ANLetter Volume 5 Issue 1 and 2-Jun 1997-EQUATIONS | Tourism | Social Exclusion

Volume

5

Issue 1 A

2 lune 1997

For Private Circulation Only

t(t g-r*h-%to%?rt
years ago when EQUATIONS began the discussion on the issue of tourixn, its impacts on communities, its role as a cment tool and its releaance to the improaement of the quality of life of those dependent on it - all of this was considered rcnt to the core development debate in the mid-$ls. This was because tourism was experienced only by a few who could to traael. The experience, Iargely, was that of the tourist. The terms of the debate therefore was improaing amenities 'lamenting how a particular area was un-discoaered.

This was also the time when the role of the State in tourism deaelopment was quite ambiguous. At one leael it became a player in the tourism market with the setting up of the lndia Tourist Deaelopment Corporation and the aarious state Tourism Development Corporations and at another leael it continued to dictate the terms of the growth. The late-eighties saw the beginnings of the processes that u)e a.re so familiar with nowadays - globalisation, liberalisation and its consequences. We also saat the first of the major foreign exchange crunches that occurred with the oil crisis, and of international aid agencies beginning to actually - blatantly, arm-twist nation-states into a certain form of policy-orientation. Foreign exchange becomes the cornerstone of economic imperatiaes. Yet another holy cow is created and the saga of export dependence begins. Tourism is legitimised as one of the important sources for this new national priority, earning foreign exchange.
The consequent expansion of tourism, its scope, the number of actors, the space and the resources that it needs to attain econotnies of scale is now beginning to impinge on the other sectors. The public sector is being told to shrink its presence in the so-called liberalised enaironment. Big players dominate the discussion on tourism's future with no reference to the external enaironment in which it has to exist. The role of the state in formulating a policy perspectiae, the basis of the industry's future growth, is handed over to a select few whose stakes as players in that defined future is undeniable. Policy is prepared for the select few while platitudes are heaped on the others who are not part of the league. While you read this editorial, another Tourism Policy would haoe been foisted on us. Yet again, there will be conflicts since goaernment is, it seems, not yet ready to listen to the experience of the previous ones, from the point of rsiew of those who are traaelled upon. lt is fine to make policy statements, but isn't a policy supposed to take an ooeroiew of the conditions within which it has to work? ln this issue of the ANLetter, we bring to you a glimpse of those conditions within which tourism in our country operates . lt brings to you the scope of the effect of tourism' s growth since the late-eighties. It also brings to you the action taken by affected communities, individuals and groups who are in their ou)n ways trying to influence the industry and its operations. This issue tries to illustrate the 'enaironmental' conditions under which the industry and the gooernment, will need to operate because of public pressure.
the

And

the pressure is building up as tourism encroaches into areas where there already exist claimants for land and other resources. Whether it is the adiaasis in Nagarahole, the constal community in Kerala or the people in the Niligiris area. The conflict of interests in terms of the prioritization of the sharing of finite resources will escalafe, unless, a rational debate on this takes place, now. The conflict is no longer limited to those who feel that they haae been kept out of the sharing process, but those that are in the tourism industry, who are beginning to say that they are not getting a fair share of it. To some the un-fairness in the system is aery eaident, others traaerse a longer path on the way to this realisation.

While all state gouernments are sold on the idea of tourism and each of them adds sops to the existing ones for the tourism industry, it closes its eyes to the fact that the industry is not the only determinant of its utell-being. Saner elements in both the gooernment and the industry are beginning to recognise this trend, but then the full import of this crisis is still not being accepted by the hawks in the system. Unless a dialogue emerges on the larger purpase of the development of tourism, with other constituents, ute wiII continue to see the State and the industry mouthing the same lines. EQUATIONS belieaes that the time for such a debate is now, and we inaite our ruders to join the debate.

K:f .Sr*ra(

The

PoIiticaI
Economy

of
SeIf-RuIe
(This note looks at tlrc conceptual attd ideolttgical frnnezuork ilrcoh,ed in the adivasi stnrg.gle, bnsed on its intTtoct nt tlrc grassroots, ond

zuill tryefls'tl€rtlrcquestionnstotolu,l tlrcadivasiopposcprojectsthatuillrehnbilitntcthenroutsidetheforest,andgnintlrcmnccess to'modern life'.lt argues tlnt the globnlizotion process seeks to make other lnlnrchies zunste nbsorlters, nnd it is tltis unet1ual nncl clelnnnanisittg exclnnge tlmt tlrc adivasi are resistitrg. As n corollnry, it zuill nlso explnin uhy feiu people nre ltrought abotte tlrc pooerty

Iine by globalizntio tr.)

being the self-interest of NGOs in keeping the adivasi
backward. But to get a real picture of the issue, it is necessary to go into the core issues of the organisation of the culture and society that dictates the pace and place of 'mainstreaming'.

t has been to the considerable consternation of the middle class, fed on the propaganda of the state, that the adivasi refuse to'come out of the forest' and 'into the mainstream', despite the'generous' package for rehabilitation. The struggle against the World Bank funded ecodevelopment planr is only one among the more visible struggles being waged by the adivasi2. Various reasons have been put forward, the latest

Sequential Expropriation
Social systems that are based on an exploiting mode interact with other systems only to exploit. In this interaction, the exploiting society uses the other to become the waste absorber. The dominant of the two also gets the best from the dominated society. Thus it is a doublv beneficial relationship-it gets the best from another system, often something that it cannot do without, at a subsidised cost, and palms off its, often toxic, waste. As in all cases of appropriation and assimilation, the dominant

This is the latest, and most systematic, effort to totally alienate dre adivasi from the forest. It seeks to subvert all the democratic gains made by the adivasi, and reduce the space for further manoeuvre. It is a highly sophisticated attempt to

system absorbs, but only to reinforce status quo and exploitation. In an exploiting system, it becomes necessary for

globalize the ownership of the forests, totally exclude the adivasi from their resources and turn them into waste absorbers. This is to be done in a gradual process, whereby the trust of the adivasi is gained, the others strengthened to
takeovet and the adivasis are induced or forced to move out of the forest. This, as we shall show, is the process by which all

every man to oppress another and so on down the hierarchy to women, animals, plants and the inanimate. This system needs

expropriation-not only land, but religious, cultural...- takes
place.

ever widening circles of oppressed, for the oppression and exploitation of each subsequent stratum in the hierarchy to be worked off. When this circle cannot widen, oppression within the system increases to unmanageable levels and in the resultant tension, a restructuring takes place. Hopefully, if the fundamental assumption of social ordering - that some are

worth more than the others - is changed,
creation of a just society is taken.

a step towards the

In the whole debate in which adivasi culture, external
influences and national interest are freely quoted, there remains one major aspect which we feel should be addressed: why is it that the adivasi, from whose homelands come 80% of the

minerals of India, who have the richest teak and other commercially valuable biomass on their land, why is it that 80% of the adivasi live under the poverty line? Why is it there are starvation deaths among the adivasi who sit on some of the richest forests of the land? Why is it that the adivasi have no electricity or drinking water though all power and water is
exported from their land?

Nations, when confronted with this crisis, resorted to passing off this aggression onto other nations - resulting in imperialism. Men passed it off on to women.. Women to children... and so on. With the refusal of women to absorb the oppression in the system, a major break in this chain of oppression has been
made3.

Since religious, cultural and economic holarchiesr

are

The answers, we believe and as we shall show, lie in their systematic disempowerment and assimilation. It is not the lack of resources, but the lack of control over it that has led to this. It is only the restoration of their sovereignty that will enable the adivasi to control their resources, and take control over their
lives2

inextricably interlinked, changes in one often influences and causes corresponding changes in the others. The absence of any more communities - in part due to their heightened awareness and subsequent refusal - to be subsumed into the
lowest rungs of the caste system is a major cause for the crisis of the caste system now.

Since the dominant holarchies can pass on their residual violence, and they have forced enough surplus to bank roll
others to take care of

their overt violence, it

has been easy to

label the dominated holarchies as 'savage' and barbaric when they fight oppression. The real dynamics are a little different. Due to the absence of any more holarchies to pass on violence, the most oppressed fight amongst each other for the remains, while the dominant holarchy - which has taken the cream and

where empowerment was the explicit goal. This is because once the expropriating holarchy has penetrated the other, it then restructures even the self-integrated one in its image - for that is a precondition for exploit. The most obvious is the World Bank imposing structural adjustment policies on its borrowers.

the lion's share - can watch with detachment and superior aloofness. Expropriating holarchies do so systematically, and with such finesse, that not only is their loot masked but they are able to pose as peacemakers, sending charity and armies for
'peacekeeping'. The rape of Africa for centuries has resulted in the present violence. The dominated, since they are struggling for survival do not have the space - nor the requisite surplus - to take time

The worst for the best
The dominant in this transaction palm off the waste of their system for the best of the dominated system. This is true across holarchies. The best wolman of the oppressed holarchy is often married to the worst of the dominating one. The 'ayah' or the house maid, gives the best quality time, and often the best years/ of her life - which should be spent with her children and family - to wash the dishes and clean the houses of someone else: a very obvious waste absorption role. This is systemic, for almost the entire globe is built on exploiting holarchies.
The best years of a person are spent not with the family - which

off for a dispassionate analysis of the source of their exploitation. So they take on their immediate oppressor, rather than the source/ which is unapproachable both in terms of
geography and capacity

The need for'mainstreaming'
Sequential exploitation also means sequential expropriation, for to sustain their overconsumptive lifestyles, the exploiters must find ever widening areas to exploit. Using their power they thus

grab what the poor have. The new fad for biodiversity, herbal
medicine and holistic health care is no accident . Bringing isolated communities into the economic system only furthers this cycle.

most people believe they are building and working for - but in dehumanising places of work that have no space for the family. The 'system' takes the best of all, leaving no quality time for the real things we value: our families, hobbies...all have to make do with the time the system does not need us-i.e. the waste time for the dominant holarchy.

then the question is integrate them at what levels... the lowest... slightly better than that... or as equals? If as equals - otherwise, if there is going to be no material change in their condition, why take them through this torturous path at aII ? - then is the present
investment enough?

If the idea is to integrate them into the 'mainstream'

Those who follow the expropriating holarchy follow their

customs-if you can't beat 'em join' em-but only in a more
sophisticated waste absorption role, though that is converted into a status symbol. Kentucky Fried Chicken, one of the cheapest foods of the United States is actually a status symbol for the third world elite. Perversion of the value system is seen here. It is seen in the social sphere of the exploited also. In goods, it is the surplus of the dominant that is given for the best produce of the dominated - in the name of quality. Since the urban holarchy dominates the rural, the highly fertile top soil is converted into bricks and tiles-an unequal exchange by any reckoning. The wheat that India exports as cattle feed is of better quality than what is given to its own citizens in the public distribution system. So also for many other goods and relationships: the best of Indian diplomats go to Washington, yet only the third rate US ones come to India.
The dominant are able to project their need for exploit as the need for survival of the exploited. The Tatas, for instance, have
a white elephant in jamshedpur - ironically the fruit of their exploitation of the adivasi there. If they cannot widen the circle then, despite the massive influx of capital and technology there, their 'flagship'Tisco will implode.

No society absorbs or assimilates another holarchy as equals. Holarchies are integrated only into areas where there is a vacuum in the present system-and these vacuums are always

in the waste absorption sectors. The poor and the marginalized, in any system, have always been its waste absorbers-and they always will be. Thus this integration
process is to widen the circle and make hitherto independent holarchies into waste absorbers of the dominant community. Mainstreaming, contrary to popular perception, is actually a process of exclusion. The policy of the government has been to displace and destroy. Even well-meaning interventions are paternalistic and feudal,

and do not accord basic human rights to the adivasi. The

interventions

of

organised religion are the same. The

intervention of the industrial sector is, with tacit support and connivance of the state, to further this displacement and forcibly incorporate the adivasi into the proletariat, often as slave labour. The paradigm of development chosen needs these forms of exclusion and dependency.
The intervention of the voluntary sector has eroded the social holarchy, with trade union models of organisation and leadership supplanting the traditional ones. All welfare programs have turned the adivasi into objects of charity. It is difficult, at this point, to evaluate the costs and benefits of

Hence the plant at Gopalpur, Orissa, which is vital for their very survival. But they are able to project it as a'saviour of Orissa'when in reality it is the lifeline for Tisco and the rape of the locals. Due to this portrayals, they are able to get the state:' to beg them for investment and consequently get the entire
state machinery to back them up with force.

