End-semester Examination PES 222: Industrial Waster Management M.Tech. ± Environmental Science and Technology Instructor: Dr.

Akepati S. Reddy Date: 17-05-2010 Time: 3 hours (09-00 - 12-00 AM) Max. Marks: 100 Note:1. Please assume if any requisite data is not given 2. Please attempt all the sub-parts of a question together

Q.1 Answer any four (4) of the following? 1.1 What is foul condensate? Where it is generated? And how to manage it? 1.2 Write note on prehydrolisate liquor and discuss the scheme of treatment for the prehydrolisate liquor? 1.3 What do you understand by the terms ECF and TCF, and discuss why pulp mills worldwide are moving from chlorine bleaching to TCF through ECF? 1.4 Write note on Rotary vacuum drum washer used in bleach plant and environmental concerns associated with them? 1.5 Define steam economy and discuss how it can be improved in cylinder drying section and in black liquor concentrating section? Q.2 Answer any two (2) of the following? 2.1 10 ton/hour capacity boiler is operated at 40 bars absolute pressure and 250°C temperature. Boiler feed water is having 20 mg/L of TDS and the boiler is operated at ”1100 mg/L of TDS. Estimate the boiler blow down rate? If the blow down water is flashed at 3 bars absolute pressure and 133°C temperature for water and energy recovery, estimate the steam recovery possible? 2.2 A 2 ton/hour capacity boiler is generating steam of 10 bars pressure and 180°C temperature. Pet coke with 7% sulfur content and 9000 kcal/kg calorific value is burnt in the boiler as fuel. For the removal of sulfur dioxide from the flue gases pulverized limestone is mixed with pet coke at the rate of twice the stoicheometric requirement. If thermal efficiency of the boiler is 65%, find daily pet coke and lime stone requirements of the boiler? 2.3 A 2000 LPM capacity cooling tower is used for cooling the circulating cooling water being used in polyester dyeing machines. The circulating cooling water is having ”1500 mg/L of TDS. ¨T and temperature of the circulating cooling water are 12°C and 30°C respectively. Drift losses of the cooling tower and leaks from the circulating cooling water system are estimated at 0.4% and 0.5% respectively. Find the cooling tower blow down rate and the makeup consumption rate of the cooling tower and circulating cooling water system?

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Q.3 Wastewater generated by an industrial unit has been found to have the following composition: S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Parameter Flow rate Peaking factor pH Temperature Oil and grease Suspended solids (TSS) Total dissolved solids BOD5 at 20°C COD Value 25 m3/hr 1.7 11 35°C 100 mg/L 500 mg/L 1000 mg/L 700 mg/L 1350 mg/L

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3.1 Indicate the parameters that require removal/regulation/control through treatment so as the treated effluent can be disposed off into a surface water body? 3.2 Propose a scheme of treatment for the wastewater in question? Your scheme should also include the facilities for handling the secondary wastes generated. State your reason why you have chosen the units in the specific order or sequence in the scheme? 3.3 Indicate the purpose(s) to be served by each of the treatment units you have chosen? You should indicate which unit will be designed for the removal/regulation/control of what parameters. And, you should add your comment on the coincidental removal/regulation/control of parameters by each of the units. 3.4 State (for the design of the treatment plant) what else characterization of the wastewater you may require? Q.4 In a milk plant, the received milk is heated in a heat exchanger with circulating hot water for pastuarization. Hot water required for the heating of milk is generated in a hot water tank through direct steam injection. Flow rate of milk is 100 LPM (liters per minute) and the milk is heated from 50°C to 65°C. The hot water used has 90°C temperature and temperature of the hot water leaving the heat exchanger is 80°C. Saturated dry steam of 120°C temperature is used in the hot water tank for the hot water generation. Thermal efficiency of the heat exchanger is 90%. Because of water hammering problems (caused by the injected steam) 1% of the circulating hot water is being lost from the hot water tank. This loss of water is made up by adding soft water to the hot water tank. See the following schematic diagram for details: 20

Soft water: 0.01X LPM Temp: 35°C

Steam : Y kg/Min. Temp: 120°C

Hot water: X LPM Temp: 90 °C

Milk: 100 LPM Temp: 65°C

Hot water tank (efficiency ?)

Heat exchanger (90% efficiency)

Hot water overflow Temp: 90°C

Hot water: X LPM Temp: 80°C

Milk: 100 LPM Temp: 50°C

4.1 Find the soft water consumption rate? 4.2 Estimate the steam consumption rate in the hot water tank? 4.3 Find thermal efficiency of the hot water tank? Q.5 Answer any five (5) of the following? 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 Recuperators for waste heat recovery from furnace flue gases Noise standards and noise pollution control measures for DG sets Standards and conditions prescribed for incineration of Biomedical wastes Purposes served by internal treatment of boiler feed water, and chemicals used in the treatment Manufacturing process flow diagram for sugar industry showing the key wastes generated Boiler blow-down and its environmental and energy concerns Expert appraisal committee and its role in environmental clearance Environmental feasibility report and its role in consents under The Water Act, 1974 and The Air Act, 1981 from the State Pollution Control Boards Prevention, control and mitigation of sulfur dioxide emissions from thermal power plants Sources of cyanide containing wastewater from a Cassava starch industry and management strategies for the cyanide containing wastewater Spent wash and management alternatives for the spent wash management Pinch analysis for water, energy and chemicals conservation Phosphating, chromating, anodizing and passivating processes and wastes generated from these processes Tanning processes and wastes generated from tanning processes 20

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