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Language, Automata: , \alpha : usually denotes a string in this course. , \beta : usually denotes a string in this course. , \delta : usually denotes a transition function in this course. , \sigma : usually denotes a symbol in an alphabet in this course. , \Delta : usually denotes a blank space in this course. , \Gamma : usually denotes a set of stack symbols in this course. , \Lambda : usually denotes an empty string in this course. , \Pi : usually denotes a partition in this course. , \Sigma : usually denotes an alphabet in this course. , \goto : usually denotes a (one step) transition in this course. Logic: , ~ : logical not , ^ : logical and , V : logical or , -> : logical imply , <-> : logical if and only if (equivalent) , => : logical tautologically imply , <=> : logical tautologically equivalent , \A : logical for all , \E : logical for some (there exists)

Sets: , \in : belongs to , \not\in : does not belong to , @ : empty set U, : universal set , \subset : proper subset , \not\subset : not a proper subset , \subseteq : subset , \not\subseteq : not a subset , \cup : set union Ai , \cup(i=1 to n) A_i : union of n sets , \cap : set intersection Ai , \cap(i=1 to n) A_i : intersection of n sets , \bar A : complement of set A (A) , P(A) : power set of set A , X : Cartesian product Ai , X(i=1 to n) A_i : cartesian product of n sets Relation: < a, b > : ordered pair < a1, a2, ..., an > : ordered n-tuple , <= : precedes (partial order) Functions: xi , Sum(i=1 to n) x_i : sum of n xi's O(f) , O(f) : of order smaller than or equal to f

o(f) , o(f) : of order smaller than f (f) , Omega : of order greater than or equal to f (f) , omega : of order greater than f (f) , Theta : of the same order as f f(x) , lim(x -> inf) f(x) : limit of f as x goes to infinity

**Introduction to Theoretical Computer Science
**

Today computers are used everywhere: banks, hospitals, schools, airline companies, gas stations, grocery stores, in our cars, in home appliances, PCs, etc., etc. Some are used to crunch numbers, some are used to process images, some are used to process other nonnumeric data and some are used to control operations of various devices. They can reason, they can prove many mathematical theorems, they can beat chess experts in their game, they can solve some very complex problems, they can understand our languages, they can answer our questions and of course they can crunch numbers much much faster than us. Let us for a moment call what computers do computation for convenience, though some of the things computers do such as controling appliances, answering our questions etc. don't fall into our traditional sense of computation. Then these computers seem to be able to compute an awfully lot of things if not everything. But are they capable of computing anything ? Are there things computers can not do ? If there are things computers can not do, what are they ? And why ? If there aren't things computers can not do, then how can we tell ? What do we exactly mean by computation ? Unfortunately there are many things computers can not do. Computers can not solve certain types of problems. For example no computer can tell in general whether or not a given computer program stops after a finite amount of time on a given input. They can not solve some other types of problems fast enough even though they can solve them in some finite amount of time. For example take the traveling salesman problem: a salesman is given a road map with distances between cities and wants to find a shortest round trip route that visits all the cities on the map exactly once. At the moment the so called traveling salesman problem requires an extremely large amount of time to solve. No one has been able to find a reasonably fast algorithm to solve it and the consensus is that it is not likely that anyone can find such an algorithm. I have just given you an example of the problems that computers could not solve. How do we know that that is the case ? Are there other problems like that ? How can we tell whther or not a given problem can be solved and solved fast enough ?

The main objective of this course is to answer those questions. It is a very simple device but remarkably. Thus they are a powerful tool to design and study those systems with. it can actually be solving a problem. So they provide a good introduction to our study of Turing machines. Since so many systems in practice can be described by regular languages. Those four languages are together called formal languages. Thus when a finite automaton is processing strings. Though it has not been proven. These two type of languages belong to a hierarchy of four languages called Homsky hierarchy. Turing machines also recognize languages. that is to study limitations of computers and computation. ways to describe them and how to use them to model many of the real life systems. We say finite automata recognize languages. Thus by studying Turing machines we can learn capabilities hence limitatgions of computers. which are also heavily used in practice. which is the key to the unsolvability of problem by computers. The languages that are recognized by finite automata are called regular languages. It turns out that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Then with Turing machines we investigate limitations of computers and computations. we go to Turing machines. There we learn how computers can be simulated by Turing machines and what it means that a Turing machine recognizes (decides) a language. After briefly studying context-free languges. The other two are context-free languages and context-sensitive languages. It was first conceived of by Alan Turing in early 20-th century. The languages Turing machines recognize are called Type 0 (or phrase structure) languages (regular languages are Type 3) and they are more complex than regular languages. it is generally believed (Church's thesis) that any "computation" humans do can be done by Turing machines and that "computation" is the computation performed by Turing machines. Finite automata are very similar to Turing machines but a few restrictions are imposed on them. every task modern computers perform can also be accomplished by Turing machines. In addition finite automata can model a large number of systems used in practice. In particular we are going to see a few problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers and how we can tell that they are unsolvable. We are going to investigate limitations of computers and computations by studying the essence of compuers and computations rather than all the variations of computer and computation. We are going to learn their properties. We call a set of strings (of symbols) a language. we are also going to study regular languages in detail as well as finite automata. . This essence is a device called Turing machine. More specifically they answer the question whether or not a given string belongs to a language. we study a simpler type of computing device called finite automata. Before proceeding to the study of Turing machines and their computations in this course. Finite automata process strings. Consequently they are less capable than Turing machines but then their operations are simpler.

We are going to see some of those which take a large amount of time. 4 is a perfect square. true or false. respectively. • • • • Logic Sets Relations Functions Logic Proposition and Logical Connectives "Proposition" can be defined as a declarative statement having a specific truth-value. Their truth values are false and true. . Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved within a reasonable amount of time and there are problems that are known to require a finite but very large amount of time to solve. "Connective": Two or more propositions can be combined together to make compound propositions with the help of logical connectives. then with the increase in the processor speed of 1. The time complexity issues are investigated using Turing machines so that the results apply to all computers. Example: The following statements are propositions as they have precise truth values. Increasing the processor speed does not help much for such problems. • • 2 is a odd number. Let us start with review of mathematics. then even if the processor speed increased 1. If the computation time is 2n where n is the size of the problem.000 times 110 cities would already be too many.Our last topic is time complexities of various problems. The time needed to solve such a problem increases at least exponentially with the size of the problem as long as we use Turing machines (hence computers). Unfortunately there is nothing we can do to speed them up.000 times it can handle only ten or so more larger problem sizes. Basic Mathematical Objects Back to Table of Contents The following are the contents of this introductory chapter. For example for the traveling salesman problem if 100 cities were too many to solve fast enough.

For the first compound proposition to be true both the propositions have to be true as the connective is AND and as OR is the connective for the second one if either of the propositions is true the truth value of the compound proposition is true. . Truth table for two individual propositions p and q with conjunction is given below p T T F F q T F T F p^q T F F F b. Their truth vales are false and true respectively. • • 2 is an odd number AND 4 is a perfect square. It is represented as " ^ ". Negation This is the logical "negation" and it is expressed by Truth table is given below as p for "not p".Example: Above two propositions can be used to make a compound proposition using any of the logical connectives. Disjunction This is logical "or" read as either true value of the individual propositions. Conjunction The logical conjunction is understood in the same way as commonly used ôandö. The compound proposition truth-value is true iff all the constituent propositions hold true. 2 is an odd number OR 4 is a perfect square. The following are the logical connectives used commonly: a. Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F pVq T T T F c.

e. Tautology A compound proposition. If p and q have the same truth-value in every case then they are said to be logically equivalent and it is represented as p <=> q.g. Following are some of the useful identities and implications from propositional logic: Identities . p q is read as "if p. "if not q then not p" . E. Conditional This is used to define as "a proposition holds true if another proposition is true" i. which is true in every case.p T F p F T d. For example. Biconditional A proposition (p q) ^ (q p) can be abbreviated using biconditional conjunction as p q and is read as "if p then q. then p is said to logically imply q.: p V p g. which is false in every case.: p ^ p Logical implication and equivalence If the value of p -> q is true in every case. Contradiction This is the opposite of tautology. E. and if q then p". It is represented as p => q. "p is sufficient for q" .e. "p only if q" . "q is necessary for p". f. then q" Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F p T F T T q p -> q is also expressed in a number of different (but equivalent) ways in English.g. "q is a necessity/consequence of p" and "q whenever p" are all differnt ways of saying "if p then q".

1.exportation Q) ( Q P) ----. For more complex reasoning we need more powerful logic capable of expressing complicated propositions and reasoning. (P 4. The phrase "is blue" is a predicate and it describes the property of being blue.modus tollens Q) (R S)] [(P R) (Q S)] Q) (Q R)] (P R) For explanations. and "The cover of this book is blue" come from the template "is blue" by placing an appropriate noun/noun phrase in front of it.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. . the sentences "The car Tom is driving is blue". examples and proofs of these implications go to Implications Predicate and Predicate Logic The propositional logic is not powerful enough to represent all types of assertions that are used in computer science and mathematics. Central to the predicate logic are the concepts of predicate and quantifier.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. examples and proofs of these identities go to Identities Implications 1. [(P 3. The predicate logic is one of the extensions of propositional logic and it is fundamental to most other types of logic. (P Q) ( P Q) ----. or to express certain types of relationship between propositions such as equivalence ( for more detail click here for example for example ). (P 2.implication Q) R] [P (Q R)] ----. For example. [(P Q) Q] P ----. "The sky is blue". [(P 5. or a relationship among objects represented by the variables.contrapositive For explanations. A predicate is a template involving a verb that describes a property of objects. [(P 2. (P 3.

assign a value to the variable 2. is the set of objects of interest. For example. Similarly the existential quantifier turns. it is true or false in the universe of discourse. a quantification is performed on formulas of predicate logic (called wff ). called atomic formula. can be made a proposition by applying one of the following two operations to each of its variables: 1. which is expressed as " x x > 1". for example. There are two types of quantifiers: universal quantifier and existential quantifier. by using quantifiers on variables . For example any of "is_blue". If we adopt B as the name for the predicate "is_blue". ." Again. This new statement is true or false in the universe of discourse. and it becomes a true statement. the statement x > 1 to "for some object x in the universe. sentences that assert an object is blue can be represented as "B(x)". quantify the variable using a quantifier (see below). B(x) reads as "x is blue". The universe is thus the domain of the (individual) variables. the statemen t x > 1 to "for every object x in the universe. for example. Hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. and hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified.Predicates are often given a name. also called universe . such as x > 1 or P(x). "Blue" or "B" can be used to represent the predicate "is blue" among others. x > 1 becomes 3 > 1 if 3 is assigned to x. hence a proposition. x > 1". In general. A predicate with variables. The universal quantifier turns. x > 1". It can be the set of real numbers. Universe of Discourse The universe of discourse. where x represents an arbitrary object. The propositions in the predicate logic are statements on objects of a universe. which is expressed as " x x > 1.

But it should be obvious from the context. implications and inference rules. [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] x [ P(x) Q(x) ] 3. one can use some additional inference rules. Important Inference Rules of Predicate Logic: First there is the following rule concerning the negation of quantified statement which is very useful: x P(x) x P(x) Next there is the following set of rules on quantifiers and connvectives: 1. some of which are given below.the set of integers. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] For more discussions and examples on these rules and others. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 2. the set of all students in a classroom etc. Also for proof and proof techniques see Mathematical Reasoning. Predicate logic is more powerful than propositional logic. as well as those for propositional logic such as the equivalences. It allows one to reason about properties and relationships of individual objects. see Reasoning(with predicate logic) and Quantifiers and Connectives in Discrete Structures course. the set of all cars on a parking lot. Sets . In predicate logic. The universe is often left implicit in practice. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 4.

Also. . Universal Set The set U of all the elements we might ever consider in the discourse is called the universal set. How to specify a Set? One way is to enumerate the elements completely. All the elements belonging to the set are explicitly given.4} call it Z by writing Z = {x | x N | x 5} where N represents the set of natural numbers. Using this notation we can specify the set {0. but not equal to B represented as A B.3.What is a set? Set is a group of elements.2.3. having a property that characterizes those elements. A is a subset of B.2. It is read as "the set of natural numbers that are less than or equal to 5".4.1. A is a subset of B is represented as A B. Note: If A is a subset of B and B is a subset of A then A=B. if every element of A is an element of B.5} Alternate way is to give the properties that characterize the elements of the set. Example: B = {x | x is a positive integer less than or equal to 5} Some sets can also be defined recursively. if A is a subset of. Subset Let A and B be two sets. Example: A = {1. Set terminology Belongs To x B means that x is an element of set B.

8} then A B = {3. Example: A = { 1. Set Operations The operations that can be performed on sets are: 1. It is denoted by A . It is denoted by A B. then the complement of A is the set consisting of all elements of the universal set that are not in A. then the intersection of A and B is the set that consists of the elements in both A and B .9 } are disjoint. and B = { 6. 3. Example: If U is the set of natural numbers and A = { 1..5} . Thus A' = { x | x U ^ x A } .4.2.4.3} and B = {3. where ø is the Empty set.5} then A . Disjoint sets A and B are said to be disjoint if they contain no elements in common i.B.2. Example: If A = {1.3. A B= ø.5} then A B = {1. then the union of A and B is the set that contains all the elements that are in A and B including the ones in both A and B.5.A = {4. For A and B of the above example B .Complement If A is a set.2.2} Note that in general A .3 } .5 } .B B .2. Difference If A and B are two sets.4. It is denoted by A B.B = {1.3. then the difference of A from B is the set that consists of the elements of A that are not in B.4.8}.A .5} 2.e.8. Example: If A = {1.4. Intersection If A and B are two sets. Union If A and B are two sets.3} B = {3.8} B = {3.2. where means " is not an element of ". It is denoted by A' or .3. then A' = { x | x U ^ x > 3}. Example: If A = {1.2.

It is a very good tool to get a general idea. The Commutative laws: A B=B A A B=B A The Associative laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Distributive laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Idempotent laws: A A=A A A=A The Absorptive laws: A (A B) = A A (A B) = A The De Morgan laws: (A B)' = A' B' (A B)' = A' B' Other laws involving Complements: ( A' )' = A A A A' = ø A' = U B) B) B) B) C C (A (A C) C) Other laws involving the empty set A A ø=A ø=ø Other laws involving the Universal Set: A U=U A U=A Venn Diagrams A common technique in working with Set Operations is to illustrate them by drawing Venn Diagrams.Following is a list of some standard Set Identities A. C represent arbitrary sets and ø is the empty set and U is the Universal Set. . B.

3.4 } can be represented as shown below using Venn Diagrams: Set A U represents the Universal set in which A is one of the Set. because they can represent only very limited situations and miss many other possibilities. that Venn Diagrams must NOT be used for rigorous discussions.Note.2.8.2.4 } and B = { 6. . The idea of Venn Diagram is to draw a region representing the universe and within that to draw the regions representing the component sets we are starting with so that the resulting diagram describes their interrelationships. For example sets A = { 1. however.

Set B The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A B .

A B .

.The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A U B A A B B is the set consisting of all the different elements in A and B.

8 } (A B)' = U .7.2.4.6.4 } A B = { 1.2.6.8 } .(A B) = { 5.4.6. For example: U = { 1.(A B)' is the yellow region in the Venn diagram given below.3.2. 7 } B = { 2.3.5.8 } A = { 1.4.3.

A2 ...B is the yellow shaded region and B .A is the blue shaded region in the Venn Diagram shown below Generalized Set Operations Union.A . To denote either of these B C. intersection and Cartesian product of sets are associative. For example expressions we often use A holds. This can be generalized for the union of any finite number of sets as A1 An . which we write as Ai This generalized union of sets can be rigorously defined as follows: Definition ( Ai) : ..

Basis Clause: For n = 1 . Ai = A1. De Morgan's law on set union and intersection can also be generalized as follows: Theorem (Generalized De Morgan) = . Inductive Clause: Ai = ( Ai) An+1 Ai and generalized Cartesian product Similarly the generalized intersection Ai can be defined. The basis clause (or simply basis) of the definition establishes that certain objects are in the set. The set of elements specified here is called basis of the set being defined. and = Recursive Definition Recursive Definition Subjects to be Learned • • • • • recursive/inductive definition basis clause basis inductive clause extremal clause A recursive definition of a set always consists of three distinct clauses: 1. . This part of the definition specifies the "seeds" of the set from which the elements of the set are generated using the methods given in the inductive clause. Based on these definitions.

1.5. 3. The Set of Natural Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . 0 + 1 (= 1) is in N. 0. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. 1 is the parent of 2. The basis for this set N is { 0 } . x + 2 is in . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Let us call the objects used to create a new object the parents of the new object. Proceeding in this manner all the natural numbers are put into N. The inductive clause (or simply induction) of the definition establishes the ways in which elements of the set can be combined to produce new elements of the set. and 1 is the child of 0. and x is the child of x + 1. The Set of Nonnegative Even Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . Then by (2). The inductive clause always asserts that if objects are elements of the set. Then by (2) again. .. the set of natural numbers N can be obtained as follows: First by (1). x + 1 is in . which is not what we want as the set of natural numbers.5. Note that if we don't have (3). 1 + 1 (= 2) is in N. Example 3. The extremal clause asserts that unless an object can be shown to be a member of the set by applying the basis and inductive clauses a finite number of times. Examples of Recursive Definition of Set Example 1.2. then they can be combined in certain specified ways to create other objects. 0 is put into N. Example 2. Following this definition. The x + 1 in the Inductive Clause is the parent of x. 0 is the parent of 1. the object is not a member of the set.5. and the new object is their child . can be included in N. 2.. since 0 is in N. The Set of Even Integers Basis Clause: . and 2 is the child of 1.

Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Click Yes or No . How to define function recursively: First the values of the function for the basis elements of the domain are specified. or shortest strings. To see how it is defined click here. Inductive Clause: For any element x in .Inductive Clause: For any element x in . The Set of Strings over the alphabet excepting empty string This is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's such as abbab. try simplest elements in the set such as smallest numbers (0. then Submit. or 1). Then see how other elements can be obtained from them. Recursive Definition of Function Some functions can also be defined recursively. Basis Clause: . simplest expressions. Here ax means the concatenation of a with x. Test Your Understanding of Recursive Definition Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. and . A few examples are given below. They are all on functions from integer to integer except the last one. Example 4. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. There are two sets of questions. and generalize that generation process for the "Inductive Clause". etc. . of the domain is defined using its value at the parent(s) of the element x. and x . x + 2. The set of propositions (propositional forms) can also be defined recursively.2 are in . Condition: The domain of the function you wish to define recursively must be a set defined recursively. . say x. Then the value of the function at an element. Tips for recursively defining a set: For the "Basis Clause". bbabaa. and .

So there is no chance of other elements to come into the function being defined. See Example 5 for the extremal clause. Hence 3 ! = 3 * 2 ! = 3 * 2 * 1 = 6 . Example 7: The function f(n) = 2n for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n.Example 5: The function f(n) = n! for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 0! = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. L(xy) = L(x) + L(y) . See Example 5 for the extremal clause. 3! can be found as follows: Since 0 ! = 1. Example 6: The function f(n) = 2n + 1 for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. Example 8: The function L from the set S of strings over {a. Note that here Extremal Clause is not necessary. L(a) = 1 and L(b) = 1. f(n+1) = 2 f(n) . This function L gives the number of a's and b's L(x) for a string x is also often denoted by | x |. Hence 2 ! = 2 * 1 ! = 2 * 1 = 2 . Using this definition. Inductive Clause: For any string x and y of S. Induction Mathematical Induction . where xy is the concatenation of strings x and y. f(n+1) = (n+1) f(n). f(n+1) = f(n) + 2 . because the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively and that has the extremal clause in it. See above for the extremal clause. b} to the set of natural numbers that gives the length of a string can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: For symbols a and b of the alphabet. 1 ! = 1 * 0 ! = 1 * 1 = 1 .

