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# Legend

Language, Automata: , \alpha : usually denotes a string in this course. , \beta : usually denotes a string in this course. , \delta : usually denotes a transition function in this course. , \sigma : usually denotes a symbol in an alphabet in this course. , \Delta : usually denotes a blank space in this course. , \Gamma : usually denotes a set of stack symbols in this course. , \Lambda : usually denotes an empty string in this course. , \Pi : usually denotes a partition in this course. , \Sigma : usually denotes an alphabet in this course. , \goto : usually denotes a (one step) transition in this course. Logic: , ~ : logical not , ^ : logical and , V : logical or , -> : logical imply , <-> : logical if and only if (equivalent) , => : logical tautologically imply , <=> : logical tautologically equivalent , \A : logical for all , \E : logical for some (there exists)

Sets: , \in : belongs to , \not\in : does not belong to , @ : empty set U, : universal set , \subset : proper subset , \not\subset : not a proper subset , \subseteq : subset , \not\subseteq : not a subset , \cup : set union Ai , \cup(i=1 to n) A_i : union of n sets , \cap : set intersection Ai , \cap(i=1 to n) A_i : intersection of n sets , \bar A : complement of set A (A) , P(A) : power set of set A , X : Cartesian product Ai , X(i=1 to n) A_i : cartesian product of n sets Relation: < a, b > : ordered pair < a1, a2, ..., an > : ordered n-tuple , <= : precedes (partial order) Functions: xi , Sum(i=1 to n) x_i : sum of n xi's O(f) , O(f) : of order smaller than or equal to f

o(f) , o(f) : of order smaller than f (f) , Omega : of order greater than or equal to f (f) , omega : of order greater than f (f) , Theta : of the same order as f f(x) , lim(x -> inf) f(x) : limit of f as x goes to infinity

**Introduction to Theoretical Computer Science
**

Today computers are used everywhere: banks, hospitals, schools, airline companies, gas stations, grocery stores, in our cars, in home appliances, PCs, etc., etc. Some are used to crunch numbers, some are used to process images, some are used to process other nonnumeric data and some are used to control operations of various devices. They can reason, they can prove many mathematical theorems, they can beat chess experts in their game, they can solve some very complex problems, they can understand our languages, they can answer our questions and of course they can crunch numbers much much faster than us. Let us for a moment call what computers do computation for convenience, though some of the things computers do such as controling appliances, answering our questions etc. don't fall into our traditional sense of computation. Then these computers seem to be able to compute an awfully lot of things if not everything. But are they capable of computing anything ? Are there things computers can not do ? If there are things computers can not do, what are they ? And why ? If there aren't things computers can not do, then how can we tell ? What do we exactly mean by computation ? Unfortunately there are many things computers can not do. Computers can not solve certain types of problems. For example no computer can tell in general whether or not a given computer program stops after a finite amount of time on a given input. They can not solve some other types of problems fast enough even though they can solve them in some finite amount of time. For example take the traveling salesman problem: a salesman is given a road map with distances between cities and wants to find a shortest round trip route that visits all the cities on the map exactly once. At the moment the so called traveling salesman problem requires an extremely large amount of time to solve. No one has been able to find a reasonably fast algorithm to solve it and the consensus is that it is not likely that anyone can find such an algorithm. I have just given you an example of the problems that computers could not solve. How do we know that that is the case ? Are there other problems like that ? How can we tell whther or not a given problem can be solved and solved fast enough ?

It turns out that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. We are going to learn their properties. The languages Turing machines recognize are called Type 0 (or phrase structure) languages (regular languages are Type 3) and they are more complex than regular languages. Thus when a finite automaton is processing strings. Those four languages are together called formal languages. We say finite automata recognize languages. Before proceeding to the study of Turing machines and their computations in this course. Finite automata process strings. This essence is a device called Turing machine. that is to study limitations of computers and computation. More specifically they answer the question whether or not a given string belongs to a language. Finite automata are very similar to Turing machines but a few restrictions are imposed on them. Thus by studying Turing machines we can learn capabilities hence limitatgions of computers. we are also going to study regular languages in detail as well as finite automata.The main objective of this course is to answer those questions. So they provide a good introduction to our study of Turing machines. which are also heavily used in practice. . we study a simpler type of computing device called finite automata. After briefly studying context-free languges. There we learn how computers can be simulated by Turing machines and what it means that a Turing machine recognizes (decides) a language. It was first conceived of by Alan Turing in early 20-th century. Turing machines also recognize languages. It is a very simple device but remarkably. it is generally believed (Church's thesis) that any "computation" humans do can be done by Turing machines and that "computation" is the computation performed by Turing machines. Consequently they are less capable than Turing machines but then their operations are simpler. In particular we are going to see a few problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers and how we can tell that they are unsolvable. Thus they are a powerful tool to design and study those systems with. We call a set of strings (of symbols) a language. The other two are context-free languages and context-sensitive languages. it can actually be solving a problem. ways to describe them and how to use them to model many of the real life systems. Then with Turing machines we investigate limitations of computers and computations. The languages that are recognized by finite automata are called regular languages. every task modern computers perform can also be accomplished by Turing machines. Though it has not been proven. Since so many systems in practice can be described by regular languages. In addition finite automata can model a large number of systems used in practice. These two type of languages belong to a hierarchy of four languages called Homsky hierarchy. which is the key to the unsolvability of problem by computers. We are going to investigate limitations of computers and computations by studying the essence of compuers and computations rather than all the variations of computer and computation. we go to Turing machines.

000 times 110 cities would already be too many. The time complexity issues are investigated using Turing machines so that the results apply to all computers. Increasing the processor speed does not help much for such problems. Unfortunately there is nothing we can do to speed them up. • • • • Logic Sets Relations Functions Logic Proposition and Logical Connectives "Proposition" can be defined as a declarative statement having a specific truth-value. The time needed to solve such a problem increases at least exponentially with the size of the problem as long as we use Turing machines (hence computers). Basic Mathematical Objects Back to Table of Contents The following are the contents of this introductory chapter.Our last topic is time complexities of various problems. For example for the traveling salesman problem if 100 cities were too many to solve fast enough. Example: The following statements are propositions as they have precise truth values.000 times it can handle only ten or so more larger problem sizes. Their truth values are false and true. Let us start with review of mathematics. . true or false. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved within a reasonable amount of time and there are problems that are known to require a finite but very large amount of time to solve. then with the increase in the processor speed of 1. then even if the processor speed increased 1. "Connective": Two or more propositions can be combined together to make compound propositions with the help of logical connectives. • • 2 is a odd number. 4 is a perfect square. If the computation time is 2n where n is the size of the problem. respectively. We are going to see some of those which take a large amount of time.

Their truth vales are false and true respectively. Disjunction This is logical "or" read as either true value of the individual propositions. It is represented as " ^ ". For the first compound proposition to be true both the propositions have to be true as the connective is AND and as OR is the connective for the second one if either of the propositions is true the truth value of the compound proposition is true. Conjunction The logical conjunction is understood in the same way as commonly used ôandö. .Example: Above two propositions can be used to make a compound proposition using any of the logical connectives. • • 2 is an odd number AND 4 is a perfect square. The compound proposition truth-value is true iff all the constituent propositions hold true. Negation This is the logical "negation" and it is expressed by Truth table is given below as p for "not p". Truth table for two individual propositions p and q with conjunction is given below p T T F F q T F T F p^q T F F F b. 2 is an odd number OR 4 is a perfect square. The following are the logical connectives used commonly: a. Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F pVq T T T F c.

then q" Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F p T F T T q p -> q is also expressed in a number of different (but equivalent) ways in English. Contradiction This is the opposite of tautology. e. "if not q then not p" . f.p T F p F T d. Following are some of the useful identities and implications from propositional logic: Identities . For example.e. E.g. If p and q have the same truth-value in every case then they are said to be logically equivalent and it is represented as p <=> q.: p V p g. It is represented as p => q. which is true in every case. "q is a necessity/consequence of p" and "q whenever p" are all differnt ways of saying "if p then q". Biconditional A proposition (p q) ^ (q p) can be abbreviated using biconditional conjunction as p q and is read as "if p then q. then p is said to logically imply q. which is false in every case. and if q then p".g.: p ^ p Logical implication and equivalence If the value of p -> q is true in every case. "p only if q" . "q is necessary for p". E. "p is sufficient for q" . Conditional This is used to define as "a proposition holds true if another proposition is true" i. Tautology A compound proposition. p q is read as "if p.

"The sky is blue".implication Q) R] [P (Q R)] ----. For example. examples and proofs of these implications go to Implications Predicate and Predicate Logic The propositional logic is not powerful enough to represent all types of assertions that are used in computer science and mathematics. and "The cover of this book is blue" come from the template "is blue" by placing an appropriate noun/noun phrase in front of it. (P 3. [(P 5.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. or to express certain types of relationship between propositions such as equivalence ( for more detail click here for example for example ).contrapositive For explanations.1. (P 4.exportation Q) ( Q P) ----. [(P Q) Q] P ----. A predicate is a template involving a verb that describes a property of objects. The predicate logic is one of the extensions of propositional logic and it is fundamental to most other types of logic. [(P 3. examples and proofs of these identities go to Identities Implications 1. or a relationship among objects represented by the variables.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. (P 2. For more complex reasoning we need more powerful logic capable of expressing complicated propositions and reasoning. Central to the predicate logic are the concepts of predicate and quantifier.modus tollens Q) (R S)] [(P R) (Q S)] Q) (Q R)] (P R) For explanations. The phrase "is blue" is a predicate and it describes the property of being blue. . (P Q) ( P Q) ----. the sentences "The car Tom is driving is blue". [(P 2.

the statemen t x > 1 to "for every object x in the universe.Predicates are often given a name. Similarly the existential quantifier turns. called atomic formula. Hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. hence a proposition. assign a value to the variable 2. also called universe . If we adopt B as the name for the predicate "is_blue". This new statement is true or false in the universe of discourse. x > 1 becomes 3 > 1 if 3 is assigned to x. B(x) reads as "x is blue"." Again. The universe is thus the domain of the (individual) variables. such as x > 1 or P(x). There are two types of quantifiers: universal quantifier and existential quantifier. For example any of "is_blue". In general. x > 1". can be made a proposition by applying one of the following two operations to each of its variables: 1. For example. and it becomes a true statement. which is expressed as " x x > 1. sentences that assert an object is blue can be represented as "B(x)". is the set of objects of interest. for example. the statement x > 1 to "for some object x in the universe. by using quantifiers on variables . Universe of Discourse The universe of discourse. which is expressed as " x x > 1". where x represents an arbitrary object. . It can be the set of real numbers. quantify the variable using a quantifier (see below). it is true or false in the universe of discourse. a quantification is performed on formulas of predicate logic (called wff ). for example. x > 1". and hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. A predicate with variables. "Blue" or "B" can be used to represent the predicate "is blue" among others. The universal quantifier turns. The propositions in the predicate logic are statements on objects of a universe.

the set of all cars on a parking lot. But it should be obvious from the context. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 4. Important Inference Rules of Predicate Logic: First there is the following rule concerning the negation of quantified statement which is very useful: x P(x) x P(x) Next there is the following set of rules on quantifiers and connvectives: 1. [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] x [ P(x) Q(x) ] 3. Sets . x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] For more discussions and examples on these rules and others. Predicate logic is more powerful than propositional logic. The universe is often left implicit in practice. the set of all students in a classroom etc. Also for proof and proof techniques see Mathematical Reasoning. as well as those for propositional logic such as the equivalences. In predicate logic. implications and inference rules.the set of integers. some of which are given below. see Reasoning(with predicate logic) and Quantifiers and Connectives in Discrete Structures course. one can use some additional inference rules. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 2. It allows one to reason about properties and relationships of individual objects.

Set terminology Belongs To x B means that x is an element of set B. Using this notation we can specify the set {0. All the elements belonging to the set are explicitly given. A is a subset of B. It is read as "the set of natural numbers that are less than or equal to 5".5} Alternate way is to give the properties that characterize the elements of the set. A is a subset of B is represented as A B.1.3. having a property that characterizes those elements. Also. Note: If A is a subset of B and B is a subset of A then A=B.4} call it Z by writing Z = {x | x N | x 5} where N represents the set of natural numbers. but not equal to B represented as A B. .2. if A is a subset of. Universal Set The set U of all the elements we might ever consider in the discourse is called the universal set. How to specify a Set? One way is to enumerate the elements completely. Subset Let A and B be two sets.2. Example: A = {1.4. if every element of A is an element of B.What is a set? Set is a group of elements. Example: B = {x | x is a positive integer less than or equal to 5} Some sets can also be defined recursively.3.

Example: A = { 1. Thus A' = { x | x U ^ x A } .2.2.A = {4.3. and B = { 6.2.3} and B = {3. then the complement of A is the set consisting of all elements of the universal set that are not in A. then the intersection of A and B is the set that consists of the elements in both A and B . Example: If A = {1.5.e. Example: If U is the set of natural numbers and A = { 1. Union If A and B are two sets.3. It is denoted by A . It is denoted by A B.4. Example: If A = {1.5} 2. Set Operations The operations that can be performed on sets are: 1.B. Example: If A = {1.8} then A B = {3.8}. 3.4.3 } . then the difference of A from B is the set that consists of the elements of A that are not in B.B B .. A B= ø. For A and B of the above example B . Disjoint sets A and B are said to be disjoint if they contain no elements in common i. where means " is not an element of ".A .2. then A' = { x | x U ^ x > 3}. It is denoted by A' or .5} then A .2.4.8. Difference If A and B are two sets.3} B = {3. It is denoted by A B. Intersection If A and B are two sets.2} Note that in general A .5 } .4.4.3.5} then A B = {1.B = {1.8} B = {3.2.5} .9 } are disjoint. where ø is the Empty set. then the union of A and B is the set that contains all the elements that are in A and B including the ones in both A and B.Complement If A is a set.

It is a very good tool to get a general idea.Following is a list of some standard Set Identities A. . B. The Commutative laws: A B=B A A B=B A The Associative laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Distributive laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Idempotent laws: A A=A A A=A The Absorptive laws: A (A B) = A A (A B) = A The De Morgan laws: (A B)' = A' B' (A B)' = A' B' Other laws involving Complements: ( A' )' = A A A A' = ø A' = U B) B) B) B) C C (A (A C) C) Other laws involving the empty set A A ø=A ø=ø Other laws involving the Universal Set: A U=U A U=A Venn Diagrams A common technique in working with Set Operations is to illustrate them by drawing Venn Diagrams. C represent arbitrary sets and ø is the empty set and U is the Universal Set.

For example sets A = { 1.Note.2. that Venn Diagrams must NOT be used for rigorous discussions.4 } and B = { 6. because they can represent only very limited situations and miss many other possibilities. .3. however.2. The idea of Venn Diagram is to draw a region representing the universe and within that to draw the regions representing the component sets we are starting with so that the resulting diagram describes their interrelationships.8.4 } can be represented as shown below using Venn Diagrams: Set A U represents the Universal set in which A is one of the Set.

Set B The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A B .

A B .

The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A U B A A B B is the set consisting of all the different elements in A and B. .

7 } B = { 2.6.3.5.6.6.8 } A = { 1.3.4 } A B = { 1.4. For example: U = { 1.4.3.7.4.8 } (A B)' = U .2.8 } .(A B)' is the yellow region in the Venn diagram given below.(A B) = { 5.2.2.

..A is the blue shaded region in the Venn Diagram shown below Generalized Set Operations Union. To denote either of these B C. A2 .B is the yellow shaded region and B . intersection and Cartesian product of sets are associative. which we write as Ai This generalized union of sets can be rigorously defined as follows: Definition ( Ai) : ..A . For example expressions we often use A holds. This can be generalized for the union of any finite number of sets as A1 An .

Inductive Clause: Ai = ( Ai) An+1 Ai and generalized Cartesian product Similarly the generalized intersection Ai can be defined. Based on these definitions. De Morgan's law on set union and intersection can also be generalized as follows: Theorem (Generalized De Morgan) = . and = Recursive Definition Recursive Definition Subjects to be Learned • • • • • recursive/inductive definition basis clause basis inductive clause extremal clause A recursive definition of a set always consists of three distinct clauses: 1. Ai = A1.Basis Clause: For n = 1 . The basis clause (or simply basis) of the definition establishes that certain objects are in the set. . This part of the definition specifies the "seeds" of the set from which the elements of the set are generated using the methods given in the inductive clause. The set of elements specified here is called basis of the set being defined.

and 1 is the child of 0. x + 2 is in . and 2 is the child of 1... Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. since 0 is in N. 1 + 1 (= 2) is in N. Following this definition. 1. 0 is put into N. The Set of Natural Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . the object is not a member of the set. 2. The x + 1 in the Inductive Clause is the parent of x.2. The inductive clause always asserts that if objects are elements of the set. which is not what we want as the set of natural numbers. Let us call the objects used to create a new object the parents of the new object. then they can be combined in certain specified ways to create other objects. Note that if we don't have (3).5. Examples of Recursive Definition of Set Example 1. Example 2. and x is the child of x + 1. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Then by (2) again.5.5. The basis for this set N is { 0 } . The inductive clause (or simply induction) of the definition establishes the ways in which elements of the set can be combined to produce new elements of the set. The Set of Even Integers Basis Clause: . can be included in N. Example 3. 0. Then by (2). The extremal clause asserts that unless an object can be shown to be a member of the set by applying the basis and inductive clauses a finite number of times. x + 1 is in . and the new object is their child . 1 is the parent of 2. the set of natural numbers N can be obtained as follows: First by (1). 3. Proceeding in this manner all the natural numbers are put into N. The Set of Nonnegative Even Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . 0 + 1 (= 1) is in N. . 0 is the parent of 1.

. say x. try simplest elements in the set such as smallest numbers (0. Then the value of the function at an element. They are all on functions from integer to integer except the last one. and . Basis Clause: . etc. There are two sets of questions. Click Yes or No .Inductive Clause: For any element x in . How to define function recursively: First the values of the function for the basis elements of the domain are specified. or shortest strings. and . A few examples are given below. simplest expressions. Condition: The domain of the function you wish to define recursively must be a set defined recursively. or 1). Tips for recursively defining a set: For the "Basis Clause". Test Your Understanding of Recursive Definition Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. To see how it is defined click here. Recursive Definition of Function Some functions can also be defined recursively. Example 4. then Submit. Then see how other elements can be obtained from them. The set of propositions (propositional forms) can also be defined recursively. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. and generalize that generation process for the "Inductive Clause".2 are in . of the domain is defined using its value at the parent(s) of the element x. . Inductive Clause: For any element x in . x + 2. bbabaa. The Set of Strings over the alphabet excepting empty string This is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's such as abbab. Here ax means the concatenation of a with x. and x . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses.

f(n+1) = f(n) + 2 . Example 6: The function f(n) = 2n + 1 for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. See Example 5 for the extremal clause. where xy is the concatenation of strings x and y. See Example 5 for the extremal clause. L(xy) = L(x) + L(y) . Inductive Clause: For any string x and y of S. Hence 3 ! = 3 * 2 ! = 3 * 2 * 1 = 6 . b} to the set of natural numbers that gives the length of a string can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: For symbols a and b of the alphabet. 3! can be found as follows: Since 0 ! = 1.Example 5: The function f(n) = n! for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 0! = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. L(a) = 1 and L(b) = 1. because the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively and that has the extremal clause in it. f(n+1) = 2 f(n) . See above for the extremal clause. This function L gives the number of a's and b's L(x) for a string x is also often denoted by | x |. So there is no chance of other elements to come into the function being defined. Note that here Extremal Clause is not necessary. Example 7: The function f(n) = 2n for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. Induction Mathematical Induction . f(n+1) = (n+1) f(n). 1 ! = 1 * 0 ! = 1 * 1 = 1 . Hence 2 ! = 2 * 1 ! = 2 * 1 = 2 . Using this definition. Example 8: The function L from the set S of strings over {a.

denote it by n. we proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P( ) is true. Taking advantage of this. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 can be proven by mathematical induction by the same token. This process is somewhat analogous to the knocking over a row of dominos with knocking over the first domino corresponding to the basis step. then P(n) is true for all natural number . Thus the set of natural numbers can be described completely by specifying the basis element (0). and the process of generating an element from a known element in the set. has that property (inductive step). the element next to it. if P(k) is true (called induction hypothesis). has the same property by the inductive step. that is n + 1. More generally mathematical statements involving a natural number n such as 1 + 2 + . To prove that a statement P(n) is true for all natural number natural number. it is often a good idea to restate P(k+1) in terms of . Proceeding likewise... has the same property again by the inductive step. natural numbers can be proven to have certain properties as follows: First it is proven that the basis element. and its elements can be generated one by one starting with 0 by adding 1.Subjects to be Learned • • • • • first principle of mathematical induction basis step induction hypothesis induction second principle of mathematical induction Contents First Priciple of Mathematical Induction As we have seen in recursion . Then it is proven that if an arbitrary natural number. then the next element. The first principle of mathematical induction states that if the basis step and the inductive step are proven. any natural number can be shown to have the property. When these two are proven. For since 0 has the property by the basis step. the element next to it. Then since 1 has the property. which is 1. which is 2. the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively. then it follows that all the natural numbers have that property. has the property in question. . As a first step for proof by induction. that is 0. has the property in question (basis step). then P(k+1) is true. where is a Induction: Prove that for any integer .

