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Language, Automata: , \alpha : usually denotes a string in this course. , \beta : usually denotes a string in this course. , \delta : usually denotes a transition function in this course. , \sigma : usually denotes a symbol in an alphabet in this course. , \Delta : usually denotes a blank space in this course. , \Gamma : usually denotes a set of stack symbols in this course. , \Lambda : usually denotes an empty string in this course. , \Pi : usually denotes a partition in this course. , \Sigma : usually denotes an alphabet in this course. , \goto : usually denotes a (one step) transition in this course. Logic: , ~ : logical not , ^ : logical and , V : logical or , -> : logical imply , <-> : logical if and only if (equivalent) , => : logical tautologically imply , <=> : logical tautologically equivalent , \A : logical for all , \E : logical for some (there exists)

Sets: , \in : belongs to , \not\in : does not belong to , @ : empty set U, : universal set , \subset : proper subset , \not\subset : not a proper subset , \subseteq : subset , \not\subseteq : not a subset , \cup : set union Ai , \cup(i=1 to n) A_i : union of n sets , \cap : set intersection Ai , \cap(i=1 to n) A_i : intersection of n sets , \bar A : complement of set A (A) , P(A) : power set of set A , X : Cartesian product Ai , X(i=1 to n) A_i : cartesian product of n sets Relation: < a, b > : ordered pair < a1, a2, ..., an > : ordered n-tuple , <= : precedes (partial order) Functions: xi , Sum(i=1 to n) x_i : sum of n xi's O(f) , O(f) : of order smaller than or equal to f

o(f) , o(f) : of order smaller than f (f) , Omega : of order greater than or equal to f (f) , omega : of order greater than f (f) , Theta : of the same order as f f(x) , lim(x -> inf) f(x) : limit of f as x goes to infinity

**Introduction to Theoretical Computer Science
**

Today computers are used everywhere: banks, hospitals, schools, airline companies, gas stations, grocery stores, in our cars, in home appliances, PCs, etc., etc. Some are used to crunch numbers, some are used to process images, some are used to process other nonnumeric data and some are used to control operations of various devices. They can reason, they can prove many mathematical theorems, they can beat chess experts in their game, they can solve some very complex problems, they can understand our languages, they can answer our questions and of course they can crunch numbers much much faster than us. Let us for a moment call what computers do computation for convenience, though some of the things computers do such as controling appliances, answering our questions etc. don't fall into our traditional sense of computation. Then these computers seem to be able to compute an awfully lot of things if not everything. But are they capable of computing anything ? Are there things computers can not do ? If there are things computers can not do, what are they ? And why ? If there aren't things computers can not do, then how can we tell ? What do we exactly mean by computation ? Unfortunately there are many things computers can not do. Computers can not solve certain types of problems. For example no computer can tell in general whether or not a given computer program stops after a finite amount of time on a given input. They can not solve some other types of problems fast enough even though they can solve them in some finite amount of time. For example take the traveling salesman problem: a salesman is given a road map with distances between cities and wants to find a shortest round trip route that visits all the cities on the map exactly once. At the moment the so called traveling salesman problem requires an extremely large amount of time to solve. No one has been able to find a reasonably fast algorithm to solve it and the consensus is that it is not likely that anyone can find such an algorithm. I have just given you an example of the problems that computers could not solve. How do we know that that is the case ? Are there other problems like that ? How can we tell whther or not a given problem can be solved and solved fast enough ?

we go to Turing machines. We are going to learn their properties. In addition finite automata can model a large number of systems used in practice. We are going to investigate limitations of computers and computations by studying the essence of compuers and computations rather than all the variations of computer and computation. It was first conceived of by Alan Turing in early 20-th century. Then with Turing machines we investigate limitations of computers and computations. The other two are context-free languages and context-sensitive languages. ways to describe them and how to use them to model many of the real life systems. that is to study limitations of computers and computation. it is generally believed (Church's thesis) that any "computation" humans do can be done by Turing machines and that "computation" is the computation performed by Turing machines. Finite automata process strings. we are also going to study regular languages in detail as well as finite automata. every task modern computers perform can also be accomplished by Turing machines. In particular we are going to see a few problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers and how we can tell that they are unsolvable. . After briefly studying context-free languges. Consequently they are less capable than Turing machines but then their operations are simpler. Thus when a finite automaton is processing strings. There we learn how computers can be simulated by Turing machines and what it means that a Turing machine recognizes (decides) a language. Finite automata are very similar to Turing machines but a few restrictions are imposed on them.The main objective of this course is to answer those questions. Though it has not been proven. We call a set of strings (of symbols) a language. we study a simpler type of computing device called finite automata. Those four languages are together called formal languages. The languages Turing machines recognize are called Type 0 (or phrase structure) languages (regular languages are Type 3) and they are more complex than regular languages. This essence is a device called Turing machine. Before proceeding to the study of Turing machines and their computations in this course. Thus they are a powerful tool to design and study those systems with. which is the key to the unsolvability of problem by computers. These two type of languages belong to a hierarchy of four languages called Homsky hierarchy. which are also heavily used in practice. The languages that are recognized by finite automata are called regular languages. So they provide a good introduction to our study of Turing machines. Since so many systems in practice can be described by regular languages. More specifically they answer the question whether or not a given string belongs to a language. It is a very simple device but remarkably. Turing machines also recognize languages. We say finite automata recognize languages. it can actually be solving a problem. It turns out that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Thus by studying Turing machines we can learn capabilities hence limitatgions of computers.

Increasing the processor speed does not help much for such problems. Basic Mathematical Objects Back to Table of Contents The following are the contents of this introductory chapter. Let us start with review of mathematics. Unfortunately there is nothing we can do to speed them up. For example for the traveling salesman problem if 100 cities were too many to solve fast enough. Their truth values are false and true. The time complexity issues are investigated using Turing machines so that the results apply to all computers. then with the increase in the processor speed of 1. We are going to see some of those which take a large amount of time. The time needed to solve such a problem increases at least exponentially with the size of the problem as long as we use Turing machines (hence computers). • • • • Logic Sets Relations Functions Logic Proposition and Logical Connectives "Proposition" can be defined as a declarative statement having a specific truth-value. 4 is a perfect square. Example: The following statements are propositions as they have precise truth values. respectively.000 times it can handle only ten or so more larger problem sizes. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved within a reasonable amount of time and there are problems that are known to require a finite but very large amount of time to solve. • • 2 is a odd number.Our last topic is time complexities of various problems.000 times 110 cities would already be too many. then even if the processor speed increased 1. . true or false. If the computation time is 2n where n is the size of the problem. "Connective": Two or more propositions can be combined together to make compound propositions with the help of logical connectives.

Disjunction This is logical "or" read as either true value of the individual propositions. Negation This is the logical "negation" and it is expressed by Truth table is given below as p for "not p". The following are the logical connectives used commonly: a. The compound proposition truth-value is true iff all the constituent propositions hold true. • • 2 is an odd number AND 4 is a perfect square. 2 is an odd number OR 4 is a perfect square. It is represented as " ^ ".Example: Above two propositions can be used to make a compound proposition using any of the logical connectives. For the first compound proposition to be true both the propositions have to be true as the connective is AND and as OR is the connective for the second one if either of the propositions is true the truth value of the compound proposition is true. . Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F pVq T T T F c. Their truth vales are false and true respectively. Conjunction The logical conjunction is understood in the same way as commonly used ôandö. Truth table for two individual propositions p and q with conjunction is given below p T T F F q T F T F p^q T F F F b.

Contradiction This is the opposite of tautology.g. "q is necessary for p". which is true in every case. then p is said to logically imply q. "p only if q" . Biconditional A proposition (p q) ^ (q p) can be abbreviated using biconditional conjunction as p q and is read as "if p then q. e.: p ^ p Logical implication and equivalence If the value of p -> q is true in every case. p q is read as "if p.: p V p g. then q" Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F p T F T T q p -> q is also expressed in a number of different (but equivalent) ways in English.p T F p F T d. It is represented as p => q. "q is a necessity/consequence of p" and "q whenever p" are all differnt ways of saying "if p then q". Tautology A compound proposition. and if q then p". If p and q have the same truth-value in every case then they are said to be logically equivalent and it is represented as p <=> q. f. "if not q then not p" . "p is sufficient for q" . E.e. which is false in every case. E. Following are some of the useful identities and implications from propositional logic: Identities . For example. Conditional This is used to define as "a proposition holds true if another proposition is true" i.g.

implication Q) R] [P (Q R)] ----. "The sky is blue". (P 4. For example.exportation Q) ( Q P) ----. (P 2. [(P 5. For more complex reasoning we need more powerful logic capable of expressing complicated propositions and reasoning. (P Q) ( P Q) ----. examples and proofs of these identities go to Identities Implications 1. the sentences "The car Tom is driving is blue".modus tollens Q) (R S)] [(P R) (Q S)] Q) (Q R)] (P R) For explanations.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. [(P Q) Q] P ----. A predicate is a template involving a verb that describes a property of objects. (P 3.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----.1. The predicate logic is one of the extensions of propositional logic and it is fundamental to most other types of logic. Central to the predicate logic are the concepts of predicate and quantifier. The phrase "is blue" is a predicate and it describes the property of being blue.contrapositive For explanations. or to express certain types of relationship between propositions such as equivalence ( for more detail click here for example for example ). [(P 2. . or a relationship among objects represented by the variables. examples and proofs of these implications go to Implications Predicate and Predicate Logic The propositional logic is not powerful enough to represent all types of assertions that are used in computer science and mathematics. [(P 3. and "The cover of this book is blue" come from the template "is blue" by placing an appropriate noun/noun phrase in front of it.

B(x) reads as "x is blue". by using quantifiers on variables . it is true or false in the universe of discourse.Predicates are often given a name. . There are two types of quantifiers: universal quantifier and existential quantifier. quantify the variable using a quantifier (see below)." Again. x > 1". The universal quantifier turns. x > 1". assign a value to the variable 2. a quantification is performed on formulas of predicate logic (called wff ). Universe of Discourse The universe of discourse. and it becomes a true statement. This new statement is true or false in the universe of discourse. x > 1 becomes 3 > 1 if 3 is assigned to x. the statement x > 1 to "for some object x in the universe. is the set of objects of interest. for example. can be made a proposition by applying one of the following two operations to each of its variables: 1. which is expressed as " x x > 1". A predicate with variables. "Blue" or "B" can be used to represent the predicate "is blue" among others. the statemen t x > 1 to "for every object x in the universe. The propositions in the predicate logic are statements on objects of a universe. It can be the set of real numbers. For example. For example any of "is_blue". called atomic formula. for example. The universe is thus the domain of the (individual) variables. where x represents an arbitrary object. also called universe . hence a proposition. which is expressed as " x x > 1. and hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. Hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. such as x > 1 or P(x). In general. If we adopt B as the name for the predicate "is_blue". sentences that assert an object is blue can be represented as "B(x)". Similarly the existential quantifier turns.

The universe is often left implicit in practice. some of which are given below. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 4. Also for proof and proof techniques see Mathematical Reasoning. Predicate logic is more powerful than propositional logic. It allows one to reason about properties and relationships of individual objects. Sets . the set of all students in a classroom etc.the set of integers. Important Inference Rules of Predicate Logic: First there is the following rule concerning the negation of quantified statement which is very useful: x P(x) x P(x) Next there is the following set of rules on quantifiers and connvectives: 1. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 2. [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] x [ P(x) Q(x) ] 3. implications and inference rules. as well as those for propositional logic such as the equivalences. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] For more discussions and examples on these rules and others. But it should be obvious from the context. see Reasoning(with predicate logic) and Quantifiers and Connectives in Discrete Structures course. the set of all cars on a parking lot. In predicate logic. one can use some additional inference rules.

Note: If A is a subset of B and B is a subset of A then A=B.What is a set? Set is a group of elements. Set terminology Belongs To x B means that x is an element of set B. but not equal to B represented as A B. All the elements belonging to the set are explicitly given. Universal Set The set U of all the elements we might ever consider in the discourse is called the universal set. Using this notation we can specify the set {0.4} call it Z by writing Z = {x | x N | x 5} where N represents the set of natural numbers. . A is a subset of B is represented as A B. A is a subset of B.3. Also.3. Subset Let A and B be two sets. Example: A = {1. if A is a subset of. Example: B = {x | x is a positive integer less than or equal to 5} Some sets can also be defined recursively.2.1. having a property that characterizes those elements. It is read as "the set of natural numbers that are less than or equal to 5". if every element of A is an element of B. How to specify a Set? One way is to enumerate the elements completely.5} Alternate way is to give the properties that characterize the elements of the set.2.4.

Example: If A = {1. It is denoted by A B.2. Thus A' = { x | x U ^ x A } . Example: A = { 1.2.. Difference If A and B are two sets. For A and B of the above example B .8}. Union If A and B are two sets. Example: If A = {1.Complement If A is a set.5. Example: If A = {1.A .8} then A B = {3.8.3.4.5} then A .8} B = {3.2. A B= ø.5 } .3} B = {3.4.5} . and B = { 6. where ø is the Empty set. 3.B = {1. then the complement of A is the set consisting of all elements of the universal set that are not in A.5} 2.A = {4.2. Intersection If A and B are two sets. Disjoint sets A and B are said to be disjoint if they contain no elements in common i.B B . Set Operations The operations that can be performed on sets are: 1. then the union of A and B is the set that contains all the elements that are in A and B including the ones in both A and B. then the difference of A from B is the set that consists of the elements of A that are not in B.B.9 } are disjoint. where means " is not an element of ". It is denoted by A' or . It is denoted by A .5} then A B = {1.4.3 } .2.4.2} Note that in general A .3} and B = {3. It is denoted by A B. then the intersection of A and B is the set that consists of the elements in both A and B .e.4. Example: If U is the set of natural numbers and A = { 1. then A' = { x | x U ^ x > 3}.3.2.3.

The Commutative laws: A B=B A A B=B A The Associative laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Distributive laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Idempotent laws: A A=A A A=A The Absorptive laws: A (A B) = A A (A B) = A The De Morgan laws: (A B)' = A' B' (A B)' = A' B' Other laws involving Complements: ( A' )' = A A A A' = ø A' = U B) B) B) B) C C (A (A C) C) Other laws involving the empty set A A ø=A ø=ø Other laws involving the Universal Set: A U=U A U=A Venn Diagrams A common technique in working with Set Operations is to illustrate them by drawing Venn Diagrams. .Following is a list of some standard Set Identities A. It is a very good tool to get a general idea. B. C represent arbitrary sets and ø is the empty set and U is the Universal Set.

4 } and B = { 6.8.2. .2.3. For example sets A = { 1.Note. that Venn Diagrams must NOT be used for rigorous discussions. because they can represent only very limited situations and miss many other possibilities. however.4 } can be represented as shown below using Venn Diagrams: Set A U represents the Universal set in which A is one of the Set. The idea of Venn Diagram is to draw a region representing the universe and within that to draw the regions representing the component sets we are starting with so that the resulting diagram describes their interrelationships.

Set B The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A B .

A B .

The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A U B A A B B is the set consisting of all the different elements in A and B. .

4.4.4. 7 } B = { 2.2. For example: U = { 1.8 } (A B)' = U .3.6.3.4 } A B = { 1.(A B) = { 5.8 } .6.(A B)' is the yellow region in the Venn diagram given below.3.5.7.8 } A = { 1.6.2.2.

For example expressions we often use A holds. intersection and Cartesian product of sets are associative. To denote either of these B C.A . which we write as Ai This generalized union of sets can be rigorously defined as follows: Definition ( Ai) : ..A is the blue shaded region in the Venn Diagram shown below Generalized Set Operations Union.. A2 .. This can be generalized for the union of any finite number of sets as A1 An .B is the yellow shaded region and B .