Thus the set of natural numbers can be described completely by specifying the basis element (0). This process is somewhat analogous to the knocking over a row of dominos with knocking over the first domino corresponding to the basis step. More generally mathematical statements involving a natural number n such as 1 + 2 + .Subjects to be Learned • • • • • first principle of mathematical induction basis step induction hypothesis induction second principle of mathematical induction Contents First Priciple of Mathematical Induction As we have seen in recursion . then the next element. which is 2. that is n + 1. it is often a good idea to restate P(k+1) in terms of . then it follows that all the natural numbers have that property. natural numbers can be proven to have certain properties as follows: First it is proven that the basis element. the element next to it. has that property (inductive step). . To prove that a statement P(n) is true for all natural number natural number. has the property in question (basis step). Proceeding likewise. When these two are proven. then P(k+1) is true. where is a Induction: Prove that for any integer . any natural number can be shown to have the property. that is 0. and its elements can be generated one by one starting with 0 by adding 1. has the same property by the inductive step. and the process of generating an element from a known element in the set. the element next to it.. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 can be proven by mathematical induction by the same token. the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively. then P(n) is true for all natural number . has the same property again by the inductive step. Taking advantage of this. Then since 1 has the property. As a first step for proof by induction. For since 0 has the property by the basis step. The first principle of mathematical induction states that if the basis step and the inductive step are proven. if P(k) is true (called induction hypothesis). Then it is proven that if an arbitrary natural number. has the property in question. denote it by n. we proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P( ) is true. which is 1..

0 + 1 + . Here k [ k < n P(k) ] is the induction hypothesis. End of Proof.. Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary natural number n. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . This form of induction does not require the basis step. Second Priciple of Mathematical Induction There is another form of induction over the natural numbers based on the second principle of induction to prove assertions of the form x P(x) . + n) + (n + 1) .. Using the induction hypothesis.. 1 + 3 + .... and in the inductive step P(n) is proved assuming P(k) holds for all k < n . the last expression can be rewritten as n( n + 1 )/2 + (n + 1) . and RHS = 0 * (0 + 1) = 0 . Proof: Basis Step: If n = 0. Factoring (n + 1) out.. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . we get (n + 1)(n + 2) / 2 . Formally the second principle of induction states that if n [ k [ k < n P(k) ] P(n) ] . which is equal to the RHS for n+1. + n + (n + 1) = (0 + 1 + . Example: Prove that for any natural number n. then n P(n) can be concluded.. Hence LHS = RHS. Here let us try LHS for n + 1 = 0 + 1 + .1) to prove P(n). and somehow use the induction hypothesis. which is assumed to be true.P(k) so that P(k). . can be used. first try to express LHS for n+1 in terms of LHS for n. The reason that this principle holds is going to be explained later after a few examples of proof. then LHS = 0.Induction Hypothesis To prove this for n+1. 0 + 1 + . + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2... -------. Example 1: Let us prove the following equality using the second principle: For any natural number n . Thus LHS = RHS for n+1. Certain problems can be proven more easily by using the second principle than the first principle because P(k) for all k < n can be used rather than just P(n .

. + ( n .1 ) * ( n . = ( n + 1 )n! . Let's assume that a person owns three shirts and two pairs of slacks.Proof: Assume that 1 + 3 + . then it is the product of 1. the individual may wish to restrict . + ( 2k + 1 ) = ( k + 1 )2 holds for all k. Hence n can also be written as the product of prime numbers. More precisely. Relations Definition Relation Let A and B be sets. it is either a prime number or not a prime number. We are going to prove that n can be written as the product of prime numbers. then it is a product of two positive integers. can be written as the product of prime numbers. Proof: Assume that for all positive integers k.1 for all k. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 holds for all natural numbers. k < n. and itself.. Then 1 + 3 + . Example1: nbsp. If n is a prime number.. Since n is an integer.1 Proof: Assume that 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . Since both p and q are smaller than n.1 Hence by the second principle of induction positive integers.1 )! + n * n! = n! .. + k * k! = ( k + 1 )! . the individual can wear.1 ) ) + ( 2n + 1 ) = n2 + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 by the induction hypothesis. However. Then certainly A x B is the set of all possible combinations (six) of shirts and slacks that nbsp. Hence by the second principle of induction 1 + 3 + .. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . Then 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + .. Example 2: Prove that for all positive integer n.1 holds for all Example 3: Prove that any positive integer n > 1. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( 1 + 3 + .... let A = {blue shirt.1 + n * n! by the induction hypothesis.. by the induction hypothesis they can be written as the product of prime numbers (Note that this is not possible if the First Principle is being used). n > k > 1. tan slacks}.. which is a prime number. A binary relation from A into B is any subset of the Cartesian product A x B. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . mint green shirt} and B = {gray slacks. say p and q.. Therefore the statement holds true. k can be written as the product of prime numbers. + ( 2n . If n is not a prime number. k < n.

where P is the parent-child relation given above. b) | a A ^ b A ^ a is a child of b } . (black shirt. as in the previous example. 6}. 6). (3. The composition of R and S. 3). PropertiesOf Relations . 6) and define a relation R from A into A by (a. tan slacks). For example PP. Example2: Let A = {2. 3. 2). Consider the following relation on real numbers. Let A be a set of people and let P = {(a. Composition Let R be a relation from a set A into set B. R could be more naturally expressed as R(x) = x2 . Then P is a relation on A which we might call a parent-child relation. is the composition of P with itself and it is a relation which we know as grandparentgrandchild relation. y) | x <= y}. R and S of Example 2 above are relations on A = {2. 5. In some cases R can be described by actually listing the pairs which are in R. R = {(2. 6)}. b) Rand (b. c) S. This may not be convenient if R is relatively large. R = { (x.6). one such subset may be { (blue shirt. gray slack). tan slacks) }. c) RS if and only if there exists b B such that (a.himself to combinations which are color coordinated. For example. A typical element in R is an ordered pair (x. (3. This may not be all possible pairs in A x B but will certainly be a subset of A x B. c) A x C. where (a. y) | y is the square of x} and S = { (x. b) R if and only if a divides evenly into b. Other notations are used depending on the past practice. y). 5). (5. 3. (2. or R(x) =y where y = x2 . or "related". and S be a relation from set B into set C. (mint green shirt. (6. written as RS. Relation on a Set A relation from a set A into itself is called a relation on A. So. 5. is the set of pairs of the form(a.

A x A. Equivalence: R is an equivalence relation on A if R is reflexive. R R b to denote (a. b> and <a. c> are in the relation. Let us write a Symmetric: R is symmetric if for every a and b in A. then bRa. denote it by f. a R a. and 2. Transitive: R is transitive if for every a. Thus. 1. 4. codomain image image of set range sum of functions product of functions one-to-one function (injection) onto function (surjection) one-to-one onto function (bijection) inverse function composite function Definition (function): A function.Assume R is a relation on set A. b) R . there is an element b in B such that <a. in other words. then aRc. Function Functions Subjects to be Reviewed • • • • • • • • • • • • function domain. 2. b> is in the relation. 3. symmetric and transitive. b and c in A. . if <a. for each element a in A. The set A in the above definition is called the domain of the function and B its codomain. then b = c . f is a function if it covers the domain (maps every element of the domain) and it is single valued. Reflexive: R is reflexive if for every a A. if aRb and bRc. from a set A to a set B is a relation from A to B that satisfies 1. if aRb.

if it is onto and one-to-one. 9. Definition (sum and product): Let f and g be functions from a set A to the set of real numbers R. and is denoted by f(S) .} . say 3. f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to N is not onto. and ( f*g )(x) = 3x3 + x2 Definition (one-to-one): A function f is said to be one-to-one (injective) .e. 16.. . ( f*g )(x) = f(x)*g(x) . where S is a subset of the domain A of f . for example. f(S) = { f(a) | a S }. Example: Let f be the function from the set of natural numbers N to N that maps each natural number x to x2 . 4. 1.. Then the domain and codomain of this f are N. The set of images of the elements of a set S under a function f is called the image of the set S under f. and its range is the set of squares. and b is called the image of a under f . The image of the domain under f is called the range of f . under this function is 9. because for example f(1) = f(-1) = 1 . nothing in N can be mapped to 3 by this function. Thus it is a bijection. . x = y . the image of. Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is an onto function. b> is denoted as f(a) = b . Example: Let f(x) = 3x + 1 and g(x) = x2 . i. Example: The function f(x) = x2 from the set of natural numbers N to N is a one-to-one function. Definition (bijection): A function is called a bijection .. ( f + g )(x) = f(x) + g(x) . that is. { 0. where f(x)*g(x) is the product of two real numbers f(x) and g(x).The relation given by f between a and b represented by the ordered pair <a. Then ( f + g )(x) = x2 + 3x + 1 . Definition (onto): A function f from a set A to a set B is said to be onto(surjective) . Every bijection has a function called the inverse function. f is onto if and only if f( A ) = B . and for all x. that is. if and only if for every element y of B . However. because. there is an element x in A such that f(x) = y . if and only if whenever f(x) = f(y) . Note that f(x) = x2 is not one-to-one if it is from the set of integers(negative as well as non-negative) to N . Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is one-to-one and onto. Then the sum and the product of f and g are defined as follows: For all x.

Then the function g is called the inverse function of f. is the function from A to C that satisfies fg(x) = f( g(x) ) for all x in A . f(x) > relation. A function is a relation. and arrows show < x. languages of mathematics. . Example: Let f(x) = x2 . a set of strings of symbols. Then the composition of functions f and g . and it is denoted by f -1 . and let f be a function from B to a set C . For example. Therefore one can also talk about composition of functions. Example: The inverse function of f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of non-negative even numbers E is f -1(x) = 1/2 x from E to N . the rightmost function in the above figure is a bijection and its inverse is obtained by reversing the direction of each arrow. Others such as languages of logics. In each figure below. Note that such an x is unique for each y because f is a bijection. g(y) = x . the points on the left are in the domain and the ones on the right are in the codomain. It is also a bijection. and g(x) = x + 1 . if for every element y of B. Introduction to Language A language is. in this course. Definition (composite function): Let g be a function from a set A to a set B . Then f( g(x) ) = ( x + 1 )2 . are all languages in that sense.These concepts are illustrated in the figure below. natural languages etc. where f(x) = y . Definition (inverse): Let f be a bijection from a set A to a set B. denoted by fg . Programming langauges we use are a language in that sense.

Our last topic on regular language is testing of languages for non-regularity. In the following chapters we first learn about languages.). Then we investigate various kinds of finite automata: deterministic finite automata (DFA). are quite useful for modeling systems used in practice such as co9mputer network communication protocols. if the number of states of DFA is minimized. regular and context-free languages. solving them can be seen as recognizing languages i. We are going to see an algorithm for converting NFAto NFA which recognizes the same language and another for NFA to DFA conversion.What we are going to study on languages in this course are four classes of languages called (Chomsky) formal languages and their properties. regular grammars. Type 3 is a subset of type 2 which is a subset of type 1 and type 0 is the most general including the other three as a subset. Also there are various kinds of computing devices called automata which process these types of languages Thus formal languages can also be characterized by the computing devices which process them. together with regular expressions which are a method of representing regular languages. in general there are more than one NFAs and DFAs that reconize one language. lexical analyzers and parser for compilers for programming languages. It can be rigorously shown that some problems can not be solved by computers in any finite amount of time and that some others are practically unsolvable because of the time it takes to solve them.e. Definitions on Language Subjects to be Learned . These formal languages and automata capture the essense of various computing devices and computation in a very simple way. context-sensitive (or type 1) languages and phrase structure (or type 0) languages. On the other hand DFAs are suited for writing a simulator program because there is no nondeterminism such as going to two or more states from a state upon reading one input symbol. we are going to learn modeling of systems finite automata. As we are going to learn next. then the resulting DFA is unique up to the state names for a given regular language. Then after seeing yet another way of representing regular laguages. NFA and NFAare conceptually simpler and easier to use when modeling a system because there are no restrictions on transitions for them unlike for DFA. These formal languages are characterized by grammars which are essentially a set of rewrite rules for generating strings belonging to a language as we see later. They are devices that recognize regular languages. Also for some important classes of problems. Then we study regular languages. However. context-free (or type 2) languages. the simplest of the four formal languages. Using automata and formal languages we can study limitations of computer and computation. The four classes are regular (or type 3) languages. nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) and nondeterministic finite automata with transitions (NFA. In asddition two of the formal languages. checking whether or not a string is in a language.

Some special languages The empty set is a language which has no strings. Thus {a. uv is the string obtained by appending the sequence of symbols of v to that of u. For a string w its length is represented by |w|. operations on languages and some of their properties. 111} is a language (over alphabet {0. Let u and v be strings. b} and 0. the set of all strings over (including the empty string) is denoted by . an alphabet is a finite set of symbols. For example {0. A language is a set of strings over an alphabet. all the set operations can be applied to languages. 10 and 001 are examples of string over alphabet {0. For example if u = aab and v = bbab. Operations on languages Since languages are sets. baa} is a language (over alphabert {a. Kleene star Contents Here we are going to learn the concept of language in very abstract and general sense. 1. b} is another alphabet with two symbols and English alphabet is also an alphabet. 1}. So it is not empty. union. Thus a language over alphabet is a subset of . A string x is called a substring of another string y if there are strings u and v such that y = uxv. A string x is a prefix of another string y if there is a string v such that y = xv. that is. {a. That is. We are going to use first few symbols of English alphabet such as a and b to denote symbols of an alphabet and those toward the end such as u and v for strings. ab. it has no symbols. 2.b}) and {0. The set { } is a language which has one string. Then uv denotes the string obtained by concatenating u with v. The empty string is denoted by (capital lambda). 1} is an alphabet with two symbols. It can be defined more formally by recursive definition. Note that vu = bbabaab uv. intersetion and difference of two languages over an alphabet are languages over . b. Thus | | = 0. Though has no symbols. a and aabab are examples of string over alphabet {a. The empty string (also called null string) is the string with length 0. this set has an object in it. 3. intersection. Note that u and v may be an empty string.• • • • alphabet string (word) language operations on languages: concatenation of strings. Basic concepts First.1}). For any alphabet . Thus the union. namely . A string (also called a word) is a finite sequence of symbols of an alphabet. The number of symbols in a string is called the length of the string. v is called a suffix of y. then uv = aabbbab. So a string is a substring of itself.

For example {ab. abb. For example if L = { aba. These powers can be formally defined recursively. ak and uk can be defined similarly. babb. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. For example Lk can be defined recursively as follows. then L* = { . aba. baaba}. . b} {aaa. Hence Lk is the set of strings that can be obtained by concatenating k strings of L. Lk means the concatenation of k L's. is . ababb.. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k. ababb. } The * in * is also the same Kleene star defined above. Then the concatenation of L1 with L2 is denoted as L1L2 and it is defined as L1L2 = { uv | u L1 and v L2 }.. uk denotes the concatenation of k u's. bb }. L* is the set of strings obtained by concatenating zero or more strings of L as we are going to see in Theorem 1. That is L1L2 is the set of strings obtained by concatenating strings of L1 with those of L2. abaaba. For a string u and a natural number k. xw L*. Powers : For a symbol a and a natural number k. baaa. Recursive definition of L*: Basis Clause: L* and we are going to see Inductive Clause: For any x L* and any w L. Let L1 and L2 be languages. Similarly for a language L. aaba} = {abaaa. bbaba. abaaba. ak represents the concatenation of k a's. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = Lk L. the extremal clause is not necessary.. * The following two types of languages are generalizations of them quite often in this course.L and it is also a Another operation onlanguages is concatenation. Recursive definition of L+: Basis Clause: L L+ . This * is called Kleene star. bb. The complement of a language L over an alphabet language. bbbb. Here a0 = and u0 = .

wk .. abaaba. by applying Theorem 2 to the language L* L* Conversely ( L* )* Let x be an arbitrary nonempty string of ( L* )*.. . ... i.. Thus L+ is the set of strings obtained by concatenating one or more strings of L. Theorems 1 and 2 are proven in "General Induction" which you study in the next unit. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L+ unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.Inductive Clause: For any x L+ and any w L... Let us list one of them as a theorem and prove it. Proof: Because we can see that L* (L*)*... any nonempty string in L* or L+ can be expresssed as the concatenation of strings of L. Theorem 5: L* = (L*)*. (i.. Since w1.wimi Hence x = w11 .w2m2. bb }... xw L+.. ) as ={x|x Lk for some Then the following relationships hold on L* and L+.wk for some k. then L+ = { aba. bbaba. wimi in L such that wi = wi1wi2.wm1. Then there are nonempty strings w1. . wi2. w1w2. for each wi there are strings wi1.. bb. ..... where wi's are strings of L. wk are strings of L*. wk in L* such that x = w1w2. . L* can be proven as follows: by Theorem 2. w2.e. L* and L* have a number of interesting properties. For example if L = { aba..e... Theorem 1: Ln Theorem 2: Theorem 3: Theorem 4: L+ = L L* = L*L Note: According to Theorems 2 and 3.wmmk . } Let us also define natural number k } . Other proofs are omitted.. L0 L L2 .. Hence x is in L* . w2. ababb.. bbbb. ..w1m1w21..

If x is an empty string, then it is obviously in L* . Hence ( L* )* Since L* L* . L* , L* = ( L* )* .

(L*)* and ( L* )*

**Problem Solving as Language Recognition
**

Subjects to be Learned

• • •

problem instance problem as language problem solving as language recognition

Contents

In the previous section the concept of language was introduced and its properties have been briefly studied. You might be wondering why we study language. The main reason for studying language is that solving problems can be viewed as a language recognition problem as explained below, that is, the problem of checking whether or not a string belongs to a language. Thus instead of studying what kind of problems can be solved by what kind of computational devices and how, we can study languages and devices to recognize them which are simpler to deal with uncluttered with variations in actual devices, programming languages etc. Below an example is given to illustrate how solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Consider the following problem: Is the longest of the distances between two nodes(i.e. the diameter) of a given graph less than a given integer k ? Here the distance is the smallest number of edges (or hops) between the nodes. Some of the instances of this problem are as shown below:

Instance 1 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with one edge and two nodes is less than 1. Instance 2 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with four edges and four nodes is less than 2. Simiarlyt for Instance 3. These problem instances can be represented by a string as follows: Instance 1: 1,2;(1,2);1 Instance 2: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(3,4);2 Instance 3: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(2,3)(2,4)(3,4);3 Here the set of nodes, the set of edges and k are separated by ; in that order in the strings. The solutions to these instances are: Instance 1: No Instance 2: No Instance 3: Yes There are infinitely many 'Yes' instances and 'No' instances for this problem. The set of 'Yes' instances is a language and so is the set of 'No' instances as well as the set of all

instances and many others for this problem. We can thus see that solving the problem for a given instance is equivalent to checking whether or not the string representing the given instance belongs to the language of 'Yes' instances of the problem. That is, the problem solving is the same as the language recognition. A problem can be solved if and only if the language of its 'Yes' instances is recognizable or decidable by a Turing machine. It is not solvable if the language is merely accecptable but not recognizable, or even worse if it is not even acceptable.

(a.k.a Structural Induction)

Mathematical statements involving an element of a recursively defined set can be proven by induction. To prove by induction that a statement P(x) is true for all the elements x of a recursively defined set S, proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P(x) is true for all the elements x in the basis of S. Induction: Prove that for any element(s) x of S if P(x) is true, then P(y) is true for any element y obtained from x by the induction step of the recursive definition of S. Note 1 : In the Induction we try to prove that if a parent has the property then all of its children also have that property. In the process we need the relationship between the parent and the children. That relationship is found in the Inductive Clause of the recursive definition of the set in question. Note 2 : As a first step for general induction proof, it is often a good idea to express y in terms of x so that P(x) can be used. Example 1 (Theorem 1 in "Language") : Prove that Ln L* for any natural number n and any language L. Let us first review the definitions. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = LkL. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k, the extremal clause is not necessary. Recursive definition of L*:

Hence x . Now let us prove that Ln L* by induction on Ln. Then by the definition of L*. Hence . Lk . Lk Next let us prove L* . Proof: Let us first prove Suppose that x Lk for some natural L* . y Let w be an arbitrary string in Lk+1 . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.Basis Clause: L* Inductive Clause: For any string x L* and any string w L. Then there exist strings x and y that satisfy x L and w = xy by the definition of Lk+1. xy Hence w Thus Lk+1 L* . L* since y L. . x Example 2 (Theorem 2 in "Language") Let us prove L* = Note that ={x|x Lk for some natural number k } .Induction L* . By Example 1 above . and L* . L* for an arbitrary natural numer k. Since Lk L* . Note in the proof below that Basis and Inductive Steps mirror the Basis and Inductive Clauses of the definition of Ln . . L* . L0 L* . x L* . L* . number k. Basis Step: Since by the definitions L0 = { Inductive Step: Assume that Lk Hypothesis We are going to show that Lk+1 }. L* by theInduction Hypothesis. Then by the definition of L* . xw L*. --.

say x. then for some natural number k . The function REV(x) on strings x over the alphabet is defined as follows. Hence xy End of Inductive Step and Proof Hence we have proven Example 3 . Basis Clause: REV( )= . Basis Step: L0 since L0 = { }. Note that each step mirror the recursive definition of . Let us prove the inheritance. x spelled backward). Hence by the definition of Inductive Step: Assume that for an arbitrary x in L*. It produces the reversal of a given string x (i. by concatenating y) a child of x in is obtained. then its children xy. and any symbol . of L* has the property.Note that L* is defined recursively and that below we are trying to prove that the elements of L* have the property that they also belong to . x Lk . Prove that for arbitrary strings x and y of . also have the property.e. Then we show that if any element. by Example 1 above. where y is an arbitrary elememt of L. . Hence xy Lk+1 by the definition of Ln .e. So we first prove that * the element of the basis of L has the propertyy. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. Note here that x is a parent and by applying an operation (i. x We are going to show that for an arbitrary element y L . xy holds. . If x . REV(xa) = Inductive Clause: For any string aREV(x). holds. . So we show that the property for x is inherited by its children xy.