Hence LHS = RHS. and somehow use the induction hypothesis. End of Proof.. and RHS = 0 * (0 + 1) = 0 .. The reason that this principle holds is going to be explained later after a few examples of proof. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2.. Here let us try LHS for n + 1 = 0 + 1 + . Thus LHS = RHS for n+1. and in the inductive step P(n) is proved assuming P(k) holds for all k < n . which is equal to the RHS for n+1.. + n) + (n + 1) . + n + (n + 1) = (0 + 1 + ..P(k) so that P(k). 1 + 3 + .Induction Hypothesis To prove this for n+1. Certain problems can be proven more easily by using the second principle than the first principle because P(k) for all k < n can be used rather than just P(n . Example 1: Let us prove the following equality using the second principle: For any natural number n .. 0 + 1 + . This form of induction does not require the basis step. we get (n + 1)(n + 2) / 2 . + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . Second Priciple of Mathematical Induction There is another form of induction over the natural numbers based on the second principle of induction to prove assertions of the form x P(x) . Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary natural number n. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . Formally the second principle of induction states that if n [ k [ k < n P(k) ] P(n) ] . first try to express LHS for n+1 in terms of LHS for n.. can be used. then LHS = 0. Factoring (n + 1) out. the last expression can be rewritten as n( n + 1 )/2 + (n + 1) . then n P(n) can be concluded. Proof: Basis Step: If n = 0. 0 + 1 + . Here k [ k < n P(k) ] is the induction hypothesis. Using the induction hypothesis. ..1) to prove P(n).. which is assumed to be true. Example: Prove that for any natural number n.. -------.

. Hence n can also be written as the product of prime numbers..1 ) * ( n . Relations Definition Relation Let A and B be sets. n > k > 1. tan slacks}. = ( n + 1 )n! . i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! .1 ) ) + ( 2n + 1 ) = n2 + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 by the induction hypothesis. Since n is an integer. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . the individual may wish to restrict . k can be written as the product of prime numbers. mint green shirt} and B = {gray slacks. Example1: nbsp.1 Hence by the second principle of induction positive integers. Let's assume that a person owns three shirts and two pairs of slacks. k < n. let A = {blue shirt.1 for all k. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 holds for all natural numbers. + ( 2n .. Then 1 + 3 + . Example 2: Prove that for all positive integer n. More precisely.1 + n * n! by the induction hypothesis.. Therefore the statement holds true. k < n.. say p and q. We are going to prove that n can be written as the product of prime numbers..Proof: Assume that 1 + 3 + . + k * k! = ( k + 1 )! .. the individual can wear. A binary relation from A into B is any subset of the Cartesian product A x B. then it is a product of two positive integers. Then certainly A x B is the set of all possible combinations (six) of shirts and slacks that nbsp. it is either a prime number or not a prime number. However. then it is the product of 1.1 Proof: Assume that 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + .. can be written as the product of prime numbers. which is a prime number. Proof: Assume that for all positive integers k.. by the induction hypothesis they can be written as the product of prime numbers (Note that this is not possible if the First Principle is being used).. Hence by the second principle of induction 1 + 3 + . If n is a prime number.1 holds for all Example 3: Prove that any positive integer n > 1. + ( 2k + 1 ) = ( k + 1 )2 holds for all k.1 )! + n * n! = n! . Since both p and q are smaller than n.. If n is not a prime number. and itself. + ( n .. Then 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( 1 + 3 + .

y) | y is the square of x} and S = { (x. (mint green shirt. is the set of pairs of the form(a. R could be more naturally expressed as R(x) = x2 . or R(x) =y where y = x2 . In some cases R can be described by actually listing the pairs which are in R. For example PP. b) Rand (b. R = {(2. For example. 6)}. y). 3. c) RS if and only if there exists b B such that (a.6). 2). tan slacks). y) | x <= y}. (2. Then P is a relation on A which we might call a parent-child relation. R = { (x. c) A x C. R and S of Example 2 above are relations on A = {2. is the composition of P with itself and it is a relation which we know as grandparentgrandchild relation. Example2: Let A = {2.himself to combinations which are color coordinated. written as RS. (3. where P is the parent-child relation given above. Relation on a Set A relation from a set A into itself is called a relation on A. A typical element in R is an ordered pair (x. PropertiesOf Relations . The composition of R and S. Consider the following relation on real numbers. where (a. (6. b) | a A ^ b A ^ a is a child of b } . This may not be convenient if R is relatively large. (black shirt. gray slack). c) S. one such subset may be { (blue shirt. or "related". (5. 5). Let A be a set of people and let P = {(a. 6) and define a relation R from A into A by (a. Composition Let R be a relation from a set A into set B. This may not be all possible pairs in A x B but will certainly be a subset of A x B. tan slacks) }. 5. Other notations are used depending on the past practice. b) R if and only if a divides evenly into b. 5. So. 6). 6}. (3. 3). and S be a relation from set B into set C. as in the previous example. 3.

a R a. b) R . if aRb. from a set A to a set B is a relation from A to B that satisfies 1. there is an element b in B such that <a. if <a. then aRc. in other words. denote it by f. The set A in the above definition is called the domain of the function and B its codomain. 4. 2. Thus. Reflexive: R is reflexive if for every a A. and 2. c> are in the relation. for each element a in A. . R R b to denote (a. Equivalence: R is an equivalence relation on A if R is reflexive. if aRb and bRc. b and c in A. Let us write a Symmetric: R is symmetric if for every a and b in A. b> is in the relation. 3. 1. then b = c . Transitive: R is transitive if for every a. codomain image image of set range sum of functions product of functions one-to-one function (injection) onto function (surjection) one-to-one onto function (bijection) inverse function composite function Definition (function): A function. then bRa. Function Functions Subjects to be Reviewed • • • • • • • • • • • • function domain. A x A. b> and <a.Assume R is a relation on set A. symmetric and transitive. f is a function if it covers the domain (maps every element of the domain) and it is single valued.

where S is a subset of the domain A of f . where f(x)*g(x) is the product of two real numbers f(x) and g(x). if and only if for every element y of B . However. and for all x.. Then ( f + g )(x) = x2 + 3x + 1 . Thus it is a bijection. b> is denoted as f(a) = b . . 16.. Definition (sum and product): Let f and g be functions from a set A to the set of real numbers R. Then the sum and the product of f and g are defined as follows: For all x. there is an element x in A such that f(x) = y . ( f + g )(x) = f(x) + g(x) . Then the domain and codomain of this f are N. the image of. f(S) = { f(a) | a S }. ( f*g )(x) = f(x)*g(x) . { 0. i. under this function is 9. f is onto if and only if f( A ) = B . x = y . The set of images of the elements of a set S under a function f is called the image of the set S under f.e. for example. f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to N is not onto. Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is one-to-one and onto.The relation given by f between a and b represented by the ordered pair <a. if and only if whenever f(x) = f(y) . 1. if it is onto and one-to-one. Example: Let f(x) = 3x + 1 and g(x) = x2 . that is. The image of the domain under f is called the range of f . Definition (onto): A function f from a set A to a set B is said to be onto(surjective) . Every bijection has a function called the inverse function. 4. that is. say 3. Example: The function f(x) = x2 from the set of natural numbers N to N is a one-to-one function. because for example f(1) = f(-1) = 1 . and its range is the set of squares. and b is called the image of a under f . Example: Let f be the function from the set of natural numbers N to N that maps each natural number x to x2 . Note that f(x) = x2 is not one-to-one if it is from the set of integers(negative as well as non-negative) to N . nothing in N can be mapped to 3 by this function. Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is an onto function. 9. .} . and ( f*g )(x) = 3x3 + x2 Definition (one-to-one): A function f is said to be one-to-one (injective) . and is denoted by f(S) . Definition (bijection): A function is called a bijection .. because.

Definition (composite function): Let g be a function from a set A to a set B . if for every element y of B.These concepts are illustrated in the figure below. Programming langauges we use are a language in that sense. languages of mathematics. f(x) > relation. A function is a relation. is the function from A to C that satisfies fg(x) = f( g(x) ) for all x in A . and arrows show < x. are all languages in that sense. g(y) = x . In each figure below. Then the composition of functions f and g . Note that such an x is unique for each y because f is a bijection. where f(x) = y . a set of strings of symbols. the points on the left are in the domain and the ones on the right are in the codomain. Introduction to Language A language is. For example. Definition (inverse): Let f be a bijection from a set A to a set B. and g(x) = x + 1 . natural languages etc. . Example: The inverse function of f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of non-negative even numbers E is f -1(x) = 1/2 x from E to N . It is also a bijection. Example: Let f(x) = x2 . Others such as languages of logics. and let f be a function from B to a set C . in this course. and it is denoted by f -1 . Therefore one can also talk about composition of functions. Then the function g is called the inverse function of f. Then f( g(x) ) = ( x + 1 )2 . the rightmost function in the above figure is a bijection and its inverse is obtained by reversing the direction of each arrow. denoted by fg .

In the following chapters we first learn about languages. NFA and NFAare conceptually simpler and easier to use when modeling a system because there are no restrictions on transitions for them unlike for DFA. They are devices that recognize regular languages. context-free (or type 2) languages. Then after seeing yet another way of representing regular laguages.e. if the number of states of DFA is minimized.). in general there are more than one NFAs and DFAs that reconize one language. then the resulting DFA is unique up to the state names for a given regular language. regular and context-free languages. The four classes are regular (or type 3) languages. These formal languages and automata capture the essense of various computing devices and computation in a very simple way. These formal languages are characterized by grammars which are essentially a set of rewrite rules for generating strings belonging to a language as we see later. regular grammars. Then we study regular languages. solving them can be seen as recognizing languages i. Also there are various kinds of computing devices called automata which process these types of languages Thus formal languages can also be characterized by the computing devices which process them. We are going to see an algorithm for converting NFAto NFA which recognizes the same language and another for NFA to DFA conversion. In asddition two of the formal languages. It can be rigorously shown that some problems can not be solved by computers in any finite amount of time and that some others are practically unsolvable because of the time it takes to solve them.What we are going to study on languages in this course are four classes of languages called (Chomsky) formal languages and their properties. lexical analyzers and parser for compilers for programming languages. are quite useful for modeling systems used in practice such as co9mputer network communication protocols. Type 3 is a subset of type 2 which is a subset of type 1 and type 0 is the most general including the other three as a subset. Then we investigate various kinds of finite automata: deterministic finite automata (DFA). context-sensitive (or type 1) languages and phrase structure (or type 0) languages. As we are going to learn next. we are going to learn modeling of systems finite automata. On the other hand DFAs are suited for writing a simulator program because there is no nondeterminism such as going to two or more states from a state upon reading one input symbol. Our last topic on regular language is testing of languages for non-regularity. checking whether or not a string is in a language. Definitions on Language Subjects to be Learned . Also for some important classes of problems. nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) and nondeterministic finite automata with transitions (NFA. together with regular expressions which are a method of representing regular languages. However. Using automata and formal languages we can study limitations of computer and computation. the simplest of the four formal languages.

10 and 001 are examples of string over alphabet {0. intersetion and difference of two languages over an alphabet are languages over . Kleene star Contents Here we are going to learn the concept of language in very abstract and general sense.b}) and {0. Thus a language over alphabet is a subset of . Note that u and v may be an empty string. a and aabab are examples of string over alphabet {a. uv is the string obtained by appending the sequence of symbols of v to that of u. The empty string is denoted by (capital lambda). So a string is a substring of itself. Though has no symbols. b. For example {0. b} and 0. that is. We are going to use first few symbols of English alphabet such as a and b to denote symbols of an alphabet and those toward the end such as u and v for strings. 111} is a language (over alphabet {0. 1} is an alphabet with two symbols. Let u and v be strings. operations on languages and some of their properties. Thus | | = 0. Thus the union. So it is not empty. v is called a suffix of y. Basic concepts First. intersection. A language is a set of strings over an alphabet. this set has an object in it. 3. For any alphabet . That is. It can be defined more formally by recursive definition. For a string w its length is represented by |w|. all the set operations can be applied to languages. union. Then uv denotes the string obtained by concatenating u with v. ab.1}). Operations on languages Since languages are sets. 2. the set of all strings over (including the empty string) is denoted by .• • • • alphabet string (word) language operations on languages: concatenation of strings. Some special languages The empty set is a language which has no strings. an alphabet is a finite set of symbols. it has no symbols. Thus {a. namely . The number of symbols in a string is called the length of the string. A string x is called a substring of another string y if there are strings u and v such that y = uxv. b} is another alphabet with two symbols and English alphabet is also an alphabet. For example if u = aab and v = bbab. Note that vu = bbabaab uv. A string x is a prefix of another string y if there is a string v such that y = xv. 1}. A string (also called a word) is a finite sequence of symbols of an alphabet. then uv = aabbbab. baa} is a language (over alphabert {a. The empty string (also called null string) is the string with length 0. 1. {a. The set { } is a language which has one string.

Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. abaaba. abb. Hence Lk is the set of strings that can be obtained by concatenating k strings of L. ak represents the concatenation of k a's. is . For example {ab. For a string u and a natural number k.. aba. For example if L = { aba. The complement of a language L over an alphabet language. the extremal clause is not necessary. ababb. This * is called Kleene star. then L* = { . bb }. babb. b} {aaa. For example Lk can be defined recursively as follows. L* is the set of strings obtained by concatenating zero or more strings of L as we are going to see in Theorem 1. bb. ak and uk can be defined similarly. baaa. That is L1L2 is the set of strings obtained by concatenating strings of L1 with those of L2. * The following two types of languages are generalizations of them quite often in this course. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k. baaba}. Lk means the concatenation of k L's. Recursive definition of L*: Basis Clause: L* and we are going to see Inductive Clause: For any x L* and any w L. . uk denotes the concatenation of k u's. These powers can be formally defined recursively.. xw L*.L and it is also a Another operation onlanguages is concatenation. bbbb.. Similarly for a language L. Here a0 = and u0 = . Let L1 and L2 be languages. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = Lk L. abaaba. bbaba. ababb. aaba} = {abaaa. Powers : For a symbol a and a natural number k. } The * in * is also the same Kleene star defined above. Recursive definition of L+: Basis Clause: L L+ . Then the concatenation of L1 with L2 is denoted as L1L2 and it is defined as L1L2 = { uv | u L1 and v L2 }.

.. .. bbaba.wmmk . bbbb..wk . bb. ababb. } Let us also define natural number k } . . w1w2. Theorem 5: L* = (L*)*.. . . wimi in L such that wi = wi1wi2... L* and L* have a number of interesting properties. Since w1.wm1. i..w1m1w21.. Other proofs are omitted.. Theorem 1: Ln Theorem 2: Theorem 3: Theorem 4: L+ = L L* = L*L Note: According to Theorems 2 and 3. for each wi there are strings wi1...wk for some k. w2..e.. then L+ = { aba. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L+ unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. ) as ={x|x Lk for some Then the following relationships hold on L* and L+. .. bb }. wk are strings of L*. Let us list one of them as a theorem and prove it.Inductive Clause: For any x L+ and any w L. Proof: Because we can see that L* (L*)*.. For example if L = { aba. (i. . wk in L* such that x = w1w2. w2. xw L+. Thus L+ is the set of strings obtained by concatenating one or more strings of L.wimi Hence x = w11 ..e. where wi's are strings of L.. any nonempty string in L* or L+ can be expresssed as the concatenation of strings of L..... Then there are nonempty strings w1. L* can be proven as follows: by Theorem 2. L0 L L2 . by applying Theorem 2 to the language L* L* Conversely ( L* )* Let x be an arbitrary nonempty string of ( L* )*. abaaba. wi2. Hence x is in L* ... Theorems 1 and 2 are proven in "General Induction" which you study in the next unit...w2m2.

If x is an empty string, then it is obviously in L* . Hence ( L* )* Since L* L* . L* , L* = ( L* )* .

(L*)* and ( L* )*

**Problem Solving as Language Recognition
**

Subjects to be Learned

• • •

problem instance problem as language problem solving as language recognition

Contents

In the previous section the concept of language was introduced and its properties have been briefly studied. You might be wondering why we study language. The main reason for studying language is that solving problems can be viewed as a language recognition problem as explained below, that is, the problem of checking whether or not a string belongs to a language. Thus instead of studying what kind of problems can be solved by what kind of computational devices and how, we can study languages and devices to recognize them which are simpler to deal with uncluttered with variations in actual devices, programming languages etc. Below an example is given to illustrate how solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Consider the following problem: Is the longest of the distances between two nodes(i.e. the diameter) of a given graph less than a given integer k ? Here the distance is the smallest number of edges (or hops) between the nodes. Some of the instances of this problem are as shown below:

Instance 1 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with one edge and two nodes is less than 1. Instance 2 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with four edges and four nodes is less than 2. Simiarlyt for Instance 3. These problem instances can be represented by a string as follows: Instance 1: 1,2;(1,2);1 Instance 2: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(3,4);2 Instance 3: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(2,3)(2,4)(3,4);3 Here the set of nodes, the set of edges and k are separated by ; in that order in the strings. The solutions to these instances are: Instance 1: No Instance 2: No Instance 3: Yes There are infinitely many 'Yes' instances and 'No' instances for this problem. The set of 'Yes' instances is a language and so is the set of 'No' instances as well as the set of all

instances and many others for this problem. We can thus see that solving the problem for a given instance is equivalent to checking whether or not the string representing the given instance belongs to the language of 'Yes' instances of the problem. That is, the problem solving is the same as the language recognition. A problem can be solved if and only if the language of its 'Yes' instances is recognizable or decidable by a Turing machine. It is not solvable if the language is merely accecptable but not recognizable, or even worse if it is not even acceptable.

(a.k.a Structural Induction)

Mathematical statements involving an element of a recursively defined set can be proven by induction. To prove by induction that a statement P(x) is true for all the elements x of a recursively defined set S, proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P(x) is true for all the elements x in the basis of S. Induction: Prove that for any element(s) x of S if P(x) is true, then P(y) is true for any element y obtained from x by the induction step of the recursive definition of S. Note 1 : In the Induction we try to prove that if a parent has the property then all of its children also have that property. In the process we need the relationship between the parent and the children. That relationship is found in the Inductive Clause of the recursive definition of the set in question. Note 2 : As a first step for general induction proof, it is often a good idea to express y in terms of x so that P(x) can be used. Example 1 (Theorem 1 in "Language") : Prove that Ln L* for any natural number n and any language L. Let us first review the definitions. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = LkL. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k, the extremal clause is not necessary. Recursive definition of L*:

y Let w be an arbitrary string in Lk+1 . xy Hence w Thus Lk+1 L* . L* since y L. Then by the definition of L*. Hence . x L* . L* . and L* . Since Lk L* . Hence x . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. --. Then by the definition of L* . L0 L* . By Example 1 above . L* . Then there exist strings x and y that satisfy x L and w = xy by the definition of Lk+1. Now let us prove that Ln L* by induction on Ln. xw L*. Lk Next let us prove L* . L* for an arbitrary natural numer k. number k. L* by theInduction Hypothesis.Basis Clause: L* Inductive Clause: For any string x L* and any string w L. . x Example 2 (Theorem 2 in "Language") Let us prove L* = Note that ={x|x Lk for some natural number k } . Lk . Note in the proof below that Basis and Inductive Steps mirror the Basis and Inductive Clauses of the definition of Ln . .Induction L* . Basis Step: Since by the definitions L0 = { Inductive Step: Assume that Lk Hypothesis We are going to show that Lk+1 }. Proof: Let us first prove Suppose that x Lk for some natural L* .

say x.e.Note that L* is defined recursively and that below we are trying to prove that the elements of L* have the property that they also belong to . Hence by the definition of Inductive Step: Assume that for an arbitrary x in L*. If x . Note here that x is a parent and by applying an operation (i. by Example 1 above. then its children xy. of L* has the property. So we show that the property for x is inherited by its children xy. Then we show that if any element. holds. . Basis Clause: REV( )= . So we first prove that * the element of the basis of L has the propertyy. . It produces the reversal of a given string x (i. then for some natural number k . x We are going to show that for an arbitrary element y L . Note that each step mirror the recursive definition of . by concatenating y) a child of x in is obtained. The function REV(x) on strings x over the alphabet is defined as follows. . xy holds. where y is an arbitrary elememt of L. Hence xy Lk+1 by the definition of Ln . and any symbol . Basis Step: L0 since L0 = { }. x spelled backward). REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. x Lk . REV(xa) = Inductive Clause: For any string aREV(x). Prove that for arbitrary strings x and y of . Hence xy End of Inductive Step and Proof Hence we have proven Example 3 .e. Let us prove the inheritance. also have the property.

