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Inter CUlt, Sri Lanka ALTERNATIVE NETWORK LETTER


Known previously as Intercultural Travel: Education Services, the national
secretariat of Inter Cult is located at 41 S1. Joseph Mawatha, Ettukala. 'Sri Lanka A Third World Tourism Critique
and You~ the travel guide jointly authored by Eileen Candappa, Maureen
Seneviratne and Harry Haas has been widely received by the Sri lanka tourism
About ourselves
trade. A German version is under preparation. A number of other books on New resource . materials are available asa ·l'esultOf~ch For Private Circulation Only Vol. 5 No.1 & 2 1989
tourism and other subjects are also planned. completedin 1988 (See ResourcesSection). This ~~ ~ beqana ~tact.
pl'Q9ramme with schoohtudents in~alore a brlelreportappears
Bma Swadaya Tours. Indonesia elSewhere inthenewsletter./V..the FourthAnnual General Meednq,.{be
(We reproouce tIM') items that recently appeared in local dailies in Banga/ore. 7he first,

Visitors to Indonesia might be attracted by the Cultural, Educational and fotlow1n~ members were elected tlS qtHcebearets: Dr.. Henry Wilson.
by Brij Tankha, is an extract from his feature Japan should open up more to imported Discover India - and how!

Developmental Exposure Programme (CEDEP) offered by Bina Swadaya Tours, Presi9entMahesklLobo; 1teBSUI~ranqAnI1~A1~~~, Secietruy~
labour' in the Times of India, May 2S, 1989. the second is an advertisement in the

By Kathy Cox
ChandraRala~.who WOlRe\l l(!Stryear on our ~touliSQland emir0mneilt' Deccan Herald ofMay 22.) Editor of "Fodor's Guide"
part of an organisation involved in rural community development. Tours range

study.representecius at .the .serhinat.QD ·'Tourtsm ·Pl~and


I:~i
from aday around Jakarta to a 3 week comprehensive coverage ofJava and Bali.
What is West isn't necessarily best. But that's the direction in which too many
Special packages arranged upon request. Write to: Dr. Bambang Ismawan, BST,
EnWonm~ntqjCOmelVatiorl.in?art:Aprll, atGar~U~ty, Uttar Without Comment
'Pradesh . Indian eyes are focused. The wish to bring in more foreign exchange has been
Jln. Gunung Sahari 1117, Jakarta 10610.
falsely equated with the wish to create foreign-copied clones. No one seems
The Japanese government, accord ing to recent reports, has taken a decision to realise that India can upgrade and modernise without rejecting its own
Citizens Concerned About 1Ourism. Goa, India to strengthen controls on the entry of unskilled labour from Asia. This foreign identity.
labou rcomes largely from South Korea, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Hong Kong and
CCAT, a recendy formed anti-tourism body, includes a large number of religious Five star hotels with elevators piping in foreign pop muzak symbolise the
Taiwan. Japan's increasing affluence has not only brought it to the attention
and laypeople. PI. a public meeting in late February, they demanded: 'Save our RESOURCES of other nations seeking to emulate its achievements, but made it a possible
worst in this tendency. It's the rare hotel or inn in India that champions this
Coastal Areas, Save Goa'. At a day long sit-in, they highlighted issues such as country's inherent charms-Chapslee in Shimla, the Silver Sands in Mahabali­
haven for immigrant labour from developing countries in search of higher paid
the weekly flea market, the full moon parties, drug addiction, nudity and AIDS. Tourism: Manufacturing the Exotic, Document 61, International Work Group jobs. puram, the Ajit Bhawan in Jodhpur, the Savoy in Mussoorie, the Windemere
The government's ill-advised tourism policy was likely to have adverse effects for Indigenous Affairs, Fiolstrcede 10, DK-1171, Copenhagen K, DENMARK. in Darjeeling.

on Goan lifestyle and livelihood. Later they walked in a silent procession to Foreign workers are derogatively called japayuki-san (Mr Go To Japan),

The objective of this document is to outline the relationship between tourism the dominating backdrop of fancy western-style hotels, India's real
the Church Square, where the public meeting took place. echOing the 19th century Karayuki-san used to describe Japanese women who
and cultural minorities. It aims to understand the nature of the relationship,
went to Asian countries for similar reasons. treasures from the past are succumbing to a nefarious battle. Uncontrolled
to point out its most harmful effects and to identify some survival strategies
industrialisation and public encroachment are claiming the temples of
which cultural minorities employ. The contributors provide concrete examples
A large number of women - in 1986 there were some 58,000 - many of Bhubaneswar. The Elephanta Caves are in danger of collapse. The Ajanta and
Community and Culture Based Travel \\\)rR Group, Canada
covering awide geographical and cultural spectrum, using differing perceptions,
them from the Philippines, usually come on tourist visas and work illegally Ellora cave paintings are decaying from carbonisation and ultra-violet rays. The
This research unit specialises in the study of, and information dissemination on salaries ranging from 2,50,000 yen to 3,00,000 yen in bars and cabarets. Today
approaches and formulations. A theoretical framework is presented by editor Gaiety Theatre in Shimla is far from gay, a victim of neglect. The Mogul Gardens
about, non-mainstream types of tourism, which are known world-wide under many women are being lured from places in Sri lanka, not just to work in the
Pierre Rossel in the first paper, Tourism and cultural minorities: double in Kashmir and the poor Taj Mahal fare no better. The list could continue, but
various names: Soft tourism, socially/morally responsible tourism, cultural entertainment industry, but to marry Japanese farmers.
tourism, etc. The generic name 'alternative tourism' (An is often used

margina!isation and survival strategies. ' it's far too depressing...the same holds true for the consequences. We all know
Agencies specialising in this trade have mushroomed and they often work that if these landmarks don't receive adequate attention and care, India won't
internationally to describe one or all the above types. In Canada, the term The Impact of Tourism on India's Environment, by S. Chandrakala,
in cooperation with local officials. They advertise freely in newspapers: :.\ real just suffer a loss in the number of tourists and a loss in foreign revenue-it'll suffer
'community-based tourism' is preferred. Write to Dr. L. Dernoi or Dr. C. EQUATIONS, Bangalore. 36 pp., 1989. US$ 10, or Rs. 35.

international marriage. Lots of foreign beauties from Korea, the Philippines, the loss of priceless links to its pasts.
CGIWG, Department of leisure Studies! University of Ottawa, 550
Although there has been earlier evidence of the impact of tourism on the MalaYSia, Sri Lanka and Thailand: The problem in this import business is that But talk is cheap and knowledge has not been converted into action.
Cumberland, Ottawa, Ont K1N 6N5. envirunment in India, there has been an acute shortage of a comprehensive unscrupulous brokers often work in consort with yakuza gangsters. Something is wrong. It's as if the burgeoning chain of Taj Hotels has assumed
presentation and analysis of the numeruus and complex issues involved. This The influence of 'foreign labour: small and controlled at present, is seen as far more importance than their namesake, the Taj Mahal. Travel north,
Centro Europeo de formation Ambiental y TUrlstica, Spain study was undertaken during 1988 using secondary materials from our files, carrying the seeds of disruption and discord. Foreign experts have always been east, west and you'll find an Oberoi Sheraton, or some other big splash breaking
CEFAT, the Eu!ppean Centre for Training in Environment and Tourism, is a non­ as well as information gathered from tourism activists in various parts of India welcome and employed at high salaries, but today's japayuki-san is seen as a new ground. While cities can absorb multi-storey structures, oversized
governmental non-profit organisation aimed at educational training. Its scope Tourism in South India: Its Impacts on Fisherfolk, EQUATIONS, Bangalore. 44 -,',)tential threat. Statements in a police booklet equate a foreigner with an monoliths anywhere else-along the shore or in the mountains-are eyesores that
is both domestic and internatiQnal. Rural tourism is avaluable WiJ!{ of extending pp., 1989. US$ 15, or Rs. 40. Immigrant. interfere with a landscape where Mother Nature once reigned supreme.
its aims, and therefore CEFAT helps groups seeking aid by offering technical Why must hotels be constructed out of uninspired cinderblock and concrete?
In collaboration with the National Fishermen's Forum, EQUATIONS undertook
assistance, enhancing awareness, organising workshops and seminars as well In every region of India, villagers, successful unschooled architects have evolved
a survey of tourism covering a vast coastline in the 3 southern states of Kerala,
FORJA~A.N
as by publishing a newsletter. Write to CEFAT, Viriato 21, E-2801O, Madrid. model dwellings that exemplify a harmonious relationship with the
Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. This report suggests that although there is some
physical displacement, the major impact of tourism in places such as Kovalam environment. Hoteliers could do the same. They could erect clustered
International Union of Food &Allied .\\brRers' Associations (IUF) and Mahabalipuram is socio-economic, where tourism's new structures have ·····1000 LADY (;utt'UJt\tARTISTS/gNTER.TAINERS accommodations of bamboo in the east; wooden Kashmiror Kulu-Valley-style
submerged local identities and livelihood. The report also covers trends in homes away from the home in the north; clay huts with thatched roofs in the
The IUF is an international trade secretariat representing more than 2.1 million
tourism development, relying on sources within the industry and governments. Fot:aserrice~~I1nter~~t Ii14ustryJo workatOsak~tfukujama. south. Already, Tiger Tops has made a success out of this concept, putting up
workers from 217 unions in 70 countries. These unions are active in the food,
aim¢jia~a,~~YoQ'.". •.. . •.. ....' •.. . •. •. . . ••••.. . .•. . . •. . . a lodging that's the epitome of simplicity and unobtrUSIve design. An excellent
beverage, tobacco and tourism industries. Battling 5 Star Tourism in the Courts: Canacona Beach Resort, Agonda, Goa, l!x¢~IJelltSillal'Y'. Fr~F()Qd,~90tDnlOdati()nl TransP?rt' Medic~~ contd. overleaf
Their affiliates in the hotel, catering and tourism sector (HRC) are aware of EQUATIONS, Bangalore. 6 pp., 1989. US$ 3 or Rs. 5. AC~dent anl.iHealth I.nstilmJlce!lreProvjde9.N~&oclalc9ntactofany··
the ill-effects of mass tourism and try to define atrade union policy in the tourism This is a summary of the report of a study commissioned by EQUATIONS in late kind W:ill. b¢~~~he~ce~t~ittt:tnddisplin~candidates. needonlr
sector with the ai m of giving more attention to the envi ronment and the people. 1987. The villagers of Agonda, at the southern tip of Goa, have been struggling ·ap:pI~ , , < , ' < " 0 ' ) .. .' . . . . . . .......•

A report of their conference on tourism (Limassol, Nov 9-11, 1987) as well against the Canacona Beach Resort for over 6 }ears. The report describes the Ladi~~in th¢.ag~~rPwe()y9:t()2Syears, wh':fcan speak Englisb and < INSIDE
as the IUF monthly News Bulletin are available from: problematique, the conflicts, legal contentions on both sides, followed by a pt')Sse~~~g pI~atjngpers()naJitYmay rUsh tlieit/je!aiJed Bio"liatas to: Gambia: Tourists but not cash ............ . 4
Dan Gallin, General Secretary, IUF, Rampe du Pont-Rouge 8, CH-1213 PI-Lancy, discussion of the law as acheck to exploitative tourism, and the present position . ..: - ' '. .. . ~~: : ',:. - .- -; - :"" ;' ',,' KanyakumariA4arch 5
of ~he court cases.
~.'MAKF.fl~EI!V,• ·NARlMAN~OINt~.·B()UAY.• oil.
Geneva, Switzerland. Tourism & Cultural A4inorities 8
Network News Roundup 12
Published by: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS), 96, H Colony, Indiranagar Stage I, Bangalore 560 038, INDIA. .·U<,i~N~.,~p~/PER/:tOOO.+147/84
Phototypesetting: Revisuality Digitised Typesetting and Graphic Design, 4211 lavelle Road, Bangalore, India. lAyout: John
example is their new Karnali Tented Camp in Western Nepal with spacious Clear streams get defi led with non-biodegradable soaps and human waste. All Bhutan evolved this policy after studying the effects that an open door
safari-tents set under thatched canopies-tranquil, naturally beautiful-hardly an trekking companies should be licenced, should be subjected to a set of strict
rules, should suffer strict fines for any violations - with all proceeds
The Last Shangri-la had on nearby Nepal which attracted hippies in their thousands in the
expensive physical set-up, in which they offer the best in amenities and services. and 1970's, and became a major drug trafficking and sm uggl ing centre. Its forests
into the maintenance of the environment. hy Sanjoy Hazarika
Foreigners flock to these retreats and willingly pay the five star tariff. were logged to a point where they could not be regenerated.
By using local materials instead of trucking in building supplies, hoteliers Within the private hotel sector, creative tax incentives could At the recent SAARC summit at Islamabad, the Maldives made a plea to Backpackers are rare in Bhutan. I remember seeing two in the two weeks that
could also cut the cost and time of construction. They could make use of local conservation. Make it profitable to nations to recognize the dangers and difficulties that the tinv countries I was there. And the country's forest policy is based on d few
labour and knowhow - a boon for any economically depressed area. waste disposal systems in facilities located in environmental Iv neighbourhood face. one, that no contractors are allowed in the lumber trade and the government
When I recently discussed this idea with a tourist official in the A few weeks ago, one of our tiny neighbour~, Bhutan, took what was for it controls all tree-felling. Two, wood are high so that people aren't tempted
The Minister of Tourism recentiy published a brochure in which it stated: a giant step towards development but perhaps a tiny move forward to the too often to dismantle old houses and build new ones. And the hills around
he explained that he'd like to promote this concept; but because
"India has launched a massive people's movement of ecological awareness and rest of the world. Without fuss or publ icity, the Royal Bhutanese Government Thimpu, once bare, are testimony to their successful afforestation
and fabricated structures have a short life, he's forced back into concrete and
conservation. The administration plays its pivotal role of funding and planning. bought its first passenger jetlinerfrom Britain and then unveiled a New Delhi­
cement. Ask a local, however, he'll say that the so-called short life can be You won't find many industries in the hills of Bhutan. There are few in the
extended easily with proper maintenance and Conserving primordial rain and tropical forests, establishing wildlife sanctuaries, Paro service at a glittering reception at its embassy here. Paro is the only civilian foothills that bottle liquor, fruits and jams. But power generation is a big source
planting captive energy forests to supply, fuel wood, fodder and fibre for paper airstrip in Bhutan, and until recently it took only a few flights every week from
But for the tourist department and their bulwark of tourist corporations, of revenue, and the Chukha hydel project, the creation of the labour of thousands
and rayon industries which are major causes of deforestation, social forestry Calcutta and Dhaka. The aircraft were turboprop planes known as Dorniers
maintenance and repair represent real stumbling blocks. Almost all state-run of workers from Bihar and elsewhere, and of engineers who built underground
schemes, soil conservation and rain water management programmes, they all and they brought in small groups of European, American and Japanese tourists
accommodations represent the depths of an unimaginative decor which caverns for the power turbines, supplies electricity to the power hungry plains
form integral parts of ecological conservation:' during the tourist season in Bhutan, which lasts for about 6 months, until
evidently doesn't inspire anyone to keep the rooms spotless and the amenities of ea~tern India.
November when the Himalayan chill sets in.
in working order. Here, too, a western vision has turned its back on India's The tourist department should throw its own The issue of development of Bhutan's own pace is important because of the
traditional arts and handicrafts. Drab drapes, not inexpensive locally produced senior officials there explained their pace structure of society. The Buddhist clergy is a very infl uential body and it has
work hand in hand with environmentalists so that short terms that their Buddhist culture and gentle way of
hand looms, which would be easy to keep clean, hang from dingy windows. consistently been at the forefront of opposition to an "open door" policy on
own industry called tourism don't end up as irreversible long term life should not be disrupted by the clutter, drugs, noise and violence of other
Expensive wall-to-wall carpeting, usually stained and worn, covers floors instead tourism. The priests fear that uncontrolled tourism will rob the kingdom of its
we~terners have learned the hard way. Now we fight to save our few rprminino Western and Eastern societies. The way they have approached tourism, is a
of less costly jute or indigenously made colourful area rugs. A pleasing Indian art treasures and "corrupt" its younger people, who may turn away from
wildlands. classic illustration of both points.
ambience, which exists in almost every village you visit, is traditional beliefs.
thp c;imnlpst hut and it's harmonious in AntiqUity, cultural diversity, physical beauty what wealth India possesses. Although there are cheap hotels in
But today's realities call for prudence and foresight. If this unchecked plunder The other day a top Bhutanese official was in Paris to negotiate increased
a government run hotel. visitors (particularly noisy Bengalis at Durga Puja time), the assistance to his country from the Aid Bhutan Consortium, which funds to some
of the coffers is allowed to continue, India's new industry wi II discover an high-paying tourists from the West (which of course, measure, development projects in the kingdom~ We travelled back to Delhi
If the beach is golden unavoidable truth about tourists. They're a notoriously fickle lot. Popular
destinations change like fashion's new styles. Worse, if the tourist isn't satisfied
Airways, the country's national carrier, is booked often for
parties of foreign travellers on short visits and big budgets (paying as high as
On the flight, he told me of a discussion he had had with a Western
official who had demanded that Bhutan do more with industrial projects
the first time he visits, he won't come back. The world is too big; other places 1,000 dollars for a tour of several days including hotels and trips out ofThimpu).
will capture his imagination and his wallet. In the end, successful tourism must so that it could move towards "a modern age". The official quoted his own reply,
Once they get to Thimpu, the rules are clear. and I think it is an example of the beauty and pO'vver of simplicity (I do not mean
promote good service and a healthy dose of national pride.
"Essentially': said one top foreign ministry official at Thimpu, "the tours go naivete), and the graciousness of the country: "You have what you call
EXPRESS MAGAZINE 29 January, 1989 where the Government allows them to go, they are accompanied by a development. But what has that done for you? Your forests are ruined; your air
government guide who keeps a sharp eye on the travellers:' Period. No straying. is dirty; your water is polluted and you have no peace of mind. You may be
rich but balance that against these other things. Until now our forests are
unharmed, our air and water are clean and we still have peace of mind. We
would like to keep it that way and develop at our own pace:'
The aid official was silenced.
Earl'Y' this year,'we began.~~rd~ramme;()fexPOsing school, studentS That is why the acquisition of the jet is significant for Bhutan. They waited
i? Ba.!)galore to the issues of tbiraWQfld;'teurism:DUfllngthe holidays, for years to buy it and half of the 60 seat plane is going to be used for cargo,
m~Rystudents partfcipate in sum~er campfororganisedtoursi so one transport costs from the plains of India, and tackling delayed deliveries
purposeofthe progFammeistohelp them lJe.sensitive travelh:~rs. We
also hope that some studentswill be motivated to get actively involved
in our work and ideas. The world's last Shangri-la is a land where cri me is rare and poverty,
the fact that it it is one of the poorest nations on earth, is not associated with
The programme consists of an audio-visuat- we h~ beenusi ng Peter the misery that hurts us on the rest of the subcontinent.
Holden's 'Don't Fence MeOut'- rollowed by a discussion and written
review. The following is one student's response: . It has its door to the world another chink.
INDIAN EXPRESS 12th February, 1989.
It's got to be India! FOR A fEW DOLLARS MORE
'I
contd. from page 10