* Basis Clause: where is an empty string. The proof of the equality in question is going to be proven for an arbitrary fixed x by induction on y. The proof mirrors the recursive definition of . then Lr Ls . Since a REV(y) = REV(ya). Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular language unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. REV(xya) = REV((xy)a) = a REV(xy). Basis Step: REV(x ) = REV( x ) = REV( )REV( x ) . Omitted. . Thus the statement to be proven is for an arbitrary fixed string x. xa is also in . REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. which is what we needed.Induction Hypothesis Then for an arbitrary symbol a of . Any language belonging to this set is a regular language over . REV(xya) = REV(ya)REV(x). { } and {a} for any symbol a are regular languages. Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary string y of . Definition of Set of Regular Languages : Basis Clause: . REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. -. Inductive Clause: If Lr and Ls are regular languages. Definitions of Regular Language and Regular Expression Subjects to be Learned • • regular language regular expression 1. and an arbitrary string y of . Regular language The set of regular languages over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. End of Proof.Proof First let us note that * can be defined recursively as follows: . But by induction hypothesis a REV(xy) = a REV(y)REV(x). Inductive Clause: For arbitrary strings x of and a of ExtremalClause: As usual. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages.

aa. which is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's. then ( r + s ) . is written as rk. where r is a regular expression. b} ( = {a} {b} ) and {ab} ( = {a}{b} ) are regular languages. The set of regular expressions over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. Basis Clause: . (4) We use ( r+) as a regular expression to represent Lr+ . is a regular language because {a. Also since {a} is regular. and a are regular expressions corresponding to languages . respectively.For example. where Lr is the language corresponding to the regular expression r. (3) The concatenation of k r's . {a. aaa. {a}* is a regular language which is the set of strings consisting of a's such as . let = {a. They can represent regular languages and operations on them succinctly. Conventions on regular expressions (1) When there is no danger of confusion. where a is an element of . ( rs ) and ( r*) are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr Ls . . So for example. For a recursive definition of Lrk click here. Any element of that set is a regular expression. b} is regular. { } and {a}. Then since {a} and {b} are regular languages. aaaa etc. Regular expression Regular expressions are used to denote regular languages. b}. a. respectively. which has precedence over union ( + ). Inductive Clause: If r and s are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr and Ls . Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular expression unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. (2) The operation * has precedence over concatenation. Note also that *. The language corresponding to rk is Lrk. Thus for example rr = r2 . LrLs and Lr* . 2. bold face may not be used for regular expressions. ( r + s ) is used in stead of ( r + s ). Thus the regular expression ( a + ( b( c*) ) ) is written as a + bc*.

Examples of regular expression and regular languages corresponding to them • • • • ( a + b )2 corresponds to the language {aa. bb}. ( a + b )* corresponds to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. ab. corresponds to more than one regular expressions. ba. b}. For example ( a + b )* and ( a*b* )* correspond to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. That is. that is. b}. Thus for example ( a + b )* = ( a*b* )* . that is the set of strings of length 2 over the alphabet {a. abab.. b}. it is not easy to see by inspection whether or not two regular expressions are equal. a regular language. because they both represent the language of all strings over the alphabet {a. the set of strings of repeated ab's.. Definition of Equality of Regular Expressions Regular expressions are equal if and only if they correspond to the same language. In general. in general. ( ab )+ corresponds to the language {ab. b}. . a*b* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by zero or more b's. In general ( a + b )k corresponds to the set of strings of length k over the alphabet {a. Note:A regular expression is not unique for a language. a*b+a* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by one or more b's followed by zero or more a's. }. b}. . ababab.

Solution: It can easily be seen that . (a) find a string corresponding to r2 but not to r1 and (b) find a string corresponding to both r1 and r2. the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*) start with a string of r1 followed by any number of strings taken arbitrarily from r1 and/or r2. (a) (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ Solution: One general strategy to approach this type of question is to try to see whether or not they are equal to simple regular expressions that are familiar to us such as a. Thus the answer is ba. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*) . So we need to find strings of r2 which contain at least one a and at least one b. For example ab and ba are such strings. that is. r1 = a* + b* r2 = ab* + ba* + b*a + (a*b)* Solution: (a) Any string consisting of only a's or only b's and the empty string are in r1. a*. 1: Find the shortest string that is not in the language represented by the regular expression a*(ab)*b*. However. Ex. Ex. they do not produce any strings that are not represented by (r1 + r2)*. ba is not in it.Exercise Questions on Regular Language and Regular Expression Ex. (a) Since (r1 + r2)* represents all strings consisting of strings of r1 and/or r2 . 2: For the two regular expressions given below. b. (a + b)+ etc. Thus (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* is reduced to (r1 + r2)*. (a + b)*. r1r2 + r2r1 in the given regular expression is redundant. The only strings corresponding to r2 which consist of only a's or b's are a. bb and ab are in the language. However. Thus anything that comes after the first r1 in (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is represented by (r1 + r2)*. (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ means that all the strings represented by it must consist of one or more strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*). Find a simple (the shortest and with the smallest nesting of * and +) regular expression which is equal to each of the following regular expressions. which are strings in the language with length 1 or less. 3: Let r1 and r2 be arbitrary regular expressions over some alphabet. a+. a. b and the strings consiting of only b's (from (a*b)*). (b) A string corresponding to r1 consists of only a's or only b's or the empty string. Of the strings wiht length 2 aa.

b*a b*a b* is a regular expression for this language. Solution: A string in this language must have at least two a's. First of all L . Then starting with or a. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. First of all and a are in L . Ex. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is reduced to (r1(r1 + r2)*). Since any string of b's can be placed in front of the first a. Inductive Clause: If x L . Thus (aab)*(bb)* is a regular expression for L. then aabx L and xbb L . 5: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L and a L. strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or appending bb to any of the already generated strings. Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. Hence a string of L has zero or more of aab's and bb's in front possibly followed by a at the end. b } defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L Inductive Clause: If x L . 4: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L over the alphabet { a . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses.also represents the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*)+. and since an arbitrasry string of b's can be represented by the regular expression b*. b } that contain exactly two a's. Hence a string of L consists of zero or more aab's in front and zero or more bb's following them. and conversely (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ represents the strings represented by (r1(r1 + r2)*). Thus (aab + bb)*(a + ) is a regular expression for L. Then starting with . strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or bb to any of the already generated strings. Ex. behind the second a and between the two a's. Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. 7: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the . Ex. 6: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. then aabx L and bbx L . Ex.

ab. Thus simply put. and after the first b all the b's in the string appear in pairs. Ex. Solution: Since any string of even length can be expressed as the concatenation of strings of length 2 and since the strings of length 2 are aa. Any numbe of a's can appear any place in the string. Solution: Any string in a language over { a . Hence any string that follows aa is represented by ( b + ba )*. Ex. Note that 0 is an even number. If there is no aa but at least one a exists in a string of the language. Hence if a string of the language contains aa then it corresponds to the regular expression ( b + ab )*aa( b + ba )* . Hence the string is in this language. ba. ( b + ab )*( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. On the other hand if an a precedes the aa. then applying the same argument as for aa to a. Solution: A string in the language can start and end with a or b. 9: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of strings of even lengths over the alphabet of { a. b } that contain an odd number of b's Ex. 11: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the . a regular expression corresponding to the language is ( aa + ab + ba + bb )*. ( b + ab )*a( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. 8: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. it has at least one b. If an a comes after that aa. b } must end in a or b. 10: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression a*b(a*ba*b)*a* . Since it can have any string in front of the last a or bb. bb. then it must be followed by b. then that a must be preceded by b because otherwise there are two occurences of aa. Solution: If there is one substring aa in a string of the language. If there may not be any a in a string of the language. it is the set of strings over the alphabet { a. then applying the same argument as for aa to . then that aa can be followed by any number of b. Hence if a string does not end with ab then it ends with a or if it ends with b the last b must be preceded by a symbol b.alphabet { a. b }. Altogether ( b + ab )*( + a + aa )( b + ba )* is a regular expression for the language. b } that do not end with ab. ( a + b )*( a + bb ) is a regular expression for the language. Hence a string preceding the aa can be represented by ( b + ab )*. Ex. b } that contain no more than one occurence of the string aa.

We say a language is finite if it consists of a finite number of strings. is not regular as we shall see later. 12: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression ( b + ab )*( a + ab )*. Ex. { anbn | n is a natural number } which is the union of all the languages { akbk } . Hence altogether it represents any string consisting of a substring with no aa followed by one b followed by a substring with no bb. Thus the set of regular languages is closed under those operations. that is. Solution: ( b + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring aa and which end in b. Note 1: Later we shall see that the complement of a regular language and the intersection of regular laguages are also regular. a finite language is a set of n . Hence (( a + b )3)* represents the strings of length a multiple of 3. Then by the definition of the set of regular languages . the given regular expression represents the strings of length 3n and 3n + 1. Note 2: The union of infinitely many regular languages is not necessarily regular. Lr Ls . The following theorem shows that any finite language is regular.regular expression (( a + b )3)*( +a+b). Proof: Let Lr and Ls be regular languages over an alphabet . Regularity of finite languages Theorem 1: The set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed under operations union. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages and they are obviously over the alphabet . and ( a + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring bb. concatenation and Kleene star. For example while { akbk } is regular for any natural number k . where n is a natural number. Properties of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • Closure of the set of regular languages under union. where n is a natural number. concatenation and Kleene star operations. Solution: (( a + b )3) represents the strings of length 3. Since (( a + b )3)*( a + b ) represents the strings of length 3n + 1.

then we have proven the theorem. } and { a } are Inductive Step: Assume that { w } is a regular language for an arbitrary string w over . We then prove that a language consisting of a single string is regular. Hence { aw } is regular. Proof: Let us first assume that a language consisting of a single string is regular and prove the theorem by induction. Then since { w } is a regular language as proven below. Proof of Claim 2: Proof by induction on strings. Inductive Step: Assume that a language L consisting of n strings is a regular language (induction hypothesis). Proof of the Claim 1: Proof by induction on the number of strings. End of proof of Theorem 2.strings for some natural number n. Claim 1: A language consisting of n strings is regular for any natural number n (that is. a finite language is regular) if { w } is regular for any string w. Basis Step: By the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. Basis Step: (corresponding to n = 0) is a regular language by the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. Then for any symbol a of . Theorem 2: A finite language is regular. Hence by the Inductive Clause of the definition of regular language { a }{ w } is regular. { a } is a regular language from the Basis Step. End of proof of Claim 1 Thus if we can show that { w } is a regular language for any string w. End of proof for Claim 2 Note that Claim 2 can also be proven by induction on the length of string. { regular languages for any arbitrary symbol a of . L { w } is a regular language by the definition of regular language. Then { w } is a regular language. Claim 2: Let w be a string over an alphabet . .

Unfortunately not all languages and systems are simple like regular languages or finite automata. There are languages which are not regular and which. Then we are going to see that for every regular language a unique finite automaton can be constructed which can recognize the language (i. they are much more powerful computing devices than finite automata. It is assumed that the machine terminates its operation when it receives 15 cents or more. can not be recognized by finite automata. We are going to learn languages which are not regular and ways to test languages for non-regularity. Initially you are waiting for a customer to come and put some coins. Their operations can be simulated by a very simple computer program. When a customer comes and puts in the first coin. The states and the transitions between them of this vending machine can be represented with the diagram below. In this example you as a vending machine have gone through (transitions between) a number of states responding to the inputs from the customer (coins in this case). After that you stay in that state until another coin is put in to start the process anew or you may terminate the operation and start all over from the initial state. In the next few chapters first we are going to learn different kinds of finite automata. In fact Turing machines are as .e. When the customer selects a soft drink. you are no longer in the waiting-for-customer state. Click "NICKEL" or "DIME" in the figure and see how it operates (see how arrows turn red). you are in the waiting-for-customer state. So we might say you are in the 10-cents state. We have learned that regular languages are represented by regular expressions and conversely.Introduction to Finite Automata In this chapter we are going to study a class of machines called finite automata. tell whether or not a given string belongs to the regular language). say a dime. We are then going to study how finite automata can be used to simulate operations of systems we see in practice. Let us assume that only nickels and dimes are used for simplicity. that is. and equivalence and conversions between them. circles represent states and arrows state transitions. say 15-cents state. A kind of systems finite automnata can model and a computer program to simulate their operations are discussed later. therefore. Later we are going to learn an extension of finite automata called Turing machines. So you are in another state. Pretend that you are the machine. Ds on arrows represent a dime and Ns a nickel. You have received 10 cents and are waiting for more coins to come. In the figure. Though Turing machines are simple modification of finite automata. Let us consider the operation of a soft drink vending machine which charges 15 cents for a can. Finite automata are computing devices that accept/recognize regular languages and are used to model operations of many systems we find in practice. then you have now received 15 cents and you wait for the customer to select a soft drink. A vending machine looked at this way is an example of finite automaton. you must give the customer a can of soft drink. If the customer puts in a nickel.

. "have received 5 cents" etc. Then a deterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . the states of the machine such as "waiting for a customer to put a coin in". 4. Also let be a function from Q to Q . "Waiting for a customer to put a coin in" can be considered the initial state of this automaton and the state in which the machine gives out a soda can can be considered the accepting state. a) is equal to "have received 5 cents". Definition of Deterministic Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • • • Finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of deterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. 2. Its elements can. q0 . though not proven. are the elements of Q. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. Thus in the example of vending machine. We call the elements of Q a state. for example. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. . a) must be specified. the transition function. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ceases to come. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". (q. however. Thus in the example of vending machine. that any computation human beings do (with or without computers) can be performed by Turing machines. A > Notes on the definition 1.powerful as computers and it is generally believed. For example. in the Example 1 below. The transition function is also called a next state function meaning that the automaton moves into the state (q. Note that is a function. Otherwise it is not accepted. be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. The accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. The set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. . if q is the initial state and a nickel is put in. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of . then (q. 3.

q ) from vertex p to vertex q with label represents the transition (p. The accepting states are indicated by double circles. Examples of finite automaton Example 1: Q = { 0. DFAs are often represented by digraphs called (state) transition diagram. etc. An arc ( p . a) ) A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. A = { 1 }. the following table. are not accepted. 5. = { a }. Transition functions can also be represented by tables as seen below. then we need a DFA such as shown in the following examle to accept the same string a. ) = q . It is a little more complex DFA. b } in stead of { a }. The vertices (denoted by single circles) of a transition diagram represent the states of the DFA and the arcs labeled with an input symbol correspond to the transitions. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 1 a 2 2 a 2 (q. . A deterministic finite automaton is also called simply a "finite automaton". Abbreviations such as FA and DFA are used to denote deterministic finite automaton. If the alphabet of the Example 1 is changed to { a. They are called transition table.the string a is accepted by the finite automaton. 1. 2 }. aaa. But any other strings such as aa.

1 }. A DFA that accepts all strings consisting of only symbol a over the alphabet { a. b }. a) ) . while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. b } is the next example. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. in the following table. A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 0 b 2 1 a 2 1 b 2 2 a 2 2 b 2 (q. = { a. 2 }. b }. 1. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 0 0 b 1 1 a 1 1 b 1 (q. Example 3: Q = { 0. the following table.Example 2: Q = { 0. A = { 0 }. A = { 1 }. = { a.

If we make it a DFA. 10.A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 N 5 0 D 10 5 N 10 5 D 15 10 N 15 10 D 20 15 N 5 15 D 10 20 N 5 20 D 10 (q. A = { 15. a) ) . its transition function is as shown in the following table. 20 }. Q = { 0. N }. 5. Example 4: For the example of vending machine of the previous section. 15. = { D. 20 }. the initial state q0 = 0.

5. . When it sees no symbol. it stops and the automaton terminates its operation. It never moves to the left. The head is always at the leftmost square at the beginning of the operation. 3. 2. The tape has the left end and extends to the right without an end. The head moves to the right one square every time it reads a symbol. 4. 6. The tape has a read only head.A finite automaton as a machine A finite automaton can also be thought of as the device shown below consisting of a tape and a control circuit which satisfy the following conditions: 1. The tape is divide into squares in each of which a symbol can be written prior to the start of the operation of the automaton. There is a finite control which determines the state of the automaton and also controls the movement of the head.

Initially it is in state 0. aaaaaa etc. it goes into state 1 and the input string is not accepted by the DFA. When zero or more a's are given as an input to it. it stays in state 0 while it reads all the a's (without breaks) on the tape. this DFA never leaves state 1. then no matter what symbol is read. the DFA is in the accepting state. it moves to state 1. are not accepted by this automaton. when all the a's on the tape are read. Since the state 0 is also the accepting state. For example strings aaa. Hence when b appears anywhere in the input. If b is read while it is in state 0 (initially or after reading some a's). Once it gets to state 1. are accepted but strings such as aaba. As an example let us consider the DFA of Example 3 above. .Operation of finite automata Let us see how an automaton operates when it is given some inputs. b etc. Thus this automaton accepts any string of a's.

*

of DFA and its Properties

Subjects to be Learned

• •

*

Language accepted by DFA

Contents

Here we are going to formally describe what is meant by applying a transition repeatedly, that is the concept of * For a state q and string w, *( q , w ) is the state the DFA goes into when it reads the string w starting at the state q. In general a DFA goes through a number of states from the state q responding to the symbols in the string w. Thus for a DFA < Q , , q0 , , A > , the function

* :Q -> Q is defined recursively as follows: *

Definition of

*

:

*

Basis Clause: For any state q of Q ,

(q,

) = q , where

*

denotes the empty string. and any symbol a ,

Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q, any string y * ( q , ya ) = ( *( q , y ) , a ) .

In the definition, the Basis Clause says that a DFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the state DFA reaches after reading string ya starting at state q is the state it reaches by reading symbol a after reading string y from state q. Example For example suppose that a DFA contains the transitions shown below.

Then

*

*

( q , DNR ) can be calculated as follows:

( q , DNR ) = ( *( q , DN ) , R ) by the Inductive Clause. = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , DN ). = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) since D = D . = ( ( ( *( q , ) , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , D ). = ( ( ( q , D ) , N ) , R ) , since ( q , ) = q . = ( ( q1 , N ) , R ) , since ( q , D ) = q1 as seen from the diagram. = ( q2 , R ) , since ( q1 , N ) = q2 as seen from the diagram. = q3 since ( q2 , R ) = q3 as seen from the diagram. Properties of

*

We can see the following two properties of

*

. for a DFA < Q , , q0 , ,A

**Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >,
**

*

(q,a)=

(q,a)

Proof : Since a = a , * ( q , a ) = *( q , a ) . By the definition of * , * ( q , a ) = ( *( q , ) , a ) But *( q , ) = q by the definition of Hence ( *( q , ) , a ) = ( q , a ) .

*

.

The next theorem states that the state reached from any state, say q , by reading a string, say w , is the same as the state reached by first reading a prefix of w, call it x, and then by reading the rest of the w, call it y. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 , , A > , for a DFA < Q , ,

*

( q , xy ) =

*

(

*

(q,x),y).

Proof : This is going to be proven by induction on string y. That is the statement to be proven is the following: * For an arbitrary fixed string x, ( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for any arbitrary string y. First let us review the recursive definition of *. Recursive definition of Basis Clause:

* *

:

.

* * Inductive Clause: If x and a , then xa . * Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.

Now the proof of the theorem. Basis Step: If y = , then *( q , xy ) = *( q , x ) = *( q , x ) . Also *( *( q , x ) , y ) = *( *( q , x ) , ) = *( q , x ) by the definition of * . Hence the theorem holds for y = . Inductive Step: Assume that *( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for an arbitrary string y. This is the induction hypothesis. We are going to prove that *( q , xya ) = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) for any arbitrary symbol a of . ( q , xya ) = ( *( q , xy ) , a ) by the definition of * = ( * ( *( q , x ) , y ) , a ) by the induction hypothesis. = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) by the definition of * . Thus the theorem has been proven.

