Volume2 Issuel, October 1993

For Private Circulation Only

Opening Up: ForWhom?
In this increasingly mobile worl4 raising questions on the purpose -rd underlying assumptions of mobility is seen by many as an exercise without reason. Liberalisation is heralded as the motive force in the increased movement of capital, Bood+ information and services. international and bilateril trade negotiations insist on increased access to markets which are "protected". Protection is now synonymous with conservatism, non-opennese and immobility.
From the perspective of those who can afford to be "open" the above is trnquestionable. But from that of those who can t, questions are many. The right to question is their first loss. \lVith that their ability to ask, and therefore the ability to participate.
Special Tourism Areas (STAs), emb.odied in the National Tourism Action Plan of.7992, are a step towards consolidating the process of marginalisation. Kutch in Gujarat, an 84 kilometre shetdr in Maharashtra, Bekal in Kerala, 13 sites in Tamil Nadu, the PuriKonarak coastline in Orissa: these are some of the targets for STA status. STAs are conceived of as areas of exdusive tourism dwelopment. They will be administered by autonomous bodies which have the tourism sector in the forefront of their plans. Ghettos of opulence and decadence for the fortunate few, the STAs will cost the'silent'

maprity their economic, socio-cultural and even


This is the context in which peo,ple who are marginalised by the process of opming-up and liberalisation are raising their voices in protest. A protest emerging from the hurt of being marginalised from the consciousness of those vested with the responsibility of providing a space for creative interaction.
Tourism, purportedly a "liberating" force, is increasingly removing its mask, and is showing more and more its intolerance to those who ,^question its basis. It is fencing out people: their lan4 livelihood and he contexts of their lives.

Clearly, the time has come to close ranks and reaffirm our commitment to reshaping existing structures as well newly
emerging ones. What is not so dear, though, is the "how", since is determined by the way each of us understands the "why".



invite you to join us in the quest to seek altemative ways of participating, while allowing for a diversity of responses.

K T Suresh

he urge to travel is perhaps as old as the origin of the spirit

of enquiry in man. But when this natural instinct to travel for pleasure is turned into an industry, it becomes one of the vilest means of exploitation with certain far reaching consequences.

Global Developments

Tourism as Colonisation

In the seventies tourism began to take the shape of a globally organised industry. This development is closely linked with the changing intemational scene after World War ll indicating a new strategy of economic colonisation with indirect political control replacing former colonial annexations. While the old colonies of Asia, Africa and Latin America were enticed into the debt trap, developed capitalist countries made great advances in industrial production and established unquestioned supremacy over world trade. Tourism should be understood in the context of these global

Murky Scenario
It would be relevant now to look at the third world experience with tourism. In countries Thailand, Malaysia and I'hilippines, economic liberalisation had given a boost to the tourism industry. Despite the

World-wide travel, which


recentll', was possible only for


section of affluent people in the developed capitalist countries is now within the reach of the common man. Vacations, the payment of bonus and other benefits to workers are now structured to encourage travel. Multinational corporations have massive investments in aviation, travel agencies, hotel chains and other sectors of international tourism. Travel allowance also comes as a component

of the service benefits to employees. But the irony is that these
incentives come fiom the sizeable profits made at the expense of the peoples of the Third World. For the average westerner, tourism offers a temPorary escape from the oppression of dt'cadent values within the capitalist social structure. The lower strata can, as a rule, afford only third world

massive influx of foreign tourists, much of the earnings are appropriated by multinationals controlling the industry and profits flow out for the import of consumer goods required by the foreign tourists. Though affluent locals manage to profit in the process, the condition of the common people becomes worse. The lifestyle of the foreign tourists leads to inflationary trends. Again it is the common people who have to bear the brunt. Unregulated construction or tourist resorts and golf course cause irreparable damage to th,l environment. Even worse is the commoditisation of indigenou culture for consumption by foreign tourists.
The breakdown of social relations and crosion of moral values in

the developed capitalist countries have disrupted the family
structure and sexual mores. Tourism is often seen as an escape from this vitiated atmosphere and as an outlet for sexual urges. The emergence of sex tourism is systematic to this phenomenon. Thailand and Philippines are the mute victims of this new brand of tourism. Child prostitution has reached frightening proportions in

destinations as the cost of food, accommodation and travel are comparatively cheaper.

Third World Dilemma
While tourism received a fillip in the capitalist countries, the Third World saw a different kind of development. Enamoured by the fiscal aid and technology transfer offered by the imperialist countries, third world nations entangled themselves in the debt trap.

Thailand. In a vast country like India about 20,000 children are estimated to be involved in prostitution. In Thailand, which is as large as one of our states, it is between three and eight lakhs ! Advertisements offering the services of girls between eight and sixteen years are a common feature. Drug trafficking, which is also rampant is an attendant evil of the flesh trade and together strike at the very foundation of society. Malaysia and the Philippines are no

The World Bank and the International Monetory Fund came forward ostensibly to help these countries out of the crisis. The
conditionalities for extending assistance required these countries to mobolise funds by cutting down on welfare expenditure, abancloning subsidies, freezing wages and promoting tourism to eam foreign exchange. Third World countries were quick to seize upon tourism as the short cut to earn foreign currency.

In India, Goa is on the verge or becoming another Thailand. Drug trafficking ancl prostitution floursihes here. Kovalam in Kerala '-. not fa r behind. Most young people i n the village have become either drug pushers or addicts while prostitution has made Kovalam a virtual clearing house for Aids in Kerala.

God's Country

Divergent Paths
Tburism developed capitalist countries and the under' developred third world countries manifests itself under distinctly differcnt circumstances. In rhe devcloped capitalist countrie's, tourism is part of the capitalist development Process. Cultural clomination arising from tourism clevelopment is not an issue for countries who have for long established their political, economic and cultural itlentities. But in third lvorld countries, though colonial rt.rle no longer exists, the situ"rtion in many rvays is that of political
subse'rvience. Iiarning forc'ign cxchange through tourism is the only cscape from thc de'bt trap. Given this situation, an objective asscssmL'nt ol'tht'rmpacts of tourism does not exist in these

in the

What is the nature of tourism promotion in Kerala as we see it today arrd what are its consequences? The cultural pageantry that the Kerala tourisrr, department puts up for the foreign tourists is a gross affront to its helitage. Nothing can match the cultural perversions that have reduced the Onam festival to a mere decorative electrification. In addition, lakhs of rupees are looted to host lifeless cultural extravaganzas. Those who claim that tourism in its present form could be remodelled along more benign lines are deceiving themselves and others.

The Bekal beach in Kerala is one of the six areas identified for intensive tourism development. Official announcements indicate
that the tourist facilities proposed in Bekal is very much on the lines


of what we see in Goa and Kovalam. An initial government investment of about Rs. 1000 crores is envisaged with further
substantial private investments in luxury hotels, swimming pools and golf courses. The building of these massive facilities may fetch

world travel to developed countries, they usually take pains to adjust to the environment there. Why is it then that we feel
constrained to provide special facilities for their comfort when they travel here? This only reflects the cultural domination we have surrendered to, a situation more abiect than actual colonial subjugation.

infrastructure is complete, most of the remunerative openings would go to outsiders. What would then follow is the culture of prostitution, pimping and drug peddling.

the local people some employment. However, once the

Cultural Servitude
According to the officials, our "cultural backwardness" necessitates such S-star facilities for the foreign tourist who is more advanced than us ! No doubt, the cultural context of the West is very different from that of ours, but the creation of exclusive tourist resorts will further distort our own cultural fabric. When people from the third

Only an overall development approach built on self-reliance can even envisage tourism as a beneficial industry. The policy propensities of treating tourism as the main source of our foreign exchange have to be completely revamped. A new approach to tourism is possible only when we stand firmly on the foundations
of self-reliance and see tourism only as cultural

exchange. I



excerpted from The Matltrubhumi Weekly, Onam

Special, September 1 993.


activities, though this would not improve remarkably owing to the protectionist atmosphere in the capitalist West and the decade long recession there. Following trade poliry reform, imports of foreign goods and services, especially luxury items are going up. The more far-reaching impact of globalisation is iikely to be on the service sector. Foreign banks and insurance companies, inter-

he National Action Plan for Tourism, announced by the

national telecommunication corporations, foreign airlines and travel agents will have an upperhand. Developed capitalist nations are at an advantage owing to the sheer size of their corporate
organisations, scale ofoperations and technological clout. Trade in services has now been included in the scope of GATT negotiations. The Dunkel Draft has suggested measures to allow free flow of services like banking, insurance, telecommunications and tourism between nations. Once accepted these proposals will become mandatory for member nations of GATT and it will ensure the domination of foreign capital in the service sector of developing countries.