India is blessed with beautiful panoramas. The move toward adventure the necessity for global thinking but local action. He writes well on the need
Nusa DUilI. a small villa.Qein Indonesia. is aclassi.c example of what
appropriate. The Iist of possible outdoor activities is end less­ to place the control of tourism firmly in the hands of local people. The agenda
tourism can do to a whple dan of people. ~Oon't Fence Me out' tells
wildlife safaris, mountaineering, hot springs in these last few chapters becomes practical and has a lot in it for serious thought.
us the poiQnat1t story ot 200famiUes who have lost their homes just so
to soothe the mind and body. But, here again, tourist development calls for Particularly good are his suggestions about educating people for travel from
that tourists can come and enjoy a few days'holiday.
caution. India's chain of mountains and its sacred rivers that wind their way earliest primary school up to adult education level. Since leisure is here to stay,
Nusa Dua. a villaQerich in culture and sbcial life, has almost been sold those who will have the leisure need to be taught how to lise it constructively.
to the sea are all under stress. The delicate eco-system suffers from pollution
out to the visitors by the Government of Indonesia for a little foreign
and over-use. Environmentalists in Nepal sound a warning: ifthe present rate All in all, The Holiday Makers is a thought provoking if mixed book.
exchan~e. The most disqustinq feature of the whole thjn~ is that the
of deforestation continues in that country, it could be bald by the year 2000. Krippendorf is enti rely right about a longer term sol ution being needed to put
QOremment is destroylnQ the life of its own people in the name of raisinq
India should analyse the reasons behind this dismal forecast. Trekking in Nepal tourism and travel on a sounder ecological and social footing. But for solutions
their standard of liVinQ.
has come with a hefty price. The Annapurna Sanctuary and Mt. Everest are in we cannot simply look to the tourists themselves and their representatives, and
trouble. Some say they should be closed and given a rest for five years. So. the next time you think ot a holiday. think twice. You may be believe that in time they wi II develop a healthy paternalism and act in the best
chDnl1in~ the lives of hundreds of people. interests of the host countries. The host countries themselves, particularly
In India, adventure sports require careful monitoring and uncorruptible
controls. Trekkers, their gaze lost to heavenly vistas, rarely notice their feet S. Arjun, IX A the developing world need to initiate the kind of tourism that willilltim;ltpiv
precious vegetation. And these days campfires roar with greater Bam~alore Military School be acceotable to those most directly affected.
Trees go up in smoke: wildflowers get buried under trash. Julia Mosse
BOOK REVIEW developers and travel companies take all the significant financial benefits. For
the local population there may be an additional seasonal income but this never Down with Tourism
Keeping the Coast Clear

comes without substantial social and environmental costs. Decision making by Zafar Futehaly
The Holiday Makers: Understanding the Impact of leisure and Travel There is a class of people - intellectuals and do-gooders mostly - who have
is in the hands of others and local culture is either ignored under a veneer of
Jost Krippendorf, translated by Vera Andrassy, London: Heinemann, 1987, 160 pp for a long time been asking profound questions like: Can a poor country like The Indian coastline is 7,514 km long. Most of this is free from human
bland internationalism, or folksified, and divested of all. inherent meaning. It
The Holiday Makers is perhaps a misleading title for Krippendorf's interesting is presented in the form of light entertainment or internal decoration, such as India afford colour television, should a poor country like ours go in for settlements, and it is consequently clean and beautiful. But now a new threat
book because it reflects only one half of the book\ subject matter. While the the yokes and farming implements that have become a standard feature on the computers, and so on and on. I have never heard anyone ask this about tourism. has arisen from tourism to these coasts which have been hitherto free from
title suggests that the book will be an analysis of travel and holidaying, walls of Swiss chalets. So this morning I ask the question that may disturb a lot of influential people: human presence. The beaches of a country where the sun shines for nine
Krippendorf is as much concerned with an analysis of modern (western) "Can a poor country like India afford tourism?" And I answer it myself with a months in a year are a great magnet for everyone in temperate lands, and the
Can holiday encounters between the tourists and the locals possibly lead loud "No:'
industrial society, the root from which all discontent (and the need for holidays) Government of India is in the process of organising itself to receive thousands
to greater understanding? No, says Krippendorf, unequivocably. He rejects
springs. Indeed, his concern for alienated industrial man (sic) sometimes seems of "honoured guests" from abroad in the years to come.
arguments that tourism promotes understanding, believing instead that since
to become an end in itself, rather than the context for his discussion of travel. The "valuable foreign exchange" that tourism is supposed to earn, we are India is naturally excited by the prospects of international tourism and its
no meaningful contact is developed, most tourism merely fosters prejudice.
By dint of juxtaposing sections analysing the woes of a western life style with told, will ultimately transform our society. It will fill empty bellies, provide much advertised multiplier effect which is expected to stimulate its economy
The only positive thing Krippendorf finds to say about tourism in its current
sections on tourism he more or less manages to ensure that the book hangs shelter to the millions exposed to cold and rain. Moreover, tourism will provide at many points. Speaking before the International Union of Official Travel
form is that the vehement anti-tourism that is beginning to develop means that
together, but in the end, the fragmenting of concerns fails to convince the reader employment to millions of unemployed people-a very dubious hypothesis. It's Organisations in Delhi in 1972, the then minister of tourism, Dr. Karan Singh,
new solutions must be found soon, particularly in developing countries where
that the problem of tourism is really resolvable. If finding a solution that links like saying that if we establish a thousand casinos in our towns and tourism spoke about the 200 million international tourists that were expected to come
the force of mass tourism is felt most strongly. But it is in pursuing these solutions
industrial society and tourism happily together on a textual level is a surprisingly resorts it wili create a million jobs. No doubt it would and with lagdish Tytler to India, and the $ 21,700 million which this traffic was expected to generate.
that Krippendorf becomes less convincing.
difficult problem, how much more so at the level of workable tourism policy. as minister for Casino, we would have probably been convinced that this was He bemoaned the fact that in 2.4 percent of the world's land area and 15 per
The second half of the book, essentially Krippendorf's analysis of the changes the path to progress. Mercifully, Tytler's brilliant idea was never taken up. The
Kri~pendorf's thesis is straightforward enough. Industrial society has become cent of the world's population, we receive only one-third of one percent of the
that must occur in industrial societies before tourism itself can change is fact is that tourism corrupts, and obsessive tourism corrupts obsessively.
intolerable. It is trapped in a self-defeating cycle in which humans produce in total tourist spending of. the world. Since then, the figures have gone up
problematic. He asks ail the right questions, 'How can the door of the inner
order to consume and consume in order to keep producing. To escape from Thailand is often held out by our tourism promoters as a model for the Asiatic appreciably and under the 7th plan we aim to increase the number of tourists
Self be found in the presence of so much superficiality?' How can we escape
its pressures, we travel, becoming tourists in pursuit of the happiness denied world to follow. If one goes by what Bangkok'offers to its honoured guests, it to 2.5 million by 1990, and to earn Rs. 15,000 crores in foreign exchange.
bei ng a part of the current generation of super-consumers? For as he rightly
us at home. But because leisure and tourism are an integral part of industrial shou Id be the last th ing that any self-respecting nation in Asia or anywhere else There is therefore no question that tourism, the industry without smoke, is
points out, the manifold supply by the leisure and entertainment industries
society and its organisation, the only apparent means of escape is illusory. We ought to imitate. Thailand is a country with great culture and history and a highly desirable from the economic point of view. But ecologists are concerned
serves the purpose of keeping people trapped by consumer-culture happy as
are duped by the promise of paradise; we believe in the advertisements that refined people, but tourism has turned its capital into a vast casino and massage that if on top of the population explosion which is inevitable, we artificially
they are. In his solutions Krippendorf allies himself firmly with a number of
tells us that if we opt for this holiday rather than that we will, for two weeks parlour. Should Bangkok be a model for Delhi, Bombay or Goa? build a tourist one, the pressures might become unsustainable unless a great
other so-called 'New Age' writers, such as Fritjof Capra, A. Gorz etc. believing
at least, get just a little closer to 'real' life. For the vast majority of those who The Catholic Church of Goa recently produced a report on IOurism in the deal of thinking and planning is done in advance: And let us remember that
that the self-questioning going on in many industrial societies is the key to the
work in industrial societies, caught in the alienating circumstances of work and State, which was published in Renovacao, the pastoral bulletin of the it is not only ecological pressures with which we have to contend. The social
future.
inhospitable home lives, holidays, whether the week-end or a trip abroad, take Archdiocese of Goa. The report said that "elitist" tourism was degrading the effects of tourism have also to be considered, and as the World Bank says in
on the burden of all nostalgia, dreams and desires, for regeneration and One of the problems for the reader is that either she or he believes that these
Goan economy, culture and lifestyle and eroding its value system. It specifically a working paper, "One such problem is the attitude of the local population
recuperation, escape, communication, freedom, self-realisation, happiness itself. changes in human consciousness are really taking place, in which case
linked tourism with prostitution and drugs. It described tourism as "basically to the tourists requirements of accommodation and service which by local
Krippendorf's belief in the changes that will also take place in tourism seem
In his analysis of the discontent of industrial societies Krippendorf offers little exploitative in nature" and having so much money power that its operators "will standards are luxurious... Tourism may be regarded as a threat to the indigenous
reasonable and hopeful; or the reader is more sceptical and Krippendorf's
that has not already been spelt out by writers from Schumacher to Charles brook no opposition to its profit-making goal:' culture and mores, and there is a real possibility of a serious deterioration in
analysis seems to verge on wishful thinking, not to say naive. This reviewer
Handy. Where Krippendorf is at his most telling and interesting is in his analysis This admirable report, for which I congratulate the church authorities, standards of local arts and crafts as efforts are made to expand output to meet
swings between both positions, unable to quite believe in the 'young' on whom
of the consequences for these wasteland people when they set off on holiday. predictably attracted some outraged reaction. The Goa Travel and Tourism Club the tourist demand:' Not infrequently, resort development has resulted in local
Krippendorf pins many of his hopes. While it is true that there are many
He considers the consequences for the tourists themselves and those on whom claimed that tourism is the backbone of Goa's economy. The club's president people being denied access to their own beaches.
idealistic, brave and outspoken young people in industrial society, there are
they infl ict themselves. Little escapes his censorious touch. Ghetto tourism ­ went on to say that prostitution and drugs were prevalent everywhere in the By referring to these criticisms I am not suggesting that coastal tourism should
equal numbers striving for a position in the so-called 'yuppie' culture, and
such as 'club' holidays and indeed the entire package holiday set-up in which world and were much older than Goan tourism. be curtailed entirely, or that there should be severe restrictions on the movement
despite the predicted swing to the centre or left by many political commentators,
people travel to purpose built holiday destinations or 'operatta-like tourist resorts' of the people from one country to another. But it is certainly wise to take
the majority of western industrialised countries remain firmly entrenched on Nobody has claimed that tourism started what is universally known as the
- is described as having nothing to do with reality. 'Foreign elements' are cognizance of these factors in advance and attempt the philosophy of the golden
the right. oldest profession in the world. But it is certainly true that tourism has given
introduced in small doses but the organisers of such holidays are careful to mean so that no unfortunate developments catch us unaware. It should not be
screen w~at passes before the unwitting tourist's eyes. There will certainly be It is true that industrialised societies face a crisis, that there is a desperate it a boost.
difficult, with imaginative and realistic planning, to overcome these problems
no visit to a slum area, but a trip to photograph some poor, happy and need to make work more satisfying, to develop new ways of working, to restore Khushwant Singh was recently writing about his week-long holiday in Goa. and to make tourism a wholly desirable phenomena from the social, economic
picturesque natives at their work will be somewhere on the agenda. As will homeliness to habitats, reclaim the cities and humanize life a little. But is this After reading it I didn't know whether to laugh or cry. Khushwant says it cost
and environmental point of view. After all, in some national parks limits have
'meaningless folklore entertainment: For as Krippendorf comments 'the tourist very long term agenda a helpful solution to the immediate and pressing him as much as he earned in a whole month from his writing. I'd put the expense
been placed to the number of tourists in each season in the interests of
no longer sees the original foreign environment but rather a product he has problems of tourism particularly in the developing world? By the time the rich at, say, 30,000 Rupees. Actually a day's stay at one of our five star tourist resorts preserving the environment which they come to enjoy.
helped to create: corrupt living conditions, pushy sellers, toadying and industrialised countries have got their own houses in order might it not be too can easily cost Rs. 5,000, what with a bottle of soda costing Rs. 12, which is
xenophobia: late? Krippendorf states blandly that '...what we need in the first place are not nore than the daily earning of millions of Indians. Even at Rs. 1.50 per bottle, EXPRESS MAGAZINE, April 19, 1987.
different ways of travelling but different people. Only a new society and a new I find (drinking at home) that it's a swindle, because one out of three bottles
But so called 'alternative travel' escapes no more lightly, .and if anything,
everyday situation can produce a new tourist. A sick society cannot produce are flat. (In my boyhood days, I remember, when soda cost tl:lree paise, the
Krippendorf reserves more scorn for the expensive backpack, sleeping bag and
healthy tourists: But how long wi II it take to rear these new healthy societies, opening of a bottle outside the cinema house could be heard half a mile away).
camera,. and for the smug hypocrisy where by alternative travelers use the same
these sensitive, humble and open-minded tourists? And in the meanwhile, who If soda cost Khushwant so much, you can imagine what a peg of scotch would
facilities, cheap flights, ai rports and so on, produced by the mass tourism they
wi II protect the rights of the poor in the developi ng world whose habitats are have cost him.
despise so much. Alternative travel is just tourism by another name. Frequently,
plundered and whose values assaulted by ever-growing hordes of tourists in Swindle is the word for tourism. While native Indians don't get a chance to
when sold as adventure holidays or educational trips it merely costs far more
search of pleasu re? Krippendorf writes from the perspective of a rich enjoy a holiday at prices they can afford, even American and European tourists
and is sold to a more elite group. It remains an 'organised, saleable sanitized
industrialised country, where there is the luxury to think about the development have begun to complain that Indian hotels and restaurants are even more
adventure with full board, catalogue price and risk insurance. A unique hit:
of new paradigms. From the perspective of a tribal woman dispossessed from expensive than those back home. And when you add the cost of travel which
People who have higher incomes and more experience in travelling are better
the land her people have inhabited from time immemorial to make way for would be three to four times it would cost a western tourist to go to Spain,
able to camouflage thei r tourist role. The group who pays over the odds in order
a new tiger reserve for the tourists, his words might seem a little ironic.
to 'play at life in an African village' have merely fallen for a more sophisticated Yugoslavia or the Mediterranean, one has to have a total dedication to India
and expensive version of the 'something for the tourists' trap as the mass package To be fair to Krippendorf, the last 3 chapters of his book contain 23 suggestions to want to spend a few days with us.
holiday makers lying on Spanish beaches. At least the latter do not pretend they for developing a better style of tourism, and included among them is the I gather that the share of tou ri sm :n the gross national product has increased
are doing anything other than trying to have a good time. necessity of taking steps in the right direction now, without waiting for great from 0.43 per cent in 1984-85 to 0.64 per cent in 1987-88. This by any standards Mary Ellen Kelly
changes. He is excellent in his suggestions about what can be done 'at home', is a ridiculous performance.
Krippendorf's analysis is equally depressing from the perspective of the host Natives who beat drums to drive off evil spirits are objects of scorn to tourists who
countries who seem to miss out on all counts. A tiny minority of property contd. on page 17 Abu Abraham, in SUNDAY HERALD 19th February, 1989. blow horns to break up traffic jams.
Gambia getting tourists entertain the guests.
At the Atlantic Hotel which is managed by Copthorne Hotel Management
Hunted by the Camera The villagers are drawn to the centre of a large field cleared for
the rhythmiC beating of an old drum. Every person who dances in the