The basis clause (or simply basis) of the definition establishes that certain objects are in the set. . Based on these definitions. This part of the definition specifies the "seeds" of the set from which the elements of the set are generated using the methods given in the inductive clause.Basis Clause: For n = 1 . and = Recursive Definition Recursive Definition Subjects to be Learned • • • • • recursive/inductive definition basis clause basis inductive clause extremal clause A recursive definition of a set always consists of three distinct clauses: 1. The set of elements specified here is called basis of the set being defined. De Morgan's law on set union and intersection can also be generalized as follows: Theorem (Generalized De Morgan) = . Ai = A1. Inductive Clause: Ai = ( Ai) An+1 Ai and generalized Cartesian product Similarly the generalized intersection Ai can be defined.

The inductive clause always asserts that if objects are elements of the set. x + 2 is in . and the new object is their child . and x is the child of x + 1. The x + 1 in the Inductive Clause is the parent of x.. which is not what we want as the set of natural numbers. x + 1 is in . then they can be combined in certain specified ways to create other objects. 1. The Set of Natural Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . 0. The extremal clause asserts that unless an object can be shown to be a member of the set by applying the basis and inductive clauses a finite number of times. the set of natural numbers N can be obtained as follows: First by (1). Note that if we don't have (3). and 2 is the child of 1. 2. The inductive clause (or simply induction) of the definition establishes the ways in which elements of the set can be combined to produce new elements of the set. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses.5. the object is not a member of the set. since 0 is in N. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Then by (2). 1 is the parent of 2. Let us call the objects used to create a new object the parents of the new object.2. 0 is the parent of 1. 3. can be included in N. and 1 is the child of 0. 0 + 1 (= 1) is in N.5. The Set of Nonnegative Even Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in ..5. Proceeding in this manner all the natural numbers are put into N. Example 3. The Set of Even Integers Basis Clause: . 1 + 1 (= 2) is in N. The basis for this set N is { 0 } . Then by (2) again. 0 is put into N. . Example 2. Following this definition. Examples of Recursive Definition of Set Example 1.

Click Yes or No . . The set of propositions (propositional forms) can also be defined recursively. Then the value of the function at an element. say x. How to define function recursively: First the values of the function for the basis elements of the domain are specified. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. then Submit. Tips for recursively defining a set: For the "Basis Clause".Inductive Clause: For any element x in . The Set of Strings over the alphabet excepting empty string This is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's such as abbab. Condition: The domain of the function you wish to define recursively must be a set defined recursively. Here ax means the concatenation of a with x. etc. and generalize that generation process for the "Inductive Clause". Test Your Understanding of Recursive Definition Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. simplest expressions. and x . of the domain is defined using its value at the parent(s) of the element x. or shortest strings.2 are in . or 1). Recursive Definition of Function Some functions can also be defined recursively. A few examples are given below. and . bbabaa. . try simplest elements in the set such as smallest numbers (0. They are all on functions from integer to integer except the last one. Example 4. and . Inductive Clause: For any element x in . There are two sets of questions. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. x + 2. Then see how other elements can be obtained from them. Basis Clause: . To see how it is defined click here.

Example 7: The function f(n) = 2n for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. See Example 5 for the extremal clause. f(n+1) = f(n) + 2 . See above for the extremal clause. This function L gives the number of a's and b's L(x) for a string x is also often denoted by | x |. Example 6: The function f(n) = 2n + 1 for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. So there is no chance of other elements to come into the function being defined. 3! can be found as follows: Since 0 ! = 1. Note that here Extremal Clause is not necessary. L(xy) = L(x) + L(y) . L(a) = 1 and L(b) = 1. Hence 2 ! = 2 * 1 ! = 2 * 1 = 2 . Example 8: The function L from the set S of strings over {a. Inductive Clause: For any string x and y of S. b} to the set of natural numbers that gives the length of a string can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: For symbols a and b of the alphabet. f(n+1) = (n+1) f(n). f(n+1) = 2 f(n) .Example 5: The function f(n) = n! for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 0! = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. 1 ! = 1 * 0 ! = 1 * 1 = 1 . where xy is the concatenation of strings x and y. Induction Mathematical Induction . because the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively and that has the extremal clause in it. Hence 3 ! = 3 * 2 ! = 3 * 2 * 1 = 6 . Using this definition. See Example 5 for the extremal clause.

Then it is proven that if an arbitrary natural number. that is 0. The first principle of mathematical induction states that if the basis step and the inductive step are proven. which is 1. has the property in question. and its elements can be generated one by one starting with 0 by adding 1. denote it by n. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 can be proven by mathematical induction by the same token. any natural number can be shown to have the property. the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively. More generally mathematical statements involving a natural number n such as 1 + 2 + . . then P(k+1) is true. and the process of generating an element from a known element in the set.Subjects to be Learned • • • • • first principle of mathematical induction basis step induction hypothesis induction second principle of mathematical induction Contents First Priciple of Mathematical Induction As we have seen in recursion . it is often a good idea to restate P(k+1) in terms of . Thus the set of natural numbers can be described completely by specifying the basis element (0).. As a first step for proof by induction. has the property in question (basis step). natural numbers can be proven to have certain properties as follows: First it is proven that the basis element. has the same property again by the inductive step. This process is somewhat analogous to the knocking over a row of dominos with knocking over the first domino corresponding to the basis step. that is n + 1. then it follows that all the natural numbers have that property. has that property (inductive step). For since 0 has the property by the basis step. Then since 1 has the property. has the same property by the inductive step. Taking advantage of this.. then P(n) is true for all natural number . we proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P( ) is true. which is 2. where is a Induction: Prove that for any integer . Proceeding likewise. To prove that a statement P(n) is true for all natural number natural number. the element next to it. if P(k) is true (called induction hypothesis). When these two are proven. then the next element. the element next to it.

End of Proof. Formally the second principle of induction states that if n [ k [ k < n P(k) ] P(n) ] . Example 1: Let us prove the following equality using the second principle: For any natural number n .. Hence LHS = RHS. -------.1) to prove P(n). and somehow use the induction hypothesis. first try to express LHS for n+1 in terms of LHS for n.. Factoring (n + 1) out... and RHS = 0 * (0 + 1) = 0 . + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2. . which is equal to the RHS for n+1. Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary natural number n. Certain problems can be proven more easily by using the second principle than the first principle because P(k) for all k < n can be used rather than just P(n .. can be used. + n) + (n + 1) . 0 + 1 + . we get (n + 1)(n + 2) / 2 . + n + (n + 1) = (0 + 1 + . + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . which is assumed to be true. Using the induction hypothesis. Example: Prove that for any natural number n. 0 + 1 + . Here let us try LHS for n + 1 = 0 + 1 + .Induction Hypothesis To prove this for n+1.. Here k [ k < n P(k) ] is the induction hypothesis. The reason that this principle holds is going to be explained later after a few examples of proof... 1 + 3 + .. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 .. Thus LHS = RHS for n+1. then LHS = 0.P(k) so that P(k). Second Priciple of Mathematical Induction There is another form of induction over the natural numbers based on the second principle of induction to prove assertions of the form x P(x) . This form of induction does not require the basis step. Proof: Basis Step: If n = 0. the last expression can be rewritten as n( n + 1 )/2 + (n + 1) . then n P(n) can be concluded. and in the inductive step P(n) is proved assuming P(k) holds for all k < n .

. Then 1 + 3 + . k < n.. We are going to prove that n can be written as the product of prime numbers. Relations Definition Relation Let A and B be sets.. then it is a product of two positive integers. which is a prime number. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( 1 + 3 + .. Proof: Assume that for all positive integers k. mint green shirt} and B = {gray slacks. Let's assume that a person owns three shirts and two pairs of slacks. + ( 2n .. by the induction hypothesis they can be written as the product of prime numbers (Note that this is not possible if the First Principle is being used). Then certainly A x B is the set of all possible combinations (six) of shirts and slacks that nbsp. If n is a prime number.1 ) ) + ( 2n + 1 ) = n2 + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 by the induction hypothesis. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . Hence by the second principle of induction 1 + 3 + . can be written as the product of prime numbers.1 Proof: Assume that 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . + k * k! = ( k + 1 )! .1 + n * n! by the induction hypothesis.. tan slacks}.. Then 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . k < n. + ( 2k + 1 ) = ( k + 1 )2 holds for all k..1 for all k. and itself. then it is the product of 1. If n is not a prime number. Example 2: Prove that for all positive integer n. the individual can wear. More precisely. Therefore the statement holds true.Proof: Assume that 1 + 3 + . the individual may wish to restrict .. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 holds for all natural numbers.1 holds for all Example 3: Prove that any positive integer n > 1. say p and q.1 Hence by the second principle of induction positive integers. However. A binary relation from A into B is any subset of the Cartesian product A x B. Hence n can also be written as the product of prime numbers. Since both p and q are smaller than n. it is either a prime number or not a prime number.. + ( n . k can be written as the product of prime numbers.1 ) * ( n .1 )! + n * n! = n! ... n > k > 1. let A = {blue shirt. = ( n + 1 )n! . Since n is an integer. Example1: nbsp.

or "related". This may not be all possible pairs in A x B but will certainly be a subset of A x B. So. 3). b) Rand (b. 6}. 5. c) S. Composition Let R be a relation from a set A into set B. written as RS. 5. where P is the parent-child relation given above. where (a. 3. as in the previous example. R could be more naturally expressed as R(x) = x2 . is the set of pairs of the form(a. y). y) | x <= y}. gray slack). b) R if and only if a divides evenly into b. (black shirt. R = { (x. y) | y is the square of x} and S = { (x. For example. 6)}. 3. 2). This may not be convenient if R is relatively large. In some cases R can be described by actually listing the pairs which are in R.himself to combinations which are color coordinated. and S be a relation from set B into set C. Other notations are used depending on the past practice. Let A be a set of people and let P = {(a.6). c) RS if and only if there exists b B such that (a. 6) and define a relation R from A into A by (a. 6). PropertiesOf Relations . or R(x) =y where y = x2 . c) A x C. For example PP. R = {(2. (3. R and S of Example 2 above are relations on A = {2. 5). A typical element in R is an ordered pair (x. (5. tan slacks) }. (6. one such subset may be { (blue shirt. (mint green shirt. Consider the following relation on real numbers. tan slacks). Example2: Let A = {2. is the composition of P with itself and it is a relation which we know as grandparentgrandchild relation. The composition of R and S. (2. Relation on a Set A relation from a set A into itself is called a relation on A. (3. b) | a A ^ b A ^ a is a child of b } . Then P is a relation on A which we might call a parent-child relation.

if <a. then b = c . Equivalence: R is an equivalence relation on A if R is reflexive. from a set A to a set B is a relation from A to B that satisfies 1. codomain image image of set range sum of functions product of functions one-to-one function (injection) onto function (surjection) one-to-one onto function (bijection) inverse function composite function Definition (function): A function. Reflexive: R is reflexive if for every a A. 2. and 2. there is an element b in B such that <a. a R a. 4. if aRb and bRc. Function Functions Subjects to be Reviewed • • • • • • • • • • • • function domain. c> are in the relation. if aRb. then bRa. denote it by f.Assume R is a relation on set A. in other words. The set A in the above definition is called the domain of the function and B its codomain. . R R b to denote (a. Let us write a Symmetric: R is symmetric if for every a and b in A. b and c in A. A x A. Transitive: R is transitive if for every a. f is a function if it covers the domain (maps every element of the domain) and it is single valued. Thus. 1. b> and <a. symmetric and transitive. for each element a in A. then aRc. b> is in the relation. 3. b) R .

and its range is the set of squares. where f(x)*g(x) is the product of two real numbers f(x) and g(x). that is. f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to N is not onto. ( f*g )(x) = f(x)*g(x) . i. Then the sum and the product of f and g are defined as follows: For all x.. Example: Let f be the function from the set of natural numbers N to N that maps each natural number x to x2 . 4. Then ( f + g )(x) = x2 + 3x + 1 . if and only if for every element y of B . . Definition (onto): A function f from a set A to a set B is said to be onto(surjective) . say 3. Then the domain and codomain of this f are N. Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is one-to-one and onto. b> is denoted as f(a) = b .} . However. { 0. because. 9.e.. there is an element x in A such that f(x) = y . x = y . The image of the domain under f is called the range of f . if and only if whenever f(x) = f(y) . . 1. 16. f is onto if and only if f( A ) = B . ( f + g )(x) = f(x) + g(x) . if it is onto and one-to-one. that is. Definition (bijection): A function is called a bijection . Example: The function f(x) = x2 from the set of natural numbers N to N is a one-to-one function. Thus it is a bijection. f(S) = { f(a) | a S }. and ( f*g )(x) = 3x3 + x2 Definition (one-to-one): A function f is said to be one-to-one (injective) . the image of. Every bijection has a function called the inverse function. and for all x. The set of images of the elements of a set S under a function f is called the image of the set S under f. under this function is 9. for example. and b is called the image of a under f . where S is a subset of the domain A of f . Note that f(x) = x2 is not one-to-one if it is from the set of integers(negative as well as non-negative) to N . nothing in N can be mapped to 3 by this function. because for example f(1) = f(-1) = 1 .. and is denoted by f(S) . Example: Let f(x) = 3x + 1 and g(x) = x2 . Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is an onto function. Definition (sum and product): Let f and g be functions from a set A to the set of real numbers R.The relation given by f between a and b represented by the ordered pair <a.

Then f( g(x) ) = ( x + 1 )2 . Introduction to Language A language is. Definition (inverse): Let f be a bijection from a set A to a set B. Then the composition of functions f and g . Therefore one can also talk about composition of functions. and let f be a function from B to a set C . natural languages etc. the rightmost function in the above figure is a bijection and its inverse is obtained by reversing the direction of each arrow. For example.These concepts are illustrated in the figure below. g(y) = x . It is also a bijection. Example: The inverse function of f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of non-negative even numbers E is f -1(x) = 1/2 x from E to N . and g(x) = x + 1 . Programming langauges we use are a language in that sense. Note that such an x is unique for each y because f is a bijection. . if for every element y of B. in this course. denoted by fg . Example: Let f(x) = x2 . f(x) > relation. Others such as languages of logics. Definition (composite function): Let g be a function from a set A to a set B . languages of mathematics. A function is a relation. a set of strings of symbols. is the function from A to C that satisfies fg(x) = f( g(x) ) for all x in A . are all languages in that sense. the points on the left are in the domain and the ones on the right are in the codomain. where f(x) = y . In each figure below. and it is denoted by f -1 . Then the function g is called the inverse function of f. and arrows show < x.