*

For the following DFA answer the questions given below.

w ) A } . . A > . A language L is accepted by a DFA < Q . * . That is a string is accepted by a DFA if and only if the DFA starting at the initial state ends in an accepting state after reading the string. the language accepted by a DFA is the set of strings accepted by the DFA. Example 1 : . q0 . A > . . q0 . w ) A . if and only if ( q0 . if and only if L = { w | *( q0 . . That is.The following notations are used in the questions: : \delta * : \delta^* : \Lambda Language Accepted by DFA Subjects to be Learned • Language accepted by DFA A string w is accepted by a DFA < Q .

Example 2 : This DFA does not accept any string because it has no accepting state.2 . by reading an empty string .1 and it can go through this cycle any number of times by reading substring ab repeatedly. and it stays there. Then from state 1 go through the cycle 1 . Thus the language it accepts is the empty set Example 3 : DFA with one cycle .1 any number of times by reading substring ab any number of times to come back to state 1. This is represented by (ab)*.e. This DFA has a cycle: 1 . Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by a(ab)*aa . It accepts nothing else because any non-empty symbol would take it to state 1. To find the language it accepts.This DFA accepts { } because it can go from the initial state to the accepting state (also the initial state) without reading any symbol of the alphabet i. first from the initial state go to state 1 by reading one a. Then from state 1 go to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading aa.2 . which is not an accepting state. .

2 .2 .1 .0 and 0 .2 .1. Example 5 : DFA with two interleaved cycles This DFA has two cycles: 1 . To find the language accepted by this DFA. Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by ( ab + bb )*.1 .0 . first from state 0 go to state 1 by .1 and 1 .0 .Example 4 : DFA with two independent cycles This DFA has two independent cycles: 0 .3 .2 .0 and it can move through these cycles any number of times in any order to reach the accepting state from the initial state such as 0 .0 .0.2 .

first at state 0 read any number of b's. To find the language accepted at state 1. Then go from state 1 to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading bb.1 any number of times by reading substring ba repeatedly. Thus the language accepted at state 1 is b*a(ba)* . Thus the language that is accepted by this DFA is the union of the language accepted at state 0 and the one accepted at state 1. Then from state 1 go through the two cycles 1 . There is a systematic way of finding the language accepted by a DFA and we are going to learn it later. Then go to state 1 by reading one a.1 any number of times in any order by reading substrings baa and bba. At this point (b*a) will have been read. At state 1 go through the cycle 1 .reading a ( any other state which is common to these cycles such as state 2 can also be used instead of state 1 ). At this point a substring a( baa + bba )* will have been read. The language accepted at state 0 is b* . Example 6 : This DFA has two accepting states: 0 and 1.3 . Thus altogether a( baa + bba )*bb will have been read when state 3 is reached from state 0.0 . respectively. So we are not going to go any further on this problem here.1 and 1 .2 .2 . Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata .2 .

the transition function. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". A = { 1 }. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. We call the elements of Q a state. Also let be a function from Q to 2Q . a) must be specified. As in the case of DFA the accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. Unlike DFAs an NFA moves into one of the states given by (q. the following table. Note that is a function. 3. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of (q.Subjects to be Learned • • • Nondeterministic finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. . in which case the NFA aborts its operation. Note that any DFA is also a NFA. . If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ends i. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . q0 . a) to select is determined nondeterministically. a) ) . The transition function is also called a next state function . Which one of the states in (q. A > Notes on the definition 1. But it can be the empty set. Examples of NFA Example 1: Q = { 0.e. Its elements can be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. ceases to come. 2. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 1 a (q. 5. 4. = { a }. Otherwise it is not accepted. 1 }. As in the case of DFA the set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements.

b } in stead of { a }. in the following table. = { a.2} 0 1 1 2 2 b a b a b {2} (q. b }. A = { 2 }. is changed to { a.A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1. . 1. 2 }. If the alphabet a}. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. this is still an NFA that accepts { Example 2: Q = { 0. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state.

Let us now define the function strings and languages by NFA. When it reads the symbol a. We say that this automaton accepts the string a. it does not accept any of them. As an example let us consider the automaton of Example 2 above. If on the other hand it moves to state 1 after reading a. * and then formalize the concepts of acceptance of . then it stays in the accepting state. if the next input is b and if no more inputs are given. Since the state 2 is the accepting state.Operation of NFA Let us see how an automaton operates when some inputs are applied to it. it moves to either state 1 or state 2. then it goes to state 2 and remains there. Thus the string ab is also accepted by this NFA. If any other strings are given to this NFA. if it moves to state 2 and no more inputs are given. Initially it is in state 0.

A > . . the function * :Q -> 2Q is defined recursively as follows: * Definition of *: Basis Clause: For any state q of Q. Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q. ) = { q }.1. *( q . q0 . w ) is the set of states that the NFA can reach when it reads the string w starting at the state q. where * denotes the empty . a) ) For example consider the NFA with the following transition table: . the Basis Clause says that an NFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the set of states NFA can reach after reading string ya starting at state q is the set of states it can reach by reading symbol a after reading string y starting at state q.Language Accepted by NFA Subjects to be Learned • • • for NFA Language accepted by NFA Properties of * * Definition of * For a state q and string w. .3} 0 b {2} 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b {1} {3} {3} (q. ya ) = In the definition. Example State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {0. string. any string y * and any symbol a ( q . In general an NFA nondeterministically goes through a number of states from the state q as it reads the symbols in the string w. * (q. Thus for an NFA < Q .

) = { 0 } . a ) = { 0 . a ) for all p ( 0 .b) (3. . Then * * ( 0 .2. ab ) = ( 0 . a ) by the Inductive Clause of * Now *( 0 . By the Basis Clause of the definition of *. b ) (1. a ) is the union of ( p. Suppose that the state 3 is an accepting state of this NFA.b)={2} {3} {1}={1. 3}. ) again by the Inductive * Clause of the definition of . 1 . Hence *( 0 .The transition diagram for this NFA is as given below. 3 } . a ) = ( 0 . ( 0 . Hence *( 0 . *( 0 . ab ) is the union of the definition of * . ab ) can be calculated as follows: ( p. b ) for all p * ( 0 .

The language accepted by an NFA < Q.a)= (q. * ( q . aaa. and for NFA has properties similar to that for DFA. abbbb etc.A Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >. that is. x ) A is not empty. . . A > is the set of strings that are accepted by the NFA. . xy ) = These theorems can be proven in a manner similar to those for Theorems 1 and 2 for DFA. q0.a) for an NFA < Q . for an NFA < Q . q0. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 . A > if and only if * ( q0 .* We say that a string x is accepted by an NFA < Q. . * (q. ab. q0 . a. * . . . . if and only if it can reach an accepting state by reading x starting at the initial state. Some of the strings accepted by the NFA given above are the language it accepts is a*( ab + a + ba )(bb)* . A > . . .

2.) and see some examples. As we are going to see later. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. Also let { } to 2Q . . Thus the tape head does not move when is read. We call the elements of Q a state. These operations on FAs can be described conveniently if -Transitions are used. the transition function. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton with Let Q be a finite set and let -Transitions be a function from Q be a finite set of symbols. Note that any NFA is also a NFA.A> Notes on the definition 1.there is a NFA (hence DFA) which accepts the same language and vice versa. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton with -Transitions is a 5-tuple < Q .. q0 .makes the transition without reading any symbol in the input. We are going to do that by showing that a finite automaton can be constructed from a given regular expression by combining simpler FAs using union.Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata with Transitions Subjects to be Learned • • • - Nondeterministic finite automata with State transition diagram State transition table -Transitions Contents One of the objectives of this chapter is to show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between regular languages and finite automata. Basically an NFA with -Transitions is an NFA but can respond to an empty string and move to the next state. . A transition on reading means that the NFA. for any NFA. . Here we are going to formally define NFA with -Transitions (abbreviated as NFA. concatenation and Kleene star operations.

b }. 3. 1. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. there are no transitions on reading b except from state 3. A = . If you read string ab. When a symbol a is read at the initial state 0. 4. it can move to any of the states other than 0. for example. 4 and 5 without reading any symbol on the tape. For once you are in state 1. then you come to state 4. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in the State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 0 {4} 1 {2} 2 { 3. you can go to state 2. 3. for example. 4 } 3 {5} 3 b {4} 4 a {5} (q. For though you go to states 1. 2. 4 and 5 by reading a. 2. a) ) Here the transitions to are omitted from the table. 5 }. Thus 4 is the only state you can go to from the initial state . 3. following table.Example of NFA- Q = { 0. = { a.

by reading ab.

**Language Accepted by NFASubjects to be Learned
**

• • • •

**-closure for NFALanguage accepted by NFAProperties of *
**

*

Contents

To formally define * for NFA- , we start with the concept of -closure for a state which is the set of states reachable from the state without reading any symbol. Using that concept we define * and then strings and languqges accepted by NFA- . Definition of -closure

Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA- . Let us denote the -closure of a set S of states of Q by ( S ). Then ( S ) is defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: S (S)

Inductive Clause: For any state q of Q, if q ( S ) , then ( q , ) (S). Extremal Clause: Nothing is in ( S ) unless it is obtained by the above two clauses.

For the NFAFirst { 2 }

of the above figure, ( { 2 } ) , that is, 2 (2, )

( { 2 } ) is obtained as follows: ( { 2 } ) . Then since 2 ( { 2 } ) , by the

Inductive Clause, Since (2,

({2}). ({2}).

) = { 3 , 4 }, we now have { 2 , 3 , 4 }

Since 3 and 4 have been added to

({2}),

(3,

) = { 5 } and

(4,

)=

must

be included in ( { 2 } ) . Thus now { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } ({2}). Though 5 has become a memeber of the closure, since ( 5 , ) is empty, no new members are added to ( { 2 } ) . Since ( q , ) has been examined for all the states currently in ( { 2 } ) and no more elements are added to it, this process of generating the closure terminates and ( { 2 } ) = { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } is obtained. As we can see from the example, ( S ) is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S by traversing any number of arcs. That is, it is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S without reading any symbols in . Now with this -closure, we can define

*

recursively as follows:

As in the cases of DFA and NFA, * gives the result of applying the transition function repeatedly as dictated by the given string. Definition of

* *

is going to be defined recursively. Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA-

.

**Basis Clause: For any state q of Q,
**

*

(q,

)=

({q}).

*

Inductive Clause: For any state q, a string y in

and a symbol a in

,

*

( q , ya ) =

(

).

What the Inductive Clause means is that *( q , ya ) is obtained by first finding the states that can be reached from q by reading y ( *( q , y ) ), then from each of those states p by reading a (i.e. by finding ( p , a ) ), and then by reading 's ( i.e. by taking the closure of the ( p , a )'s ) . Example : For the NFAbelow: of the following figure,

*

( 0 , ab ) can be obtained as

First let us compute *( 0 , a ) . For that we need ( { 0 } ). Since it is the set of states reached by traversing the arcs from state 0, ( { 0 } ) = {0,3,4}. Next from each of the states in ( { 0 } ) we read symbol a and move to another state (i.e. apply ). They are ( 0 , a ) = { 1 } , ( 3 , a ) = ( 4 , a ) = { 5 }. Hence We then traverse the } ) = { 1 , 2 , 3 } and = { 1 , 5 } for q = 0 . arcs from { 1 , 5 } to get to the states in *( 0 , a ) . Since * ({5})={5}, (0,a)={1,2,3,5}.

({1

that recognizes a language L. ab } . b ) = { 4 } . Thus Since ( { 4 } ) = { 3 . ab ) = { 3 . q0 .to (equivalent) NFA Conversion of NFA to (equivalent) DFA Equivalence of DFAs. Then the 2 . A2 > that satisfies the following conditions recognizes L: .0 . .0 . Equivalence of DFAs. A1 > be an NFA. and ( 2 . . b ) are empty sets. A string x is accepted by an NFA. x ) contains at least one accepting state.. The language accepted by an NFA. b ) and ( 5 . .< Q . 4 } . a . NFAs and NFA. ab ) read b from each of the states in *( 0 . . *( 0 . For example the NFAof the figure given above accepts the language { . . a ) and then take the arcs from there. q2. .< Q .s Subjects to be Learned • • • Conversion of NFA. q1. Now ( 1 . b ) . q0 . NFA M2 = < Q2.Then to find *( 0 . 4 } . NFAs and NFAto NFA 1 Conversion of NFA- Let M1 = < Q1 . A > is the set of strings accepted by the NFA. ( 3 . A > if and only if *( q0 . .

Otherwise. that is all the states that can be reached from q by traversing arcs. Then collect all the states that can be reached from each state of ( {q} ) by traversing one arc labeled with the symbol a. . a ) as follows: Find ( {q} ). Thus to obtain an NFA M2 = < Q2. as the given NFA. a ): First ( { 0 } ) = { 0 . 2.0 } ) A1 = A1 otherwise . 1 } . a ) = 1 * (q. 3 ). q2. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. q1.0 .0 } if ( { q1. The transition function 2 is obtained as follows: 2( 0 . The closure of the set of those states is 2( q . 2 ( q. q2. 1.0 . a ) .a)= ( ) A2 = A1 { q1.0 through arcs in M1 . The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0.0 are the accepting states of M2 . Then from the transition function of the NFA- . then all the accepting states of M1 plus state q1. that is if an accepting state can be reached from the initial state q1.M1 = < Q1 . 2 first copy the states of Q1 into Q2.0. The set of accepting states A2 is the same as A1 if no accepting states can be reached from the initial state q1. .0 through arcs in M1 .0 = q1. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) . A2 > which accepts the same language 1 . Example 1: Let us convert the following NFAto NFA. A1 > does.Q2 = Q1. Then for each state q of Q2 and each symbol a of find 2 ( q . .

b)= 1 ( 1.2} )) ({q}) {0. a ) = 1 ( 1 . since ( { 0 } ) = { 0 .3} {3} {1. (q. 2 (0.3} {1.2} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. 1 } and 1 (0.2}.2} {1.2})={1. 2 ( 0 . b ) = . 1 For . .( 0 . a ) = { 1 . ({1.b)= Similarly 2 can be obtained for other states and symbols. b ) .2} {1.3} {1.1} {1} {1} {2} {2} {1.2} {1.2} {1. They are given in the table ( { q } ) and 2 below together with State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b a b . and Hence 2( 0 . 2 }. )(= ( {1.1} {0. a ) = .

since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) . 4 ). 2.1} {0. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. The transition function 2 is obtained as for Example 1.2. 1.1} {1} {1} {2.2. 2 is given in the table below together with ( { q } ) .2} {1. 1 ( p .2} {4} {4} {4} {1.4} {1. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0. )(= ( {1.3} )) {1.3} . 3.3} {2.2.2} 2 (q.4} {1.3} {1.Example 2: Let us convert the following NFA- to NFA.4} {1.3} {3} {3} {1. ) and State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 a b a b a b a b a ({q}) {0.4} {1.

4 b {1. .4} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. Proof of Equivalence of NFA- and NFA We are going to prove that the NFA obtained from NFAby the conversion algorithm accepts the same language as the NFA.

(q. the induction hypothesis and the construction of NFA from NFA. )={q}. (q. then * 1 ( q . Thus we first prove that it is true for any arbitrary symbol. a ) = 1*( q .a)= 2 ( q . a)= by the definition of Since * 2 * for NFA (click here for a review) . a ) . Basis Step: We need to show that for any symbol a in 1 * (q.w)= 2 * ( q . Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. and the conversion of NFAto NFA click here.0 . that is wa for any symbol a in the alphabet.(2) .. wa ) holds for any arbitrary symbol a in First we show that using the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q .(2) Hence from (1) and (2).a)= 2 2 * (q . . Claim 1: For any non-empty string w and for any state q. wa ) = --. --. A2 > (q. . 1 * (q. First we are going to prove that To review the definition of * 1 * . A1 > and 2 NFA obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2.w)= 2 * ( q .w). Hence (q. 1 * (q. w ) for any non-empty string w. w ) for an arbitrary string w (Induction Hypothesis).a)= 2 * (q. Recall that the set of strings is defined recursively (click here for a quick review). We are going to prove it by showing that both of them are equal to Firstly 2( q . a ) --. .0 .a).w)= 2 * (q. and NFA- When it is proven. = = 2 * 2 (q .a). q2. . Secondly 2 * (q.a).(1) because of the way NFA is constructed from NFA(click here for a review) . 1 . for NFA. q1.NFA- that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 .a). The case when w is an empty string is going to be proven separately. . then assuming it holds for any arbitrary string w we prove it for any of the children of w.(1) . wa ) = 2 * ( q . Inductive Step: We need to show that if 1 * (q. wa ) --. = 1 * Then we show that ( q .a)= 2 * 2 (q. it implies that NFAM1 and NFA M2 accept the same non-empty strings.

= Since 2 (q.a)= 1 * ( q . ( q . This can be shown to be equal to . w ) by the induction hypothesis. wa ) .basically using the definition of Then from (1) and (2) we can see that 1 * 1 * . Let us next prove (2). that is By the definition of 1 * = 1 * 1 * ( q .a)= Substituting this into the left hand side of (2) produces = . wa ) . Hence we have proven (2). . because = . that is (1) has been proven. a ) by the way NFA is constructed from NFA= . wa ) = Since 2 * (q. wa ) . 1 * Thus from (1) and (2) ( q . To see an explanation for this click here. The right hand side of this equality is equal to ( the first and have been swapped to get this) . for NFA- (p. By the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . wa ) . Let us first prove (1). Hence On the other hand = Hence 1 * = ( q . wa ) = . wa ) . by the definition of 1 * .w)= 1 * ( q . . wa ) = 2 * ( q . as proven below in Claim 3. Hence 2 * ( q . wa ) = 2 * ( q . . = 1*( q .

then ( { q10 } ) A1 .. Since (S T ) is defined recursively. then ( q . if it is accepted by an NFA. Hence by the way A2 is constructed. q20 Conversely if NFAis accepted by NFA. Hence is accepted by NFA. As a preparation for the proof of commutativity of union and -closure operations. We are going to prove this in two parts: (S T) (S) (S) (T) ( T ) and (S T). What Part 1 states is that all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in the set (S) (T). A2 . Then the -closure of X is defined recursively as Basis Clause: X (X). then its childen also have it. in the Basis Step of our proof we prove the property for the elements of the basis of (S T ) and in the Inductive Step we prove that if an arbitrary element of (S T ) has that property. As for the empty string . For that let us restate the statement so that the induction becomes clearer. Let X be the set of states of an NFA. and the corresponding NFA accept the same language. Hence is accepted by NFA. By the way NFA is constructed from . Claim 2: (S T)= (S) (T). let us prove the following claim.End of Induction With this Claim 1 we can see that any non-empty string w is accepted by NFA if and only if it is accepted by the corresponding NFA. Inductive Clause: If q ( X ) . . ) (X). Part 1 : (S T) (S) (T) This is going to be proven by induction on (S T). Extremal Clause: Nothng is in ( X ) unless it is obtained by the Basis and Inductive Clauses. then q20 this means that Thus NFA( { q10 } ) A1 A2 . Let us review the definition of the -closure of the set of states of an NFA.

(S) (T). ( T ) . (S T ) with the property of being in (S) ( T ) . if q is in . and ( S T) (S T). ) . ) (S) (T).q ( S ) or q ( S ) . then (q. T). End of Proof for Part 1 Part 2 : Proof of Part 2: We are going to prove (S) (S (S) T ) and (S) (T) (T) (T) (S (S (S T). ) (S) (S) (T). Basis Step: We need to show that S Since S (S T ) . then (q. Since q If q ( S ) . ) (S) (T).S (S T). Hence ) Similarly if q Hence if q is an arbitrary element of (S) (T). Inductive Step: We need to prove that for an arbitrary element q in ( S ) . ( T ) . Hence (T). (T). T ) with (T). (q. ) Let q be an arbitrary element of T ) with the property of being in ( S ) by the definition of ( T ) . then ( q . (T) Thus all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in (S T) which is to say that (S) (T). That would imply that Proof of (S) (S By induction on (S T): (S).Proof of Part 1: Basis Step: We need to prove that ( S Since S ( S ) and T T) (S) (S) (S (S) (S) (T). then (q. T T). S and T are subsets of (S T) Inductive Step: We need to prove that if q is an arbitrary element of the property of being in (S) (S ( T ) .