Definitions of Regular Language and Regular Expression Subjects to be Learned • • regular language regular expression 1.Induction Hypothesis Then for an arbitrary symbol a of . Inductive Clause: If Lr and Ls are regular languages. * Basis Clause: where is an empty string. and an arbitrary string y of . then Lr Ls .Proof First let us note that * can be defined recursively as follows: . xa is also in . Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular language unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Thus the statement to be proven is for an arbitrary fixed string x. Definition of Set of Regular Languages : Basis Clause: . Any language belonging to this set is a regular language over . { } and {a} for any symbol a are regular languages. The proof of the equality in question is going to be proven for an arbitrary fixed x by induction on y. The proof mirrors the recursive definition of . Regular language The set of regular languages over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. REV(xya) = REV(ya)REV(x). Since a REV(y) = REV(ya). Omitted. End of Proof. But by induction hypothesis a REV(xy) = a REV(y)REV(x). Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary string y of . REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. Basis Step: REV(x ) = REV( x ) = REV( )REV( x ) . Inductive Clause: For arbitrary strings x of and a of ExtremalClause: As usual. . -. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. which is what we needed. REV(xya) = REV((xy)a) = a REV(xy). LrLs and Lr* are regular languages.

then ( r + s ) . ( rs ) and ( r*) are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr Ls . respectively. where a is an element of . . ( r + s ) is used in stead of ( r + s ). Note also that *. aaaa etc. Also since {a} is regular. which is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's. Basis Clause: . and a are regular expressions corresponding to languages .For example. Thus the regular expression ( a + ( b( c*) ) ) is written as a + bc*. let = {a. b}. The set of regular expressions over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. aaa. which has precedence over union ( + ). Thus for example rr = r2 . b} ( = {a} {b} ) and {ab} ( = {a}{b} ) are regular languages. respectively. LrLs and Lr* . So for example. is written as rk. Regular expression Regular expressions are used to denote regular languages. { } and {a}. Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular expression unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. For a recursive definition of Lrk click here. {a}* is a regular language which is the set of strings consisting of a's such as . (4) We use ( r+) as a regular expression to represent Lr+ . (3) The concatenation of k r's . Conventions on regular expressions (1) When there is no danger of confusion. {a. b} is regular. is a regular language because {a. They can represent regular languages and operations on them succinctly. Inductive Clause: If r and s are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr and Ls . where Lr is the language corresponding to the regular expression r. Then since {a} and {b} are regular languages. (2) The operation * has precedence over concatenation. bold face may not be used for regular expressions. a. where r is a regular expression. The language corresponding to rk is Lrk. 2. Any element of that set is a regular expression. aa.

a*b+a* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by one or more b's followed by zero or more a's. For example ( a + b )* and ( a*b* )* correspond to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. abab. that is the set of strings of length 2 over the alphabet {a. a*b* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by zero or more b's. }. b}. that is. because they both represent the language of all strings over the alphabet {a. In general ( a + b )k corresponds to the set of strings of length k over the alphabet {a.Examples of regular expression and regular languages corresponding to them • • • • ( a + b )2 corresponds to the language {aa.. Thus for example ( a + b )* = ( a*b* )* . In general. Definition of Equality of Regular Expressions Regular expressions are equal if and only if they correspond to the same language. ( a + b )* corresponds to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. the set of strings of repeated ab's. ( ab )+ corresponds to the language {ab. . ba. ab. Note:A regular expression is not unique for a language. b}.. ababab. b}. a regular language. bb}. it is not easy to see by inspection whether or not two regular expressions are equal. b}. in general. . That is. b}. corresponds to more than one regular expressions.

Thus anything that comes after the first r1 in (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is represented by (r1 + r2)*. (a) find a string corresponding to r2 but not to r1 and (b) find a string corresponding to both r1 and r2. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*) . So we need to find strings of r2 which contain at least one a and at least one b. However. bb and ab are in the language. Ex. 1: Find the shortest string that is not in the language represented by the regular expression a*(ab)*b*. (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ means that all the strings represented by it must consist of one or more strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*).Exercise Questions on Regular Language and Regular Expression Ex. r1r2 + r2r1 in the given regular expression is redundant. For example ab and ba are such strings. a+. r1 = a* + b* r2 = ab* + ba* + b*a + (a*b)* Solution: (a) Any string consisting of only a's or only b's and the empty string are in r1. However. a*. they do not produce any strings that are not represented by (r1 + r2)*. (a) Since (r1 + r2)* represents all strings consisting of strings of r1 and/or r2 . that is. (b) A string corresponding to r1 consists of only a's or only b's or the empty string. b. Find a simple (the shortest and with the smallest nesting of * and +) regular expression which is equal to each of the following regular expressions. Of the strings wiht length 2 aa. Thus (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* is reduced to (r1 + r2)*. a. Ex. b and the strings consiting of only b's (from (a*b)*). the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*) start with a string of r1 followed by any number of strings taken arbitrarily from r1 and/or r2. (a + b)*. (a + b)+ etc. (a) (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ Solution: One general strategy to approach this type of question is to try to see whether or not they are equal to simple regular expressions that are familiar to us such as a. 3: Let r1 and r2 be arbitrary regular expressions over some alphabet. Solution: It can easily be seen that . which are strings in the language with length 1 or less. ba is not in it. The only strings corresponding to r2 which consist of only a's or b's are a. Thus the answer is ba. 2: For the two regular expressions given below.

Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. then aabx L and xbb L . Ex. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L.also represents the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*)+. and conversely (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ represents the strings represented by (r1(r1 + r2)*). strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or bb to any of the already generated strings. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is reduced to (r1(r1 + r2)*). and since an arbitrasry string of b's can be represented by the regular expression b*. b } defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L Inductive Clause: If x L . Ex. 4: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L over the alphabet { a . strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or appending bb to any of the already generated strings. First of all L . Thus (aab)*(bb)* is a regular expression for L. First of all and a are in L . behind the second a and between the two a's. Then starting with . then aabx L and bbx L . Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. b*a b*a b* is a regular expression for this language. 7: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the . Thus (aab + bb)*(a + ) is a regular expression for L. Since any string of b's can be placed in front of the first a. Hence a string of L has zero or more of aab's and bb's in front possibly followed by a at the end. 6: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. Solution: A string in this language must have at least two a's. Ex. b } that contain exactly two a's. 5: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L and a L. Hence a string of L consists of zero or more aab's in front and zero or more bb's following them. Inductive Clause: If x L . Then starting with or a. Ex.

b } that contain no more than one occurence of the string aa. If an a comes after that aa. If there may not be any a in a string of the language. Any numbe of a's can appear any place in the string. ( a + b )*( a + bb ) is a regular expression for the language. Solution: Since any string of even length can be expressed as the concatenation of strings of length 2 and since the strings of length 2 are aa. Hence the string is in this language. then applying the same argument as for aa to . Hence if a string of the language contains aa then it corresponds to the regular expression ( b + ab )*aa( b + ba )* . Hence a string preceding the aa can be represented by ( b + ab )*. ( b + ab )*a( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. On the other hand if an a precedes the aa. ba. Ex. then applying the same argument as for aa to a. 10: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression a*b(a*ba*b)*a* . Solution: If there is one substring aa in a string of the language. then it must be followed by b. If there is no aa but at least one a exists in a string of the language. Thus simply put. bb. 9: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of strings of even lengths over the alphabet of { a. Ex. b } that do not end with ab. b } that contain an odd number of b's Ex. ( b + ab )*( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. Solution: A string in the language can start and end with a or b. Hence any string that follows aa is represented by ( b + ba )*. ab. then that aa can be followed by any number of b. b } must end in a or b. a regular expression corresponding to the language is ( aa + ab + ba + bb )*. Hence if a string does not end with ab then it ends with a or if it ends with b the last b must be preceded by a symbol b. 11: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the . Note that 0 is an even number. Ex. Solution: Any string in a language over { a . then that a must be preceded by b because otherwise there are two occurences of aa. it has at least one b. it is the set of strings over the alphabet { a. and after the first b all the b's in the string appear in pairs. 8: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. Altogether ( b + ab )*( + a + aa )( b + ba )* is a regular expression for the language.alphabet { a. Since it can have any string in front of the last a or bb. b }.

Properties of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • Closure of the set of regular languages under union.regular expression (( a + b )3)*( +a+b). and ( a + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring bb. Hence (( a + b )3)* represents the strings of length a multiple of 3. Ex. concatenation and Kleene star operations. a finite language is a set of n . Note 1: Later we shall see that the complement of a regular language and the intersection of regular laguages are also regular. The following theorem shows that any finite language is regular. Solution: (( a + b )3) represents the strings of length 3. { anbn | n is a natural number } which is the union of all the languages { akbk } . that is. Note 2: The union of infinitely many regular languages is not necessarily regular. Proof: Let Lr and Ls be regular languages over an alphabet . concatenation and Kleene star. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages and they are obviously over the alphabet . is not regular as we shall see later. where n is a natural number. Solution: ( b + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring aa and which end in b. where n is a natural number. Then by the definition of the set of regular languages . Regularity of finite languages Theorem 1: The set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed under operations union. For example while { akbk } is regular for any natural number k . Hence altogether it represents any string consisting of a substring with no aa followed by one b followed by a substring with no bb. We say a language is finite if it consists of a finite number of strings. Since (( a + b )3)*( a + b ) represents the strings of length 3n + 1. Lr Ls . the given regular expression represents the strings of length 3n and 3n + 1. Thus the set of regular languages is closed under those operations. 12: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression ( b + ab )*( a + ab )*.

Then { w } is a regular language. Basis Step: By the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. Hence { aw } is regular. Theorem 2: A finite language is regular. Hence by the Inductive Clause of the definition of regular language { a }{ w } is regular. } and { a } are Inductive Step: Assume that { w } is a regular language for an arbitrary string w over . Claim 1: A language consisting of n strings is regular for any natural number n (that is. Basis Step: (corresponding to n = 0) is a regular language by the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. a finite language is regular) if { w } is regular for any string w. Then since { w } is a regular language as proven below. Proof: Let us first assume that a language consisting of a single string is regular and prove the theorem by induction. Proof of Claim 2: Proof by induction on strings. Then for any symbol a of . End of proof for Claim 2 Note that Claim 2 can also be proven by induction on the length of string. . Proof of the Claim 1: Proof by induction on the number of strings. We then prove that a language consisting of a single string is regular. then we have proven the theorem. { regular languages for any arbitrary symbol a of . End of proof of Theorem 2. Claim 2: Let w be a string over an alphabet . Inductive Step: Assume that a language L consisting of n strings is a regular language (induction hypothesis).strings for some natural number n. End of proof of Claim 1 Thus if we can show that { w } is a regular language for any string w. L { w } is a regular language by the definition of regular language. { a } is a regular language from the Basis Step.

Finite automata are computing devices that accept/recognize regular languages and are used to model operations of many systems we find in practice. that is. In the figure. When a customer comes and puts in the first coin. Unfortunately not all languages and systems are simple like regular languages or finite automata. Though Turing machines are simple modification of finite automata. Ds on arrows represent a dime and Ns a nickel. So you are in another state. A kind of systems finite automnata can model and a computer program to simulate their operations are discussed later. If the customer puts in a nickel. you are in the waiting-for-customer state. After that you stay in that state until another coin is put in to start the process anew or you may terminate the operation and start all over from the initial state. Their operations can be simulated by a very simple computer program. In this example you as a vending machine have gone through (transitions between) a number of states responding to the inputs from the customer (coins in this case). You have received 10 cents and are waiting for more coins to come. Pretend that you are the machine. can not be recognized by finite automata. We are going to learn languages which are not regular and ways to test languages for non-regularity.Introduction to Finite Automata In this chapter we are going to study a class of machines called finite automata. A vending machine looked at this way is an example of finite automaton. The states and the transitions between them of this vending machine can be represented with the diagram below. Later we are going to learn an extension of finite automata called Turing machines. Initially you are waiting for a customer to come and put some coins. therefore. Let us consider the operation of a soft drink vending machine which charges 15 cents for a can. then you have now received 15 cents and you wait for the customer to select a soft drink. circles represent states and arrows state transitions. you are no longer in the waiting-for-customer state. In the next few chapters first we are going to learn different kinds of finite automata. Let us assume that only nickels and dimes are used for simplicity. In fact Turing machines are as . and equivalence and conversions between them. So we might say you are in the 10-cents state. say a dime. It is assumed that the machine terminates its operation when it receives 15 cents or more. they are much more powerful computing devices than finite automata. Then we are going to see that for every regular language a unique finite automaton can be constructed which can recognize the language (i. Click "NICKEL" or "DIME" in the figure and see how it operates (see how arrows turn red). you must give the customer a can of soft drink. There are languages which are not regular and which. say 15-cents state. We have learned that regular languages are represented by regular expressions and conversely. When the customer selects a soft drink.e. We are then going to study how finite automata can be used to simulate operations of systems we see in practice. tell whether or not a given string belongs to the regular language).

We call the elements of Q a state. the states of the machine such as "waiting for a customer to put a coin in". Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of . the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". "have received 5 cents" etc. however. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. in the Example 1 below. 3. For example. Thus in the example of vending machine. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. "Waiting for a customer to put a coin in" can be considered the initial state of this automaton and the state in which the machine gives out a soda can can be considered the accepting state. The transition function is also called a next state function meaning that the automaton moves into the state (q. Thus in the example of vending machine. if q is the initial state and a nickel is put in. . for example. that any computation human beings do (with or without computers) can be performed by Turing machines. A > Notes on the definition 1. a) must be specified. though not proven. 4. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ceases to come. . are the elements of Q. (q. Definition of Deterministic Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • • • Finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of deterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. The accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. The set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. Then a deterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . a) is equal to "have received 5 cents". 2.powerful as computers and it is generally believed. q0 . then (q. Note that is a function. Otherwise it is not accepted. be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. Its elements can. . let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. Also let be a function from Q to Q . the transition function.

A = { 1 }. . etc. But any other strings such as aa. 2 }. Abbreviations such as FA and DFA are used to denote deterministic finite automaton. If the alphabet of the Example 1 is changed to { a. b } in stead of { a }. 5. DFAs are often represented by digraphs called (state) transition diagram. An arc ( p . The accepting states are indicated by double circles. the following table. a) ) A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. q ) from vertex p to vertex q with label represents the transition (p. 1. They are called transition table. Transition functions can also be represented by tables as seen below. It is a little more complex DFA. aaa. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 1 a 2 2 a 2 (q. are not accepted. Examples of finite automaton Example 1: Q = { 0. The vertices (denoted by single circles) of a transition diagram represent the states of the DFA and the arcs labeled with an input symbol correspond to the transitions. = { a }. then we need a DFA such as shown in the following examle to accept the same string a. A deterministic finite automaton is also called simply a "finite automaton".the string a is accepted by the finite automaton. ) = q .

b } is the next example. in the following table. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 0 0 b 1 1 a 1 1 b 1 (q. b }. the following table. Example 3: Q = { 0. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 0 b 2 1 a 2 1 b 2 2 a 2 2 b 2 (q. a) ) . A = { 1 }. 1. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. = { a. 2 }. 1 }. A DFA that accepts all strings consisting of only symbol a over the alphabet { a. A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. b }. A = { 0 }.Example 2: Q = { 0. = { a.

Q = { 0. 5. 10. State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 N 5 0 D 10 5 N 10 5 D 15 10 N 15 10 D 20 15 N 5 15 D 10 20 N 5 20 D 10 (q. 15. its transition function is as shown in the following table. = { D.A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. If we make it a DFA. 20 }. 20 }. Example 4: For the example of vending machine of the previous section. A = { 15. the initial state q0 = 0. N }. a) ) .

3. 5.A finite automaton as a machine A finite automaton can also be thought of as the device shown below consisting of a tape and a control circuit which satisfy the following conditions: 1. . The tape is divide into squares in each of which a symbol can be written prior to the start of the operation of the automaton. The head is always at the leftmost square at the beginning of the operation. 2. 6. The head moves to the right one square every time it reads a symbol. The tape has a read only head. 4. It never moves to the left. it stops and the automaton terminates its operation. When it sees no symbol. The tape has the left end and extends to the right without an end. There is a finite control which determines the state of the automaton and also controls the movement of the head.

this DFA never leaves state 1. b etc. aaaaaa etc. Since the state 0 is also the accepting state. then no matter what symbol is read.Operation of finite automata Let us see how an automaton operates when it is given some inputs. If b is read while it is in state 0 (initially or after reading some a's). it stays in state 0 while it reads all the a's (without breaks) on the tape. it moves to state 1. are not accepted by this automaton. As an example let us consider the DFA of Example 3 above. Thus this automaton accepts any string of a's. the DFA is in the accepting state. Hence when b appears anywhere in the input. Initially it is in state 0. it goes into state 1 and the input string is not accepted by the DFA. when all the a's on the tape are read. . When zero or more a's are given as an input to it. Once it gets to state 1. For example strings aaa. are accepted but strings such as aaba.

*

of DFA and its Properties

Subjects to be Learned

• •

*

Language accepted by DFA

Contents

Here we are going to formally describe what is meant by applying a transition repeatedly, that is the concept of * For a state q and string w, *( q , w ) is the state the DFA goes into when it reads the string w starting at the state q. In general a DFA goes through a number of states from the state q responding to the symbols in the string w. Thus for a DFA < Q , , q0 , , A > , the function

* :Q -> Q is defined recursively as follows: *

Definition of

*

:

*

Basis Clause: For any state q of Q ,

(q,

) = q , where

*

denotes the empty string. and any symbol a ,

Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q, any string y * ( q , ya ) = ( *( q , y ) , a ) .

In the definition, the Basis Clause says that a DFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the state DFA reaches after reading string ya starting at state q is the state it reaches by reading symbol a after reading string y from state q. Example For example suppose that a DFA contains the transitions shown below.

Then

*

*

( q , DNR ) can be calculated as follows:

( q , DNR ) = ( *( q , DN ) , R ) by the Inductive Clause. = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , DN ). = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) since D = D . = ( ( ( *( q , ) , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , D ). = ( ( ( q , D ) , N ) , R ) , since ( q , ) = q . = ( ( q1 , N ) , R ) , since ( q , D ) = q1 as seen from the diagram. = ( q2 , R ) , since ( q1 , N ) = q2 as seen from the diagram. = q3 since ( q2 , R ) = q3 as seen from the diagram. Properties of

*

We can see the following two properties of

*

. for a DFA < Q , , q0 , ,A

**Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >,
**

*

(q,a)=

(q,a)

Proof : Since a = a , * ( q , a ) = *( q , a ) . By the definition of * , * ( q , a ) = ( *( q , ) , a ) But *( q , ) = q by the definition of Hence ( *( q , ) , a ) = ( q , a ) .

*

.

The next theorem states that the state reached from any state, say q , by reading a string, say w , is the same as the state reached by first reading a prefix of w, call it x, and then by reading the rest of the w, call it y. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 , , A > , for a DFA < Q , ,

*

( q , xy ) =

*

(

*

(q,x),y).

Proof : This is going to be proven by induction on string y. That is the statement to be proven is the following: * For an arbitrary fixed string x, ( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for any arbitrary string y. First let us review the recursive definition of *. Recursive definition of Basis Clause:

* *

:

.

* * Inductive Clause: If x and a , then xa . * Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.

