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Volume2 Issuel, October 1993 For Private Circulation Only

Opening Up: ForWhom?

In this increasingly mobile worl4 raising questions on the purpose Special Tourism Areas (STAs), emb.odied in the National Tourism
-rd underlying assumptions of mobility is seen by many as an Action Plan of.7992, are a step towards consolidating the process of
exercise without reason. Liberalisation is heralded as the motive force marginalisation. Kutch in Gujarat, an 84 kilometre shetdr in
in the increased movement of capital, Bood+ information and Maharashtra, Bekal in Kerala, 13 sites in Tamil Nadu, the Puri-
services. international and bilateril trade negotiations insist on Konarak coastline in Orissa: these are some of the targets for STA
increased access to markets which are "protected". Protection is now status.
synonymous with conservatism, non-opennese and immobility.
STAs are conceived of as areas of exdusive tourism dwelopment.
From the perspective of those who can afford to be "open" the above They will be administered by autonomous bodies which have the
is trnquestionable. But from that of those who can t, questions are tourism sector in the forefront of their plans. Ghettos of opulence
many. The right to question is their first loss. \lVith that their ability and decadence for the fortunate few, the STAs will cost the'silent'
to ask, and therefore the ability to participate. maprity their economic, socio-cultural and even political
sovereignty.
This is the context in which peo,ple who are marginalised by the
process of opming-up and liberalisation are raising their voices in Clearly, the time has come to close ranks and reaffirm our
protest. A protest emerging from the hurt of being marginalised commitment to reshaping existing structures as well newly
from the consciousness of those vested with the responsibility of emerging ones. What is not so dear, though, is the "how", since it
providing a space for creative interaction. is determined by the way each of us understands the "why".

Tourism, purportedly a "liberating" force, is increasingly removing Iinvite you to join us in the quest to seek altemative ways of
its mask, and is showing more and more its intolerance to those who participating, while allowing for a diversity of responses.
,^question its basis. It is fencing out people: their lan4 livelihood and
he contexts of their lives. K T Suresh
he urge to travel is perhaps as old as the origin of the spirit
of enquiry in man. But when this natural instinct to travel
for pleasure is turned into an industry, it becomes one of the
A
vilest means of exploitation with certain far reaching consequences.
AtrW
Global Developments II{IIA SION
In the seventies tourism began to take the shape of a globally
organised industry. This development is closely linked with the
Tourism as Colonisation
changing intemational scene after World War ll indicating a new
strategy of economic colonisation with indirect political control KVENU
replacing former colonial annexations. While the old colonies of
Asia, Africa and Latin America were enticed into the debt trap, Murky Scenario
developed capitalist countries made great advances in industrial
It would be relevant now to look at the third world experience with
production and established unquestioned supremacy over world
tourism. In countries Thailand, Malaysia and I'hilippines, economic
trade. Tourism should be understood in the context of these global
liberalisation had given a boost to the tourism industry. Despite the
developments.
massive influx of foreign tourists, much of the earnings are
appropriated by multinationals controlling the industry and profits
World-wide travel, which till recentll', was possible only for a
flow out for the import of consumer goods required by the foreign
section of affluent people in the developed capitalist countries is
tourists. Though affluent locals manage to profit in the process, the
now within the reach of the common man. Vacations, the payment
condition of the common people becomes worse. The lifestyle of the
of bonus and other benefits to workers are now structured to foreign tourists leads to inflationary trends. Again it is the common
encourage travel. Multinational corporations have massive invest-
people who have to bear the brunt. Unregulated construction or
ments in aviation, travel agencies, hotel chains and other sectors of
tourist resorts and golf course cause irreparable damage to th,l
international tourism. Travel allowance also comes as a component
environment. Even worse is the commoditisation of indigenou
of the service benefits to employees. But the irony is that these culture for consumption by foreign tourists.
incentives come fiom the sizeable profits made at the expense of the
peoples of the Third World.
The breakdown of social relations and crosion of moral values in
the developed capitalist countries have disrupted the family
For the average westerner, tourism offers a temPorary escape from
structure and sexual mores. Tourism is often seen as an escape from
the oppression of dt'cadent values within the capitalist social this vitiated atmosphere and as an outlet for sexual urges. The
structure. The lower strata can, as a rule, afford only third world
emergence of sex tourism is systematic to this phenomenon.
destinations as the cost of food, accommodation and travel are
Thailand and Philippines are the mute victims of this new brand of
comparatively cheaper.
tourism. Child prostitution has reached frightening proportions in
Thailand. In a vast country like India about 20,000 children are
estimated to be involved in prostitution. In Thailand, which is as
Third World Dilemma
large as one of our states, it is between three and eight lakhs !
While tourism received a fillip in the capitalist countries, the Third Advertisements offering the services of girls between eight and
World saw a different kind of development. Enamoured by the fiscal sixteen years are a common feature. Drug trafficking, which is also
aid and technology transfer offered by the imperialist countries, rampant is an attendant evil of the flesh trade and together strike at
third world nations entangled themselves in the debt trap. the very foundation of society. Malaysia and the Philippines are no
exceptiorrs.
The World Bank and the International Monetory Fund came
forward ostensibly to help these countries out of the crisis. The In India, Goa is on the verge or becoming another Thailand. Drug
conditionalities for extending assistance required these countries to trafficking ancl prostitution floursihes here. Kovalam in Kerala '-.
mobolise funds by cutting down on welfare expenditure, not fa r behind. Most young people i n the village have become either
abancloning subsidies, freezing wages and promoting tourism to drug pushers or addicts while prostitution has made Kovalam a
eam foreign exchange. Third World countries were quick to seize virtual clearing house for Aids in Kerala.
upon tourism as the short cut to earn foreign currency.

God's Country
Divergent Paths
What is the nature of tourism promotion in Kerala as we see it today
Tburism in the
developed capitalist countries and the under' arrd what are its consequences? The cultural pageantry that the
developred third world countries manifests itself under distinctly Kerala tourisrr, department puts up for the foreign tourists is a gross
differcnt circumstances. In rhe devcloped capitalist countrie's, affront to its helitage. Nothing can match the cultural perversions
tourism is part of the capitalist development Process. Cultural that have reduced the Onam festival to a mere decorative
clomination arising from tourism clevelopment is not an issue for electrification. In addition, lakhs of rupees are looted to host lifeless
countries who have for long established their political, economic cultural extravaganzas. Those who claim that tourism in its present
and cultural itlentities. But in third lvorld countries, though colonial form could be remodelled along more benign lines are deceiving
rt.rle no longer exists, the situ"rtion in many rvays is that of political themselves and others.
subse'rvience. Iiarning forc'ign cxchange through tourism is the only
cscape from thc de'bt trap. Given this situation, an objective The Bekal beach in Kerala is one of the six areas identified for
asscssmL'nt ol'tht'rmpacts of tourism does not exist in these intensive tourism development. Official announcements indicate
cor.rrt trit's. that the tourist facilities proposed in Bekal is very much on the lines
of what we see in Goa and Kovalam. An initial government world travel to developed countries, they usually take pains to
investment of about Rs. 1000 crores is envisaged with further adjust to the environment there. Why is it then that we feel
substantial private investments in luxury hotels, swimming pools constrained to provide special facilities for their comfort when they
and golf courses. The building of these massive facilities may fetch travel here? This only reflects the cultural domination we have
the local people some employment. However, once the surrendered to, a situation more abiect than actual colonial
infrastructure is complete, most of the remunerative openings subjugation.
would go to outsiders. What would then follow is the culture of
prostitution, pimping and drug peddling. Only an overall development approach built on self-reliance can
even envisage tourism as a beneficial industry. The policy
propensities of treating tourism as the main source of our foreign
Cultural Servitude
exchange have to be completely revamped. A new approach to
According to the officials, our "cultural backwardness" necessitates tourism is possible only when we stand firmly on the foundations
such S-star facilities for the foreign tourist who is more advanced of self-reliance and see tourism only as cultural exchange. I
than us ! No doubt, the cultural context of the West is very different
from that of ours, but the creation of exclusive tourist resorts will Translated & excerpted from The Matltrubhumi Weekly, Onam
further distort our own cultural fabric. When people from the third Special, September 1 993.

activities, though this would not improve remarkably owing to the


protectionist atmosphere in the capitalist West and the decade long

Tourism recession there. Following trade poliry reform, imports of foreign


goods and services, especially luxury items are going up.

and The more far-reaching impact of globalisation is iikely to be on the


service sector. Foreign banks and insurance companies, inter-
national telecommunication corporations, foreign airlines and