Similarly Hence (S) (T) (T) (S T ) holds. Si ) by the definition of union. ( Si ) = ( Si ) = ( S1 ) and ( S1 ) . Proof : Proof by induction on n. Thus (S) (S T ) has been proven. then (q. - T ) is a -closure. --. End of Proof for Claim 3 Sn+1 ) by Claim 2 above. End of Proof of Part 2 End of Proof of Claim 2 Claim 3: ( Si ) = ( Si ) . Basis Step: n = 1. ) (S T). ( Si ) holds for n. ( Sn+1 ) by the induction hypothesis. by the definition of (q. ) (S closure T).Inducion Hypothesis ( Si ) = ( = = (( Si ) ( ( Si ) ) Si ) ( Sn+1 ) by the definition of union. Si is a set as well as Sn+1. (S T ) holds. then Hence Inductive Step: Assume that ( ( Si ) = Si ) = ( Si ) holds for n = 1. If n = 1. since = ( Equivalence of NFA and DFA We are going to prove that the DFA obtained from NFA by the conversion algorithm .(S Since q is in (S T ) and since (S T ) .

= * 1 ( q1. w ) for an arbitrary string w. w ) . q2.0 .0 . w ) = 2 * ( q2. ( q2.0 .0 .0 by the definition of 2* .accepts the same language as the NFA. w ) . Kleene's Theorem --.0 . w ) = 2*( q2. . w ) = 2 * ( q2. w ) for any string w. w ) holds. A2 > First we are going to prove by induction on strings that 1*( q1.0 } by the construction of DFA M2 . A1 > and DFA .Part 1 Subjects to be Learned • • • • Union of FAs Concatenation of FAs Kleene Star of FAs Acceptance of regular languages by FAs Contents . .0 . ) by the definition of 1 * . Theorem: For any string w. w ) . When it is proven.0 . ( q1.0 . wa ) * 1 Thus for any string w ( q1. a ) ( q2. Inductive Step: Assume that Induction Hypothesis 1 * ( q1. Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. 1 * ( q1. it obviously implies that NFA M1 and DFA M2 accept the same strings.0 . q1.0 . ) = q2.0 . a ) 2( * 2 ( q2. wa ) = = = = 2 ( 1 2 * * ( q1. --- For the string w and an arbitrry symbol a in 1 * .0 .0 . = { q1.0 . Basis Step: For w = 2 * .0 . w ) = 2 * ( q2. NFA that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 .0 . 2 1 .

q2. where qu. qu. Theorem 1 (Part 1 of Kleene's theorem): Any regular language is accepted by a finite automaton. Proof: This is going to be proven by (general) induction following the recursive definition of regular language. Ac > and Mk = < Q2 . Qu = Q1 Q2 . respectively. then L1 L2 . . c . 1 . A2 > . Ak > . . It states that any regular language is accepted by an FA and conversely that any language accepted by an FA is regular.0 . u Mu = < Qu .{ } and { a } for any symbol a in are accepted by an FA. .0 is a state which is neither in Q1 nor in Q2 .0 . Basis Step: As shown below the languages . qk. . that together with the Basis Step would prove the theorem. qc.Kleene's theorem. .0 . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by FAs. which are given below.0 .0 . 2 . A1 > and M2 = < Q2 . u L2 . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by the FAs Mu = < Qu . concatenation and Kleene star operations. Then L1 = < Qc . Suppose that L1 and L2 are accepted by FAs M1 = < Q1 . . . Au > .0 } . We assume that Q1 Q2 = without loss of generality since states can be renamed if necessary. qu. Mc . k . Inductive Step: We are going to show that for any languages L1 and L2 if they are accepted by FAs.0 . Au > : { qu. Since any regular language is obtained from { } and { a } for any symbol a in by using union. respectively. q1.

qk.0 . { q1.0 } ) } { (q. . Au = A1 A2 Mc = < Qc . . . a ) = for all a in . Qk = Q1 k . qc.0 } .0 } ) | q A1 } Ac = A2 Mk = < Qk .0.0. q2. { q2. k . .0.0 = q1.0 . . u ) = { q1. These NFA- s are illustrated below. where qk.0. { q1. Note that (qu. that is u (qu. { qk. c .0 } .0 .0 . Ac > : Qc = Q1 Q2 qc. q2. Ak > : { qk.0 } = 1 { (qk.0 } ) } .0 is a state which is not in Q1 . .u = 1 2 { (qu.0 c = 1 2 { (q.0 } ) | q A1 } Ak = { qk.

It can be proven. respectively.s . though we omit proofs. in fact accept L1 L2 . that these NFA. Mc and Mk . End of Proof Examples of Mu . . L1L2 and L1*. Mc and Mk: Example 1: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression (aa + b)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above. Mu.

.Example 2: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression ((a + b)a*)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above.

Part 2 .Kleene's Theorem -.

. What this lemma says is that the set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled with k+1 or lower numbers consists of the following two sets: 1. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton.Subjects to be Learned • Languages accepted by FAs are regular Contents The converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem also holds true. k) . k) the set of strings representing paths from state p to state q that go through only states numbered no higher than k. k+1. q. k) : The set of strings going first from p to k+1. q. then from k+1 to q. q. 2. k+1. See the figure below for the illustration. k)L(k+1. L(p. Lemma 1: L(p. q. It states that any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. Given a finite automaton. k+1. let us study a method to compute the set of strings accepted by a finite automaton. k) : The set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled wiht k or lower numbers. q. first relabel its states with the integers 1 through n. k) L(p. Before proceeding to a proof outline for the converse. k)*L(k+1. Then the following lemmas hold. q. k+1) = L(p. k)*L(k+1. k+1. all without passing through states labeled higher than k. k)L(k+1. Note that paths may go through arcs and vertices any number of times. then from k+1 to k+1 any number of times. L(p. Next denote by L(p.

then it consists of single symbols representing arcs from p to q. k) is regular for any states p and q and any natural number k. Proof: L(p. we have the following converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem. L(p. q. Example : Let us find the language accepted by the following finite automaton using the . q. Since the number of symbols is finite and since any finite language is regular. q. >From Lemmas 1 and 2 by induction the following lemma holds. then is in it as well as the strings representing any loops at p (they are all single symbols). 0) is regular. If p = q.Lemma 2: L(p. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. q. Hence if p and q are different. Theorem 2 (Part 2 of Kleene's Theorem): Any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. n) over all accepting states q. q. 0) is the set of strings representing paths from p to q without passing any states in between. 0) is regular. Since the language accepted by a finite automaton is the union of L(q0. Lemma 3: L(p.

since r(1.0) + r(3. 2): r(1. q. 1.2. 1. Hence r(1. 1)r(2. 2. 1. r(1. 1. 1)*r(2. 2) = r(1.1. 1) = r(3.1. since r(3. 1. Then the language accepted by this NFA is r(1. 1)r(2. r(2. 1) = r(1. 1) + r(1.0) = b.2.1. 2)*r(3.1. 2. 3). k) the regular expression for the set of strings L(p.0) = ba+ + .0) + r(2. 2): r(1.2.1.0) = ba+ . 1) = r(1.lemmas.0)*r(1. r(1. 1. 2) = r(1. 1) r(1. 1. 3. 3. 1. 1) = r(2.0)r(1. 2) = a+(b a+ + = a+(b a+ )*a . 1)*r(2. Let us denote by r(p. 2.1.1.0)*r(1.1. q. since r(2.1. 1)r(2. 2. 1) r(3. 1) = r(2. r(1. 2) . 3. 1.1.2.1. 2) + r(1.1. 3. 1. .0) = b .0)r(1. 3. 2) = r(3. 2) = a* + a+(b a+)*b a* .1. r(1.2.0) + r(2. 2. 1) + r(1. 3.2.2. 1) = r(2. 3.0)*r(1. 2.0)*r(1. By Lemma 1.0) = ba* . since r(1.0) = a + .0)r(1. 3.0) + r(1.1. r(2.1.0) = and r(3. 1) = r(3. 1. 3.1. 2.0)r(1.0) + r(1. 2): r(3. 2. 3. 3. )*a r(3.0) = a* .0) = and r(2.0) = a .0)*r(1. 1) r(1. 2)r(3. 1) = a Hence r(1.1. k). 2. 3.2. 1)*r(2.0)r(1. 3) = r(1.0) = a+ .2. 3. 1) + r(3. 3.

The detail is left as an exercise though it would be quite challenging.0) + r(3. )*ba* + ( ba+)+a )*( ba+ )*ba*. * . that is Mc = < Q .0)r(1. q0 . then to (a + ab)*.1.0)<SUP*< SUP>r(1. 1. 1) = r(3. 1)*r(2. then r(p.1. In this example there is only one accepting state. i. 2) = = + ( ba+)+a + ba+( ba+ + )*a r(3. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. 2) = r(3. 2. 1. Then a DFA that accepts the complement of L. 2. 1. where p is the initial state and n is the number of states in the given finite automaton. If there are more accepting states.A > is a DFA that accepts * . 3) = a* + a+(b a+)*ba* + ( a+( ba+ )*a )( This can be further simplified to (a + ab + abb)*. q0 . n)'s must be added together to get the regular expression for the language accepted by the automaton. can be obtained by swapping its accepting states with its non-accepting states. . 1) + r(3. n) must be found for each accepting state q. 2): r(3. . . q. .L .1.Hence r(3.1. Comlement and Intersection of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • • Complement of Regular Language Complement of DFA Intersection of Regular Languages Contents Complement Let M = < Q .0) = ba* Hence r(3. Q .e. 1. q. 1. and all the r(p. 2) = ba* + ba+( ba+ + = ( ba+ )*ba* .L. 1) r(3. 1. 3. 1. 1)r(2. Hence r(1. .

we must first convert it to DFA before swapping states to get its complement.For example the following DFA accepts the language a+ over = { a . Remark 2: Since a language is regular if and only if it is accepted by some NFA. Remark 1: If we have NFA rather than DFA. A DFA that accepts its complement is obtained from the above DFA by changing all single circles to double circles and vice versa as shown below. the complement of a regular language is also regular. b }. .

then Submit. Click True or Fals . Test Your Understanding of Complemnent and Intersection of FAs Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. intersection. By Remark 2 above. if L1 and L2 are regular languages. Context-Sensitive and Phrase Structure Grammars . then their complements are regular languages. Therefore all the properties of sets are inherited by languages. difference. L1 L2 is regular. Thus summing all this up we can say that the set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed with respect to union. Next -. concatenation and Kleene star operations. In particular De Morgan's law also applies to languages. Since L1 L2 = by De Morgan's law.Regular Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Regular Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Production and Grammar Regular Grammar Context-Free.Intersection of Regular Languages Langauges are sets.

aa. The following theorem holds for regular grammars. S -> } is a regular grammar and it generates all the strings consisting of a's and b's including the empty string. that is a production is of the form X -> a or X -> aY. Rewrite S using one of the following two rules: S -> a .{ by a regular grammar. } can be generated This can be proven by constructing an FA for the given grammar as follows: For each nonterminal create a state. that is by something called grammar. That gives us aa. If there is no is derived from ambiguity about the grammar G that is referred to. A grammar is regular if and only if is a single nonterminal and is a single terminal or a single terminal followed by a single nonterminal. In general if a string a grammar G. Theorem 3: A language L is accepted by an FA i. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals with at least one nonterminal in it and is a string of terminals and nonterminals. Then apply the first rule to aS to rewrite S as a.e. which is { a. Then for every production X -> aY. and a set of rewrite rules (productions) P.e. the fact that aa is obtained from S is written as S =>* aa . which ia a nonterminal. then we simply write =>* Formally a grammar consists of a set of nonterminals (or variables) V. A grammar is a set of rewrite rules which are used to generarte strings by successively rewriting symbols. There is yet another way of characterizing them. We write S => aS to express that aS is obtained from S by applying a single production. A production has in general the form -> . a ) = Y and for every production X -> a add the transition ( X. To generate the string aa for example. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. S corresponds to the initial state. finite automata and construction from simple languages using simple operations. a ) = Z. aS. a set of terminals (the alphabet of the language). = {a.Contents We have learned three ways of characterising regular languages: regular expressions. } . to obtain aS. For example. Thus the process of obtaining aa from S is written as S => aS => aa . i. S -> bS. aaa. If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. if L . . For example consider the language represented by a+. start with S and apply the second rule to replace S with the right hand side of the rule. . where X and Y are nonterminals and a is a terminal. Add another state as the accepting state Z. One can generate the strings of this language by the following procedure: Let S be a symbol to start the process with. b}. . and S -> aS . add the transition ( X. we write =>*G is obtained from a string and say that by applying productions of . . a start symbol S. These rules mean that S is rewritten as a or as aS. regular.

where S is the initial state and Z is the accepting state of the NFA. X -> a is in P if and only if (X.For example = {a. An NFA that recognizes this language can be obtained by creating two states S and Z. S -> b } form a regular grammar which generates the language ( a + b )+. b ) = { S. X -> aY is in P if and only if (X. S -> a }. and for any a in and any nonterminal X. X. then since { } is regular . a ) = { S. Y } . . and nonterminals X and Y. a) = Y . X -> bS. P. accepted by an NFA. and adding transitions ( S. q0. a) = Y for some accepting state Y. S -> a. . L = Conversely from any NFA < Q. Z } . b }. If L contains ( L -{ } ) { } is also regular. . } is generated by a For example. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. P. as its member. S -> aX. Theorem 4 : If L is regular i. q0 > is obtained as follows: for any a in . a regular grammar corresponding to the NFA given below is < Q. Thus the following converse of Theorem 3 is obtained. The NFA thus obtained is shown below.e. Y -> bS. b}. S > . A > a regular grammar < Q. P = { S -> aS. then L . X -> aY.{ } is regular. . S -> bS. where Q = { S. { a. Thus L . Z } and ( S.{ regular grammar.

cZ -> cc } with = { a. bZ -> bc. . For example P = { S -> aSb. S1 -> XYZS1. where X is a nonterminal and . S. b. b } and V = { S } is a contex-free grammar and it generates the language { anbn | n is a positive integer } . BY -> bb. 2 and are strings of terminals and nonterminals. As we shall see later this is an example of context-free language which is not regular.| | | |. A grammar is a context-sensitive grammar if and only if its production is of the form 1 X 2 -> 1 2 . Context-sensitive grammars are also characterized by productions whose left hand side is not longer than the right hand side. aX -> aa. A grammar is a context-free grammar if and only if its production is of the form X -> . aY -> ab. respectively. that is. These grammars are distinguished by the kind of productions they have but they also form a hierarchy. It is an example of context-sensitive language which is not context-free. Z.In addition to regular languages there are three other types of languages in Chomsky hierarchy : context-free languages. S -> XYZ. that is the set of regular languages is a subset of the set of context-free languages which is in turn a subset of the set of context-sensitive languages and the set of context-sensitive languages is a subset of the set of phrase structure languages. context-sensitive grammars and phrase structure grammars. They are characterized by context-free grammars. S1 } is a context-sensitive grammar and it generates the language { anbncn | n is a positive integer } . S1 -> XYZ. Y. c } and V = { X. 1 . possibly empty except Thus the nonterminal X can be rewritten as only in the context of 1X 2 . S -> ab } with = { a. For example P = { S -> XYZS1. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals. ZY -> YZ. X -> a. context-sensitive languages and phrase structure languages. possibly the empty string. ZX -> XZ. for every production -> . YX -> XY.

Q .For a phrase structure grammar. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. denote it by M1. that has the smallest number of states amomg the DFAs that accept L. Minimization Algorithm for DFA Construct a partition = { A. . q0 . Next -.Minimization of DFA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Minimization of DFA One important result on finite automata. new := new_partition( . }. . There are two sets of questions. Then the following algorithm produces the DFA. -> . Click True or Fals .A } of the set of states Q . where and Test Your Understanding of Regular Grammar Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. then Submit. both theoretically and practically. that is a production of a phrase structure grammar can take the form can be any string. Let M = < Q . there is no restriction on the form of production. is that for any regular language there is a unique DFA having the smallest number of states that accepts it.

S remains in the output partition. A state is a dead state if it is not an accepting state and has no out-going transitions except to itself. end Minimum DFA M1 is constructed from • • final as follows: • • Select one state in each set of the partition final as the representative for the set. Note that the sets of final are either a subset of A or disjoint from A. Let p and q be representatives i. states of minimum DFA M1. Remove from M1 the dead states and the states not reachable from the start state.e.while ( := new new ) ) . . Example 1 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. These representatives are states of minimum DFA M1. If S is not partitioned in this process. new := new_partition( := . If a transition from s to t on symbol a exists in M. final function new_partition( ) for each set S of do partition S into subsets such that two states p and q of S are in the same subset of S if and only if for each input symbol. if there are any. The subsets thus formed are sets of the output partition in place of S. Any transitions to a dead state become undefined. The start state of M1 is the representative which contains the start state of M. then the minimum DFA M1 has a transition from p to q on symbol a. respectively. The accepting states of M1 are representatives that are in A. Let us also denote by p and q the sets of states of the original DFA M represented by p and q. p and q make a transition to (states of) the same set of . Let s be a state in p and t a state in q.

state 3 goes to state 5 and 4 and 5 are in different sets in . 3 . Select 1 as the representative for { 1 . 5 }. since 1 and 5 do the same transitions. This becomes the second iteration. they have the obvious representatives. { 2 } . Since the rest are singletons. For the transitions. state 3 goes to state 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . So they are not going to be split. Thus the new partition is { { 1 . new_partition is applied to . Note here that state 4 is a dead state because the only transitionout of it is to itself. { 3 } . { 4 ] }. and 1 to 2 on b. Thus the set of states for the minimized DFA is { 1 . 5 } . 3 }. and to 2 on b in the original DFA. Since on b state 2 goes to state 1. remains unchanged. 5 } . On the other hand 1 and 5 make the same transitions. states 3 and 4 are going to be separated from each other in new. Further. { 2 } . 2 and 4 are separated from each other in new. 5 } . 4 } }.Initially = { { 1 . all transitions between them are inherited for the minimized DFA. Also since on a sate 4 goes to sate 4. states 2 and 3 are going to be separated from each other in new . and 3 goes to 1 on a in the original DFA. Since the rest of the states are singletons. since 1 goes to 3 on a. { 3 } . { 2 . 2 . 4 goes to 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . Also since 2 goes to 1 on b. . and from 3 to 1 on a. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 1 to 3 on a. Thus final = { { 1 . in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 2 to 1 on b. since on b 2 goes to 1. { 4 ] }. in the When new_partition is applied to this new .

Thus the minimized DFA is as given in the following figure: Example 2 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. .

{ 1 . { 6 } } is obtained. { 2 } . { 6 } } is obtained. new = { { 1 } . { 2 . Next -. 4 } . { 1 . then Submit. { 5 } . 2 . Thus the number of states of the given DFA is already minimum and it can not be reduced any further. Test Your Understanding of Minimization of DFA Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. 6 } } is obtained. 4 . 4 .Application of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Application of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Reactive system . new = { { 3 } . 5 } . { 4 } . 5 . new = { { 3 } .Initially = { { 3 } . Applyting new_partition again. Applyting new_partition to this . { 5 } . Click True or Fals . 6 } }. { 3 } . By applying new_partition to this . { 2 } . { 1 .

The inputs for a reactive system are never ready unlike for example when two numbers are added together by an adder (Here we are considering an adder at a higher level of abstraction than physical devices level ignoring for example the transient states of the electronic circuit that realizes an adder). two numbers to be added are ready. Many other systems operating in practice can also be modeled by finite automata such as control circuits of computers. Many of those systems fall into the class of systems called reactive system. An adder does not respond unless the input i. even to a fragment of input such as each coin tossed in for a can of soda or every message received.e. . a system must respond to each stimulus. These become the states of the finite automaton that models it. A system such as an adder is called a transformational system. It is generally agreed that finite automata are a natural medium to describe dynamic behaviors of reactive systems. lexical analysers for compilers etc.• Modeling reactive systems with FA Contents We have seen an example of use of finite automata in describing the operation of a simplified version of vending machine. Finite automata are formal and rigorous and computer programs can be easily written to simulate their behaviors. external or internal to the system. A reactive system is a system that changes its actions. For example consider the following very simplified version of login process to a computer from the computer point of view. It is an event driven or control driven system continuously having to react to external and/or internal stimuli. outputs and conditions/status in response to stimuli from within or outside it. Then the transitions between the states triggered by events and conditions. In the case of vending machine or communication protocol. To model a reactive system with finite automaton. first the states the system goes in or the modes of its operation are identified. In addition actions that may take place in those states can also be added to the model. are identified and they become arcs in the transition diagram of the finite automaton. computer network communication protocols. Let us assume for simplicity that this computer accepts a single user at a time. on the other hand.