Now the proof of the theorem. Basis Step: If y = , then *( q , xy ) = *( q , x ) = *( q , x ) . Also *( *( q , x ) , y ) = *( *( q , x ) , ) = *( q , x ) by the definition of * . Hence the theorem holds for y = . Inductive Step: Assume that *( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for an arbitrary string y. This is the induction hypothesis. We are going to prove that *( q , xya ) = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) for any arbitrary symbol a of . ( q , xya ) = ( *( q , xy ) , a ) by the definition of * = ( * ( *( q , x ) , y ) , a ) by the induction hypothesis. = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) by the definition of * . Thus the theorem has been proven.

*

For the following DFA answer the questions given below.

. w ) A . the language accepted by a DFA is the set of strings accepted by the DFA. A > . if and only if L = { w | *( q0 . w ) A } . if and only if ( q0 . . That is a string is accepted by a DFA if and only if the DFA starting at the initial state ends in an accepting state after reading the string. A > . q0 . q0 . .The following notations are used in the questions: : \delta * : \delta^* : \Lambda Language Accepted by DFA Subjects to be Learned • Language accepted by DFA A string w is accepted by a DFA < Q . That is. A language L is accepted by a DFA < Q . Example 1 : . * .

This is represented by (ab)*. Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by a(ab)*aa . It accepts nothing else because any non-empty symbol would take it to state 1.1 any number of times by reading substring ab any number of times to come back to state 1. To find the language it accepts.1 and it can go through this cycle any number of times by reading substring ab repeatedly.This DFA accepts { } because it can go from the initial state to the accepting state (also the initial state) without reading any symbol of the alphabet i. Thus the language it accepts is the empty set Example 3 : DFA with one cycle . Then from state 1 go to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading aa.e. . Then from state 1 go through the cycle 1 . This DFA has a cycle: 1 . by reading an empty string .2 . first from the initial state go to state 1 by reading one a.2 . and it stays there. Example 2 : This DFA does not accept any string because it has no accepting state. which is not an accepting state.

first from state 0 go to state 1 by .Example 4 : DFA with two independent cycles This DFA has two independent cycles: 0 .1.1 and 1 .3 .2 .2 .0.2 .0 and it can move through these cycles any number of times in any order to reach the accepting state from the initial state such as 0 .2 .2 .1 . To find the language accepted by this DFA.0 . Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by ( ab + bb )*. Example 5 : DFA with two interleaved cycles This DFA has two cycles: 1 .1 .0 .0 and 0 .0 .

first at state 0 read any number of b's. Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata . The language accepted at state 0 is b* .1 and 1 . Example 6 : This DFA has two accepting states: 0 and 1. respectively. There is a systematic way of finding the language accepted by a DFA and we are going to learn it later. So we are not going to go any further on this problem here.reading a ( any other state which is common to these cycles such as state 2 can also be used instead of state 1 ).2 . Thus altogether a( baa + bba )*bb will have been read when state 3 is reached from state 0.1 any number of times by reading substring ba repeatedly.0 .2 . At state 1 go through the cycle 1 .1 any number of times in any order by reading substrings baa and bba. Then from state 1 go through the two cycles 1 . Then go to state 1 by reading one a. To find the language accepted at state 1. At this point a substring a( baa + bba )* will have been read.2 . At this point (b*a) will have been read.3 . Thus the language that is accepted by this DFA is the union of the language accepted at state 0 and the one accepted at state 1. Then go from state 1 to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading bb. Thus the language accepted at state 1 is b*a(ba)* .

ceases to come. 3. Unlike DFAs an NFA moves into one of the states given by (q. the transition function. 4. a) ) . . But it can be the empty set. a) to select is determined nondeterministically. Otherwise it is not accepted. q0 . a) must be specified.e. We call the elements of Q a state. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ends i. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of (q. A = { 1 }. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. As in the case of DFA the accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. 5. Also let be a function from Q to 2Q . the following table. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 1 a (q. 2. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . The transition function is also called a next state function . Note that is a function. in which case the NFA aborts its operation. = { a }. Examples of NFA Example 1: Q = { 0. Which one of the states in (q. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. A > Notes on the definition 1. As in the case of DFA the set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements.Subjects to be Learned • • • Nondeterministic finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". Its elements can be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. . Note that any DFA is also a NFA. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. 1 }.

2 }. is changed to { a. If the alphabet a}. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. in the following table.2} 0 1 1 2 2 b a b a b {2} (q. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. 1. this is still an NFA that accepts { Example 2: Q = { 0. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1. b }. = { a. A = { 2 }. .A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. b } in stead of { a }.

If on the other hand it moves to state 1 after reading a. Let us now define the function strings and languages by NFA. then it stays in the accepting state. When it reads the symbol a. Thus the string ab is also accepted by this NFA.Operation of NFA Let us see how an automaton operates when some inputs are applied to it. then it goes to state 2 and remains there. As an example let us consider the automaton of Example 2 above. it does not accept any of them. if it moves to state 2 and no more inputs are given. if the next input is b and if no more inputs are given. * and then formalize the concepts of acceptance of . Initially it is in state 0. If any other strings are given to this NFA. We say that this automaton accepts the string a. Since the state 2 is the accepting state. it moves to either state 1 or state 2.

*( q . string. * (q. Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q.3} 0 b {2} 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b {1} {3} {3} (q. q0 . where * denotes the empty . the Basis Clause says that an NFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the set of states NFA can reach after reading string ya starting at state q is the set of states it can reach by reading symbol a after reading string y starting at state q. Example State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {0. . a) ) For example consider the NFA with the following transition table: . ) = { q }. w ) is the set of states that the NFA can reach when it reads the string w starting at the state q. any string y * and any symbol a ( q . the function * :Q -> 2Q is defined recursively as follows: * Definition of *: Basis Clause: For any state q of Q.Language Accepted by NFA Subjects to be Learned • • • for NFA Language accepted by NFA Properties of * * Definition of * For a state q and string w. Thus for an NFA < Q . A > . In general an NFA nondeterministically goes through a number of states from the state q as it reads the symbols in the string w. . ya ) = In the definition.1.

b ) (1.2. a ) = ( 0 . ) again by the Inductive * Clause of the definition of .The transition diagram for this NFA is as given below.b) (3. ab ) is the union of the definition of * . Hence *( 0 .b)={2} {3} {1}={1. *( 0 . b ) for all p * ( 0 . ( 0 . 3 } . Suppose that the state 3 is an accepting state of this NFA. 1 . Then * * ( 0 . a ) = { 0 . a ) by the Inductive Clause of * Now *( 0 . ) = { 0 } . a ) is the union of ( p. . ab ) can be calculated as follows: ( p. ab ) = ( 0 . 3}. a ) for all p ( 0 . Hence *( 0 . By the Basis Clause of the definition of *.

for an NFA < Q . if and only if it can reach an accepting state by reading x starting at the initial state. q0. Some of the strings accepted by the NFA given above are the language it accepts is a*( ab + a + ba )(bb)* . ab.A Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >. q0. x ) A is not empty. A > . . .* We say that a string x is accepted by an NFA < Q. .a) for an NFA < Q . * ( q . . aaa. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 . . q0 .a)= (q. A > if and only if * ( q0 . . that is. A > is the set of strings that are accepted by the NFA. . . a. . xy ) = These theorems can be proven in a manner similar to those for Theorems 1 and 2 for DFA. * (q. abbbb etc. and for NFA has properties similar to that for DFA. The language accepted by an NFA < Q. * .

Also let { } to 2Q . These operations on FAs can be described conveniently if -Transitions are used. Thus the tape head does not move when is read. 2. Note that any NFA is also a NFA. Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton with Let Q be a finite set and let -Transitions be a function from Q be a finite set of symbols. q0 . We are going to do that by showing that a finite automaton can be constructed from a given regular expression by combining simpler FAs using union. We call the elements of Q a state. A transition on reading means that the NFA. .makes the transition without reading any symbol in the input. Here we are going to formally define NFA with -Transitions (abbreviated as NFA..there is a NFA (hence DFA) which accepts the same language and vice versa. for any NFA.Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata with Transitions Subjects to be Learned • • • - Nondeterministic finite automata with State transition diagram State transition table -Transitions Contents One of the objectives of this chapter is to show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between regular languages and finite automata. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. concatenation and Kleene star operations.A> Notes on the definition 1. . the transition function.) and see some examples. Basically an NFA with -Transitions is an NFA but can respond to an empty string and move to the next state. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton with -Transitions is a 5-tuple < Q . As we are going to see later. .

3. = { a. for example. 1. If you read string ab. 4 and 5 without reading any symbol on the tape. b }. 3. 4. When a symbol a is read at the initial state 0. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. For once you are in state 1. 2. 4 and 5 by reading a. it can move to any of the states other than 0. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in the State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 0 {4} 1 {2} 2 { 3. following table. 2.Example of NFA- Q = { 0. then you come to state 4. there are no transitions on reading b except from state 3. For though you go to states 1. 4 } 3 {5} 3 b {4} 4 a {5} (q. 5 }. you can go to state 2. a) ) Here the transitions to are omitted from the table. 3. for example. Thus 4 is the only state you can go to from the initial state . A = .

by reading ab.

**Language Accepted by NFASubjects to be Learned
**

• • • •

**-closure for NFALanguage accepted by NFAProperties of *
**

*

Contents

To formally define * for NFA- , we start with the concept of -closure for a state which is the set of states reachable from the state without reading any symbol. Using that concept we define * and then strings and languqges accepted by NFA- . Definition of -closure

Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA- . Let us denote the -closure of a set S of states of Q by ( S ). Then ( S ) is defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: S (S)

Inductive Clause: For any state q of Q, if q ( S ) , then ( q , ) (S). Extremal Clause: Nothing is in ( S ) unless it is obtained by the above two clauses.

For the NFAFirst { 2 }

of the above figure, ( { 2 } ) , that is, 2 (2, )

( { 2 } ) is obtained as follows: ( { 2 } ) . Then since 2 ( { 2 } ) , by the

Inductive Clause, Since (2,

({2}). ({2}).

) = { 3 , 4 }, we now have { 2 , 3 , 4 }

Since 3 and 4 have been added to

({2}),

(3,

) = { 5 } and

(4,

)=

must

be included in ( { 2 } ) . Thus now { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } ({2}). Though 5 has become a memeber of the closure, since ( 5 , ) is empty, no new members are added to ( { 2 } ) . Since ( q , ) has been examined for all the states currently in ( { 2 } ) and no more elements are added to it, this process of generating the closure terminates and ( { 2 } ) = { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } is obtained. As we can see from the example, ( S ) is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S by traversing any number of arcs. That is, it is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S without reading any symbols in . Now with this -closure, we can define

*

recursively as follows:

As in the cases of DFA and NFA, * gives the result of applying the transition function repeatedly as dictated by the given string. Definition of

* *

is going to be defined recursively. Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA-

.

**Basis Clause: For any state q of Q,
**

*

(q,

)=

({q}).

*

Inductive Clause: For any state q, a string y in

and a symbol a in

,

*

( q , ya ) =

(

).

What the Inductive Clause means is that *( q , ya ) is obtained by first finding the states that can be reached from q by reading y ( *( q , y ) ), then from each of those states p by reading a (i.e. by finding ( p , a ) ), and then by reading 's ( i.e. by taking the closure of the ( p , a )'s ) . Example : For the NFAbelow: of the following figure,

*

( 0 , ab ) can be obtained as

First let us compute *( 0 , a ) . For that we need ( { 0 } ). Since it is the set of states reached by traversing the arcs from state 0, ( { 0 } ) = {0,3,4}. Next from each of the states in ( { 0 } ) we read symbol a and move to another state (i.e. apply ). They are ( 0 , a ) = { 1 } , ( 3 , a ) = ( 4 , a ) = { 5 }. Hence We then traverse the } ) = { 1 , 2 , 3 } and = { 1 , 5 } for q = 0 . arcs from { 1 , 5 } to get to the states in *( 0 , a ) . Since * ({5})={5}, (0,a)={1,2,3,5}.

({1

< Q .< Q . NFAs and NFAto NFA 1 Conversion of NFA- Let M1 = < Q1 . A2 > that satisfies the following conditions recognizes L: .. A > is the set of strings accepted by the NFA.s Subjects to be Learned • • • Conversion of NFA. q2. A string x is accepted by an NFA. . ab ) = { 3 . 4 } . b ) are empty sets. A > if and only if *( q0 . a . Now ( 1 . and ( 2 . For example the NFAof the figure given above accepts the language { .that recognizes a language L. b ) and ( 5 . . *( 0 . x ) contains at least one accepting state. . b ) .0 . . ( 3 . 4 } .0 . a ) and then take the arcs from there. Equivalence of DFAs. q0 . . NFAs and NFA. The language accepted by an NFA. Thus Since ( { 4 } ) = { 3 .Then to find *( 0 . ab } . NFA M2 = < Q2. . . A1 > be an NFA. ab ) read b from each of the states in *( 0 . q1. q0 . Then the 2 . b ) = { 4 } .to (equivalent) NFA Conversion of NFA to (equivalent) DFA Equivalence of DFAs.

Then for each state q of Q2 and each symbol a of find 2 ( q . q2. a ) = 1 * (q. 2 first copy the states of Q1 into Q2. q1. A2 > which accepts the same language 1 . 3 ). Then collect all the states that can be reached from each state of ( {q} ) by traversing one arc labeled with the symbol a. . Otherwise. .0 through arcs in M1 . Thus to obtain an NFA M2 = < Q2. A1 > does.0 are the accepting states of M2 . the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. . q2.0 = q1. that is if an accepting state can be reached from the initial state q1. as the given NFA. 2 ( q. 1 } . then all the accepting states of M1 plus state q1. 1.0 .Q2 = Q1. Then from the transition function of the NFA- . since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) . a ) . The closure of the set of those states is 2( q .0 through arcs in M1 .a)= ( ) A2 = A1 { q1.0 .0 } ) A1 = A1 otherwise . that is all the states that can be reached from q by traversing arcs. 2. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0. a ): First ( { 0 } ) = { 0 . The transition function 2 is obtained as follows: 2( 0 .0. a ) as follows: Find ( {q} ).0 } if ( { q1. The set of accepting states A2 is the same as A1 if no accepting states can be reached from the initial state q1. Example 1: Let us convert the following NFAto NFA.M1 = < Q1 .

2 }.2})={1.3} {3} {1.b)= Similarly 2 can be obtained for other states and symbols.1} {0. ({1. They are given in the table ( { q } ) and 2 below together with State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b a b . .2} {1. 2 ( 0 . b ) .2} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. 1 For .2} {1. )(= ( {1.2} {1. b ) = .2} )) ({q}) {0.2}.( 0 . 2 (0. a ) = 1 ( 1 .3} {1. and Hence 2( 0 . 1 } and 1 (0. a ) = { 1 .3} {1. a ) = . (q. since ( { 0 } ) = { 0 .2} {1.1} {1} {1} {2} {2} {1.b)= 1 ( 1.

2} 2 (q. 1 ( p .4} {1. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0. 1.2} {4} {4} {4} {1.2.3} {2. 3.1} {1} {1} {2. 2 is given in the table below together with ( { q } ) .2} {1. )(= ( {1.4} {1.4} {1.2. ) and State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 a b a b a b a b a ({q}) {0.4} {1.2. 2.3} {1. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0.1} {0.3} . 4 ).3} {3} {3} {1.3} )) {1. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) .Example 2: Let us convert the following NFA- to NFA. The transition function 2 is obtained as for Example 1.

4 b {1. .4} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. Proof of Equivalence of NFA- and NFA We are going to prove that the NFA obtained from NFAby the conversion algorithm accepts the same language as the NFA.

= = 2 * 2 (q .0 . Secondly 2 * (q. We are going to prove it by showing that both of them are equal to Firstly 2( q . it implies that NFAM1 and NFA M2 accept the same non-empty strings. )={q}.(2) Hence from (1) and (2). . .a)= 2 * (q. wa ) = --. = 1 * Then we show that ( q . and the conversion of NFAto NFA click here.w)= 2 * ( q . A1 > and 2 NFA obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. (q. Inductive Step: We need to show that if 1 * (q. Basis Step: We need to show that for any symbol a in 1 * (q.a)= 2 ( q . a ) . A2 > (q.(1) .. 1 * (q. the induction hypothesis and the construction of NFA from NFA.w)= 2 * (q.a)= 2 2 * (q . then assuming it holds for any arbitrary string w we prove it for any of the children of w. a ) --.a). wa ) --. 1 . . a)= by the definition of Since * 2 * for NFA (click here for a review) . First we are going to prove that To review the definition of * 1 * . Claim 1: For any non-empty string w and for any state q.(2) .a). Recall that the set of strings is defined recursively (click here for a quick review).w)= 2 * ( q . w ) for any non-empty string w.(1) because of the way NFA is constructed from NFA(click here for a review) .a)= 2 * 2 (q. . wa ) = 2 * ( q . a ) = 1*( q .NFA- that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 .0 . Thus we first prove that it is true for any arbitrary symbol. 1 * (q.a).a). w ) for an arbitrary string w (Induction Hypothesis). for NFA.w). q2. The case when w is an empty string is going to be proven separately. Hence (q. wa ) holds for any arbitrary symbol a in First we show that using the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . that is wa for any symbol a in the alphabet. Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. then * 1 ( q . . q1. --. and NFA- When it is proven. (q.

because = . Let us next prove (2). 1 * Thus from (1) and (2) ( q . by the definition of 1 * . Hence 2 * ( q . wa ) .basically using the definition of Then from (1) and (2) we can see that 1 * 1 * . wa ) = Since 2 * (q. wa ) . Hence On the other hand = Hence 1 * = ( q .a)= Substituting this into the left hand side of (2) produces = . wa ) = 2 * ( q . By the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . for NFA- (p. wa ) = . that is (1) has been proven. that is By the definition of 1 * = 1 * 1 * ( q . as proven below in Claim 3. = Since 2 (q. = 1*( q . The right hand side of this equality is equal to ( the first and have been swapped to get this) . To see an explanation for this click here. a ) by the way NFA is constructed from NFA= . . . w ) by the induction hypothesis. . This can be shown to be equal to . Let us first prove (1). wa ) = 2 * ( q .a)= 1 * ( q . Hence we have proven (2). wa ) .w)= 1 * ( q . wa ) . ( q . wa ) .

Claim 2: (S T)= (S) (T). What Part 1 states is that all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in the set (S) (T). Let us review the definition of the -closure of the set of states of an NFA. Hence is accepted by NFA. let us prove the following claim. Inductive Clause: If q ( X ) . ) (X).End of Induction With this Claim 1 we can see that any non-empty string w is accepted by NFA if and only if it is accepted by the corresponding NFA. if it is accepted by an NFA. Extremal Clause: Nothng is in ( X ) unless it is obtained by the Basis and Inductive Clauses. then its childen also have it. As a preparation for the proof of commutativity of union and -closure operations. then ( { q10 } ) A1 . Hence by the way A2 is constructed. As for the empty string . Let X be the set of states of an NFA. . For that let us restate the statement so that the induction becomes clearer. A2 . Then the -closure of X is defined recursively as Basis Clause: X (X). then ( q . then q20 this means that Thus NFA( { q10 } ) A1 A2 .. q20 Conversely if NFAis accepted by NFA. and the corresponding NFA accept the same language. By the way NFA is constructed from . Hence is accepted by NFA. in the Basis Step of our proof we prove the property for the elements of the basis of (S T ) and in the Inductive Step we prove that if an arbitrary element of (S T ) has that property. We are going to prove this in two parts: (S T) (S) (S) (T) ( T ) and (S T). Part 1 : (S T) (S) (T) This is going to be proven by induction on (S T). Since (S T ) is defined recursively.

Proof of Part 1: Basis Step: We need to prove that ( S Since S ( S ) and T T) (S) (S) (S (S) (S) (T). then (q. End of Proof for Part 1 Part 2 : Proof of Part 2: We are going to prove (S) (S (S) T ) and (S) (T) (T) (T) (S (S (S T). S and T are subsets of (S T) Inductive Step: We need to prove that if q is an arbitrary element of the property of being in (S) (S ( T ) . Inductive Step: We need to prove that for an arbitrary element q in ( S ) . if q is in . T). ) (S) (T). ) . Hence (T).q ( S ) or q ( S ) . (T) Thus all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in (S T) which is to say that (S) (T). Since q If q ( S ) . (S) (T). ) Let q be an arbitrary element of T ) with the property of being in ( S ) by the definition of ( T ) . (S T ) with the property of being in (S) ( T ) . ( T ) . ( T ) . T T).S (S T). Hence ) Similarly if q Hence if q is an arbitrary element of (S) (T). then ( q . and ( S T) (S T). (T). then (q. That would imply that Proof of (S) (S By induction on (S T): (S). ) (S) (S) (T). T ) with (T). (q. Basis Step: We need to show that S Since S (S T ) . then (q. ) (S) (T).