NEP travel agents will have an upperhand. Developed capitalist nations


are at an advantage owing to the sheer size of their corporate
organisations, scale ofoperations and technological clout. Trade in
services has now been included in the scope of GATT negotiations.
he National Action Plan for Tourism, announced by the The Dunkel Draft has suggested measures to allow free flow of
Government of India in 1992 outlines a major plan to services like banking, insurance, telecommunications and tourism
establish Special Tourism Areas (STAs) in different regions between nations. Once accepted these proposals will become man-
with nine travel circuits and six travel destinations identified for datory for member nations of GATT and it will ensure the domina-
development. Several new facilities for foreign tourists are tion of foreign capital in the service sector of developing countries.
envisaged with encouragement to private and foreign initiatives.
Significantly, those services in which a country like India enjoys
Existing restrictions would also be relaxed to make travel trade free.
The government would invest in airports, airline services, distinct advantages for instance labour services, professional
-
skills, consultanry serviceshave been left out of the scope of
communication networks, railways, banking services etc.
lnternational hoteliers would be given concessions to set up luxury
GATT negotiations on the- pretext that they are all part of
immigration laws.
hotels and foreign airlines, travel agents and tour operators also
would be encouraged. There is a lot in common between the Dunkel Draft (especially trade
in services) and the new economic policies in India. This is evident
The Action Plan should be viewed in the context of the principles of
from the new poliry guidelines and reforms in the trade, industrial
liberalisation and globalisation which presently guide the new
economic poliry. Liberalisation refers to the creation of a liberal
and financial sectors. Even before signing the Dunkel Draft,
Dunkelisation of the economy is on through globalisation.
-'onomic environment where market will be the decisive force and
6overrunental restrictions will be less. The private sector will The National Action Plan on tourism states that the aim of the new
dominate; Disinvestment in public sector equities is one step in that policy on tourism would be to "enaourage private investment, both
direction.Through fiscal policymeasures the govemment is reducing domestic and foreign". Hotels set up in "rural areas, hill stations,
public investment by withdrawing subsidies to essential items like pilgrim centres and specified tourist destinations", will be exempt
food, fertilizers, water, electricity etc. and cutting down expenditure from expenditure tax and fifty per cent of income tax for ten years.
on health, education, drinking water, employment generation and The new industrial policy has already facilitated automatic
poverty alleviation. Several tax concessions for big industrial houses approval of foreign investment in equity upto fifty-one per cent in
are on the anvil. The allocation and utilisation of investible financial hotel industry. A committee has been set up to negotiate with parties
resources are left to the market. It would reduce the reach of the abroad to attract foreign investment especially in STAs. lnterest
banking system in rural areas whle expanding them in the urban subsidies will also be enhanced to set up hotels in special areas and
areas. Loans to priority sectors including agriculfure would be cut specif ied destinalions.
fromthe 40% of thetotal bank lending today toonly 10%.
The role of the government, as the action plan asserts, shall be to
Liberalisation. is thus changing the structure of the economy by 'conceptualise and deal with policy issues mainly'. ln the current
reducing the role of the state and making the economy rely more on context these 'policy issues'aim at devising more and more avenues
market mechanism. Globalisalion refers to the integration of our for private initiative and attracting foreign investment in the
economy with the world economy. By opening up our economy the tourism sector. I
entry of foreign goods, services and capital is facilitated with little
restriction. Industries have been given incentives for export BYASDEB DASGUPTA
Fiscal Incentives/Concessions Declared by the
Government of India
A) Under 80 HHD of Income Tax Act, 1961. Income participation in trade fairs,/exhibitions abroad,
attributable to foreign exchange earnings of the hotels advertisement publicity, promotiory market studies,
50% is exempted from Income Tax straightway and the publication of brochures, folders, etc. agency commission,
balance 50% is also exempt if reinvested in tourism service chargeg fees payable to foreign technicians and
industry. any other payments including imports subject to
B) Approved hotels functional after 31.3.1990 but before regulations.
7.4.7995 are eligible for Tax Holiday deductions under 5. Imports
80 IA.
Capital goods, raw materials, components etc. can be
Depreciation
- imported without any restriction except tothe extent such
imports are regulated by the Negative List of Imports.
hotel buildings
The are eligible for depreciation at the rate
- of 20% with effect fuom 2.4.1987 (Assessment year Import of special items required by hotels, restaurants,
1988-89). Furniture and fittings used in hotels have been
- travel agents and tour operators permitted against a
allowed a higher rate of depreciation of 75"/o against the licence on the recommendation of Director General of
general rate of 10%. Tourism. Recognised hotels, travel agents, tour operators
and restaurants are entitled to such import licences upto
Interest Subsidy avalue of 70"/o of the foreign exchange earned by them
during the preceding licensing year.
Hotel Projects 1-3 star categoryare eligible for an interest
- subsidy of 3% on the entire loan amourt. Hotel projects 6. Concessional Custom Dutv
in specified areas and Heritage Hotels are eligible for 5Y" Custom Duty on specified items has been reduced to the
.interestsubsidy. No interest subsidy is available for 4 and - level as applicable to project imports provided the goods
5 Hotels and other hotels in the four mehopolitan cities imported are required for substantial expansion of the
of Dellii, Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. hotel. This includes equipment for kitchen, health club,
laundry, housekeeping, energy saving devices, etc.
Liberalised Exchange Rate Management System (LERMS)
Equipment for Advenfure Sports can also be imported on
Hotels, travel agents, tour operators and other -
- organisations connected with tourist trade are no covered
a concessional rate of duty.

under'LERMS. Authorised dealers release foreign Priority consideration is also given to approved projects
exchange for business visitt participation in Conferences,
- in allotment of construction materials, like, cement, steel
Seminars, Training etc. Prior approval of Department of and for telephone, tele4 LPG connections.
Tourism is not necessary.
ExportPromotion Capital Goods (EPCG) Scheme
Facility to open and operate Exchange F-aciers Foreign
- Currency (EEFC) Account extended to hotels, travel
Import of capital equipment (including spares upto l}%)by
Hotels and Restaurants, Travel Agents and Tour operators,
agents, tour operators, etc. Under the sdreme, L5% of
for which payments are received in freely convertible
inward remittances in foreign exchange can be credited to
currency, is allowed at a concessional rate of custom duty of
this account and utilised for specified purposes.
15% subject to an export obligation four times the CIF value
The purpose for which EEFC account can be utilised of the imports. Theobligation is tobe fulfilledwithin aperiod
- include travel abroad, expenses for foreign hospitality, of 5 years.
TourisminKr;/ch alone have been so vigorously promoted
at every Festival of India abroad, at every
-
5trolling tor le i:ure"l"
opportunity at home
Chnllenges and - that each
Kutchiproductis a resplendent
sale of a
invitation to
a visit.) So, what kind of tourism will be I was strolling down the path
OpportunXies positive for the Kutch of tomorrow, and by the fields after my meals.
how can it be planned and built? I met Anton who told me
he couldn't have any fish for
his meals
Our exercise here could well begin by because it was too expensive.
making an inventory of the tourist'product' The five-star hotels,
whidr Kutch represents. What (and where) he said, were r€ady to pay
are the attractions (phyrsical, natural, social) the higher price for the fish.
that drawvisitors? What opportunities and Then I met Marh who was
what problems do each of these attractions standing pensively
lF"" purpose or rnls worKsnop $ ro
represent? What has been the tourism by the well sucked dry
experience so far, both positive and by the five-star hotel.
I outline a strategy for tourism negative? What directions or questions does
She was thinking, she said,
L developmentin Kutch - a strategy past erperience suggest in terms of future
of the long walk
that can respect the fragile ecology of this the next morning for water.
decisions? Can one attempt to prioritise
area while responding to the growing these attractions in terms of development?
Then I heard Meena
visitor interest in its attractions. By a 'fragile coughing badly
ecology', we mean a natural as well as a
What infrastructure/attitudes/slills / bud- and her door was open;
cultural ecology. Both need protection and
gets do they need for development or So I dnopped in. She had gone
protection, or both? What hazards are being to fetch the doctor, she said,
enhancement. The natural ecology is often in the cold night for her hubby
easier to understand, and difficult enough
experienced, or are feared? What is the
having a running anus.
y'o secure. The cultural ecology- is far more quality of socio-economic information now
available on tourism in Kutch who earnt Water-bome disease,
.ompler; both in terms of the delicate - by how the doctor opined,
relationships which comprise it, as well as
who is employed, who benefits,
Any dirty Water? careful about it.
much? What investments havebeen made,
in developing the protective responses
by whom, and what investments are
He was stem in his caution!
whidr it needs. The seu'age, Shankar said,
needed? was beirrg let out
into the Sal river, by a starred hotel
Tourism is an industry, and needs to be I walked further down
If tourism is to be sensitive to Kutch, it must
understood in terms of the infrastructure I wanted leisurg
first respect its people. Are they involved in my peace of mind after my meals.
which this 'smokeless industry'requires :
decisions which will determine tourism's
the quality of attractions that can sustain But, then, Shanta
tourists demand, the efficienry of services fuhrre here? If so, can this involvement be Oh, no!
(hansportation, accommodation, guides, strengthened? If not, how can we ensure At her door, her husband was
that it takes place now? It is for thc citizens beatin g her mercilessly,
food, shopping entertainment) that visitors
of Kutch to understand this industrv. and to "They are taking our land",
need and demand, the implications of Shanta said, running to me,
decide what it is about theirland which they
developing sudr infrastructure and of "for the golf courses",
maintaining it. The demand factor is wish to share and with whom (and they and Moti won't fight.
may not wish to share). There are important
important to understand. 'Tourists' are not Moti wouldn't fight against those
one homogenous group. Tourist traffic has
implications here for citizens representation
taking his land.
to be segmented by interest and budget (and
and actiorL and for heritage institutions. He was taking out his frustration
not merely by citizenship) if infrastructure on his wife.
Inevitably, the concept of Tourism Carrying Just see/ Shanta sighed,
is to respond to existing demand, or new Moti is violent and
Capacity must be extended to Kutch. lt is a
-iemands are to be created and sustained. It the golf course prcmoters
rs here that choices exists, and need to be
concept coming into its own globally, but
are even mone violent,
exercised with sensitivity. Tourism may be largely neglected in India. The tourism
carrying capacity of a place is its ability to Outcame Lilliput,
'smokeless' in the physical sense, but it has their son of fourteen years;
serve andhold a numberofvisitors for short
pollution factors that are often difficult to he was drunk at the bar
control. Unplanned and uncontrolled, spans of timg without causing stresses on newly-setrrp ne(t door.
tourism can quickly destroy the very factors
the socio<ultural and physical environ- Bars are required,

