ANLetter Volume 3 Issue 3-Jan 1995-EQUATIONS | Tourism | Egypt




3 lan 1995

For Private Circulation Only

A Time to ReJlect
By the time you receiae this copy of the ANLetter, some major issues in the kind of actiaism that seaeral of us are inuolued in, wiII be in for tating times. As the country is draum increasingly and not unexpectedly, into the aortex of free-market economics, a lot of the basic freedoms are being incessantly eased away from the reach of the cunmon persan.

pswers, which because


becomes legitimate. There are no contradictions

is supposed to be shared utith NGOs in the intunal logic

with which this process works. For, the primary assurnption is that
the common person has no empowered subjectiaity. Thuefore the decision of her/his future would haue to be determind by this polito-scientific class and thut as the'libertarinn' ualues of this class become a threat to the oaerarching goal of 'Iiberalisation' wen the rEresmtatiae participation is gtaen the go-W, while representatiaism is itself questionable.
The other serious issue thai this raises is thnt,

The process of 'Iiberalisation' is structurally such thnt it forces millisns of us to be bystanders of the caaalcade of progress. What better form of tightening the organising structures of society (tlmt it communes with its destiny 'standard of lioing'), than raising the disintegration, chaos and anarclty? A ionstant reference to the exarnples of such dis-organising elernents is the basis of containing dissent utithin the dominant discourse. Dissent which is basis of a functional democra'cy is today seen as the road-block on the path of progress.
bogey of


tlu 'insidu


opens the debate

outsider' argummt through a new aaenue whcn it

states thnt only people liaing around the project area haae accus to such informntion. Thueby, stating thnt public interest has narrow

Of course, the smnrter oies amongst us ill be better off, participating in the process of the politico-scimtific ascendancy that is emerging now. this participation is justified by rejecting dissent as a functional rmlity in the process of eaoluing netoer ways of lfuing and being.

definitions and better still the determination of public interest will reside in structures that haae themselaes dubious records of ensuring participatory processes. Meanwhile, a Constitution Bench of the Suprune Court is proposd to hear the case filed way back in 1982 in which interalia, the ability of a strangu to initiate action before that Court in public interest unless that stranger has a direct intuest,
has beefi raised.

by the Ministry of Enaironmcnt & Forests regarding Enaironmental Impacts Assessment. Born out of a concerted public exercise of instilling participation as the core aalue was a regulatory body, the Enaironmmtal lmpacts Assessment Agency (EIAA), which in consultation with a committee of nongwernmental organisations Taas to eaahrale projects - new, modifications/ expansion of existing ones. The amendment to the notifications' states that the consultation with the committee of NGOs wiII be at the discretion of the EIAA and that only those
proaisions made

A more insidious process is that of creating a make belieae world of the'politically correct' leading to co-option. Take the case of the

Concunently, thue is the reasoning in the Ministry of Tourism that the ministries of tourism, culture and enaironment be merged to make their functioning, especially promotion of tourism, more ffictiae and hurdle-free. And this so that these departments do not uiau the sqme isstres diffuently, leading to multiplicity of intupretations. The premise being thnt there is only one version possible that which supports the marlcet rationale.

liaing around the the project site are eligible to participate in the assessmrnt process.
What is interesting to obserae is the assumptions that underline these sets of actions. There is a process of leading credence to the

In continuing to struggle for a political psychology that allows a plethora of possibilities, we haae to be carefitl about copying the image of the structures that we are in dissonance with. A possible opening in the midst of thue dark foreboding clouds is that there would haue to be a renetaed aigour in working usith communities and be catq:gtic to their self-empowering strategies.

ce4tralising process

of creating a unitary cell with judgmental

K.T .Sr,"Ltl'

?traa anz ap,huu to acfiadaze a44q ol t/re taeaZeta,(, eto f/a, eoeatofuA"r. ?ka4p eezddt aa afftzop:te:ateq atd 4zid eo a. eofrr' ol tlo aateneat /ao aa .dlotwrcatlot . 7Ao aaeo@. b t/z anficho at?p t44ae al t e azliou atd, aat


I share with you some observations and questions on tourism f policy, its implementations, and tourism activists in L developing countries. I will use illustrations from Goa and I
want to know about Kerala. There is considerable discrepanry between the Tourism policy of the Central Government and tourism arrival/departure behaviour in India. For one, out-bound tourism out numbers in-bound tourist arrivals despite the policy'sobjective of discouraging theformer
and encouraging the latter.

no connection with tourism in Coa gets its roads flood-lit because its MLA is associated in the Tourism Department in some capacity). The three crore
political pressures (such as a village having
rupees received by the Goa Govemment for the exposition of the body of St. Francis Xavier is yet another illustrationof an even t that is designed to attract natives and domestic tourists, though the expenditure is borne in theinterestof attractingintemational tourists. UIhile no studies quantifying such transfers are available, these cannot be seen as mere aberrations or deviances. All investments are necessarily refracted through social and political filters, deflecting from the implementation of stated policy.

it comes to in-bound tourism (the major concern of this seminar), the policy's sole aim is to encourage the arrival of 'high spenders'so as to increase foreign exchange earnings. Here too, we find amajor discrepancybetween policyand practicesome of which I illustrate below

It is therefore not sulprising that ever since the late eighties when the Centre has announced its policy of attracting high spenders, Goa has paradoxically seen an increase in the much more modest spending charter tourists while FIIs have remained constant (see Table). Notwithstanding the rhetoric of changing the market,
Goa has followed the classical tourist area life cycle, and is tending to peak with charter tourists.

This policy is far from unique as it is shared by every other country of the world with the exception of Japan. What the policy demands, is 'niche' marketing. To my mind it is not possible to market India to a niche without changing India's
global image in some way. The analogy that is sometimes evoked to explain such an exercise is corporate image management strategies where it might be proposed to refurbish old and rundown hotels, give them a new image and market the hotel to an upper market segment. The point is that global representations of Nations are constructed historically and politically and have to be understood through a semiotic where power and asymmehy are critical. It is simplistic to use behavioural assumption to extrapolate experiences of renovating hotels to transforming images of countries (even that of a niche) as some marketing
people have proposed.
Besides the policy being based on problematic assumptions, there are crucial discrepancies between poliry and implementation. To

International Tourist Arrivals in Goa: Distributed as Charter and Non-Charter




arrivals tourist arrivals tourist arrivale

illustrate, Govemment spending is aimed at infrastructure development and marketing support. Howeveq, most State
Govemments (Kerala maybe one of theexceptions) havenotshown much enthusiasm and much of the planned budget remains


Year 1985{6 fK-87 87{,8 88€9 89-90 90-91 91-92 92-93

A 8&838 7,03,444 86,479 93,M3 97,555 91,982 96,U3 7,28,89

B C=A-B 85,207 3,568 gg,Mg 4,40\ 5,419 81,060 83,338 9,705 9,3't6 8&340 85,167 1815 79,74't L7,102 39,87t 88,581

While the Central Government is concemed with eaming foreign exchange the State Governments have other prioritie. High spenders who bring in the dollar do not generate employment and regional development, as much as other types of tourists. Further, a number of factors influence the expenditJre of State Govemments. The Tourism Department of Goa has organised

Source Tourism Minister Shri Pandurang D. Raut in the Goa Legislative Assembly on 31/3/7992
Quite incontrast to a rhetoric of intervention and change at the level of poliry formation, expendifure and implementation ends up being driven by the industry or local pressures. It is tempting to we the above interpretation to suspect the motives of Government but it is more instructive to understand the global positioning which determines unattainable poliry objectives, and industry and local contexts which channel investments in infrastructure. This paradox must be reflecting on the one hand the inability of India (or most of our fellow aspirants in the third world) to conhol its global image (which in turn determines the nature of tourist

festivals such as 'Carnival' or the recently concluded 'International Food Festival' with financial assistance from the Central Govemment. These festivals attract natives rather than tourists and even the tourists that do come are domestic
for tourism have to be incurred in keeping with local industry. and

tourists. The various expenditures on infrastructure development

cycle premised on

demand) or at the regional level to manipulate the tourist area life a semiotic of consumption and difference in the

The JGF has pioneered the demand for





softer forms



from within


the the

modern world. An aside: If newspaper reports are right, Kerala seems to aspire to do a Goa 2 in terms of tourism development and arrivals. There is an attempt to skip stages in the tourist area life cycle- avoid the explorers and aim for the high spenders. I am not optimistic about Kerala's efforts. I am afraid that the rather vigorous marketing of 'God'sOwn Country' will make itsuspect in the eyes of dollar bearing angels. A deeper understanding of the semiotic of tourist attractions is called for.

