
evaporation of the moisture produced from hydrogen in the fuel and the contained moisture during combustion of
the fuel and moreover the loss caused by heating up to the temperature of exhaust gas and discharged:
Where;
M
f
: Moisture produced from hydrogen in 1 kg of fuel and the moisture kg/kg contained in the fuel
A
hR
: Latent heat of vaporization contained in moisture ѳ 2,500 J/Ks
C
m
: Average specific heat of steam ѳ 1.9 J/kg°C
C
w
: Specific heat of water at reference temperature ѳ4.2kJ/kg°C
) 3 ( % 100
) t - C - t - C ( M
L
s w s m hR f
2 ×
+ A
=
h H

41


42
(3) Loss L
3
by moisture in the air
Out of the heat loss by the exhaust gas which is discharged from the boiler (air preheater) outlet, the loss caused
by latent heat of moisture contained in the air for combustion is assumed to be:
M
A
: Moisture contained in air for combustion per 1 kg of fuel, whereby:
) 4 ( % 100
) t - (t C M
L
o s a a
3 × =
h H

(4) Loss L4 by radiation heat
It is difficult to accurately obtain the heat loss radiated into the atmosphere from the peripheral walls of the
boiler and appurtenant facilities. This loss becomes proportionally smaller with large capacity boilers because
their surface area becomes relatively smaller and also because the radiation heat amount is roughly constant
irrespective of the load; the proportion of loss becomes smaller as the load becomes larger.
(5) Loss L5 by unburned fuel gas
This is the heat loss due to the combustible gas remaining such as CO in the fuel gas because of incomplete
combustion.
) 5 ( % 100
) CO ( ) CO (
) CO (
H
C 23,700
L
2 h
5 ×
+
×
×
=

Where;
23,700 : Lost heat amount kJ/kg when carbon becomes CO by incomplete combustion of
carbon in the fuel
C : Combusted carbon amount kg/kg in 1 kg of fuel
(CO, CO
2
) : CO and CO
2
density vol. % in exhaust gas
Besides the above, there is combustible gas loss by unburned hydro-carbons and H
2
but these are of minute
amounts which can be neglected in current commercial use boilers.

(6) Loss L
6
by combustion residue
This is heat loss mainly by unburned carbon in the combustion residue by combustion of solid fuel.
) 6 ( % 100
H
C' 900 , 3 3
L
h
6 ×
×
=

Where
33,900 : Combusted heat amount KJ/Kg of carbon
C’ : Unburned carbon amount KJ/Kg per 1 kg of fuel
This heat loss in liquid and gaseous fuel is negligible.
(7) Other loss L
7
Besides the above, there are small losses such as by carrying out of combusted ash or steam atomizing or heat
losses which cannot be measured or for which the cause is unknown and these are treated as other losses. Errors
of measuring instruments may be included in this loss.
From the above heat losses, boiler efficiency may be expressed by the following equation
) 7 ( 100 efficiency Boiler
7
1
÷ =
¯
= l
Li
Table 2.4.2.2 shows examples of boiler efficiency and heat loss of commercial use boilers for exclusive firing
of heavy (crude) oil, of natural gas and of coal.
With natural gas, the hydrogen content during combustion is approximately double that of heavy (crude) oil and
therefore the loss by hydrogen moisture content during combustion is great. Since the exhaust gas temperature is
low, dry exhaust gas loss is small but boiler efficiency becomes approximately 2% lower compared with heavy
(crude) oil. Also with coal, the hydrogen content during combustion is even less than that of heavy (crude) oil and
therefore even when loss by unburned carbon is considered, boiler efficiency tends to become the highest among
the three fuels. However, coal characteristics will differ greatly by origin and caution must be exercised in the
evaluation of its efficiency.


Table 2.4.2.2 Examples of heat loss by boiler efficiency (Calculated values by rated loads)

Heavy (crude) oil
exclusive boiler
Natural gas
exclusive boiler
Coal exclusive
boiler
Exhaust gas temperature
(Air preheater outlet)
°C 140 99 135
Excessive air factor
(Air preheater outlet)
1.14 1.16 1.20
Boiler heat loss
Dry exhaust gas loss % 4.33 2.70 4.31
Loss by hydrogen content during
combustion
% 6.53 10.19 4.03
Loss by moisture content in air % 0.07 0.05 0.09
Loss by radiation heat % 0.17 0.17 0.17
Loss by unburned fuel gas % 0.00 0.00 0.00
Loss by combustion residue % 0.00 0.00 0.52
Other losses % 1.00 1.00 1.50
Total % 12.10 14.11 10.62
Boiler efficiency
(Higher calorific value standard)
% 87.90 85.89 89.38


43

B
o
i
l
e
r

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
H
i
g
h
e
r

c
a
l
o
r
i
f
i
c

v
a
l
u
e

s
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
)

(
%
)

Coal fired boiler
Heavy (crude) oil firing boiler
Natural gas fired boiler
Boiler load (%)
Fig. 2.4.2.2 Relation between boiler efficiency and boiler load

Also, in general, with heavy (crude oil) fired boilers, the air preheater low temperature end average metal
temperature is controlled by a steam type air preheater and as a result, the lowering of exhaust gas temperature at
low load is small and boiler efficiency becomes maximum between the rated load where excessive air factor is
low to 75% load.
On the other hand, with exclusive natural gas fired boilers and exclusive coal fired boilers, the exhaust gas
temperature drops greatly with lowering of load and therefore boiler efficiency tends to become maximum with a
load of around 50 to 75%. At loads lower than this, boiler efficiency tends to drop because of the increase in dry
exhaust gas loss by the increased excessive air factor and increase in radiation loss. (Fig. 2.4.2)



44
2.4.2.3 SteamTurbine
Turbine performance (turbine room performance, turbine plant performance) is expressed with the use of the
terms, heat rate, thermal efficiency, internal efficiency, etc.
(1) Heat rate, thermal efficiency, steam consumption ratio
Turbine heat rate is the quantity of heat required to produce 1 kWh of electricity and is expressed by the
following equations.
1. In the case of non-reheat turbines
) 1 ( H
÷ ÷
= =
s
e e w w s s
s
R
L
i G i G i G
L
Q


2. In the case of reheat turbines (Fig. 2.4.2.3-1)
) 2 (
) (
H
'

÷ ÷ + ÷
= =
s
e e
r
r r w w s s
s
R
L
i G i i G i G i G
L
Q



Boiler

Fig. 2 .4.2.3-1 Turbine reheat cycle

Where:
H
R
: Turbine heat rate (kJ/kWh)
Q : Quantity of heat consumed by the turbine (kJ/h)
L
g
: Generator end electric output (kW)
G
S
: Turbine inflow steam quantity (kg/h)
i
S
: Turbine inflow steam enthalpy (kJ/kg)
G
W
: Feed water quantity to boiler (kg/h)
i
w
: Feed water enthalpy to boiler (kJ/kg)
G
o
: Quantity of steam to outside of turbine plant such as boiler auxiliary steam (kg/h)
i
o
: Steam enthalpy to outside of turbine plant such as boiler auxiliary steam
G
r
: Quantity of reheated steam
i
r
: Medium pressure turbine flow in steam enthalpy (kJ/kg)
i
r
’ : High pressure turbine outlet steam enthalpy (kJ/kg)
The definition of turbine heat rate may be expressed in two ways, either gross or net, depending on whether
feed water pump drive motive power is considered or not.

LP turbine Turbine HP turbine
Boiler auxiliary
steam etc.
Condens
er
#5 Heater #6 Heater
Condenser pump
#1 Heater 2 Heater #3 Heater Deaerator
Feed water pump Low pressure pump


45
a. In the case of feed water pump electric drive
) 3 ( =
s L
Q
Rate Heat Gross
) 4 ( =
÷ BFP s L L
Q
Rate Heat Net

b. In the case of water feed pump turbine drive
) 5 ( =
+ BFP s L L
Q
Rate Heat Gross
) 6 ( =
s L
Q
Rate Heat Net
Where L
BFP
: Motive power required for feed water pump
Turbine thermal efficiency Ș
t
is expressed by the following equation.
) 7 ( % 100
600 , 3
× =
R
t
H
n
According to Fig. 1, this is
) 8 ( % 100
) ( ) (
) (
×
÷
=
C B
E
t n

Moreover, the following definitions are used to express efficiency of the generation plant.
) 9 ( % 100
) (
) (
efficiency mal plant ther Gross × =
A
E

) 10 ( % 100
) (
) (
efficiency heat plant Net × =
A
F

The two factors which affect turbine heat rate and thermal efficiency are steam conditions of boiler steam
production, condenser vacuum degree, feed water temperature and feed water heating steps, etc. namely the heat
cycle conditions are the performance of the turbine itself. Fig.2.4.2.3-2 shows the trends of unit capacity and
thermal efficiency of commercial use reheating turbines.

Vacuum degree 5.1 kPaa (722 mmHg)
T
u
r
b
i
n
e

t
h
e
r
m
a
l

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
%
)

31 MPa class
24 MPa class
16.6 MPa
class
12.5 MPa class
10 MPa class
Output (MW)


Fig. 2.4.2.3-2 Unit capacity and turbine thermal efficiency



46
(2) Turbine internal efficiency, turbine efficiency
To express the performance of the turbine itself, turbine internal efficiency and turbine efficiency are used.
Internal efficiency Și is expressed by the ratio between steam adiabatic heat drop Ho (Theoretical work load of
zero loss steam) and heat drop Hg effectively used.
) 11 ( % 100 / × = o g H H i n
Figure 2.4.2.3-35 shows the steam condition (Pressure, enthalpy functions) in the case of the reheating turbine
and the internal efficiency of the high pressure turbine, medium pressure turbine and low pressure turbine are
expressed by the following quotation.


Fig.2.4.2.3-3 5 Reheating turbine steam expanded diagram (i-s diagram)

Pressure:
P
x
: Turbine main steam check valve inlet
P
0
: 1st step nozzle inlet
P
1
: High pressure turbine outlet
P
r
: Before medium pressure turbine reheat
stop valve
P
2
: Medium pressure 1st step inlet
P
3
: Medium pressure turbine outlet
P
4
: Low pressure turbine inlet
P
5
: Low pressure exhaust (Condenser inlet)
A
EL
: Exhaust loss
Saturation line

High pressure turbine
) 12 (
1
'

÷
÷
= =
i i
i i
H
H
s
r s
H o
eH
IH
n

Medium pressure turbine
) 13 (
3
4

÷
÷
= =
i i
i i
H
H
r
r
l o
el
It
n

Low pressure turbine
) 14 (
5 4
6 4

÷
÷
= =
i i
i i
H
H
L o
eL
IL
n
Turbine efficiency is the ratio between theoretical work and effective work, and is the product of internal
efficiency and mechanical efficiency. The relation between the turbine efficiency Șr of a back pressure turbine or
a simple condenser turbine and the steam specific consumption S
R
(Kg/kWh) is as follows:
) 15 (
600 , 3
= =
s t e S
S
R
H P
G
S
n n

Where:
G
S
: Inflow steam quantity (Kg/h)
P
g
: Generator output (KW)
H
o
: Adiabatic heat drop inside turbine (KJ/kg)
ǯ
g
: Generator efficiency



47
(3) Heat balance (Heat balance diagram) Steam expanded diagram
Figure 5 is an example of a reheating turbine heat expanded diagram. The pressure, temperature, enthalpy or
quantity of steam of each part of the turbine, based on the expanded diagram shown in the diagram are called the
heat balance diagram. Figure 2.4.2.3-4 shows a 1,000,000 kW heat balance diagram. The manner of steam
expansion, the condition of steam at each part, turbine extraction, etc, are normally obtained by performance
calculation by turbine makers. The heat balance around the feed water heater periphery is calculated by the
following procedures.


High
pressure
turbine
Low pressure
turbine (A)
Medium
pressure turbine

Fig. 2.4.2.3-4 Example of 1,000 MW supercritical pressure turbine heat balance

(1) Piping pressure drop from the turbine extraction point to the feed water heater is normally maintained at
around 5% of the pressure (2.5 - 12%).
(2) Temperature inside the feed water heater becomes the saturation temperature of the extraction pressure.
(3) The feed water heater outlet feed water temperature is selected to be 2.5 to 5°C lower than the saturation
temperature inside the heater and feed water heater to be designed. (In the case of a direct contact type such
as a deaerator, the outlet feed water temperature is to be the same as the saturation temperature and also in
the case where the extraction temperature is fairly higher than the saturation temperature in reheating steam
turbines, etc., this temperature may be utilized with a superheat reducing section provided inside the feed
water heater with the feed water selected to be 0 - 3°C higher than the saturation temperature. (Refer to
Chapter 2, Clause 3.4)
(4) When a drain cooler is provided in the water feed heater, the drain outlet temperature is designed to be 5 to
10°C higher than the water feed temperature.
(5) Taking the No. 5 heater in Fig. 2 as an example, the extraction amount necessary for the water feed heater
is obtained by the following procedure. (However, the heat discharge loss is to be neglected.)
G
x
(i
x
-i
14
) = G
w
(i
12
-i
11
)-G
d
(i
13
-i
14
)
Where:
G
x
: Extraction quantity (Heated steam quantity)
i
x
: Extraction enthalpy
G
w
: Feed water quantity
i
11
: Feed water heater inlet feed water enthalpy
i
12
: Feed water heater outlet feed water enthalpy
G
d
: Inflow drain quantity
i
13
: Inflow drain enthalpy
i
14
: Outflow drain enthalpy
B
o
i
l
e
r

Low pressure
turbine (B)
Condenser
Make up water
Condenser
pump
BFP turbine
Grand steam
condenser
Condensate
booster pump
Boiler feed water pump Drain pump
Feed water booster pump


48
2.4.2.4 generator
(1) Available output curve
Figure 2.4.2.4-1 shows an example of available generation output curve. This curve is divided into parts (A),
(B), and (C).

L
a
g
g
i
n
g

p
h
a
s
e

L
e
a
d
i
n
g

p
h
a
s
e



Fig. 2.4.2.4-1 Available output curve

(A) Range restricted by rotor coil temperature
(B) Range restricted by stator temperature
(C) Range restricted by stator core end part temperature

1) Range restricted by rotor coil temperature
The restrictions by rotor coil temperature may be obtained under the conditions of a constant field current.
Namely, this may be obtained by the V curves shown in Fig. 2.4.2.4-2 36, whereas a line parallel to the axis of the
ordinate is drawn through field current 1f at the rated load and rated power factor, and the intersecting point of the
line with the respective V curve power factor is plotted on the MW-MVAR coordinate to obtain the restriction by
rotor coil density.

Terminal
voltage=Rated Voltage
O
u
t
p
u
t

(
M
V
A
)


Field current (A)

Fig. 2.4.2.4-2 V curve
2) Range restricted by stator coil temperature
Restriction by the stator coil temperature may be obtained from constant conditions of the stator current. It
becomes a circle which passes through rated point P with the origin point as the center of the circle.


49
3) Range restricted by the stator core end part temperature
The cause for increasing of temperature of the stator core end part in the leading phase range is that the
composite magnetic flux from the magnetic flux by stator coil end magnetomotive force and the magnetic flux by
rotor coil end magnetomotive force increase with a lower excitation (leading power factor) and the eddy current of
the core end part becomes greater. This upper limit is higher with machines with a larger short circuit ratio but
with recent large capacity machines with large electrical charge, the end part temperature increase tends to become
large and therefore overheating is prevented by core end magnetic shield, core end slit, core end stage,
non-magnetic finger plate, non-magnetic rotor coil retaining ring, etc.
(2) Resistance capacity to short period overload
Loads exceeding the available output curve even though for short periods will result in a rapid increase of
temperature and therefore repeated overload operation is not desirable because the service life of the generator
coil will be shortened, but there is a permissible range in which the insulation is not greatly affected. Table
2.4.2.4-12 shows the overload permissible limit specified by ANSI C50-13.


Table 2.4.2.4-1 Short period overload resistant amounts
Time (seconds) 10 30 60 120
Armature current (%) 226 154 130 116
Field voltage (%) 208 146 125 112


(3) Continuous unbalanced load resistance
When a generator is operated under unbalance load or by single phase load, a negative phase current flows in
the stator coil and as a result, the revolving field which revolves in the opposite direction at the same speed turns
off the rotor and an eddy current of double frequency flows on the surface of the rotor and the rotor wedge and the
rotor overheats. Especially in the part in which the eddy current concentrates, if the unbalance becomes serious,
burning may result by local overheating.
The permissible limit of continuous unbalanced load is greatly affected by the material and structure of the
equipment and cannot be specified in one manner. Table 2.4.2.4-2 shows the permissible limit proposed
recently by ANSI where limitations are made more severe with large capacity machines.

Table 2.4.2.4-2 Unbalanced load resistance
Continuous unbalanced
load
I
2
(%)
Short period unbalanced load
I
2
t*
Indirect cooling loss 10 30
Direct cooling loss 10
- 800 MVA
801 – 960 MVA
8
951 – 1,200 MVA 6
1,201 – 1,500 MVA 5
I
2
t
= 10 – 0.00625 (MVA – 800)
*I
2
(P.U.) t (Seconds)

(4) Short period unbalanced load resistance
At the time of short period unbalance load such as by one-line ground and line short circuit, the double
frequency eddy current flows on the rotor surface and the rotor overheats for the same reason mentioned in clause
6.3. The most severe failure by rotor overheating is line short circuiting.
Where the negative phase current is /2, a failure continuation time of 1 second, the temperature rise of the rotor
is proportional to tdt but with consideration of equivalent negative phase current/
2
2
/
l
o
t
2SQ
which gives the same
temperature rise in t seconds, adopting of /22sqt as the scale is widely accepted.
With large capacity machines, the rotor is of light weight compared with the capacity, and therefore the
reduction of relative thermal capacity was considered and i22t<30 for indirect cooling machines and i22t/s10 was
generally adopted but with the recent super large capacity generators, the limitations shown in Table 3 have been
proposed to ANSI.
(5) Efficiency
Generator loss consists of core loss, mechanical loss, stator I
2
R loss, stray load loss, and world magnetic I
2
R
loss.


50
1. Core loss
If the used material is assumed to be the same, core loss relates to magnetic flux density, frequency, and stator
core weight, and with their increase, core loss increases.
2. Mechanical loss
Mechanical loss consists of bearing friction loss and windage loss. Since windage loss is proportional to gas
density, the windage loss of hydrogen cooling machines is extremely smaller than that of air cooling machines.
This is one of the advantages of the hydrogen cooling machine. Bearing friction loss increases in an exponential
function manner with increases in revolutions and journal diameter.
3. Stator I
2
R loss and stray load loss
Stator I
2
R loss is proportional to the square of the stator current and stator coil average length/coil cross
sectional area. In addition, surface loss is affected by void length and winding pitch, becoming smallest with a
5/6 winding pitch and loss decreases as void length increases.
4. Field I
2
R R Loss
Field I
2
R Loss is proportional to the square of the field current and field resistance but as shown in the V curve
of Fig. 36, more field current becomes necessary with the same output as the power factor becomes lower and loss
increases.
Figure 2.4.2.4-3 shows the generator efficiency and changes in efficiency by partial load of a typical capacity
generator. As shown in this figure, in general, in the case of standard specification generators, efficiency tends to
become better with larger capacity. Also, in regard to partial load, core loss and mechanical loss are constant and
therefore efficiency rapidly worsens with low load but in the case of hydrogen cooling machines, lowering of gas
pressure inside the machine and operating at low load is possible and as a result, windage loss decreases and
normally, the maximum efficiency rate is displayed at 70 - 80% load.


G
e
n
e
r
a
t
o
r

e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
%
)

Load (%)

Fig. 2.4.2.4-3Generator efficiency curve


2.4.2.5 Condenser facilities
Vacuum degree control of condenser facilities, causes of vacuum degree lowering and their judgment, as well as
restoring means and the appropriate number of circulating pumps to be operated are decided.
(1) Desired value of vacuum degree
In regard to the daily desired vacuum degree of condensers, a control value is set against the design value when
the respective units are installed.
Figure 2.4.2.4-4 shows the philosophy on desired values. The control width of the vacuum degree is set with
consideration of accuracy of instrumentation, cleanliness of tubing, and dispersion of the performance record.
With an increase in the vacuum degree when the cooling water temperature is low, turbine specific heat changes


51
from decreasing to increasing and since there is a risk of problem occurrence in the facilities, the vacuum degree
is controlled so that it does not exceed the efficiency limit vacuum degree.
(2) Facility control
By the frequency of operation and data measurements of the respective facilities, difference control of the
desired value of the vacuum degree is being conducted.
The following shows the general control items.
x Operation control of the ball cleaning device
x Control of electrolytic protection device
x Measuring of vacuum pump extraction quantity
x Control of instrumentations
x Tubing brushing cleaning
x Cleaning of the inlet channel and circulating pump chamber
(3) Disposition to adopt when deviation is seen from the desired value of the vacuum degree
First, check to see if there is any abnormal condition of instrumentation and when confirming, pay attention to
the following points.
x Drain accumulation in the detection piping
x Temperature compensation if the standard temperature differs between the mercury vacuum gauge and
the atmospheric pressure gauge.
x Difference between the atmospheric pressure compensated vacuum degree and the transmitter side.
x Whether there is any abnormal condition in the correlation between the atmospheric compensation value
of the mercury vacuum degree gauge and the respective temperatures of the exhaust room and hotwell.
x Any abnormal condition of the mercury vacuum degree and atmospheric temperature gauge at the time
of periodic checking.


V
a
c
u
u
m

d
e
g
r
e
e

Upper limit of
vacuum degree
Efficiency limit vacuum
degree
Vacuum degree
desired value
Lower limit of
vacuum degree
Turbine specific heat consumption
correction coefficient (%)
Sea water temperature (°C)
Area A--- Desired value (Design value ± Į)
Area B --- Area in which checking of the vacuum degree related instruments
should be checked.
Area C--- Area in which cause should be investigated and measures
conducted.
Fig. 2.4.2.4-4 Philosophy on desired value of vacuum degree.

(4) Investigation method of cause for deviation of vacuum degree from the desired value
When a deviation seen from the vacuum desired value is found with measuring instruments in a normal state, in
general, investigate the following.
1.Increase in leak in quantity of air
The lowering of the vacuum degree occurs when leak in exceeds the extraction capacity of the vacuum pump.
2.Lowering of cleanliness of tubing
With no increase in the leak in air amount and with the vacuum pump found to be normal, the cause of lowering
of the vacuum degree is often caused by the lowering of cleanliness of the tubing.
3.Lowering of the cooling water volume
When the cooling water volume drops, an increase of difference in the cooling water inlet, outlet temperature
(UT), increase of CWP discharge pressure, and lowering of the condenser water chamber level occurs, and an
abnormality of the condenser side (tubing clogging, siphon cut-off, etc.), abnormality of the CWP side ‘CWP


52
performance lowering, CWP chamber water level lowering, check washing valve seat leak, etc. are conceivable.
4.Abnormality of the vacuum pump
When an abnormality of the vacuum pump is seen, conduct changeover testing with a spare machine and
compare the respective air extraction amount and vacuum degree.
Also, since the seal water relations of the vacuum pump greatly affect the vacuum degree, pay attention to the
following points.
a. Increase in seal water temperature by contamination of the seal water cooler, increase of bearing
cooling water temperature.
b. Shortage of seal water by abnormality of the seal water pump, clogging of the discharge strainer of
the pump, etc.
c. Lowering of water level by malfunctioning of float valve for seal water tank water level adjustment
5.Increase of condenser heat load
The desired value of the vacuum degree is calculated from the design heat load, cooling water amount, and
heating surface, etc. and if the heat load increases above the design value, even if the cooling water volume and
others are in accordance with designed values, the vacuum degree decreases. Especially, with the once-through
boiler unit, leakage of the respective bypass valves from the start-up bypass system to the condenser causes
lowering of thermal efficiency and care should be exercised.
(5) Performance curve
The vacuum degree of the condenser is affected by the condenser load, cooling water inlet temperature, and
cooling water volume. Condenser pressure is obtained from saturation steam temperature t
s
.

p p
p c
s
e
t t
t
e
c G
Q
t t
1
1
1
)
1
1 (
1 2
1
÷
÷
+ =
÷ × × ×
+ =
¸
(1)
Where
¸ × ×
×
=
p c
c G
K A
p (2)
Figure shows an example of the condenser performance curve. The condenser pressure change at the time of
changes in condenser heat load and cooling water inlet temperature when the cooling water volume is constant is
shown. When the condenser pressure is recorded by the elapse of time in this curve, the contamination coefficient,
etc. of the cooling pipe may be assumed. This curve is a straight line at the time of no load to a certain load. When
the condenser load is small or the inner pressure is low, the condenser pressure is restricted by the performance of
the air extraction device and there are cases where the pressure to be obtained by equation (1) cannot be obtained.



53


Fig. 2.4.2.4-5 Assumed performance curve of the condenser

2.4.2.6 High pressure water feed heater
In a condition with a constant rated output, to measure the water feed outlet terminal temperature difference
(T.D.) as well as the drain outlet temperature difference (D.C.), the following data items are collected, evaluated
and countermeasures executed.
x Water feed temperature (inlet, outlet) of the respective high pressure water feed heater
x Extraction temperature, pressure of the respective high pressure water feed heater
x Drain outlet temperature of the respective high pressure water feed heater
x Inner pressure of the respective high pressure water feed heater
x Drain flow rate of the respective high pressure water feed heater
x Drain level of the respective high pressure water feed heater
x Drain water level adjusting valve opening of the respective high pressure water feed heater
x Water feed pressure loss
The water feed outlet terminal temperature difference (T.D.) and the outlet temperature difference (D.C.) are
obtained from the following equations
T. D=T
S
-T
W
(OUT)
D.C= T
d
-T
W
(IN)
Where
T.D. : Water feed outlet terminal temperature difference (°C)
D.C. : Drain outlet temperature difference (°C)
T
S
: Saturation temperature (qC) to water feed heater inlet steam pressure
T
W
(OUT) : Water feed outlet temperature (qC)
Td : Drain outlet temperature (qC)
T
W
(IN) : Water feed outlet temperature (qC)
(1) The effect by the water feed heater performance on the turbine cycle
a. The number of water feed heater units and temperature increase
Although decided with consideration of the heater output and economy, in general, from an economical aspect,
6 to 8 heaters are installed for 200 MW and over. There is a close connection between the number of water feed
heaters and temperature increase and in regard to water feed temperature rise per unit of water feed heater, it is


54
desirable to raise the temperature evenly with heaters of less than the reheating point in the one step reheating
cycle. From the aspect of performance, it is optimal to plan to increase the average temperature rise at the low
pressure feed water heater rather than to increase the temperature of the feed water reheater by extraction from the
reheating pump.
This temperature rise is restricted by the thermal stress, etc. of the water chamber and normally, the increase is
suppressed to around 20 to 75qC.
(2) Effect by terminal temperature difference (T.D.) change
To obtain the effect on turbine heat rate by T.D. changes, the extraction quantity changes to the respective water
heat heater T.D. change are calculated, and with the turbine inlet steam quantity kept constant, the heat rate may
be obtained from the extraction quantity change and output quantity change. The following shows an example of
calculation in regard to a high pressure feed water heater.
a. Trial calculation data
Subject unit 600MW
At rated output, when T.D. is +3qC
b. Trial calculation results
x Decrease of extraction quantity by T.D. increase
EXT


x Turbine room input heat increase by reheated steam quantity increase by extraction quantity decrease by
T.D increase

x Exhaust quantity increase by extraction quantity decrease by T.D. increase

x Increase of exhaust loss heat quantity by exhaust quantity increase

x Output heat decrease from the turbine room by feed water temperature decreasing

x Increase of turbine room consumption UQ




55


Condenser
G : Flow rate kg/h
T : Temperature qC
I : Enthalpy kcal/kg
CRH, HRH : Low, high temperature
reheated steam
EXT : Extraction
EXH : Exhaust
FW : Water feed
I, O : Inlet, outlet
COND : Condensed water

x Output change
(increase)


x Turbine room thermal efficiency HR after T.D. increase

Reference heat
consumption
Reference output
x Heat rate change ratio

x Gross thermal efficiency change quantity


2.4.2.7 Boiler exhaust gas control
Together with the reduction of boiler exhaust gas loss and saving of fuel expenses, to reduce the running costs
of boiler operation and maintenance expenses, and repair expenses, and attempt to improve overall efficiency,
control values are set on the AH low temperature part average temperature, exhaust gas temperature control
exhaust gas O
2
value, and AH air leakage ratio and control are executed.
(1) AH low temperature average temperature control
In accordance with the sulfuric contents in the used fuel, the optimum value is set for each boiler with sulfuric
Reference output
Reference specific heat
consumption (HR)
Reference
output


56
acid dew point measurement etc. as a reference and upon confirming the corrosion situation of the AH element,
etc. staged lowering is attempted. It is desirable to set the average temperature control value at the maximum
point of sulfuric acid condensation quantity in accordance with the sulfur contents of the used fuel but reduction
should not be made in one stroke but in stages with consideration of the following points and confirming that
there are no problems.
x Deviation of the theoretical value and actual record value of the sulfuric acid dew point
x The relation between the sulfur contents in the fuel and produced SO3 density.
x Local metal temperature drop by unbalance of gas temperature distribution
(2) Exhaust gas temperature control
The AH outlet exhaust gas temperature differs greatly by boiler according to the boiler and AH structure, and
the kind of fuel and since it fluctuates greatly by factors such as load and atmospheric temperature and air leakage
of AH, it is difficult to set a standard but it is set upon executing of countermeasures on temperature decrease of
exhaust gas by each boiler, conducting an actual machine test with the AH element in the best condition, with the
air leakage in the minimum condition and based on these results, with exhaust gas control data as a reference and
with the atmospheric pressure as the parameter. The deviating trend to the control value is grasped and when the
deviation is large and continuous, the following deviation factors are analyzed and appropriate measures are to be
taken.
x Lowering of exhaust gas temperature by increase in AH air leakage amount
x Aging deterioration by corrosion, wear of AH, and rising of exhaust gas temperature by lowering of AH
performance by staining of the heating surface, etc.
x Increase of exhaust gas temperature incident to dry gas quantity increase by Combustion gas O
2
(Excess
air factor)
x Those by characteristic changes of the fuel.
(3) Control of exhaust gas O
2
The Eco outlet combustion gas O
2
differs by each boiler, depending on the boiler, combustion method, and type
of fuel. Therefore, a combustion test is to be made after improvement of combustion facility or after periodic
inspection as required, O
2
distribution is to be measured, abnormality of instruments, inappropriateness of
detection point, faulty combustion, etc., deviation factors from control values are to be analyzed, and if a large
deviation situation continues, the O
2
meter, burner tip, and body, and damper are to be checked for combustion air
or exhaust gas O
2
distribution is to be measured and suitable measures taken.
(4) AH air leakage ratio
The temperature of the gas which passes the boiler will differ depending on the boiler condition (cold boiler hot
boiler, etc.) which in turn effects changes in the amount of heat deformation. Therefore, to prevent leakage of
AH air, the setting of respective seals is calculated in advance and the gap value is set in a cold boiler condition so
that the clearance becomes minimum in rated load operation but a certain amount of leakage is unavoidable.
However, with the new type AH, with the improvement of the seal plate supporting method and additions to the
seal section, direct leakage from the seal gap has been improved compared with the old type. Furthermore, to
reduce leakage from the high temperature side radial seal which was the greatest leakage factor during operation,
a sensor drive system of the high temperature side sector plate has been developed. With this system, the rotor
shaft side that controls the gap between the sector plate and seal to a minimum under any boiler operation
condition is structured so that it constantly follows the contraction-expansion of the rotor, and control is conducted
so that only the gap of the rotor periphery and sector plate outer end section gap becomes minimum.

2.5 Example of Operation Control and Performance Management (Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc)
2.5.1 Overview of Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc.
Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc. was established in May 1951 to supply electricity in the Hokkaido region.
With an area of about 83,500km
2
and a population of 5.7 million, Hokkaido is flourishing in agriculture, fishery and
tourism. The capital city, Sapporo, with a population of 1.7 million, located at 45 degrees at north latitude, once hosted
the winter Olympics in 1972, and has held “Sapporo Snow Festival” every February visited by numerous visitors
including those from foreign countries.
Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc., established on May 1, 1951, has the headquarters in Sapporo and has been
engaged in electric power generation, transmission and distribution by about 5,800 employees. Table 2.5.1-1shows the
electric energy sale, the supply facilities and transmission and distribution facilities.

Electric energy demand Total 30,833 GWh
Year 2005 Electric light 11,540 GWh
Electric power 2,218 GWh
Specific scale 17,075 GWh
Supply facilities Total 66 places 6,505 MW
Hydro-electric power station 53 places 1,231 MW
Thermal power station 12 places 4,115 MW
Nuclear power station 1 place 1,158 MW
Transmission and distribution facilities Transmission distance 8,230 km
Transforming station 369 places 19,300 MVA
Distribution line distance 66,753 km

Table 2.5.1-1



The company has 12 thermal power stations. The breakdown is shown in Table 2.5.2.

Steam power station 6 places 3,900 MW
Gas turbine power station 1 places 148 MW
Internal combustion power station 4 places 17.4 MW
Geothermal power station 1 places 50 MW

Table 2.5.1-2

Fig. 2.5.1 Thermal Power Stations of Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc.
Okhotsk Sea
Japan Sea
Sunagawa
power station
Naie power station
Onbetsu power station
Sapporo
Date power station
Tomatouatsuma power station
Tomakomai power station
Mori power station
Pacific Ocean
Shiriuti power station
57
2.5.2Overview of Coal Thermal Power Station
The steam power stations are six places include seven units of coal thermal power stations in three places. The outline of the facilities of these seven units is shown in Table 2.5.3.


Start of
operation
Authorized
output
Main steam Reheat steam Boiler type
Boiler
efficiency
Turbine
efficiency
Unit
efficiency
Name
Date MW
Fuel
Pressure
(MPa)
Temperature
(͠)
Temperature
(͠)
No.1 unit Oct., 1980 350 16.6 566 538 Natural circulation 87.28 45.03 39.41
No.2 unit Oct., 1985 600 24.1 538 566 Supercritical once-through 87.91 47.70 41.93
Tomatouatsuma
No.4 unit Jun., 2002 700
Foreign
coal
25.0 600 600
Ultra supercritical
once-through
88.73 49.83 44.21
No.1 unit May, 1968 175 16.6 566 538 Natural circulation 87.08 45.14 39.26
Naie
No.2 unit Feb., 1970 175 16.6 566 538 Natural circulation 87.08 45.55 39.40
No.3 unit Jun., 1977 125 12.5 538 538 Natural circulation 85.72 43.63 37.41
Sunagawa
No.4 unit May, 1982 125
Domestic
coal
17.7 538 538 Subcritical once-through 86.27 45.40 39.16


Table 2.5.2

2.5.3Practice in Tomatouatuma Power Station
2.5.3.1 Organization and Service
This power station is operated by 102 personnel in three divisions. The operation of environmental facilities has been outsourced to the affiliated companies. Fig. 2.5.3-1 shows the
organization and service.










58
Power Station Organization and Operation /Management System

Fig.2.5.3-1
Power Station Organization
Operation /Management of Power Stations
Machinery staff
Electrical
Measurement staff
Maintenance
Div.
Business staff
Environment
Engineering Staff
Operation staff
Management staff
Environment
Facility Staff
Generation Div.
Environment
Engineering Div.
Deputy manager
Station manager
Planning and management of maintenance, repair of facilities and daily maintenance as well as
repair and maintenance works
1. Supervision, communication, PR, investigation planning/execution of environmental conservation
matters
2. Operation/management of smoke, feed/waste water, ash handling facilities, environment
monitoring facilities.
3. Investigation, test planning and execution for operation/performance of facilities
4. Treatment/management, utilization planning/execution of waste after generation
5. Analysis management, chemical investigation of fuel, boiler water, etc
6. Accident prevention/safety for hazardous materials
1. Oversight, communication, PR related power station management
2. Operation/ management of generation facilities (except Environment Engineering related)
3. Management of fuel
4. Compilation, analysis, management of operation history data
5. Investigation, test planning and execution for operation/performance of facilities
6. Press release and public hearing
7. General affairs, emergency/disaster office, PR, document control, administration
8. Personnel affairs, education, labor, welfare, safety and health
9. Accounts, land management
10. Other items not supervised by other divisions
For operation of power stations, the following shall be conducted under the supervision based on the
regulations and policies stipulated by the head office (Thermal Power Dept.)
Main generation related operations outsourced to other companies
࡮Cleaning, greening, security, port management
࡮Coal stock, transportation, ash handling work
࡮Operation and monitoring of smoke, feed/waste water facilities
࡮Chemical analysis work
࡮Daily maintenance / inspection work
59
2.5.3.2 Operation System
The power station consists of two rooms: the central control room where the boiler, turbine and generator are operated,
and the centralized management room where the environmental facilities are operated. The detail is shown in Fig.
2.5.3-2

Generation manager Environment
engineering manager









Engineering assistant
manager
+
4 personnel

Facility assistant manager

+
6 personnel

Operation
management of
environmental facilities

Operation management of
environmental facilities


Administration
deputy manager
+
7 personnel

Control of BTG
generation facilities



Central control unit




× 5 groups





Operation of BTG
generation facilities
Centralized management
room (operation is
outsourced to affiliated
companies)

Daytime shift (11
personnel)
+


× 4 groups



Operation of
environmental facilities





Operation
assistant
manager +
Operators (8
people)
Team
leader + 8
operators
Fig. 2.5.3-2

2.5.4. Management for Operating Power Station
Various kinds of managements have been carried out in accordance with the standards set forth in “Steam Power
Generation Facilities Maintenance and Service Manual”.

2.5.4.1 Operation Management
The “Steam Power Generation Facilities Maintenance and Service Manual” stipulates the operation management
standard (Table 2.5.4-1), setting standard for control and permissible values for trial operation (Table 2.5.4-2), etc.
In addition to usual monitoring by operators, the plant operation conditions are input into computers (see Fig. 2.5.4-3:
System Configuration) for proper control.

ޚ Examples of management documents
- Daily report (Table 2.5.4-4):One hour value (24 points), maximum-, minimum-, average values, and
one-day energy amount for the management items
- Monthly report (Table 2.5.4-5):Boiler and turbine maintenance logs, month-end generation records, etc.
60
Table 2.5.4-1 Operational Management Standard

Measure location Record frequency
Indicator Operation management items Unit
Measure
values
Control values
under normal
operation
Recorder
office Site
1/
day
1/
month
1/
year
As
needed
Remarks
Operation time Hrs/min.
Daily and
monthly
totals

{ {
Paralle – parallel off (Start sending air – stop for
house boiler)
Generated energy MWh
Daily and
monthly
totals
Rated output u
24 hours { { { {

Generator output MW Max value Rated output { { { Maximum value within 1 hour
Main stop valve steam
pressure
MPa
Max value Rated value u
1.05
{ { {
Sum up monthly the operation time 5% over rated
pressure
Main stop valve steam
temperature
qC
Max value Rated value +
8qC
{ { {
Sum up monthly the operation time at 8qC, 14qC,
28qC over rated temperature.
Reheat stop valve steam
pressure
MPa
Max value Rated value u
1.05
{ { {

Reheat stop valve steam
temperature
qC
Max value Rated value +
8qC
{ { {
Sum up monthly the operation time at 8qC, 14qC,
28qC over rated temperature.
Main steam flow rate t/h
Max value Smaller one of
the MCR or
turbine intake
{ { {

Condenser vacuum mmHg Min value Min operation { { { { Atmospheric pressure corrected value
Coal (humidity) t
Crude oil kl
Heavy oil kl
Orimulsion t
F
u
e
l

C
o
n
s
u
m
p
t
i
o
n

Diesel oil kl
Monthly
total

{ { { For generation
* Over rated
Shaft Under 12.5 Turbine vibration amplitude 1/100mm
Max value JEAC3717
caution value* {

{ {
Bearing
No.
Amplitude
Bearing Under 6.25


61

Measure location Record frequency
Indicator Operation management items Unit
Measure
values
Control values
under normal
operation
Recoder
office Site
1/
day
1/
month
1/
year
As
needed
Remarks
pH (25qC) {
Silica PgSiO
2
/l {
Boiler
water
quality
Electric
conductivity
PS/cm {
pH (25qC) {
Silica PgSiO
2
/l {
Electric
conductivity
PS/cm {
Feed water
quality
Dissolve O
2
PgO/l
Average
value
Water quality
standard value
{
According to “thermal power station water
management manual”
RBOT minute Over 70 mins. {
All oxidization mgKOH/g Under 0.3 {
Impurities mg/100ml Under 10 {
Kinetic viscosity
(40qC)
mm
2
/s

(New oil
standard) r 10%
{
Water content mg/l Under 500 {
Lubricate
oil for
turbine
Color phase ASTM
-
Under 4 {
According to “turbine oil management manual”
Gross Unit
efficiency Net
%

Calculate
value

{

Boiler drum water level mm Highest,
lowest
Warning value
{ {

Boiler drum pressure MPa Maximum Rated u 1.05 { { {
Superheater spray flow rate t/h Maximum Max operation { { {
Reheater spray flow rate t/h Maximum Max operation { { {
Turbine ejector pressure MPa Maximum Rated u 1.05 { { {
Turbine ejector temperature qC Maximum Rated + 8qC { { {
Bearing inlet oil pressure MPa Minimum Warning value { { {
Bearing outlet oil pressure qC Maximum Warning value { { {
Turbine contro oil pressure MPa Minimum Warning value { { {

62
63

Measure location Record frequency
Indicator Operation management items Unit
Measure
values
Control values
under normal
operation
Recorder
office Site
1/
day
1/
month
1/
year
As
needed
Remarks
Control valve opness % Maximum Max operation { { { Also possible with cum angel
Expansion of turbine shaft
mm

Maximum
{ { {
Managed by difference expansion warming value
for more than 2 casings
Expansion of turbine shaft mm Maximum { { {
Expansion of turbine shaft,
casing
mm

Maximum Warning value
{ { More than 2 casings
Turbine speed rpm Maximum Rated u 1.05 { { {



64
Table 2.5.4-2
Setting Standard for Control and Permissible Values for Trial Operation
(Boiler)
Items Unit
Control value standard setting
for trail operation
Permissible value standard
setting for trail operation
Remarks
Generator load MW Rated output
(referred to as “rated”
hereafter)
Rated output
(referred to as “rated”
hereafter)
p
Economizer inlet feed water MPa Design pressure for rated Design pressure for rated u
1.05
p
Superheater inlet or main steam Steam pressure for rated Steam pressure for rated u
1.05
p
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

Reheater outlet steam Design steam pressure for
rated
Design steam pressure for
rated u 1.05
p
Economizer inlet feed water qC Design temperature for rated MCR or max operation value p
Superheater inlet or main steam Design temperature for rated Design temp for rated + 8qC <
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

Reheater outlet steam Design temperature for rated Design temp for rated + 8qC <
Main steam t/h Design flow rate for rated MCR or turbine intake amount p
Feed water
Design flow rate for rated
MCR p
Superheater spray
Design flow rate for rated
MCR or max operation value p
F
l
o
w

r
a
t
e

Reheater spray
Design flow rate for rated
MCR or max operation value p
Drum water level mm Design water level for rated Warning value p n
Economizer gas oxygen
concentration
% Object value for rated Warming value (low) n
Furnace kPa Design value for rated Warning value p n
Forced fan outlet pressure Design value for rated Fan rated value p
Pulverizer inner pressure (For vertical
mill, pressure difference of primary
fan)
Design value for rated Minimum flow speed (For
vertical mill, mill pressure
difference corresponding to
min. flow speed)
n
Pulverizer coal surface Design value for rated Tube mill: Warning value n or
p n

Wind box Design value for rated Equilibrium: lower limit,
pressureized: MCR
n
Gas mixing fan Design value for rated MCR p
Gas recirculating fan Design value for rated Fan rated value p
Induced fan inlet pressure Design value for rated Fan rated value p
D
r
a
f
t

Air preheater gas outlet/inlet
difference
Design value for rated MCR or max operation value p
Reheater inlet
(superheater outlet)
qC Design value for rated MCR p
Air preheater inlet
Design value for rated
MCR or max operation value p
C
o
m
b
u
s
t
i
o
n

g
a
s

q
C

Air preheater outlet
Design value for rated
MCR or max operation value p
Air preheater outlet qC
Design value for rated
MCR or max operation value p
Pulverizer inlet
Design value for rated
Max operation value p
A
i
r

q
C

Pulverizer outlet
Design value for rated
Warning value p
Auxiliary equipment motor A Rated current of motor Rated current of motor p
Auxiliary equipment bearing temperature qC Operation value for rated Warning value or max
operation value
p

65

Inlet feed water temperature qC Design value for pump Highest operation value p
Feed water flow rate t/h
Design value for pump
Pump rated value p
Feed water inlet pressure MPa
Design value for pump
NPSH or minimum value
(Booster inlet pressure:
NPSH)
n
T
u
r
b
i
n
e

d
r
i
v
e
n

f
e
e
d

Feed water outlet pressure MPa
Design value for pump
Rated value or warning value
(whole pumping process +
pump inlet: MCR)
n


Items Unit
Control value standard setting
for trail operation
Permissible value standard
setting for trail operation
Remarks
Boiler water circulating pump inlet/outlet
pressure differential
MPa Design value for pump Warning value (low) n
Rotation speed rpm Design value for rated Design turbine rotation p n
Feed water flow rate t/h
Design value for rated
Pump rated value p
Feed water outlet pressure MPa
Design value for rated
Warning value or min
operation value
n
Steam inlet pressure MPa
Design value for rated
Turbine design pressure u 1.05 p
T
u
r
b
i
n
e

d
r
i
v
e
n

f
e
e
d

p
u
m
p

Steam inlet temperature qC Design value for rated Turbine design temperature +
8qC
<
Coal consumption t/h Design value for rated Rated value for pulverizer p
Burner pressure MPa Design value for rated Warning value n
Temperature qC Design value for rated Warning value p
F
u
e
l

H
e
a
v
y
/
c
r
u
d
e

o
i
l

Flow rate t/h Design value for rated MCR or facility’s max
capacity
p
F
u
e
l

p
u
m
p
Fuel pump outlet pressure MPa Design value for rated Pump rated value p

Explanation of signs in “Remarks” column
p: To be operated at or under permissible value (For warning value only, under permissible value)
n: To be operated at or over permissible value (For warning value only, over permissible value)
pn: To be operated within the range of permissible value
: No description as control value is necessary required
<: To be operated under the permitted level

66
(Turbine)
Items Unit
Control value standard setting
for trail operation
Permissible value standard
setting for trail operation
Remarks
Generator load MW Rated output
(referred to as “rated”
hereafter)
Rated output
(referred to as “rated”
hereafter)
p
Main steam MPa Steam pressure for rated Steam pressure for rated u
1.05
p
First stage outlet Design steam pressure for
rated
Design pressure for rated u
1.05
p
High-pressure turbine outlet Design steam pressure for
rated
Design pressure for rated u
1.05
p
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

Reheater outlet steam Design steam pressure for
rated
Design pressure for rated u
1.05
p
Main steam qC Steam temperature for rated Steam temperature for rated +
8qC
<
High-pressure turbine Design steam temperature for
rated
Design steam temperature for
rated
<
Reheat steam Steam temperature for rated Steam temperature for rated +
8qC
<
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

Exhaust room Saturation steam temp for
design vacuum
Warning value p
Control oil MPa Design oil pressure for rated Warning value n
O
i
l

Bearing oil Design oil pressure for rated n
Control valve operness (cum angle) % (deg) Design openness for rated Max operation value p
Condenser vacuum kPa Design vacuum Max operation value n
Difference expansion mm Design difference expansion
for rated
Warning value p
Thrust bearing qC Supply oil temperature
+ 20qC
Warning value p
B
e
a
r
i
n
g

r
e
t
u
r
n

o
i
l

Radial bearing Supply oil temperature
+ 20qC
Warning value p
Vibration (shaft / bearing) 1/100
mm
At or under warning value
Caution value in JEAC3717 p
Pressure MPa
Design pressure for rated
Maximum operation value p
A
i
r

b
l
e
e
d

Temperature qC
Design temperature for rated
p
Explanation of signs in “Remarks” column
p: To be operated at or under permissible value (For warning value only, under permissible value)
n: To be operated at or over permissible value (For warning value only, over permissible value)
pn: To be operated within the range of permissible value
: No description as control value is necessary required
<: To be operated under the permitted level

Fig 2.5.4-3
Appendix 3㪄2

Schematic of Thermal Performance / Heat Management System
67
Power Station
Head Office
Thermal Power Dept
Calculation Center
Input from other depts.
Input for unsystemized power stations
Data link to other depts.
Plant control system Performance management system Heat management system

Performance Business transaction
automation calculators
Performance
Large computers management system management system Unit calculator
Temperature sensor

Heat management
Data
transmission
statistic data
Pressure sensor
Lsw, etc
(1) Heat management data check

(2) Compilation, calculations

(3) Report output

Performance management
terminal
Business terminal
Business terminal

Unit calculator process functions
Display current
output of each
generator
Output various
monthly reports

Distribution
Submit to government
agencies
(Specified formats)
(1) Heat management data check output

(2) Monthly report output

Performance management
terminal

(1)Operation history
(2)Operation condition monitor
(3)Plant efficiency analysis
(4)Start/stop loss management
(5)Equipment management
(6)Turbine thermal stress calculate
(7)Unit start/stop
Ex. Tomato-Atsuma Unit No.2
(1) Operation history

(2)Operation condition search

(3)Plant efficiency analysis

(4)Start/stop loss management
Boiler/turbine maintenance diary

(5)Auxiliary equipment
preparation
operation time,
start/stop times

Table 2.5.4-4

68

69
70

71
72



Monthly Report (Table 2.5.4-5)…..Boiler and Turbine Maintenance Log, Month-end Generation Record, etc



73
74

April, 2004

Month Eng Generation Record
Items This month After last inspection Cumulative total
(B) 15837 – 35
Generation time
Hr – Min
720 – 00
(T) 15837 - 35
18821 - 02
(B) 10,853,339
Generated output
MWh 447,775
(T) 10,853,339
12,348,254
(B) 6
Startup times times
0
(T) 6
34
Coal (w) t 144,001 3,558,145 Fuel
Consumption Diesel oil kl 16.3 1,650.4
Gross efficiency % 42.64
Net efficiency % 40.70


This month After last inspection
Items
Main steam Reheat steam Main steam Reheat steam
(B) 0- 01 Time operated with steam pressure
5% over rated pressure
hours -
min
0 - 00

(T) 0- 01

(B) 0- 00 (B) 0- 00 Time operated with steam temp
8qC over rated temperature
hours -
min
0 - 00 0 - 00
(T) 0- 00 (T) 0- 00
(B) 0- 00 (B) 0- 00 Time operated with steam temp
14qC over rated temperature
hours -
min
0 - 00 0 - 00
(T) 0- 00 (T) 0- 00
(B) 0- 00 (B) 0- 00 Time operated with steam temp
28qC over rated temperature
hours -
min
0 - 00 0 - 00
(T) 0- 00 (T) 0- 00


Water Quality Management Record

Items
Control value Measured value
CWT
operation
8.5 – 9.0 8.82
pH (25qC)
AVT
operation
9.3 – 9.5 -
Silica PgSiO
2
/l 20 p 3
CWT
operation
0.2 p 0.05
Electric
conductivity
PS/cm
AVT
operation
0.3 p -
CWT
operation
20 – 200 p 100.0
Dissolved
oxygen
PgO/l
AVT
operation
7 p -

75
2.5.4.2 Management System by Computer
(1) Functions of unit computer
x Input of unit operation conditions, and display and print-out of necessary data
x Output of daily reports needed for daily management
x Data collection and efficiency calculation needed for performance management
x Calculation of turbine thermal stress
x Start/stop of the unit
(2) Functions of performance management system
x Tabulation of statistical thermal management data and transmission of them to the headquarters
x Collection of performance test data and thermal efficiency calculation
x Accumulation of major operation condition values of the unit
o Retrieval of operation condition values and trend monitoring are available
o Turbine efficiency calculation, condenser cleanliness calculation, management of heat exchanger
operation conditions, management of major equipment operating hours, etc
x Management of start/stop loss
x Document-output aid in the designated form
(3) Plant management system
x Tabulation of operation data from all the power stations
x Output of various monthly and yearly reports in and out of the company
(Major report data: generated energy, thermal efficiency, in-station ratio, utilization ratio, fuel
consumption performance, etc)

2.5.4.3 Other Management
(1) Start/stop loss management
The start/stop loss, which does not serve for generation, is properly managed because the fuel, in-house
electricity and supplementary steam amount used for start/stop largely affect the efficiency and costs.

(2) Periodical Equipment Tests
Protection devices and other equipment are periodically tested to check for correct operation.
x Turbine-valve stick prevention test
x Protection device operation test (oil pump automatic startup and thrust wear test, emergency speed
governor lockout test)
x Startup test of emergency power supply device (gas turbine)
x Periodical switching to backup machine



2.5.4.4 Daily Inspection of Facilities (patrol)
The patrol of facilities, items and the patrol method are stipulated in Table 2.5.8. Usually, daily and priority patrols are
carried out by the operator once per shift. Also the patrol by managers and the safety-focused patrols are carried out as
needed.

{ Shift time and patrol time
22:00 8:00 16:00 22:00
Shift 1 Shift 2 Shift 3
Patrol S S S
Specific patrol U U U

76
Daily Inspection Standard
Frequency
Facilities Items
1 / day 3 / day
Method Remarks
Boiler
safety valve
Drum safety valve, superheater
safety valve, reheater safety
valve, etc
Leakage {
Tentacle, visual,
hearing

Defects in hangers { Visual
Vibration { Tentacle, hearing
Main
piping
Main steam, reheat steam, feed
water, condenser pipings, etc
Leakage { Visual, hearing
Combustion
condition
{ Visual

Furnace Inside furnace
Situations inside { Visual, hearing
Vibration, unusual
sound
{ Tentacle, hearing
Temperature rise,
oil surface, oil
leakage
{
Tentacle, smell,
visual
Main
rotating
machine
(excluding
steam
turbine)
Forced draft fan, induceddraft
fan, gas recirculating fan, gas
mixing fan, boiler water pump,
feed water pump (MD, TD),
pulverizer, heavy oil pump,
orimulsion pump, circulating
water pump, condenser pump,
condenser booster pump, etc
Leakage from
gland part
{ Visual
Heavy oil pump for power
stations using such fuel,
orimulsion for Shiriuchi PS
only
Vibration, unusual
sound from valve
{ Tentacle, hearing

Steam leak from
valve gland
{ Visual, hearing
Main
valves
Main stop valve, control valve,
reheat stop valve, intermediate
prevention valve
Abnormality in
working
{ Tentacle, hearing

Vibration unusual
sound, temperature
{ Tentacle, see, hear

Steam leak from
casing
{ Visual, hearing

Oil drain from
bearing
{ Visual

Steam turbine
Loosening of nut,
bolt
{ Visual, tentacle

Leakage { Visual, hearing Main heat
exchanger
Feed water heater, deaerator,
cooling tower, etc Water level { Visual
Generator
Main body, collector ring,
excitation board, etc
Usual sound,
vibration,
smell
{
Visual, hearing,
tentacle, smell

Relays
Auto voltage adjuster, relay
board, power board, etc
Usual sound,
smell
{ Visual, hearing, smell

Breaker C/C, L/C, MCS
Usual sound,
smell
{ Visual, hearing, smell

Hydrogen
seal oil
equipment
Hydrogent cooler, seal oil
equipment, etc
Usual sound,
vibration,
smell,
leaking
{
Visual, hearing,
tentacle, smell

Armature
cooling
equipment
Amature cooling equipment
Usual sound,
vibration,
smell
{
Visual, hearing,
tentacle, smell

Main
transformer
Main, house, startup,
transformers
Usual sound,
vibration,
smell,
leaking
{ Visual, hearing, smell


Table 2.5.4-6
77
d. Performance Management
2.5.5 Efficiency management on a daily basis
(1) Maintenance of proper operation by condition monitor, equipment patrol, record meters, diary record.
Observe whether the output, pressure, temperature, flow rate of steam, condenser vacuum, fuel consumption are
properly maintained.
(2) Operation for performance maintenance
࡮ Condenser vacuum is maintained by reflecting the cleanliness management in the operation of backwashing,
a ball washing equipment.
࡮ Reduction of exhaust gas loss is improved as heat collection of each section is promoted by operation of
boiler as well as preheater soot blower.

2.5.5.2 Performance test
(1) Objective
Operation data and thermal efficiency is to be obtained after unit is kept constant, eliminating as many external factors
as possible for affecting the efficiency fluctuations so as to compare the against changes and conditions before/after
periodic inspection. (See Appendix 2.5-1Steam Power Station Performance Test Manual)
(2) Frequency
Before periodical inspection 100% load
After periodical inspection 100% load or needed for operation
(3) Management items
1. Thermal efficiency (measured value, corrected value)
࡮ Gross thermal efficiency
࡮ Net thermal efficiency
࡮ Auxiliary power ratio
࡮ Boiled room efficiency
࡮ Turbine room efficiency
2. Boiler room heat loss
Heat loss is calculated by adding various losses, such as, dry gas loss, loss caused by water and hydrogen
content in fuel, unburned matter loss, etc
3. Efficiency correction
Test results are kept in a constant condition by adjusting the values such atmospheric temperature, steam
temperature/pressure, condenser vacuum and etc to design values.
4. Preparation of control charts
Test results are displayed in charts and, for significant changes, analysis is done.
(4) Results of performance test
The results and records of the performance test conducted at Tomato-atsuma coal fired power plant are shown in table
2.5.5-1. Additionally an actual example of performance control chart administrated at the same power plant is shown
in table 2.5.2-2.

Table 2.5.5-1
78
79
80
81
82

83







{Transition in Thermal Efficiency (Generating End) in 2007 [for December]
The thermal efficiency of each unit has no problem within the control range.
control chart (3ı method)
Maintenance Division Environmental Engineering Division Electricity Power Generation Division
Deputy Manager Deputy Manager Deputy Manager
(Central control room)
Director
Deputy
Director Manager Steam
Drum
Steam
Equipment
Computer
Manager Environmental
Facilities
Environmental
Engineering
Manager
operation

management
person
in
charge

A B C D E

No. 1 Unit
No. 2 Unit
No. 4 Unit
Year
Year
Year
Thermal
efficiency
Thermal efficiency
Thermal efficiency
variation
Thermal efficiency
variation
under survey
Low
coefficient of
use
efficiency (month)
38.28
Beginning 38.03
Middle 38.61
End 38.19
efficiency (month)
40.74
Beginning 41.68
Middle 40.63
End 39.96
coefficient of
use
bowl cleansing stop to vacuum down
periodical check
efficiency (month)
43.73
Beginning 43.60
Middle 43.90
End 43.70
(thermal efficiency)
upper limit 38.65
average value 37.88
lower limit 37.10
(amount of change)
upper limit 0.95
average value 0.96
(thermal efficiency)
upper limit 41.19
average value 40.43
lower limit 39.68
(amount of change)
upper limit 0.93
average value 0.28
(thermal efficiency)
upper limit 43.78
average value 42.98
lower limit 42.18
(amount of change)
upper limit 0.98
average value 0.30 Variation of thermal efficiency

Thermal efficiency
Table 2.5.5-2
Previous
fiscal year
Utilization
factor
Previous
fiscal year
Utilization
factor
Previous
fiscal year
Utilization
factor

84
Appendix 2.5-1
Q-1-7
Steam Power Stations Performance Test Manual
April 1, 1995
Revised June 1, 2004 (First revision)
(Jurisdiction) Thermal Power Department

(Contents)
I. General
1. Objective of Performance Test
2. Implementation of Performance Test

II. Methods for Performance Test
1. Operational Condition for Testing
2. Measurement of Test Data
3. Measuring Equipment
4. Measurement Data and Calculation Methods

Υ. Analysis of Test Data
1. Calculation Processing and Control charts
2. Preparation of charts

Attachment
1. Steam Power Generation Steam Schematic
2. Thermal Efficiency Calculation Equations
3. Performance Test Results (Actual)

Q-1-7
Steam Power Stations Performance Test Manual

This manual is to introduce standardized procedure for performance test methods for steam power stations based on
"Thermal Power Station Operation and Maintenance Regulations."

I. General
(1) Objective of Performance Test
The objective of performance test is to grasp the performance of each steam power station, to use such information in
daily operation and maintenance and to improve the energy efficiency in heat and electricity generated.

2. Implementation of Performance Test
(1) Responsibility for Implementation
Planning, implementation, consideration for performance test is done by each steam power station.
(2) Time and Number of Tests
a. Test time and number are shown in the table below. As for the load needed for operation, appropriate load
is be set based on the operational condition of each unit.
b. In the event a question arises against test results, re-test shall be conducted.
c. Flexible operation shall be done in case a test cannot be conducted in a certain load condition due to load
dispatching reasons and others, conducting such test on next occasion.

Test load
Test time
4/4 load Load needed for operation (minimum)
Before periodic inspection
(Note)
One time -
After periodic inspection
(Note)
One time One time
Note: Periodic inspection means regular maintenance company inspection and intermediate inspection.

(3) Performance Test
Calculation methods of various efficiency indexes for grasping performance of steam power stations are as shown in
the table below, whereas heat input-output methods are primarily applied for heavy/crude oil, bituminous mixture and
PFBC thermal units and loss methods for coal-fired thermal units.
Additional calculation methods are to be used as secondary methods, for reference in consideration of efficiency.

Items
Plant applied
Test name
(Primary)
Boiler room
efficiency
Turbine room
efficiency
Gas turbine room
efficiency
Plant efficiency
Heavy/crude oil
Bituminous mix
PFBC
Heat
input/output
method standard
Heat input/output
method
-

Heat
input/output
Heat input/output
method
Coal-fired
thermal power
Loss method
standard
Loss method


Heat
input/output
method


-
(Boiler room
efficiency) ˜
(Turbine room
efficiency)

(4) Measurement of Data
For testing, the main fuel is to be exclusively combusted and measurement of data is to be conducted after the
operational condition has become steady.
For more details, "II Methods for Performance Test;1.Operational Condition for Testing and 2.Measurement of Test
85
86
Data" is to be referred to. For measuring equipment largely affecting the test results, required precision needs to be
ensured. (Confer II Methods for Performance Test;3.Measuring Equipment)
(5) Analysis of Measured Data
Each thermal efficiency indexes are calculated from measured data and their results are analyzed using control charts.
(6) Report and Response to Test Results
Test results are to be immediately reported related authorities along with considerations. In the event any major
performance decrease is observed, necessary measures are taken.

II. Methods for Performance Test
1. Operational Condition for Testing
(1) Main fuel is to be exclusively combusted and operational condition shall be steady.
(2) Load shall be controlled to be constant by load limiter or the openness of control valve.
(3) The same burner is to be used for the same testing load.
(4) Auxiliary steam extraction to other units shall be stopped.
(5) Soot blower needs to be completed before test, otherwise efficiency correction for steam extraction is to be
done.
(6) Furnace bottom ash need be cleared before test if such affects the results.
(7) Pure water supply to make-up tank shall be stopped.
(8) Other matters are the same as normal operation.
2. Measurement of Test Data
(1) One hour before measurement, operational condition is to be set in testing load, confirming the steady
condition of each part, measurement is to be commenced.
(2) Measurement of record is conducted for 2 hours, every 30 minutes. Measurement of fuel consumption,
however, is to be conducted for 4 hours for obtaining precise values.
(3) Measurement of Fuel Consumption
• Coal·········· Sum of measurements of each coal scale, not taking into consideration the changes in coal
level in the hopper.
• Fuel oil ····· See flowmeter.
(4) Sampling of Fuel
• Coal·········· Considering the coal consumed in one test as 1 log, sample out 60 units of 500g specimen for
1 lot using auto-sampler of each coal scale (or equal time interval) and prepare 1
specimen for one test.
In case specimen sampling is impossible due to structural reasons for coal scale such
as sealed type, sampling is done using other proper methods.
• Fuel oil ····· Sample out 1 specimen for one test from lines after the tank outlet.
(5) Measurement of generator output is done using signals from the generator input into the plant management
system. (When such plant management system in not installed, integrated power meter in central control
room is to be used)
(6) Sampling of Ash (Only for coal-fired thermal power plant)
1 specimen for one test is sampled out from EP representing hopper or furnace bottom. In case, unburned
matter for MC or PC collected ash cannot be ascertained by EP ash, sample should be taken from MC and
PC.
87
(7) Sampling of exhaust gas is to be done at Eco outlet and designated point of AH outlet for analysis by Orsat
method or corresponding methods.
For PFBC unit, analysis is conducted between boiler outlet and gas turbine inlet.
(8) Items for Specimen Analysis are as follows;
Analysis of specimen is based on “Fuel Quality Test Manual.”


Type of fuel
Analysis items
Coal Heavy
crude oil
Bituminous mix Remarks
Calorific value c c c High standard
Density - c c
Humidity c - -
Moisture c U U Industrial analysis
F
u
e
l

Ash content c - -


Carbon c U U Elemental analysis
Hydrogen c U U ª
Nitrogen c U U ª
A
n
a
l
y
s
i
s

Combustive sulfur c U U ª
CO
2
c U U Orsat corresponding methods
CO c U U ª
Eco
Outlet
O
2
c U U ª
AH outlet O
2
c U U ª
E
x
h
a
u
s
t
e
d

g
a
s

a
n
a
l
y
s
i
s

Boiler outlet O
2
c - - PFBC Unit
Furnace clinker c - -
EP ash c - -
MC ash … - -
PC ash … - -
U
n
b
u
r
n
e
d

m
a
t
t
e
r

a
n
a
l
y
s
i
s


(Note) c : Items to be analyzed
U : Items analyzed when loss method is applied
… : Items analyzed as necessary
÷ : Items not analyzed
(9) Test procedure
It is as shown below:

Test Procedure
88
Time
Test load
Record
Coal sampling
Fuel consumption record
Heavy/crude oil, ash sample
Gas analysis
0 1H 2H 3H 4H 5H 6H

3. Measurement Equipment
(1) Precision of Meters
Measuring equipment shall be arranged according to the table, grasping its precision.
Measurement items Unit
Measuring
position
Input minimum
value (min. meter
reading)
Precision /
tolerance
Remarks
Carbon % ÷ 0.01% 0.03% No water base
Hydrogen Ǝ ÷ 0.01% 0.15% Ǝ
Nitrogen Ǝ ÷ 0.01% 0.06% Ǝ
F
u
e
l

a
n
a
l
y
s
i
s













AH outlet gas temp °C ÷ (Central
control)
1°C ±0.5°C

FDF inlet air temp (dry ball) Ǝ Ǝ Ǝ Ǝ
B
o
i
l
e
r













Main steam MPa
÷ (Central
control)
0.01Mpa (1atg)*
±0.005Mpa
(±0.5atg)*

Reheat steam Ǝ Ǝ Ǝ Ǝ
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e













Main steam
°C ÷ (Central
control)
1°C ±0.5°C

Reheat steam Ǝ Ǝ Ǝ Ǝ
T
u
r
b
i
n
e

T
e
m
p
.













*The brackets show the minimum reading values of equipment for power stations requiring meter reading.
(2) Correction of Measuring Equipment
The following correction shall be done to measuring equipment.
a. Until testing time conducted after periodic inspection
All measuring instruments used for measurement
b. Until other testing time
Coal scale and other instruments deemed necessary
89

4. Measurement Data and Calculation Methods
For calculation of each thermal efficiency figure, the measurement data and calculation methods shown in Appendix 5
are to be used. No irrelevant data need be used for calculation.
III. Analysis of Test Data
1. Data Processing and Control charts
The measured data are to be filled in and gathered in Performance Test Measurement Record (Appendix 4), and each
thermal efficiency figure in Performance Test Results (Appendix 1). In addition, Control charts (Appendix 2) are to be
prepared for consideration of each unit’s performance.

2. Preparation of Control Charts
Control charts are prepared to determine whether the plant is in a steady condition or not, using JIS Z-9021,
“Shewhart Control chart.”
(1) Application of Control chart
a. Applied to 4 items, namely, gross efficiency, boiler room efficiency, turbine room efficiency, auxiliary
power ratio.
b. Control charts are prepared for each item above for load profile of 4/4 and needed.
(2) Control Limit
For control limit used for control charts, 3 sigma method (allowing 3 times of standard deviation range above and
below expected value) is to be adopted.
• Upper Control Limit (UCL) = Expected value + (3×Standard deviation)
• Lower Control Limit (LCL) = Expected value – (3×Standard deviation)
In order to obtain control values, test needs to be conducted a few times, and the estimated value from the
results can be used.
(3) Judgment by Control Chart
Control chart is useful for recognizing unit’s deviation from controlled condition. Generally, when the measured
values are within the control limit lines, units are considered as normal. If these are beyond the limit lines, it is viewed
as abnormal, requiring clarification. The following cases need caution.
a. One point is located beyond the control limit.
b. 9 points are on the same side of the center line.
c. 6 points have increased or decreased.
d. 14 points are rising and falling alternately.
e. Of the consecutive 3 points, 2 points are in the domain of 2 ı and 3 ı or beyond.
f. Of the consecutive 5 points, 5 points are in the domain of ı and 2 ı or beyond.
g. Consecutive 15 points are in the domain of ± ı.
h. Consecutive 8 points are in the domain beyond ± ı.
The conventional control lines (center line and control limit line) can be insufficient as a standard in case unit
condition changes. In such a case, a new control line needs to be provided using the recent data as auxiliary
data.
90



<Thermal Efficiency Calculation Equation> Appendix - 2
1. Definition of boiler room efficiency, turbine room efficiency, unit thermal efficiency
(1) Boiler room efficiency (n
B
)
Diagram 1 From unit thermal equilibrium line diagram, boiler room efficiency is defined as follows. Also,
auxiliary input heat into boiler system Q
EX
is defined as input heat or negative output heat in some cases. Here, the
latter concept is adopted, viewing only fuel combustion heat as input heat.

Diagram 1 Unit Heat Equilibrium

Boiler room efficiency can be calculated as follows based on heat equilibrium of boiler system;
Q
f
+ Q
EX
= Q
O
+ Q
BS
+ Q
BL
Q
f
– Q
BL
= Q
O
+ Q
BS
– Q
EX


Boiler room efficiency
f
EX BS O
BL
B
Q
Q - Q Q
)
Qf
Q
- (1
+
= = n


Q
TS
(Output heat)
Turbine heat generating
system
Boiler system
Q
O
(Output heat) Q
f
(Fuel combustion heat)
Q
TL
(Heat loss) Q
BL
(Heat loss)
Q
EX
(Boiler auxiliary heat input)
Q
G
(Generator output)
Q
RS
(Output heat)
Loss method Heat input-output method
(2) Turbine room efficiency (Ș
T
)
Consider turbine room input heat as boiler room output heat Q
O
, focus only on generator output as turbine room
efficiency.
Turbine room efficiency can be calculated as based on heat equilibrium of turbine system;
Q
O
=Q
G
+Q
TS
+Q
TL
Q
O
÷Q
TS
÷Q
TL
=Q
G
Turbine room efficiency
TS O
G
TS O
TL
T
Q - Q
Q
)
Q - Q
Q
(1 = = n
Loss method Heat input-output method
(3) Unit Thermal Efficiency (Ș
P
)
91
Unit thermal efficiency is the product of boiler room efficiency multiplied by turbine room efficiency.
Unit thermal efficiency
TS O
T
f
EX BS O
T B P
Q - Q
Q
Q
Q - Q Q
×
+
= × = n n n
(Heat input-output standard method)
TS O
EX BS O
f
G
Q - Q
Q - Q Q
Q
Q +
× = ·································· (1)
(Note) Conventionally, Unit thermal efficiency by heat input-output method has been calculated as
f
G
P
Q
Q
= n

However, the steam generated in the unit system is used outside, the heat value of such steam must be incorporated
into the calculation. Therefore, Equation (1) can represent the heat input-output method unit thermal efficiency.
Theoretically, heat input-output method and loss method should compute out the same results.
(4) Boundary of Boiler and Turbine Systems
Boundary of boiler and turbine systems are shown in Diagram 2.
Turbine system
W
MS
x
iMS
92
Diagram 2 Boundary of Boiler and Turbine Systems

SAH
SC
SH
RH
(qsc)
W
Ej
x
iEj
W
SS
x
iSS

W
HR
x
iHR
W
RS
x
iRS
W
LR
x
iLR



W
FW
x
iFW

W
SAH
x
iSAH
W
SAH
x
iSAHD
W
SC
x
iSC
W
SC
x
iSCD
AH
Heavy oil
heater
Atomize
steam
Heavy oil
W
SD
x
iSD
Q
f
x Q
EX
Heat loss
Drain
Boiler system
Exhaust gas
Combusted air
Heater
2. Calculation Method of Boiler Room Efficiency
(1) Heat input-output method boiler room efficiency (Ș
Bi
)

[%] 100
Q
Q - Q Q
f
EX BS O
Bi ×
+
= n f f M H Qf =

Q
f
:Fuel combustion heat [kJ/h]
Q
EX
:Boiler auxiliary input heat [kJ/h]
Q
O
:Boiler room output heat (For generation) [kJ/h]
Q
BS
: ª (Heating, etc) [kJ/h]
H
f
:Fuel higher heating value [kJ/h]
M
f
:Fuel consumption [kg/h]

Q
O
=W
MS
·
iMS
+W
HR
· W
Ej
·
iEj
–W
SS
·
iSS
–W
RS
·
iRS
–W
LR
·
iLR
–W
FW
·
iFW
–W
SAH
(
iSAH

iSAHD
)–W
SC
(
iSC

iSCD
)–Q
EX

W
MS
: Main stop valve inlet steam flow rate [kg/h]
iMS
: ª enthalpy [kJ/kg]
W
HR
: High temp reheat steam flow rate [kg/h]
iHR
: ª enthalpy [kJ/kg]
W
Ej
: Ejector driving steam flow rate [kg/h]
iEj
: ª enthalpy [kJ/kg]
W
SS
: Superheater spray water flow rate [kg/h]
iSS
: ª enthalpy [kJ/kg]
W
RS
: Reheater spray water flow rate [kg/h]
iRS
: ª enthalpy [kJ/kg]
W
LR
: Low temp reheating steam flow rate [kg/h]
iLR
: ª enthalpy [kJ/kg]
W
FW
: Final feed water heater outlet flow rate [kg/h]
iFW
: ª enthalpy [kJ/kg]
W
SAH
: SAH heating steam flow rate [kg/h]
iSAH
: ª enthalpy [kJ/kg]
iSAHD
: SAH drain enthalpy [kJ/kg]
W
SC
: SC heating steam flow rate [kg/h]
iSC
: ª enthalpy [kJ/kg]
iSCD
: SC drain enthalpy [kJ/kg]


93

( ) ( )1 2 BS qsc qsc Q ÷ =
(qsc)
1
: Heating value brought by feed water at SC inlet [kJ/h]
(qsc)
2
: Heavy oil heating and atomizing steam generated at SC [kJ/h]

( ) ( )
iSCD iSC
(Note)
SC iSAHD iSAH
SAH EX - W - W Q
(Note)
+ =
(Note) W
SAH
and W
SC
show steam flow from other units, own unit being 0.