that attract travellers in the first place. ment. The moment sudr stresses are Shanta said for tourism
observed the carrying capacity of a place and to keep our people drunk.
'Cultural Tourism' is the term now used to
describe the task before us. can be said to have readred its limits. What Then fiveStar Hotels
is the evidence in Kutch? What capacity can make merry, and tourism
sfudies are needed here, before maior can flourish
Tourism itself is not a choice. Peo'ple will while our people perish.
and do travel. The freedom to travel is basic decisions are taken? Due to little food
to our society. The choice is a qualitative and cirrhosis of liver
and concr€te to breathe
one: what kind of tourism? How much
and exhautation from
tourism? Holiday travel is a major This papo was ye*nted W Mr. A*olce extrawork,
'phenomenon for India's burgeoning Chattaje, Executiae Ditector of the National
middle class as well as for visitors from Institution of Design at awo*shop conwnd by
overseas.The industry is searching for 'new' Mrs. Uroashi Dmi, Minister of State for Vt ASlilGOBtll(ARNE
destinations. Kutch is one of them. flts crafts Tanisltt, Gujmat at Bhui in April,7993.
5
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ONF,\I<^^L,\ND
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FREDEHCKNORONTIA

--l\.
RIVATE property. Tiespassers will people in Shendrem and Agonda villages. outlying villages. This .only means that
be prosecuted", says the untidily In Agonda, though the project was initiated unlike, say in Bombay, here land is still a
scrawled signboard. Drawn below in the early Eighties, it has still not been vital resource. Given the lack of appropriate
it is a waming skull and crossbones sign. completed, in large part due to the public technology, villagers still need large areas of
protests. land to take care of their basic needs for
This one case comes from Naqueri-Betul,
-
paddy fields, cattle grazing, coconut groves,
where the Goa Government is thinking of housing, providing firewood and other
OLDPROCEDURES
acquiring and taking over a few thousand Purposes.
square metres of land for a luxury hotel's One factor which has aggravated the
golf course project. But, such exhibition of antagonism felt towards major tourism Both tourism and the Govemment's plan ^
anBer is frequently seen across this small projects here has been the use of British to lure industries here have aggravated the
ofthe
State, as villagers detest the takeover colonial- designed land acquisition laws by land crisis in this small State. Added to this
land they depend on, for a number of the State Govemment to take over land for have been proposals which choose places
projects of dubious utility. such luxury projects, as empowered by law. like Goa for being the site for a 'free port'-
Sometimes acquisition proceedings are not an idea which seems to be virtuallv dead
Golf course-related protests are only the resorted to, but the threat to use them is now.
latest of a series of issues in Goa, over which wielded as a weapon to make the villagers
villagers have protested even if in an sell cheaply. ,HOLIDAY HOMES'
expectedly
- marurer
not too articulate
-
over the change in land control and Even the recent major row over the Konkan Goa's beauty and its recent tourism
land-use which would adverselv affect Railway route in Goa reflects, to some successes which may phase out like any
them. extent, the fears as to the manner in which fashion
-have drawn much attention and
land prices and land availability would be
-
built up much media-hype around the
Dr Wilfred de Souza
Goa Chief Minister affected in an already-overcrowded region place. This has led many persons to dream
recently raised questions about the in central coastal Goa. of 'holiday homes' in this so<alled
legitimacy of anti-golf course protests. He 'paradise'.
said he did not find the objections raised by Not too long ago, in the late Eighties, the
the "environmentalists" on these issues multinational giant Du Pont was also hit by The real estate business has thus been
convincing. But the fact is that to dismiss similar protests by villagers who were booming, thanks to local level corruption,
themasbeing merely environmental ones is against a plan to have a Nylon 6,6 plant in which both boosts the realtors' clout anC^
to miss the point, in a bid to perhaps theirvillage, Keri in PondaTaluk.Oneof the itself depends on it. Land-conversions hav.
deliberately duck the matters raised. major issues was the way in which the land been undertaken at a rampant pace,
was sought to be taken over for the project, particularly during the former Ravi Naik
Before the issue of the golf course, there was with the help of the govemment. regime, further shrinking the agriculture
also the question of the impact of the plan to and green land available.
give a big boost to luxury tourism along the In a few taluks property ownership is very
Goan coastline. skewed, and a few landholders control vast Some big builders, who have a
areas. But in most of the densely- populated none-too-clean reputatiory have moved in
ln 1987 and after, there were even protests regions of Goa, land holdings are tiny and from cities like Bombay. Given the massive
staged against the large-scale expansion for distributed among a
large number of speculative profits which one can skim off
luxury tourism in this State. Goa, apart from people. So, the pinch is widely felt when the real estate business, and the fact that it
attracting much attention as a tourist- there is any move to start big projects on is one of the better investment options after
paradise, also began to draw international local villagers' lands. the stocks scam hitshare prices, their impact
protests because of the opposition sparked on the region and the pressure of their
off by the tourism projects. Another aspect which is little understood money power is quite obvious.
outside Goa is that this State is not a large
Besides this, two massive tourism projects city, as is widely believed. It is made up of a Advertisements in local newspapers these
which weresought tobe putup in Canacona few towns (around or under one hundred days give open hints to land owners that
Taluk were affected by protests by the thousand population each) and a number of they should 'act now' to perhaps neuhalise
6
their tenants. Even agricultural lands are from Goa, or by people from other regions
offered to be bought off by realtors who have fallen for Goa's 'paradise' image.
obviously for anything but agricultural
- So, a number of such flats are later simply
activity, though it is against the law to put kept shut after purchase, even when the
up buildings for activities other than housing problem in the State is acute for the
farming on agricultural fields. corunon man.

Many of the flats which come up in this


manner end up by being bought by NRIs DeccanHerald 2 October 1993

TheQuepemCoastalVillagePeople'sWelfareActionCommittee 7. Some ten years ago, without any consultation with the
has been campaigning against the proposed golf courses in the people of the locality a large area (about L00 hectares) has
Goan villages of Betul, Canaguinim, Quitol and Naqueri. In July, been acquired again without informing the villagers and at
a two hundred strong group of women along with members of present one finds the said area surounded by a high
Bailancho Manch and Jagrut Goenkaranchi Fouz (fGF) held a compound wall and the sign board of the Oil and Natural
protest 'morcha' in Margoa. The following is the abstract of a Gas Company Commission (ONGC)
memorandum dated fuly 21, 1993 submitted by the QCVPWAC
-
to Dr. Carmo Pegado, Tourism Minister of Goa. 8. The residents of this locality also fail to understand way the
prime areas which have pristine beauty which is our
cultural heritage and which we have sustained should not
Honourable Minister. be reserved for us the residents of the localify and why
such...areas should be converted for the entertainment and
We theresidentsof Betul, Canaguinim, Quitol and Naqueriplace activity of persons alien to the locality and to the detriment
for your consideration the following: of the villagers.

1. Within the village Panchayat of Naqueri, Behrl there has 9. We were shocked to hear from the Members of the Village
been a spurt of activity... several persons coming to the Pandrayat that the proposal for Hotel was not even hinted
village in cars and measuring lands without the permission at to the members of the village Panchayat which is the local
of the owners... (or the) villagers. body duly elected.

2. (We have been told) that the Government of Goa has 10. May we express our sincere apologies, if by any stretdr of
decided to acquire the lands belonging to the villagers... imagination you were led to believe that we have
(and that) the villagers shall have no say whatsoever into hlpothecated our rights to life and livelihood and our rights
the Proceedings except to accept a Pittance as to self determination when we voted in the elections.
compensation... (and that) the Goa Govemment... has
already approved in principle thatsetting upof a golf course 11. We also lodge our protest against the move to force us to sell
and a hotel within the limits of the village. the landed properties which are required for us for our
residential purposes, for us to construct a school, for us to
3. For, almost a decade the residents of these villages have been have other amenities which are essential for the healthy
requesting that a health centre be opened ... since there are growth of the residents of these villages and of the
no doctors anywhere close by... this demand of the villagers surrounding villages and consequently the growth of the
has never materialized thanks to the wrong priorities of the State of Goa and consequently the growth of the Indian
Government. Union.