Intemational Movement for altemate forms of tourism. The JGF highlights neo-colonialism and class as the causes for the present 'destructive' tourism policy in the third world. While the link between global structures and tourism policy and practice is essential, I am not sure of how the fight against tourism could lead to the dismantlingof the present model of development - the
core of the JGF agenda. More specifically in the case of Goa, where infrastructure developments have led to rising expectations, I am unsure if a groject could always be blocked, even in its conception stage itself./

Thus far my comments have been within the tourism policy

Another issue that has engaged the tourism activists



A more radical critique has emerged from

the tourism


led by the movement called the JGF (|agrut Goenkaranchi Fauz Vigilant Goans Army.) and other grouPs. The initial resPonse of tourism activists highlighted the loss of traditional occupations and cultural degradation brought on by the 'hippies' in the late sixties and seventies, etc. Gradually environmental concerns began to dominate the movement. During this period the JGF gained international recognition. As strategy the Government and industry have responded by trying to discredit the movement. Howeveq, the industry and Govemment have had to be more cautious of their plans and violations of environmental regulations. So long as the movement was confined to the courts and the press, it amounted to a proxy battle in the name of the 'people'. Industry and government were cautious but their caution and their energies were directed towards using loopholes in the law, delays by the courts etc. to overcome the obstacles presented by the activists.

'Representation of Goa'. The activists have demanded that the representation of Goa as'westernised' is a distorted image presented by the Government. While the activists have protested the commodification of a distorted image of Goa, there is an intermittent debate in Goa as to what constitutes Goan Culture.s

This representation of Goa to the outside has drawn flak from


variety of opposing views. On the one hand Hindu revivalist have argued that the westernised image is not the true image of Goa but merely an aberration of colonialism. On the other hand, the Catholic community (identified with the westernised image) has been upset with the mis-represented and the distortion of their

culture being used


attract tourists. Tourism throws


Over the last few years there has been
development and the movement.

a shift in


representation of culture and identity into the global market of signs. What follows inevitably is a repositioning of identity within the global community. The contests over identity are bound to increase and tourism is a facilitator for such contests. The difficulty with retrievals of images of the past toconstituteidentityisthat such revivals are themselves colonial constructions9 posing the question of how are we to engage with the other in our past?


The size of tourism projects have grown demanding larger Iands for projects such as golf courses, the ]apanese village etc.

2. The projects have therefore had to shift from the traditional touriit destination area in Central Goa (Old Conquests)3 to the
New Conquest.

In the case of Goa, the local administration has tried to be a wee bit sensitive in its own activities not out of conviction but due to pressures. It washes its hand of the responsibility of policing hotel and tour operators. The Central Govemment refuses to take
cognizance of these areas of conflict.


The Government has taken upon itself the task of acquiring land and handing it over to the Promoters. these projects comes

The academic study of impacts ignore crucial and intangible
questions such as those of culture and representation that


The demand for land of

into conflict with

indirect consequences of tourism can be critical within the region not only

with the arrival of tourism. These

prospective plans that villagers have for the use of this la.nda and in North Goa the new tourism projects are likely to up_set the edsting tourist arrivals which are integrated in the villages.5
The movement has therefore been able to,

for culture but also for demographic and social transformation. In Goa, for instance, a number of residential

colonies have been coming up for NRIs. These colonies which are designed as investment opportunities, for NRIs to hedge against inflation, have long term effects on land use and costs which are detrimental to native interests economically and politically.

1. mobilise the villages and at the momenthas preempted the
developments of these projects and

Strucfural Adjustments currently underway are directed towards

2. articulate their objections through

the local


institutions such as the Panchayat. (\A/hile some activists might be critical of the legitimacy the Panchayats enjoy, this is not true of the wider society. Movements have been more successful where they are able to articulate their demands through legitima te institutions).

consolidating the market. I have argued that the market has always been driving tourism in India notwithstanding the rhetoric about atLracting particular market segments. The trend will
therefore continue with less rhetoric about market intervention. I,1/hat will change is the social and economic context in which tourism arrives.

While the demandsupply, growth and efficiency increase, the
middle class, particularly the fixed income middle class, such as academics and government officials will find their relative economic positions failing- and many of us are beginning to feel the pinch (e.9. life saving drugs). On the other hand a vigorous

The movement is also aware that once tourists arrive they
generate options, and expectations among the people. Hence their suggestion "The people must be equipped to block the starting of a destructive project at its concePtion stage".b

consumer culture will ensure that the middle class aspirations will continue to escalate. Chasing our ever increasing dreams will be our constant preoccupation. The category of concem is those who fall below the demand curve. What is going to be the fate of these people?

capita income and other development indicators, than the new

which have experienced only two centuries of colonial rule and occupy a larger part of the land area of Goa.
costs arehigh. However is seen as unremunerative and the-peasants are

4. In bothKeralaandGoa agriculturallabour -agriculture
in Goa
Steadily loosing interest in

The poliry of liberalisation moves on and as of now there is little in sight to suggest any prospects for its dismantling. The possibility for an altemative model of development seems far. This makes the task of a critique of the established mode of critique even more urgent and there is little forthcoming on that front too. I therefore find myself in a situation of ambivalence where on the one hand I am uncomfortable with the onrushing changes and on the other I can see no way out. The academia itself has long abandoned its illusions of neutrality in understanding society. Much as I enjoy the exploration, I am haunted by the line from Marx's "...the point, however, is to change it." I
Department of Sociology, Goa University.


This is rather different from Kerala. What

could be the reason?


tourism and charter tourism. For instance the charter tourist prefer to travel bv coach (bus). This,leaves the many taxi operaiors that have been licensed during the period of growth of the FITs idle and they have protested the use of coaches by Hotels.
Roland Martins, 'Peoples Action on Tourism in Goa - A Future Perspective' paper presented at the consultation: RethinkingTourism,.

There are also other forms of conflict between the early FIT



Paper presented at the National Seminar on Tourism, Development, Globalisation and Justice held on 3-4 December 1994 at Kochi, Kerala,
organised by EQUATIONS and School of Social Sciences, M.G. University, Kottayam.

Some of the interior villages lying outside the tourism belt have demanded that the govemment should promote them as tourist destinations. These villages are obviously looking for the opportunities that tourism has opened out in the villages of the tourist belt.

8. SuchaquestioningontheidentityofGoabythe people of the state is often seen as unique to Goa. At a Seminar on'Understanding Goan


Sunil Jain "lburism Policy Snags', Economic Times, June 30, 1994 abstracted in Docrrmentation Update, Vo1.2 No.4-4EQUATIONS




of identity within Goa is

a partibipant from Kerala remarked that she could not imagine question in Kerala as regards to'what is Kerala culfure'. This question

sometimes understood merely as



Official data shows that both Goa and Kerala receive about one lakh international arrivals each. However, it is important to note that Goa collects its data from retums submitted by Hotels leading to under-reporting (particularly foreign nationals of Goan origins who stay with friends and relative.) Kerala, I prcsume, uses the more standard WTO recomrnended practice of recording arrivals at thepointof entry and departure. As the operational definitions are different this could result in Goa's figures being unreported as compared to Kerala. I might require to be corrected on this point, if my information is wrong.
The Old conquests have had over four centuries

issue of dominance of one culture/language over the other sub-regional cultures that have come up in some State only recently has and will continue to be debated in Goa from tirne to.time.

consequence of the vigorous policy of conversion of the Portuguese and its fall out in terms of a section in the population seen as having a distinct identity. I am of the opinion that the question is also because Goa joined the Union much after the linguistic division of States and hence the


See Romila Thapar, Cultural Tiasaction and Early India: Tradition and


colonial rule and enjoy a higher population density, better infrastructure, higher per


Patronage, Oxford University Press, Delhi (1987) foor h detailed discussiorl on the colonial origins of the concept of. a Hindu Indan culture.

ourists arc,by definitiory not ieen as people who embody social relations. Their positions and roles as wider agents of social change are ignored. There is, therefore a tendency to view tourism as an unproblematic and apolitical activity that is beyond a political critique. It is for this reason that Govemments and inter-governmental agencies concerned with tourism have generally not been questioned on who makes Tourism policies and what the thrust of such policies should be.
The World Tourism Organisation (VVIO) sees the role of policy as the means by which Government motivations can be balanced

sector in overall employment. Similarly, Tourism services account

abroad is

fot 7/3rd of totil exports of commercial services. Consumption the most important mode of the delivery of Tourism services, and it accounts for the greatest volume of trade.

WTO therefore reconunends that all countries, to realise the value of the process of liberalisatiory should have a Tourism poliry, which defines the means by which the objectives of Tourism development are to be realised. To be'meaningfu l' these objectives should be'fixed'in a tourism master or developmentplan which has the sanction of the Government.

with private sector motivations. This is primarily because it views Tourism as one of the few development options for third
world countries, and a means of participation in the Intemational
trade in services, which form 70"h of GDP in the industrialised countries and about 50% in many developing countries. Sirnilar percentages are observed with regard to the share of the services

balanced and competitive tourism development,

In this view, thecentralobjectiveof Tourism poliry is toachieve with the partial objectives of job creatiorL overcome regional backwardness, conservation of nafure and heritage etc. For competitive
development the following factors are important.

o The Value Added r o r

Effech Through incorporation of local inputs, to retain increasing proportions of value added income. Transfer of Technology Effect lncreasing know how and technology incorporated in these services. Positive Foreign Exchange Effect To propitiate in{lows of

If we look at the performance of foreign airlines, we

see another

foreign investment and simultaneously reduce the import
content of tourism services.

illustration, these airlines have mopped up revenues of Rs 3524 crores of which Rs 1.940 crore, have been repatriated (55%) Lufthansa has repatriated66.48% of its profits whilst, committing Rs 30 core to an India Tourism Development Fund, to be taken from the amount to be paid in royalty to Air India. Meanwhile Tour operators and Hoteliers have been having a slanging match over dual tariffs whidr hoteliers introduced to
cover losses due to devaluation of the rupee. Operators view the dual tariff as discriminatory to tourists as well as reducing their profits in a price sensitive market. Hoteliers hold that rates offered to the travel trade are negotiated and therefore lower than those

Enhancing The Employment

Effech By

increasing the

proportion of local workers to foreign staff.
Experience however shows that as the tourism industry draws on a country's infrastructure, the more developed and complex the rest of the economy, the greater are the economic gains and the power of the to retain the value added in the country.
To ensure a competitive Tourism growth, Tourism professionals and officials are tobe encouraged to takeanactive part in the decision making process.

offered to Indians who have a lower earning capacity than the tourists. The dual tariff system has saved us Rs 587.3 crore in foreign exchange. The Ministry is unable to settle this dispute for
the past year.