Government of India

in 1992 outlines a major plan to establish Special Tourism Areas (STAs) in different regions

with nine travel circuits and six travel destinations identified for development. Several new facilities for foreign tourists are envisaged with encouragement to private and foreign initiatives.

The government would invest in airports, airline services, communication networks, railways, banking services etc.

Existing restrictions would also be relaxed to make travel trade free.

Significantly, those services in which a country like India enjoys

lnternational hoteliers would be given concessions to set up luxury hotels and foreign airlines, travel agents and tour operators also would be encouraged.
The Action Plan should be viewed in the context of the principles of

for instance labour services, professional - have been left out of the scope of GATT negotiations on the pretext that they are all part of

skills, consultanry services
immigration laws.

distinct advantages

liberalisation and globalisation which presently guide the new economic poliry. Liberalisation refers to the creation of a liberal -'onomic environment where market will be the decisive force and 6overrunental restrictions will be less. The private sector will dominate; Disinvestment in public sector equities is one step in that direction.Through fiscal policymeasures the govemment is reducing public investment by withdrawing subsidies to essential items like food, fertilizers, water, electricity etc. and cutting down expenditure on health, education, drinking water, employment generation and poverty alleviation. Several tax concessions for big industrial houses are on the anvil. The allocation and utilisation of investible financial resources are left to the market. It would reduce the reach of the banking system in rural areas whle expanding them in the urban areas. Loans to priority sectors including agriculfure would be cut fromthe 40% of thetotal bank lending today toonly 10%. Liberalisation. is thus changing the structure of the economy by reducing the role of the state and making the economy rely more on market mechanism. Globalisalion refers to the integration of our economy with the world economy. By opening up our economy the entry of foreign goods, services and capital is facilitated with little restriction. Industries have been given incentives for export

There is a lot in common between the Dunkel Draft (especially trade in services) and the new economic policies in India. This is evident from the new poliry guidelines and reforms in the trade, industrial

and financial sectors. Even before signing the Dunkel Draft, Dunkelisation of the economy is on through globalisation.
The National Action Plan on tourism states that the aim of the new policy on tourism would be to "enaourage private investment, both domestic and foreign". Hotels set up in "rural areas, hill stations, pilgrim centres and specified tourist destinations", will be exempt from expenditure tax and fifty per cent of income tax for ten years.

The new industrial policy has already facilitated automatic
approval of foreign investment in equity upto fifty-one per cent in hotel industry. A committee has been set up to negotiate with parties abroad to attract foreign investment especially in STAs. lnterest subsidies will also be enhanced to set up hotels in special areas and specif ied destinalions.
The role of the government, as the action plan asserts, shall be to 'conceptualise and deal with policy issues mainly'. ln the current context these 'policy issues'aim at devising more and more avenues

for private initiative and attracting foreign investment in
tourism sector.




Fiscal Incentives/Concessions Declared by the Government of India
A) Under 80 HHD of
Income Tax Act, 1961. Income attributable to foreign exchange earnings of the hotels 50% is exempted from Income Tax straightway and the balance 50% is also exempt if reinvested in tourism
31.3.1990 but before Holiday deductions under


in trade



advertisement publicity, promotiory market studies,
publication of brochures, folders, etc. agency commission, service chargeg fees payable to foreign technicians and

any other payments including imports subject


B) Approved hotels functional after
7.4.7995 are eligible for Tax


5. Imports

hotel buildings - of 20% with effect fuom 2.4.1987 (Assessment year
are eligible for depreciation at the rate


Capital goods, raw materials, components etc. can be imported without any restriction except tothe extent such
imports are regulated by the Negative List of Imports.

1988-89). Furniture and fittings used in hotels have been allowed a higher rate of depreciation of 75"/o against the

Import of special items required by hotels, restaurants, travel agents and tour operators permitted against a licence on the recommendation of Director General of
Tourism. Recognised hotels, travel agents, tour operators and restaurants are entitled to such import licences upto avalue of 70"/o of the foreign exchange earned by them during the preceding licensing year.

general rate of 10%.

Interest Subsidy


Hotel Projects 1-3 star categoryare eligible for an interest subsidy of 3% on the entire loan amourt. Hotel projects in specified areas and Heritage Hotels are eligible for 5Y"
.interestsubsidy. No interest subsidy is available for 4 and 5 Hotels and other hotels in the four mehopolitan cities of Dellii, Bombay, Calcutta and Madras.

6. Concessional Custom Dutv


Liberalised Exchange Rate Management System (LERMS)

Custom Duty on specified items has been reduced to the level as applicable to project imports provided the goods imported are required for substantial expansion of the hotel. This includes equipment for kitchen, health club, laundry, housekeeping, energy saving devices, etc. Equipment for Advenfure Sports can also be imported on a concessional rate of duty.

Hotels, travel agents, tour operators - organisations connected with tourist trade are and other no covered
under'LERMS. Authorised dealers release foreign exchange for business visitt participation in Conferences,
Seminars, Training etc. Prior approval of Department of Tourism is not necessary.


Priority consideration is also given to approved projects
in allotment of construction materials, like, cement, steel and for telephone, tele4 LPG connections.

ExportPromotion Capital Goods (EPCG) Scheme
Import of capital equipment (including spares upto l}%)by Hotels and Restaurants, Travel Agents and Tour operators,


Facility to open and operate Exchange F-aciers Foreign Currency (EEFC) Account extended to hotels, travel agents, tour operators, etc. Under the sdreme, L5% of
inward remittances in foreign exchange can be credited to this account and utilised for specified purposes.


The purpose for which EEFC account can be utilised
include travel abroad, expenses for foreign hospitality,

for which payments are received in freely convertible currency, is allowed at a concessional rate of custom duty of 15% subject to an export obligation four times the CIF value of the imports. Theobligation is tobe fulfilledwithin aperiod of 5 years.

Chnllenges and OpportunXies

alone have been so vigorously promoted

at every Festival of India abroad, at every opportunity at home - that each sale of a Kutchiproductis a resplendent invitation to a visit.) So, what kind of tourism will be


5trolling tor



positive for the Kutch of tomorrow, and
how can it be planned and built?

I was strolling down the path by the fields after my meals.
I met Anton who told me he couldn't have any fish


Our exercise here could well begin by
making an inventory of the tourist'product' whidr Kutch represents. What (and where)
are the attractions (phyrsical, natural, social)

his meals
because it was too expensive.

The five-star hotels, he said, were r€ady to pay the higher price for the fish. Then I met Marh who was standing pensively by the well sucked dry by the five-star hotel. She was thinking, she said, of the long walk the next morning for water. Then I heard Meena coughing badly and her door was open; So I dnopped in. She had gone to fetch the doctor, she said, in the cold night for her hubby

that can respect the fragile ecology of this

lF"" purpose or rnls worKsnop $ ro I outline a strategy for tourism L developmentin Kutch - a strategy
to the growing

that drawvisitors? What opportunities and what problems do each of these attractions represent? What has been the tourism experience so far, both positive and
negative? What directions or questions does

area while responding

visitor interest in its attractions. By a 'fragile ecology', we mean a natural as well as a cultural ecology. Both need protection and enhancement. The natural ecology is often easier to understand, and difficult enough y'o secure. The cultural ecology- is far more

past erperience suggest in terms of future decisions? Can one attempt to prioritise these attractions in terms of development?