4. The residents of Canaguinim have been residing in the said It is therefore submitted that the people of the villages of
village for the last five hundred years and these villagers Betul, Naqueri, Quitol and Canaguinim do not desire to
and their predecessors have brought under cultivation large have any golf course and hotel projects set up in their
tracts of land with their sweat and toil. villages.

J. When the residents... demanded a road some forty years The Citizens
ago, the Govemment of Goa has been lethargic... as a
consequence of which these residents have to travel on foot SignedW
a distance of about 4 kilomehes. 1. Mrs. Sushma Lone Betul (Sarpanch) Betul
2. Mr. Shaikh Abdul Mutalib (Dy. Sarpanch) Betul
6. The Govemment of Goa has some time in the year 1988 3. Mr. Santosh Desai (Panch) Naqueri
constructed a wind turbine...imported from Dangreon 4. Mr. Ermigilo Lobo (Panch) Naqueri
Windkraft A/s Denmark and after having spent several 5. Mr. Antonio C. Simoes (Pandr) Naqueri
lakhs it has been kept unutilized. Neither has the 6. Mr. Charles D'Silva (Convenol, QCVPWAC)
Government explained what has gone wrong with the wind 7. Mr. Santosh Desai (Secretary, Naqueri)
turbine. 8. Miss. Sandra [,obo (Treasurer, Naqueri)

7
fter crossing swords over the Chilka Aquatic Farm, the plans for beach tourism were implemented, the objective of
TATA's almost shelved the multi<rore Pralvn Project in increasing theflowof foreign tourists to the statreinthecomingyears
Chilka lake, the environmentalists and the Orissa would be frustrated. He fails to understand w$ such a hue and
govemment s€em to be heading for yet an other showdown over cry has been raised when his government is taking steps to adhere
theJanata Dal govemment's ambitious plans to set up a beach resort to the guidelines prescribed by the Union Environment and Forest
and a hotel complex between Puri and Konarak. Ministry.

While the State Government has roped in the Hotel and Restaurant The minister disclosed that the Puri-Konarak coast line has been
Association of Orissa (HRAO), the environmentalists have sought identified by the Union Govemment's Tourism Department as a
the help of parliamentarians of almost all political parties to fight Special Tourism Area. He called for a halt to the opposition to the
their case at different levels. No wonder, the issue has snowballed project on the grounds that Orissa had still no tourism project of
into a major controversy in the state today. this scale whidr were alreadv there in the other states of Goa,
Thmilnadu and Kerala.
The revolt against the govemment's project is led by Mr Banka
Bihari Das, a former minister, social worker and mvironmentalist The Campaign
who heads the Orissa Krishaka Mahasangha (OKtvt). It may be re'
called that the Mahasangha played a major role in the local people's Political observers feel that, like the agitation against the TATA
agitation against the TATA groject at Chilka, the stir against
project at Chilka. Mr Das '{.f"lilfiior.r{tloon""-- fhe present project is likely to be
announced that like the Prawn _ -' \ intensified as the agitators have
Project at Chilka, the beach
resort and hotel complex project r*i already managed to get much
needed support of
will also be resisted tooth and
nail. His organisation
already launched a campaign to
awaken the local people about
has
3N"'li,t$$i,ffi parliamentarians.
members of
Thirteen
Parliament of
different political parties have^
urged the Prime Minister, P \
the dangerous consequences Narasimha Rao to reject the state
that they would face if the govemment's proposal.
govemment implements the
project. Excuptedftom ST Beuria's " Sttong
Oppo si tion t o B each Resw t P roj ect ",
Deccan Herald,T October 199i.
Threat to the Forest
It all started in August when Biju Mr Banka Behari Das,
Contact:
the Patnaik led government in President Orissa Krushak
the state sought clearance from Mnhasangha, 74, Ashok Nagar,
the Union Forest and Bhubanawar-9, Orissa.
Environment Ministry for the multi-crore project. According to
Mr Das the Forest and Tourism Department of Orissa have already
admitted that there are 5,17,778 trees ir the proposed site for the
complex.

The project report states that2,227 acres of land will be acquired for
the implementation of the first phase of the project. The second
phase, when it comes up, may destroy the entire reserve forest in
the area (Konarak-Balukhand Sanctuary) and affect the ecological
balance. The OKM has released the names of L6 companies who
have applied for land to build hotels and beach resorts in the
proposed complex.

Mr Das expressed surprise that big hotel groups had applied for
100-300 acres when most such big hotels could be built over five
acres of land. Meanwhile the HRAO has alleged that Mr Das was
acting on behalf of "vested interests" who were opposed to the
development of tourism in the state. The HRAO further says that
the expansion of tourism should not be opposed as it was the only
sector which would give employment to thousands of unemployed
youth besides generating foreign exchange. The prgect envisages
the construction of 2000 hotel rooms and is projected to provide
employment to 50,000 people.

Government's Case

When the matter became very controversial the state tourism


minister Mr A U Singhdeo, issued a statement saying that unless
organisers felt that the play was well received by the people and
that such a form of communication was graphic and potent. SomE
songs relating to the impacts of the road were also composed in
Tamil and sung after the play. Very recently a cycle yatra from
Mahabalipuram to Pondicherry was also organised to spread the
awareness message of what the ECR implies to the area.

c)N AWA}I^/ARI) The issue is also being fought legally by member NGOs sudr as
INTACH, CAG and by concemed individuals from Auroville. A
|itJa+{w^y,,. T|;le stay on the cutting of hees has been obtained from the Madras High
Court. An application has been filed in the court to extend the stay

EAST UI45A RC)AI) to cover the construction of the actual road. The Government in tum
has filed a petition to vacate the stay on the cutting of hees.

Land acquisition is being carried out in a high-handed manner. The


The April issue of the ANletter carried an inhoductory note on the Govemmenthas introduced a provision by which it no longer feels
construction of a major coastal highway from Madras to Cuddalore the need to follow the required procedures in order to acquire land
as part of the East Coast Road from Madras to Kanyakumari. We at for a public project. Monitory compensation to the displaced people
EQUATIONS have been keenly following the progress of the is rarely if ever paid. In fact one of the reasons for the choice of a
campaign against this monumental transgression of human and coastal route for a major highway was that land acquisition then
ecological well being that is euphemistically called the East Coast would be cheapcr.
Road.
The Campaign does not say no to a coastal road. The existing road
A well documented critique of the East Coast Road (ECR) has been needs to be repaired and maintained. What it is opposed is a
brought out by the Pondicherry chapter of INTACH. It highlights massive highway that will drastically alter land use patterns and
-the economic, social, cultural and environmental impacts that the villale lives, will displace thousands of
road is going to have on the area and the people. tn addition it offers people, dramatically increase the
a sound and practicable alternative route that will riot only be pressure on the fragile coastal

li.ti';.,
oa
igns
t0

_'v.t

cheaper to build ancl maintain, and be fraught with less adverse ecosystems and natural resources, impinge on and harm many
consequences but will also service a greater number of people. sensitive ecological zones and encourage an unbridled
industrialisation of the area and a spurt of resort based mass
Of the current stretch of the ECR from Madras to Cuddalore that tourism. Moreover the ECR is being built in the absence of a
has been approved by the Government, work is in process on two masterplan for an integrated and sustainable coastal zone
stretches of 15 kilometers each. The estimated coet of construction development. The urbanisation and industrialisation that such a
stands in the proximity of a phenomenal 50 lakhs/km. The highway can encourage will permanently upset the ecological
-construction of the road brazenly flouts legal as well as balance of the area.
environmental guidelines whilebeing callous about the livelihood
of the people. Thousands of trees have already been cut along the Thequestion is can a harmonybe worked outbetween developrnent
route with little sustained effort at planting and taking care of the and genuine needs of the people that the developmental plans are
trees planted as replacements. To compound the problem an supposed tobenefit. r
abysmally low survival rate ensures that few saplings survive the RASAVAFIqT' HEBBALU
difficult coastal climate.
A coordinated campaign against the ECR was initiated early this
year. An Action Committee on the ECR was formed with over 20
ZOO
NGOs, many of whomare based close to theroad, and some affected TheCoimbatore Human Rigtfts Forumhas raised objections against
individuals. Thecampaign on the ECR has been taken up on several the proposal to establish a zoological park at Anaikatti in
fronts. There is an attempt to generate a wide base of local awareness Coimbatore district by a private organisation called Coimbatore
amongst the people who are going to be affected by the ECR. To Zoological Park Society. Three hundred acres of forest land which
reach out to and be understood by the local people powerful is the basis of subsistence for the Adivasis (indigenous peoples) of
communicative means such the street plays, culturals, discussions the area and 100 acres legally held by the Adivasis is sought to be
and cycle yatras are employed. acquired for the park. The Adivasi hamlets of Thoovaipathy
(population: 300), Aranattukkadu (population: 200) and Goodanur
A couple of months back a play based on the negative impacts of (population: 300) come within the area to be acquired.
the ECR and on the way the Governrnent is handling the project was
prepared by some youths from Pudupattinum. The actors and the The Human Rights Forum also alleges that at Thoovaipathy 40.96
acres of the Adivasi's land has been fraudulently obtained by the This wrong promotion of tourism in other parts of India gives a
Park Society and two houses of the Adivasis were demolished by misleading image of Goan women in the minds of other Indians. It
musclemen employed by the Society. Complaints to authorities also leads to tourist misbehaving in Goa. I
have been futile.