For achieving rapid growth five key areas have been identified.

Socio-demographic factors of demand

2. Technology development and changes 3. Current trends in consumer behaviour 4. Strategy of sustainable development 5. Development and improvement of human resources

Similarly, while the DOT issues circulars to airlines to discount tickets, the Ministry issues counter arguments to protect Air India's traffic. Since.the bottom line is dollar eamings, every effort is being made to increase the number of arrivals, including the setting up of unattainable targets, without establishing that a transfer of wealth is taking place from the rich to the poor.
The NAPT is also pushing Special Tourism Areas as integrated development. The recent referendum in the popular media on Bekal in Kerala, and the debate in the State Assembly on Puri-Konark are an indicator of the disaster that such developments are going to create. The Puri-Konark marine drive accommodates 2,227 acres of forest land, of which 576.12 acres have been dereserved to build 1,100 rooms, a golf course, housing, an artisan village, bus terminal and market complex. At Bekal 400 acres of coconut growing land are to be acquired for the tourist complex, details of which are a closely guarded secret. On the HRD front &,00049,000 trained professionals are required within two years. Since hotel management schools are in the

These factors
next decade.

will determine international Tourism flows in


We have to critique the existing thrust of our Tourism Policy and locate alternatives within the reality of these factors. We have to see how these issues are going to increase the unequal trade in global


South Asian

destinations have


marginal share



InternationalTourism marketandyetthe60'svision of the economic and developmental benefits and foreign exchange eamings from Tourism continue to dominate the developmental debate. Tourism is penetrating deeper into our political and economic thinking and our culfure.

planning stage, with India signing GATS, it's anybody's guess
where the staffwill come from. Tourism is also causing landscape and habitat changes. There is

In reply

to a recent question in the Indian Parliament, the Minister

for Civil

Aviation and Tourism stated that in pursuance of the National Action Plan for Tourism (NAPT), an integrated plan to attract 5 million tourists by 1996-97 will require an investment of Rs 39,000 crores. This plan is being pushed despite the fact that tourist arrivals increased by 2.8% and rupee earnings by 14.6%. These figures hide the fact that India's global share dropped from 0.72%in 1988 to 0.46oh and receipts to 0.51%.
The Department of Tourism has accepted the U.5. worldview that India is unsafe and has identified poor conununications and bad management as the reasons for our poor performance. We have no empowered subjectivity to deterrnine the magnitude of Tourism flows and we accept the representative image of India that is promoted abroad.

the two year old controversy on the displacement of several thousand Gujjars from the Rajaji National Park in Uttar Pradesh.
NGO's led by the VWVF have justified the removal of Gujjars whilst environmentalists have suggested a combined management system. Whilst the debate continues the Gujjars are being

terrorised in


housing colony

with 512 houses at Pauri.

Tourism Poliry in India, which is conceived and pushed from the top, is always justified and legitimised by the yardstick of
customer satisfaction.

In the "free market" economies few needs are satisfied locally. Products originate in communities that cannot consume them. The determining factor is access to money and the empowerment it

A clear example of this attitude is reflected in recent data released by the Department of Tourism (DOT), Government of Lrdia. Travel Agents aciounted for 14.6Yo of arrivals, the DOT information offices abroad accounted for 12"/",Intemational carriers brought in7.4"h,
the national carrier brought in 7.77" and Hotel chains brought in 4.77o, Charters brought in 50%. 80'/" of the tourists were ethnic

to the consumer. Tourism is an advanced form of consumerism that'depends on the distant, unknown "other" to supply it. It compels people who have unknown names and identities to "acrifice the means to meet their daily needs so that the affluent tourists can effortlessly reach out for whatever they
desire - at their price.



An altemate tourism poliry mustreject thisvalue system. Itmust stop being consumer centered. Its focus should be on that form of

tourism that encourages an exchange of cultures and wealth, a sharingof skills and problems. This would includeboth domestic tourism (81 miltion inlndia in'92) and thoseinternational tourisis who wish to come at the terms of the destination. If India has developed resistance to tourism it is because the people at the destination have no role in decision making or in the benefits from tourism.
We want a poliry that does not reduce us to a 'field'for which our government has become the 'native informant', making value and cultural statements that are neither authentic nor representative for cultured. We rn ant a policy that asserts our subjectivity in the

contextof unequal trade so thatwe do not subsidise themass tourist and become victims of the travel trade. Therefore the Tourism Policy must be re-defined by peoples needs, peoples movements and peoples organisations, in co-operation I with similar bodies and counterparts elsewhere.
Teaches at College of Vocational Studies, Delhi University and is a mernber of the Programme Sub Committee, EQUATIONS. Paper presented at the National Seminar on Tourism, Development, Globalisation and Justice held on 3-4 December 1994 at Kochi, Kerala, organised by EQUATIONS and School of Social Sciences, M.G. University, Kottayam.

AMDOUH el-Beltagui, Egypt's minister for tourism, would like to see this industry become the hub of his A A U country's economy.' In the past two years, however, Egypt has learned some of the dangers inherent in relying on an industry as fickle and sensitive as tourism.


/l /l ll Il I

economy; as long as everything is going well, it generates a great deal of money, but at the first sign of trouble profits evaporate. For this reason tourism is one of the most accurate indicators of a country's stability, both internally and extemally.

"Tourism is inseparable from politics,'' says el-Sayyid.


Prior to

1993, tourism was Egypt's leading source revenue, bringing in just over US$2.25 billion in 7992.


terrorist attacks late that year, however, dealt the industry a crippling blow: earnings in 1993 were $1.3 billion, a crushing 41
percent drop in one year.

foreign spate of

tourism does not exist without healthy diplomatic relations, any problem a tourist-dependent country has with foreign powers is likely to mean a drop in tourism."
This was most apparent during the 1960s and early 1970s when the

bulk of the visitors to Egypt were from

safe, the violent events came as a shock and they scared people away," says Elhamy EI Zayat, CEO

"Egypt had always been so

of Emeco Tiavel. lnElZayat's opinion, the extent of the violence the IslamicJihad and Gamaa-al-Islamiya hasbeen exaggerated by ihe foreign media, obscuring the government's decisive efforts to halt the terrorists. Although government crackdown on militant areas appear to have neutralised the threat to tourists, People are still too afraid to visit Egypt.


neighbouring Arab countries. When Egypt singed the 1979 peace accord with Israel, the number of tourists from the Arab states dropped precipitously, but there was a corresponding increase in visitors from Europe and the US. It was not until Egypt was readmitted to the Arab fold, following a quiet but persistent campaign by President Hosni Mubarak, that the number of Arab visitors began to climb.
"1 /hile I would not say that tourism is dictated by governments, one must realise that there is an extremely powerful interaction between businesses and governments," says el-Sayyid. "Tourism

According to Mustafa el-Sayyid, a Political Science Professor at the American University in Cairo, the terrorist attacks in Egypt had a particularly alarming effect because of their personal nature.

involves a multitude of economic institutions operating in
different fields, and of course there are certain services that government can provide, like infrastructure, communications
and foreign exchange facilities."
The militant Islamic groups that appeared on the scene, fostered by an atmosphere of social and economic unrest, were determined to discredit the government by striking at a major source of revenue. The tourist industry is still reeling from their efforts. Normally, in

by various extremist groups vis-a-vis the government " he said. "So, while in other countries tourists felt they might be the incidental victims of terrorist violence, in Egypt they felt they might be targets." This fear was encouraged by Gamaa
al-Islamiya, which faxed a statement to Western media outlets in February saying that they regarded tourists as legitimate targets.

"The attacks against tourists in Egypt were a major poliry adopted

This approach is not, in el-Sayyid's opinion, peculiar to Egyptian extremist groups. He believes they were inspired by Algerian
radical organisations who started attacking foreigners as a way of embarrassing their government.

Cairo's Khan el-I(hanlhbazaar one must push one's way through close crowds of bemused tourists and vendors leaning out of their tiny shops. Now, one can almost stroll through thebazaar during the height of the tourist season.