What infrastructure/attitudes/slills

gets do they need for development or
protection, or both? What hazards are being experienced, or are feared? What is the quality of socio-economic information now available on tourism in Kutch who earnt



having a running anus.
Water-bome disease, the doctor opined, Any dirty Water? careful about it. He was stem in his caution! The seu'age, Shankar said, was beirrg let out into the Sal river, by a starred hotel I walked further down I wanted leisurg my peace of mind after my meals. But, then, Shanta Oh, no! At her door, her husband was beatin g her mercilessly, "They are taking our land", Shanta said, running to me,


.ompler; both in terms of the delicate relationships which comprise it, as well as

who is employed, who benefits, by how
much? What investments havebeen made,

developing the protective


whidr it needs. Tourism is an industry, and needs to be understood in terms of the infrastructure which this 'smokeless industry'requires : the quality of attractions that can sustain tourists demand, the efficienry of services (hansportation, accommodation, guides, food, shopping entertainment) that visitors

by whom, and what

investments are

If tourism is to be sensitive to Kutch, it must first respect its people. Are they involved in decisions which will determine tourism's fuhrre here? If so, can this involvement be strengthened? If not, how can we ensure
that it takes place now? It is for thc citizens of Kutch to understand this industrv. and to decide what it is about theirland which they wish to share and with whom (and they may not wish to share). There are important implications here for citizens representation and actiorL and for heritage institutions. Inevitably, the concept of Tourism Carrying Capacity must be extended to Kutch. lt is a concept coming into its own globally, but

need and demand, the implications of developing sudr infrastructure and of maintaining it. The demand factor is
important to understand. 'Tourists' are not one homogenous group. Tourist traffic has
to be segmented by interest and budget (and

"for the golf courses", and Moti won't fight. Moti wouldn't fight against those taking his land. He was taking out his frustration on his wife.
Just see/ Shanta sighed,

not merely by citizenship) if infrastructure is to respond to existing demand, or new


are to be created and sustained.


rs here that choices exists, and need to be exercised with sensitivity. Tourism may be 'smokeless' in the physical sense, but it has pollution factors that are often difficult to

control. Unplanned and uncontrolled,
tourism can quickly destroy the very factors

that attract travellers in the first place.
'Cultural Tourism' is the term now used to describe the task before us.
Tourism itself is not a choice. Peo'ple


in India. The tourism carrying capacity of a place is its ability to serve andhold a numberofvisitors for short spans of timg without causing stresses on the socio<ultural and physical environment. The moment sudr stresses are observed the carrying capacity of a place can be said to have readred its limits. What is the evidence in Kutch? What capacity sfudies are needed here, before maior
largely neglected
decisions are taken?

Moti is violent and the golf course prcmoters are even mone violent, Outcame Lilliput, their son of fourteen years; he was drunk at the bar newly-setrrp ne(t door. Bars are required, Shanta said for tourism and to keep our people drunk.
Then fiveStar Hotels can make merry, and tourism
can flourish

and do travel. The freedom to travel is basic to our society. The choice is a qualitative

while our people perish. Due to little food
and cirrhosis of liver and concr€te to breathe and exhautation from

tourism? Holiday travel is a major 'phenomenon for India's burgeoning middle class as well as for visitors from
overseas.The industry is searching for 'new' destinations. Kutch is one of them. flts crafts

one: what kind

of tourism? How


This papo was ye*nted W Mr. A*olce Chattaje, Executiae Ditector of the National


Mrs. Uroashi Dmi, Minister of

Institution of Design at awo*shop conwnd by State for Tanisltt, Gujmat at Bhui in April,7993.





--__s ----:-R--_
-tRIVATE property. Tiespassers


--l\. will people in Shendrem and Agonda

be prosecuted", says the untidily scrawled signboard. Drawn below

it is a waming skull and crossbones sign. This one case comes from Naqueri-Betul, where the Goa Government is thinking of acquiring and taking over a few thousand square metres of land for a luxury hotel's golf course project. But, such exhibition of anBer is frequently seen across this small
State, as villagers detest the takeover

villages. In Agonda, though the project was initiated in the early Eighties, it has still not been completed, in large part due to the public protests.

outlying villages. This .only means that unlike, say in Bombay, here land is still a
vital resource. Given the lack of appropriate technology, villagers still need large areas of land to take care of their basic needs for
paddy fields, cattle grazing, coconut groves, housing, providing firewood and other



One factor which has aggravated the antagonism felt towards major tourism projects here has been the use of British
colonial- designed land acquisition laws by the State Govemment to take over land for
such luxury projects, as empowered by law. Sometimes acquisition proceedings are not

ofthe land they depend on, for a number of
projects of dubious utility.

Both tourism and the Govemment's plan ^ to lure industries here have aggravated the land crisis in this small State. Added to this have been proposals which choose places like Goa for being the site for a 'free port'an idea which seems to be virtuallv dead

Golf course-related protests are only the
latest of a series of issues in Goa, over which villagers have protested even if in an

resorted to, but the threat to use them is wielded as a weapon to make the villagers
sell cheaply. Even the recent major row over the Konkan Railway route in Goa reflects, to some extent, the fears as to the manner in which land prices and land availability would be affected in an already-overcrowded region in central coastal Goa.


not too articulate marurer over the change in land control and land-use which would adverselv affect

,HOLIDAY HOMES' Goa's beauty and

-have - muchdrawn much attention and built up media-hype around the
fashion place. This has led many persons to dream of 'holiday homes' in this so<alled 'paradise'.

its recent tourism which may phase out like any

Goa Chief Minister

Dr Wilfred de Souza recently raised questions about the
legitimacy of anti-golf course protests. He said he did not find the objections raised by

the "environmentalists" on these to miss the point, in a bid to

Not too long ago, in the late Eighties, the
multinational giant Du Pont was also hit by


convincing. But the fact is that to dismiss themasbeing merely environmental ones is
perhaps deliberately duck the matters raised.
Before the issue of the golf course, there was also the question of the impact of the plan to give a big boost to luxury tourism along the

similar protests by villagers who were
against a plan to have a Nylon 6,6 plant in theirvillage, Keri in PondaTaluk.Oneof the major issues was the way in which the land was sought to be taken over for the project, with the help of the govemment.

The real estate business has thus been booming, thanks to local level corruption, which both boosts the realtors' clout anC^ itself depends on it. Land-conversions hav.

been undertaken at a rampant pace, particularly during the former Ravi Naik regime, further shrinking the agriculture
and green land available.

Goan coastline.


1987 and after, there were even protests staged against the large-scale expansion for luxury tourism in this State. Goa, apart from

In a few taluks property ownership is very skewed, and a few landholders control vast areas. But in most of the densely- populated regions of Goa, land holdings are tiny and

Some big builders, who have


none-too-clean reputatiory have moved in

attracting much attention as

a tourist-

large number of people. So, the pinch is widely felt when
there is any move to start big projects on
local villagers' lands.

distributed among


paradise, also began to draw international protests because of the opposition sparked off by the tourism projects.
Besides this, two massive tourism projects which weresought tobe putup in Canacona

Taluk were affected by protests by the

Another aspect which is little understood outside Goa is that this State is not a large city, as is widely believed. It is made up of a few towns (around or under one hundred thousand population each) and a number of

from cities like Bombay. Given the massive speculative profits which one can skim off the real estate business, and the fact that it is one of the better investment options after the stocks scam hitshare prices, their impact on the region and the pressure of their money power is quite obvious. Advertisements in local newspapers these days give open hints to land owners that they should 'act now' to perhaps neuhalise

their tenants. Even agricultural lands are offered to be bought off by realtors obviously for anything but agricultural activity, though it is against the law to put

up buildings for activities other
farming on agricultural fields.


from Goa, or by people from other regions who have fallen for Goa's 'paradise' image. So, a number of such flats are later simply kept shut after purchase, even when the housing problem in the State is acute for the corunon man.

Many of the flats which come up in this manner end up by being bought by NRIs

DeccanHerald 2 October 1993

has been campaigning against the proposed golf courses in the Goan villages of Betul, Canaguinim, Quitol and Naqueri. In July, a two hundred strong group of women along with members of


Some ten years ago, without any consultation with the people of the locality a large area (about L00 hectares) has been acquired again without informing the villagers and at

Bailancho Manch and Jagrut Goenkaranchi Fouz (fGF) held a protest 'morcha' in Margoa. The following is the abstract of a memorandum dated fuly 21, 1993 submitted by the QCVPWAC to Dr. Carmo Pegado, Tourism Minister of Goa.

present one finds the said area surounded by a high compound wall and the sign board of the Oil and Natural (ONGC) Gas Company Commission



The residents of this locality also fail to understand way the

Honourable Minister.

theresidentsof Betul, Canaguinim, Quitol and Naqueriplace for your consideration the following:

prime areas which have pristine beauty which is our cultural heritage and which we have sustained should not be reserved for us the residents of the localify and why such...areas should be converted for the entertainment and activity of persons alien to the locality and to the detriment of the villagers.


Within the village Panchayat of Naqueri, Behrl there has been a spurt of activity... several persons coming to the village in cars and measuring lands without the permission of the owners... (or the) villagers.
(We have been told) that the Government of Goa has decided to acquire the lands belonging to the villagers... (and that) the villagers shall have no say whatsoever into

We were shocked to hear from the Members of the Village Pandrayat that the proposal for Hotel was not even hinted at to the members of the village Panchayat which is the local

body duly elected.


imagination you were led

May we express our sincere apologies, if by any stretdr of


believe that we have


Proceedings except






hlpothecated our rights to life and livelihood and our rights to self determination when we voted in the elections.
We also lodge our protest against the move to force us to sell

compensation... (and that) the Goa Govemment... has already approved in principle thatsetting upof a golf course and a hotel within the limits of the village.