Main Stop Valve Inlet Steam Flow Rate (W
MS
)

CL BS BD Ej SS FW MS
W
2
1
- W - W - W - W W W + =
BS BD MU CL
W - W - W W =
W
BS
: Boiler air ejecting heater etc. flow rate [kg/h]
W
CL
: Cycle leak rate [kg/h]
W
BD
: Continuous blow rate [kg/h]
W
MU
: Make-up water [kg/h]

Low Temp Reheat Steam Flow Rate (W
LR
)

Hi HL MS LR
W - W - W W E =
W
HL
: High pressure turbine leak [kg/h]
W
Hi
: Leakage from low temp reheat steam pipe [kg/h]

High Temp Reheat Steam Flow Rate (W
HR
)

RS LR HR
W W W + =
94
(2) Loss Method Standard Boiler Room Efficiency (Ș
B1
)
EX AT BD CL
f
BL
1 B
L L L L
Q
Q
1 ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = n
Ȉ
Li
: Boiler heat loss total [kJ/kg · fuel]

AH UB Rd co ASH as w g Li
L L L L L L L L + + + + + + + = E

a. Lg Dry gas heat loss

( ) }( ) {
a g at gt g g
t t M 1 m M C L ÷ ÷ + =
[kJ/kg · fuel]

C
g
: Dry gas specific heat 1.38 [kJ/m3N · K]
M
gt
: Theoretical combustion gas amount [m
3
N/kg · fuel]
m : Eco outlet air excess coefficient
M
at
: Theoretical air amount [m
3
N/kg · fuel]
t
g
: AH outlet gas temperature [°C]
t
a
: Air temperature (FD inlet temperature) [°C]

b. L
w
Loss due to Water Content, Hydrogen Combusted Water in Fuel

( )( )
a g h w w
t i W W L ÷ + = [kJ/kg · fuel]

W
w
: Water content in fuel [kg/kg · fuel]
W
h
: Hydrogen combusted water in fuel [kg/kg · fuel]
i
g
: Steam enthalpy at steam pressure 10.1kPa, t
g
(AH outlet gas temperature) °C
[kJ/kg]
t
a
: Air temperature [°C] (same value as water enthalpy [kJ/kg]=t
a
)

c. L
as
Loss due to air humidity

( )
a g at as
t t M m 1.29Z L ÷ = [kJ/kg · fuel]
Z : Absolute humidity [kg/kg]
Cs : Steam specific heat 1.88 [kJ/kg · K]

95

d. L
ASH
Ash sensible heat loss

( )
( )
(
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
+ ÷ =
a g
BOT
a
BOT
ASH ASH
t t
P
t
P A
C L
100
100
800
100 100
)
}
[kJ/kg · fuel]

C
ASH
: Ash specific heat 1.05 [kJ/kg · K]
A : Ash content in fuel [%]
P
BOT
: Furnace bottom ash falling rate [%]

e. L
co
Heat loss due to unburned fuel

( ) {
| |
100
CO
M 1 m M H L
at gt co co
÷ + = [kJ/kg · fuel]

H
co
: CO combustion heat [kJ/m
3
N]
[CO] : Volume ratio of CO [%]
(Orsat analysis value at Eco outlet)

f. L
Rd
Heat loss due to radiation
(According to A.M.B.A. Standard Radiation Loss Chart in ASME Power Test Code)

g. L
UB
Heat loss due to unburned matter in ash

u 100
u
100
A
Hc L
UB
÷
= [kJ/kg · fuel]

Hc : Carbon heating value 33,900 [kJ/kg]
u : Average unburned matter in ash [%]

h. L
AH
Heat loss due to AH air leakage

( ) ( ) { }( )
a g at gt a AH
t t M 1 m M
100
1.61Z 1 C L ÷ ÷ + + =
c
[kJ/kg · fuel]

C
a
: Specific heat of air (=C
S
) 1.30 [kJ/m
3
N · K]
İ : AH inlet gas amount standard air leaking ratio [%]


96

i. LCL Cycle Leakage Heating Value Loss
( )
f
a iFW CL
CL
Q
t W
2
1
L
÷
=
W
CL
: Cycle leakage flow rate [kg/h]
iFW
: Final feed water heater outlet feet water enthalpy [kJ/kg]

j. L
BD
Heat loss due to continuous blow
( )
f
a iFW BD
BD
Q
t W
L
÷
=
W
BD
: Continuous blow amount [kg/h]
iBD
: ª enthalpy [kJ/kg]

k. L
AT
Heat loss due to atomizing steam
( )
f
a iFW AT
AT
Q
t W
L
÷
=
W
AT
: Atomizing steam flow rate [kg/h]

l. L
EX
Other heat loss
In case any loss is found other than a.~k., it is totaled and considered as other heat loss as a whole.

Theoretical air Mat
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
' +
|
.
|

\
|
'
÷ ' + ' = s 3.33
8
o
h 26.7 c 8.89
100
1
Mat [m
3
N/kg · fuel]
( )
u 100
u
A
100
100
c c
W1
÷
÷
÷
= ' Combustion carbon amount [%]
( )
100
100
h h
W1
÷
= ' [%]
( )
100
100
o o
W1
÷
= ' [%]
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+ + + ÷ =
W1
100
100A
n h c 100 o [%]
( )
100
100
s s
W1
÷
= ' [%]

97
c : Carbon
h : Hydrogen
n : Nitrogen
s : Combustive sulfur
o : Oxygen [%]
W1
: Fuel inherent moisture [%]

Air Excess Coefficient m
Fuel elemental analysis value (No water basis) [%]
( ) ( )
( )
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
÷
=
2
2
N
CO 0.5 O
79 21
21
m
In this regard, however,
(N
2
)=100÷{(CO
2
)+(CO)+(O
2
)}

(O
2
) :
(CO
2
) :
(CO) :
(N
2
) : O2, CO2, CO are Orsat analysis

Theoretical Dry Gas Amount M
gt

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
' + ' +
|
.
|

\
|
'
÷ ' + ' = n 0.8 s 3.33
8
o
h 21.1 c 8.89
100
1
M
gt
[m
3
N/kg · fuel]
( )
100
100
n n
W1
÷
= '

Hydrogen combustion moisture in fuel W
h
and water content in fuel W
W

100
h 9
W
h
'
= [kg/kg · fuel]
W2
W2 W1
W
100 100
W
÷
+ = [kg/kg · fuel]
W2
: Surface humidity of coal [%]

Indicating volume ratio in dry combustion gas
[%]
98

Absolute Humidity Z
s a
s
P P
P
0.622 Z
÷
= [kg/kg] ( )
W d a W s
T T P 0.0008 P P ÷ ÷ =
P
a
: Atmosphere pressure [kPa]
P
s
: Steam pressure [kPa]
P
W
: Saturated steam pressure for wet-bulb temperature [kPa]
T
d
: Dry-bulb temperature (=T
a
) [°C]
T
W
: Wet-bulb temperature [°C]

AH Air Leakage Ratio İ (Eco outlet gas amount basis)
( ) ( )
( )
100
out O 21
in O out O
2
2 2

÷
÷
= c [%]
(O
2
) out : AH outlet O
2
[%]
(O
2
) in: Eco outlet O
2
[%]

3. Calculation Method of Turbine Room Efficiency
100
Q Q
Q
TS O
G
T

÷
= n [%]

Q
G
: Generator output (=860 · P
G
) [kJ/h]
P
G
: ª [kWh]
Q
TS
: Turbine output heat [kJ/h]

4. Calculation Method of Unit Thermal Efficiency
(1) Gross unit thermal efficiency (Ș
P
)
a. Unit thermal efficiency based on heat input-output method (Ș
Pi
)
100 K
Q
Q
f
G
Pi
= n [%]
K : Modification coefficient (See IV, exposition, “calculation processing”)
TS O
EX BS O
Q Q
Q Q Q
K
÷
÷ +
=
b. Unit thermal efficiency based on heat loss method (Ș
P1
)
100 /
T B1 P1
n n n = [%]

99
(2) Auxiliary Power Ratio (Į)
100
P
P
P
P
P
G
CM
G
G
GH

¯
+
= o [%]
P
GH
: House transformer power [kWh]
ȈP
G
: Total of generator output of each unit [kWh]
P
CM
: Common auxiliary power [kWh]

(Note) Auxiliary power consists of the common auxiliary power proportionately divided by each unit’s generator
output added by house transformer power.

(3) Net Unit Efficiency (Ș
P
’)
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
'
100
1
P P
o
n n [%]

5. Correction of Calculated Thermal Efficiency
The following correction is conducted for calculated thermal efficiency.
(1) Boiler room efficiency (Ș
B
)
a. Atmosphere temperature correction
b. Fuel surface humidity correction
c. Fuel hydrogen content correction
d. Fuel inherent moisture correction
(2) Turbine room efficiency (Ș
T
)
e. Main steam pressure correction
f. Main steam temperature correction
g. Spray water correction
h. Reheat system pressure loss correction
i. Reheat steam temperature correction
j. Condenser vacuum correction
k. Generator power factor correction
100
101
6. Various Constants in Calculation
(1) Thermal efficiency is calculated with higher heating value standard.
(2) Standard temperature for thermal efficiency is FDF inlet and atmosphere temperature.
(3) Dry gas specific heat shall be 1.38 kJ/m
3
N · K from JIS B-8222.
(4) Specific heat for dry air and air shall be 1.30 kJ/m
3
N · K from JIS B-8222.
(5) Enthalpy for exhaust gas steam shall be calculated with steam partial pressure as 10.1kPa.
(6) Heating value of carbon shall be 33,900kJ/kg from JIS B-8222.
(7) Heating value of carbon monoxide shall be 12,610 kJ/kg from JIS B-8222.
(8) Specific heat of steam shall be 1.88 kJ/kg · K from “Heat Management Handbook.”
(9) Specific heat of ash is 1.05 kJ/kg · K from “Heat Management Handbook.”
(10) Cycle leakage loss shall be equally shared by boiler and turbine system, finally leaked to the outside of system at
final feed water heater outlet.
(11) Make-up water, air sensible heat and fuel sensible heat shall be 0.

7. Calculation Standard for Main Steam Flow Rate
In this manual, feed water flowmeter standard shall be adopted. Other standards can be used provided sufficient
precision is ensured. (Grounds for adopting feed water flowmeter standard is as mentioned below)
Moreover, for grasping the deviation error of feed water flowmeter standard, it is desired that main steam flow
rate for high pressure turbine first-stage pressure standard, condenser flowmeter standard, etc is used as reference.
The calculation method of main steam flow rate using high pressure turbine first-stage pressure standard by means
of regression line will be explained later.

(1) Calculation Standards for main steam flow rate are as follows;
a. Main steam flowmeter standard
b. Condenser flowmeter standard
c. Feed water flowmeter standard (Adopted in JIS B-8222 and this manual)
(2) Comparison of each calculation standard
a. Main steam flowmeter standard has a weaker reliability than other methods since steam itself is compressive
fluid.
b. Condenser flowmeter standard ensures high precision due to its low temperature and pressure when used, but
the feed water heater drain flow rate needs to be calculated with low-precision flowmeter or heat balance
calculation, thus showing lower reliability.
c. Feed water flowmeter standard has a problem of deviation error caused by scale attaching to the flowmeter’s
flow nozzle, but precision is thought to be higher than the aforementioned standards.

8. AH Air Leakage
According to the boiler boundary in Diagram 2, exhaust gas analysis is done at AH outlet, but in reality, to
eliminate the influence of combustion air leaking in, it is done at Eco outlet.
Along with this, AH air leakage ratio is measured to obtain the heat loss due to AH air leakage.

9. Calculation Method of High Pressure Turbine First-Stage Pressure Standard Steam Flow Rate by
Regression Line
(1) Preparation Procedure
a. At each generator output, high-pressure turbine firs-stage pressure (P) and feed water flowmeter standard main
steam flow rate (W
MS
) are measured.
(Note 1) High-pressure turbine firs-stage pressure is measured with meters capable of reading minute fluctuations
such as expanded pressure meter, transmitter output voltage.
(Note 2) Main steam flow rate is calculated after density correction of each flow rate.
b. Regression line for high-pressure turbine firs-stage pressure (P) and feed water flowmeter standard main steam flow
rate (W
MS
) are calculated.
This regression line is applied to performance tests conducted from this point on, calculating main steam flow
rate.
(2) Calculation Example
Example of measurement results


W
MS
=W
FW
÷W
SS
SH spray
(W
SS
)
Main steam flow
rate (W
MS
)
Generator
output
High-pressure
turbine
firs-stage
pressure Pi
[MPa]
Main steam
flow rate WMi
[t/h]
MCR 13.0 580.470
4/4 11.4 514.760
3/4 8.4 370.680
2/4 5.8 242.880
Minimum 3.5 152.810
Feed water flow
rate
(W
FW
)

Calculation procedure
a. Calculate S
1
=Ȉ Pi
2
÷(Ȉ Pi)
2
/n. S
1
=60.928
b. Calculate S
2
=Ȉ (W
Msi
)
2
÷[Ȉ (W
Msi
)]
2
/n. S
2
=128,557.61
c. Calculate S
3
=Ȉ Pi (W
Msi
)÷ Ȉ Pi (W
Msi
)/n. S
3
=2,796.953
d. Calculate P=Ȉ Pi/n. P = 8.42
e. Calculate W
MS
=Ȉ (W
Msi
)/n. W
MS
=372.32
f. From above,
1
3
MS
S
S
W =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + P
S
S
W P
1
3
MS
W
MS
=45.9059P÷14.2074
Calculating regression line.
g. Calculating the correlation function Ȗ,
2
1
2 1
2
3
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
S S
S
¸ DŽ =0.9994
102


103
2.6 COMBUSTION OF COAL
Because coal has a variety of physical and chemical properties compared with other fossil fuels (heavy oil or
gas) according to the difference in generation conditions, the burning process (ignition and combustibility) and
exhaust-gas composition after combustion vary with the type of coal.
In this seminar, pulverized coal combustion is described generally: how coal properties affect combustion, the
concept of combustion, combustion equipment, and the development of combustion technology.
2.6.1 How Coal Property Affects Pulverized Coal Combustion
For the preliminary evaluation of coal as fuel, we generally conduct a proximate analysis, an ultimate analysis
and an ash content analysis of coal. The detailed analyses of coal are described in “II-1 Coal”. This section
discusses how the coal properties relate to combustibility, grindability, slagging/fouling and abrasion
characteristics, etc. when coal is evaluated as a fuel burned in pulverized coal burning boilers.

2.6.6.1 Relation of Coal Property to Ignitability and Combustibility
Certain items are used to evaluate the ignitability and combustibility of coal: the fuel ratio and coal rank, the
volatile matter and calorific value, the adhesiveness and agglomeration, etc.
(1) Fuel Ratio and Coal Rank
The fuel ratio has traditionally been used as the simplest standard to evaluate the ignitability and combustibility
of coal. The fuel ratio means the weight ratio of fixed-carbon to the volatile matter. Generally speaking, the higher
the fuel ratio of coal, the poorer the ignitability and the slower the combustion speed. It can be said that coal with
a fuel ratio 2.5-3.0 is preferable for pulverized coal burning boilers in order to lower unburned losses.
The coal rank means the degree of coalification, which is classified according to the physical and chemical
properties of coal.
As shown in Table 1, the coal rank is categorized into brown coal, sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal and
anthracite coal according to the order of coalification, on the basis of a calorific value, fixed carbon amount,
volatile matter amount, and agglomeration characteristic.

Table 1 Coal Rank (ASTM Standard)


Class
Item

Group
Range of fixed
carbon
(dry coal/no-mineral
base %)
Range of volatile
matter
(dry coal/no-mineral
base %)
Range of calorific value
(constant wet
coal/no-mineral base
kcal/kg)
Agglomeration
characteristic
I. Anthracite coal 1. High anthracite coal
2. Anthracite coal
3. Semi-anthracite coal
98 d
92 d / <98
86 d / <92
d 2
2 < / d 8
8 < / d14
-
-
-

Not exist
II. Bituminous coal 1. Low volatile
bituminous coal
2. Semi-volatile
bituminous coal
3. A High volatile
bituminous coal
4. B High volatile
bituminous coal
5. C High volatile
bituminous coal
78 d / <86

69 d / 78

< 69

-

-
14 < / d 22

22 < / d 31

31 <

-

-
-

-

7,780 d

7,220 d / <7,780

6,390 d / < 7,220
5,830 d / < 6,390





Generally, exist



Exist
III. Sub-bituminous
coal
1. A Sub-bituminous
coal
2. B Sub-bituminous
coal
3. C Sub-bituminous
coal
-

-

-
-

-

-
5,830 d / < 6,390

5,280 d / < 5,830

4,610 d / < 5,280


Not exist
IV. Brown coal 1. A. Brown coal
2. B. Brown coal
-
-
-
-
3,500 d / < 4,610
< 3,500
Not exist




104
Anthracite refers to coal with non-agglomeration characteristics, low volatile matter, and a fuel ratio of more
than 6, and it is poor in ignitability and combustibility. Sub-bituminous coal and brown coal, whose fuel ratio is
less than 1, are excellent in ignitability and combustibility, but poor in mill grindability (explained later) and have
slagging/fouling characteristics. Therefore, bituminous coal, whose fuel ratio is intermediate, is generally used in
pulverized coal burning boilers. The bituminous coal is classified into five types as below, and the higher the rank
the poorer in ignitability and combustibility.
(1) Low volatile matter bituminous coal (the fuel ratio is approx. 4)
(2) Medium volatile matter bituminous coal (the fuel ratio is approx. 2.8)
(3) A high volatile matter bituminous coal (the fuel ratio is approx. 1.5)
(4) B high volatile matter bituminous coal (the fuel ratio is approx. 1.2)
(5) C high volatile matter bituminous coal (the fuel ratio is approx 1.1)
(2) Volatile Matter and Calorific Value
Ignitability evaluation of coal itself is generally performed in accordance with the volatile matter amount and
the calorific value contained in coal. In general, when the volatile matter amount is less than 20%, it is necessary
to consider some methods to stabilize the ignitability. The following expression has traditionally been used as the
ignitability index:
%) (moisture + %) matter (volatile
%)] carbon (fixed x 81 - kcal/kg) value calorific coal [(raw
= index ty Ignitabili
The ignitability index, which can be used as a judgment criterion of the ignition difficulty of coal with much
surface moisture, indicates discharged moisture and a calorific value of volatile matter. When the ignitability
index is 35 or less, it is said some measures for ignitability improvement should be taken.
(3) Adherence and Agglomeration Characteristics
Coal adherence means a property of the cake-like expansion of coal when it is heated, and is usually judged by
a button index. Coal with a high button index requires special attention because fuel-fines adhere to or clog in a
burner nozzle or unburned hydrocarbon increases due to fuel-fines blended in the process of combustion. For coal
with a button index of 6-7 or more, it is necessary to consider special designs to prevent these problems.

2.6.1.2 Relation of Coal Property to Grindability and Dryness
In general, pulverized coal combustion is characterized by pulverizing coal to 50-100µm and drying and
burning it. The point of this combustion lies in the selection of the coal pulverization degree so that the coal can
be burned out in a combustion chamber. As aforementioned, the coal combustibility greatly varies with the coal
rank. The following shows the type of coal and the grading required for combustion.
(1) Anthracite coal <10-15% (200 mesh = 74µm residual amount)
(2) Bituminous coal <15-35% (-ditto-)
(3) Semi-bituminous coal <35-45% (-ditto-)
(4) Brown coal <45-55% (-ditto-)
The difficulty in coal grinding is usually evaluated by the HGI (Hardgrove Grindability Index) and the moisture
based on the ASTM standard.
(1) HGI
Because linking the coal component analytical values to the HGI tends to have many errors, it is preferable to
directly measure the HGI to gauge coal grindability. The rough standard of grindability is as follows. The higher
the HGI, the easier the grinding.
(1) Coal with a fuel ratio of approx. 1.0 is 35-45 in HGI
(2) Coal with a fuel ratio of approx. 2.0 is 45-75 in HGI
(3) Coal with a fuel ratio of approx 3.0 is 75-100 in HGI
Because the smaller the HGI, the poorer the grindability and because large-sized mills are required, a HGI of
more than 40 is preferable.
(2) Moisture
The mill grinding capability is affected by total moisture including surface- and inherent moisture.
High-moisture content causes a lack of dryness in the mill, decreases the classification efficiency in the mill and
accordingly lowers the mill grinding capability. From this viewpoint, the total moisture contained in coal is
preferably 20% or less.

2.6.1.3 Slagging Characteristic and Ash Property
Slagging is a phenomenon whereby coal ash (slag) melted in the boiler furnace adheres to the radiant
heat-transfer surface in the furnace, and is cooled, solidified, and built-up. The following coal properties relate to


105
the degree of slagging:
(1) Ash Melting Temperature
Slagging results from the fact that coal ash melted in the furnace bumps against the heat-transfer surface and
adheres to it before solidifying. Slagging is judged by whether the ash melting temperature is higher or lower than
the gas temperature in the proximity of the heat-transfer surface. Such a problem is rarely seen with coal with a
melting temperature exceeding 1300͠ in pulverized coal burning boilers.
(2) Ash Content
In the case of coal with strong slagging characteristics, the slag accumulation amount is proportional to the ash
amount input into the furnace. Because the ash amount input into the furnace is proportional to the ash-content
amount per coal calorie, the coal with high ash-content and low calorie requires more attention.
(3) Ash Alkaline Ratio
The ash alkaline ratio is defined by the following expression using the figures showing the ratio of the basicity
component to the acidic component in ash.
2 3 2 2
2 2 3 2
TiO O Al SiO
O) K O Na MgO CaO O (Fe
= ratio alkaline Ash



The large ash alkaline ratio means an increased slagging characteristic because low-melting oxides and
compound salt are easily generated. It is generally said that the slagging characteristic is small if the ash alkaline
ratio is 0.5 or less.
This is also identified by the color of ash: much SiO
2
and Al
3
O
3
show white, much CaO shows yellow, much
Fe
2
O
3
shows red, and much Fe
2
O
3
and CaO show pink to purple. That is to say, as the ash color changes from
white to reddish, the ash slagging characteristic becomes stronger.
(4) Fe
2
O
3
/CaO Ratio and S-content in Coal
When the ratio of Fe
2
O
3
to CaO in ash is approx. 0.3-3, low-melting compounds tend to be generated. This fact
can become a supplementary judgment criterion of the ash alkaline ratio.
Also, when the S-content in ash is large, Fe generates basicity components and low-melting sulfuric acid complex
salt, increasing the slagging characteristic. The S-content in ash is preferably 2% or less for preventing slagging
problems.

2.6.1.4 Fouling and Ash Property
Fouling means a phenomenon whereby coal ash in the gaseous or melting state condenses, adheres to and
builds up on the convective heat-transfer surface of the superheater or the reheater at the rear of the furnace. The
following coal content affects fouling:
(1) Basicity component in Ash
The most influential on fouling is basicity substances including Na. Sufficient care should be taken over coal
with a large content of Na
2
O, K
2
O, Cl, CaO, etc., especially that with a large Na
2
O content.
(2) S-content in coal
S-content in coal develops the occurrence of fouling by generating basicity components and low-melting
sulfuric acid complex salt.

2.6.1.5 Abrasion and Coal Properties
Pulverized coal burning boilers will cause the abrasion of grinders (mills) or pulverized coal pipes, and also of
the backside convective heat-transfer surface by fly ash.
The influential mineral matter causing mill abrasion is quartz, pyrite, etc. When judged from the analytical values,
the content of quartz, Fe
2
O
3
and S-content become its criterion.
The abrasion degree by fly ash is largely affected by the hardness, density and granularity of fly ash. When
judging the abrasion degree based on the coal properties, the following mineral matter in ash should be focused
on:
(1) Quartz (Į-SiO
2
: Mohs hardness = 7)
(2) Cristobalite (SiO
2
: Mohs hardness = 7)
(3) Mullite (3Al
2
O
3
& SiO
2
: Mohs hardness = 7.5)
(4) Hematite (Fe
2
O
3
: Mohs hardness = 6)
(5) Anorthite (CaAl
2
Si
2
O
3
: Mohs hardness = 6)


106
2.6.2 Concept of Pulverized Coal Combustion
When coal is pulverized in the grinder (mill) and float-fired in the pulverized state, the ignition time and
combustion time are extremely shortened and the burner combustion can become just like heavy oil or gas fuel is
being burned. This is the greatest characteristic of pulverized coal combustion. In the following section, the
combustion mechanism and characteristics of pulverized coal are explained.

2.6.2.1 Combustion Mechanism of Pulverized Coal
The model of pulverized coal burning flames is shown in Fig. 1.
The primary air and pulverized coal blown into the furnace from the coal compartment are heated by radiant
heat from both the surrounding flames and the high-temperature slag adhering to the furnace wall, and then start
igniting and burning, forming a primary combustion area. The primary combustion area is mainly an area where
volatile matter in coal is burned. And there, CH
4
, H
2
, CO etc. volatized from coal grains are mixed with oxygen in
the primary air diffused from the surroundings, forming flames around the grains. The secondary burning area is
mainly a char burning area, where unburned gases and chars flowing from the primary combustion area are
burned by a diffusive mixture with a secondary air blown from the supplementary air compartment.

Large grain size
Ash + unburned
hydrocarbon
Small grain size
Ash
Combustion
completion

Fig. 1 Model of pulverized coal burning flame

Char burning means the combustion of oxygen and carbon diffused from the surfaces or fine pores of chars, and
the burning velocity is extremely slow compared with that of volatile matter. Therefore, char burnout time
accounts for approx. 80-90% of the total coal burnout time.
In the flame model in Fig.1, the points of pulverized coal combustion we must note are the ignitability, burnout
characteristic and NOx generation characteristic.
These points are closely related to the performance and operability of pulverized coal burning boilers. The
ignitability and burnout characteristic are discussed in this section and the NOx generation characteristic is
discussed in Section 2.3.
(1) Ignitability
The ignition difficulty in pulverized coal greatly varies with the coal properties. According to the individual
coal properties, we will evaluate the burner type, selection of burner design specifications, necessity of auxiliary
burners, and a minimum load which can completely burn coal.
The surface temperature of pulverized coal blown into the furnace rises by its own flame and by the radiant heat
from other high-temperature heat sources in the furnace, and after it reaches a certain level, the coal is ignited, as
commonly explained in the radiant ignition theories. This temperature causing ignition is defined as radiant
ignition temperature. Coal with a higher ignition temperature needs radiant heat from a higher temperature heat
source, and hence stable ignition in the furnace is difficult, causing unstable combustion or increased unburned
hydrocarbon due to the fluctuation of the ignition point. Therefore, special design consideration is required.

Coal grains
Char burning area Volatile matter burning area
Secondary burning area Primary burning area Volatile matter
discharge
Char burning area (Volatile matter
burning area)
Supplementary air
compartment
I
g
n
i
t
i
o
n
Burnout
characteristic
NOx generation
characteristic
Ignitability
Primary burning area
Qpd [Primary air/coal ratio]
Secondary burning area
QS = [Q total = Qp] Q : Burning quantity


107
R
a
d
i
a
n
t

i
g
n
i
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
°
C
)
Mora
Daido
Drayton
Mirror blend
Warkworth
Newlands
Optimum
The
Pacific
Ocean
Miike
Volatile matter (ash-free basis) (%)
Fig. 2 Relation between volatile matter and radiant ignition temperature

Figure 2 summarizes the relation between the volatile matter in coal and the radiant ignition temperature, when
a small amount of pulverized coal is forcibly fed into the electric furnace in which the temperature can be freely
changed, and is ignited instantly raising shining flames where the ignition temperature is defined as the radiant
ignition temperature.
As shown in the Fig., the radiant ignition temperature drops along with the increase of volatile matter content.
Though the coal with the same amount of volatile matter content shows a variation in r30°C of the radiant
ignition temperature, this variation is considered to be attributed mainly to the difference in the quality of the
volatile matter or calorific values.
The rate of the volatile matter content in domestic coal used in thermal power stations in our country and of
imported coal ranges from 30-50% based on the ash-free basis whereas the radiant ignition temperature ranges
from 600-700°C. From our past experiences, ordinary pulverized coal burning boilers have almost no problem
with the combustion of coal whose radiant ignition temperature is 750°C or less.
Figure 2 shows the comparison of ignitability among coal with different properties, but actual pulverized coal is
transferred by the primary air and continuously blown into the furnace, as shown in Fig.1.
Now let’s consider the ignition of pulverized coal grain assemblages which float and flow with minute intervals
in the primary air flow. The coal grain assemblages in the pulverized coal plume are initially ignited by an igniter.
After the igniter goes off, the grains temperature rises with a time lapse under the heat balance, where the sum of
the calorific value of own flame, the radiant heat from other heat sources and the chemical reaction in the coal
grain assemblages is equivalent to the calorific value which can raise the temperatures of coal grain assemblages
and the primary air around it.

Pulverized coal
(200/mesh passes)
Symbol
Brand
Pacific Ocean coal
Daido coal
Amount of coal
supply
I
g
n
i
t
i
o
n

d
i
s
t
a
n
c
e

(
m
/
m
)
1. Air temperature
Normal
temperature
Air flow rate
Temperature in furnace (°C)

Fig. 3 Relation between temperature in furnace and ignition distance


108
When the surface temperature of the grains in a coal grain assemblage exceeds the coal radiant ignition
temperature, they are ignited, and this position is called the ignition distance from the burner. Because the smaller
the grain intervals in the coal grain assemblage (the grains density is high), the larger the radiant heat from other
burning coal grains, and the smaller the air heat capacity around the coal grains, so the coal grain temperature is
apt to rise and the ignition distance becomes shorter. On the other hand, if the intervals among coal grains are too
small (the coal grains density is too high), it is difficult for the radiant heat from other heat sources to penetrate the
core, and because the oxygen consumption of the grain assemblage exceeds the oxygen amount supplied in the
primary air, it is difficult for the combustion to continue. So the ignition distance, on the contrary, becomes larger.
Thus, the pulverized coal assemblage in the primary air flow has the optimum ignition point for the coal grain
density (the inverse number of primary air/coal ratio).
Also, as you understand easily, pulverized coal ignition is strongly affected by ambient temperature.
As shown in Fig.3, the ignition distance of coal with lower volatile matter drastically increases along with the
ambient temperature drop, compared with that of coal with high volatile matter.
This ignition distance increases due to the ambient temperature drop coinciding with the fact that the lower the
load on the pulverized coal burning boiler, the worse the ignition stability.

B
u
r
n
i
n
g

v
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

K
*

(
g
/
c
m
2
S
)
H coal
G coal

Fig. 4 Relation between burning velocity coefficient and fuel ratio

(2) Burnout Characteristic of Pulverized Coal
The burnout characteristic of pulverized coal is important data to predict the amount of unburned hydrocarbon
generated in pulverized coal burning boilers, to select the degree of necessary coal fineness to maintain unburned
hydrocarbon at a low level, and to determine the furnace dimensions. The burnout characteristic of pulverized coal
greatly varies with coal properties.
Figure4 shows the result when coal grains with various properties are suspended with platinum wire in an
electric furnace, and their combustion-decrease characteristics are measured by microbalance under the condition
of constant oxygen density and gas temperature.
The combustion velocity coefficient K* is represented in the following expression:

) 1 (
) (
*
2

÷
=
T D n
W W
K
o
E o
t

K*:combustion velocity coefficient (g/cm
2
•s)
W: grain weight (g)
D: grain size (cm)
T: combustion period (s)
n: the number of grains (pieces)
Suffixes: O: before combustion E: after combustion

In this figure the larger the coal fuel ratio (the ratio of fixed carbon to volatile matter), the smaller the
combustion velocity coefficient. The coefficient of the coal with a high fuel ratio is approx. 1/2-1/5 that of the coal
with a low fuel ratio.
Fuel ratio (-)
Ambient gas temperature = 1,200°C
Ambient oxygen density = 0.04 ala
B coal
A coal D coal


109
Because, in actual pulverized coal burning boilers, the gas/coal grain temperature and oxygen density change
when coal moves from the burner exit to the furnace exit, and the combustion is largely rate-controlled by
diffusion resistance in the higher temperature area, as well as by chemical reaction resistance in the lower
temperature area. So it is not appropriate to use the burning velocity coefficient K*, which has been measured
under a certain condition, for the calculation of the burnout in the boiler furnace.
The combustion of pulverized coal grains in the furnace is as per the following expression, where the grain size
is Dp:
) 3 (
1 1 1
) 2 (
6
2 3
+ =
- - ÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
f O
P P
K K K
P K D D
ro
d
d
t
u
t

Where, the signs are as follows:
K: general combustion velocity coefficient (g/cm
2
xs)
Kf: combustion velocity coefficient when the oxygen diffusion density in
the gas film is dominant (g/cm
2
xs)
Kc: combustion velocity coefficient when the chemical reaction rate of
the grain surface is dominant (g/cm
2
xs)
P: oxygen pressure (atm)
Dp: coal grain size (cm)
ro: specific gravity of coal grain (g/cm
3
)
u: burning time (s)
The general burning velocity coefficient ‘K’ varies depending on the coal properties in addition to the grain size
and burning area gas temperature. Therefore, in order to lower unburned losses in a pulverized coal burning boiler,
we must know the characteristics of pulverized coal grain’s K, coal grain size Dp (coal fineness), in-furnace
retention time u, and gas temperature distribution and oxygen density distribution in the furnace, and then
determine the furnace dimensions or pulverized coal facilities.
Figure 5 shows the trajectory of the flame axis obtained by simulations of heat-transfer flow in the furnace
using the aforementioned expressions (2) and (3), and the calculation results of the unburned hydrocarbon by
applying the calculation of the gas & oxygen density distribution. The combustion rapidly proceeds in the area
approx. five meters high above the burner toward the furnace exit, but it becomes slower in the area approx. 10
meters high, and the combustion reaction almost does not proceed in the area exceeding 20 meters high due to the
gas temperature drop. Therefore, this suggests that in order to improve the burning efficiency of pulverized coal, it
is more effective to reduce the coal grain size by increasing the coal fineness rather than to lengthen the retention
time in the furnace.

2.6.2.2 Combustion Calculation
(1) Coal Calorific Value
The coal calorific value means calories (kcal) generated when a unit amount (1kg) is completely burned out,
and is defined as two types below:
(1) High heating value (HHV) or gross calorific value (GCV)
(2) Low heating value (LHV) or net calorific value (NCV)


110

Fuel ratio
Fig. 5 Relation between coal fineness and unburned hydrocarbon
The coal calorific value generally means a high heating value, and the measuring method is stipulated in JIS M
8814.
The high heating value includes the steam-condensing latent heat (approx. 600kcal/kg) generated by burning
water (W) and hydrogen (H) in coal. However, because in the actual combustion in boilers, this steam is
discharged from the stack without condensing, the latent heat cannot be utilized and the actual coal calorific value
reduces by this amount. The calorific value from which this latent heat has been subtracted is called a low heating
value, and is calculated by the following expression without relying on the actual measurement. (H and W are
wt%)
LHV = HHV – 6(9H + W) (kcal/kg)
The calorific value is a very important item for combustion calculation. Especially, when it comes to coal, the
calorific values and individual components vary largely with the type of coal - even the same type of coal varies
with the mining layers. So, we must use the results from the same sample for combustion calculation and for all
analytical values.
Many types of calculation formulas can be considered to obtain the calorific value using the coal analytical
values, but those formulas may have omitted complex, chemically-bound heat during coal combustion, or been
determined by natural experiences. So they cannot be applied to every type of coal with high accuracy. Their
values should only be utilized temporarily when the calorific value has not been calculated yet.

Table 2 Component characteristics related to combustion
Molecular weight
Component
Molecular
symbol
Approx.
value
Exact value
Specific weight
kg/Nm
3
Specific constitution
Nm
3
kg
Carbon
Hydrogen
Sulfur
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Water vapor
Sulfur dioxide
Air
Carbon dioxide
C
H
2
S
O
2
N
2
H
2
O
SO
2
-
CO
2
12
2
32
32
28
18
64
29
44
12.011
2.016
32.064
31.999
28.013
18.015
64.053
28.964
44.010
-
0.08997
-
1.42897
1.25041
0.80374
2.92659
1.29298
1.97682
-
11.12698
-
0.69980
0.79974
1.24419
0.34169
0.77341
0.50586

The following expressions are typical examples of calorific value calculation in the ultimate analysis and
proximate analysis of coal.
1. Dulong’s expression (from the result of the ultimate analysis of coal)
HHV = 81C + 342.5(H-O/8) + 22.5S (kcal/kg)
Where, C, H, O and S show the wt% of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur, respectively.
2. Kosaka’s expression (from the result of proximate analysis of coal)
HHV = 81Cf + (96 - o y W) y (Vm + W) (kcal/kg)
Where, Cf, W and Vm show the wt% of fixed carbon, moisture, and volatile matter, respectively, and Į is
the coefficient of moisture and is used as the following values:
H
e
i
g
h
t

f
r
o
m

t
h
e

c
e
n
t
e
r

o
f

t
h
e

b
u
r
n
e
r
Unburned carbon ratio
Coal fineness
(200 mesh pass / 100 mesh
residuum)
Air
temperature
Primary 82°C/secondary 312°C


111
When W<5.0 Į = 6.5
When W>5.0 Į = 5.0

(2) Combustion Air Flow Rate and Combustion Gas Flow Rate
In order to burn fuel completely, it is necessary to supply necessary and adequate air (oxygen) for combustion.
In actual combustion, air and fuel are not mixed ideally and it is difficult to burn fuel completely by the
theoretically necessary combustion air flow rate alone, hence a proper combustion air flow rate is supplied as an
excess air flow rate depending on the fuel in addition to this theoretical combustion air flow rate. Especially, for
pulverized coal burning, a more excessive air flow rate is needed (for bituminous coal with high volatile matter, it
is approx. 1.2-1.25 in the air ratio) because the combustion characteristic is poorer than that of heavy oil or gas
due to the larger-sized, solid grains with the slow combustion velocity.
Though the major components of coal consist of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S)
etc., the combustible components are carbon, hydrogen and sulfur, each of which is completely burned to become
carbon dioxide (CO
2
), water vapor (H
2
O), and sulfur dioxide (SO
2
), respectively. The entire oxygen in coal is
considered to become water (water vapor) by combining with hydrogen during the combustion.


Table 3 List of Component Combustion Values
Theoretical dry air flow rate
O
2
N
2
Air
Combustion
product
Theoretical
dry gas flow
rate
Moisture
amount Component
Upper row: kg/kg Lower row Nm
3
/kg
Carbon C

2.67
1.87
8.83
7.02
11.50
8.89
(CO
2
)
3.67
1.87

12.50
8.89
-
-
Hydrogen H
2

8.00
5.60
26.48
21.06
34.48
26.66
(H
2
O)
9.00
11.19

26.48
21.06
9.00
11.19
Oxygen O
2
-1.00
-0.70
-3.31
-2.63
-4.31
-3.33
-
-
-3.31
-2.63
-
-
Sulfur S

1.00
0.70
3.31
2.63
4.31
3.33
(SO
2
)
2.00
0.69

5.31
3.33
-
-
Nitrogen N
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.00
0.80
-
-
Moisture W -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.00
1.24

1. Calculation expressions of combustion air- and gas-flow rates in the ultimate analysis of coal
The combustion air flow rate needed for coal combustion and the generating combustion gas flow rate can
be calculated by the ultimate analysis using the list of component combustion values shown in Table 2. The
calculation results of component combustion are summarized in Table 3.
In this case, it is assumed that air consists of oxygen and nitrogen in a weight ratio of approx. 23.2% and
76.8% each and in a volume ratio of approx. 21% and 79% each.
The following shows the calculation process of the combustion air- and gas- flow rates regarding carbon
in the list, as well as regarding other components.
1 mol C + 1mol O
2
= 1mol CO
2
12 kgC + 32 kgO
2
= 44 kgCO
2
Necessary O
2
for C 1kg is:
3
Nm 867 . 1
429 . 1
667 . 2
or kg 667 . 2
12
32
= =
CO
2
generation by combustion of C 1kg is:
3
Nm 867 . 1
977 . 1
667 . 3
or kg 667 . 3
12
44
= =
The theoretical dry air flow rate of C 1kg is:
3
Nm 891 . 8
21
100
867 . 1
or 496 . 11
2 . 23
100
667 . 2
= ×
= ×

N
2
in C 1kg of the theoretical dry air is:


112
3
Nm 024 . 7
21
79
867 . 1
or 829 . 8
2 . 23
8 . 76
667 . 2
= ×
= ×

Theoretically generating combustion gas flow rate of C 1kg is:
CO
2
+ N
2
= 3.667 + 8.829 = 12.496 kg
Or = 1.867 + 7.024 = 8.891Nm
3
From the component combustion values shown in Table 2, the theoretical dry air flow rate (Ado) per kg is
represented in the following expression:
S 31 . 4
8
0
H 5 . 34 C 50 . 11 Ado - +

÷ + = (kg/kg)
S 33 . 3
8
0
H 7 . 26 C 89 . 8 ' Ado - +

÷ + - = (Nm
3
/kg)
Likewise, the theoretical dry gas flow rate (Gdo) is obtained by the following expression:
N S 31 . 5
8
0
H 5 . 26 C 50 . 12 Gdo + +

÷ + = (kg/kg)
or,
N 80 . 0 S 33 . 3
8
0
H 1 . 21 C 89 . 8 ' Gdo + +

÷ + = (Nm
3
/kg)
Supposing that the moisture included in the burning air is Xa (absolute temperature, kg/kg and dry air),
the water vapor flow rate (Wa) is represented in the following expression:
Wa =Xa y Ado (kg/kg) or
Wa’ = 1.61Xa y Ado’ (Nm
3
/kg)
The generating water vapor flow rate (Wf) by the combustion of moisture and hydrogen during burning is
represented in the following expression:
Wf = 9H + W (kg/kg) or
Wf’ = 11.19H + 1.244W (Nm
3
/kg)
The theoretical wet gas flow rate (Gwo) by which the theoretical dry gas flow rate and the entire water
vapor flow rate are added up is obtained from the following expression:
Gwo = Gdo + W + Wa (kg/kg) or
Gwo’ = Gdo’ + Wf’ + Wa’ (Nm
3
/kg)
Supposing that the aforementioned air ratio (actual combustion air flow rate plus excess air/theoretical air
ratio) is m, the actual wet air flow rate (Aw) is represented in the following expression:
Aw = m(1 + Xa)Ao (kg/kg) or
Aw’ = m(1+1.61Xa)Ao’ (Nm
3
/kg)
The actual dry gas flow rate (Gd) and wet gas flow rate (Gw) are obtained from the following expression:
Gd = Gdo + (m-1) y Ado (kg/kg) or
Gd’ = Gdo’ + (m-1) y Ado’ (Nm
3
/kg)
Gw = Gd + Wf + m y Wa (kg/kg) or
Gw’ = Gd’ + Wf’ m y Wa’ (Nm
3
/kg)

2. Exhaust gas component
As aforementioned, if O
2
1mol is supplied to C 1mol, CO
2
1mol is generated. However, if air is supplied,
exhaust gas consisting of 21% of CO
2
and 79% of N
2
generates if C is completely burned because the air
consists of 21% of O
2
and 79% of N
2
(volume ratio). Thus, if the fuel is C alone, the upper limit of CO
2
in
the exhaust gas becomes 21% theoretically.
However, in fuel combustion, the exhaust gas component increases while the ratio of CO
2
is relatively
smaller due to the other components (S, N, etc) or the excess air flow rate (O
2
, N
2
). In this case, the
theoretical CO
2
content ratio (CO
2
max) and the actual CO
2
content ratio are obtained by the following
expression. Here, CO is 0, and also what has been taken into account in the actual gas analysis (liquid
absorption method) is that SO
2
gas is absorbed together with CO
2
and quantified.
CO
2max
= (1.867C + 0.69S)/Gdo’ × 100 (dry vol%)
CO
2
= (1.867C + 0.69S)/Gdo’ × 100 (dry vol%)
Also, the other composition in the actual burning gas is obtained from the following expression:
O
2
= 21(m-1)Ado’/Gd’ (dry vol%)
N
2
= (0.8N + 0.79m y Ado’)/Gd’×100 (dry vol%)


113
H
2
O = (Gw’-Gd’)/Gw’×100 (wet vol%)

2.6.2.3 Generation Mechanism of Nitrogen Oxide
As shown in previous Fig. 1, the pulverized coal burning area is divided into the primary combustion area,
where coal volatile matter is burned, and the secondary combustion areas, where mainly chars are burned. Each
area contains Thermal NOx (NOx which is defined in the Zeldvich mechanism), Prompt NOx (NOx, which is
oxidized after airborne nitrogen combines with hydrocarbon to become NHi compound, and then generates), and
Fuel NOx (NOx which generates by the oxidization of N in fuel). These NOx, which generate in the above
mentioned areas, have the potential to become an NHi compound and to be partially reduced to N
2
under the
intervention of hydrocarbon in the insufficient oxygen area at the rear of the combustion area.

N

c
o
n
t
e
n
t

(
%
:

d
a
f

c
o
n
v
e
r
s
i
o
n
)

Australian G
coal
Japanese A
coal
Chinese D coal
Raw
coal
Reactor temperature (°C)

Fig. 6 Relation between the residual nitrogen content in chars and the primary reactor temperature

Symbol
Base condition

Fig. 7 Relation between NOx generation amount and reactor temperature



Fuel ratio (-)
Reactor temperature = 1,350°C
Air ratio in the primary reactor =
0.41
Residual O
2
=3%
Japanese A
coal
1.09%N
Australian
C coal
1.59%N
Chinese D
coal
0.85%N
Japanese B
coal
1.1%N
South African
coal
O1.56%N
Canadian F
coal
1.03%N
Coal
Japanese A coal
Chinese D coal
Air ratio in the primary reactor = 0.41
Residual O
2
= 3%
Reactor temperature (%)


114
Fig. 8 Relation between NOx generation amount and coal properties


Japanese A coal
Residual O
2
= 3%
Secondary reactor temperature =
1,350°C
Air ratio in the primary reactor =
0.41
Fig. 9 Relation between Nox generation amount and primary reactor temperature
Primary reactor temperature (°C)
Thus, the NOx generation characteristic of coal fuel, which includes much organic nitrogen, has an extremely
complex reaction pattern compared with conventional gas or oil fuel. In this section, we will consider the NOx
generation mechanism of fundamental pulverized-coal in the reactor pipe.
First, Fig. 6 shows the volatile matter of organic nitrogen included in coal and its content ratio to char.
According to this Fig., the organic nitrogen ratio included in carbonized char is almost the same as that in raw
coal. This means that both the volatile matter in coal and the char include organic nitrogen almost evenly. Also,
the following shows the investigation result of NOx generation characteristics when pulverized coal is burned in
the primary- and secondary combustion areas separately with two electric-heating-type magnetic reactive pipes
connected by a quartz joint.
Figure 7 shows the comparison of NOx generation amounts in these areas by using (Ar+O
2
) and (N
2
+O
2
) as
combustion carrier gas.
This difference in both areas can be considered to be Thermal NOx (Prompt NOx is included). From the figure,
it is considered that almost all generation is accounted for by Fuel NOx when the reactor temperature is below
1400°C while 25-30% is accounted for by Thermal NOx when the reactor temperature is 1600°C.
Figure 8 shows the comparison of NOx generation amounts when the type of coal is changed under the
primary- and secondary reactors temperature of 1350°C.
The relation between the type of coal and the NOx generation amount cannot be determined by the organic
nitrogen content alone in coal. Rather, it seems to be more understandable by the fuel ratio.
Figure 9 shows the relation between the primary reactor temperature and the NOx generation amount, where
the primary reactor air ratio is set to 0.41.
According to this figure, in the volatile matter burning area of the primary reactor, the higher the reactor
temperature, the lower the NOx generation amount. This phenomenon is seen only in an air-short reductive
atmosphere. Because, generally, the higher the temperature, the greater the volatile amount of carbon hydride and
organic nitrogen in coal, it is considered that when the actual air ratio in the burning area of the primary reactor
further decreases, the NOx generation amount will be lowered.


Japanese A coal
Residual O
2
= 3%
Secondary reactor temperature =
1,350°C
Air ratio in the primary reactor =
0.41
Retention time (S) in primary reactor
Fig. 10 Relation between Nox generation amount and retention time in primary reactor



115

Symbo
l
Char
Fig. 11 Comparison of NOx generation amounts between coal and char

Figure 10 shows the variation of the NOx generation amount by setting the air ratio in the primary reactor to
0.41.
According to this, the longer the coal retention time in the volatile matter burning area of the primary reactor,
the lower the NOx generation amount. This is likely because the organic nitrogen gas (NH
3
, HCN) etc. generated
in the air-short volatile matter burning area is partially reduced to N
2
due to the existence of unburned gas.
Figure 11 shows the relation between the NOx generation amount and the air ratio in the primary reactor.
According to this, the NOx generation amount is largely changed by the air ratio in the primary reactor.

2.6.3 Pulverized Coal Combustion Equipment
The pulverized coal combustion equipment mainly consists of a stoker, coal pulverizer (mill), pulverized-coal
pipe, pulverized-coal burner and furnace (these are fuel supply- and combustion equipment behind the bunker);
and of a primary draft fan (PAF) and air preheater (AH) (these are primary draft equipment).
The above equipments are described below:

2.6.3.1 Pulverized Coal Burning Method
The pulverized coal burning method generally employed is classified into two types: (1) according to the burner
arrangement and (2) according to the method of pulverized coal feed (direct/indirect).
(1) Classification according to burner arrangement
The combustion method is classified into the following according to the relation between the furnace and the
burner arrangement.
Figure 12 shows the combustion method according to the burner arrangement.

Fig. 12 Combustion methods according to burner arrangement
1. Horizontal firing (horizontal combustion)
The method, where burners are placed at the front or rear of the furnace wall, is called a front firing or rear
firing method, while the method, where burners are placed at both the front and rear sides of the walls, is
Coal
Japanese A
coal
Residual O
2
= 3%
Reactor temperature = 1,350°C
Air ratio (-) in primary reactor
(4) Vertical
firing
(1) Front firing (2) Opposed
firing
(3) Tangential
firing
(
L
a
t
e
r
a
l

s
i
d
e
)

(
F
r
o
n
t

s
i
d
e
)

(
L
a
t
e
r
a
l

s
i
d
e
)
(
S
u
r
f
a
c
e

s
i
d
e
)



116
called an opposed firing method. In these methods, circling motions are given to combustion air to shorten
flames and the fuel and air are circulated and mixed, thereby forming high temperature flames.

2. Tangential corner firing
In this method, burners are placed at the four corners of the furnace, from which pulverized coal and air
are injected tangentially into a virtual circle in the center of the furnace. Each burner independently forms a
flame while the entire flame is swirling slowly in the furnace to form a single flame (fireball), featuring a
long flame trajectory and slow combustion.

Stack
Desulfurization
equipment
Regenerative
preheater
Induced draft fan
Electric dust
collector
Forced draft fan
Bunker
Steam air preheater
Secondary air
Stoker
Primary draft fan
Coal pulverizer
Coal
pulverizer
Seal air fan
Fig. 13 Direct combustion method
Primary air


3. Vertical firing (vertical combustion)
Burners are installed downward from the ceiling of the lower furnace, where pulverized coal and air are
injected downward once, but the flames flow upward while burning. Since the frame trajectory adopts a
U-shape, it is also called U-firing. In this method, because the combustion time can be longer and the
radiation from flames is received at the burner, the burner’s heat load becomes larger, and because the
pulverized coal injection speed can be lowered, the combustibility and ignitability are better. This is
generally suitable for coal such as anthracite whose combustibility is poor.

(2) Classification According to Pulverized Coal Feed Method
The pulverized coal burning system is classified into the following according to the difference in pulverized
coal feed methods:
(1) Direct combustion method (direct system)
(2) Storing combustion method (bin system)
The direct combustion system, which has had rich achievements, has generally been employed as a standard of
boilers for bituminous coal with high volatile matter.
On the other hand, the bin system has been employed since long ago for the purpose of combustion
improvement in boilers for anthracite coal with low volatile matter of approx. 15% or less. Each method has the
following characteristics:

1. System of combustion method
In the case of the direct combustion method (Fig.13), coal from the bunker is flow-controlled and fed to
the mill by the stoker. Next, the pulverized coal, which has been ground in the mill and dried, is directly
transferred and fed to the burner by the primary air through the pulverized-coal pipe. Hence, the fuel
system and arrangement after the mill are simple.
Though, in the case of the bin system there are various patterns, this example (Fig.14) shows the system
which uses exhaust gas for transferring and drying pulverized coal in the mill.
The bin system is fundamentally different from the direct combustion method in terms of the system after
the mill, and is more or less complex, having more devices. To dry pulverized coal in the mill, combusted
exhaust-gases taken from the entrance and exit of the air preheater are utilized, and each amount of the


117
gases is adjusted so that they reach the necessary temperature at the mill entrance.
The gas-mixed pulverized coal from the mill is separated into pulverized coal and exhaust gas when it
passes through the cyclone (primary) and the bag filter (secondary). The pulverized coal captured here is
stored in the bin while the exhaust gas is returned to the air preheater exit by the exhaust fan.
The pulverized coal is transferred by the pulverized-coal stoker from the bin to the burner entrance, where
it is blended with the primary air and fed into the burner.

2. Operability
In the direct combustion method, the mill operation and burner operation are directly interlocked, and the
load operation is restricted both by the mill operation (the minimum mill load and the dynamics including
mill startup) and by the combustibility at the burner.

Bag filter
Bunker
Stack
C
y
c
l
o
n
e
D
e
s
u
l
f
u
r
i
z
a
t
i
o
n
e
q
u
i
p
m
e
n
t
Exhaust fan
Stoker
Screw conveyor
Induced draft
fan
Coal
pulverizer
Regenerative
air preheater
Electric dust
collector
Pulverized-coal
bin
Stoker
Forced draft facfan
Steam air preheater
Primary draft fan
Distributor Secondary air
Fig. 14 Bin system for pulverized coal
Primary air


In the bin system, coal grinding and drying in the mill and combustion at the burner can be separated, so
there is no operation restriction by the mill in terms of the load operation, but the combustion alone at the
burner is restricted. This is a little more advantageous than the direct combustion method.

3. Combustibility
In the direct combustion method, when a mill load is low, the air/fuel ratio becomes larger as the load is
lowered, thereby combustibility is apt to worsen.
In the bin system, as aforementioned, grinding and drying in the mill and the pulverized coal input to the
burner can be independently operated (however, within the bin’s capacity), and the coal moisture
evaporated in the mill is discharged outside the system. Therefore, the burner can ensure the optimal, dried
primary air/ratio with high to low load. This is especially much better for combustibility with a low load
than in the direct combustion method. However, the direct combustion method can also maintain
combustibility equivalent to that in the bin system by employing a high turndown burner (where an
air-pulverized coal mixture is separated into thick and thin types to burn).

4. Maintainability
In the direct combustion method, the greater the number of mills, the more frequent the maintenance and
services of the mills, but it is possible to schedule the intervals of maintenance and services by installing
backup mills.
In the bin system, the mill’s maintenance and services become easier because the number of mills can be
reduced. And mills can be halted for a short time (depending on the bin capacity), during which
maintenance is possible. However, the frequency of maintenance and services for other devices (a cyclone,
bag filter, exhaust fan, etc) increases.

5. Safety
In the direct combustion method, special safety measures are not needed because there is no pulverized


118
coal storage, whereas in the bin system, strict safety measures (sealing the bin by inert gas, installing
electrostatic, explosion-proof-type explosion doors, enhancing monitor systems, arranging fire
extinguishing equipment, etc.) are required in order to prevent pulverized coal in the bin from sparking and
exploding.

2.6.3.2 Furnace
Furnaces must fulfill certain functions: to convert the chemical energy of fuel into thermal energy effectively,
that is to say, to have combustion equipment (a chamber) to burn fuel completely; and to let the internal can-water
absorb generated heat through the surrounding water pipes. For these purposes, furnaces must be equipped with
the proper type and quantity of burners according to the fuel, and have the appropriate shape and space to
completely burn fuel, as well as the structure to withstand the thermal load.


Typical
bituminous coal Heavy oil
Gas
Fig. 15 Conceptual comparison of fuel and furnace size

Especially, because the coal (pulverized coal) combustibility is fairly inferior to that of other fuels (heavy oil,
gas, etc.), a larger sized chamber (furnace) is required. The furnace size must be selected by taking into account
the combustibility and also the slagging characteristic of coal (ash adherence to the furnace).
Figure 15 shows the comparison between the type of fuel and furnace size.
As shown in the comparison between the type of coal (coal rank) and furnace size in Fig. 16, the furnace size
varies largely with the type of coal. The difference in some furnaces is larger than that in fuels (typical bituminous
coal and heavy oil).
For recent furnace walls, a welded wall structure, where both pipes are welded by a fin or a weld metal to
ensure air tightness of the furnace, has been employed to decrease heat losses and repair costs.

2.6.3.3 Pulverized Coal Burner
The coal combustion method generally employed is mainly classified into two types: the grate-type combustion
method in which coal is not ground; and the burner combustion method in which coal is pulverized into minute
grains by the coal pulverizer and float-fired in the air.
Though the former features relatively less power consumption and less flying ash, it is not suitable as
combustion equipment for large capacity boilers.
On the other hand, the latter uses pulverized-coal burners to feed pulverized coal into the furnace and burn it.
Compared with the grate-type combustion method, this has many advantages: (1) excess air is less and the
combustion efficiency is high, (2) adjustment of load and combustion is easier and ignition and extinguishing time
is shorter, (3) automatic control is easier, and (4) combustion by mixing with liquid- or gas fuel is easier.



119

Bituminous coal
with medium
volatile matter
Fig. 16 Conceptual comparison of coal rank and furnace size
Semi-bituminous
coal with high
volatile matter
Brown coal
with low Na
Brown coal
with medium
Na
Brown coal
with High Na

In the pulverized coal burner, a premixed airflow of both the pulverized coal ground by the pulverizer and the
primary air is injected into the furnace through a boxy or cylindrical nozzle, and from the vicinity of this nozzle,
the secondary air heated by the air preheater is blown in. The pulverized coal, which has been injected together
with the primary air, diffuses rapidly while slowing the speed after coming out of the nozzle, and is ignited and
burned while mixing with the secondary air from the outside by receiving radiant heat from the high-temperature
furnace wall and flames. The flow rate of the mixed gas of pulverized coal and primary air is set by taking into
account the flame velocity and the pulverized coal settling velocity.
Figures 17-19 show the structures of typical pulverized coal burners. The burners in Figs. 17 and 18 have been
designed so that the rotating device gives rotating motions to the mixed gas of pulverized coal and primary air.
The pulverized coal burner in Fig. 19, called a tangential tilting burner, has been designed so that the nozzle of
the burner tip moves up and down each at the angle of approx. 30 degrees to adjust steam temperature.
Either burner is usually equipped with an ignition burner in the center or the side.
The pulverized coal burner requires maintenance because the tip is especially apt to be deformed and damaged
by receiving radiant heat in the furnace and vulnerable to abrasion by pulverized coal. Therefore, recently new
techniques have been developed for durability improvement, such as lining the burner with material (made into a
tile form) - ceramic etc. with high heat and abrasion resistance -, or flame-spray coating the surface. Some of them
have been practically used.

Air adjustment handle
E
l
e
c
t
r
o
d
e
Ignition burner
Air cylinder
Transformer
I
m
p
e
l
l
e
r
Air cylinder
Heavy oil burner
P
u
l
v
e
r
i
z
e
d

c
o
a
l

b
u
r
n
e
r
Pulverized coal
entrance
Air register (circular type)
Inspection window

Fig. 17 Circular burner

In addition to the abovementioned durability, the following functions are required for pulverized coal burners:
(1) Low NOx combustibility
(2) High turndown
The background is: nowadays we must comply with strict environmental regulations; our country has been
importing coal from all over the world, hence we must deal with such various properties of foreign coal; the need
for coal-fired power as intermediate-load thermal power has been rising because nuclear power generation has
recently increased and the difference between the day and night power demands has increased.
Next, a representative low NOx burner is described below:


120
Figure 20 shows the structure of a DF inter-vane pulverized coal burner.
The secondary air is supplied toward the burner throat through two independent channels so that flames are
stabilized and the mixture of fuel and secondary air can be adjusted. The circular nozzle, from which fuel is
injected, consists of an outer casing and a combustion liner. Each end of the nozzle is narrowed down so that the
fuel concentrates on the center of the axis. The end of the combustion liner can be moved toward the axis, thereby
adjusting the mixture of fuel and secondary air.
Figure 21 shows the structure of the NR burner.
The pulverized-coal nozzle is placed in the center of the burner. On the concentric circle of the outer periphery,
a cylindrical nozzle is mounted to supply inner-peripheral burning-air. Furthermore, outside of this, a
burning-air-rotating device is installed to adjust outer-peripheral burning-air. Around the periphery of the
pulverized-coal nozzle tip, a ceramic-made flame-stabilizer ring is mounted so that minute vortices can be
generated in the pulverized coal flow, enabling quick ignition of the pulverized coal, and stabilizing
high-temperature reduction flames of excess fuel.

Shroud ring
Pulverized-coal
outer casing
Pulverized-coal
combustion liner
Oil burner
Tertiary damper
Vane support
plate
Front
plate
Vane
Tertiary air pipe

Fig. 18 Inter-vane type burner

Secondary air
(heavy oil burner)
Pulverized coal +
primary air
Secondary air
(heavy oil burner)

Fig. 19 Tangential tilting burner

Figure 22 shows a pulverized coal PM burner.
This burner utilizes the characteristic that NOx generating during pulverized-coal combustion decreases at both
the thick/thin pulverized-coal density sides after the primary air/coal weight ratio reaches 3-4. That is to say, by
installing a distributor at the burner entrance, the air-fuel mixture, whose usual primary-air/coal weight ratio is 2-3,
is divided into the higher and lower mixtures of the pulverized coal density, and is fed into the furnace through
separate nozzles and burned so that NOx becomes lowest.
The high-turndown burner, in principle, divides the air-fuel mixture of pulverized coal into thick and thin


121
mixtures. Though with common burners, the pulverized coal density becomes lower and the ignition stability
worsens when the burner load is lower, this high-turndown burner maintains better ignition stability with this thick
mixture even when the burner load is low.

Primary air + pulverized coal
Burner tile cooling air
Separate plate
Moving
combustion
liner
Combustion liner
driving device
Flow divider
Heavy oil entrance
Pitot tube
Primary air + pulverized coal
Heavy oil burner Combustion
liner
Inner secondary air

Fig. 20 DF inter-vane pulverized coal burner

Figures 23 and 24 show high-turndown burners. The aforementioned PM is also a high-turndown burner.
The burner in Fig. 23 is called a split burner. The burner body has a diaphragm and the nozzle tip has a deflector.
When a primary-air-fuel mixture flows through the bend section of the burner entrance, the high mixture (bend
outer-periphery side) and the low mixture (inner-periphery side) of the pulverized coal density are divided by the
centrifugal force of the pulverized coal.


Fig. 21 NR burner


Purge air connection inlet Outer secondary air
Outer
casing
Secondary-air vane
opening/closing device
Inner-vane
Furnace front
wall and furnace
wall pipe
Tertiary air damper
Heat sealed plate
Secondary-air vane
Inner-vane opening/closing device
Secondary air
Tertiary air pipe
Pulverized coal entrance manifold
Heat pipe
Pilot torch High-performance
combustion-air circling path
Flame stabilizing
ring
(with ceramic parts)
Guide sleeve
Pulverized coal +
primary air
Outer-periphery
combustion air
Inner-periphery
combustion air


122
Fig. 22
Pulverized coal PM
burner
Burner side face



Fig. 23 Split burner

Burner front side Variable separator
Coal nozzle tip
Horizontal diaphragm
Coal nozzle Seal plate
Entrance
elbow
Thick mixture
No kicker
block
Thin mixture


123

Fig. 24 Wide-range burner
Pulverized coal entrance
(primary air)
(1)
High load position
Low load position
Low load position
High load
position
(2)
(3)
(6)
(5)
(4)
(7)
(9)
(8)
Secondary air
Tertiary air
(1) Split damper (2) Traverse-mounted cyclone (3) Cyclone
exit damper (4) Pilot torch (5) Swirler (6) Burner nozzle (7) Oil
burner (8) Tertiary damper (9) Low load nozzle

In the wide-range burner in Fig.24, the traverse-mounted separator on the burner entrance separates the
pulverized coal flow into high-density and low-density.


Mill outlet damper
Classifier
Oil pressure
load equipment
Separator body
Separator
Body liner
Roll
Pull ring
segment
Fig. 25 Bowl mill

2.6.3.4 Coal Pulverizer (hereafter referred to as mill)
The coal pulverizer is the most important equipment to govern the operability and reliability of coal burning
boilers. Therefore, an optimum mill type must be selected from the comprehensive viewpoint according to the
coal properties and the operation conditions. The mills are classified broadly according to the grinding method,
structure, and draft method. As far as the mills used in thermal power stations are concerned, they can be
classified into the following:
(1) Upright mill


124
(2) Hammer mill and beater wheel mill
Upright mills are suitable for bituminous coal, semi-bituminous coal and part of brown coal; tube mills and
beater wheel mills are used for high-ash content coal; and hammer mills are used for high-moisture brown coal.
Nowadays, domestic coal burning boilers mainly use an upright mill for the following reasons:
1) It can be used for broad types of coal and is suitable for bituminous and semi-bituminous coal burned in
domestic boilers.
2) It needs low consumption power.
3) It is easy to adjust the pulverization degree and start/stop, and excellent in load responsiveness.
4) Necessary floor space is smaller and noise is smaller.
(1) Upright Mill
1. Structure
Figures 25-29 show the structures of various types of upright mills.
The upright mills mainly consist of a reducer section, grinding and drying section, and coarse grain separator
section.
(1)
Raw coal
Pulverized coal
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
Hot air
entrance

Fig. 26 Upright MBF mill: drawing of whole assembly
(1) Pulverized-coal pipe (2) Vane driving equipment
(3) Coarse-grain separator vane (4) Reject shoot
(5) Stoker pipe (6) Grinding roller (three pieces)
(7) Roller pressurizer (8) Air port ring
(9) Table segment (10) Grinding table
(11) Foreign substance discharge scraper
(12) Foreign substance discharge hole (13)Reducer
Coal, which is fed from the stoker through the stoker pipe positioned in the center of the mill, falls into the
rotating bowl (table), and is spread by centrifugal force, forming a coal layer. This coal layer is inserted between
the roll and the segment liner on the bowl (table), and ground by the roll with the grinding load applied to the roll
by the loading device.
The pulverized coal is blown up by hot air, which is fed by the periphery of the grinding section, and classified
by the upper classifier while being dried. There are two types of classifiers: a fixed type cyclone separator and a
rotary separator. Nowadays, the rotary separator (Fig. 29) is often used because of high combustion efficiency and
energy saving. This provides a high pulverization degree of more than 90% by 200-mesh passing.
The foreign substances and pyrite mixed in coal fall from the air blow section to beneath the bowl, and are
discharged by the scraper into the pyrite hopper through the pyrite discharge pipe.



125
Coal
entrance
Primary air
inlet
Supply
and drain
water

Fig. 27 Cross-sectional view of large scale E mill

Mill exit stop-valve
Stoker pipe entrance section
Mill upper
housing
Coarse grain
separator
(classifier)
Sealing air piping
Upper-housing
disassembling
support leg
Loading rod
seal
Spring frame

Fig. 28

Nowadays, coal burning boilers have often employed pressure mills whose abrasive exhausters need not be
repaired. For these mills, seal air is supplied to prevent pulverized coal leak. Also as a measure to prevent coal
blockage in the stoker pipe, a rotary-type pipe is mounted.
Pressure frame Spring
Grinding
-roller
ring seat
cover
Mill intermediate
housing
Loading rod
Grinding ring
Throat ring
Lower housing Ring seat
Pyrite
blow
Yoke Primary air inlet
Pyrite box
Yoke
seal air
Gear box
Pressure
cylinder


126

Raw coal
Stoker pipe
Classifier driving
equipment
Outlet port
Rotary type classifier
Hydraulic
loading device
Hot-air inlet
duct
Pull ring
segment
Bowl

Fig. 29 MRS type bowl mill

2. Operation and maintenance
The operation of upright mills is simple and start/stop operation can be completely automated.
Also, the wide range of the mill operation load adjustment is important for coal boiler operability.
The upright mill is available for 40-50% turndown, but recently some types of upright mills have become
available for high-turndown operation up to 30% or less.
For mills operation, the maintenance of abrasive parts is also extremely important. So, studies have been
conducted to develop abrasion-resistant materials and to simplify the replacement of roll rings, liners, etc. As for
the material of rolls, in addition to conventional abrasion-resistant cast iron, curing cladding-welding material
with several times abrasion-resistance of cast iron has also been used.
Because the life of the grinding section varies with the coal properties and the operation conditions, etc, it is
necessary to measure periodically the abrasion depth of the rolls or segments of each plant and to schedule the
intervals of replacement. Generally, rolls/rings/liners replacement is conducted in such a manner that one unit of
extra mill per boiler is installed, and maintenance intervals are set, and each mill is maintained sequentially.


Fig. 30 Tube mill



127


Fig. 31 Structure of horizontal-type bowl mill

Pulverized coal + gas mixture
Hot gas + coal
Pulverizer housing
Pulverizer wheel
Hot air (for sealing)
Coal pulverizer
gate mill gage Abrasion-resistant
plate
Primary grinder
Bearing Driving machine

Fig.32 Beater wheel mill
(2) Hammer mill and beater wheel mill
The hammer mill is a machine that smashes coal with the beating impacts of many hammers or heads rotated at
high-speed. This is used for inferior coal (high moisture coal, brown coal) or to grind coal coarsely. (Fig.32)
Many hammer mills have been used for brown-coal burning boilers in Europe and Australia, but our country
has no application example.

2.6.3.5 Stoker
The stoker is equipment which plays an essential role to determine the combustion rate corresponding to the
load variation and maintain the optimum air/fuel ratio in the coal combustion system.
The most important point when selecting a stoker is that it feeds the correct amount of coal into the pulverizer
from the bunker or silo smoothly and uniformly according to the fuel demand signals.
The following are the types and characteristics of stokers commonly used for pulverized coal boilers.
(1) Belt-type volumetric feeder
This stoker, using rubber belts, has a stable feeding capacity because coal is cut out equally in width and height.
With little interruption of coal feeding and good maintainability, this is generally used for pulverized coal
combustion equipment. Since this is a volume-control type, the coal weight sometimes varies according to the
coal density variation.


128
(2) Belt-type gravimetric feeder
Figure 33 shows the structure of the belt-type gravimetric feeder.
This is a belt-type stoker equipped with a measuring mechanism with a load cell. Because the fuel demand can
be met based on the coal weight and the feeding is exact and stable, the fuel variation caused by the coal density is
compensated.
Thus, because the fuel is correctly controlled and the weight and flow measurements are highly accurate and
maintainability is also excellent, this is suitable for sophisticated plant control with a calculator.

2.6.3.6 Primary Draft Equipment
In the direct combustion method, the primary air is used for not only burning pulverized coal, but also drying
and transferring it to the burner in the mill.
In the primary draft system, the primary draft fan (PAF) is placed in two methods relative to the air preheater
(AH) according to the air temperature: a Cold Primary Air Fan method (PAF is installed upstream of the AH,
dealing with cold air) and a Hot Primary Air Fan method (PAF is installed downstream of the AH in the upstream
of the mill, dealing with hot air).
Figure 34 shows the comparison among these circuits.
(1) Comparison between Cold PAF and Hot PAF methods
1. PAF capacity
Cold PAF has a capacity to deal with a primary air flow rate of all mills by one to two PAFs (depending on the
number of draft circuits) regardless of the number of mills.

Fig. 33 Belt-type gravimetric feeder
C
o
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l

e
n
t
r
a
n
c
e
(
f
r
o
m

b
u
n
k
e
r
)

Dresser coupling
Downspout
Measuring module
Puddle switch for on-belt coal
shortage monitor
Illuminating lamp
Head pulley
Measuring
roller
Measuring span roller
Entrance door
Entrance gate
(fixed type)
End plate
Measuring span
Exit door
Belt scraper
C
o
a
l

e
x
i
t

(
t
o

m
i
l
l
)
Tension pulley
Cell preening
take-up pulley
Belt take-up adjust screw
Seal air manifold
Cleaning conveyor
Cleaning-conveyor
chain sprocket
Support roller
Cleaning conveyor
chain take-up
On the other hand, Hot PAF is installed in the one PAF - one mill base and the capacity is one mill’s worth of
the primary air amount, so the same number of units as that of mills is required.
Comparing the total capacities (power) of each method, the Hot PAF method, which deals with hot air, has
larger capacity.
2. AH type
In the Cold PAF method, the air pressure in the primary air circuit is higher than that in the secondary air circuit,
so the AH flow path must be divided into two: for the primary and for the secondary.
The AH is mainly classified into two: an integrated type and a separate type, as shown in Fig. 35. For common
pulverized coal burning boilers, the integrated AH type is often employed because the duct and AH placement
become simpler and the necessary space is smaller.
In the Hot PAF method, the air pressure in the primary air circuit is lower than that in the secondary circuit, so
the AH flow path need not be separated for the primary and the secondary. Figure 34 shows a standard type of AH,
through which the total air flow rate of the primary and secondary air circuits passes AH and then the primary hot
air diverges to be absorbed by PAF.


129
3. Operation power

Cold PAF method Hot PAF method
Mill Mill
Control
damper
Control
damper
P
r
i
m
a
r
y

c
o
l
d

a
i
r


Fig. 34 Comparison of PAF systems

When operated with high load using many mills, the Cold PAF method has high fan efficiency because fewer
PAFs deal with the primary air flow rate necessary for the operation of all moving mills, and the power
consumption is smaller than that of Hot PAF since cold air is dealt with.
On the contrary, when operated with low load using fewer mills, the Hot PAF method consumes smaller power
in total than that of the Cold PAF method (if the Cold PAF efficiency drops notably with low load) because the
idling mill’s PAFs can be stopped and the fan efficiency of the moving PAFs is as high as that during high load
operation with the high mill load.
4. Operability

Fig. 35 Comparison of AH types in Cold PAF method
When the mill load and moisture in coal are changed, the necessary temperature at the mill entrance is changed.
The Hot PAF is affected directly by this temperature change and its operation point changes. However, the Cold
PAF is always constant in cold air. Even when necessary temperature at the mill entrance is changed (a change in
the ratio of hot air to cold air), the Cold PAF is less affected by air volume and air pressure fluctuation, and easily
controlled.
P
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a
s
Integrated type
Separate type
Twin flow type Tri-sector type
System
From boiler
To mill
From boiler From boiler
To
mill
To
mill
To boiler
To boiler
To boiler
From
PAF
From
PAF
From
PAF
From FDF
From
FDF
From
FDF
From IDF From IDF From IDF
Primary air
Primary air
Primary air
Gas
Gas
Gas
Gas
Gas
Gas
Gas
Secondary air
Secondary air
Secondary
air
Inner
periphery
split way Outer
periphery
Three-
Distribution adjustment of gas flow
rate to primary- and secondary AHs
can be available
Primary air
temperature
control
Distribution adjustment of gas flow
rate to primary- and secondary air
sides can be available
Positive- and inverse rotations
are available and large change
alone is possible
Duct work Slightly complex Relatively simple Relatively simple
Construction cost, power
cost and air leak amount Almost same


130
5. Economic efficiency
As for equipment cost, AH is higher and PAF is lower in the Cold PAF method than in the Hot PAF method, but
these cannot simply be compared because, as a matter of fact, they largely vary with equipment arrangement, duct
work, etc. As for operation power, the efficiency is reversed depending on the operation load area, as
aforementioned, so it is necessary to estimate the economic effect comprehensively, including operation patterns,
to decide the path to be taken.
Generally speaking, high-capacity, exclusive coal-combustion boilers often employ the Cold PAF method while
small-capacity boilers with fewer mills or co-combustion boilers often employ the Hot PAF method.
(2) PAF placement and type
In the Cold PAF method, there are two ways to place PAF: in series with FDF or in parallel with FDF. The
comparison between them is shown in Table 4.
Regarding the PAF types, a centrifugal type has traditionally been used because the air pressure required by
PAF is high and flat across the entire area as shown in Fig. 36 and because the conventional axial-flow fans could
not be enlarged or improved in performance to prevent surging.
Nowadays, the axial-flow fans have been improved against surging characteristics, and some of them have been
provided with a casing treatment suitable for the rotating-blade tips to enhance the fan efficiency.

2.6.3.7 Bunker
The design of bunkers must be fully considered so that they do not cause coal retention or blockage because
such bunker problems are crucial issues causing a load decrease or unit trip in the power stations.
(1) Design of bunker
1. Capacity
The bunker capacity is determined by the following expressions:
The coal amount stored within an available feeding time is:
¸
=
QT
Vc
Hence, the bunker capacity becomes
) 100 / (
Vc
V
n
=
However, V: bunker capacity (m
3
)
Vc: storage capacity (m
3
)
Q: feeding capacity (conveyor capacity) (t/h)
T: available feeding time (h)
Ȗ: coal volume specific gravity (foreign coal generally has approx. 0.8) (t/m
3
)
n: volumetric efficiency (the ratio of storage capacity to bunker capacity is generally 0.6-1.0)
(%)
Table 4 Comparison between PAF layouts
System type PAF-FDF series configuration PAF/FDF parallel configuration
System structure

Fundamental characteristics
FDF air flow rate is larger but PAF air
pressure decreases by the amount of
FDF discharged air pressure compared
with the method described at right.
FDF air flow rate decreases by the
amount of PAF air flow rate compared
with the method described at left.
Selection criterion
The method with a higher economic effect should be employed by taking into
account the characteristics of primary- and secondary air flow rates and air
pressure required by the pulverized coal combustion equipment as well as the
characteristics of fans (varies with the types).
Boiler
Mill Mill Boiler


131
2. Bunker shape
Generally, there are two types of bunkers: a conical shape and a pyramidal shape. They are almost the same in
flow characteristics in a bunker, but the conical shape is excellent in the space-occupation rate while the pyramidal
shape is excellent in strength.
3. Inclination angle of hopper wall face
In order for coal to assume an arch shape and not to cause blockage in the bunker, the arch bending moment
must be large. Because the arch bending moment is proportional to the squared distance between the fulcrums and
to the load applied to the arch, the cross-sectional area of the exit and the inclination angle of the wall face must
be more or less large. Generally, an angle of more than 70 degrees has been employed.