The economic implications translate easily into social


The creative inspiration of these groups aside their success illustrates the precarious position of tourism within a nation's

Madiha el Safty, a Sociology Professor at the American University in Cairo does not, howeve4 agree with the often voiced claim that basing an economy on tourismbreeds a nation of shopkeepers. "It's

a service like any other. In fact, there is a great deal tobe said about exposure to different cultures," she says.

country, they leave. Tha t's it. People should simply be careful what facets of alien cultures they choose to adopt."

It is precisely thisminglingof cultures, however, that hascaused trouble. "Two years ago, you couldn't open an opposition
newspaper without reading that tourism was destroying the fabric

But the selectiveness of the average citizen


Egyptian society, and particularly Islamic values," says elSayyid. "What do you think set the extremist groups off?"

is not the government's highest priority. The staggering loss of foreign currency during a time of economic change is. Tourism might be a dangerous industry to rest one's hopes on, but the Egyptian governmerrt has no intention of giving up on it.
The author is an editor and senior

El-Safty counters with the fact that this is an extremist viewpoint that most people disagree with. "These people come, they see the
,:.:.,'lil,, " , : ..: :1. ::: ::.:.... : :::: r :.....

writer for the Cairo-based Egypt

This article is reproducecl from

Today. Bassiness lndia,October 7U23,1994.

Aa"a, Ak*aadzn

- /4 ?,u/qte

Anna Vareed Alexande4 a rnernber of Equations' General Body, passed (rway on Christmas Day, 1994, following a brief illness. She leaues beh.ind her husband, Dr M P Alexande4 son Philip and daughter Mary Ann.
The WTO has predicted that the total volume of tourist traffic by 2000 A.D will be 650 million with the figure going up to 937 billion by 2010. East Asia and the Pacific regions are

expected to receive one-fifth of total arrivals by 2010, implying a market share of 30 percent. In comparison, the
number of tourist arrivals in South Asia has been projected as

Her parents were both doctors in Penang (former Malnya), where Anna was born in 1934. Anna's early education, duing the Wa4 was largely at home. The family moued to India in 1947, where she obtained a degree in Home Sciences from Madras.
She was manicd in 1959, and the sdme year trauelled with her husband to the USA for furtlrcr studies. An na graduated with a M Sc from Ohio State Uniuersity, and they returned to India in 1963. Anna was a lecturer in Home Scie.nces for sonle ye&rs in a Coimbatore college, before mouing to

million by 2000 and


million by 2010.

- Tourism

the Year of the Plague, The Pioneer, 14 Oct 1994.

Q. What are the major projects on which you are working at present?

Bangalore in 1969.

An Orthorlox Syrian Christian, Anna had strong Protestant
conuictions, and her eueryday life reflected her committment to strengthening thc role of women in Ch.urch and society. Since 1983, slte helped teach courses on fem.inist theology at the United Theological College, Bangalore. Along with. Stella

A. We are talking to the Government of Kerala to develop


major project which will be one of the biggest tourism project ever undertaken in the country. The project, currently in the planning stage is called Bakel project and is situated at the Kasargod district. The Kerala Government is acquiring about 2,000 acres of land to construct a mega-tourist village. This village will have all the amenities which a touristwill require. Apart from this, we are talking to the state government of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh to promote certain tourist spots.

Faria and Jessie Tellis-Nayah, she founded WINA Momen's Institute for New Awahening), and co-edited'The Emcrging Christian Wornan'in. 1984, the first such effort in India.

I met Anna in July 1987 at a worhshop on writing Human Rights. We discouered u)e were neighbours, and our families becarne friends. Soon aftet; Anna accepted an inuitation to
become a rnember of Equations, and she serued as Secretary till 1992.

Director,Tourism Finance Corporation of India Ltd (TFCI). Interview by Dev Chatterjee, Fanancial Express, New Delhi 6 Nov. 1994

Mr R Subramanian, Managing

worhing together. During a crucial transition phase at Equatians, she wa.s inuolued in many organisational issues, and at each point she brought her gifts ofcare, ruurturing and trust in people. Seueral times, when things got eomplex, contentious and. rarefied, Anna's directness and seeming simplicity were truly examples of the compassion of her

Gentle and unassuming in her ways, Anna displayed a rare and, genuine sensitiuity to the reality of men and women

Anna will be rnissed deeply by all of us, and we share with her family their loss and grief at her unexpected passing. I can po.y no better tribute to her mnmnry than to conclude by quoting from a letter the staff of Equations wrote to Anna's family upon the news of her death: Although we shall greatly
miss her gentle, gracious presence, she leaues behind a legaqt that will be cherished. May Anna's ffi and gifts to all of us light our path to the future.

Paul Gonsaloes

^ ti-a.Illpai




n June 5, 1,994 a protest rally against the Coimbatore Zoological Park (CZP) was held adjacent to the
Kodungaraipallam (river) that divides the homeland of Irula - thesecond major Adivasi community in Southlndia,between Coimbatore and Palakkad districts'of Tamilnadu and Kerala states respectively. Under the overcast sky and in the desolate valley of the Anaikatti Hills when the informed minority celebrated the World Environment Day, these Adivasis demanded action against the CZP and others for alleged crimes against Adivasis in the name of environment and wild life.
The assault of 8 year old Adivasi girl 'Pappa' for pulling out the

Z.O.O has managed to establish itself giving itself a cover as a committed NGOfor thewelfareof wildlife especially inZoos. Z.O.O is one of the 12 organisations through which the ntitirn Airways' Assisting Nature Conservation programme operates with its prinrary concern being captive breeding and tourism. Z.O.O also
convened the first regional branch of the Captive Breeding Specialist

marker flag planted

by the Survey department, the illegal demolition and destruction of the houses of Vettai and Maruthan in 1991 when they refused to give up their landstoCZP, the assault of Panikkan, detention and threat meted out to Boddan, Ramaswamy, Rangaswamy and Muthuswamy - the list continues. They were demanding the retum of their lands which they say were taken away from them fraudulently. They condemned the Govemment for coming down to the wishes of CZP.
Coimbatore Zoological

Group (CBSG) of the Lrtemational Union for the Conservation of Nature. CBSG-India operating through Z.O.O and in collaboration with Z.O.O have been holding a large number of Intemational workshops in different parts of the country. The media earlier this year (Indian Express, January 3,\994 titled "Gene Pool in Peril" by Usha Rai) had exposed that these workshops have been used as a cover where foreign scientists are "believed to have flown out with blood and semen samples of lions, clouded leopards and lion tailed Macaques in test tubes, submerged in "Nilrogen containers". Incidentally Ms Sally Walker had applied for permission to take out the blood and semen samples of these very species which was rejected by the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Z.O.O has managed to become a member of the Animal Welfare Board of India withMs SallyWalkerbecoming also a memberof the Central Zoo Authority of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, created under the Wild Life Protection Act 1972 to oversee the functioning of zoos in the country which attracts sizable number of tourists. With such an elaborate cloak they have been able to demonstrate their clout with the politico-administrative machinery and so far has managed to avoid any action against them for the allegations made by the people, specially the Adivasis.

Park established in 1986 as


non-goverrunent organisation by industrialists, financiers and hoteliers intends to establish the first ever private Zoological park in Thuvaipathy village, 3kms from Anaikatti in Coimbatore. Falling within the 5600 Square kilometer Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (NBR), the Zoological park is projected to be an interpretation Centre for NBR in about 250 acres of the most modem kind where primarily the flora and fauna of the NBR would be recovered and introduced. Situated 25 kms away from Coimbatore city, this park is to be built up as a tourist Centre with tours conducted to the wild life sanctuaries and National Parks whidr cover a substantial variety of ecosystems in the peninsula.

With an outlay of Rs.10 crores of which Rs 3 crores have already been raised from industrial and business houses, CZP has applied

Wildlife from the tropical region seldom service in the zoos in the west for long because of changed environment and weather conditions. These zoos are in constant demand of replacements. Global trade in wild life is moreover banned. Clandestine operations to smuggle wild life illegally however continues. Quite
often the laws are by-passed because of loopholes in the laws. The acquisition of wild life by a foreigner is prohibited in India but is permissible to a resident. Quite often the residentgets the wildlife and lends it to foreign zoos. The profit margin is enormous. Ior example, an elephant calf costing Rs.50,000/- earns about Rs.l"7 lakhs in the West. Another problem $'ith the wildlife of tropical region in the zoos of the West is that the chances of their

for a "planning grant" of US $ 30,000 from the Biodiversity prograrune of the World Wide Fund for Nafure and have registered a proposal of US $ 3,59,750 with the world Community Services of the Rotary International to purchase equipments and other goods.

by G.Rangaswamy, the secretary of CZP (also the Managing Director of Pioneer Mlls), this project has another NGO
Zoo Outreach Organisation (Z.O.O) as its associate with its

reproduction is very slender. Consequently, semen and blood
samples to test for diseases fetches a huge price. Environmentalists and conservationists fear that with ecotourism and wild life tourism becoming a rage with tourists the genetic stock of third world is subject to ruthless plunder. The setting up of the zoological park by CZP has raised the specter of threat to wild life on the one hand to sustain wild life tourism through zoos in the West as well as the

secretary Ms Sally Walker as the Project Coordinator. Interestingly G.Rangaswamy of CZP b also the President of Z.O.O and one finds a large number of the erecutive members of CZP also in the Managing Committee of Z.O.O excePt that Z.O.O has a number of environmentalists, veterinarians, foresters etc actively involved. In effect it seems clear that CZP and Z.O.O are controlled by the same set of people with CZP being more closely held.