On the other hand DFAs are suited for writing a simulator program because there is no nondeterminism such as going to two or more states from a state upon reading one input symbol. It can be rigorously shown that some problems can not be solved by computers in any finite amount of time and that some others are practically unsolvable because of the time it takes to solve them. Then we study regular languages. These formal languages and automata capture the essense of various computing devices and computation in a very simple way. Definitions on Language Subjects to be Learned . Then after seeing yet another way of representing regular laguages. if the number of states of DFA is minimized.e. Our last topic on regular language is testing of languages for non-regularity. are quite useful for modeling systems used in practice such as co9mputer network communication protocols. then the resulting DFA is unique up to the state names for a given regular language. context-free (or type 2) languages. lexical analyzers and parser for compilers for programming languages. together with regular expressions which are a method of representing regular languages. Type 3 is a subset of type 2 which is a subset of type 1 and type 0 is the most general including the other three as a subset. Also for some important classes of problems. These formal languages are characterized by grammars which are essentially a set of rewrite rules for generating strings belonging to a language as we see later. As we are going to learn next. NFA and NFAare conceptually simpler and easier to use when modeling a system because there are no restrictions on transitions for them unlike for DFA. nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) and nondeterministic finite automata with transitions (NFA. Using automata and formal languages we can study limitations of computer and computation.). However. regular and context-free languages. The four classes are regular (or type 3) languages. They are devices that recognize regular languages. In the following chapters we first learn about languages.What we are going to study on languages in this course are four classes of languages called (Chomsky) formal languages and their properties. Also there are various kinds of computing devices called automata which process these types of languages Thus formal languages can also be characterized by the computing devices which process them. In asddition two of the formal languages. Then we investigate various kinds of finite automata: deterministic finite automata (DFA). We are going to see an algorithm for converting NFAto NFA which recognizes the same language and another for NFA to DFA conversion. context-sensitive (or type 1) languages and phrase structure (or type 0) languages. regular grammars. checking whether or not a string is in a language. in general there are more than one NFAs and DFAs that reconize one language. solving them can be seen as recognizing languages i. we are going to learn modeling of systems finite automata. the simplest of the four formal languages.

all the set operations can be applied to languages. operations on languages and some of their properties. this set has an object in it. A string (also called a word) is a finite sequence of symbols of an alphabet. For any alphabet . baa} is a language (over alphabert {a. A language is a set of strings over an alphabet. uv is the string obtained by appending the sequence of symbols of v to that of u. b. the set of all strings over (including the empty string) is denoted by . it has no symbols. The empty string (also called null string) is the string with length 0. Let u and v be strings. Thus the union. union. That is. A string x is a prefix of another string y if there is a string v such that y = xv. 111} is a language (over alphabet {0. 1. namely . {a. Thus a language over alphabet is a subset of . Some special languages The empty set is a language which has no strings.1}). a and aabab are examples of string over alphabet {a. Note that u and v may be an empty string. A string x is called a substring of another string y if there are strings u and v such that y = uxv. Though has no symbols. an alphabet is a finite set of symbols. intersection. The set { } is a language which has one string.• • • • alphabet string (word) language operations on languages: concatenation of strings. 1}. 10 and 001 are examples of string over alphabet {0. b} and 0. 2. v is called a suffix of y. For a string w its length is represented by |w|. then uv = aabbbab. So a string is a substring of itself. 3. Then uv denotes the string obtained by concatenating u with v. b} is another alphabet with two symbols and English alphabet is also an alphabet. For example {0.b}) and {0. Note that vu = bbabaab uv. The empty string is denoted by (capital lambda). ab. 1} is an alphabet with two symbols. Kleene star Contents Here we are going to learn the concept of language in very abstract and general sense. Thus {a. The number of symbols in a string is called the length of the string. Operations on languages Since languages are sets. So it is not empty. Thus | | = 0. intersetion and difference of two languages over an alphabet are languages over . We are going to use first few symbols of English alphabet such as a and b to denote symbols of an alphabet and those toward the end such as u and v for strings. Basic concepts First. For example if u = aab and v = bbab. It can be defined more formally by recursive definition. that is.

Here a0 = and u0 = . Recursive definition of L*: Basis Clause: L* and we are going to see Inductive Clause: For any x L* and any w L. Similarly for a language L. baaa. For example {ab. then L* = { . Lk means the concatenation of k L's. Recursive definition of L+: Basis Clause: L L+ . L* is the set of strings obtained by concatenating zero or more strings of L as we are going to see in Theorem 1. b} {aaa. ak represents the concatenation of k a's. Powers : For a symbol a and a natural number k. These powers can be formally defined recursively. * The following two types of languages are generalizations of them quite often in this course. For example if L = { aba. bbbb. bbaba. abaaba. ak and uk can be defined similarly. baaba}. is . Let L1 and L2 be languages. } The * in * is also the same Kleene star defined above. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k. uk denotes the concatenation of k u's.L and it is also a Another operation onlanguages is concatenation. .. ababb.. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = Lk L. bb }. For example Lk can be defined recursively as follows. That is L1L2 is the set of strings obtained by concatenating strings of L1 with those of L2. xw L*. This * is called Kleene star. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. abaaba. ababb. aba. the extremal clause is not necessary. abb. aaba} = {abaaa. Hence Lk is the set of strings that can be obtained by concatenating k strings of L. The complement of a language L over an alphabet language. For a string u and a natural number k. babb.. bb. Then the concatenation of L1 with L2 is denoted as L1L2 and it is defined as L1L2 = { uv | u L1 and v L2 }.

. then L+ = { aba... any nonempty string in L* or L+ can be expresssed as the concatenation of strings of L..e. Other proofs are omitted. (i.. Hence x is in L* .. w2. L* can be proven as follows: by Theorem 2. ... where wi's are strings of L.wmmk . ) as ={x|x Lk for some Then the following relationships hold on L* and L+.. abaaba. xw L+.... w1w2.. Theorem 5: L* = (L*)*. Then there are nonempty strings w1.. . wi2.e. by applying Theorem 2 to the language L* L* Conversely ( L* )* Let x be an arbitrary nonempty string of ( L* )*. Let us list one of them as a theorem and prove it. } Let us also define natural number k } .wk ..wimi Hence x = w11 ... Since w1.Inductive Clause: For any x L+ and any w L. bbbb. bbaba.w1m1w21. . bb. For example if L = { aba.. Thus L+ is the set of strings obtained by concatenating one or more strings of L.. bb }. L* and L* have a number of interesting properties. ababb. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L+ unless it is obtained from the above two clauses... wk in L* such that x = w1w2. wk are strings of L*.. wimi in L such that wi = wi1wi2. Proof: Because we can see that L* (L*)*. Theorem 1: Ln Theorem 2: Theorem 3: Theorem 4: L+ = L L* = L*L Note: According to Theorems 2 and 3..w2m2. Theorems 1 and 2 are proven in "General Induction" which you study in the next unit.wm1. .. i. . w2..wk for some k. for each wi there are strings wi1.. L0 L L2 ..

If x is an empty string, then it is obviously in L* . Hence ( L* )* Since L* L* . L* , L* = ( L* )* .

(L*)* and ( L* )*

**Problem Solving as Language Recognition
**

Subjects to be Learned

• • •

problem instance problem as language problem solving as language recognition

Contents

In the previous section the concept of language was introduced and its properties have been briefly studied. You might be wondering why we study language. The main reason for studying language is that solving problems can be viewed as a language recognition problem as explained below, that is, the problem of checking whether or not a string belongs to a language. Thus instead of studying what kind of problems can be solved by what kind of computational devices and how, we can study languages and devices to recognize them which are simpler to deal with uncluttered with variations in actual devices, programming languages etc. Below an example is given to illustrate how solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Consider the following problem: Is the longest of the distances between two nodes(i.e. the diameter) of a given graph less than a given integer k ? Here the distance is the smallest number of edges (or hops) between the nodes. Some of the instances of this problem are as shown below:

Instance 1 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with one edge and two nodes is less than 1. Instance 2 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with four edges and four nodes is less than 2. Simiarlyt for Instance 3. These problem instances can be represented by a string as follows: Instance 1: 1,2;(1,2);1 Instance 2: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(3,4);2 Instance 3: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(2,3)(2,4)(3,4);3 Here the set of nodes, the set of edges and k are separated by ; in that order in the strings. The solutions to these instances are: Instance 1: No Instance 2: No Instance 3: Yes There are infinitely many 'Yes' instances and 'No' instances for this problem. The set of 'Yes' instances is a language and so is the set of 'No' instances as well as the set of all

instances and many others for this problem. We can thus see that solving the problem for a given instance is equivalent to checking whether or not the string representing the given instance belongs to the language of 'Yes' instances of the problem. That is, the problem solving is the same as the language recognition. A problem can be solved if and only if the language of its 'Yes' instances is recognizable or decidable by a Turing machine. It is not solvable if the language is merely accecptable but not recognizable, or even worse if it is not even acceptable.

(a.k.a Structural Induction)

Mathematical statements involving an element of a recursively defined set can be proven by induction. To prove by induction that a statement P(x) is true for all the elements x of a recursively defined set S, proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P(x) is true for all the elements x in the basis of S. Induction: Prove that for any element(s) x of S if P(x) is true, then P(y) is true for any element y obtained from x by the induction step of the recursive definition of S. Note 1 : In the Induction we try to prove that if a parent has the property then all of its children also have that property. In the process we need the relationship between the parent and the children. That relationship is found in the Inductive Clause of the recursive definition of the set in question. Note 2 : As a first step for general induction proof, it is often a good idea to express y in terms of x so that P(x) can be used. Example 1 (Theorem 1 in "Language") : Prove that Ln L* for any natural number n and any language L. Let us first review the definitions. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = LkL. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k, the extremal clause is not necessary. Recursive definition of L*:

By Example 1 above . Then by the definition of L*.Basis Clause: L* Inductive Clause: For any string x L* and any string w L. Then there exist strings x and y that satisfy x L and w = xy by the definition of Lk+1. Note in the proof below that Basis and Inductive Steps mirror the Basis and Inductive Clauses of the definition of Ln . L* . Basis Step: Since by the definitions L0 = { Inductive Step: Assume that Lk Hypothesis We are going to show that Lk+1 }. Now let us prove that Ln L* by induction on Ln. .Induction L* . L0 L* . L* since y L. Lk Next let us prove L* . and L* . number k. Proof: Let us first prove Suppose that x Lk for some natural L* . --. Then by the definition of L* . Since Lk L* . Hence x . y Let w be an arbitrary string in Lk+1 . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Lk . Hence . L* for an arbitrary natural numer k. x L* . x Example 2 (Theorem 2 in "Language") Let us prove L* = Note that ={x|x Lk for some natural number k } . L* . L* by theInduction Hypothesis. xw L*. xy Hence w Thus Lk+1 L* . .

e. say x. also have the property. Hence by the definition of Inductive Step: Assume that for an arbitrary x in L*. where y is an arbitrary elememt of L. The function REV(x) on strings x over the alphabet is defined as follows. Basis Clause: REV( )= .Note that L* is defined recursively and that below we are trying to prove that the elements of L* have the property that they also belong to . So we show that the property for x is inherited by its children xy. of L* has the property. Note that each step mirror the recursive definition of . by Example 1 above. Prove that for arbitrary strings x and y of . x spelled backward). REV(xa) = Inductive Clause: For any string aREV(x). then for some natural number k . x Lk . Hence xy End of Inductive Step and Proof Hence we have proven Example 3 . If x . xy holds. Let us prove the inheritance. by concatenating y) a child of x in is obtained.e. Basis Step: L0 since L0 = { }. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. . . Note here that x is a parent and by applying an operation (i. . Then we show that if any element. It produces the reversal of a given string x (i. holds. x We are going to show that for an arbitrary element y L . Hence xy Lk+1 by the definition of Ln . then its children xy. So we first prove that * the element of the basis of L has the propertyy. and any symbol .

which is what we needed. and an arbitrary string y of . Since a REV(y) = REV(ya). REV(xya) = REV(ya)REV(x). Regular language The set of regular languages over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. Inductive Clause: If Lr and Ls are regular languages. REV(xya) = REV((xy)a) = a REV(xy).Induction Hypothesis Then for an arbitrary symbol a of . Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular language unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. Omitted. The proof of the equality in question is going to be proven for an arbitrary fixed x by induction on y. { } and {a} for any symbol a are regular languages. xa is also in . Definition of Set of Regular Languages : Basis Clause: . The proof mirrors the recursive definition of . Basis Step: REV(x ) = REV( x ) = REV( )REV( x ) . REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. -. . But by induction hypothesis a REV(xy) = a REV(y)REV(x). Inductive Clause: For arbitrary strings x of and a of ExtremalClause: As usual. End of Proof.Proof First let us note that * can be defined recursively as follows: . then Lr Ls . Any language belonging to this set is a regular language over . * Basis Clause: where is an empty string. Thus the statement to be proven is for an arbitrary fixed string x. Definitions of Regular Language and Regular Expression Subjects to be Learned • • regular language regular expression 1. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages. Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary string y of .

respectively. aa. let = {a. (3) The concatenation of k r's . where Lr is the language corresponding to the regular expression r. Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular expression unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. ( rs ) and ( r*) are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr Ls . respectively. . 2. Note also that *. (4) We use ( r+) as a regular expression to represent Lr+ . Also since {a} is regular. Any element of that set is a regular expression. and a are regular expressions corresponding to languages . The language corresponding to rk is Lrk. aaaa etc. For a recursive definition of Lrk click here. which has precedence over union ( + ). Thus for example rr = r2 . where a is an element of . is a regular language because {a. Thus the regular expression ( a + ( b( c*) ) ) is written as a + bc*. bold face may not be used for regular expressions. then ( r + s ) . ( r + s ) is used in stead of ( r + s ).For example. aaa. Basis Clause: . The set of regular expressions over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. is written as rk. Conventions on regular expressions (1) When there is no danger of confusion. {a}* is a regular language which is the set of strings consisting of a's such as . Inductive Clause: If r and s are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr and Ls . So for example. where r is a regular expression. They can represent regular languages and operations on them succinctly. Regular expression Regular expressions are used to denote regular languages. LrLs and Lr* . b} ( = {a} {b} ) and {ab} ( = {a}{b} ) are regular languages. which is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's. Then since {a} and {b} are regular languages. { } and {a}. a. {a. b}. b} is regular. (2) The operation * has precedence over concatenation.

a*b* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by zero or more b's. b}. abab. ( a + b )* corresponds to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. the set of strings of repeated ab's. a*b+a* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by one or more b's followed by zero or more a's. in general. that is. Definition of Equality of Regular Expressions Regular expressions are equal if and only if they correspond to the same language. ba. ababab. For example ( a + b )* and ( a*b* )* correspond to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. that is the set of strings of length 2 over the alphabet {a. That is. Note:A regular expression is not unique for a language.Examples of regular expression and regular languages corresponding to them • • • • ( a + b )2 corresponds to the language {aa. b}. In general. . a regular language. ab. corresponds to more than one regular expressions. . b}. In general ( a + b )k corresponds to the set of strings of length k over the alphabet {a.. ( ab )+ corresponds to the language {ab. it is not easy to see by inspection whether or not two regular expressions are equal. }. because they both represent the language of all strings over the alphabet {a. Thus for example ( a + b )* = ( a*b* )* . b}. bb}.. b}.

the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*) start with a string of r1 followed by any number of strings taken arbitrarily from r1 and/or r2. which are strings in the language with length 1 or less. Solution: It can easily be seen that . (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ means that all the strings represented by it must consist of one or more strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*). b and the strings consiting of only b's (from (a*b)*). Find a simple (the shortest and with the smallest nesting of * and +) regular expression which is equal to each of the following regular expressions. Thus anything that comes after the first r1 in (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is represented by (r1 + r2)*. So we need to find strings of r2 which contain at least one a and at least one b. they do not produce any strings that are not represented by (r1 + r2)*. 3: Let r1 and r2 be arbitrary regular expressions over some alphabet. (a) find a string corresponding to r2 but not to r1 and (b) find a string corresponding to both r1 and r2. bb and ab are in the language. (a) (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ Solution: One general strategy to approach this type of question is to try to see whether or not they are equal to simple regular expressions that are familiar to us such as a. a. a+. For example ab and ba are such strings.Exercise Questions on Regular Language and Regular Expression Ex. 1: Find the shortest string that is not in the language represented by the regular expression a*(ab)*b*. Of the strings wiht length 2 aa. Ex. r1 = a* + b* r2 = ab* + ba* + b*a + (a*b)* Solution: (a) Any string consisting of only a's or only b's and the empty string are in r1. The only strings corresponding to r2 which consist of only a's or b's are a. (a + b)+ etc. (b) A string corresponding to r1 consists of only a's or only b's or the empty string. (a) Since (r1 + r2)* represents all strings consisting of strings of r1 and/or r2 . Ex. However. (a + b)*. 2: For the two regular expressions given below. Thus (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* is reduced to (r1 + r2)*. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*) . r1r2 + r2r1 in the given regular expression is redundant. However. Thus the answer is ba. that is. ba is not in it. b. a*.