but not always hard cash of Britain, "your resident entertainers" are Britons linda and Ricky Daniels.
Each evening at the Sunwillg Hotet which is partly owned by Vingressor of
by Parag Trivedi is obliged to pay the drummer. Those who do not wish to pay the drummer
form another circle and dance to music they sing themselves.
by Oakland Ross Sweden, the tropical moonlit romance of the palm-fringed terrace is enhanced­ The camera has never been considered an instrument of change. At best it has The colour has certainly drawn crowds - not all of them connoisseurs with
some would say obliterated-by a Swedish rock band. been used as a means oi encapsulating time. One never hears of a film being the Gujarat Tourism Development Corporation quick to exploit the mela for
At the plush Atlantic Hotel-200 rooms, discotheque, hairdressing salon, video
games, nightly entertainment-<iozens of Londoners and Glaswegians sit by the "I think, in terms of its lack of having real benefits for the average Gambian, banned because of its photographic technique or a film using a particular school whatever it is worth both in terms of rupees and dollars. There are conducted
pool, roasting in the West African sun. tourism is really a mess;' said a local journalist. of photography stirring a people to revolt. tours from Bombay and Ahmedabad, preceded by press publicity.
It is an idyllic scene: the fatted men quaffing their half-pints of ale at the gazebo Not all the news is bad, however. What does excite is that which is referred to as "trick photography" which There are cameras everywhere. Instamatics, auto-focuses, SlRs, cameras with
bar, while the women sprawl, supine and mainly topless, by the pool. Beyond An estimated 6,000 to 7,000 Gambians, for example, are employed is a subsidiary of the special effects department. The viewer knows that he is foot long lenses, cameras that invade privacy, affect people and ruin cultures.
a stone wall, punctuated by open grillwork, the blue Atlantic gently breaks or indirectly by the tourist industry. The trade also produces a welter of succumbing to the temporary excitement of an illusion created in the studios. A fashion photographer had as many as four cameras dangling from his
against a long, golden beach, and the sewage of Banjul oozes silently out to sea. off benefits, including seasonal "boomlets" in business for a grab bag of Thus the camera excites, stimulates and titillates. At its worst, however it can shou Iders. Initially one does notrealise the effectthat all this gadgetry has on
entrepreneurs, some of them savory, some of them not: taxi drivers, native bring about changes in the culture of a people that would be nothing short the rustics.
Welcome to "the Caribbean of Africa;' where the average life expectancy at
artistes, folk performers, gigolos, prostitutes and amateur .of revolutionary. This change in asocial milieu that a camera can effect is entirely It is only when you see the selkonscious preening and abashed behaviour
birth is 42 years, where the gross national product per capita is a meagre $260,
unnecessary, absolutely unwelcome and sociologically a disaster. start taking notice. The bristling moustaches are given a last twist when
and where tourism is booming. "People do benefit in one way or another,' said Pierre N'j ie, executive secretary
of the Gambian Chamber of Commerce. The lives of a few animals may perhaps have been saved by the WWF's cry some tour guide or government official peremptorily summons the men to pose
"Our projections are that, in the next five years, we would be handling
of "Shoot them with a camera:' Had there been an organisation formed for the for some foreigners. The lissom vi lIage gi rl who looks naturally ravishing even
something like 1,50,000 to 2,00,000 tourists a year:' said a beaming Junaidi Increasingly, Gambian interests-either the Government or private investors­ conservation of cultures (funded by the UN perhaps) the camera would have though the only concession to make-up is kaajal in her eyes and a red bindi
the Gambian Government's Director of Tourism. are purchasing part or full ownership of the country's hotels. Currently, four on her forehead, looks on curiously, even enviously, as the city-bred model
been branded the greatest threat to culture along with the need to earn foreign
Somewhere - but not here a few clever and enterprising businessmen of the Gambia's dozen or so V\{)rld-<:Iass hotels are owned outright by the local exchange. Cultures would be Qeclared a protectorate of this organisation and touches up her lipstick.
are contentedly counting their cash, in kroner, pounds, marks and francs. interests. Meanwhile the industry'S fiscal value to the Government should soon all cameramen poachers.
increase, as generous tax holidays gradually expire. A demand has been created. She too would like to have all that colour on
Twenty-two high seasons have drifted by since this tiny former British colony Where the camera is concerned, only the most self-effacing person would her before she is photographed. The same villager who never needed to shield
greeted its inaugural planeload of Scandinavian sun seekers -launching what The Government hopes to squeeze other advantages out of the tourist trade. like to be caught in an "as is where is" situation. Point a camera at the his eyes from the sun would like to be photographed wearing the designer
has since become a thriving local industry but a lot of Gambians are sti II As matters stand, hotels are obliged to import most of their vegetables and other Hunchback of Notre Dame and chances are that he would tell you to zoom sunglasses of the foreigner who can't believe the tableau before his eyes and
turning out thei r empty pockets, glancing around in confusion, and wondering produce from Europe, because that is the only way. they can guarantee a regular
in so that the hunch does not show. is clicking away wanting to get as much of it as he can before it vanishes, mirage­
what happened to all the money. supply. like from before him.
Portrait painters who did the oork of photographers before the advent of the
By and large, it never even got on the plane. The market could be met locally but only if Gambian producers gear camera could always be influenced to embellish the face, tuck in the waist and The camera does the work that the syringe would, if used by your
themselves to the task. With the help of international development agencies,
"The actual money that comes into the country is less than you flare out the rear of their female subjects, while their male clients would be anthropologist on the lost tribe. It gets so that villagers hate to be caught off­
that is exactly what the Government hopes to do.
imagine:' said a diplomat in Banjul. liThe money stays with the tour operators given that extra bright gleam in their eye, a broader chest and that flattering guard. They preen in front of pocket mirrors and ask each other how they look
and airlines offshore:' "We would like to maximise the benefits we get from tourism:! says Abdou look of bravado. The camera does not afford such indulgences. Not in before they allow themselves to be photographed.
the Economic Planning Ministry. "Unless tourism is properly integrated cultural sense at least.
One of a small handful of West African countries to go into modern, package­ The cameras also introduce an element of commercialism. Once he realises
into the economy, the net foreign exchange earnings are miniraal:' When it comes to culture, every shutterbug must remember the classic that he m~kes agood model the fellow with the extra bright turban or the extra
style tourism in a'big way the Gambia lately has watched its business soar ­
from just 30,000 arrivals in 1983-84 to 78,000 last year-mainly because of For the most part, the Gambia has managed to avoid some of the seamier anthropological dilemma. The story concerns one anthropologist who had, moustache becomes a pro. He starts quoting per shot offering package
consistently sunny weather, excellent beaches and asteadily improving tourist or nastier effects of tourism. To be sure, there has been an increase in prostitution in the course of his travels, come across a tribe that was still living in the Stone like Rs.5 per shotorthree shots for Rs.12. This way of thinking would have
infrastructure. and petty crime-both associated with the tourist trade-but local officials and Age. Not a single aspect of civilization had reached this tribe. been alien to him before the camera was introduced to Tarnetar.
foreign diplomats say that neither problem has got out of hand. After stayi ng with th is tribe for some ti me he had enough material on them He sees urbanised Indians perfectly at home in their T-shirt and jeans. Some
The limited financial rewards, however-not to mention the industry'S not
always hapfJr' social impad-inevitably raise unsettling questions about the value The tendency of tourists, both men and women, to wander around town in to ensure everlasting fame and money for himself. He was about to conclude ofthem even speak his language. No one stares atthem letalone points acamera
of tourism, or at least this kind of tourism, as a potential motor for African scanty clothin& however, has provoked some dismay on the part of the his stay when the dilemma arose. One of the tribe members was taken at them. The fashion model has her hair flying and eyes misted over in a pale
development. Gambians who, are mainly Moslem and take a dim view of public nudity. The witch-doctor was called and arrived duly, bringing with him a imitation of the kind of pose struck by models for Vogue. The press, the television
A couple of years ago, the National Women's Bureau of the Gambian combination of jungle medicine, weird rituals and primitive music. As the witch­ crews are all Indian. And yet he is the hunted one made to look like a freak
According to Government figures, the total revenue earned last year by the
Government pUblished an open letter imploring tourists to cease going around doctor went into his ad the anth ropologist felt that he shou Id diagnose the iIIness in a cage while the state tourism corporation makes a quick buck as well as
hotel and restaurant sector of the Gambian economy amounted to just $2.9
"in outfits that elicit stares and whispers, tempt young boys to approach and administer a basic medicine. some foreign exchange by drawing attention to the "exotic'~
million (US), or a paltry 1.4 per cent of the country's not very impressive gross
national product. unaccompanied women, and contribute to the more negative impact of Thatthe camera is capable of causing a revolution in anthropological terms
But before he did that a very valid anthropological question arose: Did he
tourism." have the right to interfere in the due process of nature? is not acknowledged. What is happening at Tarnetar is only a symbol of the
"What remains here in foreign exchange tends to be very
It is evident, however, that this plea has not yet managed to shame some effed that the opening up of India to tourism can do to the culture of the country.
acknowledged Abd04 N'jie, permanent secretary in the Ministrv of Economic The use of a hypodermic would mean a quantum leap of at least 1,000 years
Planning. vacationers who stroll along the sun-drenched avenues in the tourist zones al Should he introduce such a radical change to a people who had yet to learn The cultural imperialism of the West would make every villager want to look
Kombo and Bakua. acceptable to the rest of mankind. Pop goes culture.
is
As often as not, even nighttime entertainment at Gambia a foreign affair, the fundamentals of anatomy? Would he not be guilty of interfering with the
with middle-of-the road crooners or nightclub acts flown here from Europe to GLOBE and MAIL Toronto, 17th March, 1988 process of evolution of that tribe? He had to choose between saving the sick SUNDAY REVIEW, 20 November 1988
man from possible death at the hands of the witch-doctor and savi ng the whole
tribe from civilization as he knew it. contd. from page 8

has had dire consequ~nces because of the cultural transformations it


No Sex Please How WAS lttE.
The shutterbug is in a somewhat similar predicament where Indian culture
is concerned. let us transpose the same case to the village ofTarnetar in Gujarat. implies. But it is not the end of an ethnic group if they begin to drink
iR'P to AS'A
Coca Cola instead of their traditional drink. The consequences depend
Indonesia will not allow a French investor to establish a prostitution centre The time of year is August and the occasion is the annual mela. For four days
in the country, the home minister, Gen.(Retd.) RudinL said in Jakarta.
e.e.RT ?
every year the village assumes great significance to the tribal people who live on many factors and processes of resistance and cultural re.shaping
in and around Surendranagar. can spring up in surprising ways. Therefore, tourism is like Coca Cola:
A French investor had planned to build a sex centre in the east Java
it is not a plague in itself, but if it is not handled carefully it can bring
capital of Surabaya, a city with the largest number of prostitutes in There is colour everywhere. The women wear the brightest possible colours
about irremediable damage. Moreover, we have not forgotten that the
Indonesia with six red light districts. He was to consolidate the six with red and orange being favourites, while the men flaunt turbans and jackets
Coca Cola metaphor can also signify a cultural danger in the long term,
prostitution areas into one sex centre. (bandis) of such striking hues that they put the women in the shade.
an intense cultural conflict in the short term and even, in some cases,
THE TIMES OF INDIA 13th March, 1989
The dancing starts soon after the villagers have had their ritual dip. The music a more violent threat such as the spread of epidemics (by the tourists)
is exhilarating - heard in the cities on radio thanks to a Salil Choudhari or or alcoholism (to indigenous people).
as. D. Burman. (Source: IWGIA, Copenhagen).
attractive values and seductive images in the villages visited
Tourism and ("authenticity", a shared life, rich social life, beauty, etc.). But contact The Kanyakumari March Women's Front of Norway