For, almost a decade the residents of these villages have been requesting that a health centre be opened ... since there are has never

no doctors anywhere close by... this demand of the villagers materialized thanks to the wrong priorities of the


the landed properties which are required for us for our residential purposes, for us to construct a school, for us to have other amenities which are essential for the healthy growth of the residents of these villages and of the surrounding villages and consequently the growth of the State of Goa and consequently the growth of the Indian Union.


The residents of Canaguinim have been residing in the said village for the last five hundred years and these villagers and their predecessors have brought under cultivation large

It is therefore submitted that the people of the villages of
Betul, Naqueri, Quitol and Canaguinim do not desire to have any golf course and hotel projects set up in their

tracts of land with their sweat and toil.

When the residents... demanded a road some forty years The Citizens ago, the Govemment of Goa has been lethargic... as a consequence of which these residents have to travel on foot SignedW a distance of about 4 kilomehes. 1. Mrs. Sushma Lone Betul (Sarpanch) Betul The Govemment of Goa has some time in the year



a wind


turbine...imported from Dangreon

Windkraft A/s Denmark and after having spent several lakhs it has been kept unutilized. Neither has the
Government explained what has gone wrong with the



2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Mr. Shaikh Abdul Mutalib (Dy. Sarpanch) Betul Mr. Santosh Desai (Panch) Naqueri

Mr. Ermigilo Lobo (Panch) Naqueri Mr. Antonio C. Simoes (Pandr) Naqueri

Mr. Charles D'Silva (Convenol, QCVPWAC) Mr. Santosh Desai (Secretary, Naqueri) 8. Miss. Sandra [,obo (Treasurer, Naqueri)


fter crossing swords over the Chilka Aquatic Farm, the TATA's almost shelved the multi<rore Pralvn Project in Chilka lake, the environmentalists and the Orissa govemment s€em to be heading for yet an other showdown over theJanata Dal govemment's ambitious plans to set up a beach resort and a hotel complex between Puri and Konarak. While the State Government has roped in the Hotel and Restaurant Association of Orissa (HRAO), the environmentalists have sought the help of parliamentarians of almost all political parties to fight their case at different levels. No wonder, the issue has snowballed into a major controversy in the state today. The revolt against the govemment's project is led by Mr Banka Bihari Das, a former minister, social worker and mvironmentalist who heads the Orissa Krishaka Mahasangha (OKtvt). It may be re' called that the Mahasangha played a major role in the local people's agitation against the TATA

plans for beach tourism were implemented, the objective of
increasing theflowof foreign tourists to the statreinthecomingyears would be frustrated. He fails to understand w$ such a hue and cry has been raised when his government is taking steps to adhere to the guidelines prescribed by the Union Environment and Forest

The minister disclosed that the Puri-Konarak coast line has been

identified by the Union Govemment's Tourism Department as a Special Tourism Area. He called for a halt to the opposition to the project on the grounds that Orissa had still no tourism project of this scale whidr were alreadv there in the other states of Goa,
Thmilnadu and Kerala.

The Campaign
Political observers feel that, like the agitation against the TATA groject at Chilka, the stir against


at Chilka. Mr



announced that like the Prawn

at Chilka, the beach

nail. His

resort and hotel complex project will also be resisted tooth and

already launched a campaign to

awaken the local people about




-' \

fhe present project is likely to be

intensified as the agitators have already managed to get much







Parliament of

the dangerous consequences

different political parties have^ urged the Prime Minister, P \
Narasimha Rao to reject the state govemment's proposal.
Excuptedftom ST Beuria's " Sttong

that they would face if the govemment implements the

tion t o B each Resw t P roj ect ",

Threat to the Forest
It all started in August when Biju

Deccan Herald,T October 199i.

the Patnaik led government in the state sought clearance from the Union Forest and

Mr Banka Behari Das, President Orissa Krushak
Mnhasangha, 74, Ashok Nagar, Bhubanawar-9, Orissa.

Environment Ministry for the multi-crore project. According to Mr Das the Forest and Tourism Department of Orissa have already admitted that there are 5,17,778 trees ir the proposed site for the
The project report states that2,227 acres of land will be acquired for the implementation of the first phase of the project. The second

phase, when it comes up, may destroy the entire reserve forest in the area (Konarak-Balukhand Sanctuary) and affect the ecological balance. The OKM has released the names of L6 companies who

have applied for land to build hotels and beach resorts in the
proposed complex.

Mr Das expressed surprise that big hotel groups had applied for 100-300 acres when most such big hotels could be built over five acres of land. Meanwhile the HRAO has alleged that Mr Das was acting on behalf of "vested interests" who were opposed to the
development of tourism in the state. The HRAO further says that the expansion of tourism should not be opposed as it was the only sector which would give employment to thousands of unemployed youth besides generating foreign exchange. The prgect envisages the construction of 2000 hotel rooms and is projected to provide employment to 50,000 people.

Government's Case
When the matter became very controversial the state tourism minister Mr A U Singhdeo, issued a statement saying that unless

organisers felt that the play was well received by the people and that such a form of communication was graphic and potent. SomE songs relating to the impacts of the road were also composed in

Tamil and sung after the play. Very recently a cycle yatra from
Mahabalipuram to Pondicherry was also organised to spread the
awareness message of what the ECR implies to the area.

|itJa+{w^y,,. T|;le EAST UI45A RC)AI)


The issue is also being fought legally by member NGOs sudr as INTACH, CAG and by concemed individuals from Auroville. A stay on the cutting of hees has been obtained from the Madras High Court. An application has been filed in the court to extend the stay
to cover the construction of the actual road. The Government in tum has filed a petition to vacate the stay on the cutting of hees.


issue of the

ANletter carried

an inhoductory note on the

construction of a major coastal highway from Madras to Cuddalore as part of the East Coast Road from Madras to Kanyakumari. We at

EQUATIONS have been keenly following the progress of the campaign against this monumental transgression of human and ecological well being that is euphemistically called the East Coast

Land acquisition is being carried out in a high-handed manner. The Govemmenthas introduced a provision by which it no longer feels the need to follow the required procedures in order to acquire land for a public project. Monitory compensation to the displaced people is rarely if ever paid. In fact one of the reasons for the choice of a coastal route for a major highway was that land acquisition then

would be cheapcr.
The Campaign does not say no to a coastal road. The existing road

A well documented critique of the East Coast Road (ECR) has been brought out by the Pondicherry chapter of INTACH. It highlights -the economic, social, cultural and environmental impacts that the road is going to have on the area and the people. tn addition it offers

needs to be repaired and maintained. What it is opposed is a massive highway that will drastically alter land use patterns and

villale lives, will displace thousands of
people, dramatically increase pressure on the fragile coastal

a sound and practicable alternative route that will riot only



li.ti';., oa



cheaper to build ancl maintain, and be fraught with less adverse consequences but will also service a greater number of people.

ecosystems and natural resources, impinge on and harm many

Of the current stretch of the ECR from Madras to Cuddalore that has been approved by the Government, work is in process on two
stretches of 15 kilometers each. The estimated coet of construction stands in the proximity of a phenomenal 50 lakhs/km. The

sensitive ecological zones and encourage an unbridled industrialisation of the area and a spurt of resort based mass tourism. Moreover the ECR is being built in the absence of a masterplan for an integrated and sustainable coastal zone


of the road brazenly

flouts legal as well


development. The urbanisation and industrialisation that such a highway can encourage will permanently upset the ecological balance of the area.
Thequestion is can a harmonybe worked outbetween developrnent and genuine needs of the people that the developmental plans are r supposed tobenefit.

environmental guidelines whilebeing callous about the livelihood of the people. Thousands of trees have already been cut along the route with little sustained effort at planting and taking care of the trees planted as replacements. To compound the problem an abysmally low survival rate ensures that few saplings survive the

difficult coastal climate. A coordinated campaign against the ECR was initiated early this year. An Action Committee on the ECR was formed with over 20
NGOs, many of whomare based close to theroad, and some affected individuals. Thecampaign on the ECR has been taken up on several fronts. There is an attempt to generate a wide base of local awareness amongst the people who are going to be affected by the ECR. To

the proposal to establish a zoological park at Anaikatti in Coimbatore district by a private organisation called Coimbatore Zoological Park Society. Three hundred acres of forest land which is the basis of subsistence for the Adivasis (indigenous peoples) of the area and 100 acres legally held by the Adivasis is sought to be acquired for the park. The Adivasi hamlets of Thoovaipathy (population: 300), Aranattukkadu (population: 200) and Goodanur (population: 300) come within the area to be acquired.
The Human Rights Forum also alleges that at Thoovaipathy 40.96 TheCoimbatore Human Rigtfts Forumhas raised objections against

reach out to and be understood by the local people powerful communicative means such the street plays, culturals, discussions and cycle yatras are employed. A couple of months back a play based on the negative impacts of the ECR and on the way the Governrnent is handling the project was prepared by some youths from Pudupattinum. The actors and the

acres of the Adivasi's land has been fraudulently obtained by the Park Society and two houses of the Adivasis were demolished by musclemen employed by the Society. Complaints to authorities

This wrong promotion of tourism in other parts of India gives a misleading image of Goan women in the minds of other Indians. It I also leads to tourist misbehaving in Goa.

have been futile.