End of Proof of Part 2 End of Proof of Claim 2 Claim 3: ( Si ) = ( Si ) . Similarly Hence (S) (T) (T) (S T ) holds. - T ) is a -closure. then Hence Inductive Step: Assume that ( ( Si ) = Si ) = ( Si ) holds for n = 1.(S Since q is in (S T ) and since (S T ) . Basis Step: n = 1. (S T ) holds. ( Sn+1 ) by the induction hypothesis. since = ( Equivalence of NFA and DFA We are going to prove that the DFA obtained from NFA by the conversion algorithm . Si is a set as well as Sn+1. then (q. ) (S closure T). --. by the definition of (q. Si ) by the definition of union. ( Si ) = ( Si ) = ( S1 ) and ( S1 ) . End of Proof for Claim 3 Sn+1 ) by Claim 2 above. Thus (S) (S T ) has been proven. If n = 1. ( Si ) holds for n. Proof : Proof by induction on n.Inducion Hypothesis ( Si ) = ( = = (( Si ) ( ( Si ) ) Si ) ( Sn+1 ) by the definition of union. ) (S T).

w ) = 2 * ( q2. q1. w ) . w ) . w ) holds.0 .0 .0 . --- For the string w and an arbitrry symbol a in 1 * . w ) for any string w. w ) . wa ) * 1 Thus for any string w ( q1. Theorem: For any string w.0 . ( q1. w ) = 2 * ( q2. a ) 2( * 2 ( q2. q2.0 . 2 1 . A2 > First we are going to prove by induction on strings that 1*( q1. obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2.0 . ) = q2. = { q1.0 . Inductive Step: Assume that Induction Hypothesis 1 * ( q1.Part 1 Subjects to be Learned • • • • Union of FAs Concatenation of FAs Kleene Star of FAs Acceptance of regular languages by FAs Contents . When it is proven. 1 * ( q1. . Kleene's Theorem --. wa ) = = = = 2 ( 1 2 * * ( q1. w ) = 2 * ( q2. Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. ( q2. w ) = 2*( q2.0 .0 .0 .accepts the same language as the NFA.0 .0 } by the construction of DFA M2 . = * 1 ( q1.0 by the definition of 2* .0 .0 . A1 > and DFA .0 . w ) for an arbitrary string w. it obviously implies that NFA M1 and DFA M2 accept the same strings. Basis Step: For w = 2 * .0 .0 . NFA that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 . a ) ( q2. ) by the definition of 1 * . .

qc. u L2 . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by the FAs Mu = < Qu . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by FAs.{ } and { a } for any symbol a in are accepted by an FA. . . where qu.0 . which are given below. Since any regular language is obtained from { } and { a } for any symbol a in by using union. Proof: This is going to be proven by (general) induction following the recursive definition of regular language. c . It states that any regular language is accepted by an FA and conversely that any language accepted by an FA is regular. Au > : { qu. 1 . Au > . . Theorem 1 (Part 1 of Kleene's theorem): Any regular language is accepted by a finite automaton. Basis Step: As shown below the languages . A1 > and M2 = < Q2 . qk. . qu. We assume that Q1 Q2 = without loss of generality since states can be renamed if necessary.0 . Inductive Step: We are going to show that for any languages L1 and L2 if they are accepted by FAs.0 . .0 is a state which is neither in Q1 nor in Q2 . Then L1 = < Qc .0 } . Ac > and Mk = < Q2 . . Ak > . A2 > . . then L1 L2 . u Mu = < Qu .0 . concatenation and Kleene star operations. that together with the Basis Step would prove the theorem. respectively. Mc . q2. Qu = Q1 Q2 .0 . qu.Kleene's theorem. 2 . Suppose that L1 and L2 are accepted by FAs M1 = < Q1 .0 . q1. k . respectively.

0 } ) | q A1 } Ak = { qk. { qk.0. Note that (qu.0 is a state which is not in Q1 . u ) = { q1. { q1. These NFA- s are illustrated below. . Ak > : { qk. qk.0.u = 1 2 { (qu. .0 } ) } { (q.0 } = 1 { (qk. where qk. . Qk = Q1 k . Au = A1 A2 Mc = < Qc . k . q2. . c .0 } ) | q A1 } Ac = A2 Mk = < Qk . q2.0 } ) } .0 .0 } .0. Ac > : Qc = Q1 Q2 qc.0. a ) = for all a in .0 = q1. { q2. qc.0 c = 1 2 { (q.0 .0 . { q1.0 } . that is u (qu.0 . . .

in fact accept L1 L2 . L1L2 and L1*. . respectively.s .It can be proven. Mu. that these NFA. though we omit proofs. Mc and Mk . End of Proof Examples of Mu . Mc and Mk: Example 1: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression (aa + b)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above.

.Example 2: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression ((a + b)a*)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above.

Part 2 .Kleene's Theorem -.

Before proceeding to a proof outline for the converse. k+1. k) . k)L(k+1. k) the set of strings representing paths from state p to state q that go through only states numbered no higher than k. Given a finite automaton. 2. then from k+1 to k+1 any number of times. all without passing through states labeled higher than k. k) : The set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled wiht k or lower numbers. . Next denote by L(p.Subjects to be Learned • Languages accepted by FAs are regular Contents The converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem also holds true. q. k+1. k+1. k)*L(k+1. k+1) = L(p. Note that paths may go through arcs and vertices any number of times. q. Then the following lemmas hold. L(p. k+1. q. L(p. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. q. q. It states that any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. See the figure below for the illustration. first relabel its states with the integers 1 through n. then from k+1 to q. k)*L(k+1. k)L(k+1. k) L(p. Lemma 1: L(p. k) : The set of strings going first from p to k+1. What this lemma says is that the set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled with k+1 or lower numbers consists of the following two sets: 1. q. let us study a method to compute the set of strings accepted by a finite automaton.

q. Theorem 2 (Part 2 of Kleene's Theorem): Any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. Since the number of symbols is finite and since any finite language is regular. Lemma 3: L(p. q. L(p. q. >From Lemmas 1 and 2 by induction the following lemma holds. If p = q. k) is regular for any states p and q and any natural number k. Since the language accepted by a finite automaton is the union of L(q0. 0) is the set of strings representing paths from p to q without passing any states in between. Proof: L(p. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. then it consists of single symbols representing arcs from p to q. Example : Let us find the language accepted by the following finite automaton using the . 0) is regular. then is in it as well as the strings representing any loops at p (they are all single symbols). we have the following converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem. 0) is regular. Hence if p and q are different. q. n) over all accepting states q.Lemma 2: L(p. q.

2)*r(3.2. 2.0) = and r(3. 1) + r(1. 2) = r(1.0)*r(1. 2) = a+(b a+ + = a+(b a+ )*a . 3.2.0)*r(1. 2) + r(1. 1) = r(3. 2. 3. 3).1.0) = a+ . 3. 2. 2.0)*r(1. k) the regular expression for the set of strings L(p. 2.0)r(1. 2. r(2. 2) = r(1. 3.0) = ba* . 1) = r(1.0)r(1.0) = b . r(1.0) = a . since r(1. r(2. 1. 2) . 1) + r(1.1.0)*r(1. 1.2. 1) = r(1.2. 3.1. 2. 1. 1)r(2. Let us denote by r(p. 3.2. 3.0)r(1.0)*r(1. 1.1. q. 1) r(3. 3.1. Then the language accepted by this NFA is r(1.1. 2. 1)*r(2. 1) = r(2.1. .0) = b. 1)*r(2.0) = and r(2. 1)r(2.0) = ba+ . 1.0) = a* . 3. r(1.0) + r(1. By Lemma 1.1. 3.1. 2): r(1.0) = ba+ + .2.lemmas. 1) = a Hence r(1. 2. 1) + r(3. 1)*r(2. r(1. 2) = a* + a+(b a+)*b a* . 1. 3. 1) r(1.1. 1.2. 1.0)r(1. 1) = r(3. 3.1.1. since r(3. 3. 1) = r(2. k). 2)r(3.1. r(1. 1) r(1.1.2. 3) = r(1. 3.0) + r(2.1.0) = a + .1. 2): r(1. )*a r(3. 1)r(2. since r(1. 1.0) + r(2. since r(2.0) + r(3.0)r(1. 1. 1) = r(2.0) + r(1.1. Hence r(1. q. 1. 2): r(3. 2) = r(3.2.

. q.L.1. Comlement and Intersection of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • • Complement of Regular Language Complement of DFA Intersection of Regular Languages Contents Complement Let M = < Q . 2. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. 3. n) must be found for each accepting state q.e. 1)*r(2. 1. 1) r(3.1. 2) = = + ( ba+)+a + ba+( ba+ + )*a r(3. n)'s must be added together to get the regular expression for the language accepted by the automaton.0)r(1.0)<SUP*< SUP>r(1. 2. If there are more accepting states. 3) = a* + a+(b a+)*ba* + ( a+( ba+ )*a )( This can be further simplified to (a + ab + abb)*. 1. i. 1) = r(3. can be obtained by swapping its accepting states with its non-accepting states.0) + r(3. and all the r(p. q0 . 1. 1.1. In this example there is only one accepting state. 1.L . * . 1. . )*ba* + ( ba+)+a )*( ba+ )*ba*. that is Mc = < Q .0) = ba* Hence r(3.Hence r(3. Then a DFA that accepts the complement of L. 1)r(2. 2) = r(3. 1) + r(3. Q . then to (a + ab)*.1. then r(p. q. . 1. The detail is left as an exercise though it would be quite challenging. . 2): r(3. . 2) = ba* + ba+( ba+ + = ( ba+ )*ba* . q0 .A > is a DFA that accepts * . Hence r(1. where p is the initial state and n is the number of states in the given finite automaton.

.For example the following DFA accepts the language a+ over = { a . Remark 2: Since a language is regular if and only if it is accepted by some NFA. Remark 1: If we have NFA rather than DFA. the complement of a regular language is also regular. we must first convert it to DFA before swapping states to get its complement. b }. A DFA that accepts its complement is obtained from the above DFA by changing all single circles to double circles and vice versa as shown below.

if L1 and L2 are regular languages.Regular Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Regular Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Production and Grammar Regular Grammar Context-Free. By Remark 2 above. Therefore all the properties of sets are inherited by languages. Next -. then Submit.Intersection of Regular Languages Langauges are sets. then their complements are regular languages. Thus summing all this up we can say that the set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed with respect to union. intersection. Test Your Understanding of Complemnent and Intersection of FAs Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Context-Sensitive and Phrase Structure Grammars . L1 L2 is regular. concatenation and Kleene star operations. In particular De Morgan's law also applies to languages. Click True or Fals . difference. Since L1 L2 = by De Morgan's law.

For example consider the language represented by a+. S -> bS. Theorem 3: A language L is accepted by an FA i. A production has in general the form -> . aa. Then apply the first rule to aS to rewrite S as a. add the transition ( X. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals with at least one nonterminal in it and is a string of terminals and nonterminals. regular. } can be generated This can be proven by constructing an FA for the given grammar as follows: For each nonterminal create a state. aaa. The following theorem holds for regular grammars. to obtain aS. where X and Y are nonterminals and a is a terminal. These rules mean that S is rewritten as a or as aS.e. That gives us aa. For example. } . If there is no is derived from ambiguity about the grammar G that is referred to.Contents We have learned three ways of characterising regular languages: regular expressions. In general if a string a grammar G. S -> } is a regular grammar and it generates all the strings consisting of a's and b's including the empty string. we write =>*G is obtained from a string and say that by applying productions of . a ) = Z. A grammar is regular if and only if is a single nonterminal and is a single terminal or a single terminal followed by a single nonterminal.{ by a regular grammar. Add another state as the accepting state Z. A grammar is a set of rewrite rules which are used to generarte strings by successively rewriting symbols. finite automata and construction from simple languages using simple operations. a set of terminals (the alphabet of the language). Thus the process of obtaining aa from S is written as S => aS => aa . V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. . . . To generate the string aa for example. a ) = Y and for every production X -> a add the transition ( X. b}. There is yet another way of characterizing them. i. and a set of rewrite rules (productions) P. then we simply write =>* Formally a grammar consists of a set of nonterminals (or variables) V. One can generate the strings of this language by the following procedure: Let S be a symbol to start the process with. Rewrite S using one of the following two rules: S -> a . and S -> aS . = {a. Then for every production X -> aY. that is a production is of the form X -> a or X -> aY.e. If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. S corresponds to the initial state. We write S => aS to express that aS is obtained from S by applying a single production. aS. if L . that is by something called grammar. the fact that aa is obtained from S is written as S =>* aa . which is { a. . start with S and apply the second rule to replace S with the right hand side of the rule. which ia a nonterminal. a start symbol S.

b}. as its member. Y } . S -> aX. where Q = { S. S -> a. where S is the initial state and Z is the accepting state of the NFA. { a. Thus the following converse of Theorem 3 is obtained. .e. Theorem 4 : If L is regular i. X -> bS. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. a ) = { S. P = { S -> aS. Thus L . S -> a }. and nonterminals X and Y. q0 > is obtained as follows: for any a in . X -> aY is in P if and only if (X. S -> bS. then since { } is regular . S > . Z } .{ regular grammar. then L . . and adding transitions ( S.{ } is regular. X. X -> a is in P if and only if (X. L = Conversely from any NFA < Q. } is generated by a For example. P. a) = Y for some accepting state Y. a) = Y . X -> aY.For example = {a. q0. The NFA thus obtained is shown below. Y -> bS. S -> b } form a regular grammar which generates the language ( a + b )+. If L contains ( L -{ } ) { } is also regular. P. An NFA that recognizes this language can be obtained by creating two states S and Z. Z } and ( S. a regular grammar corresponding to the NFA given below is < Q. accepted by an NFA. b }. A > a regular grammar < Q. . b ) = { S. . and for any a in and any nonterminal X.

Z. context-sensitive languages and phrase structure languages. c } and V = { X. ZX -> XZ. It is an example of context-sensitive language which is not context-free. A grammar is a context-free grammar if and only if its production is of the form X -> . where X is a nonterminal and . respectively. Context-sensitive grammars are also characterized by productions whose left hand side is not longer than the right hand side. These grammars are distinguished by the kind of productions they have but they also form a hierarchy. that is. bZ -> bc. YX -> XY. ZY -> YZ. S1 -> XYZ. 1 . A grammar is a context-sensitive grammar if and only if its production is of the form 1 X 2 -> 1 2 . S1 } is a context-sensitive grammar and it generates the language { anbncn | n is a positive integer } . cZ -> cc } with = { a. b.In addition to regular languages there are three other types of languages in Chomsky hierarchy : context-free languages. aY -> ab. BY -> bb. As we shall see later this is an example of context-free language which is not regular. S. For example P = { S -> XYZS1. possibly the empty string. X -> a. Y.| | | |. For example P = { S -> aSb. for every production -> . They are characterized by context-free grammars. b } and V = { S } is a contex-free grammar and it generates the language { anbn | n is a positive integer } . S1 -> XYZS1. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals. S -> ab } with = { a. aX -> aa. context-sensitive grammars and phrase structure grammars. that is the set of regular languages is a subset of the set of context-free languages which is in turn a subset of the set of context-sensitive languages and the set of context-sensitive languages is a subset of the set of phrase structure languages. S -> XYZ. possibly empty except Thus the nonterminal X can be rewritten as only in the context of 1X 2 . . 2 and are strings of terminals and nonterminals.

There are two sets of questions. Let M = < Q .For a phrase structure grammar. is that for any regular language there is a unique DFA having the smallest number of states that accepts it. Click True or Fals . A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. -> . that has the smallest number of states amomg the DFAs that accept L.A } of the set of states Q . Next -. new := new_partition( . there is no restriction on the form of production. Then the following algorithm produces the DFA. that is a production of a phrase structure grammar can take the form can be any string. where and Test Your Understanding of Regular Grammar Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. . Q .Minimization of DFA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Minimization of DFA One important result on finite automata. }. both theoretically and practically. . denote it by M1. q0 . Minimization Algorithm for DFA Construct a partition = { A. then Submit.

A state is a dead state if it is not an accepting state and has no out-going transitions except to itself. If a transition from s to t on symbol a exists in M. Let p and q be representatives i. The accepting states of M1 are representatives that are in A. . respectively. The subsets thus formed are sets of the output partition in place of S. These representatives are states of minimum DFA M1. The start state of M1 is the representative which contains the start state of M. Any transitions to a dead state become undefined. Remove from M1 the dead states and the states not reachable from the start state. Let s be a state in p and t a state in q. final function new_partition( ) for each set S of do partition S into subsets such that two states p and q of S are in the same subset of S if and only if for each input symbol. new := new_partition( := .while ( := new new ) ) . p and q make a transition to (states of) the same set of . if there are any. end Minimum DFA M1 is constructed from • • final as follows: • • Select one state in each set of the partition final as the representative for the set. S remains in the output partition. then the minimum DFA M1 has a transition from p to q on symbol a. Note that the sets of final are either a subset of A or disjoint from A. If S is not partitioned in this process. states of minimum DFA M1. Let us also denote by p and q the sets of states of the original DFA M represented by p and q.e. Example 1 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA.

{ 3 } . new_partition is applied to . Since the rest are singletons. since 1 and 5 do the same transitions. Note here that state 4 is a dead state because the only transitionout of it is to itself. This becomes the second iteration. since on b 2 goes to 1.Initially = { { 1 . Select 1 as the representative for { 1 . remains unchanged. state 3 goes to state 5 and 4 and 5 are in different sets in . { 3 } . 5 } . Further. 2 . { 4 ] }. state 3 goes to state 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . 5 } . all transitions between them are inherited for the minimized DFA. 4 goes to 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . states 2 and 3 are going to be separated from each other in new . in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 2 to 1 on b. { 2 } . 3 }. states 3 and 4 are going to be separated from each other in new. For the transitions. 5 } . Thus the new partition is { { 1 . 3 . 2 and 4 are separated from each other in new. and to 2 on b in the original DFA. Thus the set of states for the minimized DFA is { 1 . Since the rest of the states are singletons. { 4 ] }. 4 } }. Since on b state 2 goes to state 1. { 2 . { 2 } . and from 3 to 1 on a. So they are not going to be split. in the When new_partition is applied to this new . and 3 goes to 1 on a in the original DFA. . Also since 2 goes to 1 on b. and 1 to 2 on b. since 1 goes to 3 on a. they have the obvious representatives. On the other hand 1 and 5 make the same transitions. Also since on a sate 4 goes to sate 4. 5 }. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 1 to 3 on a. Thus final = { { 1 .

.Thus the minimized DFA is as given in the following figure: Example 2 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA.