Characteristic of
conventional type PAF
(large type)
Fig. 36 PAF characteristic improvement provided with casing treatment

4. Bunker exit
Though the bunker exit is restricted by the diameter of the downspout or the stoker, the larger the bunker exit,
the better blockage prevention. There is a method to enlarge the cross-sectional area of the main bunker exit by
installing a sub-bunker under the bunker.
5. Material
Almost all bunkers are made of steel plates. The bunker exit, where blockage is most apt to occur, is usually
provided with a lining of high corrosion resistant stainless steel or polymeric synthetic resin. Also, Gunite is
sometimes used as a lining material on the vertical section by taking into account the resistance to abrasion.


Fig. 37 Plug flow and mass flow

(2) Flow form and the determination factors
There are two types of coal flow forms: a plug flow (core flow) and a mass flow.
In the plug flow, as shown in Fig.37, the coal near the bunker wall does not move but the coal in or around the
center only flows out. On the contrary, in the mass flow, the coal in the bunker gradually flows out from the lower
position of the bunker.
A
i
r

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

H

(
m
m
H
2
O
)
(With casing
treatment)
Improved
type
Necessary Q-H characteristic
Conventional type PAF (without casing treatment)
Air flow rate Q (m
3
/min.)
Adhesive coal
Non adhesive
coal
Mass flow
Plug flow
(core flow)


132
Therefore, the mass flow does not retain coal for a long time in the bunker, but the plug flow always retains
coal in the lower position in the bunker.
The flow form is mainly determined by the following factors:
1. Type of coal
Adhesive coal is apt to take the plug flow pattern, causing blockage.

2. Inclination angle of hopper wall face
It is confirmed by the experiments that if the inclination angle of the wall face exceeds 65-70 degrees, the
flow separates into a mass flow and a plug flow.

3. Material for bunker inner face
When corrosion-prone material, such as steel plates, is used for a bunker inner face, corroded portions cause
an adherence phenomenon, resulting in the retention or blockage of coal. Hence, corrosion resistant material is
usually used: the inner face is often provided with a lining of high corrosion resistant stainless steel or
polymeric synthetic resin to prevent corrosion.
(3) Coal properties and blockage
1. Repose angle
The larger the coal grains the more often blockage occurs. The coal flow is affected by grain size distribution,
ash and clay contents and moisture as mentioned below (Fig. 38).

B
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p
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-
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a
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a
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a

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t
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e
x
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(
g
k
m
3
s
)
R
e
p
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s
e

a
n
g
l
e
(
d
e
g
r
e
e
)
Moisture (%)

Fig. 38 Repose angle and blockage
Repose angle (degree)

2. Grain size distribution
The finer the grains, the more blockage is apt to occur, though slightly different according to the moisture
content.
3. Ash and clay contents
Ash and clay contents are no problem if their surface moisture is slight. But if it is large, adherence occurs,
resulting in blockage.
4. Moisture
Moisture (especially surface moisture) is a crucial factor. The smaller the grain, the larger the influence, and
10-15% moisture has the highest possibility of causing blockage. However, when exceeding this rate, on the
contrary, adhesiveness decreases. This means that when moisture is slight, it exists as a film over a grain surface,
causing surface friction among coal grains, whereas when moisture increases, this film breaks, developing
lubricating action.
(4) Blockage prevention measures
As aforementioned, blockage can be significantly prevented by bunker specifications by considering the coal
flow- and hopper discharge characteristics, but the following methods are also effective for blockage:
(1) Blending coal
(2) Installing a corner plate
(3) Providing a poking hole and a hammering seat
(4) Installing an air-blaster
(5) Installing a vibrator
2.7 Examples for the Operation of Soot Blowers
Reduction of SteamVolume by Revising the Operation of
Low Load Soot Blowers㩷 in Tsuruga Thermal Power Plant
The Sun
Shift C
Power Generation Environment
Section
Tsuruga Thermal Power Plant
Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Ltd.
䃁 Keywords: radiation, prevention of thermal loss due to thermal conduction
䃁 Outline of the Theme
Rapid surges electric load are frequently observed early in the morning at coal thermal power plants. For
Unit 1 of Tsuruga Thermal Power Plant, when an electric load range of less than 250 MW continued for 8
hours or more, all soot blowers were activated to uplift the electric load. In this project, an examination was
to determine which soot blowers should be turned on to improve the soot blower operations and maintain the
electric load the volume of steam at appropriate levels.
䃁 Period of the Study (April 2001 – March 2003)
䍃 Planning: 6 months (April – September 2001)
䍃 Measures Taken: 12 months (October 2001 – September 2002)
䍃 Assessment of Results: 6 months (October 2002 – March 2003)
䃁 Outline of Tsuruga Thermal Power Plant
䍃 Production: Electricity (Unit 1: 500 MW, Unit 2: 700 MW)
䍃 Employees: 107
䍃 Annual consumption of energy (as of FY2002)
Coal: 2,294,398 (ton)
Heavy Oil: 3,355 (kl)
䃁 Outline of the Facility
High temperature
reheated steam pipe
Detailed drawing
of the boiler
Main steam pipe
R
e
h
e
a
t
e
r
WW3 level
Super-
heater
Turbine
WW2 level
Generator
WW1 level
Low temperature
reheated steam pipe
Condenser Boiler
Soot blower
Main water feed pipe
Water feed
pump
Fig. 1: Outline of the Facility
133
1.㩷 Background of the Theme Selection
There is a growing gap in electricity consumption between daytime and nighttime. Even in coal thermal
power plants, electric load adjustment is frequently performed excluding the high electric load time. In Unit
1 of Tsuruga Thermal Power Plant, all soot blowers set up in the plant used to be turned on to uplift the
power from the low electric load range to the high electric load range to compensate for the gap in the
electric demand. Before doing so, the unit was subject to be in low electric load operation for 2 hours and
45 minutes before starting the blowers. The way the soot blowers are used is subject to a revision in this
project to smoothen the shift from the low electric load to the high electric load range, to minimize the
transition time of electric load restriction and to lower the volume of steam consumed.
2.㩷 Current Conditions and Analysis
(1) Current Conditions
a. Aim and Type of Soot Blowers
Coal contains 10% ash, and combustion of coal generates even more ash. When the ash is deposited in the
steam pipe, the heat transfer performance decreases. The thicker the ash layer on the pipe, the greater the
heat transfer performance deteriorates causing a decrease in steam temperature. The ash layer is not
uniformly distributed throughout the pipe, but attaches in a random manner on the inner wall of the pipe.
This causes difference in temperature of the metal surface of the pipe, increases thermal stress and may
damage to the pipe. In order to remove the ash, a soot blower is used. As shown in Fig. 2 and 3, a lance
tube rotates and moves forward driven by a motor and injects high pressure steam from the nozzle attached to
it to clean the thermal transfer surface of the boiler.
Steam pipe Swivel tube
Motor
Steam
Steam
valve
Ash (deposits)
Fig. 2 Appearance of a Furnace Soot Blower
Motor
Furnace
Ash (deposits)
Lance tube
Steam valve
Fig. 3: Appearance of a Long Soot Blower
Table 1 shows the types of soot blowers. The blowers are installed as shown in Fig. 1 considering the
balance of collecting thermal energy by the boiler.
Table 1: Types of Soot Blowers
Type
Nos. of
Units
Moving
distance
R.P.M.
Steam
consumption
Furnace soot
blower
Furnace (WW) 54 290(mm) 1.0(rpm) 35.5(kg/pc.)
Superheater (SH) 16
Reheater (RH) 10 Long soot
blower Rear thermal
transmission part
8
7,950(mm) 16.9(rpm) 656.5(kg/pc.)
Air preheater 䌁䌈 2 2,540(mm) 䋭 7,300(kg/pc.)
Total 90 䋭 䋭 24,240(kg)
134
b. Operation of Soot Blowers
Figures 4, 5 and 6 show the process of operating a soot blower, rotation mode and the relationship between
the stain indicator and the soot blower respectively. In the high electric load range (250 MW or above), the
stain indicator is calculated to express the condition of ash deposited onto the thermal transfer surface, to
automatically operate the soot blower to the ash deposit areas only. However, in the low electric load range
(less than 250 MW), the stain indicator calculation is unreliable, necessitating operation of all soot blowers,
otherwise ash cannot be removed completely from all the areas of the thermal transmission area, causing
temperature surge of the metal surfaces and widened difference in the internal wall temperature of the
furnace.
A
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g
Fig. 4: Process of Soot Blowing
Sequence Control
Automatic
Combustion Control
Area of ash deposits (of over
and above the designated stain
indicator level)
Load of 250 MW or above
All units
"Soot Blower to be Operated" "Operation Mode"
Soot Blower Start Graph
Start
Stop
Stain Indicator Graph
Fig. 5: Operation Mode of Soot Blowers Fig. 6: Soot Blower and Stain Indicators
(2) Analysis of the Current Conditions
In the electric load range shown in Fig. 7, the thermal collection performance of the furnace is not balanced.
If a soot blower is used, the boiler is subject to a disturbance and hence, the areas for which soot blowing is
prohibited are designated. If the low electric load condition continues for 8 hours or more after all soot
blowers are operated before decreasing the electric load to the low electric load area, the thermal
transmission surface is stained with uneven distribution of ash deposits. Thus, the duration of 2 hours and
45 minutes is set during which the low electric load condition is maintained, and, after 2 hours and 45
minutes, soot blowing is conducted using all soot blowers. (See Fig. 8)
The ranges in which soot
blowing is prohibited
G
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u
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p
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(
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)
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
o
r

O
u
t
p
u
t

(
M
W
)
Starts all
soot blowers
Starts all
soot blowers
8 hours or more 2 hours and
45 minutes
Fig. 7: Soot Blowing Prohibition Zones Fig.8: Timing of Soot Blowing
135
3.㩷 Progress of Actions
(1) Organization
At Tsuruga Thermal Power Plant, ‘decreasing the power generation cost’ and ‘enhancing the reliability of the
power generation facilities’ prioritized. In line with this policy, a series of actions was implemented to
further decrease the power generation cost.
(2) Setting Targets
When an electric load is uplifted by starting soot blowers at a constant electric load of 125 MW after
confirming that the low electric load range of less than 250 MW continues for 8 hours or more, which soot
blowers should be used is determined to reduce the number of soot blowers to be used for removing ash and
hence to reduce steam consumption. The reduction target is set for each group of furnaces, superheaters and
reheaters by considering the balance of thermal collection performance.
Target steam consumption: 8,500 kg/time
(reduction of 65%)
Current steam consumption: 24,240 kg/time
(3) Challenges and Examinations
Coal thermal power plants use various types of coal to generate electricity. The degree of ash deposited
and combustion performance greatly vary from coal-to-coal. An important indicator for determining the
combustion performance of coal includes the combustion ratio, which is expressed by the ratio of fixed
carbon and volatile matter content.
Combustion ratio = Fixed carbon/Volatile matter content
Coals are categorized in terms of the combustion ratio to examine the part where soot blowing should be
conducted.
Table 2: Combustibility of Coal
Coal Combustibility Ash content SH and RH sides
Highly combustible coal
Standard coal
Low combustible coal
Low
High
High
Low
SH/RH side
Furnace side
4.㩷 Measures Taken
(1) Selection of Soot Blower Group
After considering the coal categories and combustibility shown in Table 2, a soot blower operation test was
conducted to two patterns as shown in Fig. 9 and 10.
[Pattern 1] Test Group 1: (A), (E) and (C) [Pattern 2] Test Group 3: (A), (B) and (C)
Test Group 2: (C), (D) and (F)
? WW3 level WW3 level
WW2 level WW2 level
WW1 level WW1 level
Fig. 9: Soot Blower Operation Pattern 1 Fig. 10: Soot Blower Operation Pattern 2
The coal shown in Table 3 was used as the representative coal categorized by the combustion ratio and the
test was conducted on Test Group 1, 2 and 3 to determine the response of automatic control of the boiler
against a change in the electric load. In addition, refer to a Fig. 11 about Test Process.
136
Table 3: Representative Coal Categorized by Coal Type
Highly combustible coal Standard Coal Low combustible coal
Test Group 1
Test Group 2
Test Group 3
Mora Coal (Mra)
Country of origin: Australia
Combustion ratio: 1.99
Hunter Valley Coal (HV)
Country of origin: Australia
Combustion ratio: 1.57
Prima Coal
Country of origin: Indonesia
Combustion ratio: 1.21
(2) Test Process
䍃 All soot blowers are started at the electric load of 250 MW or above before decreasing it.
䍃 After decreasing the electric load, the electric load of 250 MW or below is maintained for at least 8 hours,
and then the electric load of 125 MWis maintained for at least 4 hours.
䍃 Soot blowing of either Pattern 1 or 2.
䍃 The electric load is uplifted up to 360 MW.
Confirm the response
of automatic control of
boilers
Maintain for at least 8 hours
Maintain for
at least 4 hours
Start a start blower of either
one of Test Group 1, 2 or 3.
- Remove ash on the thermal
transmission surface
Starts all
soot blowers
- To reduce the electric load
retention time
- To reproduce stain condition of
the thermal transmission surface
under the low electric load range
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
o
r

O
u
t
p
u
t

(
M
W
)
Fig. 11: Test Process
(3) Criteria for Determining the Response of the Automatic Control of Boilers to the Shift of the Load
䍃 The temperature of the main steam must not deviate greatly from the set values along with the increase in
electric load.
䍃 The reheated steam temperature of which set values are subject to change along with the shift of the electric
load must not deviate greatly from the set values.
䍃 The difference of the internal wall temperature of the furnace must be within the controlled temperature of
150㷄.
(4) Examination of the Location of Ash Attachment
Considering the characteristics of coal, ash is likely to attach to the locations shown in Fig. 12. In the low
electric load zone, air tends to be excessively supplied and combustibility is enhanced. Thus, ash generated
from the combustion of even highly combustible coal is likely to deposit on the furnace side. For
combusting highly combustible coal, it is effective to operate all soot blowers of the furnace shown in Pattern
2. However, the coal contains a lot of ash and soot blowing only on the furnace side involves decreasing the
main steam temperature and widening the gap of the temperature on the surface area.
137
Highly combustible coal
Shift to the
furnace in low
electric load zone
Shift to the
furnace in low
electric load zone
Furnace
Low combustible coal
Fig. 12: Location of Ash Deposit Anticipated
(5) Results
Table 4 indicates the results of the test for highly combustible coal, standard coal and low combustible coal.
Table 4: Test Results by Coal Type
Assessment
Highly Combustible Coal Standard Coal Low Combustible Coal Test group Soot blower group
Mra Hv Pr
1 (A) → (E) → (G) 㬍 (*1) 䂾 䋭
2 (C) → (D) → (F) 䂾 䂾 䋭
3 (A) → (B) → (C) 䃁 䃁 䃁
* The temperature gap on the rear wall surface: 168.9㷄 (max.)
Table 5: Burner Angle Change Program for Highly Combustible Coal
Upper limit: +30㷄
䇼Front View䇽 䇼Side View䇽
B
u
r
n
e
r

A
n
g
l
e
(

)
Fine
powder
coal
Burner angle
Before change
After change
Lower limit: 䋭30㷄
Fig. 13 Coal Burner Angle Change
Load (MW)
a. Test Group 1
(a) Highly Combustible Coal
The temperature difference on the surface exceeding its controlled value is largely attributable to the
burner angle when the electric load was increased from 180 MW to 250 MW, which caused a change in the
flow of gas to affect the thermal collection performance on the furnace side. For the reason, the burner
angle program was changed to that shown in Table 5 to remove such gaps and continue the following tests.
In addition, coverage of coal burner angle change is shown in Fig. 13.
(b) Standard Coal
Good results were obtained without any particular problems.
138
b. Test Group 2 and 3
(a) Highly Combustible Coal
After the burner angle program was changed, the temperature gap on the surface area was able to be
restricted and good results were obtained.
(b) Standard Coal
Good results were obtained without any particular problems.
(c) Low Combustible Coal
For Test Group 3, good results were obtained without any particular problems.
(6) Assessment of the Response of Automatic Control of Boiler to the Load Shift
As a representative of all coal categories, the response to the electric load shift for main steam temperature
(MST) and reheated steam temperature (RST) when all soot blowers are operated for highly combustible coal
are shown in Table 6, 7 and 8. For Test Group 3, the soot blower of the furnace was operated only.
Though the decrease in main steam and reheated steam temperature just after starting the soot blower was
slightly larger than that when all soot blowers were turned on, the difference was narrowed gradually as the
electric load went up. The performance was favorable with no adverse effects on the increase of the electric
load.
Table 6: MST and RST before and after the Operation of Soot Blowers
Set temperature
(㷄)
Temperature before
starting a soot blower (㷄)
Temperature after starting
a soot blower (㷄)
Temperature
decrease (㷄)
Soot blower
group
MST/RST MST/RST MST/RST MST/RST
All 552/525 529/495 䂥23/䂥30
(A)→(B)→(C)
566 (constant)/
varies depending on
electric load
559/521 519/476 䂥40/䂥45
Table 7: Response to the Load Shift of Table 8: Response to the Load Shift of
Main Steam Temperature Reheated Steam Temperature
R
e
h
e
a
t
e
d

S
t
e
a
m
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

)
M
a
i
n

S
t
e
a
m
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(

)
Good response observed.
Good response observed.
Set Values for the Main
Steam Temperature
All soot blowers used.
Furnace soot blower is
used only.
Set Values for the Reheated
Steam Temperature
All soot blowers used.
Furnace soot blower is
used only.
Generator Output (MW) Generator Output (MW)
139
Table 9: Temperature Difference on the Surface
in Increasing the Electric Load
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

D
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

o
n
t
h
e

S
u
r
f
a
c
e

(

)
All soot blowers used.
Furnace soot blower
is used only.
All soot blowers of the
furnace can be applied.
Table 10: SteamVolume of Soot Blowers
Generator Output (MW)
S
t
e
a
m

V
o
l
u
m
e
(
k
g
)
Decreased by 22,323 kg
Test
Group 1
Test
Group 2
Test
Group 3
All
For all coal categories, it was confirmed that the response of automatic control of boiler against the electric
load shift was good when all soot blowers of the furnace were used only.
As to the temperature difference on the surface, the values were all within the controlled limit and good
results were obtained.
5.㩷 Effectiveness of the Measures
(1) Reduction of Steam Consumption used by the Soot Blowers
Table 11: Effects of Improving Soot Blower Operation
Before After Results
Blowing time 2 hours and 45 minutes 45 minutes Curtailed by 2 hours
Response of the main
steam temperature
No problems No problems 䋭
Response of the reheated
steam temperature
No problems No problems 䋭
Steam consumption 24,240䋨䌫䌧䋩 1,917䋨䌫䌧䋩 Reduced by 92%
a. Reduction of Annual Steam Consumption
Reduction of 1,451,000 (kg) of annual steam consumption achieved.
(equivalent to 130 kl/year of crude oil)
Calculation Formula of Converting Steam Consumption to Crude Oil Consumption
(kl/time)
(Calculation Conditions)
㩷 䍃 Enthalpy of the sot blower steam source: 3,140 (kJ/kg)
㩷 䍃 Calorific power of crude oil: 38.2㬍10
6
(kJ/kl)
㩷 䍃 Boiler efficiency: 90%
㩷 䍃 Number of times of changing the electric load: Once in two days or 65 times a year (except for summer
and winter time)
140
6.㩷 Summary
For all coal categories, use of furnace soot blowers in low electric load conditions only in low electric load
conditions did not reveal any problems in increasing the electric load, and the automatic control of boilers
functioned well. We were successful in reduction of soot blower steam consumption in response to the
change of operation mode of the coal thermal power generation system.
7.㩷 Future Plans
To anticipate future diversification in coal procurement, we will attempt to achieve a stable power supply and
reduce costs through energy saving after examining all operating conditions. At the same time, we will
raise the mind toward energy saving and address measures against it.
141
3 Maintenance an Efficiency Control of Thermal Power Plants
3.1 Maintenance management of aged thermal power plants
Introduction
The time (nominal life) when degradation in function and performance of the major equipment constituting a
thermal power plant appears remarkably and recovery of function and performance requires costs overstepping the
bounds of maintenance for ordinary operation is about 30 to 40 years.
For small- to medium-capacity machines constructed from the 30s to the 40s of the Showa period, almost 30
years have elapsed since they begun commercial operation, and, with respect to large-capacity machines
constructed and brought into operation from the middle of the 40s, 20 years or more have elapsed, whereby aging
of thermal power plants as a whole is proceeding.
On the other hand, although we are pushing ahead with the development of new sources responding to the
growth of electricity demand (maximum electricity demand), we have problems such as difficulty of site selection,
more distant locations, longer periods for development, etc.
For this reason, renovating and renewing these aged thermal power plants efficiently and having them show
continuous activity as valuable leading sources in areas of high demand constitute important issues from the
viewpoint of securing supply capacity and cost reduction.
3.1.1 How to carry out maintenance of aged thermal power plants (increasing longevity)
How to carry out maintenance of aged thermal power plants leads to studies and judgments being carried out
from comprehensive viewpoints such as a source program into the future including nuclear, hydro, etc.,
positioning and role in terms of a power generation program, outlook regarding the renovation costs required to
upkeep function and soundness, trends in fuel costs according to power generation efficiency and fuel class,
outlook for the introduction of alternative sources, trends in technological development, etc. to define the direction.
However, the current course of action is broadly divided into the following two items (Fig. 3.1.1):
(1) Maintaining operation through the renewal of deteriorated plant equipment (increasing longevity)
This is a direct extension of matters that we have implemented conventionally as measures against age
deterioration, and plans continuance of operation (increasing longevity) for about 60 years (within the
range where substantial renovation of civil and construction equipment such as piles and foundations is
not required).
(2) Maintaining operation through repowering, replacement, etc. (increasing longevity)
(3) Planning the continuance of operation (increasing longevity) through repowering, replacement, etc.
allowing an increase in the scale of output, improvement of power generation efficiency, improvement
of operational function, environmental betterment, etc. is to be carried out in conjunction with the
renewal of deteriorated plants (The target is mainly small- to medium-capacity plants).
3.1.2 Maintaining operation through the renewal of deteriorated plant equipment (increasing
longevity)
The actual service life of plant equipment differs from its nominal design life and it is significantly dependent
on good or poor operation and maintenance. With respect to thermal power plants, for the purpose of keeping
their function and performance at an established level, the scope of inspection, method and frequency are defined
on an equipment-by-equipment basis as a standard, and patrols, routine checks, periodic inspections, and service
and maintenance (repair, replacement, etc.) are performed according to such standard.
Further, as to aged thermal power plants, in addition to these items, precise inspection for the pressure part of
the boiler, turbine rotor, casing, major valves and rotor power generator, remaining life assessment, renewal of
deteriorated equipment and portions, addition of equipment function to respond to demand-supply operation, and
strengthening and enhancement of durability are planned simultaneously.
Developing
program
Power generation
[Background]
Long-term operation
program
increasing longevity
(prolonging life)
[Destination] [Needs]
[Measures to
increase longevity]
[Measures to
increase longevity]
Repowering
Replacement
(addition)
Maintaining operation
through the renewal of
deteriorated equipment
Stable supply
Cost reduction
[Background]
Fig. 3.1.1: How to carry out the maintenance of aged thermal power plant (increasing longevity)
142
Inspection & repair
program
[Example]
x Monitoring of life consumption of high-
temperature thick part of boiler and turbine
x Diagnosis of boiler combustion
x Monitoring of vibration of large rotating
machine
x Trip test of safety device
x Routine replacement of auxiliary machine
x Vibration of auxiliary rotating machine
x Operation status of auxiliary machine
x Opening of control valve
Precise inspection,
diagnosis of plant
Improvement of
function
Track record of operation
Enhancement of operation control
and supervisory function
Reduction of load on equipment
Early detection of problems
Securing of soundness of
plant equipment
Upkeep of function and
reliability level
Securing of economics
[Example]
x High-temperature pressure-
resistant part of boiler and
turbine
x High-speed rotor of turbine
x Insulation of generator
[Example]
x Renewal and renovation of
deteriorated equipment and parts
[Example]
x Improvement of control
performance, strengthening of
supervisory function
x Automation, improvement of control
performance
Experience of and information on
maintenance for aged thermal power
plant
(Problems, renewal of equipment,
renovation)
Renovation technology (modernization
technology)
Inspection technology, remaining life
assessment technology
Increasing longevity program
administration support system
Operation
Periodic inspection,
service, maintenance
Daily simplified
maintenance
Patrol
Routine inspection/test
Monitoring of
operation status
Operation control
Improvement of
proof stress
Renovation program
Maintenance
Long-term
operation program
Maintenance of
aged thermal power
plant
Fig. 3.1.2: Maintenance of aged thermal power plant
(continuance of operation through renewal of aged equipment (increasing longevity))
For this reason, even if the plant reaches its nominal design life, there is still considerable practical operation
life of a major plant, and, as to the reliability of the entire plant as well, it is understood from long-term experience
of operation and maintenance that continuance of operation (increasing longevity) may be possible at relatively
low cost.
Basically, although this is a direct extension of matters that we have implemented conventionally as measures
against aged deterioration, for the purpose of maintaining stable operation while securing the economics, it is
necessary to push ahead with understanding and preserving (recovering from deterioration) the function,
performance and soundness of plant equipment more efficiently than conventionally, and it is requested that plant
diagnosis (deterioration diagnosis, remaining life assessment) technology, renovation technology, trouble
information, etc. be used to further push ahead with critical classified renovation according to the operation period
and operational method. [Fig. 3.1.2]
From here, we introduce developments in operation and maintenance of aged thermal power plants in the past,
renewal conditions of aged machines, devices and portions, inspection technology and remaining life assessment
technology, examples of large renovation for maintaining operation (increasing longevity), acceleration of the
time necessary for periodic inspection that tends to become longer with aging, a work program support system for
critical classified renovation, status of efforts to cope with the increase in longevity of aged thermal power plants
in U.S.A., etc.
3.1.2.1 Operation & maintenance status of aged thermal power plants (from the 50s to the early 60s of
the Showa period)
Aged thermal power plants were originally designed to operate continuously (operation to cover the base load).
1992
(September)
50 Showa period = 1975
1
0

t
h
o
u
s
a
n
d

k
W
1970 (September)
1960 (January 36)
Fig. 3.1.2.1-1: How electricity is used in a day (example)
Time
143
Fig. 3.1.2.1-2 How electricity is used in a day
(representative example)
Table 3.1.2.1-1: Precise inspection (representative
example)
Plant Portion to be
inspected
Inspection method
Rotor Visual inspection with bore scope
Ultrasonic testing
Magnetic particle testing
Moving blade Ultrasonic testing
Measurement of lifting amount of
stud part
Steam
turbine
Casing Structure examination of
representative point (macro)
Superheater
and reheater
tube
Ultrasonic testing (weld point)
Tube removal examination from a
representative point
Boiler
Drum
Main steam
pipe
Reheat steam
pipe
Radiographic test
Ultrasonic testing
Generator Rotor Visual inspection with bore scope
Ultrasonic testing
Magnetic particle testing
Transformer Main body Oil leak test
Dissolved gas analysis
Electric
motor
Rotor Liquid penetrant detection test
Insulation diagnosis
Equalizing pool type
Water reservoir-type hydro
Pumped-storage
hydroelectric power
Pumped-storage
power
Oil
LNG, LPG and
other gases
Coal
Nuclear
power
Run-off river-type hydro
(Time)
Base load operation was carried out at the initial stage of construction. However, because of subsequent changes
in the demand-supply structure, that is to say, an increase in demand (maximum electricity demand), a widening
of the gap in demand-supply between day and night, and an increase of the segment share of nuclear power
generation, base load operation handed over its role to nuclear power and large-capacity thermal machines. As a
result, the operation pattern has changed to the operation of a middle-sized thermal power plant positively bearing
adjustment between demand and supply, i.e., the operation pattern under which load change, reduction of
minimum load, frequent start up and shut down, etc. are performed.
Table 3.1.2.1-2 Remaining life diagnosis
Plant Portion to be inspected Diagnosis portion
Remaining life diagnosis
technique
Boiler tube
x Furnace evaporation tube
x Superheater tube
x Reheater tube
Destruction inspection
(Conduct a creep breaking test to
evaluate the result by means of the
Larson-Miller method.)
Boiler
Boiler header
x Furnace evaporation header
x Superheater header
x Reheater header
Select the portion whose design
temperature is 450͠ or more and
the harshest (shortest design life)
portion in terms of design out of
the target portions shown on the
left.
(Take the time when cumulative
operation time reaches 100,000
hours as a guideline.)
Structural examinations
Axle
x High-pressure axle
x Medium-pressure axle
Casing
x High-pressure internal casing
x High-pressure external casing
x Medium-pressure internal casing
x Medium-pressure external casing
Steam turbine
Major valves
x MSVx CV
x RSV x ICV
Select the portion whose design
temperature is 450͠ or more and
the harshest (shortest design life)
portion in terms of design out of
target portions shown on the left.
(Take the time when cumulative
operation time reaches 100,000
hours as a guideline.)
Non-destructive inspection
Hardness measurement
Material degradation measurement
Metallic structure test
144
Table 3.1.2.1-3: Examples of improvement in medium-capacity machines
[Improvement in durability of plant]
• Improvement of suspended superheater of boiler (Fig. 3.1.2.1-3)
• Improvement of shape of disk base part of steam turbine rotor (Fig. 3.1.2.1-4)
• Reduction in stress of steam turbine casing (improvement of shape) (Fig. 3.1.2.1-5)
• Improvement of spray at exhaust chamber of steam turbine (Fig. 3.1.2.1-6)
[Expansion of operation controllability and supervisory function]
Improvement and enhancement of supervisory function for those
that have high frequency of control at start up and shut down
that have simultaneous operation
that have difficulty in adjustment
• Making the control of the boiler burner remote or automatic
• Making the control of the drain valve and auxiliary machines of the boiler and turbine remote
• Automatic start up of turbine from central operating panel (TSC)
• Making the oil temperature control on the turbine bearing automated from a central operating panel
• Making the injection of feed water and chemicals automatic from a central operating panel
• Installation of furnace gas thermometer
• Installation of turbine bearing a metal thermometer
For the purposes of securing the reliability and performing strict demand supply adjustment operation such as
DSS (daily start up and shut down), etc. of the plant equipment designed originally based on the premise of base
load operation given that aging progresses, we have basically planned :
• An operation pattern that will contribute to demand-supply adjustment sufficiently and where start-up and shut-
down loss is minimized
• Securing of strength and allowance of a plant sufficient to cope with thermal stress, repeated stress arising from
start up, shut down, load change, etc. and creep damage associated with secular use
• Improvement of operability and enrichment of supervisory function so that the operator can cope with the
situation within limited time and simultaneous operation
• Early detection and handling when there is an abnormal condition in the plant
• Establishment of optimum operation pattern through operation testing
• Precise inspection and remaining life assessment for plants whose cumulative operation time has exceeded
100,000 hours (Table 3.1.2.1-1, 2)
• Improvement of plant durability (Table 3.1.2.1-3, 4)
• Improvement of operability and controllability, enhancement of monitoring function (Table 3.1.2.1-3, 4)
Disk
Processed point
Curvature
radius
Big
Small
(a)Processing example
Curvature
radius
Big
(b) Example of new shape
Fig. 3.1.2.1-3: Improvement of suspended superheater
of boiler
Fig. 3.1.2.1-4: Improvement of shape of disk base part
of steam turbine rotor
Fig. 3.1.2.1-5: Reduction in stress of steam turbine
casing (improvement of the shape of casing)
Fig.3.1.2.1-6: Improvement of spray at exhaust chamber
of steam turbine
Casing corner part
Steam guide
Processing diagram of corner part
Casing
Diaphragm
Nozzle
Packing casing cone
Final-stage blade
3.1.2.2 Renewal status of plant equipment in aged thermal power plants
The Thermal and Nuclear Power Engineering Society (Kanto affiliate) conducted a survey on the renewal status of
plant equipment for thermal power plants (commercial thermal, joint thermal and private thermal) whose
cumulative operating hours exceeded 100,000 hours in 1991 on a nationwide scale, and the results of such survey
have been summarized as the “Report of a fact-finding survey on the renewal of thermal plants that have for a
long time (January 1993).”
145
Table 3.1.2.2-1: Examples of improvement in large-
capacity machines (Constant-pressure supercritical once-
through system)
[Improvement of plant durability]
• Improvement of superheater header part of boiler (Fig. 9)
• Processing of membrane-end part of boiler (Fig. 10)
• Improvement of structure of surrounding wall tie-bar of boiler (Fig.
11)
• Improvement of passing-through part at boiler tube wall (Fig. 12)
• Improvement of support system for main piping of boiler (Fig. 13)
• Reinforcement of start system valve of boiler (Fig. 14)
• Reinforcement of feed water control valve of boiler (Fig. 15)
[Improvement of controllability and enhancement of supervisory
function]
Improvement of controllability to plan the improvement of
controllability at start up/shut down and when the load changes
• Digitization of APC control
• Automation of boiler automatic burner
• Expansion of automatic start-up control range of turbine
• Improvement of controllability on the drain level of feed water
heater
• Bringing auxiliaries to group control (master)
• Addition of life supervisory function for thick pressure-resistant part
of boiler
• Automation, enhancement of supervisory function and man-machine
communication
[Before improvement] [After improvement]
.
(a) Bringing header tube nozzle to flexible structure
(b) Corner R processing of header tube nozzle part
Fig. 3.1.2.2-1 Improvement of superheater header
part of boiler
R processing of membrane bar stop-end part
Fig. 3.1.2.2-3 Improvement of structure of surrounding
wall tie-bar of boiler
Fig. 3.1.2.2-2 Processing of membrane-end part of
boiler
A-part
Improvement of structure of tube leg at wall passing-through part
(a) Current structure (b) Improved structure
Fig. 3.1.2.2-4: Improvement of passing-through
part at boiler tube wall
Z-type valve Angle valve
Fig. 3.1.2.2-5 Improvement of support system for main
piping of boiler
Fig. 3.1.2.2-6: Reinforcement of start system valve
of boiler
x Corner R processing
Nozzle
Membrane bar Membrane bar
Water-cooling
wall tube
Tie-bar clip
Tie-bar Tie-bar
x U band
x Stop-end refresh processing
(padding + R processing)
Header
Header
Outlet header of reheater
Tube leg
Old toe
Wall
Tube leg
New toe
Torque bracket
Shear lag
146
The following are the reasons for renewal according to the equipment of each plant, renewal rate and equipment
whose renewal due to “deterioration and damage” exceeds 20% extracted from such report:
(1) Boiler plant related (Fig. 3.1.2.2-8)
M Furnace tube
Renewal rate: About 36%
Renewal time: From less than 40,000 hours to 200,000 hours
The renewal peak falls within the range of 100,000 to 200,000 hours.
N Superheater 1st
Renewal rate: About 25%
Renewal time: From less than 40,000 hours to 200,000 hours or more
The renewal peak falls within the range of 120,000 to 140,000 hours.
Reason for renewal: As many renewals have been performed after 120,000 hours, conceivable reasons for
renewal are creep damage, external high-temperature corrosion and ash erosion.
O Superheater 2nd to 4th
Renewal rate: 2nd About 56%
3rd About 66%
4th About 70%
Renewal time: 2nd: From less than 40,000 hours to 200,000 hours or more
The renewal peak falls within the range of 100,000 to 120,000 hours.
3rd and 4th: From 60,000 hours to 160,000 hours
The renewal peak falls within the range of 80,000 to 100,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: As there are many renewals for those whose main steam temperature is 550°C or
more, for those for WSS (weekly start up and shut down) operation and for heavy
oil-fired ones, conceivable reasons for renewal are creep damage and high-
temperature corrosion.
P Superheater weld joint with dissimilar materials
Renewal rate: About 47%
Renewal time: From less than 40,000 hours to 180,000 hours.
The renewal peak falls within the range of 80,000 hours to 160,000 hours.
Reason for renewal: As there are many renewals for those whose main steam temperature is high and for
heavy oil-fired ones, conceivable reasons for renewal are creep damage, thermal
stress fatigue and high-temperature corrosion.
Multistage pressure reducing
Single-seat globe valve
Multistage pressure-reducing valve
Fig. 3.1.2.2-7: Reinforcement of boiler feedwater control valve
Q Reheater 1st & 2nd
Renewal rate: 1st About 60%
2nd About 62%
Renewal time: Renewals are distributed widely at 60,000 hours or more.
The renewal peak falls within the range of 120,000 hours to 160,000 hours for the 1st
superheater and within the range of 100,000 hours to 120,000 hours for the 2nd
superheater.
Reasons for renewal: From the viewpoint of the number of start ups, steam temperature, conceivable
reasons for renewal are creep and thermal stress fatigue.
R Reheater weld joint with dissimilar materials
Renewal rate: About 60%
Renewal time: 1st From 60,000 hours to 180,000 hours
The renewal peak falls within the range of 100,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
2nd From 60,000 hours to 120,000 hours
147
The renewal peak falls within the range of 80,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: From the fact that there are many renewals of those whose steam pressure is high for
both the 1st and 2nd reheater, and in the case of the 1st reheater, there are many
renewals of those for DSS operation, a conceivable reason for renewal is thermal
stress fatigue.
S Valves
Renewal time: Form less than 40,000 hours to 180,000 hours
The renewal peak falls within the range of 100,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: From the fact that there are many renewals of those with many start ups, a
conceivable reason for renewal is seat leak.
T Electrostatic precipitator (discharge electrode, collecting plate, hammering device, charging equipment
(P/P))
Renewal rate: Discharge electrode About 57%
Damage
prevention
Degradation
damage
Performance
upgrading
Regulation
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Economizer tube
Furnace tube
Superheater – 1st
Superheater – 2nd
Superheater – 3rd
Superheater – 4th
Superheater – Mixed fitting
1st reheater – 1st
1st reheater – 2nd
1st reheater – Mixed fitting
2nd reheater – 1st
2nd reheater – 2nd
2nd reheater – Mixed fitting
1st superheater inlet header
1st superheater outlet header
2nd superheater inlet header
2nd superheater outlet header
3rd superheater inlet header
3rd superheater outlet header
4th superheater inlet header
4th superheater outlet header
1st reheater inlet header
1st reheater outlet header
2nd reheater inlet header
2nd reheater outlet header
Economizer inlet header
Economizer outlet header
Main steam pipe
Main steam pipe T࡮Y piece
Reheat steam pipe
Reheat steam pipe T࡮Y piece
Boiler circulation pump
Drum safety valve
Furnace outlet safety valve
Superheater outlet safety valve
Reheater outlet safety valve
Start-up system line safety valve
PCV
High-pressure system valves
Start-up system valves
Fuel oil pump
Coal pulverizer
Stoker
Mill exhauster
Fuel oil tank heater
Fuel oil tank bottom plate
Forced draft fan
Induced draft fan
Gas recirculation draft fan
Gas-mixing draft fan
Discharge electrode for electrostatic precipitator
Electrostatic precipitator collecting plate
Electrostatic precipitator hammering device
Electrostatic precipitator charging equipment (P/P)
EP ash-handling ash flow pump
EP ash-handling blower
EP ash-handling ash feed pipe
Air compressor for control
Auxiliary air compressor
Air compressor for soot blower
NOx removal plant catalysis
Bottom ash-handling jet pump
Bottom ash-handling ash flow pipe
Duct expansion
Desulfurization system absorber
Desulfurization system oxidation tower
Desulfurization system G/G heater
Desulfurization system pump
Desulfurization system fan
Fig. 3.1.2.2-8: Reason for renewal and renewal rate by boiler system equipment
Renewal rate (%)
148
Collecting plate: About 46%
Hammering device: About 39%
Charging equipment (P/P) About 29%
Renewal time: From less than 40,000 hours to 180,000
hours or more
The renewal peak falls within the range of 100,000
hours to 120,000 hours.
U Duct extension
Damage
prevention
Degradation
damage
Performance
upgrading
Regulation
High-pressure external casing
Medium-pressure external casing
Low-pressure external casing
High-pressure internal casing
Medium-pressure internal casing
Low-pressure internal casing
High-pressure external casing high-temperature bolt
Medium-pressure external casing high-temperature bolt
High-pressure internal casing high-temperature bolt
Medium-pressure internal casing high-temperature bolt
High-pressure rotor
Medium-pressure rotor
Low-pressure rotor
High-pressure-stage rotating blade
Medium-pressure-stage rotating blade
Low-pressure-stage rotating blade
High-pressure-stage stationary blade
Medium-pressure-stage stationary blade
Low-pressure-stage stationary blade
Main steam stop valve valve box
Control valve valve box
Reheat steam stop valve valve box
Intercept valve valve box
Combined reheat valve valve box
Main steam stop valve high-temperature bolt
Control valve high-temperature bolt
Reheat steam stop valve high-temperature bolt
Intercept valve high-temperature bolt
Combined reheat valve high-temperature bolt
High-pressure rotor thrust bearing
Medium-pressure rotor thrust bearing
Low-pressure rotor thrust bearing
High-pressure rotor journal bearing
Medium-pressure rotor journal bearing
Low-pressure rotor journal bearing
Mechanical governor-mechanism set
BFPT external casing
BFPT internal casing
BFPT high-temperature bolt
BFPT rotor
BFPT rotating blade
BFPT stationary blade
Booster feed water pump
Feed water pump
Condenser tube
Condenser body expansion joint
Condenser electrochemical protector
Condenser cleaning device
Vacuum pump
Ejector
Condenser pump
Circulating water pump
Sea water cooler
High-pressure feed water heater
Low-pressure feed water heater
Feed water system valve
Main steam system valve
Reheat steam system valve
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Renewal rate (%)
Fig. 3.1.2.2-9: Reason for renewal and renewal rate by turbine system equipment
Renewal rate: About 63%
Renewal time: From less than 40,000 hours to 180,000 hours or more
The renewal peak falls within the range of 100,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
There are many renewals of those with DSS, WSS and high-sulfur heavy oil.
(2) Turbine system related (Fig. 3.1.2.2-9)
M Internal casing High-pressure internal casing
Renewal rate: About 12%
Renewal time: As the number of renewed units is few, a peak does not appear clearly.
In the range of 120,000 hours to 180,000 hours, there is small growing trend.
149
N High-temperature bolt (bolt that tightens horizontal flange of casing)
Renewal rate: For high-pressure internal casing: About 58%
For high-pressure external casing: About 39%
For medium-pressure internal casing: About 51%
For medium-pressure external casing: About 22%
Renewal time: For high-pressure internal casing
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 140,000 hours.
High-pressure external casing
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 140,000 hours.
For medium-pressure internal casing
Many renewals were performed within the range of 60,000 hours to 160,000 hours.
For medium-pressure external casing
As the number of renewed units is few, a peak does not appear clearly.
Reason for renewal: As many renewals were performed for those with many start ups and shut downs,
conceivable reasons for renewal are high-temperature creep and fatigue.
O Rotor (high-pressure, medium-pressure)
Renewal rate: High-pressure axle About 14%
Medium-pressure axle About 34%
Renewal time: As the number of renewed units is few, a peak does not appear clearly.
There are many renewals associated with improvement of performance.
P Rotating blade
x High-/Medium-pressure-stage rotating blade
Renewal rate: High-pressure stage About 40%
Medium-pressure stage About 64%
Renewal time: Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 100,000 hours.
There are many renewals associated with performance upgrading.
x Low-pressure-stage rotating blade
Renewal rate: About 35%
Renewal time: Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 160,000 hours.
Q Main steam valve valve box
Renewal rate: Main steam stop valve About 15%
Control valve About 15%
Renewal time: Main steam stop valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 100,000 hours to 160,000 hours.
Control valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 120,000 hours to 180,000 hours
R High-temperature bolt (bolt that tightens upper bonnet of steam valve)
x Main steam stop valve
Renewal rate: Main steam stop valve About 53%
Control valve About 52%
Combined reheat valve About 69%
Reheat steam stop valve About 72%
Intercept valve About 63%
Renewal time: Main steam stop valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 100,000 hours.
Control valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 100,000 hours.
Combined reheat valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 100,000 hours.
Reheat steam stop valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
Intercept valve
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 140,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: Many renewals were performed for those whose steam temperature is high, and those
with many DSS and WSS, so conceivable reasons for renewal are high-temperature
creep and fatigue.
S Turbine bearing
Renewal rate: Low-pressure rotor thrust About 22%
High-pressure rotor journal About 37%
Low-pressure rotor journal About 25%
Renewal time: Low-pressure rotor thrust
As the number of renewed units is few, a peak does not appear clearly.
High-pressure rotor journal, low-pressure rotor journal
Although renewals were performed within a wide time period range, relatively many
renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 140,000 hours.
T Condenser Tube, body expansion joint
Renewal rate: Tube About 66%
150
Body expansion joint About 36%
Renewal time: Tube
Many renewals were performed from the initial stage of after operation start.
Body expansion joint
Many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to 100,000 hours.
U Feed water heater
Renewal rate: High-pressure feed water heater About 33%
Low-pressure feed water heater About 24%
Renewal time: High-pressure feed water heater
Many renewals were performed with the range of 100,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
Low-pressure feed water heater
Many renewals were performed with the range of 80,000 hours to 120,000 hours.
(3) Electric plant related (Fig. 3.1.2.2-10)
M Generator Rewinding of rotor
Renewal rate: About 27%
Renewal time: Relatively many renewals were performed within the range of 100,000 hours to
160,000 hours.
There are many renewals of those with DSS.
Reasons for renewal: A conceivable reason for renewal is insulation degradation of the winding.
N Exciter Motor, AVR
Renewal rate: Motor About 23%
AVR About 53%
Renewal time: Motor:
Relatively many renewals were performed within the range of 100,000 hours to
160,000 hours.
AVR:
The number of renewed units increases suddenly from 80,000 hours and continues to
180,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: Generally, many renewals were performed on large-capacity units and those for DSS.
Conceivable reasons for renewal are insulation degradation of the winding or aging
of the equipment.
O High-voltage motor Rewinding of stator coil
Renewal rate: Outdoors About 43% Indoors About 39%
Renewal time: Relatively many renewals were performed within the range of 80,000 hours to
140,000 hours.
There is a trend of increasing renewal of those for DSS.
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons for renewal are insulation degradation of the winding.
P Control center
Renewal rate: About 28%
Renewal time: Many renewals were performed at 100,000 hours or more.
There is a trend of increasing renewal of those for DSS.
Reasons for renewal: A conceivable reason for renewal is deterioration of major parts (NFB, thermal relay,
conductor, etc.)
Q Supervisory control panel Central electric supervisory panel, protective relay panel
Renewal rate: Central electric supervisory panel About 19%
Protective relay About 25%
Renewal timing: With respect to the protective relay panel, there is a trend of increasing renewal from
120,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons for renewal are aging of the relay, drop in reliability and type
change for the purpose of improving operation accuracy (from the
electromagnetic/mechanical to stationary type).
R Power supply system Storage battery, rectifier, uninterruptible power supply system
Renewal rate: Storage battery About 81%
Rectifier About 48%
Uninterruptible power supply system About 22%
Renewal time: The number of renewed units increases suddenly from 80,000 hors or more.
Reasons for renewal: For the storage battery, a conceivable reason for renewal is deterioration of the
electrode plate, separator, etc.
For the rectifier, renewal was performed due to deterioration and in conjunction with
replacement of the storage battery.
For the uninterruptible power supply system, conceivable reasons for renewal are
deterioration and renewal associated with capacity increase, and system change
(making the control system redundant , making the control system free from
instantaneous disconnection) for improvement of reliability
151
Damage
prevention
Degradation
damage
Performance
upgrading
Regulation
Replacement of generator stator
Rewinding of generator stator
Replacement of generator rotor
Rewinding of generator rotor
Generator hydrogen gas cooler
Generator stator cooling system
Generator hydrogen gas shaft seal oil system
Generator lead bushing
Exciter
Generator for exciter
Motor for exciter
Rectifier for exciter
Exciter AVR
Cooling system for exciter
Isolated-phase bus support bushing
Isolated-phase bus wall passing-through bushing
Outdoor high-voltage motor
Rewinding of outdoor high-voltage motor stator coil
Outdoor high-voltage motor rotor
Indoor high-voltage motor
Rewinding of indoor high-voltage motor stator coil
Indoor high-voltage motor rotor
Set of metal-clad panel
Metal-clad circuit breaker body
Set of power center panel
Power center circuit breaker body
Set of control center panel
Central electricity supervisory control panel
Protective relay panel
Power supply system storage battery
Power supply system rectifier
Uninterruptible power supply system
Main transformer lead bushing
Main transformer-cooling system
House transformer main lead bushing
House transformer-cooling system
Starting transformer main lead bushing
Starting transformer-cooling system
Special high-voltage switch circuit breaker
Special high-voltage switch disconnecting switch
Special high-voltage switch support bushing
Special high-voltage switch wall passing-through bushing
Special high-voltage OF cable
Special high-voltage CV cable
High-voltage power cable
Low-voltage power cable
Control cable
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Renewal rate (%)
Fig. 3.1.2.2-10 Reasons for renewal and renewal rate by electric plant equipment
S Main transformer Cooling system
Renewal rate: About 30%
Renewal time: The number of renewed unit increases suddenly from 80,000 hors or more.
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons for renewal are corrosion of elements and oil leak.
T Cable High-voltage cable
Renewal rate: About 49%
Renewal time: There are many renewals performed at 100,000 hours or more.
Cable with high renewal rate
Breakdown by insulation class by class: Butyl rubber 70%
Cross-linked polyethylene 27%
Breakdown by plant condition: Air/Culvert 48%
Pipe line 35%
152
Damage
prevention
Degradation
damage
Performance
upgrading
Regulation
Unit interlock
Auxiliary machine interlock
Combustion control unit
Feed water control unit
Steam temperature control unit
Burner control unit
Governor control unit
Tb monitor vibration diagnosis system
TB monitor shaft vibration meter
Tb monitor shaft eccentricity meter
Tb monitor shaft position meter
Tb monitor revolution meter
Tb monitor difference expansion meter
Tb monitor cam position meter
Unit computer
Data logger computer
Environmental data-processing computer
Fuel control computer
Water quality control analyzer
Fuel analyzer
Exhaust gas NOx analyzer
Exhaust gas SOx analyzer
Exhaust gas O2 analyzer
Exhaust gas CO analyzer
Exhaust gas dust analyzer
Leak oil monitor analyzer
Flammable gas monitor analyzer
NH3 monitor analyzer
Waste water COD analyzer
Waste water PH analyzer
Feed water system actuator
Fuel system actuator
Starting bypass system actuator
Air system actuator
Exhaust gas system actuator
Air dryer for control
Air pressure-reducing system for control
Feed water flow transmitter
Main steam flow transmitter
Spray flow transmitter
Fuel oil flow transmitter
Fuel gas flow transmitter
Main steam pressure transmitter
Fuel oil pressure transmitter
Fuel gas pressure transmitter
Drum-level transmitter
Deaerator-level transmitter
Feed water flow element
Main steam flow element
Fuel oil flow element
Fuel gas flow element
Conveyor scale
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Renewal rate (%)
Fig. 3.1.2.2-11 Reasons for renewal and renewal rate by instrumentation control plant
(4) Instrumentation control plant related (Fig. 3.1.2.2-11)
M Control unit
Renewal rate: Unit interlock About 18%
Auxiliary machine interlock About 14%
Combustion control unit About 68%
Feed water control unit About 66%
Steam temperature control unit About 67%
Burner control unit About 44%
Governor control unit About 32%
Renewal time: Renewal of any of equipment was performed within the range of 60,000 hours to
160,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: For renewal due to degradation damage, conceivable reasons for renewal are failure
153
due to deterioration of the signal conversion unit, indication mechanism, etc. of each
controller and increasing difficulty in procuring parts because of discontinuance of
production of similar equipment.
For the renewal due to performance upgrading, many renewals were performed due
to nationalization of imported products or due to change from an air or mechanical
system to an electric or digital type, and it is conceivable that many renewals had the
objective of conversion to APC or full automation, etc.
NTurbine monitor
Renewal rate: Vibration diagnosis system About 57%
Shaft vibration meter About 67%
Shaft eccentricity meter About 65%
Shaft position meter About 57%
Revolution meter About 49%
Difference expansion meter About 60%
Cam position meter About 56%
Renewal timing: Renewal of any equipment falls within the range of 40,000 hours to 180,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: There are many renewals due to degradation damage and damage prevention.
Conceivable reasons for renewal are failure attributable to the deterioration of each
sensor, conversion amplifier, reorder, etc. or increasing difficulty in procuring parts
because of discontinuance of production of similar equipment.
O Computer
Renewal rate: Unit computer About 59%
Data logger computer About 32%
Environmental data-processing computer About 41%
Fuel control computer About 22%
Renewal time: Unit computer
Within the range of 60,000 hours to 180,000 hours
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons that there are many renewals due to degradation damage are
failure attributable to the deterioration of the calculation unit, each sensor, memory,
typewriter, etc. or increasing difficulty in procuring parts because of discontinuance
of production of similar equipment.
P Analyzer
Renewal rate: Water quality control analyzer About 71%
Fuel analyzer About 48%
Exhaust gas NOx analyzer About 79%
Exhaust gas SOx analyzer About 78%
Exhaust gas O
2
analyzer About 82%
Exhaust gas CO analyzer About 29%
Exhaust gas dust analyzer About 34%
Leak oil monitor analyzer About 9%
Flammable gas analyzer About 49%
NH
3
analyzer About 35%
Waste water COD analyzer About 30%
Waste water pH meter About 35%
Renewal time: The renewal of the water quality analyzer, fuel analyzer and exhaust gas NOx
analyzer falls within the range of 20,000/30,000 hours to 180,000 hours.
The renewal of exhaust gas SOx analyzer, exhaust gas O
2
analyzer, exhaust gas CO
analyzer, flammable gas analyzer, NH
3
analyzer, waste water COD analyzer and
waste water pH meter falls within the range of 40,000 hours to 80,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons that there are many renewals due to degradation damage are
failure attributable to deterioration of the calculation unit, each sensor, memory,
typewriter, etc. or increasing difficulty in procuring parts because of discontinuance
of production of similar equipment.
Q Actuator
Renewal rate: Feed water system actuator About 37%
Fuel system actuator About 29%
Starting bypass system actuator About 17%
Air system actuator About 36%
Exhaust gas system actuator About 37%
Renewal time: The renewal of feed water system, air system and exhaust gas system actuator falls
within the range of 60,000 hours to 180,000 hours.
154
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons that there are many renewals due to degradation damage are
occurrence of many failures attributable to deterioration of the control mechanism,
positioner, etc. or increasing difficulty in procuring the parts because of
discontinuance of production of similar equipment.
R Air source for control, air dryer, air pressure-reducing system
Renewal rate: Air dryer About 42%
Air pressure-reducing systemAbout 17%
Renewal time: The renewal falls within the range of 40,000 hours to 140,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: Conceivable reasons for renewal are occurrence of many failures as a result of
deterioration owing to change of the control mechanism, tower, etc. or increasing
difficulty in procuring parts because of discontinuance of production of similar
equipment.
S Transmitter
Renewal rate: Feed water flow transmitter About 65%
Main steam flow transmitter About 61%
Spray flow transmitter About 61%
Fuel oil flow transmitter About 50%
Fuel gas flow transmitter About 45%
Main steam pressure transmitter About 63%
Fuel oil pressure transmitter About 54%
Fuel gas pressure transmitter About 44%
Drum-level transmitter About 60%
Deaerator-level transmitter About 57%
Feed water flow element About 12%
Main steam flow element About 8%
Fuel oil flow element About 22%
Fuel gas flow element About 7%
Conveyor scale About 33%
Renewal time: Renewals of feed water flow, spray flow, fuel oil flow, fuel oil pressure, drum level,
and deaerator-level transmitters fall within the range of 60,000 hours to 180,000
hours.
Renewals of main steam flow and main steam pressure transmitters fall within the
range of 40,000 hours to 200,000 hours.
Reasons for renewal: With respect to degradation damage and damage prevention, conceivable reasons for
renewal are occurrence of many failures due to deterioration of each sensor, signal
converter, etc. or increasing difficulty in procuring parts because of discontinuance of
production of similar equipment.
With respect to performance upgrading, conceivable reasons for renewal are
performance upgrading of equipment and shift of control equipment to the electric
type or digital type.
3.1.2.3 Inspection technology/remaining life assessment technology
Although the strength design of a boiler’s pressure part to be used under
high temperature and high pressure is performed based on the 100,000-hour creep strength of the material to be
used, from the facts that units whose cumulative operation hours reach 100,000 hours are starting to appear, and
problems with thermal power units with years of service such as breakage of the steam turbine rotor, cracks in the
steam turbine casing, etc. were reported in U.S.A., etc., from about the beginning of the 50s of the Showa period,
interest in the assessment of soundness, recovery from deterioration and renovation technology for the major
structural portions of major equipment in thermal units with years of service has grown.
For thermal power generation technology, technical advances such as upsizing, higher temperature and pressure,
etc. moved forward rapidly after World War II, and the age deterioration phenomenon itself was worldwide
unknown area. For this reason, at present, virtually every technology developed and having become operational,
such as deterioration characteristics of the material with years of service, mechanism of age deterioration,
inspection technology and inspection equipment for deterioration diagnosis, remaining life assessment technology,
renovation technology for recovery from deterioration, deterioration progress supervisory technology, etc., is
unknown and not yet developed, constituting technical issues that we must address. From the 50s of the Showa
period toward the 60s, inspection and assessment technology and remaining life assessment technology coping
with deterioration phenomena that became obvious with time were developed and became operational, and at the
present time, the focus of its development has shifted to labor saving, automation, broader use of robots, etc. In
addition, development and practical use of operation supervisory/diagnosis technology for the purposes of
strengthening and enhancing the operation supervisory aspect is being pushed forward.
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[1] Boiler equipment
Age deterioration phenomena that became obvious in major structural parts of boiler plants (representative
examples)
(1) Long-duration high-temperature creep, high-temperature oxidation/steam oxidation
x Final SH, RH pipe damage
In particular, downgraded portion of points subjected to material change, in-furnace points subjected to
material change
(2) Repeated fatigue due to thermal stress
x Damage of evaporation pipe
Cracks originating from weld zone of fittings adhered to pipe
Damage originated from weld zones of burner, wind box, inspection hole mounting frame
Cracks originating from weld zone of slit-type fin
Crack due to corrosion fatigue from internal surface of pipe at nose, deflection arch and deflection parts.
x SH, RH pipes
Crack originating from weld zone of fixing spacer fixture
x Evaporation pipe, SH and RH pipes (non-heated part)
Crack originating from toe part of stub weld
x Leak of boiler combustion exhaust gas
Seal structural part at intersection part between boiler nose part wall and furnace back wall-suspended pipe
Corner part of side wall part of front and rear wall pipes at heat recovery part
Header guard of RH, Eco, etc. of heat recovery part
Header around furnace bottom and seal structure part of ceiling wall passing-through part at GR port guard
Tube bending part such as TV, inspection hole, burner, manhole, etc.
(3) Repeated fatigue due to long-duration high-temperature creep, thermal stress
x Superheater, reheater header
Crack at weld zone of nozzle
x Main steam piping
Crack originating from internal part of weld zone
Crack at weld zone of branch piping nozzle
Inspection technology and assessment technology having became operational (representative example)
x Boiler tube diagnosis UT system
(Target: Superheater, reheater)
x Major piping diagnosis robot (target: major steam pipe)
x Stack casing inspection robot
x Remaining life assessment by means of destruction test
(targets: evaporation pipe, economizer tube, superheater tube, reheat tube)
x Remaining life diagnosis by means of stress analysis
(Targets: T & Y pieces of major piping, weld zone of tube-adhered fixture, fin-mounting area of tube, support
lug part of tube, header stub)
x Remaining life assessment by means of non-destructive test (A parameter method, void area rate, crystal grain
deformation)
x (Targets: drum, header, header stub)
[2] Turbine equipment
Age deterioration phenomena that became obvious in the major structure of turbine plant (representative
example)
x Breakage of high-pressure rotor
x Surface crack at base R part of high-pressure rotor 1st-stage wheel
x Bending of medium-pressure ROBIN rotor
x Crack at low-pressure rotor wheel stud part
x SCC of low-pressure rotor shrink-fit wheel part
x Lifting of high-pressure part rotating blade
x Erosion and crack on rotating blade of low-pressure part
x Crack on final-stage rotating blade racing wire
x Nozzle erosion
x Crack on rotating blade tenon
x Surface crack on corner part of high- & low-pressure housings
x Crack on medium-pressure housing (origin: repaired weld zone)
x Breakage of the high temperature bolt and damage to the bolt screw thread.
x Crack on major valve casing (origin: repaired weld zone, internal defect)
Inspection technology having became operational (representative example)
x Rotor center hole ultrasonic flaw detection technology
x Rotor center hole magnetic particle flaw detection technology
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x Rotor center hole hardness-measuring technology
x Rotor center hole replica-sampling technology
x Rotor & casing embrittlement diagnosis technology
x Blade stud part inspection technology
x Tenon ultrasonic flaw detection technology
x Rotor wheel ultrasonic flaw detection technology
x High-temperature bolt (stud bolt) ultrasonic flaw detection technology
Remaining life diagnosis technology having been commercialized
x Rotor, casing, major valve body (crack occurrence assessment, crack propagation assessment)
x Rotating blade (lifting)
Hydraulic jack
Boiler, front
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Burner wind box
Side top header support structure
Jack down
Step rod
(I85)
Support
beam
Hoisting
bar (I140)
U bolt
(I100)
In furnace
Oil jack
Boiler steel
frame
Collector
beam
Side wall top
header
Fig. 3.1.2.4-1
Concept in
dismantling of
furnace wall by
means of jack
down construction
method
(3) Electrical equipment
Age deterioration phenomena having become obvious (representative example)
x Crack on end ring (18Mn-5Cr steel) of generator rotor
x Wedge crack on generator rotor
x Generation of copper powder of generator rotor coil
x Drop in insulation of generator rotor coil
x Drop in insulation of generator stator coil
x Water leakage from generator stator coil
Inspection technology and life diagnosis technology having become operational (representative example)
x Ultrasonic flaw detection technology for end ring of generator rotor
x Measurement of looseness of wedge of the generator rotator
x Generator stator-winding diagnosis
x Generator rotator diagnosis
x Analysis on dissolved gas in oil of major transformer
x High-voltage motor insulation diagnosis
x High-voltage cable insulation diagnosis
(4) Measurement & control equipment
Diagnosis technology having become operational (representative example)
x Control system diagnosis system
x Standard maintenance tool
(5) Operation supervisory, diagnosis technology (representative example)
x Operation support system (alarm guidance)
x On-site problem detection system
x Boiler combustion diagnosis system
x High-pressure feed water heater tube leakage detection system
x Patrol support by means of trend supervisory on operation data and alarm
x Simplified vibration diagnosis of rotating auxiliary machines (pump, blower)
x Valve control by means of handy terminal
x Portable ultrasonic leak detector (high-pressure heater, drain valve)
x Leakage detector by means of infrared camera (boiler casing)
x Boiler wall thick part life diagnosis (main steam pipe T piece, circulation pump casing)
3.1.2.4 Large-scale renovation examples (renovation of boiler furnace)
For the purpose of responding to electric power demand-supply adjustment, from about the mid-50s of the
Showa period, modification of machines designed for the base load to the DSS model was made, and full-scale
high-frequency start-up & shut-down operation has been performed.
As the number of start ups and shut downs increases, many cracks on the boiler tube and leakages started to
157
158
appear in all areas of boilers, and, for this reason, inspection and repair result in longer time and higher cost. In
particular, heavy damage is found in the metallic substance weld zone of furnace pipe walls, furnace headers and
nozzle weld zones at the reheater header due to fatigue and creep, and fundamental measures are becoming
necessary.
In the future, as these portions are important components of boilers, it is impossible to take fundamental
measures through partial renovation. In addition, from the viewpoint that cost and work will be enormous,
complete blanket renovation of furnace evaporation pipes, headers, etc. is starting to be carried out.
Control unit
r(replaced)
Change of control system
x Generator output
x Main steam temperature
x Main steam pressure
2nd superheater
pipe (replaced)
Reheat pipe
(replaced)
Steam separator
(added)
Furnace
evaporation pipe
(replaced)
Furnace-side
casing
(replaced)
1st superheater
Evaporator
Economizer
Fuel
Feed water
Air
Burner
valve
Furnace
Boiler circulation
pump (added)
Together with this renovation, partial renovation of an accessory plant was performed so that such boilers also
have cutting-edge performance. Further, for the purposes of shortening the renovation construction work period
and securing safety in construction work, the development and introduction of new construction such as jack
down construction (Fig. 3.1.4.2-1) are sought.
(1) Examples of structural improvement measures associated with renovation
(1) Modify the boiler from the skin casing structure to the membrane wall structure to plan a reduction in
thermal stress.
(2) Modify the boiler from a weld construction consisting of the furnace wall and tension plate to a slide
structure to plan the reduction in thermal stress.
(3) Cause the header nozzle part to have sufficient flexibility to plan the reduction in thermal stress.
(4) Modify the furnace wall passing-through part to the double-sleeve structure to avoid a concentration of
stress.
(5) Make the root of the nozzle and weld zone at the fine end smooth to relieve the concentration of stress.
(2) Renovation work examples
In the KANSAI Electric Company’s Himeji No.2 thermal power plant Unit No.2 (325 MW), a subcritical pressure
boiler that began commercial operation in 1964, from 1992 to 1993 blanket replacement of the boiler was carried
out. This unit was originally oil fired; however, in 1980, modification to convert it to LNG fired was made and
since then, this boiler has served as base thermal power. Since its start of commercial operation, this plant has
operated for about 170,000 hours (number of start ups and shut downs: 662), and in addition to normal age
deterioration, due to the fact that this plant has been used for DSS operation from 1985, life consumption due to
low-cycle fatigue advanced in all areas of the boiler, minor problems occurred frequently, and the time required
for inspection and repair increased. Then, as a result of study of a repair program according to the increasing
longevity program, as it is more advantageous to replace the furnace water wall part completely than to repeat
minor repairs in terms of cost, then it was decided to carry out total replacement. Further, together with
renovation, performance upgrading including improvement of thermal efficiency and acceleration of the time
required for start up is planned through modification from a constant-pressure to a variable-pressure operation
method. (Fig. 3.1.2.4-2).
3.1.2.5 Technology and construction method for shortening of the term of periodic inspection work
In addition to the peak in the summer season, for the purpose of responding to firm growth of demand in the
winter season, the timing of periodic inspections tends to be concentrated in spring and autumn. On the other hand,
the term of periodic inspection work tends to become longer due to the increase in the amount of repairs
associated with aging of plants, and in the future, as the aging of large-capacity machines will also proceed,
further efforts to shorten the term of periodic inspection work are sought.
As a method to plan the shortening of the term of periodic inspection work, in addition to the effective
classification and planning of repair work associated with aging, improvement of construction method that
includes the following are also pursued.
x Improvement of work efficiency through mechanization and broader use of robots
x Improvement of work efficiency through labor-saving tools
x Cutback in amount of works through blanket replacement of large parts (service, repair, etc.)
In addition, measures will be also be implemented from the viewpoint of the plant (Table 3.1.2.5-1), including:
x Earlier start of work through forced cooling stop of the turbine
x Improvement of workability through scale-up of manholes
Fig. 3.1.2.4-2
Outline drawing of
renovation work for
Himeji No.2
thermal power Unit
No.2 boiler.
159
Table 3.1.2.5-1 Improvement examples for shortening of the term of periodic inspection work
Examples Outline
Adoption of forced cooling system for turbine Introduce the outside air into high- and medium-pressure casings through the injection of cooling
air or by means of vacuum pump to shorten the cooling time.
Adopt a high-performance oil-flushing system. Use the flushing system with a fine-mesh filter.
Have gas turbine rotor spares. Have the gas turbine rotor of the combined-cycle generator as a spare to replace it at periodic
inspection.
Have steam turbine rotor spares. Have the steam turbine rotor for geothermal heat as a spare to replace it at periodic inspection.
Adopt a gas turbine static blade-sealing alignment system. Although alignment at replacement was performed at the manufacturer’s factory, alignment has
become available through installation of the system at site.
Adopt a casing-tightening hydraulic bolt. Change the high-pressure turbine casing-tightening bolt from the shrink-fit type to the hydraulic
tension type.
Modify from MHG to EHG. —
Have one set of EHG parts spares. Have one set of EHG parts as spares to replace them at inspection.
Additionally install an overhead traveling crane. Install an overhead traveling crane additionally.
Making the overhead traveling crane faster. Make traveling and hoisting speed faster to plan effective use of the crane.
Develop scaffolding at the furnace bottom part. Carry in one set of folded stages from the furnace bottom to extend it on the furnace bottom.
Adopt a mobile clinker hopper. Change the clinker hopper to the mobile type to facilitate carry-in of scaffolding.
Adopt a turbine rotor dry horning unit. Change the work form from manual work to work with the horning unit to plan greater efficiency of
work.
Adopt a hydraulic torque wrench. Adopt the hydraulic torque wrench for crossover pipe flange-tightening work at low-pressure casing.
Install a lifting unit for dismantling of major valves. Adopt a simplified lifting unit for lifting work of the main check valve, etc. to plan greater
efficiency of work.
Adopt a hydraulic bolt for coupling. Tighten the coupling by means of a hydraulic tension bolt.
Improve in-furnace scaffolding. Change the scaffolding from steel pipe scaffolding to steel fit scaffolding.
Install a floor for carry-in of boiler materials. Install an out-furnace stage for carry-in of in-furnace scaffolding and for material storage space.
Install a shutter at the boiler sound isolation wall opening. Install an opening at the sound isolation wall of the boiler to facilitate carry-in of materials, etc.
Conduct dismantling and inspection work on the electric valve with greater efficiency. Change the power supply connection of the electric valve to the connector system.
Contrive dismantling and assembling jigs for the coil-end cover of the generator. Fix the bottom cover to the jig and then cause it to rotate to facilitate removal.
Adopt an ultrasonic expansion-measuring instrument Measure expansion of bolts by means of the ultrasonic measuring instrument.
Turbine blade clearance-measuring device Insert the sensor into the clearance between the turbine blades to perform automatic measurement to
process its data.
Adopt a laser-type centering measuring device. Measure turbine alignment by means of a laser to calculate the corrected value automatically.
Adopt a turbine casing lifting-level supervisory unit. Monitor parallelism of the housing to be lifted by installing an ultrasonic-type distance sensor at 4
corners to measure it.
Install a crane for light parts. In addition to an overhead traveling crane, install a crane for lifting light parts.
Rotor center hole horning unit Unit that performs horning of the turbine rotor center hole automatically.
Adopt a hydraulic jack for dismantling of housing. Cause the measuring sensors installed at 4 corners of the housing to synchronize with the hydraulic
jack to lift it horizontally.
Adopt a jig for groove alignment of the boiler-cooling wall pipe. Jig for groove alignment of boiler water-cooling wall pipe.
Upsize the boiler manhole. Upsize the bore of the boiler manhole to plan greater efficiency.
Develop an internal surface inspection system of the boiler header part. Insert it through the header inspection hole to make observation by means of TV and observation
with an optical microscope.
3.1.2.6 Support system for creating a work plan for increasing longevity
In order to continue stable operation of an aged thermal power plant after 20 years or more from its construction
and start of operation. While maintaining the economics and its function, identifying the function, performance
and soundness of equipment and presentation (recovery from deterioration) are performed more efficiently than
conventionally.
For this reason, a support system to create a work plan for increasing longevity that takes plant reliability and
economics into account has generally been introduced and made use of.
Creation of a work plan for increasing longevity is performed along each step of flow in Fig. 3.1.2.6-1.
M Selection of critical equipment (Fig. 3.1.2.6-2)
Assuming that the service period will be 60 years, the operation time, 400,000 hours and the number of start
ups and shut downs, 5,000, select equipment for which remaining life control is believed to be necessary out of all
equipment comprising the unit. Assess the probability of the occurrence of failure, effect of failure on output when
it occurs, term of recovery work and cost, safety (social influence level), etc. comprehensively by means of the
FMEA technique.
N Investigation of the background of accidents and failures
Collect and organize the records of accidents and failures regarding the selected critical equipment, and
investigate the failure mode, life consumption factor, etc. during a long-term service period.
O Breakdown and defragmentation of equipment (selection of critical points)
Select critical equipment.
Investigate history of accidents and failures.
Break down and defragment equipment.
Select the critical portion.
Select remaining life calculation measures.
Calculate the unit life consumption rate.
Calculate remaining life.
Create a long-term maintenance program list.
Carry out profit calculation.
Create a work program list for increasing longevity.
Unit price table
Future operation conditions
Marginal processing value
Operation history
Fig. 3.1.2.6-1 Flow in creation of work program plan list for increasing longevity work
Equipment
Measuring device
Electric device
Boiler system
Turbine system
Equipment
Life
consumption
factor
Initial
failure
mode
Final
failure
mode
Effect-level assessment
Probability
of failure
occurrence
Effect on
output
Degree of difficulty of
recovery from failure
Term of
recovery
Recovery
cost
Safety
General assessment
Score
Critical
equipment
(100 points or
more)
H
i
g
h
-
p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

t
u
r
b
i
n
e
Rotor
External casing
Internal casing
Nozzle chamber
1st blade ring
Creep, low-
cycle fatigue
Progression of
manufacturing
defect
Burst
Creep, low-
cycle fatigue
Crack Leakage
Creep, low-
cycle fatigue
Crack Leakage
Creep, low-
cycle fatigue
Crack Leakage
Creep Deformation
Axial inclination
Abnormal
vibration
Fig. 3.1.2.6-2: Example of critical equipment selection
160
Break down the selected critical equipment to the group that conceivably has the same structure, function, and
design condition, and then defragment them based on the detailed structure to select “Point to which maintenance
control should be performed based on life assessment.”
P Selection of critical portion (Fig. 24)
Critical point : Dummy groove
Critical portion : Heat group groove
bottom
Initial failure mode : Crack
Life consumption factor:
Low-cycle fatigue
Low-cycle fatigue +
High-cycle fatigue
Critical point : Center hole
Critical portion : Control stage bottom
Initial failure mode : Crack
Life consumption factor:
Creep + Low-cycle
fatigue
Critical point : Rotor body
Critical portion : Central part and others
Initial failure mode : Deformation
Deterioration of
characteristics
Life consumption factor :
Creep, softening,
embrittlement
Governor side
High-pressure stage
Control stage
Ultrahigh-pressure stage
GEN side
Critical point : High-pressure final-
stage blade groove
Critical portion : 1st tooth blade groove
shoulder corner
Initial failure mode : Crack
Life consumption factor:
Stress corrosion crack,
corrosion fatigue
Critical point: Ultrahigh-pressure 1st-stage blade grove
(a) Critical portion : Blade groove shoulder
corner
Initial failure mode : Crack
Life consumption factor: Creep, High-cycle fatigue
creep + high-cycle fatigue
(b) Critical portion : Contact surface at rotating
blade root
Initial failure mode : Crack
Life consumption factor : Fretting fatigue
Inlet side
Outlet side
Rotating blade
(a)
(b)
Fig. 3.1.2.6-3 Example of critical portion in high-pressure turbine rotor
Expand the critical points to the portion level further to extract the portions where occurrence of failure is possible
during a long-term service period to select the portions that are the target of remaining life control as a critical
portion from them.
Q Selection of remaining life calculation method
Remaining life calculation methods can be divided broadly into following 4 methods:
x Theory analysis method (non-destructive diagnosis method)
x Destruction test method
x Statistical method
x Trend control method
Out of these 4 methods, select the most adequate method corresponding to the initial failure mode and life
consumption factor.
R Calculation of life consumption unit rate
Using the respective methods, obtain the amount of life consumption per 1,000 hours of operation (I
c
) or amount
of life consumption per one start up and shut down (I
f
).
Calculate unit life consumption rate.
O
u
t
p
u
t
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
C
o
m
p
u
t
e
r
FEManalysis Life assessment curve
S
t
r
e
s
s
Repetitions
Life consumption unit life
Processing
limit
Future
operation
conditions
Life
consumption
unit life
Operation
history
Calculate remaining life.
Limit processing
value
C
o
n
s
u
m
e
d

l
i
f
e
(Year)
Consumed life
Remaining life
Fig. 3.1.2.6-4: Calculate remaining
life.
161
Table 3.1.2.6-1 Example of plan list for increasing longevity (Unit: million yen)
Fiscal
System
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010
Boiler related 2226 83 62 15 35 10 268 3356 17 44 17
Turbine related 712 85 1 35 37 83 95 1203 103 21 70
Electric related 12 14 2 406 828 374 54 116
Measurement related 12 20 70 300 320
Total 3002 168 77 50 74 93 789 5457 494 419 523
Optimum renewal fiscal year
U
n
i
f
o
r
m

a
n
n
u
a
l

c
o
s
t

o
f

m
a
i
n
t
e
n
a
n
c
e

c
o
s
t

U
n
i
f
o
r
m

a
n
n
u
a
l

c
o
s
t

o
f

r
e
n
e
w
a
l
Fiscal year in A.D.
Fig. 3.1.2.6-5 Example of profit calculation result
S Calculation of remaining life (Fig. 3.1.2.6-4)
(1) Calculation of consumption life
I = I
c
1000
time operation Cumulative
+ I
f
u Cumulative number of start ups and shut downs
(2) Establishment of marginal processing value
The marginal processing value is a consumption life value that determines:
࡮start timing of inspection
࡮implementation timing of re-diagnosis
࡮implementation timing of repair and replacement
And it is established in accordance with the equipment and portion.
(3) Establishment of future operation conditions
Based on the power generation plan, the annual estimated operation hours (Ta) and estimated number of
start ups and shut downs (Na) are assumed to calculate the future operating conditions by multiplying such
number by life consumption unit.
(4) Calculation of remaining life
Remaining life indicates the years until the unit reaches limit processing value and is calculated by means
of:
Remaining life (years) =
Na Ta/1000
life n consumptio value processing Limit
f c u I u I