with tourism, even individual tourists, changes the way of life that is May 1st, 1989
cultural Minorities: being admired and introduces unforeseen and shocking elements into
this beautiful picture. In the same way, tourists visiting such and such The month-long coastal march (along both the east and west coasts) culminated
(In our last issue, we carried news ofthe court trials initiated by asex-tour agency against
the Women's Front ofNorway. Our letter in support ofthe Front has been translated into
Norwegian and will be used as evidence. I1f:> carry below a press statement announcing
Double Marginalisation and
an oasis or Nepalese village become indignant at seeing plastic pails at Kanyakumari, the southernmost tip of India, where the waters of 3 oceans ",ictory for the WO.l1cn in the first case.)
Survival strategies
and transistors and deplore the loss of "authenticity". In reality, they meet. Organised by the National Fishermen's Forum, the theme of the march
June 13-15, 1988 a trial about sex tourism took place in Norway. It was the Scan
By Pierre Rossel are indignant about a transformation for which they are, though was 'Protect Waters, Protect Life', and sought to raise various issues faced
Thai Traveller Club, which arranges sex tours to Thailand vs. the March 8
certainly not always consciously, some of the main agents. by traditional fishermen all over the country, as well as those related to marine
Committee of a local town, which has protested against tile Scan Thai activities.
ecology. EQUATIONS participated as a result of its collaboration with the NFF
At the centre of a general framework of adverse development and/or The mountains and the desert are converted into the last frontiers Verdict has fallen in this libel case. The 13 women in the Committee won!
in 1988 in the study 'The Impact of Tourism on Coastal Fishermen in South
conflict, tourism exercises a series of pressures on cultural minorities of tourism. The Andest the Sahara and, above all, the Himalayan The court supports the descriptions of Scan Thai as a sex club and that the
India'.
to transform themselves. These peoples offer, if you believe the tourist regions have suffered for many years from an increasingly strong tide women activists correctly characterised Scan Thai's operations as "trafficking
of tourism, of which trekking is the principle form. "Trekkers'~ in search On May 1sC International Workers' Day, a day-long programme was in women" and Ifracist activities".
attractions which in fact define different types of tourism.
of invigorating and impressive landscapes, like those who search for organised, starting with a warm welcome to the marchers from both sides
Into the very double-edged marginalisation of culture and political These characteristics appeared in an article printed in the March 8. nevvspaper,
spirituality and "real" contacts, pay no heed to the effects of their who met at Kanyakumari. More than 10,000 people, including women and
economy, and therefore extreme vulnerability, experienced by cultural "Our Paper" giving the background for the club's operations and in the solidarity
presence, of which the most visible are deforestation and the gathered for this momentous occasion. The day included cultural
minorities, we can now add the problem of tourism's stereotypes. slogan used in the March 8 International Women's Day celebration. The court
accumulation of rubbish in camping areas. expressions representing different parts of the country, exhibitions on various
Tourism motivates individuals by means of organised seduction, that themes (including one on tourism by EQUATIONS), film and video shows, took no decision concerning the legality of the dub owner's activities.
is to say, it is commercially systemised. This seduction is organised Nepal offers an interesting example of the complexity of the effect
and a public meeting had been planned for the evening, to be addressed, The owner of the club, lvar Larsen, was originally claiming US Dollars 145.000
around an object (cultural minorities) a subject (tour operators) and, of tourism. In fact, trekking involves different ethnic peoples grouped
among others, by former Supreme Court Justice V. R. Krishna Iyer. in damages. The final result of this case is that Larsen has to pay US Dollars
to a lesser extent, the tourists themselves. Moreover, the excuse for this hierarchically <the porters are, for example, from a lower social order
The public rally was to begin with a .ceremonial pledge taken by all 7.150 towards the expenses the women have had.
is always in line with the principle myths of tourism: the bringing of than certain Sherpa groups who have more important positions in the
organisation of treks). Some earn more than others and in different ways participants at the seashore. Hundreds of catamarans (country craft) had been This is what the verdict states:
investment (tourism = development) and intercultural exchange
thanks to tourism, they feel its effects to a greater or lesser degree, and brought to the coast for the ceremony. The marchers then began proceeding Generally one must see prostitution as a form ofexploitation ofwomen and
(tourism mutual understanding). This false reality creates favourable
have completely different images of tourists and understanding of the to the rally grounds. as oppression of women. When this oppression of women takes place in the
conditions for a profound cultural transformation in those populations
affected by tourism and for cultural minorities where this aspect of the tourism process. Despite having been given sufficient advance notice, the police allowed Third World and is kept up by mass tourism from Western industrial countries,
process is even more destructive than usual. The signs of the seduction This example illustrates the fact that tourisr.n is present in different a bus to drive through the marchers cutting the crowd in two. Nobody was an element of racial discrimination is undoubtedly added to the sexism.
are more hypocritical, false and disruptive than ever. Cultural minorities and sometimes complex socio-cultural contexts where the members hurt, but irritation mounted at this needless interference. Instead of taking The COUIt finds that the Scan Thai club reportgive ideas about Eastern IMJmen
submit to a pressure which makes them feel obi iged to conform, given are able to, and know how to, take their unequal share according to preventive action and pacifying the crowd, the police stepped in with sticks as exoti~ different, submissive and willing to meet Western men's sexual needs.
that they must make their own image into something tourism can use, their position within the regional and national society. to further create a mood of anxiety and disruption. Enraged, some persons Eastern women are contrasted to Western women, who are not given good
or else disappear. So, whether cultural minorities co-operate with this (they seem to have been outsiders) threw stones at the police. Without any grades by Larsen.
However, there are still a number of comparable instances where
scene-setting or not, in the long run what is at stake in this framework warning, the police started firing into the crowd.
ethnic groups have not yet been hemmed in and begun to disintegrate The court finds that the club report disguises the nature ofprostitution, and
is the disappearance of ethnic identity. and where there is still some hope of exploiting as much as possible Several persons were seriously injured in the shooting, and in the subsequent that the individual club membercan get aincorrect picture ofrea/if}; contrasted
What are the principle motives behind this organised seduction? from tourism. Zanskar is in fact a good example, as is the Sherpa lath i-charge (by stick-wielding policemen). Ruthlessly, the police hit out at to what reality really is for these women.
community of Rolwaling and the well known Hunza. This population anybody who happened to be around, including innocent bystanders. Fr.
Everything stems from the presupposition that cultural minorities The question then is whether Larsen's activities can be characterisedas racist
lives in a valley in the far north of Pakistan, on the border with China. SelVatius and Sr. Philomena Mary, both in their mid-sixties, were beaten
represent an earlier stage of humanity to those of the industrial West,
severely. Several persons were hospitalised, including 4 with bullet injuries.
and participation in trafficking in women.
and therefore are closer than us to the origins of mankind and, above It formed an independent kingdom and has recently been annexed
by Pakistan. The new and famous Karakoram Highway runs through The police then went on a systematic rampage, smashing glasspanes and
The court concludes that these terms mustbe legal and within the Freedom
to nature. The pastoralists of East Africa (such as the Maasai for ofspeech because they are put forward in aideological/political context, and
example), Amazon societies or the peoples of New Guinea, to mention it and more and more trekkers are arriving there. Its "original" identity headlights of the buses which had transported the marchers. Unable to arrest
makes it attractive and for this reason there are attempts to preserve more than 5 persons that day, the next morning, they went to some nearby
because they must be seen as having sufficient basis in the actual facts.
but a few, sustain this kind of stereotype, in the same way as certain
types of geographical environment do, such as mountains, deserts and it and stop the pressures of acculturisation from Pakistan. For the coastal villages and rounded up people at random. The Women's Front of Norway and three women in Oslo also face a libel
rainforests. In manufacturing the symbols of tourist seduction other Hunza, it is perbaps a question of not being devalued once again, but case with the same club and its owner - this time for using the expressions
On May 2nd, NFF leaders and others sat on the road in front of the District
notions of what constitutes Nature or Origins, such as exoticism and of using tourism against the central power. "trafficking in women'~ "that the club acts as a pimp" and "procuring'~ This trial
Collector's office, protesting against the unwarranted police action, demanding
the image of the Indian, have been used. Having said this, one must All that we have looked at so far brings us to the main point, the starts in Oslo in May 1989.
a judicial inquiry and release of the arrested persons. Chief Minister of
not imagine that tourism invented these notions and images. On the question of the margin of control and the strategies at the disposal of Mr. Karunanidhi, has promised to take action, and has already
contrary, tourism has done no morc than take over and exaggerate certaIn cultural minorities faced with tourism. Tourists can be used sought an answer to the question as to how the police opened fire in the
existing images (myths) which are taken for granted. as allies, be it directly through their economic input or through the absence of a senior officer.
information they bring with them from the West. In some cases,
These images are integrated and systematised into representatives
of the "Other" and the "Oifference': which Western society has external political pressure by governments or non-governmental Archbishop
developed around numerous "distant" societies. Tre~ting cultural organisations, can change the cards.
voices concern
minorities according to these symbols and stereotypes, constitutes one But we are not euphoric. The situation of cultural minorities does
of the hubs of our problem. Even if exoticism and the state of "closer not warrant this. However, we can review the complexity of the Goa's Archbhishop, the head of the Catholic Church here, has criticised the
to nature': which the tourist is looking for, are delusions with no basis conditions in which they find themselves and evaluate the chances "unhealthy trends" caused by tourism in this state and has called for concerted
in the reality ofthe host peoples, the financial investment means and
the structural power of tourism is more than sufficient to create another
they have left not according to a maxim of "no changes at all costs",
but through the margin of control that really exists for them and the
4iflssue ofA.1temiltfJoe NerworkLer~rherilldsachang~ action to caution people about this.
On the socio-cultural and moral fronts, the Archbishop has decried the alien
world. In spite of everything, tourists, misinformed and tactless to strategies that they can develop. in its format anddinJsnsions. Thenumbu ofpagesha1)6.bmi life-style and culture, prostitution, the spread of drug abuse, and the erosion
find the images and sensations they are looking for and see nothing 'The contact certain Ifugao villages in the Philippines have with
increased, and ap(],rt/ the usual fare o/news dndvlewS,
rom of values catalysed by the promotion of tourism in Goa. .
more than what they want to see (and what they are allowed to see). tourists puts them "on the front line" or on the tourist "frontierlf. But we will incorpotatitseripus articles, comments and reviews. The letter also warns of tile fole of "money-~werfl of tile hotels in influencing
The notion of "different" illuminates this problem, particularly that without doubt thiS "sacrifice" allows numerous other peoples to be . Our new sub-:tit~AThird World Tourism Critique,· aptly official deCision-making, suppressing public resentment and manipulating
paradox of tourism, the liadventurer" or "hiker"; these tourists have left as tourist reserves in the hinterland. We could cite numerous summa;rises. the . eha'hge;.qQer. . public opinion. The Archbishop has called mass commercial tourism "basically
tendency to feel that they are different and have less harmful effects examples of this occurrence. To be a cultural minority is not just a moral exploitative in nature': People continue to live in poverty in countries where
than mass tourism. The Westerners who visit the high valleys of Nepal question, it is a practical question which demands concrete action. tourism is, Of, was, overdeveloped, notes the letter.
Coca Cola's penetration into the most inaccessible places on the globe
Editor
or the retreating oases of Nigeria are looking for the unknown and the DECCAN HERALD, 12 May 1989
novel in the countries themselves, but also in the way of life. Thevfind con/d, on page 9
INDIA
rt:I News and Views Transfer of Park Land Challenged

A writ petition challenging the transfer of 18 acres of land adjoining Sydenhams


Road here, classified for recreational purposes and meant to be used as a park,
Commissioner questions Judgement Festival or Arms Fair? Usual Business to the Pallava Hotels Corporation for the construction of a five-star hotel has
been admitted by Justice S. Ramalingam in the Madras High Court.
A commissioner appointed by the Bombay High Court (Panaji Bench) in the Sir, The so-called flea market at Anjuna in north Goa, notorious for drug
Ramada Hotels case has written an angry letter to the court, questioning its peddling as well as the hand-me-down sales by foreigners, has trans­ The Consumer Action Group represented by its Trustee Mr. Sriram Panchu,
As a part of the Festival of France, a technical conference is being organised and four others, in a writ petition, filed in public interest, said that the Tamil
December judgement. He has also returned the cheque of Rs. 4,000- that the formed into a bazaar for ethnic exotica.
to discuss weapons technologies. Nadu Tourism Development Corporation and the Pallava Hotels Corporation
High Court had sent him for his work as commissioner. Located on a lonely stretch of beach, the Wednesday "mandi" has more
We are shocked. Cultural festivals are being increasingly used as a facade had jointly promoted a Company for the construction of a five-star hotel. For
Dr. S. P. Deshpande, a distinguished environmentalist, and former town Indian trinkets and elaborately embroidered wall-hangings and carpets
to promote the economic interests of the private capitalist, including defence th is purpose, 126.87 grou nds had been transferred free of cost and forthe balance
planner, was appointed by the High Court to go into several irregularities alleged strung up on lines than fancy electronic goods, leather jackets, jeans and
interests and nuclear power plants. These festivals are supposed to bring the of 202.30 grounds, the rates have been fixed at Rs. 1.25 lacs a ground. Followi ng
to have been committed by the Ramada Hotels in their five-star resort other "phoren" watches.
peoples and artists of the two countries together, to learn, discover and to create an application by the Pallava Hotels Corporation to the Madras Metropolitan
construction. The allegations had been enumerated in a writ petition filed by an atmosphere of warmth and goodwill. Ever since it was reopened recently despite protests from the people Development Authority for reclassification of the land from "recreational" to
Sergio Carvalho against the hotel owners and the government of Goa. against the murky goings-on under cover of routine transactions, "commercial" purposes for putting up the five-star hotel, the MMDA invited
Unfortunately, the French Festival is more of an exhibition and display of the
In his report, Dr. Deshpande noted the following violations: policemen patrol the market with sniffer dogs in tow. objections from the public to the proposed reclassification. About 1,100
French weapons industry and has required the services of a Socialist president
The hotel promoters had constructed four shallow wells illegally, two in to promote their cause. France has the unique distinction of selling weapons The peddlers are an interesting mix of local people, traders from other members of the public signed a letter of protest to the MMDA on June 28, 1988,
the sensitive no-construction zone; to both sides in an armed conflict. The pro-nuclear lobby all over the world parts of the country and foreigners. The myriad stalls sell a wide variety stati ng that the transfer was a clear violation of the original intended purpose
Most of the bui Idings were already in breach of the 9 metres overall limit: touts France as a shining example of the viability of nuclear power. of goods, ranging from bric-a-brac to binoculars, from Bombay "bhelpuri" and that serious environmental questions wereinvolved since the land served
one building was going to be 24 meters· high; to German "kase kuchen" (cheese-cake). a lung space for North Madras.
We' are very enthusiastic about cultural exchanges with the people of France.
Plans submitted were inco~plete and contained several irregularities: they We warmly welcome their cultural ambassadors and applaud their The prices are obviously fixed keeping the foreigners' wallets in view. The petitioner, by a letter dated July 25,1988, drew the MMD!(s attention to
did not fulfill the minimum technical requirements under the rules; performances. But, today, behind the artists stand the ubiquitous dealers and And, in some cases, the urgency of the customer's needs. A piece of the public protest and sought a personal hearing. But there was no response
The plans were not according to scale; radiation merchants. To them we say emphatically - no thanks. "spiked" pizza, for instance, could cost upto Rs. 20. The unusually high from the MMDA. A representation was made to the Tamil Nadu Governor to
prices have one advantage - they keep the unsuspecting customers annul the transaction and restore the land for public use. On December 19,
Sectional plans were not given for many buildings: the sectional plans for
Hemchandra Basappa, Bangalore.
away. when the representatives of the petitioner met the Governor, he was not inclined
others were sketchy, had discrepancies or did not conform to rules. (Letter to INDIAN EXPRESS 23 February, 1989).

But genuine foodstuffs are also available. Often one comes across to inform them about the fate of the public interest writ and the requests. Hence
The commissioner also established that the promoters had raised 519 square the present petition. "
foreign visitors on shoe-string budgets who try to replenish their depleted
meters of construction in the no-development zone, and that the vegetation
resources by putting their culinary skills to use. And the customer can The petitioners contend that the State Government was not justified in handing
on the sand dunes had been removed. The High Court considered the report
get his moneys worth, provided of course, the skills are more real than over an area meant for a park, which was a public recreational area, for being
but dismissed the writ petition on December 8, after a two-day hearing.
THE INDIAN POST 31 january, 1989.
What the five-stars foretell imaginary. used as a five-star hotel. Such an act was contrary to the zoning laws and the
development control rules. The transaction deserved to be set aside because
2000 AD. On a computer screen at the reception desk of a New Delhi hotel TIMES OF INDIA 13 March, 1989. the cOllsideration the Government had received for the transfer of the public
the message appears: "Orient Express has just landed. Of the 1,143 aboard, property was at best woefully inadequate.
850 will be in the lobby in about 30 minutes:' The desk boys and girls press

Foreign hotel chains keen on investment a series of buttons and wait for the printouts. Ropeway to Kedarnath THE HINDU 10 january, 1989.

Big international hotel chains (American, German, Japanese and Singaporean)


have reacted very positively to the Indian Government's incentive schemes for
Printed sheets start rolling out showing room allocations depending on the
personal choice of the guest in respect of the size, view, smoki ng section and
telecom facilities linked to a global information system. On a wider screen in
Pi Igrims to the renowned Kedarnath shri ne may soon be spared the ti ri ng trek
to the temple, if the Uttar Pradesh Government's proposal to link the Himalayan
Take me to the lIotel
-. --.---­ .....
pilgrimage spot by ropeway is implemented. The project is envisaged to cost
investing in the tourism sector and something should be concretised within the lobby the names of the guests and room numbers appear indicating the
a colossal sum of Rs. 2 crore per km.
the next six months, with the first few joint-venture projects to be set up within counters from which electronic card keys can be collected. Each guest will carry
the next three to four years. There had been a number of queries because, for a plastic card which wi II provide clues to all his documents like passports and Experts howe.er, are still debating whether the Himalayan ranges in the region
the first time foreign equity participation to the extent of 51 percent was bei ng credit cards. are sturdy enough to bear the load of a ropeway. Some envi ronmental ists have
perm itted in the tourism sector. International hotel chains wou Id not on Iy have It will hardly take the time you have read up to this point for the guest to check opposed the ropeway saying it would lead to a large influx of pilgrims spoiling
a majority equity share but also management control, according to Mr. S. K. in. In the meanwhile the computer will have informed every hotel department the serenity of the shri ne, perched on a ride jutti ng out from the snowy range
Mishra, Tourism Secretary. on individual guest handling including dietary preferences and wake-up calls. below the Mahapnath peak and flanked by the alpine meadows.
This scenario is no pipe dream. It will happen in class hotels if they are not The first to be hit by the ropeway project would be the hill people who eke
ECONOMIC TIMES 11 December, 1988. to shut shop. out a living by transporting devotees to the shrine on ponies at least six months
a year (the shrine is closed during winter).
TIMES OF INDIA, 23 October, 1988.