The real motive behind this 'conservation' venfure is promoting tourism and making profits for the Park Society, the Human Rights Forum points out. A brodrure put out by the Park Society states that "...the Coimbatore Zoological Park and Conservation Centre '..is a Tourist Centre, a recreational outlet for Coimbatore residents and visitors; tours to see highly endangered primates in the wild... will

Women in Goa, the state traditionally known for its hospitality and "feni" (country liquor), have mounted a campaign against alcohol and proliferation of bars.
Several women's groups have come together to combat the menace

be one of the extras the zoo offers visitors; opportunities for
individual and corporate sponsorship are being made available..."
The Human Rights Forum believes that the park is only



Another matter of concern is the apparent attempts of the Park
Society to manipulate the official machinery and regulations to their benefit. The Human Rights Forum suspects that the exPerts

of alcohol consumption whidr has become part of lifestyle of
section of the population.
Goa boasts of over 6,000 licenced bars


committee set up by the Central Ministry of Environment and Forests to determine the viability of the zoological park had members who had special interests in the venture. This suspicion is based on the fact that some members of the experts committee were also members of another private organisaion called ZOO (Zoo Outreadr Organisation) based in Coimbatore. G Rangaswamy, Secretary of the Coimbatore Zoological Park is the President of ZOO. The Human Rights Forumalso suspects that many members of the managing committee of Z@ could have been the members

there are many unlicenced ones too catering to a population of 1.17 million. The ratios of bars to population is probably one of the highest in the country.



Bailancho Saad, Nari Annyaya Nirmulan Samiti and Peaceful Society (women's wing) are involved in this campaign against

Ms Albertina Almeida of Bailaicho Saad said that the
alcoholism. movement

has alreadv


of the expert committee also and the Forum has requested the Ministry to reject the recommendations of the committee on this
basis if the suspicions are found

eceived a positive response from various rural based women.



For more information, ask EQIIATIONS
Tourism Alternatfua Exchange,Issue

fot: j, Mmch 1993.

Ms Bharathi Bhandekar of the Peaceful Society said that their main demand was a moritorium on further licence being issued to any form of liquor outlets. She also demanded strict implementation of laws relating to liquor outlets since these laws are being flouted by the licencing authority themselves. Isolated struggle against alcoholism have been fought in several villages. This is the first time, however, that a concerted drive il being launchedbywomen's groups to fighton a commonplatform. They admit that their campaign against alcohol was spurred by

Touriswt Slid. Withdrawy"r
The Ministry of Tourism in New Delhi has withdrawn a slide in an
face of protest about its "sexist" tone. The


similar movements in Andhra, Haryana and Kamataka.
One of the struggles whidr the campaign has taken up is the fight against the setting up of bar in a small village of Tivrem in Ponda Taluka, South Goa. According to Ms Mamata Gaonkar, a member of theZuarwaddoNagarik Samiti, the villageisafflictedwith alarge number of alcohol addicts and the opening of one more bar would only add to this. She explains "we need a flour mill and not a bar". Shebelieves that the indifference of the government to this menace was because alcohol is a significant source of revenue and the bars were necessary for tourist traffic, according to local officials.
a necessity

audio-visual show meant for tourism promotion abroad in the withdrawal was conveyed to the Regional Director of Tourismby the Union Ministry.

Bailancho Saad had protested agianst the use

of this sexist

audio.visual presentation in India at the International Tourism Fair held in March this year. This incriminating slide was spotted by vigilant joumalist from Switzerland Ms Christine Pluess. Ms Sabina Martins of Bailancho Saad said that several magazines abroad have depicted Goa as a place where you can have "fun and pleasure" for the asking. The State Tourism Department has also been accused of promoting Goa as a "pleasure spot".

Women's groups point out that bars are seen, or so made out to be I for promoting tourism.

Excerptedfrom: Ashley D'MeIIo's article by the sami title,Times of lndin, L lune L993.

of Sabah, famed for its rich flora and fauna. Pariticipants will also be exposed to the fascinating culture and customs of its peoples." The idea of the Camel hophy is German and it is managed by the sister company Star Cooperation with the help of a public relations

G,vnpoig^ Agoinstthe R.yr",old= Tobocco Caontel Tto phy' n 5 ob oh (//talaysio)
' i

In Germany Reynolds Tobacco and Star are based in Cologne. Phone

in Germany:


/ t6M455

In U.K. all enquiries should be directed to the coordinator fardine
PR Ltd., Brassey House, New Zealand Avenue, Walton-on- Thames,

Surry KTt2 1Qd, Tel. 44(0) 932 253 535 (which doesn't work from

it is to promote the travel items of their "Camel Shop" (clothes, bags, watches etc.) The Reymolds Tobacco advertisement campaign, while

glorifying macho males and tough terrains, commodifies
indigenous culture. The Papua New Guinea rally advertised thus:
"A challenge to all adomtures Black jungles, crocodiles,hardly any roads,
warlilce natioes


a real challnrge


1.000 miles through the stone age."

journalists who accompanied the rally in 1990 in Siberia (Russia) _were pampered with expensive gifts and persuaded to give an 'nthusiastic coverage. Only a few reported/filmed the local reactions to the rally Protesters (with women in the forefront) who tried to stop the rally which they called "immoral" and blocked the roads carrying banners like "No advertising for Camel cigarettes", "Protect our holy lake: Baikal" (the rally even wanted to cross a river during the fish spawning season). To avoid further protests, the Russian media played down the incident.

Pv^olest in


News about the Camel Rally drew attention only in 1991 in the Indian Himalaya rally. Due to a sustained campaign in Germany with the help of Indian journalists (and publications elsewhere) the rally got shifted to Tanzania although the aim was to stop it once
and for all. Since then it has been impossible to get information apart from a postbox address (Camel trophy, Postfach 6000, D{100 Darmstadt). In Tanzania there are no contacts. In Sabah, the route is not known either. Only the dates are announced: May 5th to 16th 1993 Start and finish in Kota Kinabalu. The Camel Trophy is also

golf resort

For three days in December 1.992, villagers from phuket's (Thailand) Bang Thao Beach blocked the access road to the Laguna Beach Resort, owned by the Singaporean Thai Wah Group, in order to protest against the resort owner's continuous attempts to close the public roads passing through the property and to deny local people access to the public beach. In a promotion campaign to restore its image, the Thai Wah Group draws attention to the fact that in 1992, its Laguna Phuket Resort comprising three five-star hotels and a

(lHA)/American Express Environment Award for successfully
transforming an old tin-miire into Asia's first integrated resort.
However, it is alleged that corrupt provincial officials have issued 3000 of public land at Bang Thao Beach to the Thai Wah Group. Local environmentalists also charge that the resort complex has aggravated water shortage problems in nearby farming areas and damaged the cohstal vegetation and marine eco-system. The Banyan Golf resort, which is being expanded isset tocause additional ecologicalproblems suchas todi contamination of soil, underground water and the sea.

won -the International Hotel


unlawful land documents for over

listed in the "Calander of Events 1993" in Malaysia, which states "This intemational went will take participants to the tropical forests

On 8th-Ivlay 1993, theopeningof the Sheraton Grand Hotel, the latest addition to the Laguna Phuket resort comPlex spurred new conflict.