The Economics
sphere, the increasing circle encompasses resources and brings more 'consumers' into the 'mainstream'. Without this, the system of sequential exploitation will collapse.
3

these well-meaning interventions. What they have

In the economic

indisputably done is transfer values and modes of stratification and have introduced new kinds of handicaps, even in cases

Not for nothing is the western world dumping

its toxic waste in Africa and Asia - because their environmentally marginalized refuse to absorb it, and they cannot widen the circle within their own borders. ]ust as the North uses Asia and Africa for extraction and for toxic waste disposal, so does India use adivasi areas. India's uranium comes from adivasi areas, and the radioactive waste is returned there. When exploiting holarchies have extracted everything of value from another, they simply let the exploited take care of the waste and move on. The real cost of mining is borne by the adivasi. After the mines close, when they are declared 'economically unviable', it is the adivasi who will continue to bear the cost, while the exploiting holarchy moves on to other areas.

the primary producers and proportionately diminish those of the secondary and tertiary sectors. The most drastic change will come in the so-called service sector.

Endnote

|.

We haoe useil as many documents of the state as possible

- for instance the laws. The eco-deoelopnent plan is quoted, since it is a document of the

state itself, Obviously, such ilocuments by the appropfiator is not aoailable for other aspects, but other forms of documentation exist - such as the dolls in the temple at Puri.

2.

This note, while analyzing and situating the issues within the struggle of the marginalizeil peoples eaerywhere, draws on the experience of the adioasi, specially tlose at Nagarahole, Karnataka, to flesh it out. lt is not exclusioely so - other examples are citeil where releoant. The adioasi in Koilagu district are just about 20% of the population and in Karnatakd, they are about 4,25%, in relatioely isolated pockets - eoen in the contiguous Nilgiri biosphere. Thus, this is a resistance of a minority. In other places, where there are more of them, resistance can be more intense. Self-rule, as useil here, incluiles the whole spectrurn from sooercignty to secession to gram swaraj uniler the Panchayat Rai Act.

In the

environmental front, the Western countries are

desperately looking towards Africa and Asia to dump their toxic waste. The world bank has also recommended this sort of transfer of toxic and polluting industries to the third world because the cost of waste disposal within their boundaries will their enterprises unviable.

3.

In the manufacturing sector, for all the hue and cry about opening up trade, it is the surplus - read waste - that is dumped on the third world, and not up to date, environmentally safer technology. The'trickle down'was always of this surplus.
Globalization has tremendously increased the size of the basket of wants . Due to this increasing want creation, and therefore
the enlarged basket size, 'trickle down'has seriously reduced in

The struggle of inilepenilent lnlarchies - such as the adioasi - is to retain their sooereignty.. The struggle of the women, who are incorporated as Women who haoe traoelled a long way: waste absorbers, is to reclaim from matriarchy to being legally, culturally anil socially subir'qateil - not haoing the right to property, to haaing to die along with their husbanils, to not having a soul, being iess than animals, to not haoing the right to oote, become priests,,.,- to slowly reclriming their rights, though glass ceilings ilo exist. The slow process by which women arc reclaiming their sooereignty denanils a study of its own for it contains lessons for all

it

holarchies.

the recent past5. Moreover, 'recycling' means that even inert waste is used, and only toxic waste is exported' The poor are no longer just waste absorbers, as VeblenT postulated a century

4.

'Holarchy' is a construct of Arthur Koestler. lt is preferred. since it is 'holistic' , Koestler uses holarchy as distinct from hierarchy to denote more democratic relationships. In this note, the emphasis is on the'holistic'
nature of the relationship, completely ooershadowing the equitable relations The terms better express the systemic nature - and totality - of expropiation relations belter, since terms such as North - South anil Thirtl World hide the often aicious expropriation within themseloes, .

ago, they have become toxic waste absorbers. The less dominated the holarchy, the less toxic the waste.

part.

not want to do so, since they are now dependent on this exploitation for their mere survival. It is significant that in all
the demands and struggles for secession and self-determination

When the people of dominated systems wake up to this scam, they then want to first redress the imbalance. The dominant do

5. A note on the role of intellectuals, opinion buililers anil image crentots.
The reason why intellectuals and freethinkers flourish in larger holarchies - which inoariably are expropiating ones - is notaoorthy. It merits grenter attention, though one is constrained by space. lntellectudls mawfacture the appropriate ideological rational for the expropriating holarchies. Since these holarchies luae more surplus, they can nfford to suPport those in non-primary sectors whose labor is solely intellectual. Therefore specialists

in the world, all have come only from the 'under developed' regions. fhis shows that the exploited people have, however subconsciously, realized that they are in fact subsidising their

rulers. They then demand secession so that they can interact
with the dominant system as equals and not as waste absorbers. This is the underlying cause of secessionist demands'

This subconscious feeling can actually be validated by holistic economic analysis. Once such an analysis is made, it will be found that the'underdeveloped'who have no'tension' and other modern diseases, who have the richest biodiversity, most mineral wealth, fresh air and pure water are actually correct in their subconscious assessment. Increasingly, even basic necessities, such as water, for the dominant holarchies have to be exported from the hinterland - hence the Narmada struggle, Koel Karo.

dominant is termed unscientific (o1 in earlier ages, heretical) and therefore - neoer mind if they are the only ones to get the desired results. These intellectuals can manufacture all sorts of justifications for exploit' from national interest and patriotism, to 'greater good' , to 'natural order of things' to 'tlioine will' , These ideological constructs, internalized, led to psychological castration that prahibits resistance. Noam Chomsky calls it ' nnnufact uring con s en t' .
debased

and sopltisticated articulation is the natural domain of these forces. Artiuiation and practice outside the framework determined by the

6.

is also the reason that 'aiil'- be it of the official bilateral and multilateral or the NGO oariety - has shrunk. They were the canalizing of surplts. Those that iliil not come from surplus, i.e. the 'solidarity' contributions, remain st their preaious leaels.
This
The phrase'waste absorbers', and the more well known'conspicuotts consumption', were coined by Thorstein Veblen, in his pathbreaking 'Theory of the leisure class'. It is a must read.

7,

will non/ come to the most pernicious aspect: the process of monetization. Monetization of produce only contributes to this system. The abstraction of value into money helps consolidate power and increases it in the hands of the haves. Lacking monetization, the socially productive labour that goes into
We

consumables

will be recognized to be far

less than its monetized

values. This will significantly increase the economic power of
4

(This article is written by Anita Cheria and Edwin,They are based in Bangalore anil are involaed in and write on tribal issues. This is the first part of a seriu in which this article is being published. The next part will follow in the next issue of the ANLetter.)

Crtz
RTG UTA'[INIG tF FIF 3i) L t s) PEO
lrl

A close look at the Coastal Zone Management Plans (CZMPs) prepared by coastal states would provide a better picture.
Even after deliberate manipulations to limit the land area under CRZ III, an average of around 50% of the coasts come under this zone, thanks to the strict parameters for zoning. To site a few examples: in Keralam, the total area under CRZ is 498.579 sq.kms. Of this, CRZ III is 341.825 sq.kms, CRZII,68.748 and CIRZ 1,88.006. sq.kms.r In Karnataka it is 274.04,772.71, 15.70 and 54.98 sq. kms.2 and in Andhra Pradesh it is 3574.73, 2526.6, 27 .4'1. and 7121..66 sq. kms. respectively.3 CRZ II consists of already developed urban areas where further development is

tl

(The recent moae by the Central Government to amenil the Coastal

Zone Regulation Notification has

to be seen as an undermine the riglrts of the coastal communities)'

af' npt

to

comparatively impossible, economically unviable when space and land prices are taken into account.

( I n" debate on Coastal Regulation Zone Notification has I taken a new turn. For the Past two and a half years, l- there has been a tussle between coastal communities and
people's groups on the one hand and the big industries on the also disagreed with the notification. Their complaint is that distinctive features of their

Of course tourism and other industries that require a water front can use the CRZ III zone provided they get the clearance from the MoEF. The industry makes use of political connections and big money in getting a clearance. What

other. Certain coastal states

worries the industry is that even after obtaining the permission, it has to face the community which has exclusive
rights there. In this era of judicial activism, the industry knows

respective coasts had been overlooked' But now, taking cognizance of the situation, Central government takes the role of protecting the interests of the industry. It is evident now that the claims about protecting and preserying the coast was
mere eyewash.

that any written law can be very crucial. The increasing awareness of environment and ecology, the effort made by people's groups to educate people on Coastal Zone Regulations are also a potential threat. They are aware that any violation in this region would

Historically, coasts have been

considered as common property without anyone making visible legal claims.
Any project - whether defence or harbour related - had its

bring the community,
front.

NGOs and peoples' groups to the war

claim only within the area

assigned for it. The community along the coast and the general

oublic used the coast without worrying about ownership rights. The fishing community
usually believed and practised

t $ the regulation to their { disadvantage. Interestingly, I Uottr are multinational power E giu.,ts - Enron in Mumbai, p Maharashtra and Cogentrix in t Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka.
CRZ regulations play a very important role both in peoples' struggle and legal proceedings against these industries. A number of other violators of the regulation were taken to court and many of them were found to be guilty and their constructions face demolition orders.
The Supreme Court in its judgment had asked the coastal states

At least two major global power generating giants have found

a common property system. Whatever land they used permanently was for small hutments' The coasts were primarily their work space, free and exclusive.
The CRZ Notification of l99l brought into focus the debate on future use-pattern of the coast. For the first time in history, coasts were divided into zones. Regulations were also drawn to determine permissive and prohibitive activities, both for industry and community use. All these together brought different user - rights for different grouPs on the coast.

for strict implementation of the CRZ notification. In another landmark judgment dated l.L December L996, the Supreme Court ordered demolition of all aquaculture/prawn farrns within 500 Mts. of high tide line and 1000 Mts. of the HTL in

At the heart of this much debated issue lies the questior, of this user-right. People who had drawn up the notification had given exclusive settlement rights to coastal communities and traditional users of the coast in the CRZ III zone. The communities along the coast deserve this recognition since they are the rightful inheritors of the coast. What the planners of the notification had overlooked, quite unwittingly, is the existence of other interest groups like tourism and mega industries. These industries were eligible to get clearance from the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) for setting up their projects in the CRZ III zone. At the same time, communities.have the legal right to approach a court of law against any violations of CRZ or intrusions into their living and
occupational space by these industries.
5

in Orissa and Pulicat lake in Tamil Nadu respectively, Among other arguments, Coastal Zone Regulations played the crucial role in this judgment. At present, it is these two judgments that alarm the industrial
Chilika lake

lobby. The Central government sensing the threat against the liberalisation policy took the issue into their hands. They realise that the best way to tackle this threat would be to do away rvith the regulation itself. It is surprising to note that a minority government - a coalition of 13 parties of different political shades - have been able to

in circumventing even the Supreme Court judgment. This essentially testifies their attitude towards the economic liberalisation. Narrow nolitical determinism prevents even the
conspire

'left'parties to critically understand who would benefit from
this nefarious move. The anti-people move of this government does not stop with the attempt to amend CRZ Notification alone. The Central

(Amendment) Bill amends the National Highways Act of 1955 and the National Highways Authority of India Act of 1988. This bill gives the right to governments to acquire under "public

government constituted

an

Aquaculture Authority

in

a

purpose" any land required for building, maintenance, management or operations of a national highway or part there of. The only legal space allowed is for disputes on compensation.

constitute an Environmental Appellate Authority. This authority will be merely an extension of the existing government bureaucrats. How authoritarian this body could be is evident in Clause 11 of the Bill that entitles only a person or any association of persons likely to be directly affected by the grant of environmental clearance as an appellant. Further in Clause 12 (1) ".....the authority shall haae power to regulate its own proceilure including the fixing of places and
times of its enquiry and deciiling whether to sit in public or priaate".

desperate move to overcome the crisis posed by the Supreme Court judgment. The Lok Sabha passed a bill on 17.3.1997 to

The new debate on CRZ notification and the move to amend the same has tobe looked at in this light, It is correct to attribute these changes to the economic liberalisation. Yet the fallout is

more fundamental and severe. The state is becoming increasingly authoritarian. It takes away given and existing rights from the poor. It also narrows down the space for
democratic interventions.

Gfari Babu is coordinating the EQUATIONS programme on the
CoasD.
1,

There is yet another ordinance issued by the President of India on Land Acquisition for National Highways that the Lok Sabha

CZMP of Kerala Page,76.

passed

on t8.3.7997. The National Highways

Laws

2 CZMP(Zoning of coastal Karnataka) , Page 99. 3 Note on CZMPs of Andhra Pradesh, Page 14.

"Do not touch oor rights"
worn fishing communities
he fi.shing community unions and environmental groups protested unanimously against the Central Government's move to circumvent the Supreme Court's judgment in favour of the aquaculture industry bjr amending the CRZ notification of 1991' under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. The community fears that any move to amend the notification will in.toto take
away the rights of the coastal communities.