rapidspread of wildlife tourism inlndia withits disastrous fall outs

Already over 6,00,000 people of which 5,00,000 Adivasis (indigenous people) are displaced by 421 sanctuaries and 75
national parks from amongst the 135 lakh adivasis who are affected in the name of conservation and protected areas. Tourism projects in and around these areas are further displacing or alienating these people.
The CZP has already "purchased" 55 acres of land mostly from the


of coercion and fraudulentmeans. The Peoples Union for Civil Liberties, Tamilnadu carried out a fact finding mission in early August 1994 and confirmed the allegations (their report is yet to be released). In addition, CZP has requested the transfer of government lands, mostly enjoyed by Adivasis for decades measuring around 160 acres. In addition to this the Collector of Coimbatore announced in 1993 that 400 acres of land of which 100 acres belong legally to the Adivasis and rest held by the government would be acquired by the government and handed over to the CZP. All these add up to over
Adivasis where the Adivasis allege the use with the development of organised tourism (with the Zoological Park as the operational cenhe), the spin-off effect that it will cause by bringing in peripheral interests to the area would be that, more lands of the marginalised will be lost along with the destruction of the local economy.
600 acres. Once established and

to couch their project with environment, biodiversity conservation, tribal development etc., in the face of stiff opposition by the people does not dazzle at least those who have faced the wrath of CZP. In a desperate attempt to stifle the local opposition, CZP has been literally doling out money to all and sundry in the village in tens of thousands hoping that such huge amounts wouid shut the mouths of the victims to suppress the truth from coming out.

The project is shrouded in mystery as attempts by public interest groups to get the details of the project have failed under the plea that the details are yet to be worked out. The manner in which CZP has been grabbing land and the use of money and muscle power further confirms the suspicion that the intentions of CZP are evil. There have been attempts to co-opt or suPPress opposition to their

FIAN, an international Human Rights organisation has initiated an international campaign against the CZP for its human rights violations in August 1994. A number of organisations in the West connected mostly with zoos and others like the prestigious IUCN

are being mobilized by Ms Sally Walker for CZP to counter
allegations against



feared that very soon the 500 odd Adivasis of Thuvaipathy would be eased out of the place. The attempts of CZP project.

It is

The author is involved in the Human Rights issues linked to that of the AdivasisinSouthlndia.Historicaldetails ofthisissueisavarlableinTottrism
Altemai,tiaes Exchange

Issue 3, March 1993, ask EQUATIONS.



o, Kai and I went on


trek this summer, from Spiti valley

in Himachal Pradesh to Tsomoriri lake in Ladak. Tsomoriri is a large and exquisitely beautifirl
high-altitude lake in the Rupshu plains of Ladak, very close to the imaginary line that separates a concept called'India'from another
concept called

magical lake cast on us as we walked along its shore was more powerful.



lake and its

'Tibet'. I will not try to describe the beauty of the surrounds, not only because it is quite beyond

description, but also because that is not the main purpose of this

This spell turned out tobe short-lived, though. The moming after we reached, as we lounged around in the meadow below Korzok which serves as a lakeside camping ground, I felt like weeping. 'This place', I exclaimed touthoevef wouldcarc to hear,'is going to the dogs in front of our very eyes!' Here was Tsomoriri in its first
sedson of tourism since innerline restrictions for visitors were relaxed last autumn, and rape was on.


was a long and hard trek. We crossed the 18,000 feet high Parang la, walked along the Pare Chu river from its source to near the point where it unconcernedly flows across the imaginary line into Tibet, and then walked spellbound for an entire day along the westem shore of this rather long lake. Near the northern end of the lake, we finally reached the roadhead village called Korzok, the
first human settlement we had come across in seven days of

Maruti Gypsys and jeeps all over, tents, tourists and garbage. This meadow, where marmots might earlier have frolicked
undisturbed, fattening up for their long winters of hibernation, had now been invaded and taken over by a pest-species called 'people', and tumed into a picnic spot, camping ground, parking lot and. garbage dump, all rolled into one. The marmots were told to go dig their burrows somewhere else.
This same meadow, wide, flat and grassy, was clearly a good place to drive around in, somewhat like the India Gate lawns, and in sharp contrast to the suspension-testing dirt road that got you here

The difficulty of the trek had weakened our bodies, while the surrealistic beauty of the terrain as we approadred the lake had begun to disarm us of our minds, so that the spell that this

_ 17-

a,Illpai -

One car less to the carnage is how I look at it now, but


undeniable fact is that dreaming about that car and the goodies on it did actually sustain us during the last few days of the trek, and that made us, in a way accomplices in the ongoing rape. Which made me really wonder, for weren't we ordinary, well- meaning human beings, who would just as much enjoy a 'picnic' in an exotic setting as anyone else would? Were we, then, any different from the tourists whom I was looking at with murder in my eyes? Or was there, perhaps, such a thing as being innocent accomplices to

from Leh. One gypsy could be seen towing another one round and

round at high speed, its engine roaring, apparently for the sheer exhilaration of driving around a high-altitude meadow on the shores of a map;ical lake in a wild, middle-of-nowhere valley, but actually in an effort to get the second one started. Maybe they
should set up a service centre in one corner of this meadow. And lakeside petrol pump. And...

These questions need to be asked, if only to try and figure out whom to point fingers at, and whetl-rer. We might be able to understand the real problem better, I now feel, and thus be closer to real solutions, if we only stopped pointing fingers at 'people', that is all of us, and looked instead at why we do what we do - the circumstances behind our actions, and the underlying patterns. We would still remain responsible for our action, but not blarneworthy. And there is a crucial difference between the two.
Back in the meadow, the guides, cooks, drivers and intelligenceagents-in-disguise who had accompanied the Britishers were busy winding up camp as we had our breakfast. The last step in this ritual tumed out to be garbage picking. The Britishers joined in a

'There aren't too many vehicles here today,' commented the driver

'probably because it hasbeenrainingiheselasttwodays. A few daysback, I counted 25 gypsys here, and a number of chartered buses have also been coming of late.'
The picture that hi t us when we reached Korzok was quite contrary to what we had imagined it to be, and to what it had in fact been until this summer. Mo had been fortunate enough, through army

of one of the seven or eight vehicles parked there,

token sort of way and, after greedily gobbling down a second helping of their cornflakes, so did we - in a token sort of rvay, since it wasn't our garbage, after all. Satisfied with their hurried cleanup, they walked off with the trash they had collected, and made a pile a little distance away.

contacts, to havebeentotheiaketwosummers ago. At thattime, he had to hunt for two days just to find a driver in Leh who knew the way to Korzok. He had, on that visit, found Korzok to be 'one of the most primitive experiences of my life'.

It is funny how people are always in a hurry when they 'vvind ul'r camp, for one legitimate reason or another, so that when they do their token cleanups, their faces and gestures always seem to be saying, we would have done better if we had the time, but since we don't, this will have to do for now - innocent, well-meaning accomplices to rape.
As Kai and I lingered at the campsite-that-was, picking up
whatever we could of what was left behind, and Mo chatted with
the retired British colonel ancl his wife who were oLrr chief saviours

Many days later, still numbed by the shock of the'carbage' that we had seen at Tsomoriri, I tried to sum up the situation with these

Droaes of people

for the day, we saw a hasty fire being made of the pile of rubbish. Almost immediately, they started preparing to get into their cars
and drive off.

Driae down
To Tsomoriri, And drizte back.


walked over to the fire and said, trying hard not to shout, 'Hey,

Basho must have had better things to compose haiku on in his days. But these are not his days. Nor, for that matter, am I Basho.
We had exhausted all our fbod on the trek, so we sent out not-sosubtle feelers among the campers in the meadow with as much self -respect as was possible to muster in such a situation. Seeing our hungry faces, tired eyes and badly sunburnt noses, a group of British tourists decided that a good deed would be a nice way to conclude such a nice picnic, and invited us over for breakfast. This group, we found, consisted of four tourists who had driven dor,r'n from Leh in just as many taxis, so the breakfast invitation soon got

this lust won't dol' Some of them came back to the fire, a trifle irritated, while the others looked on'vvitir ill-concealed impatience, looking at watches and muttering and shaking their heads. The smoothness of their ritual had been somewhat disrupted.

'This tin foil won't bum,' I said, sifting through the half burnt remains of the already dying fire, 'and this can won't, either. Plastic shouldn't have been burnt in any case.' Kai joined me at the fire with the collection he had made, while Mo looked on with an eloquent'don't stir up trouble, boy' expression on his face. 'ln fact,' continued my sermon, 'you should have carried every single
bit of garbage back to Leh, and thought about burning or whatever oui there. But you don't have a decent disposal system in Leh,
either, do you?'

extendedinto an offer todriveusoutof Korzok. Thiswas justwhat we needed, and we were delighted.
You see - treat this as a confession - we had originally planned to meet up with some friends who would drive down from Delhi in their Tata Sierra, well stocked with wine,beer and good food, and were therefore really disappointed to find that they had apparently not made it.