The real motive behind this 'conservation' venfure is promoting


tourism and making profits for the Park Society, the Human Rights
Forum points out. A brodrure put out by the Park Society states that
"...the Coimbatore Zoological Park and Conservation Centre '..is a
Tourist Centre, a recreational outlet for Coimbatore residents and
GoaWo*.enPtotest
visitors; tours to see highly endangered primates in the wild... will
be one of the extras the zoo offers visitors; opportunities for
Agail.ts+ Bc',r^s
individual and corporate sponsorship are being made available..." Women in Goa, the state traditionally known for its hospitality and
The Human Rights Forum believes that the park is only a business "feni" (country liquor), have mounted a campaign against alcohol
venfure. and proliferation of bars.

Another matter of concern is the apparent attempts of the Park Several women's groups have come together to combat the menace
Society to manipulate the official machinery and regulations to their of alcohol consumption whidr has become part of lifestyle of a
benefit. The Human Rights Forum suspects that the exPerts section of the population.
committee set up by the Central Ministry of Environment and
Goa boasts of over 6,000 licenced bars there are many unlicenced
Forests to determine the viability of the zoological park had
ones too
-
catering to a population of 1.17 million. The ratios of
members who had special interests in the venture. This suspicion -
bars to population is probably one of the highest in the country.
is based on the fact that some members of the experts committee
were also members of another private organisaion called ZOO (Zoo Bailancho Saad, Nari Annyaya Nirmulan Samiti and Peaceful
Outreadr Organisation) based in Coimbatore. G Rangaswamy, Society (women's wing) are involved in this campaign against
Secretary of the Coimbatore Zoological Park is the President of alcoholism.Ms Albertina Almeida of
ZOO. The Human Rights Forumalso suspects that many members Bailaicho Saad said that the
of the managing committee of Z@ could have been the members movement has alreadv r

of the expert committee also and the Forum has requested the eceived a positive response from various rural based women.
Ministry to reject the recommendations of the committee on this
Ms Bharathi Bhandekar of the Peaceful Society said that their main
basis if the suspicions are found true. r demand was a moritorium on further licence being issued to any
form of liquor outlets. She also demanded strict implementation of
For more information, ask EQIIATIONS fot:
j, Mmch 1993. laws relating to liquor outlets since these laws are being flouted by
Tourism Alternatfua Exchange,Issue
the licencing authority themselves.

Isolated struggle against alcoholism have been fought in several


villages. This is the first time, however, that a concerted drive il
-
"5.xist" being launchedbywomen's groups to fighton a commonplatform.
They admit that their campaign against alcohol was spurred by
Touriswt Slid. similar movements in Andhra, Haryana and Kamataka.
One of the struggles whidr the campaign has taken up is the fight
Withdrawy"r against the setting up of bar in a small village of Tivrem in Ponda
Taluka, South Goa. According to Ms Mamata Gaonkar, a member
The Ministry of Tourism in New Delhi has withdrawn a slide in an of theZuarwaddoNagarik Samiti, the villageisafflictedwith alarge
audio-visual show meant for tourism promotion abroad in the number of alcohol addicts and the opening of one more bar would
withdrawal was conveyed
face of protest about its "sexist" tone. The only add to this. She explains "we need a flour mill and not a bar".
to the Regional Director of Tourismby the Union Ministry.
Shebelieves that the indifference of the government to this menace
of this sexist was because alcohol is a significant source of revenue and the bars
Bailancho Saad had protested agianst the use
were necessary for tourist traffic, according to local officials.
audio.visual presentation in India at the International Tourism Fair
held in March this year. This incriminating slide was spotted by Women's groups point out that bars are seen, or so made out to be
vigilant joumalist from Switzerland Ms Christine Pluess. Ms for promoting tourism.
a necessity I
Sabina Martins of Bailancho Saad said that several magazines
abroad have depicted Goa as a place where you can have "fun and
pleasure" for the asking. The State Tourism Department has also Excerptedfrom: Ashley D'MeIIo's article by the sami title,Times of lndin,
been accused of promoting Goa as a "pleasure spot". L lune L993.
10
of Sabah, famed for its rich flora and fauna. Pariticipants will also
be exposed to the fascinating culture and customs of its peoples."

The idea of the Camel hophy is German and it is managed by the


sister company Star Cooperation with the help of a public relations
aSency.

G,vnpoig^ Agoinstthe In Germany Reynolds Tobacco and Star are based in Cologne. Phone
in Germany: 0221 / t6M455
R.yr",old= Tobocco In U.K. all enquiries should be directed to the coordinator fardine

Caontel Tto phy' n 5 ob oh


' i
PR Ltd., Brassey House, New Zealand Avenue, Walton-on- Thames,
Surry KTt2 1Qd, Tel. 44(0) 932 253 535 (which doesn't work from

(//talaysio) Germany).

it is to promote the travel items of their "Camel Shop" (clothes, bags,


watches etc.) The Reymolds Tobacco advertisement campaign, while
glorifying macho males and tough terrains, commodifies
indigenous culture. The Papua New Guinea rally advertised thus:
"A challenge to all adomtures Black jungles, crocodiles,hardly any roads,
warlilce natioes a real challnrge 1.000 miles through the stone age."
- -
journalists who accompanied the rally in 1990 in Siberia (Russia) Pv^olest in Phuket
_were pampered with expensive gifts and persuaded to give an
'nthusiastic For three days in December 1.992, villagers from phuket's (Thailand)
coverage. Only a few reported/filmed the local
Bang Thao Beach blocked the access road to the Laguna Beach
reactions to the rally Protesters (with women in the forefront) who
Resort, owned by the Singaporean Thai Wah Group, in order to
tried to stop the rally which they called "immoral" and blocked the
protest against the resort owner's continuous attempts to close the
roads carrying banners like "No advertising for Camel cigarettes",
"Protect our holy lake: Baikal" (the rally even wanted to cross a river public roads passing through the property and to deny local people
access to the public beach. In a promotion campaign to restore its
during the fish spawning season). To avoid further protests, the
image, the Thai Wah Group draws attention to the fact that in 1992,
Russian media played down the incident.
its Laguna Phuket Resort comprising three five-star hotels and a
golf resort won -the International Hotel Association
News about the Camel Rally drew attention only in 1991 in the (lHA)/American Express Environment Award for successfully
Indian Himalaya rally. Due to a sustained campaign in Germany transforming an old tin-miire into Asia's first integrated resort.
with the help of Indian journalists (and publications elsewhere) the
rally got shifted to Tanzania although the aim was to stop it once However, it is alleged that corrupt provincial officials have issued
and for all. Since then it has been impossible to get information apart unlawful land documents for over 3000 of public land at Bang Thao
from a postbox address (Camel trophy, Postfach 6000, D{100 Beach to the Thai Wah Group. Local environmentalists also charge
Darmstadt). In Tanzania there are no contacts. In Sabah, the route is that the resort complex has aggravated water shortage problems in
not known either. Only the dates are announced: May 5th to 16th nearby farming areas and damaged the cohstal vegetation and
1993 Start and finish in Kota Kinabalu. The Camel Trophy is also marine eco-system. The Banyan Golf resort, which is being
listed in the "Calander of Events 1993" in Malaysia, which states expanded isset tocause additional ecologicalproblems suchas todi
"This intemational went will take participants to the tropical forests contamination of soil, underground water and the sea.
11
Bear Intemational Inc.) on a milliondolhr contract which would require him
On 8th-Ivlay 1993, theopeningof the Sheraton Grand Hotel, the latest
to supervise the prcieci to comPletion in the next two years.
addition to the Laguna Phuket resort comPlex spurred new conflict.
Thai Wah in cooperation with the Phuket Chamber of Commerce The project will include "luxury time-share aPartments (affiliations with
staged a "We love Phuket Charity Concert" on May 7th to gain Resort Condominiums Internatbnal, USA and Ketbring U.K. anticipabd),
spacinus residmtial villas (a medranism to self-finance the project along
popularity. The Group for the Protection of Phuket People's Rights
with club mernberships), club house with sports complet fu[y equipPed
laundred a protest against the campaign questioning the legality of health spa ("also authentic Ayunreda with westem comforts"), a 100'room
Thai Wah's land ownership. luxury hotel, and a futuristic convention centre'.