National |oint Action Council Against ]oint Ventures, R.K. Patil , Gen. Secretary NFF, Premji Bhai Khokri, Xavier Pinto
and Ramesh Duri of NFF. They covered Maharashtra, Goa,

Karnataka, Kerala and southern parts of Tamil Nadu. On the Eastern coast, the other yatra started from Diamond Harbour, West Bengal and covered the states of Orissa. Andhra Pradesh and the northern parts of Tamil Nadu. On both the coasts fishing communities welcomed the yatras

and pledged their solidarity. The yatras ended

at

More than an average of 60Y" of the land along the coast comes under CRZ III zone according to the notification. It is on this 60% of the land that the coastal community has settlement rights. And it is in this same zone that the aquaculture industry, tourism and other industries want to set up their projects. This would inevitably bring conflicts in the coast. It is this conflict the Central Government is

Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu on 4th April. In the public meeting that followed, representatives from all coastal states warned the Central Government against its intention to bypass the Supreme Court order by amending the notification. The meeting opined that any such move will be met with stiff opposition.

trying to settle by amending the CRZ notification that would deprive the rights of the fishing communities.
The sudden move to amend the CRZ notification intended to save the shrimp industries from the wrath of Supreme Court's judgment dated 11 December 1996. The judgment categorically ordered all shrimp farms within 500 metres of the high tide line along the coast and 1000 metres in the case of Chilka Lake in Orissa and Pulicat Lake in Tamil Nadu.

Central and State leaders of fishing communities and
people's groups passed the resolution: "There shall not be any amendment of Environment (Protection) Act or the CRZ notification to suit the need of vested interests". The following plan of action was also agreed upon
:

7. Writ petitions will be filed in the Supreme Court if the Central
or the CRZ notification.

Government amenils either the Enaironment (Protectiod Act

To oppose this unholy move and negate the false propaganda of the coastal states that the fishermen
communities are against the notification, various coastal
communities, environment and trade unions came together

2. Parliament

'

and decided to fight against it. Under the banner of National Fishworkers Forum (NFF), two coastal yatras Bharath Yathra - was planned along the West and East
coasts of India.

members of all coastal states will be askeil to owose if such a moae is maile in the patliament. Signature campaign by way of seniling fax, telegrams, letters

3.

to the Prime Minister, Ministries of Environment, Agriculture anil lnilustries will be continued.

On the Western coast the yatra started from Gujarat on 25th March under the leadership of Thomas Kocherry, Convenor,

4.

Young leailers will be motioated towards making the coastal communities more informed and inooloeil in the issue

6

from the revenue-earning point of view. In order to make tourism acceptable to its critics, it terms mainstream tourism "ecotourism". Environmental damage from tourism stems mainly from the type and the magnitude of tourism. It happens when tourism makes,demands upon its ecology that far
exceeds the natural and human-made resources available. No attempt is made to assess the capacity of an area to support tourism.'Tourism is promoted with little regard to its impact on

the ecological and social characteristics of the area. While pursuing short term gains, long-term consequences upon the
the local environment and people are lost sight of. The Government of Karnataka, in its Investment Plan for the

Promotion of Tourism in Karnataka defines "ecotourism" as watching wildlife and enjoying nature. The investment plan and the master plan make it clear that the environmental aspect has been ignored. The Bandipur National Park has undergone substantial damage and it is now the turn of the Nagarahole (Rajiv Gandhi) National Park.
In the Nagarahole National Park, the Government of Karnataka had leased out its jungle lodges to Gateway Hotels and Getaway Resorts Ltd., a subsidiary of the Taj group of hotels. Through the World Bank Eco-development project, the Government will evict the people who have been living there for generations on the ground that there should not be any human habitat inside the park. While the original inhabitants of the park are forced to move out, the same government allows corporates to enter the forests and build hotels and welcomes tourists. This situation has led to a confontation between the adivasis and the Government and its agencies which are trying to generate revenues through building resorts and the allied infrastructure. Fishing in troubled waters are the corporate big bulls who have joined hands with the Government for access into the forests to establish their resorts/ hotels/ jungle lodges. This has threatened the very existence of theAdiaasls. It strikes at the very heart of the

n the last two
displacement

centuries, there has been large

scale

adioasis( indigenous people) due to urban priorities. [r hindsight, this displacement and the concomitant misery that it has brought to the tribal people borders on ethnocide. Initially, it was the British exploiting the forests to fuel their shipbuilding and railways projects. Then it was the tum of the Indian

of

Government. With its mandate to move the country into industrialization, the Govemment systematically acquired forest Iands and converted these into plantations for industry and agricultural land for its rural millions.

relationship between the adivasis and their ecology. The
Government's "ecotourism" idea was only aimed at increasing the revenues. It was aware that no attempt had been to calculate the environmental costs. (Later, in the case that followed, the
courts struck down the lease agreement of the Taj group of hotels

It is no coincidence that the richest forest lands are to be found around setlements of indigenous peoples. It should also not
come as a surprise that commercial exploitation of these forests

would weigh heavily on the forest-based communities.

with the Government of Karnataka. Further, the Divisional
Bench asked the Taj group to get the clearance from the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.)

Having realized that the country's forest wealth had rapidly
declined due to the insatiable appetite of forest-based industries, the Government has now turned to "softer" forms of exploitation

like tourism. Interventions inside the forest in the name of
revenue and development has reached a dangerous level.

In the present scenario, business houses are deciding projects and "development" of forests, people and their resources.
Local people whose lives are really bound with their land and

habitat are never consulted. Management of resources of the Forests simply cannot bear consequences of activities like tourism whether it is "eco-tourism" or "wildlife tourism". Tourism has inevitably an adverse impact upon ecological
systems and leads to a scarcity of natural resources. With such

forests are best known to people living there. Activities in such areas without understanding the habitat creates imbalances in

the ecological system and disrupts the relationship

of

a destructive impact development.

in its trail, it only makes a mockery of

reciprocity that exists between the people and their ecology.

Sensitive stretches of biosphere reserves in the world have always attracted people and governments. There have always been attempts to cash in on the rich flora and fauna of such areas. Tourism has been used for such purposes by'developi ng" delicate ecozones. In India, even so-called Protected Areas and National Parks are not protected. In fact, they have areas earmarked for other purposes such as "tourism zones".

where practicable, of traditional land use

"A unique aspect of biosphere reserves is the conservation,
systems,

illustrating harmonious relationships between indigenous populations and the environment. These systems often reflect centuries of human experience and can provide

immense value

in improving the productivity and

sustainabiliy of modern land use and management practices.

Uncontrolled tourism puts entire forests under pressure. Unfortunately, the Department of Tourism views things only
7

Action Plan for Biosphere Reserves (Nature and Resources, Vol.XX No.4, Oct-Dec. 1984)

lnter alia, several regulations were passed in the judiciary and the parliament that boosted the struggle against intrusion of external forces into forest areas. These are:

Malpe
Malpe, a coastal town on the Western Coast in Karnataka, is about 60 kms from Mangalore city. It has a fishing harbour and the St.Mary's Islands lie off the coast of Malpe. In the late 1970s, the KSTDC began construction of a resort right in front of'Fishery Road' - the only road that goes to the harbour. The KSTDC abandoned the construction of the resort when it fell short of funds and decided to sell the project to private entrepreneurs. Recently, an NRI bought the project. As a package deal, a part of the St.Mary's Island was sold to him. The resort owner has so planned the construction of the resort that the way to the 'Fishery Road' is blocked. So access to the harbour is impossible. This naturally affects the fishing community severely since the road was the only way they

o r

The Supreme Court's judgment that there should not be any

non-forest activities in forest areas. (This includes activities like hotels/ tourism and other commercial activities') The

Bill on tribal self-rule was signed by the President of India on 24 December 1996 as an approval for the implementation of the Bhuria Committee Report

emphasizing tribal self-rule and declaring tribal areas as
scheduled areas.

I

The High Court of Karnataka has given a historic verdict in the legal battle between the Adivasis and the Taj Resort. The

could go to the harbour. The fishing community has

been

Government of Karnataka's action was deemed illegal and violative of the Forest Conservation Act,1980 and Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1982. This verdict gains prominence in light of the Governrnent's plan to bring about "ecotourism" in the forest area in the guise of ecodevelopment and
conservation.

unanimous in its opposition to the resort and its union has expressed its opposition to the resort project.

Gokarna
Gokarna is a small pilgrimage centre near Karwar on the Western Coast in Karnataka's Uttar Kannada district. Known as the 'Kashi of South India', Gokarna is famed as a centre for Sanskrit learning. The place has some beautiful, unspoiled
stretches of the Western coast and includes the Om beach and

Court of Karnataka, the appeal is partly allowed and the appellants have been allowed by the Court to proceed with the

According to the judgment of the Divisional Bench of the High

Forest Conservation Clearance from the Ministry of Environment and Forests under the Forest Conservation Act,1980. If the appellants receive the Clearance from the

the Kudle beach. Unfortunately, these have become the
favourite haunts of hippies ever since they were driven out of Goa. The people of Goa had protested vehemently against the culture of nudism and drugs that the hippies had brought with them. Gokarna's pristine beaches provided a perfect altemative to the hippies who shifted to the Om and Kudle beaches here.
The locals make money selling articles to the hippies. Costs of essential commodities have gone up. While the hippies can afford it, the locals are finding it hard. However, the people of

a High Power Committee has to be setup in Karnataka State with representatives from police agencies and tribals/petitioners to monitor the activities. Further, till the time of obtaining the clearance from the Ministrp thereshall be no renovation or modifications at the

Ministry of Environment and Forests,

project site.

The petitioners (Nagarahole Budakattu Hakku

Sthapana Samithi) were to be awarded Rs.5,000 appellants (Taj Group of Hotels).

by

the

Gokarna

do not seem to understand the

long-term

At present, the Supreme Court has permitted the Taj grouP to waterproof the building.

inflow. Uptil now, there have been no five-star hotels in Gokarna but plans are afoot in the Department of Tourism to construct such hotels in the area
consequences of the tourist

COASTAL TOURISM
Karnataka has a coastal stretch of 325 kms which has become focal point for tourism development .
a

soon. These developments are bound to have a lasting effect on the people of Agumbe and their habitat. There is a need to understand the pros and cons of tourism in this sensitive area. (This article is written by M,G.Ramesh, Programme Co-orilinator,
EQUATIONS.)

I

Budget L997-98

OA

?rlcorc eo ?Ceq, &a#ee

The Keralam Budget for the year 1997-98 has a deficit of
7242.31

Rs.

crores. According to the Keralam State Finance

Front Ministry's policy outlook on tourism in Keralam. He stated that E tourism promotion in the state would I have to contribute to the state's E development and help in employment B generation. New areas with tourism potential like backwater tourism, health tourism and eco-tourism would be promoted. The minister said that
taking into consiileration the state's special

E. Minister f7.r.ir* ' f Ch"ndrasekharan Nair spelled I out the ruling Left Democratic

!q\

Minister T. Sivadasa Menon, the state requires Rs.47,000 crores in the next five years to reach the national growth level. The budget does not address the 32 lakh unemployed (official statistics) of the state. The budget has totally disregarded

investments

in

areas

of

employment generation. The

government makes vociferous claims of protecting and reviving public sector units (PSUs) but has set aside a paltry sum of Rs. 50 crore for the task.

Tourism In The Budget
The budget has set aside Rs.35 crores for the tourism sector in the state. Out of which, Rs. 10 crore are exclusively for the

features and limitations, the approach would be to set up small scale tourism projects and not projects that required big investments. According to the minister, it was not correct to think that all hotels must be five-star, as many seem to think.
The following are the minister's doctrines and plans: The basic problem in the tourism sector is lack of infrastructure and investments in the state. The state requires around Rs'800 to 1000 crore in the next five years. The state cannot invest such

Bekal Tourism Project. Tourism Resorts Kerala Ltd, in association with the private sector is to take up projects at Veli, Akkulam, Munnar and Kumarakom. The Mascot Hotel at
Thiruvananthapuram and the Bolgatti Palace at Ernakulam are to be further developed. Tax on tourist vehicles from other states will be reduced and short time permits issued. Tax on AC rooms with a rent of above Rs. 500 are to be increased from 10% to l5%.

Three Nation Tourism On The Anvil

large amounts

of money. The only possibility is

to

'scientifically' involve the private sector to make this possible. The state is backward in the hotel industry. More five-star
hotels are required and there are many foreign agencies willing to invest. There is also a need for more three- anil two-star hotels.

if we are to believe the Kerala Tourism Minister E Chandrasekharan Nair, already had a.round of talk with the governments of Sri Lanka and Maldives. A'great leap' (with apologies to Mao Tse Dong) in tourism is being planned. Central and state tourism representatives met at Maldives to discuss this proposal.
The government,

Bekal - Protest Mounting Against The Proiect
As the tourism authorities are going ahead with the project, protests and objections from hitherto unknown quarters are mounting. People are getting more and more aware of the unavoidable future impact of the project. Small people's organisations have emerged in 'panchayats' (village councils) of
Ajanoor, Chemnad, Uduma and Pallikkara that come under the Bekal tourism project. Organisations like Chembarikka Samskarika Vedi, Bekal Samrakshana Karma Samiti, Uduma Samskarika Vedi, ]illa Prathikaranna Vedi etc. are a few among the regional organisations that have come out with strong protests against the undemocratic and authoritarian attitude of the tourism authorities. These new regional movements are apart from the Bakel Samrashana Samithi (Bakel Protection Committee) that has filed the case against the project in the Kerala High Court. Religious organisations like Muslim I amaith (prayers) committees have also come out openly against the project. Local meetings take place almost every day.

r ' o

The Bekal project in Kerala requires around 800 acres of land

(very small indeed!). The Government's approach is to acquire the land, develop basic infrastructure and attract investors including foreigners. Another project planned is the Veli-Akkulam (itt Thiruvananthapuram) region. This'small' project requires only 300 acres of land. A master plan for this is being
prepared.