'Hurry up, guys!' shoutecl the stout colonel, standing ready to get into his vehicle, 'We've got a long way to go today..'
so they had,

I must admit, but....



have to do something about this half-burnt trash before we




still trying hard to keep within the threshold of

politeness. This gamewent on for five more minutes, until a dirty compromise

-a,rnpai lr-

was reached. They got a shovel, dug a pit, and buried the
charred remains, tin foil and all. This was
a sad

compromise, it was.

If we had been a little less tired, or a little less in a hurry to get out of Korzok (flights to catch and all that), or the garbage hadn't still been smouldering, we would have carried this stuff out of here in our own racksacks, like we were our own garbage of the trek. But the fact is we didn't, and as we got into the vehicles to drive off, I felt like a criminal who has helped bury a corpse and is running from the scene.

During this game, an interesting set of transformations had taken place among these men, from apathy to irritation and impatience tq as they triumphantly stamped on the mud after filling up the pit, satisfaction and then even pride. These people were actually proud of their half-baked cleanup. The most interesting transformation was, however, yet to come - from misplaced pride
to self righteous anger.

This is one of the things that make a high-altitude lake like
Tsomoriri so vulnerable. Every little piece of 'foreign matter'left lying anywhere within the watershed of the lake will, sooner or
later, end up in the lake. And lie there for to go there and admire.

our children's children

'That group of tourists, the ones who left early this moming,'one of thembeE;an in indignation,'you should see their campsite. They left suchalotof trashoutthere!'. Said another,'Weknow the lady who got them here. She's a tour operator from Delhi. We know her, and we'll fix her for not cleaning up properly, just you wait till wegetback toLeh!'

Do you know how the lake got its name? The standard version is based on the hanslation of 'tso'to 'lake', and'ri'to 'mountain'. A

At that, we drove off in the proverbial cloud of dust, scattering terrified marmots who had made the mistake of digging their
burrows rightbeside the road. Tourists are not the only source of garbage at Tsomoriri (ust as garbage is not the only problem). The road from Leh, which has been around for a few years now has brought in the inevitable flow of consumer goods to Korzok village and with consumer goods has, of course, come garbage. Both the stream and the irrigation channel that flow past Korzok are now littered with trash - broken plastic boots, omnipresent polythme, cans, wrappers, cartons, bottles, discarded items of clothing - all of whidr flows directly or

more popular version, however, is based on the legend of a 'chomo' (Tibetan Buddhist nun) of Korzok who, one winter long long ago, rode a yak onto the frozen surface of the lake. Realising that the ice was too thin, she shouted out to the yak, 'fi-ri !' which, interpreted one way, means 'watch out, we're falling!' But she shouted too late, the yak went on, the ice broke, and the lake swallowed them both up. And got itself a name, or at least an additional legend to its name, a distortion from 'chomo ri-ri' to 'Tsomoriri'.
I hope we're not too late, like the chomo and her yak, as I stand on the shore of the lake and shout out a waming -

"The author is an independent researcherwho has focussed on tourism development in Spiti area of Himachal Pradesh. Two of his earlier works, Towards a Touism Strategy in Spiti and The Blosoming of an Afairhaveben published by EQUATIONS.

indirectlv into the lake.

"We will make people part of Tourism" ?


known ardritect of Kozhikode Kerala who

will make people part of Tourism" says Mr N.M. Salim, well is appointed as the

Chief Consultant for the Bekal Tourism Project after 'lntemational

sipificance to dwelo'p Bekal. Tourism is the biggest industry of the world today. If Bekal is developed as a tourism area, it will bring much revenue to the Govemment and also for the people


KMR. What is the importance of Bekal Tourism Prcject in the uall tourisnt dev elopmmt of Kedam?

KMR.What ate the objectioes of the ptoject?
IWfS. The objective of Bekal project is to attract more tourists to this area - both intemational and national tourists. In India tourist composition is 55-415 i.e. 55% intemational tourisb and about 45olo

NMS. Bekal is a very fertile land, full of greenery and natural beauty. The beachisoneof the world's best whichremainsstill untouched. So there is every prospect of making it into a great
tourist attraction. From the economic point of view also it is of great

national tourists. There will also be facilities for holding international co'nventions when Bekal is developed to thefull extent.

KMR. What is the lanil area of the project? iWtS. We are yet to prepare the Master Plan. So we have not yet decided the total area of the proposed project. But it will require a minimum of 1000 acres. KMR. Is the project to be impler4enteil in a phaseil mannq? naturally. Because such a big plan can be implemented only in a phased manner. But we will do it as early as possible. The
details can be designed after some time only.

KMR. What are the prooisions for sufficicnt ztater anil electricity

A&1S. More water treatment plants will be established. It is expected that the necessary electric power would be available from the new thermal plant to be set up there.


KMR. What is the a nploymmt potmtial of the prc ject?
AIMS. A well equipped township is coming up with more hotels, hospitalqschools, recreational facilities all of which provide a lot of employment opportunities. KMR. Ate thre enploytment prcspects for the local people i.e. the unskill ed, under edu cat e d on es ?

KMR. How is the lanil to be acquired? l\ilI4S. The necessary land for the project will be acquired by the Bekal Development Authority and then it will be sold to national and intemational ftusiness) groups. The profit arising from such sales will be used for infrastructural development.
KIVIR. Is there sufficient gouernmmt lanil or shoulil some prittate

IWIS. We areplanning toupdate thestandardsof the general development of the area. There are.also plan$ to set up vocational training centres in the area. The local arts will be
preserved and promoted.

lanilbe acquited? IWIS. Some private land will have to be acquired. But the point is that we don't want tobring tourism by evicting all the local people from their places. Actually, we want to bring more benefits to the
local people than anybody else. Especially in sensitive areas, where there is high density of population, we will make them part of tourism. We will help them to change their profession by which they can avail the economies of tourism to a great extent.

KMR, What are the tourist facilities planneil?
IV\4S. There will be hotels of all star-ratings from two-star to super star. There will also be golf courset swimming pools, a handicrafts

village etc.


What are the proposeil entertainment altematitses

KMR. Hout many
st at is






ezticteil by the proj ect? Are there

tic s azt ail

ab le ?

touists? lln4s. All entertainment facilities in a tourist


IWIS. Naturally, some eviction will be necessary. We can $ive the exact number onlyafterfinalising themaster plan. But theeffort

area will be available in Bekal also. Discotheques, bars and massage parlours are all parts the

of hotels. The availability of such things will depend upon
KMR, What will IWIS. Around
the' carrying


is sure that they

to do it by displacing the minimum number of households. will not be evicted without any rehabilitation.





acity' of B ekal?

KMR. What is the total financial outlay of the project? iV\4S. The total capital outlay can be fixed only after finalising the
Plan. We have to see what amount is required to rehabilitate people, to construct the airport, roads etc. And all this money willbe made available by selling the land.

10,000 people.

KMR. Will the project afect the ecologicalbalance of the ateaT
AllVtS. What we have in mind is a plan to develop the area without disturbing its ecological balance.

timn. ruo- much money zaill b e contribute il by the goo emment. for thisproject? /r/lts. See, the Bekal Development Authority, which is a
government agency is implementing the project. They will sell the land and get the money

KMR. Hozl can you ensure this zahm there are so fitany people coming anil going, so many hotels etc zaith a lot of garbage and all?
IVI4S. Itcan'tbe done without affecting the ecology at all, but all, efforts will be made to minimise it.

KMR. What ate the economic bmefits anticip ated ltom the project, both direct and indirect? lVt4S. The main benefit is the inflow of foreign exchange. By the end of the year 2010, we propose to build atleast 6000 hotel rooms of international standards. There will be a variety of indirect benefits also. There will be a lot of employment opportunities. Providing 6000 rooms means the arrival of at least an equal number of tourists who will need a number of services like transportation,
personal services etc.

KMR. Kasaragoil is knoum to be short of utatex What are the prooisions mztisageil for ailequate zaater supply? Is there a ptoposal for a desalination plant?
Iri?t4S. The government surveys show that there are enough water resources. So there is no need for setting up any desalination plant.

KMR, How zaill zaaste water
can also be considered.

be manageil?

IW[S. There will be a proper drainage system. Rerycling of water KMR. What area of forest should

KMR, Has a cost-benefit analysis
i\&fS. No, not yet.

been maile?

be cleareil?

An4S. There is no need of clearing forests hs almost all


KMR. What are the inlrastructural facilities moisaged to

constructions will be near the beach.


An international airport is planned in the area besides

KMR. What ate the marketing plans fot the pro ject?

approach roads and other transport facilities. The existing can be improved too.