Initially the computer is in wait state waiting for "Request for Next Message" (RFNM) to come from another computer. That is another state though it could further be broken down into a number of more states. If the second password fails. it goes back to the initial state and waits for another RFNM to come. If the password typed in is incorrect. When a name is typed in. sending ACK. When a RFNM starts coming. which is another state. then it asks for and then waits for the password. . it resends the message. goes back to the initial state and waits for another login. If it is valid. it goes into the state of receiving it (Our interpretation is that the computer is in a state of receiving an RFNM and it is taking the action of receiving the RFNM) . Depending on how much detail we are interested in. then it accepts the user and starts a session. If the user name typed in is not valid. Again it is a very simplified version. Again what we have seen is a model for one level of abstraction. But let us make it simple. it goes to the initial state and starts all over again. it sends "Acknowledgement" (ACK) to the other computer. it gets a signal. Again depending on the level of abstraction. We could make it go to a different state and count the number of login attempts for security purpose. sending message and waiting for ACK. When it is complete. it checks whether or not the name is valid. then it informs the user of that and waits for the next try. it goes into another wait state waiting for an ACK to come from the other computer. which is another state. The next example is a protocol for a computer to follow in communicating with another computer. different states would be identified and transitions would have to be selected accrdingly. Thus a finite automaton that models this protocol has the following five states: initial state (wait for RFNM). If a positive ACK is received. it starts sending the requested message to the other party.Initially the computer waits for a user name to be typed in. After sending the ACK. receiving RFNM. When a password is typed in and it is correct. Upon completion of the RFNM. This is one state of the system. If a negative ACK is received. it goes back to the initial state. different states and transitions would have to be chosen. That is a fourth state. When the session terminates.

d+ + d+ + . +213. Since these numbers are represented by strings consisting of a possible sign. If the first symbol is a sign. regardless of whether a sign has been read or not. denote it by Q. then it goes into a state. denote it by D. followed by a possible decimal point. denote it by G. This system can also be described by a regular expression.e. they can be represented by the following regular expression: ( s+ + s. One such system initially waits for the first symbol to come in. If a decimal point is read while in D. denote it by P. that indicates a digit has been read before a decimal point. D is another accepting state. . after reading a digit and stays there as long as digits are read. If the first digit is received before a decimal point. then it must receive at least one digit after that. If a decimal point is received before a digit. After one digit it can continue receiving digits.e.Our third example is a system that recognizes numbers with or without a sign such as 5.represent the positive and negative signs. . it is in state D. in state P). -15.. This system can be modeled by the following finite automaton: . If a decimal point has been read (i. that indicates that a sign has been received. then it goes into a state. it goes into a state. . then it goes to state P indicating that a decimal point has been read.8 etc.378. followed by one or more digits. 9 } .d+ ). This Q is an accepting state. then it can continue receiving digits and stay in D.+ ) ( d+.2. Therefore from state P it goes to another state. On the other hand if a digit has been read before a decimal point. i. followed by zero or more digits. where s+ and s. that indicates that a decimal point has been read.1. respectively and d {0.

Those indices are used to access the contents of the other arrays. we can use a general purpose program to simulate its operation. called STATEX. holds the next state for each input symbol for each state. It uses four arrays. called ACTION. Another array. input := read_input( ) . 0 and TOKEN [index] input ) index := index + 1. called NEXT_STATE. One such simulation algorithm is given below.Simulation of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Simulation of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Simulation of FA Contents Once a finite automaton is constructed. One array. keeps the index of the first symbol in the TOKEN array for each state. while ( state NO_of_STATES and not End of Input ) index := STATEX [state] . called TOKEN. stores for each state the input symbols that trigger transitions from the state.Next -. A third array. while ( TOKEN [index] . Algorithm FA Simulator state := INITIAL_STATE. indicates the actions taken at each state and a fourth.

The numbers below NEXT_STATE array show the correspondence between the indices of the STATEX array and the states A. first click the box pointed by the red arrow in the figure below. In the DFA below all the transitions to the empty state (i. You must hit the "Tab" key to move to the next box. to input 3. end Here 0 in the TOKEN array is a marker between states.45. The ACTION array would contain pointers to actions to be taken corresponding to arcs traversed such as converting a digit in BCD form to the corresponding binary number. S corresponds to 1. Tab 4 Tab 5. So no action is taken as a number is processed. Then type in a number you want the FA to recognize. .if ( TOKEN [index] 0) perform the action specified by ACTION [index]. C and H. state := NEXT_STATE [index].e. B. empty transitions) are omitted. first click the box under the red arrow. Then type 3 Tab . To see how this algorithm works. The corresponding transitions are going to be shown by red arrows in the transition diagram. For example. S is the initial state and B and H are accepting states. else error input := read_input( ) . At the moment it is empty. Then every time you click "SHOW" the number is processed digit by digit.

click here It is extremely slow.If you are also interested in how code is executed. . So be patient.

because aak and aaak are in the language an for any . where n is a positive integer. Non-regularity test based on Myhill-Nerode's theorem Indistinguishability of strings: Strings x and y in * are indistinguishable with respect to a language L if and only if for every string z in *. either xz and yz are both in L or they are both not in L.Non-Regular Languages Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Regular Languages Non-Regular Languages Subjects to be Learned • • • Existence of non-regular languages Myhill . Since a regular language must be recognized by a finite automaton. Thus it must be in different states when it has read different number of a's and starts reading the first b. we can conclude that { anbn | n is a natural number} is not regular. a and aa are indistinguishable with respect to the language an over alphabet { a }. There are. Thus there is no way for a finite automaton to remember how many a's it has read for all possible strings anbn .Next -. however. For example to recognize the language { anbn | n is a natural number} . But any finite automaton has only finite number of states.Nerode Theorem for non-regularity test Pumping Lemma Contents We have learned regular languages. languages that are not regular and therefore require devices other than finite automata to recognize them. their properties and their usefulness for describing various systems. In this section we are going to study some of the methods for testing given languages for regularity and see some of the languages that are not regular. That is the main limitation of finite automata. a finite automaton must remember how many a's it has read when it starts reading b's. This is the basis of two of the regularity test methods we are going to study below: Myhill-Nerode Theorem and Pumping Lemma. For example. The main idea behind these test methods is that finite automata have only finite amount of memory in the form of states and that they can not distinguish infinitely many strings.

Inductive Clause: If and are in L3 . It is stated without a proof. Select bm as a string to be appended to ak and am . x .positive integer k. S1 is over alphabet { a . ( ( x + y ) * x ) and (( (x*y) + x ) + (y*y) ) are algebraic expressions. Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. where k and m are positive integers and k m . Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } over alphabet { a . However. S1 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. b } can be shown to be nonregular using Myhill-Nerode as follows: Consider the set of strings S1 = { an | n is a positive integer } . Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set S1. This set is infinite . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L3 unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. that is. L3 can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: x and y are in L3 . operations + and * and left and right parentheses. It can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L2 as follows. Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L2 . then ( + ) and ( * ) are in L3 . For example. Then akbm is not in L1 while ambm is in L1 . because ab is in the language anbn while aab is not in the language. Hence L2 is nonregular. Consider the set of strings S3 = { (k x | k is a positive integer } . We are going to show that its strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L1. with respect to the language anbn . a and aa are not indistinguishable (hence distinguishable). Then akbakb is in L2 while ambakb is not in L2 . Using this concept of indistinguishability. b } and it is infinite. Hence L1 is nonregular. the set of strings consisting of one or more right parentheses followed by identifier x. where k and m are positive integers and k m . Example 2: L2 = { ww | w {a. For more on Myhill-Nerode theorem click here. b }* } is nonregular. Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S1. S2 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. Select bakb as a string to be appended to ak and am . Consider the set of strings S2 which is the same as S1 of Example 1 above. whose strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L. Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L1 . (x*y) . the following theorem by Myhill and Nerod gives a criterion for (non)regularity of a language. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S2. Theorem : A language L over alphabet is nonregular if and only if there is an infinite subset of * .

then there must be a cycle in the NFA along some path from the initial state to some accepting state (such as the cycle 2-3-4-2 in the above example). For example the string abbabbb is accepted by the NFA and if one of its substrings bba is repeated any number of times in abbabbb. Then (k x + [ + x ) ]k is in L3 but (m x + [ + x ) ]k is not in L3 because the number of ('s is not equal to the number of )'s in the latter string. Then the substring representing that cycle (bba in the example) can be repeated any number of times within the string w without being rejected by the NFA. Hence S3 is pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 . Select [ + x ) ]k as a string to be appended to (k and (m . Pumping Lemma Let us consider the NFA given below. Hence L3 is not regular. For example [ + x ) ]3 is +x) +x)+x) . the resultant strings such as abbb (bba repeated 0 times). Those strings which are accepted by this NFA and whose length is greater than 5 have a substring which can be repeated any number of times without being rejected by the NFA. where k and m are positive integers and k m . This NFA accepts among others some strings of length greater than 5 such as abbabbb. are also accepted by the NFA. abbabbabbb etc. It . abbabbabbabbb etc.and it can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 as follows: Let (k x and (m x be arbitrary two strings of S3 . The following theorem which is called Pumping Lemma is based on this observation. In general if a string w (such as abbabbb in the example above) is accepted by an NFA with n states and if its length is longer than n. abbabbabbb.

|uv| n |v| > 0 . Let n be the number of states of that FA. uvmw Test Your Understanding of Non-regularity . that is. the language is not necessarily regular. Suppose that L is regular and let n be the number of states of an FA that accepts L. v and w which satisfy the following relationships: x = uvw |uv| n |v| > 0 and for every integer m 0.states that if a language is regular. Pumping Lemma : Suppose that a language L is regular. then any long enough string of the language has a substring which can be repeated any number of times with the resultant strings still in the language. v has at least one symbol. Since |v| > 0 . let us prove that the language L = akbk is nonregular. Thus Pumping Lemma can not be used to prove the regularity of a language. Note that Pumping Lemma gives a necessity for regular languages and that it is not a sufficiency. and w such that x = uvw. Then there is an FA that accepts L. Then for any string x in L with |x| n. This violates the condition that for every m language. where k is a natural number. and for every m 0. n + p language L represented by akbk . It is stated without a proof here. v. Since p > 0 . uvmw L. for some p > 0 . Then uv2w = an-pa2pbn = an+pbn . n . Also since |uv| Let us now consider the string uvmw for m = 2. uvmw L. even if there is an integer n that satisfies the conditions of Pumping Lemma. n. v = ap. Example 4: As an example to illustrate how Pumping Lemma might be used to prove that a language is nonregular. Hence an+pbn can not be in the L. Then there must be strings u. Hence L is not a regular 0. It can only show that a language is nonregular. there are strings u. Consider a string x = anbn for that n.

then Submit. Then there is a string z such that xz is in L and yz is not in L (or xz is not in L and yz is in L). are distinguishable with respect to L. Then the theorem is is staed as follows: Theorem: A language L over alphabet is regular if and only if the set of equivalence classes of is finite. say x and y. if and only if }. if and only if they are indistinguishable with respect to .Context-Free Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Myhill-Nerode Theorem The non-regularity test for languages by Myhill-Nerode is based on the following theorem which is in the contrapositive form of the theorem used for nonregularity test. the DFA reaches different states. Proof of Theorem Necessity Suppose that a language L is regular and two strings. This means that if x and y are read by an DFA that recognizes L. If there are three strings that are distinguished with respect . that is. Also it is a corollary to Myhill-Nerode theorem: Let { be the followijg relation on }={ : For strings and of .Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Click True or Fals . Next -.

Note that "indistinguishable with respect to L" is an equivalence relation over the set of strings (denote it by ) and [x]'s are equivalence classes.. are in different classes for and are distinguishable with respect to L.. then the DFA reaches three different states after reading those three strings. let [x] denote a class of strings that are indistinguishable from a string x with respect to L. making them belong to different [ Hence is a function. Hence if there is an infinite set of strings which are pairwise distinguishable with respect to a language. . We will show that a DFA that accepts L can be constructed using these equivalence classes. then the language is not regular. [ . ].to L.. Then we construct a . For. Let us now show that this machine is in fact a DFA and it accepts the language First. where [ ] =[ ] for all ... Let . DFA ( = {[ =[ = {[ ( ..e. namely ] and ].. note that for every string [ ]. is in exactly one equivalence class. . ) as follows: ]} ].. be representatives of those distinct equivalence classes. if and in [ ]. the index) of and let . then ]'s.. To prove this. ]. be the number of distinct equivalence classes (i. [ ]=[ } ]. which it can not because a DFA must have a finite number of states. if the number of classes of strings that are pairwise indistinguishable with respect to a language L is finite. . . then the DFA must have infinitely many states. Hence if there are infinitely many strings to be distinguished with respect to L. Sufficiency Conversely. . then the language L is regular.

Next. then every We then show that for every string . Also an equivalence relation is said to be of finite index. . First some terminology. ]. Inductive Step: Assume Then for every But =[ Hence =[ ]. first note that if . . Our proof is by structural induction on string Basis Step: = =[ ]. With these terminology. ] by the induction hypothesis. Since . for DFA. =[ ]. For that. Myhill-Nerode Theorem can now be stated as follows: The following three statements are equivalent: (1) A language is regular. . let us show that this DFA accepts string in [ ] is also in L. Hence =[ = . if then for every . by the definition of = . if the set of its equivalence classes is finite. where ] is the equivalence class that belongs to. . . where ]. =[ ]. Hence Hence we have shown that for every string ]. by the definition of = . Then by the definition of . . An equivalence relation on is said to be right invariant if for every . where . this means that the DFA accepts Myhill-Nerode Theorem Let us here state Myhill-Nerode Theorem. = [ ]. if a string in [ in ] is in .

Definition (Context-Free Grammar) : A 4-tuple G = < V . where X is a nonterminal and is a nonempty string of terminals and nonterminals. They are grammars whose productions have the form X -> .(2) L is the union of some of the equivalence classes of a right invariant equivalent relation of finite index. are finite sets sharing no elements between them. grammar (CFG) if V and . and P is a finite set of productions of the form X -> and (V )* . where X the start symbol. Context-Free Languages Context-Free Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Context-Free Grammar Context-Free Languages Push Down Automata Contents Earlier in the discussion of grammars we saw context-free grammars. S . . Proofs are omitted. Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } is a context-free language. Most programming languages can be approximated by context-free grammar and compilers for them have been developed based on properties of context-free languages. S -> ab }. b } and P1 = { S -> aSb . = { a . For the following context-free grammar G1 = < V1 . S . P1 > generates L1 : V1 = { S } . A language is a context-free language (CFL) if all of its strings are generated by a context-free grammar. P > is a context-free V is V. Let us define context-free grammars and context-free languages here. The set of strings generated by a context-free grammar is called a context-free language and context-free languages can describe many practically important systems. S . . (3) is of finite index.

Then it can be easily seen that Gu = < Vu . . if necessary. < statement > -> < for-statement > . . Then it can be easily seen that Gc = < Vc . b }+ } is a context-free language . . * } and P3 = { S -> ( S + S ) . y . ) . where w is a nonempty string and wr denotes the reversal of string w. Next define Vc = V1 V2 { Sc } and Pc = P1 P2 { Sc -> S1S2 } . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. S -> x . Su . < statement > -> < assignment > . S -> bSb . S -> S*S . + . . < forstatement > -> for ( < expression > . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. L1L2 . P3 > generates L3 : V3 = { S } . first relabel symbols of V2 . S . concatenation and Kleene star of context-free grammars as follows: Let G1 = < V1 . if necessary. ( . . . Then L1 context-free languages. respectively. Pu > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1 L2 . S -> aa . let Ss be a symbol which is not in V1 . Ss -> L2 . Sc . For example { < statement > -> < if-statement > . . S2 . < if-statement > -> if ( < expression > ) < statement > . . . Su -> S2 } . . For the following context-free grammar G3 = < V3 . and L1* are . w is spelled backward to obtain wr . P1 > and G2 = < V2 . b } and P2 = { S -> aSa . operations + and * and left and right parentheses. < expression > -> < logicalexpression > . S -> y }. P2 > generates L2 : V2 = { S } . . . Then let Ps = P1 { Ss -> SsS1 . Outline of Proof This theorem can be verified by constructing context-free grammars for union. Then let Sc be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . For the following context-free grammar G2 = < V2 . Pc > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1L2 . For L1* . S . Then for L1 L2 . . = { a . } . first relabel symbols of V2 . Next define Vu = V1 V2 { Su } and Pu = P1 P2 { Su -> S1 .Example 2: L2 = { wwr| w {a. Properties of Context-Free Language Theorem 1: Let L1 and L2 be context-free languages. Similarly for L1L2 . Example 4: Portions of the syntaxes of programming languages can be described by context-free grammars. . < expression > -> < algebraic-expression > . S1 . Then let Su be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . that is. 3 = { x . . Then L3 is a context-free language. < expression > ) < statement > . P2 > be context-free grammars generating L1 and L2 . S -> bb }. 3. . < expression > .

generates the language L1* . Thus ( p . A is the set of accepting states is the transition function and :Q ( ( } -> 2 Q * . . and are finite sets ( the input and stack alphabet. reject the string. If it is empty. Ss . X ) = ( q . Let us define this new type of automaton formally. q0 . Z0 . context-free languages are also accepted by automata but not finite automata. A . If another a (or anything other than b) is read after the first b. They need a little more complex automata called pushdown automata. When all the symbols of the input string are read. > . Any string of this language can be tested for the membership for the language by a finite automaton if there is a memory such as a pushdown stack that can store a's of a given input string. respectively ). . accept the string. q0 . Pushdown Automata . Z0 . For example. A pushdown automaton ( or PDA for short ) is a 7-tuple M = < Q .} . > . as a's are read by the finite automaton. a . . ) means the following: The automaton moves from the current state of p to the next state q when it sees an input symbol a at the input and X at the top of the stack. where Q = { q0 . the contents of the stack can also be changed every time an input symbol is read. Thus its transition function specifies the new top of the stack contents as well as the next state. Example 1 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . but also by the symbol at the top of the stack. This automaton behaves like a finite automaton except the following two points: First. Second. where Q is a finite set of states. A . its next state is determined not only by the input symbol being read. As soon as the symbol b appears stop storing a's and start popping a's one by one every time a b is read. and it replaces X with the string at the top of the stack. q0 is the initial state. Let us consider a context-free language anbn . It can be seen that the grammar Gs = < Vs . . check the stack. . Ps > is a context-free grammar that Like regular languages which are accepted by finite automata. Otherwise reject it. Z0 is the initial stack symbol and it is a member of . push them into the stack.

Z0 ). After reading the second a. aabb . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . ) to configuration ( q . we can also write ( q0 . ). q0 . > is a triple ( q . ) ) (q. aZ0 ). its configuration is ( q0 . . aZ 0 ) q0 a a ( q0 . Next it moves to the state q2 which is the accepting state. aa ) q0 q1 q1 b b a a Z0 ( q1 . Z0 ). . After reading the first a. x . This entire process can be expressed using the configurations as ( q0 . y . x . A . . ) . aZ0 ). ) ( q2 . Z0 ) ( If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. ) by a sequence of zero or more moves. To describe the operation of a PDA we are going to use a configuration of PDA.y. y . ). Let us now see how the PDA of Example 1 operates when it is given the string aabb . * (q. Z0 ) * ( q2 . (p. following table: = { a . for example. b } . . Z0 .x. . When the second b is read. . aabb . aZ0 ) ( q0 . it is ( q0 . b . bb . b . ( q0 . q2 } . A configuration of a PDA M = < Q . Z0 ). it moves to state q1 and pops a from the top of the stack. = { a . Then when the first b is read. To express that the PDA moves from configuration ( p . Z0 ) This pushdown automaton accepts the language anbn . Z0 ) q2 . A = { q2 } and let be as given in the State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 .q1 . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . Initially its configuration is ( q0 . If ( q . ) in a single move (a single application of the transition function) we write (p. Thus aabb is accepted by this PDA. abb .x. another a is popped from the top of the stack and the PDA stays in state q1 . aaZ0 ). Z0 ) . b . x is the unread portion of the input string and is the current stack contents. ) ( q1 . aaZ0 ) ( q1 . . abb . aabb . where q is the state the PDA is currently in.y. x . where the input is read from left to right and the top of the stack corresponds to the leftmost symbol of . bb . we write ) is reached from ( p . Z0 } . aZ0 ) ( q1 .