FarOOQ's TOur Abroad at What Cost? TIMES OF INDIA 13 june 1989

The Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister, Dr. Farooq Abdullah, returned here
tw'O days behind schedule after promoting Kashmiri cuisine in Singapore,
ITDC to prepare master plan .~)
Malaysia and Australia. While the financial cost of the exercise could not be The India Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC) has been asked by the Beach Resort Opposed
known immediately, the political cost of the prodigal Chief Minister has been West Bengal government to prepare a master plan for the development of river The Navy has raised objections to a large luxury beach resort coming up on Shivraj Patil, the amiable minister for tourism, is either a star-gazer or
immense. On the credit side, it remains to be seen how many foreign tourists front tourism along the Hooghly. The government expects to open up a a Goan beach not far from the proposed 'Sea Bird' naval base at Karwar. Chief spaced out or both. At least he seemed to be last month at a gathering
the lure of Kashmiri Wazwan can bring to the valley, notwithstanding the current promenade along the Hooghly to enable tourists to have short distance river of Naval Staff Admiral J G Kulkarni says that the Navy had 'expressed of top hoteliers in Delhi. The hospitality industry, he said, "is going to
disturbed conditions. cruises from Calcutta at week-ends. unhappiness' over the Shendrem beach resort, bei ng promoted by some foreign face greater challenges in the next century". So far so good. But then he
A question everybody seems to be asking is who will foot the bill for the The river cruise from Calcutta will really lead the tourists to the Sunderbans nationals in extreme south Goa's Canacona tal uk. said something which surely must have woken up the man in the moon.
Chief Minister's foreign jaunt. According to an official, Air India and India which the government plans to develop in a big way in the near future. The ~nything which can overlook our movements, especially since there are "It is not a fantasy that man will live in outer space in the near future....
Tourism Development Corporation had provided most facilities to the Chief tourism potential of the Sunderbans is being increasingly talked about once foreigners involved, certainly amounts to a security risk; he said in an informal I have a feeling that this kind of hospitality will be required in other planets
Minister and the six officials who accompanied him. the agitation in the Darjeeling hills began. chat with journalists. and outer space too:' Talk about flights of fancy.
INDIAN EXPRESS 22 February, 1989. ECONOMIC TIMES 11 October, 1988. DECCAN HERALD, 28 May 1989 INDIA TODAY 30 November, 1988.
INDIA
rt:I News and Views Transfer of Park Land Challenged

A writ petition challenging the transfer of 18 acres of land adjoining Sydenhams


Road here, classified for recreational purposes and meant to be used as a park,
Commissioner questions Judgement Festival or Arms Fair? Usual Business to the Pallava Hotels Corporation for the construction of a five-star hotel has
been admitted by Justice S. Ramalingam in the Madras High Court.
A commissioner appointed by the Bombay High Court (Panaji Bench) in the Sir, The so-called flea market at Anjuna in north Goa, notorious for drug
Ramada Hotels case has written an angry letter to the court, questioning its peddling as well as the hand-me-down sales by foreigners, has trans­ The Consumer Action Group represented by its Trustee Mr. Sriram Panchu,
As a part of the Festival of France, a technical conference is being organised and four others, in a writ petition, filed in public interest, said that the Tamil
December judgement. He has also returned the cheque of Rs. 4,000- that the formed into a bazaar for ethnic exotica.
to discuss weapons technologies. Nadu Tourism Development Corporation and the Pallava Hotels Corporation
High Court had sent him for his work as commissioner. Located on a lonely stretch of beach, the Wednesday "mandi" has more
We are shocked. Cultural festivals are being increasingly used as a facade had jointly promoted a Company for the construction of a five-star hotel. For
Dr. S. P. Deshpande, a distinguished environmentalist, and former town Indian trinkets and elaborately embroidered wall-hangings and carpets
to promote the economic interests of the private capitalist, including defence th is purpose, 126.87 grou nds had been transferred free of cost and forthe balance
planner, was appointed by the High Court to go into several irregularities alleged strung up on lines than fancy electronic goods, leather jackets, jeans and
interests and nuclear power plants. These festivals are supposed to bring the of 202.30 grounds, the rates have been fixed at Rs. 1.25 lacs a ground. Followi ng
to have been committed by the Ramada Hotels in their five-star resort other "phoren" watches.
peoples and artists of the two countries together, to learn, discover and to create an application by the Pallava Hotels Corporation to the Madras Metropolitan
construction. The allegations had been enumerated in a writ petition filed by an atmosphere of warmth and goodwill. Ever since it was reopened recently despite protests from the people Development Authority for reclassification of the land from "recreational" to
Sergio Carvalho against the hotel owners and the government of Goa. against the murky goings-on under cover of routine transactions, "commercial" purposes for putting up the five-star hotel, the MMDA invited
Unfortunately, the French Festival is more of an exhibition and display of the
In his report, Dr. Deshpande noted the following violations: policemen patrol the market with sniffer dogs in tow. objections from the public to the proposed reclassification. About 1,100
French weapons industry and has required the services of a Socialist president
The hotel promoters had constructed four shallow wells illegally, two in to promote their cause. France has the unique distinction of selling weapons The peddlers are an interesting mix of local people, traders from other members of the public signed a letter of protest to the MMDA on June 28, 1988,
the sensitive no-construction zone; to both sides in an armed conflict. The pro-nuclear lobby all over the world parts of the country and foreigners. The myriad stalls sell a wide variety stati ng that the transfer was a clear violation of the original intended purpose
Most of the bui Idings were already in breach of the 9 metres overall limit: touts France as a shining example of the viability of nuclear power. of goods, ranging from bric-a-brac to binoculars, from Bombay "bhelpuri" and that serious environmental questions wereinvolved since the land served
one building was going to be 24 meters· high; to German "kase kuchen" (cheese-cake). a lung space for North Madras.
We' are very enthusiastic about cultural exchanges with the people of France.
Plans submitted were inco~plete and contained several irregularities: they We warmly welcome their cultural ambassadors and applaud their The prices are obviously fixed keeping the foreigners' wallets in view. The petitioner, by a letter dated July 25,1988, drew the MMD!(s attention to
did not fulfill the minimum technical requirements under the rules; performances. But, today, behind the artists stand the ubiquitous dealers and And, in some cases, the urgency of the customer's needs. A piece of the public protest and sought a personal hearing. But there was no response
The plans were not according to scale; radiation merchants. To them we say emphatically - no thanks. "spiked" pizza, for instance, could cost upto Rs. 20. The unusually high from the MMDA. A representation was made to the Tamil Nadu Governor to
prices have one advantage - they keep the unsuspecting customers annul the transaction and restore the land for public use. On December 19,
Sectional plans were not given for many buildings: the sectional plans for
Hemchandra Basappa, Bangalore.
away. when the representatives of the petitioner met the Governor, he was not inclined
others were sketchy, had discrepancies or did not conform to rules. (Letter to INDIAN EXPRESS 23 February, 1989).

But genuine foodstuffs are also available. Often one comes across to inform them about the fate of the public interest writ and the requests. Hence
The commissioner also established that the promoters had raised 519 square the present petition. "
foreign visitors on shoe-string budgets who try to replenish their depleted
meters of construction in the no-development zone, and that the vegetation
resources by putting their culinary skills to use. And the customer can The petitioners contend that the State Government was not justified in handing
on the sand dunes had been removed. The High Court considered the report
get his moneys worth, provided of course, the skills are more real than over an area meant for a park, which was a public recreational area, for being
but dismissed the writ petition on December 8, after a two-day hearing.
THE INDIAN POST 31 january, 1989.
What the five-stars foretell imaginary. used as a five-star hotel. Such an act was contrary to the zoning laws and the
development control rules. The transaction deserved to be set aside because
2000 AD. On a computer screen at the reception desk of a New Delhi hotel TIMES OF INDIA 13 March, 1989. the cOllsideration the Government had received for the transfer of the public
the message appears: "Orient Express has just landed. Of the 1,143 aboard, property was at best woefully inadequate.
850 will be in the lobby in about 30 minutes:' The desk boys and girls press

Foreign hotel chains keen on investment a series of buttons and wait for the printouts. Ropeway to Kedarnath THE HINDU 10 january, 1989.

Big international hotel chains (American, German, Japanese and Singaporean)


have reacted very positively to the Indian Government's incentive schemes for
Printed sheets start rolling out showing room allocations depending on the
personal choice of the guest in respect of the size, view, smoki ng section and
telecom facilities linked to a global information system. On a wider screen in
Pi Igrims to the renowned Kedarnath shri ne may soon be spared the ti ri ng trek
to the temple, if the Uttar Pradesh Government's proposal to link the Himalayan
Take me to the lIotel
-. --.---­ .....
pilgrimage spot by ropeway is implemented. The project is envisaged to cost
investing in the tourism sector and something should be concretised within the lobby the names of the guests and room numbers appear indicating the
a colossal sum of Rs. 2 crore per km.
the next six months, with the first few joint-venture projects to be set up within counters from which electronic card keys can be collected. Each guest will carry
the next three to four years. There had been a number of queries because, for a plastic card which wi II provide clues to all his documents like passports and Experts howe.er, are still debating whether the Himalayan ranges in the region
the first time foreign equity participation to the extent of 51 percent was bei ng credit cards. are sturdy enough to bear the load of a ropeway. Some envi ronmental ists have
perm itted in the tourism sector. International hotel chains wou Id not on Iy have It will hardly take the time you have read up to this point for the guest to check opposed the ropeway saying it would lead to a large influx of pilgrims spoiling
a majority equity share but also management control, according to Mr. S. K. in. In the meanwhile the computer will have informed every hotel department the serenity of the shri ne, perched on a ride jutti ng out from the snowy range
Mishra, Tourism Secretary. on individual guest handling including dietary preferences and wake-up calls. below the Mahapnath peak and flanked by the alpine meadows.
This scenario is no pipe dream. It will happen in class hotels if they are not The first to be hit by the ropeway project would be the hill people who eke
ECONOMIC TIMES 11 December, 1988. to shut shop. out a living by transporting devotees to the shrine on ponies at least six months
a year (the shrine is closed during winter).
TIMES OF INDIA, 23 October, 1988.

FarOOQ's TOur Abroad at What Cost? TIMES OF INDIA 13 june 1989

The Jammu and Kashmir Chief Minister, Dr. Farooq Abdullah, returned here
tw'O days behind schedule after promoting Kashmiri cuisine in Singapore,
ITDC to prepare master plan .~)
Malaysia and Australia. While the financial cost of the exercise could not be The India Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC) has been asked by the Beach Resort Opposed
known immediately, the political cost of the prodigal Chief Minister has been West Bengal government to prepare a master plan for the development of river The Navy has raised objections to a large luxury beach resort coming up on Shivraj Patil, the amiable minister for tourism, is either a star-gazer or
immense. On the credit side, it remains to be seen how many foreign tourists front tourism along the Hooghly. The government expects to open up a a Goan beach not far from the proposed 'Sea Bird' naval base at Karwar. Chief spaced out or both. At least he seemed to be last month at a gathering
the lure of Kashmiri Wazwan can bring to the valley, notwithstanding the current promenade along the Hooghly to enable tourists to have short distance river of Naval Staff Admiral J G Kulkarni says that the Navy had 'expressed of top hoteliers in Delhi. The hospitality industry, he said, "is going to
disturbed conditions. cruises from Calcutta at week-ends. unhappiness' over the Shendrem beach resort, bei ng promoted by some foreign face greater challenges in the next century". So far so good. But then he
A question everybody seems to be asking is who will foot the bill for the The river cruise from Calcutta will really lead the tourists to the Sunderbans nationals in extreme south Goa's Canacona tal uk. said something which surely must have woken up the man in the moon.
Chief Minister's foreign jaunt. According to an official, Air India and India which the government plans to develop in a big way in the near future. The ~nything which can overlook our movements, especially since there are "It is not a fantasy that man will live in outer space in the near future....
Tourism Development Corporation had provided most facilities to the Chief tourism potential of the Sunderbans is being increasingly talked about once foreigners involved, certainly amounts to a security risk; he said in an informal I have a feeling that this kind of hospitality will be required in other planets
Minister and the six officials who accompanied him. the agitation in the Darjeeling hills began. chat with journalists. and outer space too:' Talk about flights of fancy.
INDIAN EXPRESS 22 February, 1989. ECONOMIC TIMES 11 October, 1988. DECCAN HERALD, 28 May 1989 INDIA TODAY 30 November, 1988.
attractive values and seductive images in the villages visited
Tourism and ("authenticity", a shared life, rich social life, beauty, etc.). But contact The Kanyakumari March Women's Front of Norway

with tourism, even individual tourists, changes the way of life that is May 1st, 1989
cultural Minorities: being admired and introduces unforeseen and shocking elements into
this beautiful picture. In the same way, tourists visiting such and such The month-long coastal march (along both the east and west coasts) culminated
(In our last issue, we carried news ofthe court trials initiated by asex-tour agency against
the Women's Front ofNorway. Our letter in support ofthe Front has been translated into
Norwegian and will be used as evidence. I1f:> carry below a press statement announcing
Double Marginalisation and
an oasis or Nepalese village become indignant at seeing plastic pails at Kanyakumari, the southernmost tip of India, where the waters of 3 oceans ",ictory for the WO.l1cn in the first case.)
Survival strategies
and transistors and deplore the loss of "authenticity". In reality, they meet. Organised by the National Fishermen's Forum, the theme of the march
June 13-15, 1988 a trial about sex tourism took place in Norway. It was the Scan
By Pierre Rossel are indignant about a transformation for which they are, though was 'Protect Waters, Protect Life', and sought to raise various issues faced
Thai Traveller Club, which arranges sex tours to Thailand vs. the March 8
certainly not always consciously, some of the main agents. by traditional fishermen all over the country, as well as those related to marine
Committee of a local town, which has protested against tile Scan Thai activities.
ecology. EQUATIONS participated as a result of its collaboration with the NFF
At the centre of a general framework of adverse development and/or The mountains and the desert are converted into the last frontiers Verdict has fallen in this libel case. The 13 women in the Committee won!
in 1988 in the study 'The Impact of Tourism on Coastal Fishermen in South
conflict, tourism exercises a series of pressures on cultural minorities of tourism. The Andest the Sahara and, above all, the Himalayan The court supports the descriptions of Scan Thai as a sex club and that the
India'.
to transform themselves. These peoples offer, if you believe the tourist regions have suffered for many years from an increasingly strong tide women activists correctly characterised Scan Thai's operations as "trafficking
of tourism, of which trekking is the principle form. "Trekkers'~ in search On May 1sC International Workers' Day, a day-long programme was in women" and Ifracist activities".
attractions which in fact define different types of tourism.
of invigorating and impressive landscapes, like those who search for organised, starting with a warm welcome to the marchers from both sides
Into the very double-edged marginalisation of culture and political These characteristics appeared in an article printed in the March 8. nevvspaper,
spirituality and "real" contacts, pay no heed to the effects of their who met at Kanyakumari. More than 10,000 people, including women and
economy, and therefore extreme vulnerability, experienced by cultural "Our Paper" giving the background for the club's operations and in the solidarity
presence, of which the most visible are deforestation and the gathered for this momentous occasion. The day included cultural
minorities, we can now add the problem of tourism's stereotypes. slogan used in the March 8 International Women's Day celebration. The court
accumulation of rubbish in camping areas. expressions representing different parts of the country, exhibitions on various
Tourism motivates individuals by means of organised seduction, that themes (including one on tourism by EQUATIONS), film and video shows, took no decision concerning the legality of the dub owner's activities.
is to say, it is commercially systemised. This seduction is organised Nepal offers an interesting example of the complexity of the effect
and a public meeting had been planned for the evening, to be addressed, The owner of the club, lvar Larsen, was originally claiming US Dollars 145.000
around an object (cultural minorities) a subject (tour operators) and, of tourism. In fact, trekking involves different ethnic peoples grouped
among others, by former Supreme Court Justice V. R. Krishna Iyer. in damages. The final result of this case is that Larsen has to pay US Dollars
to a lesser extent, the tourists themselves. Moreover, the excuse for this hierarchically <the porters are, for example, from a lower social order
The public rally was to begin with a .ceremonial pledge taken by all 7.150 towards the expenses the women have had.
is always in line with the principle myths of tourism: the bringing of than certain Sherpa groups who have more important positions in the
organisation of treks). Some earn more than others and in different ways participants at the seashore. Hundreds of catamarans (country craft) had been This is what the verdict states:
investment (tourism = development) and intercultural exchange
thanks to tourism, they feel its effects to a greater or lesser degree, and brought to the coast for the ceremony. The marchers then began proceeding Generally one must see prostitution as a form ofexploitation ofwomen and
(tourism mutual understanding). This false reality creates favourable
have completely different images of tourists and understanding of the to the rally grounds. as oppression of women. When this oppression of women takes place in the
conditions for a profound cultural transformation in those populations
affected by tourism and for cultural minorities where this aspect of the tourism process. Despite having been given sufficient advance notice, the police allowed Third World and is kept up by mass tourism from Western industrial countries,
process is even more destructive than usual. The signs of the seduction This example illustrates the fact that tourisr.n is present in different a bus to drive through the marchers cutting the crowd in two. Nobody was an element of racial discrimination is undoubtedly added to the sexism.
are more hypocritical, false and disruptive than ever. Cultural minorities and sometimes complex socio-cultural contexts where the members hurt, but irritation mounted at this needless interference. Instead of taking The COUIt finds that the Scan Thai club reportgive ideas about Eastern IMJmen
submit to a pressure which makes them feel obi iged to conform, given are able to, and know how to, take their unequal share according to preventive action and pacifying the crowd, the police stepped in with sticks as exoti~ different, submissive and willing to meet Western men's sexual needs.
that they must make their own image into something tourism can use, their position within the regional and national society. to further create a mood of anxiety and disruption. Enraged, some persons Eastern women are contrasted to Western women, who are not given good
or else disappear. So, whether cultural minorities co-operate with this (they seem to have been outsiders) threw stones at the police. Without any grades by Larsen.
However, there are still a number of comparable instances where
scene-setting or not, in the long run what is at stake in this framework warning, the police started firing into the crowd.
ethnic groups have not yet been hemmed in and begun to disintegrate The court finds that the club report disguises the nature ofprostitution, and
is the disappearance of ethnic identity. and where there is still some hope of exploiting as much as possible Several persons were seriously injured in the shooting, and in the subsequent that the individual club membercan get aincorrect picture ofrea/if}; contrasted
What are the principle motives behind this organised seduction? from tourism. Zanskar is in fact a good example, as is the Sherpa lath i-charge (by stick-wielding policemen). Ruthlessly, the police hit out at to what reality really is for these women.
community of Rolwaling and the well known Hunza. This population anybody who happened to be around, including innocent bystanders. Fr.
Everything stems from the presupposition that cultural minorities The question then is whether Larsen's activities can be characterisedas racist
lives in a valley in the far north of Pakistan, on the border with China. SelVatius and Sr. Philomena Mary, both in their mid-sixties, were beaten
represent an earlier stage of humanity to those of the industrial West,
severely. Several persons were hospitalised, including 4 with bullet injuries.
and participation in trafficking in women.
and therefore are closer than us to the origins of mankind and, above It formed an independent kingdom and has recently been annexed
by Pakistan. The new and famous Karakoram Highway runs through The police then went on a systematic rampage, smashing glasspanes and
The court concludes that these terms mustbe legal and within the Freedom
to nature. The pastoralists of East Africa (such as the Maasai for ofspeech because they are put forward in aideological/political context, and
example), Amazon societies or the peoples of New Guinea, to mention it and more and more trekkers are arriving there. Its "original" identity headlights of the buses which had transported the marchers. Unable to arrest
makes it attractive and for this reason there are attempts to preserve more than 5 persons that day, the next morning, they went to some nearby
because they must be seen as having sufficient basis in the actual facts.
but a few, sustain this kind of stereotype, in the same way as certain
types of geographical environment do, such as mountains, deserts and it and stop the pressures of acculturisation from Pakistan. For the coastal villages and rounded up people at random. The Women's Front of Norway and three women in Oslo also face a libel
rainforests. In manufacturing the symbols of tourist seduction other Hunza, it is perbaps a question of not being devalued once again, but case with the same club and its owner - this time for using the expressions
On May 2nd, NFF leaders and others sat on the road in front of the District
notions of what constitutes Nature or Origins, such as exoticism and of using tourism against the central power. "trafficking in women'~ "that the club acts as a pimp" and "procuring'~ This trial
Collector's office, protesting against the unwarranted police action, demanding
the image of the Indian, have been used. Having said this, one must All that we have looked at so far brings us to the main point, the starts in Oslo in May 1989.
a judicial inquiry and release of the arrested persons. Chief Minister of
not imagine that tourism invented these notions and images. On the question of the margin of control and the strategies at the disposal of Mr. Karunanidhi, has promised to take action, and has already
contrary, tourism has done no morc than take over and exaggerate certaIn cultural minorities faced with tourism. Tourists can be used sought an answer to the question as to how the police opened fire in the
existing images (myths) which are taken for granted. as allies, be it directly through their economic input or through the absence of a senior officer.
information they bring with them from the West. In some cases,
These images are integrated and systematised into representatives
of the "Other" and the "Oifference': which Western society has external political pressure by governments or non-governmental Archbishop
developed around numerous "distant" societies. Tre~ting cultural organisations, can change the cards.
voices concern
minorities according to these symbols and stereotypes, constitutes one But we are not euphoric. The situation of cultural minorities does
of the hubs of our problem. Even if exoticism and the state of "closer not warrant this. However, we can review the complexity of the Goa's Archbhishop, the head of the Catholic Church here, has criticised the
to nature': which the tourist is looking for, are delusions with no basis conditions in which they find themselves and evaluate the chances "unhealthy trends" caused by tourism in this state and has called for concerted
in the reality ofthe host peoples, the financial investment means and
the structural power of tourism is more than sufficient to create another
they have left not according to a maxim of "no changes at all costs",
but through the margin of control that really exists for them and the
4iflssue ofA.1temiltfJoe NerworkLer~rherilldsachang~ action to caution people about this.
On the socio-cultural and moral fronts, the Archbishop has decried the alien
world. In spite of everything, tourists, misinformed and tactless to strategies that they can develop. in its format anddinJsnsions. Thenumbu ofpagesha1)6.bmi life-style and culture, prostitution, the spread of drug abuse, and the erosion
find the images and sensations they are looking for and see nothing 'The contact certain Ifugao villages in the Philippines have with
increased, and ap(],rt/ the usual fare o/news dndvlewS,
rom of values catalysed by the promotion of tourism in Goa. .
more than what they want to see (and what they are allowed to see). tourists puts them "on the front line" or on the tourist "frontierlf. But we will incorpotatitseripus articles, comments and reviews. The letter also warns of tile fole of "money-~werfl of tile hotels in influencing
The notion of "different" illuminates this problem, particularly that without doubt thiS "sacrifice" allows numerous other peoples to be . Our new sub-:tit~AThird World Tourism Critique,· aptly official deCision-making, suppressing public resentment and manipulating
paradox of tourism, the liadventurer" or "hiker"; these tourists have left as tourist reserves in the hinterland. We could cite numerous summa;rises. the . eha'hge;.qQer. . public opinion. The Archbishop has called mass commercial tourism "basically
tendency to feel that they are different and have less harmful effects examples of this occurrence. To be a cultural minority is not just a moral exploitative in nature': People continue to live in poverty in countries where
than mass tourism. The Westerners who visit the high valleys of Nepal question, it is a practical question which demands concrete action. tourism is, Of, was, overdeveloped, notes the letter.
Coca Cola's penetration into the most inaccessible places on the globe
Editor
or the retreating oases of Nigeria are looking for the unknown and the DECCAN HERALD, 12 May 1989
novel in the countries themselves, but also in the way of life. Thevfind con/d, on page 9
Gambia getting tourists entertain the guests.
At the Atlantic Hotel which is managed by Copthorne Hotel Management
Hunted by the Camera The villagers are drawn to the centre of a large field cleared for
the rhythmiC beating of an old drum. Every person who dances in the