The Bekal Development Authority and internationally.

will market it nationally

rcm the procedings of the aboae conference we haoe translated Mnnik Sml<ar's paper on "The RoIe of the Educated Touist in
SocialWelfare" for thepertinent issues it critiquedonDomestic and Intemational Tourism Policy perspectiaes in the state anil in the country. It gioa ahistoical context to the ongoing Touism debate.

majority. Of course the foreign tourists will increise given such a policy. That is why we are projecting our National heritage as a part of our tourist product. However, we should not imitate the
representing our hbritage. present our country to them is our task. This is true of West Bengal with regard to domestic tourists as well. Many people visit West Bengal and the Bengalis also tour other parts of India. It is necessary to assist both the inbound and the outbound domestic and international tourists. For the inbound tourists there are some facilities but the outbound tourists suffer. Generally, the potential tourist, through his
Foreigners come to India and

approach of Western countries



"In Tagore's novel Gora (white man) the hero set out on a Bharat Yatra to assess what were the social needs of the country. (Gora was an Irishmary brought up by a Bengali Brahmin, who had adopted Brahminism as a way of life). Vivekananda also became a tourist
to ftnd a spiritual solution to the social problems of the counlry.
Sarat Chandra created a Bohemian characte4 Srikant. These three have inspired the touristic ideal for the Bengalis.

individual efforts manages to accomplish his tourism
Individual effort is a part of the

Tourism cannot be looked at from a purely economic point of view, although at present, its economic aspects cannot be ignored. In a capitalist system, tourism is seen as the means of enhancing private

property. In a socialist system, tourism is seen as a necessary
attribute in humanising the workers life.

and is a must. However we are now in the age of co-operation and integration. In the field of tourism also we feel the need for co-ordination and collective organisation so that individual initiative can be fruitful. For both inbound and outbound tourists the need of the hour isa well co.ordinated tourism industrv.
Generally, when we talk of tourists we mean foreigners. This is not right. Tourists are both foreigners and our own countrymen. Both should be considered equally important. In this context we should remember that Domestic tourism is the base for foreign tourism all over the world. The tourism industry will be strengthened if the base for tourism is strengthened , by encouraging Domestic

joy of travelling


In India, we adopted a democratic, socialistic pattem as our goal. Thus we have to balance both the economic and humanising aspects of tourism for which the national tourism organisatioru
have to be urgently re-oriented.


the Post-Independence period both domestic and intemational tourism have shown growth. People are looking at India, and the prestige of our country has grown. A nation with a great tradition, whose people are proud of their heritage and have self-respect, will attract more foreigners. Therefore the kind tourism we wish to promotewillbe related to our concept.of progress. Weshould have the courage to promote a progressive form of tourism.



we are unable to facilitate the domestic tourist in seeing the entirety of our country, how do we propose to build a stable form of International Tourism?
The state has initiated a policy to facilitate the foreign tourist. Some benefi ts are being receivedby the people, though hardly adequate. There is plenty of scope for improvement.. The effective utilisation

The independent and balanced development of our country will open up new avenues and possibilities for tourism. As a united


are the citizens of an ancient and historically developed civilisation. Britishimperialism extracted enormous wealth from our country; despite their looting India with both


of such efforts is yet to be made. For this one should not rely exclusively on the state. In the Soviet Union, private organisations have played an important role in the promotion of tourism. It is said that youth organisations take

hands, there is still potential to develop the wealth of our country. We still have so many riches to project to the foreigner, many of which are yet to be discovered, inspite of what we have lost during British rule.

tourism and

similarly womens organisations take


progranunes for youth

responsibility for women tourists. Literary tourists are helped by their mass organisations. Thus the state and private organisations, collectively and in a co-ordinated manner have developed a dynamic strucfure of tourism.

Today the number of tourist destinations has grown, which will

in the future. Greater development of infrastructure is being seen in the tourist map of India. Places like Durgapur,
increase Bhilai, Rourkela, Bokaro, Chittaranjan and Damodar Valley are now located on the tourist map. In West Bengal, Kalyani, a satellite town of Calcutta has become a tourist spot for the metropolis. Haldia too will become a tourist sPot.

In our country such a system does not exist. Either we depend entirely on the state or we do things on our own. There is no harm in investigating whether such a poliry is correct or not. Both state assistance and private initiative and enthusiasm are necessary. However there is no social organisation to co- ordinate individual effort. This is still in its infancy.
Tourists are ofvarioustypesand segmerits. Tourists travelacross the world with their individual outlook. Often we ignore this heterogeneity amongst tourists. For example, some like the beach, some the hills whilst others go to rivers and lakes. Many like to go on pilgrimage. Some want to visit academic institutes whilst others like to see ethnic groups. Human life is full of variety and the outlook of tourists is equally varied. In conjunction with varied

Touring is not synonymous with luxurious travel. Comfort and luxury are also not the same. Comfort is certainly one of the demands of tourism but throwing money around to buy Westem
facilities need not buy us comfort. We have just started to rebuild

our country and we are accountable for all the money that we spend. When the structure of tourism is based on expensive luxuries it serves the demand of the elite whilst depriving the

motivations, the tourists demands have to be met.
I know a foreigner who came to Calcutta only to visit the Neemtola


the tourism professional the warmth of a welcome



ghats where Tagorehadbeencremated. This is only anexample. We can find many such examples. It is necessary to keep track of tourists who have specific motivations. We have a general rather than a specific approach. A few days ago I met a tourist from Brazil who wanted to know the daily food habits of Bengalis. His friend wanted to know how Bengalis dressed at home.

stations, everywhere we should keat the tourist with humanism. If we treat them well, the tourists will reciprocate with warmth. If we keep this in mind we will recognise our responsibility to the foreign tourist. The central idea

Heartfelt warmth is a must for successful tourism. Feelings of friendship and solidariry generate heartfelt warmth. Those who visit our state and our country should be treated as honoured Buests. On the road, in trams and buseq at hotels and railway

Those who come

to West Bengal generally want to know ,

understand and recognise Bengali culture. To know a thing within a few days is very difficult. Tourist spots have to be organised in such a way so that they present a comprehensive picture of our culture. This task is notbeingdone. Whateverisdone is devoid of authenticity, and done in a superficial manner. One should remember that a tourist is sensitive, often to the point of being touchy. Lack of honesty hurts them.



be attracted. We

in tourism is to identify our closeness so that can communicate this without

shessing our self-interest. Those who build real bridges are the ones who engage in welfare work. As I said in the beginning let us not look at tourism as a business, let us see it as social work. I

Translated by Pradip Biswas and Nina Rao.

Training Prcgramme On invitation from YMCA and SCM, EQUATIONS conducted a couple of training sessions in YMCA for the secretaries to be, from all over the country. The training programme was conducted with the need to promote Alternative Tourism, influence public ophion, mobilise community participation and also to recognise that there is a problem and for some perspective setting on the issues related to tourism in India. The World Student Christian Federation WSCF) organised an Interregional Leadership Training Programme in August.
EQUATIONS provided a basic introduction to the issues involved in Third World Tourism and also suggested a possible intervention by the student communities on such issues. Responses from the participants revealed that their experience in and of India has deeply moved them in a way that has helped them see other dimensions of the meaning of life which were not there before.


n the 34


the National

Seminar on

Tourism, Globulisation, Deaelopment and lustice was jointly held by EQUATIONS and School of Social Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam at Ashirbhavan, Cochin. Discussions about tourism issues were carried on within two different languages - of governments and industry on the one hand, and of activists groups on the other. The seminar was not
an attempt to continue any one of those specifi c traditions nor even to pitch an academic tent on a suitably middle ground. On the



was an attempt


allow the different forms of


knowledge to confront and engage with each other.

role of media in the development of Tourism image.

The Asian College of Journalism, EQUATIONS discussed the

In all

there were around 120 participants varying from activists, government officials, travel and hotel industry officials and intellectuals. The papers presented are as follows: Tourism and Welfare - Dr Errol D'Souza, Department of Economics, University of Bombay, Bombay; Tourism and Development, The Unfolding

EQUATIONS for the East Coast Road Action Committee (ECRAC) has proposed to conduct a feasibility study. Preceding this study, a preliminary survey was undertakenby ShirleySusan and Sabina Suri. The survey included identification and defining the kind of Tourism projects likely to come up and identification of contact groups/collaborators at the different places for their input in the final study.

- Alito Siqueira, Department of Sociology, Goa University, Goa (this paper is available elsewhere in this issue of the ANletter); Tourism Poliry: Need for Reorientation - Nina Rao, College of Vocational Studies, Delhi University (also available in this issue); Third World Therapy: Tourism and the Politics of Serious Leisure-Ranjit Henry; Tourism Concepts for a Small World- Padma Rajagopal, Farmer, Craftsperson, Design Consultant); Views on
Tourism Promotion

- K V Muralidharan, President,

An audio-visual is also being prepared for campaigning purposes for the ECRAC by EQUATIONS with technical help from Sangam
Communications, Madras.


Association of Tiavel Agents, Trivandrum; Tourism Tortured? - Dr S V Narayanan, Professor and K V K Prashant Kumar, B.E, MTA both of Centre for Tourism Studies, Pondicherry Central University, Pondicherry; A note on the possible Impact of Tourism on Bio Diversity of the High Ranges Munnar - James Zacharias and P V Karunakaran; Political Economy of Tourism Infrastructure Developmenh An Outline, H M Manjunath, Yatna; Free Wynad from Tourism - Thomas Ambalavayal. The copies of these papers can be availed from EQUATIONS.

North-East Inilia
EQUATIONS proposes to have a meeting in North-East to build awareness on tourism development here. This programme has been initiated with the first contacts being made with severai leading intellectuals of that area. The meeting will be held sometime in the summer of 1995.