Some

o o

of the other immediate plans are: Mascot Hotel: to be converted into a five-star deluxe hotel
that requires Rs.7.5 crore Hotel Samudra, Kovalam: Second phase with 12 rooms, 10 cottages and 2 suites. Munnar Hill Resort: A hotel with 38 rooms and an investment of 5.82 crore (around $ 1.6m), and 8 acres of revenue land have already been identified for this.

o o o o

Kumarakom Industrial Village: 'Kettu vallom' (country
house-boats) accommodation facilities and water-sports are planned with an investment of Rs.S crores ($1.4m). Kaladi Cultural Complex: the Sanskrit University has given one acre of land. Rs.40 lakh has been allotted.

Another development is involvement of the political parties in the debate whose stand till now has been ambiguous. There is a contradiction between the party leadership, on the one hand, and
the local members and sympathisers on the other Since the local members have started voicing their objections to the tourism project, the leadership has been compelled to take a stand.

Besides this, Rs.520 lakh on various projects have been submitted to the Central Government for. assistance.

(This is an excerpt from the special issue on 'Kerala Vikasanam' (Deaelopment in Kerala) by the ruling front leading partner CPI(M)owned D eshabhimani p ublication s )

In a recent development, all these groups protested against the District Collector who has conducted a meeting to which only political parties that supported the tourism project were invited.

I

In another incident, people stormed the venue of the meeting organised by the tourism development authorities. luma committees have warned the authorities that the move to build a Tourism Facility Centre between the Bakel Fort and the fuma
mosque

will not be allowed. There are already allegations about the land prices allotted for lands in different regions. The lilla Prathikarana Vedi has come out with a booklet - questionnaire that discusses the claims of the tourism authorities.

Reports aiso point to the unwanted effects of tourism. Two foreign tourists were forcefully packed off by local people for having walked along the beach semi-nude. Local people also complain that foreign tourists have already brought sex tourism into the region. In a meeting held by the Chenbarikka Samskarika Vedi, the activists alleged that 4kg of 'ganja' (cannabis) had been seized from a youth who was handed over to the police, but no case had been registered against him. "Do Not Allow Bekal Tourism Proiecf', Says Prof. M.K Prasad.
Bekal Tourism Seminar conducted by Kerala Sasthra Sahithya Parishad (KSSP)I at Bekal, Prof. M.K.Prasad, renowned environmentalist and ex-president of KSSP spoke out strongly against the Bekal project. He said, "Do not allow the Bekal Tourism Project (to come up)", adding that the project report had been prepared. without proper social or economical studies. Neither had there been an environmental impact assessment . A mega tourism project like this would destroy the traditional culhrre of the area. He asserted that the "five star tourism" being planned was intended solely to attract foreign tourists. It was not suitable for a place like Bekal. The Bekal Tourism Development Authority (BTDC) was formed without consulting the elected local administrative 'panclnyats' (village council). Professor Prasad was of the strong opinion that the BRDC

both the plants. (Ironically, it was in this incomplete hotel complex that Prime Minister Deva Gowda stayed while he visited Kozhikode recently. The court proceedings were on at that time and the media had reported this even prior to the visit. The hotel authorities had overnight prepared a special suite for the PM even though arrangements had already been made for his stay at the corporation guest house that is located
just opposite to the hotel).
CRZ norms - violated all over the state.
The opposition of state governments to the CRZ notification is well known. The state governments views the CRZ regulation as a hindrance to the development of their states. Consequently, the states turn a blind eye towards all violations on the coast. ln fact, the main culprit, here, is the government itself.

hotels for the time being, when a star resort complex was being set up in the National Park at Nagarahole forests. In Keralam, the same group had yet another setback when the Kozhikode sub-judge allowed a stay order in favour of the people. The hotel group had built a star hotel complex in a residential area. An AC plant and a generator diesel tank were set up within a mere three meters of the houses. The plants will have a 325 HP diesel generator and a diesel tank of 35,000 litre capacity. The AC plant was to work round the clock. Repeated requests from the neighboring houses fell on deaf ears. Neither did the corporation authorities pay any attention to the requests of the people. It was then that house owners came together, sought legal support and filed a writ petition against the hotel. They pleaded that once the AC plant and generator started functioning, they would be badly affected. The vibrations of a plant of such large dimensions, in operation, would also create environmental problems. Storing 35,000 litres of diesel so close to residential quarters was indeed hazardous in the extreme. The court accepted their plea and stayed the installation of

Open Air Stage at Kozhikode.
Orders had been issued by the High Court to serve urgent notice

to the district collector, city corporation secretary, Director
Science and Technology, Director of ports and fisheries and the state chief secretary on the controversial open air stage and its annexure building on Kozhikode beach by the city corporation.

should be dissolved and total rights should be given to
'panchayats'to undertake developmental projects for the region.
KSSP is generally considered as a pro-left movement though on it maintains its own identity. A good number of KSSP

issues

activists are also members of Left parties. According to local newspaper reports, the KSSP stand is creating problems within the ruling Left Front cadres. It has also become evident that there is no clear stand within the ruling ftont leadership on the issue of the Bekal project. In a recent press meet at Kasaragode - the districtwithin which Bekal is located - the ruling left Democratic Front Convenor stated that the front does not have a clear stand on, or understanding of, the Bekal tourism project. At the same

The overenthusiastic district collector had built an open-air stage on the seaward side of the coastal road in the No DevelopmentZone (NDZ). Wide media coverage and people's protests against the construction were ignored. The collector and the corporation authorities claimed that he had obtained

permission from the concerned authorities for

the

time in contrast to this statement, the chief minister

has

construction. They also claimed that it was only a temporary construction. But once work was completed it turned out to be a permanent concrete structure with a green room, rest room and toilet facilities. Earlier, port authorities had warned the corporation authorities against this construction,
Legal procedures were begun by two residents of Kozhikode through a public interest litigation. The petitioners argued that

approached the Chairman of the Central Planning Board, Prof. Madhu Dandavate for financial assistance to speed up the Bekal Project. Meanwhile, at Bekal, the people have started voicing their protest against the BRDC for making public announcement

of the developmental projects of the 'panchayats' without
consulting or even informing the'panchayat' governing bodies.

the state was yet to prepare a master plan for

CRZ

implementation and seek the Central government's approval. Any construction prior to this is a violation.
Goshree Project The Goshree Project
70

Taj Group Of Hotels In Legal Tussles

Karnataka, the adioasis (tribal communities) have provisionally won the legal battle against the Taj group of

In

is

related to the construction of bridges

from the Vypeen islands to mainland Ernakulam' Vypeen consists of a cluster of islands in the Vembanad lake in Kerala. It is a part of the backwaters of Keralam - a part of the Kerala waterscape that is slowly disappearing. For the past four
decades, the people of the islands had been demanding bridges

Sabarimala - the forested temple-town known for austerity turns into luxury pilgrimage centre.
"

Stones and thorns are a carpet

from the islands to the mainland, Ernakulam. The government
decided to build a series of bridges inter-connecting the islands and also the mainland. Accordingly, the Goshree Island Development Authority (GIDA) was formed ' But the GIDA
soon became notorious when its methods of generating funds

visit the Sabarimala shrine in Kerala barefoot. The pilgrimage is known for its austere nature and the demands that it makes upon devotees who undertake to visit the shrine. The route consists of an arduous walk through dense forest inhabited by wild animals. But the scenario in this
of pilgrims who

for

the

feet" used to be the refrain

for the building of the bridges came to light. The GIDA's

modus operandi was to reclaim land from the Vembanad lake by levelling a part of the lake and selling it at exorbitant rates to

sacred spot might soon be changing. The government sees a money spinner in the pilgrim centre. The large number of pilgrims had prompted the govgrnment to construct

hoteliers and business enterprises.

highways and railway lines to the pilgrimage centre. Both would be constructed through reserved forests and the
'peripheral area' of the Periyar tiger reserve. The second phase of the Sabarimala highway.was inaugurated by the PWD minister. This phase consists of a 4km long road that is 9mt in width 51/2 mt would have a tarred surface. The whole area already has an ugly look with a number of concrete constructions. With the commencement of the highway, the government is waiting anxiously for the tourists to come pouring in.

GIDA planned to reclaim 950 acres of land from the lake and sell the same to the tune of Rs.1.50 lakh per cent ($4286)! "The GIDA tried to dupe people, endanger the Cochin port and sabotage Kerala's culture to PerPetrate the biggest scam through a "levelling Khumbakonam" (scam) proving that scams are not the exclusive indulgence of the North" says |ustice V.R.Krishna lyer. "Every purchase of land in the vicinity of the proposed bridges, to build five star hotels and promote sex tourism, should be inquired into.", demanded Krishna lyer. Only 30% of backwater areas in Keralam remains unlevelled today according to environmentalist, U.K.Gopalan.
Coastal highway at Kallai

High on the state government's agenda is the Coastal Expressway from Kasaragode, the northernmost tip in Kerala, to Kanyakumari in the west. This single road could change the entire coastal zoning of the state as stipulated by the CRZ Notification. The highr,r'ay would naturally bring in its wake, urbanization. This would require a reclassification of zones in the affected areas. Rural areas that are now classified within

The 10 million odd pilgrims visiting this centre every year already is a threat to environment, forest and rivers in the region. Solid waste lies scattered all over the forest. Arecent study conducted by the forest department says that a large number of pilgrims also visit the tiger reserve. Yet, there has been no move from either the forest department or the
government to restrict the number of pilgrims into this reserve.

Meanwhile, Sabarimala means big business not only to the government and private hoteliers but also to the'devaswom'

the CRZ III category would have to be shifted into CRZ II which consists of urban developed areas. The pitfall of such a change in zoning is that the community along these regions

would lose their customary and settlement rights that are protected by the notification.
A sample of what is in store is the events taking place at Kallai

board (the temple governing body) and the government officials. The president of Tiruvathamcore Devaswom Employees Union in a press conference stated that half of the total income is being swindled by the board and government officials. Gold, watches and other valuables offered by the pilgrims goes unaccounted. Need For National Environmental Commission

in Kozhikode district. Here, the governments had begun land acquisition procedures on a 3-km stretch of coastal land. Around 384 houses and 4000 people who live in this stretch and
eam their livelihood from the sea and coast related jobs are about

In a

recent

visit to the state, environmental advocate

M.C.Mehta opined that the time is ripe to set up a National

to be displaced. This road itself would be within the No
DevelopmentZone (NDZ) that is, it is within 25 to 50 mts of the water line and at places, within the hightide line. Aroad bridge is also under construction even though land for the road is yet to be acquired.
The government is playing a very cunning game here. It has not announced that this is part of the coastal highway. The Coastal

should be 'totally autonomous' on par with that of the Election Commission. The Supreme Court had asked to constitute Environmental Courts back in 1986. This should be made
Environmental Commission. The commission
possible atleast at the regional level, Mehta said. Pollution Control Boards are now being controlled by the bureaucrats. Sri Mehta was speaking at a press conference at Kochi. The Goshree Project at Kochi, leveling the backwaters and building five star hotels is not to help the poor. Development projects

should address the needs of the poor, Advocate Mehta said.
(Keralam Diary is written by

Zone Management plan prepared last year does not even
mention this highway.
The national highway department and port authorities are also
based on media reports.)
.

lIari

Babu of EQUATIONS.

lt

is

in the dark about the particulars of this road. But the Calicut
Development Authority officials confirm . that acquisition notices served pertain to the proposed coastal highway. The reason for keeping the plan in dark is to avoid the wrath of people if the land requirements and related acquisition notices are served in one lot to the entire state.
'KSSP is a popular-science mooement in Keralam. The moaement spearheaded the mass literacy campaign and.has been awarded prestigious international aanrds like the lnternational Literacy Prize

of UNESCO and the Right Liuelihooil award often
AIt ernstia
11
e

called the

N ob el

P

rize.

CRIME ON THE BEACH
(The Nofth Goa tourism belt is crime-ridden. Theft, extortion
anil rape are .common on the beaches of Goa. This has been a coflsequence of the ineffectioeness of the police anil the saturation
of Goa's decade-old charter tourism, torites Frederick Noronha)

,o(Q

r:

ilAR4l!
"No girls should feel safe! Stick to the main roads, avoid dirt tracks, and when in your house, make sure that all windows and doors are locked. (The police) have no idea of the amount of rapes (of foreign tourists) in Goa... take care! Spread the This is from a pamphlet titled "Rape Alert", word."
tourists in the Calangute-Anjuna belt last April. A Briton was nabbed trying to collect Rs 3.5 million worth of cocaine posted from Colombia. Extortion cases by criminals and, if one believes the tourists, even by men in uniform.
Some support for this view comes from strange quarters: the local leader of Bal Thackeray's Shiv Sena. Local Sena village leader Camilo D'Souza, some time back, wrote to chief minister Pratapsing Rane warning him about theft, housebreaking and

displayed by Western tourists at Goa beachside restaurants.