Bear Intemational Inc.) on a million

dolhr contract which would require him to supervise the prcieci to comPletion in the next two years.
The project will include "luxury time-share aPartments (affiliations with Resort Condominiums Internatbnal, USA and Ketbring U.K. anticipabd), spacinus residmtial villas (a medranism to self-finance the project along with club mernberships), club house with sports complet fu[y equipPed health spa ("also authentic Ayunreda with westem comforts"), a 100'room luxury hotel, and a futuristic convention centre'.
Chawla has it all figured out. His customers: Corporate€t(ecutives, film stars, politicians, foreiggr tourists and non- resident Indians ("dernands an aire of exclusivity"). His project financing: loans'from the Tourism Finance Colporati6n of India, monies raised by selling villas and dub menrbership. His vision: making Shangri-la a 'Jewel in the crcwn of the queen of cities (BangalorQ" and bring prosperity to the thrce villages surrounding it He also has some very fantastic ideas such as utilising the nearby Air Force Base to airlift golfers with IAF choppers from the Bangalore airporl Chawla has been happy about the fact that the Govemmmt has been very supportive and enabled smooth conversion of land. Though he held on to his ophion that theland acquired for theproiectwas never undercultivation (conversion of agricultural land and village commons to non-agricultural purpos€s is illegal) field investigations proved otherwise.
In what can be seen as a classic repetition of the modus operandi of golf resort

Thai Wah in cooperation with the Phuket Chamber of Commerce staged a "We love Phuket Charity Concert" on May 7th to gain popularity. The Group for the Protection of Phuket People's Rights laundred a protest against the campaign questioning the legality of Thai Wah's land ownership. As a response, police commandos were called in to keep peace in Phuket and the Charity Concert went on amidst tight security and reports of harassment among local residenb putting uP Posters. Instead of investigating the lawfuLness of Thai Wah's land documents, the govemment demonstrated its massive state Power toprotect the interets of the foreign investors showingthat freedom of expression and people's participation in the development process are still not guaranteed in this country. Such action only deepens existing conflicts and prevents development which benefits the majority of the people and the environment. And this at a time when thenew political leaders conscious about Thailand's image abroad
promised to develop a truly democratic society after last year'sMay

Letters may be sent to the Govemor of Phuket, the Tourism Authority of Thailand and newspapers to condemn theuseof police forces against peaceful protesters in Phuket and to ask for the following:
Unrestricted access of locals to the land, claimed ownership issue;

development in Japarl Malaysia or lhailand, clandestine deals involving politicians, bureaucrats and land grabbers (real estate developers) have come into play hele impacting directly on the sustenance base of the villages.

Thai Wah's

(which the Government had tenured to landless/poor farmers for.cultivation) under the patronage of a local liquor/construction indust4 baron who also is bound to have a mairr share of the Shangri-la construction
contract Most villagers have absolutely no idea of what will come up on their land and are reigned to the possibility of relocating en masse.
The Karnataka Govemment Drought Monitoring

The whole proiect is to come up on illegally converted village commons

property, until legal authorities have clarified on the land
An open and public environmental and social review/auditof

Cells recent status r€port

Thai Wah's Laguna Phuket resort cornplex and
course prcjects;

improvement of la+rrs to make Environmental Impact Assessments @IA) mandatory for all new resort and golf


on Groundwater exploitation asserts that "groundwabr utilisation in Devanahalli taluk (where the project site is) has exceeded the limit of
replenishable recharge and that immediate steps be taken to stop drilling of wells either by private individuals or institutional finance till such time the water levels are restored". This is a fact that has been simply glossed over.

Wah for the company's unethical practices environmentally damaging activities.
Thai N etuto* on Touristtt (TMI).

Withdrawal of the IHA/Amex Environmmt Award to Thai


Recently the proi€ct was inaugurated at The Oberoi, Bangalorc by Mr. Ramakrishna Hegde, ex-Planning Commission Chief and former Chief Minister of Karnataka, a man who has been accused of direct involvement in several illegal land deals and who is now trying to reemerge in the National political scene.

In the prcmotional brochure of

(Addresses; Mr. Yuwat Vuthimethi, Governor of Phuket, Sala Klang

Changwat Phuket, Amphoe Muang Phuket 300fi), Thailand; Tourism Authority of Thailand (fAT), Ratdtadamoen Avenug
Bangkok 10100 ,Fu<:66-2-2245221. THE NATION daily newspaper, 44 Moo 1Q Bangna- Tfat Rd., km 4.t Bangkok 702ffi, Fax (6('.2)

Shangri-la, Mark Hesemanrt general manager of Nicklaus Design claims that "lndia has been identified by developers as an idml market for golf course resorts and private communities. By securing (Nicklaus) golf courses and top resort facilities, developers are able to capitalize on the lucrative travel and real estate markeb." Not too surprisingly, The Oberoi, Bangalore was again the vmue for the culnination of a series of seminars on golf course dwelopment in India.



Vijay Chawla leans back in his luxurious leather chair, crosses his legs over his desk and comments, "I am an NRI (Non-Resident lndian) attracted by the liberalisation of the Indian economy, and for a long time I have had ideas about investing in my country. Initially I wanted toPut uP aHealth Farm but eventually decided on a world-class golf resort, the first of its kind in Asia."

by Addgrowt[ a consortium of American and Malaysian companies, the serninar was conducted by Ronald Fream and his Golfplan Design Gmup. Addgrowth has sinceset up its office in Bangalore and will r€prcsent serreral multinational companies including Weyerhauser (US forestry giant, supposedly the second largest landowner after the Federal Government, to market wood mulch for controlling soil erosion due to golf courses), Parkway Research Corporation (US pesticide company), Farmers Marketing Corporation (US seed company to market hrrf grasses), etc,
There are plans in the immediate future to develop two other golf resors in or around Bangalore, as also intentions of upgrading existing golf courses intro resorts. Nicklaus has now signed (?) two other contracts, one with Leeh

Chawla has no qualms about flaunting his wealth, as is evidmt from his luxurious apartment in Bangalorc, or the fact that he is here to serve the "rich and famous". He believes that the rich deserve to be pampered with a prcductof quality and "it is about time they got it athome". And what exactly is his quality prcduct? Coming up about3O minutes drivefrom Bangalore is the Shangri-la Resorts over250 acres of pastural,/agricultural land (Chawla claims that it was never cultivated) at a whopping cost of $22 million (Rs. 66 crotes). The prciect is to be designed by f ack Nicklaus Il, (of Nicklaus Desigrr, a division of Golden

Kerrpinski for their golf course in Goa, and the other for the ITC group h Delhi Ronald Fream has already begun with the faies Golf Resorts in Jaipur and several such projects are being planned all over India. Earlier this year the Indo-Australian Golf Expo alsg organised several golf-orianted

Golf resort devebpment as an industry is set upon making a big mtry into India. This defrritely calls for a great deal of networking and information sharing amongst groups affiliaed with GAGM,/the Global Anti Golf I Moverrmt, or those who share their concerns,


ometime ago

we were visiting indigenous native grouPs

for use for the commorr good. Another concept we found misunderstood

re-examining our

own cultural shortcomings and helping to promote the
are to move to the next phase of human develppment.

participants in

throughout the Pacific as active

paradigmshiftwe need if we

tedrnologies, to help grass-roots entrepreneurs start locally owned business. While visiting one of the better known A.T. Centers in Papua NewGuinea we were told that the native director had had to retum to his remote village because a number of his relatives had mysteriously died.
The story that was revealed later was that the relatives had been killed by the local medicine man at the behest of the village elders because they had violated the indigenous culture. They had become

burgeoning "Appropriate Technology Movement". This movement, in line with E. F. Sdrumacher's Small b Bemtttful, w orks to develop low-cost



even the most socially responsible

tourists was that of "ownership". In Papua New Guinea land ownership seemed to be

One exception

is Frendr philosopher

unknown, rather many different people
might have rights on the same land. O4e group had the right to harvest a particular mango tree, another to hunt fruit bats, another to cross the land for ceremonials. No one claimed ownership. Australian
Aborigines' went one step further and held that theywere the "ownees" of the land; that is, that the territory owned them and they hld to live by the rules and forces of the place they lived. Ownership was even further removed in the culture of Tahiti. Before the coming of the "discoverers" ownership was unknown. All items and favours were free for the

Dominique Temple who has studied the economic systems of many indigenous peoples. He has noted in particular that only the EuroAmerican culfure is hooked on "exchange", 'barter", and "trade". Other

"gifting" or "reciprocity", which is the practice of giving rather than accumulating. In fact one's material possessions only prove that one has done less for the
community than s,/he were able. Rather, one competes for the prestige of having given the most to society. Rather than individualism, materialism, accumulation,

culfures have been based on some form of

one wicker fumiture for exporf
successful entrepreneurs;




competition, the

reciprocity culture



gathering valuable chemicals
from the rainforests; anotherwas


giving, human

{ocally. All

dtyt.g tropical fruits for

sale were using low cost,

small-scale tedrnologies' in
grass-roots businesses. Technologies passed in to them from
theA.T. network.
The problem was that the culture was based on community and cooperation; the "appropriate"


relationships and reverence for
the Earth.