Chawla has it all figured out. His customers: Corporate€t(ecutives, film stars,
As a response, police commandos were called in to keep peace in politicians, foreiggr tourists and non- resident Indians ("dernands an aire of
Phuket and the Charity Concert went on amidst tight security and exclusivity"). His project financing: loans'from the Tourism Finance
reports of harassment among local residenb putting uP Posters. Colporati6n of India, monies raised by selling villas and dub menrbership.
Instead of investigating the lawfuLness of Thai Wah's land His vision: making Shangri-la a 'Jewel in the crcwn of the queen of cities
(BangalorQ" and bring prosperity to the thrce villages surrounding it He
documents, the govemment demonstrated its massive state Power
also has some very fantastic ideas such as utilising the nearby Air Force Base
toprotect the interets of the foreign investors showingthat freedom to airlift golfers with IAF choppers from the Bangalore airporl
of expression and people's participation in the development process
are still not guaranteed in this country. Such action only deepens Chawla has been happy about the fact that the Govemmmt has been very
supportive and enabled smooth conversion of land. Though he held on to
existing conflicts and prevents development which benefits the his ophion that theland acquired for theproiectwas never undercultivation
majority of the people and the environment. And this at a time when (conversion of agricultural land and village commons to non-agricultural
thenew political leaders conscious about Thailand's image abroad purpos€s is illegal) field investigations proved otherwise.
promised to develop a truly democratic society after last year'sMay
In what can be seen as a classic repetition of the modus operandi of golf resort
massacre, development in Japarl Malaysia or lhailand, clandestine deals involving
politicians, bureaucrats and land grabbers (real estate developers) have
Letters may be sent to the Govemor of Phuket, the Tourism come into play hele impacting directly on the sustenance base of the villages.
Authority of Thailand and newspapers to condemn theuseof police The whole proiect is to come up on illegally converted village commons
forces against peaceful protesters in Phuket and to ask for the (which the Government had tenured to landless/poor farmers for.-
following: cultivation) under the patronage of a local liquor/construction indust4
baron who also is bound to have a mairr share of the Shangri-la construction
Unrestricted access of locals to the land, claimed as Thai Wah's
contract Most villagers have absolutely no idea of what will come up on
property, until legal authorities have clarified on the land their land and are reigned to the possibility of relocating en masse.
ownership issue;
The Karnataka Govemment Drought Monitoring Cells recent status r€port
An open and public environmental and social review/auditof on Groundwater exploitation asserts that "groundwabr utilisation in
Thai Wah's Laguna Phuket resort cornplex and the Devanahalli taluk (where the project site is) has exceeded the limit of
improvement of la+rrs to make Environmental Impact replenishable recharge and that immediate steps be taken to stop drilling of
Assessments @IA) mandatory for all new resort and golf wells either by private individuals or institutional finance till such time the
water levels are restored". This is a fact that has been simply glossed over.
course prcjects;
Withdrawal of the IHA/Amex Environmmt Award to Thai Recently the proi€ct was inaugurated at The Oberoi, Bangalorc by
Mr. Ramakrishna Hegde, ex-Planning Commission Chief and former Chief
Wah for the company's unethical practices and Minister of Karnataka, a man who has been accused of direct involvement
environmentally damaging activities. I in several illegal land deals and who is now trying to reemerge in the
National political scene.
Thai N etuto* on Touristtt (TMI). In the prcmotional brochure of Shangri-la, Mark Hesemanrt general
manager of Nicklaus Design claims that "lndia has been identified by
(Addresses; Mr. Yuwat Vuthimethi, Governor of Phuket, Sala Klang developers as an idml market for golf course resorts and private
Changwat Phuket, Amphoe Muang Phuket 300fi), Thailand; communities. By securing (Nicklaus) golf courses and top resort facilities,
Tourism Authority of Thailand (fAT), Ratdtadamoen Avenug developers are able to capitalize on the lucrative travel and real estate
markeb." Not too surprisingly, The Oberoi, Bangalore was again the vmue
Bangkok 10100 ,Fu<:66-2-2245221. THE NATION daily newspaper, for the culnination of a series of seminars on golf course dwelopment in
44 Moo 1Q Bangna- Tfat Rd., km 4.t Bangkok 702ffi, Fax (6('.2) India.
3772077).
Oryanised by Addgrowt[ a consortium of American and Malaysian
companies, the serninar was conducted by Ronald Fream and his Golfplan
Design Gmup. Addgrowth has sinceset up its office in Bangalore and will

Golf i,.'AeN'? r€prcsent serreral multinational companies including Weyerhauser (US


forestry giant, supposedly the second largest landowner after the Federal
Government, to market wood mulch for controlling soil erosion due to golf
courses), Parkway Research Corporation (US pesticide company), Farmers
Vijay Chawla leans back in his luxurious leather chair, crosses his legs over
Marketing Corporation (US seed company to market hrrf grasses), etc,
his desk and comments, "I am an NRI (Non-Resident lndian) attracted by
the liberalisation of the Indian economy, and for a long time I have had ideas There are plans in the immediate future to develop two other golf resors in
about investing in my country. Initially I wanted toPut uP aHealth Farm or around Bangalore, as also intentions of upgrading existing golf courses
but eventually decided on a world-class golf resort, the first of its kind in intro resorts. Nicklaus has now signed (?) two other contracts, one with Leeh
Asia." Kerrpinski for their golf course in Goa, and the other for the ITC group h
Delhi Ronald Fream has already begun with the faies Golf Resorts in Jaipur
Chawla has no qualms about flaunting his wealth, as is evidmt from his and several such projects are being planned all over India. Earlier this year
luxurious apartment in Bangalorc, or the fact that he is here to serve the "rich the Indo-Australian Golf Expo alsg organised several golf-orianted
and famous". He believes that the rich deserve to be pampered with a senrinars.
prcductof quality and "it is about time they got it athome". And what exactly
is his quality prcduct? Golf resort devebpment as an industry is set upon making a big mtry into
India. This defrritely calls for a great deal of networking and information
Coming up about3O minutes drivefrom Bangalore is the Shangri-la Resorts sharing amongst groups affiliaed with GAGM,/the Global Anti Golf
over250 acres of pastural,/agricultural land (Chawla claims that it was never
Moverrmt, or those who share their concerns, I
cultivated) at a whopping cost of $22 million (Rs. 66 crotes). The prciect is
to be designed by f ack Nicklaus Il, (of Nicklaus Desigrr, a division of Golden tEoF.sAtDAl{HA
12
ometime agowe were visiting for use for the commorr good. re-examining our own cultural
indigenous native grouPs shortcomings and helping to promote the
throughout the Pacific as active Another concept we found misunderstood paradigmshiftwe need if we are to move to
participants in the burgeoning by even the most socially responsible the next phase of human develppment.
"Appropriate Technology Movement". This tourists was that of "ownership". In Papua
movement, in line with E. F. Sdrumacher's New Guinea land ownership seemed to be One exception is Frendr philosopher
Small b Bemtttful, w orks to develop low-cost unknown, rather many different people Dominique Temple who has studied the
tedrnologies, to help grass-roots might have rights on the same land. O4e economic systems of many indigenous
entrepreneurs start locally owned business. group had the right to harvest a particular peoples. He has noted in particular that only
While visiting one of the better known A.T. mango tree, another to hunt fruit bats, the EuroAmerican culfure is hooked on
Centers in Papua NewGuinea we were told another to cross the land for ceremonials. "exchange", 'barter", and "trade". Other
that the native director had had to retum to No one claimed ownership. Australian culfures have been based on some form of
his remote village because a number of his Aborigines' went one step further and held "gifting" or "reciprocity", which is the
relatives had mysteriously died. that theywere the "ownees" of the land; that practice of giving rather than accumulating.
is, that the territory owned them and they In fact one's material possessions only
The story that was revealed later was that hld to live by the rules and forces of the prove that one has done less for the
the relatives had been killed by the local place they lived. community than s,/he were able. Rather,
medicine man at the behest of the village one competes for the prestige of having
elders because they had violated the Ownership was even further removed in given the most to society. Rather than
indigenous culture. They had become the culture of Tahiti. Before the coming of individualism, materialism, accumulation,
one
successful entrepreneurs; making the "discoverers" ownership was unknown. consumerism, and competition, the
wicker fumiture for exporf another All items and favours were free for the reciprocity culture is based on giving,
gathering valuable chemicals cooperation, human
from the rainforests; anotherwas relationships and reverence for