Hence a string of L has zero or more of aab's and bb's in front possibly followed by a at the end. Then starting with or a. b } defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L Inductive Clause: If x L . b } that contain exactly two a's. Then starting with . Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or bb to any of the already generated strings. Thus (aab)*(bb)* is a regular expression for L. and since an arbitrasry string of b's can be represented by the regular expression b*. then aabx L and bbx L . Solution: A string in this language must have at least two a's. 6: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. Ex. Since any string of b's can be placed in front of the first a. Inductive Clause: If x L . and conversely (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ represents the strings represented by (r1(r1 + r2)*). strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or appending bb to any of the already generated strings. 5: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L and a L. behind the second a and between the two a's. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. 7: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the . Thus (aab + bb)*(a + ) is a regular expression for L. b*a b*a b* is a regular expression for this language. First of all L . First of all and a are in L . Hence a string of L consists of zero or more aab's in front and zero or more bb's following them.also represents the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*)+. 4: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L over the alphabet { a . then aabx L and xbb L . Ex. Ex. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is reduced to (r1(r1 + r2)*). Ex.

Hence any string that follows aa is represented by ( b + ba )*. Note that 0 is an even number. Hence if a string of the language contains aa then it corresponds to the regular expression ( b + ab )*aa( b + ba )* . 11: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the . Hence a string preceding the aa can be represented by ( b + ab )*. it is the set of strings over the alphabet { a. If there may not be any a in a string of the language. Thus simply put. Solution: Since any string of even length can be expressed as the concatenation of strings of length 2 and since the strings of length 2 are aa. 8: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. 9: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of strings of even lengths over the alphabet of { a. Any numbe of a's can appear any place in the string. and after the first b all the b's in the string appear in pairs. ab. Ex. Solution: A string in the language can start and end with a or b. b } must end in a or b. b } that contain no more than one occurence of the string aa. ( b + ab )*a( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. 10: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression a*b(a*ba*b)*a* . If there is no aa but at least one a exists in a string of the language. On the other hand if an a precedes the aa. Altogether ( b + ab )*( + a + aa )( b + ba )* is a regular expression for the language. Ex. If an a comes after that aa. then that aa can be followed by any number of b. Hence the string is in this language. Ex. ( b + ab )*( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. b } that contain an odd number of b's Ex. ba. Hence if a string does not end with ab then it ends with a or if it ends with b the last b must be preceded by a symbol b. it has at least one b. b } that do not end with ab. then it must be followed by b. b }. then that a must be preceded by b because otherwise there are two occurences of aa. bb. Solution: Any string in a language over { a . then applying the same argument as for aa to .alphabet { a. then applying the same argument as for aa to a. Since it can have any string in front of the last a or bb. Solution: If there is one substring aa in a string of the language. a regular expression corresponding to the language is ( aa + ab + ba + bb )*. ( a + b )*( a + bb ) is a regular expression for the language.

regular expression (( a + b )3)*( +a+b). Lr Ls . Since (( a + b )3)*( a + b ) represents the strings of length 3n + 1. The following theorem shows that any finite language is regular. where n is a natural number. Proof: Let Lr and Ls be regular languages over an alphabet . that is. concatenation and Kleene star. is not regular as we shall see later. Thus the set of regular languages is closed under those operations. Ex. Solution: ( b + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring aa and which end in b. concatenation and Kleene star operations. the given regular expression represents the strings of length 3n and 3n + 1. { anbn | n is a natural number } which is the union of all the languages { akbk } . Solution: (( a + b )3) represents the strings of length 3. where n is a natural number. Then by the definition of the set of regular languages . LrLs and Lr* are regular languages and they are obviously over the alphabet . Hence (( a + b )3)* represents the strings of length a multiple of 3. Note 2: The union of infinitely many regular languages is not necessarily regular. Note 1: Later we shall see that the complement of a regular language and the intersection of regular laguages are also regular. and ( a + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring bb. 12: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression ( b + ab )*( a + ab )*. We say a language is finite if it consists of a finite number of strings. Regularity of finite languages Theorem 1: The set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed under operations union. a finite language is a set of n . For example while { akbk } is regular for any natural number k . Properties of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • Closure of the set of regular languages under union. Hence altogether it represents any string consisting of a substring with no aa followed by one b followed by a substring with no bb.

Claim 1: A language consisting of n strings is regular for any natural number n (that is. End of proof of Claim 1 Thus if we can show that { w } is a regular language for any string w. Proof of the Claim 1: Proof by induction on the number of strings. } and { a } are Inductive Step: Assume that { w } is a regular language for an arbitrary string w over . We then prove that a language consisting of a single string is regular. Theorem 2: A finite language is regular. Inductive Step: Assume that a language L consisting of n strings is a regular language (induction hypothesis). End of proof for Claim 2 Note that Claim 2 can also be proven by induction on the length of string. Then { w } is a regular language. End of proof of Theorem 2. Basis Step: (corresponding to n = 0) is a regular language by the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. Proof: Let us first assume that a language consisting of a single string is regular and prove the theorem by induction. Then for any symbol a of . L { w } is a regular language by the definition of regular language. Claim 2: Let w be a string over an alphabet . Hence { aw } is regular. Hence by the Inductive Clause of the definition of regular language { a }{ w } is regular. a finite language is regular) if { w } is regular for any string w. . { a } is a regular language from the Basis Step.strings for some natural number n. then we have proven the theorem. Then since { w } is a regular language as proven below. Proof of Claim 2: Proof by induction on strings. Basis Step: By the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. { regular languages for any arbitrary symbol a of .

Their operations can be simulated by a very simple computer program. Click "NICKEL" or "DIME" in the figure and see how it operates (see how arrows turn red). Ds on arrows represent a dime and Ns a nickel. So we might say you are in the 10-cents state. say 15-cents state. In the next few chapters first we are going to learn different kinds of finite automata. they are much more powerful computing devices than finite automata. Pretend that you are the machine. say a dime. Let us assume that only nickels and dimes are used for simplicity.Introduction to Finite Automata In this chapter we are going to study a class of machines called finite automata. then you have now received 15 cents and you wait for the customer to select a soft drink. We have learned that regular languages are represented by regular expressions and conversely. you must give the customer a can of soft drink. Later we are going to learn an extension of finite automata called Turing machines. There are languages which are not regular and which. Initially you are waiting for a customer to come and put some coins. So you are in another state. Finite automata are computing devices that accept/recognize regular languages and are used to model operations of many systems we find in practice. We are going to learn languages which are not regular and ways to test languages for non-regularity. The states and the transitions between them of this vending machine can be represented with the diagram below. After that you stay in that state until another coin is put in to start the process anew or you may terminate the operation and start all over from the initial state. and equivalence and conversions between them. We are then going to study how finite automata can be used to simulate operations of systems we see in practice. Though Turing machines are simple modification of finite automata. It is assumed that the machine terminates its operation when it receives 15 cents or more. When the customer selects a soft drink. In the figure. Let us consider the operation of a soft drink vending machine which charges 15 cents for a can. you are in the waiting-for-customer state.e. Unfortunately not all languages and systems are simple like regular languages or finite automata. circles represent states and arrows state transitions. You have received 10 cents and are waiting for more coins to come. therefore. you are no longer in the waiting-for-customer state. A vending machine looked at this way is an example of finite automaton. When a customer comes and puts in the first coin. A kind of systems finite automnata can model and a computer program to simulate their operations are discussed later. If the customer puts in a nickel. that is. Then we are going to see that for every regular language a unique finite automaton can be constructed which can recognize the language (i. can not be recognized by finite automata. tell whether or not a given string belongs to the regular language). In fact Turing machines are as . In this example you as a vending machine have gone through (transitions between) a number of states responding to the inputs from the customer (coins in this case).

if q is the initial state and a nickel is put in. A > Notes on the definition 1. a) is equal to "have received 5 cents". Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of . 4. Thus in the example of vending machine. the transition function. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. Then a deterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . . then (q. Note that is a function. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". For example. that any computation human beings do (with or without computers) can be performed by Turing machines. Definition of Deterministic Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • • • Finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of deterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. We call the elements of Q a state. "Waiting for a customer to put a coin in" can be considered the initial state of this automaton and the state in which the machine gives out a soda can can be considered the accepting state. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. a) must be specified. 2. q0 . The transition function is also called a next state function meaning that the automaton moves into the state (q. Otherwise it is not accepted. (q. though not proven. Also let be a function from Q to Q . 3. Thus in the example of vending machine. the states of the machine such as "waiting for a customer to put a coin in". The set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ceases to come. "have received 5 cents" etc. The accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. in the Example 1 below. for example. however. Its elements can. be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. . . are the elements of Q.powerful as computers and it is generally believed.

Examples of finite automaton Example 1: Q = { 0. = { a }. It is a little more complex DFA. . b } in stead of { a }. They are called transition table. An arc ( p . 5. q ) from vertex p to vertex q with label represents the transition (p. 1. The accepting states are indicated by double circles. the following table. A = { 1 }. If the alphabet of the Example 1 is changed to { a. A deterministic finite automaton is also called simply a "finite automaton". etc. Transition functions can also be represented by tables as seen below. ) = q . 2 }. Abbreviations such as FA and DFA are used to denote deterministic finite automaton. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 1 a 2 2 a 2 (q. The vertices (denoted by single circles) of a transition diagram represent the states of the DFA and the arcs labeled with an input symbol correspond to the transitions. aaa. are not accepted. DFAs are often represented by digraphs called (state) transition diagram. a) ) A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. But any other strings such as aa. then we need a DFA such as shown in the following examle to accept the same string a.the string a is accepted by the finite automaton.

b }. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 0 0 b 1 1 a 1 1 b 1 (q. in the following table. A = { 0 }. the following table. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. Example 3: Q = { 0. b }. b } is the next example. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 0 b 2 1 a 2 1 b 2 2 a 2 2 b 2 (q. 1 }. A DFA that accepts all strings consisting of only symbol a over the alphabet { a. a) ) . while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state.Example 2: Q = { 0. 2 }. A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. = { a. A = { 1 }. = { a. 1.

a) ) . 10. = { D. If we make it a DFA. its transition function is as shown in the following table. State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 N 5 0 D 10 5 N 10 5 D 15 10 N 15 10 D 20 15 N 5 15 D 10 20 N 5 20 D 10 (q. 20 }. the initial state q0 = 0.A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. A = { 15. 5. N }. Example 4: For the example of vending machine of the previous section. 15. Q = { 0. 20 }.

When it sees no symbol. 3. The tape is divide into squares in each of which a symbol can be written prior to the start of the operation of the automaton. 2. . The tape has a read only head. 5. The tape has the left end and extends to the right without an end.A finite automaton as a machine A finite automaton can also be thought of as the device shown below consisting of a tape and a control circuit which satisfy the following conditions: 1. 6. There is a finite control which determines the state of the automaton and also controls the movement of the head. The head moves to the right one square every time it reads a symbol. The head is always at the leftmost square at the beginning of the operation. 4. it stops and the automaton terminates its operation. It never moves to the left.

the DFA is in the accepting state. If b is read while it is in state 0 (initially or after reading some a's). b etc. Since the state 0 is also the accepting state. Initially it is in state 0. When zero or more a's are given as an input to it. As an example let us consider the DFA of Example 3 above. this DFA never leaves state 1. it goes into state 1 and the input string is not accepted by the DFA. it stays in state 0 while it reads all the a's (without breaks) on the tape. it moves to state 1. aaaaaa etc. are accepted but strings such as aaba. For example strings aaa. are not accepted by this automaton. when all the a's on the tape are read. then no matter what symbol is read. . Thus this automaton accepts any string of a's.Operation of finite automata Let us see how an automaton operates when it is given some inputs. Hence when b appears anywhere in the input. Once it gets to state 1.

*

of DFA and its Properties

Subjects to be Learned

• •

*

Language accepted by DFA

Contents

Here we are going to formally describe what is meant by applying a transition repeatedly, that is the concept of * For a state q and string w, *( q , w ) is the state the DFA goes into when it reads the string w starting at the state q. In general a DFA goes through a number of states from the state q responding to the symbols in the string w. Thus for a DFA < Q , , q0 , , A > , the function

* :Q -> Q is defined recursively as follows: *

Definition of

*

:

*

Basis Clause: For any state q of Q ,

(q,

) = q , where

*

denotes the empty string. and any symbol a ,

Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q, any string y * ( q , ya ) = ( *( q , y ) , a ) .

In the definition, the Basis Clause says that a DFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the state DFA reaches after reading string ya starting at state q is the state it reaches by reading symbol a after reading string y from state q. Example For example suppose that a DFA contains the transitions shown below.

Then

*

*

( q , DNR ) can be calculated as follows:

( q , DNR ) = ( *( q , DN ) , R ) by the Inductive Clause. = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , DN ). = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) since D = D . = ( ( ( *( q , ) , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , D ). = ( ( ( q , D ) , N ) , R ) , since ( q , ) = q . = ( ( q1 , N ) , R ) , since ( q , D ) = q1 as seen from the diagram. = ( q2 , R ) , since ( q1 , N ) = q2 as seen from the diagram. = q3 since ( q2 , R ) = q3 as seen from the diagram. Properties of

*

We can see the following two properties of

*

. for a DFA < Q , , q0 , ,A

**Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >,
**

*

(q,a)=

(q,a)

Proof : Since a = a , * ( q , a ) = *( q , a ) . By the definition of * , * ( q , a ) = ( *( q , ) , a ) But *( q , ) = q by the definition of Hence ( *( q , ) , a ) = ( q , a ) .

*

.

The next theorem states that the state reached from any state, say q , by reading a string, say w , is the same as the state reached by first reading a prefix of w, call it x, and then by reading the rest of the w, call it y. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 , , A > , for a DFA < Q , ,

*

( q , xy ) =

*

(

*

(q,x),y).

Proof : This is going to be proven by induction on string y. That is the statement to be proven is the following: * For an arbitrary fixed string x, ( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for any arbitrary string y. First let us review the recursive definition of *. Recursive definition of Basis Clause:

* *

:

.

* * Inductive Clause: If x and a , then xa . * Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.

Now the proof of the theorem. Basis Step: If y = , then *( q , xy ) = *( q , x ) = *( q , x ) . Also *( *( q , x ) , y ) = *( *( q , x ) , ) = *( q , x ) by the definition of * . Hence the theorem holds for y = . Inductive Step: Assume that *( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for an arbitrary string y. This is the induction hypothesis. We are going to prove that *( q , xya ) = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) for any arbitrary symbol a of . ( q , xya ) = ( *( q , xy ) , a ) by the definition of * = ( * ( *( q , x ) , y ) , a ) by the induction hypothesis. = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) by the definition of * . Thus the theorem has been proven.

*

For the following DFA answer the questions given below.

* . A > . That is. Example 1 : . if and only if L = { w | *( q0 . q0 . the language accepted by a DFA is the set of strings accepted by the DFA. .The following notations are used in the questions: : \delta * : \delta^* : \Lambda Language Accepted by DFA Subjects to be Learned • Language accepted by DFA A string w is accepted by a DFA < Q . That is a string is accepted by a DFA if and only if the DFA starting at the initial state ends in an accepting state after reading the string. q0 . if and only if ( q0 . . A > . w ) A } . w ) A . A language L is accepted by a DFA < Q . .

It accepts nothing else because any non-empty symbol would take it to state 1.2 .1 any number of times by reading substring ab any number of times to come back to state 1.1 and it can go through this cycle any number of times by reading substring ab repeatedly.This DFA accepts { } because it can go from the initial state to the accepting state (also the initial state) without reading any symbol of the alphabet i. This DFA has a cycle: 1 . first from the initial state go to state 1 by reading one a. Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by a(ab)*aa .2 . . Then from state 1 go through the cycle 1 . and it stays there.e. Example 2 : This DFA does not accept any string because it has no accepting state. by reading an empty string . Thus the language it accepts is the empty set Example 3 : DFA with one cycle . This is represented by (ab)*. To find the language it accepts. which is not an accepting state. Then from state 1 go to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading aa.

2 .2 .0 .1 .0 and 0 .3 . first from state 0 go to state 1 by .2 .0 and it can move through these cycles any number of times in any order to reach the accepting state from the initial state such as 0 . Example 5 : DFA with two interleaved cycles This DFA has two cycles: 1 .0 .2 . Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by ( ab + bb )*.0 .1 .Example 4 : DFA with two independent cycles This DFA has two independent cycles: 0 .0. To find the language accepted by this DFA.2 .1.1 and 1 .