If you're one of the 30,000 odd foreign tourists visiting Goa at this time of the year, you might run into this notice pinned on the thatched walls of the "Goodluck" beach-shack restaurant on
the sands of Baga beach. Last fortnight, the Goa police took the problem of rising beachcrime seriously, as never before. But this came after two young Swedish women were gangraped by seven to eight men at Anjuna, the Mecca of backpack and hippy tourists in South Asia. They were returning home after a late-night beach-party. Their bike was stopped by assailants armed with sticks and knives. A male companion was forced at knife-point to witness the gang-rape. All were robbed of money and possession. But this case, which sent the local police into a tizzy, is only the shocking tip of a long-ignored iceberg. Crime is turning into the new growth-industry along parts of the North Goa beach belt. It is coming in alongside prosperity brought in by the booming tourism sector there over the past decade. Everyone seems to think the Western tourist's affluence is out for grabs. Literally. Constable Digambar Naik was weeks ago suspended over the theft of 500 pound sterling from the baggage of two Britons at Goa's airport. Last month, Panaji

extortion taking root in the capital of hippy-Goa. "Unidentified

persons posing as policemen have been collecting huge
amounts from tourists as 'baksheesh'," D'Sotza added.
Goa Inspector-General of Police PRS Brar points to the speedy police action on arresting suspects in the Swede gangrape case.

He dismisses the view other crime often directed against foreign tourists is growing fast. "If you wear a diamond ring
and leave it on the dressing table, which police can stop it from

being stolen," asks Brar.
But real life can be more bizarre. One year back, a group of local boys, allegedly playing nude on the Sinquerim beach, tried to molest a foreigner while she was fishing. Local youngsters have gone on rampages against Kashmiri vendors, resettled in the area, using any pretext to grab their goods, this correspondent was told by reliable quarters. Statistics recently blew the

police nabbed two Gujaratis for stealing the belongings of foreigners travelling to Goa by bus.
Many crimes go unreported. But recorded crimes indicate the range: An Andhra-Goa gang busted while looting foreign
72

lid to indicate that something was going drastically wrong. Figures revealed that in the 7995-96 tourist season, over two dozen foreign tourists had died in Goa, in a spell of under six months. Nearly 13 had died of overdoses of narcotics or liquor.
"Leave aside the tourists, even fisherfolk in Calangute, who
once slept soundly on the shore, are afraid of moving about in their own land," says village parish priest Fr. ]ose Dias. "This is

frustration. There's no money any longer in tourism (in Goa,

by foreign tourists. Clearly, the downswing

family runs

compared to the past few years)", reasons fude Miranda, whose a pay-phone booth and stores at Baga, frequented

Gospal

some

see

overtaking Goa's decade-old charter tourism sector is breeding desperation. Besides, too many businesses have opened up, bringing in more to fight over the Pie.

In one

case,

for instance, tourist-taxi operators beat up

a

Kashmiri vendor because they felt he was undercutting them. Some bus tour-operators have recently complained that their passengers are being coerced into eating at certain restaurants. In the Calangute police station, this correspondent met an European woman tourist complaining that the lodge owner was compelling her to stay on longer than she wished, threatening to hold back her possessions otherwise.
There are other hints to show that it's no longer just business as usual: On January 7, a 33-year-old Briton was raped at Anjuna by two unidentified persons, including her taxi driver. The rapists stole her purse too. Each of the half-dozen North Goa coastal villages which attract the bulk of the foreign visitors are

for obvious reasons. Local medical practitioner Dr.Jawaharlal "In other areas, the Police presence is reassuring. In Anjuna, it seems to be just the opposite."

Henriques concurs:

"I want to spend my holiday in peace, not going to courts," says Danish TV-2 journalist Frants Pandal, explaining why few complaints are made to the police. He says the police are not widely trusted, and foreign tourists believe some have resorted
to "planting" of narcotics to extort sums of $500. Pandal's friend, Danish musician Frank E. got almost killed. He woke up a week back to find six to seven persons holding a knife to his throat at Badem-Anjuna. Just then, some of his friends
turned up, making the robbers flee, says Pandal, a Goa regular since 1959 who is having second thoughts on coming back.
Goa's Tourist Police are ill-equipped. "They are only there to

distinct. Sinquerim, dominated by up-market tourists, doesn't often report such crime. Tight security ensures that even journalists entering a luxury hotel on a two-wheeler might be
halted to face questions.

At the other end - both geographically and otherwise - is Anjuna-Vagator. Here, the three-decades old hippy-tourist
monopoly is slowly but surely giving way to a commercialised circuit, throwing up a potent mix. Big business and the state government want to replace the low-budget tourists around with big-spenders. But villagers say they gain most from those who depend on the simple life of their rustic economy.
Baga and Calangute, former fishing villages sandwiched in the midst of this belt, face crime directed against tourists and related problems. Calangute villagers complain of local protection rackets, links between politicians and dubious organisations whose activities verge on the semi-legal, and

shoo away the hawkers," complains Roland Martins. His citizens' group, the JGB critical of Goa's tourism policy for a decade, sees "strong hints" of political patronage to the crime.

Ms. Zuma Suzama of Croatia and and Steinhaus Ralf of Frankfurt says tourists "talk a lot" about crime on the beach. But other foreign tourists don't think much of the problem.
"Most people we met are satisfied. They are here because they like Goa," said a woman, declining to mention her name, who is part of a former Christian Ashram that now runs a library for tourists in Anjuna.
Teddy Nunes feels otherwise. "The growing crime is a recent trend. It will definitely affect tourism," says this educationist

land-grabs by builders in an area where tourism has sparked an uncontrolled building boom.
Some argue though that the crime along the beach belt is not

all

whose family runs a mini-supermarket at the lively former hippy-haunt of Anjuna. Behind him are posters seeking information about a missing Swiss tourist, and announcing the departure of an overland bus leaving Goa for Europe. ]ohn Lobo, who runs a popular "shack", concurs. He feels that

that new. Police officials dismissively say some foreign tourists report thefts of belongings to claim insurance back home. But

firm governmental action "otherwise the tourists will feel insecure". He recalls how in his coastal constituency at Ximer-Candolim, some young boys raped a tourist, some years ago,.but they were not brought to book. IG-P Brar retorts that it's hard to follow up such crime too. For instance, one Danish girl was raped. Police offered to pay for her passage stay in Goa, but she opted not to get involved in hdia's time-consuming legal system. He warns the same could happen in the latest Swedish case.
Goa Speaker Tomazinho Cardozo calls for

Goa's image as

a licentious

place has been so widely

propagated that foreign women tourists walking alone face a serious threat of being molested. "Many cases go unreported,"
says he.

Add Shiv Sena's Camilo D'Souza: "People come here for sunbathing. They don't come to give you (some perverse
pleasure). If you want that, go to Baina (the sleazy and distant redJight quarter of Goa.)

But Rosy Fernandes, who rents accommodation to foreign tourists, has another story to tell. Two Frenchmen there were robbed twice. In one case, the elderly womenfolk were too afraid to intervene. Another time, the tourists woke up in the morning to find a part of their roof missing, along with
cameras, radios and even their shoes.

But one beach-belt constable commented: "They're (leading licentious lives) all the time... then some complain of rape. Police who effected the arrests. won't even get monetary rewards, but just a favourable comment in their service
records." It is anyone's guess, whether such attitudes crime-solvers far.

will take

"Foreign tourists have been harassed a lot. Both by thieves and by the police," says another Anjuna villager, seeking anonymity
73

(Frederick Noronha is a Goa-based freelance journalist who writes
about tourism.)

A Report on

Tourism in Himachal Pradesh
('Sadprayas'which means "an attempt to search out the truth" is a mooement in Himachal Pradesh that questions the consequences of tourism in the state. The following is a report of a workshop helil by Sadprayas on tourism in Kulu, Himachal Pradesh, in
lanuary,'1997, sent to EQUATIONS by LaI Chand Dhissa.) Development Institute), theoretically and practically, explained the impact of tourism on environment, water, forests and land. With particular respect to Kulu, he said that a number of environmental problems had cropped up in Kulu because of tourism. He also said that there had been an increase in the income of people as a result of tourism but was not able to say which section of the people had actually gained from tourism in Kulu. Shri Chandrasen Thakur did justice to his topic - the relationship between tourism and the host region and community. He defined "Sadprayas" and showed the difference between the Eastern and Western definitions of tourism. He described the

country, corruption, unbalanced development, exploitation, cheating, nepotism, redtapism and state terrorism have given birth to communal hatred, casteist and regional separatism and disillusionment. " Sad-prayas", which means, 'an attempt to search out the truth', is a movement in Himachal Pradesh and will go on for a long time into the future. Our work is to look for the truth, find it and bring this truth to our fellow beings. Because, today, those whom we had elected as representatives, whom we had trusted and from whom we had so much of expectations, have themselves
become the object of our questions.

n our

impact of tourism on host region and community in a poetic fashion. With examples, he proved that current tourisrn development has done nothing other than exploiting people. He exhorted the youth of Kulu to fight the adverse impact of tourism and not to shy away from such problems.

Dr. Y.C Faykay, Sadhavi Maanasi Chaitanya ji, Ravindra Kaushal, Mr.Nirat Ram Verma, Harinarayan Malhotra and others participated. In these three days, tourism and many other related questions were discussed and on the final day, Shri. Rai, State Health Minister, Himachal Pradesh, presided over the concluding of the workshop. In these three days, a programme and policy were determined and the following
main issues emerged.
Speaking on tourism and health, Dr.Faykay described how in Thailand, Laos and other nations, tourisrn had spread AIDS and other diseases. Besides this, pollution related diseases and the spread of tuberculosis were discussed. The participants also raised many questions.

these three days, other than the youth and the veteran freedom fighters, historian Chandrashekhar Bebas, Dr.Kumar, Dr.Ram, Dr.Badaula (G.B.Pant Environment and DeveloPment Institute, Shamshi), Chandrasen Thakur, Prof .V.K.Ahluwalia,

ln

different viewpoints, the Eastern and the Western. He said it was not only tourism but other models of development also which had harmed the local people. He said there was need to beware of this kind of exploitation. Questions were raised and Kaushalji successfully answered them.
Sadhvi Maanasi Chaitanyaji of Ekaantaashram, Kulu, described in detail the impact of tourism on professionals. She called today's TV 'dangerous'. She spoke of mental and physical pollution, Questions were raised and discussions followed.
The three-day workshop made it clear that the present model of

Prof. Rabindra Kaushal, while speaking on the subject "Tourism-Boon or Bane?", made a distinction between two

tourism is not acceptable. This consumerist, five-star tourism had not led to any kind of development. On the contrary, it had led to the growth of a wrong kind of culture, deforestation, the raising of concrete jungles, drinking water scarcity, and to a shortage of electricity, wood and fuel. Commodities in local markets had begun to cost more.

Shri Lal Chand Dhissa spoke on how tourism was related to drugs and narcotic substances. He described how with the growth of tourism and especially the coming of foreign tourists, particularly in Himachal Pradesh and in Kulu, drugs like smack had come into circulation. With the help and guidance of the

Tourism had brought with it unwanted developments like prostitution, gambling and exploitation of locals especially of
women. The three-day discussion also made it clear that the development of tourism had only exploited the local people. In

foreigners, local people had begun growing cannabis,

marijuana and opium and had started to trade illegally in these. Many questions were asked. A good discussion followed.

fact, more than 90% of the people who have benefited economically from tourism belong to places outside Kulu. Whether it is the hotel industry, employment, taxi or tour operation, local people have a very low level of participation.
In these three days, some important decisions were taken which were as follows:

Prof. Ahluwalia spoke impressively on the impact of tourism on youth and students. In explaining the impact of tourism on the youth and students, he gave an example of ]apan. He spoke of prostitution and flesh trade and warned India, especially the backward regions of India like Kulu. He said the development benefits would were found.

of tourism would only lead to social evils and not many follow. Questions were raised and answers
Dr. Kuniyal (of the G.B.Pant Himalayan Environment and
74

Of all the known paths to development, tourism is one of the most dangerous and insidious ways. Therefore, it was decided that:

(l) AII

actiaities related to tourism including formulation, implementation and eaaluation of programmes must be done after consulting and with the participation of the local people.