cM
dtyt.g tropical fruits for sale the Earth.
{ocally. All were using low cost,
small-scale tedrnologies' in If we are to gain the most from
grass-roots businesses. Tech- our tourism we should recognise
nologies passed in to them from that nearly every word in our
theA.T. network. vocabulary is a blinder and
hurdle to our ftrll appreciation of
The problem was that the culture the people we visit. "Owner-
was based on community and
cooperation; the "appropriate"
technologies were fostering
T ship", "wealth", "development",
"democracy", "rights", "pro-
perty" and other ideas that we
materialism, competition and M/qRG/IRETMCMAIOII ELUS At{DWlLLlAM N. Etlls take for granted, bias and limit
individualism. The successful our ability to participate in
entrepreneurs had put self ahead dialogue with others.
of societv.
taking, whoever needed a tool or a service
rfterely took it. The first Europeans who Our own culture is in houble. Many
We leamed a lot from that experience. Not landed could comprehend neither the progressive thinkert social activists, and
only did we learn that even our most lavishness with whidr they were treated, Gaian philosophers are searching for ways
sensitive efforts in "development" are often nor the "thievery" by which the natives to make our world a better place to live. We
misguided, but that many of the highest carried off any tool or trinket to which they are hindered in our search for solutions bv
ideals for our own culture, many of the took fancy. the same blinders that hinder us from
-'oncepts we talk about for the "new making the most out of our foreign travels.
paradigm ', have long been existent in Third Inlapan we ran into another uniquecultural Perhaps by being more socially responsible
World cultures. practice ata |apanese home. Each guestwas travellers we can also better participate in
expected to be sure that her/his neighbors' orrr own culfural transition. I
In the highlands of Papua New Guinea the glasses and plates were kept full. We have
roads were maintained by the 'Village practiced this in our own American home Mnrgaret, and BilI EIIis, (an anthropologist and
men's house", who did all the workbut the on occasion only to find that sudr practices physicist/futuist) , are the founders ofTRANET
moneypaid by the govemmentwmt to the are so foreign to our belief in the primary of (PO Box 567,Rangeley Me04970 USA;(207)
elders for community projects. The same "self-interest" that the practice of 864-2252), a transnatianal nefwork of social
sense of community and cooperation were "mutual-interest" leaves us hungry. actiuists from around the world.
evidenced in a dance group at a posh hotel
in Tonga. Everyone in the village dressed in Culturally sensitive havel has become a
native costume and performed for the keystone of'the better world movement.
tourists, but the pay went to the village But, we don't yet see that culfural
elders again. And in Fiji we participated in experiences have impacted on the
a sea cucumber harvest in which nearly movements for social transformation to the
every village member took part, but no extent they might. Professional
individual benefited, proceeds from the anthropologists or activists do not even
export tolapan came back to the community recognize the tool that travel can be in

13
itual is an event upon which its possibly adding musical accompanimen! Temple Steps". The Balinese, with
participants depmd; theatre is an will improve,
the craft skills of the villagers characteristic sophistication, make separate
event which depends on its or they will import stuff to sell; their tourist shows and k*p authentic
participants, The process is not cut-anddry. percentage of the take will rise. In short, the performances secret. Tourists want to drive
But evidence of the hansformational steps dance will approach those Western to their entertainments; they want a
by which theatre emerges fro.m ritual standards of entertainment represented by dependable schedule; and they want a way
which an efficacious event in which -by
the the tastes of the audience, and the bmefits to leave conveniently if they choose to go
participants depend on the performance is will rise accordingly. Presently, the early. I saw two such performances in Bali.
transformed into an entertainment in whidt Asaroans perform a traditional ritual The daytime ceremonies definitely had the
the entertainers depend on an audience emptied of its efficacy but not yet regarded feel of an entertainment: outsiders came in,
is not locked in ancient or medieval - as a theatrical entertainment. shops were open and doing brisk busine*s,
documents. The transformation of ritual the dances were carefully choreographed to
into theatre is occurring today. Joan Maclntosh and I arrived before the the gamelon music. At night the operation
tourists and stayed after they left. The was different each aspect of the ceremony
Asaro is a village about seventy miles east villagers lmked at us curiously we were was privatized and done notwith an eye to
of Kurumugl (Australia). There the famous taking pictures of the tourists as- well as of its prettinessbut to its correctness; tirne gaps
dance of the Mudmen is performed as a the dancers. At Kenetisarobe, we met between elements were longer and more
tourist entertainment three times a week. It Asuswe Yamuruhu, the headman. He irregular with many discussions conceming
was not always so. The villagers originally wanted tourists to come and watch a show how to do certain things.
performed only when they felt threatened whidr, he assured us, was much better than
by attack. Before dawn village men went to the Mudmen. We agreed on a price $4 a Surely the tourist trade has influenced
a local creek, rubbed their bodies with white person-andatime. - so-called 'genuine' performances in Bali
mud (the colour of death) and constructed and elsewhere. I have no contempt for these
grotesque masks of wood frames covered The next aftemoon we arrived with two changes. Changes in conventions, theme,
by mud and vegetation. Emerging from the friends, paid our $16, and saw a dance methods and styles occur because of-
creek at dawn, possessed by the spirits of the consisting of very slow steps, as if the opporfunism, audience pressures,
dead, the dancers moved in an eerie, slow, dancers were moving through deep mud, profussionalism (itself often a new concept)
croudring step. Sometimes they wmt to the their finge$ splayed and their faces masked and new technology.
village of their
enemies and frightened or tied into grotesque shapes (probably an
them, thus preventing attacki sometimes imitation of yaws, a disfiguring disease Theatre people imitate popular imported
they danced in their own village. The corunon in the area). The Grassmen of modes, and the locals respond to the
dances took less than ten minutes; Kenetisarobe were very like the Mudmen of demands of rich visitors or local
preparations took most of the previous Asaro. -
audiences demand changes because they've
night. The dance of the Mudmen was absorbed the tastes of alien cultures. From
performed occasionally, when needed. Asuwe staged them for us one point of view these changes are
- he knew that
- azoos
clamour is raised to
After pacification by Australian authorities Asaro was making money from its dance, corruptions
there was less need for theMudmen. and the Kenetisarobe show was modelled establish cultural in which the original
However, in the mid-sixties a photographer on the Asaro formula: slow dance, versionsof age-old rituals canbe preserved.
from the National Geographic Mngazinepaid grotesque masks, plenty of opportunity for But even traditional performances vary
the villagers to stage the dance for him. photographs and a follow-up after the greatly from generation to generation
These photos became world famous dance. What the people of Asaro did with a
- an
- and
it was not long before tourists demanded to minimum of self-awareness, Asuwe did
oral tradition is flexible, able to abso'rb many
personal variations within set parameters.
see the Mudmen. (Even the name with a keen sense of theatre business. And the cultural-zoo approach is itself the
'Mudmen' is an invention for tourists) Examples of the same pattrem abound. In most pemicious aspect of tourism. I hate the
Tourists pay up to $20 each to see the short Bali touristversions of Barong and Ketdrak genocide that has eradicated such cultures
dances; of this sum the Asaroans get 10 per arc everywhere alorg the Denpasar to as that of the Aushalian Aborigines. But t-
cent. Because the 10-minute dance is not a
-
Ubud road sigru advertising these see nothing wrong with what's happening
long enough show by Westem standards, performances are as frequent as movie in Bali and New Guinea, where two systems
the dancing has been augmented by a marquees in America. Signs, in English, of theatre exist. The relationship between
display of bow-and-arrow marksmanship, often read: "Traditional Ketchak these is not a simple division between
a photo session and a 'market'. Monkey Dance Theatre
-Holy
at 8", or tourist and authentic. More studies are
"Barong -Tonight
Wednesday at 8 on the needed on the exchangebetweenwhat's left
-Eadr of traditional performances
Thepeople of Asaro don't know what their
dance is any more. Surely it's not to frighten