3 .2 .reading a ( any other state which is common to these cycles such as state 2 can also be used instead of state 1 ). respectively. Then from state 1 go through the two cycles 1 . Thus the language accepted at state 1 is b*a(ba)* .2 . Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata .1 any number of times in any order by reading substrings baa and bba. Example 6 : This DFA has two accepting states: 0 and 1. At this point (b*a) will have been read. Thus altogether a( baa + bba )*bb will have been read when state 3 is reached from state 0. There is a systematic way of finding the language accepted by a DFA and we are going to learn it later. Thus the language that is accepted by this DFA is the union of the language accepted at state 0 and the one accepted at state 1.0 . At state 1 go through the cycle 1 . So we are not going to go any further on this problem here.2 . Then go to state 1 by reading one a. Then go from state 1 to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading bb. At this point a substring a( baa + bba )* will have been read.1 any number of times by reading substring ba repeatedly.1 and 1 . first at state 0 read any number of b's. The language accepted at state 0 is b* . To find the language accepted at state 1.

We call the elements of Q a state. Otherwise it is not accepted. q0 . . in which case the NFA aborts its operation.Subjects to be Learned • • • Nondeterministic finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ends i. Which one of the states in (q. a) ) . Examples of NFA Example 1: Q = { 0. = { a }. A > Notes on the definition 1. Also let be a function from Q to 2Q . a) must be specified. ceases to come. As in the case of DFA the accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. a) to select is determined nondeterministically. 1 }. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 1 a (q. The transition function is also called a next state function . . Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of (q. But it can be the empty set.e. 3. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . Note that any DFA is also a NFA. Unlike DFAs an NFA moves into one of the states given by (q. the transition function. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. the following table. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". Its elements can be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. Note that is a function. 4. A = { 1 }. 5. 2. As in the case of DFA the set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements.

b }. this is still an NFA that accepts { Example 2: Q = { 0.2} 0 1 1 2 2 b a b a b {2} (q. in the following table. b } in stead of { a }. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1. 2 }. A = { 2 }.A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. 1. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. is changed to { a. = { a. . If the alphabet a}.

if it moves to state 2 and no more inputs are given. then it stays in the accepting state. Let us now define the function strings and languages by NFA. If on the other hand it moves to state 1 after reading a. Initially it is in state 0.Operation of NFA Let us see how an automaton operates when some inputs are applied to it. * and then formalize the concepts of acceptance of . Thus the string ab is also accepted by this NFA. if the next input is b and if no more inputs are given. When it reads the symbol a. it moves to either state 1 or state 2. then it goes to state 2 and remains there. it does not accept any of them. If any other strings are given to this NFA. Since the state 2 is the accepting state. As an example let us consider the automaton of Example 2 above. We say that this automaton accepts the string a.

) = { q }. Thus for an NFA < Q . *( q . * (q. . a) ) For example consider the NFA with the following transition table: . any string y * and any symbol a ( q . w ) is the set of states that the NFA can reach when it reads the string w starting at the state q. the Basis Clause says that an NFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the set of states NFA can reach after reading string ya starting at state q is the set of states it can reach by reading symbol a after reading string y starting at state q. In general an NFA nondeterministically goes through a number of states from the state q as it reads the symbols in the string w. q0 .3} 0 b {2} 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b {1} {3} {3} (q.Language Accepted by NFA Subjects to be Learned • • • for NFA Language accepted by NFA Properties of * * Definition of * For a state q and string w. A > . Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q. Example State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {0. where * denotes the empty .1. string. the function * :Q -> 2Q is defined recursively as follows: * Definition of *: Basis Clause: For any state q of Q. . ya ) = In the definition.

b)={2} {3} {1}={1. ab ) is the union of the definition of * .b) (3. ) again by the Inductive * Clause of the definition of . ) = { 0 } . ( 0 .The transition diagram for this NFA is as given below. ab ) = ( 0 . 3 } . *( 0 . 1 . a ) is the union of ( p. Hence *( 0 . Hence *( 0 . ab ) can be calculated as follows: ( p.2. a ) for all p ( 0 . a ) = { 0 . Suppose that the state 3 is an accepting state of this NFA. a ) by the Inductive Clause of * Now *( 0 . . By the Basis Clause of the definition of *. 3}. a ) = ( 0 . b ) (1. b ) for all p * ( 0 . Then * * ( 0 .

. and for NFA has properties similar to that for DFA. a. * . for an NFA < Q . A > is the set of strings that are accepted by the NFA. if and only if it can reach an accepting state by reading x starting at the initial state. . The language accepted by an NFA < Q. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 . Some of the strings accepted by the NFA given above are the language it accepts is a*( ab + a + ba )(bb)* . abbbb etc. . A > if and only if * ( q0 .a) for an NFA < Q . . q0.a)= (q. * (q. q0 . . q0. . ab.A Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >. . * ( q . aaa. xy ) = These theorems can be proven in a manner similar to those for Theorems 1 and 2 for DFA. A > . . . that is.* We say that a string x is accepted by an NFA < Q. x ) A is not empty.

We call the elements of Q a state. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton with -Transitions is a 5-tuple < Q .there is a NFA (hence DFA) which accepts the same language and vice versa.Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata with Transitions Subjects to be Learned • • • - Nondeterministic finite automata with State transition diagram State transition table -Transitions Contents One of the objectives of this chapter is to show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between regular languages and finite automata. for any NFA. Note that any NFA is also a NFA. concatenation and Kleene star operations. q0 . Thus the tape head does not move when is read. the transition function. Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton with Let Q be a finite set and let -Transitions be a function from Q be a finite set of symbols. . . Here we are going to formally define NFA with -Transitions (abbreviated as NFA. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states.. We are going to do that by showing that a finite automaton can be constructed from a given regular expression by combining simpler FAs using union.) and see some examples. As we are going to see later.A> Notes on the definition 1. 2. . A transition on reading means that the NFA.makes the transition without reading any symbol in the input. Basically an NFA with -Transitions is an NFA but can respond to an empty string and move to the next state. Also let { } to 2Q . These operations on FAs can be described conveniently if -Transitions are used. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q.

4 and 5 by reading a. Thus 4 is the only state you can go to from the initial state . for example. 4 and 5 without reading any symbol on the tape. for example. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in the State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 0 {4} 1 {2} 2 { 3. 2. a) ) Here the transitions to are omitted from the table. 3. 2. 4. 1. 3. it can move to any of the states other than 0. there are no transitions on reading b except from state 3. For though you go to states 1. following table. b }.Example of NFA- Q = { 0. 4 } 3 {5} 3 b {4} 4 a {5} (q. then you come to state 4. 5 }. you can go to state 2. = { a. If you read string ab. When a symbol a is read at the initial state 0. A = . For once you are in state 1. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. 3.

by reading ab.

**Language Accepted by NFASubjects to be Learned
**

• • • •

**-closure for NFALanguage accepted by NFAProperties of *
**

*

Contents

To formally define * for NFA- , we start with the concept of -closure for a state which is the set of states reachable from the state without reading any symbol. Using that concept we define * and then strings and languqges accepted by NFA- . Definition of -closure

Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA- . Let us denote the -closure of a set S of states of Q by ( S ). Then ( S ) is defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: S (S)

Inductive Clause: For any state q of Q, if q ( S ) , then ( q , ) (S). Extremal Clause: Nothing is in ( S ) unless it is obtained by the above two clauses.

For the NFAFirst { 2 }

of the above figure, ( { 2 } ) , that is, 2 (2, )

( { 2 } ) is obtained as follows: ( { 2 } ) . Then since 2 ( { 2 } ) , by the

Inductive Clause, Since (2,

({2}). ({2}).

) = { 3 , 4 }, we now have { 2 , 3 , 4 }

Since 3 and 4 have been added to

({2}),

(3,

) = { 5 } and

(4,

)=

must

be included in ( { 2 } ) . Thus now { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } ({2}). Though 5 has become a memeber of the closure, since ( 5 , ) is empty, no new members are added to ( { 2 } ) . Since ( q , ) has been examined for all the states currently in ( { 2 } ) and no more elements are added to it, this process of generating the closure terminates and ( { 2 } ) = { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } is obtained. As we can see from the example, ( S ) is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S by traversing any number of arcs. That is, it is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S without reading any symbols in . Now with this -closure, we can define

*

recursively as follows:

As in the cases of DFA and NFA, * gives the result of applying the transition function repeatedly as dictated by the given string. Definition of

* *

is going to be defined recursively. Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA-

.

**Basis Clause: For any state q of Q,
**

*

(q,

)=

({q}).

*

Inductive Clause: For any state q, a string y in

and a symbol a in

,

*

( q , ya ) =

(

).

What the Inductive Clause means is that *( q , ya ) is obtained by first finding the states that can be reached from q by reading y ( *( q , y ) ), then from each of those states p by reading a (i.e. by finding ( p , a ) ), and then by reading 's ( i.e. by taking the closure of the ( p , a )'s ) . Example : For the NFAbelow: of the following figure,

*

( 0 , ab ) can be obtained as

First let us compute *( 0 , a ) . For that we need ( { 0 } ). Since it is the set of states reached by traversing the arcs from state 0, ( { 0 } ) = {0,3,4}. Next from each of the states in ( { 0 } ) we read symbol a and move to another state (i.e. apply ). They are ( 0 , a ) = { 1 } , ( 3 , a ) = ( 4 , a ) = { 5 }. Hence We then traverse the } ) = { 1 , 2 , 3 } and = { 1 , 5 } for q = 0 . arcs from { 1 , 5 } to get to the states in *( 0 , a ) . Since * ({5})={5}, (0,a)={1,2,3,5}.

({1

ab } . . ab ) read b from each of the states in *( 0 . A > if and only if *( q0 . NFA M2 = < Q2. b ) = { 4 } . Thus Since ( { 4 } ) = { 3 .Then to find *( 0 . Equivalence of DFAs. q2. ab ) = { 3 .to (equivalent) NFA Conversion of NFA to (equivalent) DFA Equivalence of DFAs.s Subjects to be Learned • • • Conversion of NFA. . .0 .< Q . *( 0 . NFAs and NFA. 4 } . b ) and ( 5 . A string x is accepted by an NFA. q0 . ( 3 . A > is the set of strings accepted by the NFA. . A1 > be an NFA. A2 > that satisfies the following conditions recognizes L: . a ) and then take the arcs from there. 4 } . . . Now ( 1 . q0 . b ) are empty sets.< Q . NFAs and NFAto NFA 1 Conversion of NFA- Let M1 = < Q1 . q1. . x ) contains at least one accepting state.0 . a .. For example the NFAof the figure given above accepts the language { . and ( 2 . The language accepted by an NFA.that recognizes a language L. b ) . Then the 2 .

Then from the transition function of the NFA- .Q2 = Q1. a ): First ( { 0 } ) = { 0 .0 . the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. q1. a ) = 1 * (q.0 } ) A1 = A1 otherwise . a ) . a ) as follows: Find ( {q} ). The closure of the set of those states is 2( q . 2. q2. Otherwise. 3 ). A2 > which accepts the same language 1 .0 are the accepting states of M2 .M1 = < Q1 . Then collect all the states that can be reached from each state of ( {q} ) by traversing one arc labeled with the symbol a.0. Example 1: Let us convert the following NFAto NFA.0 } if ( { q1. A1 > does. as the given NFA. that is all the states that can be reached from q by traversing arcs. . that is if an accepting state can be reached from the initial state q1.a)= ( ) A2 = A1 { q1. q2. .0 through arcs in M1 . since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) . 1 } . then all the accepting states of M1 plus state q1. 1. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0. . 2 ( q. The transition function 2 is obtained as follows: 2( 0 .0 through arcs in M1 . The set of accepting states A2 is the same as A1 if no accepting states can be reached from the initial state q1.0 . Then for each state q of Q2 and each symbol a of find 2 ( q . Thus to obtain an NFA M2 = < Q2. 2 first copy the states of Q1 into Q2.0 = q1.

2}. a ) = { 1 . b ) = . )(= ( {1.3} {1. and Hence 2( 0 . b ) . ({1.3} {3} {1.2} {1.2} {1.2} {1. a ) = 1 ( 1 .1} {1} {1} {2} {2} {1.2} {1. 2 }.2} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. They are given in the table ( { q } ) and 2 below together with State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b a b .( 0 . (q. 2 (0.b)= Similarly 2 can be obtained for other states and symbols. 2 ( 0 .1} {0. 1 } and 1 (0.2} )) ({q}) {0. a ) = .b)= 1 ( 1.3} {1.2})={1. . since ( { 0 } ) = { 0 . 1 For .

4} {1.3} {1. 2.3} {2.1} {1} {1} {2. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. 1 ( p .Example 2: Let us convert the following NFA- to NFA.2.2.2} 2 (q. 4 ).3} )) {1.3} {3} {3} {1. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0.2. )(= ( {1.2} {1.1} {0. 2 is given in the table below together with ( { q } ) . since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) .2} {4} {4} {4} {1. ) and State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 a b a b a b a b a ({q}) {0. 1.4} {1. The transition function 2 is obtained as for Example 1.3} .4} {1. 3.4} {1.

.4} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. Proof of Equivalence of NFA- and NFA We are going to prove that the NFA obtained from NFAby the conversion algorithm accepts the same language as the NFA.4 b {1.

a ) --. (q. . a)= by the definition of Since * 2 * for NFA (click here for a review) . Basis Step: We need to show that for any symbol a in 1 * (q..NFA- that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 .0 . 1 . = = 2 * 2 (q .(1) because of the way NFA is constructed from NFA(click here for a review) . A2 > (q. wa ) = --.a). Secondly 2 * (q. and NFA- When it is proven. Thus we first prove that it is true for any arbitrary symbol. Claim 1: For any non-empty string w and for any state q. q1. 1 * (q. wa ) --.a)= 2 * 2 (q. then * 1 ( q .a).(1) .a). then assuming it holds for any arbitrary string w we prove it for any of the children of w.w)= 2 * ( q . a ) = 1*( q . for NFA.a)= 2 * (q. it implies that NFAM1 and NFA M2 accept the same non-empty strings. Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. . .a)= 2 2 * (q .a). the induction hypothesis and the construction of NFA from NFA.a)= 2 ( q . Hence (q. Inductive Step: We need to show that if 1 * (q. --. wa ) = 2 * ( q . )={q}. We are going to prove it by showing that both of them are equal to Firstly 2( q .(2) Hence from (1) and (2). that is wa for any symbol a in the alphabet. w ) for an arbitrary string w (Induction Hypothesis). 1 * (q. .w). . (q. and the conversion of NFAto NFA click here. Recall that the set of strings is defined recursively (click here for a quick review). A1 > and 2 NFA obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2.w)= 2 * (q. The case when w is an empty string is going to be proven separately. a ) . wa ) holds for any arbitrary symbol a in First we show that using the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . First we are going to prove that To review the definition of * 1 * . q2.w)= 2 * ( q . w ) for any non-empty string w.(2) . = 1 * Then we show that ( q .0 .

because = . Hence On the other hand = Hence 1 * = ( q . Hence we have proven (2). .a)= 1 * ( q . wa ) . for NFA- (p. 1 * Thus from (1) and (2) ( q . This can be shown to be equal to . . wa ) .a)= Substituting this into the left hand side of (2) produces = . ( q .w)= 1 * ( q . To see an explanation for this click here. The right hand side of this equality is equal to ( the first and have been swapped to get this) . . a ) by the way NFA is constructed from NFA= . Let us next prove (2). Hence 2 * ( q . by the definition of 1 * . By the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . that is (1) has been proven. wa ) . wa ) . Let us first prove (1). wa ) = 2 * ( q . wa ) = . wa ) = 2 * ( q . = Since 2 (q. wa ) = Since 2 * (q. w ) by the induction hypothesis.basically using the definition of Then from (1) and (2) we can see that 1 * 1 * . = 1*( q . wa ) . as proven below in Claim 3. that is By the definition of 1 * = 1 * 1 * ( q .