If we are to gain the most from
our tourism we should recognise

that nearly every word in our


is a blinder


hurdle to our ftrll appreciation of the people we visit. "Ownership", "wealth", "development",

"democracy", "rights", "property" and other ideas that we

technologies were fostering materialism, competition and individualism. The successful

our ability to participate
dialogue with others.

take for granted, bias and limit


entrepreneurs had put self ahead of societv.

taking, whoever needed a tool or a service rfterely took it. The first Europeans who
We leamed a lot from that experience. Not

landed could comprehend neither the
lavishness with whidr they were treated, nor the "thievery" by which the natives carried off any tool or trinket to which they took fancy.

Our own culture is in houble. Many progressive thinkert social activists, and
Gaian philosophers are searching for ways to make our world a better place to live. We are hindered in our search for solutions bv

only did we learn that even our most
sensitive efforts in "development" are often

misguided, but that many of the highest ideals for our own culture, many of the -'oncepts we talk about for the "new paradigm ', have long been existent in Third World cultures. In the highlands of Papua New Guinea the by the 'Village men's house", who did all the workbut the moneypaid by the govemmentwmt to the elders for community projects. The same sense of community and cooperation were evidenced in a dance group at a posh hotel in Tonga. Everyone in the village dressed in

roads were maintained

Inlapan we ran into another uniquecultural practice ata |apanese home. Each guestwas expected to be sure that her/his neighbors' glasses and plates were kept full. We have practiced this in our own American home on occasion only to find that sudr practices are so foreign to our belief in the primary of "self-interest" that the practice of "mutual-interest" leaves us hungry.

the same blinders that hinder us from making the most out of our foreign travels. Perhaps by being more socially responsible travellers we can also better participate in orrr own culfural transition. I
Mnrgaret, and BilI EIIis, (an anthropologist and

physicist/futuist) , are the founders ofTRANET (PO Box 567,Rangeley Me04970 USA;(207) 864-2252), a transnatianal nefwork of social actiuists from around the world.

Culturally sensitive havel has become experiences


native costume and performed for the tourists, but the pay went to the village elders again. And in Fiji we participated in a sea cucumber harvest in which nearly every village member took part, but no individual benefited, proceeds from the
export tolapan came back to the community

have impacted on the movements for social transformation to the extent they might. Professional anthropologists or activists do not even
recognize the tool that travel can be in

keystone of'the better world movement. But, we don't yet see that culfural

itual is an event upon which its participants depmd; theatre is an event which depends on its participants, The process is not cut-anddry. But evidence of the hansformational steps by which theatre emerges fro.m ritual -by which an efficacious event in which the participants depend on the performance is transformed into an entertainment in whidt the entertainers depend on an audience is not locked in ancient or medieval documents. The transformation of ritual into theatre is occurring today.
Asaro is a village about seventy miles east of Kurumugl (Australia). There the famous dance of the Mudmen is performed as a tourist entertainment three times a week. It was not always so. The villagers originally performed only when they felt threatened by attack. Before dawn village men went to a local creek, rubbed their bodies with white mud (the colour of death) and constructed grotesque masks of wood frames covered by mud and vegetation. Emerging from the
creek at dawn, possessed by the spirits of the

possibly adding musical accompanimen!

Temple Steps". The Balinese, with
characteristic sophistication, make separate tourist shows and k*p authentic performances secret. Tourists want to drive

dance will approach those Western standards of entertainment represented by the tastes of the audience, and the bmefits will rise accordingly. Presently, the
Asaroans perform

will improve, or they will import stuff to sell; their percentage of the take will rise. In short, the
the craft skills of the villagers

to their entertainments; they want



traditional ritual

emptied of its efficacy but not yet regarded
as a theatrical entertainment.

Joan Maclntosh and

arrived before the

tourists and stayed after they left. The
villagers lmked at us curiously - we were taking pictures of the tourists as well as of the dancers. At Kenetisarobe, we met Asuswe Yamuruhu, the headman. He wanted tourists to come and watch a show whidr, he assured us, was much better than the Mudmen. We agreed on a price $4 a

dependable schedule; and they want a way to leave conveniently if they choose to go early. I saw two such performances in Bali. The daytime ceremonies definitely had the feel of an entertainment: outsiders came in, shops were open and doing brisk busine*s, the dances were carefully choreographed to the gamelon music. At night the operation was different each aspect of the ceremony was privatized and done notwith an eye to its prettinessbut to its correctness; tirne gaps between elements were longer and more irregular with many discussions conceming how to do certain things.



Surely the tourist trade has influenced
so-called 'genuine' performances



and elsewhere. I have no contempt for these

The next aftemoon we arrived with two friends, paid our $16, and saw a dance consisting of very slow steps, as if the dancers were moving through deep mud,

changes. Changes in conventions, theme,

methods and styles occur because of-

opporfunism, audience
profussionalism (itself often and new technology.


dead, the dancers moved in an eerie, slow, croudring step. Sometimes they wmt to the

new concept)


took less than ten minutes; preparations took most of the previous night. The dance of the Mudmen was
dances performed occasionally, when needed.
After pacification by Australian authorities
Mudmen. However, in the mid-sixties a photographer from the National Geographic Mngazinepaid the villagers to stage the dance for him.
These photos became world famous

enemies and frightened them, thus preventing attacki sometimes they danced in their own village. The

of their

their finge$ splayed and their faces masked or tied into grotesque shapes (probably an imitation of yaws, a disfiguring disease corunon in the area). The Grassmen of Kenetisarobe were very like the Mudmen of Asaro.

Theatre people imitate popular imported

modes, and the locals respond to the demands of rich visitors or local

there was less need

for the

Asuwe staged them for us - he knew that Asaro was making money from its dance, and the Kenetisarobe show was modelled

audiences demand changes because they've absorbed the tastes of alien cultures. From one point of view these changes are



on the Asaro

formula: slow


- a clamour is raised to establish cultural zoos in which the original versionsof age-old rituals canbe preserved.

- and it was not long before tourists demanded to see the Mudmen. (Even the name
tourists) Tourists pay up to $20 each to see the short dances; of this sum the Asaroans get 10 per cent. Because the 10-minute dance is not a long enough show by Westem standards,

grotesque masks, plenty of opportunity for photographs and a follow-up after the dance. What the people of Asaro did with a minimum of self-awareness, Asuwe did

But even traditional performances vary
greatly from generation to generation - an oral tradition is flexible, able to abso'rb many personal variations within set parameters. And the cultural-zoo approach is itself the most pemicious aspect of tourism. I hate the genocide that has eradicated such cultures as that of the Aushalian Aborigines. But tsee nothing wrong with what's happening in Bali and New Guinea, where two systems of theatre exist. The relationship between these is not a simple division between


is an invention for

with a keen



theatre business.

Examples of the same pattrem abound. In Bali touristversions of Barong and Ketdrak arc everywhere alorg the Denpasar to

Ubud road sigru advertising


the dancing has been augmented by a display of bow-and-arrow marksmanship,

photo session and a 'market'.

performances are as frequent as movie marquees in America. Signs, in English, often read: "Traditional Ketchak -Holy Monkey Dance Theatre at 8", or -Tonight8 on the "Barong Wednesday at

Thepeople of Asaro don't know what their dance is any more. Surely it's not to frighten enemies - it attracts tourists. It has no relationship to the spirits of the dead who appear only before dawn, and the tourists come a little after midday. The social fabric
of Asaro has been torn to shreds. Despite the


tourist and authentic. More studies are needed on the exchangebetweenwhat's left


Theatre comes into existence uhm a sqaration occuts between audience anil paformerc


traditional performances

and emerging tourist shows. And at what moment does a
tourist show become itself an authentic theatrical art? I

exploitation of the village by the tourist agencies, the meagre sums paid the Asaroans are needed desperately during a
period when the barter economy has fallen apart. Future changes in the dance will make it longer, more visually complicated,


in edited form from Perfwmatioe Circumstwrces


Avant Garde to RMiliIa",


Richard Schechner, Swgull Books 7983.


avanadurga is a tinY settlement in Magadi Taluk about 50 kilometers



Bangalore cify'


lad u.rga

Situated at an elevation of 1?26 meters it is a pilgrimage spot in a Reserve Forest bearing the same name. The vegetation in Savanadurga is dry deciduous and scrub forest, and the region is considered to be a conservation zone for medicinal plants.