Test Your Understanding of Minimization of DFA Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.Initially = { { 3 } . Next -. Thus the number of states of the given DFA is already minimum and it can not be reduced any further. 6 } } is obtained.Application of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Application of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Reactive system . then Submit. 4 . new = { { 1 } . new = { { 3 } . { 4 } . 4 } . { 5 } . Click True or Fals . 6 } }. new = { { 3 } . { 6 } } is obtained. Applyting new_partition again. 2 . 5 . By applying new_partition to this . { 2 } . { 5 } . { 1 . { 6 } } is obtained. { 1 . 5 } . { 3 } . Applyting new_partition to this . { 1 . 4 . { 2 } . { 2 .

lexical analysers for compilers etc.e. These become the states of the finite automaton that models it. two numbers to be added are ready. It is generally agreed that finite automata are a natural medium to describe dynamic behaviors of reactive systems. Many other systems operating in practice can also be modeled by finite automata such as control circuits of computers. outputs and conditions/status in response to stimuli from within or outside it. . external or internal to the system. a system must respond to each stimulus. even to a fragment of input such as each coin tossed in for a can of soda or every message received. In addition actions that may take place in those states can also be added to the model. Let us assume for simplicity that this computer accepts a single user at a time. A system such as an adder is called a transformational system. Finite automata are formal and rigorous and computer programs can be easily written to simulate their behaviors. are identified and they become arcs in the transition diagram of the finite automaton. To model a reactive system with finite automaton. on the other hand. A reactive system is a system that changes its actions. The inputs for a reactive system are never ready unlike for example when two numbers are added together by an adder (Here we are considering an adder at a higher level of abstraction than physical devices level ignoring for example the transient states of the electronic circuit that realizes an adder). It is an event driven or control driven system continuously having to react to external and/or internal stimuli. Then the transitions between the states triggered by events and conditions.• Modeling reactive systems with FA Contents We have seen an example of use of finite automata in describing the operation of a simplified version of vending machine. For example consider the following very simplified version of login process to a computer from the computer point of view. first the states the system goes in or the modes of its operation are identified. An adder does not respond unless the input i. Many of those systems fall into the class of systems called reactive system. In the case of vending machine or communication protocol. computer network communication protocols.

it goes back to the initial state and waits for another RFNM to come. which is another state. it starts sending the requested message to the other party. But let us make it simple. Again depending on the level of abstraction. it goes into the state of receiving it (Our interpretation is that the computer is in a state of receiving an RFNM and it is taking the action of receiving the RFNM) . If it is valid. then it informs the user of that and waits for the next try. Depending on how much detail we are interested in. it gets a signal. then it accepts the user and starts a session. When a RFNM starts coming. receiving RFNM. it resends the message. That is a fourth state. different states and transitions would have to be chosen. Thus a finite automaton that models this protocol has the following five states: initial state (wait for RFNM). After sending the ACK. Upon completion of the RFNM. If the second password fails. it checks whether or not the name is valid. which is another state. When it is complete. That is another state though it could further be broken down into a number of more states. sending message and waiting for ACK. If a negative ACK is received. Again what we have seen is a model for one level of abstraction. The next example is a protocol for a computer to follow in communicating with another computer. it sends "Acknowledgement" (ACK) to the other computer. This is one state of the system. When a password is typed in and it is correct. If the user name typed in is not valid. then it asks for and then waits for the password. it goes into another wait state waiting for an ACK to come from the other computer. it goes back to the initial state. .Initially the computer waits for a user name to be typed in. We could make it go to a different state and count the number of login attempts for security purpose. When a name is typed in. If the password typed in is incorrect. If a positive ACK is received. goes back to the initial state and waits for another login. Again it is a very simplified version. Initially the computer is in wait state waiting for "Request for Next Message" (RFNM) to come from another computer. sending ACK. When the session terminates. it goes to the initial state and starts all over again. different states would be identified and transitions would have to be selected accrdingly.

after reading a digit and stays there as long as digits are read. then it goes into a state.8 etc. that indicates that a decimal point has been read. This system can also be described by a regular expression. that indicates a digit has been read before a decimal point. If the first digit is received before a decimal point. On the other hand if a digit has been read before a decimal point. If a decimal point has been read (i. regardless of whether a sign has been read or not. followed by a possible decimal point.e. then it can continue receiving digits and stay in D. After one digit it can continue receiving digits. This system can be modeled by the following finite automaton: . then it goes to state P indicating that a decimal point has been read. i. then it must receive at least one digit after that.e. -15.. Since these numbers are represented by strings consisting of a possible sign. 9 } .1. it is in state D.d+ ). it goes into a state.2. If the first symbol is a sign. denote it by D. where s+ and s. followed by zero or more digits.d+ + d+ + .378. Therefore from state P it goes to another state. they can be represented by the following regular expression: ( s+ + s. . respectively and d {0. that indicates that a sign has been received. . then it goes into a state. denote it by P. If a decimal point is received before a digit. If a decimal point is read while in D. +213. denote it by G. This Q is an accepting state. followed by one or more digits. D is another accepting state. denote it by Q.Our third example is a system that recognizes numbers with or without a sign such as 5. in state P). One such system initially waits for the first symbol to come in. .+ ) ( d+.represent the positive and negative signs.

One array. A third array. input := read_input( ) .Simulation of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Simulation of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Simulation of FA Contents Once a finite automaton is constructed. Those indices are used to access the contents of the other arrays. Another array. called STATEX. One such simulation algorithm is given below. It uses four arrays. 0 and TOKEN [index] input ) index := index + 1. Algorithm FA Simulator state := INITIAL_STATE. while ( TOKEN [index] . indicates the actions taken at each state and a fourth. holds the next state for each input symbol for each state. while ( state NO_of_STATES and not End of Input ) index := STATEX [state] . stores for each state the input symbols that trigger transitions from the state. keeps the index of the first symbol in the TOKEN array for each state. called ACTION.Next -. called TOKEN. called NEXT_STATE. we can use a general purpose program to simulate its operation.

The ACTION array would contain pointers to actions to be taken corresponding to arcs traversed such as converting a digit in BCD form to the corresponding binary number. else error input := read_input( ) . C and H.45. Tab 4 Tab 5. Then type in a number you want the FA to recognize. .if ( TOKEN [index] 0) perform the action specified by ACTION [index]. S corresponds to 1. S is the initial state and B and H are accepting states. first click the box under the red arrow. You must hit the "Tab" key to move to the next box. first click the box pointed by the red arrow in the figure below. empty transitions) are omitted. Then type 3 Tab . B. to input 3. The corresponding transitions are going to be shown by red arrows in the transition diagram. So no action is taken as a number is processed. end Here 0 in the TOKEN array is a marker between states. To see how this algorithm works. For example.e. state := NEXT_STATE [index]. In the DFA below all the transitions to the empty state (i. At the moment it is empty. The numbers below NEXT_STATE array show the correspondence between the indices of the STATEX array and the states A. Then every time you click "SHOW" the number is processed digit by digit.

So be patient.If you are also interested in how code is executed. . click here It is extremely slow.

their properties and their usefulness for describing various systems. For example to recognize the language { anbn | n is a natural number} .Nerode Theorem for non-regularity test Pumping Lemma Contents We have learned regular languages. Thus there is no way for a finite automaton to remember how many a's it has read for all possible strings anbn . Non-regularity test based on Myhill-Nerode's theorem Indistinguishability of strings: Strings x and y in * are indistinguishable with respect to a language L if and only if for every string z in *. we can conclude that { anbn | n is a natural number} is not regular. a finite automaton must remember how many a's it has read when it starts reading b's. The main idea behind these test methods is that finite automata have only finite amount of memory in the form of states and that they can not distinguish infinitely many strings. a and aa are indistinguishable with respect to the language an over alphabet { a }. For example.Non-Regular Languages Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Regular Languages Non-Regular Languages Subjects to be Learned • • • Existence of non-regular languages Myhill . however. But any finite automaton has only finite number of states. languages that are not regular and therefore require devices other than finite automata to recognize them. This is the basis of two of the regularity test methods we are going to study below: Myhill-Nerode Theorem and Pumping Lemma.Next -. where n is a positive integer. Thus it must be in different states when it has read different number of a's and starts reading the first b. Since a regular language must be recognized by a finite automaton. either xz and yz are both in L or they are both not in L. because aak and aaak are in the language an for any . In this section we are going to study some of the methods for testing given languages for regularity and see some of the languages that are not regular. That is the main limitation of finite automata. There are.

Using this concept of indistinguishability. operations + and * and left and right parentheses. Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set S1. Hence L2 is nonregular. b } and it is infinite. For example. the set of strings consisting of one or more right parentheses followed by identifier x. Consider the set of strings S2 which is the same as S1 of Example 1 above. Consider the set of strings S3 = { (k x | k is a positive integer } . Example 2: L2 = { ww | w {a. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L3 unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. S1 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. b }* } is nonregular. Then akbm is not in L1 while ambm is in L1 . Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L2 . Theorem : A language L over alphabet is nonregular if and only if there is an infinite subset of * . Select bm as a string to be appended to ak and am . Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S2. We are going to show that its strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L1.positive integer k. Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L1 . L3 can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: x and y are in L3 . with respect to the language anbn . then ( + ) and ( * ) are in L3 . where k and m are positive integers and k m . the following theorem by Myhill and Nerod gives a criterion for (non)regularity of a language. Select bakb as a string to be appended to ak and am . (x*y) . a and aa are not indistinguishable (hence distinguishable). Then akbakb is in L2 while ambakb is not in L2 . It can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L2 as follows. However. S1 is over alphabet { a . ( ( x + y ) * x ) and (( (x*y) + x ) + (y*y) ) are algebraic expressions. Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set. x . Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. Inductive Clause: If and are in L3 . b } can be shown to be nonregular using Myhill-Nerode as follows: Consider the set of strings S1 = { an | n is a positive integer } . because ab is in the language anbn while aab is not in the language. For more on Myhill-Nerode theorem click here. It is stated without a proof. where k and m are positive integers and k m . whose strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L. This set is infinite . that is. Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } over alphabet { a . Hence L1 is nonregular. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S1. S2 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem.

Hence L3 is not regular. Then the substring representing that cycle (bba in the example) can be repeated any number of times within the string w without being rejected by the NFA. are also accepted by the NFA. abbabbabbabbb etc. Then (k x + [ + x ) ]k is in L3 but (m x + [ + x ) ]k is not in L3 because the number of ('s is not equal to the number of )'s in the latter string. Those strings which are accepted by this NFA and whose length is greater than 5 have a substring which can be repeated any number of times without being rejected by the NFA. The following theorem which is called Pumping Lemma is based on this observation. For example [ + x ) ]3 is +x) +x)+x) .and it can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 as follows: Let (k x and (m x be arbitrary two strings of S3 . the resultant strings such as abbb (bba repeated 0 times). Pumping Lemma Let us consider the NFA given below. In general if a string w (such as abbabbb in the example above) is accepted by an NFA with n states and if its length is longer than n. then there must be a cycle in the NFA along some path from the initial state to some accepting state (such as the cycle 2-3-4-2 in the above example). Select [ + x ) ]k as a string to be appended to (k and (m . Hence S3 is pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 . It . abbabbabbb etc. This NFA accepts among others some strings of length greater than 5 such as abbabbb. For example the string abbabbb is accepted by the NFA and if one of its substrings bba is repeated any number of times in abbabbb. where k and m are positive integers and k m . abbabbabbb.

v = ap. the language is not necessarily regular. Then for any string x in L with |x| n. and for every m 0. that is. Since |v| > 0 . It is stated without a proof here. Suppose that L is regular and let n be the number of states of an FA that accepts L. Since p > 0 . n . Hence L is not a regular 0. v and w which satisfy the following relationships: x = uvw |uv| n |v| > 0 and for every integer m 0. where k is a natural number. Thus Pumping Lemma can not be used to prove the regularity of a language. Hence an+pbn can not be in the L. This violates the condition that for every m language. Then uv2w = an-pa2pbn = an+pbn . Example 4: As an example to illustrate how Pumping Lemma might be used to prove that a language is nonregular. let us prove that the language L = akbk is nonregular. v has at least one symbol. Let n be the number of states of that FA. Consider a string x = anbn for that n. v. there are strings u. Note that Pumping Lemma gives a necessity for regular languages and that it is not a sufficiency. It can only show that a language is nonregular. then any long enough string of the language has a substring which can be repeated any number of times with the resultant strings still in the language. Also since |uv| Let us now consider the string uvmw for m = 2. |uv| n |v| > 0 . even if there is an integer n that satisfies the conditions of Pumping Lemma. for some p > 0 . and w such that x = uvw. uvmw Test Your Understanding of Non-regularity . Then there must be strings u. n. Pumping Lemma : Suppose that a language L is regular. uvmw L.states that if a language is regular. uvmw L. n + p language L represented by akbk . Then there is an FA that accepts L.

Then there is a string z such that xz is in L and yz is not in L (or xz is not in L and yz is in L). Proof of Theorem Necessity Suppose that a language L is regular and two strings. the DFA reaches different states. Then the theorem is is staed as follows: Theorem: A language L over alphabet is regular if and only if the set of equivalence classes of is finite. say x and y. If there are three strings that are distinguished with respect . if and only if }. if and only if they are indistinguishable with respect to . are distinguishable with respect to L. that is. then Submit. Click True or Fals . This means that if x and y are read by an DFA that recognizes L.Context-Free Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Myhill-Nerode Theorem The non-regularity test for languages by Myhill-Nerode is based on the following theorem which is in the contrapositive form of the theorem used for nonregularity test. Also it is a corollary to Myhill-Nerode theorem: Let { be the followijg relation on }={ : For strings and of .Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Next -.

. [ ]=[ } ]. if the number of classes of strings that are pairwise indistinguishable with respect to a language L is finite. the index) of and let . Hence if there are infinitely many strings to be distinguished with respect to L. ) as follows: ]} ].to L. are in different classes for and are distinguishable with respect to L. DFA ( = {[ =[ = {[ ( . .. if and in [ ]..e. To prove this. is in exactly one equivalence class. then the language L is regular. making them belong to different [ Hence is a function. . Let . let [x] denote a class of strings that are indistinguishable from a string x with respect to L. . be representatives of those distinct equivalence classes. then the language is not regular. then ]'s. Hence if there is an infinite set of strings which are pairwise distinguishable with respect to a language.. We will show that a DFA that accepts L can be constructed using these equivalence classes. be the number of distinct equivalence classes (i. [ . note that for every string [ ]. Let us now show that this machine is in fact a DFA and it accepts the language First. Note that "indistinguishable with respect to L" is an equivalence relation over the set of strings (denote it by ) and [x]'s are equivalence classes. then the DFA must have infinitely many states. where [ ] =[ ] for all . then the DFA reaches three different states after reading those three strings... . Sufficiency Conversely. which it can not because a DFA must have a finite number of states.. ]. .. ]. Then we construct a . namely ] and ]. For..

. where . first note that if . let us show that this DFA accepts string in [ ] is also in L. Since . . if the set of its equivalence classes is finite. Hence Hence we have shown that for every string ]. First some terminology. Our proof is by structural induction on string Basis Step: = =[ ]. this means that the DFA accepts Myhill-Nerode Theorem Let us here state Myhill-Nerode Theorem. Myhill-Nerode Theorem can now be stated as follows: The following three statements are equivalent: (1) A language is regular. Then by the definition of . then every We then show that for every string . =[ ]. where ].Next. by the definition of = . if then for every . =[ ]. where ] is the equivalence class that belongs to. For that. . = [ ]. Inductive Step: Assume Then for every But =[ Hence =[ ]. for DFA. An equivalence relation on is said to be right invariant if for every . if a string in [ in ] is in . . ] by the induction hypothesis. Hence =[ = . . Also an equivalence relation is said to be of finite index. With these terminology. . ]. by the definition of = .

For the following context-free grammar G1 = < V1 . Definition (Context-Free Grammar) : A 4-tuple G = < V . Let us define context-free grammars and context-free languages here. S -> ab }.(2) L is the union of some of the equivalence classes of a right invariant equivalent relation of finite index. S . = { a . P1 > generates L1 : V1 = { S } . b } and P1 = { S -> aSb . Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } is a context-free language. where X the start symbol. Context-Free Languages Context-Free Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Context-Free Grammar Context-Free Languages Push Down Automata Contents Earlier in the discussion of grammars we saw context-free grammars. grammar (CFG) if V and . Proofs are omitted. . are finite sets sharing no elements between them. where X is a nonterminal and is a nonempty string of terminals and nonterminals. S . They are grammars whose productions have the form X -> . (3) is of finite index. S . Most programming languages can be approximated by context-free grammar and compilers for them have been developed based on properties of context-free languages. P > is a context-free V is V. and P is a finite set of productions of the form X -> and (V )* . A language is a context-free language (CFL) if all of its strings are generated by a context-free grammar. . The set of strings generated by a context-free grammar is called a context-free language and context-free languages can describe many practically important systems.

that is. Next define Vc = V1 V2 { Sc } and Pc = P1 P2 { Sc -> S1S2 } . For example { < statement > -> < if-statement > . S -> bb }. Properties of Context-Free Language Theorem 1: Let L1 and L2 be context-free languages. S -> x . S . P3 > generates L3 : V3 = { S } . 3. Pu > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1 L2 . . first relabel symbols of V2 . S -> aa . Then let Su be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . < expression > -> < logicalexpression > . b }+ } is a context-free language . For L1* . 3 = { x . < expression > . Then L3 is a context-free language. For the following context-free grammar G3 = < V3 . < expression > -> < algebraic-expression > . . Ss -> L2 . For the following context-free grammar G2 = < V2 . and L1* are . w is spelled backward to obtain wr . S . . . . } . y . Then it can be easily seen that Gu = < Vu . concatenation and Kleene star of context-free grammars as follows: Let G1 = < V1 . where w is a nonempty string and wr denotes the reversal of string w. < expression > ) < statement > . respectively. S2 . Then it can be easily seen that Gc = < Vc . P2 > generates L2 : V2 = { S } . . Similarly for L1L2 . if necessary. Su -> S2 } .Example 2: L2 = { wwr| w {a. Example 4: Portions of the syntaxes of programming languages can be described by context-free grammars. . < forstatement > -> for ( < expression > . operations + and * and left and right parentheses. ( . = { a . Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. let Ss be a symbol which is not in V1 . S1 . + . if necessary. Sc . . b } and P2 = { S -> aSa . first relabel symbols of V2 . . ) . . P1 > and G2 = < V2 . L1L2 . . Pc > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1L2 . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. . P2 > be context-free grammars generating L1 and L2 . Outline of Proof This theorem can be verified by constructing context-free grammars for union. < statement > -> < for-statement > . . . < if-statement > -> if ( < expression > ) < statement > . Next define Vu = V1 V2 { Su } and Pu = P1 P2 { Su -> S1 . S -> S*S . Then L1 context-free languages. < statement > -> < assignment > . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. Su . S -> bSb . Then for L1 L2 . . * } and P3 = { S -> ( S + S ) . Then let Ps = P1 { Ss -> SsS1 . . S -> y }. Then let Sc be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 .

A pushdown automaton ( or PDA for short ) is a 7-tuple M = < Q . ) means the following: The automaton moves from the current state of p to the next state q when it sees an input symbol a at the input and X at the top of the stack. and it replaces X with the string at the top of the stack. push them into the stack. where Q = { q0 . as a's are read by the finite automaton. When all the symbols of the input string are read. context-free languages are also accepted by automata but not finite automata. . Let us consider a context-free language anbn . check the stack. They need a little more complex automata called pushdown automata. Thus its transition function specifies the new top of the stack contents as well as the next state. Thus ( p . q0 . For example. Z0 . > . If it is empty. Ps > is a context-free grammar that Like regular languages which are accepted by finite automata. Let us define this new type of automaton formally. but also by the symbol at the top of the stack. A . accept the string. Second. A is the set of accepting states is the transition function and :Q ( ( } -> 2 Q * . generates the language L1* . This automaton behaves like a finite automaton except the following two points: First. where Q is a finite set of states. . As soon as the symbol b appears stop storing a's and start popping a's one by one every time a b is read. Example 1 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . . > . A . . and are finite sets ( the input and stack alphabet. Otherwise reject it. If another a (or anything other than b) is read after the first b.} . q0 . q0 is the initial state. respectively ). Ss . reject the string. X ) = ( q . Z0 is the initial stack symbol and it is a member of . its next state is determined not only by the input symbol being read. It can be seen that the grammar Gs = < Vs . the contents of the stack can also be changed every time an input symbol is read. Z0 . Pushdown Automata . Any string of this language can be tested for the membership for the language by a finite automaton if there is a memory such as a pushdown stack that can store a's of a given input string. . a .

Thus the configuration is ( q1 . x . ). q2 } . . If ( q . Initially its configuration is ( q0 . To describe the operation of a PDA we are going to use a configuration of PDA. aa ) q0 q1 q1 b b a a Z0 ( q1 . aZ0 ) ( q1 . aabb . Z0 ) This pushdown automaton accepts the language anbn . ). aaZ0 ) ( q1 . Z0 . b } . aabb . following table: = { a . ) by a sequence of zero or more moves.x. b . where the input is read from left to right and the top of the stack corresponds to the leftmost symbol of . Thus aabb is accepted by this PDA. This entire process can be expressed using the configurations as ( q0 . it is ( q0 . ) to configuration ( q . another a is popped from the top of the stack and the PDA stays in state q1 . ) in a single move (a single application of the transition function) we write (p. b . aabb . Let us now see how the PDA of Example 1 operates when it is given the string aabb . Z0 ) * ( q2 . . x .q1 . . Z0 ) . where q is the state the PDA is currently in. ) ( q1 . A . Z0 ).y. . ) ( q2 . y . Next it moves to the state q2 which is the accepting state. b . (p. After reading the second a. ) . . x . aZ0 ). aZ0 ) ( q0 . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . ) ) (q. for example. = { a . q0 . bb . A configuration of a PDA M = < Q . we can also write ( q0 . aZ0 ). Then when the first b is read. * (q. Z0 ). aZ 0 ) q0 a a ( q0 . Z0 ). After reading the first a. Z0 ) ( If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. . y . Z0 ) q2 . we write ) is reached from ( p . ( q0 . A = { q2 } and let be as given in the State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . > is a triple ( q . To express that the PDA moves from configuration ( p . x is the unread portion of the input string and is the current stack contents. Z0 } .x.y. its configuration is ( q0 . bb . abb . When the second b is read. . aaZ0 ). abb . it moves to state q1 and pops a from the top of the stack.