T Creation of long-term maintenance program list
A long-term maintenance program list represents the maintenance cost within the assumed service period on a
year-by-year basis, and the maintenance cost is calculated from the cost required for inspection, diagnosis, repair
and replacement on a portion-by-portion basis and the quantity of the corresponding portion.
(1) Entry of unit price
Study the most adequate inspection, diagnosis, repair and replacement methods on a portion-by-portion
basis to select its unit price from unit price list that this system has to enter it.
(2) Creation of long-term maintenance plan list
There are 2 types of long-term maintenance plan list, on a portion-by-portion basis and equipment-by-
equipment basis, and clearly shows the fiscal year when inspection, diagnosis, repair and replacement are
required and the respective costs.
U Implementation of profitability calculation (Fig. 3.1.2.6-5)
Study the selection whose renewal of equipment or partial repair is required, and select the most economical
renewal timing in the case of equipment renewal, as well as the optimum replacement range combining mutual
equipment.
V Creation of longer life work plan list (Table 3.1.2.6-1)
With respect to all critical equipment, calculate the maintenance cost required within the future assumed service
period, and an increasing longevity work plan list is obtained by summing such costs.
162
3.2.1 Causes of damage to boiler equipment
(1) Trend of damage
An example of analysis of the ratio of aged deterioration damage for each component of a boiler and the
damage ratio of its pressure-retaining parts by each cause are shown in Fig. 3.2.1-1. Such pressure-retaining
components as the furnace wall, super-heater, re-heater, economizer, piping, etc. account for 67% of the entire
boiler equipment. Thermal fatigue, corrosion fatigue, and creep damage account for 83% of the causes of total
damage. As measures to improve the reliability of thermal power generation plants, it is important to prevent such
fatigue, corrosion fatigue, and creep damage from occurring to such pressure-retaining components.
Ratio of occurrence
of failure for each
component of boiler
equipment
Cause of damage to
pressure-retaining
components
Furnace
wall
31%
SH/RH/ECO
20%
Piping
16%
Valves
5%
Fan
10%
Non-pressure-retai
ning components
4%
Others
14%
Others
7%
Thermal
fatigue/
corrosion
fatigue
68%
Creep
15%
Wear
5%
Corrosion
5%
Fig. 3.2.1-1 Ratio of the components becoming defective/ratio of cause of damage
Deterioration
of materials
Overheating
Corrosion
Wear
Corrosion
fatigue
x Drop in bearing force
caused by use for a long
period of time
x Change in material quality
x Defective materials

Swelling out
Deformation
Creep
rupture
Rupture by
spouting
x Fatigue occurring under
the environment of the
inner surface of the tank
caused by filled water
Rupture by
corrosion
fatigue
x Thermal fatigue
x Mechanical fatigue
Occurrence/growth
of crack(s)
Rupture
caused by
fatigue
x Corrosion by low
temperature
x Corrosion of the inner
surface of tank caused by
filled water
Occurrence/growth
of crack(s)
x Clogging inside the piping
caused by foreign
materials
x Imbalanced flow of fluid
within the piping
x Adherence/growth of scale
within the piping
x Corrosion by high
temperature
x Erosion by ash
x Wear by high-velocity air
flow within the component
Excessive increase
in load stress
caused by the
decrease in
effective thickness
Rupture
caused by
static stress
Leakage
Fatigue
Fig. 3.2.1-2 Cause of damage to boiler equipment
(2) Cause of damage
The types of damage generally experienced with the pressure-retaining components of the boiler equipment are
shown in Fig. 3.2.1-2 for convenience.
3.2.2 Example of damage and measures to improve bearing force
Examples of typical damage experienced so far and measures taken to improve the bearing force are explained
below.
163
(1) Creep and creep rupture
Each pressure-retaining component of boiler equipment has been designed to have a creep rupture strength of
100,000 hours or longer. However, should the component be overheated beyond the designed temperature range
for any reason, or should any decrease in thickness advance, creep damage may advance within a very short
period time resulting in rupture. Typical causes of damage found in the examples are summarized as follows:
x Overheating due to an extreme decrease in flow rate within the piping caused by clogging with of
foreign matters or by peeling off or accumulation of steam oxidation scale.
x Temperature rise at the piping wall caused by the growth of scale adhered to the inner surface of the
pipes of the furnace evaporation piping, or the growth of porous-type scale with low heat
transmission efficiency
For the accumulation of steam oxidation scale within the stainless steel piping of the super-heater, etc. and
accumulated at the U-bend, it is considered effective to suppress the scale from growing if fine-grade steel is
employed or the inner surface of the piping is shot blasted. Creep damage includes creep created over
considerably long hours because the inner-pressure stress increases by the decreased thickness caused by
high-temperature corrosion, etc. A lot of damage has been found caused by the scale adhering to the inner surface
of the pipes of furnace evaporating piping. Standard water quality control of the supply water and tank water and
implementation of proper acid cleaning is an important task. To determine the timing of acid cleaning, monitoring
of the pipe wall temperature by a pulling-out check of the pipes at the time of regular inspection or by using a
Cordal-thermocouple (embedded thermocouple) is available.
(2) Thermal fatigue
Thermal fatigue occurs by the repeated effects of high thermal stress that is generated by the temperature
differences among the member materials. The thermal fatigue generated by the start/stop operation of boiler
equipment or by load fluctuation is a type of low-cycle fatigue in general. The surface of the broken part by
thermal fatigue is uneven and rougher than that caused by mechanical fatigue where high-cycle fatigue is
accompanied by vibration, etc. The surface of the cracked part is normally open to some extent. The causes
generating thermal stress vary depending on the structure of each component of the boiler equipment. Examples
of portions where thermal fatigue occurs and measures to reduce the stress are shown in Table 3.2.2-1 in a
concrete fashion.
(3) Corrosion fatigue
In the case of the inner water supply system of furnace, economizer, etc., such corrosion fatigue as cracking
generated not only from the outside of the piping but also from the inside has been experienced. Corrosion fatigue
is a phenomenon in which fatigue cracks are generated and grow because the strength against fatigue declines
remarkably to a larger degree than the same in an air atmosphere, when the metal receives stress repeatedly in a
corrosive environment. It is basically generated on the portion where thermal stress, etc. is large.
As a typical example of the relationship between thermal fatigue and corrosion fatigue, the tension plate and
welded portion of the furnace wall are shown in Fig. 3.2.2-1.
At the portion where the tension plate has been welded directly to the furnace wall, thermal stress is generated
by the temperature difference between the tension plate and the furnace wall in the direction of the piping axis and
to right angles of the piping axis. The maximum stress is generated on the welded portion of the tension plate on
the external face of piping. Thermal fatigue cracks are generated on the toe of the weld where stress concentrates.
On the other hand, stress is generated on the rear side of the weld on the inner surface of the piping. The stress
on the inner surface of the piping is smaller in general than that on the outer surface.
164
Table 3.2.2-1 Portions where thermal stress is generated and measures to reduce the stress
Portion
Portion where fatigue damage
occurs
Mechanism of generation of
stress
Measures to reduce stress
Ԙ Furnace wall
C
o
o
l

w
a
t
e
r

If the boiler water temperature
should change upon boiler
start/stop operations, temperature
difference occurs between the
furnace wall and the sub-wall or
between the sub-wall and the rear
smoke duct wall, which generates
stress on the fin edge of the
furnace wall.
Arrange the fin edge in a large
arch shape
R-machining of fin edge
R-machining
(9) 2 A h
Arch
ԙ Furnace wall seal box weld
Tool box
Concentration
of stress
If the boiler water temperature
should change upon boiler
start/stop operations, temperature
difference occurs between the
furnace wall piping and the seal
box, by which stress concentrates
at the corner.
Change the shape of the seal box
corner to an arch.
Bend the seal box side in 2 steps.
R corner
2-step
bending
Ԛ Fixtures mounted on furnace
wall
Tension plate
If the boiler water temperature
should change upon boiler
start/stop operations, temperature
difference occurs between the
furnace wall piping and the
mounted fixture, which generates
stress on the welded portion.
Change the structure of the
furnace wall piping and mounted
fixture to a sliding structure.
Tension plate
Slide
ԛ End bar and skin casing for
the hole of the ceiling
End bar
Deformation
Welded portion
P
i
p
i
n
g

o
n

t
h
e

c
e
i
l
i
n
g

The entire portion tends to deform
due to the temperature difference
between the front- and rear-end
bards at the ceiling hole, but is
locked by the ceiling piping,
resulting in the generation of
stress on the welded portion. Due
to the temperature difference
between the end bar and the skin
casing, cracking occurs on the
skin casing.
Change the structure of the
ceiling piping and end bar to a
sliding structure.
Change the skin casing to a 2-step
bent type.
End bar
Piping on
the ceiling
2-step-type skin
casing
Ԝ Skin casing below
economizer
Due to the temperature difference
between the wall piping
surrounding the rear smoke duct
and hopper, stress is generated on
the skin casing, resulting in
cracking.
Change the skin casing to 2-step
projected bellow type.
165
Damage caused by corrosive fatigue Damage caused by heat fatigue
Generation of
high stress
Generation of
high stress
Low expansion
Low expansion
Tension plate
Tension plate
High
expansion High
expansion
Fig.10 Generation status of
incompatiblility at the end
portion of straight-finned
economizer
Fig.9 Typical example of
heat and corrosive fatigue
Table 3.2.2-1 Portion where thermal stress is generated and measures to reduce the stress
Portion
Portion where fatigue damage
occurs
Mechanism of generation of
stress
Measures to reduce stress
ԝ Nozzle of super-heater and
re-heating pipe head
Piping on
the ceiling
Temperature difference occurs
between the nozzles during
start/stop operations, and bending
stress is generated on the welded
portion that has been locked
between the nozzles and ceiling
hole.
x Change the nozzles to the
flexible type.
Flexible
Ԟ Joint welded by dissimilar
metals
C
o
e
f
f
i
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Inconel welding
electrode
Present
style
Improved
style
SUS rod
SUS steel
Cr-Mo steel
Due to the difference in the
carbon content, carbon migrates
to the metal to be welded from
low-alloy steel, yielding a
decarbonized layer as a result,
and the strength on the low-alloy
side declines. By the difference in
thermal expansion between the
austenitic stainless steel to be
welded and the low-alloy base
steel, thermal stress is generated
on the portion welded. Because of
its high temperature, creep
damage also occurs.
By using Inconel-family welding
electrodes and by reducing the
linear expansion difference,
reduce the stress. Prevent the
strength from declining by
preventing the carbon from
migrating.
Welding at factory
using Inconel welding
electrodes
ԟ Saddle spacer welding
portion
Welding-type
saddle
Fixed
Within a structure supported by a
spacer fixed by welding to the
hanging pipe of the
horizontal-type
super-heater/re-heater, thermal
stress is generated on the
spacer-welded portion due to the
temperature difference between
the upper and the lower pipes.
Employ a flexible spacer.
Flexible saddle
spacer
Slide
Fixed
Ԡ Welded portion of
small-diameter nozzle of pipe
header
Piping
reaction
force
Deformation
(29) Pi i ti
If the air vent pipe and drain pipe
of pipe header are the type of
such structure as being locked in
the housing hole, thermal stress is
generated at the welded portion of
the nozzle of pipe header.
Change the small-diameter pipe
to a flexible type. The form of
nozzle of pipe heater should be
butt welding type.
Hole to
be fixed
Flexible bending
piping
166
Portion
Portion where fatigue damage
occurs
Mechanism of generation of
stress
Measures to reduce stress
ԡ Welded portion to fix the
anchor plate
Portion where
cracking occurs
Filler plate
Tie bar
Anchor plate
Stand-off
Due to the temperature difference
between the anchor plate and
furnace wall piping occurring by
start/stop operations of a boiler,
stress concentrates at the welded
portion of the anchor plate.
Separate the anchor plate to fit it
by full arc welding and make the
size smaller.
Filler plate
Driber
Anchor plate
Stand-off
Stopper
Ԣ Membrane-edge connecting
waterwall and cage walls
Membrane
Waterwall
pipe
Portion
where
cracking
occurs
Due to the temperature difference
between the waterwall and cage
piping occurring by start/stop
operations, stress concentrates at
the connection and membrane
edge.
Refresh the connection membrane
edge and provide R-machining to
the welding stop end.
Membrane
Waterwall
pipe
ԣ Welded liner of
super-heater/desuper-heater
Stopper
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Desuper-heater main
body
Spray
nozzle
Liner
Support
Weldi
Support
ring Base pipe
Protection cylinder
Fitting of liner
(Welding type)
Portion where
cracking occurs
By the ON/OFF injection from
the spray nozzle of the
super-heater/desuper-heater, the
liner is bumped and stress
concentrates at the liner-welded
portion.
Change the structure of the spray
nozzle and improve the method of
fixing the liner by changing to the
pin type.
Stopper
Desuper-heater main body
Spray
nozzle Support Protection
cylinder
Pin
Pin
Improved
structure
(pin type)
Ԥ Measures against damage to
main piping support lag
Main
piping
Thermal
insulation
material
Support
lag
Portion where
cracking occurs
Temperature difference occurs on
the supports inside and outside
the thermal insulator, and excess
stress concentrates at the
support-welded potion.
Change the support lag to shear
lag.
Shear
lag
Thermal
insulation
material Band
Hanging
bolt
Main
piping
ԥ Ceiling hole
Ceiling
piping
Crwon
Due to the temperature difference
between the crown and the
piping, stress concentrates
causing cracking to occur.
Use a sleeve through the ceiling
hole and avoid direct welding of
the crown to the piping.
Ceiling
piping
Crown
To add a
sleeve
Ԧ Connection of loop pipes
Tie rod Sliding spacer
Hanging loop
pipe
When there is a temperature
difference at operation start,
cracking occurs at the portion
where a linkage fixture has been
installed due to stress
concentration.
Use a sliding spacer at the portion
where high temperature is
transmitted and to avoid any
locking. Change the tie lag in the
rear heat transmission portion to
an oval-shaped lag to soften the
concentration of stress.
(Single lag) (Oval lag)
ԧ Inner casing of ceiling
enclosure
The corner casing cannot absorb
the expansion force from 3 sides,
and cracking causes gas leakage.
Use a corrugated-type expansion
at the corner.
Corrugated-type
expansion
Pipe header
at furnace
side wall
Pipe header
at furnace
front wall
167
However, in a corrosive environment, strength against fatigue declines, which causes cracking at the inner face
within a pipe by corrosion fatigue.
As a characteristic of a cracked surface caused by corrosion fatigue, many cracks are accompanied by pits
caused by the corrosion along the cracks.
As basic countermeasures, such actions to soften the thermal stress are considered important. In such a case, it
is required to change the tension plate support to a sliding type and improve the structure so that the thermal stress
may be softened.
Examples of other corrosion fatigue are introduced below:
ԘStraight fin end of economizer piping (Fig. 3.2.2-2)
The occurrence of cracking was experienced at the straight fin end of the economizer piping, caused by thermal
stress accompanied by intermittent water supply in order to keep the drum at a constant level at the operation start
of the boiler.
Cracking has started from the inner surface of the piping. Corrosive fatigue is the cause.
ԙLigament of the pipe header at the inlet of the economizer (Fig. 3.2.2-3)
The occurrence of cracking was experienced at the ligament of the pipe header at the inlet of the economizer
due to the same cause as above. This was also caused by corrosion fatigue.
(4) Mechanical fatigue
In the case of mechanical fatigue, the cracking is a type of transgranular cracking in general. The ruptured face
has a fine fatigue face, and no extension by rupture was detected.
Pipe header at the
inlet of economizer
Nozzle at outside furnace
Pipe header at
outside furnace
Fig. 3.2.2-3 Example of corrosion fatigue of the inner ligament of the pipe header nozzle at the inlet of the
economizer
(5) High-temperature corrosion
The surface stainless steel pipe affected by high-temperature corrosion has been damaged by corrosion in a
pockmarked fashion. The corroded portion is composed of an oxide layer – a polysulfide layer – a carbonized
layer – base metal from the outer piping surface. From the viewpoint of microstructure, the corroded and
carbonized structure of grain boundary is found. A drop in expansion as well as a drop in strength can be
detected.
168
Table 3.2.2-2 Classification of measures to improve bearing force
Cause Measures Subject portion Phenomenon
(6) Low-temperature corrosion
Aged strength drop
by creep at welded
portion
Assessment of
remaining life by replica,
ultrasonic testing, TDFD,
ELFOSS, UT inspection
Pipe header of super-heater/re-heater,
main-/high-temperature longitudinal
re-heating steam piping, around welded
portion, elbow/Y-piece-welded portion
Wear
Restriction on
elongation by heat
Add flexibility Pipe header stub, finish of sealing
Thermal shock

Change of shape, improvement
of material, improvement of the
shapes of seat and piping
Desuper-heater spray, small-diameter
piping with main piping (drain pressure
tank)
Dissimilar metal
welding (SUS/Cr-Mo)
Inconel solvent Joint of different piping material, fixture of
different material
Corrosion fatigue Change of structure and
shape, water quality
control
Fixture welded to furnace wall piping,
ligament at the inlet of the economizer
High-temperature
fatigue, oxidation
Improvement of bearing
force of material, addition
of extra welding
Super-heater, re-heater
Furnace wall
Oxidation of steam
(SUS piping)
Fine-particle SUS material
Inner face shot blast
Super-heater, re-heater
R-machining, chamfering,
change of shape
Shape the stress
concentrates
Corrosion
Fatigue
(including creep
fatigue)
Creep
Fin-end portion, pipe header lid at the
corner of the burner wall box, expansion
for the smoke duct
Expansion of casing
Piping-supporting fixture, back-stay
prevention fixture
Sliding
Furnace wall, super-heater, re-heater Protector, pipe thermal
spraying
Coal ash, soot blow
The AH element, seal plate, etc. are main damaged caused by low-temperature corrosion. It has been reported
that the expansion at the AH outlet, damper, etc. were affected by sulfuric acid corrosion when HS oil had been
used.
In addition, such an example was reported where corrosion was generated on the outer surface of the furnace or
the furnace wall of the rear smoke duct caused by condensed sulfuric acid in the steam-condensed water while the
boiler was kept at standstill.
(7) Measures to improve bearing force
As explained above, the components composing the boiler equipment receive various types of damage
depending on the environment of use, most of which are combinations of several damaging factors. With respect
to such damage, various measures to improve the bearing force, which are classified and detailed in Table 3.2.2-2,
have been taken.
3.2.3 Technology to assess the remaining life
The methods to assess the remaining life of boiler equipment can be divided into the following 3 types:
x Stress analysis method such as the finite element method, etc.
x Destructive test method
x Non-destructive test method
Except the stress analysis method, it is not possible to assess the remaining life if you use only any one of above
methods. Assessment of remaining life is carried out by combining the methods.
(1) Stress analysis method
This is a method of obtaining the life consumption by calculation based on the equipment subjected to
169
assessment, the geometric shape of the part, the operation history such as temperature, stress, etc., the strength
against creep rupture, and the properties of the materials. The finite element method using a computer makes it
possible to analyze the stress of a complex structure.
With respect to the properties of the material to be used for the analysis, it is required to include the safety ratio
in the laboratory data to some extent considering possible variations of the properties. Therefore, the assessment
result leans towards the safe side.
With respect to such operation history as the temperature, stress, etc. to be used for the analysis, calculation is
performed by dividing the operation history into several typical patterns. In order to cope with the recent complex
operation history, the remaining life is sometimes assessed by installing a life-monitoring device at the pipe
header at the outlet of the super-heater, water separator, boiler circulation pump, etc.
(2) Destructive test method
This is a method of estimating the remaining life through various types of destructive tests by taking out test
specimens from the components actually put under operation. This test method is usually employed for
components (typically, the boiler tube) from which test specimens can be easily taken out. The advantage of this
method is that the remaining life of a given material can be assessed directly, including its history at the time of
manufacture, even if the temperature or stress history of the material in the past is not made clear. The
disadvantage is that sampling is required, the portion where the test specimen has been taken out needs to be
repaired, and time and expense are required for creep rupture testing, fatigue testing, etc.
As a measure making it possible to perform destructive testing by using much smaller test specimens,
destructive testing through a miniature test is available. As shown in Fig. 3.2.3-1, its effectiveness has been
verified.
Comparison of strength against creep rupture between a conventional
test specimen of 1 Cr 0.5 Mo Steel and a miniature test specimen
Conventional test specimen
Miniature test specimen
S
t
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s
s

(
M
P
a
)

Miniature test specimen
Time of rupture
Conventional test
specimen
Fig. 3.2.3-1 Miniature creep rupture test
(3) Non-destructive test method
The advantage of the non-destructive test method is that any critical component with respect to the stress can be
assessed in a short time without sampling. This test is used together with the assessment of remaining life through
stress analysis.
This method varies depending on the material quality or state of damage to the subject component. In Table
3.2.3-1, the non-destructive assessment method for creep damage and fatigue damage is shown.
170
Table 3.2.3-1 Non-destructive method of assessing the remaining life of components affected by creep/fatigue damage
Low-alloy steel Steel
Subject
damage
Method of assessing remaining life
Method as described
in Attachment 3 of the
Electricity Utilities
Industry Law
Base metal
Welded
portion
Base metal
Welded
portion
Deposition intergranular distance
method
{ {   
Hardness-measuring method {   { 
Structure comparison method {  {  
AC electric resistance method {  {  {
Void (cavity) area ratio method {  {  {
Void density method {  {  {
A-parameter method {    
Crystal grain deformation method { { {  
Carbide structure-measuring method {  {  
Ultrasonic method {  {  
Structure-quantifying method   {  
Creep
damage
CMA density spectrum method   {  
Fatigue Microscopic-crack method  { {  

ԘCreep damage
(a) Deposition intergranular distance method
This method is used for the assessment of creep damage of low-alloy steel base metal. Low-alloy steel is a
material whose strength against creep has been raised by depositions and shows ductile creep damage. When used
for many hours in a high-temperature atmosphere, the intergranular distance of this disposition becomes larger
and, at the same time, resistance against deformation declines, causing the creep to accelerate. This phenomenon
is represented by the creep distortion–time curve in general. The change depends on the temperature and stress of
the subject component. By measuring the intergranular distance between particles of disposition, the creep
distortion at the time of assessment can be obtained. Therefore, the behavior of creep distortion thereafter can be
predicted, and the creep remaining life can be assessed. The intergranular distance of disposition is obtained by
image processing of the replica taken out from the subject component using an electrolytic discharge-type
scanning electron microscope (Fig. 3.2, 3-2).
Replica
Point
Disposition
Scanning
line
Mean free-path
Scanning-type electron
microscope
C
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c
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Average intergranular
distance (Pm)
Fig. 3.2.3-2 Disposition intergranular distance method
171
(b) Hardness-measuring method
The crystal grains of 9 Cr base metal steel are very fine, and this base metal has a hard structure of initial
hardness. Different from low-alloy steel, no metallic structural change can be detected even when creep damage
grows. However, its hardness tends to drop gradually.
Therefore, by measuring the hardness and referring to the master curve that indicates the relationship between
the hardness and the amount of damage, the life consumption ratio can be assessed (Fig. 3.2.3-2).
Vickers
hardness
The amount of creep damage
Fig. 3.2.3-2 Hardness-measuring method
(c) Structure comparison method
This method is very effective for the assessment of components affected by low-alloy steel welding heat that
indicates fragile creep damage. Comprehensive assessment of life is carried out by comparing the standard
structure corresponding to the life consumption ratio by taking out the replica/extracted replica from the
component subjected to assessment and by using 3 parameters of deposition distribution pertaining to mechanical
damage such as creep voids or microscopic-cracks generated as the creep damage grows, optical microscopic
structure pertaining to the change in the distribution of the metallic structure, or carbide using various types of
microscopes and the change in the shape or size of the deposed carbide.
As shown in Fig. 3.2.3-3, the factors for assessment of respective damage are divided into 3 steps or 4 steps. By
combining them, the life consumption ratio is estimated comprehensively within a range of 8 categories. For
example, when mechanical damage is II
D
, the microscopic structure is III
M
, and deposition distribution is II
P
, the
comprehensive damage category of the life consumption ratio by creep rupture is estimated to be E, namely 50 –
60%.
By combining various factors for assessment of life, assessment with high precision becomes possible in the
entire range covering the first half and second half of life.
172
Replica
Disposition
Scanning-type electron
microscope
Life consumption
ratio by creep
breakage (%)
Extracted replica
Component surface
(etched surface)
Optical microscope
Analysis electron
microscope
Creep cavity Micro-crack
Metal structure
Damage factors Comprehensive
damage
category Mechanical
damage
Microscopic
structure
Deposition
distribution
Fig. 3.2.3-3 Structure comparison method
(d) AC electric resistance method
This method is effective for the assessment of creep damage of components affected by welding heat
(hereinafter referred to as the HAZ portion) of low-alloy steel and 9 Cr steel.
V
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d
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d
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b
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i
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a
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v
a
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Material not
used yet
Material damaged
by creep
Life consumption ratio by creep breakage (%)
Fig. 3.2.3-4 AC electric resistance method
The creep damage of the component affected by welding heat from these steels is a type of fragile damage and
generates creep voids at the grain boundary. As the generation of voids increases, the electric resistance tends to
become stronger (Fig. 3.2.3-4). The amount of damage is assessed by using the electric resistance ratio of unused
material and the electric resistance ratio of the component being assessed, and by referring to the master curve
indicating the relationship with the amount of damage. Assessment accuracy has been improved by making it
173
easier to grasp the level of damage proximate to the surface by using an alternative current. In addition, it is
required in this method to spot weld a platinum wire to the subject component. If an electrode has once been
installed, building of a scaffold, thermal insulation, removal/restoration of the exterior plate, and polishing of the
subject component for inspection are not required thereafter. Therefore, the costs for inspection can be reduced. In
addition, it is possible to make measurement at any time during operation. This method can also be used for
monitoring the main piping, etc.
(e) Void (cavity) area ratio method
As shown in Fig. 3.2.3-5, voids are generated at the grain boundary when the HAZ portion of low-alloy steel or
9 Cr steel is affected by creep damage. The number of voids increases as the damage grows. The voids become a
crack after growing/combining (namely, the area of voids increases), and finally result in the rupture of the
component material. In this method, the ratio between the total area of voids generated within the observation
visual field and the total observation visual area is defined as a void (cavity) area ratio. Using this ratio together
with the master curve prepared by its correlation with the degree of creep damage, the life is assessed in this
method (Fig. 3.2.3-5).
Replica
Scanning-type
electron microscope
99% reliable section of
creep damage ratio
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a
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S
0

Creep damage ratio Ic
Welding metal (570qC)
Regression curve
99% reliable section
Fig. 3.2.3-5 Void (cavity) area ratio method
Incidentally, the behavior to generate voids is different in such low-alloy steels as 2.25 Cr-1 Mo steel, etc. and 9
Cr steel. It is required to use the master curve suitable for the respective type of steel.
(f) Void density method
The ratio between the number of voids in the observation visual field and the observation area is defined as
cavity density. Referring to the master curve indicating the relationship between the cavity density and the amount
of damage, assessment of the life of the component subjected to assessment is carried out in this method.
(g) A-parameter method
This is a method to be used for the assessment of creep damage at the HAZ portion of low-alloy steel. This
method was developed by English researchers. Creep voids generated as creep damage grows are generated at the
grain boundary. Draw an optional scanning line in the metal structure of the subject component. The ratio of the
number of grain boundaries where voids have been generated against the number of grain boundaries that
intersect this scanning line is defined as the A-parameter. The life of the component subjected to assessment is
assessed in this method by referring to the master curve indicating its relationship with the amount of damage (Fig.
3.2.3-6).
174
Relationship between A-parameter and life
consumption ratio by creep rupture
Amount of creep damage (%)
Fig. 3.2.3-6 A-parameter method
(h) Crystal grain deformation method
The base material of low-alloy steel used for boiler equipment has been made considerably soft considering
easiness of machining and welding. Therefore, level of generation of voids when receiving creep damage is lower
than that of the HAZ portion, but instead plastic deformation generates easily. Under such circumstances, the
crystal grain is expanded gradually to be long and narrow in the applied stress direction and becomes uniform.
The level of this uniform style is quantified by the standard deviation of the frequency distribution of the
maximum-diameter angle (an angle created by the direction of the maximum diameter of the crystal grain and the
direction of applied stress). This is a method of assessing the life using this standard deviation and the master
curve prepared by the correlation with the degree of creep damage (Fig. 3.2.3-7).
(b) Material damaged
by creep
99% reliable section
99% reliable section of creep
damage ratio +/- 0.09
Regression curve
(a) New material
F
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c
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F
r
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q
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c
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Direction of stress
Direction of stress
Maximum
diameter
Crystal
grain
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e
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c
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m

(
d
e
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[Relationship between deformation
coefficient and creep damage ratio]
x Applied to the assessment of creep damage of Cr-Mo steel
base metal
x Method of assessing the remaining life focusing on the fact
that the crystal grain deforms as the creep damage grows
Deformation
coefficient Sm
(standard deviation)
Formal
distribution
Piping material (500-650qC)
Heat transmission pipe material (570-600qC)
Creep damage ratio Ic
Fig. 3.2.3-7 Assessment of creep damage to Cr-Mo steel base metal through the crystal grain deformation method
(i) Carbide structure-measuring method
The base metal of low-alloy steel used for a boiler and the HAZ portion makes such structural changes as
deposition of carbide, condensation/large sizing, etc. as the creep grows. The structure of carbide also changes. At
the initial stage of life, there is a lot of Cr-enriched carbide represented by MޓޓCޓ. However, as the damage grows,
it changes to Mo-enriched carbide such as MޓC. This method focuses on such structural changes of carbide. In
this method, life is assessed using the master curve prepared in the correlation between the weight ratio of Mo/Cr
and the degree of creep damage.
The Mo/Cr weight ratio is obtained by taking out very a small amount of specimen from the component
subjected to assessment, extracting carbide by dissolving it in a suitable device, and measuring the weight of Cr
and Mo by high-frequency plasma emission-analyzing apparatus. Figure 3.2.3-8 shows an example of the master
curve of this method, which shows stress dependency.
(j) Ultrasonic method
Upon the incidence of ultrasonic waves into the component, rear scatter noise is generated. Because the noise
characteristics correspond to the number of generated voids and/or microscopic-cracks of the damaged component,
it is quantified to specify this as a parameter to assess creep damage (noise value). Taking the noise wave after the
175
incidence of ultrasonic waves from the component surface to the 1
st
bottom echo, and by carrying out power
spectrum analysis, the area within a certain frequency range is calculated to define it as the noise value. The
assessment flow in the ultrasonic method is shown in Fig. 3.2.3-9.
ı: Application of reaction
M
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C
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w
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t

r
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t
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Creep life ratio t/tr
(Carbide structure-measuring method)
HAZ-reproduced component with SR
steel
Fig. 3.2.3-8 Carbide structure-measuring method
(b) Material damaged by creep
Data measurement of
component for assessment
Pulse receiver
Oscilloscope PC
Search
unit
Component for
assessment
Frequency
analyzer
Noise
analysis
1
st
bottom echo
(a) New material (unused)
A
m
p
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(
d
B
)

A
m
p
l
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t
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d
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(
d
B
)

Noise value
Frequency (MHz)
Frequency (MHz)
No fine cracks are detected.
Fine cracks are
detected.
Life assessment
x Comparison of noise between
component for assessment
and unused material
Certified curve
Life ratio
N
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v
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i
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Noise value
Fig. 3.2.3-9 Life assessment flow in ultrasonic method
(k) Other methods to assess creep remaining life
In the remarks column of Attachment 3 as explained above, it is stated that the “Application of any other
method than the above is permitted on the condition that it is recognized (by a committee with participation of
people of experience or academic standing) to have accuracy equivalent to the above methods. Various methods
other than the above have been developed. The names of such methods are mentioned below.
a) Structure-quantifying method
The following 2 means are included:
x MޓC deposition ratio
x Spheroidizing ratio of carbide
b) CMA (Computer-aided X-ray Microscopic-analyzer)
Density spectrum method
ԙFatigue damage
(a) Microscopic-crack method (Replica method, MT copying method, etc.)
The methods for life assessment against creep damage as explained above are the methods of assessing the life
against fatigue damage to the carbon steel, base metal, or HAZ portion.
If these components receive fatigue damage, microscopic-cracking of a level that can be observed by replicas
only at the initial stage of fatigue life occurs, grows, and finally grows to a crack that can be detected by a
non-destructive test such as PT, MT, etc. Therefore, the life can be assessed by detecting such microscopic-cracks
by a replica. Figure 3.2.3-10 shows life assessment curves.
176
Magnetic powder
copying film
Low-alloy steel welding stop end
Magnetic powder
Oxidation scale
Magnetic
field
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

l
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o
f

c
r
a
c
k

m
e
a
s
u
r
e
d

b
y

M
T

c
o
p
y
i
n
g

m
e
t
h
o
d

(
m
m
)

M
a
x
i
m
u
m

l
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n
g
t
h

o
f

c
r
a
c
k

m
e
a
s
u
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e
d

b
y

M
T

c
o
p
y
i
n
g

m
e
t
h
o
d

(
m
m
)

Life consumption ratio by the generation of
macro-cracks (%)
Life consumption ratio by the generation of
macro-cracks (%)
Carbon steel welding stop end
Average value curve
Average value curve
99% reliability curve
99% reliability curve
Crack detection
boundary
C
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d
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b
o
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n
d
a
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y

Fig. 3.2.3-10 Microscopic-crack method (MT copying method)
3.2.4 Development and automation of inspection technology
With respect to the regular inspection of boiler equipment, the use of high efficiency, high-precision assessment
devices has been required under such circumstances where the inspection process needs to be simplified,
inspectors are getting old, 3K jobs (dirty, dangerous, and tough jobs) need to be eliminated, and damage needs to
be quantitatively assessed corresponding to a requirement to rationalize aged boiler maintenance in line with the
liberalization of electric power. In Table 3.2.4-1, various types of inspection methods and related automation are
shown.
(1) Type IV cracks of high-temperature thick wall pipe of large diameter
Cracks occurring to the boiler pipe header and to the welded portion of the thick wall main piping of large
diameter are classified according to the locations of occurrence and are shown in Fig. 3.2.4-1. The cracks
frequently experienced as creep damage are Type III and Type IV damage and are respectively characterized as
damage to the rough-grain areas and fine-grain areas of the HAZ portion.
177
Table 3.2.4-1 Various types of inspection methods and related automation
Subject Damage to material
Method of inspection and
detection
Automation
(1) Thermal fatigue of
piping external metals
PT, MT
UT from outside furnace
Furnace waterwall
piping
(2) Inner piping corrosion
fatigue
High-frequency array UT
Spiral UT
Automatic inspection
device using a
multi-sensor within the
furnace
(1) Creep Replica method, hardness
method
Void recognition device by
image processing
(2) Fatigue PT, MT
Replica method
(microscopic method)
(3) High-temperature
corrosion, wear, and
thickness decrease
Inner piping UT Automatic-measuring
robot
(3) Steam oxidation scale High-precision UT
method
Coil of
super-heater,
re-heater, and
economizer
(4) Wear of horizontal
heat-transferring
piping
High-velocity laser
method
Inner piping UT
UT thickness gage for
narrow portion
Automatic inspection unit
Pipe header and
main piping
(1) Type IV crack, inner
crack
TOFD method
Electronic focus sector
scanning
Ultrasonic noise method
Image-processing device
Type I: Crack in welded metal
Type II: Crack classified as Type I, which has expanded from
the welded portion to the portion affected by heat
(HAZ)
Type III: Damage to the rough-grain area of the portion
affected by heat (HAZ)
Type IV: Damage from the fine-grain area of the portion
affected by heat (HAZ) to the range of the partially
transformed area
Welding material
Base material Base material

Transmitter Surface
wave
Diffracted
wave
Receiver
Crack
Direct reflection wave (same as conventional one)
Diffracted
wave
Wave reflected
on the bottom
Wave diffracted on
the crack bottom
Wave diffracted on
the crack top
Fig. 3.2.4-1
Classification of damage to a welded portion
Fig. 3.2.4-2 Principles of TOFD method
Type III damage (damage in a rough-grain area) appears on the external surface of a pipe, whereas Type IV
damage (damage in a fine-grain area) occurs within a thick wall pipe and expands toward the surface. Impure
substances contained in the steel play an important role in Type IV cracks.
(2) Inspection method for Type IV cracks
Typical inspection methods for Type IV cracks occurring within a pipe having a thick wall are explained below.
The inspection method is used alone or jointly with other methods.
ԘTOFD method
As an inspection technology able to assess Type IV cracks occurring from the inside of a thick wall precisely
and quantitatively, the TOFD (Time of Flight Diffraction) method has been developed and put to practical use,
which is an ultrasonic wave flaw detection method using 2 search units for transmission and receipt. A comparison
with the conventional angle beam method is shown in Fig. 3.2.4-2.
The conventional method was in principle designed so as to catch reflecting echoes from a defect. Therefore,
there were some cases where inspection was not possible depending on the direction of the crack. It was also
178
difficult to capture the defect size in a quantitative manner.
On the other hand, the TOFD method catches the wave diffracted from the tip end of a crack. Therefore, it is
not affected by the direction of the defect. In addition, it can assess the length (depth) of a crack based on the
transmission time of the diffracted wave. As a result, inspection in a precise and quantitative fashion has become
possible.
ԙElectronic focus sector scan ultrasonic testing
The principles of measurement by ELFOSS UT are shown in Fig. 3.2.4-3. This device can perform wide-angle
scanning by focusing an ultrasonic wave beam through the delay circuit to improve resolution and defect
inspection accuracy. Two search units are used for the TOFD method, whereas this device has such a characteristic
that inspection of the narrow portion is made possible because wide-angle flaw detection is performed by only 1
search unit.
Trigger pulse
for activation
Angle of
deflection
Delay circuit
Vibrator
Focus
Electronic focusing by
delay circuit
Sector scan by delay
circuit
Electronic focus sector
scan
If the activation timing of
the vibrator is
changed with the
same interval in the
right and left
directions, an
ultrasonic wave
beam focuses. In
addition, the focal
depth can be freely
set by the duration of
the timing.
If the activation timing of
the vibrator is changed at
the same interval, the
ultrasonic wave beam is
deflected. In addition, the
deflection angle can be
freely set by the duration
of the timing.
If the timing and duration
of the activation of the
vibrator is changed from
time to time, the direction
can be changed
continuously by focusing
an ultrasonic wave beam.
Fig. 3.2.4-3 Principles of ELFOSS UT

ԚUltrasonic noise method
As explained in the section on the method of assessing remaining life pertaining to creep damage, such features
as noise intensity rises in the case of a material with voids or microscopic-cracks being utilized in the ultrasonic
noise method. Early assessment has become possible for Type IV damage occurring within the welded joints of
high-temperature thick wall pipes of large diameter. In addition, by scanning the search unit in the right-angle
direction against the weld line and by installing a time gate in the direction of plate thickness, map images of the
damaged portion can be obtained through divided measurements as shown in Fig. 3.2.4-4.
179
Plate thickness
direction (mm)

Scan a search unit and apply gate by
splitting the corresponding time width.
Clarification of the points of damage
for image processing
Scanning
Portion affected by
weld heat
Deposited metal
portion
Base material
Base material
Base material
Direction to move search unit (mm)
Example of flaw detection result
The noise value is displayed on a color map.
Deposited metal
portion
Portion affected
by weld heat
Portion affected
by weld heat
T
i
m
e

s
p
l
i
t

g
a
t
e

Fig. 3.2.4.-4 Image processing of flaw detection results through the ultrasonic noise method
3.2.5 Chemical cleaning
(1) Purpose and timing of chemical cleaning
ԘPurpose of chemical cleaning
The purpose of carrying out chemical cleaning of boiler equipment is to remove any and all foreign materials
and scale adhering to inner face of the evaporation piping during construction or operation of the boiler, thereby
preventing any problems from occurring to the boiler, to recover its efficiency and maintain it under good
conditions.
The purpose of chemical cleaning performed during the construction of boiler equipment is to remove any and
all mill scale adhered during the manufacture of the boiler piping and fat and oil adhered during installation, to
remove any foreign materials entered such as sand, etc., and to prevent any problems from occurring during
operation thereafter.
Although impure substances brought into the boiler equipment when installing a condensate demineralizer or
improving water treatment are reduced, these substances still remain as scale adhering to the inner piping due to
the following causes:
(a) Intrusion of corrosive substances through the water supply system and their adherence to the water supply
system
(b) Condensation and deposition of dissolved salts
(c) Corrosion of the materials of the boiler piping
Such impure substances cause overheating of the piping materials, generation of scaling, formation of local
cells, or corrosion due to condensed salts and lead to future swelling out or explosion of the piping.
As shown in Table 3.2.5-1, the thermal conductivity of scale largely varies depending on its chemical
ingredients. Because the size of scale is smaller than that of piping materials, adhered scale blocks thermal
conduction causing overheating or heat loss of piping materials.
Table 3.2.5-1 Thermal conductivity of metal and scale
Type Thermal conductivity (W/m࡮K)
Mild steel 45 ~ 70
Scale containing silicate as its major ingredient 0.2 ~ 0.5
Scale containing iron oxide as its major ingredient 0.9 ~ 2.3
Fat and oil 0.1
Water 0.6
The water vapor oxidized scale generated in the steam system peels off during operation and accumulates in the
U-shape pipe of the super-heater piping, resulting in its explosion. Its fragments may fly over to the turbine and
damage the blade.

180
ԙTiming of chemical cleaning
For the timing of chemical cleaning after the start of operation of boiler equipment, the boiler manufacturer
specifies the standards of cleaning depending on the amount and thickness of adhered scale. On the other hand,
the operators at electric power companies also specify their own respective standards. The standards commonly
used for cleaning are shown in Table 3.2.5-2. The value mentioned there is only a general guideline. Therefore, it
is desirable if an independent cleaning timing is established. In addition, this value should be determined based on
the portion where the maximum amount of scale adheres to individual boiler equipment. Full care should be paid
to any change in the portion where the maximum amount of scale adhered due to a change in the boiler operation
method or fuel change.
Table 3.2.5-2 Amount and thickness of adhered scale for which chemical cleaning is required
Normal pressure
Type
8Mpa class 12Mpa class 18Mpa class
Beyond boundary
pressure
 90 ~ 135 75 ~ 105
Coal-fired boiler
 400 ~ 450 250 ~ 350

90 ~ 120 75 ~ 105 60 ~ 90
Coal/oil
mixture-fired
boiler
300 ~ 400 250 ~ 350 200 ~ 300

75 ~ 105 60 ~ 90 45 ~ 75 24 ~ 36
Oil-fired boiler
250 ~ 350 200 ~ 300 150 ~ 250 80 ~ 120
Gas-fired boiler Same as above Same as above Same as above Same as above
Note 1) The upper row in each column indicates the amount of adhered scale (mg/cm²), the and lower row indicates the scale
thickness (Pm).
Note 2) The amount of adhered scale is the value at the flame side (180q of the inner evaporation piping.
Note 3) The amount of a once-through boiler of 18 Mpa class or smaller shall be 2/3 of the value shown in above table.
Note 4) Even if the actual values are less than above, it is recommended to carry out chemical cleaning when the boiler has been
operated for 50,000 hours or longer.
(2) Nature of scale
The scale adhered to new boiler equipment is mostly mill scale (magnetite: FeޓOޓ) generated during the course
of pipe manufacturing. On the other hand, the nature of scale largely varies depending on the quality of the supply
water or refill water, treatment of the supply water or boiler water or materials of low-/the high-pressure supply
water heat transmission piping of a heater between the steam condenser and the boiler. Even with the same boiler,
the amount and ingredients of scale vary depending on the sampling position or whether it is the flame
side/furnace material side. Table 3.2.-3 shows examples of analyzed scale ingredients in the evaporation piping
and steam system. Its characteristics are outlined below:
(a) With respect to boilers A, B, and C using a heater of copper alloy steel in the water supply system, the scale
contains copper.
(b) With respect to boilers B and C, such refractory scale as white ZnAlޓOޓ(zinc aluminate) or NiFeޓOޓ(nickel
ferrite) called spinel scale may be generated if zinc (Zn), Aluminum (Al), and/or nickel (Ni) is contained.
(c) The scale of boilers D, E, and F using a heater for the steel piping in the water supply system is mostly iron
oxide (FeޓOޓ).
(d) Boilers D, E, and F are of same high-pressure, once-through type, but the boiler water treatment for boilers D
and E is AVT (all volatile treatment) to remove FeޓOޓ(magnetite). As shown in Photo 3.2.5-1, the scale has
a corrugated surface.
181
Table 3.2.5-3 Examples of chemically analyzed scale ingredients
Average
adhering
amount
Chemical content
Boiler Pipe specimen
(mg/cm
2
)
F
e
3
S
O
4
C
u
Z
n
O
A
l
2
O
3
N
i
O
M
g
O
C
a
O
P
2
O
5
C
r
2
O
3
M
o
O
M
n
O
R
e
f
r
a
c
t
o
r
y
b
y

a
c
i
d

A Right-side wall pipe 65.3 58.3 1.9 1.1 <0.1 <0.1 10.3 13.3 10.6 - - - 2.1
B Front wall pipe 25.4 33.0 34.5 15.1 0.7 14.5 <0.1 <0.1 0.3 - - - 0.2
C Front wall pipe 20.4 73.0 2.8 10.0 0.9 <0.1 0.8 1.7 4.9 - - - 1.9
D Front wall pipe 24.1 97.5 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.1 - 1.8 - 0.7 <0.1
E Front wall pipe 23.4 97.9 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 - - - - - - 0.7
F Front wall pipe 9.6 97.9 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.2 - - - 0.5 <0.1
G Secondary
super-heater
38.4
65.9 <0.1 <0.1 - 11.3 - - <0.1 17.8 1.5 1.7 0.3
H Re-heater 125.0 95.4 <0.1 <0.02 <0.1 <0.2 - <0.4 - 1.8 0.9 0.4 1.3
I Main steam pipe 125.3 88.1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 3.3 0.8 <0.5 -
Note 1) A: Boiler for own power generation (VU-60) 6.8 MPa 60 t/h
B: Forced circulation boiler (Mitsubishi) 19.2 MPa 860 t/h
C: Natural circulation boiler (Hitachi) 17.2 MPa 1,135 t/h
D: Once-through boiler 26.3 MPa 1,640 t/h
E: Pressure-variable once-through boiler (AVT) 25.0 MPa 2,300 t/h
F: Pressure-variable once-through boiler (CWT) 25.0 MPa 2,300 t/h
G: Once-through boiler (super-heater piping: SUS316HTB) 26.9 MPa 1,500 t/h
H: Pressure-variable once-through boiler (re-heater piping:STBA24) 25.0 MPa 2,300 t/h
I: Once-through boiler (main steam piping:STBA24) 25.0 MPa 1,900 t/h
Note 2) A –F: Adhered amount on flame side
G – I: Adhered amount around entire circumference
Inner
layer
Outer
layer
Base
material
Photo 3.2.5-1: Corrugated scale of AVT treatment
boiler
Photo 3.2.5-2: Steam-oxidized scale
(x 100 magnification)
With respect to boiler E, fine-grain FeޓOޓfrom CWT (combined water treatment) adheres to the magnetite, and
the scale has smooth surface.
(e) Boilers G, H, and I generate vapor-type scale. Cr-Mo steel (low-alloy steel) has been used for these
boilers. Two-layer scale, called steam-oxidized scale; one in the neighborhood of piping materials with a
high content of chromium and the other at steam side with a high content of iron oxide are generated as
shown in Photo 3.2.5-2.
182
Table 3.2.5-4 Operation of a boiler and required cleaning process
F
l
u
s
h
i
n
g
C
l
e
a
n
i
n
g

w
i
t
h
a
m
m
o
n
i
a
C
l
e
a
n
i
n
g

b
y

d
e
g
r
e
a
s
i
n
g
W
a
s
h
i
n
g

w
i
t
h

w
a
t
e
r
C
l
e
a
n
i
n
g

w
i
t
h
a
c
i
d
W
a
s
h
i
n
g

w
i
t
h

w
a
t
e
r
P
r
e
v
e
n
t
i
o
n

o
f

r
u
s
t

b
y

n
e
u
t
r
a
l
i
z
a
t
i
o
n
F
i
n
a
l

w
a
s
h
i
n
g
w
i
t
h

w
a
t
e
r
During construction {  U U { { { U
Copper content: high { {  { { { { U
Copper content: low {    { { { U
After
operation
Copper content: none {    { { { U
Remarks {: Implement. U Implement if necessary.
(3) Cleaning method
ԘCleaning process
The cleaning method varies depending on the operation of the boiler equipment or the ingredients of the scale.
Typical cleaning processes are shown in Table 3.2.5-4.
(a) Boiler during construction
The main purpose of cleaning is to remove mill scale, oil and fat, and/or foreign materials. In these years, the
degreasing process is mostly omitted by adding degreasing agent during acid cleaning.
(b) Boiler after operation
i) Starting from acid cleaning of the scale mainly containing ferrous, hardening ingredients and/or a small
amount of copper, copper-dissolving/-enclosing agent is added during acid cleaning if copper is
contained.
ii) Before acid cleaning, ammonia cleaning is performed as pretreatment in order to dissolve the copper
content.
In lieu of the above i) and ii) cleaning, chelating cleaning is sometimes carried out. Its cleaning process is:
Ferrous removal Æ cooling Æ copper removal/rust prevention Æ washing with water
(4) Planning and implementation of cleaning
Planning of cleaning includes understanding the overall structure of the subject boiler, studying the cleaning
specifications through investigation of scale, selection of a method of treating wastewater, and planning the
implementation method. The planning procedures are shown in Fig. 3.2.5-1.
183
Investigation of the subject of cleaning
z Specifications and materials of the unit
z State of evaporation amount, pressure,
operation hours, etc.
z State of water treatment control such as
quality of supply water, quality of boiler
water, chemicals used, etc.
z Practical experiences in cleaning
z Type of fuel
z Scale ingredients
z Amount of adhered scale
z Scale generation rate
z Deterioration level of the material
z Scale dissolution test
z Material deterioration test
z Investigation of customer’s
environmental conditions such as
wastewater standards, etc.
z Availability of wastewater treatment
equipment at customer side
z Experimental wastewater treatment
Study of wastewater treatment system
Dissolution test
Planning of cleaning specifications and
requirements
z Planning of cleaning process
z Planning of treatment of wastewater and
exhaust gas
z Approval of power source, water supply
source, heat source, etc.
z Preparation of cleaning flow and work
procedures
z Checking of the safety and sanitary level
related to construction and training
z Visual inspection
z Amount of corrosion to be checked
by a test piece
z Amount of scale removed by
cleaning
z Report of cleaning implemented
z Advice regarding maintenance and
water treatment method
z Checking of operation after cleaning
Implementation
Inspection
Summary
Investigation of scale
Fig. 3.2.5-1 Flow of chemical cleaning planning for boilers
Ԙ Guideline for implementation
Items to be considered when planning a guideline for implementation are given below:
(a) Outline of the unit subjected to cleaning
(b) Scope of cleaning and amount of cleanser
(c) Handling of components not subjected to cleaning
(d) Relationship between actual construction and temporary construction, size, quantity
(e) Types of cleaning chemicals, density and cleaning conditions
(f) Cleaning process and criteria for determining the completion of cleaning
(g) Method of checking and inspecting the effect of cleaning
(h) Method of receiving waste cleaning fluid and procedures to treat it
(i) Utilities (pure water, steam, power, air, etc.)
(j) Flow of each process, temporary storing place, and piping route
(k) Outline and detailed process
An example of the cleaning system for typical-type boiler equipment is shown in Fig. 3.2.5-2.
184
Actual construction line
Temporary construction
Pressure gage
Flow meter
Sampling
Thermometer
Mixing header
Mixing heater
N
2
gas
W
a
t
e
r
s
u
p
p
l
y

l
i
n
e

Steam drum
S
i
d
e

w
a
l
l
S
i
d
e

w
a
l
l
F
r
o
n
t
/
r
e
a
r
w
a
l
l
s
Inspection nipple
Temporary
level gage
Circulation pump
Blower
Draw
pump
Hydrazine pump
Ejector
Tank
Chemicals
injection pump
Pure water
Steam
Fig. 3.2.5-2 Flow of cleaning system of the natural circulation-type boiler
Main steam piping
Pure water
Cage
Steam
separator
Evaporator
Ceiling wall
Cold
water
Economizer
To blow line
Actual construction line
Temporary construction line
Level gage
Pressure gage
Flow meter
Thermometer
Sampling
S
t
e
a
m
s
e
p
a
r
a
t
io
n
t
a
n
k
SH Water-filling pump
Main closing
valve of turbine
N2H4 tank
N2H4 pump
Water-sealing pump for the components not subjected to cleaning
Test piece seat
Mixing heater
Circulation pump
High-pressure supply
water super-heater
Main supply water piping
Blow line
Steam
Ejector
Chemicals
tank
Chemicals
injection pump
From tank-lorry
Fig. 3.2.5-3 Flow of cleaning a once-through boiler
185
3.2.6 Circulation Pump
(1) Preventive maintenance of circulation pump
Circulation pumps for boilers have been employed for boiler equipment having a capacity of 150 MW or more
since around 1955. The circulation pump is divided into the injection type and the glandless type (canned motor
type, submerged motor type). Currently, about 400 units of these 2 types of pumps are operated for domestic
thermal power generation. Many non-conformance events occurred at the initial stage of introduction. As a result
of structural improvement and completion of the details for inspection items thereafter, such non-conformance
events have been drastically reduced and the reliability has been largely improved. However, 30 years have
already passed since the installation of some circulation pumps as shown in Fig. 3.2.6-1. Some of them are being
replaced gradually, but more than half of them have been used for 15 years or longer. The preventive maintenance
of such units has become a critical issue. (The descriptions from the next section are examples of circulation
pumps made by Fuji Electric.)
25 ~ 29
years
N
u
m
b
e
r
o
f

d
e
l
i
v
e
r
e
d

u
n
i
t
s

(
u
n
i
t
)
Total number
of units
30 years or
longer
20 ~ 24
years
15 ~ 19
years
10 ~ 14
years
5 ~ 9
years
0 ~ 4
years
Fig. 3.2.6-1 Years of operation after delivery
Pump case
(Renewal cycle: 35 – 40 years)
Generation of
cracks
Impeller (Renewal cycle: 25 – 30 years)
Generation of
cracks
Abnormal vibration
Heat exchanger
(Renewal cycle: 35 – 40 years)
Accumulation of
scale
Fatigue/corrosion
of welded portion
Cavity temperature
rise
Water leakage
Rotor (Renewal cycle: 25 – 30 years)
Popping out of
rotor bar
Corrosion/wear of
steel core
Deflection of
ammeter
Abnormal sound o
Abnormal vibration
Renewal cycle of thrust bearing
Thrust plate: 8 – 12 years
Pad: 16 – 20 years
Abnormal wear
Lift/peeling off of
bearing material
Abnormal
sound/abnormal
vibration
Renewal cycle of journal bearing
Sleeve plate: 8 – 12 years
Pad: 16 – 20 years
Abnormal wear
Lift/peeling off of
bearing material
Abnormal
sound/abnormal
vibration
Motor case
(Renewal cycle: 35 – 40 years)
Expansion of in-low
clearance
Deformation of gasket
Uneven tightening
Warming shortage
Overlapping of thermal
insulation materials
Abnormal sound o
Abnormal vibration
Steam leakage, water
leakage
Cavity abnormal
temperature rise
Stator (Renewal cycle: 25 – 30 years)
Wear of press ring
Loosening,
dislocation,
corrosion, or wear
of steel core
Abnormal sound o
Abnormal vibration
Shortened life of
coil
Renewal cycle of coil winding
PVC: 8 years
XLPE: 12 – 16 years
Wear of coil wire
x Slipping down of coil
x Loosened cleat wire
x Deterioration of
insulation materials
Insulation drop o
Ground
fault/unstable life
Fig. 3.2.6-2 Deterioration of main parts and renewal cycle
186
ԘNon-conformance events
As explained above, non-conformance events have been reduced to date, and the reliability of the circulation
pump of boiler has been largely improved. However, there still remain many plants for which no structural
improvement has been implemented so far. It is required therefore to recheck the non-conformance events in the
past and reflect their results in the completion of details of inspection items and on the plan for repair.
Non-conformance events of major parts are outlined in Fig. 3.2.6-2, which shows the deterioration phenomena
and renewal cycle of major parts (renewal cycle with addition of the effect of the bearing force improvement plan
to the past experiences).
ԙGuideline for implementation of preventive maintenance and inspection
Inspection items are divided into “general inspection items” and “special inspection items.” General inspection
mainly involves visual inspection, whereas non-destructive testing is the main item of special inspection, which
should be started from the 10
th
year after the start of operation to obtain remaining life assessment data.
Concretely, the target regular inspection cycle should be set at 4 years, and a long-term plan of “details for
checking/inspection items” and “details for repair items ”should be developed Items to be implemented should
be confirmed at the start of the respective regular inspection.
ԚConcept of measures for improvement of bearing force and examples of implementation
Measures for improvement of bearing force of the circulation pump of boiler equipment are promoted under the
2 concepts below, aiming to respond to any change in the operation method of power generation plants
(conversion to WSS/DSS), extension of the inspection cycle, and prolongation of operation life:
(a) Improvement of structure, materials, and work method
(b) Enrichment of inspection items (early detection of non-conformance and early countermeasures)
Typical examples of implementation are shown below:
i) Forged pump case
The conventional pump case was a cast product of the volute type. As a measure to improve the bearing
force of the pump case, a spherical-shape forged pump case has been employed for about 15 years.
Compared with the volute-type cast pump case, the spherical-shape forged pump case is simple in its
configuration and the reliability of its materials is high. It is suitable for a plant with frequent start/stop
operations in a high-temperature, high-pressure atmosphere (plants using DSS, etc.)
ii) The motor stator coil has been changed to cross-linked polyethylene wire.
Coils manufactured before 1980 were made of PVC wire, which involved the issue that the rewinding
cycle was short because hardening/fragility of the insulation coat was accelerated due to reduction of
the plasticizer.
iii) Employment of a single-basket-shaped stator of the closed slit type
The double-basket-shaped stator of the open slit type was used as a standard stator in the past. DSS
operation (repeated transient vibration torque and/or thermal stress at the start of operation) was not
considered in its structure. As a measure for DDS operation, a single rotor of the closed slit type has
been employed.
iv) Implementation of special precise inspection
Visual inspection is more than enough for the initial stage of plant operation (within 10 years). However,
after 10 years when the renewal cycle timing of parts approaches, special precise inspection mainly
composed of non-destructive testing is carried out in addition to visual inspection. Through early
detection of and early action against any non-conformance by determining the timing of renewal, the
life of parts can be prolonged.
187
3.2.7 Fan
(1) Measures to improve reliability and guideline for maintenance and inspection
The present time is called a maintenance age. The number of social systems and production systems subjected
to maintenance are accumulating at a continuously increasing speed. According to a certain trial calculation, the
ratio of costs for maintenance was 10% of social capital investment during the 1970s, whereas it increased to 30%
during the 1990s and to 50% by 2020. Under these circumstances, maintenance costs keep increasing; how to
cope with this in a quantitative manner, how to improve cost efficiency keeping improvement of reliability, and
how to select the type of acceptable maintenance have become serious issues.
Because the fans installed at power generation plants are kept in operation for a long period of time from the
start of operation until the time they are disposed of, the accumulated number of units has been increasing. It is
required to make clear what inspection items are to be applied to these fans and to implement them under a
controlled cycle and implement feedback and feedforward without any reserve. Because efficiency and
rationalization of maintenance costs is directly linked to the management, it is required to develop a general image
of maintenance, determine what is presently missing, and implement these items in a well-planned manner.
ԘAxial fan
As boiler capacity becomes larger, the rotating-type variable axial fan suitable for large-capacity boilers with
reduced power consumption under partial load has been widely used as a ventilating fan for power generation
equipment other than FDF, IDF, PAF, BUF, and high-temperature GRF. Control for improvement of reliability is
further required, because the structure of the rotating-type variable mechanism is complex and the number of parts
is larger than the same of the centrifugal fan.
As a result of measures taken for the improvement of reliability [1] with consideration paid to the problems
with axial FDF experienced over a period of 15 years since 1970, the employment of axial fans started, and the
problem occurrence ratio has been suppressed to its minimum. However, in view of the facts that the installation
of axial fans increased from 1985 onward when many thermal power generation plants were constructed, and that
its usage has expanded, it is desirable to carry out precise inspection of fans used for many years in order to
further secure their reliability.
ԙCentrifugal fan
Although the reliability of centrifugal fan has been improved, many fans have already been in use for 20 years
or longer. It is required to plan and implement measures to improve their reliability further taking into account any
aged deterioration or any change in operation from what was expected at the start of operation.
Because the operation of thermal power generation plants corresponds to the peak power generation capacity,
the number of start/stop operations has increased, which, as a result, requires the improvement of the bearing force
of impellers, bearings, and couplings.
(a) Stress change occurs at the impeller caused by the change in RPM due to start/stop of operations.
Especially with GRF, low-cycle fatigue occurs due to repeated thermal expansion caused by temperature
fluctuation. If you start the operation of GRF at room temperature, the temperature of the intake gas
rapidly changes and the vibration becomes several times larger for some time than the vibration
experienced under stable, steady operation. This is an effect of the difference in thermal expansion
caused by the temperature difference among the components of the impeller. When the temperature of
the impeller becomes stable after continuing operation in a stable gas temperature atmosphere, the
amplification of vibration gradually lowers and the operation becomes stable. In particular, when a
riveted joint is used, this phenomenon frequently appears. Therefore, if a riveted structure has been used
for the impeller, it is recommended to change it to a welded structure and remodel the connection of the
impeller to the shaft/hub to a reaming bolt connection structure from the rivet-fixed type. Because the
effect of thermal distortion concentrates on the riveted structure, non-destructive testing needs to be
carried out for the components concerned when the fan is not in use or regular inspection is carried out.
In the case of the structure of the axis–boss shrink fit, any vibration that may be caused by the decrease
in the shrink-fit margin or loosening due to the transitional difference in temperature distribution is of
concern. It may be required to increase the shrink-fit margin or change to an integrated rotor of the
axis–boss.
If the level of adherence of the mating portion of the axis–boss shrink-fit structure changes as the time
passes, that the vibration may become stronger or the torque transmission ability may drop are concerns.
Ultrasonic waves can be used to test the level of such adherence. Figure 3.2.7-1 shows the inspection
principles when a clearance is available for testing.
(b) Any fatigue damage that occurs to the face of the tooth at the gear coupling due to start/stop operations
is also a concern. Complete inspection is required. It is recommended to change to a tooth face with
improved bearing force or to a flexible coupling having no contact with the face of the tooth.
188
(c) Stress occurring at the impeller is strong. When carrying out non-destructive testing at regular
inspection, such a case is found where the portions and number of occurrences of damage increase as
time passes. In case there is concern that complete reliability may not be secured through regular
inspection or repair only, it is required to change to an impeller of a type whose generated stress has
been reduced by increasing its wall thickness or improving its welding quality.
ԚPrecise inspection of large-sized fan
Large-sized fans are disassembled and maintained at each regular inspection. Items subjected to precise
inspection of the respective parts of the centrifugal fan that can be implemented for such aged deterioration
phenomena as corrosion, wear, cracking, etc. are shown in Table 1. Because problems with large-sized fans can
lead to operation stop of the unit or to load limit, it is recommended to carry out full assessment at respective
regular inspection, etc.
The fan is equipped with attachment devices other than the main unit such as the lubricating device, silencer,
measuring apparatus, etc. It is required to secure the reliability of these devices as well as securing the reliability
of the main unit. For inspection of the main unit, disassembling, which requires many processes, is necessary.
Because fewer processes are required for disassembling inspection of attachment devices, it is recommended to
carry out regular maintenance once a year.
Assess the output of the echo from
the hub bottom (Bn) and from the
shaft bottom (W).
Impeller
Impeller hub
Shaft
Mating portion
Hub
Sensor
Shaft
T
r
a
n
s
m
i
t
t
e
d
w
a
v
e
Fig. 3.2.7-1 Assessment of the degree of adherence of hub/shaft
(2) Cause of life consumption
As the causes of consumption of life of the fan, corrosion, wear, fatigue, etc. can be mentioned.
Because power generation plants are located near the sea, corrosion caused by salt needs to be taken into
consideration. For the intake of atmospheric air by FDF and PAF, it is required to assess the strength of the
silencer against corrosion. Caution is required to be paid to the pit generation of aluminum alloy used for the
rotating blade of the axial fan caused by salt corrosion and clogging created between slide clearances. With
respect to IDF and BUF, because drain with strong corrosive features is generated when the moisture contained in
the gas condenses while the gas temperature drops when the fan is not in use, it is required to make assessment in
this respect.
With respect to wear, there is a record of a survey conducted in USA. As a result of a large-scale survey to
clarify the cause of problems conducted by EPRI ̀ś ̀t́ in order to improve the reliability of coal-fired thermal
power generation plants, it was found that IDF was one of the most serious causes for drops in operation
efficiency.
The main cause of problems with IDF was wear caused by the fly ash contained in the exhaust gas. Researches
of the following items are presently under way in order to improve the wear resistance of IDF:
(a) Characteristics and level of wear of the fan at power generation plants and related costs required for
countermeasures against it
(b) Improvement of computer models to estimate the wear damage to the fan
(c) Assessment of the effect of relative wear by various types of fly ash
189
(d) Assessment of the cost for the armor system of the blade-shaped centrifugal fan that can be replaced on
site
The researches are mainly focused on the centrifugal blade-type fan, which cannot in most cases be applied
directly to the axial fan, which is the mainstream in Japan.
Axial-type IDF, many of which have been introduced in Japan from around 1985, have already been used for
10 years or longer. It is considered that such study will become necessary as the same EPRI conducted for wear.
Fatigue is divided into low-cycle fatigue caused by start/stop operations and high-cycle fatigue occurring during
normal operation. It is required to fully assess the rotating blade of the axial fan because damage to it is highly
expected. A study is required to be conducted for low-cycle fatigue if the frequency of start/stop operations has
increased in the course of the change in the operation method to more than when the unit was initially installed.
3.2.8 Corrosion of boiler equipment occurring in its water zone and countermeasures against it
Introduction
The purposes of controlling thermal power generation plants by establishing a reference value for each item of
water supply, boiler water, and steam is to prevent any problems from occurring to the equipment composing the
thermal power generation plant caused by corrosion and/or scale due to the quality of water used and to continue
the operation of the plant in a safe and smooth manner. As the pressure and temperature of the main steam rise
higher, the thermal efficiency of the plant becomes higher. However, the plant is likely to be affected by corrosion
or scale, and the level of such effect becomes higher. Therefore, water quality control is an important task that
affects the thermal efficiency and operation efficiency of the unit.
While the water treatment engineering of boiler equipment has remarkably advanced in these years, accidents
often occur from thermal power generation plants caused by the water used by aged equipment or DDS
operation. Those staff responsible for water quality and the staff in charge of operation and maintenance of the
plant are required to understand the importance of water quality control and endeavor to improve it.
Problems arising from water are roughly divided into issues of corrosion, fragility, (cracking) and scale. As
shown in Fig. 3.2.8, most of the problems relating to water occur when multiple causes are combined. Upon
occurrence of any problem, its cause must be analyzed and assessed in detail to establish adequate
countermeasures.
An outline of various types of problem and their causes, handling, and preventive measures is given below.
Drop in efficiency
Opening by
swelling-out
breakage
{ Attack by ammonia
{ Erosion of turbine
{ Clogging
{ Rise in differential
pressure
{ Thermal conduction
was blocked
{ Alkali corrosion
{ Fragile crack caused by
hydrogen
{ Crack caused by stress
{ Oxidization of steam
{ Insufficient flow rate
{ Adherence of scale
{ Corrosion of entire unit
{ Corrosion of partial unit
{ Carry over
{ Leakage of seawater
Defective design and construction
{ Inadequate materials
{ Defective design of orifice
{ Clogging with foreign
materials
{ Uneven thermal load
Defective operation maintenance
{ Defective storage
{ Defective water treatment
{ Defective control of
combustion
Fig. 3.2.8 Problems and related causes
(1) Problemcaused by adhered scale and countermeasures against it
ԘProblem caused by overheating
In the period in which raw water was used for refilling, hard contents contained in the raw water were deposited
on the evaporation unit as white scale of calcium carbonate, which caused overheating problems of the
evaporation piping due to its thermal resistance. Currently, due to advanced technology in the manufacture of pure
water, dissolved contents from the materials in the condensed water supply system change to scale and adhere to
the evaporation unit.
The main ingredients of the scale are magnetite (Fe͆O͇), copper, etc. By carrying out chemical cleaning of the
190
boiler equipment at an adequate timing, it is very seldom that the evaporation piping is damaged by overheating
due to the thermal resistance of the scale itself.
Cross section of scale
Appearance of the portion
of leakage
Photo 3.2.8-1 Example 1 of problem caused by overheating due to adherence of scale
The causes of problems by overheating due to scale adhering to the evaporation piping occurring in these years
are considered to be as follows:
(a) Due to improper water control, very soft magnetite scale is generated and grows to form a steam layer in
the clearances among the scale layers.
(b) A steam layer is formed in the portion in which the scale has been peeled off from the steel face and
lifted due to the temperature fluctuation caused by start/stop operations of the boiler equipment under a
condition where a relatively large amount of scale has adhered.
(c) If the amount of Cu, ZnO, CaO, etc. has become very large within a given scale layer when the
composition of scale largely fluctuates due to the change in quality of the supply water, the scale is
peeled off from that portion, film boiling occurs there, and a steam layer is formed as a result.
(d) When any scale remains in the chemical cleaning process of boiler equipment and any clearance is
created between the piping materials and the scale, that portion becomes a hot spot and a steam layer is
formed there. Almost all of these problems occur after the operation of the plant has started.
Photo 3.2.8-1 shows an example in which the scale has swelled out and broken open in an oval shape within the
furnace of the evaporation piping (STB42) located on the upper side of the burner. This is a case where heat
conduction is blocked when soft-type scale (200 – 250 Ǵm) has adhered to the inner face of the piping, peeled off
within the layers, and lifted and opened due to the excessive rise in the metal temperature of the piping. In the area
surrounding the opening, many cracks are generated in the pipe shaft direction. As countermeasures against this,
the generation of soft-type scale is suppressed by the removal of scale through chemical cleaning, reduction of
melted oxygen in the condensed water and in the drain system of the low-pressure supply water heater,
deoxidization at the time of starting operation, etc.
Cross section of scale
Appearance of the portion
of leakage
[Metal]
(Scale thickness 0.33 – 0.49 mm)
Photo 3.2.8-2 Example 2 of problem caused by overheating due to adherence of scale
Photo 3.2.8-2 is an example of a case the scale was overheated, swelled out, and opened within a very short
period of time (creep breakage in a short time); as a result, the unit was operated under such a condition that the
amount of scale adhered to the inner piping exceeded the amount for which chemical cleaning was required
(thickness 450 Ǵm, amount of adherence 85 mg/cms), the scale layers adhered to the inner piping were peeled
191
off and lifted, and heat conduction was blocked by the steam layers generated between the scale layers. As
countermeasures against this, it is required to capture the level of scale growth by regular pipe sampling
inspection and determine the adequate timing of chemical cleaning.
ԙCorrugated scale
At a plant where volatile matter treatment is undertaken as a method of treating supply water, there are many
experiences where the scale adhered to the inner evaporation piping of a furnace shows a corrugated pattern.
Especially with respect to the supercritical sliding-pressure once-through boiler, the average rate of flow in the
piping becomes higher. Therefore, scale with this corrugated appearance increases the break-through resistance of
the furnace, which may cause problems in operation. The cause of the generation of such corrugated scale has not
yet been clarified. The scale is considered to be generated under such a condition that chemical factors and fluid
dynamics factors have been combined. Namely, dissolution and deposition of the component materials in a
high-temperature, high-pressure atmosphere as chemical factors and cyclic structural change of turbulent
boundary layers as fluid dynamic factors are considered combined, whereby such corrugated scale was generated.
Photo 3.2.8-3 shows an example of the corrugated scale generated within a supercritical sliding-pressure
once-through boiler. In this case, the amount of adhered scale is not so great that chemical cleaning is required,
but problems in operation have occurred because the break-through resistance became stronger due to the shape of
such scale. As countermeasures, the scale is removed by chemical cleaning in order to reduce the break-through
resistance. Thereafter, it was clarified that the generation of such corrugated scale could be suppressed by
changing the supply water treatment to oxygen treatment, according to certain European literature ̼̀́̀z{́and the
test results of oxygen treatment verification carried out in Japan ̀zś. This oxygen treatment method has the
advantage of a reduction in running costs, including the prevention of such corrugated scale from being generated.
Therefore, this oxygen treatment method is currently being rapidly introduced to once-through boilers in Japan.
Adhered scale (inside of furnace)
Direction
of flow
Photo 3.2.8-3 Adherence of corrugated scale
ԚScale adhering to the components
There is such a case where an increase in break-through resistance and fault movement is caused by the
considerable amount of magnetite scale partially adhering to such components as the orifice for flow rate
adjustment at the inlet of the evaporation piping of the forced circulation boiler, the spray water control valves of
the super-heater and re-heater, the drain control valve of the supply water heater, the flow meter for the supply
192
water (flow nozzle), and the high-pressure supply water system (strainer of the water supply pump, rectifying
cylinder of the high-pressure supply water heater, heater piping), etc. This scale adheres to portions where there is
no thermal load, which however is present in the evaporation piping. It is considered that the adherence of scale is
a phenomenon that occurs when chemical factors, fluid dynamic factors, and static electric factors (charged
grains) are combined.
I
r
o
n

c
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
µ
g
/
l
)
Temperature (qC)
Fig. 3.2.8-1 Solubility curve of magnetite
Because the main ingredient in the chemical factors is magnetite and scale is generated at portions with such
high temperatures as 180͠ or more, and as one can reason by analogy from the solubility curve ̀zś in Fig.
3.2.8-1, the portion where scale has adhered becomes oversaturated by the degree of solution of magnetite under
such temperatures and becomes an area where fine grains of magnetite are created. As fluid dynamic factors, the
scale has adhered to the portion whose boundary layers proximate to the metal surface are thinner than other
portions in the high rate of flow in the area in which the flow path has become narrower. This indicates that the
scale adheres to such portions with high probability of the created magnetite fine grains colliding with the metal
surface. As static electrical factors, when such oxide as magnetite is submerged into water, the surface of the oxide
is charged and comes to have electrical potential (zeta potential) by certain type of static electrical phenomenon.
The intensity level of this electrical potential is related to the characteristics of the grain surface. If the grain size
becomes smaller, the characteristics of the surface become stronger. Namely, the activity of the surface becomes
especially strong immediately after the fine grains of magnetite are created. Because scale is generated to such
portions where the various factors above are combined, the scale does not always adhere to the same portions of
similar plants.
Photo 3.2.8-4 shows an example of a unit that has become uncontrollable due to adhered and solidified
magnetite scale in the high-velocity portion of the stem throttle of control valve for the spray water of the
super-heater.
Photo 3.2.8-5 shows an example of scale containing copper as its main ingredient selectively adhered and
solidified at the orifice inlet of the water drum where the flow rate has been reduced. In this case, the copper
content dissolved from the supply water heater equipped with copper alloy piping due to a failure in the supply
water treatment was brought into the boiler and selectively adhered to the orifice.
193
Photo 3.2.8-4 Example of scale adhered to control valve
Scale
Orifice
Photo 3.2.8-5 Example of scale adhered to orifice
Such a failure in supply water treatment can be avoided by improving the treatment system. The adherence of
magnetite scale as mentioned above occurs even in such area where supply water treatment has been carried out
properly. Even by changing the conditions of the portion to which the scale has adhered (for example, change in
the pH, hydrazine density, etc.), only the adhering portion changes its location to some extent, and it does not lead
to any satisfactory solution. As a measure to resolve this issue of scale adherence, oxygen treatment, which has
been employed as a countermeasure against corrugated scale, is effective.
Photo 3.2.8-6 shows an example of improvement for the removal of magnetite scale adhered to the rectifying
cylinder of a high-pressure supply water heater at a power generation plant where oxygen treatment has been
adopted. Such problems as efficiency drop, vibration, etc. caused by magnetite scale adhered to the impeller of the
water supply pump have also been resolved by oxygen treatment.
194
Volatile matter treatment Oxygen treatment
Photo 3.2.8-6 Example of scale adhering to rectifying cylinder of high-pressure supply water heater
(1) Corrosion at the furnace water-wall tube of coal-fired boilers
ԘCorrosion
It has been known from long ago that strong corrosion occurs at the furnace wall of coal-fired boilers by flame
impingement (flames hit the waterwall piping directly in the neighborhood of the burner zone)́ź̷
In such a case, it is considered that the area exposed to flames is locally placed under low oxygen partial
pressure, because a lot of unburned carbon, FeSͅ, etc. are contained in the adhered ash. As shown in the chemical
formula below, FeSͅ contained in the adhered ash reacts with the Fe contained in the waterwall piping to yield
FeS. Because FeS contains more grid defects than such oxides as Fe͆O͇, the protective capability of the coat
becomes poorer, causing strong corrosion.
Recently, many cases are found such as the 2-step-type combustion process being employed for many boilers
for power generation as a measure to satisfy low NOx yield. In such a process, the area in the neighborhood of
burner zone becomes an atmosphere of low oxygen partial pressure containing HͅS. Figure 3.2.8-2 shows the
impact of air ratio on the balanced structure of gas when Datong (Chinese) coal containing 0.63% S is burned at
1300͠. When the air ratio is 0.8 or less, it is obvious that a lot of reduced contents such as Hͅ, CO, HͅS, etc. is
contained in the combustion gas. In particular, when such coal containing a lot of S content is used as fuel, the
HͅS density becomes higher, creating a severe corrosive environment. Corrosion of the furnace waterwall piping
caused by high-temperature sulfide becomes a critical issue. Coal combustion gas is composed of COͅ, CO, HͅO,
HͅS, COS, Nͅ, etc. As a result, the environment has become a family of so-called C-H-O-S. The critical factors of
corrosion are oxygen partial pressure and sulfur partial pressure in the atmosphere. In an atmosphere where the
oxygen partial pressure is high, oxidation plays a leading role in the corrosion of materials, whereas in an
atmosphere where the sulfur partial pressure is high, sulfuration plays a leading role. In an atmosphere where
oxidation is the leading player, the protective characteristic of the oxidized coat becomes excellent, resulting in a
negligible level of corrosion. On the other hand, in an atmosphere where sulfuration is the leading player, the
protective characteristic of the sulfide coat becomes remarkably poor, resulting in strong corrosion.
With respect to the corrosion occurring in an atmosphere of low oxygen partial pressure and high sulfur partial
pressure, it is considered that the reaction mentioned below is the leading player.
195
Datong coal (S content: 0.63%)
Combustion gas temperature: 1300qC
Air ratio
Fig. 3.2.8-2 Impact of air ratio on the balanced structure of combustion gas at 1300͠

H
2
S + Fe o Fes + H
2
...........................................................................................................(7)
2CO + SO
2
+ Fe o FeS + 2CO
2
..........................................................................................(8)
This corrosion gradually grows to complete corrosion in general. At a portion where repeated thermal stress is
strong, the corrosion may grow in a groove shape in the direction of the circumference (which is called
“elephant-hide alligator-skin cracking”).
Other than the above corrosion, it has been reported that corrosion involving such vitriols as XͅSO͇, XͅSͅO͊
(X: Na or K), etc. contained in the adhered ash or pyrosulfate can occur when the SO͆ density in the combustion
gas is high ̀ź̸. However, cases of corrosion of the waterwall piping by these alkali compounds are not reported
very frequently.
In UK where coal containing lot of Cl is used, acceleration of corrosion of waterwall piping caused by HCl
contained in the combustion gas has been reported. Because the coal currently used in Japan contains a very small
amount of Cl, no corrosion caused by HCl contained in the combustion gas has been reported to date. From the
standpoint that poor-quality coal may be used in future as fuels to be used diversify, it will be required to capture
well the influence of HCl on corrosion.
196
ԙExamples of corrosion and countermeasures
A cross section of corrosion of the furnace waterwall piping of a coal-fired boiler that occurred in which the
2-step combustion process has been employed in order to reduce NOx is shown in Photo 3.2.8-7. The flame side
has been evenly corroded, and the amount of corrosion was 0.15 – 2.00 mm/year.
Flame side
Photo 3.2.8-7 Cross
section of corroded
potion of furnace
waterwall piping
Photo 3.2.8-8 includes EPMA photographs of corrosive scale. The scale in the outer layer is composed of FeS,
whereas the inner layer is composed of a mixture in which Fe͆O͇ is the main content. It is typical corrosion in an
atmosphere of low oxygen containing a considerable amount of HͅS. In the neighborhood of the waterwall piping
surface where strong corrosion occurred, it is indicated that the content of HͅS in the combustion gas was 300
ppm, Hͅ was 1.5%, and CO was 6.1%, and the air ratio at the moment of combustion was 1 or less.
An example of groove-shape corrosion of the waterwall piping is shown in Photo 3.2.8-9. The appearance of
the corrosion is similar to that occurring at heavy oil-fired boilers. The causes of such groove-shape corrosion
are considered to be follows. Namely, the oxidized coat on the piping surface has cracked by repeated thermal
stress arising from any combination of adhered substances to the inner piping (Fe͆O͇), condensation of air
bubbles, or local falling off of scale from the surface of the furnace piping. It is considered that corrosive gas
entered through the cracks and that the corrosion was accelerated at this gas-entered portion ̀zś.
Considerable actions to prevent corrosion of waterwall piping are as follows:
(a) Measures to be taken in the design
(b) Selection of materials
(c) Employment of surface treatment
The most effective action is the use of coal with a lower S content. Such actions as employment of low-NOx
burners, use of fined coal to promote complete combustion, increase in the oxygen partial pressure on the piping
surface by filling boundary air (to create an air curtain along the waterwall piping) over the waterwall piping
surface, etc. are also considered effective ̀ź̻ ̀ź̼.
Photo 3.2.8-10 shows the EPMA observation result of the scale on the piping surface before and after filling of
boundary air. By filling of air, the scale mainly containing sulfide has changed to scale mainly containing oxide.
As measures against groove-shape corrosion, suppression of the generation of substances adhering to the inner
portions through thoroughgoing water treatment or prevention of air bubbles from condensation by employing
rifle pipes is considered effective ̀s{́.
197
Na: X-ray image
S: X-ray image
Cl: X-ray image
K: X-ray image O: X-ray image
C: X-ray image
Fe: X-ray image
Photo 3.2.8-8 EPMA observation result of corrosive scale on waterwall piping
Photo 3.2.8-9 Appearance of groove-shape corrosion of waterwall piping in the neighborhood of the burner
With respect to the materials, use of the double piping system composed of an outer pipe made of materials
excellent in corrosion resistance such as SUS 347 H, SUS 310 S, etc. and an inner pipe made of carbon steel is
considered ̀sź. These materials have been already put to practical use where the materials are exposed to severe
combustion gas containing HͅS and HCl ̀sś.
For surface treatment, chromizing treatment by raising the Cr density by having Cr diffuse and penetrate is
effective for prevention of corrosion also. In addition, thermal spray coating of corrosive materials by plasma
thermal spray is effective for prevention of corrosion. Thermal spray process using 50 Cr – 50 Ni as its material
has been put to practical use.
In the case of thermal spray, however, entry of gas into the layer of the metal/thermal spray cannot be avoided.
This process has not yet been put to practical use as a permanent countermeasure.
198
O: X-ray image
S: X-ray image
O: X-ray image
S: X-ray image
Fe: X-ray image
Fe: X-ray image
Before filling
boundary air
After filling
boundary air
Photo 3.2.8-10 EPMA observation result of corrosive scale adhering to waterwall piping before and after filling
boundary air
199
200
3.3 Water Chemistry for the Boiler
3.3.1 Transition and Summary of Water Treatment Technology
The current water treatment technology we use in Japan derives from the U.S., introduced together with the
so-called ‘new type of thermal power’ system.
3.3.1.1 Transition of 170K-Class Water Treatment
A 170K-class unit was imported and installed at Osaka Power Plant. The boiler used was a forced circulation
type made by Combustion Engineering. Water treatment using the 170K-class unit showed a series of problems,
and the method used for water treatment changed several times.
(1) Initial Criteria for Water treatment
The initial criteria under which water quality was controlled in Osaka Power Plant are shown in Table 1.
Caustic treatment was used, in which sodium hydroxide and sodium phosphate were injected into the boiler water.
(2) Hide-Outs and Turbine Scales
Power generating efficiency decreased due to the hide-out of phosphate ions in the boiler water (and subsequent
increase in pH), and also due to deposition of sodium phosphate scales to the turbine blades (See Table 3.3.1-1).
Consequently, the downwash of the scale at the time of turbine start up contaminated the condensate water . To
eliminate the hide-out, disodium salt was used and the phosphate ion concentration was maintained at 0.2 - 2.0
ppm, which was the upper limit that Osaka Power Plant was able to manage.
However, hide-outs still existed and it was relatively difficult to control pH at an appropriate level.
1) Low Phosphate Treatment
In early 1961, a test for treating water with low phosphate treatment started. Following the results, monobasic
sodium salt was used, but since it failed to reduce the pH to the threshold limit value of GA1, i.e. 8.5 to 9.5, the
value remained to be 9.5 to 10.0.
In September 1961, Mr. Grabowski of C.E. made a presentation at the New Nagoya Power Plant and Thermal
Power Division of Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc. and showed that reducing boiler corrosion does not
necessarily require increasing pH, but the key is to protect the magnetite protection coating. He also pointed out
that Coordinated Phosphate Treatment requires the pH value to be maintained at the 9.5 to 10.0 level only (as
experienced by a boiler manufactured by C.E.) and suggested keeping the concentration of phosphate ions on the
concentration curves of trisodium salt and pH.