- it attracts tourists. It has no


FROMRIruALTO and emerging tourist shows.
And at what moment does a

ffi
enemies
relationship to the spirits of the dead who
tourist show become itself an
authentic theatrical art? I
appear only before dawn, and the tourists
come a little after midday. The social fabric
of Asaro has been torn to shreds. Despite the Theatre comes into existence uhm a sqaration
occuts between audience anil paformerc Reproduced in edited form from
exploitation of the village by the tourist " Perfwmatioe Circumstwrces
agencies, the meagre sums paid the -
from the Avant Garde to RMiliIa",
Asaroans are needed desperately during a
Richard Schechner, Swgull Books
period when the barter economy has fallen
7983.
apart. Future changes in the dance will
make it longer, more visually complicated,
14
avanadurga is a tinY settlement in
Saua lad u.rga
-
Magadi Taluk about 50 kilometers
South-west of Bangalore cify'
Situated at an elevation of 1?26 meters it is
a pilgrimage spot in a Reserve Forest Yet Another
bearing the same name. The vegetation in
Savanadurga is dry deciduous and scrub
forest, and the region is considered to be a
Developmenta I Woe?
conservation zone for medicinal plants.
quite famous for its temple. The park has a recently, even within the boundaries of the
Two monolithic granite hills rise steeply Iarge open wire mesh enclosure with three Reserve Forest.
over Savanadurga on which portions of deers, a ftrlly caged enclosure for peacocks,
age-old fort walls can be seen winding up. and a fencedoff, unshaded areawith a tiny, An encouragement of mass tourism in the
Savanadurga was once the second capital of shallow granite bottom puddle for middle of a reserve forest could well spell
the Kempegowdas, until it was conquered crocodiles. There are plans to start a boating doom for yet another shetch of protected
by of Mysore, Tipu
the legendary king facility in a pond that is fed by a few forests area. Any tourism plan here should first
Sultan who in turn lost it to combined streams. There is also a children's play carry out a feasibility study in which
armies of Lord Cornwallis. ground with equipment like see-saws and a important questions such as the socio-
merry-gq.round that is already installed. economic, cultural and environmental
There are some ancient temples around the The Forest Department also proposes to carrying capacities of the region shall be
place, one of which is still being visited by build a few cottages around the ruins of the studied. The initiation of any hasty or
devotees. This temple dedicated to Sfui te.gple of Shri Kashi Vishwanath to serve as unplanned developmental projects that
Veerabhadra, has now been dismantled by guest houses for the tourists. does not fit into a broader regional
a Bangalore registered organisation in order development masterplan and that does
,lg'rebuild and strengthen it'. Interestingly, Savanadurga's attractions to tourists are its consider the judicious use of the local
.le Archaeological Survey of
India, archeological structures, its temples and its natural resources are bound to have
Bangalore branch, was blissfully unaware forests. Apparently no attempts are being damaging effects on the cultural and
of these modemising plans of the made by the Archeological Survey of India economic lives of the people as well as on
organisation. The Forest Department has and the Forest Department to conserye the ecology of the area. t
also bulldozed an ancient temple dedicated these monuments. The latter has in effect
to Shri Kashi Vishwanath in an amusement dismantled temples, while theformer feigns Excerptedfrom a report by Basauaraj Hebballi
park it has built to attract tourists. ignorance of these developments. More- requested for by SAMUAD, Bangalore.
over, human presence in the forests is
The present Savanadurga settlement has becoming more and more evident. The
developed around the relatively recent park, the temple and the entire stretch of
temple of Shri Laxmi Narasimha. The road leading to the settlement afford direct
temple lies at the foot of the hills and is a entry into the Reserve Forest of
pilgrimage destination for devotees from as Savanadurga. A large number of people
far off as Bangalore. An average week sees simply wander in and leave behind all sorts
500 people coming to the temple, mainly as of rubbish; plastic bags, wrappers of all
day visitors. During the temple festivals kinds, discarded tin cans and beer bottles
thousandsof people throng theplace, many are a common sight here. Such thoughtless
oFthem to stay for a day or two. A number callousness not only makes the place less
of choultries close to the temple afford basic attractive for a second visit but also poses a
accommodation to these. serious threats to wildlife.

.ivo dargas are being built in Savanadurga. At present the touristic inflow peaks twice
The Muslim festival of Urs that is celebrated a year. The problem would take alarming
here for two days in a year draws many proportions if this peaking increases in
thousands of devotees. frequency, if the average number of visitors
rises discernibly, if these people stay over
The Savanadurga settlement consists of 20 for a longer period of time or if settling here
families of varied castes and professions. catches the imagination of visitors. All or
Many of these families depend on the any of these factors could put increasing
visitors for a living. Agriculture also pressure on the forest resources.
sustains a few families. In season, that is
during the first few months of the year, the Vehicular access into the Savanadurga
Forest Department employs the people Reserve Forest and to the temple is only
from the surrounding villages to collect through Nayakanpalaya gate, which
minor forest produce. remains open in the day only. This
arrangement does help in checking
At the entrance of Savanadurga the Forest unlawful activities in the forest to an extent.
Department has built an amusement park However, illegal felling of trees does occur
called Kempegowda Vanadhama to attract with depressing regularity. Granite
tourists to Savanadurga which is already quarrying was a chronic problem until
15
TURKEY HOL|DAY RESORT OR TOFTURE CHAMBER
-
In order to further tourism, the Tirrkish state demonstrates how nature is elploited.
undertakes a lot of preliminary work. It
builds roads, establishes grids and mains Yet, in some places, tourism offers an
systems and disposes of reflrse and sewage. income and some kind of security to
Foreign investors can import goods free of multinationals, who are less exposed to the
du$. They are allowed tax concession, controls by the state authorities in holiday
additional credit, favourable subvention resorts. "The tortoises are fine, the Green
like a king in Turkey", that is how
"Feel and free transfer of profi t. The intemational Party takes care of them," mocked
Imholz Reisen, a Swiss travel agency, Monetary Fund (IM$, according to the somebody, "but what about the workers?"
promotes joumeys, which Gaby Fierz and author Res StreJrle, takes the part of the (A rare species of tortoises caused great
Anne.Lise Hilty have described as concierge in this "grand hotel" of world discussions in Turkey. Environmentalists
"holidays under military guard". Th"y eq)nomy, whereas the General Agreement fought for their protection and against
visited the booming tourist country in on Tariffs and Tiade (GAm) function as hotels.)
sununer 1991 and reported about their porter, the World Bank as cashier and NATO
survey in the book "Tu*ey resort as caretaker. The restrucfuring of the
-holidayMmion Ceylan OezerengirL a joumalist living in
or torhfie clmmb*". The co-editot e@nomy has already been initiated and Istanbul, wrote about trade unions and
Mordey andseven other airthors contributed airrp at deregulation and export. Instead of working conditions of hotel ernployees.
further chapters about the situation of diversifying the home market and making Cihan Altay, a social education worker
refugees leaving Turkey has to do with the it more dynamic, it gets limited. As a result Iiving in efle in Switzerland, described the
stream of tourists heading for Turkey. large parts of the population become years he had been waiting as an applicant
impoverished, migration from the land and for political asylum. The author Nilaf
Tour operators tempt more and more repression increase. In her chapter Snsan Belrmn, who lives also in Basel, and wl-
tourists with dleap offers to visit Turkey. 5.4 Bns uncovers Swiss "neutrality" and recenly was refused a grant by the city.u
million did so in 199O of which74,000were "humanity". "In this country, we ought to literary commissiory reflects on his
Swiss. "Sea is sea and sun is sun", seems to build hospitals and schools, not these experiences in Switzerland: "We got used to
be their creed. Wthin a decade the number goddamned fivestar hotels," said the 'foreigners out!'" he writes. "The reports on
of 'visitors have quadrupled. During the engineer on $e building site of a holiday attacks agairst homes for refugees are
same period the real wages of the locals resort owned by the Swiss firmHapimag on getting more. Silence, toq has its voice.
have been halved. This is no coincidence the Aegean coast. Many unfinished Remaining silent means to agree." I
and happens all over the world. Tourists, buildings already disfigure the coast,
who do notmindbarbed wire around their because of over capacity and there is no I.'ELIMAEDER
hotels and the fact, that.they spend more money to pull thebungalows down. This
money in one night than the employees eam kind of "development" still goes on, Can be ordered at:
in one month, take advantage of .this of as "soft tourism".
sometimes passed Arbeitskreis Tourismus und Entwicklung
situation and still feel that ttrey bring money luergen Hammelehle criticises the Missionssto 2l
to the country after all. environmental rhetoric. Michael Ruhlanil CH-4003, Basel, Switzerland

Indian Peoplc's Objectioes:


1. TO HIGHLIGI{T THE IMPEMiNVES
3. TO ENCOURAGE VICTIM COMMU-
NITIES TO FIGHT FOR THEIR RIGHTS
Thibunal OF EQUITY AND HUMAN DIGMTY
by empowering them with informa-
tion.... putting them in touch with legal
IN THE SEARCH FC'R TRUE . counsel.... and presenting them with tc-
DEVELOPMENT AND PROVIDE AN
Indian People's Tlibunal (IPT) on Environ- cases against which they can evaluar-
AUIERNATME VISION FOR TFIE
ment and Human Rights was formally BENEFIT OF OUR JUDICIARI by
their own varied circumstances.
announced on June 5, 1993, World interpreting existing legislation and 4. TO SENSITISE PUBLIC OPIMON
Environment Day, at the Wvlcshap on documents sudr as the Constitution of through the media to the fact that issues
Enaircnment and the law nt Bangalore whidr of environment and human rights are
India in a manner that protects
was attended by more than 400 people from inextricably linked.
individual and collective environmental
around lrdia. It was clear from the and social rights, particularly those of 5. TO HIGHLIGT{T THE CONNECTIONS
unanimity of views that the IPT should adivasis and dalits BETWEEN UNSUSTAINABLE CON-
rather than the
focus on survival and ideological issues -
convenience of the establishment. SUMPTION PATTERNS AND DEGRA-
being thrown up by peoples' groups DATION; so as to awaken the public to
throughout the country. Several peoples' 2. TO HIGHLIGHT TFIE ENVIRON- thefact that thespiritandletter of thelaw
groups have already confirmed participa- MENIAL AND HUMAN RIGHTS are often violated by vested interests to
tion and support, but the process will ABUSES b'eing perpetrated on adrieve their financial and consumerist
probably require more regional meetings, communities and individuals bv the ambitions. Needless to add, the IPTwill
before the IPT can be formally registered. ruling elite in p*ruat of also serve to network groups around the
Till then it will work as a collective. ""
uruustainable'development' objectives.
Publi-shed by Egltglfg purism Optioru (EQUATIONS), 168, 8th Main Road Behind Indiranagar Club, Bangatore 560 01p. INDIA
Phone: 08G5582313, Fax: 6G5582527 (Attn. 020), Telex: 084F8600 CscI IN (Att. 007), Cable: EeUATIONS BANGALORE
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16