Like FAs. . acceptance by final state) if (q0. q2 } . * (q.a. then an arc from state p to state q is added to the diagram and it is labeled with ( a . arcs are labeled differently than FAs. . for some in *. however. aZ 0 ) q0 b Z0 ( q0 . x. ) ) ) ) ( q1 . If ( q . Example 2 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . Z 0 ) In this table represents either a or b. Z0) . and an accepting state q. PDAs can also be represented by transition diagrams. q1 . q0 . X ) = ( p . Z0 } . a ( q0 . b . X / ) indicating that X at the top of the stack is replaced by upon reading a from the input. c } . b . . ). where Q = { q0 . a . ( q1 . bZ 0 ) q0 q0 q0 q1 q1 q1 a b c a b a b Z0 ( q0 . b ( q1 . For PDAs.k. > . For example the transition diagram of the PDA of Example 1 is as shown below. Z0 . = { a . A = { q2 } and let be as given in the following table: State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . ) . A . = { a . ) ( q2 .A string x is accepted by a PDA (a.

a . bcbba . bbcbba . . When c is detected.This pushdown automaton accepts the language { wcwr | w { a . Z 0 ) ( q2 . aZ0 ) ( q0 . it pops the stack. 1 Further topics on CFL • PDA and Context-Free Language There is a procedure to construct a PDA that accepts the language generated by a given context-free grammar and conversely. The transition diagram of the PDA of Example 2 is as shown below. Z 0 ) . Z0 ) ( q0 . cbba . bbaZ0 ) ( q1 . When there are no more unread input symbols and Z0 is at the top of the stack. aZ0 ) ( q1 . Otherwise it rejects the input string. bba . it goes through the following configurations and accepts it. In the figure and 2 represent a or b. ba . For example for the input abbcbba. b }* } . bbaZ0 ) . ( q0 . it accepts the input string. . which is the set of palindromes with c in the middle. baZ0 ) ( q1 . baZ0 ) ( q1 . That means that a language is . it ignores c and from that point on if the top of the stack matches the input symbol. abbcbba . ( q0 . This PDA pushes all the a's and b's in the input into stack until c is encountered.

"bites" is the verb and "a man" is the object of the verb. ???? references on Parsing ???? . then add the result to x. Thus they are widely used for compilers for high level programming languages and natural language processing systems. Parsing is the process of interpreting given input strings according to predetermined rules i. then multiply the result by z. The parsing for context-free languages and regular languages have been extensively studied. it could also be interpreted as ( x + y )z meaning that first compute x + y. However. For example in the sentence "A man bites a dog". Contect-free grammars are powerful grammars. there are strings v. y and z which satisfy u = vwxyz |wy| > 0 |wxy| n 0 .context-free if and only if there is a PDA that accepts it. w. compute yz first. native English speakers know that it is the dog that bites and not the other way round. By parsing sentences we identify the parts of the sentences and determine the strutures of the sentences so that their meanings can be understood correctly. it does not know which interpretation to use unless it is explicitly instructed to follow one or the other. we are not going to study parsing here. Thus if a computer is given the string x + yz. Then there is a positive integer n such that for any string u in L with |u| n . productions of grammars. Interested readers are referred to the textbook and other sources. They can describe much of programming languages and basic structures of natural languages.e. Though we are accustomed to interpreting this as x + (yz) i. vwmxymz L for every integer m • Parsing and Parsers for CFL Consider the algebraic expression x + yz.e. • Pumping Lemma for Context-Free Language Let L be a CFL. "A dog" is the subject. Similar things happen when English sentences are processed by computers (or people as well for that matter). Those procedures are omitted here. a computer like non-English speaking people must be told how to interpret sentences such as the first noun phrase (" A dog") is usually the subject of a sentence. However. a verb phrase usually follow the noun phrase and the first word in the verb phrase is the verb and it is followed by noun phrases reprtesenting object(s) of the verb. x.

however. Next -. and the machines that can process them: Turing machines. Turing machines were conceived of by the English mathematician Alan . the phrase structure languages (also called Type 0 languages). of limited capability and there are many languages that they can not process.Turing Machines Back to Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • • • Definition of Turing Machine Configuration Operation of Turing Machine Contents Introduction We have studied two types of languages from the Chomsky hierarchy: regular languages and context-free languages. then Submit. Click True or Fals .Test Your Understanding of Contect-Free Language Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. They are. In this chapter we are going to study the most general of the languages in Chomsky hierarchy. These languages can describe many practically important systems and so they are heavily used in practice.

its head is a read-write head and it can move left. We are going to study Turing machines here and through that limitations of computers and computation as we know today. This conjecture is known as Church's thesis and today it is generally accepted as true. it stops its operation. consists of a finite control and a tape. a Turing machine starts at the initial state. unlike finite automata. At any state it reads the symbol under the head. The tape has the left end but it extends infinitely to the right. right or stay at the same square after a read or write. Computers we use today are as powerful as Turing machines except that computers have finite memory while Turing machines have infinite memory. either erases it or replaces it with a symbol (possibly the same symbol). Definition Conceptually a Turing machine. It then moves the head to left or right or does not move it and goes to the next state which may be the same as the current state. At any time it is in one of the finite number of states. like finite automata. . One of its states is the halt state and when the Turing machine goes into the halt state.Turing as a model of human "computation". Given a string of symbols on the tape. Later Alonzo Church conjectured that any computation done by humans or computers can be carried out by some Turing machine. However. It is also divided into squares and a symbol can be written in each square.

State (q) Input (X) Move ( q0 q1 q2 q3 q3 a b a (q. The symbol h is used to denote the halt state. q0 is the initial state.Formally a Turing machine is a 5-tuple T = < Q. is a finite set of symbols and it is the input alphabet. > accepts the language aba* . Example 1 : The following Turing machine < Q1 . R ) ( q3 . It is a mapping from Q ( { } ) to ( Q { h } ) ( { }) {R. D ) indicating that the state is changed from q to r. an arc from q to r is drawn with label ( X/Y . is a finite set of symbols containing as its subset and it is the set of tape symbols. which is assumed not to contain the symbol h. where Q is a finite set of states. . R ) (h. b . L or S . S}. A transition diagram can also be drawn for a Turing machine. . where D represents R. It is assumed that the tape has at the left end and the head is initially at the left end of the tape. is the transition function but its value may not be defined for certain points. D ) . = { a . q3 } . . Y. a . q1. q0 . a . where Q1 = { q0. . q2. R ) ( q2 . R ) ( q3 . = { a . q0. The states are represented by vertices and for a transition ( q. b } and is as given by the table below. Here denotes the blank and R. . > . X) ) ( q1 . X ) = ( r.S) A transition diagram of this Turing machine is given below. b } . L and S denote move the head right. the symbol X currently being read is changed to Y and the tape head is moved as directed by D. . left and do not move it. respectively. .L.

aba ) ( q2 . . aba ) ( q1 . the taper contents are the string aababb and the head is reading the last a of the string. yaz ) for some symbol a { } and some strings y and z in ( * { } ) . ( q0 . In this case we also say that the Turing machine halts on input x. zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in one move. and ( p . aba ) . For example ( q . > if x ) * ( h.Turing Machine that accepts aba* To describe the operation of Turing machine we use configuration. We write ( p . A string x is said to be accepted by a Turing machine* T = < Q . q0 . The set of strings accepted by a Turing machine is the language accepted by the Turing machine. Note that the Turing machine does not stop if a string is not in the language. aababb ) shows that the Turing machine is currently in state q. A configuration for a Turing machine is an ordered pair of the current state and the tape contents with the symbol currently under the head marked with underscore. If the Turing machine needs to be explicitly indicated T or T* is used. xay ) ( q . zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in zero or more moves. aba ) ( q3 . For example the Turing machine of Example 1 above goes through the following sequence of configurations to accept the string aba: ( q0 . . aba ) (h. A Turing machine T is said to decide a language L if and only if T writes "yes" and halts if a string is in L and T writes "no" and halts if a string is not in L. xay ) * ( q .

the second is a Turing machine that accepts { a } but goes into a loop if a string is not in the language (hence it accepts but doe not decide { a }) and the third decides { a }.The first of the following figures shows a Turing machine that accepts but does not decide the language { a }. where = { a }. .

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. to the right of Example 3 : The following Turing machine erases the string on the tape and moves the head to the left end. This Turing machine is denoted by TE.Example 2 : The following Turing machine moves the head to the first the current position. It is denoted by TR . It is assumed that initially the tape has at the left end.

In cases (2) and (3). the operation of the Turing machine is aborted. For example the following Turing machine accepts the language a+.Strings not Accepted by Turing Machines When a string is not accepted by a Turing machine. but it goes into an infinite loop for any strings that are not in the language. one of the following three things happens: (1) The Turing machine goes into an infinite loop. that is when a Turing machine does not halt on a string. (2) no transition is specified for the current configuration and (3) the head is at the left end and it is instructed to move left. .

* and for every x that is not in S. f(x) ) * . Then we say T computes f or f is computable if for every x ( q0 . With this definition. a string is accepted by a Turing machine if given the string. * Note on "Turing-acceptable": Some books define "acceptance by Turing machine" slightly differently. the Turing machine eventually goes into the accept halt state. T does not halt on x. reject a string and halt. A Turing machine thus may accept a string and halt. x) * ( h. there is no difference between these two definitions of "accept". there are two halt states: "accept halt" and "reject halt".Turing machine accepting a+ Computabler Function Let S * and let f be a function f : S -> S. A language is a phrase structure (type 0) langauage if and only if it is Turing-acceptable in either sense and it has no effects on decidablility. in the Turing machines those books define. As far as the material discussed in this class note. or loop. That is. .

Next -. any "computation" done by human beings or machines can be done by some Turing machine. Click True or Fals . Here we are going to study how complex Turing machines can be constructed using simple Turing machines and how computers can be simulated by Turing machines.Combination of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Combination of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Combination of Turing Machines Contents Combination of Turing Machines We have seen the definition of Turing machine and a few simple examples. There are two sets of questions. We have already seen TR . Furthermore according to the Church's thesis. then Submit. In fact Turing machines that simulate computers and Turing machines that perform computations done by any algorithm can be constructed. It moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) .Test Your Understanding of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Let us start with some basic Turing machines. One can construct many more Turing machines that perform various functions.

T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that first executes T1. Also by TR and TL we denote Turing machines that move the head to right and left one position. To combine Turing machines we use the following conventions: Let T1 and T2 represent arbitrary Turing machines. takes the head to the right end of the string and halts. respectively. Using these basic machines and the convention. then T2 is started as in the case of T1T2 . Then by T we denote a Turing machine that writes symbol at the current position and does not move the head (stays). Similarly by TL we denote a Turing machine that moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) to the left of the current position. T1T2 and T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that behaves initially like T1 and when T1 halts T2 takes over inheriting the head position and the tape contents of T1 . Then if T1 halts and if the symbol currently under the head is . Example 4: The following machine shifts the tape contents to the left one position.to the right of the current position. . Below is assumed to be at the left end of the tape initially. Otherwise it crashes. The halt state of T1 becomes the initial state of T2 . let us construct a little more complex Turing machines.

An adder can be constructed for example as TR -> TSL TL . natural numbers are represented on a Turing machine using symbol I. . Example 6: The following Turing machine copies the tape contents at the left end to their right separated by a blank . In general to represent a natural number k. II III ) . After the addition the configuration becomes ( h . that is ( q0 . IIIII ) . m I's and n I's with a blank between them are placed on the tape. So the initial configuration for adding 2 and 3 is ( q0 . To add two numbers m and n.For example with the initial tape contents of sequence of tape contents and ends with ab ab -> ab : ab . First. x x). it goes through the following -> aab -> a -> a -> abb -> ab -> ab -> ab Example 5: The left-shift machine of Example 4 can be used to construct an adder for natural numbers. x) * b b (h. For example the number 3 is represented by three consecutive I's on the tape and 5 by five I's. After adding two numbers placed on the tape it moves the head to the left end and halts. k consecutive I's are put on the tape.

All the other operations can be realized by using those basic operations. the branch operation is already in Turing machines because next configurations are determined based on the current state and tape symbol being looked at. Thus by combining appropriate Turing machines a computer with a minimal instruction set can be constructed. then Submit. it is not difficult to construct a Turing machine that performs subtraction using the same representation of numbers as for the addition. all of those instructions can be realized using combinations of a small number of basic instructions. one can say that computers can be simulated by Turing machines. The following notations are used in the questions: . A bare minimum instruction set would contain addition. and store and load operations can be taken care of by a Turing machine that copies tape contents. In fact many of the earlier computers had a much smaller instruction set but still could do everything today's computers can do albeit much more slowly. Since any complex computer instructions can be realized using those basic instructions. Test Your Understanding of Combination of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Furthermore if the subtraction operation is necessary. However. store and load operations. there is a Turing machine that performs addition. branching. On the other hand as we have seen above.Today's computers are very complex machines and their instruction sets contain complicated operations. Click True or Fals .

To simulate a two dimensional tape with a one dimensional tape. ones having one tape but with multiple heads. first we map the squares of the two dimensional tape to those of the one dimensional tape diagonally as shown in . Turing Machines with Two Dimensional Tapes This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control.Types of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Types of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Variation of Turing Machine Contents There are a number of other types of Turing machines in addition to the one we have seen such as Turing machines with multiple tapes. That is.T_a : Ta T_R : TR ->^b : ->b Next -. the efficiency of computation. nondeterministic Turing machines etc. one read-write head and one two dimensional tape. However. It is divided into rows of small squares. that is. what one type can compute any other can also compute. The tape has the top end and the left end but extends indefinitely to the right and down. that is. may vary. how fast they can compute. For any Turing machine of this type there is a Turing machine with a one dimensional tape that is equally powerful. the former can be simulated by the latter. It turns out that computationally all these Turing machines are equally powerful. ones with two dimensional tapes.

.. If h was hit first. Thus from h. . . .... . v 15 17 25 .. . then for the one dimensional tape... then (k+1)-th square to the right from v is the new head position... move 3 positions to the right. One Dimensional Tape v 1 v 2 3 h 4 5 6 v 7 8 9 10 h 11 ...... which is the second square from i = 5. . That is the square corresponding to the square below i in the two dimensional tape... . then from h move the head of the one dimensional tape further right to the k-th square from h.. .. respectively.. ... then move the head of the one dimensional tape to right until it hits h or v counting the number of squares it has visited after i. Let us simulate this head move with a one dimensional tape. . If the head moves down to position 13.. .. ... .. ..... The head of a two dimensional tape moves one square up. v 16 26 ..... .. . If v was hit first.. which is the third square from 8.the following tables: Two Dimensional Tape v v h 1 h 3 h 4 h 10 h 11 h 21 ... down. . Let i be the head position of the two dimensional tape... If the head moves down from i..< . . .... . .. .. v 7 14 18 24 .. v 6 8 13 19 23 .. h and v are symbols which are not in the tape alphabet and they are used to mark the left and the top end of the tape. . .. .. ..> .. v 2 5 9 12 20 22 . then on the one dimensional tape the head moves to the right and it hits v first.. For example.. suppose that the head position is at 8 for the two dimensional tape in the above table... .. Then it meets h first. . Let k be the number of squares visited by the head of the one dimensional tape. .. If i = 5 and the head moves down on the other hand.. left or right. that is i = 8.. Here the numbers indicate the correspondence of squares in the two tapes: square i of the two dimensional tape is mapped to square i of the one dimensional tape... Thus this time the third square is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 9 on the two dimensional tape. . the head moves from position 8 to right. That is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 13 on the two dimensional tape... . . .

it can be said that they are equally powerful. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . The transition function is a partial function : Q { H1 . It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . . It can be proven that any language accepted by an n-tape Turing machine can be accepted by a one tape Turing machine and that any function computed by an n-tape Turing machine can be computed by a one tape Turing machine. . Its transition function is a partial function :Q ( { } )n -> ( Q { h } ) ( { } )n { R . q0. In each state only one of the heads is allowed to read and write. right or left on the two dimensional tape. Since Turing machines with a two dimensional tape obviously can simulate Turing machines with a one dimensional tape.S It can be easily seen that this type of Turing machines are as powerful as one tape Turing machines. Hence they are at least as powerful as Turing machines with a two dimensional tape.L. Hn } ( { } ) -> ( Q }. Details are omitted. Thus some Turing machines with a one dimensional tape can simulate every move of a Turing machine with one two dimensional tape.. Hn denote the tape heads. . S } n . . L .. Turing Machines with Multiple Heads : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape but more than one read-write heads. . It turns out that this type of Turing machines are only as powerful as one tape Turing machines whose tape has a left end. where H1 . one can say that one tape Turing machines are as powerful as n-tape Turing machines. Turing Machines with Multiple Tapes : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and more than one tapes each with its own read-write head. .. Turing Machines with Infinite Tape : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape which extends infinitely in both directions. {h}) ( { } {R.. H2 . q0.Similarly formulas can be found for the head position on the one dimensional tape corresponding to move up. Since the converses are obviously true. > . H2 . >. Nondeterministic Turing Machines . A configuration for this kind of Turing machine must show the current state the machine is in and the state of each tape.

. b }* } . Given a string x . . moving the tape head and going to a next state. like nondeterministic finite automata. on the other hand. It must find the midpoint by for example pairing off symbols from either end of x. A deterministic Turing machine. The set of all possible computations that TN can perform for a given string x can be represented by a rooted tree as follows. can not guess the midpoint of the string x.S}. it is understood that a nondeterministic Turing machine at any configuration selects one combination of next state. They form level 1. Proof : Let TN denote a nondeterministic Turing machine. Here an action means the combination of writing a symbol on the tape. can take any action selecting from a set of specified actions rather than taking one definite predetermined action. goes into an infinite loop or aborts. 2. The children of all the vertices of level i form level i+1.L. Even in the same situation it may take different actions at different times. TN starts at the initial configuration and goes through a sequence of configurations until it reaches a halt configuration . It can be shown that a nondeterministic Turing machine is only as powerful as a deterministic Turing machine. At any point in the process TN is in some configuration and has a finite set of configurations to choose from for its next configuration. . For example consider the following nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts a+ . The root of the tree is the initial configuration and it is the only vertex of level 0. All possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN once form the children of the initial configuration. Note that the number of children for a vertex in this tree is finite because the number of states is finite and there are a finite number of tape symbols. that is the place where the second half of x starts. tape symbol and head movement out of the set of triples without following any specific predetermined rule. As in the case of NFA. Theorem Any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by some deterministic Turing machine. . Formally a nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine whose transition function takes values that are subsets of ( Q {h}) ( { } {R. at any state it is in and for the tape symbol it is reading. a nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts this language L would first guess the midpoint of x. In general for each vertex of level i all possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN are its children. For example let us consider the language L = { ww : w { a . Given a string x.A nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine which.. Then it would compare the first half of x with the second half by comparing the i-th symbol of the first half with the i-th symbol of the second half for i = 1.

aa ) ( h . aa ) . it would proceed as follows to accept it: ( q0 . aa ) for the second. aa ) for the third. aa ) and ( q2 . aa ) and ( q2 . aa ) ( q1 . aa ) ( q1 . The tree for this case would be as follows: . it has two candidates for the next configuration: ( q1 .Turing machine accepting a+ Given the string aa. aa ) ( q2 . At the second and third configurations in the above sequence. and ( q1 .

However.Unsolvable Problems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Unsolvable Problems . with a deterministic one. Next -. In fact the Church's thesis conjectures that any so called computation done by humans or computers can be performed by a basic deterministic Turing machine. though a deterministic Turing machine might take much more time than a nondeterministic Turing machine to accept a string. These children are the configurations of the next level and they are stored on the tape (if necessary a second tape may be used).One way to simulate a nondeterministic Turing machine. it has been shown that none of them exceed the capability of basic deterministic Turing machine as far as accepting languages is concerned. then T2 accepts the string and halts. then Submit. Test Your Understanding of Different Types of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Many other variations of Turing machine are possible. Thus any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by a deterministic Turing machine. Click True or Fals . At each level of the tree. call it T1. If there is the halting state among these children. is to traverse this tree breadth-first way from the root until the halt state is reached. call it T2. T2 applies the transition function of T1 to each configuration at that level and computes its children. It can be easily seen that T2 accepts a string if and only if T1 accepts it.