Table 3.3.1-1: Example of Analysis of Depositions on the Turbine Blades at Osaka Power Plant (Unit: %)
Ignition Loss SiO
2
Fe
2
O
3
Na
2
O CuO PO
4
High Pressure Moving Blade 1st to
4th stages
* Medium Pressure Static Blade
1st to 4th stages
* Medium Pressure Moving Blade
3rd to 5th stages
Medium Pressure Moving Blade
6th to 8th stages
Medium Pressure Static Blade 8th
to 9th stages
Medium Pressure Static Blade 10th
stage
Medium Pressure Static Blade 11th
stage
Medium Pressure Moving Blade
13th stage
Low Pressure Static Blade 1st to
3rd stages
Low Pressure Moving Blade 2nd
stage
4.1

10.0

20.3

24.2

17.0

10.4

13.3

22.1

2.1

2.2
1.5

16.0

23.7

23.9

12.3

2.9

3.1

9.0

1.9

1.9
36.4

14.5

15.1

19.8

48.7

61.3

53.5

34.8

84.7

54.5
38.2

49.0

58.4

49.7

41.8

40.1

42.3

63.9

5.8

6.7
3.1

-

6.4

1.7

2.6

3.7

1.7

1.4

5.0

7.2
45.6

23.8

0.2

0.5

0.2

0.8

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.1
(Blade composition: 12 stages for High Pressure and 13 stages for Medium Pressure and 6 stages for Low Pressure)
* As shown in the original document

2) All volatile Treatment
Mr. Grabowski also showed a method involving the use of volatile chemicals to treat boiler water. He noted (1)
the use of volatile chemicals requires thorough monitoring of any condenser leakage and assurance of pre-boiler
system operation, (2) if a leakage occurs, phosphate salts must immediately be injected, (3) the phosphate salts
work effectively against the leakage of sea water at a concentration of 5ppm or above, below which they are
ineffective and (4) after reaching the cationic conductivity of 0.5µS/cm, the phosphate salt must be kept at 10 to
15 ppm.
He also instructed that the cationic conductivity of boiler water be maintained at 2 to 3µS/cm during normal
operation and to feedwater at a pH of 8.8 to 9.2.

R
a
t
i
o

o
f

s
i
l
i
c
a

c
o
n
t
a
i
n
e
d

i
n

s
t
e
a
m

t
o

t
h
a
t

i
n

w
a
t
e
r

(
%
)
Water Quality
Requirements
Average pH
Silica (ppm.)
201

Fig. 3.3.1-1: Impact of Pressure, pH and Concentration of Silica in Water to the Ratio of Silica under the Steam
Generation Volume of 5lb/h and in Static Condition
Pressure (psig)


1 Distribution ratio by Jacklin & Bronar
Fig 3.3.1-2: Curve of Acceptable Silica Concentration in Boiler Water

A
c
c
e
p
t
a
b
l
e

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

S
i
l
i
c
a

i
n

B
o
i
l
e
r

W
a
t
e
r

(
S
i
O
2
,

p
p
m
.
)
5 Coulter, et al: pH 7.8 - 9.0
(Silica Concentration in Steam:
0.02 ppm.)
Drum Pressure (kg/cm
2
G)
Acceptable silica concentration in boiler water in
order to retain silica concentration in steam to 0.02
ppm or below
S
i
l
i
c
a

(
p
p
m
.
)
202

Fig. 3.3.1-3: Acceptable Silica Concentration in Boiler Water (by C.E.)
(3) Shift of Criteria for Condensate water and Make-up water
The reference pH value shown by Gilbert for condensate water and make-up water at Osaka Power Plant was
8.6 to 8.8. The value depends on the volume of ammonia generated by the decomposition of hydrazine. However,
an increase of hydrazine injection caused a surge of pH to nearly 9.0. Gilbert explained that ammonia would
attack the copper alloy condenser tube if the pH value of ACD was high. In this case, the value should be kept to
8.8. However, the company also explained that if the pH of ACD were below 9.8, the pH of the condensed and
make-up water might be around 8.6 to 9.0.
So as criteria for pH and hydrazine concentrations, the ceiling was set to 0.05 ppm for hydrazine and 8.9 for pH
respectively, so that they can be maintained at these levels, even when there is a load variation. As it is difficult to
limit the hydrazine concentration to 0.01 ppm or below in a stable manner, and as there is concern regarding the
accuracy of the analysis, the lower limit of hydrazine concentration was set as 0.01 ppm.
(4) Silica and Silica Purge
In order to avoid bad influence to a turbine by silica scales, it is necessary to limit the volume of silica
contained in steam. As for the limit, the following three reports were issued in the U.S.:
1) Experience shows silica in steam should be contained to 0.03 ppm or below to avoid any scales being
deposited to the turbine.
2) No deposits was found in the low- and medium-pressure turbine blades of a turbine with 150MW, 170k and
550qC when the silica concentration in the high pressure turbine exhaust was retained to approx. 0.01 to
0.02 ppm.
3) Experience shows no silica is deposited on turbine blades when the silica concentration is kept at 0.02 ppm or below.

Fig. 3.3.1-4: Boiler Pressure and Maximum Permissible Silica Concentration Limit in Boiler Water
Pressure (psig)
All volatile
treatment: pH:
approx. 9.0
Indicates silica concentration should be kept
below this line during normal operation to
avoid any deposits.
S
i
l
i
c
a

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
S
i
O
2

p
p
m
)

Indicates silica concentration can reach this
line when a turbine is restarted after regular
repair or when it is rapidly operated.
However, the concentration should be
closer to the real line and close attention
should be paid to the concentration of silica
in moisture.
Drum Pressure (kg/cm
2
qC)
203
Table 3.3.1-2: Maximum Permissible Total Soluble Solid Material in Steam (Unit: ppb)
Material
Permissible
Concentration for
Continuous Operation
Permissible
Concentration for
Conditioned Operation
Permissible
Concentration for
Intermittent Operation
NaCl
Na
2
SO
4
Na
3
PO
4
NaOH
SiO
2
400
400
60
30
8
2000
2000
150
60
20
4000
4500
300
150
45
Total 898 4230 8995
Table 3.3.1-3: Example of Measurement for Drum Carry-Over in the U.S.
Name of Power Plant Chestexfield Ashtabula
Load 170 MW
Drum Pressure 2600 psig 2500 psig
Na Concentration of Boiler Water
Concentration in Steam
Carry-Over Ratio
7.5 ppm
0.0021 ppm
0.028%
10.6 ppm
0.0029 ppm
0.027%
NaCl Concentration of Boiler Water
Maximum Carry-Over Ratio
9.4 ppm
0.057%
15.3 ppm
0.047%
Referring to the above reports, the concentration of silica was set to 0.02 ppm or below.
The tolerance of silica concentration in boiler water depends on the ratio of silica distribution in saturated steam.
It also depends on pressure and pH, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1-1. Based on the distribution ratio, Fig. 3.3.1-2 is drawn
and C.E used Fig. 3.3.1-3.
In Fig. 3.3.1-2, the silica concentration is 0.18 to 0.19 ppm under the pressure of 186 to 188k and a pH of 7.8 to
9. From these data, the silica concentration was set as 0.2 ppm.
As the silica concentration in boiler water tends to rise when the boiler starts operation, due to the silica scale
deposited on the turbine low-pressure blades being washed away by wet steam, a silica purge must be
implemented to raise pressure by blowing the boiler, while ensuring the silica concentration is limited to within
the designated value. This is the main cause of delays and increased load when starting the drum type boiler.
Therefore, looser values were set, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1-4, for the concentration of silica when starting a boiler.
The silica-washing device installed in a drum manufactured by Babcock-Hitachi K.K. showed a remarkable
ability to reduce the silica concentration in steam, doubling the permissible concentration of silica in the boiler.
(5) Total Soluble Solid Materials
As for the total soluble solid materials, the following reports were issued in the U.S.:
1) Fig.3.3.1-2 shows the permissible concentration for continuous operation (the maximum concentration that
does not cause significant silica deposit after operating a turbine for 8,000 hours), the permissible
concentration for conditioned operation (the maximum concentration after repeated stopping and restarting
or under such operation conditions as variable pressure operation) and the permissible concentration for
intermittent operation (the maximum concentration that does not cause any silica deposits for a relatively
short turbine operating period). The permissible concentration for continuous operation is approx. 1 ppm.
2) No significant silica deposits were observed in the concentration range of 0.1 to 0.2 ppm.
3) In order to operate a turbine without any washing for an extended period, the silica concentration must be
controlled to 0.05 ppm or below.
Experience at Himeji No. 2 Power Plant showed that deposits were rarely seen when a turbine was operated
with cationic conductivity of 0.3µS or below. This corresponds to a silica concentration of 0.05 ppm.
Based on the above, the cationic conductivity and the silica concentration were determined as 0.3K-µS/cm or
below and 0.05 ppm or below, respectively.
In order to determine the limit value for the total solid materials in the boiler water, the carry-over ratio of the
drum should be considered. With this in mind, the following data is issued:
1) The design value is 0.25%.
2) The value measured in the U.S. is 0.05% or so, as shown in Table 3.3.1-3.
3) The value measured in Himeji No. 3 Power Plant was approx. 0.15%.
Based on the above, the value was determined as 0.2%, taking safety into consideration, and the total solid
materials in boiler water was set as 25 ppm.
As the measurement of water quality under the all volatile treatment is 5K-µS/cm, or 10K/µS/cm at worst, the
total solid materials in boiler water was determined as 10 ppm.

First stage low temperature reheated steam
Second stage low temperature reheated steam
Ignition
Fourth steam
Normal values
Combined
feeding
Time (h)
Fig. 3.3.1-5: Trend of Hydrogen Concentration
after chemical cleaning
No. 2 bearing vibration increased
by three-hundredth.
Loads decreased by 3MW.
T
i
m
e

High temperature reheated steam (ppb)
Fig. 3.3.1-6: Hydrogen Concentration when Two First
Stage Blades of Curtiss Turbine Flied Apart


Permittivity of
Cation-Exchange Resin
T
i
m
e

Condensate
t
Entrance of ECO
Exit of WW
Second stage low temperature
reheated steam
KC-floc used
Fig. 3.3.1-7: Electrical Conductivity and Hydrogen when
Water Starts to Pass Through a Filter
O
H
-

i
n

B
o
i
l
e
r

W
a
t
e
r

(
p
p
m
)

(
a
s

C
a
C
O
3
)
Throttle Pressure (kg/cm
2
)
{: Crater-shaped corrosion observed at least once
u: No crater-shaped corrosion observed
This is a chart indicating the relationship between the alkali level of
hydroxy-ions in boiler water and pressure. The safe and unsafe domains for a
boiler showing crater-shaped corrosion are indicated as a dotted line.
Fig. 3.3.1-8: Relationship of Alkali Level and
Crater-shaped Corrosion

204
205
(6) Hydrogen
As for hydrogen, it only indicates the corrosion condition of a tube and no measures can be taken based on it .
The generation of hydrogen can be determined as stable, because it remains commensurate with the surface
area, regardless of the volume of steam generated. Thus, it seems normal that the hydrogen concentration doubles
when the flow decreases by half.
As seen in the example where the hydrogen concentration is 2 to 4 ppb under stable operation, the chemical
reaction of iron and water continues to a certain extent, even under stable operation. This means the magnetite
coating undergoes a cycle of damage and recovery to a certain extent.
Increased hydrogen generation tells that the following events are happening:
1) The magnetite coating incurs significant damage. : E.g.: After chemical cleaning, the magnetite coating is
removed and thus hydrogen increases, returning to the normal level as the coating is formed (Fig. 3.3.1-5).
2) A new steel surface has appeared. : E.g.: Iron powder is generated by the flying apart of turbine blade; a
new metal surface appears on it, on which a chemical reaction progresses rapidly (Fig. 3.3.1-6).
3) The metal temperature has surged abnormally. : There is a report that the hydrogen concentration increased
by about 10 ppb when a reheating pipe caused creep damage for a relatively short period.
4) Organic materials (sugars) inputted have been decomposed (Fig. 3.3.1-7): There is a report that fine resin
leaked out from a condensate demineralization tower when water was introduced into it immediately after
replenishing the resin.
(7) Malfunctioning of Boilers in the U.S.
Table 3.3.1-4 indicates the result of investigations by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
on 116 boilers in the U.S. from 1950 to 1959. As stated in the table, 40% of boiler showed some pipe damage,
while 28% of boilers caused crater-shaped corrosion, which is considered alkali corrosion. Fig. 3.3.1-8 shows the
relationship between crater-shaped corrosion and hydroxy-ions, expressly showing how the concentration of the
latter may decline as pressure goes up.

206
Table 3.3.1-4: Outline of 116 Boilers in Use
No. of Boiler % No. of Boiler %
Manufacturer
A
B
C
D
E
Pressure (kg/cm
2
)
63 or below
64-91
92-126
127-155
156 or above
Capacity
90 or above
90-225
225-337
337-450
450 or above
Overheat Temperature (qC)
427 or below
427-496
496-552
552 or above
Reheating Temperature (qC)
496 or below
496-552
552 or below
No reheating
Fuel
Fine charcoal powder
Gas
Oil
Others
(chain grate-fed charcoal and coal)
Year of Operation
Before 1950
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
Economizer
Used
Not used

42
49
14
8
3

13
21
53
26
3

6
33
26
28
23

0
15
80
21

0
68
3
46

72
36
4
4


7
4
5
7
18
28
18
11
7
8
3

101
15

36
42
12
7
3

11
18
46
22
3

5
28
23
24
20

0
13
69
18

0
59
2
39

62
31
3.5
3.5


6
3
4
6
16
24
16
9
6
7
3

87
13
Deaeration unit
Used
Not used
Final treatment of makeup
water
Deionizer is used.
Steam evaporator is used.
Boiler water treatment
Sodium sulfite
Hydrazine
Caustic soda
Phosphate
Potassium salt
Organics
Condensate water treatment
Morpholine
Cyclohexylamine
Ammonia
Problems
No corrosion losses
observed to pipes
Crater-type corrosions



Burnout due to overheat
Bubbles observed
Overheat at the top of
pipes
Orifice
Others
Pitting corrosion of
header
Pitting corrosion of
suspending metals
Corrosion of separation
tube
Attachment to header
Corrosion of feed heater
Turbine attachments


Carry-over of silica
Acid washing
With acid washing
No acid washing
With initial acid washing
No initial acid washing
Total number of acid
washings
Once


Twice


Three times


Four times


Five times


89
27


50
66

80
41
81
111
3
13

76
12
12

70

32



5
2
1

13

2

3

2

5
13
9
(Water-soluble
9)
3

34
82
45
37


44
(Initial acid
washing 22)
14
(Initial acid
washing 7)
21
(Initial acid
washing 13)
2
(Initial acid
washing 2)
1
(Initial acid
washing 1)

77
23


43
57

69
35
70
96
3
11

65
10
10

60

28
(20 to 23% are of
fluidity
hindrance.)
4
2
1

11

2

2

2

4
11
8


3

29
71
For users, chemical cleaning to prevent any damage, for manufactures, designs to avoid hot spots or fluidity
hindrances, for consultants, the removal of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide from the
pre-boiler, curtailment of dissolving iron and copper and research into controlling the pH level are requested.

T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

o
f

B
o
i
l
e
r

W
a
t
e
r

a
n
d

P
i
p
e

M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l
s

(
q
F
)

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

N
a
O
H

(
p
p
m
)

Concentration
Mother Water of
Boiler Water
Temperature
Concentrated
boundary Film

Fig. 3.3.1-9: Heat Transmission Film and Concentrated
Film at the Heat Transmission Surface

A
l
k
a
l
i

C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n
B
r
i
t
t
l
e
n
e
s
s

a
g
a
i
n
s
t

H
y
d
r
o
g
e
n
S
t
r
e
s
s

C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n
A
s
h

C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n
C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

F
a
t
i
g
u
e
A
s
h

C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n
O
v
e
r
h
e
a
t
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

C
a
s
e
s
E
x
a
m
p
l
e
Y
e
a
r

Fig. 3.3.1-10: Accidents Occurring to Power Generation Boiler Pipes
(8) Alkali Corrosion
Sodium hydroxide was used to control pH in the boiler water. As Fig. 3.3.1-9 indicates, a boundary film was
formed around the boiler pipes of the heat transfer surface where boiling occurred. The sodium hydroxide in the
boiler water increased in concentration because it was left on the heat transfer surface as the water boiled up. As
sodium hydroxide has high solubility, it was not deposited on the surface, but instead, a film of highly
207
208
concentrated sodium hydroxide formed. According to an example of calculation , a 100k-class boiler containing
100 ppm of sodium hydroxide shows the temperature of inner surface of a pipe is increased by 5°F when it is
heated at comparatively low heat flow rate of 25,000 BTU/ft
2
࡮h, boosting the sodium hydroxide concentration by
10%.
Another report shows that the temperature of the inner surface of the pipe is increased by 30qC at some hot
spots . The occurrence of such hot spots is considered attributable to film boiling that is likely to occur due to the
enlargement of heat flux in a large-sized boiler, steam blanket, lack of flow rate, inappropriate burner positioning,
contact of flame due to insufficient combustion control, biased combustion and gas flow, inclusion of slabs in the
welded parts, blow holes and lack of fusion.
Sodium hydroxide can result in corrosion of steel at a concentration of 5%. When the concentration reaches 5%
or above, it dissolved the protective oxide layer, causing the inner metal surface to become exposed and corroding
it due to the reaction of water and steel. The hydrogen generated by the reaction penetrates into and damages the
steel.
In Japan, alkali corrosion cases were also reported. As Fig. 3.3.1-10 shows, statistically speaking, this has been
responsible for the highest proportion of boiler accidents having occurred to date.
The alkali corrosion is otherwise known as a caustic attack, or in the U.S., as crater-shaped corrosion, due to its
shape. These differ from conventional caustic embitterment.
After such accidents, the injection of sodium hydroxide was stopped. Thereafter, a new finding was reported:
namely that hideout of phosphate ions causes not trisodium phosphate but 2.65-sodium biphosphate at 689F and
2.85-sodium biphosphate at 572F respectively. This means 0.35 to 0.15 of trisodium phosphate in the system is in
the form of sodium hydroxide. It thus emerged that phosphate containing sodium less than 2.6 sodium
biphosphate should be used.
However, even if such phosphate is used, it was found that pH in boiler water increased past this level due to
trisodium phosphate. The cause was identified as a leakage of sodium from a deionized water system. In order to
avoid leakage, a double-bed operation was used to place the deionized water system just after regeneration to the
latter stage. Due to the fact that the movement of the system used at the latter stage to the front stage resulted in a
more significant leakage, a mixed type system was installed at the latter stage to use it dedicated to a polisher.
Thanks to such measurements, no further alkali corrosion has been reported since 1963.
(9) Shift to All volatile treatment
The No. 2 boiler of the Karita Power Plant (a 170k forced circulation boiler) started its operation in June 1959
showed alkali corrosion to evaporator tube at the 3,700th hour. This was attributable to sodium hydroxide and the
use of the chemical was stopped. The investigation showed that powder scale was attached to its turbine blades,
especially the final stage of the medium-pressure turbine, mainly consisting of sodium bicarbonate. Gilbert
suggested the use of sodium acid phosphate to maintain the pH level of boiler water and make-up water at around
8.5 to 9.5. The phosphate ion was dramatically reduced two days after feeding phosphate ions into the drum. As
this resulted in heightened conductivity of saturated steam and carryover to the turbine, the use of phosphate ions
was terminated in February 1960.
As the volume of hydrazine was maintained, the pH level of boiler water was lower by 0.4 to 0.5 than that of
make-up water, which was well below 8.5 and maintained at that level.
Regarding the risk of leakage within the condenser, trisodium phosphate is fed and a drum blow operation is
started. After repairing the leakage, the concentration of phosphate ions decreased to 0.0 ppm.
In the U.S, all volatile treatment was used due to the heavy carryover having occurred, and an ambiguous trial
just to maintain turbine operation started. For them, there was no choice other than the use of the treatment
method.

Table 3.3.1-5: pH Control Methods of the Pressure Boiler of 130kg/cm
2
or above by C.E.
How to Adjust pH No. of Boilers
(1) Caustic Based pH10.5 to 11.0
(Caustic alkali and phosphate ions are used.)
37
(2) Low Caustic Control pH10.0 to 10.5
(Same as above)
8
(3) Cordinated Phosphate – pH Control pH10.0 to 10.5
(Coordinated phosphate treatment is used and caustic alkali is not used.)
29
(4) All volatile treatment: pH 8.5-9.0
(Hydrazine and ammonia treatment is used and no solid chemicals are used.)
21

(10) Chemicals Fed into the Drum
To avoid alkali corrosions, no free sodium hydroxide should exist and the pH should be minimized. However,
decreasing the pH level is not desirable in preventing oxygen corrosion and sodium hydroxide helps the removal
of magnesium as sludge during leakage into a condenser. To maintain pH at a certain desired level, the phosphate
ion concentration should be increased, but doing so can stain turbine blades. Therefore, where the increase of pH
is not abandoned, sodium hydroxide should be used to prevent the turbine blades from deposit. In order to avoid
both turbine scale and alkali corrosion, only volatile chemicals should be used, although doing so is not safe for
preventing the seawater leakage of the condenser.
There is no single medicine to cure all such difficulties. Thus, it was decided to implement a comprehensive
examination of conditions surrounding the boilers to decide which priority should be chosen and favored. Table
3.3.1-5 shows the experience of the U.S. in 1959.
(11) Problems in All volatile treatment
At the Kansai Electric Power Company, the use of volatile chemicals was applied to all units of 250KW or
above. However, there were reports of white laminated scales deposited in a boiler, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1-11, with
total thickness of 0.4mm and a total of around 11 to 12 white laminations. Each ingredient, especially the 11 to 12
layers of copper and zinc, corresponded to the number of white laminations. There were some 86 instances of
seawater leakage within the condenser, of which 10 were serious. This also corresponds to the number of white
layers. The total calcium and magnesium content was 1 to 4% in the form of CaO, which is several times larger
than other boilers. Rice associated the generation of hydrogen to decreased pH, due to leakage of the condenser,
causing accelerated corrosion. He also determined that the corrosion became uncontrollable when volatile
chemicals were used, and that no hydrogen corrosion would occur when coordinated phosphate treatment was
used. O’Neal also commented that coordinated phosphate treatment was used in lieu of volatile chemicals to avoid
any hydrogen embitterment.

Base Material of Scale Scale Thickness
All volatile
treatment
Approx. 15%
Approx. 80%
I
n
g
r
e
d
i
e
n
t

s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

Approx. 10%
Scale Thickness (when scanned in an oblique directions)
209

Fig. 3.3.1-11: Microscopic Diagram of Scales on the Burner Side
(Source: Kurosawa et al.)

Total
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

B
o
i
l
e
r
s

i
n

O
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
125K Class
170K Class
140K Class
210

Fig. 3.3.1-12: Trend of High Pressure Boilers
Year

P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

i
n

t
h
e

E
n
t
i
r
e

T
r
e
a
t
m
e
n
t
s

%
Sodium
phosphate
Sodium
hydrate
All volatile treatment
Potassium salt
treatment

Fig. 3.3.1-13: Trend of Boiler Water Treatment
Year

Dick revealed that all volatile treatment is not a panacea against water damage accidents, because there were
reports of significant water wall tube trouble occurring in some boilers subjected to all volatile treatment.
Decker disagreed with the use of all volatile treatment on drum type boilers, stating that such treatment was
rarely beneficial to them.
Every few years, an accident involving increased differential pressure to a forced circulation boiler with all
volatile treatment happens due to the attachment of scales to the orifice installed at the inlet of water pipes. This is
likely to occur just after chemical cleaning and the likelihood of such incident is based on how the initial
crystallization occurs. The scale present consists of mainly magnetite. As anti-scale measures, (i) removal and
cleaning, (ii) modification of the orifice shape, (iii) change of the orifice material to soft steel, and low phosphate
treatment were carried out.
Subsequently in 1970, of four heavy oil boilers of virtually the same design, two treated by volatile chemicals
were involved in an accident, while another, although not involved in an accident, was affected by a zinc scale
attachments on a considerable scale. On the other hand, boilers subjected to low phosphate treatment showed no
such zinc scale deposits. It was considered that the use of low phosphate treatment not only stops zinc deposits but
also decomposes part of the zinc oxide deposits into zinc phosphate.
Thus, conventional method of all volatile treatment was switched to phosphate treatment at boilers used mainly
by Electric Power Development Co. Ltd. Table 3.3.1-6 shows a comparison performance comparison featuring the
scale generation behaviors of 23 boilers before and after changing the mode of water treatment. As the table
shows, 4 units showed that phosphate treatment worked well in reducing the generation of scales. No unit showed
an increase of scale when phosphate treatment was used in lieu of all volatile treatment. Even taking into
consideration the change in operating conditions, phosphate treatment showed a reduction of scale generation. It
was therefore considered that phosphate treatment was applicable for restricting scale deposits in the generating
tubes of a boiler.

211
Table 3.3.1-6: Survey on Boilers whose Water Treatment Method was Switched from
All volatile treatment to Low Phosphate Treatment
Materials for the Condenser Materials for the Feed Heater
Unit
No.
Capacity
(MW)
Furnace
Type
Circulation
Method
Start of
Operation
(Year/
Month)
When Phosphate
Treatment was
Started
(Year/Month)
Condensate water Part Air Cooling Part Low Pressure Part High Pressure Part
36 375 Single Natural 47.11 53.3 Aluminum brass Nickel-plated
aluminum brass
Aluminum brass Monel metal
65 156 Divided Natural 39.8 48.1 Aluminum brass Cupronickel Copper arsenate Monel metal
66 156 Divided Natural 41.2 45.3 Aluminum brass Cupronickel Copper arsenate Monel metal
67 350 Divided Natural 44.1 51.5 Aluminum brass Monel metal Aluminum brass Carbon steel
70 156 Divided Natural 39.6 53.2 (50.6PoA) Aluminum brass Cupronickel Copper arsenate Monel metal
78 156 Divided Natural 48.4 53.5 Aluminum brass Titanium Aluminum brass Alloy steel
Carbon steel
86 250 Divided Natural 42.7 49.4 Aluminum brass Cupronickel Aluminum brass Alloy steel
87 250 Divided Forced 43.7 52.6 Aluminum brass Nickel-plated
aluminum brass
Aluminum brass Alloy steel
88 250 Divided Forced 44.1 52.2 Aluminum brass Nickel-plated
aluminum brass
Aluminum brass Alloy steel
89 265 Divided Natural 42.5 47.5 Aluminum brass Titanium Copper arsenate Carbon steel
90 265 Divided Natural 44.9 50.10 Aluminum brass Titanium Copper arsenate Carbon steel
106 350 Divided Natural 47.2 54.1 BKCB Titanium Aluminum brass Carbon steel
108 265 Divided Forced 35.10 54.11 Aluminum brass Nickel-plated
aluminum brass
Copper arsenate Monel metal
109 265 Divided Forced 37.9 54.10 Aluminum brass Titanium Copper arsenate Monel metal
112 350 Divided Forced 41.7 53.6 Aluminum brass
Titanium
Titanium Copper arsenate Alloy steel
113 350 Divided Natural 42.1 55.12 Aluminum brass Titanium Copper arsenate Alloy steel
118 350 Divided Forced 43.1 53.7 Aluminum brass
Cupronickel
Aluminum brass Aluminum brass Alloy steel
122 250 Single Forced 45.6 54.1 Aluminum brass Cupronickel Aluminum brass Alloy steel
147 350 Divided Natural 44.9 53.6 Aluminum brass Titanium Aluminum brass Alloy steel
Carbon steel
148 350 Divided Natural 45.1 55.12 Aluminum brass Titanium Aluminum brass Carbon steel
168 250 Divided Natural 46.1 51.3 Aluminum brass Cupronickel Aluminum brass Carbon steel
169 350 Single Forced 48.1 53.12 Aluminum brass Cupronickel Aluminum brass Carbon steel
181 400 Single Forced 52.9 56.3 Aluminum brass Titanium Aluminum brass Carbon steel

Table 3.3.1-7: Corrosion Damage Reported in the U.S. on Drum Boilers (125k Class or above)
Periods
New damage
reported
Number of units in
operation
Ratio of annual
damage occurred
1955-1960
1961-1965
1966-1970
48
39
27
219
385
481
3.6%
2.0
1.1
* Corrosion newly discovered

(12) Water Treatment and Boiler Accidents in the U.S.
Fig. 3.3.1-12 shows statistics concerning high pressure boiler damage reported in the U.S. up to 1970. Fig.
3.3.1-13 also shows a shift of boiler water treatment methods. It shows that the use of sodium hydroxide keeps
declining, while that of sodium phosphate is on the rise. All volatile treatment peaked in 1963 (25%) and declined
thereafter, falling as low as 5% in 1970.
Table 3.3.1-7 shows the trend of boiler corrosion, in terms of year on year decline. However, even recently, 1%
of boilers used today are prone to corrosion damage. As Table 3.3.1-8 shows, 170k-class boilers tend to corrode,
even when volatile chemicals are used to treat the boiler water. This ratio is relatively high compared with other
classes, indicating why this type of treatment was declined.
However, a few cases of damage allegedly occurred due to the all volatile treatment not showing any evidence
of boiler water contamination. The users believed that the all volatile treatment maintained the deionized water at
the specified level. Experience supports the theory that it was the boiler design making it prone to corrosion
)

although Klein considers such an idea to be illogical.
Boiler corrosion cases in the U.S. peaked in the early 1960s, when various reports were submitted by both users
and consultants. They reported that corrosion was caused by (i) basically inappropriate boiler design, (ii) contact
of flames, (iii) insufficient circulation of boiler water and (iv) excessive evaporation speed. A few users suggested
that strict control should be imposed to the heat load exposed to furnaces.
3.3.1.2 Appearance of Subcritical Pressure Once-through Boilers and the Necessity of Condensate
Water Treatments
As the type of boiler evolves from natural circulation to forced circulation to once-through types, stricter water
treatment technologies have been called for.
A once-through boiler requires departure from the conventional type of water treatment technology, because all
foreign matter introduced to the boiler, together with the feed water, tend to become deposits on boiler tube and
turbine blade.
A once-through boiler requires ultra pure water, which contains a concentration of solid substances as low as
212
just 5 to 500 ppb. In order to obtain such low concentrations, it is necessary to avoid mixing solid substances into
the feed water.
Generally speaking, the following are considered sources of solid substances into feed water :
x Solid substances derived from construction phase
x A mixture of cooling water into the system, due to leakage of the condenser
x Corrosion products derived from the feed water system
x Solid substances in supplementary feed
x Solution of resin from the deionized water system
Among them, leakage of the condenser occupies the largest part. To eliminate this, condensate purification
equipment is installed. This unit is relatively effective in removing dissolving metal.
When an equilibrium between the protective coating on the metal surface and the water contacting it is lost, due,
for example, to load fluctuation, and system start-up and stoppage, the volume of corrosion products contained in
feed water rapidly increases.
In order to maintain the stability of the metal surface during a system stoppage, the system should be carefully
protected while not in use, with the use of hydrazine water of high pH and nitrogen sealed in tubes.
At the same time, a clean-up operation should be implemented before the system restarts operation. As for the
solution of resin from the deionized water unit, resin slightly dissolves into water during the initial phase of the
unit start-up, until it reaches a stable condition, meaning fine-powdered resin mingles into the supplementary feed.
The effects thereof were not the subjects of research in 1959. In those days, it was considered that installation of a
fine pore filter before and after a condensate purification equipment was effective in removing fine powder resin.
As chemicals capable of solidifying must not be used, hydrazine, ammonia and amines should be used.
However, amines are not recommended because they decompose at high pressure.

Table 3.3.1-8: Damages to Boilers by Pressure and by the Water Treatment Method
Pressure 125k Class 140k Class 170k Class Total
All volatile treatment
Sodium Phosphate Treatment
Sodium Hydroxide Treatment
Potassium Salt Treatment
5
12
41
5
7
3
18
5
11
8
4
-
23
23
63
10
Total 63 33 23 119

The No. 2 Boiler of the Himeji No. 2 Power Plant was imported from the U.S. and commenced comercial
operation in 1964. Table 3.3.1-9 shows the water quality standards, set based on actual operation performance.
This boiler uses hydrazine and ammonia injected into the outlet of its condensate purification equipment and
ammonia into the outlet of its deaeration unit.
(1) Condensate purification equipment
Condensate purification equipment normally consists of a mixed bed condensate demineralization tower and
filters placed in front of it. Some act as a polisher of supplementary feed.
The following three major objectives are associated with the use of condensate purification equipment:
1) To prevent damage to the entire system due to the leakage of a condenser
2) To purify the supplementary feed
3) To remove corrosion products from the feed water system
The secondary objectives include:
1) to purify various drain water before it enters into the system, and
2) to purify the system during the initial start-up and shutdown operations.
Contamination of ion-exchange resin by metal oxides and pressure loss of the condensate demineralization
tower impose significant impacts to the system when a high-speed ion exchange takes place. Due to this, a filter is
installed just before the tower to remove them and prevent the ion-exchange resin from deterioration.
As for appropriate materials to use for the filter, cellulose, diatomite, leaf-type and other fine pore filters are
recommended.
As for the condensate water condensate demineralization tower, although the impact of dissolved resin to the
tower has not yet been clearly identified, some say that the use of a filter, which puts after the demineralization
tower, can eliminate leakage from the tower. Himeji No. 2 Power Plant employs a combination of filters made by
United Filters, Inc. and Permutite Company. The label said the design conductivity was 0.2µS/cm, and that design
silica, iron and copper concentrations were 7 ppb, 5 ppb and 5 ppb respectively, although these are not guaranteed
values.
The imported item of Himeji No. 2 Power Plant uses a horizontal leaf type pre-coat filter and Solka floc
213
BW-100 and -40 were used at a ratio of 1 to 1 as filtering agents. The agents heavily leaked out, were deposited on
the resin surface of the condensate demineralization tower caused pressure loss of the tower. The reasons for the
leakage were attributed to leaf-end gaps, the distance of leaf hubs, the non-parallel arrangement of the same,
variations in the water flow, an excessive design flow rate and the screen structure. The pressure loss exceeded the
design value, after pre-coating, it was attributable to the excessive flow rate and an overly small shaft and shaft
hole diameter. To eliminate the pressure loss, the system underwent renovation, but the loss still exceeded the
design value. So, other filter unit was added.
It is believed that the black carbon precipitated to the boiler tube when the filtering agent leaked in large
amount.
The condensate demineralization tower showed resin leakage, which was attributable to the gap of the disc
strainers, the distances between a disc strainer and the strainer plate and between the strainer plate and a bottom
plate.
In addition, sending resin to the regeneration tank led to massive amounts of residual resin accumulating at the
bottom of the tower, resulting in an insufficient regeneration process and imbalances between the cation and anion
resins. This was due to a structural defect at the bottom of the tower.
As the pressure loss of the condensate demineralization tower became abnormally high, resin with less than 60
mesh was filtrated using a filter (Permatite Q and S-1). The total annual fraction ratio came to approx. 45%, with
the ratio of damaged anion resin particularly high. As for the cause of the fractured resin, this was found to be
attributable to the relatively high design flow rate of 119m/h
(51)
. Due to such experiences, a flow rate of 80m/h
was recommended.
However, despite such measures, the water purity showed no improvement. Even after investigation by a
Japanese condensate demineralizer manufacturer, no causes were identified. So, the staff was so desperate for help
that they used a sieve to remove small resins, whereupon the water purity showed improvement.

Table 3.3.1-9: Criteria for a Once-through Boiler
Pressure
Subcritical
Pressure
Supercritical
Pressure
Condensate water Cl
-
ppm
O
2
ppb
0
40
0
40
Demineralized
Condensate water
Electrical Conductivity µS 0.2 0.2
Feed Water pH
O
2
ppb
N
2
H
4
ppb
Cationic conductivity PS/cm
Fe ppb
Cu ppb
SiO
2
ppb
9.0-9.5
5
5-30
0.2
10
5
20
9.2-9.7
5
5-30
0.2
10
3
10
Values not shown in the form of a range (a ~ b) are the maximum allowable values.
(2) Cleanup
(Inlet of an economizer in front of a
boiler unit of Himeji No. 2 Power Plant)
Lowest Range
Highest Range
Start of switchover to a high
pressure heater (second time)
T
i
m
e
B-Line Feed Water
Feed water rate increased
(200t/h o 260t/h)

Fig. 3.3.1-14: Example of Flow-Out of Suspended Particles after Increase
in the High Pressure Heater Flow Rate and Switchover of Lines


Picture 3.3.1-1: Suspended Particles in Condensate water
(during the clean-up process in supercritical pressure boiler)
The cleanup process basically aims to remove foreign matter from the lines swiftly, stabilize the metal surface
and regulate water quality to ensure the normal operation of the unit. In order to realize this, each system must be
separated and it must be cleaned up from condenser to the boiler, achieving and maintaining satisfactory water
quality level.
There are the following two ways of purifying water:
x Blowing down
x Condensate purification equipment
The aim of the blowing is to uplift water quality, when boiler water quality has deteriorated to such an extent
that it would damage a condenser.
After the blowing process, the water passes through a filter, bypassing a condensate demineralization tower, to
reduce the iron concentration at the outlet of the filter to 30 ppb or below. Subsequently, the water can be fed to
the condensate demineralization tower.
Suspended particles must be removed as far as possible via flushing before discharging them from the lines.
The flow rate is a decisive factor during flushing and cleanup. For this purpose, the flow rate should be
increased by using a single line system, or by adding shocks to the flow rate by switching lines reciprocally. Fig.
3.3.1-14 shows examples of a large volume of suspended particles flown out of the system via the addition of
shocks after switching to the high pressure heater.
The temperature of the boiler should be monitored to raise it in a phased manner by considering the relationship
between the temperature and the maximum allowable iron concentration. The flow rate must be retained as high
as possible.
(3) Analysis of Iron Concentration using a 0.45µm Millipore Filter
Analysis of iron concentration must be done as swiftly as possible, as it is an indicator to determine the
appropriateness of each cleanup process. The accuracy is relatively unimportant. A technique involving filtrating a
certain volume of sample water to visually inspect the residues and compare its color with a standard specimen
was introduced by Gilbert.
The technique was developed by B&W. Firstly, a filter of 0.1µm was used, but it soon emerged experimentally
that more than 90% of particles that cannot be removed via filtration of condensed and feed water can be
214
215
eliminated by a 0.45µm filter. In Japan, as shown in Table 3.3.1-10, it was found that, when except a deaerator
tank, iron particles of 0.45µm or above in size occupied more than 60% at the position requiring final assessment
and at the time measurement required just after starting up the plant.
These results were based on the plant being in continuous operation mode, with shutdown rarely occurring. The
successful results were attributable to the fact that large-sized particles detached from the boiler surface, etc., were
flown out temporarily into water in the lines when the plant started operation.
However, stopping the system frequently during the DSS operation gradually reduces the volume of such
particles of larger size. On the other hand, it was reported that the size of the needle-shaped corrosion products
generated in a condenser during plant stoppage and restart consisted of FeOOH of 0.02 to 0.1µm and that other
products, such as magnetite, also detached from the boilers of which the size and shape were apparent in the form
of thin films of approx. 0.02µm and square-shaped products of approx. 0.1µm respectively. As the ratio of fine
particles of 0.45µm in size or below newly generated from the system letup to restart tended to increase, it was
necessary to examine whether a filter of 0.45µm should be continuously used or not.
Recently suggestions include, given the variability in the optical properties of FeOOH, Fe
2
O
3
and Fe
3
O
4
, that
the color strength of these three products should be measured and quantified.

Table 3.3.1-10: Particle Diameter Distribution of Suspended Iron Oxides in System
Water when the System is Started
No. 4 Unit of Himeji No. 2 No. 2 Unit of Takasago No. 4 Unit of Kainan *3
Iron Collected by a Millipore
Filter*2
Iron Collected by a Millipore
Filter*2
Iron Collected by a
Millipore Filter*2
Specimen Sampling
Time*1
0.45 0.22 0.025
Sampling
Time*1
0.45 0.22 0.025
Sampling
Time*1
0.45 0.22
Outlet of the
Condensate
pump
1

2
180
86
43
72
179
85
60
100
189
90
60
100
1

2

3

4

288
92
189
91
261
93
228
94
293
94
196
94
273
98
238
93
309
99
207
100
277
98
239
99
1

2

3

83
88
41
96
63
94
35
93
42
97
64
95
Deaerator tank 1
2
17
30
30
100
23
40
30
100
23
40
30
100
1

2

3

4

13
43
17
59
18
58
8
26
16
53
16
55
18
58
18
58
27
90
26
90
30
97
29
94
1

2

3
3
37
6
73
4
54
4
50
6
73
4
63
Inlet of an
Economizer
1

2
86
57
31
100
116
77
31
100
126
84
31
100
1

2

3

4
33
62
12
35
17
45
28
61
37
70
16
47
17
49
32
70
47
89
31
91
27
77
40
87
1

2

3
11
73
11
83
6
88
12
80
12
87
6
96
Outlet of
Furnace
1

2
86
57
31
100
116
77
31
100
126
84
31
100
1

2

3

4
25
58
19
48
24
100
23
100
28
65
27
68
24
100
23
100
43
100
40
100
24
100
23
100
1

2

3
44
94
58
95
3
72
45
96
58
96
3
72

* Sampling Time
[No. 4 Unit of Himeji No. 2] [No. 2 Unit of Takasago] [No. 4 Unit of Kainan]
1973.6
1: After boiler inspection
2: Cleanup at 117qC
1973.5
1: Acceptance of cleanup before
the ignition of the boiler
2: Furnace fluid: 120qC
3: Furnace fluid: 190qC
4: Furnace fluid: 300qC
1973.8
1: Immediately before the ignition of the boiler
2: Inlet of Primary SH: 200qC
3: Inlet of Primary SH: 350qC
*2 The upper line of each column shows the concentration of iron collected by 0.45µm, 0.22µm
and 0.025µm filters, while the bottom line shows the percentage of iron oxides of more than
0.45µm, .22µm and 0.025µm in size relatively to the total iron.
*3 The iron concentration values are rounded
off to the nearest whole number.
3.3.1.3 Emergence of a Supercritical Pressure Unit
The first supercritical pressure unit commenced commercial operation at Anegasaki Power Plant in Chiba
Prefecture in December 1967, followed by the No. 4 unit in the Himeji No. 2 Power Plant in March 1968. In the
U.S, the first supercritical pressure unit to commence commercial operation was the 315k Class Philio No. 6 unit
(125MW) in 1957. Based on the experience of this unit, a 246k Class, 538qC unit was developed after 1964, and
in 1966, such units occupied almost half of all power generation capacities developed for steam-power generation.
As in the U.S. a supercritical pressure unit started operation without identifying the movement of impurities in
water under supercritical condition, many troubles of copper scales to a high pressure turbine was reported due to
the copper dissolved in steam. The troubles became a synonym of a trouble peculiar to supercritical pressure unit,
that had not been experienced in subcritical pressure units. For example, Avon No. 8 unit experienced a copper
scale deposit of 1.5 to 2.3mm in thickness and 5.5 lbs. in weight during its three-year operation, and the load of
250 MW was decreased to 216 MW.
Subsequently came the introduction of a supercritical pressure unit aiming to meet the increased power demand
during periods of high economic growth. As the new unit handles supercritical pressure, completely different from
subcritical pressure, the latest water treatment system was employed to handle the latest water treatment
technology at that time.
There remained some challenges to be overcome in water treatment after the introduction of a supercritical
pressure unit. The following are the experiences of the No. 4 unit in the Himeji No. 2 Power Plant.
(1) Copper and Condensate purification equipment
As explained above, the concentration of copper must be minimized, as it deposits on turbine blades. Referring
to experiences in the U.S, 2 ppb was determined as a target for the copper concentration.
To eliminate copper, there are two methods; namely removing copper alloys from plant and using condensate
purification equipment.
For the former, steel pipes were used for the feedwater heater in lieu of copper alloy pipes. The No. 4 unit of
Himeji No. 2 Power Plant only used copper alloy for its low-pressure heater No. 1 and 2.
There was no alternative to the use of aluminum brass and copper dissolved from a condenser can be removed
by condensate purification equipment. However the condensate purification equipment manufactured by Graver
and installed as the No.4 unit of Himeji No. 2 Power Plant met the guaranteed value of 0.3µS for electrical
conductivity, while the iron, copper and total dissolved solid material concentrations of 10 ppb, 3 ppb and 35 ppb
respectively were only the target values. The condensate demineralizer used was an external regeneration system.
With this in mind, the criteria for the copper concentration of the No. 4 unit of Himeji No. 2 Power Plant was
set to 3 ppb, although the actual concentration could be contained at almost 2 ppb. All the units installed in the
Power Plant thereafter used steel pipes for all feed heaters and the criteria was changed to 2 ppb, which was
successfully met thereafter.
Temperature
F
l
u
i
d

T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
°
F
)
I
r
o
n

D
e
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n

V
o
l
u
m
e

(
g
/
f
t
2
)
Deposition
Length of Generating Tubes (ft)
(Source: B&W reports)
Fig. 3.3.1-15: Iron Deposition to Generation Tubes
(2) Cold Cleanup at a Temperature of 177qC
The following two were preconditioned for boiler cleanup activities:
1) To minimize foreign substances slipped into boilers to minimize deposit generation and hence reduce chemical
cleaning
2) To shorten the cleanup time
The flow ratio of WW maintained by a BCP is said to accelerate the cleanup because the contaminant reverts to
the form of suspended particles and flows out from the boiler .
A cold cleanup refers to the initial cleanup process of a boiler previously used, which can literally also be cold.
For the No. 4 unit of the Himeji No. 2 Power Plant, C.E suggested that a cleanup be done while keeping the boiler
216
217
ignited. As Fig. 3.3.1-15, a result of experiments at B&W, shows, the iron starts depositing in a generating tube at
a temperature of 450°F (232qC). Therefore at this temperature or below, iron deposited at the inlet of an
economizer need not be considered. In actual practice, a boiler is cleaned by keeping its temperature at 350°F
(177qC) at the outlet of the WW to suspend foreign matter deposited on the wall of pipes, which is then removed
using a condensate purification equipment. The temperature at the outlet of the WW may be risen up to 400°F. It
is reported that Breed and Philo experienced circumstances whereby most iron oxide contained in feed water went
through the boiler at an outlet temperature of 260qC to 288qC, and all of it was deposited on the pipe wall at a
temperature of 316qC or above.
The following are the criteria for giving final approval to a boiler that cleanup be completed at a temperature of
177qC:
Inlet of an economizer: Iron 50 ppb
Copper 20 ppb
Silica 30 ppb
Oxygen 10 ppb
Outlet of a WW: Iron 500 ppb
If the iron concentration is 500 ppb or below at the outlet of WW when the deaeration feed water contains 50
ppb of iron, the contamination on the WW surface is minute. This is because it is said that experiences indicate
that iron will not separate out at the WW when the temperature at the outlet of the WW is 218qC at the highest.
Experiences also indicate that the permissible level of iron concentration at the outlet of WW may be up to 500
ppb, rather than 50 ppb, without sacrificing cleanup effects or boiler performances.
Lax water quality is allowed after cleanup so that units can be installed in juxtaposition to obtain a reasonable
flow rate. Moreover, since the cleanup does not take long, slightly deteriorated water quality will not cause any
scales to be deposited.
Based on experience, when the iron concentration comes to 50 ppb, both copper and silica concentrations
satisfy the limit values, and the acceptance of cleanup is determined by measuring the iron concentration at the
inlet of an economizer only.
If the iron concentration at the inlet of the economizer reaches 50 ppb, both copper and silica concentrations at
the same location should satisfy the limit values.
After the cleanup at 177qC, the temperature may be uplifted. During the temperature rise, the iron concentration
at the inlet of the economizer should be kept at 50 ppb or below. Beyond 177qC, even if the spillover of the
economizer is closed, the iron concentration can be maintained at this concentration or below. In the case that the
concentration exceeds this value, the spillover should be increased, whereupon, the iron concentration can be kept
at this level till combined input.
(3) Steel Pipe Heater and pH Rise
As a result of a test , when the pH of the feed water at the inlet of the economizer was uplifted to 9.5, the iron
separated out into the feed water system was significantly reduced. As for copper, no significant change was
observed after the pH uplifted to 9.5. So the value of 9.5 was determined for pH.
The reason that the pH was limited to 9.5 was because more ammonia should be used if the value exceeds this
level and because of curtailing chemical costs due to an increase in the number of regenerations and due to a
deterioration in the water intake capacity of a desalination tank.
3.3.1.4 Advancement of Condensate purification equipments
(1) Ammonia-Type Resin
Though the cation and anion resins contained within a condensate demineralization tower do not lose the
function of removing ions such as sodium, iron and copper for the former and chloride ions and silica for the latter,
they are prone to break down due to the ammonium ion exchange caused by a pH regulator.
Based on experience, an idea was proposed to use NH4 type ions as exchanger bases for cation resin to
optimally utilize the resin functions. In the U.S, a series of simulation tests was conducted at the end of 1966,
followed by the practical implementation of the method.
At the No. 4 unit of the Himeji No. 2 Power Plant, a series of tests using an actual unit was conducted from
1969 to 1970, following an experiment using a small-sized unit.
Consequently, it emerged that this method can withstand even a leakage occurring within the condenser.
However, the findings were attributable to the fact that during the test, the unit was handled with extreme care, the
ratio of regeneration was almost 100% and that due to this, the water quality at the inlet was excellent. With this in
mind, the design of actual units required thorough consideration of various points. This consideration was made
after the test and the method was implemented.
(2) Electromagnetic Filter
A pre-coat filter was in use for 20 years. The shortcomings were the fact that it took 2 hours to regenerate and
that dissolving a pre-coat agent requires handling by operators, because this did not take place automatically. In
addition, the pre-coat filter requires a pre-coat agent, resulting in a high running cost, and effluent sludge needs to
be treated.
An electromagnetic filter was first used in a Kiel Power Plant (320MW). At the Power Plant, condensate water
and a low pressure drain were treated at a temperature of 130qC, while the capacity of the electromagnetic filter
was disclosed in 1966, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1-16. As the system water temperature rose at startup, the magnetite
volume also increased. Alongside the same, the ratio of removing foreign matter was on the rise; 90% of total iron
and 97% of magnetite were removed successfully. However, as the concentration of total iron fell to 10 ppb, the
ratio was reduced to 80%.
After an electromagnetic filter had been developed in Japan, it rapidly spread to all newly installed units. The
filter generates a high gradient magnet field by subjecting a solenoid coil to a direct high density current. It shows
high removal performances against ferromagnetic and paramagnetic iron oxides when a filler is charged into the
tower, making it an electric magnet, in combination with the mechanical filtration of the filler. The water feed
filtration velocity (LV Value) is approx. 10 times higher for an electromagnetic filter than that for a conventional
filter, and the whole unit can be miniaturized. As it facilitates regeneration relatively easily, this helps save
significant amounts of both energy and labor. Moreover, no stand-by unit is required because flushing the unit
takes as little as 15 minutes, including the preparation time. In addition, no meticulous operation control is
necessary, the volume of effluents from of the unit is modest, no filtration auxiliary agents or other chemicals are
required and the volume of sludge can therefore be minimized.
However, the shortcomings, according to a report, include its inability to remove high levels of paramagnetic
Į-Fe
2
O
3
and Į-FeOOH of fine powders and amorphous bodies, while its capacity to remove irons is slightly
worse .

Normal Operation
(0.3m/s)
R
a
t
i
o

o
f

R
e
m
o
v
a
l

(
%
)
Magnetite
Total iron
Heat up of a plant
Iron (pbb)
218

Fig. 3.3.1-16: Performance of an Electromagnetic Filter
(Source: Condensate water of
the Kiel Power Plant)

(3) Hollow Fiber Membrane Filter
The first thermal Power Plant to use a hollow fiber membrane filter was Goi Thermal Power Plant No.2 in April
1988 . In operating DSS, as the conventional pre-coat filters fell short in terms of responding to the requirement of
high speed condensate water purification and enhancement of boiler water quality, one of the three existing
pre-coat filter was replaced by a hollow fiber membrane filter so that all condensate water generated at system
start-up could be treated. The hollow fiber membrane filter is of polyethylene resin, with filtration holes of less
than 0.1 micron in diameter on its surface and removes foreign matter on the external surface of the fiber. The
foreign matter it captures is discharged from the membrane surface by backwashing filtrated condensate water
from the inside of the filter by vibrating the membrane fiber using air pressure.
As the operation needed only involves drawing water and backwashing, they can be remotely controlled from
the central control room.
Although the report states that the concentration of iron at the inlet reached 200 ppb, that at the outlet was kept
below the detectable limit, as always and the cleanup time was successfully curtailed by half to a third of the
original.
The bottleneck of this system, however, is the substantial initial cost required.
3.3.1.5 Introduction of an Oxygen Treatment Method
As indicated by the arguments thus far, water treatment technologies after the WWII have been solely reliant on
the U.S. However, on a global basis, methods of water treatment employed may also originate from outside the
U.S., e.g. from Europe, where methods unique to this continent are used.
In Germany, an oxygen treatment method was developed in the latter half of 1960s and registered in VGB in
1972. Due to the lack of any ammonia attack on the condensate water pipes, the iron concentration in feed water
can be retained, at least at a level equivalent to that of volatile chemicals and other benefits, and this oxygen
treatment method has penetrated all over Europe. Indeed, the former Soviet Union employed the method in the
mid-1970s for practical use. In Japan, the method has been applied to all boiling water reactors (BWR), in systems
where chemical treatment cannot be applied to the primary cooling system, and a good operational record has
been accumulated to date.
It was considered that, in order to apply the oxygen treatment method to thermal power plants in Japan, it was
necessary to more clearly identify its impacts on reducing scales, the effects of curtailing boiler differential
pressure, the influences on turbine materials, water treatment conditions when stopping and starting the system
and other aspects. For this purpose an ‘oxygen treatment method assessment committee’ was established,
featuring the membership of 10 electric power companies and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power
Industry (CRIEPI). CRIEPI aimed to identify the above issues and commenced basic research into the practical
use of oxygen treatment method to a once-through boiler in April 1988. The research period was 2 years.
Joint basic research carried out by the 10 electric power companies and CRIEPI was primarily focused on the
following three examination items, and the committee was used as a venue for discussing and assessing in a
comprehensive manner.
(i) The impacts of oxygen on the anti-corrosive performance of boiler pipes against high temperature water
(ii) Impacts of oxygen on SCC and the corrosion fatigue of steam turbine materials
(iii) Assessment as to how the oxygen treatment method is used in plants outside Japan and the provision of
temporary guidance for the practical application of this method to an actual system
Various types of these tests, as well as a case assessment of how the method is used in overseas plants, were
summarized as shown below.
The oxygen treatment method was found to have at least equivalent scaling and anti-corrosion performances to
the all volatile treatment method. Case assessment showed that the oxygen treatment method had the effect of
curtailing a surge of boiler differential pressure and decreasing the generation of scales as well as no new system
reports being reported. With such affirmative results, it was confirmed that the oxygen treatment methods could
represent an ideal feed water treatment method to a once-through boiler.
3.3.1.6 Introduction of the Oxygen Treatment Method
The Chubu Electric Power Company Limited conducted an experimental research involving the application of
the oxygen treatment method to the No. 1 unit of its Chita No. 2 Thermal Power Plant jointly with Hitachi, Ltd.
(boilers) and Toshiba Corporation (turbines) in 1990. This was the first of its kind in Japan.
Some favorable results were obtained, including the curtailment of the differential pressure surge of boilers,
decreased BFP powers and prolongation of the chemical cleaning intervals of boilers. As no adverse effects of
corrosion and erosion were observed, the system was assessed as being applicable for practical use.
With such favorable assessments, the system will be introduced mainly to 18 once-through boilers of
supercritical pressure class or above.
The following chapters explain the result of the research, final assessments and introduction plans.

Application of the Oxygen Treatment
Method
Decreased iron concentration in
the feed water
Change of scale
characteristics
Decreased iron volume fed to
the pumps
Curtailment of wave-shaped
scale production
Curtailment of
overheating to the
generating pipes
Decreased scale generation
velocity
Curtailment of the differential
pressure surge of boilers
Curtailment of
pressure surge at the
outlet of a feed water
pump
Decreasing
power
consumption of
the feed water
pumps
Prolonged chemical cleaning
intervals
Enhanced cost
performance
Enhanced reliability

219
Fig. 3.3.1-17: Expected Effects of the Oxygen Treatment Method


Table 3.3.1-11: Research Plan
Item
220


3.3.1.6.1 Characteristics of the Oxygen Treatment Method
The oxygen treatment method aims to prevent corrosion by generating a protective layer of trivalent iron oxide
(Fe
2
O
3
or hematite) by infusing a minute volume of oxygen (20 to 200µg/l) under an ultra pure water environment
(0.2µS/cm or below) with pH between 6.5 to 9.0. Compared to an AVT protection layer of magnetite, hematite has
relatively lower solubility, finer particles and generates sleeker protection layers, meaning the performance as
shown in Fig. 3.3.1-17 can be expected.
There are two ways to use the oxygen treatment method; one is the neutral water treatment method and the
other, the combined water treatment method (CWT), where the pH environment is 8.0 to 9.0. During this research,
CWT was employed because it was once used before in Germany and because of its excellent performance in
terms of curtailing the separation of iron and copper.
3.3.1.6.2 Outline of Research
(1) Research Periods
April 1990 to September 1993
The work schedule is as shown in Table 3.3.1-11.
(2) Unit Subject to the Research
No. 1 unit of the Chita No. 2 Thermal Power Plant
(Supercritical pressure conversion and the once-through type with the output of 700MW)
(3) Research Items
a. To establish optimum water quality conditions
b. To establish an optimum mode of switching from AVT and CWT and vice versa
c. To establish optimum operation methods of condensate water and the desalination unit.
d. Assessment test of impacts on other units
(4) Research Facilities
a. Oxygen injection unit (Oxygen is fed from a cylinder to the outlet of a condensate water desalination unit
and of a deaeration unit.)
b. Low pH ammonia injection unit
c. Water quality monitoring system
3.3.1.6.3 Results of the Research
In line with the regular inspection for FY1990 (February 4 to 6, a series of facility installation works was
conducted, including an oxygen injection unit.
For approx. 1.5 months from the start of the units and after regular inspection, AVT was conducted to smoothly
transfer to CVT after the start of CWT.
Subsequently, on August 15, the system was completely transferred from AVT to CWT, whereupon, a series of
tests was conducted, including optimum water quality conditioning tests, long-term running tests and impact
assessment test to other units.
(1) Iron and Copper Concentration in Feed and Condensate water
a. Iron Concentration
FY1990 FY1991 FY1992 FY1993
Facility Design
and Construction
(Regular Inspection)
Feasibility Test
(Inspection of
Facility)
Analysis and
Assessment
Test to determine optimum
operating conditions
Long-term running test
Analysis
Intermediate
assessment


Comprehensive
assessment
Analysis
(Legend)
(Legend)
Oxygen Oxygen
221



1) When Converting to CWT
Just after the conversion to CWT, the iron concentration surged by more than 8 times or 24µg/l at the inlet of an
economizer, compared to AVT. This transit phenomenon was also seen in copper concentration (tripled to 2µg/l).
Both phenomena, however, disappeared within a few weeks.
The reason for this may be attributable to the fact that protection layers were not formed smoothly because of
decreasing pH (AVT9.6oCWT8.5) and the fact that the injection of oxygen was performed simultaneously when
the CWT was first started. In future, first oxygen should be injected to monitor the behaviors of dissolved oxygen
(DO) and iron while reducing pH step by step.
2) Long-Term Running (pH: 8.5, DO: 100µg/l)
As shown in Fig. 3.3.1-18, compared to AVT, the iron concentration doubled to 8.8µg/l at the outlet of a
condensate pump before injecting oxygen, due to the decreased pH, while after injecting oxygen, it reduced to
between a third and a half (3.1µg/lĺ1.6µg/l at the inlet of an economizer). The CWT thus seems relatively
effective in reducing the iron concentration of feed water and the volume of iron fed into boilers.
3) Relationship between pH and DO
As shown in Fig. 3.3.1-19, at the outlet of a condensate pump, as the pH increased, the iron concentration
tended to decrease, with a level equal or slightly higher than AVT. The same trend was observed in low pressure
feed heater drain, although no significant effects were observed in other systems.
There were also no significant relationships observed between pH and DO.
b. Copper Concentration
The copper concentration in CWT was at the same level as AVT, i.e. 0.6µg/l. No significant relationships were
observed between pH and DO as well.
(2) Differential Pressure of Units
a. Differential Pressure of Boilers
The boiler differential pressure refers to the difference in the pressure lost between the inlet of an economizer to
Outlet of a
Condensate
water Pump
Outlet of an
Electromagnetic
Filter
Outlet of a
Condensate
water Booster
Pump
Outlet of an
Economizer
Outlet of a
Deaeration
Unit
Main
Steam
Fig. 3.3.1-18: Shift of Iron Concentration under the
Long-Term Running Test (pH: 8.5, DO: 100µg)
Fig. 3.3.1.19: Relationship between pH, DO and Iron
Concentration
Outlet of a Condensate water
Pump
Outlet of an Economizer
(Legend)
During the research
period
D
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t
i
a
l

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
k
g
/
c
m
2
)
During the past AVT
period
Regular Inspection
(Chemical cleaning)
Regular
Inspection
Regular
Inspection
Number of Months
Start of CWT
Fig. 3.3.1-20: Shift of Boiler Differential Pressure
Chemical
cleaning
a steam separation drain tank.
As shown in Fig. 3.3.1-20, the pressure surged by approx. 8kg/cm
2
in 1.5 months for AVT, before the start of
CWT. It then became a decrease one month after the start of the CWT, whereas in 9 months, the differential
pressure had decreased to the same level as that after chemical cleaning was applied to the unit (30kg/cm
2
). The
trend continued thereafter, before ultimately reaching differential pressure equivalent to that at the commissioning
of the unit, i.e. 27.5kg/cm
2
).
Compared to AVT, the differential pressure showed a significant decrease to approx. 15 kg/cm
2
, which was the
same level as that of a unit 15 months after chemical washing.
Due to such reduced differential pressure of boilers and other factors, the BFP outlet pressure was reduced. The
volume of steam required for operating the BFP was reduced by 6.7 t/h for low pressure steam and 5.3 t/h for high
pressure steam, compared to AVT, as shown in Table 3.3.1-12.
This effectively shows that CWT is relatively effective in reducing the differential pressure of boilers and the
BFP power loss.

Table 3.3.1-12: Comparison of Steam Volume for Operating BFP (Unit: t/h)
1 AVT 2 CWT 1-2
Low pressure steam
High pressure steam
125.3
9.2
118.6
3.9
6.7
5.3
Note 1: For AVT, the figures are the mean values from Jan. 1987 to April 1990.
Note 2: For CWT. The figures are the mean values from Jan. 1991 to Jan. 1992.

222

(Legend)
The unit used for this
research
No. 4 unit of the Ulsan
Thermal Power Plant
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

S
p
e
e
d

(
m
g
/
c
m
2
,

1
,
0
0
0
h
)
(2.5 years)
9.5 years
Fig. 3.3.1-22: Water Pipe Scale Generation Speed of the Unit used for This Research and
the No. 4 Unit of the Ulsan Thermal Power Plant


Fig. 3.3.1-21: Scale Generation Speed of Water Pipes, etc.
4 years (1 year after the
start of CWT)
(Legend)
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

S
p
e
e
d

(
m
g
/
c
m
2
,

1
,
0
0
0
h
)
Upper
part
Lower
part
Lower
part
Furnace
side
Furnace
side
Furnace
material
side
Furnace
material
side
(Coal economizer)
Upper
part
(Water pipe: front
wall)
(Generation unit)
(Water pipe: side wall)
223

. Differential Pressure of High Pressure Feed Heater
ater refers to the total differential pressure from the inlet of
N
ssure of boilers and in 10 months, it came down to 7kg/cm
2
,
na
s
oilers and turbine-related units were performed in line with
re
ere performed in three stages, the first involved inspecting the conditions of the AVT as a
ba
art (pipe observation test)
on showed a time course decrease after switching over to
at
(ii)
s after switching to CWT showed a decrease in the same manner as the volume of scale
b
The differential pressure of a high pressure feed he
o. 1 unit to the outlet of No. 3 unit respectively.
It shows the same trend as the differential pre
mely, the same level as the unit immediately after chemical cleaning. Thereafter, the trend continued until the
differential pressure stabilized at approx. 6kg/cm
2
.
(3) Corrosion and Scale Deposition on the Unit
Inspections for corrosion and scale deposition on b
gular inspections.
The inspections w
sis of the assessment, and the second covered its conditions 1 year after the switchover to the CWT (CWT-1),
while the third was done approx. 2.5 years after the switchover to the CWT.
a. Major Units Related to Boilers
(a) Economizer and Evaporation P
(i) Volume of Scales Deposited (Generation Speed)
As shown in Fig. 3.3.1-21, the speed of scale generati
the CWT. In approx. 2.5 years, it reduced by between two thirds to a half (1ĺ0.7mg/cm
2
, 1,000h at the front
wall of the water pipe on the furnace side). Compared to AVT, the decrease was relatively significant i.e. by a
between a half and a third (1.7ĺ0.7mg/cm
2
, 1,000h at the front wall of the water pipe on the furnace side).
The trend for decreased scale generation speed is, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1-22, the same level as that shown
the No. 4 unit of the Ulsan Thermal Power Plant of Korea Electric Power Corporation. Based on this, the
ultimate scale generation speed of a CWT is 0.5mg/cm
2
, 1,000h.
Scale Thickness
The scale thicknes
deposited. In approx. 2.5 years, it decreased to a level almost equivalent to that around a year after the
switchover. Compared to AVT, it showed a significant decrease by approx. a half to a quarter (0.06ĺ0.03mm
at the front wall of the water pipe on the furnace side).
(iii) Surface Conditions of Scale
As Picture 3.3.1-1 shows, for AVT, the scale was in a waveform of crystals of 10 to 20 µm in diameter.
Around a year after the switchover to CWT, the surface conditions of the scale changed into a shape of fine
powders of several µm in diameter, and no waveform shape scales were identified. After approx. 2.5 years,
further progress was made in terms of miniaturization of the fine powder diameter.