but not always hard cash of Britain, "your resident entertainers" are Britons linda and Ricky Daniels.
Each evening at the Sunwillg Hotet which is partly owned by Vingressor of
by Parag Trivedi is obliged to pay the drummer. Those who do not wish to pay the drummer
form another circle and dance to music they sing themselves.
by Oakland Ross Sweden, the tropical moonlit romance of the palm-fringed terrace is enhanced­ The camera has never been considered an instrument of change. At best it has The colour has certainly drawn crowds - not all of them connoisseurs with
some would say obliterated-by a Swedish rock band. been used as a means oi encapsulating time. One never hears of a film being the Gujarat Tourism Development Corporation quick to exploit the mela for
At the plush Atlantic Hotel-200 rooms, discotheque, hairdressing salon, video
games, nightly entertainment-<iozens of Londoners and Glaswegians sit by the "I think, in terms of its lack of having real benefits for the average Gambian, banned because of its photographic technique or a film using a particular school whatever it is worth both in terms of rupees and dollars. There are conducted
pool, roasting in the West African sun. tourism is really a mess;' said a local journalist. of photography stirring a people to revolt. tours from Bombay and Ahmedabad, preceded by press publicity.
It is an idyllic scene: the fatted men quaffing their half-pints of ale at the gazebo Not all the news is bad, however. What does excite is that which is referred to as "trick photography" which There are cameras everywhere. Instamatics, auto-focuses, SlRs, cameras with
bar, while the women sprawl, supine and mainly topless, by the pool. Beyond An estimated 6,000 to 7,000 Gambians, for example, are employed is a subsidiary of the special effects department. The viewer knows that he is foot long lenses, cameras that invade privacy, affect people and ruin cultures.
a stone wall, punctuated by open grillwork, the blue Atlantic gently breaks or indirectly by the tourist industry. The trade also produces a welter of succumbing to the temporary excitement of an illusion created in the studios. A fashion photographer had as many as four cameras dangling from his
against a long, golden beach, and the sewage of Banjul oozes silently out to sea. off benefits, including seasonal "boomlets" in business for a grab bag of Thus the camera excites, stimulates and titillates. At its worst, however it can shou Iders. Initially one does notrealise the effectthat all this gadgetry has on
entrepreneurs, some of them savory, some of them not: taxi drivers, native bring about changes in the culture of a people that would be nothing short the rustics.
Welcome to "the Caribbean of Africa;' where the average life expectancy at
artistes, folk performers, gigolos, prostitutes and amateur .of revolutionary. This change in asocial milieu that a camera can effect is entirely It is only when you see the selkonscious preening and abashed behaviour
birth is 42 years, where the gross national product per capita is a meagre $260,
unnecessary, absolutely unwelcome and sociologically a disaster. start taking notice. The bristling moustaches are given a last twist when
and where tourism is booming. "People do benefit in one way or another,' said Pierre N'j ie, executive secretary
of the Gambian Chamber of Commerce. The lives of a few animals may perhaps have been saved by the WWF's cry some tour guide or government official peremptorily summons the men to pose
"Our projections are that, in the next five years, we would be handling
of "Shoot them with a camera:' Had there been an organisation formed for the for some foreigners. The lissom vi lIage gi rl who looks naturally ravishing even
something like 1,50,000 to 2,00,000 tourists a year:' said a beaming Junaidi Increasingly, Gambian interests-either the Government or private investors­ conservation of cultures (funded by the UN perhaps) the camera would have though the only concession to make-up is kaajal in her eyes and a red bindi
the Gambian Government's Director of Tourism. are purchasing part or full ownership of the country's hotels. Currently, four on her forehead, looks on curiously, even enviously, as the city-bred model
been branded the greatest threat to culture along with the need to earn foreign
Somewhere - but not here a few clever and enterprising businessmen of the Gambia's dozen or so V\{)rld-<:Iass hotels are owned outright by the local exchange. Cultures would be Qeclared a protectorate of this organisation and touches up her lipstick.
are contentedly counting their cash, in kroner, pounds, marks and francs. interests. Meanwhile the industry'S fiscal value to the Government should soon all cameramen poachers.
increase, as generous tax holidays gradually expire. A demand has been created. She too would like to have all that colour on
Twenty-two high seasons have drifted by since this tiny former British colony Where the camera is concerned, only the most self-effacing person would her before she is photographed. The same villager who never needed to shield
greeted its inaugural planeload of Scandinavian sun seekers -launching what The Government hopes to squeeze other advantages out of the tourist trade. like to be caught in an "as is where is" situation. Point a camera at the his eyes from the sun would like to be photographed wearing the designer
has since become a thriving local industry but a lot of Gambians are sti II As matters stand, hotels are obliged to import most of their vegetables and other Hunchback of Notre Dame and chances are that he would tell you to zoom sunglasses of the foreigner who can't believe the tableau before his eyes and
turning out thei r empty pockets, glancing around in confusion, and wondering produce from Europe, because that is the only way. they can guarantee a regular
in so that the hunch does not show. is clicking away wanting to get as much of it as he can before it vanishes, mirage­
what happened to all the money. supply. like from before him.
Portrait painters who did the oork of photographers before the advent of the
By and large, it never even got on the plane. The market could be met locally but only if Gambian producers gear camera could always be influenced to embellish the face, tuck in the waist and The camera does the work that the syringe would, if used by your
themselves to the task. With the help of international development agencies,
"The actual money that comes into the country is less than you flare out the rear of their female subjects, while their male clients would be anthropologist on the lost tribe. It gets so that villagers hate to be caught off­
that is exactly what the Government hopes to do.
imagine:' said a diplomat in Banjul. liThe money stays with the tour operators given that extra bright gleam in their eye, a broader chest and that flattering guard. They preen in front of pocket mirrors and ask each other how they look
and airlines offshore:' "We would like to maximise the benefits we get from tourism:! says Abdou look of bravado. The camera does not afford such indulgences. Not in before they allow themselves to be photographed.
the Economic Planning Ministry. "Unless tourism is properly integrated cultural sense at least.
One of a small handful of West African countries to go into modern, package­ The cameras also introduce an element of commercialism. Once he realises
into the economy, the net foreign exchange earnings are miniraal:' When it comes to culture, every shutterbug must remember the classic that he m~kes agood model the fellow with the extra bright turban or the extra
style tourism in a'big way the Gambia lately has watched its business soar ­
from just 30,000 arrivals in 1983-84 to 78,000 last year-mainly because of For the most part, the Gambia has managed to avoid some of the seamier anthropological dilemma. The story concerns one anthropologist who had, moustache becomes a pro. He starts quoting per shot offering package
consistently sunny weather, excellent beaches and asteadily improving tourist or nastier effects of tourism. To be sure, there has been an increase in prostitution in the course of his travels, come across a tribe that was still living in the Stone like Rs.5 per shotorthree shots for Rs.12. This way of thinking would have
infrastructure. and petty crime-both associated with the tourist trade-but local officials and Age. Not a single aspect of civilization had reached this tribe. been alien to him before the camera was introduced to Tarnetar.
foreign diplomats say that neither problem has got out of hand. After stayi ng with th is tribe for some ti me he had enough material on them He sees urbanised Indians perfectly at home in their T-shirt and jeans. Some
The limited financial rewards, however-not to mention the industry'S not
always hapfJr' social impad-inevitably raise unsettling questions about the value The tendency of tourists, both men and women, to wander around town in to ensure everlasting fame and money for himself. He was about to conclude ofthem even speak his language. No one stares atthem letalone points acamera
of tourism, or at least this kind of tourism, as a potential motor for African scanty clothin& however, has provoked some dismay on the part of the his stay when the dilemma arose. One of the tribe members was taken at them. The fashion model has her hair flying and eyes misted over in a pale
development. Gambians who, are mainly Moslem and take a dim view of public nudity. The witch-doctor was called and arrived duly, bringing with him a imitation of the kind of pose struck by models for Vogue. The press, the television
A couple of years ago, the National Women's Bureau of the Gambian combination of jungle medicine, weird rituals and primitive music. As the witch­ crews are all Indian. And yet he is the hunted one made to look like a freak
According to Government figures, the total revenue earned last year by the
Government pUblished an open letter imploring tourists to cease going around doctor went into his ad the anth ropologist felt that he shou Id diagnose the iIIness in a cage while the state tourism corporation makes a quick buck as well as
hotel and restaurant sector of the Gambian economy amounted to just $2.9
"in outfits that elicit stares and whispers, tempt young boys to approach and administer a basic medicine. some foreign exchange by drawing attention to the "exotic'~
million (US), or a paltry 1.4 per cent of the country's not very impressive gross
national product. unaccompanied women, and contribute to the more negative impact of Thatthe camera is capable of causing a revolution in anthropological terms
But before he did that a very valid anthropological question arose: Did he
tourism." have the right to interfere in the due process of nature? is not acknowledged. What is happening at Tarnetar is only a symbol of the
"What remains here in foreign exchange tends to be very
It is evident, however, that this plea has not yet managed to shame some effed that the opening up of India to tourism can do to the culture of the country.
acknowledged Abd04 N'jie, permanent secretary in the Ministrv of Economic The use of a hypodermic would mean a quantum leap of at least 1,000 years
Planning. vacationers who stroll along the sun-drenched avenues in the tourist zones al Should he introduce such a radical change to a people who had yet to learn The cultural imperialism of the West would make every villager want to look
Kombo and Bakua. acceptable to the rest of mankind. Pop goes culture.
is
As often as not, even nighttime entertainment at Gambia a foreign affair, the fundamentals of anatomy? Would he not be guilty of interfering with the
with middle-of-the road crooners or nightclub acts flown here from Europe to GLOBE and MAIL Toronto, 17th March, 1988 process of evolution of that tribe? He had to choose between saving the sick SUNDAY REVIEW, 20 November 1988
man from possible death at the hands of the witch-doctor and savi ng the whole
tribe from civilization as he knew it. contd. from page 8

has had dire consequ~nces because of the cultural transformations it


No Sex Please How WAS lttE.
The shutterbug is in a somewhat similar predicament where Indian culture
is concerned. let us transpose the same case to the village ofTarnetar in Gujarat. implies. But it is not the end of an ethnic group if they begin to drink
iR'P to AS'A
Coca Cola instead of their traditional drink. The consequences depend
Indonesia will not allow a French investor to establish a prostitution centre The time of year is August and the occasion is the annual mela. For four days
in the country, the home minister, Gen.(Retd.) RudinL said in Jakarta.
e.e.RT ?
every year the village assumes great significance to the tribal people who live on many factors and processes of resistance and cultural re.shaping
in and around Surendranagar. can spring up in surprising ways. Therefore, tourism is like Coca Cola:
A French investor had planned to build a sex centre in the east Java
it is not a plague in itself, but if it is not handled carefully it can bring
capital of Surabaya, a city with the largest number of prostitutes in There is colour everywhere. The women wear the brightest possible colours
about irremediable damage. Moreover, we have not forgotten that the
Indonesia with six red light districts. He was to consolidate the six with red and orange being favourites, while the men flaunt turbans and jackets
Coca Cola metaphor can also signify a cultural danger in the long term,
prostitution areas into one sex centre. (bandis) of such striking hues that they put the women in the shade.
an intense cultural conflict in the short term and even, in some cases,
THE TIMES OF INDIA 13th March, 1989
The dancing starts soon after the villagers have had their ritual dip. The music a more violent threat such as the spread of epidemics (by the tourists)
is exhilarating - heard in the cities on radio thanks to a Salil Choudhari or or alcoholism (to indigenous people).
as. D. Burman. (Source: IWGIA, Copenhagen).
BOOK REVIEW developers and travel companies take all the significant financial benefits. For
the local population there may be an additional seasonal income but this never Down with Tourism
Keeping the Coast Clear