Since we can not wait forever for an answer. Then there is a Turing machine T that solves the halting problem. Here "unsolvability" is in the following sense. hence unsolvable. Below we are going to see some well known unsolvable problems and see why we can say they are unsolvable. L. that is computationally they are equally powerful. does M halt when it is given w as an input ? It can be shown that the halting problem is not decidable. In this chapter we are going to learn that there are problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers. Thus if a language is not decidable. T writes "yes" if M halts on w and "no" if M does not halt on w. Then given a string a Turing machine that accept the language starts the computation. Suppose that the halting problem is decidable. . So we are going to look at the unsolvability in terms of language recognition. given a description of a Turing machine M (over the alphabet ) and a string w. the question of whether or not a string is in the language may not be answered in any finite amount of time. Halting Problem One of well known unsolvable problems is the halting problem. Proof (by M. the question is unanswerable that is the problem is unsolvable. That is. At any point in time. and an arbitrary string w over .Subjects to be Learned • • • Halting Problem Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents We have learned that deterministic Turing machines are capable of doing any computation that computers can do. Minsky): This is going to be proven by "proof by contradiction". if the Turing machine is running. there is no way of telling whether it is in an infinite loop or along the way to a solution and it needs more time. It is also conjectured that any "computation" human beings perform can be done by Turing machines (Church's thesis). and that any of their variations do not exceed the computational power of deterministic Turing machines. b } . Suppose that a language is acceptable but not decidable. Theorem 1 : The halting problem is undecidable. First recall that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language (see Problem Solving as Language Recognition). It asks the following question: Given an arbitrary Turing machine M over alphabet = { a . and then T halts.

First we construct a Turing machine Tm by modifying T so that if T accepts a string and halts. . where * is a symbol that separates the two copies of d(M) and then supplies d(M)*d(M) to the Turing machine Tm . then Tm goes into an infinite loop (Tm halts if the original T rejects a string and halts). Next using Tm we are going to construct another Turing machine Tc as follows: Tc takes as input a description of a Turing machine M. copies it to obtain the string d(M)*d(M).We are now going to construct the following new Turing machine Tc. denoted by d(M).

Hence there is no Turing machine that solves the halting problem.Let us now see what Tc does when a string describing Tc itself is given to it. Program correctness and Halting Problem Note that for any computer program a Turing machine can be constructed that performs the task of the program. The way T was modified the modified T is going to go into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). When Tc gets the input d(Tc) . Thus Tc goes into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and it halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). This is a contradiction. constructs the string d(Tc)*d(Tc) and gives it to the modified T. . it makes a copy. Thus one implication of the halting problem is that there can be no computer programs (Turing machines) that check whether or not any arbitrary computer program stops for a given input. This contradiction has been deduced from our assumption that there is a Turing machine that solves the halting problem. Hence that assumption must be wrong. Thus the question of whether or not a program halts for a given input is nothing but the halting problem. Thus the modified T is given a description of Turing machine Tc and the string d(Tc).

Next -. then Submit. Click True or Fals .More Unsolvable Preoblems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines More Unsolvable Problems Subjects to be Learned • • Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents The next unsolvable problem is in a sense more difficult than the halting problem.Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. It is presented as a language and it can be shown that there are no Turing machines that accept the language. Language NonSelfAccepting Let us first define two languages NSA1 and NSA2 as follows: .

This is a contradiction. Hence w is in NSA1 . Hence by the definition of NSA1 . w = d(T) for a Turing machine T and T does not accept NSA2 = { w | w { a. b }*. This means that there can not be any Turing machine that accepts the language NonSelfAccepting. We are going to see that T0 neither accepts w0 nor rejects it. let w = a. that is w0 is a description of the Turing machine T0 . Hence T0 can not accept w0 . Let w0 = d( T0 ). It .NSA1 = { w | w w} { a. NSA2 is the set of strings that do not describe any Turing machine. (2) If T0 does not accept w0 . Hence either T0 accepts w0 or rejects it. But w0 = d( T0 ) because that is how we selected w0 . Hence it is in SelfAccepting . Thus neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. by the definitions of NSA1 and NSA2. NSA1 is the set of strings that describe a Turing machine but that are not accepted by the Turing machine they describe. Hence a is in NSA2 . However. that accepts NonSelfAccepting. Neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. call it T0. Certainly more symbols than a single a are needed to describe even the simplest Turing machine. b }*. Knowing the unsolvability of the halting problem some other problems can be shown to be unsolvable. then w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. w0 is in neither NSA1 nor NSA2 . which is absurd. Proof: This is going to be proven by contradiction. (1) If T0 accepts w0. Hence it is not accepted by T. then w0 NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. w d(T) for any Turing machine T } . Hence w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting . For NSA2. Then there is no Turing machine that can be described by the string a. where d(T) is a description of the Turing machine T. either w0 is in NonSelfAccepting or it isn't. Also T0 does not accept w0 . Thus there can not be Turing machine T0 that accepts the language SelfAccepting . Theorem 2 There are no Turing machines that accept the language NonSelfAccepting. Then this w is a description of a Turing machine but it must be longer than one symbol. For let T be a Turing machine that accepts { a } and let w = d(T). Let us define the language NonSelfAccepting as NonSelfAccepting = NSA1 Then we can prove the following theorem: NSA2 . This is again a contradiction. Since NonSelfAccepting is a language. Suppose there is a Turing machine. Problem Accepts( ) The problem Accepts( ) asks whetehr or not a given Turing machine T accepts . w0 is in NSA1 .

a Turing machine. M solves the halting problem. Thus if Accepts( ) is solvable. Let A be a Turing machine that solves AcceptsEverything. Then consider the Turing machine T = TeraseT' . a Turing machine. That is. Problem AcceptsEverything The problem AcceptsEverything asks whether or not a given Turing machine T halts on every string over a given alphabet . M writes the string d( T ) on the tape and let A take over. Suppose that Accepts( ) is solvable. Consider a Turing machine T = TwT'. Let T' be an instance of Accepts( ). Suppose that AcceptsEverything is solvable. This T halts on every string over if and only if T1 halts on . that solves the halting problem can be constructed as follows: Given a description d(T') of a Turing machine T' and a string w as inputs. Using this T. Let a Turing machine T' and a string w be an instance of the halting problem. Then M halts on d(T') and w if and only if T' halts on w. where Terase is a Turing machine that erases the input on the tape and halts. This T halts on if and only if T' halts on w. that solves Accepts( ) can be constructed as .can be shown to be unsolvable. We are going to show that Accepts( ) can be solved using the solution to it. this means that Accepts( ) is unsolvable. We are going to show that the halting problem becomes solvable using this A. Since the halting problem is unsolvable. Then there is a Turing machine that solves it. Using this T. where machine Tw is a Turing machine that writes w. Let A be a Turing machine that solves Accepts( ). the halting problem can be solved. call it M. which is an instance of the halting problem. call it M. Using a similar idea the following problem can also be shown to be unsolvable.

AcceptsNothing This problem asks whether or not a Turing machine accepts nothing. By similar arguments the following problems can be shown to be unsolvable. it means that AcceptsEverything is unsolvable. Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) = ? finite ? infinite ? context-free ? Is L( G1 ) = L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) = * ? Is the complement of L( G1 ) context-free ? . Then the following problems are all unsolvable. It can be shown to be unsolvable using Accepts( ) . Equivalence This problem asks whether or not two Turing machines accept the same language. It can be shown to be unsolvable using AcceptsEverything. Other Unsolvable Problems Let G1 and G2 be context-free grammars and let L(G) denote the language generated by grammar G. Since Accepts( ) is unsolvable.shown below.

No one can write computer programs that solve those problems and halt after a finite amount of time. Next -.Time Complexity of Problem Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Complexity Time Complexity Subjects to be Learned • • • • • Time Complexity of Problems Decision Tree Class NP Polynomial Time Transformation NP-Complete Problems Contents In the previous sections we have learned that some problems are unsolvable by Turing machines hence by computers. Click True or Fals . then Submit. A problem is solvable if some Turing .Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.

Similarly ( P V Q ) is also satisfiable. the equality symbol = and quantifiers and . problems that need k-exponential time algorithms. However. S). etc. In logic there is a well known problem of "satisfiability". or etc. For example. Presburger arithmetic is a logic that allows statements involving positive integers. the satisfiability problem for the propositional dynamic logic is proven to take exponential time to solve in the worst case. after(A. For example "after( if P then Q else ~Q. as we are going to see below. variables taking positive integers as their values. They are all polynomial time algorithms. In this section we are going to study solvable problems and learn a hierarchy of solvable problems based on the computation time required to solve them. Let us see some of those intractable problems. The measure for computation time we use is the worst case time. as well as all the connectives such as and.g. a heap sort needs O(n lg n) time. One can ask the same question for formulas of first order predicate logic. Then there are problems that require double exponential ( e. For example the satisfiability problem for Presburger arithmetic is double-exponential (2-fold exponentail). S) says that S is true after executing A. But (P ^ ~P ) is always false. This is a propositional logic with an extra construct (proposition) after(A. The problems that can not be solved with any polynomial time algorithm are called intractable problems . For example. They take much more time to execute than polynomial time algorithms. ~Q )" and "if P then after( if P then Q else ~Q. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved by algorithms with the worst case time which is a polynomial in the problem size (polynomial time algorithms). a quick sort needs O(n2) time. Even if it takes a million years to solve a problem. the addition operation +.machine can solve it in finite time. X [ if ~( X = 1 ). For more detailed review of this. 22n ) time algorithms. Q )" . and there are problems that require algorithms with the worst case time worse than k-exponential time for any natural number k. So it is certainly satisfiable. O(f(x)) (big-oh) and other related subjects click here. in practice if it takes a million years. It is estimated by counting the largest possible number of key operations to be performed in terms of the input size. second order logic. For example the formula ( P V ~P ) is always true. . Before proceeding to predicate logic let us consider the following logic called propositional dynamic logic (PDL for short). it is still solvable. There are also problems that must be solved at best by exponential time algorithms in the worst case. that is it requires at least O( aan ) time to solve in the worst case. where k is a natural number. then Y Z [ X = Y + Z ] ] is a proposition of Presburger arithmetic. The satisfiability problem becomes even harder when logic becomes more complex. it is as good (or bad) as unsolvable. The satisfiability problem for PDL is known to take at least exponential time to solve in the worst case. They are both satisfiable. So it is not satisfiable. where A is an algorithm and S is a statement. are propositions of PDL. where P and Q are propositions. For many problems a day or even an hour would be too long. where P is a propositional variable. This is the problem of asking whether or not a given formula can take the value true for some values of its variables. For example a binary search takes O(lg n) time. etc.

sets of integers and the predicate "belongs to" (an element X belongs to a set S) are allowed. the logic is called WS1S (Weak Second-order theory of 1 Successor). there are problems that are solved by answering with yes or no. Below we are going to characterize this class of problems. "Is a string w in the language a*b ? ". Some of these decision problems are NP-complete problems. the consensus is that they ca not be solved with polynomial time algorithms. however. At the moment. This problem is called "Graph Coloring" problem or more precisely "Vertex Color" problem. Consider the problem of coloring vertices of a graph with a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned. if. For the problems of this class there are no known polynomial time algorithms for solving them nor are they known to be unsolvable with polynomial time algorithms. "Is it possible to schedule committee meetings without conflicts into a given number of time slots ? " . Now let us go back to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. This problem belongs to a peculiar class of problems called NP-Complete problems. For the satisfiability problem of WS1S. is it possible to color its vertices with three or less colors ? . First. Such a problem (having no K-fold exponential time algorithms) is called nonelementary. in addition. Let us try to solve the following instances of this graph coloring problem: Given the following graph. " Is it possible to assign colors to vertices of a given graph using a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned ? " etc. For example. there are no K-fold exponential time algorithms to solve it for any number K. Let us here review nondeterministic Turing machines.In Presburger arithmetic (minus addition operation). These problems are called decision problems.

For the graphs of (a) and (b), you could find a solution very easily by inspection. You could see a right coloring as soon as you saw the graphs. However, you can most likely not tell how you arrived at your solutions. You probably don't have any algorithms you could use to solve them. You could somehow see the solutions. This is basically the idea of nondeterministic (Turing) machine. There is no fixed procedure which you can use repeatedly to solve instance after instance of this problem. But you can somehow solve them. Let us move on to a slightly more complex example of (c). For this graph to find a right coloring you could start with vertex 1 and assign color a. Then move on to vertex 2 and assign color b(it has to be something other than a ). Then go to vertex 3 and assign a third color, say c. Then at vertex 4 select color b and for vertex 5 use color a. In this process we make a decision as to what color to use for each vertex and when a decision is made for all the vertices we have a solution to the problem. This process applies to any decision problem. That is to solve a decision problem a number of smaller decisions are made one after another and as a result a solution to the problem is obtained. This process can be represented by a tree called decision tree. For example, for the graph coloring problem let us first decide on the order of vertices we color in, say 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for the graph of (c) above. Then the root of its decision tree corresponds to the vertex we assign a color to first (vertex 1 in this example). Then for each possible color for the first vertex, a child is created for the first vertex of the tree. So the second level of the

decision tree corresponds to the second vertex to be colored. Then in general, for each possible color for each vertex of level i of the decision tree, a child is created. Those children form level i+1 of the decision tree. The decision tree for the graph of (c) is given below. Since any color can be assigned to vertex 1 without loss of generality, it has just one child in the actual decision tree. Also since in this case the i-th and (i+1)-th vertices are connected by an edge for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, they can not have the same color. So each vertex after vertex 1 has two colors to choose from. So they each have two children in the decision tree.

Thus during the process of solving the problem a decision is made at each level and when all levels are covered, the problem is solved. A path from the root to a leaf corresponds to a coloring of the vertices of the given graph. A decision tree, however, does not tell us how to make decisions. Also a decision tree does not tell how to order the vertices for coloring, that is which vertex to color first, second etc. A deterministic machine (or algorithm) has a specific fixed set of rules for making a decision at each level of the decision tree. Although it knows what to do at every stage of problem solving, the decisions it makes are not necessarily the right ones. When it makes wrong decisions, it must retract earlier decisions and try different paths, which is called backtracking. For the graph coloring problem a deterministic algorithm might first order the vertices of the graph in decreasing order of their degree and also order colors. Then, following the

order of the vertices, assign to each vertex the highest order color available for the vertex. Since that kind of algorithm is not guaranteed to use the minimum number of colors, it may produce a wrong answer unless there is some provision for backtracking. A nondeterministic (Turing) machine, on the other hand, is a fictitious machine and somehow knows which branch (child) to select at each step. It always makes a right selection. A decision problem is said to belong to class NP if each vertex in its decision tree has a finite number of children and if it can be solved by a nondeterministic (Turing) machine in polynomial time. The graph coloring problem is in class NP, so are the satisfiability problem for propositional logic and most of the scheduling problems just to name a few. Also there are other characterizations of class NP. Interested readers click here. At this moment it is not known whether or not problems in class NP can be solved with a polynomial time algorithm in the worst case. The consensus is that there is no polynomial time algorithm to solve them. It would take at least exponential time. Among the problems in class NP, there are problems which all problems of class NP can be transformed to in polynomial time. Those problems are called NP-complete problems. If a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of the NP-complete problems, all the problems in NP can be solved in polynomial time. Below we are going to study NPcomplete problems. We start our discussion with the concept of polynomial time transformation (reduction). Basically we say a decision problem Q1 is polynomially reducible to a decision problem Q2 if and only if there is a transformation that transforms any arbitrary instance of Q1 into an instance of Q2 in polynomial time such that the answer to Q1 is yes if and only if the answer to Q2 is yes. A little more formally we define this in terms of languages. Note that a decision problem can be viewed as a language of its instances and that solving it can be considered as recognizing the language as we have seen earlier. Let L1 and L2 be languages over alphabets 1 and 2, respectively. We say that L1 is polynomial-time reducible to L2 if and only if there is a function f from 1* to 2* such that for any string x in polynomial time.

1 *

,x

L1 if and only if f(x)

L2 and f can be computed

For example let us consider the following two problems: graph coloring and scheduling of committee meetings. The graph coloring problem is as given above. In the scheduling of committee meetings problem, committees with their members and a positive integer k are given. The problem is whether or not the meetings of the committees can be scheduled in k or less time slots so that everyone can attend one's meetings. Note that some people may be in more than one committee. Let us try to show that this scheduling problem is polynomial time reducible to the graph coloring problem.

2.What we need to do is given an instance of the scheduling problem construct an instance of the graph coloring problem. and 1 and 4 share members. b }. an edge is inserted between vertices 1 and 2. Suppose also that k = 3. d } and { a. 3 and 4. c }. where p k. edges are added between 1 and 3. 3 and 4 to the graph. Corresponding to this grouping assign colors to the vertices of the graph so that the vertices in the same group are given the same color and those in . Then the committees can be grouped into p groups so that the committees in the same group can meet at the same time. Then the meetings can be scheduled in k or less time slots if and only if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. 3 and 4 with the memberships { a. Then since committees 1 and 2 share a. Proceeding similarly the following graph is obtained corresponding to the committee memberships. The corresponding graph for the graph coloring problem can be constructed as follows: Corresponding to the committees 1. that is construct a graph and give the number of colors to be used to color its vertices so that the meetings can be scheduled if and only if graph can be colored. For example suppose that we are given the committees 1. 2. Similarly since committees 1 and 3. d }. {a. add vertices 1. 2. Suppose that the meetings can be scheduled in p time slots. respectively. and 1 and 4. c. { b. and if and only if two committee have some members in common. Thus the scheduling problem asks whether or not the meetings of the given committees can be scheduled in 3 time slots without any conflicts. connect with an edge the vertices corresponding to the committees. Let us consider the following transformation: For each committee add a vertex to the graph.

Committee Meeting Schedule Problem In fact most scheduling problems are NPcomplete. then it can be easily seen that the committees can meet in k or less time slots. a traveling salesman wants to know a shortest route to visit all cities exactly once and come back to where he/she started. find out whether or not one is a subgraph of the other. 4. A problem is NP-complete if it is in class NP and NP-hard. We are now ready to discuss NP-completeness. Satisfiability Problem for Propositional Logic 2. . group them into two groups so that the sum of the numbers of one group is equal to that of the other group. As a consequence if a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of those problems. fast algorithms exist to solve it. all the problems can be solved with polynomial time algorithms. Graph Color Problem 3. and vertices connected with an edge have different colors. Partition Problem Given a set of integers. then that means that the corresponding committees share some members and that they are scheduled to meet in different time slots. their sizes and a number of bins of the same size. 7. Subsequently the satisfiability problem was found to be polynomial time reducible to many other problems. Some of them are listed below.different groups are given different colors.e. can be done in time polynomial in the size of the problem. 5. which in this case can be taken as the number of committees. Formally a problem is NP-hard if every problem in class NP can be polynomial time reducible to it. It can be easily seen that if a problem P at hand is NP-hard and if a problem known to be NP-complete can be polynomial time reducible to P. Traveling Salesman Problem Given cities and traveling times between cities. It is also easily seen that the transformation. Bin Packing Problem Given a set of objects. find out whether or not the objects can be put into the bins. Today hundreds of problems are known to be NP-complete. This group of problems are called NP-complete problems. This coloring uses p colors which does not exceed k. For if any two vertices are connected with an edge. Conversely if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. Cook that the problems of class NP can be polynomial time reducible to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. then the consensus today is that it is most likely that no polynomial time algorithms i. Thus these two vertices must get different colors. that is the construction of graph for a given set of committees. If a problem is NP-complete. 6. then P is also NP-complete. It was first proven by S. NP-complete Problems 1. Subgraph Isomorphism Problem Given two graphs. For all the problems in class NP can be reduced to P through the known NP-complete problem in polynomial time.

(2. and a subset S of the Cartesian product A X B X C. is it possible to select objects so that the sum of their sizes does not exceed S and the sum of their values is V or larger ? 10.x). of S such that every element of A. their sizes.y).y)}. Then T = {(1. (2.(2.b}. 9. B and C of the same size. and C = {x.b. their values and an integer V.b. Note that {(1. a collection of subsets of S and an integer k.(1. Is there a subset T.x). let A = {1. and C appears exactly once in T ? For example.b. Knapsack Problem Given a knapsack of size S. Set Cover Problem Given a set S. B.x)} is not a matching. (2.b.a. .x).a.2}.a. called a matching. and S = {(1. find out whether or not there are k or less subsets in the collection whose union is S. 3-Dimensional Matching Given three sets A.y}. B = {a.b.y). a set of objects.8.x)} is a desired set satisfying all the requirements.