Picture 3.3.1-1 Surface Condition of the Scales Deposited
in Water Pipes
224

225

Resin
Resin
(iv) Cross Section of Scales
As shown in Picture. 3.3.1-2, in AVT, uneven distribution of scale thickness and many voids were observed.
The thickness, thereafter, was thinned and the surface was sleeker approx. one year after switchover to CWT and
the same trend was observed after approx. 2.5 years.
(v) Coarseness of the Scale Surface
Compared to AVT, the coarseness of the scale surface approx. one year after the switchover to CWT was
miniaturized by half (77ĺ35µm).
(vi) Chemical Composition of the Scale
As shown in Fig. 3.3.1-23, the X-ray analysis indicated that in AVT, most of the scales were in the form of
magnetite, while in CWT, they were a mixture of magnetite and hematite (Į-Fe
2
O
3
).
It is considered that due to such qualitative and quantitative changes of scales in CWT, the differential pressure
of the boilers was reduced.
(vii) Solubility of Scales to Chemical cleaning Agents
A scale solubility test was conducted to confirm the solubility of scales generated in CWT into chemical
cleaning agents. Consequently, scales deposited in CWT were totally soluble to agents used for the chemical
cleaning of AVT (1.5% citric acid and 1.5% hydroxyacetic acid), even after approx. 2.5 years had elapsed.
The solubility of scale to chemical agents was the same for that deposited to CWT and AVT. No insoluble
scales were generated some time after the use of CWT was commenced.
(b) Stagnant Water (pipe observation test)
Generally speaking, in CWT, water containing oxygen must be there to supply oxygen. For this reason, there
Scale Scale
Pipe
Wall
Pipe
Wall
Picture 3.3.1-2: Cross Section of Scales
Deposited in Water Pipes
Fig. 3.3.1-23: X-ray Analysis of Iron Compounds
(Water Pipes)
was concern regarding corrosion in sections containing stagnant water.
In order to observe and assess the corrosion, a drain pipe close to the inlet of an economizer and close to the
inlet pipe of a horizontally-set superheater header were chosen as two representative locations where water tends
to be stagnant and oxygen is hardly supplied. Consequently, no significant differences emerged in the corrosion
performance of CWT and AVT.
226

(Legend)
T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s

a
n
d

V
o
l
u
m
e

o
f

S
c
a
l
e
s

(
C
W
T
/
A
V
T
)

(
U
n
i
t
:

%
)
Table 3.3.1-13: Results of Analysis on Scales Deposited on the Main Turbine (Unit: Fe: %, Others: mg/kg)
AVT CWT-1 CWT-2
Medium-Pressure
Unit #9
Low-Pressure
Unit #15
Medium-Pressure
Unit #9
Low-Pressure
Unit #15
Medium-Pressure
Unit #9
Low-Pressure
Unit #15
Fe
Cu
Cr
Ni
Mo
SiO2
Na
Cl
SO4
61.1
4900
12400
810
3100
3600
3300
7
210
64.1
9400
9000
1100
3300
13800
5400
120
450
62.1
4000
10000
2200
2600
4100
1100
4
250
64.1
8200
9400
1500
3800
5900
1500
<1
940
61.4
800
8400
330
2500
3800
500
24
93
62.9
5900
9500
1000
3600
4800
560
17
220
(c) Instrumentation and Control Valves
A series of investigations were conducted on 11 types of spray control valves of a superheater.
As for corrosion and erosion performances, no significant changes emerged between AVT and CWT except for
erosion, as explained in 3.3.3.1.6-(3)-d ‘Parts Using Stellite Materials’ observed on the spray control valves of a
secondary superheater.
Scales deposited on the water side showed a change from black magnetite to red-brown hematite, while on the
steam side, black magnetite was observed, although the volume had declined.
b. Major Turbine Components
(a) Main and BFPTurbines
The scales were colored from black or gray to a mixture of slight red or yellow-brown.
Though some scales were seen deposited on various parts of AVT, in CWT they were rarely seen. As shown in
Fig. 3.3.1-24, compared to AVT, the scales deposited on CWT were reduced to two fifths to one fifth for the
overall main turbine and to one tenth to one twentieth for the BFP turbines, as estimated.
The chemical composition of the scale was, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1-13, the same as those found in AVT, but a
significant decrease was observed in NaSO
4
and SiO
2
. The results of an X-ray analysis showed an increase of
hematite, like the scale attached to the boiler generation pipes.
The form of the scale was, due to the use of CWT, observed in smaller crystal shapes.
As for the corrosion and erosion of blades, rotors, nozzles and enclosures, there were no significant differences
when generally compared to AVT. There was also no abnormality in the non-destructive inspection (PT, MT, UT).
(b) Turbine control valve
Main
Turbine
BFP
Turbine
High Pressure
Water Supply
Heater Flow
Rectification
Tower
Strainer
at the
Inlet of a
BFP
BFP
Rotator
Adjusting
Valve of
High
Pressure
Water
Heater Drain
Fig. 3.3.1-24: Thickness and Volume of Scales
Deposited on Major Components of a Turbine (Relative
Comparison)
An investigation was conducted on seven kinds of valves including the main steam stop valve. As a result, there
was no significant difference when compared to AVT generally.
The maximum depth of erosion to a sub-valve of a main steam stop valve was 4 to 5 mm, which is equivalent to
that observed in AVT.
(c) Instrumentation and Control Valves
A series of investigations was conducted to 9 types of valves, including BFP overheat prevention valves.
Consequently, the drain control valve attached to a high pressure feed water valve No. 3 showed a significant
decrease in the volume of scales (while in AVT, valve sticks were observed due to the deposition of scales), of
which the thickness was one fifth or below compared to AVT (0.6 to 3.0 mm ĺ 0 to 0.5mm). The scale was soft
and easily removed and maintained.
As for corrosion and erosion performances, no significant changes emerged between AVT and CWT except for
erosion, as explained in 3.3.3.1.6-(3)-d ‘Parts Using Stellite Materials’ observed on the BFP overheat prevention
valves.

Picture 3.3.1-3: Scales Deposited on the Flow Rectifying Tower of the High Pressure Feed Heater
Good
Bad
Fig. 3.3.1-25: Performances of a High Pressure
Feed Heater
A
b
l
a
t
i
o
n

V
o
l
u
m
e

(
m
m
)
Fig. 3.3.1-26: Wear Volumes of the Chrome
Plating

227
228
(d) High Pressure Water Feed Heater
The color of scales for both the inner water chamber and inner heating pipe, as well as the flow rectifying tower,
changed from black magnetite to red-brown hematite, while X-ray analysis also confirmed an increase in hematite
materials.
Meanwhile, the volume of scales was also subject to decrease. As shown in Picture 3.3.1-3, the hardened scales
that had been removed during regular AVT inspection were rarely observed. As shown in Fig. 3.3.1-25, the
volume of scales in CWT was one tenth or below (1,520ĺ150g/year).
Due to the decreased scale, the differential pressure of a high pressure feed heater was decreased and, as shown
in Fig. 3.3.1-25, the heat transfer performance (TD: Temperature Difference at the End Parts) was increased by 0.3
to 0.5qC, compared to AVT.
As for the corrosion and erosion performances, no significant differences were observed between AVT and
CWT and a similar trend was observed for other types of heat exchangers (condensers and deaeration units).
(e) BFP
A series of investigations was conducted on a rotator and strainer. As shown in Fig. 3.3.1-24, the volume of
scales attached to the rotator was found to have decreased to approx. one fifth of that to AVT (460ĺ100g/year x
unit) and no waveform scales, as observed in AVT, were seen around the CWT periphery. As for the strainer, the
scales were around one sixth that of AVT (250ĺ40g/year x unit).
Regarding corrosion and erosion, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1-26, the wear volume of the chrome plating layer of the
driving part of the rotator showed an increase compared to that of AVT (0 to 0.06mmĺ0.02 to 0.35mm in terms
of the maximum volume at each stage). It was presumed that feed water containing oxygen had slipped into the
micro pin holes and micro cracks, causing corrosions in the gap between the base materials and their plating
layers and leading to removal of the layer.
In order to reverse the situation, the following corrosion tests were carried out using an actual unit and chrome
plating combined by electroless nickel plating was found to be effective.
[Test Procedures]
Location: Suction strainer of BFP
Materials: Base material (13 Cr)
Cr plating
Composite electroless nickel plating
Cr plating + electroless nickel plating
Thermal spraying of oxidized Cr
Periods: July 1992 to Jan. 1993 (for 6 months)

c. Stress Corrosion Cracking Test of Turbine Materials
In order to confirm the effects of CWT on turbine materials, a stress corrosion cracking test was conducted in
the following procedures. To compare the results, the No. 2 unit using AVT was subject to a similar test.
[Test Procedures]
Location: Low pressure 16th stage extraction steam chamber (dry)
Low pressure 17th stage extraction steam chamber (humidity: 2%)
Low pressure air discharge chamber (humidity; 7.5%)
Materials: Blade materials (12CrNiMoV steel)
Blade materials (12CrMoV steel)
Rotor materials (3.5CrNiCrMoV steel)
Stress added: 40kgf/mm
2
60kgf/mm
2
Exposure periods: CWT: 761 days
AVT: 674 days
The following results were obtained and no adverse impacts were considered to be imposed on the turbine
materials by CWT:
1) No stress corrosion cracks observed for both specimens
2) No significant differences in stress corrosion cracks were observed between AVT and CWT.
d. Parts using Stellite Materials
As there are some reports in Europe of CWT causing corrosions to stellite materials, a test was conducted to
confirm the corrosion performances of the stellite materials.
(a) Final Stage Blade of Main Turbine
Stellite materials (#6) are used at the tip of the blade to shield it against erosions. Although erosion was
observed there, the extent was not as significant as that previously found in AVT (0.05 to 1mm/year).
(b) Main Turbine Control Valve
There was erosion due to the past boiler scale observed at the skirt of a sub-valve of the main steam stop valve,
but its degree was relatively insignificant, like those used in AVT (about 5mm).
(c) BFP Overheat Prevention Valve
Some damage was observed at the seat of a turbine driving the BFP overheat prevention valve (stellite #12)
approx. 1.5 to 2.0 months after the start of CWT. The condition was significant compared to AVT and the interval
over which the damage occurred was significantly reduced. The phenomenon was considered to be due to the high
differential pressure attributable to carbonized stellite materials and erosion due to the high flow rate. Meanwhile,
the selective corrosion was considered to be attributable to the oxygen fed into the system.
To reverse the situation, the valve seat materials were changed from metal to Teflon seat. Thereafter, no
abnormalities were observed and the system has remained in good operating condition.
See the intermediate report (5) attached to this journal for details of the valve damage conditions, structural
comparisons and materials used.
(d) Spray Control Valve of a Superheater
About two years after the start of CWT, the seat of a secondary superheater spray control valve was subject to
some damage (stellite #6). This affected the corners of the stellite and extended all over the area surrounding the
flow path. In AVT, however, such damage was restricted to the base material side without involving the stellite
layer. The cause of the damage was considered to be the same as that affecting a BFP overheat prevention valve.
Picture 3.3.1-4 shows the conditions of the damage and its mechanism.
Methods of preventing such damage have already been established and employed by other power companies.
The author plans to employ multiple coatings on the stellite surface (ceramic coating) and will examine the
method in detail, including other coating methods.

229

Selective Corrosion of Carbonized
Cr-W due to Oxygen

(e) Other Instrumental and Control Valves
No other problems were observed, even during PT tests, except for moderately selective corrosion at the stellite
part (#6) of the seat ring at the high pressure feed heater drain control valve.
Damage Conditions

Carbonized Cr-W
Co-Cr-W crystals
Microscopic Picture of a Cross Section of the
Damaged Part
Carbonized Cr-W Co-Cr-W
crystals
Erosion of Co-Cr-W crystals due to the
High Flow Rate
Direction of
Flow
Damages Caused by Erosion and
Corrosion
Damage Mechanisms
Picture 3.3.1-4: Damages to the Secondary Superheater Spray
Control Valve
e. Cautions in Operations
(1) How to Operate a Deaeration Unit
Based on experiences in Germany, the vent valve of a deaeration unit was kept closed from the onset of
switchover to CWT. This, however, caused an abnormal surge in the DO concentration (600 ppb or above) at the
outlet of the deaeration unit during the unit operation at low load. This was because, due to the closure of the vent
valve, the high concentration of oxygen, which was deaerated during high load operation, was stagnant in the
upper part of the unit, before expanding in volume, being scattered away and then redissolved in water due to the
decreased pressure inside the unit.
To reverse this situation, the vent valve was left open. This, however, caused deaeration and discharge of DO,
making the environment the same as AVT with low pH and causing the iron concentration at the outlet of the
deaeration unit to surge.
Due to such experiences, the vent valve was again left closed, and only reopened when the DO concentration
surged (intermittent operation).
(2) Increased Differential Pressure of the Electromagnetic Filter (EMF)
Once the use of CWF had commenced, the initial differential pressure after backwashing and regeneration of an
EMF occurred and its post-regeneration operation life was shortened (in 7 months, the operation life was
shortened to one tenth (or 2 days) compared to that used in AVT). The reasons for this are believed to include: (i)
the fact that CWT tends to have higher iron loads than AVT, (ii) an increase in fine particles of FeOOH (the
number of FeOOH particles of 1 µm tripled or quadruplicated), which split into the depth of the element and (iii)
the fact that needle-shaped iron crystals reinforced the iron deposit layer, which could not be removed by a
backwash and regeneration process.
To reverse such conditions, jet washing of elements was employed and the elements were replaced with new
ones.
In order to implement permanent measures, the following items are subject to examination: -
(a) Decreasing iron loads at the inlet of an EMF (pH to be increased to 9.0 : effectiveness confirmed)
(b) Improvement of the regeneration methods
(c) Improvement of elements
f. How to Start and Stop the Unit
For several months after the use of CWT, the unit cleanup time tended to be longer than for AVT, due to
unstable hematite protection layers and for other reasons. This was successfully solved through measures to
improve the cleanup process, such as stabilization of the protective layers, lapping of the boiler and pre-boiler
processes and an improved flow rate and numbers of swinging, as shown in Fig. 3.3.1-14.

Fig. 3.3.1-14: Cleanup Time
Acceptance Assessment

Cleanup Time (h)
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0
Water
Treatment
Method under
Normal
Operation
Let-up
Time (h)
Hydrazine
Injected or
not

AVT 24.5 Injected
Deaeration
Unit
Pre-boiler Boiler
CWT 31.0 Injected
Circulation of Condensate
water
Deaeration
Unit
Pre-boiler and Boiler
CWT 29.0 Not injected
Circulation of
Deaeration Unit
Pre-boiler and Boiler

230
231
Table 3.3.1-15: Optimized CWT Operation Method
Item Controlled Values and Operation Method
Normal Operation
Item Stop
DO (Pg/l)
pH
Cationic conductivity (µS/cm)
*50 to 100
*8.5 to 9.0
0.2 or below
* All control values referred to above are for feed water at the inlet of an economizer.
Start-up and Stop
Item Startup Stop
Water Treatment
Method
Conventional method (AVT) Conventional method (AVT)
AVT
np
CWT
Switchover Period
x Minimum loads or above, and
x Electric conductivity of 0.2µS/cm or
below
x At least 3 hours before the planned
time for disassembly of the unit
Reason: All water must be
circulated once during the period
between the switchover from AVT
and before shutdown of the plant.

Storage Conventional method (AVT)
Leakage of seawater When seawater leakage happens, CWT must be promptly switched over to AVT.
Deaeration unit CWT: The vent valve of a deaeration unit must be subject to intermittent operation.
AVT: The vent valve of a deaeration unit must be kept open.
Condensate water
desalination unit
‘H’ shaped operation

An operation test without using hydrazine was conducted by stopping the unit (WSS), but no significant
differences in cleanup time and water quality were observed. However, hydrazine is a reducing substance and its
use renders the hematite protective layer unstable, which means it may be better to avoid this substance.
In addition, the unit was subject to a startup and stop test while CWT was used in DSS, and no deterioration in
water quality was detected.
The author is determined to continue studies and tests to establish optimum system operation when it is subject
to stop and startup.

Table 3.3.1-16: Problems Attributable to CWT and Measures
Problem Cause Emergency Measure Permanent Measure
Damage to the BFP
overheat prevention valve
seat
Erosion caused by high differential
pressure and flow rate attributable to
the selective corrosion of carbonized
stellite
- x To change to a soft seat
(However, a large-sized valve
must be developed for
Kawagoe Thermal Power
Plants Nos. 1 and 2.)
Damage to the valve seat
of a secondary superheater
spray control valve
Same as above (erosion due to high
flow rate)
x The use of stand-by
inner valves
x The use of ceramic coating,
etc.
Wear of Cr plating at the
sliding part of the BFP
rotator
Erosion caused by corrosion between
a plate layer and its base materials,
attributable to oxygen having slipped
from the cracks, etc. of the plate layer
x Recoating of Cr
plating during the
regular inspection
period
x The use of homogeneous and
defectless electroless Ni
plating between a Cr plating
layer and its base materials
Surge of differential
pressure of EMF (clogged
elements)
High iron load and an increase in iron
oxide fine particles having slipped
into the depth of the element
x Chemical cleaning of
elements
x Increase of EMF
bypassing
x Others
x To decrease the iron
concentration at the inlet of an
EMS (pH: 9.0)
x To improve elements
x Others

3.3.1.6.4 Assessment
Based on the results of these studies and findings in and out of Japan, an assessment was made.
As a result of the assessment, it was found that CWT can be applied to actual units, and is more reliable and
economical than AVT. The assessment details are explained below.
(1) Optimized CWT Operation Method
The author believes Fig. 3.3.1-15 shows the optimized CWT operation method. In this case, no hydrazine will
be used in startup and stop, and neither will any switchover from AVT to CWT take place.
(2) Technical Assessment Comparing to AVT
a. Corrosion of Components
232
Similarly to AVT, the author believes CWT will not have any particularly adverse impacts on the corrosion and
erosion of components.
Moreover, the author also believes that, due to the problems associated with parts using stellite, no basic issues
arise that could deny the CWT applicability. Permanent measures against foreseeable problems are shown in Table
3.3.1-16, while measures for the seat of a BFP overheat prevention valve have already been established. For other
parts, examinations are ongoing.
b. Powers to BFP, etc.
The author believes that the time course increase of steam used for driving BFP found in the acceptance
performance test of the unit using CWT (total amount of heat of low pressure and high pressure steam) can be
substantially decreased to approx. a third compared to AVT, because of the reduced differential pressure of boiler
and of scales deposited.
The author also believes that the functional loss of a high pressure feed heater can be reduced to approx. two
fifths compared to AVT, because of the reduced deposition of scale.
c. Frequency of Chemical Cleaning of Boilers
As shown below, as regards the frequency of chemical cleaning of boilers using CWT, the author believes, in
the case of the No. 1 unit of the Chita No. 2 Thermal Power Plant, that this can be extended from the current 1.5
years to 9.5 years, while for other once-through boilers of supercritical pressure or above, the current 1.5 to 4.5
year period can be significantly extended to 10 to 15 years.
In line with the extension in chemical cleaning frequency, the author believes that regular inspection periods
can be shortened and the disadvantageous transfer of loads eliminated.
(i) Assessment in terms of Boiler Differential Pressure
The interval of chemical cleaning for the unit used in this study, which uses AVT, was 1.5 years due to an
increase in the boiler differential pressure. After switching over to CWT, this increase was eliminated, which
meant the interval of chemical cleaning was extended.
Fig. 3.3.1-27 shows the trend of boiler differential pressure experienced by the Ulsan Thermal Power Plant of
Korea Electric Power Corporation after switching to CWT. The operation time till the pressure rose to the
acceptable limit was 9.5 years, whereupon chemical cleaning took place.
It is considered that the trend of the boiler differential pressure surge of the unit used in this study tends to
follow a path of gradual increase compared to that experienced in Ulsan Thermal Power Plant. However, with
certain allowances taken into consideration, it is estimated that it will take 9.5 years for the unit used by this study
to reach the allowable limit for differential pressure. The author, therefore, believes that the interval of chemical
cleaning for the unit can be extended from 1.5 to 9.5 years.
(ii) Assessment based on the Volume of Scales Deposited on Generation Pipes
The acceptance criteria for the chemical cleaning of boilers employed by this company is around 30 to
45mg/cm2 of scale deposited on generation piles unless other problems, such as abnormal boiler differential
pressure, are observed.
As indicated in 3.3.1.6-(3) ‘Main Components of Boilers,’ the speed of the scales generated will be
0.5mg/cm2࡮1,000h.
Thus, the chemical cleaning intervals calculated from the scale generation speed are 10 to 15 years, based on
the conditions of the unit utilization ratio of 70% (30 to 40mg/cm2 ÷ 0.5mg/cm
2
x 1,000h × 365 days ×24 hours
×0.7).
Based on the above arguments, in the case of other once-through boilers of supercritical pressure or above, for
which no boiler differential pressure need be considered, the author believes that the interval can be extended
from the current 1.5 to 4.5 years to 10 to 15 years.
d. Vibration of BFPs
In the case of the unit used in this study, BFPs were not subject to any vibration, even when using AVT, and
anti-vibration measures remained unconfirmed during the switchover to CWT. However, in the absence of any
waveform scales and the fact that the volume of scales was reduced to approx. one fifth compared to AVT, the
author believes that CWT can represent the ultimate measure against the vibration of BFPs.
e. Environmental Aspects
The use of CWT can eliminate chemicals used to treat feed water and regenerate condensate water desalination
units as well as effluents generated from the chemical cleaning of boilers, thus reducing effluent contamination
loads.
Based on these aspects, CWT can be considered an environment-friendly feed water treatment method.

(Legend)
No. 4 unit of the Ulsan
Thermal Power Plant
The unit used in this
study
B
o
i
l
e
r

D
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t
i
a
l

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
k
g
/
c
m
2
)
Chemical cleaning
233

Fig. 3.3.1-27: Differential Pressure of Boilers for the Unit used in this Study
and the No. 4 unit of the Ulsan Thermal Power Plant
Time

(3) Cost Performance Comparison with AVT
The author believes that the use of CWT can help reduce costs significantly for BFP power losses, and function
on the chemical cleaning of boilers and chemicals for the treatment of feed water.
The time course trend of costs for the use of CWT used by the unit under testing is estimated to be around a
quarter of that incurred when AVT was used, as shown in Table 3.3.1-17.
On the other hand, the ratio of profitability (annual earning u investment amount u 100%), an indicator used to
assess investment results, is 86%, and an effective cost-benefit effect can be expected from the use of CWT.
3.3.1.6.5 Introduction Plan
Based on the results and the assessment of this study, CWT was officially used at Chita No. 2 Thermal Power
Plant in October 1993 when this study was completed, and a plan for introducing CWT to other once-through
boilers was formed.
(1) Applicable Units
For the following reasons, there is scope to apply CWT to all 18 units of supercritical and advanced ultrasuper
critical once-through boilers:
a. 14 out of 18 boilers show increased power loss of BFP, due to a surge of differential pressure and problems
such as vibration of BFPs arising from iron scales, for which the CWT can be an anticipated solution.
b. The cost-benefit calculation of using CWT shows that for all units, an effective cost-benefit can be
expected (Ave. ratio of profitability: 66%)
(2) Periods of Introduction
CWT will be introduced starting from FY1994 for periods of 5 to 6 years in a phased manner, from units where
the technical and economical merits of its use will be considerable.

Table 3.3.1-17: Annual Cost of the No. 1 Unit of the Chita No. 2 Thermal Power Plant
Item AVT
CWT
Economization
Ratio
Remarks
Cost of Power Loss for BFPs 100
33

67
Incremental increase of steam used for driving the
BFPs (actual)
Cost of Functional Loss for High Pressure
Feed Heater
100
40

60
Deterioration of heat transfer performance (actual)
Cost of Installing a Boiler Chemical
cleaning System
100
16

84
AVT: Once in 1.5 years
CWT: Once in 9.5 years (estimated)
Cost of Loss Transferred in relation to the
above
100
16

84
Transfer days: 4 days/time (actual)
Cost of Chemicals for the Treatment of
Feed Water
100
17

83
AVT: Ammonia and hydrazine
CWT: Ammonia and oxygen
Cost of Operating a Condensate water
Desalination Unit
100
32

68
AVT: 56 times (actual)
CWT: 21 times (actual)
Total 100
28

72


3.3.2 Water Control and Management of Thermal Power Plants
Since the water-steam cycle, the vital artery for a thermal power plant, does not stop instantly in the event of
any abnormality, meaning any accident in the cycle tends expand to become a long-term problem for the system, it
should be served carefully and meticulously while in static condition as well as during daily inspections.
Each type and purpose of use of a plant has its own control criteria, of which the water quality criteria and
treatment methods are delineated in JIS B 8223 ‘Boiler feed water and boiler water,’ (hereinafter referred to as
JIS) although different water treatments are required depending on the environment where a plant is situated and
when it was installed. Each water control staff member strives hard to investigate, test and try to uplift
technologies of the most appropriate water treatment methods.
This chapter describes the current status, challenges and future prospects of water treatment implemented in the
fields based on those perspectives.

Table 3.3.2-1 Raw Water Quality Monitoring Items and Measurement Frequencies
Frequency
Analyzing Item
Daily Weekly Monthly
Remarks
Turbidity {
pH {
Conductivity {
Ca
2+
{
Mg
2+
{
Fe
2+
{
Alkali ions (Na
+
and K
+
) { By
calculation
Cl
-
{
SO
4
2-
{
HCO
3
-
{
CO
3
2-
{
NO
3
-
{
Free carbon dioxide (CO
2
) {
SiO
2
{
Total iron {
Residual chlorine (Cl
2
) {
COD {
Colloidal silica {
Water temperature {

3.3.2.1 Water treatment of Makeup Water
3.3.2.1.1 Water treatment of Raw Water Sources
Raw water sources used by a thermal power plant include potable water and industrial water, which originate
from rivers, ponds, lakes and underground water. Depending on the location of the thermal power plant, a water
conversion system is used to convert seawater to fresh water, while effluents are also sometimes collected and
recycled as a water source. The types and concentration of impurities contained in raw water depend significantly
on the particular source of the water is taken or the season in question. It is necessary to understand the quality of
raw water, not only in order to design a makeup water treatment system, used to remove impurities in raw water
and maintain water quality suitable for makeup water, but also to use the system in a stable manner. Table 3.3.2-1
234
shows a list of water quality monitoring items generally applied for maintaining and controlling the system, and
their measurement frequencies. The frequency must be increased whenever significant fluctuation is observed in
the quality of raw water, or a new water source is employed.

Table 3.3.2-2: Turbidity Assessment Indicators
Water Quality
Indicator
Measurement Method Characteristics
MF
Refers to the time required to filtrate a liter of water using a
0.45µm membrane filter (HAWP 047 TYPE HA made by
Millipore Corporation) under reduced pressure of
500mmHg.
Easy to use, but vulnerable to water temperature
and considerable size differences in filters. No
linear relationship with the volume of
contaminants contained in sampled water
MFC
Calculated using the following formula after the measuring
times t1 and t2 required to filtrate 0.5l and 1l of water
respectively under the reduced pressure of 500mmHg, and
using the same measurement instruments as those used to
measure the time of MF.
»
¼
º
«
¬
ª
1
t
t
ln 2 MFC
2
1

Has a linear relationship with turbidity, can
measure consistently from raw seawater to
processed water, and is a relatively newly proposed
indicator.
FI
(=SDI)
Calculated using the following formula after pressurized
filtration of 500ml of sampled water at 2.1kg/m
2
g using a
0.45µm membrane filter (HAWP 047 TYPE HA made by
Millipore Corporation) to measure the filtration time (T1).
The filtration time (T2) is then measured by continuing
filtration for 15 minutes after measuring T1, whereupon the
same filter is used to filtrate a further 500ml of sampled
water.
»
¼
º
«
¬
ª

2
1
T
T
1
15
100
FI

Highly sensitive to detect low turbidity and known
as an inlet water quality indicator for a hollow
fiber reverse osmosis module. As the turbidity
intensifies, its sensitivity tends to drop. For
seawater, normally T2=п, or FI=6.67.
PI
Calculated by using the following formula after
measurement in the same manner as FI.
FI 15
T
T
1 100 PI
2
1
˜
»
¼
º
«
¬
ª


Has the same characteristics as FI. PI=100%
means the filter is totally clogged, and 0% means it
is entirely unclogged.
PN
Means the total water volume (l) filtrated under a certain
stable pressure environment using a membrane filter.
Easy to use, but needs a statement that the values
are subject to change depending on the
measurement environment (filtration pressure and
the type and size of filter used).
Turbidity
Measured using a scattering light type or an integrating
sphere type turbidimeter.
Can conduct rapid and inline analysis, but tends to
be less sensitive for low turbidity.
SS
Calculates the volume of impurities based on a change in
the volume of sample water filtrated through a 0.45µm
membrane filter and the weight of the filter.
Requires considerable sample water for low
turbidity measurement, and is unsuitable for rapid
analysis.

3.3.2.1.2 Control of Pre-Treatment Unit to Maintain its Performance
There are two aims of pre-treatment: one is to protect the ion exchange resin, reverse osmosis membrane and
ion exchange membrane, etc., used for the desalination unit and another is to remove colloidal matters that cannot
be removed via an ion-exchange reaction. The methods generally used for the unit include the coagulating
sedimentation filtration method and the coagulation filtration method. In order to maintain the unit in good
operational condition, it is essential to form a stable floc, for which aluminum coagulation agents are generally
used. Although previously, aluminum sulfate was frequently used, quite recently, polyaluminum chloride (PAC)
and electrolytic aluminum have come into widespread use, since they have excellent coagulation performance and
are less inclined to decrease pH. As an auxiliary agent for floc formation, organic polyacrylamide polymers, with
bentonite to make the floc heavier, are used. Floc formation has many elements to take into consideration, such as
the turbidity of the raw water, alkali level, pH and water temperature. It is, therefore, necessary to determine
optimum coagulation conditions, including the volume of coagulation agents used, selection of auxiliary agents
and pH by implementing a jar test, etc. Inappropriate floc formation will cause residual impurities in the raw water,
and colloidal matters and aluminum (residual coagulation agent) infiltrating in the filtrated water. Colloidal silica
is also contained in the boiler makeup water like ionic silica. When it is channeled into the water and steam
systems, it will become scales deposited onto the low-pressure turbine. Similarly, colloidal aluminum tends to be
deposited on high-pressure turbines in the form of aluminum oxide or sometimes zinc aluminate scales, which
cannot be easily washed away by boiler chemical cleaning. Colloidal silica is controlled by monitoring the silica
concentration in boiler water, and in the event of any anomaly, a comprehensive inspection of the raw water,
filtrated water and deionized water must be conducted.

Table 3.3.2-3: Troubles and Measures for the Pre-Treatment Unit
235
Phenomenon
Cause Measures or Check Item
Inappropriate use of chemicals
Coagulation agent
Coagulation auxiliary agent
pH adjuster
x Conduct a jar test to check that the coagulation conditions are
appropriate.
x Operate the unit under the appropriate injection ratio and filtrate water
coming out from the coagulation sedimentation tank and the coagulation
tank using a No. 5 filter. If the filtrated water is normal, then the problem
lies on the filtration unit, as explained in the next chapter.
Incomplete regeneration of a filtration unit


x Check whether impurities remain in the filtration unit when the normal
course of regeneration process is done. If necessary, extend the
backwashing time.
x Check whether there is any shortage in the backwashing air and water
flow.
Incomplete water collection unit under the
filtration unit
x Check the air dispersion conditions when air backwashing is run. If
necessary, open the lower manhole to check it.
Defects to the backwashing trough of the
filtration unit
Wear or decreased filtration materials
Channeling of filtration layers
Mad balls
x Check whether effluents from the backwashing process are evenly
collected.
x Consider the replenishment of filtration materials.
x Check whether any impurities and organic slime are found in the
filtration layers.
x Repeat the water and air backwashing processes several times.
x Remove the mad balls and replace part of the filtration materials.
D
e
t
e
r
i
o
r
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

t
h
e

p
r
o
c
e
s
s
e
d

w
a
t
e
r

q
u
a
l
i
t
y

Floc strength x Check whether the differential pressure is appropriate for operation by
examining the differential pressure surge from the start of sampling
water and the quality of the processed water.
D
e
c
r
e
a
s
e

i
n

a
m
o
u
n
t

o
f

o
b
t
a
i
n
i
n
g

w
a
t
e
r

Insufficient opening of the valves

Slime inside the filter layers
or accumulation of foreign matter
Miniaturization of the filtration materials
x Insufficient working air pressure
x Damage to valves
x Operate air backwashing using a filtration material cleaner.
x Remove foreign matter having accumulated in the upper part of the filtration
material, if it hinders the discharge of effluents from backwashing.
x Replace the filtration materials on the surface of the filter layers

A slurry circulation type coagulation sedimentation unit requires the maintenance of slurry concentration at an
optimum level, while a sludge blanket type needs the sludge blanket to be kept stable. For both types, the key is
how to adjust the volume of chemicals used as well as that of the sludge discharged from the units. Even without
any dramatic fluctuation in the turbidity and alkali level of raw water, the water temperature varies seasonally,
with a lower water temperature leading to a deterioration in floc formation performance. Experience states that the
threshold temperature is at 10qC or so. If the temperature descends from this level, an auxiliary agent should be
increased to facilitate the floc formation. In the case of a coagulation filtration unit, high water temperature
excessively increases the size of the floc formed and when this happens, the volume of the auxiliary agent should
be decreased. When a separation membrane is used for the desalination unit, the water quality, including the
turbidity and FI (Fouling Index) at the outlet of a pre-treatment unit, must be maintained within the criteria
determined for them. Table 3.3.2-2 shows some examples of turbidity assessment indexes.
In many cases, the problems of a pre-treatment unit are mainly caused by insufficient regeneration of filter
layers due to contamination, which can sometimes be the result of mad balls and mechanical failure of the unit.
When problems involving the filtration unit surface, these can be identified by a deterioration in the quality of
processed water and reduction in the cyclic sampling volume. Table 3.3.2-3 shows the major problems anticipated
to occur with the pre-treatment unit and their measures.

3.3.2.1.3 Control of Deionized Water Generation Unit for Maintaining its Performance
As makeup water for a high pressure boiler requires highly pure demineralized water, the quality of the makeup
water must be controlled. Water treatment items for this purpose include electrical conductivity and silica, and an
indicator and recorder with an alarm are installed at the anion tower of a deionized water generation unit and at
the exit of a polisher to continuously monitor these items. Table 3.3.2-4 shows some examples of water quality
criteria for makeup water used at thermal power plants. The actual values measured by each company, as indicated
in the table, are 1.0µS/cm and 0.01mg/l or below for conductivity and silica respectively.
The following items are examples of daily control items, which should be monitored daily at a fixed time if the
values are measurable:
{ Operation cycles and collection volume per cycle
{ Volume of regeneration agents used and stored
{ Temperature when chemicals are injected to regenerate the anion exchange resin
{ Inner pressure of each ion-exchange resin tower (before and after regeneration)
{ Conductivity of water sampled at the inlet of a deionized water generation unit
{ Conductivity of processed water
236
{ Silica concentration in processed water
Ion-exchange resin should be controlled once a year to measure the total volume of resin replaced and volume
of neutral salt decomposed. At the same time, check the volume of ion-exchange resin remaining in each tower
and inspect whether the resin is finely-divided or not. As for the replenishment of ion-exchange resin, the volume
of resin to be replenished for cation resin is 5% -10% per year, including those finely divided, provided that no
swelling and/or contamination is observed. In the case of anion resin, the volume to be replenished comes to 10%
to 20% per year in general, because it is subject to aging besides the pulverization.
The troubles a deionized water generation unit may encounter mainly include decreased collection volume and
deterioration of the quality of processed water (incl. high conductivity and silica concentration). These problems
are often associated with pre-treatment unit troubles. Table 3.2.2-5 shows the cause of the troubles and their
measures as well as check items.

Table 3.2.2-4: Examples of Criteria set by Each Electric Power Company for
Water Quality at the Outlet of a Circulation Boiler Makeup Water Desalination Unit
Company Name
A B C
237
Pressure Category
(kgf/cm
2
)
Item
100 Class 130 Class 170 Class 100 Class
130
Class
170
Class
100
Class
130
Class
170
Class
Conductivity (µS/cm) 5 or below 1.25 or below 5 or below 3 or
below
5 or
below
1.0 or below
Silica (mg/l as SiO
2
) 0.05 or
below
0.015 or
below
0.01 or
below
0.1 or
below
0.05 or
below
0.02 or
below
0.1 or
below
0.015 or below

Table 3.2.2-5: Troubles (reduced collection volume and decreased purity of processed water)
of a Deionized Water Generation Unit, Their Causes and Measures
Root Cause Cause or Phenomenon of Trouble Measure
Change in Raw Water
Quality
{ Increased total ion volume in raw water
{ Change in the percentage of Na, HCO
3
and SiO
2
{ Increased organic substances and total iron volume
{ Conduct a total analysis of the raw water and file the data every
month (Conductivity must be measured and recorded every
month).
{ Check the water sources.
{ Adjust the ratio of water intake from various water sources.
Oversampling { Inappropriate water flow rate
x Failure of a flow meter
x Slippage of a flow meter due to the small volume
of water passing through
{ Deteriorated water quality
x Failure of a meter
x Failure of a communicator
x Sampling failure
{ Compare the data with that of an instantaneous flow meter.
{ Operate by uplifting the water flow.
{ Refer to the instruction manual attached to the instrumentation
unit.
{ Compare the data with that of a portable water quality meter,
etc.
{ Connect a resistance box attached to the unit to a cable in lieu
of a communicator. If the values coincide with each other, then
the communicator is damaged.
{ Refer to the instruction manual attached to the instrumentation
unit.
{ Sampling valve is too far closed or totally closed.
{ Sampling valve is too open.
{ Damages or water leakage to the communicator case.
Incomplete
regeneration
{ Insufficient regeneration level

{ Inappropriate concentration of chemicals
(Insufficient volume or excessive dilute solution
used)
{ Insufficient dispersion of regeneration agent
x Clogged or damaged chemical feed pipe
x Decreased chemical feed speed (dispersed
unevenly)
x Channeling of resin layers
{ Regenerate the volume specified in the instruction manual. (Or
increase the level of regeneration)
{ Feed chemicals at an appropriate concentration.
{ Repair the damaged pipe.
{ Failure of a chemical feed pump
{ Clogs of ejectors and nozzles
{ Excessive decrease of the diluted water flow rate
{ Backwash for more than 30 minutes.
{ Check and remove clogs from the lower water collection and
dispersion unit.

238

Root Cause Cause or Phenomenon of Trouble Measure
{ Insufficient extrusion

{ Measure the specific gravity of regeneration effluents
(to confirm whether the extrusion force is sufficient or not)
{Insufficient flushing { Analyze the washing effluents
(to confirm whether the concentrations of Clʊ of the H tower
and Na+ of the OH tower are the same as those in their inlet
position)
{ Shortage in chemical injection time

{ Make the total time for chemical injection and for extrusion at
least the same as those designated
{ Inappropriate temperature for chemical injection


{ Make the temperature of chemical injection as 35r5qC
(if the temperature is lower than this, silica will leak out and if
it is higher, then the resin performance will be deteriorated)
{ Fluidization of resin layers when chemicals are
injected upward
{ Readjustment of chemical injection volume and slip water
volume
Incomplete
regeneration
{ In the case of a multiple-layer system, a mixture of
mild/strong acid resins and basic resins
{ Replacement of the mixture of resins in the middle position
Flow-out of
ion-exchange resin
{ Increased backwashing speed
{ Flow out of resins due to excessive backwashing
speed
{ Breakage of the lower water collection and
dispersion unit
{ Flow out of resins to the outlet of an ion-exchange
resin tower
x Fractured resins due to oxidizing substances
x Fractured resins due to pressurization
{ Check the backwashing speed
{ Check the water temperature

{ Repair the damaged parts

{ Conduct a functional test of resins (coarseness distribution,
etc.)
Contamination of
ion-exchange resin
{ Existence of iron oxides and manganese in raw
water
(This contaminates mainly cation resins.)
{ Existence of organic substances in raw water
{ Check the pre-treatment unit.
Channeling { Compressed resin layers
x The raw water is highly turbid.

x Pulverization of resins due to chemical fracture
x Pulverization of resins due to a high flow rate
operation or the internal pressure surge of a tank
during operation
x Insufficient or failed backwashing

{ Failure of lower and upper distributors

{ Backwash thoroughly, or conduct air backwashing to
completely remove turbidity from the resin layers.
{ Remove residual chlorine in the raw water.
{ Operate at an appropriate flow rate.


{ Backwash thoroughly. (Backwash for approx. 30 minutes, and
stop it just before the outflow of resins from the tank.)
{ In the case of a heavily uneven surface on the resin surface,
check and improve the upper water distributor so that water can
be distributed evenly.
{ Inspect and repair it.
Low flow rate
sampling
(when only the purity
of processed water is
decreased)
{ The sampling water flow rate is 5m/h or below.
This normally results in the leakage of ions from
an anion resin tower deteriorating.
{ Operate the unit at a high flow rate as much as possible.
{ Don t operate the unit below the minimum flow rate.
Leakage from a valve
(when only the purity
of processed water is
decreased)
{ Valve failure { Inspect and repair or replace it.
Deterioration of the
ion-exchange resin
function
{ Even in the case that there are no hazardous
substances in the raw water, the resin function
generally tends to slowly deteriorate.
{ Excessive temperature of chemicals
(Never raise the temperature above 45qC.)
{ Replenish resins as designated.
{ Measure the degree of functional deterioration and replenish
the resins.
{ Keep the chemical temperature at an appropriate level.

3.3.2.2 Boiler Water treatment
3.3.2.2.1 Objectives and Methods of Water treatment
The degree and types of corrosions caused by water and steam and damage inflicted by corrosion products on
feed water systems, boilers and turbine systems vary depending on the materials used and the temperature. This
chapter outlines the type of damage caused to each component and how to prevent it.
(1) Condensate Water
Steam used in a turbine is converted back to water using a condensing unit and the loss is replenished by
feeding ion-exchange water as makeup water. The condensing unit of most plants uses copper alloy cooling water
pipes, due to their good heat conductivity and anti-corrosion properties. As Fig. 3.3.2-1 shows, copper solubility is
lowest at a pH of about 9 and in the actual unit, the relationship is similar. For a unit using copper alloy for the
feed water system, the pH of condensate water is around 8.8 to 9.0, which is a zone within which the dissolution
of copper is mostly restricted. For a unit using steel pipes, the pH reaches 9.3 to 9.6, making it difficult to curtail
the dissolution of copper. In an environment where dissolved oxygen exists, the dissolved copper forms complex
copper ammonium ions, which means the dissolution persists. In order to prevent this, titanium pipes are used for
the air cooling zones of a condensing unit and nickel plated copper alloy cooling water pipes are laid around the
exterior of the unit.

239

I
r
o
n

S
o
l
u
b
i
l
i
t
y

I
r
o
n

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

Solubility
Iron Concentration
in Feed Water
Temperature
Fig. 3.3.2-2: Behavior of Iron in Feed Water and Condenser



Saturation solubility
of Cu(OH)
2
in
deionized water

Saturation solubility
of CuO in deionized
water
S
o
l
u
b
i
l
i
t
y

Fig. 3.3.2-1: Relationship between the Solubility of Copper and pH


(Iron)
(Copper)
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

(Nickel)
Fig. 3.3.2-3: Shift in Metal Ion Concentration due to a Change in the Feed Water pH

(2) Feed Water
Feed water refers to the water run from the outlet of a condensed pump to the inlet of an economizer, between
which lies a heat exchanger. The temperature moves from 20͠ to 260͠ and various materials are used in these
areas, such as iron, copper and nickel alloys. In the process of feed water, the method used to prevent impurities in
water channeled to the boiler, to prevent the generation of scales in the latter, as well as how to avoid corrosion are
very important. Fig. 3.3.2-6 shows the JIS criteria. The level of dissolved salts and other impurities contained in
240
water is close to zero under normal operation, thanks to the upgraded performance of a deionized water generation
unit. However, in the case of seawater leakage, dissolved salts slip into the system. Depending on which materials
are used for the feed heater pipes, namely copper alloy or steel, the means used to control pH to prevent corrosion
of the materials vary. In the case of copper alloy, the pH control mainly targets copper and the value is limited to 9
or so, because dissolved copper ions accelerate the corrosion of iron. The slight volume of ammonia generated by
thermal decomposition of the hydrazine used as a deoxidizer is used to control the pH. Fig. 3.3.2-2 shows a
behavior model of iron in condensate water and feed water systems. The higher the temperature rise, the more iron
ions are generated. Around a high pressure feed heater, the iron ion concentration goes beyond the iron solubility
curve meaning ion deposits are generated. The iron is then deposited in the high temperature zones of high
pressure feed heaters, economizers, boilers and other units. In order to prevent such scales from being deposited, it
is important to minimize the iron ion volume. Fig. 3.3.2-3 shows a change in the iron ion concentration in a course
of a shift in the pH of feed water. As indicated, the pH should be kept high. Fig. 3.3.2-4 shows the solubility of
magnetite (Fe
3
O
4
), a corrosion coating. In the high temperature zone, the curve bottoms out at a pH level of
around 10. As iron ions tend to accelerate its oxidization under the existence of dissolved oxygen, hydrazine is
added to the feed water to remove oxygen, so that the generation of dissolved oxygen can be minimized.
N
2
H
4
+ o O
2
+2H
2
O
A unit using steel pipes is subject to a control pH at around 9.5. Ammonia is directly added to the outlet of a
condenser or deaeration unit as a pH adjuster, and hydrazine is added at the outlet of a deaeration unit as a
deoxidizer respectively.
(3) Boiler Water
Most substances dissolved in boiler water are separated out as the temperature rises, due to the low solubility
and known as scale and sludge. This scale and sludge has low thermal conductivity, causing thermal efficiency to
deteriorate and corroding the boiler generation pipes. With this in mind, the generation of scales and sludge must
be avoided as far as possible. As shown in Fig. 3.3.2-3, the pH of the boiler water must be retained high to prevent
corrosions of generation pipes. Silica contained in boiler water flows out to the steam side and is separated out on
the turbine blades as scales, causing the efficiency of the unit to deteriorate. Therefore, silica concentration must
be minimized as far as possible.

Table 3.3.2-6: Feed Water Quality
[Drum Type]
C
a
t
e
g
o
r
y

Max. Operating Pressure (MPa or kgf/cm
2
)

Evaporation Rate of the Heat Transfer Surface
(kg/(m
2
xh))
Types of Makeup Water
10 - 15
(100 - 150)
-

Ion-exchange water
15 – 20
(150 – 200)
-

Ion-exchange water
F
e
e
d

W
a
t
e
r

pH (at 25qC)
Hardness (mgCaCO
3
/l)
(mg/l)
Dissolved Oxygen (mgO/l)
Iron (mgFe/l)
Copper (mgCu/l)
Hydrazine (mgN
2
H
4
/l)
Conductivity (PS/cm) (at 25qC)
8.5 – 9.6
0

0.007 or below
0.03 or below
0.01 or below
0.01 or above
0.5 or below
8.5 – 9.6
0

0.007 or below
0.02 or below
0.005 or below
0.01 or above
0.5 or below
[Once-through Type]
Max. Operating Pressure (MPa or kgf/cm
2
)
15 - 20
(150 - 200)
20 or above
(200 or above)
C
a
t
e
g
o
r
y

Treatment Method
Volatile
Substance
Treatment
Oxygen
Treatment
Volatile
Substance
Treatment
Oxygen
Treatment
F
e
e
d

W
a
t
e
r

pH (at 25qC)

Conductivity (PS/cm) (at 25qC)
Dissolved Oxygen (mgO/l)
Iron (mgFe/l)
Copper (mgCu/l)
Hydrazine (mgN
2
H
4
/l)
Silica (mgSiO
2
/l)
8.5 – 9.6
0.3 or below
0.007 or below
0.02 or below
0.003 or below
0.01 or above
0.02 or below
6.5 – 9.0
0.2 or below
0.02 – 0.2

0.1 or below
0.05 or below
-
0.02 or below
9.0 – 9.6
0.25 or below
0.007 or below
0.01 or below
0.002 or below
0.01 or above
0.02 or below
6.5 – 9.0
0.2 or below
0.02 – 0.2

0.01 or below
0.002 or below
-
0.02 or below


241


I
r
o
n

I
o
n

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
m
o
l
/
k
g
)

Fig. 3.3.2-4: Relationship between the Magnetite Concentration and pH

Fig. 3.3.2-7 shows the JIS criteria. For a drum type boiler, sodium phosphate is used in the boiler intermittently
to control the pH of boiler water. Substances dissolved in the boiler water, such as silica and chlorine ions, are
removed by blowing the boiler water, while in the case of a once-through boiler, all substances dissolved in the
boiler water are separated and deposited as scales, since it lacks any air-water separation mechanisms. This means
the pH of a once-through boiler is controlled by using ammonia, a volatile chemical, and by installing a
desalination unit at the outlet of a condensate water generation system to remove dissolved substances from the
condensate water.


Fig. 3.3.2-7: Boiler Water Quality Criteria
C
a
t
e
g
o
r
y
Max. Operating Pressure (MPa or kgf/cm
2
)

Evaporation Rate of the Heat Transfer Surface
(kg/(m
2
x h))
Types of Makeup Water
10 - 15
(100 - 150)
-

Ion-exchange water

15 - 20
(150 - 200)
-

Ion-exchange water

Treatment Method Sodium phosphate
treatment
All volatile
treatment
Sodium phosphate
treatment
All volatile treatment
pH (at 25qC) 8.5 – 9.8 8.5 – 9.6 8.5 – 9.8 8.5 – 9.6
Oxygen consumption (pH at 4.8) (mgCaCO
3
/l) - - - -
Oxygen consumption (pH at 8.3) (mgCaCO
3
/l)

- - - -
Total residue on evaporation (mg/l) - - - -
Conductivity (PS/cm) (at 25qC) 60 or below 20 or below

60 or below 20 or below

Chlorine ion (mgCl㧙/l) 2 or below 1 or below 2 or below 1 or below
Phosphate ion (mgPO
4
3-
/l) 0.1 – 3

0.1 – 3

Sulfurous acid ion (mgSO
3
2-
/l) - - - -
Hydrazine (mgN
2
H
4
/l) - - - -
B
o
i
l
e
r

W
a
t
e
r

Silica (mgSiO
2
/l) 0.3 or below

0.2 or below



Fig. 3.3.2-8: Steam Quality Criteria
Item Criteria
Conductivity (PS/cm) (at 25qC)
Silica (mgSiO
2
/l)
0.3 or below
0.02 or below


Table 3.3.2-9: Facility Outline of Unit Nos. 1 to 4 Units of the Nishi Nagoya Thermal Power Plant
Unit No. 1 Unit No. 2 Unit No. 3 Unit No. 4 Unit
Output 220 000 kW 220 000 kW 375 000 kW 375 000 kW
Operation started in: July 1970 December 1970 July 1972 September 1972
Boiler type Reheating natural
circulation type
Reheating natural
circulation type
Reheating natural
circulation type
Reheating natural
circulation type
Turbine steam pressure 169 kg/cm
2
G 169 kg/cm
2
G 169 kg/cm
2
G 169 kg/cm
2
G
(4) Steam
Impurities contained in steam are those carried over from the boiler water, which cause corrosion of superheater
systems and the deposition of scales onto turbine blades. Such impurities include chlorine ions, sodium, silica and
copper. Fig. 3.3.2-8 shows their JIS criteria.
As success in steam quality control is significantly dependent on the boiler water quality, for a drum type boiler,
the conductivity of boiler water and its silica content, and - for a once-through boiler - those of feed water at the
inlet of an economizer should be carefully monitored.

3.3.2.2.2 Water treatment of a DrumType Boiler
Table 3.3.2-9 shows an outline of facility of unit Nos. 1 to 4 of the Nishi Nagoya Thermal Power Plant. The
following are the explanation of water treatment of a drum type (reheating natural circulation) boiler:
(1) Water treatment under Normal Operation
Fig. 3.3.2-5 shows the water treatment system for a drum type boiler.
Table 3.3.2-10 shows the water treatment values.
a. Water Treatment of Condensate water and Feed Water
The method of water treatment for condensate water and feed water depends on the materials used for a high
pressure feed heater, but as for the Nishi Nagoya Thermal Power Plant, its unit Nos. 1 to 4 use copper alloys and
hydrazine is used for water treatment. Under normal operation, thin hydrazine (0.5% N
2
H
4
) is added to the outlet
of the condensate pump in order to maintain the pH of the feed water (at the entrance of an economizer) at 8.8 to
9.0. Since, under normal operation, the conductivity at the inlet of a deaeration unit is commensurate with the pH
at the inlet of an economizer, hydrazine is added based on the feed water volume after the measurement of the
same. The conductivity at the inlet of a deaeration unit is 1.3 to 2.0 when pH is maintained at a level of 8.8 to 9.0
and the pump stroke comes to 15 to 20%. Under normal operation, the water quality of each system is maintained
at the normal values as shown in Table 3.3.2-10.

242

To high pressure
turbine
To medium- and
low-pressure turbines
From high pressure
turbine
Drum

Deaeration unit
Condenser
Fig. 3.3.2-5: Water Treatment System Diagram of a Drum Type Boiler

b. Boiler Water Treatment
Controlling the pH at the inlet of an economizer at 8.8 to 9.0 makes the pH of boiler water 8.7 to 8.9 or so. As
the unit uses hydrazine only to control the pH, the boiler water lacks any alkali elements, while its lack of any
hardness removers (sodium phosphate), also makes it vulnerable against the infiltration of corrosion products
from feed water or impurities (Ca and Mg, etc.) brought into boilers from seawater leakage. Accordingly, for a
unit frequently started and stopped, sodium tertiary phosphate (2% Na
3
PO
4
) is added to the boilers at the stroke of
Flush
tank
Flush valve


Flush pipe
drain tank
Deaeration unit water
tank
Conden
sate
water
pump
Ground
steam
condenser
Makeup
water
tank
Makeup water
pump
Flooding pipe of boiler
Sampling point
30% to maintain the pH in the boilers at 9.0 to 10.0.
c. Frequency and Method of Off-the-System Blows
Even under normal operation conditions, corrosion products generated from condensate water and feed water
systems and pipes are concentrated in boilers. As there was a report that a generation pipe of a unit similar to this
ruptured due to the detachment of scales containing zinc, for boilers in Nishi Nagoya Thermal Power Plant, an
off-the-system blow process is applied to 20 to 25 t of boiler water every two days when the units have been in
operation continuously for a week. The off-the-system blow is always performed as necessary, whenever the units
are in continuous operation, when the concentration of corrosion products (Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe) in the system is
high and when the conductivity of the boiler water is high.
(2) Water treatment at Start-up and while the Unit is not used
a. Stop Time Water treatment
Various methods of chemical injection and storage are used, depending on the necessity to apply anti-corrosion
measures to the system, requirements for the early startup of power supply and cost performance.

Table 3.3.2-10: Water treatment Values at Normal Operations
243
Criteria Normal Operation Item

Specimen
Control Item Unit
Measurement
Method
All volatile
treatment
Phosphate
Treatment
Value ANN
Value
Makeup
water
Outlet of a makeup water tank
(Nos. 3 and 4)
Conductivity PS/cm
Measurement
instrument
1.5 > Same as left 0.5 – 1.0 1.5
Water in condenser Conductivity PS/cm
Measurement
instrument
* * U0.15 U0.5
pH * Anytime 8.6 – 9.0 Same as left 8.8 *
Conductivity PS/cm
Measurement
instrument
U0.3 > Same as left U0.15 U0.3
Total iron Pg/l Once a year (10 >) Same as left 10 *
Water at the outlet of the
condenser
Total copper Pg/l Once a year (5 >) Same as left 3 *
Water at the inlet of low
pressure No. 3 feed heater
Dissolved
oxygen
Pg/l
Measurement
instrument
40 > Same as left 10 40
Conductivity PS/cm
Measurement
instrument
* * 1 – 2 *
Total iron Pg/l Once a year (10 >) Same as left 10 *
Water
Water at the inlet of the
deaeration unit
Total copper Pg/l Once a year (10 >) Same as left 5 *
Dissolved
oxygen
Pg/l Anytime 7 > Same as left 2 *
Total iron Pg/l Once a year * * 10 *
Water at the outlet of the
deaeration unit
Total copper Pg/l Once a year * * 5 *
pH *
Measurement
instrument
8.6 – 9.0 Same as left 8.9 8.9 9.0
Conductivity PS/cm
Measurement
instrument
U0.3 > Same as left U0.15 U0.3
Total iron Pg/l Once a year 10 > Same as left 10 *
Total copper Pg/l Once a year 10 > Same as left 5 *
Feed
water
Water at the inlet of an
economizer
Hydrazine Pg/l Anytime (10 – 30) Same as left 10 *
pH *
Measurement
instrument
8.6 – 9.0 8.6 – 9.5 8.7 8.6 9.5
Conductivity PS/cm
Measurement
instrument
U0.3 > 15 > U1.5 U3
Silica Pg/l
Measurement
instrument
0.2 > 0.2 > 0.05 0.2
Phosphate
ion
Pg/l Anytime * 3 > 0 – 3 *
Total iron Pg/l Once a year * (50 >) 20 – 50 *
Boiler
water
Drum water
Total copper Pg/l Once a year * (20 >) 5 - 15 *
Conductivity PS/cm
Measurement
instrument
U0.03 > * U0.1 U0.3
Steam
Steam at the inlet of
superheater
Silica Pg/l Anytime 0.02 > * 0.005 *
Note 1: The figures in parentheses refer to the values that should be maintained.
Note 2: The figures prefixed with ٌ refer to the value after the treatment of cation resins.
Note 3: The pH level of the boiler water is 8.5 to 9.0 after all volatile treatment and 8.5 to 9.5 after the injection of sodium tertiary phosphate.

244
b. Startup Water treatment
Just after the startup of units, water quality tends to be subject to considerable fluctuation and is under threats
such as seawater leakage and other water quality problems and measurement instrument failures. If these
problems are left unattended, a serious accident will occur. For this reason, water quality targets, blowing
procedures and chemical injection procedures are established for each stop time period. A standard startup
command (operation) sheet shown in Fig. 3.3.2-6 is used to confirm the water quality for each stage to control the
startup water quality, while the standard patterns for dissolved oxygen, silica concentration and conductivity of
water are as shown in Fig. 3.3.2-6. As for the conductivity in particular, a standard pattern for each stop time
period is formed, which is accessible when a recorder is located in the central control room. This pattern is subject
to a comparison check with the current values by a power plant staff member so that the trend can be monitored
and controlled.
c. Off-the-System Blowing
This type of blowing is always implemented till the water quality at the inlet of an economizer and saturated
steam descend below the criteria and till the conductivity shows a falling trend of 0.5 to 0.6µS/cm. (See Fig.
3.3.2-11)
d. Control of Silica Concentration in Steam
It is known that silica deposits are hardly formed on turbine blades when its concentration is below 0.02mg/l.
The silica concentration in steam can be controlled indirectly by managing the level in boiler water. After opening
the system for regular inspections, dust, which is allegedly the source of dissolution of silica slips into the system,
is often carried to a boiler via feed water pipes, where it is then deposited as ionic silica under an environment of
high temperature and pressure. Thus, especially just before system startup after regular inspection, it is vital to
implement the replacement of water and continuous blowing of boilers as practically as possible to reduce silica
concentration in the system, so that silica can be purged completely and swiftly.


Up loads (220MW)
Load dispatching operation
Water quality check
Load dispatching
operation
Up loads (100MW)
Water quality check
Parallel in
Switchover within
the plant
Fig. 3.3.2-6: Standard Startup Command (Operation) Sheet and Startup Water Quality
Preparation for the startup of turbines
Parallel in
Water quality check
Boiler water
Startup of turbines
Turning on of a
disconnect
switch
Feed water
Saturated steam
Condensate water
Feed water
Condensate water
Preparation for the startup of turbines
Startup of turbines
Boiler water
Water quality check
Ignition and
temperature/pressure up
Up of vacuum
2
4
5
C
o
m
m
a
n
d

b
y

t
h
e

d
e
p
u
t
y

m
a
n
a
g
e
r

O
p
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

c
h
e
c
k

W
a
t
e
r

q
u
a
l
i
t
y

p
a
t
t
e
r
n

Preparation for
startup
Preparation
for ignition
Ignition Temperature up Pressure
up
Switchover of burners
Feed water
vacuum up
Check item
Operation item
Main steam pressure
Preparation for ignition
Startup of condenser
Water quality check
Start up of the feed pump
Start injection of hydrazine
[Dissolved Oxygen]
(Condensate water)
The concentration of dissolved oxygen falls alongside the
vacuum up in the condenser.
(Feed Water)
The dissolved oxygen concentration declines alongside the
surge of pressure of the deaeration unit.
[Silica]
When turbines are started, silica scale deposited on the low
pressure blades comes off. (Part of the silica scale comes
from the dead space of the pre-boiler system.)
The silica concentration comes down as the blow
operation starts.
[pH]
(Feed Water)
Due to the injection of hydrazine at system ignition, the pH
level rises.
(Boiler Water)
Due to the injection of hydrazine at system ignition, the pH
level of the feed water rises, as well as that of the boiler
water.
[Conductivity]
(Condensate water)
When the system is subject to a parallel off, the
conductivity of the condensate water rises due to the
influence of carbon dioxide gas contained in the air, but
falls as the degree of vacuum increases.
(Feed Water)
Similar to condensate water, the level falls as the degree of
vacuum increases. However, the downward curve tends to
be moderated for about 1 hour from the parallel in point
because of contamination of the feed water, condensate
water and the whole system.
(Saturated Steam)
For about 1 hour from the juxtaposition point,
contamination of boiler water is conspicuous. Due to this,
the level of conductivity tends to peak due to a carryover
and for other reasons, before subsequently following a
moderate downward course.
Fig. 3.3.2-11 Methods of Blow Except the Boiler Water System at Startup


Boiler water blow is implemented until water quality of the eco inlet, the boiler, and the
saturated steam is at the standard value or less, and the conductivity at the CP outlet
shows a declining trend (0.5 to 0.6PS/cm).
Silica
Conductivity
or less
Eco inlet
or less
Boiler water
or less
Saturated steam
oBoiler water blow stop
(ANN of silica and conductivity
high have to be reset.)
Conductivity
0.5 or less
CP outlet
Shall be on a down note.

The silica concentration in boiler water sometimes exceeds the standard value (0.2mg/l) when the boiler is
sealed (steam sealing) after the unit shut down. The cause seems to be the fact that when the boiler is stopped and
sealed, silica scale separates from the turbine blades, etc., is channeled to the boiler and concentrated when it is
started. To reverse such situation, the following measure is implemented while the boilers are sealed in order to
avoid boiler blow loss and gaining load up during the early stages. When the level of water in a condenser goes up
while the boilers are sealed, the silica concentration in condensate water is measured. If the value is 0.02 mg/l or
more, water is added to the condensate water after total blowing, whereupon the system is started. Following the
implementation of the measure, no abnormal silica concentration up was reported.
(3) Water treatment at Seawater Leakage
It is essential to detect any seawater leakage at an early stage to implement measures. The means of controlling
water quality depends on the seriousness and conditions of the leakage, with appropriate water control measures
sought. For this purpose, conductivity is measured within the condenser, at the outlet of the condensate pump, the
inlet of an economizer and in the boiler water. When the value is found to be high, seawater leakage is present.
Two lines of cation resin towers are installed at the front stage of the condenser and the conductivity meter at the
outlet of the condensate pump, so that the letup time for replacing the resin can be minimized, in the case of
emergencies such as seawater leakage. How to inject chemicals and how to blow boiler water are determined as
controlling water quality in the event of seawater leakage. Also, in a leakage, a process which requires prompt and
correct action is decided. For this purpose, a seawater leakage accident control sheet (Fig. 3.3.2-7) is used to cover
such items as ‘operation method,’ ‘actions done’ and ‘restoration.’
(4) Water treatment Values and Monitoring
Water quality during the normal operation time is monitored and checked for each specimen, using
pre-determined control items and the measurement frequency. All measurement values can be monitored by the
CRT and recorders of the central control room, where staff members are stationed to monitor during the normal
system operation. In the case of an accident, an alarm is activated. Accidents are handled referring to the measures
defined in ‘Water Quality ANN Messaging Procedure’ (Fig. 3.3.2-12).
As water quality requires monitoring of long-term trends, a daily control sheet is formed. Appropriate and
stable operations of the unit are assured and good water treatment methods are established by collecting total
measurement data of iron and copper concentration and in-house inspection results obtained from a regular
inspection and other measures to ensure that water is appropriately treated.

3.3.2.2.3 Water treatment of Supercritical Pressure Through a Flow Boiler
There are two types of once-through boiler, a subcritical once-through boiler and a supercritical
once-through boiler. The basics of water treatment for both types of boiler are the same, with minor differences.
In this chapter, the methods employed by unit Nos. 1 to 4 of the Sodegaura Thermal Power Plant are explained.
Table 3.3.2-13 shows the basic unit configuration of the Sodegaura Thermal Power Plant.

246

247


4. Restoration
measures
3. Causal
investigation
2. Operation just after
the accident
1. Occurrence of an
accident
Restoration
measures
Conductivity high’ ANN turns on. Causal investigation
Accident handling
Point of leakage
(1) Caustic silver check
(2) Switchover of thermometer
takeout points
Repair completed (1) Conductivity surges in the order
of condensate water, feed water
and boiler water.
(2) Check the conductivity of the
confluence points of desalinated
water.
(1) Boiler water blowing
(2) Injection of sodium tertiary
phosphate
(1) Condenser restored to
normal
(2) Boiler steam flushing (S
Note 2)
ee
(3) Restriction of load lifted Seawater temperature at the inlet of
condensing water generation unit at 20qC
or below (See Note 1)
Vacuum of condenser at 690mmHg or
above
If these can be maintained:
Load: 220MW
Seawater temperature at the inlet of the
condensing water generation unit at 20qC
or below (See Note 1)
Vacuum of condenser at 690mmHg or
above
If these can be maintained:
Load: 200MW of below
(1) Conductivity of condensate
water, feed water and boiler water
(2) Degree of vacuum of condenser
(3) Temperature of the air discharge
chamber
(4) Conductivity deteriorated in the
order of condensate water, feed
water and boiler water
One-side operation of condenser
Water Quality Target of Boiler Water during Seawater
Leakage
µS/cm of
recovery
water
Boiler water
0.3µS/cm or below Higher than 0.3µS/cm
(1) pH of boiler water: 8.0 or
below
(2) Saturated steam
conductivity: 1µS/cm or
above
(1) Stop addition of sodium tertiary
phosphate when the chlorine ion
concentration in the boiler water
goes below 0.2 ppm.
(2) Stop the blowing of boiler water
(1) Degree of vacuum of condenser
(2) Temperature of the air discharge ch
(3) Vibration of turbine, position of lid
amber
s and
axis, difference in the temperature of
metals
Conduc (4) tivity deteriorated in the order of
condensate water, feed water and boiler
water
3 or below
Stop the unit.
Conductivity
(Ps/cm) As low as possible
15 or below
Turbine E-STOP push button ON
Note 1: In order to avoid any stress corrosion cracks of SH and RH pipes, boilers should be subject to vapor washing when the unit is restored from seawater
leakage (at the turbine rotation of 3,600 rpm).
Note 2: Considering the working environment while only one condenser is in operation, the vacuum is set as 690 mmHg or above (according to a test result in
1980).
Reference information: The conductivity of condensate water was once seen to surge due to pinhole damage of the exterior housing of a condenser water pump.
Fig. 3.3.2-7: Accident Handling Sheet for Seawater Leakage

(1) Water treatment during Normal Operation
a. Water treatment
As for the water control of a once-through boiler, in order to minimize the separation out of metals, due to the
corrosion of materials used in the system, it is necessary that the pH and dissolved oxygen concentration should
mainly and always be retained within the controlled values. For this purpose, ammonia and hydrazine are added
continuously to the outlet of the condensate water pressure surge pump. The ammonia aims to control the pH to a
level of 9.3 to 9.6 and for this purpose, the conductivity at the inlet of the deaeration unit is maintained at a
constant value and the condensate water flow rate is controlled in proportion to the ammonia injection ratio. For
hydrazine, the chemical is added at the rate proportional to the feed water flow rate to control the concentration of
dissolved oxygen at 7µg/l or below by controlling the residual hydrazine concentration at the inlet of an
economizer at 10µg/l or above. See Table 3.3.2-14 for the details of other water treatment criteria under normal
operational conditions.

b. Analysis Items and Frequency of Analysis
Table 3.3.2-15 shows the analysis items and the frequency analysis.
c. Control of the Condensate water Desalination Unit
A once-through boiler is unable to conduct the off-the-system blowing of boiler water under normal
operational conditions. In order to remove impurities infiltrating the system from outside, a condensate water
desalination unit is installed to remove corrosion products produced from within the system and other
impurities originating from outside the system due to the seawater leakage of a condenser. The condensate
water desalination unit is an ammonex type of the outside regeneration type. It functions quite similarly to a
separate regeneration type system in reducing the regeneration time and reduction of nitrogen in effluents and
is maintained and controlled considering the items shown below.
a). To check the area where resin layers are detached
The water regeneration tank of a mixed bed system, most of the causes leading to the deterioration of water
quality are derived from the movements of resin layers detached, the tank is subject to checking after scrubbing.

248
Table 3.3.2-12: Check Sheet for Unit Nos. 1 to 4 Water Quality When ANN is Transmitted
3. Abnormal pH Level
Check Item Description Cause
1. Silica and Dissolved Oxygen
* Whether silica and dissolved oxygen concentration tend to be high
or not is checked by referring to the checksheet.

Feed water pH High (or low) b d
Check Item Description Cause High b d h

Boiler water pH
Low a b d
Makeup water There is considerable conductivity of
makeup water.
c d
Silica
concentration is
high.
Makeup water



1.5µS/cm or above for the makeup
water
10µg/l or above at the outlet of the
makeup water desalination unit



c

Load Load surged
(when silica is purged)

i
Chemicals
Chemical
concentration
Failure of pumps
Addition of
chemicals

Chemical concentration and type

Switchover test of injection pumps

Stroke and valve operations
b
Measurement
instrument
The ANN of a measurement
instrument is transmitted.
d


Cause and Measures
Cause Measures The dissolved
oxygen
concentration is
high.
Load




Load decreased




e

Deaeration unit Check the inner pressure of the
system.
f
Switchover of
the condensate
pump
Check whether any O
2
is leaked or
not by switching the condensate
pump
g
Drain pump Check whether any O
2
is leaked or
not at the drain pump seal.
g
Measurement
instrument
The indication does not change
after switching the specimen
water.
d

2. High conductivity/Condenser࡮High conductivity/Seawater
leakage at startup

Check Item Description Cause
The conductivity of the
condensate water and water in the
system suddenly surges from the
normal level, followed by feed
water, boiler water, saturated
water. The makeup water is intact.
a

a. Seawater leakage


b. Excessive (too small)
hydrazine injection
c. Abnormal quality of
makeup water
Leakage of regeneration
agent of a desalination unit
and sampling after breakage
d. Fault of measurement
instruments

e. Decreased loads
f. Deteriorated deaeration
unit
g. O
2
leakage from
condensate pump and drain
pump
h. Excessive addition of
sodium tertiary phosphate
i. Surge of loads
a. x See the section of seawater
leakage.
x See Accident Action Procedure.
b. Adjust the injection volume.

c. x In the case of abnormal quality of
makeup water, blow the water in
the makeup water tank.


d. If adjusting the flow rates and
temperature does not work,
inform Chemical G.



g. Seal the leakage.


h. Adjust the volume.

i. x Blow the boiler water.
x See the section explaining the
relationship of silica in boiler
water and pressure.
Check the
relationship of the
following:
Condensate water,
feed water, boiler
water, saturated
steam and
makeup water in
the system
The conductivity of the makeup
water surges, followed by others
such as condensate water.
c


Chloride ions Adding caustic silver changes the
water turbid in white.
a

Measurement
instrument
Their conductivity fluctuates
separately.
d



b). Regeneration Process Check
The entire regeneration process is subject to a detailed check once a year to confirm the conditions of the flow
rate and the volume of chemicals added, to determine abnormalities at their early stage and to plan suitable
countermeasures.

c.) Confirmation of Functions of Ion-Exchange Resins
Performance of exchanging neutral salts, chemical reaction speed and other aspects are checked once a year.

Table 3.3.2-13: Facility Outline of Unit Nos. 1 to 4 Units of the Sodegaura Thermal Power Plant
Unit No. 1 Unit No. 2 Unit No. 3 Unit No. 4 Unit
Output (MW) 600 1 000 1 000 1 000
Operation started in: August 1974 September 1975 February 1977 August 1979
Boiler type Reheated
once-through
type
Same as left Same as left Same as left
Boiler capacity (t/h) 1 900 3 110 Same as left 3 170
Steam pressure (kg/cm
2
) 246/42.1 246/40.1 Same as left Same as left
Steam temperature (qC) 538/566 Same as left Same as left Same as left
Fuel used LNG Same as left Same as left Same as left
d. Replenishment of Resins
Referring to the results of the performance check, resins are replenished to maintain the function of a
condensate water desalination unit at the appropriate level. The volume of resins replenished annually is 10% for
249
cation exchange resin and around 20% for anion exchange resin.

Table 3.3.2-14: List of Water Quality of Supercritical Pressure Through the Flow Boiler at Normal Times
Specimens taken Analysis item Criteria
Makeup water Conductivity
Silica concentration
< 0.5 PS/cm
< 30 Pg/l
Outlet of a condensate
pump
(CP out)
Conductivity

< 0.5 PS/cm

Outlet of a condensate
water desalination unit
(CBP out)
Conductivity
Sodium concentration
Total iron concentration
Total copper concentration
< 0.15 PS/cm
< 5 Pg/l
< 5 Pg/l
< 2 Pg/l
Outlet of a
desalination unit
(Dea out)
Dissolved oxygen
concentration
< 7 Pg/l

Inlet of an economizer
(Eco in)
pH
Conductivity
Total iron concentration
Total copper concentration
Hydrazine concentration
Silica concentration
9.3 to 9.6
< 0.25 PS/cm
< 5 Pg/l
< 2 Pg/l
< 10 Pg/l
< 20 Pg/l


Table 3.3.2-15: Analysis item and Frequency
Specimens taken Analysis item Frequency
Makeup water Conductivity
Silica concentration
Once a month
Once a month
Outlet of a condensate
water desalination unit
Iron concentration
Cooper concentration
Sodium concentration
Once a month (once a week)
Once a month (once a week)
Once a month (-)
Inlet of a desalination
unit
Conductivity
Dissolved oxygen concentration
Once a month (once every three days)
Once a month (once every two weeks)
Outlet of a desalination
unit
Dissolved oxygen concentration Once a month (once every two weeks)

Inlet of an economizer pH
Conductivity
Total iron concentration
Total copper concentration
Hydrazine concentration
Silica concentration
Once a month (once every three days)
-
Once a month (once every three days)
Once a month (once every three days)
Once a month (once every two weeks)
Once a month (once every three days)
Main steam pH
Conductivity
Silica concentration
- (once every two weeks)
- (once every two weeks)
- (once every two weeks)
Items in parentheses indicate the frequency of analysis within six months of the start of operation.

Table 3.3.1-16: List of Storage Methods when the Plant is Subject to Shutdown
Feed water heater Stop time Boiler Deaeration unit Condenser
Steam side Feed water side
Within 56 hours Hot banking In circulation mode Retains the ordinary
water level.
Storage in vacuum
condition or in steam
sealing
Retain the shutdown
status.
Within 72 hours Storage after filling
water +N
2
pressurization

(Hydrazine: 20 to 30
mg/l)
Normal water level +
Steam sealing
[or N
2
pressurization]
(Hydrazine: 20 to
30 mg/l)
Retains the ordinary
water level.
N
2
pressurization Storage by filling
water

(Hydrazine: 20 to
30 mg/l)
More than 72
hours
Dry storage after sealing
N
2
(RH: Dry storage)
Dry storage after
sealing N
2
Dry storage Dry storage after
sealing N
2
or dry
storage
Storage by sealing N
2

or by filling water
(Hydrazine: >300
mg/l)

(2) Water treatment at Startup and while the Unit is not used
a. Water treatment while the Unit is not used
The most important thing in water treatment while the unit is not used is to minimize the inclusion of exterior
air inside the system to prevent corrosion. The following three measures are conducted for this purpose:
(1) Hot banking that puts a boiler under a pressurization condition to eliminate the inclusion of exterior air
(2) After a boiler has cooled down, a high concentration of hydrazine is infused to minimize the area
contacting with air, while also helping remove the dissolved oxygen from the contact area.
(3) After a boiler comes to a stop, boiler water is purged and blown out by pressurized nitrogen while keeping
the boiler temperature at 100͠ or above to keep it in a dry condition.
250
Fig. 3.3.2-16 shows how to store the plant when it is not in use. The table categorized the storage method by the
period of storage. In the case that the planned short time storage is subject to change in the longer storage period,
the storage method for the plant must be changed. Sampling racks are stored by closing the valves and after filling
with deionized water.
b. Water treatment at Startup
Before starting the plant, it is subject to a cleanup process by dividing the system into 3 blocks of condenser,
feed water system and boilers respectively. The controlled items for this purpose include, for a cold cleanup
process, iron and mill scales, etc., with those that are generated during the time the plant is not in use analyzed. To
check the iron concentration, two methods are used; the membrane filtration and automatic measurement methods.
The former compares the color of the filter after filtration of sample water with the standard color, while for the
latter, an iron meter of the particle counting method or the scattered light method is used. The control criteria of
the iron concentration is set as 300 µg/l or below as a target, while Fig. 3.3.2-17 shows other water control criteria.
In addition, the injection of ammonia and hydrazine, etc. is possible to combat corrosion of the system and
maintain the quality of water in the systems at the appropriate level. In injecting chemicals, Mode PB on the
sampling rack is selected. Fig. 3.3.2-18 shows a worksheet of a chemical feed unit.
In the Sodegaura Thermal Power Plant, a patterned operation is used for the blowing time and chemical
injection in order to control iron concentration, etc. at the appropriate level. The pattern was formed based on the
experience of the plant. More recently, more plants have been able to automatically control and operate water
treatment and chemical injection using a computer. In the Sodegaura Thermal Power Plant, the iron concentration
of feed water at the inlet of an economizer after ignition of the plant is controlled to 50µg/l or below as a target.
The criteria for collecting drain water generated by each process is, 300µg/l or below for iron collected by a
condenser, and 50µg/l or below for that collected by a feed water system.