(2)

Alienation of property \and) must take place with the assent of local people. Such sale deeils must cleafly lay down b) the
reasons

for

sale of the land and (b) the reasons

for

purchase of the

to a number of reasons, it materialised only on 10 |anuary, 1.997. The Department of Sports and Youth Affairs has helped only marginally in the holding of this workshop.
We received full support from the people in the workshop. We tried to contact many others in the Government. Some who said they would attend the workshop, finally did not come at all. In case of others, we were told that the concerned person was not available. Sometimes, the staff did not allow us to even speak

Iand.

(3)
(4)

Atleast 25% of the reoenues obtained from the tourism inilustry must be allotted to the host region and its people.

lJnplanned anil unorganised tourism hsd led to seaeral adoerse in the social, cultural, economic, moral, mental and enaironmental fields. Of these, the most important are, the
consequences

production

of drugs and narcotic substances, trade anil

consumerism, pollution(mental, moral and geogtaphical), AIDS, distortion of culture, prostitution, gambling and other forms of

exploitation.

to the person. Despite the District administration, Kulu being informed much in advance about the workshop, no help, cooperation or support was extended throughout the duration of the workshop. We had never imagined such indifference from the administration of a small place like Kulu. When we went to Dhalpur, the work-place of the Kulu Tourism Department, we came to know that the District Tourism Development Officer

(5)

Tourism deoelopment may Pose a threat to the nation.

seatity of the
0f

(DTDO) was on leave. In Manali, instead of the person in
charge, someone else spoke to us, who said that all the relevant papers and files should be sent to Manali. These papers were sent by Sadprayas to Manali and were received there. On the 12th of January,1997, the Tourism Department was to speak on

(6) Tourism

deaelopment
be

has
h)

reiuaenated

a culture

neocolonialism. Therefore,

a national tourism policy is needed

and (b) tourism should

planned and regulated.

This three-day workshop also revealed the attitude of the ministers and officials towards the masses' It was marked by a sense of detachment between the two' The ministers and

tourism and government policy, plans and facilities but no one came. This is one example of the way the Tourism Department goes back on its words, and tries to shirk from its responsibilities.

officials were arrogant and rude

The administration and the tourism department of Kulu has not kept its promises. It has not honoured its commitments.

to the people'

Of the government machinery, the maximum support, help, encouragement and co-operation came from the G'B.Pant Himalayan Environmental and Development Institute,
Shamshi. We appreciate their concern for people. (This is the report of a workshop on tourism in Himachal Pradesh by 'Sadprayasl It was translated from Hindi into English by Renuka Phadnis.)

others. This is what happened with workshop was to have taken place in September 1996 but due
Sadprayas

It is always the case that those who seek to find and establish the truth do not get encouragement or co-operation from

too.

This

organised

Agumbe - The Rain will stop soon
(The proposed construction of a resort

!

in Agumbe accompanied by the

A resort is already under construction within the forest area
near Agumbe and further'development' of the place will only serve to ruin the flora and fauna of this town in the rainforests. A couple of years back,2 acres of land in Agumbe close to the forest area was bought by a businessman. The resort that this businessman has proposed envisages independent cottages, a bar, a restaurant, a board room, a conference room, a children's park and a golf club. All these are to be squeezed into the 2-acre area. Any expansion beyond this area will constitute an offence since there is forest area on three sides of the project and panchayat (village) land on the fourth side. A number of people have opposed this project because it is bound to set off a chain of ecological and social problems for the people of Agumbe.

paraphernalia of mass tourism is threatening theflora andfauna of this aerilant town in Karnatakn's Western Ghats, writes M.G.Ramesh.)

gumbe is a small town, with a population of about a -f1. thousand people, nestling in the rain-forests of the picturesque Western Ghats which consist of a chain of hills running parallel to the coast in Karnataka in South India.

I

Agumbe is called 'the Cherrapunjee of the South'because of the heavy and continuous rainfall that the place receives throughout the year. The rainfall in Agumbe is around 8,000 mm per annum. The forests around this town are home to tigers, wild boars, stags, barking deer and Saurs' Some of these animals are endangered species. The birds found here include the peacock, hornbills and rocket-tailed drongoes. Agumbe happens to be the 'last resort' of the endangered Lion Tailed Macaque in Karnataka. The forests have some rare vegetation and include trees of ebony, 'dhooma' and 'balige'. Some rare species of orchids are also found here. The Department of Tourism of the Government of India has identified Agumbe as one of the 'Thrust Areas for Special Tourism Development' under the Tourism Policy of Karnataka.
L5

Another group of people who set up the

"Nesara

Trust"("Nesara" means nature), to grow orchids in Agumbe have turned to real estate business and are now thinking of constructing a resort in the area. People protested against the building of the resort and it was at this juncture that the Supreme Court verdict in the Nagarahole case was announced.
ContinuedonpageL7

)

TVTN C+IILDI{TN ART NOI

SPARTD

igh-profite sex workers in the city have gone hi-tech to outwit police. Soliciting customers on the streets is passd and pagers keep them posted about the rende7vous even as overworked policemen scan parks, bus stands and elsewhere in an effort to curb the menace.

1 f T-f I L

The constables who raided a brothel in the city recently found

to their surprise that the women they arrested were carrying little gadgets which were beeping messages. major

Police and in-charge Deputy Commissioner (crime), Mr.Y.S.Bhat, immoral trafficking in the city is a flourishing

Prostitution is going strong in Bangalore. The city is still a tourist destination and this gives scope for organised gangs to thrive. According to the Assistant Commissioner of

Some school girls belonging to affluent families join the trade to make some pocket money or "just for fun". For those from

the poorer families, however, it is another way
supplementing their family incomes.

of

business. During 1996, 430 cases were registered compared to 510 the previous year. Fifty per cent of them were members of gangs whose contact operated from phone booths and hotels. About 85 cases have been booked till this year. In a bid to arrest the menace, says an official, a women's squ.ad has also been formed. Its purpose is to nab sophisticated callgirls who go around in pricey cars and vans. Some of them are so modern that they have given uP Pagers after the introduction of cellular phones in the city. Communications is the key to business, they would say.

A doctor who treats child prostitutes in a city slum inhabited by a particular community confirms this. According to him in most cases it was the children's mothers who were already in the business who forced them into prostitution. The proliferation of child prostitution has been attributed to many factors. Men, it is claimed, prefer virgins to keep AIDS at bay and this is said to have given a major boost to child

prostitution.
Some believe that they would be able to cure themselves of sexually-transmitted diseases if they have sex with girls below
16, as a social

Child prostifution, according to police reports, is not unheard of in the city. There are no official records to prove this though. As a senior police official put it, brothel owners have made their "wards" aware of the danger of revealing their real age. Well-tutored girls still in their early teens would not even blink while saving that they are "well above 18". Says the police official, "'llhere is no proof of age. So we are left with no alternative but to book them for trafficking". If they are booked under child category they will be sent to remand homes and

worker put it.

Some time a9o, a Calcutta Metropolitan Court ordered age

verification of minors. Quoting a survey conducted by the Central Social Welfare Board, an NGO official says in six big
cities in India, nearly 30 per cent of sex workers are below 20.

The reported growth of child prostitution, experts feel, is

a

will have to face problems yet again. The parks in the city are the favourite haunts of chitd prostitutes. This is giving notoriety to Ulsoor Lake Park, Cubbon Park and a portion of Lalbagh. Operators pick up students and send the children to their clients. Girls in school uniforms are found taking a stroll with men, says an elderly person who visits the park for a walk daily. Cases are difficult to be filed as the girls who are nabbed insist that their companions are either their guardians or friends. But, child
rapists have been brought to book.
L6

reflection of a world-wide phenomenon. It is true of many Asian countries as well. According to a United Nations report issued last year by the Human Rights Investigator for Child Prostitution, one million children are involved in the flesh trade in Asia working in conditions indistinguishable from slavery.

It is not that there is a lack of remedial measures or policies.
The Prevention of Immoral Trafficking Act (PITA) for instance, seeks to hold the brothel owner, who in most cases pushes

children into prostitution.

Some Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are also

involved in the rescue and rehabilitation of girls below forced into prostitution.

18,

to be identified, they have said. According to them, more voluntary organisations and NGOs should be involved in
counselling.
The NGOs have suggested that they be given the opportunity

The NGOs have demanded strong legislative measures against child molesters. Areas where child trafficking is thriving need

to help the child prostitutes confined in remand homes. They

insist that the government has a big role to play in taking
measures against prostitution and initiate stePs to rehabilitate
sex workers.

Many nations have earned foreign exchange with the help of a tourism industry which depends on exploitation of women and children. The laws relating to child abuse are not enforced

strictly in these countries.
Besides, globalisation and liberalisation processes have given a

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1990, defines child prostitution as "sexual exploitation of a child below the age of 18 for remuneration in cash or kind". It includes the rights to protection, survival development and participation. From this year, April 4 is being observed as the "No Child Prostitution Day".

boost to child prostitution. Disintegration of families and traditional and religious practices are also equally responsible
for the menace.

India is one country which is unable to enforce the laws against prostitution. About five lakh children are involved in the prostitution business in the country.
There are about a million girls involved in the trade in the continent and many more in Latin America.

It was on April 3, a few years ago, that a paedophile, 7}-yearold Freddy Peats, a foreign national, was arrested by the Goa police. The Freddy Peats case gave indication that an intemational sex crime syndicate is active in the country. Reports say there are five lakh paedophiles world-wide. Child prostitution is on the rise in India, Sri Lanka and other countries. The UNICEF Progress of Nations Report of 1995
says there are around five lakh child prostitutes in India, amount-

ing to 25 per cent of the two million child prostitutes world-wide.

A document prepared by Equations, an NGO, says child prostitution has turned the child into a commodity which can
be sold, purchased and hired.
a question of poverty but rather one of values and in particular, the values of consumerism. Can't these children - orphaned, abandoned, exploited - be treated any

According to Equations, an NGO based in Bangalore, there are two million prostitutes in India. A UNICEF report says that system4tic trafficking from rural areas is the reason why
there are so many children

It is no longer
better?

in

the flesh trade.

"Eoen chililren are not spared." by K;Narasimhan 14/04/97.

in The

In Inclia, the loopholes in the law help child abusers get away. A brothel owner can be sentenced to seven years in jail for forcing children below 16 years into prostitution, according to NGO sources.
Source : The Hindu, 14n April, 1997

P

Continuedfrom page L5

The court had said that the Taj Group of hotels could not build

the jungle lodge within the Nagarahole National Park in Karnataka at the cost of the livelihood of the tribals who had been living there for generations. This was a boost to the people of Agumbe. A writ petition was filed by an individual challenging the construction of the resort in the Agumbe
forests. However, this case was dismissed on the ground that

the land on which the resort u/as to be constructed did not constitute forest land. This was a big blow to the local people
in Agumbe.

hotel was languishing for want of tourists so where was the need for more resorts? If people come streaming into this selfsustaining town, vehicles along with pollution are bound to follow. Natural resources will be put to uses that are of no benefit to Agumbe's ecology or or its people. The issue in Agumbe is not of allowing or not allowing a resort to come up there but one that is related to the people's survival. The impact of tourism is multi-faceted. In Agumbe, inspite of people's resistance to these developments, the powers-that-be seem bent on going about their way. Decisions about their town are being taken by people outside it. Agumbe's people need to

At present, the Zilla Parishath Secretary has stalled the construction of the resort. However, this could be revoked any time. The people of Agumbe feel one resort could very well lead the way to the construction of many more. In any case, a KSTDC (Karnataka State Tourism Development Corporation)
17

know what changes are taking place in their town and to the right to accept or reject these. When things might affect the
rainforests the people live in, Agumbe's people have to protest. Otherwise, the rains may stop soon.
(This article is written by M.G.Ramesh, Programme Co-orilinator, EQUATTONS.)