X ) = ( p . however. then an arc from state p to state q is added to the diagram and it is labeled with ( a . a . X / ) indicating that X at the top of the stack is replaced by upon reading a from the input.A string x is accepted by a PDA (a. aZ 0 ) q0 b Z0 ( q0 . Z0) . A = { q2 } and let be as given in the following table: State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . c } . Example 2 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . Z0 } . . x. b ( q1 . For example the transition diagram of the PDA of Example 1 is as shown below. Z 0 ) In this table represents either a or b. acceptance by final state) if (q0. If ( q . PDAs can also be represented by transition diagrams. > . b . where Q = { q0 . . and an accepting state q. ) . q2 } . * (q. ) ) ) ) ( q1 . Like FAs. = { a . b . bZ 0 ) q0 q0 q0 q1 q1 q1 a b c a b a b Z0 ( q0 . ). . arcs are labeled differently than FAs. A . For PDAs. for some in *. ) ( q2 . ( q1 . Z0 . q0 .k.a. a ( q0 . = { a . q1 .

baZ0 ) ( q1 . it pops the stack. ( q0 . When c is detected. ( q0 . bbcbba . abbcbba . The transition diagram of the PDA of Example 2 is as shown below. That means that a language is . bbaZ0 ) . cbba . Z0 ) ( q0 . baZ0 ) ( q1 . . In the figure and 2 represent a or b. .This pushdown automaton accepts the language { wcwr | w { a . ba . Z 0 ) ( q2 . it accepts the input string. bcbba . When there are no more unread input symbols and Z0 is at the top of the stack. bba . which is the set of palindromes with c in the middle. it ignores c and from that point on if the top of the stack matches the input symbol. aZ0 ) ( q1 . b }* } . Z 0 ) . it goes through the following configurations and accepts it. Otherwise it rejects the input string. For example for the input abbcbba. a . aZ0 ) ( q0 . This PDA pushes all the a's and b's in the input into stack until c is encountered. 1 Further topics on CFL • PDA and Context-Free Language There is a procedure to construct a PDA that accepts the language generated by a given context-free grammar and conversely. bbaZ0 ) ( q1 .

Thus if a computer is given the string x + yz. However. it does not know which interpretation to use unless it is explicitly instructed to follow one or the other. x. However.e. ???? references on Parsing ???? .e. Thus they are widely used for compilers for high level programming languages and natural language processing systems. Similar things happen when English sentences are processed by computers (or people as well for that matter). then multiply the result by z. Though we are accustomed to interpreting this as x + (yz) i. • Pumping Lemma for Context-Free Language Let L be a CFL. it could also be interpreted as ( x + y )z meaning that first compute x + y. a computer like non-English speaking people must be told how to interpret sentences such as the first noun phrase (" A dog") is usually the subject of a sentence. there are strings v. Interested readers are referred to the textbook and other sources. For example in the sentence "A man bites a dog". "bites" is the verb and "a man" is the object of the verb. The parsing for context-free languages and regular languages have been extensively studied. we are not going to study parsing here. native English speakers know that it is the dog that bites and not the other way round. y and z which satisfy u = vwxyz |wy| > 0 |wxy| n 0 . Those procedures are omitted here. compute yz first. "A dog" is the subject. productions of grammars.context-free if and only if there is a PDA that accepts it. By parsing sentences we identify the parts of the sentences and determine the strutures of the sentences so that their meanings can be understood correctly. a verb phrase usually follow the noun phrase and the first word in the verb phrase is the verb and it is followed by noun phrases reprtesenting object(s) of the verb. Contect-free grammars are powerful grammars. then add the result to x. They can describe much of programming languages and basic structures of natural languages. Parsing is the process of interpreting given input strings according to predetermined rules i. Then there is a positive integer n such that for any string u in L with |u| n . w. vwmxymz L for every integer m • Parsing and Parsers for CFL Consider the algebraic expression x + yz.

the phrase structure languages (also called Type 0 languages). These languages can describe many practically important systems and so they are heavily used in practice. They are. then Submit. Click True or Fals .Turing Machines Back to Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • • • Definition of Turing Machine Configuration Operation of Turing Machine Contents Introduction We have studied two types of languages from the Chomsky hierarchy: regular languages and context-free languages. Next -. Turing machines were conceived of by the English mathematician Alan . of limited capability and there are many languages that they can not process. and the machines that can process them: Turing machines.Test Your Understanding of Contect-Free Language Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. however. In this chapter we are going to study the most general of the languages in Chomsky hierarchy.

Given a string of symbols on the tape. It is also divided into squares and a symbol can be written in each square. This conjecture is known as Church's thesis and today it is generally accepted as true. either erases it or replaces it with a symbol (possibly the same symbol). it stops its operation. Later Alonzo Church conjectured that any computation done by humans or computers can be carried out by some Turing machine. We are going to study Turing machines here and through that limitations of computers and computation as we know today. Computers we use today are as powerful as Turing machines except that computers have finite memory while Turing machines have infinite memory. like finite automata. The tape has the left end but it extends infinitely to the right. However. One of its states is the halt state and when the Turing machine goes into the halt state. consists of a finite control and a tape. At any time it is in one of the finite number of states. its head is a read-write head and it can move left. right or stay at the same square after a read or write.Turing as a model of human "computation". At any state it reads the symbol under the head. . It then moves the head to left or right or does not move it and goes to the next state which may be the same as the current state. unlike finite automata. Definition Conceptually a Turing machine. a Turing machine starts at the initial state.

It is a mapping from Q ( { } ) to ( Q { h } ) ( { }) {R. State (q) Input (X) Move ( q0 q1 q2 q3 q3 a b a (q. which is assumed not to contain the symbol h. = { a . where Q is a finite set of states. Y. > accepts the language aba* . . the symbol X currently being read is changed to Y and the tape head is moved as directed by D. where D represents R. L or S . b } . R ) ( q2 . D ) . > . q0. R ) ( q3 . . q3 } . . The symbol h is used to denote the halt state. a . where Q1 = { q0. an arc from q to r is drawn with label ( X/Y . . b } and is as given by the table below. . . . X) ) ( q1 .S) A transition diagram of this Turing machine is given below. q1. R ) ( q3 . S}. = { a . R ) (h. is a finite set of symbols and it is the input alphabet. X ) = ( r. The states are represented by vertices and for a transition ( q.L. Example 1 : The following Turing machine < Q1 . respectively. q0 . A transition diagram can also be drawn for a Turing machine. left and do not move it. is a finite set of symbols containing as its subset and it is the set of tape symbols. D ) indicating that the state is changed from q to r. a . is the transition function but its value may not be defined for certain points. q0 is the initial state. L and S denote move the head right. It is assumed that the tape has at the left end and the head is initially at the left end of the tape.Formally a Turing machine is a 5-tuple T = < Q. q2. b . Here denotes the blank and R.

A string x is said to be accepted by a Turing machine* T = < Q . xay ) ( q . zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in one move. For example the Turing machine of Example 1 above goes through the following sequence of configurations to accept the string aba: ( q0 . . aba ) ( q2 . . A Turing machine T is said to decide a language L if and only if T writes "yes" and halts if a string is in L and T writes "no" and halts if a string is not in L. > if x ) * ( h. zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in zero or more moves. the taper contents are the string aababb and the head is reading the last a of the string. xay ) * ( q . aba ) (h. aba ) ( q3 . q0 . aba ) . In this case we also say that the Turing machine halts on input x. If the Turing machine needs to be explicitly indicated T or T* is used. aba ) ( q1 . and ( p . aababb ) shows that the Turing machine is currently in state q. A configuration for a Turing machine is an ordered pair of the current state and the tape contents with the symbol currently under the head marked with underscore. The set of strings accepted by a Turing machine is the language accepted by the Turing machine.Turing Machine that accepts aba* To describe the operation of Turing machine we use configuration. For example ( q . Note that the Turing machine does not stop if a string is not in the language. ( q0 . We write ( p . yaz ) for some symbol a { } and some strings y and z in ( * { } ) .

the second is a Turing machine that accepts { a } but goes into a loop if a string is not in the language (hence it accepts but doe not decide { a }) and the third decides { a }. where = { a }.The first of the following figures shows a Turing machine that accepts but does not decide the language { a }. .

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It is assumed that initially the tape has at the left end.Example 2 : The following Turing machine moves the head to the first the current position. This Turing machine is denoted by TE. It is denoted by TR . . to the right of Example 3 : The following Turing machine erases the string on the tape and moves the head to the left end.

one of the following three things happens: (1) The Turing machine goes into an infinite loop. For example the following Turing machine accepts the language a+. but it goes into an infinite loop for any strings that are not in the language. (2) no transition is specified for the current configuration and (3) the head is at the left end and it is instructed to move left.Strings not Accepted by Turing Machines When a string is not accepted by a Turing machine. the operation of the Turing machine is aborted. . that is when a Turing machine does not halt on a string. In cases (2) and (3).

. * and for every x that is not in S. Then we say T computes f or f is computable if for every x ( q0 . * Note on "Turing-acceptable": Some books define "acceptance by Turing machine" slightly differently. With this definition. there are two halt states: "accept halt" and "reject halt". reject a string and halt. there is no difference between these two definitions of "accept". a string is accepted by a Turing machine if given the string. As far as the material discussed in this class note. A language is a phrase structure (type 0) langauage if and only if it is Turing-acceptable in either sense and it has no effects on decidablility. A Turing machine thus may accept a string and halt. x) * ( h. f(x) ) * . in the Turing machines those books define.Turing machine accepting a+ Computabler Function Let S * and let f be a function f : S -> S. T does not halt on x. That is. or loop. the Turing machine eventually goes into the accept halt state.

any "computation" done by human beings or machines can be done by some Turing machine. Here we are going to study how complex Turing machines can be constructed using simple Turing machines and how computers can be simulated by Turing machines. Next -.Test Your Understanding of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. One can construct many more Turing machines that perform various functions. Furthermore according to the Church's thesis. There are two sets of questions. In fact Turing machines that simulate computers and Turing machines that perform computations done by any algorithm can be constructed. Let us start with some basic Turing machines. then Submit. Click True or Fals . We have already seen TR .Combination of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Combination of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Combination of Turing Machines Contents Combination of Turing Machines We have seen the definition of Turing machine and a few simple examples. It moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) .

to the right of the current position. . Below is assumed to be at the left end of the tape initially. respectively. T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that first executes T1. Example 4: The following machine shifts the tape contents to the left one position. Otherwise it crashes. Using these basic machines and the convention. The halt state of T1 becomes the initial state of T2 . Then if T1 halts and if the symbol currently under the head is . then T2 is started as in the case of T1T2 . Then by T we denote a Turing machine that writes symbol at the current position and does not move the head (stays). T1T2 and T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that behaves initially like T1 and when T1 halts T2 takes over inheriting the head position and the tape contents of T1 . takes the head to the right end of the string and halts. Also by TR and TL we denote Turing machines that move the head to right and left one position. Similarly by TL we denote a Turing machine that moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) to the left of the current position. To combine Turing machines we use the following conventions: Let T1 and T2 represent arbitrary Turing machines. let us construct a little more complex Turing machines.

x) * b b (h. So the initial configuration for adding 2 and 3 is ( q0 . For example the number 3 is represented by three consecutive I's on the tape and 5 by five I's. After the addition the configuration becomes ( h . x x). . First. IIIII ) . In general to represent a natural number k. k consecutive I's are put on the tape. After adding two numbers placed on the tape it moves the head to the left end and halts. To add two numbers m and n. II III ) .For example with the initial tape contents of sequence of tape contents and ends with ab ab -> ab : ab . Example 6: The following Turing machine copies the tape contents at the left end to their right separated by a blank . An adder can be constructed for example as TR -> TSL TL . it goes through the following -> aab -> a -> a -> abb -> ab -> ab -> ab Example 5: The left-shift machine of Example 4 can be used to construct an adder for natural numbers. m I's and n I's with a blank between them are placed on the tape. that is ( q0 . natural numbers are represented on a Turing machine using symbol I.

The following notations are used in the questions: . branching. the branch operation is already in Turing machines because next configurations are determined based on the current state and tape symbol being looked at. A bare minimum instruction set would contain addition. Furthermore if the subtraction operation is necessary. all of those instructions can be realized using combinations of a small number of basic instructions. Click True or Fals . store and load operations. one can say that computers can be simulated by Turing machines. Since any complex computer instructions can be realized using those basic instructions. All the other operations can be realized by using those basic operations. then Submit. Thus by combining appropriate Turing machines a computer with a minimal instruction set can be constructed. However. In fact many of the earlier computers had a much smaller instruction set but still could do everything today's computers can do albeit much more slowly. it is not difficult to construct a Turing machine that performs subtraction using the same representation of numbers as for the addition. On the other hand as we have seen above. there is a Turing machine that performs addition. Test Your Understanding of Combination of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.Today's computers are very complex machines and their instruction sets contain complicated operations. and store and load operations can be taken care of by a Turing machine that copies tape contents.

one read-write head and one two dimensional tape. That is. The tape has the top end and the left end but extends indefinitely to the right and down. what one type can compute any other can also compute. However. that is. To simulate a two dimensional tape with a one dimensional tape. For any Turing machine of this type there is a Turing machine with a one dimensional tape that is equally powerful.T_a : Ta T_R : TR ->^b : ->b Next -. that is. nondeterministic Turing machines etc. ones with two dimensional tapes. Turing Machines with Two Dimensional Tapes This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control. the efficiency of computation.Types of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Types of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Variation of Turing Machine Contents There are a number of other types of Turing machines in addition to the one we have seen such as Turing machines with multiple tapes. may vary. It is divided into rows of small squares. first we map the squares of the two dimensional tape to those of the one dimensional tape diagonally as shown in . the former can be simulated by the latter. It turns out that computationally all these Turing machines are equally powerful. ones having one tape but with multiple heads. how fast they can compute.

.....< ... If h was hit first. . If v was hit first.. left or right.... Thus from h... That is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 13 on the two dimensional tape. ... . . Let k be the number of squares visited by the head of the one dimensional tape.. v 16 26 .. . . move 3 positions to the right.. ...the following tables: Two Dimensional Tape v v h 1 h 3 h 4 h 10 h 11 h 21 ...> . then move the head of the one dimensional tape to right until it hits h or v counting the number of squares it has visited after i. .. . Thus this time the third square is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 9 on the two dimensional tape. . . respectively. Let us simulate this head move with a one dimensional tape. ... v 7 14 18 24 ..... . . .... . If the head moves down from i.. .. v 2 5 9 12 20 22 . down. which is the third square from 8... then from h move the head of the one dimensional tape further right to the k-th square from h. .. . Then it meets h first. . .. .... ..... then on the one dimensional tape the head moves to the right and it hits v first.... One Dimensional Tape v 1 v 2 3 h 4 5 6 v 7 8 9 10 h 11 . If the head moves down to position 13. . . v 6 8 13 19 23 .. which is the second square from i = 5. h and v are symbols which are not in the tape alphabet and they are used to mark the left and the top end of the tape.. Let i be the head position of the two dimensional tape. v 15 17 25 . If i = 5 and the head moves down on the other hand. . the head moves from position 8 to right. That is the square corresponding to the square below i in the two dimensional tape. then for the one dimensional tape.... .. . .... . The head of a two dimensional tape moves one square up. . For example... that is i = 8. suppose that the head position is at 8 for the two dimensional tape in the above table... . . then (k+1)-th square to the right from v is the new head position..... Here the numbers indicate the correspondence of squares in the two tapes: square i of the two dimensional tape is mapped to square i of the one dimensional tape.

. Since Turing machines with a two dimensional tape obviously can simulate Turing machines with a one dimensional tape. where H1 . >. A configuration for this kind of Turing machine must show the current state the machine is in and the state of each tape.. . q0. Hn denote the tape heads. .S It can be easily seen that this type of Turing machines are as powerful as one tape Turing machines. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . {h}) ( { } {R. Nondeterministic Turing Machines . Turing Machines with Infinite Tape : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape which extends infinitely in both directions. . Its transition function is a partial function :Q ( { } )n -> ( Q { h } ) ( { } )n { R . one can say that one tape Turing machines are as powerful as n-tape Turing machines. . Turing Machines with Multiple Heads : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape but more than one read-write heads. Hn } ( { } ) -> ( Q }. Details are omitted. Since the converses are obviously true. Thus some Turing machines with a one dimensional tape can simulate every move of a Turing machine with one two dimensional tape. The transition function is a partial function : Q { H1 .. Hence they are at least as powerful as Turing machines with a two dimensional tape. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q .L. It turns out that this type of Turing machines are only as powerful as one tape Turing machines whose tape has a left end. q0.. right or left on the two dimensional tape.Similarly formulas can be found for the head position on the one dimensional tape corresponding to move up. In each state only one of the heads is allowed to read and write. > .. H2 . L . H2 . Turing Machines with Multiple Tapes : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and more than one tapes each with its own read-write head. S } n . it can be said that they are equally powerful. It can be proven that any language accepted by an n-tape Turing machine can be accepted by a one tape Turing machine and that any function computed by an n-tape Turing machine can be computed by a one tape Turing machine. .

Given a string x .L. Theorem Any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by some deterministic Turing machine. . Formally a nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine whose transition function takes values that are subsets of ( Q {h}) ( { } {R. Note that the number of children for a vertex in this tree is finite because the number of states is finite and there are a finite number of tape symbols. moving the tape head and going to a next state. Proof : Let TN denote a nondeterministic Turing machine. it is understood that a nondeterministic Turing machine at any configuration selects one combination of next state. In general for each vertex of level i all possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN are its children. TN starts at the initial configuration and goes through a sequence of configurations until it reaches a halt configuration . Even in the same situation it may take different actions at different times.. The set of all possible computations that TN can perform for a given string x can be represented by a rooted tree as follows. For example let us consider the language L = { ww : w { a . Then it would compare the first half of x with the second half by comparing the i-th symbol of the first half with the i-th symbol of the second half for i = 1. It can be shown that a nondeterministic Turing machine is only as powerful as a deterministic Turing machine. a nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts this language L would first guess the midpoint of x. Given a string x. At any point in the process TN is in some configuration and has a finite set of configurations to choose from for its next configuration. can not guess the midpoint of the string x. like nondeterministic finite automata. They form level 1. The root of the tree is the initial configuration and it is the only vertex of level 0. As in the case of NFA. For example consider the following nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts a+ . that is the place where the second half of x starts. Here an action means the combination of writing a symbol on the tape. b }* } .. .S}. 2. on the other hand. The children of all the vertices of level i form level i+1. . It must find the midpoint by for example pairing off symbols from either end of x. goes into an infinite loop or aborts. at any state it is in and for the tape symbol it is reading. tape symbol and head movement out of the set of triples without following any specific predetermined rule. A deterministic Turing machine. can take any action selecting from a set of specified actions rather than taking one definite predetermined action.A nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine which. All possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN once form the children of the initial configuration.

aa ) ( q2 . At the second and third configurations in the above sequence. it would proceed as follows to accept it: ( q0 .Turing machine accepting a+ Given the string aa. aa ) for the third. aa ) . and ( q1 . aa ) ( q1 . aa ) ( q1 . aa ) and ( q2 . aa ) ( h . aa ) for the second. The tree for this case would be as follows: . it has two candidates for the next configuration: ( q1 . aa ) and ( q2 .

Thus any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by a deterministic Turing machine. If there is the halting state among these children. it has been shown that none of them exceed the capability of basic deterministic Turing machine as far as accepting languages is concerned. Click True or Fals . call it T1. Test Your Understanding of Different Types of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. However. call it T2. then Submit.One way to simulate a nondeterministic Turing machine. In fact the Church's thesis conjectures that any so called computation done by humans or computers can be performed by a basic deterministic Turing machine.Unsolvable Problems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Unsolvable Problems . It can be easily seen that T2 accepts a string if and only if T1 accepts it. is to traverse this tree breadth-first way from the root until the halt state is reached. though a deterministic Turing machine might take much more time than a nondeterministic Turing machine to accept a string. These children are the configurations of the next level and they are stored on the tape (if necessary a second tape may be used). with a deterministic one. At each level of the tree. Next -. T2 applies the transition function of T1 to each configuration at that level and computes its children. Many other variations of Turing machine are possible. then T2 accepts the string and halts.