251
Table 3.3.2-17: List of Water Quality of a Supercritical Pressure Through a Flow Boiler at its Startup
Startup process Sampling at: Analyzing item Criteria
Surge of condenser vacuum - - Condenser Vacuum
> 680 mmHg
Water feed to a condenser desalination
unit
CP out Total iron concentration
Hydrazine concentration
< 300 Pg/l
< 10 Pg/l
Pre-boiler system blow stop CP out Total iron concentration
Hydrazine concentration
< 300 Pg/l
< 10 Pg/l
Water feed to boilers Dea out pH
Total iron concentration
Dissolved oxygen concentration
9.2 to 9.6
< 100 Pg/l
< 50 Pg/l
Boiler system blow stop WW out or SH
out
Total iron concentration
Hydrazine concentration
< 300 Pg/l
< 10 Pg/l
Eco in pH
Conductivity
Total iron concentration
Total copper concentration
Dissolved oxygen concentration
Silica concentration
9.2 to 9.6
< 1.0 Ps/cm
< 50 Pg/l
< 10 Pg/l
< 10 Pg/l
< 30 Pg/l
Ignition
WW out pH
Conductivity
9.2 to 9.6
< 1.0 Pg/l
Eco in pH
Conductivity
Total iron concentration
Total copper concentration
Dissolved oxygen concentration
Silica concentration
9.2 to 9.6
< 1.0 Ps/cm
< 50 Pg/l
< 10 Pg/l
< 10 Pg/l
< 30 Pg/l
Humidified circulation
WW out Conductivity < 1.0 Ps/l
Aeration to turbines - 1/2 loads Eco in pH
Total iron concentration
Total copper concentration
Silica concentration
9.2 to 9.6
< 50 Pg/l
< 10 Pg/l
< 30 Pg/l
D
r
a
i
n

w
a
t
e
r

c
o
l
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

Collection by condenser
Collection by condensate
water and feed water systems
-
-
Total iron concentration
Total iron concentration
< 300 Pg/l
< 50 Pg/l
Conductivity: Cationic conductivity after going through cation resin.

(3) Water treatment at the Seawater Leakage of Condenser
a. Determination of a Leakage
In order to detect any leakage of seawater at an early stage, two methods are normally employed; a salinometer
installed closer to a condenser, and checking the cationic conductivity of the condensate water by sampling it at
the sampling rack (after it has passed through the cation exchange resin). However, the method of measuring the
cationic conductivity tends to show a high rate, because of the condenser hot well water generated when a vacuum
break occurs at the startup time and the influence of the carbonate ions generated by carbon dioxide dissolved in
makeup water, the conditions of which are quite similar to that shown at seawater leakage. Accordingly, it was
necessary to analyze the existence of chlorine ions. The shortcomings of this method are (i) the fact that the
quantification limit is high, i.e. 0.01 mg/l, making it difficult to detect minute leakages and (ii) it takes about an
hour for the analysis, meaning the method cannot be used for startup operation. Therefore, in this plant, a sodium
meter (of ion electrode method) is installed at the outlet of a condensate pump to be used in combination with the
salinometer for detecting seawater leakage.
Table 3.3.2-18: Chemical Injection Workflow Sheet
252



Fig. 3.3.2-19: Measures to be Taken upon Leakage of Condenser Pipes
Specimen
Conductivity
(µS/cm)
[Cationic
conductivity]
Chlorine
Ion
(mg/l)
Determination
of Leakage
How to Operate a
Desalination Unit
Measures to be Taken at Leakage
Outlet of a
condensate pump
< 0.5
0.5 to 3.0

> 3.0
< 0.1
0.1 to 3.0

> 0.3
Normal
Minute
leakage
Significant
leakage
H Type: 1
NH
4
Type: 2
H Type: 2
NH
4
Type: 1
H Type: 3
-
Repair the leakage while operating only one
condenser, after confirming the location of
the leakage using a salinometer.
Stop the unit.
Outlet of a
condensate water
desalination pump
> 0.15 > 0.1 Significant
leakage
- Stop the unit

b. Operation of a Condensate water Desalination Unit
Table 3.3.2-19 shows the measures to be taken after identifying the occurrence of a seawater leakage to a
condenser pipe and determining its severity. Immediately after detecting cationic conductivity exceeding
0.5µS/cm, a stand-by water feed tower of a desalination unit is switched on, one NH
4
type water intake tower that
is currently taking water is shut down under the system configuration of two H type water intake towers and one
NH
4
type water intake tower. When the leakage deteriorates further to exceed 3µS/cm, an examination starts to
stop the unit while all towers are switched to H type water intake towers. By the time that cationic conductivity at
the outlet of a desalination unit exceeds 0.15µS/cm, the desalination unit will have been in break condition (a
status where the exchanging function is lost), the unit is stopped immediately.
When such abnormalities are detected, while the leakage is limited to 0.5 to 3µS/cm, the loads to the plant is
decreased and one of the condensers is stopped to detect the location and seriousness of leakage and a repair
process will start. The resins that are exposed to the seawater leakage contain salts in seawater and hence the ratio
of sodium and chlorine contained in them are higher than in normal times. In such cases, the resins are subject to
regeneration based on the degree to which such ions are absorbed.

Plant process
Circulation of
condensate water
Circulation of the
deaeration unit
Circulation of the
pre-boiler
Circulation of
the boiler
Normal operation
Stop
Water treatment values
Fe: 300 ppm or
below
Hot banking
N2H4: 10 ppm or
below
DO: 50 ppb
or below
10 ppb or above
N2H4: 10 ppm or
above
Normal storage and
plant not in use:
Sampling rack mode

PB process
Circulation
of
condensate
water
Circulation
of the
deaeration
unit
Circulation
of the
pre-boiler
Circulation
of the
boiler
Aeration of
the main
steam pipe
Lamping
end
High
pressure
heater
Low
pressure
heater
Normal
operation
Delamping Parallel off
Storage method
Hot
banking
Ordinary
storage
Stop
Kick signal
Injection of a high
concentration of hydrazine
for 4 hours
A
m
m
o
n
i
a

p
u
m
p

Stroke length
control
Stroke length
control
Stroke length
control
Stroke length
control
RPM control
RPM control
Programcontrol with the
conductivity at the outlet of
a demister as a preceding
signal
Programcontrol with the
conductivity at the outlet of a
demister as a preceding signal
Constant value control of conductivity at the inlet of a deaeration unit with the
conductivity at the outlet of a demister as a preceding signal
Injection of a
constant volume
In proportion to the condensate water flow rate
In proportion to the condensate water flow rate
Constant value control of conductivity at the inlet of a deaeration unit with the
conductivity at the outlet of a demister as a preceding signal Injection of a
constant volume
As above
As above
Programcontrol with the
conductivity at the outlet of
a demister as a preceding
signal
Programcontrol with the
conductivity at the outlet of
a demister as a preceding
signal
In proportion to the condensate water flow
rate
In proportion to the condensate water flow
rate
H
y
d
r
a
z
i
n
e

p
u
m
p

In proportion to the feed water flow rate
In proportion to the
condensate water flow
In proportion to the feed water flow rate In proportion to the
condensate water flow

Injection of a constant
volume (CONC)
Injection of a constant
volume (CONC)
C
h
e
m
i
c
a
l

i
n
j
e
c
t
i
o
n

l
o
c
a
t
i
o
n
s

A
m
m
o
n
i
a

Open
Open
H
y
d
r
a
z
i
n
e

Open

2
5
3

To the outlet of
HPHTR
To the startup
collection pit

Fig. 3.3.2-8: Water Treatment Flow Chart of the No. 1 Unit of Kawagoe Thermal Power Plant
To the
startup
effluent pit
Drain tank
LP.HP HTR Drain
Steam A
and B
From HPx1HTR
From the
outlet of
CBP
From HP2HTR
To the boiler
blow tank
To the
boiler
blow
tank
LP-HTR
Drain P
To the boiler blow tank
254
3.3.2.2.4 Water treatment of an Ultrasupercritical Pressure Once-through Boiler
The method used by an ultrasupercritical pressure once-through boiler to control water quality is basically the
same as the conventional supercritical pressure once-through boiler. This chapter explains how water quality is
controlled at the Kawagoe Thermal Power Plant. Fig. 3.3.2-8 shows the water treatment flow chart.
(1) Water treatment in Normal Operation
a. Frequency and Method of Chemical Injection
Aiming to keep the pH of the feed water at the inlet of an economizer at 9.6 as a target, ammonia is injected
continuously and automatically to the outlet of a condensate water booster pump in proportion to the flow rate of
the condensate water and with monitoring of conductivity (ammonia concentration) at the inlet of a deaeration
unit.
In addition, in order to keep the hydrazine concentration of feed water at the inlet of the economizer at 20µg/l as
a target, hydrazine is injected continuously and automatically to the outlet of a condensate water booster pump in
proportion to the flow rate of the condensate water and with monitoring of hydrazine concentration of the feed
water at the inlet of the economizer to retain it to 35µS/l.
b. Operation Control of a Condensate water Desalination Unit
In this plant, the condensate water desalination unit is operated continuously without limiting the inflow of
water into the unit. The unit consists of two prefilters (electromagnetic filtration system) and four mixed bed
condensate demineralization towers (with one standby).
In principle, all condensate demineralization towers are of NH4 type and water collection stops when the
towers are filled by a pre-designated volume of water and when water quality deteriorates. Table 3.3.2-20 shows
the pre-designated volume of water and the water treatment values of this desalination unit.
(2) Water treatment at Startup and while the Unit is not used
a. Pattern of Stoppage and How to Store each Component
Table 3.3.2-21 shows the stoppage pattern and how each component is stored.
b. Sampling Rack at the time of Stoppage and How to Store Chemical-Related Measurement
Instruments
As soon as the systems of each sampling point stops, a shut-off valve installed at the inlet of the sampling rack
automatically closes. The chemical-related measurement instruments are in standby condition, ready to start
measurement, just the same as when the system is in operation. No transfer of deionized water takes place in the
sampling rack.
c. Cleanup
Table 3.3.2-22 shows the scope of the cleanup and the water treatment criteria.

d. Monitoring of Water Quality
Water quality is monitored by a continuous water quality measurement instrument. When each system
component starts working, a valve installed at the inlet of the sampling rack automatically opens. As for the iron
concentration, a scattered light/transmitted light ratio turbidity meter that can monitor colloidal iron is used by
automatically switching the measurement point.

Fig. 3.3.2-20: Designated Water Volume of the Condensate water Desalination Unit
and Water treatment criteria
Designated collection
volume
NH4 Type
H Type
384 000 (m
3
)
35 000 (m
3
)
Water treatment (outlet
water quality)
Conductivity
Sodium ion concentration
0.15 (PS/cm)
5.0 (Pg/l)

e. Drain Collection
Drain is blown to the outside of the system at the same time with the startup of the feed water heater. Drain of
the low-pressure feed water heater is collected to the condenser when the iron concentration becomes 500 Pg/l or
less. Moreover, when the iron concentration becomes 50 Pg/l or less, it is collected to the condensate water pipe.
Similarly, drain of the high-pressure feed water heater is collected to the condenser when the iron concentration
becomes 50 Pg/l or less. When the iron concentration becomes 50 Pg/l or less, it is collected to the deaerator.


255

Fig. 3.3.2-21: Stoppage Patterns (Category) and How to Store each Component
Stop time Within 72 hours 72 hours to 1 week 1 week or longer
Boiler stop
condition
Normal stop Forced cooling Normal stop Forced cooling Normal stop Forced cooling
Stoppage
Category
Component
Condenser
vacuum
Retained Destructed Retained Destructed Retained Destructed Retained Destructed
Boiler body Hot bank
When the pressure is
decreased
Pressurized sealing of
N
2
Same as left Pressurized sealing
of N
2
Same as left Hot bank
After decreasing the
pressure, the boiler is
filled with 100mg/l of
hydrazine for storage.
Storage after
filling 100mg/l
of hydrazine
Hot bank
After decreasing the
pressure, the boiler is
filled with 200mg/l of
hydrazine for storage.
After decreasing
the pressure, the
boiler is filled
with 200mg/l of
hydrazine for
storage.
Pre-boiler Valve is closed like
during normal
operation.
Same as left Same as left Same as left Same as left
Like the case of a
boiler, the pre-boiler is
filled with 100mg/l of
hydrazine for storage.
Storage after
filling 100mg/l
of hydrazine
Same as left
Like the case of a boiler,
the pre-boiler is filled
with 200mg/l of
hydrazine for storage.
After decreasing
the pressure, the
boiler is filled
with 200mg/l of
hydrazine for
storage.
Deaeration unit Hot bank
When the pressure is
decreased
Pressurized sealing of
steam or N
2
Same as left Pressurized sealing
of N
2
Same as left Hot bank
Like the case of a
boiler, the pre-boiler is
filled with 100mg/l of
hydrazine for storage.
Storage after
filling 100mg/l
of hydrazine
Hot bank
Like the case of a boiler,
the pre-boiler is filled
with 200mg/l of
hydrazine for storage.
After decreasing
the pressure, the
boiler is filled
with 200mg/l of
hydrazine for
storage.
Low pressure feed water heater Valve is closed like
during normal
operation.
Same as left Same as left Same as left Same as left
Like the case of a
boiler, the pre-boiler is
filled with 100mg/l of
hydrazine for storage.
Storage after
filling 100mg/l
of hydrazine
Same as left
Like the case of a boiler,
the pre-boiler is filled
with 200mg/l of
hydrazine for storage.
After decreasing
the pressure, the
boiler is filled
with 200mg/l of
hydrazine for
storage.
From condenser to the inlet of the low
pressure feed water heater
Cleanup
Circulation continued
Same as left Same as left Same as left Same as left
Like the case of a
boiler, the pre-boiler is
filled with 100mg/l of
hydrazine for storage.
Storage after
filling 100mg/l
of hydrazine
Same as left
Like the case of a boiler,
the pre-boiler is filled
with 200mg/l of
hydrazine for storage.
After decreasing
the pressure, the
boiler is filled
with 200mg/l of
hydrazine for
storage.
Shell side of feed water heater Retained under
vacuum condition.
Pressurized
sealing of N
2
Retained under
vacuum condition.
Pressurized
sealing of N
2
Same as left Same as left Same as left Same as left
Superheater and reheater Valve is closed like
during normal
operation.
Same as left Same as left Same as left Same as left Same as left Same as left Same as left


256

Table 3.3.2-22: Scope of Cleanup and Water Quality Criteria
Water quality criteria for approving the cleanup process Cleanup process Water quality
measurement
point
pH Cationic
conductivity
(µS/cm)
Dissolved
oxygen
concentration
(mg/l)
Hydrazine
concentration
(mg/l)
Total iron
concentration
(mg/l)
Scope of
cleanup
Remarks
Blowing Outlet of a
condensate
pump
9.8 1.50 or
below
0.500 Condensate
water
Circulation Outlet of a
condensate
pump
9.4
to
9.7
0.15 or
below
0.200 0.050
(Outlet of a
condensate water
booster pump)
From a
condenser
to the inlet
of a low
pressure
feed water
heater

Blowing Outlet of a
deaeration
circulation
pump
9.5
to
9.7
0.50 or
below
0.500 Deaeration
unit
Circulation Outlet of a
deaeration
circulation
pump
9.5
to
9.7
0.50 or
below
0.10 or
below
0.200 0.050
From a low
pressure
feed water
heater to a
deaeration
unit

Blowing Pre-boiler
cleanup pipe
9.5
to
9.7
0.50 or
below
0.500 Pre-boiler
Circulation Pre-boiler
cleanup pipe
9.5
to
0.7
0.50 or
below
0.10 or
below
0.200 0.050
From the
outlet of a
deaeration
unit to a
high
pressure
feed water
heater

Blowing Outlet of a
water separator
9.5
to
9.7
0.50 or
below
0.500 Boiler
Circulation Outlet of a
water separator
9.5
to
9.7
0.50 or
below
0.10 or
below
0.200 0.050
From the
outlet of a
high
pressure
feed water
heater to a
boiler


3.3.2.3 Water treatment When Condenser Pipes are Subject to Leakage
Most thermal power plant use seawater as the cooling water for their condenser and this is frequently channeled
into the system through condenser pipes or joints between them and the pipe boards due to their corrosion and
erosion (seawater leakage). The seawater, having infiltrated into the system, causes the following damage to each
part of the unit:
(1) Corrosion of materials due to the decreased pH of the boiler water caused by magnesium chloride
(2) Heat transmission failure due to the scales consisting of Ca and Mg on the generation pipes
(3) Contamination and corrosion of superheater pipes and turbine blades due to the carryover of salts
(4) Corrosion of SUS materials due to the chlorine ions contained in the temperature reduction spray water of a
superheater.
As measures to avoid seawater leakage, several methods are possible, including the prevention of foreign
matter brought into a condenser, the installation of an electrolytic protection unit on the seawater side of a
condenser, a coating of anti-ion and -oxide layers inside condenser pipes and the use of titanium pipes. As for
protective maintenance measures against system aging, an eddy current flaw detector (eddiography) is used during
regular inspections.
3.3.2.3.1 Confirmation of Leakage
A seawater leakage can be detected by the enhanced conductivity of condensate water. In the case of a drum
boiler, it can be identified by increased chloride salt concentration, although in the case of a minute leakage, it is
difficult to identify the leakage with such measures. Generally, the leakage is detected by transforming salts into
acids via cation exchange resins. When salts are transformed into acids, the conductivity jumps up to 8 to 10 times.
For this purpose, a cation exchange resin tower is installed before an conductivity meter of condensate water,
basically. In order to detect seawater leakages as early as possible, most units take out condenser hot well water to
measure its salt concentration using a salinometer, in combination with the conductivity meter, so that seawater
leakage can be detected, even when the conductivity meter fails. The double monitoring system is relatively useful
in detecting seawater leakage.
Fig. 3.3.2-9 shows an example of the salinometer installation.
The conductivity meter shall be monitored constantly by installing the alarm system and the recorder because
the phenomenon of seawater leakage may be continuous but it can also be temporary, in which case it only lasts
for a few minutes to over ten minutes.
3.3.2.3.2 How to Detect the Leakage Location in One Condenser Operation
It is desirable that the unit be shut down and damaged parts identified and repaired as soon as seawater leakage
occurs. However, most cases involve the need for identification and repair of damaged parts in parallel with the
unit in operation. As a unit installed with a salinometer and condenser hot wells can be selectable, in which a
condenser system leakage occurs, condenser A or B can easily be identified by an operator by referring to its
operation manual. There may be several ways to detect a leakage. A 1000MW class boiler has a large-sized
condenser with a number of thin pipes installed on it. The first thing to do is to identify the location of the leakage.
In this class, firstly, a circulation pump is stopped, and then a transparent vinyl tube is connected to the pump
pressure detector so that it rises vertically against the top of the condenser. While checking the water level in the
transparent tube, seawater is blown gradually to estimate the leakage part by referring to the indications of a
salinometer and a sodium meter. After the total blowing, an operator enters into the seawater side system and
pastes a thin polyethylene film to the surface of the pipes. The location of a pipe where the film is sucked has a
hole as a source of the leakage.
In the case of a minute leakage, it is difficult to identify it via single condenser operation. In many case a
leakage stops unknowingly to the operators. In this case, what is generally practiced is conducting a water
pressure test after stopping the unit. Makeup water of a low concentration fluorescent solution is put into the
condenser steam side and left for a period ranging from several hours to about one day. Subsequently, ultraviolet
rays are cast from the seawater side to detect which part reacts against the rays.

3.3.2.3.3 Water treatment at Seawater Leakage
As explained above, seawater slipped into feed water due to a leakage can cause various damage to boiler and
turbine systems, so it is important to stop the leakage and remove salts from the feed water.

Condensate water
pump
R
e
t
u
r
n

v
a
l
v
e

Sampling
valve
Sampling
valve
Conductivity
meter
R
e
s
i
n

t
o
w
e
r

R
e
s
i
n

t
o
w
e
r

S
a
m
p
l
i
n
g
S
a
m
p
l
i
n
g
F
l
o
w

m
e
t
e
r


Fig. 3.3.2-9: Example of Salinometer Installation

(1) Drum Type Boiler
Among the salts contained in seawater, MgCl
2
can produce Mg(OH)
2
sediments and HCl as shown in the
following chemical formula, causing a significant deterioration in the pH level of boiler water and accelerating
corrosion of the materials.
MgCl
2
+2H
2
OoMg(OH)
2
+2HCl
As soon as seawater leakage occurs, boiler blowing on a par with the volume of leakage starts and in order to
uplift the pH value slightly higher than the criteria of water quality, an appropriate volume of sodium phosphate is
injected. The phosphate ions have the effect of preventing the deposition of hard scales of Ca and Mg, and also
work to discharge such scales out of the system via the help of the boiler blowing. In the case of a unit where feed
water is sprayed to a superheater and reheater to reduce their temperature, the volume of the feed water is reduced
when seawater leakage is detected. When the chlorine ion concentration in condensate water rises to 0.5mg/l or
above, the spraying is stopped. Table 3.3.2-23 shows the actions taken to a 175MW drum type boiler.
(2) Once-through Boiler
When a condensate water desalination unit reaches its peak capacity, a once-through boiler stops its operation.
257
258
For this reason, when seawater leakage is detected, its remaining capacity is checked immediately. During normal
operation, an ammonia type sampling is switched to H type sampling, on a par with the volume of leakage, and
the standby tower starts operation. With these measures, loads are reduced as soon as possible to contain the
volume of seawater slipping into the system. Table 3.3.2-14 shows the actions taken for a 1,000MW class boiler.

3.3.2.4 Water treatment During a Regular Inspection
A large-sized industrial use boiler tends to have a longer interval till the next regular inspection and its
restoration will take also longer, from the process of filling water to restarting it. During that time, the water
quality must be maintained in good condition. When such boiler is subject to a stop for regular inspection, a boiler
is subject to blowing at as high a temperature as possible to remove any residual liquid in it, so that it can be
stored in dry condition.
Generally speaking, 60% to 70% of the total process is subject to water pressure tests. Pre-restoration, each
component is kept in such condition that pressure-related tests can take place. Firstly, a deaeration unit is flushed
with water and then filled with water drawn directly from a makeup water tank, to which approx. 100mg/l of
hydrazine is added. Subsequently, a commissioning test is conducted to a feed water pump. The next process
involves filling the boiler with water and adding 100mg/l hydrazine. After the water pressure test, nitrogen is
blown into the boiler to purge the water. The water containing hydrazine purged out from the boiler is then
decomposed by adding sodium hypochlorite. The concentration of this chemical is also kept to a minimum for
environmental purposes.
As for the storage of the unit till the next startup, the general practice is that the water used for the pressure test
is blown out. If the unit is subject to an immediate start, boiler pipes are sometimes filled with water for storage.

Table 3.3.2-23: Example of Actions when Seawater Leakage Happens to a Condenser (Example)
Surge of Conductivity
at the Outlet of CP
(µS/cm)
Actions Taken
Water Quality Treatment
1/2 load
Rated
load
Actions for Operation
Blowing Chemical Injection
Others
Cl-Concentration
of Condensate
water
Lower than
6
Lower
than3
1. To strengthen
monitoring by
monitoring
instruments
2. Determination of the
location and degree of
leakage
3. Examination for
starting operation and
inspection plans
1. Continuous blowing
a. To be done
immediately after
detecting seawater
leakage
b. Intermittent blowing
depending on the
leakage conditions
(manual inspection,
etc.)
2. Blowing of condensate
water
a. To be done
depending on the
leakage conditions
1. To close the
condensate water
return valve
connected to a
distilled water
tank
2. To conduct a
water-pressurized
leak check
-
6 or above
3 or
above
1. One condenser
operation
(To stop damaged
condenser and to
operate the intact
condenser
continuously at the
1/2 load)
2. To confirm that the
conductivity at the
outlet of CP, etc., has
decreased
0.3 ppm or
above
10 or
above
5 or
above
1. Reduction or stop of
the spray flow rate for
a superheater and
reheater
2. To reduce load
1. Continuous blowing
To be done
continuously
2. Rapid blowing
To be done in the case
that water quality check
revealed it necessary
(Openness: 10% to
15%)
3. Blowing of condensate
water
To be done
continuously
(Fully open in
principle, but subject to
adjustment depending
on conditions)
1. To check and
repair the
damaged
condenser while
operating the
intact one
(Inspection using
a vinyl sheet)
0.5 ppm or
above
20 10
1. To stop the unit in
principle
1. Total boiler blowing as
necessary
1. Chemical injection
to boilers
a. To inject 10l of
sodium tertiary
phosphate to the
drum when
continuous
blowing starts
b. To inject an
appropriate
volume of sodium
tertiary phosphate
so that the pH
level of boiler
water can be
maintained at
around 9.5
2. Chemical injection
to feed water
a. To switch
hydrazine
injection from
automatic mode
to manual mode
(Target: pH of
feed water to be
around 8.8)
* As seawater
elements causes
an uplift of
conductivity, it is
not possible to
control the pH
level by adjusting
it.
1. To check and
repair the
damaged
condenser
1.0 ppm

3.3.2.5 Water treatment of Component Cooling Water
The component cooling water system (bearing cooling water system) can be roughly divided into circulation
and non-circulation temporary cooling types. The former can further be divided into a open circulation type, in
259
which water heated up in a heat exchanging process is evaporated in a cooling tower to be cooled by discharging
evaporative latent heat for use in recycling, and a closed circulation type, in which heated water is cooled down in
a cooling water cooler using seawater. A large capacity power generation plant in Japan uses the closed circulation
type, which can then be categorized into systems where bearing cooling water tanks are installed and those using
stand pipes. Recently, the latter has been frequently used because of the ease of water treatment.
These component cooling water systems incorporate an oil cooler that cools down the lubricants used for
turbine rotors, etc., a hydrogen cooler that is used for cooling generator and a coolant cooler. These units are made
of aluminum brass. Controlling the water quality of such component coolants should involve consideration of the
selection of an appropriate coolant circulation method and the use of steel, copper and copper alloys. Based on
such views, the water treatment of component coolants involves the introduction of anti-corrosion agents into the
coolants, in order to prevent the corrosion of the heat exchanger cooling pipes as well as other pipes, in turn, to
prevent scale deposits on the heat exchanger and avoid deterioration of its heat exchanging function.

3.3.2.5.1 Temporary Cooling Type Cooling System
A temporary cooling type is used where river water is accessible. Cooling water containing heat is normally
discharged into the river untreated, because the use of high concentration anti-corrosion agents is not practical for
cost reasons. However, polymer phosphate and silicate anti-corrosion agents of 2 to 5 mg/l are sometimes used,
mainly to prevent the generation of carbon steel rust and corrosion of the peripheral area arising from the same. In
using these chemicals, it is necessary to secure a flow rate of at least 1 m/s to obtain favorable results.

Table 3.3.2-24: Example of Water Quality Treatments to a High Hardness Cooling Water System
Operation Condition of Cooling
Tower
Volume of circulation water: 20,000 m
3
/h
Water volume retained: 13,000 m
3
Temperature difference in a cooling tower: 8qC
Concentration : 2.5 times
Chemicals Used
Initial injection:
Anti-corrosion agent: Kurizetto S370 (polymer phosphate series) 400mg/l
Anti-scaling agent: Kurizetto T225 (polymer series) 200mg/l
Normal operation:
Alkali treatment agent: Kurizetto S113 (phosphate - polymer series) 40mg/l
Chlorine treatment: 0.5 to 1.0mg/l(Cl
2
) 3 h/day
Slime control agent: Polyclin A496 (nitrogen compounds - polymer series) 50mg/l x month
Partial Filtration of Circulation
Water
Sand filtration: 3% (against circulation water volume)
Water Quality
Makeup water Circulation water
Turbidity (degree) 2 5
pH (at 25qC) 8.1 9.0
Conductivity (µS/cm) 350 1 000
Calcium hardness (CaCO
3
mg/l) 170 380
M alkali level (CaCO
3
mg/l) 180 400
Chloride ion (Cl-mg/l) 20 63
Sulfate ion (SO
4
2-
mg/l) 31 79
Silica (SiO
2
mg/l) 7 18
Treatment Periods 7 years
Results of Effects using a Test
Piece
Corrosion rate (SPCC) [mdd] 3 to 4
Result of a Regular Inspection
A small volume of scales and sludge was observed in several low speed heat exchangers, but other heat
exchangers were in good condition without any corrosion scales, slime and sludge damage.

3.3.2.5.2 Open Circulation Type Cooling System
As the cooling water in an open circulation type cooling water system partially evaporates in a cooling water
tower, the dissolved salts are concentrated in the circulation water. In order to obtain favorable functions of a
coolant, it is necessary that water volume of a forced blowing be adjusted to control the concentration of salts in
the circulation water, and that the quality of circulation water, as well as the concentration of chemicals, such as
anti-corrosion and anti-scaling agents, be kept at a constant level.
In an environment with high calcium hardness i.e. 150mg/l(CaCO
3
) or above, the alkali level is sufficient and
the pH level is high, i.e. 8 or above in cooling water, calcium phosphate anti-corrosion coating can easily be
formed and the concentration of anti-corrosion agents in water can be retained to 5 to 6 mg/l(T-PO
4
) to perform
their intended result. However in such an environment, where the calcium hardness, M alkali level and pH are all
high, it is necessary to add polymer series anti-corrosion agent of a sufficient concentration to avoid calcium
phosphate series anti-corrosion coating and calcium carbonate from forming scales in the high temperature area.
As the quality of makeup water shows a relatively low hardness and low M alkali level, in most cases, this type of
treatment is applied by high concentration operation of water cooling system (5 times or above). This works well
in view of preventing environmental pollution because it can reduce the volume of blowing water and
phosphorous discharged outside the system.
260
Unlike highly hard water, water with low calcium hardness tends to require an increased concentration of
anti-corrosion chemicals and it is necessary to raise the concentration of anti-corrosion agent to 10 to 15
mg/l(T-PO
4
) under the calcium hardness of around 100 mg/l(CaCO
3
) and 15 to 20 mg/l(T-PO
4
) in the case of 50
mg/l (CaCO
2
). This is because the phosphate series anti-corrosion agent is influenced by dianoinic metals, such as
calcium ions, and because the combined use of phosphate and zinc salts with a strong coating forming
performance can achieve good anti-corrosion performance, even if the concentration of anti-corrosion chemicals
is kept to a low level. In a low hardness cooling water system, scales such as calcium phosphate can be formed in
a high temperature zone, and anti-scaling agents, such as acrylic acid series polymers and maleic acid series
polymers, are generally used in combination with these chemicals. In an open circulation type cooling system,
operation under a high concentration of chemicals to save the volume of water can thicken nutrients contained in
the water and within such an environment, microbes can pullulate and slime be formed relatively easily. In order
to prevent this, measures are taken by sterilizing the microbes and adding anti-slime agents that are effective in
curtailing the reproduction of the same. For such purposes, the hypochlorites and cyanurates previously used have
been recently replaced by carbonyl series compounds with no corrosion effects. Tables 3.3.2-24 and 3.3.2-25 show
examples of water quality treatment at open circulation type cooling systems.
Table 3.3.2-26 shows the water quality analysis items and frequency of analysis that are usually used for the
operating control of an open circulation type cooling system, while Table 3.3.2-27 shows the significance of these
water quality analysis items.

Table 3.3.2-25: Example of Water Quality Treatments to a Low Hardness Cooling Water System
Operation Condition of Cooling
Tower
Volume of circulation water: 5 000 m
3
/h
Water volume retained: 2 400 m
3
Temperature difference in a cooling tower: 12qC
Concentration : 3 times
Chemicals Used
Initial injection:
Anti-corrosion agent: Kurizetto S370 (polymer phosphate series) 400mg/l
Kurizetto S611 (zinc salt series) 100mg/l
Normal operation:
Anti-corrosion agent: Kurizetto S603 (phosphonates, phosphates and zinc salts) 50mg/l
Anti-scaling agent: Kurizetto T225 (polymer series) 30 mg/l
Chlorine treatment: Polyclin A411 0.3 to 1.0mg/l(Cl
2
) 3 h/day
Partial Filtration of Circulation
Water
Sand filtration: 3% (against circulation water volume)
Water Quality
Makeup water Circulation water
Turbidity (degree) 2 7
pH (at 25qC) 7.2 7.9
Conductivity (µS/cm) 100 254
Calcium hardness (CaCO
3
mg/l) 24 72
M alkali level (CaCO
3
mg/l) 23 47
Chloride ion (Cl-mg/l) 5 18
Sulfate ion (SO
4
2-
mg/l) 6 15
Silica (SiO
2
mg/l) 6 15
Treatment Periods 8 years
Results of Effects using a Test
Piece
Corrosion rate (SPCC) [mdd] 3 to 5
Result of a Regular Inspection Corrosion, scale and slime were hardly observed and the result was very good.

Table 3.3.2-26: Water treatment Items and Analyzing Frequency for Operation Control of an Open Circulation
Type Cooling System (Standard)
Frequency of Analysis Analysis Item
Makeup Water Circulation Water
Turbidity (degree) Once a week Once a week
pH (at 25qC) Once a week Once a day
Conductivity (µS/cm) Once a week Once a day
M alkali level (CaCO
3
mg/l) Once a week Once a week
Calcium hardness (CaCO
3
mg/l) Once a week Once a week
Chloride ion (Cl
-
mg/l) Once a week Once a week
Sulfate ion (SO
4
2-
mg/l) Once a week -
Silica (SiO
2
mg/l) Once a week -
Total iron (Fe mg/l) Once a week -
Residual chlorine (Cl
2
mg/l) - -
CODMin (O mg/l) Once a month Once a month
Anti-corrosion agents (mg/l) - Once a day

There are several ways to monitor the effectiveness of an anti-corrosion agent, the representative methods of
which include (1) measuring the corrosion speed of a test piece, (2) measuring the corrosion speed using a
corrosion measurement device using a polarization resistance method (an electrochemical method), (3) confirming
the conditions of corrosion and erosion depth on the heat transfer surface of a pipe using a heat exchanger for
261
monitoring purposes. The use of a test piece or a corrosion measurement device to measure the corrosion speed
cannot confirm the corrosion conditions on the heat transfer surface, in which case a heat exchanger for
monitoring purposes can be used. However, this method is not generally used, because the conditions of pipes
cannot be confirmed during test periods (normally 1 to 3 months) and because it requires significant plant and
operation control costs.
Table 3.3.2-27: Significance of Each Water Quality Analysis Item
Item Significance
pH
(at 25qC)
Measured to obtain the trend of corrosion behavior and scale formation of water. The pH level of circulation water
is normally controlled at 7.0 to 9.0. Where the level is decreased to 6.5 or below, it must be raised by the addition
of alkali agents. In this case, the appropriate pH level is 8.0 to 9.0.
Conductivity
(µS/cm)
Measured to determine the trend of salt concentration dissociated into water as ions. Generally speaking, water
quality with high conductivity tends to be bad and is frequently a cause of corrosion damage.
Turbidity
(degree)
Measured to determine the volume of suspended matter in water. Since the presence of such suspended matter in
the system can cause deterioration of efficiency and erosion damage to a heat exchanger, the turbidity of the
circulation water should be retained as low as possible.
M alkali level
(CaCO
3
mg/l)
There is a certain degree of connection between pH and the degree of alkali. The M alkali degree is an indicator of
the trend of calcium carbonate forming scales.
Calcium hardness
(CaCO
3
mg/l)
This indicator is important to control the concentration of circulation water and to determine the trend for the
formation of scales by calcium and other compounds such as calcium carbonate.
Chloride ion
(Cl
-
mg/l)
This is generally used as an indicator for controlling the concentration of circulation water. For a system where
chlorine treatment is performed, this indicator is used in combination with others, such as conductivity, calcium
hardness and silica concentration, etc. Water containing high chloride ions tends to have strong corrosive
performances.
Sulfate ion
(SO
4
2-
mg/l)
Water containing a high concentration of sulfate ions tends to have a strongly corrosive performance. As for HAVC
coolants, the inclusion of sulfur acid gas contained in the air into the system causes a high concentration of sulfate
ions and decreases the pH level, forming a highly corrosive environment.
Silica
(SiO
2
mg/l)
Silica is one of the causes of scale formation.
Ammonium ion
(NH
4
+
/l)
Water containing a high concentration of ammonium ions is highly inclined to generate slime. For a system using
copper series materials, ammonium ions and copper react with each other to form a complex ammonium ion salt,
which is a cause of corrosion.
Consumption of oxygen
[CODMin ]
(O mg/l)
A system with a high consumption of oxygen tends to cause slime, meaning appropriate slime control measures
must be implemented.
General microbe count
(pcs/ml)
It can be an indicator to know the generation of slime. It can also be used to judge the effectiveness of the
microbicide.
Total iron
(Fe mg/l)
The total iron content in the circulation water includes iron ion and colloidal ion derived from the makeup water as
well as other iron generated by corrosion of the system. The existence of iron can cause secondary corrosion,
meaning the total iron concentration must be kept as low as possible.
Concentration of
anti-corrosion agents and
anti-scaling agents
(mg/l)
It is necessary to constantly maintain the concentrations of anti-corrosion and anti-scaling agents at an appropriate
level. In the case of significant fluctuations, effective anti-corrosion and anti-scaling performances cannot be
expected.

3.3.2.5.3 Closed Circulation Type Cooling System
A closed circulation type cooling system does not incorporate any cooling towers, and thus thickening of
chemicals due to the evaporation of water cannot take place. The main problem affecting this type of cooling
system is corrosion. In order to prevent corrosion, polymer phosphate series agents, nitrate series agents and
molybdenum salt series polymer agents are used, as shown in Table 3.3.2-28.
As cooling systems with bearing coolant tanks have a large area, where the coolants come into contact with the
atmosphere, and also generally tend to have significant cooling water leakage, substances that cause the pH level
to fluctuate, such as carbon dioxide, can enter into the system quite easily from the air, and the volume of
anti-corrosion agents consumed tends to be high. For such reasons, filtrated water is used as a coolant for cost
saving purposes, and a polymer phosphate series anti-corrosion agent is used. The polymer phosphate reacts
against copper to form dark green Cu
2
OxCuPO
3
. Similarly to basic copper chloride, this compound does not form
a continuous layer, has high solubility and can have significantly adverse effects to the system. Due to this, it is
necessary to use benzyxotriazole and a derivative of trithio cyanuric acid in combination with the above agents,
because these substances show a strong anti-corrosion performance against copper and copper alloys. The
concentration of the polymer phosphate anti-corrosion agents is 100 to 200 ppm for initial injection. After the
initial injection, the concentration is kept at 20 to 40 ppm. The concentration of anti-corrosion agents is controlled
in such a manner that after understanding the relationship of the agent and conductivity, the agent is added by
monitoring the conductivity of the coolant.
A coolant system incorporated with a stand pipe, where the coolant is circulated without being exposed to the
air, meaning no carbon dioxide and oxygen will enter the system from the exterior air. The leakage of coolant is
small and consumption of anti-corrosion agents to form anti-corrosion layers can be minimized. For these reasons,
this type of system is superior to other types having a coolant tank, in terms of controlling water quality.
Conventionally, filtrated water was used as a coolant. However, recently, deionized water has been used for this
purpose due to the enhanced plant reliability. Nitrate salt is used to prevent corrosions, but sometimes hydrazine is
262
also used in a one-off manner for this purpose. As nitrate salt anti-corrosion agents cannot expect anti-corrosion
performance equivalent to that of polymer phosphate series agents, a special agent to prevent corrosion to copper
must be used in combination. In addition, as nitrite salts can cause decreased concentrations, due to the act of
microbes (nitrification due to action of oxidative bacterium against nitrate salts such as nitrobactors), it is
necessary to use an inhibitor in combination with the agents or to use deionized water containing less uncertain
elements. In the case of the nitrate salt series agent, after the initial injection of 200 to 300ppm of this agent, the
concentration is kept at a level of 60 to 130 ppm. In the case of hydrazine, the initial concentration is 20 ppm,
following which the concentration is maintained at 5 to 10 ppm when the concentration reaches a stable stage,
whereupon a good anti-corrosion performance can be obtained. The frequency of administering anti-corrosion
agents ranges from once a week to once every two weeks to obtain good water treatment.

Table 3.3.2-28: Outline of Anti-Corrosion Agents for a Closed Circulation Type Cooling System
Anti-Corrosion
Agent
Applicable Water System Corrosion Rate Remarks
Polymer Phosphate
Series
Retention period: Within 10
days
Makeup water: Industrial water
Fresh water
Carbon steel: 5 to 20 mdd
Copper and copper alloys:
1 mdd or
below
As this agent facilitates the discharge of corrosion products
outside the system, a corrosion speed of 5 to 20 mdd may
be acceptable.
Use polymer agents in combination with it to reduce the
generation of scales on heat transmission surfaces.
Nitrate Salt Series Retention period: 10 days or
more
Makeup water: Industrial water
Softened water
Deionized water
Carbon steel: 1 mdd
Copper and copper alloys:
1 mdd or
below
As this agent does not allow the easy discharge of corrosion
products outside of the system, a chemical that ensure
favorable anti-corrosion performance must be used.
As the maximum temperature of bearing coolants is 40qC
or below, which is within the optimum growing
temperature for microbes oxidizing nitrate salts (generally
15 to 30qC), it is necessary to use its inhibitor in
combination with it.
Molybdate
Polymer Series
Retention period: 50 days or
more
Makeup water: Industrial water
Softened water
Deionized water
Carbon steel: 10 mdd
Copper and copper alloys:
1 mdd or
below
When this agent is used in a system in which no or
insufficient anti-corrosion treatment is performed, iron
oxides existing in the system can be washed away turning
the color of the coolant red. In such systems, it is necessary
to flush it before starting injection of this chemical.
3.3.3 Future Prospects
With unit size subject to rapid growth since the introduction of large-sized components after WWII, a daily
water treatment method has almost been established following the era of trials and errors. However, many
problems still remain to be solved depending on the location of a thermal power plant, in order to further advance
the method of water treatment.
The first involves how to raise the reliability of supplying sufficient energy. Considering recent advancements
of society and economic growth, it cannot be said that sufficient energies are guaranteed. Under current conditions,
where it is increasingly difficult to build a new power plant, currently available systems should be used as long as
possible. The issues to be solved in order to ensure the patterns of water treatments, established based on the
experiences of thermal power plants to advance into stricter and more assured means of water treatment, include
raising the accuracy of the devices used to monitor water quality as well as measures against seawater corrosion of
condenser pipes, in terms of materials.
The second issues to be solved include (1) a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions that is considered to be a
cause of global warming, (2) shortening the system operation time to maintain and uplift the heat efficiency of
boilers from the viewpoint of energy saving and the appropriate use of energies, (3) the introduction of such
methods as oxygen treatment to prevent scale attachment to boilers and (4) reduction in the ammonia volume used
for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from effluents.
The third issues include plant maintenance. Water treatment is a decisive factor in preventing the corrosion of
components. With this in mind, it is important to occasionally conduct a water quality inspection to assess the
quality of water in the system and to determine the volume of oxygen and metal ion concentration, in order to
conduct appropriate anti-corrosion measures.
3.4 Turbines and Auxiliary Machines
3.4.1. Maintenance of SteamTurbines
Maintenance of steam turbines includes minor repairs (for example, retightening of a gland packing for a
valve) during a patrol and major repairs during periodic maintenance, among which replacement or improvement
of a faulty part may be included. There are two kinds of maintenance, one is daily repair to be effected whilst
the turbine remains in operation or the electric generation is stopped and another is periodic maintenance where
the electric generation is periodically stopped for a long time.
3.4.1.1 Daily Repairs
Daily repairs consist of (1) repairs and adjustments of faulty parts as regular repairs, (2) regular inspections,
adjustment and investigation of equipment such as important instruments and of vibration of the rotating devices
in advance as preventative maintenance, (3) improvement of a part to prevent recurrence of a failure that has often
occurred. [1] Speed, [2] sureness, [3] safety and [4] low cost are taken into consideration when a repair
operation is effected, and an elaborately prepared plan in terms of processes and application procedures should be
prepared especially for a part that may have a critical effect on the operation of the unit and also when the repair is
carried out with operation of the power unit stopped.
3.4.1.2 Periodic Inspections
Voluntary inspection of a steam turbine used for electric generation should be periodically performed in
compliance with the Electricity Utilities Industry Law.
This inspection is called the “Voluntary Periodic Inspection”, and overhauling of a steam turbine is effected
with operation of the power unit subject to a long time planned stop.
This inspection became voluntary in 1995 and the regulation stipulates that the inspection should be effected
every four years from 1999. However, this four year period may be extended depending on the operating
conditions.
3.4.1.3 Content of Periodic Inspections
During this periodic inspection, major repairs and improvements that cannot be effected at other times are to
be carried out besides overhauling of the main body and the major accessories in accordance with the established
plan. Table 3.4.1-1 shows examples of the maintenance of the parts and the equipment.
Table 3.4.1-1: Maintenance of a SteamTurbine During Periodic Maintenance
1. Main body of a turbine
(1) Turbine wheel
Cleaning by honing
Detailed and precision inspection and
repair of the disk, the rotating blades and
the shaft
Measurement of run-out and centering of
the shaft
Inspection and repair of the coupling bolts
(2) Ejection Holes and Partitions
Cleaning by honing
Detailed and precision inspection and
repair of the stationary blades and
labyrinths
(3) Casing
Measurement of the Cleaning of the
inside and the outside of casing, detailed
and precision inspection
Measurement of the level of the
horizontal flange
Measurement of the alignment of the
casing
Maintenance of the bolts, hardness test
(4) Bearings
Adjustment of the contact of the white
metals
Measurement of the bearing gaps
2. Equipment attached to the turbine body
(1) Main Valves
(MSV, CV, RSV, ICV, SMV)
Maintenance and precision inspection
of the inside and the outside of the
valves, the valve rods, the valve seats,
and the valve casings
Measurement of bend and the gaps of
the valve rods
Inspection of the bolts exposed to high
temperature
(2) Speed Governor and Emergency
Stopping Device
Inspection of the speed governor
mechanism and the piping for the
control oil
(3) Turning Device
Detailed and precision inspection of the
gears and the bearings
Inspection of the clutch mechanism
3. The turbine lubricating oil device
(1) MOP, BP, AOP, TGOP and EOP
Overhaul, repair and detailed and
precision inspection
(2) Main Oil Tank and Oil Cooler
Cleaning and oiliness test of the inside
of the tank
Cleaning of the oil cooler piping and the
water chamber
(3) Oil Cleaner
Cleaning of the inside and replacement
of the filter
Overhaul and repair of the attached
pump and the fan
263
264
3.4.1.4 Special Maintenance
Accumulated operating hours of many of the then new and advanced thermal power plants in Japan that were
the motive power for the rapid development of the Japanese economy are reaching one hundred thousand hours or
more. It is time for them to be thoroughly inspected in a systematic manner.
Desirable items to be inspected are listed below.
(1) Rotors of high, medium and low pressure turbines
a. Center hole......................... Visual inspection by means of a bore scope, magnetic particle test, liquid penetrant
test and ultrasonic test
b. Surface of the rotors .......... Hardness test at the designated points, structural examination by means of a
microscope, liquid penetrant test of general surface, magnetic particle test, hardness
test
(2) Blades
a. Embedded portion.............. Inspection to check whether the roots of the first and second stage rotors of the high
and the medium pressure turbines that are exposed to high temperature have lifted
Ultrasonic test of the rotating blades in each of the high, and the medium pressure
stages
b. Shroud tenon...................... General inspection to check whether it lifted and how it lifted
(3) Main steam check valve... Liquid penetrant test of the inside and outside surface, magnetic particle test,
ultrasonic test, hardness test and structural examination by means of a microscope
(4) Turbine casing.................. Penetrant test of the inside and outside surface, magnetic particle test, structural
examination by means of a microscope
3.4.1.5 Content of the Periodic Inspection
Content of the periodic inspection for a steam turbine is summarized as follows.
Table 3.4.1-2: Major Items of the Periodic Inspection
Operation : Inspection
Legend
V˜T: Visual Inspection
P˜T: Penetrant test
M˜T: Magnetic particle test
U˜T: Ultrasonic Test
R˜T: Radiographic test
No. Place to be Inspected Inspection Method
Number of
Tested Samples
Inspection
Frequency
Remarks Illustration and Reference Point
1 Usual inspection
(1) Casing
a. Corners and the inside
surface of each pipe
seat
V˜T, M˜T 100% inspection Every two years In our experience, cracks are liable to occur
due to concentration of heat stress in the
corners, the inside of a pipe seat and places
where thickness of the material markedly
changes.
b. Nozzle chamber
(a) The inner and the
outer surfaces
V˜T, M˜T, Amirror
for inspecting the
inside of a pipe
100% inspection Every four years (1) Removing the nozzle plate, carefully check
the base part of the nozzle vane, the corners of
the nozzle chamber, the welded part, etc.
(2) Carefully check the shape of the internal
threads of the nozzle plate fixing bolts.
(b) The welded
connecting part
M˜T, U˜T 100% inspection Every four years It is a matter of concern that self-excited
vibration of the nozzle chamber occurs with
increased clearance between the casing and the
nozzle chamber causing too much stress in the
welded base part resulting in a crack there.
(c) Profile Dimensions
(Deformed amount)
100% inspection Every four years It is necessary to monitor the total deformed
amount of the nozzle chamber since it is one of
the parts of a steam turbine that is subject to
the severest conditions and creep deformation
may occur after a long time operation.
(d) Fitted part Dimensions
(Clearance)
100% inspection Every four years It is necessary to monitor the clearance
between the casing and the nozzle chamber
every year since it may increase due to
repeated knocks caused by vibration generated
by vapor flow.
(e) Vane Dimensions
(Eroded amount)
100% inspection Every four years Increased eroded amount causes unfavorable
influences such as decreased turbine efficiency,
weakened strength of the rotating blades, etc.
It is necessary to carefully monitor a turbine
unit with which starts and stops are frequently
repeated especially because it may suffer from
outstanding increase in the eroded amount.
The inside
of a pipe
seat
A corner
A welded
connecting part
M˜T, U˜T
The inside of the nozzle
chamber
V˜T, M˜T, A mirror to
inspect the inside of a pipe
Deformed amount of the profile
Measurement of the dimensions
a, b and c
Eroded amount
Measuring point
265
Operation : Inspection
No. Place to be Inspected Inspection Method
Number of
Tested Samples
Inspection
Frequency
Remarks Illustration and Reference Point
c. The spot-faced part of
the horizontal joint
V˜T, M˜T 100% inspection Every two years The corners and the spot- faced part are liable
to cracking.
d. The inlet sleeves V˜T, M˜T,
Dimensions
100% inspection Every two years Carefully observe tearing-off, scoring and
cracks on the border of an area to which stelite
is coated. The maintenance of dimensions of
bearing seal ring and seal ring is also
important.
e. Hole Plug for the
balance hole
M˜T, Dimensions,
Shape of the screw
threads
100% inspection Every two years The Hole Plug should be carefully inspected so
that it may be easily removed and installed as
needed. Inspection of the male and the
female threads should be assuredly effected
since its coming off during operation may
result in a serious accident.
f. Balance tube M˜T, U˜T
(Wall thickness)
100% inspection Every two years Cracks in the welded part and the extent of
reduction in the wall thickness of the inner part
of the vent should be controlled.
g. Welded part V˜T, M˜T 100% inspection Every two years Cracks are liable to occur in the welded part of
the pipe base and also to the trace of the
welding for repair effected when it was
manufactured among the wide welded area.
It is also desirable to concentrate the inspection
on the welded part of the Low Pressure Casing
Stay.
h. Key V˜T, Dimension
(Clearance)
100% inspection Every four years It is necessary to control the clearance to be
appropriate at all the keys accessible for
inspection so that expansion and shrinking of
the casing may not be constrained.
(2) Casing Connecting Tube
a. Welded outer surface of
the seat for the
extraction tube
V˜T, M˜T 100% inspection Every four years Cracks occur because the shape is so
complicated and the wall thickness is so
variable that heat stress is caused.
b. Main Steam Inlet Piping
Drain Pipe Base
The outer surface:
V˜T, M˜T
The inner surface: A
mirror to inspect the
inside of a pipe
100% inspection Every four years Remove Pipe Base and the welded part of
Drain Pipe and observe the inside of Main Pipe
and the welded part of Pipe Base by means of a
mirror to inspect the inside of a pipe.
Effect M˜T on the outer surface.
Inlet Sleeve
Spot faced portion
Hole Plug Stopper
Outer Casing
Hole Plug
Hole Plug head
clearance
Inner Casing
Inspect the male and the female
threads of the Hole Plug
Inner
Casing
Outer
Casing
The welded outer
surface of the seat for
the Extraction Tube
Main Steam Inlet Piping
Drain Pipe Base
266
Operation : Inspection
No. Place to be Inspected Inspection Method
Number of
Tested Samples
Inspection
Frequency
Remarks Illustration and Reference Point
(3) Rotor
a. The R portion of the
outer surface
V˜T, M˜T 100% inspection Every four years The small size parts near the inlets of the high
pressure and the medium pressure steam and
the bottom of the dummy groove require
inspection.
b. Shoulders of the
grooves in the rotor of
the medium pressure
turbine where the
blades are embedded
V˜T, U˜T 100% inspection Every two years In case the T root is used to embed the first
stage blade of the medium pressure, check
whether any cracking occurs in the inside by
the outer surface(U.T) of the wall of the groove
for the blade.
c. The outside diameter
of Rotor
(High and medium
pressure turbine rotors)
Dimensions The area around
the steam inlet
Every four years Whether creep deformation has occurred can
be determined by change in the rotor outside
diameter. In this method, measuring points
should be fixed to grasp the yearly change in
the outside diameter.
d. Hollows where the side
entry turbine blades are
embedded
V˜T, M˜T, U˜T 100% inspection Every four years Apply the same method as that used for the
root of the rotating blades.
e. Pump Shaft V˜T, M˜T 100% inspection Every four years It is desirable to remove the vane of the main
oil pump and to measure the part with the least
cross section and some other parts.
(4) Rotating Blades
a. Tenon, Shroud Ring (1) V˜T, M˜T,
Measurement of
the lifted
amount of the
shroud ring
100% inspection Every four years Lifting of the shroud may be caused by heat
due to sheering or touching of the tenon This
problem is common in rotating blades.
(2) Measurement of
the eroded
amount of the
tenon
100% inspection Every two years In the event of serious erosion, part of the
caulked tenon is lost. This problem should be
observed. A unit that is subject to frequent
starts and stops should be observed carefully.
b. Welded parts of the
stubs
V˜T, P˜T 100% inspection Every four years In some cases, fine cracks occur in an area of
the rotating blade of the low pressure turbine to
which the metal is welded. Especially for an
old blade where TIG welding was yet to be
used, special observation is required.
c. Portions that make the
profile
Measurement of the
eroded amount
100% inspection Every two years The rotating blades near the main inlet and the
reheat inlet are liable to be eroded. It is
necessary to grasp secular changes in the
profile by means of mold transferring using a
standard gauge and compound as an additional
means.
Rs
rotor
The shoulder part of the first stage
blades of the medium pressure turbine
The outside
diameter of the
Hollows in the rotor in which
the entry blades are embedded
Cross-section
of a blade
Erosion of the part making the profile
Cracks in the welded part of the stub
Cracks
Shroud ring cracks
Tenon
Rotating
direction
Shroud
Erosion
Tenon
Shroud
Lifted amount
(An area in which the blades are embedded)
A crack
267
Operation : Inspection
No. Place to be Inspected Inspection Method
Number of
Tested Samples
Inspection
Frequency
Remarks Illustration and Reference Point
d. The blade root area of
the side entry blade
V˜T, M˜T, U˜T 100% inspection Every four years Both for the blade and the disk, the highest
stress is experienced at the corner on the first
tooth. The inspection is to be effected by
means of M˜T and U.T according to necessity.
However, in case the inspection has to be
carried out in a limited space such as the high
or medium pressure stage, P.T will be used.
e. An area of the blade in
the low pressure stage
on which stelite is
deposited.
(a) Eroded amount V˜T 100% inspection Every two years According to the erosion, the condition is to be
classified as follows and recoating should be
effected according to a planned schedule.
(1) The surface is somewhat rough.
(2) The surface is pitted.
(3) The erosion has reached the base metal.
Special care should be paid to the leading
blades of a group since they are liable to be
eroded.
(b) Separation and
cracking
P˜T 100% inspection Every two years Immediately recoat any cracked blade or where
separation has propagated to a wide area.
(c) Bonding condition R˜T (or U.T) All the recoated
blades
When recoated Make sure without fail that they have been
well bonded because the bonded condition
when the coating is effected is very important.
(5) Stationary blades
(Blades near the main
steam inlet and the
reheated steam inlet)
Measurement of
eroded amount
100% inspection Every two years The end of the outlet for the stationary blade is
liable to erosion because of steam oxidation
scale and flowed-in drain.
(6) Major valves
a. Inner corners, welded
area
V˜T, M˜T 100% inspection Every time when
overhauled
Cracks are liable to occur around the welded
areas of the baffle plate and of the valve seat
lip and the trace of the welding for repair when
the unit was manufactured.
b. Welded outer surface V˜T, M˜T 100% inspection On and after the
5th year
Every eight years
Cracks are liable to occur around the welded
areas of the structural members and the trace of
welding for repair when the unit was
manufactured.
A crack in the blade root
The blade
base metal
Erosion
Silver
solder
Separation
A crack
An image taken during R.T showing
incomplete fused spray of stelite
Erosion
Blade Ring
T
h
e

s
t
e
a
m
o
u
t
l
e
t
Welded outer surfaces
Baffle Plate
The steam inlet
Valve seat
The point where hardness is measured
Main Steam Stop Valve
Hardness of the flange surface
268
Operation : Inspection
No. Place to be Inspected Inspection Method
Number of
Tested Samples
Inspection
Frequency
Remarks Illustration and Reference Point
c. Valve Seat V˜T, M˜T (P˜T) 100% inspection Every time when
overhauled
Cracks are liable to occur in a part coated by
stelite. A stelite deposited part should be
inspected by means of P.T.
d. Flange surfaces of the
main body
(Only for the Main
Steam Stop Valve)
Hardness Representing
points
On and after the
5th year
Every two years
It is desirable to measure the hardness of the
Main Steam Stop Valve that is exposed to the
severest conditions among the valves and to
monitor secular changes in order to grasp the
tendency of its softening due to creep.
(7) Bolts exposed to high
temperature and high
pressure
a. Bolts V˜T 100% inspection Every time when
opened
M˜T (Fluorescent
magnaflux)
About 1/4 of the
installed bolts
Every four years
Hardness About 1/4 of the
installed bolts
Every four years
U˜T 100% inspection Every two years
Observe damage to the threads and cracks
in the bottoms of the threads. Usually, the
stud bolts must not be unscrewed.
b. Inner threads for the
stud bolts
Hammering test 100% inspection Every time when
opened
Carry out the hammering test before loosening
the nut and immediately after the unit is
opened to determine symptoms of damage to
the inner thread. In the event that a bolt
becomes shaky or the depth of a stud bolt in
the inner thread becomes shallower over time,
it is considered that the damage to the inner
threads has worsened.
Dimensions About two
representing
bolts per area
Every four years
Checking of the
thread profile
- ditto - Every four years
For a unit of which the service time has
exceeded 8~10 years, measure the internal
and the pitch diameters every four years.
For the profile of the threads, copy the
profile by means of compound and
periodically observe secular change of the
cross section.
Checking of the profile of the female threads
Standard profile
Actual profile
269
Operation : Inspection
No. Place to be Inspected Inspection Method
Number of
Tested Samples
Inspection
Frequency
Remarks Illustration and Reference Point
2 Secular deterioration check
(1) Rotors
a. The center hole V˜T, P˜T, M˜T, U˜T
Dimension
(inner diameter)
All the planes Once at 100,000
hours in service
and every ten
years thereafter
For a rotor where a blind hole is drilled in the
center, another of which defect was found
during the inspection of the center hole
effected when it was manufactured and others
of a unit that has been operated with frequent
starts and stops, it is desirable to inspect in a
short cycle of period.
b. Grooves for the blades
(For the T root and the
double T root types)
V˜T, M˜T (or by P.T) Rotors of the 1st
to 5th stages in
the high pressure
turbine
Rotors of the 1st
and 2nd stages in
the medium
pressure turbine
Once at 100,000
hours or so in
service
For a rotor having semicircle rotating blade
fixing metals, it is desirable to sample some
rotating blades and inspect them since it is a
matter of concern that cracking will occur in
the rotor side of the seating surface of the
metal and also in the corner of the jaw in the
groove for the blade in the rotor.
Also for a rotor that is equipped with a flat
fixing metal since it was manufactured, it is
desirable to check its secular deterioration by
an inspection method such as U.T from the
outside (for the 1st stage of the medium
pressure turbine) because cracking may occur
in the jaw of the groove for the blade in the
rotor.
Blades
Rotor
Caulking Piece
A crack
A crack
(2) Rotating Blades
a. Blade root
(For saddle shape
blades)
V˜T, U˜T,
Measurement of
lifted amount
100% inspection 8th to 10th year
and every four
years thereafter
Effect U.T and monitor the lifted amount of the
blade root in order to control the creep
deformation due to prolonged service under
high temperature and the stress corrosion
cracking of the stopper pin.
Rotating Blade
Stopper Pin
A crack
Lift
Rotor
b. Portion representing
the profile
(Blades near the main
steam and the reheat
steam inlets)
Measurement of
hardness
(by means of X-ray
diffraction or other
methods)
Several
representative
rotors
8th to 10th year
and every four
years thereafter
It is desirable to control softening of the
material used for the rotating blades every four
years since the material may possibly be
deteriorated after prolonged service under high
temperature and this can be detected by
measurement of the hardness. X-ray
diffraction is available for the measurement of
hardness as an inspection method without
making any dent in the blade.
Measurement of
hardness of the surfaces
representing the profile
270
Operation : Inspection
No. Place to be Inspected Inspection Method
Number of
Tested Samples
Inspection
Frequency
Remarks Illustration and Reference Point
(3) Stationary blades
(Blades near the main
steam and the reheat
steam inlets)
Measurement of
inclination amount
of a blade row
100% inspection 8th to 10th year
and every four
years thereafter
It is a matter of concern that creep deformation
occurs to the stationary blades in the 1st stage
of the high or the medium pressure turbine
after prolonged exposure to steam of high
temperature and high pressure so that
difference in elongation between the rotor and
the casing is constrained.
Steam
Amount of inclination
(4) Bolts exposed to high
temperature and high
pressure
Destructive test One or two
representative
bolts per material
Every four years Select the place where the severest operational
condition is realized and perform tests such as
examinations of structural transformation,
creep, low cycle fatigue, mechanical, etc.
271
3.4.2 Maintenance of Condensers
3.4.2.1 Inspection and Measures
Table 3.4.2-1 shows content of the maintenance and inspection to be effected at the periodic inspection.
Table 3.4.2-1: Content of the Maintenance and Inspection to be Effected at the Periodic Inspection
Item Purpose or Method
Timing of
Maintenance
Inspection
Method
Countermeasure/Improvement
1 The inside of the
cooling pipes
x Inspection as to whether or not
clogging of the pipe with
foreign matter, corrosion or
erosion has occurred
When the water
chamber is opened
VI
ET
x Clean it with a brush or something
similar.
x Install a stop plug in pipes that water
cannot pass through due to clogging.
x Effect anti-corrosion or anti-erosion
treatment and install a stop plug as a
precaution.
x Replace the clogged pipe with a new one.
2 The outer surface
of the cooling pipe
x Inspection of erosion and
damage
When the main body
is opened
VI x Install a stop plug in the damaged pipe.
x Effect the anti-erosion treatment.
x Replace the damaged pipe with a new
one.
3 The surface of the
pipe plate
x Inspection as to whether or not
and how marine creatures and
dirty matter adhere
x Checking of the connecting
part of the cooling pipes
When the water
chamber is opened
VI x Clean it with a plastic scraper, deck
brush, etc.
4 The inside of the
water chamber
x Inspection as to whether or not
a swell, separation, damage or
a pin hole has appeared on the
rubber lining
x Inspection as to whether or not
and how marine creatures and
dirty matter adhere
When the water
chamber is opened
VI
PHT
x Repair the damaged part.
x Clean it with a plastic scraper, deck
brush, etc.
5 The inside of the
main body shell
x Inspection of erosion and
damage caused by steam and
drain attack, and inspection of
the burned out part
x Inspection as to whether or not
any scale or dust has been
deposited.
When the main body
is opened
VI
PT
x Replace the eroded part with a new one,
and install a protective cover.
x Clean the hot well.
6 The pressure-
resistant portion of
the main body shell
x Inspection as to whether or not
any cracking has occurred in the
shell plate, welded part, or
fixing part of the nozzle stub
When the main body
is opened
VI
PT
WT
x Repair the damaged part.
7 Connecting piece
the rubber
expansion joint
x Inspection of deterioration of
the rubber expansion joint by
viewing from the inside of the
body
Once a year after the
five cumulative
years since the first
steam extraction
VI
ST
WT
x Replace them with new ones after about
ten years.
8 The extraction
steam pipe
expansion joint
x Inspection as to whether or not
damage, breakage, adhesion.
etc. has occurred
Once a year after the
five cumulative
years since the first
steam extraction
VI
PT
x Repair the damaged or broken part.
x Establish a schedule to replace it with a
new one after 20 years.
9 The feed water
heater outer cover
(Lagging)
x Inspection as to whether or not
damage, breakage, etc. has
occurred
When the main body
is opened
VI
PT
x Repair the damaged or broken part.
V.I.: Visual Inspection E.T.: Eddy Current Test P.T.: Liquid Penetrant Test
W.T.: Leak Test by Filling Water S.T.: Hardness Test P.H.T.: Pin Hole Test
3.4.2.2 Cleaning of the Water Chamber and the Surface of the Pipe Plate
Negligence in cleaning of the water chamber and the surface of the pipe plate allows marine creatures to
adhere to them and strongly propagate on them so that the cooler pipes are so persistently clogged, requiring too
much labor to remove them. Therefore, cleaning of the water chamber and the pipe plate shall also be scheduled
whenever a planned shutdown or opening of the water chamber is expected.
272
3.4.2.3 Cleaning of the Inside of the Cooling Pipes
Cleaning of the inside of the cooling pipes is important to maintain the performance of the condenser, and
Table 3.4.2-2 shows the method of cleaning. However, it is necessary to check the properties and condition of
the scale deposited on the inside wall and to select an effective method since it may be different according to such
properties and condition. When the pipe is clogged with foreign matter, remove it first, and then carry out the
cleaning.
Table 3.4.2-2: Cleaning Methods for the Inside of a Cooling Pipe
Cleaning Method Properties of the Scale Method and Procedure
1 Washing out with a
nylon brush
Algae-containing
scale
x Feed the nylon brush through the pipe by pressurized water from a pressure
feed-type water gun.
x The water gun pressure should be about 0.6 ~ 0.8 MPa.
x Attach a rubber guide to the tip of the water gun in order not to damage the tip
of the cooling pipe.
x Wet the nylon brush in advance.
x Feed the nylon brush against the direction of the flow of the cooling water.
x Take a precautionary measure using a protective sheet so that the brush does
not directly touch the rubber lining in the water chamber on the opposite side.
2 Cleaning with a ball
purge-type cleaner
Slimy scale x Feed by pressurized water several granulated balls per pipe that are used by a
ball cleaning equipment through the pipes with a water gun.
x Feed the balls against the direction of the flow of the cooling water.
3 Cleaning with a
rotary tube cleaner
Scale containing a
small amount of algae
x Feed by pressurized water a rotary tube cleaner with a water gun.
x Wet the tube cleaner in advance.
x Feed the cleaner in the direction of the flow of the cooling water at first, and
afterwards, feed it against the direction of the flow.
4 Cleaning with a
chemical detergent
Hard scale x Use a neutral cleanser; never use a chlorine- or acid-containing detergent.
x Do not effect this treatment until it is ensured that the discharged rinsing water
has been completely neutralized to be harmless to the environment.
3.4.2.4 Leak Test of the Cooling Pipes
In the event that leakage from a cooling pipe is found, it is necessary to exactly identify from which pipe
among thousands or ten of thousands of pipes the leakage is occurring. Figure 3.4.2-1 shows the methods of
checking.
Point of leakage
Point of leakage
Rubber
plug
Wrapping sheet
(4) Water-filling method (1) Wrapping sheet (very thin plastic film) method
Black light
Rubber
plug
Point of leakage
Point of leakage Manometer
(5) Fluorescent agent method
(2) Water manometer method
Point of leakage
Foam
Rubber packing
Rubber packing
Point of leakage
Rubber plug
Transparent
acrylic resin
cap
Foam
Application of
soapy water A vacuum meter
(3) Foam method Vacuum-breaker
(6) Vacuum pump method Vacuum pump
(an ejector)
Check valve
Compressed air
Figure 3.4.2-1: Methods for Leakage Check of the Cooling Pipes
273
(1) Wrapping sheet (very thin plastic film) method
This method makes it possible for the unit to be operated with a single system. One end of the pipe plate is
blocked by a rubber plug, and the other end is covered by wrapping sheet or both ends are covered by the
wrapping sheet, and leakage is detected by a hollow in the sheet.
(2) Water manometer method
This method makes it possible for the unit to be operated with a single system. One end of the pipe plate is
blocked by a rubber plug, and a water manometer is connected to the other end by pressure welding. Sucking up
of a water column of the manometer shows that there is leakage from the pipe. This method can detect even a
pin hole, but it takes time to check all the pipes since the test needs to be effected pipe by pipe.
(3) Foam method
(8)
This method makes it possible for the unit to be operated with a single system. Foam is sprayed on the
surface of the both opened pipe plates from a fire extinguisher-type spray gun. If the foam sinks into the inside
of the pipe, it means there is leakage from the pipe. This method can detect a relatively small hole, but has a
little difficulty to detect a hole in the expanded part of a pipe.
(4) Water filling method
This method can be used when operation of the unit is stopped and should be effected after it is ensured that the
water-filling support is in good condition. Any leakage shall be checked after the main body is completely filled with
demineralized water and left without being touched for 48 hours or longer. Moisture in the water chamber may cause
dew formation, making detection difficult. This method can detect leakage froma pipe and a joint portion of a pipe.
(5) Fluorescent agent method
The procedure for this method is the same as that of the water-filling method explained above, except that a
whitener of the diaminostilbene-type fluorescent agent is added to the filling water. This agent decreases surface
tension and increases osmosis of water to make it easier to detect leakage compared with the usual water-filling
method. The leaking point radiates light in a dark room when black light is irradiated on it. It is required to
neutralize and treat the liquid for discharging it after the test.
(6) Vacuum pump method
This method can be used when the operation is stopped. One end of the pipe plate is blocked by a rubber
plug, soapy water is applied over the other side of the pipe plate, and that side is capped by a transparent cap made
from acrylic resin or a similar material. The air around the cap is sucked with a vacuum pump, and the leaking
point is found by movement of the soapy water foam. Leakage can also be detected by monitoring a drop in the
vacuum meter needle with the stop valve closed after having sucked the air. Leakage from the pipe or the
connecting part of the pipe can be detected.
3.4.2.5 Checking of air leakage
Too much air leakage to the condenser lowers the steam-condensing capability and the degree of vacuum,
resulting in inability to limit the load on the steam turbine or in inability of operation. Checking of air leakage
can be effected with flon or helium gas as shown in figure 3.4.2-2. But flon is a regulated material from an
environmental protection viewpoint. This method is suitable for checking of the many parts of the unit including
the turbine and the piping. In the event that the degree of vacuum is lowered before or after the periodic
inspection, parts dismantled and repaired in the meantime and connecting parts such as flanges should mainly be
checked. The water-filling method explained above may be used when the checking is just for the condenser
system.
Breakable diaphragm
Turbine casing
Flon or
helium gas
Low-pressure
feedwater heater
Rubber expansion joint
Connecting piping
Connecting piping
Gas detector
Connecting
piping
Connecting piping
Air-cooling section
Vacuum pump
Figure 3.4.2-2: Method for Air Leakage Detection
274
3.4.2.6 Eddy Current Test
(9)
The built-in-type eddy current test is a checking method to find damage to the cooling pipes. This checking
should be effected at every periodic inspection, and the data should be compared and arranged in good order
according to the passage of time. The eddy current test is a detection method that utilizes electromagnetic
induction. There are two methods: synchronized detection and phase analysis. Both or only the latter should be
effected. As shown in Figure 3.4.2-3, passing an alternative current through a coil situated near a metallic
material causes an eddy current in it due to electromagnetic induction. Such defects as cracks or any variation in
the material properties would change the eddy current, changing the impedance of the coil.
The cooled pipes
The AC coils
Figure 3.4.2-3: Built-in-type Eddy Current Flaw Detection Coils
(15)
The condition of the cooling pipe can be known if this change in impedance is converted to voltage and
recorded using a suitable electric circuit. Figure 3.4.2-4 shows how the flaws are detected.
Dent in the outer surface Synchronized detection method
Synchronized
detection method
Synchronized
detection method
Phase analysis
method
Phase analysis
method
Aforeign metal adhered to the outside
surface
Corrosion of the outside surface
Synchronized
detection method
Synchronized
detection method
Phase analysis
method
Phase analysis
method
Figure 3.4.2-4: Detected Wave Form vs. Type of Flaw
Since this method can only detect variation in the volume due to damage, a sample pipe should be extracted
corresponding to the wave form, and correlation between the wave form and any damage should be established.
3.4.2.7 Replacement and Blocking of a Cooling Pipe
Replace and block a cooling pipe from which leakage is found. Figure 3.4.2-5 shows the procedure for
effecting the methods.
Pipe from which
leakage occurred
(1) Crimping of the end of the pipe
Pipe
plate
Pipe
plate
Rubber plug,
brass rod, etc.
Old
pipe
Copper rod
Procedure for blockng a pipe
(2) Extracting of a pipe Pipe
plate
Copper rod
Old
pipe
Fix a brass plate with
silver soldering. Pipe
plate
(3) Inserting and expanding of a new pipe Pipe
plate
Expander
A rubber plug
New pipe
Procedure for expanding and
Procedure for pipe replacement
Figure 3.4.2-5: Procedure for Replacing and Blocking a Cooling Pipe
then blocking a pipe
3.4.2.8 Checking of a Connecting Piece Rubber Expansion Joint
The service life of a rubber belt is about ten years. So, the following checking and measurement shall be
effected once a year after five years since the start of operation, and replacement shall be prepared after ten years.
(1) Visual inspection
Check whether or not any cracks,swells, or irregularities due to aged deterioration are found.
275
(2) Measurement of dimensions
Measurement of such dimensions as inclination, elongation, and shrinkage.
(3) Measurement of hardness
Replace it with a new one when the hardness reaches HS 80q. The hardness of the new one should be 65q±3q.
(4) A leak test by filling water shall be effected when the rubber expansion joint is replaced with a new one.
3.4.2.9 Repair of the rubber lining
Figure 3.4.2-6 shows a typical method and procedure for the repair. Cut the damaged part off and grind the
appropriate part and the surroundings with a grinder. Apply adhesive over it, attach a vulcanized rubber sheet,
and shape them with pressure using a roller or some other tool. Make sure by visual check or by using a pin hole
tester that there are no irregularities.
Application of an adhesive
Vulcanized rubber
Metal part
Figure 3.4.2-6: Repair Method for the Rubber Lining
3.4.2.10 Replacement of a Bundle of Pipes
Copper alloy pipes may be replaced by highly corrosion-resistant titanium pipes when many copper alloy pipes
among all of the pipes have been blocked after prolonged operation. As Figure 3.4.2-7 shows, there is a choice
between the method of replacing only the cooling pipes and the pipe plates making use of the currently used
support plate of the condenser, and the other method of replacing a bundle of pipes including the support plate as a
module.
1. Removal of the copper alloy tubes
Water chamber Inlet of the turbine bypass
2. Replacing of the existing pipes with titanium ones
(2) Cutting off of the copper alloy
pipes, Removal of water
chamber and pipe plate
(1) Current situation
(a) Method of replacing only the cooling pipes and the pipe plate
(3) Removal of
the copper alloy pipes
The pipe plate
Protective device for the turbine bypass
Titanium pipe plate
The stakes
Welding of the
titanium pipe
Newly fabricated water chamber
(6) Installation of the pipe plates on
the side from which the pipes
are inserted and installation of
the water chamber, Welding of
the titanium pipes, P.T. (Liquid
penetrant test), The water-f
test
illing
(5) Insertion of
the titanium pipes
(4) Installation of the pipe plate on the side opposite
to the side from which the titanium pipes are to
be inserted, the protective device for the turbine
bypass, and the newly fabricated water chamber
Installation of the stakes
Expansion of
the pipes
(b) Method of replacing the pipe bundle module
Newly fabricated water chamber
Supporting plate
Pipe bundle module
(4) Cutting off a notch at the end
plate of the condenser,
Removing the supporting plate
and the inner structure
(5) Insertion of the pipe
bundle module
(6) Recovery of the end plate,
Installation of the water
chamber
(7)Leak test by filling water
Figure 3.4.2-7: Procedure for Replacing of the Aluminum Brass Alloy Pipe Condenser by the Titanium Pipe
Condenser
2.4.2-1 Maintenance of the Feed water Heater
Table 3.4.2-3, 3.4.2-4, and 3.4.2-5 show examples of the main failures occurring in the feed water heater, those
of aged deterioration, and the main items of maintenance, respectively.
These items of maintenance and their frequency are just for reference, and they depend on the kind of a plant.
Therefore, it is necessary to obtain information on other plants and to operate a plant in cooperation with the
supplier.
276
Table 3.4.2-3: Examples of Main Failures Occurring in the Feed water Heater
Part Name Item of Failure
Heating
㨇Monel metal㨉
㨇Brass㨉
㨇Steel pipe㨉
㨇Stainless㨉
Stress corrosion cracking
Ammonium attack
Drain attack
Inlet attack
Stress corrosion cracking
Drain attack
Deposit of scale
Diaphragm of the cylindrical water chamber Fatigue damage
Seal ring of the breech lock-type water chamber Cracking in the welded part
Extraction steam nozzle Cracking in the welded part
Body and the parts inside the body Erosion, thickness reduction, cracking due to thermal stress fatigue
Diaphragm in the water chamber Erosion, thickness reduction, cracking in the welded part
Table 3.4.2-4: Examples of Aged Deterioration of the Feed water Heater
Phenomenon of Aged Deterioration
Item Content
Measures for Control
Deterioration of heat transfer
capability of the heating pipe
The inside and the outside of
the pipe are becoming rusty
(scale deposited).
Effecting the function test
Renewing the equipment, Chemical washing, Jet water
washing
D
e
t
e
r
i
o
r
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