Part 1 : (S T) (S) (T) This is going to be proven by induction on (S T). . q20 Conversely if NFAis accepted by NFA. if it is accepted by an NFA. Extremal Clause: Nothng is in ( X ) unless it is obtained by the Basis and Inductive Clauses. A2 . let us prove the following claim. Inductive Clause: If q ( X ) . in the Basis Step of our proof we prove the property for the elements of the basis of (S T ) and in the Inductive Step we prove that if an arbitrary element of (S T ) has that property. Since (S T ) is defined recursively. By the way NFA is constructed from . For that let us restate the statement so that the induction becomes clearer. then ( { q10 } ) A1 . Claim 2: (S T)= (S) (T). then q20 this means that Thus NFA( { q10 } ) A1 A2 .End of Induction With this Claim 1 we can see that any non-empty string w is accepted by NFA if and only if it is accepted by the corresponding NFA. As for the empty string . Let us review the definition of the -closure of the set of states of an NFA. ) (X). We are going to prove this in two parts: (S T) (S) (S) (T) ( T ) and (S T). and the corresponding NFA accept the same language. Hence is accepted by NFA. As a preparation for the proof of commutativity of union and -closure operations. What Part 1 states is that all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in the set (S) (T). Then the -closure of X is defined recursively as Basis Clause: X (X). Hence is accepted by NFA. Hence by the way A2 is constructed. Let X be the set of states of an NFA. then its childen also have it. then ( q ..

End of Proof for Part 1 Part 2 : Proof of Part 2: We are going to prove (S) (S (S) T ) and (S) (T) (T) (T) (S (S (S T). T). Inductive Step: We need to prove that for an arbitrary element q in ( S ) . ) Let q be an arbitrary element of T ) with the property of being in ( S ) by the definition of ( T ) . (S) (T). (T) Thus all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in (S T) which is to say that (S) (T). if q is in . (T). and ( S T) (S T). then (q. ) (S) (S) (T). then (q.Proof of Part 1: Basis Step: We need to prove that ( S Since S ( S ) and T T) (S) (S) (S (S) (S) (T). ) (S) (T). Since q If q ( S ) . then (q. That would imply that Proof of (S) (S By induction on (S T): (S).S (S T). ) (S) (T). ) . (q. Hence ) Similarly if q Hence if q is an arbitrary element of (S) (T). then ( q . S and T are subsets of (S T) Inductive Step: We need to prove that if q is an arbitrary element of the property of being in (S) (S ( T ) .q ( S ) or q ( S ) . T T). T ) with (T). Hence (T). Basis Step: We need to show that S Since S (S T ) . ( T ) . (S T ) with the property of being in (S) ( T ) . ( T ) .

- T ) is a -closure. ( Si ) = ( Si ) = ( S1 ) and ( S1 ) . by the definition of (q. Thus (S) (S T ) has been proven. Similarly Hence (S) (T) (T) (S T ) holds. Proof : Proof by induction on n. Si is a set as well as Sn+1. End of Proof for Claim 3 Sn+1 ) by Claim 2 above. If n = 1. ( Si ) holds for n. Basis Step: n = 1.Inducion Hypothesis ( Si ) = ( = = (( Si ) ( ( Si ) ) Si ) ( Sn+1 ) by the definition of union. Si ) by the definition of union. ) (S closure T). then (q. --. then Hence Inductive Step: Assume that ( ( Si ) = Si ) = ( Si ) holds for n = 1.(S Since q is in (S T ) and since (S T ) . ) (S T). since = ( Equivalence of NFA and DFA We are going to prove that the DFA obtained from NFA by the conversion algorithm . ( Sn+1 ) by the induction hypothesis. (S T ) holds. End of Proof of Part 2 End of Proof of Claim 2 Claim 3: ( Si ) = ( Si ) .

q1. obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w.0 . --- For the string w and an arbitrry symbol a in 1 * .0 . When it is proven.0 . = * 1 ( q1. = { q1. w ) .0 .Part 1 Subjects to be Learned • • • • Union of FAs Concatenation of FAs Kleene Star of FAs Acceptance of regular languages by FAs Contents . ) by the definition of 1 * .0 . w ) for any string w. w ) = 2 * ( q2. ( q2. w ) . Kleene's Theorem --.0 . Basis Step: For w = 2 * . w ) = 2 * ( q2.0 by the definition of 2* . it obviously implies that NFA M1 and DFA M2 accept the same strings. A1 > and DFA . w ) = 2 * ( q2.0 . ) = q2. .0 . a ) 2( * 2 ( q2.0 .0 . ( q1. w ) = 2*( q2. . w ) for an arbitrary string w. w ) . 1 * ( q1. a ) ( q2. wa ) * 1 Thus for any string w ( q1.accepts the same language as the NFA.0 . A2 > First we are going to prove by induction on strings that 1*( q1.0 . Theorem: For any string w. wa ) = = = = 2 ( 1 2 * * ( q1. Inductive Step: Assume that Induction Hypothesis 1 * ( q1. 2 1 . q2.0 . w ) holds.0 .0 . NFA that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 .0 .0 } by the construction of DFA M2 .

u L2 .0 .0 . qc. qu. L1L2 and L1* are accepted by FAs. 1 .0 . Qu = Q1 Q2 . respectively. Ak > . . A1 > and M2 = < Q2 . which are given below. qk.0 } . It states that any regular language is accepted by an FA and conversely that any language accepted by an FA is regular. Ac > and Mk = < Q2 . q2.0 . 2 . . . u Mu = < Qu . concatenation and Kleene star operations. We assume that Q1 Q2 = without loss of generality since states can be renamed if necessary. Inductive Step: We are going to show that for any languages L1 and L2 if they are accepted by FAs. . that together with the Basis Step would prove the theorem. Au > . Au > : { qu. c . then L1 L2 .0 . Mc .Kleene's theorem. . Proof: This is going to be proven by (general) induction following the recursive definition of regular language. A2 > . qu. . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by the FAs Mu = < Qu . . Theorem 1 (Part 1 of Kleene's theorem): Any regular language is accepted by a finite automaton. where qu. Suppose that L1 and L2 are accepted by FAs M1 = < Q1 .0 . Since any regular language is obtained from { } and { a } for any symbol a in by using union. respectively. Then L1 = < Qc . q1. Basis Step: As shown below the languages . k .{ } and { a } for any symbol a in are accepted by an FA.0 is a state which is neither in Q1 nor in Q2 .

0. q2.0 .0 .0 is a state which is not in Q1 .0 .0 = q1.0. where qk. k .0.0 } .0 } . These NFA- s are illustrated below. Ak > : { qk. . Qk = Q1 k . u ) = { q1.0 } ) | q A1 } Ac = A2 Mk = < Qk .0 } = 1 { (qk. qk. .u = 1 2 { (qu. c . . { q1.0 } ) } . . qc. . q2. that is u (qu. { q1. { q2.0 } ) } { (q. a ) = for all a in . { qk. Au = A1 A2 Mc = < Qc . Ac > : Qc = Q1 Q2 qc.0 } ) | q A1 } Ak = { qk.0. . Note that (qu.0 c = 1 2 { (q.0 .

. Mu. though we omit proofs. respectively. Mc and Mk: Example 1: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression (aa + b)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above. Mc and Mk . that these NFA.It can be proven. L1L2 and L1*. in fact accept L1 L2 .s . End of Proof Examples of Mu .

Example 2: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression ((a + b)a*)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above. .

Kleene's Theorem -.Part 2 .

where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. k)L(k+1. k)L(k+1. q. all without passing through states labeled higher than k. .Subjects to be Learned • Languages accepted by FAs are regular Contents The converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem also holds true. q. q. k) . k) the set of strings representing paths from state p to state q that go through only states numbered no higher than k. L(p. k+1. k) L(p. first relabel its states with the integers 1 through n. q. It states that any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. Given a finite automaton. q. then from k+1 to k+1 any number of times. Before proceeding to a proof outline for the converse. q. 2. k+1. k)*L(k+1. L(p. k) : The set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled wiht k or lower numbers. Note that paths may go through arcs and vertices any number of times. Lemma 1: L(p. then from k+1 to q. See the figure below for the illustration. What this lemma says is that the set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled with k+1 or lower numbers consists of the following two sets: 1. Next denote by L(p. k) : The set of strings going first from p to k+1. k)*L(k+1. k+1. Then the following lemmas hold. let us study a method to compute the set of strings accepted by a finite automaton. k+1. k+1) = L(p.

q. Lemma 3: L(p. L(p. then it consists of single symbols representing arcs from p to q. Example : Let us find the language accepted by the following finite automaton using the . then is in it as well as the strings representing any loops at p (they are all single symbols).Lemma 2: L(p. we have the following converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem. Hence if p and q are different. 0) is regular. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. q. Since the number of symbols is finite and since any finite language is regular. q. q. k) is regular for any states p and q and any natural number k. Theorem 2 (Part 2 of Kleene's Theorem): Any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. 0) is regular. 0) is the set of strings representing paths from p to q without passing any states in between. >From Lemmas 1 and 2 by induction the following lemma holds. n) over all accepting states q. If p = q. q. Since the language accepted by a finite automaton is the union of L(q0. Proof: L(p.

By Lemma 1. 1.0)*r(1. 1.1.0)r(1. 3. 1. 2. 1.lemmas.2.1.0) = and r(3. 3. 1. 3.1. 2) = a+(b a+ + = a+(b a+ )*a . 3. r(2. r(2. since r(3. 3. 1)r(2. 3). 3. 1) = r(3.0) = ba+ . 2.2.1. 1)r(2. 3. 2) .0) + r(1.0) + r(2. 3.1. Then the language accepted by this NFA is r(1. 2) = r(1.2.0) + r(3. 2. q. k) the regular expression for the set of strings L(p.1.0) = ba+ + . 1) = r(1.2. Let us denote by r(p. 2. 1.2.1.0)r(1. 1) + r(1. 3) = r(1.1. 1) + r(1. 2)*r(3. 2. 2) = r(3. k).1. 3. 2)r(3. 1) = a Hence r(1. 1) + r(3. 2): r(1.0) = and r(2. )*a r(3.1.1.0)*r(1. 2.0) = a + .1. 2): r(3. 1) r(1. 1. 1) = r(2. 2): r(1.0) + r(1.1. r(1.1.0) = ba* . Hence r(1. 2) + r(1. . 2) = a* + a+(b a+)*b a* .2. 1. 1.0)r(1.0)r(1.0) = b. 1) = r(3.2.0)*r(1.0) = b . since r(1. 3. 1) = r(2. r(1. 3. 3. r(1. 2. 1)r(2. 1)*r(2. 3. 1. q.1.1. 2.0) = a* .0)*r(1.2.1. 2) = r(1. 1.0)r(1. 1) r(3. 2.2. 3.0) = a+ . 1) = r(2.0) + r(2. 1)*r(2. 1) r(1. 1)*r(2.0) = a . 1) = r(1.0)*r(1. since r(1. r(1. since r(2.

* . q. Then a DFA that accepts the complement of L. If there are more accepting states. 2) = r(3.0) = ba* Hence r(3.1. The detail is left as an exercise though it would be quite challenging. 2) = = + ( ba+)+a + ba+( ba+ + )*a r(3. 2) = ba* + ba+( ba+ + = ( ba+ )*ba* . 2.0)<SUP*< SUP>r(1. n) must be found for each accepting state q. that is Mc = < Q . 3. .L . Hence r(1. q0 . 2): r(3. 1.L. 1. 1. 1. q0 . A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. 1) + r(3. then r(p.0)r(1. )*ba* + ( ba+)+a )*( ba+ )*ba*. 1)r(2. n)'s must be added together to get the regular expression for the language accepted by the automaton.1. 1)*r(2. i.e. .0) + r(3. 1. can be obtained by swapping its accepting states with its non-accepting states.Hence r(3. where p is the initial state and n is the number of states in the given finite automaton. 1.1. . Comlement and Intersection of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • • Complement of Regular Language Complement of DFA Intersection of Regular Languages Contents Complement Let M = < Q . . 1) r(3. q. . 1.A > is a DFA that accepts * . 2.1. and all the r(p. Q . 3) = a* + a+(b a+)*ba* + ( a+( ba+ )*a )( This can be further simplified to (a + ab + abb)*. then to (a + ab)*. In this example there is only one accepting state. 1) = r(3.

the complement of a regular language is also regular. we must first convert it to DFA before swapping states to get its complement. Remark 2: Since a language is regular if and only if it is accepted by some NFA. Remark 1: If we have NFA rather than DFA. . b }.For example the following DFA accepts the language a+ over = { a . A DFA that accepts its complement is obtained from the above DFA by changing all single circles to double circles and vice versa as shown below.

then their complements are regular languages. Context-Sensitive and Phrase Structure Grammars . difference. L1 L2 is regular. Since L1 L2 = by De Morgan's law. intersection.Intersection of Regular Languages Langauges are sets. Therefore all the properties of sets are inherited by languages.Regular Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Regular Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Production and Grammar Regular Grammar Context-Free. Next -. then Submit. concatenation and Kleene star operations. Thus summing all this up we can say that the set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed with respect to union. Test Your Understanding of Complemnent and Intersection of FAs Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Click True or Fals . By Remark 2 above. if L1 and L2 are regular languages. In particular De Morgan's law also applies to languages.

A grammar is a set of rewrite rules which are used to generarte strings by successively rewriting symbols. Thus the process of obtaining aa from S is written as S => aS => aa .Contents We have learned three ways of characterising regular languages: regular expressions. to obtain aS. These rules mean that S is rewritten as a or as aS. and S -> aS . That gives us aa. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. Rewrite S using one of the following two rules: S -> a . There is yet another way of characterizing them. regular. . .{ by a regular grammar. finite automata and construction from simple languages using simple operations. Then for every production X -> aY. . To generate the string aa for example. A grammar is regular if and only if is a single nonterminal and is a single terminal or a single terminal followed by a single nonterminal. aaa. Add another state as the accepting state Z. we write =>*G is obtained from a string and say that by applying productions of . that is a production is of the form X -> a or X -> aY. } . a set of terminals (the alphabet of the language). A production has in general the form -> . The following theorem holds for regular grammars. the fact that aa is obtained from S is written as S =>* aa . a ) = Y and for every production X -> a add the transition ( X. In general if a string a grammar G. Then apply the first rule to aS to rewrite S as a. aS. start with S and apply the second rule to replace S with the right hand side of the rule. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals with at least one nonterminal in it and is a string of terminals and nonterminals. which is { a. . Theorem 3: A language L is accepted by an FA i. = {a.e. i. then we simply write =>* Formally a grammar consists of a set of nonterminals (or variables) V. One can generate the strings of this language by the following procedure: Let S be a symbol to start the process with. add the transition ( X. a start symbol S. For example. b}. If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. For example consider the language represented by a+. S corresponds to the initial state. aa. If there is no is derived from ambiguity about the grammar G that is referred to. which ia a nonterminal. S -> } is a regular grammar and it generates all the strings consisting of a's and b's including the empty string. a ) = Z. S -> bS. that is by something called grammar.e. } can be generated This can be proven by constructing an FA for the given grammar as follows: For each nonterminal create a state. if L . and a set of rewrite rules (productions) P. where X and Y are nonterminals and a is a terminal. We write S => aS to express that aS is obtained from S by applying a single production.