comes without substantial social and environmental costs. Decision making by Zafar Futehaly
The Holiday Makers: Understanding the Impact of leisure and Travel There is a class of people - intellectuals and do-gooders mostly - who have
is in the hands of others and local culture is either ignored under a veneer of
Jost Krippendorf, translated by Vera Andrassy, London: Heinemann, 1987, 160 pp for a long time been asking profound questions like: Can a poor country like The Indian coastline is 7,514 km long. Most of this is free from human
bland internationalism, or folksified, and divested of all. inherent meaning. It
The Holiday Makers is perhaps a misleading title for Krippendorf's interesting is presented in the form of light entertainment or internal decoration, such as India afford colour television, should a poor country like ours go in for settlements, and it is consequently clean and beautiful. But now a new threat
book because it reflects only one half of the book\ subject matter. While the the yokes and farming implements that have become a standard feature on the computers, and so on and on. I have never heard anyone ask this about tourism. has arisen from tourism to these coasts which have been hitherto free from
title suggests that the book will be an analysis of travel and holidaying, walls of Swiss chalets. So this morning I ask the question that may disturb a lot of influential people: human presence. The beaches of a country where the sun shines for nine
Krippendorf is as much concerned with an analysis of modern (western) "Can a poor country like India afford tourism?" And I answer it myself with a months in a year are a great magnet for everyone in temperate lands, and the
Can holiday encounters between the tourists and the locals possibly lead loud "No:'
industrial society, the root from which all discontent (and the need for holidays) Government of India is in the process of organising itself to receive thousands
to greater understanding? No, says Krippendorf, unequivocably. He rejects
springs. Indeed, his concern for alienated industrial man (sic) sometimes seems of "honoured guests" from abroad in the years to come.
arguments that tourism promotes understanding, believing instead that since
to become an end in itself, rather than the context for his discussion of travel. The "valuable foreign exchange" that tourism is supposed to earn, we are India is naturally excited by the prospects of international tourism and its
no meaningful contact is developed, most tourism merely fosters prejudice.
By dint of juxtaposing sections analysing the woes of a western life style with told, will ultimately transform our society. It will fill empty bellies, provide much advertised multiplier effect which is expected to stimulate its economy
The only positive thing Krippendorf finds to say about tourism in its current
sections on tourism he more or less manages to ensure that the book hangs shelter to the millions exposed to cold and rain. Moreover, tourism will provide at many points. Speaking before the International Union of Official Travel
form is that the vehement anti-tourism that is beginning to develop means that
together, but in the end, the fragmenting of concerns fails to convince the reader employment to millions of unemployed people-a very dubious hypothesis. It's Organisations in Delhi in 1972, the then minister of tourism, Dr. Karan Singh,
new solutions must be found soon, particularly in developing countries where
that the problem of tourism is really resolvable. If finding a solution that links like saying that if we establish a thousand casinos in our towns and tourism spoke about the 200 million international tourists that were expected to come
the force of mass tourism is felt most strongly. But it is in pursuing these solutions
industrial society and tourism happily together on a textual level is a surprisingly resorts it wili create a million jobs. No doubt it would and with lagdish Tytler to India, and the $ 21,700 million which this traffic was expected to generate.
that Krippendorf becomes less convincing.
difficult problem, how much more so at the level of workable tourism policy. as minister for Casino, we would have probably been convinced that this was He bemoaned the fact that in 2.4 percent of the world's land area and 15 per
The second half of the book, essentially Krippendorf's analysis of the changes the path to progress. Mercifully, Tytler's brilliant idea was never taken up. The
Kri~pendorf's thesis is straightforward enough. Industrial society has become cent of the world's population, we receive only one-third of one percent of the
that must occur in industrial societies before tourism itself can change is fact is that tourism corrupts, and obsessive tourism corrupts obsessively.
intolerable. It is trapped in a self-defeating cycle in which humans produce in total tourist spending of. the world. Since then, the figures have gone up
problematic. He asks ail the right questions, 'How can the door of the inner
order to consume and consume in order to keep producing. To escape from Thailand is often held out by our tourism promoters as a model for the Asiatic appreciably and under the 7th plan we aim to increase the number of tourists
Self be found in the presence of so much superficiality?' How can we escape
its pressures, we travel, becoming tourists in pursuit of the happiness denied world to follow. If one goes by what Bangkok'offers to its honoured guests, it to 2.5 million by 1990, and to earn Rs. 15,000 crores in foreign exchange.
bei ng a part of the current generation of super-consumers? For as he rightly
us at home. But because leisure and tourism are an integral part of industrial shou Id be the last th ing that any self-respecting nation in Asia or anywhere else There is therefore no question that tourism, the industry without smoke, is
points out, the manifold supply by the leisure and entertainment industries
society and its organisation, the only apparent means of escape is illusory. We ought to imitate. Thailand is a country with great culture and history and a highly desirable from the economic point of view. But ecologists are concerned
serves the purpose of keeping people trapped by consumer-culture happy as
are duped by the promise of paradise; we believe in the advertisements that refined people, but tourism has turned its capital into a vast casino and massage that if on top of the population explosion which is inevitable, we artificially
they are. In his solutions Krippendorf allies himself firmly with a number of
tells us that if we opt for this holiday rather than that we will, for two weeks parlour. Should Bangkok be a model for Delhi, Bombay or Goa? build a tourist one, the pressures might become unsustainable unless a great
other so-called 'New Age' writers, such as Fritjof Capra, A. Gorz etc. believing
at least, get just a little closer to 'real' life. For the vast majority of those who The Catholic Church of Goa recently produced a report on IOurism in the deal of thinking and planning is done in advance: And let us remember that
that the self-questioning going on in many industrial societies is the key to the
work in industrial societies, caught in the alienating circumstances of work and State, which was published in Renovacao, the pastoral bulletin of the it is not only ecological pressures with which we have to contend. The social
future.
inhospitable home lives, holidays, whether the week-end or a trip abroad, take Archdiocese of Goa. The report said that "elitist" tourism was degrading the effects of tourism have also to be considered, and as the World Bank says in
on the burden of all nostalgia, dreams and desires, for regeneration and One of the problems for the reader is that either she or he believes that these
Goan economy, culture and lifestyle and eroding its value system. It specifically a working paper, "One such problem is the attitude of the local population
recuperation, escape, communication, freedom, self-realisation, happiness itself. changes in human consciousness are really taking place, in which case
linked tourism with prostitution and drugs. It described tourism as "basically to the tourists requirements of accommodation and service which by local
Krippendorf's belief in the changes that will also take place in tourism seem
In his analysis of the discontent of industrial societies Krippendorf offers little exploitative in nature" and having so much money power that its operators "will standards are luxurious... Tourism may be regarded as a threat to the indigenous
reasonable and hopeful; or the reader is more sceptical and Krippendorf's
that has not already been spelt out by writers from Schumacher to Charles brook no opposition to its profit-making goal:' culture and mores, and there is a real possibility of a serious deterioration in
analysis seems to verge on wishful thinking, not to say naive. This reviewer
Handy. Where Krippendorf is at his most telling and interesting is in his analysis This admirable report, for which I congratulate the church authorities, standards of local arts and crafts as efforts are made to expand output to meet
swings between both positions, unable to quite believe in the 'young' on whom
of the consequences for these wasteland people when they set off on holiday. predictably attracted some outraged reaction. The Goa Travel and Tourism Club the tourist demand:' Not infrequently, resort development has resulted in local
Krippendorf pins many of his hopes. While it is true that there are many
He considers the consequences for the tourists themselves and those on whom claimed that tourism is the backbone of Goa's economy. The club's president people being denied access to their own beaches.
idealistic, brave and outspoken young people in industrial society, there are
they infl ict themselves. Little escapes his censorious touch. Ghetto tourism ­ went on to say that prostitution and drugs were prevalent everywhere in the By referring to these criticisms I am not suggesting that coastal tourism should
equal numbers striving for a position in the so-called 'yuppie' culture, and
such as 'club' holidays and indeed the entire package holiday set-up in which world and were much older than Goan tourism. be curtailed entirely, or that there should be severe restrictions on the movement
despite the predicted swing to the centre or left by many political commentators,
people travel to purpose built holiday destinations or 'operatta-like tourist resorts' of the people from one country to another. But it is certainly wise to take
the majority of western industrialised countries remain firmly entrenched on Nobody has claimed that tourism started what is universally known as the
- is described as having nothing to do with reality. 'Foreign elements' are cognizance of these factors in advance and attempt the philosophy of the golden
the right. oldest profession in the world. But it is certainly true that tourism has given
introduced in small doses but the organisers of such holidays are careful to mean so that no unfortunate developments catch us unaware. It should not be
screen w~at passes before the unwitting tourist's eyes. There will certainly be It is true that industrialised societies face a crisis, that there is a desperate it a boost.
difficult, with imaginative and realistic planning, to overcome these problems
no visit to a slum area, but a trip to photograph some poor, happy and need to make work more satisfying, to develop new ways of working, to restore Khushwant Singh was recently writing about his week-long holiday in Goa. and to make tourism a wholly desirable phenomena from the social, economic
picturesque natives at their work will be somewhere on the agenda. As will homeliness to habitats, reclaim the cities and humanize life a little. But is this After reading it I didn't know whether to laugh or cry. Khushwant says it cost
and environmental point of view. After all, in some national parks limits have
'meaningless folklore entertainment: For as Krippendorf comments 'the tourist very long term agenda a helpful solution to the immediate and pressing him as much as he earned in a whole month from his writing. I'd put the expense
been placed to the number of tourists in each season in the interests of
no longer sees the original foreign environment but rather a product he has problems of tourism particularly in the developing world? By the time the rich at, say, 30,000 Rupees. Actually a day's stay at one of our five star tourist resorts preserving the environment which they come to enjoy.
helped to create: corrupt living conditions, pushy sellers, toadying and industrialised countries have got their own houses in order might it not be too can easily cost Rs. 5,000, what with a bottle of soda costing Rs. 12, which is
xenophobia: late? Krippendorf states blandly that '...what we need in the first place are not nore than the daily earning of millions of Indians. Even at Rs. 1.50 per bottle, EXPRESS MAGAZINE, April 19, 1987.
different ways of travelling but different people. Only a new society and a new I find (drinking at home) that it's a swindle, because one out of three bottles
But so called 'alternative travel' escapes no more lightly, .and if anything,
everyday situation can produce a new tourist. A sick society cannot produce are flat. (In my boyhood days, I remember, when soda cost tl:lree paise, the
Krippendorf reserves more scorn for the expensive backpack, sleeping bag and
healthy tourists: But how long wi II it take to rear these new healthy societies, opening of a bottle outside the cinema house could be heard half a mile away).
camera,. and for the smug hypocrisy where by alternative travelers use the same
these sensitive, humble and open-minded tourists? And in the meanwhile, who If soda cost Khushwant so much, you can imagine what a peg of scotch would
facilities, cheap flights, ai rports and so on, produced by the mass tourism they
wi II protect the rights of the poor in the developi ng world whose habitats are have cost him.
despise so much. Alternative travel is just tourism by another name. Frequently,
plundered and whose values assaulted by ever-growing hordes of tourists in Swindle is the word for tourism. While native Indians don't get a chance to
when sold as adventure holidays or educational trips it merely costs far more
search of pleasu re? Krippendorf writes from the perspective of a rich enjoy a holiday at prices they can afford, even American and European tourists
and is sold to a more elite group. It remains an 'organised, saleable sanitized
industrialised country, where there is the luxury to think about the development have begun to complain that Indian hotels and restaurants are even more
adventure with full board, catalogue price and risk insurance. A unique hit:
of new paradigms. From the perspective of a tribal woman dispossessed from expensive than those back home. And when you add the cost of travel which
People who have higher incomes and more experience in travelling are better
the land her people have inhabited from time immemorial to make way for would be three to four times it would cost a western tourist to go to Spain,
able to camouflage thei r tourist role. The group who pays over the odds in order
a new tiger reserve for the tourists, his words might seem a little ironic.
to 'play at life in an African village' have merely fallen for a more sophisticated Yugoslavia or the Mediterranean, one has to have a total dedication to India
and expensive version of the 'something for the tourists' trap as the mass package To be fair to Krippendorf, the last 3 chapters of his book contain 23 suggestions to want to spend a few days with us.
holiday makers lying on Spanish beaches. At least the latter do not pretend they for developing a better style of tourism, and included among them is the I gather that the share of tou ri sm :n the gross national product has increased
are doing anything other than trying to have a good time. necessity of taking steps in the right direction now, without waiting for great from 0.43 per cent in 1984-85 to 0.64 per cent in 1987-88. This by any standards Mary Ellen Kelly
changes. He is excellent in his suggestions about what can be done 'at home', is a ridiculous performance.
Krippendorf's analysis is equally depressing from the perspective of the host Natives who beat drums to drive off evil spirits are objects of scorn to tourists who
countries who seem to miss out on all counts. A tiny minority of property contd. on page 17 Abu Abraham, in SUNDAY HERALD 19th February, 1989. blow horns to break up traffic jams.
example is their new Karnali Tented Camp in Western Nepal with spacious Clear streams get defi led with non-biodegradable soaps and human waste. All Bhutan evolved this policy after studying the effects that an open door
safari-tents set under thatched canopies-tranquil, naturally beautiful-hardly an trekking companies should be licenced, should be subjected to a set of strict
rules, should suffer strict fines for any violations - with all proceeds
The Last Shangri-la had on nearby Nepal which attracted hippies in their thousands in the
expensive physical set-up, in which they offer the best in amenities and services. and 1970's, and became a major drug trafficking and sm uggl ing centre. Its forests
into the maintenance of the environment. hy Sanjoy Hazarika
Foreigners flock to these retreats and willingly pay the five star tariff. were logged to a point where they could not be regenerated.
By using local materials instead of trucking in building supplies, hoteliers Within the private hotel sector, creative tax incentives could At the recent SAARC summit at Islamabad, the Maldives made a plea to Backpackers are rare in Bhutan. I remember seeing two in the two weeks that
could also cut the cost and time of construction. They could make use of local conservation. Make it profitable to nations to recognize the dangers and difficulties that the tinv countries I was there. And the country's forest policy is based on d few
labour and knowhow - a boon for any economically depressed area. waste disposal systems in facilities located in environmental Iv neighbourhood face. one, that no contractors are allowed in the lumber trade and the government
When I recently discussed this idea with a tourist official in the A few weeks ago, one of our tiny neighbour~, Bhutan, took what was for it controls all tree-felling. Two, wood are high so that people aren't tempted
The Minister of Tourism recentiy published a brochure in which it stated: a giant step towards development but perhaps a tiny move forward to the too often to dismantle old houses and build new ones. And the hills around
he explained that he'd like to promote this concept; but because
"India has launched a massive people's movement of ecological awareness and rest of the world. Without fuss or publ icity, the Royal Bhutanese Government Thimpu, once bare, are testimony to their successful afforestation
and fabricated structures have a short life, he's forced back into concrete and
conservation. The administration plays its pivotal role of funding and planning. bought its first passenger jetlinerfrom Britain and then unveiled a New Delhi­
cement. Ask a local, however, he'll say that the so-called short life can be You won't find many industries in the hills of Bhutan. There are few in the
extended easily with proper maintenance and Conserving primordial rain and tropical forests, establishing wildlife sanctuaries, Paro service at a glittering reception at its embassy here. Paro is the only civilian foothills that bottle liquor, fruits and jams. But power generation is a big source
planting captive energy forests to supply, fuel wood, fodder and fibre for paper airstrip in Bhutan, and until recently it took only a few flights every week from
But for the tourist department and their bulwark of tourist corporations, of revenue, and the Chukha hydel project, the creation of the labour of thousands
and rayon industries which are major causes of deforestation, social forestry Calcutta and Dhaka. The aircraft were turboprop planes known as Dorniers
maintenance and repair represent real stumbling blocks. Almost all state-run of workers from Bihar and elsewhere, and of engineers who built underground
schemes, soil conservation and rain water management programmes, they all and they brought in small groups of European, American and Japanese tourists
accommodations represent the depths of an unimaginative decor which caverns for the power turbines, supplies electricity to the power hungry plains
form integral parts of ecological conservation:' during the tourist season in Bhutan, which lasts for about 6 months, until
evidently doesn't inspire anyone to keep the rooms spotless and the amenities of ea~tern India.
November when the Himalayan chill sets in.
in working order. Here, too, a western vision has turned its back on India's The tourist department should throw its own The issue of development of Bhutan's own pace is important because of the
traditional arts and handicrafts. Drab drapes, not inexpensive locally produced senior officials there explained their pace structure of society. The Buddhist clergy is a very infl uential body and it has
work hand in hand with environmentalists so that short terms that their Buddhist culture and gentle way of
hand looms, which would be easy to keep clean, hang from dingy windows. consistently been at the forefront of opposition to an "open door" policy on
own industry called tourism don't end up as irreversible long term life should not be disrupted by the clutter, drugs, noise and violence of other
Expensive wall-to-wall carpeting, usually stained and worn, covers floors instead tourism. The priests fear that uncontrolled tourism will rob the kingdom of its
we~terners have learned the hard way. Now we fight to save our few rprminino Western and Eastern societies. The way they have approached tourism, is a
of less costly jute or indigenously made colourful area rugs. A pleasing Indian art treasures and "corrupt" its younger people, who may turn away from
wildlands. classic illustration of both points.
ambience, which exists in almost every village you visit, is traditional beliefs.
thp c;imnlpst hut and it's harmonious in AntiqUity, cultural diversity, physical beauty what wealth India possesses. Although there are cheap hotels in
But today's realities call for prudence and foresight. If this unchecked plunder The other day a top Bhutanese official was in Paris to negotiate increased
a government run hotel. visitors (particularly noisy Bengalis at Durga Puja time), the assistance to his country from the Aid Bhutan Consortium, which funds to some
of the coffers is allowed to continue, India's new industry wi II discover an high-paying tourists from the West (which of course, measure, development projects in the kingdom~ We travelled back to Delhi
If the beach is golden unavoidable truth about tourists. They're a notoriously fickle lot. Popular
destinations change like fashion's new styles. Worse, if the tourist isn't satisfied
Airways, the country's national carrier, is booked often for
parties of foreign travellers on short visits and big budgets (paying as high as
On the flight, he told me of a discussion he had had with a Western
official who had demanded that Bhutan do more with industrial projects
the first time he visits, he won't come back. The world is too big; other places 1,000 dollars for a tour of several days including hotels and trips out ofThimpu).
will capture his imagination and his wallet. In the end, successful tourism must so that it could move towards "a modern age". The official quoted his own reply,
Once they get to Thimpu, the rules are clear. and I think it is an example of the beauty and pO'vver of simplicity (I do not mean
promote good service and a healthy dose of national pride.
"Essentially': said one top foreign ministry official at Thimpu, "the tours go naivete), and the graciousness of the country: "You have what you call
EXPRESS MAGAZINE 29 January, 1989 where the Government allows them to go, they are accompanied by a development. But what has that done for you? Your forests are ruined; your air
government guide who keeps a sharp eye on the travellers:' Period. No straying. is dirty; your water is polluted and you have no peace of mind. You may be
rich but balance that against these other things. Until now our forests are
unharmed, our air and water are clean and we still have peace of mind. We
would like to keep it that way and develop at our own pace:'
The aid official was silenced.
Earl'Y' this year,'we began.~~rd~ramme;()fexPOsing school, studentS That is why the acquisition of the jet is significant for Bhutan. They waited
i? Ba.!)galore to the issues of tbiraWQfld;'teurism:DUfllngthe holidays, for years to buy it and half of the 60 seat plane is going to be used for cargo,
m~Rystudents partfcipate in sum~er campfororganisedtoursi so one transport costs from the plains of India, and tackling delayed deliveries
purposeofthe progFammeistohelp them lJe.sensitive travelh:~rs. We
also hope that some studentswill be motivated to get actively involved
in our work and ideas. The world's last Shangri-la is a land where cri me is rare and poverty,
the fact that it it is one of the poorest nations on earth, is not associated with
The programme consists of an audio-visuat- we h~ beenusi ng Peter the misery that hurts us on the rest of the subcontinent.
Holden's 'Don't Fence MeOut'- rollowed by a discussion and written
review. The following is one student's response: . It has its door to the world another chink.
INDIAN EXPRESS 12th February, 1989.
It's got to be India! FOR A fEW DOLLARS MORE
'I
contd. from page 10