F
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
Deterioration of the structure
and the function
Deteriorated function of the de-
superheating system, the drain-
cooling system, and the vent
system
Checking in cooperation with the supplier
Damage to and deterioration
of the heating pipes
Ammonium attack, Inlet attack,
Corrosion, Erosion, Drain
attack
Control by periodic inspection
(Visual check of the heating pipe, Eddy current test)
Deterioration of the heating
pipe mounting part
Loosening of the expanded
portion of the pipe
Erosion of the welded part
Effecting the leak test using pressurized water or air
Eddy current test for the heating pipe
Deterioration of the body and
the material inside the body
Erosion due to flowed-in drain
and steam
Local attack
Measurement of body wall thickness, Effecting
inspection of the inside
(Measuring of the body wall thickness using the
ultrasonic measuring test)
Deterioration of the water
chamber diaphragm and the
corners of the pipe plate
Fatigue damage (hair cracks) Cutting off of the skin of the area where a hair crack
appears
Effecting the periodic inspection
(Magnaflux particle inspection, liquid penetrantion test,
Measurement of hardness, Visual inspection)
Deterioration of the
diaphragm of the cylindrical
water chamber made of
forged steel
Hair cracks appear on the
surface area where stress is
concentrated.
Grasping of reliable information on the operation history
(Replacement of the diaphragm with a new one)
Effecting the magnaflux particle inspection and the
liquid penetrantion test
Deterioration of the material
used inside the water
chamber
Fatigue damage of the
diaphragm mounting portion
Periodically effecting the liquid penetrantion test
D
e
t
e
r
i
o
r
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l
s
Deterioration of the nozzle
portion
Erosion and cracking due to
thermal stress fatigue of the
material around the steam inlet
and the drain inlet nozzle
Effecting the ultrasonic measuring of the wall thickness
277
Table 3.4.2-5: Maintenance Items of the Feed water Heater
No.
Maintenance
Frequency
Operation Mode Maintenance or Monitoring Item
1
Once every hour
to once every few
hours
In service
Level of the drain
Opening angle of the valve
Water quality control
2 Once a day In service
Level of the drain
Opening angle of the valve
Water quality control
3
Once a day to
once a month
In service
Level of the drain
Opening angle of the valve
Water quality control
4
Once a month to
once a year
In service
Level of the drain
Opening angle of the valve
Water quality control
5 Once a year
During a halt in operation
(during the periodic
inspection)
Checking of the inside of the water chamber
Replacing and checking of the packing
Checking of the performance
6
Once every five to
ten years
During a halt in operation
(during the periodic
inspection)
Checking of the inside of the body, Measuring of the wall thickness
Checking of the heating pipe, Measuring of the wall thickness (E.T.)
3.4.2-2 Maintenance of the Deaerator
Table 3.4.2-6 and Table 3.4.2-7 show an outline of the main failures and aged deterioration that may occur in
the deaerator, respectively. Maintenance during operation is required in order to prevent and relieve these
failures and deterioration and to enhance reliability.
Table 3.4.2-6: Examples of Main Failures of the Deaerator
Part Name Item of Failure
Nozzle exposed to high temperature Cracking due to thermal stress fatigue
Bottom body plate Erosion and corrosion
Spray nozzle Corrosion and abrasion
Welded part Corrosion and cracking
Table 3.4.2-7: Examples of Aged Deterioration of the Deaerator
Phenomenon of Aged Deterioration
Item Content
Measures for Control
D
e
t
e
r
i
o
r
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

F
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
Deterioration of the heated
deaeration system
Deteriorated performance of the
heated deaeration system due to
unevenness of the thickness of
the water-feeding membrane
caused by increased bending of
the tray
Deteriorated function of the
vent due to damaged spray
valve
Periodic control of the deaeration performance
(Checking of the level of the tray, Inspection of the spray
valve)
Deterioration of the materials
of the body and inside the
body
Erosion due to flowed-in drain
and steam
Local attack
Inspection of the inside
Ultrasonic measurement of the body wall thickness
D
e
t
e
r
i
o
r
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

M
a
t
e
r
i
a
l
s
Deterioration of the material
of the nozzle
Cracking due to erosion of the
materials around the steam
inlet, the drain inlet, the outlet
of the condensed water, etc. and
thermal stress fatigue
Inspection of the inside
Ultrasonic measurement of the body wall thickness
Table 3.4.2-8 shows the main items of maintenance. These items of maintenance and their frequency are just
for reference, and they depend on the kind of the plant. Therefore , it is necessary to obtain information on other
plants and to operate a plant in cooperation with the suppliers in the same manner as explained later on the causes
of and measures against representative examples of failures listed in Table 3.4.2-6.
278
Table 3.4.2-8: Maintenance Items of the Deaerator
No.
Maintenance
Frequency
Operation Mode Maintenance or Monitoring Item
1
Once every hour
to once every few
hours
In service
Level of the drain
Opening angle of the valve
Water quality control
2 Once a day In service
Level of the drain
Opening angle of the valve
Water quality control
3 Once a month In service
Level of the drain
Opening angle of the valve
Water quality control
4
Once a month to
once a year
In service
Level of the drain
Opening angle of the valve
Water quality control
5 Once a year
During a halt in operation
(during the periodic
inspection)
Inspection of the inside
Replacement and checking of the packing
Inspecting the inside of the body
6
Once every five to
ten years
During a halt in operation
(during the periodic
inspection)
Checking of the functions
Inspecting the inside of the body, Measurement of the wall thickness
(Inspection of the tray and spray valve)
3.4.2-3 Maintenance of the Cooler
3.4.2-3.1 Maintenance and Control during Operation
The following maintenance and control shall be effected during operation of a power plant.
(1) Monitoring of the attached instruments and the measured data
Monitor the data on the temperatures at the outlet and the inlet of the cooler measured by temperature meters
or some other instruments to make sure that no irregularities related to function and performance occur.
Especially for seawater coolers, the pressure of the outlet and inlet of the cooler and, the opening angle of the
temperature control valve (the lower the performance, the wider the opening) on the cooling water side shall also
be monitored because its performance may be deteriorated due to deposited marine creatures clogging it and also
because the cooling pipes may be corroded.
(2) Checking of the appearance of each cooler
Check whether or not any leakage from the flanges is found and some other items.
(3) Inspection of the attached equipment
If an electrochemical protection device supplied with off-device electricity is used, make sure that the
corrosion control current and the corrosion control potential during operation are within the specified ranges. If
a seawater strainer (seashell filtering device) is installed, check the pressure difference, washing frequency, etc.
(4) Water quality control
When iron or chlorine is injected into seawater, the concentration of the solution to be injected and frequency
of injection shall be controlled.
(5) Storing of a device whose operation is suspended
If there is a spare seawater cooler or oil cooler, or in the event that the condenser cooler is bypassed in the
summer season, its operation is suspended for a long time. In this case, seawater in the seawater system of the
cooler shall be completely discharged, and the cooler shall be completely dried out for storing.
3.4.2-3.2 Periodic Maintenance
Table 3.4.2-9 shows the maintenance items to be effected during the scheduled suspension of operation or the
periodic inspection. Many of the maintenance items for the seawater system of the cooler are the same as those
for the condenser. However, for a cooler using seawater, which is different from a condenser as it is not usually
equipped with a ball cleaning equipment, maintaining cleanliness of the cooling pipes is more difficult than in the
case of a condenser. Therefore, it is desirable to increase the frequency of cleaning of the cooling pipe and to
effect cleaning semiannually in addition to that in the periodic inspection of the plant by switching the operation
to the spare unit.
279
Table 3.4.2-9: Maintenance Items to be Effected during Scheduled Suspension of Operation and Periodic
Inspection
Name of Equipment Inspection Item Method Frequency Countermeasures
Inspection of the inside
of the cooling pipes
Inspect whether or not
and how scale adheres
and foreign matter is
deposited.
- Clean them when
necessary (V.I.).
Once every six months
to one year
Effect washing with a
brush or something
similar.
Review the frequency
of the cleaning.
Inspection of corrosion
of the cooling pipes
Inspect corrosion of
both the inside and the
outside of the pipes
using ECT.
Once a year Install a stop plug or
replace the pipe with a
new one.
Inspection of leakage
from the expanded part
and other parts of the
cooling pipes
Apply water or air
pressure to the inside of
the body, and inspect
whether or not there is
leakage.
Once every two to three
years
Re-expand the pipe.
Install a stop plug.
Replace the pipe with a
new one.
Inspection of the
surface of the pipe plate
Visually inspect
corrosion of the pipe
plate surface (V.I.).
Once every two to three
years
Apply epoxy resin
coating to the eroded
area of the pipe plate.
Inspection of the inside
surface of the water
chamber
Inspect whether or not
the rubber lining is
damaged (V.I. and pin
hole check).
Inspect how the marine
creatures adhere (V.I.).
Once every six months
to one year
Repair/clean the lining
Seawater cooler
Inspection of the
galvanic anode plate
Inspect the consumed
amount of the anode
material (V.I.).
Once a year Replace the anode plate
with a new one.
Inspection of corrosion
of the cooling pipes
Check whether or not
any part of the outside
or the inside of the pipe
is corroded.
Once every two to three
years
Install a stop plug.
Condenser cooler
Oil cooler
Inspection of leakage
from the expanded part
of the cooling pipes
Apply water (oil)
pressure or air pressure
to the inside of the
body, and inspect
whether or not there is
leakage (V.I.).
Once every two to three
years
Re-expand the pipe.
Install a stop plug.
V.I.: Visual Inspection ECT:: Eddy current test W.T.: Pressure test (Water, Air, or Oil pressure)
It is necessary to effect an eddy current test (ECT) at every periodic inspection for a cooler using seawater.
However, the frequency of ECT for a condenser cooler and an oil cooler may be somewhat reduced provided that
the water is appropriately treated to reduce the causes of cooling pipe corrosion.
A stop plug must be fitted in a pipe whose wall thickness is found by ECT to be too greatly reduced or when
such a pipe must be replaced with a new one. Figure 3.4.2-8 shows the procedure for fitting a stop plug in a pipe.
Pipe plate
Cooling pipe
Drive into the pipe
(e.g. with a hammer)
Stop plug (e.g. brass bar)
Figure 3.4.2-8: Procedure for fitting a Stop Plug into a Pipe
280
3.4.3 Preventative Maintenance and Remaining Life Assessment techniques of Equipment and
Components used in a SteamTurbine

3.4.3.1 The Main Body of a SteamTurbine

1 Typical Modes of Aged Deterioration of a SteamTurbine
Figure 3.4.3-1 shows causes and effects of the aged deterioration.

Causes Effects

Creep
A creep deformation
A creep rupture



Corrosion
Corrosion fatigue
Stress corrosion
cracking
Embrittlement
Fatigue
Low-cycle fatigue
High-cycle fatigue
Erosion
Solid particle attack
Drain attack
Strength reduction
Material deterioration
Performance down
Increased
possibility of
damage
Increased
operating cost











Environment
Start and stop
Load fluctuation
Corrosive
Stress
Temperature
Time
Aged deterioration
(Aged deterioration
of quality)
Softening

Abrasion

Figure 3.4.3-1: Causes and Effects of Aged Deterioration of a Steam Turbine

The inlet temperature of a steam turbine is as high as 500qC or more, and the steam at the final stage where it
finishes its expansion is in the wet condition at a temperature of about 33qC and at a wetness fraction of about
10%.
Various kinds of deterioration occur due to the difference in the operating conditions mentioned above.

1.1 Creep
A material that is subjected to a load under high temperature gradually deforms and finally cracks and breaks.
This phenomenon where a material gradually deforms is called creep, and the cracking or the breaking is called
creep rupture.

(1) Creep deformation
Deformation due to creep can be a cause of aged bending of the steam turbine rotor, aged deformation of the
wheel casing, and aged lifting of the rotating blade.

(2) Creep rupture
When creep enters an acceleration zone, the strain increases and the material finally breaks.
A design to prevent creep rupture and cracking life assessment are effected based on creep rupture
characteristics (time taken until a rupture occurs under a certain temperature and stress).
Macroscopic deformation of a material caused by creek can be detected by measurement of the dimensions and
lifted amount of the rotating blade and the shroud.

(3) The mechanism of a creep rupture
The assumed process of a creep rupture is as follows. (1) A microscopic crack or a small void appears at the
grain boundary during a creep deformation. (2) Such cracks or voids grow and combine. (3) Finally an inter-
granular rupture occurs. Figure 3.4.3-2 systematically shows this process.

281
A start of a
microscopic crack
Growth of a
microscopic crack

Inter-granular slide

Voids are combined and a
microscopic crack appears
and is growing
A void is formed and
growing A void is formed
Figure 3.4.3-2: The Mechanism of a Creep Rupture

1.2 Fatigue
Figure 3.4.3-3 systematically shows the process of formation and diffusion of a fatigue crack.


The direction of
repeated stress
A crystal grain
A crack in the slip
zone appearing at
the initial stage
A cleavage crack
The direction of growth The inside
(The outside)
The outside
(The inside)
A ductility striation
A brittle striation that appears mainly
under a corrosive environment
The final slant
separation fracture
The
first
stage
(Formation)
The second stage

(Diffusion of a crack)

Figure 3.4.3-3: Formation and Diffusion of a Fatigue Crack

(1) Low-cycle fatigue
Low-cycle fatigue is fatigue in which the total number of stress cycles to cause a rupture is small and strong
stress exceeding the normal proof stress of the material is applied to a point where stress concentrates or a certain
point so that plastic deformation is caused and finally repetition of the stress causes cracking.

(2) High-cycle fatigue
High-cycle fatigue is fatigue in which the total number of stress cycles to cause a rupture is very high, and it is
very difficult in many cases to detect the symptom from the outside in a non-destructive way.

(3) The mechanism of a fatigue rupture
The assumed process of a fatigue rupture is as follows. (1) Local plastic strain is repeatedly applied to a
material at its surface or a point with an internal defect. (2) Under such a situation as described above (1), a slip
line appears in the crystal grain and increases to form a slip zone. (3) Finally, microscopic cracking occurs along
the slip zone and diffuses.

1.3 Embrittlement
Materials used for steam turbines are exposed to high temperature during operation for a long time, and their
toughness and ductility are reduced. Brittleness is the result of this process and is progressive as time passes.
The turbine wheel casing, the rotor, the main valve, etc. that are used under high temperature are liable to
suffer from this phenomenon.
Generally speaking, brittleness that appears after heating at high temperature for a long time is caused by
segregation of such trace elements as phosphorus (P) and tin (Sn) reducing the grain boundary strength.
Figure 3.4.3-4 systematically shows the process of aged brittleness occurring to the materials used in steam
turbines.
282



Acceleration of the grai
undary segregatio
and embrittlement
n
bo n


Diffusion of trace
elements
Grain boundary segregation
of trace elements
Acceleration of bulkinization
and embrittlement
Condensation and
bulkinization of carbides
Precipitation of grain
boundary carbides
Figure 3.4.3-4: Mechanism of Embrittlement Phenomenon

Embrittlement occurs at temperatures of 350qC or higher, and does so in a relatively conspicuous manner in
the temperature range between 450q and 500qC.
When a material becomes brittle, its resistance to unstable rupture (brittle fracture) and its ductility are reduced,
and diffusion velocity of a crack is increased at the same time. For this reason, a big cracking may start from a
point where stress concentrates such as a subsisting casting defect. It is necessary to extend the warming-up time
in the rotor in order to prevent bursts that may occur in a cold start.

1.4 Corrosion
The stage of a turbine near the dry-wet alternating area that becomes wet with a heavy load and dry with a
light load is an area where corrosion must be especially observed. In such an area, a phenomenon occurs where
traces of corrosive substances dissolved in water droplets sometimes condense due to the alternation between a
wet condition and a dry condition caused by load fluctuation or by starting and stopping.
And corrosion and pitting occur more or less in a steam turbine that has been operated for a long time because
when the steam turbine stops, steam becomes droplets that attach to the metal surface even near the last stage
where wet steam flows and in the higher stage where the temperature is higher.

(1) Corrosion fatigue
Corrosion fatigue occurs when corrosion and repeated stress exist concurrently.
The fatigue strength of a material is lowered under a corrosive environment. This phenomenon is
conspicuous especially in the case of high-cycle fatigue. The tenons and the shroud for the rotating blades in the
wet area are liable to be affected.
In the case of corrosion fatigue, the higher the concentration of the corrosive substances and the longer the
exposure to corrosive substances, the more the fatigue strength is lowered. The fatigue limit is outstandingly
lowered compared with that in a dry environment.

(2) Stress corrosion cracking (SCC)
The type of stress corrosion cracking is either a crystal grain boundary fracture or a transgranular fracture
depending on the material, the stress, and the environment.
The feature of SCC is a delayed fracture under a specific stress, and it can occur under a stress that is only a
fraction of the stress with which a material fracture occurs under a non-corrosive environment.
Under the same corrosive environment, SCC is more likely to occur with higher stress, and with the same
stress, it is more likely to occur to a material with higher strength.

1.5 Erosion
Erosion that occurs to materials used in a steam turbine is mainly caused either by solid particles or by drain
(water droplets).

(1) Erosion by solid particles
Small solid particles of oxidized scale flying in steam from the boiler are in some cases the main cause of
erosion of the nozzles and the rotating blades in the high- and medium-pressure stage. Erosion often occurs
especially to the nozzle plate in the first stage, where stress working on the rotating blades in the first stage is
increased, affecting the reliability of the rotating blades in extreme cases.
In the event that the area of the nozzle throat is increased or the profile of the effective part of a rotating blade
is changed by the influence of erosion, the efficiency of the turbine is reduced.

(2) Drain (wastewater) attack
Erosion occurs mainly to the rotating parts by wastewater produced in the wet area. Typical erosion of this
283
kind is seen on the rotating blades of the final stage.
In another case, in the event that leakage occurs to a horizontal joint plane inside the wheel casing in a low-
pressure section, steam containing wastewater passing through the joint erodes the metal surface in certain cases.

1.6 Softening
The necessary strength and ductility of the materials used for the parts exposed to high temperature are
maintained by heat treatment. However, various mechanical properties related to the strength are deteriorated
due to the effects of temperature and stress caused by operation under high temperature for a long time. One of
these phenomena is softening.
The higher the temperature and the stress, the more conspicuous the softening.
Softening of a material used in a turbine can be detected by measurement of hardness.

1.7 Abrasion
Although the gasket installed between the rotor and stationary parts such as the nozzle is a non-contact type,
light contact between them may occur due to deformation of the wheel casing during a thermal transitional period
such as the start-up of the turbine.
Gaskets are gradually abraded due to light contact resulting in increased leakage of steam between two stages
to cause aged deterioration of efficiency.
Journals of the rotor and bearings can suffer from abrasion and sliding scratches after prolonged operation.

2. Object Components and Areas in a SteamTurbine to be Assessed and Damage to Them
2.1 Object Components and Areas to be Assessed in a SteamTurbine
The rotor, the wheel casing, the rotating and stationary blades, and the main value are the objects of periodic
maintenance and life control because they are the main components of a turbine.
Figure 3.4.3-5 to 9 show the object components and areas of each item of main equipment for which life
assessment must be effected.


An enlarged view of the dummy part
The T-root
type
The dummy groove
The medium-
pressure rotating
blades
The place of the tenon
The medium-pressure
rotating blades
The high-pressure
rotating blades
A shroud
The profile
The blade root
A rotor
The center hole
An enlarged view of the blade groove
The side entry type
The dummy part The outside surface

Figure 3.4.3-5: Object Components and Areas of the High- and Medium-pressure Rotor (reaction type)
for Which Life Assessment Must be Effected



The profile The place of the tenon
The outside surface The center hole A disk A disk
The blade root
A disk The medium-pressure
rotating blades
The dummy part
The high-pressure
rotating blades
The dub tail type

An enlarged view of the blade groove
Figure 3.4.3-6: Object Components and Areas of the High- and Medium-pressure Rotor (impulse type)
for Which Life Assessment Must be Effected
284




The profile
The low-pressure
rotating blades A disk
The part consecutively
connected by metal parts
one by one
The blade root
The center hole The outside surface
The side-entry type The fork type

An enlarged view of the blade groove
Figure 3.4.3-7: Object Components and Areas of the Low-pressure Rotor
for Which Life Assessment Must be Effected




A corner R portion
A corner R portion
A main steam nozzle
A bolt
The flat
portion
Section A - A

Figure 3.4.3-8: Object Components and Areas of the High-pressure Wheel Casing
for Which Life Assessment Must be Effected



A bolt
The valve rod
The valve casing
Figure 3.4.3-9: Object Components and Areas of the Main Valve (Steam-adjusting Valve)
for Which Life Assessment Must be Effected

2.2 Use Environment of Main Equipment and Life Consumption Factor
Figure 3.4.3-1 shows causes of damage in components and areas of main equipment of steam turbines.
Among above-mentioned agreed deterioration modes, softening and creep are mainly caused by temperature-
related factors, so the high-pressure and medium-pressure turbines and the main valve that are subjected to high-
temperature and high-pressure steam are assessed.
As low-cycle fatigue occurs due to repeated thermal stress and centrifugal force caused by starting and
stopping of the operation at the power plant, the corner portions where stress concentration occurs are assessed for
the high-temperature and high-pressure, or rotating parts of the equipment.
Corrosion and drain erosion mainly occur in the wet-dry alternating stage and wet stage pf low-pressure
turbines.
Solid particle corrosion caused by materials flying from boilers etc. occurs at the inlet portion of the high
pressure and medium-pressure turbines. In many cases, the first stage nozzle plate is damaged.
285
Table 3.4.3-1: Main Parts of a Steam Turbine and Causes of Damage
Cause of Aged Deterioration Test
Equipment Place/Component
C
r
e
e
p

F
a
t
i
g
u
e

E
m
b
r
i
t
t
l
e
m
e
n
t

C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

E
r
o
s
i
o
n

S
o
f
t
e
n
i
n
g

A
b
r
a
s
i
o
n

R
e
m
a
i
n
i
n
g

l
i
f
e

a
s
s
e
s
s
m
e
n
t

UT MT PT VT
The center hole { { { { { { { { {
The blade groove { { { { { {
The disk { { { { { { {
The dummy groove { { { { { {
The high and
medium-pressure
rotor
The outside surface { { { { {
The center hole { { { { { {
The blade groove { { {
The disk { { { { { {
The low-pressure
rotor
The outside surface { { {
The section of the shroud and the tenons { { { { { { { { {
The profile { { { { {
The high and
medium-pressure
rotating blades
The blade root portion { { { { {
The part consecutively connected by metal
parts one by one
{ { { { {
The profile { { { { {
The low-pressure
rotating blades
The blade root portion { { { { {
The nozzle The profile { { { {
The corner R portion { { { { { { { {
The flat portion { { { { { {
The high and
medium-pressure
wheel casing
The bolt { { { { {
The valve casing { { { { { { { { {
The valve rod { { { { The main valve
The bolt { { { {
UT: Ultrasonic Flaw Detection Test MT: Magnaflux Flaw Detection Test PT: Penetrant Flaw Detection Test VT: Visual Inspection

2.3 Example of aged deterioration of the steam turbine
Example of aged deterioration of the steam turbine in terms of four major cases of damage (creep, fatigue,
corrosion, erosion) are described below.

(1) Creep damage to the Tenon for a medium-pressure rotating blade
Photo 3.4.3-1 shows an example of creep damage that occurred to the tenon for a rotating blade near the inlet
of the medium-pressure turbine.
A structure where the top parts of the neighboring rotating blades in the reaction stage are connected in the
peripheral direction by the shrouds is adopted in order to improve the vibration characteristics. Traditionally, the
blades and the shroud were clinched by means of a tenon.
Areas around the inlet of the medium-pressure turbine can become hot, and strong eccentric force works on the
blades and the related parts in these areas because of the wide blade span, then such factors together with stress
concentration on the tenon cause creep cracking.


Photo 3.4.3-1: Creep damage to the Tenon for a medium-pressure rotating blade
286


(2) Fatigue cracking damage to the base part of the high- and medium-pressure disk
Photo 3.4.3-2 shows an example of low-cycle fatigue cracking damage occurring to the base part of the high-
and medium-pressure rotor due to repeated thermal stress caused by starting and stopping of the turbine.
Thermal stress occurs due to temperature difference between the inside and the surface of the disk. This is
caused by the large heat capacity of the rotor, leading to disagreement in temperature between steam and the
metallic part when the steam is introduced and also to inability of the inside of the disk to follow the rapid
increase in temperature afterwards.
Moreover, since stress concentration occurs around the corner and the groove parts of the rotor surface, plastic
deformation is repeated every time the turbine is started and stopped, leading to accumulated fatigue and finally to
cracking.


Photo 3.4.3-2: Low-cycle fatigue to the base part of the disk

(3) Corrosion fatigue damage to the part of a rotor in which rotating blades are embedded
Photo 3.4.3-3 shows an example of the corrosion fatigue occurring to the part of a low-pressure rotor in which
a rotating blade is embedded.
Impurities or corrosive substances in steam concentrated in the gap between the rotor and the rotating blades
cause corrosion pitting. Starting from a pit, a fatigue crack develops and expands because the fatigue strength of
a material is reduced under a corrosive environment.



A crack
The first hook
A specimen to be
taken
The second hook
The starting point
The third hook
(the inlet side) (The outlet side)
Photo 3.4.3-3: Corrosion Fatigue of the Part of a Rotor Where Blades are Embedded

(4) Erosion of the nozzle of the first stage
(1)
Chipped parts are often found on the first-stage nozzle of the high- and medium-pressure turbine, and Photo
3.4.3-4 shows an example of the chipped part. This is assumed to be caused by oxidized scale that has been
separated from the boiler pipe flying into the turbine and finally crashes into the nozzle at high speed. This
phenomenon is called solid particle erosion (SPE). Since there is concern that the developed erosion would
reduce the internal efficiency and have a bad influence on the first-stage rotating blades, repair needs to be
effected in a timely manner.


Photo 3.4.3-4: Erosion of the Nozzle of the First Stage

3. Techniques for Remaining Life Assessment of a SteamTurbine
3.1 The methods of remaining life assessment
Usually, methods for the remaining life assessment of major materials for steam turbines that have been
operated under high temperature and high pressure for a long time are roughly classified into the following three.

287
(1) Remaining life assessment by a destructive test (direct assessment method)
Among the test methods using destructive tests, one is where the specimens are sampled from the materials of
an actual turbine in service, and another is where the materials thrown away are utilized.

(2) Remaining life assessment by a non-destructive test (direct assessment method)
Conventionally, the main non-destructive tests for periodic inspection include visual inspection (VT), the
penetrant flaw detection test (PT), the magnaflux flaw detection test (MT), and the ultrasonic flaw detection test
(UT).

(3) Remaining life assessment by analytical calculation (indirect assessment method)
(2)
The analytical calculation method is an assessment method where damage to the materials (consumed life) and
the time until cracking occurs (remaining life) are calculated based on temperature and stress analysis effected by
means of the finite element method (FEM) or of a kind of simple calculation, the operation history, and the data
on the materials.

3.2 Techniques for remaining life assessment by means of non-destructive inspection
Here, we introduce techniques for remaining life assessment by means of non-destructive inspection in relation
to each kind of damage or aged deterioration.
Table 3.4.3-2 shows examples of remaining life assessment techniques by means of non-destructive inspection
now being applied to actual steam turbines, and an outline of each method is given below.

Table 3.4.3-2: An Example of Techniques for Remaining Life Assessment by a Non-destructive Test
Cause of
Damage
Assessment Method Parameters to be detected Instruments/Measuring Method
Measurement of hardness Hardness A portable hardness tester
Measurement of hardness together
with analytical calculation
Hardness A portable hardness tester
Measurement of electric resistance Electric resistance An electric resistance-measuring
device
By A parameters Creep void The replica method
By the average length of the void Creep void The replica method
By the area rate of the void Creep void The replica method
By the mean area rate of the
carbides
Carbides The replica method
Creep
By comparison of the structures
(Area affected by welding heat)
Voids, Minute cracks, Structural
change, Precipitated substances
The replica method
Measurement of microscopic
cracks
Length of microscopic cracks The replica method
Measurement of hardness Hardness A portable hardness tester
Measurement of hardness together
with analytical calculation
Hardness A portable hardness tester
Fatigue
Measurement of X-ray diffraction Half-value width An X-ray diffraction device
Polarization Current density A polarization test device, A small-
size electrolysis cell
Embrittlement
Chemical etching Surface roughness, Intergranular
corrosion cleavage width
A surface roughness tester, The
replica method

3.2.1 Creep damage
(1) A technique by means of hardness measurement
A technique to assess remaining life by means of change in hardness taking place in a long period of operation
under high temperature is widely used because it is easy to carry out and the quantitative accuracy of the
assessment is relatively good. Removal of the surface layer and metallographic tests of the specimen are
effected to avoid unfavorable influence on the surface layer whose quality has changed due to decarburization and
machining. An Equotip hardness tester or a Shore hardness tester is used for field use.
Some methods of assessing remaining life based on the measurement of hardness are explained below.
288


(i) A method by means of measurement of hardness
(2) ~ (6)
The hardness of the low-alloy steel for equipment used in steam turbines that is exposed to high temperature
drops due to the change in the metal structure under high temperature (deformation resistance change). This
drop in hardness occurs even with no load as shown in Figure 3.4.3-10 (heating with no load) and is accelerated
by a load being imposed.


Heated material with no load
V
i
c
k
e
r
s

h
a
r
d
n
e
s
s

(
H
v
)
Materials
that receiv
creep
damage
B
e
f
o
r
e

h
e
a
t
e
d
Temperature
(qC)
Heated
material
with no load
Materials that
received creep
damage
450 { 
500 U S
550 { {
550 † †
ed
[Cr-Mo-V steel]
Figure 3.4.3-10: Relation between the Temperature Time Parameter and Hardness

The hardness test method assesses the creep damage rate by means of the amount or rate of hardness drop
measured in actual steam turbines. Figure 3.4.3-11 shows the relationship between creep damage rate Ic and
drop in hardness 'Hv (difference in hardness between a material with a load applied and another with no load
applied), and the creep damage rate is obtained from the measurement of hardness making use of the figure.


CrMoV forged iron
CrMoV cast iron
D
r
o
p

i
n

h
a
r
d
n
e
s
s

(
'
H
v
)

Creep damage rate Ic (t/tr)

[Cr-Mo-V steel]
Figure 3.4.3-11: Relation between Creep Damage Rate and Drop in Hardness

(ii) A method of using hardness measurement together with analytical calculations
(1)
This method assesses the creep damage rate by means of creep rupture characteristics after deterioration that
are obtained from hardness measured in an area that received thermal aging (an area exposed to high temperature
but only to low stress), as well as by means of the analytical calculations. Figure 3.4.3-12 shows the summarized
test results of creep rupture characteristics represented by hardness and temperature time parameters. And creep
rupture characteristics after aged deterioration are obtained from measurement of hardness on actual steam
turbines and the calculation result of temperature and stress by Formula (1) that is induced from the figure.
T(C+logtr)={Ȉai˜(logV)
i-1
˜Hv+Ȉbi˜(logV)
i-1
........................................................................... (1)
where tr: Creep rapture time
T: Absolute temperature
C: Material constant
Hv: Vickers hardness
V: Working stress
ai˜bi: Approximation constants

289
S
t
r
e
s
s
V

(
k
g
/
m
m
2
)
(Estimation according
to the formula (1))
Values obtained by
experiments


Temperature time parameter (u10
-3
)

[Cr-Mo-V steel]
Figure 3.4.3-12: Comparison between Data on Creep Rupture Characteristics Obtained from Experiments and its
Estimation Based on Measured Hardness

(2) The electric resistance method
(3)- (5)
The electric resistance method measures structural change that occurred during operation at high temperature
(cohesion bulkinization of carbides, drop in solid dissolved carbon in the matrix, and some others) by means of
the potential difference method.
Like in the case electric resistance drops even by heating with no load applied, and the drop is accelerated with
stress loaded. That is, the higher the creep damage rate, the greater the drop in electric resistance.
The electric resistance method assesses the creep damage rate by the ratio between the difference in electric
potential measured on actual equipment and the same measured on a specimen that has not been subjected to
deterioration (electric resistivity ratio).
Figure 3.4.3-13 shows the relationship between creep damage rate Ic and the dropped amount of the electric
resistivity ratio 'RU (difference in electric resistivity between a material with a load applied and the same material
with no load applied), and the creep damage rate is obtained from the measured electric resistance making use of
this figure.


D
r
o
p
p
e
d

a
m
o
u
n
t

o
f

e
l
e
c
t
r
i
c

r
e
s
i
s
t
i
v
i
t
y

r
a
t
i
o
(
'
R
U
)

Creep damage rateIc (t/tr)
[Cr-Mo-V steel]

Figure 3.4.3-13: Relation between Creep Damage Rate and Dropped Amount of Electric Resistivity Ratio

(3) The structure-observing method
The structure-observing method is where a metal structure is observed by means of a replica, and the extent of
damage is assessed by the degree of structural change. Since the change in the structure due to creep damage
itself can possibly be grasped, it is an important technique. Concretely speaking, the structure is transferred to a
replica film after the portion of metal to be assessed is polished and etched. The vapor deposition of gold is
applied to the replica, and the replica is observed by a scanning electron microscope.
Figure 3.4.3-14 and Photo 3.4.3-5 show the procedure for picking up of the replica and an example of
observation of a creep void (a cavity), respectively.
290



Photo 3.4.3-5: An Example of an Observed Creep Void by Means of a Replica


(i) The replica
film
(ii) Transfer of
the structure
(iii) Picking up
the replica
(iv) Vapor deposition of gold
(to give the replica electric conductivity)

A crack or a void
A carbide
The replica
A metal specimen (polished and etched)

Figure 3.4.3-14: Procedure for Picking up of a Replica

For creep, there is a special feature where at first, formation of a creep void is recognized during the process of
damage and it develops, expands, and combines to become a crack through a microscopic crack. There is a
correlation between the situation of void formation and the creep damage rate.
The following methods are proposed for quantifying the occurrence of a void.
(i) The “A” parameter method
(ii) The mean length of void method
(iii) The area rate of void method
(iv) The mean area of carbide method
(v) The structure comparison method

3.2.2 Fatigue Damage
(1) The microscopic crack measurement method
(10)(11)
Early in life, many minute cracks appear on the surface of a material that received fatigue damage due to
thermal stress fatigue, and they grow or repeat integration to constitute a major crack. The microscopic crack
measurement method assesses fatigue damage by detection by means of the replica behavior of the growing
microscopic cracks before they become a major crack.
Figure 3.4.3-15 shows the data. These data were obtained by means of a replica that detected the growing
process of minute cracks with a high-temperature, low-cycle fatigue test that was interrupted at each loading
condition.


T
h
e

m
a
x
i
m
u
m

m
i
c
r
o
s
c
o
p
i
c
c
r
a
c
k

l
e
n
g
t
h

(
m
m
)

Loading condition
A material used for 140,000 hours
A virgin material

Fatigue damage rate If (N/Nf)

[Cr-Mo-V cast iron]
Figure 3.4.3-15: Relation between the Fatigue Damage Rate and the Maximum Microscopic Crack Length
291
(2) A technique by means of hardness measurement
(i) The hardness-measuring method
(1)(12)
For high-temperature, low-cycle fatigue, the fatigue damage rate is obtained from the measurement of hardness
making use of the relationship between the rate of the hardness after deterioration against that of the aged material
and the fatigue damage rate.

(ii) The method of using hardness measurement together with analytical calculations
(1)(13)
In the same manner as that of the creep damage assessment, this method assesses the fatigue damage rate by
means of the low-cycle fatigue characteristics obtained from the hardness of an area that received thermal aging
(the absolute value of hardness), as well as by means of analytical calculations.

(3) The X-ray diffraction method
(1)(14)
Fatigue damage is one of the concerns regarding the bottom of the groove in the periphery of the rotor and
some other portions. However, hardness measurement is difficult because of their narrowness. Therefore, the
mean value width measurement by means of the X-ray diffraction method is applied.

3.2.3 Embrittlement
(1) The polarization method
(1)(12)(15)(16)
The polarization method assesses the degree of embrittlement by means of the relationship between the voltage
and the current (polarization curve) appearing when electrolysis is caused in the electrolysis solution using a part
whose embrittlement is to be calculated as the anode, as well as by means of the phenomenon where the natural
electric potential varies according to advancement of embrittlement.

(2) The chemical etching method
(17)
The chemical etching method detects advancement of embrittlement by means of measurement of the depth of
the grain boundary corroded groove (roughness and width of the grain boundary groove) to know the amount of
segregation at the phosphorus grain boundary following selective corroding of a certain grain boundary by picric
acid.

3.3 Application of Remaining Life Assessment and an Example of its Verification
Figure 3.4.3-16
(4)
shows an example of application of remaining life assessment to a rotor in a high-pressure
turbine by non-destructive inspection. The reference part is the peripheral area of the coupling where the
temperature and the stress are low, and the area to be assessed is the part in the first stage of the high-pressure
turbine.
Assessment of a part in the high-pressure area is not always possible because measurement and inspection of
actual equipment is required to effect assessment of the remaining life by means of non-destructive inspection as
shown in Table 3.4.3-2. For example, for a rotor of a high-pressure turbine, assessment of creep damage to the
center hole is necessary, and a device for this purpose has been developed.
Photo 3.4.3-6
(1)
shows a device to pick up a replica of the center hole of a rotor and measurement of hardness
as an example.


Photo 3.4.3-6: A Device for Remaining Life Assessment of the Rotor Center Hole [MACH-I]

Figure 3.4.3-17
(1)(18)
shows the result of remaining life assessment of a high- and medium-pressure outer wheel
casing. (The cumulative operation hours is about 160,000 hours, the number of starts and stops is 370, and the
temperature of the part to be assessed is 538qC.)
292



[1]Operation history
Number of starts and stops: 370 Operated time: 161,000 hours Steam temperature: 538qC


The zone where
cracks may occur
[2] Result of
the life assessment
The lower half
F
a
t
i
g
u
e

d
a
m
a
g
e

I
f

The reheated steam
Figure 3.4.3-17:
An Example of Actual
Application of Remaining
Life Assessment of a High-
and Medium-pressure Outside
Wheel Casing
Safe zone
The part to be assessed
The main steam
The part to
be assessed Creep damage I
c
[3]Observation Result of a Replica
Observation result by a scanning
electron microscope (SEM)
(u1000)
Symbol Mark Inspection Item
Electric resistance
measurement
Hardness measurement
Microscopic crack
measurement
Electric resistance
measurement
Hardness
measurement
Microscopic crack
measurement
Figure 3.4.3-16: An Example of Actual Application
of Remaining Life Assessment of a High-pressure
Rotor by Means of Non-destructive Inspection




It had been predicted that a crack would have occurred at the R portion of the base part of the main steam pipe
and the re-heated steam pipe on the outside surface of the lower wheel casing due to accumulated creep damage.
And a crack that was considered to be the result of the formation and combination of voids was detected during
the inspection carried out the following year.
Figure 3.4.3-18
(1)(19)
shows the results of a creep rupture test of a specimen taken from a place very near a
corner of the steam chest where accumulation of creep damage was predicted to have reached almost cracking
point and of observation of the creep point of the place under discussion. The specimen was obtained from a
main stop valve (subjected to about 90,000 hours of accumulated operation hours, about 800 starts and stops,
and a temperature of 566qC at the assessed place) dismantled for the study. The creep damage experienced in the
creep rupture test was near to the predicted damage, and the fact that the creep points had already been combined
to make a minute crack verified that the predicted value was correct.


Becoming a microscopic crack
The data of
the R portion of
the steam chest
Formation of a void in the steam
chest
(Combined voids)
(The initial
stage)
The creep
damage rate and
the creep strain
A void is
formed
(an image
on the
replica).

The creep damage rate

[The main stop valve]
Figure 3.4.3-18: Situation of the Creep Damage Rate, the Creep Strain, and the Void

293
3.4.3.2 Heat Exchangers
1. Outline
Various kinds of heat exchangers are used in thermal power plants. In this chapter, we discuss measures for
improvement including a new technology to enhance future reliability of the major types of heat exchangers.
Table 3.4.3-3 shows the main failures that occurred to the condensers, the feed water heaters, the cooling water
coolers, the oil cooler and the gland steam condensers due to their aged deterioration, as well as the content of
improvement and countermeasures. For typical examples among them, causes and their countermeasures are
explained below.

Table 3.4.3-3: Improvements of the Plant Equipment and Countermeasures against Malfunctions
Improvements of such major heat exchanging equipment as the condenser, the feed water heater, the oil cooler, the
cooling water cooler, and the gland steam condenser and countermeasures against major malfunctions
Maintenance, Inspection, Improvement, and Replacement Name of
Equipment
Item Purpose
Method of
Inspection
Improvements and Countermeasures
(1) Replacement of the
cooling pipes with new
ones
Prevention of leakage due to aged
deterioration, enhancement of performance
and reliability
ET
Replacement of the cooling pipes with
new ones
Replacement of the cooling pipes with
titanium ones
(2) Improvements of the
base exposed to high
temperature
Reinforcement of temperature-proof
capability (To prevent cracking due to aged
deterioration)
PT
(1) Converting the base to a thermal
sleeve type
(2) Reinforcement of the welded part
(3) Improvements of other
drains and the steam inlet
base
Countermeasures against wall thickness
reduction in the baffle and some others due to
erosion caused by aged deterioration
PT
DI
Increasing the wall thickness of the
eroded part
(4) Total inspection of the
inside of the condenser
body
Inspection as to whether or not erosion,
corrosion, or cracking occurs on the internal
structure due to aged deterioration
VI
PT
Repairing the damaged part
1. Condenser
(5) Replacement of the
rubber belt expansion joint
with a new one
Maintaining airtightness of the condenser
(Prevention of cracking due to aged
deterioration)
HT
VI
Replacement of the joint with a new
one
(1) Measures to prevent
ammonium attack
(2) Replacement of the
steel pipes with new ones
(1) Prevention of ammonium attack
(2) Prevention of erosion due to steam and
drain attack
ET
Replacing the heating pipes with new
stainless pipes
2. Low-
pressure Feed
water Heater
(3) Inspection of the parts
installed inside the body
and the inside of the body
plate
Checking whether or not erosion or wall
thickness reduction occurs
VI
UT
Replacing the set with a new one
(1) Improvement of the structure of the water
chamber

(a) Prevention of leakage and sudden gush
from the welded part at the pipe end
Prevention of cracking at the pipe end
PT
(b) Prevention of cracking due to stress
concentration on the corner of the water
chamber
PT
(c) Prevention of the end of the heating pipes
from being eroded
VI
3. High-
pressure Feed
water Heater
(1) Improvement of the
structure of the water
casing and checking of
inlet attack in the steel
pipes
(2) Adhering of scale to the
steel pipes
(2) Prevention of scale adhering VI
(1) Improvements of the structure of
the water chamber
(a) Adoption of a new welding method
for the pipe end
(b) Increasing the corner R of the
water chamber
(c) Installing a tube-inserted pipe
Totally replacing the existing water
chamber with a new one in which the
above improvements are integrated
(2) Effecting water jet cleaning
4. Oil Cooler
(1) Replacement of the
pipe nest with a new one
(2) Modification of the
water chamber
(1) Measures against aged deterioration
(2) Recovering of function and performance
(3) Simplification of maintenance and
inspection
ET
VI
(1) Replacement of the pipe nest with
a new one
(2) Installation of a cover that is to be
tightened by flanged bolts on the water
chamber
5. Cooling
Water Cooler
(1) Replacement of the
cooler with a new one
(2) Modification of the
water chamber
(1) Measures against aged deterioration
(2) Recovering of function and performance
(3) Simplification of maintenance and
inspection
ET
VI
(1) Replacement of the cooler with a
new one
(2) Installation of a cover that is to be
tightened by flanged bolts on the water
chamber
6. Gland
Steam
Condenser
(1) Replacement of the
blower with a new one
(2) Modification of the
blower to a separately
placed type
(1) Measures against aged deterioration of
the impeller shaft
(2) Measures to prevent vibration of the
blower
VI
(1) Replacement of the blower with a
new one
(2) Installation of the blower in a
separate place
(3) Modification of the distribution
valve located around the blower
Meaning of the acronyms: ET (Eddy Current Flaw Detection Test) PT (Penetrate test) DI (Dimension Inspection) VI (Visual Inspection) HT
(Hardness Test) UT (Ultrasonic Flaw Detection Test)
2. Technology for Preventative Maintenance and Measures to Strengthen the Deterioration-proof
294


Capability of the Condensers
2.1 Corrosion of the Cooling Pipe
Aluminum-brass pipes have been traditionally used for the cooling pipes of condensers. Inlet attack and
deposit attack (the impingement attack) are corrosive and erosive attacks from the inside of the pipe.
Ammonium attack is a corrosive and erosive attack from the outside. In particular, corrosion and erosion from
the inside, such as deposit attack, can sometime pierce the wall in a short time to cause water leakage.
Such measures as the injection of iron sulfate, electrochemical protection, the injection of chlorine, ball purge,
and counter flow washing are traditionally taken to prevent corrosion and erosion from the inside, but additional
daily elaborate operation control is also important.
A periodical E.T. (eddy current flaw detection test) is effective as preventative maintenance for aluminum-
brass pipes. And nowadays, automatic control is adopted to arrange the data of the E.T. in order and to control
the remaining wall thickness.
Recently, there is a tendency to take the safety measure whereby all aluminum-brass pipes of a condenser
already installed are replaced by titanium pipes. The merit is a great reduction in the risk of seawater leakage
and the omission of the E.T. to be effected at periodic inspection and daily maintenance to protect the cooling
pipes. On the other hand, it becomes necessary to shorten the space between the cooling pipe supports as a
vibration-proofing measure so that titanium pipes with thin wall thickness can be used because titanium is
somewhat inferior to aluminum-brass in terms of heat conductivity.

2.2 Cracking in the Hot Nozzle
Hot fluid such as main steam wastewater whose temperature exceeds 400qC flows into the condenser. In
some cases, too much thermal stress occurs in the nozzle into which hot fluid flows due to a big difference in
temperature between the nozzle and the body where the temperature is about 33qC. Table 3.4.3-4 shows
examples of cracking that occurred in the part where the nozzle and the body are welded due to thermal fatigue
caused by repeated heating and cooling under operation in DSS mode.

Table 3.4.3-4 Damage to the Base Portion of the Condenser Exposed to High Temperature and Examples of
Their Countermeasures
Damage situation of the base portion of the condenser exposed to high temperature and examples of the
countermeasures in the shape of the base
Shape of the Base
No.
Plant
Output
(at the
opening of
the plant)
Operation
Mode
Name of the
Base
Time of
Damage
Occurrence
Damage Situation
Original Shape Countermeasures
1
250 MW
(1967)
DSS
High-pressure
Drain
Manifold
(150 A)
Seventeen
years after
the operation
started
A crack of 105 mm in
the body and another
crack of 30 mm in the
nozzle

3
250 MW
(1974)
DSS
Medium-
pressure Drain
Manifold
(100 A)
Twelve
years after
the operation
started
A crack of 115 mm in
the body and another
crack of 70 mm in the
nozzle

4
350 MW
(1970)
At a constant
load
(entered in an
emergency)
SSR steam
inlet
(150 A)
Nineteen
years after
the operation
started
A crack of 178 mm in
the body

5
600 MW
(1973)
At a medium
load
Turbine Lead
Pipe Drain
Inlet
(50 A)
Ten years
after the
operation
started
Three cracks of 80
mm max. length in the
peripheral direction
occurred on the
welded part of the
thermal sleeve and the
body








Cracks
(hatched area)
Fillet welding
Cracks
(hatched area)
The thermal sleeve
Fillet welding
Cracks
(hatched area)
Groove
welding
Fillet welding
Cracks
Meaning of the acronyms: DSS (Daily Start-Stop) WSS (Weekly Start-Stop) SSR (Steam Seal Regulator)

Cracking can be prevented by the countermeasure where the hot side, the nozzle, and the cold side, the body,
are connected through the thermal sleeve and the point of injection is chosen so that the hot fluid does not point
the body to relieve steepness of the temperature gradient between the nozzle and the body.
295
3. Technology for Preventative Maintenance and Measures to Strengthen the Deterioration-proof
Capability of the Feed Water Heater
3.1 Inlet Attack of the Steel Pipes
Inlet attack is a phenomenon where the protective film on the inside surface of a pipe is destroyed and eroded
by water flow, and it is often seen in high-pressure feed water heaters whose temperature of feed water is as high
as between 150qC and 200qC. Erosion and corrosion due to the influence of the pH and temperature of the feed
water are the causes besides vortices and too high a velocity of the fluid flow.

= Countermeasures =
Installation of an inserted pipe and a flow-smoothing bell mouth as illustrated in Figure 3.4.3-19 are effective.


Feed water
Feed water
Leakage
A flow-smoothing bell mouth
(1.25Cr0.5Mo Steel plate)
A flow-smoothing bell mouth
(1.25Cr0.5Mo Steel plate)
An inserted pipe
(SUS304TB)
An inserted pipe
(SUS304TB)


Protrusion welding type Intrusion welding type

Figure 3.4.3-19: An Inserted Pipe and a Flow-smoothing Bell Mouth

3.2 Adhering of Scale on the Inside Wall of a Steel Pipe
In some cases, black consistent scale adheres to the inside wall of the steel pipes and some other places in the
high-pressure feed water heater where steel pipes are used. This scale is iron oxide called magnetite. Too much
magnetite adhered to the surface may lead to damage to the partition in the water chamber due to increased
pressure loss, overload of the BFP, imbalance of the flow of wastewater, and lowered heat conductivity.

= Countermeasures =
Such measures as periodical removal of scale, complete protection against rusting during storing of the unit in
the case of suspension of operation, complete control of water quality when the unit is restarted, etc. can be
countermeasures. Water jet washing and blast washing are usually used for the mechanical removal of the scale,
and acid washing with monoammonium citric acid is used for the chemical removal of the scale. The former is
superior in terms of cost, while the latter is superior in terms of removal performance.

3.3 Drain Attack of the Outside Surface of Steel Pipes
In some cases, steel pipes are attacked by erosion from the outside surface of the pipe, and leakage occurs
around the area near to the inlet of the heated steam flowing into the feed water heater or near the drain. In either
case, high-speed heated steam involves wastewater and blows against the outside surfaces of the front most row of
the pipes so that the erosion gradually penetrates into the inside.

= Countermeasures =
To keep the space between the main body and the row of the pipes so that the local flow speed of heating
steam does not become too fast, adopt an arrangement or location of the nozzle that prevents the heating steam
and the wastewater from interfering with each other. In addition to this measure, utilization of stainless pipes for
two or three outside rows is also effective.

3.4 AmmoniumAttack of the Copper Pipes
For a feed water heater in which copper-type alloy pipes such as aluminum-brass pipes are used as heating
steam and the chamber in which the pressure is always negative, the pipes are eroded in some cases near the
area where non-condensed gas is extracted and at the support plate and the pipe plate near to the steam inlet
impact prevention plate where the concentration of ammonium is high.

= Countermeasures =
Replace some of the tubes located where any parts are liable to receive ammonium attack by stainless pipes
that have good corrosion resistance. Such measures as modification of the structure so that gas does not stay
around parts from where non-condensed gas is extracted or a change of operational parameters such as setting of a
vent amount also deserve consideration.
296




3.5 Non-destructive Inspection of the Heating Pipe
Carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum-brass, monel metal, etc. are used for the heating pipe of the feed water
heater. But the necessary frequency and type of inspection vary according to the material used. The necessity
of inspection is high for carbon steel pipes and brass pipes in order to prevent leakage due to corrosion or erosion
of the heating pipe, while the necessity is low for stainless pipes that are highly corrosion resistant.
On the other hand, austenite stainless and copper alloy material that necessitate less inspection can receive E.T.
contrary to no necessity of inspection because they are non-magnetic materials, while checking of damage to such
ferromagnetic materials such as carbon steel pipes by means of E.T. is not so easy.
The following are inspection techniques to be used for the inspection of carbon steel.

(i) Magnetic saturation eddy current flaw detection method
This is a method where the influence of magnetism is removed in order to improve detection capability by
magnetically saturating part of the heating pipe whose flaw is to be detected.

(ii) The ultrasonic test method
This method can differentiate reduction in the thickness that occurred to the inside of a pipe from that to the
outside, and is used mainly for inspection of reduction in wall thickness using a submerged rotating probe.

(iii) The remote field eddy current flaw detection method
This is an inspection method where a transmission coil and a receiving coil are placed approximately a few
times the pipe diameter apart from each other, where magnetic flux is induced by the transmission coil penetrating
up to the outside surface of the pipe, and where the receiving coil receives the magnetic flux propagated along the
axis of the pipe.

Leakage from the heating pipe can also be checked by the opening angle of the drain valve, the drain level, the
temperature difference of the feed water, and abnormal noise. Although it depends on severity of the damage
suffered, the most popular method is to open the water chamber and install stop plugs in the leaking pipe and other
pipes suffering from the secondary damage. It is recommended to replace the feed water heater as a unit when
plugs are installed in 10% of the pipes. Replacing the heating pipes with stainless ones is also an effective
measure.

3.6 Damage to the Diaphragm in the Cylindrical Water Chamber of the High-pressure Feed Water
Heater
There is a structure where a diaphragm is used to obtain water tightness of the water chamber of the high-
pressure feed water heater (Figure 3.4.3-20). In this structure, the high pressure in the water chamber is
supported by a water chamber cover made of a thick plate and is sealed by the diaphragm. The diaphragm is not
often damaged.



The outlet for the feedwater
The body
The water chamber cover
The partition
cover
The diaphragm
The heating pipe
The sheer piece
The pipe plate
The water chamber

The inlet for the feedwater
Figure 3.4.3-20: The Structure of the Diaphragm

Since there are more cases nowadays where the welded part at the corner of the pipe plate where the partition
plate is attached and the welded part of the covering plate for the J hole are cracked (fatigue cracking), it is better
to totally modify it.
297
= Countermeasures =
It is required to replaced the diaphragm every two years taking the DSS mode of operation into consideration.
The old one should not be used but should be replaced it with a new one at such an opportunity as opening of the
water chamber when the old one is broken.

3.7 Erosion of the Inside of the Low-pressure Feed water Heater Body
Reduction in the wall thickness of the parts located inside the heater such as the body plate and the pipe-
supporting plate due to aged deterioration has often been experienced recently.
A study revealed that the places where reduction in wall thickness had been experienced are those where the
flow of steam is relatively fast in the heater or places where there was movement of wastewater and where erosion
is liable to be induced. This attack is a phenomenon due to erosion and corrosion occurring in a specific
temperature range.
The corrosion speed of an iron or steel material is greatly influenced by the environmental temperature, and
there is a tendency for a material to increase its corrosion speed at a specific temperature. The number of cases
of the phenomenon where plates inside the body of the low-pressure feed water heater are corroded and their wall
thickness is reduced around the above-mentioned temperature range has increased.

= Countermeasures =
Such measures as padding by welding on the area whose wall thickness has been reduced, backing the area by
a metal stripe and/or partially replacing with a newly fabricated part made of SUS material are effected.

4. Technology for Preventative Maintenance and Measures to the Strengthen Deterioration-proof
Capability of the Deaerator
4.1 Deaerator
(1) Cracking in the hot nozzle
Strong thermal stress is generated in structural members when there is a steep temperature gradient or a big
change in temperature takes place in an area into which hot steam flows (in the case where the temperature of the
fluid itself changes, or in another case where very rapid changes in the temperature like thermal shock take place
due to wastewater flowed into the hot portion). The generated thermal stress may cause fatigue damage when
concentrated at the point of discontinuity and stress concentration is repeated in DSS operation mode

= Countermeasures =
Check whether or not there is any incorporation of wastewater from the upper stream in the piping (e.g., failure
in discharge of the wastewater due to deterioration of the wastewater trap), and take necessary measures to
improve the root of the incorporation if such incorporation exists. Adopt the thermal sleeve-type structure for
the nozzle as shown in Figure 3.4.3-21 in order to relieve the temperature gradient between the piping and the
body-side plate. Also use full welding to avoid the occurrence of stress concentration.


The nozzle
The breast plate
The breast plate
The nozzle
The thermal sleeve
The reinforcement plate
Figure 3.4.3-21: Examples of Modifications to the hot Nozzle of the Deaerator

5. Remaining Life Assessment of a Heat Exchanger
As for heat exchangers, countermeasures against aged deterioration have traditionally been effected focusing
on preventative maintenance. However techniques for remaining life assessment have recently been developed
and have partly being applied to feed water heaters and deaerators.
Remaining life assessment is carried out by means of theoretical analyses, destructive tests, and non-
destructive tests, and utilization of these techniques has altogether improved its accuracy.

298


3.4.3.3 Pump

1. Preventative Maintenance for Pumps
As for preventative maintenance of pumps, there are two types of pumps. The first one includes such pumps
as the boiler feed water pump and the boiler circulating pump whose life is decided by fatigue under high
temperature and high pressure. The second one is a circulating water pump whose life is decided by seawater
corrosion. Moreover, there are another classification of the condition, that is, whether it is with or without a
spare unit, continuously operated or not, etc. It is important to effect preventative maintenance suitable for each
pump. In this section, the boiler feedwater pump and the circulating water pump are discussed.

2. Daily Inspection and Periodic Inspection
Scheduled maintenance includes maintenance by means of daily inspection and another one by periodic
inspection to be effected every two years or four years. Tables 3.4.3- 4 to 5 show the items for daily inspection,
and Tables 3.4.3-6 to 7 show the items for periodic inspection. The following points shall be observed when
each pump is inspected.

Table 3.4.3-4: The Content of Daily Maintenance and Inspection of BFP
Operation Record Discharge pressure/Suction pressure/Amount of feed water/Feed water temperature/r.p.m./Motor
current/Bearing temperature/Lubricating oil temperature/Lubricating oil pressure/Vibration/Temperature of the
returned seal water (for the bushing seal type)/Temperature of the flushing water (for the mechanical seal type)
Inspection Items Abnormal noise and vibration/Leakage from the piping, the gland and the coupling/Vibration of the small-size
piping/Opening angle of the sealing water control valve/Differential pressure of the strainers

Table 3.4.3-5: The Content of Daily Maintenance and Inspection of CWP
Operation Record Discharge pressure/Opening angle of the variable blade/Motor bearing temperature/Electric
current/Vibration/Noise/Gland temperature/Differential pressure of the lubricating water strainer
Inspection Items Abnormal noise and vibration/Leakage from the piping/Abnormal noise and vibration/Leakage from the
gland/Differential pressure of the strainer/Abnormality in the bearing lubricating water

Table 3.4.3-6: The Content of the Inspection on the Periodic Inspection of BFP
Item Content of the Inspection
The sliding ring
x Clearance
x Cracks (P.T. inspection)
The main shaft
x Measurement of the bend
x Cracks (P.T. inspection)
x Measurement of the dimensions of the gland and the journal
x Visual inspection
Corrosion, Abrasion, Fretting, Threads on the shaft, Key way
Rotating
Component
The impeller
x Dimensions and run-out of the sliding part
x Scale
x Cracks (P.T. inspection)
x Visual inspection
Cavitation corrosion, Abrasion, Erosion, Dents, Movement
The outer body
x Erosion of the inside surface
x Cracks in the stainless padding (P.T. inspection)
x Dimensions of the joint part and scratches on the surface
x Damage to and abrasion of the threads of the tightening bolts
Casing
The inner body
x Erosion of the mating surface
x Scale
x Cracks (P.T. inspection)
x Damage to the mating surface of the joint to the outer body
x Loosening of bolts
x Scratches and cracks
x Inner body bushing/Erosion of the water extraction pipe/Deformation
The radial metals
x Contact
x Clearance
x A crack in and separation of the padding metal (P.T. inspection)
Bearing
The thrust metals
x Abrasion of the thrust shoe and the disk
x Damage
x Checking of the thrust shoe movement
Others
x Checking of the end play of the rotating components
x Alignment check after dismantling and assembling
299
Table 3.4.3-7: The Content of the Inspection on the Periodic Inspection of CWP
Item Content of the Inspection
The main shaft (1) Measurement of the bend
(2) Dimensions of the outside diameter of the bearing sleeve
(3) Dimensions of the gland gasket sliding sleeve
(4) Visual inspection
Corrosion/Cracks/Abrasion/Looseness of the key/Bolt hole
The impeller (1) Measurement of the outside diameter of the wearing
(2) Visual inspection
x Corrosion
x Cracking
x Dents/Contact of the tip of the vane with the liner
x Abrasion of the base of the vane entrance
x Looseness of the key/Contact of the joint part
(3) Cracking in the boss and the base of the vane (P.T.)
The coupling cover (1) Visual inspection
Corrosion (the general part/the flange surface/the portion for the O-ring)
Rotating
Component
The shaft sleeve (1) Visual inspection
Corrosion (the general part/the joint/the portion for the O-ring)
1. The bearing (1) Dimensions of the internal diameter
(2) Visual inspection
x Deterioration of the rubber
x Boundary separation of the rubber from the shell
Bearing
2. The shaft case (1) Visual inspection
Corrosion (the spigot joint/the boundary between the case and the shaft shell)
1. The pumping-up
pipe of the
discharging body
(1) Visual inspection
Corrosion (the spigot joint on the flange surface/the general part)
2. The stuffing box (1) Visual inspection
Corrosion (the spigot joint on the flange surface/the gasket inserting part/the general
part)
Casing
3. The suction bell for
the guide vane
(1) Dimensions of the internal diameter of the liner ring
(2) Visual inspection
Corrosion (the shaft case inserting part/the joint portion with the vane entrance tip
and the inner pipe/the spigot joint on the flange surface/the general part)

(1) The feed water pump
In some cases, magnetite adhered on the impeller due to poor quality control of the feed water (AVT) may
increase the r.p.m. vibration for the same output. It is necessary to make sure by daily inspection that there are
no changes in tendency regarding discharging pressure, r.p.m., vibration, etc.
Since corrosion problems of the hard chrome plating applied to the wearing occurred due to the quality control
of the feed water (CWT) that was recently introduced, visual inspection of these parts is necessary at each
overhaul.
Note 1. CWT is the acronym for Combined Water Treatment and is a kind of water treatment for boilers
where combined injection of oxygen and ammonium are carried out.
2. AVT is the acronym for All Volatile Treatment (deaeration treatment) where a protective film of
oxide iron (magnetite) is formed with the help of hydrazine under a deaerated condition to lower
the oxygen concentration in the system to the lowest possible minimum in order to make the object
corrosion resistant.

(2) The circulating water pump
In the event that operation of a circulating water pump is suspended for a long time as it is installed, it is
necessary to operate it once a week or once a month to prevent pitting and crevice corrosion.

3. Measures to Strengthen Deterioration-proof Capability
In the previous section, we discussed preventative maintenance where periodic inspection is expected to
identify deteriorated parts and where necessary parts are repaired or replaced by new ones.
However, the following changes in the situation are now known.
(1) Power plants that are operated in DSS or WSS mode have increased.
300
(2) The percentage of power plants that have been operated for 20 years or more since their start of



operation has increased.
(3) The interval for periodic inspection of pumps has been extended.
So, it is desirable that deterioration-proof capability of the pump itself be extended. Table 3.4.3-8 ~ 9 show
the measures taken by the industries to strengthen deterioration-proof capability.

Table 3.4.3-8: Measures Taken to Strengthen the Deterioration-proof Capability of the Boiler Feed water Pump at
Hitachi, Ltd.
No.
Phenomenon that
Occurred
Cause Measures for Improvement
c Cavitation erosion Increased operation time in the low flow
rate range due to increased opportunity of
intermediate-load-range operation such as
DSS and WSS
x Padding of a corrosion-resistant metal on the first-
stage impeller
x Improvement of the shape of the inlet channel and
the first-stage impeller
d Increased vibration Unbalanced force vibration due to locking
of the tooth flank of the gear coupling
caused by a sudden change in the load
x Adoption of a diaphragm coupling with better
flexibility
e Increased vibration Increased operation time outside the
designed flow rate due to increased
opportunity of intermediate-load-range
operation such as DSS and WSS
x Adoption of rotors with high rigidity
f Damage to the shaft Fatigue started from corrosion pitting
caused by deterioration of feed water
quality due to leakage of seawater or a
certain other reason.
x Detailed inspection of the shaft and removal of
corrosion pits
g Occurrence of self-
excited vibration
Increased clearance due to aged
deterioration
x Adoption of a vibration-damping-type balancing
drum
h Corrosion damage
to the chrome
plating
Deterioration of the corrosion-proof
environment due to increase in DO in the
feed water caused by CWT operation
x Replacing the current one with the new one to which
improved corrosion-proof chrome plating is applied
x Improvement by adoption of a material not
necessitating chrome plating (adoption of a shaft
without chrome plating/a shaft seal part without
chrome plating)
i Damage to the part
where stress was
concentrated
Too much stress due to thermal deformation
of the casing repeatedly working on it when
the turbine is started and stopped
x Replacing the current casing with a new one whose
deterioration-proof capability is strengthened
x Changing the control method to temperature control
from the seal water control to prevent too much cold
water from flowing in
j Erosion of the inner
surface of the
discharging nozzle
Erosion corrosion caused by aged
deterioration of the material and developed
under an environment where there is steam
with high-speed flow
x Applying padding of austenite stainless steel after
effecting welding of carbon steel for the repair


301
Table 3.4.3-9: Measures Taken to Strengthen the Deterioration-proof Capability of the Circulating Water Pump at
Hitachi, Ltd.
No.
Phenomenon that
Occurred
Cause Measures for Improvement
c Reduction in wall
thickness of the
loose flange due to
corrosion
Crevice corrosion due to seawater
Aged deterioration of the material
x Adoption of a corrosion-proof technique to coat the
inside surface in contact with water with a ripoxy
lining
d Corrosion of the
mating surface of
the intermediate
coupling
Crevice corrosion due to seawater
Aged deterioration of the material
x Adoption of a technique to prevent seawater from
penetrating by means of epoxy resin putty filled in
the joining surface
e A malfunction of
feeding of the seal
water
Abrasion of the
shaft-sealing device
Clogging due to adhering of marine
creatures and accumulation of adult
creatures in the feed water piping and the
feed water channel in the pump
x Adoption of seal-waterless bearings
f Corrosion of the
flange surfaces of
the bearing bracket
and the column pipe
Crevice corrosion due to seawater
Aged deterioration of the material
x Adoption of a corrosion-proof technique to coat the
inside surface in contact with water and the flange
surface with a ripoxy lining.
g Corrosion of the
bolts, the nuts, and
some others
Crevice corrosion due to seawater
Aged deterioration of the material
x Strengthening corrosion-proof capability by
applying a crevice corrosion inhibitor (RFC)
h Reduction in wall
thickness due to
corrosion of such
parts as the casing,
the column pipe, etc.
Crevice corrosion due to seawater
Aged deterioration of the material
x Effecting a periodic assessment of corrosion by
means of an ultrasonic test
i Leakage of oil in the
impeller boss (only
for the circulating
water pump for the
rotating vanes)
Crevice corrosion of the part of the variable
pitch vanes due to seawater
x Neutralizing the possibility of oil leakage by
adopting oil-less bearings for the variable pitch
control mechanism for the vane to eliminate the
necessity of boss oil.



302



4. Assessment Techniques for Equipment
4.1 Assessment Techniques at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.
The following are explanations of the assessment techniques for the area of components that are possibly
subject to fatigue taking remaining life assessment of the outer casing as an example to prevent escalation to
secondary damage to other equipment than the boiler feed water pump in the event of failure.

(1) Selection of objects of assessment and assessment methods
They had an experience where cracking occurred to the suction-side gasket seat of the outer casing (Figure
3.4.3-22 i) of a turbine unit whose operation had started about 15 years ago when the failure occurred; it was
repaired by welding, and the outer casing was replaced. Welding of stainless padding was carried out on the part
under discussion to strengthen corrosion and erosion resistance. That part was subjected to stress fluctuation
according to starting and stopping of the unit. It was sealed against differential pressure between the suction part
and the discharging part by a gasket, and the thrust force from the inner casing due to differential pressure worked
on that part and caused stress concentration on the corner.


Figure 3.4.3-22: A Structural Drawing of the Feed water Pump of the Mitsubishi MDG 267 Boiler

This life assessment method(Figure 3.4.3-23) is an analytical method, and they are studying the replacement of
the component when cracking due to fatigue has occurred, development afterwards, and when the maximum
allowable depth of a crack has been reached.


Cracking due to fatigue
S
t
r
e
s
s

S

According to the S-N
curves for carbon steel
and stainless steel in
Notification 501
Number of Occurrences
of Cracking N
Life assessment
The max.
allowable depth
Development of a crack
D
e
p
t
h

o
f

a

C
r
a
c
k

FEM
Stress analysis
Max. allowable crack
depth according to the
crack development
curve for stainless steel Number of Starts
and Stops N
(Cracking in NDI)
Remaining Life
Predicted future
operation mode
Remaining life
assessment
Figure 3.4.3-23: Remaining Life Assessment Method

Even if such a crack is found in the periodic inspection and repaired by means of welding, its deterioration
resistance capability would not be high enough and cracking would recur and continue its development. For safe
operation of a plant, it is recommended as the measure to strengthen the deterioration-proof capability of the pump
that “occurrence of cracking” should be deemed the end of its life.

(2) Results of remaining life assessment
The results of this analytical remaining life assessment were analyzed by means of an FEM model. Table
3.4.3-10 shows the results of the assessment in an actual plant. The part under discussion was assessed, and it
was found that it had more than 30 years of remaining life, also taking into consideration the fact that no cracks
had been found in a non-destructive inspection that had been separately carried out for a similar part of the unit.

Table 3.4.3-10: Results of the Life Assessment
303
Part Name Name of Portion
Consumed
Fatigue Life
Remaining Life
1. The corner area
(the suction nozzle side)
4.0%
More than
30 years
2. The corner area
(in the horizontal
direction)
2.5%
More than
30 years
The seating surface for the outer
casing suction-side gasket



3. The corner area
(on the side opposite to
the suction nozzle)
2.4%
More than
30 years
The suction nozzle
The outer casing
The suction nozzle
Welding
The outer casing

304


3.4.4 Corrosion of SteamTurbines and its Countermeasures
The conditions inside a steam turbine continuously change from high temperature and high pressure to a
pressure lower than atmospheric pressure and low temperature depending on the conditions of steam.
For a recent typical power plant, the steam temperature at the inlet of the turbine is about 540qC to 570qC, the
pressure is about 250 kgf/cm
2
and the exhaust gas temperature is about 30qC.
The change in steam conditions agrees with improvement of the materials used for each part of a turbine and
of the turbine structure. Development of heat resistant materials having great strength at high temperature is
indispensable to achieve high efficiency in power generation.
The design of a steam turbine is usually achieved for the high temperature section and the low temperature
section separately. Table 3.4.4-1 shows typical materials used in each section of a steam turbine. Low alloy
steel containing a low percentage of chromium and molybdenum is used for the rotor, the casing, the steam valve
and the tightening bolt all of which are used in the high and medium pressure section. And low alloy steel that
has high tensile strength such as 3.5NiCrMoV steel is used for the low pressure rotor. In this material, chromium
contributes to the oxidation resistance and resistance to the graphitization, and molybdenum contributes to the
high temperature strength. The 12Cr heat resistant steel is used for the rotor, the blade, the nozzle and the bolt all
of which are used in the high and medium pressure section. For the material for the rotor whose temperature
increases to about 580qC, 12Cr steel reinforced with molybdenum and vanadium is used with tantalum and
niobium or nitrogen added and with fine carbide and nitride precipitated. For use in the higher temperature,
strength at the high temperature is improved by the addition of tungsten or molybdenum.
Table 3.4.4-1: Material used in main parts of the thermal turbine
Parts Representative steel types
The rotor 1Cr-1Mo-
1
/
4
V steel
12Cr-Mo-V-Ta-N steel
12Cr-Mo-V-Nb-N steel
12Cr-Mo-V-W-Nb-N steel
The blade
The nozzle
12Cr-Mo-V-W steel
12Cr-Mo-V-Nb-N steel
12Cr steel
Ni-based superalloy
The casing
The steam valve
1Cr-1Mo-V steel
1Cr-0.5~1Mo steel
1
1
/
4
~2
1
/
4
Cr-0.5~1Mo steel
12Cr steel
H
i
g
h

a
n
d

M
i
d
d
l
e

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

t
u
r
b
i
n
e
The tightening bolt 1Cr-1Mo-V steel
12Cr-Mo-V-W steel
12Cr-Mo-V- Nb-N steel
Ni-based superalloy
The rotor 3~3.5Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel
The blade
The nozzle
12Cr steel
12Cr-Mo-V steel
12Cr-Ni-Mo-V-N steel
17-4PH
Titanium
L
o
w

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

t
u
r
b
i
n
e
The casing Carbon steel
3.4.4.1 Corrosion in the High Temperature Zone and its Countermeasures
For corrosion in the high temperature zone exceeding 400qC, it is usually only a question of an oxidation
reaction of the target substance with a gas phase substance, and there is no involvement of a liquid phase. In a
thermal power plant, especially for the boiler, this countermeasures for the high temperature corrosion is an
important issue. This phenomenon is related to the decrease of thickness in many cases, therefore, the selection
of materials and setting of corrosion control such as coating are decided from this perspective.
As for the materials for the components of a turbine, problems directly related to the high temperature
corrosion have not often occurred. However, issues to be considered such as sticking of the major valves like the
main steam stop valve caused by products of corrosion deposited on the valves and erosion occurring due to the
flowing in of oxide particles still remain.
High chromium steel such as 12Cr steel is effective to improve corrosion resistance. And hardening of a
material by applying nitride treatment to the material surface and cladding welding of stelite that is a cobalt base
alloy are effective measures to strengthen corrosion resistance too.
305
Erosion is a phenomenon where decrease of thickness occurs due to high speed fluid and the reduction is
accelerated when solid substances included in the fluid abrade the wall. For example, we experienced a
phenomenon whereby the nozzle plate in the control stage at the turbine inlet is eroded by oxide particles. This
phenomenon mainly occurs at the start-up of a turbine, damaging the end part of the steam outlet of the nozzle
finally resulting in lowered turbine efficiency. Boronizaion treatment is one measure to prevent this erosion from
occurring. This treatment diffuses boron(B) applying its vapor deposition to the surface of the material to harden
it.
Figure 3.4.4-1
(2)
shows the effect of the treatment. This is the data of effectiveness of the boronization
treatment applied to an actual turbine unit. We obtained the result whereby the nozzle plate with a thickness of
80 Pm of the treated layer could realize such durability that almost no erosion occurred in an operation even
exceeding 15000 hours. And also another measure is one in which the shape of the nozzle is structurally
changed to enhance erosion resistance.
With no treatment
E
r
o
s
i
o
n

R
a
t
e

(
%
)
With boronization treatment
(thickness of the surface <