A0630 - (G40) The Battle Against GoIf Cutse has begun..... Amedia backgrounder, documented and compiledby the Goa Desc 1993,33 pp A0640 - (H00)

Thiril Woilil Therapy : Tourism and the Politics of Seious Leisure by KOLAM - responsible tours & soft travel, Madras Essay contains quotes from Ashish Nandy, Claude Alvarez, Romila Thapar, Majorie Sykes, Wolfgang Sachs, Noam Chomsky to mention the most important few. May 1993,7 pp.

A06e6 - (j10) Leisure Lifestyles - Touist Actiaities : Are Western Approaches Sustainable? Paper presented at the WLRA Congress, Jaipur, by David Leslie, Glasgow Caledonian Univ., The paper debates the question whether leisure lifestyles and thus the tourist activities of those in the western industrialised societies are sustainable. December 7993,16pp.

40730 - (G01) Touism Development anil Entsironmental Issues - AClose Look

Tamil Nadu.

A paper presented by

At Latheef Kizhisseri,

BEKAL -Why? : An EQUATIONS Dossier on Bekal Special Tourism Area Project, billed as one of Asia's largest projects. This dossier


a letter from

EQUATIONS posing questions



EQUATIONS atTamil Nadu Environmental Issues and JointAction Workshop. The paper is an exploratory attempt to look at tourism development with holistic perspective and focussing analysis on environmental issues emerging from tourism development. EQUATIONS, August, 799 4, 42 pp.
4076e - (177)

government and industry about the objectives of this Project to help

people elsewhere, faced by the challenge projects. April 1994, 14 pp.

of the major tourism

Political Effects of Touinn Deoelopment, Geotge Aditj ondto Papers fromThe Indonesian Activists Program, Yogjakarta, August

40661- (G40) In theName of a Gatne:The Stakes in Golf
Bailancho Saad (a Women's Collective) poses questions regarding

A0776 - (G10)

The group's letter to the Director, Department of Tourism, Govemment of Goa and the Govemment's written response are
included at the end of the booklet. November 7993,75pp, Rs.S/- or $2.00 (postage inclusive)
A0667 - (G40)

the proposed golf courses to the Government and cites its responses.

Draft Wildlife Tburistn


Environment & Forests, Government of India March 1994,6 pp.
A0817 - (r10)

fot Inilia, Ministry of

Limited Legal Reilrcss - Pollution Battles, Nomra Alvares,


GAG'M - Update, APPEN, Malaysia, December Ao65e-(G1o/G02)

1993, 103


lawyer, argues that the mixed judicial record in Goa indicates that officers of courts need to be exposed to more primary information about the environment. The Hindu: Survey of the Environment,

A0828 - (C10)

Report on: NationalWorkshop on declining access to anil control oper Nahnal Resources in National Parks and Sanctuaries Society for Participatory Research in Asia and Rural Litigation and Entitlement Kendra. Includes papers on the issues of concem on National Parks and Sanctuaries in India; some observations on the issues in Parks and Sanctuaries; critical analysis of the Legal Provisions of Sanctuary and National Park in India. October 1993, 68 pp.
A068s - (136)

Employnent Generation in the Hotel, Catuing anil Tourism S ector, Dr Peter U C Dieke (UNDP), Mr Njeru Kirira (Min. of Tourism and Wildlife), Mr Roger Doswell ([O), [O Publication, August L993,61pp.
Ao8s0 - 011) TOIIKISM - The Ma*eting of P aruilise In an effort to balance declines in non-oil export revenue growth,

Mastu Plan for

the Development of Toutism in Kamataka

by Department of Tourism, Government of Kamataka
December 1993,43 pp. 40589 - 03s) lmpact of TouristnDeoelopment:

Indonesia is launching a series of programs to strengthen the tourism indushy. What are Indonesia's chances against equally aggressive tourism campaigns conducted by neighbourhood
countries? Economic & Business, Review Indonesia, No.120, |uly 30

1994,7 pp.

APilot Study of KovalamBeach
* Programme Associate, EQUATIONS Documentation Cell

in Kerala Dissertation submitted to the University of Kerala by B Vijayakumar. The study analyses the various impacts created by tourism on the resident. April 193, 8a pp.

I write in response to your invitation to co t on the "Statement of Concern" adopted at the Ninth Meeting of the General Body of EQUATIONS and published in the luly 7994 issue of ANletter. It may be helpful to add another statement on tourism in the context of neo.colonialism, and it would be

r I very much agree with your




Tourism marginalises and takes resources away from economic development, which gives priority to economic activities that support the quality of life of its community's residents. This may not be the best wording, but it is an attempt to state what I see

development-rationale related to the improvement of quality of life of the communities and the need for profound shifts in the concerns of planning. Paul and Basavaraj Hebballi's report on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands sourrCed alarming. The BOT(build,operate and transfer) policy will certainly constrain any control of negative i.mpacts on the fragile island worlds. The announcement of the IGNOU programme in tourism studies and

the report of the panel discussion at trC manifest


the "visitor industry" having done to

orchestrated by the state and private corporations, truly marginalises economic development activities growing out of a community base because they aren't seen as making an impact on the state's economy. Policy makers forget that the colonisers



developments. I'm keen to learn about the seminar in Kerala on Tourism Poliry. The report on Bekal offered very interesting opinions about this location.

imposed export industries (sugar and pineapple) to form Hawaii's economic underpinning, and when those began to sag, began to build up tourism. Now that tourism, the neocolonial. economic activity is sagging, it again looks to attracting a big industry with capital from elsewhere, rather than looking at the economic activities which had been displaced by sugar and pineapple and which had been sustaining a people. As is suggested in the article on "Responsible Tourism" (page
10-11, July 1994)," ...any decision to further develop tourism has to be weighed carefully with its possible outcomes... as well as

they fall into polemics in describing the post-modern reading as war-fare. (Understanding post-modern realities could
Latheef Kizhisseri's questions are as important as contribute to a more profound critique of modem tourism.) Could you please explain to me what he means by profit
ashwamedha?* The justified criticism of the political economy

of tourism by Yatna didn't offer convincing solutions.


inter-generational parity is being discussed in Europe too. (But Pareto-optimality as reference is disputed). There is the need for a new understanding of redistribution and welfare-policy. But focussing on domestic tourists and demanding a more jirst


the opportunity costs of developing other economic whidr are often more crucial for our subsistence".
Thank you for the opportunity to comment.


will be insufficient and not really effective. The times of polarized counter-positions and simplifying

class-thinking is over. The economical system is more complex as neo-colonial critique and center-periphery thinking can ever reach (nothing to say change). The contetnporary role of the economics of tourism is related to different processes which are not considered in the article. How tourism actually interacts and works will become more

June Shimokawa, Hawaii Area Program Office, Hawaii, USA


Thanks for the ANletter of July 94 (Vol 3, No 1). Your editorial - Statement of Concern - was eitiemely thought provoking. M.Thomas. Madras

important than such anti-tourism approach. As important as the problematic effects are the multivarious changes whicJr actually occur. In all the ambivalence they take forni largely as altered opportunity structures in which individuals and
groups make (or cannot make anymore) choices and exercise options...(capital powers, ownership, properfy rights, legal


Again, congratulations on another fine issue of ANletter. What feed back do you get from your North American friends? Your Statement of Concern is well done. It must have brought a new
awareness of solidarity among your general body members as you went through the process necessary to develop it. What


prograrnmatic changes are resulting from this? I am copying the statement for all our board members - one way for them to increase their awareness of EQUATIONS and global
partnership......... Have you ever considered making one page of your ANletter a report on what you do, are thinking, personalising your work for those of us far away? Also, as non-Indians, we often wonder about the writers of the articles you include, what organisation they represent, what criteria is used for choosing their articles? And continual thanks for the copies of your Up-Date! We plan to use this to launch an India corner in our newsletter,

constraining conditions have to be taken into systematic account. Morals and justice dimensions cdnnot be imposed but must be "produced" and emerge th-rough an according socio-ecological economic system. This does not exclude the criticism that opting for opendoor p9liry and putting no restriction whatsoever on foreign intrusion while refraining from channeling the development by strict laws and

etc) The inequal

endowment questions and


as a

market-systen strategy( equitable

redistribution?) will cause long-term detrimental changes with unpredictable consequences. But we must try to overcome .overgeneralisations and develop a more sophisticated approach asking different questions and a more differentiated

notion of political economy.
Wendelin Kuepers, Germany Profit ashwamedha:The global war for increasing profit by aarious mefrnq conductedby MNCs throughout the entireworld- Editor

Responsible Traveling. We hope the German parallel News Watch will be translated into English soon. Virginia T. Hadsell, Center for Responsible Tourism, USA

Published by Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS), 168, 8th Main Road, Behind Indiranagar Club, Bangalore. INDIA Phone: 080-5282313, Fax: O80-5282627 (Attn. 020), Telex: 084F8600 CSCI IN (Ath. 007), Cable: EQUATIONS BANGAI-ORE, Design & Layout by Dhanaraj Keezhara and Typesetting by Verba Network Services, 139, 8th Main, 12th Cross, Malleswam, Iiangalore. Phone: 3345692 Printed by Supriya Printers, Bangalore.

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