Since we can not wait forever for an answer. and an arbitrary string w over . that is computationally they are equally powerful. Then there is a Turing machine T that solves the halting problem. At any point in time. Halting Problem One of well known unsolvable problems is the halting problem. Suppose that a language is acceptable but not decidable.Subjects to be Learned • • • Halting Problem Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents We have learned that deterministic Turing machines are capable of doing any computation that computers can do. Below we are going to see some well known unsolvable problems and see why we can say they are unsolvable. So we are going to look at the unsolvability in terms of language recognition. L. Minsky): This is going to be proven by "proof by contradiction". In this chapter we are going to learn that there are problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers. It asks the following question: Given an arbitrary Turing machine M over alphabet = { a . Then given a string a Turing machine that accept the language starts the computation. the question is unanswerable that is the problem is unsolvable. does M halt when it is given w as an input ? It can be shown that the halting problem is not decidable. and that any of their variations do not exceed the computational power of deterministic Turing machines. and then T halts. Proof (by M. Here "unsolvability" is in the following sense. Theorem 1 : The halting problem is undecidable. the question of whether or not a string is in the language may not be answered in any finite amount of time. That is. b } . Suppose that the halting problem is decidable. hence unsolvable. . there is no way of telling whether it is in an infinite loop or along the way to a solution and it needs more time. It is also conjectured that any "computation" human beings perform can be done by Turing machines (Church's thesis). if the Turing machine is running. T writes "yes" if M halts on w and "no" if M does not halt on w. given a description of a Turing machine M (over the alphabet ) and a string w. First recall that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language (see Problem Solving as Language Recognition). Thus if a language is not decidable.

then Tm goes into an infinite loop (Tm halts if the original T rejects a string and halts). where * is a symbol that separates the two copies of d(M) and then supplies d(M)*d(M) to the Turing machine Tm . First we construct a Turing machine Tm by modifying T so that if T accepts a string and halts. copies it to obtain the string d(M)*d(M). Next using Tm we are going to construct another Turing machine Tc as follows: Tc takes as input a description of a Turing machine M. . denoted by d(M).We are now going to construct the following new Turing machine Tc.

Thus the modified T is given a description of Turing machine Tc and the string d(Tc). Thus one implication of the halting problem is that there can be no computer programs (Turing machines) that check whether or not any arbitrary computer program stops for a given input. This is a contradiction.Let us now see what Tc does when a string describing Tc itself is given to it. Hence there is no Turing machine that solves the halting problem. This contradiction has been deduced from our assumption that there is a Turing machine that solves the halting problem. Hence that assumption must be wrong. Thus the question of whether or not a program halts for a given input is nothing but the halting problem. . constructs the string d(Tc)*d(Tc) and gives it to the modified T. When Tc gets the input d(Tc) . Thus Tc goes into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and it halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). Program correctness and Halting Problem Note that for any computer program a Turing machine can be constructed that performs the task of the program. it makes a copy. The way T was modified the modified T is going to go into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc).

Next -.More Unsolvable Preoblems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines More Unsolvable Problems Subjects to be Learned • • Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents The next unsolvable problem is in a sense more difficult than the halting problem. then Submit. Language NonSelfAccepting Let us first define two languages NSA1 and NSA2 as follows: . It is presented as a language and it can be shown that there are no Turing machines that accept the language.Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Click True or Fals .

Hence T0 can not accept w0 . Hence w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting . Hence either T0 accepts w0 or rejects it. This is a contradiction. Since NonSelfAccepting is a language. w = d(T) for a Turing machine T and T does not accept NSA2 = { w | w { a. w0 is in NSA1 . This is again a contradiction. then w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. let w = a. Hence it is not accepted by T. where d(T) is a description of the Turing machine T. by the definitions of NSA1 and NSA2. Let us define the language NonSelfAccepting as NonSelfAccepting = NSA1 Then we can prove the following theorem: NSA2 . Hence it is in SelfAccepting . Let w0 = d( T0 ). b }*. Suppose there is a Turing machine. which is absurd. It . Certainly more symbols than a single a are needed to describe even the simplest Turing machine. This means that there can not be any Turing machine that accepts the language NonSelfAccepting. We are going to see that T0 neither accepts w0 nor rejects it. then w0 NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. that accepts NonSelfAccepting. Hence a is in NSA2 . Hence w is in NSA1 . Thus neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. (1) If T0 accepts w0. either w0 is in NonSelfAccepting or it isn't. Thus there can not be Turing machine T0 that accepts the language SelfAccepting . Hence by the definition of NSA1 . w0 is in neither NSA1 nor NSA2 . b }*. Problem Accepts( ) The problem Accepts( ) asks whetehr or not a given Turing machine T accepts . For NSA2. But w0 = d( T0 ) because that is how we selected w0 . Neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty.NSA1 = { w | w w} { a. NSA1 is the set of strings that describe a Turing machine but that are not accepted by the Turing machine they describe. call it T0. Then there is no Turing machine that can be described by the string a. NSA2 is the set of strings that do not describe any Turing machine. Knowing the unsolvability of the halting problem some other problems can be shown to be unsolvable. Proof: This is going to be proven by contradiction. Theorem 2 There are no Turing machines that accept the language NonSelfAccepting. (2) If T0 does not accept w0 . Also T0 does not accept w0 . Then this w is a description of a Turing machine but it must be longer than one symbol. For let T be a Turing machine that accepts { a } and let w = d(T). However. w d(T) for any Turing machine T } . that is w0 is a description of the Turing machine T0 .

can be shown to be unsolvable. Let a Turing machine T' and a string w be an instance of the halting problem. Using this T. We are going to show that the halting problem becomes solvable using this A. Let T' be an instance of Accepts( ). call it M. Using a similar idea the following problem can also be shown to be unsolvable. Problem AcceptsEverything The problem AcceptsEverything asks whether or not a given Turing machine T halts on every string over a given alphabet . Then consider the Turing machine T = TeraseT' . Then M halts on d(T') and w if and only if T' halts on w. Then there is a Turing machine that solves it. Consider a Turing machine T = TwT'. Let A be a Turing machine that solves AcceptsEverything. where Terase is a Turing machine that erases the input on the tape and halts. That is. call it M. which is an instance of the halting problem. M solves the halting problem. We are going to show that Accepts( ) can be solved using the solution to it. Let A be a Turing machine that solves Accepts( ). Using this T. M writes the string d( T ) on the tape and let A take over. Since the halting problem is unsolvable. This T halts on if and only if T' halts on w. This T halts on every string over if and only if T1 halts on . Thus if Accepts( ) is solvable. Suppose that AcceptsEverything is solvable. a Turing machine. where machine Tw is a Turing machine that writes w. Suppose that Accepts( ) is solvable. the halting problem can be solved. that solves Accepts( ) can be constructed as . that solves the halting problem can be constructed as follows: Given a description d(T') of a Turing machine T' and a string w as inputs. this means that Accepts( ) is unsolvable. a Turing machine.

Then the following problems are all unsolvable. Equivalence This problem asks whether or not two Turing machines accept the same language. Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) = ? finite ? infinite ? context-free ? Is L( G1 ) = L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) = * ? Is the complement of L( G1 ) context-free ? . Other Unsolvable Problems Let G1 and G2 be context-free grammars and let L(G) denote the language generated by grammar G. Since Accepts( ) is unsolvable. it means that AcceptsEverything is unsolvable. AcceptsNothing This problem asks whether or not a Turing machine accepts nothing. By similar arguments the following problems can be shown to be unsolvable. It can be shown to be unsolvable using Accepts( ) . It can be shown to be unsolvable using AcceptsEverything.shown below.

Click True or Fals .Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Next -.Time Complexity of Problem Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Complexity Time Complexity Subjects to be Learned • • • • • Time Complexity of Problems Decision Tree Class NP Polynomial Time Transformation NP-Complete Problems Contents In the previous sections we have learned that some problems are unsolvable by Turing machines hence by computers. A problem is solvable if some Turing . then Submit. No one can write computer programs that solve those problems and halt after a finite amount of time.

Before proceeding to predicate logic let us consider the following logic called propositional dynamic logic (PDL for short). a quick sort needs O(n2) time. This is the problem of asking whether or not a given formula can take the value true for some values of its variables. it is still solvable. then Y Z [ X = Y + Z ] ] is a proposition of Presburger arithmetic. In this section we are going to study solvable problems and learn a hierarchy of solvable problems based on the computation time required to solve them. Q )" . where A is an algorithm and S is a statement. and there are problems that require algorithms with the worst case time worse than k-exponential time for any natural number k. For example the formula ( P V ~P ) is always true. It is estimated by counting the largest possible number of key operations to be performed in terms of the input size. The satisfiability problem becomes even harder when logic becomes more complex. One can ask the same question for formulas of first order predicate logic. . where P and Q are propositions. In logic there is a well known problem of "satisfiability". ~Q )" and "if P then after( if P then Q else ~Q. etc. etc. or etc. as we are going to see below. Then there are problems that require double exponential ( e. S) says that S is true after executing A. There are also problems that must be solved at best by exponential time algorithms in the worst case. They are all polynomial time algorithms. Similarly ( P V Q ) is also satisfiable. For example a binary search takes O(lg n) time. They take much more time to execute than polynomial time algorithms. They are both satisfiable. where k is a natural number. X [ if ~( X = 1 ). the addition operation +. For more detailed review of this. For example "after( if P then Q else ~Q. For example. For many problems a day or even an hour would be too long. So it is not satisfiable. For example the satisfiability problem for Presburger arithmetic is double-exponential (2-fold exponentail). Let us see some of those intractable problems. after(A. For example. However. are propositions of PDL. This is a propositional logic with an extra construct (proposition) after(A. as well as all the connectives such as and. S). that is it requires at least O( aan ) time to solve in the worst case. variables taking positive integers as their values. the equality symbol = and quantifiers and . So it is certainly satisfiable. Even if it takes a million years to solve a problem. Presburger arithmetic is a logic that allows statements involving positive integers. a heap sort needs O(n lg n) time. in practice if it takes a million years. the satisfiability problem for the propositional dynamic logic is proven to take exponential time to solve in the worst case.machine can solve it in finite time. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved by algorithms with the worst case time which is a polynomial in the problem size (polynomial time algorithms). The problems that can not be solved with any polynomial time algorithm are called intractable problems . O(f(x)) (big-oh) and other related subjects click here. The measure for computation time we use is the worst case time. it is as good (or bad) as unsolvable. problems that need k-exponential time algorithms. The satisfiability problem for PDL is known to take at least exponential time to solve in the worst case.g. 22n ) time algorithms. second order logic. where P is a propositional variable. But (P ^ ~P ) is always false.

Such a problem (having no K-fold exponential time algorithms) is called nonelementary. These problems are called decision problems. Below we are going to characterize this class of problems. First. This problem is called "Graph Coloring" problem or more precisely "Vertex Color" problem. Let us here review nondeterministic Turing machines. is it possible to color its vertices with three or less colors ? . At the moment. Let us try to solve the following instances of this graph coloring problem: Given the following graph. Now let us go back to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. For the problems of this class there are no known polynomial time algorithms for solving them nor are they known to be unsolvable with polynomial time algorithms. in addition. the logic is called WS1S (Weak Second-order theory of 1 Successor). Some of these decision problems are NP-complete problems. For the satisfiability problem of WS1S.In Presburger arithmetic (minus addition operation). the consensus is that they ca not be solved with polynomial time algorithms. there are problems that are solved by answering with yes or no. "Is it possible to schedule committee meetings without conflicts into a given number of time slots ? " . however. Consider the problem of coloring vertices of a graph with a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned. This problem belongs to a peculiar class of problems called NP-Complete problems. there are no K-fold exponential time algorithms to solve it for any number K. "Is a string w in the language a*b ? ". if. For example. sets of integers and the predicate "belongs to" (an element X belongs to a set S) are allowed. " Is it possible to assign colors to vertices of a given graph using a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned ? " etc.

For the graphs of (a) and (b), you could find a solution very easily by inspection. You could see a right coloring as soon as you saw the graphs. However, you can most likely not tell how you arrived at your solutions. You probably don't have any algorithms you could use to solve them. You could somehow see the solutions. This is basically the idea of nondeterministic (Turing) machine. There is no fixed procedure which you can use repeatedly to solve instance after instance of this problem. But you can somehow solve them. Let us move on to a slightly more complex example of (c). For this graph to find a right coloring you could start with vertex 1 and assign color a. Then move on to vertex 2 and assign color b(it has to be something other than a ). Then go to vertex 3 and assign a third color, say c. Then at vertex 4 select color b and for vertex 5 use color a. In this process we make a decision as to what color to use for each vertex and when a decision is made for all the vertices we have a solution to the problem. This process applies to any decision problem. That is to solve a decision problem a number of smaller decisions are made one after another and as a result a solution to the problem is obtained. This process can be represented by a tree called decision tree. For example, for the graph coloring problem let us first decide on the order of vertices we color in, say 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for the graph of (c) above. Then the root of its decision tree corresponds to the vertex we assign a color to first (vertex 1 in this example). Then for each possible color for the first vertex, a child is created for the first vertex of the tree. So the second level of the

decision tree corresponds to the second vertex to be colored. Then in general, for each possible color for each vertex of level i of the decision tree, a child is created. Those children form level i+1 of the decision tree. The decision tree for the graph of (c) is given below. Since any color can be assigned to vertex 1 without loss of generality, it has just one child in the actual decision tree. Also since in this case the i-th and (i+1)-th vertices are connected by an edge for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, they can not have the same color. So each vertex after vertex 1 has two colors to choose from. So they each have two children in the decision tree.

Thus during the process of solving the problem a decision is made at each level and when all levels are covered, the problem is solved. A path from the root to a leaf corresponds to a coloring of the vertices of the given graph. A decision tree, however, does not tell us how to make decisions. Also a decision tree does not tell how to order the vertices for coloring, that is which vertex to color first, second etc. A deterministic machine (or algorithm) has a specific fixed set of rules for making a decision at each level of the decision tree. Although it knows what to do at every stage of problem solving, the decisions it makes are not necessarily the right ones. When it makes wrong decisions, it must retract earlier decisions and try different paths, which is called backtracking. For the graph coloring problem a deterministic algorithm might first order the vertices of the graph in decreasing order of their degree and also order colors. Then, following the

order of the vertices, assign to each vertex the highest order color available for the vertex. Since that kind of algorithm is not guaranteed to use the minimum number of colors, it may produce a wrong answer unless there is some provision for backtracking. A nondeterministic (Turing) machine, on the other hand, is a fictitious machine and somehow knows which branch (child) to select at each step. It always makes a right selection. A decision problem is said to belong to class NP if each vertex in its decision tree has a finite number of children and if it can be solved by a nondeterministic (Turing) machine in polynomial time. The graph coloring problem is in class NP, so are the satisfiability problem for propositional logic and most of the scheduling problems just to name a few. Also there are other characterizations of class NP. Interested readers click here. At this moment it is not known whether or not problems in class NP can be solved with a polynomial time algorithm in the worst case. The consensus is that there is no polynomial time algorithm to solve them. It would take at least exponential time. Among the problems in class NP, there are problems which all problems of class NP can be transformed to in polynomial time. Those problems are called NP-complete problems. If a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of the NP-complete problems, all the problems in NP can be solved in polynomial time. Below we are going to study NPcomplete problems. We start our discussion with the concept of polynomial time transformation (reduction). Basically we say a decision problem Q1 is polynomially reducible to a decision problem Q2 if and only if there is a transformation that transforms any arbitrary instance of Q1 into an instance of Q2 in polynomial time such that the answer to Q1 is yes if and only if the answer to Q2 is yes. A little more formally we define this in terms of languages. Note that a decision problem can be viewed as a language of its instances and that solving it can be considered as recognizing the language as we have seen earlier. Let L1 and L2 be languages over alphabets 1 and 2, respectively. We say that L1 is polynomial-time reducible to L2 if and only if there is a function f from 1* to 2* such that for any string x in polynomial time.

1 *

,x

L1 if and only if f(x)

L2 and f can be computed

For example let us consider the following two problems: graph coloring and scheduling of committee meetings. The graph coloring problem is as given above. In the scheduling of committee meetings problem, committees with their members and a positive integer k are given. The problem is whether or not the meetings of the committees can be scheduled in k or less time slots so that everyone can attend one's meetings. Note that some people may be in more than one committee. Let us try to show that this scheduling problem is polynomial time reducible to the graph coloring problem.

3 and 4 to the graph. b }. { b. For example suppose that we are given the committees 1. respectively. Suppose also that k = 3. where p k. Let us consider the following transformation: For each committee add a vertex to the graph. an edge is inserted between vertices 1 and 2. edges are added between 1 and 3. Then the meetings can be scheduled in k or less time slots if and only if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. Similarly since committees 1 and 3. that is construct a graph and give the number of colors to be used to color its vertices so that the meetings can be scheduled if and only if graph can be colored. {a.What we need to do is given an instance of the scheduling problem construct an instance of the graph coloring problem. d }. 3 and 4. Thus the scheduling problem asks whether or not the meetings of the given committees can be scheduled in 3 time slots without any conflicts. Then since committees 1 and 2 share a. d } and { a. Corresponding to this grouping assign colors to the vertices of the graph so that the vertices in the same group are given the same color and those in . and 1 and 4. 3 and 4 with the memberships { a. 2. Suppose that the meetings can be scheduled in p time slots. Proceeding similarly the following graph is obtained corresponding to the committee memberships. 2. add vertices 1. connect with an edge the vertices corresponding to the committees. c. and if and only if two committee have some members in common. The corresponding graph for the graph coloring problem can be constructed as follows: Corresponding to the committees 1. and 1 and 4 share members. Then the committees can be grouped into p groups so that the committees in the same group can meet at the same time. c }. 2.

all the problems can be solved with polynomial time algorithms. then the consensus today is that it is most likely that no polynomial time algorithms i. Traveling Salesman Problem Given cities and traveling times between cities. and vertices connected with an edge have different colors. Graph Color Problem 3. For if any two vertices are connected with an edge. . We are now ready to discuss NP-completeness. NP-complete Problems 1. Formally a problem is NP-hard if every problem in class NP can be polynomial time reducible to it.e. Thus these two vertices must get different colors. Committee Meeting Schedule Problem In fact most scheduling problems are NPcomplete. It can be easily seen that if a problem P at hand is NP-hard and if a problem known to be NP-complete can be polynomial time reducible to P. This coloring uses p colors which does not exceed k. find out whether or not one is a subgraph of the other. It is also easily seen that the transformation. can be done in time polynomial in the size of the problem. which in this case can be taken as the number of committees. 7. Conversely if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. Partition Problem Given a set of integers. 5. It was first proven by S. Subgraph Isomorphism Problem Given two graphs. Subsequently the satisfiability problem was found to be polynomial time reducible to many other problems. that is the construction of graph for a given set of committees. then that means that the corresponding committees share some members and that they are scheduled to meet in different time slots. a traveling salesman wants to know a shortest route to visit all cities exactly once and come back to where he/she started. If a problem is NP-complete. Some of them are listed below. then it can be easily seen that the committees can meet in k or less time slots.different groups are given different colors. group them into two groups so that the sum of the numbers of one group is equal to that of the other group. Bin Packing Problem Given a set of objects. This group of problems are called NP-complete problems. As a consequence if a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of those problems. Today hundreds of problems are known to be NP-complete. 6. then P is also NP-complete. Cook that the problems of class NP can be polynomial time reducible to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. 4. For all the problems in class NP can be reduced to P through the known NP-complete problem in polynomial time. their sizes and a number of bins of the same size. find out whether or not the objects can be put into the bins. A problem is NP-complete if it is in class NP and NP-hard. fast algorithms exist to solve it. Satisfiability Problem for Propositional Logic 2.

x).8.a.(2. their values and an integer V. Knapsack Problem Given a knapsack of size S.y).b. is it possible to select objects so that the sum of their sizes does not exceed S and the sum of their values is V or larger ? 10.x)} is a desired set satisfying all the requirements. .x)} is not a matching. B.y}. (2. Then T = {(1.b. and C appears exactly once in T ? For example. (2.x).b.y)}. a set of objects. (2.a. a collection of subsets of S and an integer k.(1.a. of S such that every element of A. find out whether or not there are k or less subsets in the collection whose union is S. Is there a subset T. and S = {(1. Set Cover Problem Given a set S. 3-Dimensional Matching Given three sets A.2}.x). Note that {(1.y). let A = {1. B = {a.b. their sizes.b}. and C = {x. and a subset S of the Cartesian product A X B X C. B and C of the same size. 9. called a matching.b.

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