An NFA that recognizes this language can be obtained by creating two states S and Z. then since { } is regular . S -> a. a ) = { S. L = Conversely from any NFA < Q. P = { S -> aS. The NFA thus obtained is shown below. S -> bS. . Y -> bS. b}. Z } . P. a regular grammar corresponding to the NFA given below is < Q. Z } and ( S. q0. b }. X -> aY. a) = Y for some accepting state Y. A > a regular grammar < Q. as its member. S -> a }. . . a) = Y . accepted by an NFA. X -> bS. Thus the following converse of Theorem 3 is obtained. and adding transitions ( S. S -> b } form a regular grammar which generates the language ( a + b )+. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. S -> aX. { a. q0 > is obtained as follows: for any a in .e. X -> a is in P if and only if (X. } is generated by a For example.{ } is regular. X -> aY is in P if and only if (X.{ regular grammar. P. and for any a in and any nonterminal X. then L .For example = {a. where Q = { S. X. S > . Y } . . where S is the initial state and Z is the accepting state of the NFA. and nonterminals X and Y. b ) = { S. If L contains ( L -{ } ) { } is also regular. Thus L . Theorem 4 : If L is regular i.

1 . These grammars are distinguished by the kind of productions they have but they also form a hierarchy. b } and V = { S } is a contex-free grammar and it generates the language { anbn | n is a positive integer } . possibly empty except Thus the nonterminal X can be rewritten as only in the context of 1X 2 . YX -> XY. BY -> bb. b. Z. They are characterized by context-free grammars. It is an example of context-sensitive language which is not context-free. where X is a nonterminal and . S -> ab } with = { a. A grammar is a context-sensitive grammar if and only if its production is of the form 1 X 2 -> 1 2 . that is the set of regular languages is a subset of the set of context-free languages which is in turn a subset of the set of context-sensitive languages and the set of context-sensitive languages is a subset of the set of phrase structure languages. cZ -> cc } with = { a.| | | |. S1 -> XYZS1. context-sensitive languages and phrase structure languages. Y. S -> XYZ. S1 } is a context-sensitive grammar and it generates the language { anbncn | n is a positive integer } . Context-sensitive grammars are also characterized by productions whose left hand side is not longer than the right hand side. S1 -> XYZ. For example P = { S -> aSb. respectively. A grammar is a context-free grammar if and only if its production is of the form X -> . aY -> ab. that is.In addition to regular languages there are three other types of languages in Chomsky hierarchy : context-free languages. c } and V = { X. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals. X -> a. 2 and are strings of terminals and nonterminals. . possibly the empty string. For example P = { S -> XYZS1. aX -> aa. for every production -> . bZ -> bc. S. ZY -> YZ. As we shall see later this is an example of context-free language which is not regular. context-sensitive grammars and phrase structure grammars. ZX -> XZ.

}. both theoretically and practically. new := new_partition( . -> . Q .Minimization of DFA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Minimization of DFA One important result on finite automata. that has the smallest number of states amomg the DFAs that accept L. there is no restriction on the form of production. Minimization Algorithm for DFA Construct a partition = { A. Then the following algorithm produces the DFA. then Submit. There are two sets of questions. Next -. q0 .A } of the set of states Q . A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. Click True or Fals . where and Test Your Understanding of Regular Grammar Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. denote it by M1. Let M = < Q .For a phrase structure grammar. is that for any regular language there is a unique DFA having the smallest number of states that accepts it. . . that is a production of a phrase structure grammar can take the form can be any string.

A state is a dead state if it is not an accepting state and has no out-going transitions except to itself. respectively. Remove from M1 the dead states and the states not reachable from the start state. Let s be a state in p and t a state in q. The subsets thus formed are sets of the output partition in place of S. final function new_partition( ) for each set S of do partition S into subsets such that two states p and q of S are in the same subset of S if and only if for each input symbol. If a transition from s to t on symbol a exists in M. if there are any. end Minimum DFA M1 is constructed from • • final as follows: • • Select one state in each set of the partition final as the representative for the set. p and q make a transition to (states of) the same set of . If S is not partitioned in this process.while ( := new new ) ) . The accepting states of M1 are representatives that are in A. Let us also denote by p and q the sets of states of the original DFA M represented by p and q. new := new_partition( := . . Note that the sets of final are either a subset of A or disjoint from A. Let p and q be representatives i. These representatives are states of minimum DFA M1.e. Example 1 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. Any transitions to a dead state become undefined. The start state of M1 is the representative which contains the start state of M. then the minimum DFA M1 has a transition from p to q on symbol a. states of minimum DFA M1. S remains in the output partition.

state 3 goes to state 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . since 1 and 5 do the same transitions. since on b 2 goes to 1.Initially = { { 1 . in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 1 to 3 on a. { 4 ] }. since 1 goes to 3 on a. 5 } . Since the rest of the states are singletons. On the other hand 1 and 5 make the same transitions. So they are not going to be split. Also since 2 goes to 1 on b. and 1 to 2 on b. Thus the set of states for the minimized DFA is { 1 . 5 } . in the When new_partition is applied to this new . in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 2 to 1 on b. and from 3 to 1 on a. Since on b state 2 goes to state 1. . they have the obvious representatives. Note here that state 4 is a dead state because the only transitionout of it is to itself. 2 and 4 are separated from each other in new. Thus the new partition is { { 1 . 5 }. Thus final = { { 1 . states 3 and 4 are going to be separated from each other in new. Also since on a sate 4 goes to sate 4. all transitions between them are inherited for the minimized DFA. 4 } }. 3 . states 2 and 3 are going to be separated from each other in new . For the transitions. { 2 } . Further. This becomes the second iteration. { 2 . and 3 goes to 1 on a in the original DFA. Since the rest are singletons. 5 } . state 3 goes to state 5 and 4 and 5 are in different sets in . Select 1 as the representative for { 1 . and to 2 on b in the original DFA. 2 . { 2 } . { 3 } . 4 goes to 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . { 3 } . 3 }. remains unchanged. new_partition is applied to . { 4 ] }.

Thus the minimized DFA is as given in the following figure: Example 2 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. .

5 . { 3 } . { 1 . { 6 } } is obtained. 5 } . 6 } } is obtained. Thus the number of states of the given DFA is already minimum and it can not be reduced any further. { 1 . Next -. { 5 } . Applyting new_partition to this .Initially = { { 3 } . 4 } . new = { { 3 } . 4 . Test Your Understanding of Minimization of DFA Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. new = { { 1 } . { 2 . 6 } }.Application of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Application of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Reactive system . { 2 } . 2 . By applying new_partition to this . Click True or Fals . { 4 } . { 6 } } is obtained. then Submit. { 2 } . Applyting new_partition again. new = { { 3 } . { 1 . { 5 } . 4 .

outputs and conditions/status in response to stimuli from within or outside it. To model a reactive system with finite automaton. a system must respond to each stimulus. on the other hand. Finite automata are formal and rigorous and computer programs can be easily written to simulate their behaviors. In the case of vending machine or communication protocol. lexical analysers for compilers etc. An adder does not respond unless the input i. two numbers to be added are ready. are identified and they become arcs in the transition diagram of the finite automaton. . For example consider the following very simplified version of login process to a computer from the computer point of view.• Modeling reactive systems with FA Contents We have seen an example of use of finite automata in describing the operation of a simplified version of vending machine. computer network communication protocols. It is generally agreed that finite automata are a natural medium to describe dynamic behaviors of reactive systems. The inputs for a reactive system are never ready unlike for example when two numbers are added together by an adder (Here we are considering an adder at a higher level of abstraction than physical devices level ignoring for example the transient states of the electronic circuit that realizes an adder). A system such as an adder is called a transformational system. first the states the system goes in or the modes of its operation are identified. external or internal to the system. These become the states of the finite automaton that models it. Let us assume for simplicity that this computer accepts a single user at a time. even to a fragment of input such as each coin tossed in for a can of soda or every message received. Many other systems operating in practice can also be modeled by finite automata such as control circuits of computers. In addition actions that may take place in those states can also be added to the model.e. It is an event driven or control driven system continuously having to react to external and/or internal stimuli. A reactive system is a system that changes its actions. Many of those systems fall into the class of systems called reactive system. Then the transitions between the states triggered by events and conditions.

That is another state though it could further be broken down into a number of more states. That is a fourth state. The next example is a protocol for a computer to follow in communicating with another computer. then it accepts the user and starts a session. then it asks for and then waits for the password. it sends "Acknowledgement" (ACK) to the other computer. Again it is a very simplified version. If the password typed in is incorrect. it goes back to the initial state. it goes back to the initial state and waits for another RFNM to come. receiving RFNM. This is one state of the system. Upon completion of the RFNM. goes back to the initial state and waits for another login. sending message and waiting for ACK. it gets a signal. Depending on how much detail we are interested in. different states would be identified and transitions would have to be selected accrdingly. Initially the computer is in wait state waiting for "Request for Next Message" (RFNM) to come from another computer. When a name is typed in. it resends the message. If the second password fails. different states and transitions would have to be chosen. When a password is typed in and it is correct. But let us make it simple. Again what we have seen is a model for one level of abstraction. it goes to the initial state and starts all over again. When the session terminates. it goes into another wait state waiting for an ACK to come from the other computer. Again depending on the level of abstraction. If the user name typed in is not valid. which is another state. Thus a finite automaton that models this protocol has the following five states: initial state (wait for RFNM). it checks whether or not the name is valid. When it is complete. . If a positive ACK is received. If a negative ACK is received. We could make it go to a different state and count the number of login attempts for security purpose. it goes into the state of receiving it (Our interpretation is that the computer is in a state of receiving an RFNM and it is taking the action of receiving the RFNM) .Initially the computer waits for a user name to be typed in. If it is valid. After sending the ACK. When a RFNM starts coming. it starts sending the requested message to the other party. sending ACK. which is another state. then it informs the user of that and waits for the next try.

e. they can be represented by the following regular expression: ( s+ + s. . followed by one or more digits.e.1. it goes into a state. Therefore from state P it goes to another state. Since these numbers are represented by strings consisting of a possible sign. If a decimal point is received before a digit. D is another accepting state.2. .d+ + d+ + .378. denote it by Q. On the other hand if a digit has been read before a decimal point. . After one digit it can continue receiving digits. denote it by D. +213. that indicates that a decimal point has been read. in state P). it is in state D. One such system initially waits for the first symbol to come in. then it goes into a state.represent the positive and negative signs. i.Our third example is a system that recognizes numbers with or without a sign such as 5. 9 } . This Q is an accepting state. followed by zero or more digits. then it goes into a state. followed by a possible decimal point. If the first digit is received before a decimal point. regardless of whether a sign has been read or not. where s+ and s. If a decimal point is read while in D. respectively and d {0. If the first symbol is a sign.8 etc. then it can continue receiving digits and stay in D. then it must receive at least one digit after that. after reading a digit and stays there as long as digits are read.d+ ).. If a decimal point has been read (i. This system can also be described by a regular expression. This system can be modeled by the following finite automaton: . denote it by P. that indicates a digit has been read before a decimal point. -15.+ ) ( d+. that indicates that a sign has been received. then it goes to state P indicating that a decimal point has been read. denote it by G.

It uses four arrays. Algorithm FA Simulator state := INITIAL_STATE. A third array. called TOKEN. stores for each state the input symbols that trigger transitions from the state. keeps the index of the first symbol in the TOKEN array for each state. indicates the actions taken at each state and a fourth. Those indices are used to access the contents of the other arrays. called ACTION.Simulation of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Simulation of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Simulation of FA Contents Once a finite automaton is constructed. input := read_input( ) . 0 and TOKEN [index] input ) index := index + 1.Next -. while ( state NO_of_STATES and not End of Input ) index := STATEX [state] . One array. while ( TOKEN [index] . One such simulation algorithm is given below. Another array. called STATEX. we can use a general purpose program to simulate its operation. called NEXT_STATE. holds the next state for each input symbol for each state.

e. S is the initial state and B and H are accepting states. The numbers below NEXT_STATE array show the correspondence between the indices of the STATEX array and the states A. Tab 4 Tab 5. The ACTION array would contain pointers to actions to be taken corresponding to arcs traversed such as converting a digit in BCD form to the corresponding binary number. For example.45. To see how this algorithm works. . S corresponds to 1. B. The corresponding transitions are going to be shown by red arrows in the transition diagram. state := NEXT_STATE [index]. C and H. Then type 3 Tab . to input 3. So no action is taken as a number is processed. end Here 0 in the TOKEN array is a marker between states.if ( TOKEN [index] 0) perform the action specified by ACTION [index]. else error input := read_input( ) . empty transitions) are omitted. first click the box under the red arrow. You must hit the "Tab" key to move to the next box. At the moment it is empty. Then every time you click "SHOW" the number is processed digit by digit. Then type in a number you want the FA to recognize. In the DFA below all the transitions to the empty state (i. first click the box pointed by the red arrow in the figure below.

If you are also interested in how code is executed. . So be patient. click here It is extremely slow.

That is the main limitation of finite automata. Thus there is no way for a finite automaton to remember how many a's it has read for all possible strings anbn . however.Nerode Theorem for non-regularity test Pumping Lemma Contents We have learned regular languages. a and aa are indistinguishable with respect to the language an over alphabet { a }.Next -. For example. Non-regularity test based on Myhill-Nerode's theorem Indistinguishability of strings: Strings x and y in * are indistinguishable with respect to a language L if and only if for every string z in *. Since a regular language must be recognized by a finite automaton. a finite automaton must remember how many a's it has read when it starts reading b's.Non-Regular Languages Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Regular Languages Non-Regular Languages Subjects to be Learned • • • Existence of non-regular languages Myhill . we can conclude that { anbn | n is a natural number} is not regular. The main idea behind these test methods is that finite automata have only finite amount of memory in the form of states and that they can not distinguish infinitely many strings. In this section we are going to study some of the methods for testing given languages for regularity and see some of the languages that are not regular. their properties and their usefulness for describing various systems. because aak and aaak are in the language an for any . where n is a positive integer. Thus it must be in different states when it has read different number of a's and starts reading the first b. languages that are not regular and therefore require devices other than finite automata to recognize them. For example to recognize the language { anbn | n is a natural number} . either xz and yz are both in L or they are both not in L. This is the basis of two of the regularity test methods we are going to study below: Myhill-Nerode Theorem and Pumping Lemma. There are. But any finite automaton has only finite number of states.

Example 2: L2 = { ww | w {a. S1 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. b } can be shown to be nonregular using Myhill-Nerode as follows: Consider the set of strings S1 = { an | n is a positive integer } . Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L1 . Then akbakb is in L2 while ambakb is not in L2 . S2 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem.positive integer k. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S1. b } and it is infinite. b }* } is nonregular. Theorem : A language L over alphabet is nonregular if and only if there is an infinite subset of * . This set is infinite . where k and m are positive integers and k m . the set of strings consisting of one or more right parentheses followed by identifier x. Consider the set of strings S2 which is the same as S1 of Example 1 above. operations + and * and left and right parentheses. x . then ( + ) and ( * ) are in L3 . It can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L2 as follows. because ab is in the language anbn while aab is not in the language. We are going to show that its strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L1. the following theorem by Myhill and Nerod gives a criterion for (non)regularity of a language. where k and m are positive integers and k m . For more on Myhill-Nerode theorem click here. Hence L1 is nonregular. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S2. Using this concept of indistinguishability. a and aa are not indistinguishable (hence distinguishable). Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set S1. For example. However. L3 can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: x and y are in L3 . (x*y) . Hence L2 is nonregular. Then akbm is not in L1 while ambm is in L1 . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L3 unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Inductive Clause: If and are in L3 . Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } over alphabet { a . Consider the set of strings S3 = { (k x | k is a positive integer } . that is. Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L2 . Select bakb as a string to be appended to ak and am . Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set. It is stated without a proof. Select bm as a string to be appended to ak and am . with respect to the language anbn . whose strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L. S1 is over alphabet { a . ( ( x + y ) * x ) and (( (x*y) + x ) + (y*y) ) are algebraic expressions.