India is blessed with beautiful panoramas. The move toward adventure the necessity for global thinking but local action. He writes well on the need
Nusa DUilI. a small villa.Qein Indonesia. is aclassi.c example of what
appropriate. The Iist of possible outdoor activities is end less­ to place the control of tourism firmly in the hands of local people. The agenda
tourism can do to a whple dan of people. ~Oon't Fence Me out' tells
wildlife safaris, mountaineering, hot springs in these last few chapters becomes practical and has a lot in it for serious thought.
us the poiQnat1t story ot 200famiUes who have lost their homes just so
to soothe the mind and body. But, here again, tourist development calls for Particularly good are his suggestions about educating people for travel from
that tourists can come and enjoy a few days'holiday.
caution. India's chain of mountains and its sacred rivers that wind their way earliest primary school up to adult education level. Since leisure is here to stay,
Nusa Dua. a villaQerich in culture and sbcial life, has almost been sold those who will have the leisure need to be taught how to lise it constructively.
to the sea are all under stress. The delicate eco-system suffers from pollution
out to the visitors by the Government of Indonesia for a little foreign
and over-use. Environmentalists in Nepal sound a warning: ifthe present rate All in all, The Holiday Makers is a thought provoking if mixed book.
exchan~e. The most disqustinq feature of the whole thjn~ is that the
of deforestation continues in that country, it could be bald by the year 2000. Krippendorf is enti rely right about a longer term sol ution being needed to put
QOremment is destroylnQ the life of its own people in the name of raisinq
India should analyse the reasons behind this dismal forecast. Trekking in Nepal tourism and travel on a sounder ecological and social footing. But for solutions
their standard of liVinQ.
has come with a hefty price. The Annapurna Sanctuary and Mt. Everest are in we cannot simply look to the tourists themselves and their representatives, and
trouble. Some say they should be closed and given a rest for five years. So. the next time you think ot a holiday. think twice. You may be believe that in time they wi II develop a healthy paternalism and act in the best
chDnl1in~ the lives of hundreds of people. interests of the host countries. The host countries themselves, particularly
In India, adventure sports require careful monitoring and uncorruptible
controls. Trekkers, their gaze lost to heavenly vistas, rarely notice their feet S. Arjun, IX A the developing world need to initiate the kind of tourism that willilltim;ltpiv
precious vegetation. And these days campfires roar with greater Bam~alore Military School be acceotable to those most directly affected.
Trees go up in smoke: wildflowers get buried under trash. Julia Mosse
NETWORK· We invite Network members to contribute to the Network Letter
by sharing their work, ideas and plans through these pages.
NEWS Communication is vita! to the life of a Network, especially when
ROUNDUP physical distances cannot easily be bridged by closer contacts.

Inter CUlt, Sri Lanka ALTERNATIVE NETWORK LETTER


Known previously as Intercultural Travel: Education Services, the national
secretariat of Inter Cult is located at 41 S1. Joseph Mawatha, Ettukala. 'Sri Lanka A Third World Tourism Critique
and You~ the travel guide jointly authored by Eileen Candappa, Maureen
Seneviratne and Harry Haas has been widely received by the Sri lanka tourism
About ourselves
trade. A German version is under preparation. A number of other books on New resource . materials are available asa ·l'esultOf~ch For Private Circulation Only Vol. 5 No.1 & 2 1989
tourism and other subjects are also planned. completedin 1988 (See ResourcesSection). This ~~ ~ beqana ~tact.
pl'Q9ramme with schoohtudents in~alore a brlelreportappears
Bma Swadaya Tours. Indonesia elSewhere inthenewsletter./V..the FourthAnnual General Meednq,.{be
(We reproouce tIM') items that recently appeared in local dailies in Banga/ore. 7he first,

Visitors to Indonesia might be attracted by the Cultural, Educational and fotlow1n~ members were elected tlS qtHcebearets: Dr.. Henry Wilson.
by Brij Tankha, is an extract from his feature Japan should open up more to imported Discover India - and how!

Developmental Exposure Programme (CEDEP) offered by Bina Swadaya Tours, Presi9entMahesklLobo; 1teBSUI~ranqAnI1~A1~~~, Secietruy~
labour' in the Times of India, May 2S, 1989. the second is an advertisement in the

By Kathy Cox
ChandraRala~.who WOlRe\l l(!Stryear on our ~touliSQland emir0mneilt' Deccan Herald ofMay 22.) Editor of "Fodor's Guide"
part of an organisation involved in rural community development. Tours range

study.representecius at .the .serhinat.QD ·'Tourtsm ·Pl~and


I:~i
from aday around Jakarta to a 3 week comprehensive coverage ofJava and Bali.
What is West isn't necessarily best. But that's the direction in which too many
Special packages arranged upon request. Write to: Dr. Bambang Ismawan, BST,
EnWonm~ntqjCOmelVatiorl.in?art:Aprll, atGar~U~ty, Uttar Without Comment
'Pradesh . Indian eyes are focused. The wish to bring in more foreign exchange has been
Jln. Gunung Sahari 1117, Jakarta 10610.
falsely equated with the wish to create foreign-copied clones. No one seems
The Japanese government, accord ing to recent reports, has taken a decision to realise that India can upgrade and modernise without rejecting its own
Citizens Concerned About 1Ourism. Goa, India to strengthen controls on the entry of unskilled labour from Asia. This foreign identity.
labou rcomes largely from South Korea, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Hong Kong and
CCAT, a recendy formed anti-tourism body, includes a large number of religious Five star hotels with elevators piping in foreign pop muzak symbolise the
Taiwan. Japan's increasing affluence has not only brought it to the attention
and laypeople. PI. a public meeting in late February, they demanded: 'Save our RESOURCES of other nations seeking to emulate its achievements, but made it a possible
worst in this tendency. It's the rare hotel or inn in India that champions this
Coastal Areas, Save Goa'. At a day long sit-in, they highlighted issues such as country's inherent charms-Chapslee in Shimla, the Silver Sands in Mahabali­
haven for immigrant labour from developing countries in search of higher paid
the weekly flea market, the full moon parties, drug addiction, nudity and AIDS. Tourism: Manufacturing the Exotic, Document 61, International Work Group jobs. puram, the Ajit Bhawan in Jodhpur, the Savoy in Mussoorie, the Windemere
The government's ill-advised tourism policy was likely to have adverse effects for Indigenous Affairs, Fiolstrcede 10, DK-1171, Copenhagen K, DENMARK. in Darjeeling.

on Goan lifestyle and livelihood. Later they walked in a silent procession to Foreign workers are derogatively called japayuki-san (Mr Go To Japan),

The objective of this document is to outline the relationship between tourism the dominating backdrop of fancy western-style hotels, India's real
the Church Square, where the public meeting took place. echOing the 19th century Karayuki-san used to describe Japanese women who
and cultural minorities. It aims to understand the nature of the relationship,
went to Asian countries for similar reasons. treasures from the past are succumbing to a nefarious battle. Uncontrolled
to point out its most harmful effects and to identify some survival strategies
industrialisation and public encroachment are claiming the temples of
which cultural minorities employ. The contributors provide concrete examples
A large number of women - in 1986 there were some 58,000 - many of Bhubaneswar. The Elephanta Caves are in danger of collapse. The Ajanta and
Community and Culture Based Travel \\\)rR Group, Canada
covering awide geographical and cultural spectrum, using differing perceptions,
them from the Philippines, usually come on tourist visas and work illegally Ellora cave paintings are decaying from carbonisation and ultra-violet rays. The
This research unit specialises in the study of, and information dissemination on salaries ranging from 2,50,000 yen to 3,00,000 yen in bars and cabarets. Today
approaches and formulations. A theoretical framework is presented by editor Gaiety Theatre in Shimla is far from gay, a victim of neglect. The Mogul Gardens
about, non-mainstream types of tourism, which are known world-wide under many women are being lured from places in Sri lanka, not just to work in the
Pierre Rossel in the first paper, Tourism and cultural minorities: double in Kashmir and the poor Taj Mahal fare no better. The list could continue, but
various names: Soft tourism, socially/morally responsible tourism, cultural entertainment industry, but to marry Japanese farmers.
tourism, etc. The generic name 'alternative tourism' (An is often used

margina!isation and survival strategies. ' it's far too depressing...the same holds true for the consequences. We all know
Agencies specialising in this trade have mushroomed and they often work that if these landmarks don't receive adequate attention and care, India won't
internationally to describe one or all the above types. In Canada, the term The Impact of Tourism on India's Environment, by S. Chandrakala,
in cooperation with local officials. They advertise freely in newspapers: :.\ real just suffer a loss in the number of tourists and a loss in foreign revenue-it'll suffer
'community-based tourism' is preferred. Write to Dr. L. Dernoi or Dr. C. EQUATIONS, Bangalore. 36 pp., 1989. US$ 10, or Rs. 35.

international marriage. Lots of foreign beauties from Korea, the Philippines, the loss of priceless links to its pasts.
CGIWG, Department of leisure Studies! University of Ottawa, 550
Although there has been earlier evidence of the impact of tourism on the MalaYSia, Sri Lanka and Thailand: The problem in this import business is that But talk is cheap and knowledge has not been converted into action.
Cumberland, Ottawa, Ont K1N 6N5. envirunment in India, there has been an acute shortage of a comprehensive unscrupulous brokers often work in consort with yakuza gangsters. Something is wrong. It's as if the burgeoning chain of Taj Hotels has assumed
presentation and analysis of the numeruus and complex issues involved. This The influence of 'foreign labour: small and controlled at present, is seen as far more importance than their namesake, the Taj Mahal. Travel north,
Centro Europeo de formation Ambiental y TUrlstica, Spain study was undertaken during 1988 using secondary materials from our files, carrying the seeds of disruption and discord. Foreign experts have always been east, west and you'll find an Oberoi Sheraton, or some other big splash breaking
CEFAT, the Eu!ppean Centre for Training in Environment and Tourism, is a non­ as well as information gathered from tourism activists in various parts of India welcome and employed at high salaries, but today's japayuki-san is seen as a new ground. While cities can absorb multi-storey structures, oversized
governmental non-profit organisation aimed at educational training. Its scope Tourism in South India: Its Impacts on Fisherfolk, EQUATIONS, Bangalore. 44 -,',)tential threat. Statements in a police booklet equate a foreigner with an monoliths anywhere else-along the shore or in the mountains-are eyesores that
is both domestic and internatiQnal. Rural tourism is avaluable WiJ!{ of extending pp., 1989. US$ 15, or Rs. 40. Immigrant. interfere with a landscape where Mother Nature once reigned supreme.
its aims, and therefore CEFAT helps groups seeking aid by offering technical Why must hotels be constructed out of uninspired cinderblock and concrete?
In collaboration with the National Fishermen's Forum, EQUATIONS undertook
assistance, enhancing awareness, organising workshops and seminars as well In every region of India, villagers, successful unschooled architects have evolved
a survey of tourism covering a vast coastline in the 3 southern states of Kerala,
FORJA~A.N
as by publishing a newsletter. Write to CEFAT, Viriato 21, E-2801O, Madrid. model dwellings that exemplify a harmonious relationship with the
Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. This report suggests that although there is some
physical displacement, the major impact of tourism in places such as Kovalam environment. Hoteliers could do the same. They could erect clustered
International Union of Food &Allied .\\brRers' Associations (IUF) and Mahabalipuram is socio-economic, where tourism's new structures have ·····1000 LADY (;utt'UJt\tARTISTS/gNTER.TAINERS accommodations of bamboo in the east; wooden Kashmiror Kulu-Valley-style
submerged local identities and livelihood. The report also covers trends in homes away from the home in the north; clay huts with thatched roofs in the
The IUF is an international trade secretariat representing more than 2.1 million
tourism development, relying on sources within the industry and governments. Fot:aserrice~~I1nter~~t Ii14ustryJo workatOsak~tfukujama. south. Already, Tiger Tops has made a success out of this concept, putting up
workers from 217 unions in 70 countries. These unions are active in the food,
aim¢jia~a,~~YoQ'.". •.. . •.. ....' •.. . •. •. . . ••••.. . .•. . . •. . . a lodging that's the epitome of simplicity and unobtrUSIve design. An excellent
beverage, tobacco and tourism industries. Battling 5 Star Tourism in the Courts: Canacona Beach Resort, Agonda, Goa, l!x¢~IJelltSillal'Y'. Fr~F()Qd,~90tDnlOdati()nl TransP?rt' Medic~~ contd. overleaf
Their affiliates in the hotel, catering and tourism sector (HRC) are aware of EQUATIONS, Bangalore. 6 pp., 1989. US$ 3 or Rs. 5. AC~dent anl.iHealth I.nstilmJlce!lreProvjde9.N~&oclalc9ntactofany··
the ill-effects of mass tourism and try to define atrade union policy in the tourism This is a summary of the report of a study commissioned by EQUATIONS in late kind W:ill. b¢~~~he~ce~t~ittt:tnddisplin~candidates. needonlr
sector with the ai m of giving more attention to the envi ronment and the people. 1987. The villagers of Agonda, at the southern tip of Goa, have been struggling ·ap:pI~ , , < , ' < " 0 ' ) .. .' . . . . . . .......•

A report of their conference on tourism (Limassol, Nov 9-11, 1987) as well against the Canacona Beach Resort for over 6 }ears. The report describes the Ladi~~in th¢.ag~~rPwe()y9:t()2Syears, wh':fcan speak Englisb and < INSIDE
as the IUF monthly News Bulletin are available from: problematique, the conflicts, legal contentions on both sides, followed by a pt')Sse~~~g pI~atjngpers()naJitYmay rUsh tlieit/je!aiJed Bio"liatas to: Gambia: Tourists but not cash ............ . 4
Dan Gallin, General Secretary, IUF, Rampe du Pont-Rouge 8, CH-1213 PI-Lancy, discussion of the law as acheck to exploitative tourism, and the present position . ..: - ' '. .. . ~~: : ',:. - .- -; - :"" ;' ',,' KanyakumariA4arch 5
of ~he court cases.
~.'MAKF.fl~EI!V,• ·NARlMAN~OINt~.·B()UAY.• oil.
Geneva, Switzerland. Tourism & Cultural A4inorities 8
Network News Roundup 12
Published by: Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS), 96, H Colony, Indiranagar Stage I, Bangalore 560 038, INDIA. .·U<,i~N~.,~p~/PER/:tOOO.+147/84
Phototypesetting: Revisuality Digitised Typesetting and Graphic Design, 4211 lavelle Road, Bangalore, India. lAyout: John