About, Us
he EQUATIONS team hss been inuolved in a number of
actiuities over the last six months. There have been workhops, campaigns and training programmes connected to different programmes that EQUATIONS is involved in Kerala, Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Goa. Also, a number of publications haae been added to the documentation section of EQUATIONS. Here are the details:

o

K. T. Suresh and Hari Babu attended a workshop titled Unfolding the Budget Document organised by DISHA at Ahmedabad, in November, to understand how to decode a government-budget document. Other important topics
discussed were the demand on grants by various ministries, especially with reference to areas like tourism, fisheries and forests in which EQUATIONS is involved. The Finance

Commission Report, the budget manual, the budget proposals and DISHA s experience of the budget analysis
exercise were the issues discussed.

o

Workshops

A Workshop on Desertification fssues in Tamilnadu.was organised by the Thmilnadu Environment Council,Dindigul
at Madras on 20 December 1996. Shirley Susan participated

o

Dhanaraj Keezhara and Shirley Susan attended the Consultation on Child Ttafficking and Child Prostitution

in this Workshop.

in South Asia organised by End Child Prostitution in Asian Tourism (ECPAT) and the Young Men's Christian Association(YMcA) on 25 - 26luly,7996in New Delhi.

o A meeting

was organised by the National Council of

Churches in India (NCCI) and UIRM to jointly initiate a National Campaign for the Abolition of Child Prostitution

r In Ernakulam, Kerala,

a Workshop on Coastal Zones: A Situational Analysisorganised by the EQUATIONS Action Study Circle, Ernakulam was held. This was the second such workshop. The first workshop on coastal zones had been held in Novembet, 1995 at Kozhikode, Kerala for a comprehensive study of the Coastal Regulation Zones (CRZ). The Ernakulam workshop c6ncluded with identifying strategies for the Kerala coast and chalking out tasks and responsibilities for the EQUATIONS team. A

on 10 January L997 in Goa. Shirley Susan represented
EQUAIIONS' concerns at this meeting.

o

A workshop on Tkmilnadu Coastal losues, co-organised by the Coastal Action Network and EQUATIONS was held at Chengalpatbu, Thmilnadu from 10-12 February 1997. Shirley Susan presented her paper A Brief Look at Tourism in Tamilnadu. K.T.Suresh spoke about the problems of the Karnataka coast with special reference to Dakshina
Kannada and the ecological issues that have arisen with the of mega-industries. Hari Babu shared his experience of the Kerala Coastal Zone Regulation and the relationship of this with the lives of the fishing communities living along the coast. Fishing community organisations resolved to take up tourism and the growing urbanisation along the coast on their agenda. The future course of action was also planned to strengthen the struggle against Sterlite Industries, Tuticorin and the film city project at Karaikkal.

dossier on CRZ violations along the Keralam coast,
prepared by EQUATIONS, was presented.

growth

o A

Workshop

qr lluman

Experience and Sustainable

with special emphasis on the coastal region.

Strategies was organised by the Department of Geography, University of Madras at Madras from 2L- 23 November 1996. Hari Babu chaired the session on Coastal Tourism. Shirley Susan presented a paper on'Tourism in Thmilnadu'

important issues like coastal ecology, coastal zone regulations and the impact of aquaculture were discussed.
Coastal Area Management, a four nation meet, was conducted by International Collective in Support of
Fishworkers (ICSF), Madras from 26 September to I October 1996. Hari Babu participated in the workshop. The meet

Other

o

M.G.Ramesh and Shirley Susan attended a workshop on

.

organised South Asian Workshop and Symposium on Fisheries and

Violation of lfuman Rights in Childrcn Worldwide by the South Indian Cell for Human Rights

Education and Monitoring (SICHREM) Bangalore on the 5-7

March 1997.

I

deliberated
dimensions

on the institutional, legal and policy of fisheries and coastal area management.

Shirley Susan and M.G.Sreekala attended a meeting on Tiafficking and Prostitution: Changing Trends in South Asia organised by VIMOCHANA on 21 March 1997 at
Bangalore.

o

A Workshop on Seriously Polluting Industries-Focus on Chlofine. the Killer Chemical:The fndustry4 Pollution, its Effects and Solutiont was organised by GREENPEACE at

o r o

Shirley Susan and S.Padmaja on behalf of EQUATIONS participated in a workshop on Gender and the Economy
organised by VISTHAR on24-25 March 1997.

Madras,

on

25-26 November

7996. Shirley

Susan

participated in this Workshop.

r

On 17 - 18 August,L996, M.G.Ramesh and Hari Babu attended a meeting, at Nandikur, near Mangalore, Karnataka, addressed by Maneka Gandhi and Prof. Nanjundaswamy. This meeting was part of the anti-Cogentrix movement. M.G.Ramesh of EQUATIONS presented a paper, "Tourism in Kodagu-A Sustainable Industry?" at a workshop titled

A seminar on Aquaculture, Coastal Zone Regulations was organised by PREPARE of Tamil Nadu. EQUATIONS was invited and Hari Babu was in charge of the session on CM.

Meeting on Tamil Nadu Coastal Management Plan on 4-5
September 1996 at Chennai. K.T.Suresh, Shirley Susan and Hari Babu attended the meet. Hari Babu presented a paperAPreliminary Study on Malabar Coastal Region.

o

Kodagu

- A Model for Sustainable

Development in

Kodagu, Karnataka, which was organised by the Centre for Environmental Education, (CEE), Bangalore.
L8

DOCUMENTATION o Additions to the documentation section have also been made in the form of books, rcports, journals and articles in

response to the new areas that EQUATIONS has been focussing upon. (A list of the added material is on Page number 22.) Slides have been made by the EQUATIONS team on the people's protests in the Taj-Nagarahole issue.

CAMPAIGNS

o EQUATIONS

participated in the Coastal Jatha (a procession) organised by Kerala Swathandra Matsya

Thozhilali Federation (Independent Fish

Workers

Publications:

r

Dossier on Tourism-Issues in Thmilnadu
This dossier provides an overall look into Tamilnadu and its tourism activities. It debates on the emerging conflicts with regard to tourism and its infrastructural needs, socio-

Federation) to educate fishing communities living along the coasts of Keralam about the CRZ Notification and their rights.(For details, please see the article 'CRZ-Regulating People's Lives' by Hari Babu.) The' jatha's aim was also to counter the claim of the Kerala State government that the fishing community was against the CRZ notification. The
'jatha'began on 3 November and ended on 25 November at the Thiruvananthapuram Secretariat with a demonstration by the fishing community. Hari Babu represented EQUATIONS in the' j atha' from Kasargod through Kannur, Kozhikode and Malappuram in Kerala. Dhanaraj Keezhara of EQUATIONS accompanied it from Trichur, Ernakulam,

cultural aspects, economics and the politics of tourism
development.

o

Nilgiris-A Lost Paradise This dossier is a compilation of newsclippings on the Nilgiris documented in EQUATIONS over the past few years. It shows the indiscriminate exploitation of resources that has resulted from the growth of tourism in the Nilgiris. It attemps to initiate a debate on the future of the Nilgiris.

through Alappuzha and Kollam to Thiruvananthapuram also in Kerala. EQUATIONS documented the CRZ
violations along the coast which was published as a dossier. A copy of the dossier in Malayalam was presented at the workshop along with a photo-documentation of the coastal zone violations.

o

Dossier on CRZ Issues (Malayalam and English)
The Malayalam dossier is a compilation of coastal violations

o

The National Jatha - the 'Bharat Yatra'- was planned in the wake of the Central Government's move to amend the CRZ

in the coastal districts of Keralam. It also contains vital

notification. Hari Babu represented EQUATIONS at the planning stage of the 'yatra' at Delhi by National

statistics of the coastal districts, area, coastal panchayats, population etc. The English dossier has details of the three northern coastal districts. It has sections on Kovalam, the costal tourism centre and its neighbourhood. The dossier also deals with the Goshree project of the Vypin islands at Kochi. The dossier has original photographs of violations.

Fishworkers Forum (NFF) and took charge of its organisation in Karnataka. Our relationship with fish.ing

o

Recent Threats

to Raiiv Gandhi National Park in

Nagarahole, Karnataka, India This dossier prepared by Susan Mathews, advocate for the legal battle between the adivasi and the Taj group of hotels, and EQUATIONS, contains details of the Taj-Nagarahole struggle in Karnataka. It has details on the Taj Resort, the World Bank Eco-Development project and news
EQUATIONS also publishes EQ-News Feature as a service to

community organisations of Karnataka was put to good use for this. The Yatra reached Karnataka on the 30th of March and received a rousing welcome at Karwar and Mangalore. The jatha concluded at Nagapattanam in Tamil Nadu on 4 April. Earlier, in Delhi, Hari Babu had called for a meeting among NGO groups to bring attention to the issue of coastal zones and the problems faced by coastal communities in the littoral states. The meeting was jointly called by EQUATIONS, the Coastal Action Network(CAN), and the Indian Social Institute (ISf, Delhi. It was attended by 15 prominent groups and future action plans were chalked out.

o

the media.

freely reproduced, in whole or in part, with
acknowledgement. These are available free to newspapers and journalists. For more information, contact:
EQUATTONS l98,2nd Cross, Church Road

It is intended to stimulate debate and may

be

Regional Grassroots Tlaining Programmes were conducted by Hari Babu on CRZ on collaboration with the Malabar Coastal Institute for Training Research and Action

New Thippasandra
Bangalore 560 075 INDIA Phone: 080-528 2313/529 2905 Fax : 080-528 2313 / 528 2627 Attn: 20

(MCITRA), Kozhikode, Kerala. While the CRZ regulations were being much debated at high levels, people along the coast were ignorant about the regulations arid their rights. To tackle this issue EQUATIONS planned joint grassroots programme with MCITRA. In the four northern districts of Keralam, about 25 such programmes were arranged. Hari Babu was the resource person for this.

E-mail : ADMlN@equation.ilban.ernet.in

(About Us is written by Renuka Phadnis, Programme
(Publications), EQUATIONS.)

Associate,

ry$'

ggry

19

Some Thoughts on Tourism and Cultare
the following article, Dn Rajan Gurukkal questions the entry of tourism in an area alien to it. He does not make a case against tourism only because it may influence the local culture. His fear is that tourism, for instance, as in Sabarimala, Kerala, threatens to break the delicate balance within a perfectly self-sufficient lifestyle that is naturally in equilibrium with its ecology.)

(In

but my observations, a few random thoughts on it. I have been thinking, "What happens to a local culture when tourism grows in a place?" The answer, I feel, is simple. One inevitable consequence is that the culture of that place
decays.

his is not an article on the subject of tourism and culture

existence. Any discussion on culture, therefore, has to necessarily be linked to its ecology. 'Ecotypes', 'ecozones'and 'ecosystems'become central in such discussions. The question of the cultural consequences of tourism, a capitalist industry, is thus very much related to ecology.
While speaking of culture, tourism becomes crucial. This is because tourist zones are ecologically sensitive zones. The tourism industry has as its habitat or its context, ecologically sensitive zones like rain forests, wetlands, mountain valleys and mountain tops and the coastal tracts. These are the places where one can see "ecosystem people" - people whose modes
of existence are natural and ecologically sustdinable. People in such places do not seParate themselves from nature. Instead,

I do not mean to say that every culture is something sacred that should be conserved and preserved for posterity. Culture is not a definite term. It has different meanings in different contexts. Take for instance, "Indian culture" or " Kerala culture". These do mean something but they mean different things to different people. When I say "culture", I mean it as expressing a pattern of social existence. That is, culture tha exists within a certain ecological system. I feel, culture is the aggregate of the pattern of social behaviour and practices that one can see in a given set of ecological conditions of human

of a community's pattern of existence, the way it recognises itself and forms a perspective from which it recognises others.
This pattern, this identity that lies in the culture of the people of any ecosystem, is linked to their very mode of existence. This identity is the sum total of their means of subsistence. It is this

that gets disrupted when culture undergoes change. The question is not one of change in culture. The question is of survival and the resistance, to change, which is such an important part of survival.

they relate to all living beings in their environment. Their culture is conditioned by this world view - a bio-centric one. According to this perspective, the biosphere and the human habitat are closely related and keep interacting with each other.
One has only to make a list of cultures to observe that all these

exist in ecologically sensitive zones. My question is, "What happens to such cultures when tourism grows there?" Tourism,

here, constitutes

a new lifestyle, a wasteful lifestyle. It

constitutes a new, material culture that is a microcosm of the

urban culture- Wherever tourism grows, whether in the wetlands, the mountain tops or the evergreen forests, urbanisation follows it. The moment tourism arises in any ecology, urban culture makes itself felt. This affects local culture. If the local culture undergoes a serious, traumatic change, because of tourism, the existence of the community is
under threat. What I am saying is that, culture is an expression
20

in Kerala, a grave situation exists in the evergreen forests of the Sabarimala ecosystem. Sabarimala is a part of the Vallakadavu range belonging to the Periyar Tiger Reserve. In such a forested area, an urban complex can only be developed in a low altitude terrain with slopes. We cannot build huge concrete structures on/ say, undulating terrain like hills. So, wherever hill stations are built as tourist centres, it is the low altitude evergreen patches that suffer. This is exactly what has happened in Sabarimala, where a portion of the forests, christened "Rudravanam", is about to be destroyed. Here, 100 acres of low altitude evergreen forests are to be cleared to make way for the construction of five huge construction structures
Today, each to accommodate 5,000 people. One can imagine the monstrosity of the set-up. About 2000 vehicles are to be provided parking space below the buildings. The forest department has given a clearance to the project because it claims that the scheme will not seriously affect the forest ecosystem as there would be no clear felling of trees in the area . Only the undergrowth would be removed and the fully grown

trees would be kept intact. To the planners the area would grass and creepers.

still

look like a beautiful forest, even without the low level shrubs,
The idea is that these buildings will make the pilgrimage to Sabarimala easier. People need no longer get exhausted climbing up the hills. They can now go to Rudravanam and relax there. After a shower, they can go at a leisurely pace to the Sabarimala shrine for 'darshan' (worship) and return - all

sustainable nature of the pattern of subsistence in the life of the people living along the coast. This has been so because the pattern has evolved over centuries. They have been living this way without any problems with their environment. It is such a means of subsistence, one that is integrated with its ecology, which is disrupted when tourism intervenes. The local people and the ecosystem tend to get degraded. The same happens to the implanted lifestyle.