Yet Another

I Woe?
recently, even within the boundaries of the
Reserve Forest.


quite famous for its temple. The park has a

Two monolithic granite hills rise steeply over Savanadurga on which portions of age-old fort walls can be seen winding up.
Savanadurga was once the second capital of the Kempegowdas, until it was conquered

Iarge open wire mesh enclosure with three deers, a ftrlly caged enclosure for peacocks, and a fencedoff, unshaded areawith a tiny,

shallow granite bottom puddle for
crocodiles. There are plans to start a boating facility in a pond that is fed by a few forests


of Mysore, Tipu Sultan who in turn lost it to combined
the legendary king
armies of Lord Cornwallis. There are some ancient temples around the place, one of which is still being visited by

An encouragement of mass tourism in the middle of a reserve forest could well spell doom for yet another shetch of protected area. Any tourism plan here should first

streams. There is also a children's play ground with equipment like see-saws and a merry-gq.round that is already installed. The Forest Department also proposes to build a few cottages around the ruins of the
te.gple of Shri Kashi Vishwanath to serve as guest houses for the tourists. Savanadurga's attractions to tourists are its archeological structures, its temples and its forests. Apparently no attempts are being made by the Archeological Survey of India and the Forest Department to conserye these monuments. The latter has in effect dismantled temples, while theformer feigns ignorance of these developments. Moreover, human presence in the forests is becoming more and more evident. The

devotees. This temple dedicated to Sfui
Veerabhadra, has now been dismantled by a Bangalore registered organisation in order ,lg'rebuild and strengthen it'. Interestingly,

India, Bangalore branch, was blissfully unaware


Archaeological Survey


of these modemising plans of

carry out a feasibility study in which important questions such as the socioeconomic, cultural and environmental carrying capacities of the region shall be studied. The initiation of any hasty or unplanned developmental projects that does not fit into a broader regional development masterplan and that does consider the judicious use of the local natural resources are bound to have damaging effects on the cultural and
economic lives of the people as well as on t the ecology of the area. Excerptedfrom a report by Basauaraj Hebballi requested for by SAMUAD, Bangalore.


organisation. The Forest Department has also bulldozed an ancient temple dedicated to Shri Kashi Vishwanath in an amusement park it has built to attract tourists.

The present Savanadurga settlement has developed around the relatively recent temple of Shri Laxmi Narasimha. The temple lies at the foot of the hills and is a
pilgrimage destination for devotees from as far off as Bangalore. An average week sees 500 people coming to the temple, mainly as

park, the temple and the entire stretch of

entry into the

road leading to the settlement afford direct

Reserve Forest of

day visitors. During the temple festivals
thousandsof people throng theplace, many oFthem to stay for a day or two. A number of choultries close to the temple afford basic
accommodation to these.

Savanadurga. A large number of people simply wander in and leave behind all sorts of rubbish; plastic bags, wrappers of all kinds, discarded tin cans and beer bottles
are a common sight here. Such thoughtless callousness not only makes the place less attractive for a second visit but also poses a serious threats to wildlife.

.ivo dargas are being built in Savanadurga.
The Muslim festival of Urs that is celebrated

here for two days

in a year draws many

thousands of devotees. The Savanadurga settlement consists of 20 families of varied castes and professions. Many of these families depend on the visitors for a living. Agriculture also sustains a few families. In season, that is during the first few months of the year, the Forest Department employs the people from the surrounding villages to collect minor forest produce.

At present the touristic inflow peaks twice a year. The problem would take alarming proportions if this peaking increases in frequency, if the average number of visitors
rises discernibly, if these people stay over for a longer period of time or if settling here catches the imagination of visitors. All or any of these factors could put increasing pressure on the forest resources.

Vehicular access into the Savanadurga Reserve Forest and to the temple is only through Nayakanpalaya gate, which

remains open in the day only. This arrangement does help in checking
unlawful activities in the forest to an extent. However, illegal felling of trees does occur with depressing regularity. Granite

At the entrance of Savanadurga the Forest Department has built an amusement park
called Kempegowda Vanadhama to attract tourists to Savanadurga which is already

quarrying was a chronic problem until


In order to further tourism, the Tirrkish state undertakes a lot of preliminary work. It builds roads, establishes grids and mains
systems and disposes of reflrse and sewage. Foreign investors can import goods free of They are allowed tax concession,


demonstrates how nature is elploited.

Yet, in some places, tourism offers an income and some kind of security to
multinationals, who are less exposed to the controls by the state authorities in holiday resorts. "The tortoises are fine, the Green

like a king in Turkey", that is how Imholz Reisen, a Swiss travel agency,
"Feel promotes joumeys, which Gaby Fierz and

additional credit, favourable subvention
and free transfer of profi t. The intemational

Anne.Lise Hilty have described as "holidays under military guard". Th"y visited the booming tourist country in sununer 1991 and reported about their
survey in the book "Tu*ey resort -holiday or torhfie clmmb*". The co-editot Mmion
Mordey andseven other airthors contributed

Monetary Fund (IM$, according to the author Res StreJrle, takes the part of the concierge in this "grand hotel" of world
eq)nomy, whereas the General Agreement

on Tariffs and Tiade (GAm) function
porter, the World Bank


Party takes care of them," mocked somebody, "but what about the workers?" (A rare species of tortoises caused great discussions in Turkey. Environmentalists fought for their protection and against hotels.)
Ceylan OezerengirL a joumalist living in

cashier and NATO

as caretaker. The restrucfuring of the
e@nomy has already been initiated and airrp at deregulation and export. Instead of diversifying the home market and making it more dynamic, it gets limited. As a result

further chapters about the situation of refugees leaving Turkey has to do with the
stream of tourists heading for Turkey.

large parts

of the population

Istanbul, wrote about trade unions and working conditions of hotel ernployees. Cihan Altay, a social education worker Iiving in efle in Switzerland, described the
years he had been waiting as an applicant Belrmn, who lives also in Basel, and wlrecenly was refused a grant by the city.u


Tour operators tempt more and more
tourists with dleap offers to visit Turkey. 5.4 million did so in 199O of which74,000were Swiss. "Sea is sea and sun is sun", seems to be their creed. Wthin a decade the number of 'visitors have quadrupled. During the same period the real wages of the locals have been halved. This is no coincidence and happens all over the world. Tourists, who do notmindbarbed wire around their

uncovers Swiss "neutrality" and "humanity". "In this country, we ought to build hospitals and schools, not these
goddamned fivestar hotels," said the engineer on $e building site of a holiday resort owned by the Swiss firmHapimag on


impoverished, migration from the land and repression increase. In her chapter Snsan

for political asylum. The author Nilaf

literary commissiory reflects on

experiences in Switzerland: "We got used to 'foreigners out!'" he writes. "The reports on attacks agairst homes for refugees are

the Aegean coast. Many unfinished buildings already disfigure the coast,

getting more. Silence, toq has its voice.
Remaining silent means to

agree." I

hotels and the fact, that.they spend more money in one night than the employees eam in one month, take advantage of .this situation and still feel that ttrey bring money to the country after all.

of as "soft tourism". luergen Hammelehle criticises the
sometimes passed

because of over capacity and there is no money to pull thebungalows down. This kind of "development" still goes on,

Can be ordered at:

Arbeitskreis Tourismus und Entwicklung

environmental rhetoric. Michael Ruhlanil


CH-4003, Basel, Switzerland

Indian Peoplc's
announced on June 5, 1993, World Environment Day, at the Wvlcshap on Enaircnment and the law nt Bangalore whidr unanimity of views that the IPT should focus on survival and ideological issues being thrown up by peoples' groups throughout the country. Several peoples'
groups have already confirmed participation and support, but the process will probably require more regional meetings, before the IPT can be formally registered.



Indian People's Tlibunal (IPT) on Environment and Human Rights was formally




empowering them




tion.... putting them in touch with legal counsel.... and presenting them with tccases against which they can evaluartheir own varied circumstances.



documents sudr as the Constitution of

was attended by more than 400 people from around lrdia. It was clear from the

India in a manner that


convenience of the establishment.

individual and collective environmental and social rights, particularly those of adivasis and dalits rather than the


through the media to the fact that issues of environment and human rights are inextricably linked. 5. TO HIGHLIGT{T THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN UNSUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION PATTERNS AND DEGRADATION; so as to awaken the public to
thefact that thespiritandletter of thelaw
are often violated by vested interests to

Till then it will work

MENIAL AND HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES b'eing perpetrated on communities and individuals bv the ruling elite in p*ruat of

as a collective.

"" uruustainable'development' objectives.

adrieve their financial and consumerist ambitions. Needless to add, the IPTwill also serve to network groups around the

Publi-shed by Egltglfg purism Optioru (EQUATIONS), 168, 8th Main Road Behind Indiranagar Club, Bangatore 560 01p. INDIA Phone: 08G5582313, Fax: 6G5582527 (Attn. 020), Telex: 084F8600 CscI IN (Att. 007), Cable: EeUATIONS BANGALORE Design & Layout by Dhanarai lGezhara and Typesetting by Verba Network Service, 139, Sth Main, 12th Cross, Malieswaram, Bangalore 560 003, pho re:3g66u2


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