without sweat. This route will attract more pilgrims to Sabarimala and make it a prosperous centre of tourism. In the

second phase of development, there might be a ropeway from the roof of one of the buildings to the temple! This way, one can bypass the strenuous 'Pathinettampadi' which makes the route to the'darshan'so difficult. After all, these are comforts

that urban people are used

to. And they expect similar

conditions wherever they go. A pilgrimage lasts only for a few days but typical urban facilities are expected where people can still stay comfortably. It is precisely because of such developments that the culture of a place gets adversely affected. If urban facilities are simply transplanted on to an alien area, then the nafural, environmentally-sustainable mode of existence of the people living there gets disrupted. A

It is not just one area that gets adversely affected. The entire balance is upset. The coastal scenario is so integrated that a major rupture at one point affects the whole coastal region. In Kerala, we have very limited marshes and swamps along a very weak line of mangroves and rock series. All these are interrelated. If one particular component is affected, it tells upon the very existence of the other components. It triggers off a total collapse. Different economies, evolved unevenly, that still live on in these ecotypes, are affected. It is this that I am worried about when I say I am anxious about the degradation or disappearance of a culture. I am not concerned with the disappearance of culture in a romantic way. I am not saying
that culture should be preserved as a museum piece - that is

a

perfectly sustainable mode

of living unnecessarily

gets

supplanted by an ecologically harmful one. In Sabarimala, the people depend on the evergreen forests to sustain their wildfood economy. This will get disrupted by the introduction of the urban complex.

capitalist perspective, one which envisages the marketing of objects for gratification. I am not speaking at all of transforming (reducing) culture to an object of gratification. I am not bothered about whether a culture is able to gratify people or not. The question is of conserving an ecologically sustainable mode of human existence. When tourism enters along with its material culture, functions, practices and
infrastructure, the economy-ecology symbiosis gets disrupted. This leads to the tragic destruction of the communities on the one hand and the ecological system on the other. Communities, along with their community practices, community wisdom and their culture - which is but a sum total of all these, disappear. In the process, cultural diversity, like biodiversity, gets fatally
affected.
(This article was written by Dn Rajan Gurukkal, Director, School Social Sciences, Kottayam, Kerala.)

Similar is the case with other tourism zones. Take for instance, the coastal tract. For example, the coast of Kerala which is protected either by weak mangroves or by rock series. If huge buildings are made on the rock series or the mangroves, it will certainly affect the ecosystem. The rock series which now guard against sea-erosion, will cease to be an effective barrier against powerful sea waves. This will affect the nearby agricultural regions. The immediate interior will be inundated by sand. In the case of mangroves, it is well-known that these
act as barriers against sea-erosion. One can see the ecologically

of

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21

i1t:

,l

;tii

23.
Books

Environment and Wildlife - The Parisar annual Lecture
1992; Bittu Sahgal

-80443

24.

01. An Introduction to Tiavel and Tourism; P N Seth & 80370 Sushma Seth Bhat 02. Culture Shock: a Guide to Customs and Etiquette India; Gitanjali Kolanad

The Coastal Regulation Zone Notification in Goa; Goa Foundation

-80444

25.

Landmark ludgments ion Enviionmental Protection; M Anthony 80445

I

-

-8,0371

26. Understanding The Nilgiris; C P R Environmental
Education Centre

03. Tourism and the Environment: A sustainable relationship?; C Hunter & H Green - 80373
04.

-80446

Articles
01.

Tourism and Politics: policy, power and places; C M Hall

Blue White and Green - A perspective
(Spages)

-8,0374
05. 06.

Development in Sindhudurg; Aruna
Department of Tourism, Govt.of Maharashtra.

on -

Tourism
Bagchee; 401310

Coastal Zone Managemeng T Beatley et al

-

B 0378

GATS and Tourism - Agreeing

on Trade and Tourism;

-80385 47. The Law relating to Protection of Coastal Areas; P B
Sahasranaman
08.

wTo

02.

Discussion Paper; reality or rhetoric/ Ecotourism and rural reconstruction in South Africa; Eddie Koch;
UNRISD.

-

80387

03.

Unsuitable for Ladies-an anthology of women travellers;
Jane Robinson

80396 04.

-401315 Emerging mass tourism in the South- Reflections in the social opportunities and the costs of national and regional tourism in developing countries; by Krishna B Ghimire;1996- A01319

(58 pages)

09.

Ancient Futures - learning from Ladakh; H NorbergHodge

Tourism in Kodagu - A sustainable industry?;
EQUATIONS ; 199 6.- A 01321 (Tpages)

-80397
tourisur

10.

Environmental Guidelines for Coastal
Development in Sri Lanka

-

80411
S

05.

Challenges to shaping tourism in developing countries

11.

Tourism Management - a global perspective; ed. by G 804f5 Batra and A S Chawla

-

through the reorganisation of world trade under the shelter of the World Trade Organisation - preliminary analysis; |org Seifert and Uwe Kleinert-A01329 (Spages)
(This list was compiled by M.G.Sreekala, Programme Associate incharge of the EQUATIONS Documentation Cell).
he

t2. Dynamics of Modern Tourism; Ratandeep
13.

Singh

-

80415

Infrastructure of Tourism in India; Ratandeep Singh

-

80416
P Dhar

t4. Development of Tourism and Tfavel Industry;
B,0417 15.

-

following is the text of a Resolution passed by ISLAN UST / MALAYAHA MAKKAL MARUUAZHV U MAN MM, E NITGIRIS AND EQUATIONS, BANGALORE.

Tourist India: Hospitality Services; Ratandeep Singh

t6.
17.

B04r9

Valedictory function of 'ECO-Tourism
(17.05.1997)
We demand that Tourism should be regularised taking into consiileration the socio, economic and cultural heritage of the people of Nilgiris.

Structural adjustment and Employment Policy-issues
and experiences; ].Toye

-80425

Ethical, Legal and Regulatory aspects of Tourism 80428 Business; S S Malik

-

18.

Tourism management and marketing; the business of travel agency operations; A K Bhatia

Toufism deuelopment has adversely affected the Enafuonment Ecology in the Nilgiris. We therefore demanil that no more tourism centres be developed in the Niligiris district.
We appeal
used

-8,0429

79. 20. 21.

Adventure Tourism;

SS

Malik

-

80430

for

that all the income generateil through Tourism be the deoelopment works in the Nilgiris district.

Tourism Principles and Practices; Chris Cooper

-

BM34

Trading Places : Tourism as Trade; Tourism Concern

22.

80441

The ECPAT story; Ron O'Grady

We observe with grave concern that the cost of all basic goods anil sercices steep during Holiday season in Nilgiris due to heavy inflow of the Tourists. This affects the local people. We therefore demand the Government officials and district administration to curb the dual price hike duting the seasons.

-80442
22

A[re RNArive Exh ibirion
ON

Tounism nnd EruviRoNmENr

Oory
n "Alternative Exhibition on Tourism
Environment" was held
and 13-20 March organised by the Island Trust,

being discussed thus. While other activities in the Nilgiris like felling, poaching of animals and timber had received attention in the past, tourism in Ooty was being addressed only now. Ooty is part of the Nilgiris which is a sensitive biosphere region. There is a close relationship between environment and tourism and both affect each other. He said that it was not possible to safeguard the environment and simultaneously, expand tourism. There is a contradiction between the two which the government had to address.

Mr. A. Rangarajan, General Secretary, Tamilnadu

Green

t997. It was jointly Kotagiri, the Malayaha Makkal Maruvazhvu Manram (MMMM), Kotagiri and EQUATIONS, Bangalore. The exhibition was inaugurated by Dr.Jeevanantham, President, Tamilnadu Green Movement. A discussion was held on tourism and environment in Ooty. The panelists were
Kotagiri, Dr.N.K.Perumal, Director, Rural Development Organisation, Mr.A.Rangarajan, General Secretary, Tamilnadu Green Movement, Mr.M.Kumaravelu, Project Officer, C.P.R. Environment Centre, Mr.Alphonse Raj, Executive Secretary,
Island Trust, Mr.Venkatachalapathy, Mr.N.Krishnamurthy and Mr.K.T.Suresh, Co-ordinator, EQUATIONS, Bangalore. Dr.Jeevanantham, Mr.R.R.Sivalingam, Chairman, Island Trust,

in Ooty from

Movement and a freelance journalist said that it was high time an end was brought to conventional methods of tourism promotion. There was a need for a renewed agenda for action among NGO groups since one could not be complacent about tourism issues in Ooty. He felt "the exhibition wakes you up".
Dr. N. K. Perumal, Director, Rural Development Organisation, said that the information presented in the exhibition had to be conveyed to the government officials. He said that hill-stations were called "assets" and viewed as "engines of the economy." However, it had to be understood that "tourism destroys tourism", he said. The Master Plan for Ooty had been drawn up entirely by govemment officials without consulting people or NGOs.

Mr.K.T.Suresh, Co-ordinator, EQUATIONS, Bangalore said that he was speaking on behalf of "people who are travelled upon." People who travel must take into consideration their impact on

The exhibits on display were concerned with tourism, environment, health and herbal medicines. The material
included handmade posters (painted earlier by local youth at a poster workshop organised by EQUATIONS), printed posters, photographs of old, colonial Ooty and the new Ooty. A series of photographs that had been documented by the EQUATIONS team were part of the exhibition. There were also graphs and statistics on the ecological changes in the Nilgiris Plateau, the Coimbatore Plains, the Sigur Plateau and the Wynad Plateau. Artefacts of the Todas, Irulas, the Nilgiri tribes, were also on display.
A number of views on the subject emerged after the discussion. Dr.Jeevanantham, President, Tamilnadu Green Movement, said

the lives of the people in places that they visit.

The

government's scheme of forming special tourism areas (STAs) had created "large scale human zoos", he felt. These zones negated the identities of people by forcing individuals to conform oneself to a zone. An individual is compelled to contribute to and remain within a zone or belong to nowhere. He thought this trend of "zoning" people was a threat to the plurality of identities that exist among our people. There was a need for policy-makers to understand this. Unfortunately, tourism policies were being formulated by people who travel and not by those who "were being travelled upon." On the concluding day, a resolution was passed by the Island

Trust/Malayaha Makkal Maruvazhvu Manram, the Nilgiris
and EQUATIONS, Bangalore. The resolution demanded that tourism in the Nilgiris should be regularised taking into consideration the socio-economic and cultural heritage of the

Ooty. In the environmental field, legislation

that tourism in Ooty had to be made sustainable and Ooty's residents must be ready to fight for this objective. The people of Ooty had to be cautioned against the ill-effects of tourism in

regulating

environmental activities had been made possible because of the awareness among people of such issues. Similarly, an awareness of tourism related matters had to be brought among the people. He felt that there was a belief among people that tourism was the solution to economic problems. But this wrong notion had to be dispelled

He further said that tourists visited places and left them but seldom thought of the consequences of their visits on the lives of the people in a tourist destination. To illustrate this, he gave the example of the Nilgiri Todas - a unique group whose lifestyle is disappearing because of the impact of tourism. He felt that students and youth of the Nilgiris region had to be informed of tourism issues. He described the exhibition as "an
eye-opener". Mr.R.R.Sivalingam, Chairman, Island Trust, Kotagiri said that it was for the first time that the subject of tourism ir-r Ooty was
23

It said that tourism had adversely affected the ecology/environment of the Nilgiris. Therefore, it was demanded that no more tourist centres be developed in the Nilgiris district. The resolution appealed that the income generated from tourism be used for development work in the Nilgiris district. It further said that the cost of all basic goods and services rise steeply during the holiday season in the Nilgiris due to the heavy inflow of tourists. It demanded of the district administration, steps to curb the dual price hike during the season.
people of the Nilgiris.
The Valedictory function of the Exhibition was presided over by

Dr. Samraj, soil scientist. Dr. Vanitha Kumari of Bharathiar University was Chief Guest. Others who spoke included Dr. C. Maheshwaran, Dr. Kanikkaraj, Dr. K. Padmanabhan, Mr. R. K. Ramachandran and Mrs. Puveneswari Packianathan.
The "Alternative Exhibition on Tourism and Environment" was reported in the press and the electronic media. More than 1,500 people attended the exhibition during the week it was held.

WHERE IS TOURISM HEADED? Confusing signposts outside a privately-owned lodge near the Mudumalai Sanctuary in Tamilnadu

Publishcd by Equitable Tourism Optiom (EQUATIONS), 198, ll Cros Church Road (Behind Old KEB Office). New Thippasndra, Bangalore - 560 075, INDIA Phones: 52823.13/SZg2gOs Fax 5282313, Cable: EQUATIONS Bangalore 560 075, Dsign & Layout by Dhmanj Kezhara and Typesetting by Verba Network Seruicen 139, 8th Main, l2th Crosg Malleswaram, Bangalore 560 003 Phone: 33,15692 Printed by Supriya Printers, Bangalore.

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