For example [ + x ) ]3 is +x) +x)+x) . Those strings which are accepted by this NFA and whose length is greater than 5 have a substring which can be repeated any number of times without being rejected by the NFA. then there must be a cycle in the NFA along some path from the initial state to some accepting state (such as the cycle 2-3-4-2 in the above example). Then (k x + [ + x ) ]k is in L3 but (m x + [ + x ) ]k is not in L3 because the number of ('s is not equal to the number of )'s in the latter string. The following theorem which is called Pumping Lemma is based on this observation. Hence L3 is not regular. This NFA accepts among others some strings of length greater than 5 such as abbabbb. abbabbabbb. are also accepted by the NFA. the resultant strings such as abbb (bba repeated 0 times). It . Then the substring representing that cycle (bba in the example) can be repeated any number of times within the string w without being rejected by the NFA. Select [ + x ) ]k as a string to be appended to (k and (m .and it can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 as follows: Let (k x and (m x be arbitrary two strings of S3 . For example the string abbabbb is accepted by the NFA and if one of its substrings bba is repeated any number of times in abbabbb. In general if a string w (such as abbabbb in the example above) is accepted by an NFA with n states and if its length is longer than n. where k and m are positive integers and k m . abbabbabbabbb etc. Hence S3 is pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 . Pumping Lemma Let us consider the NFA given below. abbabbabbb etc.

then any long enough string of the language has a substring which can be repeated any number of times with the resultant strings still in the language. that is. Since |v| > 0 . Hence L is not a regular 0. and for every m 0. |uv| n |v| > 0 . Thus Pumping Lemma can not be used to prove the regularity of a language.states that if a language is regular. Also since |uv| Let us now consider the string uvmw for m = 2. It can only show that a language is nonregular. Then there is an FA that accepts L. where k is a natural number. and w such that x = uvw. let us prove that the language L = akbk is nonregular. It is stated without a proof here. Consider a string x = anbn for that n. Pumping Lemma : Suppose that a language L is regular. This violates the condition that for every m language. for some p > 0 . Then for any string x in L with |x| n. v = ap. n. Note that Pumping Lemma gives a necessity for regular languages and that it is not a sufficiency. Then uv2w = an-pa2pbn = an+pbn . Let n be the number of states of that FA. uvmw L. even if there is an integer n that satisfies the conditions of Pumping Lemma. n + p language L represented by akbk . v. there are strings u. Hence an+pbn can not be in the L. Suppose that L is regular and let n be the number of states of an FA that accepts L. uvmw Test Your Understanding of Non-regularity . Since p > 0 . n . v has at least one symbol. the language is not necessarily regular. Example 4: As an example to illustrate how Pumping Lemma might be used to prove that a language is nonregular. uvmw L. v and w which satisfy the following relationships: x = uvw |uv| n |v| > 0 and for every integer m 0. Then there must be strings u.

Context-Free Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Myhill-Nerode Theorem The non-regularity test for languages by Myhill-Nerode is based on the following theorem which is in the contrapositive form of the theorem used for nonregularity test. Then the theorem is is staed as follows: Theorem: A language L over alphabet is regular if and only if the set of equivalence classes of is finite. Proof of Theorem Necessity Suppose that a language L is regular and two strings. then Submit. the DFA reaches different states.Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. if and only if }. if and only if they are indistinguishable with respect to . say x and y. Click True or Fals . Also it is a corollary to Myhill-Nerode theorem: Let { be the followijg relation on }={ : For strings and of . that is. are distinguishable with respect to L. Then there is a string z such that xz is in L and yz is not in L (or xz is not in L and yz is in L). This means that if x and y are read by an DFA that recognizes L. Next -. If there are three strings that are distinguished with respect .

For. then the DFA must have infinitely many states. the index) of and let . .. Note that "indistinguishable with respect to L" is an equivalence relation over the set of strings (denote it by ) and [x]'s are equivalence classes. then the language is not regular. To prove this. note that for every string [ ]. Let ... be the number of distinct equivalence classes (i. . then the language L is regular.. then the DFA reaches three different states after reading those three strings. are in different classes for and are distinguishable with respect to L. is in exactly one equivalence class.e. namely ] and ]. ) as follows: ]} ]. DFA ( = {[ =[ = {[ ( ... if the number of classes of strings that are pairwise indistinguishable with respect to a language L is finite. be representatives of those distinct equivalence classes. ... [ . . ]. Then we construct a . [ ]=[ } ]. Sufficiency Conversely. then ]'s. We will show that a DFA that accepts L can be constructed using these equivalence classes. Let us now show that this machine is in fact a DFA and it accepts the language First. let [x] denote a class of strings that are indistinguishable from a string x with respect to L. where [ ] =[ ] for all . . if and in [ ]. which it can not because a DFA must have a finite number of states. ]..to L. making them belong to different [ Hence is a function. Hence if there are infinitely many strings to be distinguished with respect to L. Hence if there is an infinite set of strings which are pairwise distinguishable with respect to a language.

Our proof is by structural induction on string Basis Step: = =[ ]. For that. . if the set of its equivalence classes is finite. where ]. . let us show that this DFA accepts string in [ ] is also in L. ] by the induction hypothesis. for DFA. ]. Hence Hence we have shown that for every string ]. then every We then show that for every string . Hence =[ = . . . where . this means that the DFA accepts Myhill-Nerode Theorem Let us here state Myhill-Nerode Theorem. where ] is the equivalence class that belongs to. Inductive Step: Assume Then for every But =[ Hence =[ ]. An equivalence relation on is said to be right invariant if for every . Then by the definition of . by the definition of = . = [ ]. Myhill-Nerode Theorem can now be stated as follows: The following three statements are equivalent: (1) A language is regular.Next. by the definition of = . Since . Also an equivalence relation is said to be of finite index. first note that if . if then for every . =[ ]. if a string in [ in ] is in . =[ ]. First some terminology. . With these terminology. .

S . (3) is of finite index. Let us define context-free grammars and context-free languages here. = { a . Most programming languages can be approximated by context-free grammar and compilers for them have been developed based on properties of context-free languages. S . b } and P1 = { S -> aSb . where X is a nonterminal and is a nonempty string of terminals and nonterminals. Definition (Context-Free Grammar) : A 4-tuple G = < V . . grammar (CFG) if V and . For the following context-free grammar G1 = < V1 . S -> ab }. and P is a finite set of productions of the form X -> and (V )* . Context-Free Languages Context-Free Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Context-Free Grammar Context-Free Languages Push Down Automata Contents Earlier in the discussion of grammars we saw context-free grammars. where X the start symbol. A language is a context-free language (CFL) if all of its strings are generated by a context-free grammar. They are grammars whose productions have the form X -> .(2) L is the union of some of the equivalence classes of a right invariant equivalent relation of finite index. are finite sets sharing no elements between them. The set of strings generated by a context-free grammar is called a context-free language and context-free languages can describe many practically important systems. Proofs are omitted. . Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } is a context-free language. S . P1 > generates L1 : V1 = { S } . P > is a context-free V is V.

< expression > -> < algebraic-expression > . . operations + and * and left and right parentheses. where w is a nonempty string and wr denotes the reversal of string w. S . < statement > -> < for-statement > . For L1* . Then let Sc be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . Similarly for L1L2 . L1L2 . . 3. For example { < statement > -> < if-statement > . Next define Vu = V1 V2 { Su } and Pu = P1 P2 { Su -> S1 . P1 > and G2 = < V2 . . = { a . ) . Example 4: Portions of the syntaxes of programming languages can be described by context-free grammars. For the following context-free grammar G3 = < V3 . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. S -> bSb . . ( . . . Pu > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1 L2 . . 3 = { x . y . . if necessary. Then it can be easily seen that Gc = < Vc . . let Ss be a symbol which is not in V1 . For the following context-free grammar G2 = < V2 . that is. P3 > generates L3 : V3 = { S } . Then it can be easily seen that Gu = < Vu . Outline of Proof This theorem can be verified by constructing context-free grammars for union. Sc . Then L1 context-free languages. S1 . S -> aa . < forstatement > -> for ( < expression > . * } and P3 = { S -> ( S + S ) . Then let Ps = P1 { Ss -> SsS1 . . Then L3 is a context-free language. first relabel symbols of V2 . . < if-statement > -> if ( < expression > ) < statement > . Properties of Context-Free Language Theorem 1: Let L1 and L2 be context-free languages. S . . . . S -> S*S . . . P2 > generates L2 : V2 = { S } . < expression > -> < logicalexpression > . Next define Vc = V1 V2 { Sc } and Pc = P1 P2 { Sc -> S1S2 } . respectively.Example 2: L2 = { wwr| w {a. Su -> S2 } . and L1* are . b }+ } is a context-free language . < expression > ) < statement > . S -> x . concatenation and Kleene star of context-free grammars as follows: Let G1 = < V1 . b } and P2 = { S -> aSa . first relabel symbols of V2 . < statement > -> < assignment > . w is spelled backward to obtain wr . Then for L1 L2 . S -> y }. so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. Then let Su be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . < expression > . S2 . Pc > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1L2 . Su . Ss -> L2 . Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. + . S -> bb }. P2 > be context-free grammars generating L1 and L2 . if necessary. } .

Any string of this language can be tested for the membership for the language by a finite automaton if there is a memory such as a pushdown stack that can store a's of a given input string. A pushdown automaton ( or PDA for short ) is a 7-tuple M = < Q . the contents of the stack can also be changed every time an input symbol is read. respectively ). q0 is the initial state. If another a (or anything other than b) is read after the first b. A . A . Example 1 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . . check the stack. Ps > is a context-free grammar that Like regular languages which are accepted by finite automata. Let us consider a context-free language anbn . Z0 . push them into the stack. and it replaces X with the string at the top of the stack. Z0 . > . and are finite sets ( the input and stack alphabet. If it is empty. . . > . For example. . its next state is determined not only by the input symbol being read. context-free languages are also accepted by automata but not finite automata. where Q is a finite set of states. Thus ( p . It can be seen that the grammar Gs = < Vs . Pushdown Automata . Let us define this new type of automaton formally. . generates the language L1* . Ss . q0 . but also by the symbol at the top of the stack.} . Thus its transition function specifies the new top of the stack contents as well as the next state. They need a little more complex automata called pushdown automata. Otherwise reject it. as a's are read by the finite automaton. reject the string. As soon as the symbol b appears stop storing a's and start popping a's one by one every time a b is read. accept the string. A is the set of accepting states is the transition function and :Q ( ( } -> 2 Q * . X ) = ( q . When all the symbols of the input string are read. a . where Q = { q0 . Z0 is the initial stack symbol and it is a member of . This automaton behaves like a finite automaton except the following two points: First. Second. ) means the following: The automaton moves from the current state of p to the next state q when it sees an input symbol a at the input and X at the top of the stack. q0 .

it is ( q0 . aaZ0 ). A . aZ0 ) ( q1 . its configuration is ( q0 . x . = { a . another a is popped from the top of the stack and the PDA stays in state q1 . aZ0 ). bb .y. Initially its configuration is ( q0 . b . ) ( q2 . b . aa ) q0 q1 q1 b b a a Z0 ( q1 . Z0 ). Thus aabb is accepted by this PDA. abb . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . q0 . ) to configuration ( q . If ( q .x. aZ 0 ) q0 a a ( q0 . b . ( q0 . Z0 ). Z0 ) This pushdown automaton accepts the language anbn . > is a triple ( q . we write ) is reached from ( p . Z0 ) q2 . aZ0 ) ( q0 . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . aZ0 ). This entire process can be expressed using the configurations as ( q0 .x. A = { q2 } and let be as given in the State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . it moves to state q1 and pops a from the top of the stack. aabb . ) ) (q. bb . ) in a single move (a single application of the transition function) we write (p. x is the unread portion of the input string and is the current stack contents. . After reading the second a. aaZ0 ) ( q1 . . x . Z0 ) ( If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. x . ). aabb . following table: = { a . Z0 } . ) by a sequence of zero or more moves. ). Z0 . * (q. Let us now see how the PDA of Example 1 operates when it is given the string aabb . y . . ) .q1 . b } . . Z0 ) . After reading the first a. where the input is read from left to right and the top of the stack corresponds to the leftmost symbol of . (p. A configuration of a PDA M = < Q . . ) ( q1 . q2 } .y. Then when the first b is read. we can also write ( q0 . To express that the PDA moves from configuration ( p . When the second b is read. To describe the operation of a PDA we are going to use a configuration of PDA. . Z0 ). where q is the state the PDA is currently in. Z0 ) * ( q2 . Next it moves to the state q2 which is the accepting state. . abb . aabb . y . for example.

= { a . ) ( q2 . Like FAs. . for some in *. aZ 0 ) q0 b Z0 ( q0 . where Q = { q0 . > . b . x. arcs are labeled differently than FAs. A . Example 2 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . q1 . For PDAs. a ( q0 .A string x is accepted by a PDA (a. . ) ) ) ) ( q1 . q0 . and an accepting state q. For example the transition diagram of the PDA of Example 1 is as shown below. = { a . then an arc from state p to state q is added to the diagram and it is labeled with ( a . q2 } .a. X ) = ( p . however. . b . PDAs can also be represented by transition diagrams. ). Z 0 ) In this table represents either a or b. Z0 } . Z0 . acceptance by final state) if (q0. X / ) indicating that X at the top of the stack is replaced by upon reading a from the input. Z0) .k. b ( q1 . ( q1 . ) . bZ 0 ) q0 q0 q0 q1 q1 q1 a b c a b a b Z0 ( q0 . A = { q2 } and let be as given in the following table: State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . If ( q . c } . * (q. a .

a . ( q0 . In the figure and 2 represent a or b. which is the set of palindromes with c in the middle. abbcbba . it ignores c and from that point on if the top of the stack matches the input symbol. bcbba . it goes through the following configurations and accepts it. When there are no more unread input symbols and Z0 is at the top of the stack. bbcbba . baZ0 ) ( q1 . bbaZ0 ) ( q1 . ba . For example for the input abbcbba. Z0 ) ( q0 . 1 Further topics on CFL • PDA and Context-Free Language There is a procedure to construct a PDA that accepts the language generated by a given context-free grammar and conversely. baZ0 ) ( q1 . This PDA pushes all the a's and b's in the input into stack until c is encountered. ( q0 . it pops the stack. bbaZ0 ) . aZ0 ) ( q1 . That means that a language is . . The transition diagram of the PDA of Example 2 is as shown below. aZ0 ) ( q0 . b }* } .This pushdown automaton accepts the language { wcwr | w { a . When c is detected. Z 0 ) ( q2 . Otherwise it rejects the input string. it accepts the input string. . Z 0 ) . cbba . bba .

native English speakers know that it is the dog that bites and not the other way round. then multiply the result by z. The parsing for context-free languages and regular languages have been extensively studied. productions of grammars. vwmxymz L for every integer m • Parsing and Parsers for CFL Consider the algebraic expression x + yz. a computer like non-English speaking people must be told how to interpret sentences such as the first noun phrase (" A dog") is usually the subject of a sentence.e. there are strings v. For example in the sentence "A man bites a dog".e. compute yz first. Contect-free grammars are powerful grammars. Interested readers are referred to the textbook and other sources. it does not know which interpretation to use unless it is explicitly instructed to follow one or the other. Thus they are widely used for compilers for high level programming languages and natural language processing systems. By parsing sentences we identify the parts of the sentences and determine the strutures of the sentences so that their meanings can be understood correctly. we are not going to study parsing here. ???? references on Parsing ???? . However. Similar things happen when English sentences are processed by computers (or people as well for that matter). a verb phrase usually follow the noun phrase and the first word in the verb phrase is the verb and it is followed by noun phrases reprtesenting object(s) of the verb. Though we are accustomed to interpreting this as x + (yz) i. y and z which satisfy u = vwxyz |wy| > 0 |wxy| n 0 . Thus if a computer is given the string x + yz. Parsing is the process of interpreting given input strings according to predetermined rules i. "bites" is the verb and "a man" is the object of the verb. x. "A dog" is the subject. it could also be interpreted as ( x + y )z meaning that first compute x + y. w. They can describe much of programming languages and basic structures of natural languages. • Pumping Lemma for Context-Free Language Let L be a CFL. Those procedures are omitted here. Then there is a positive integer n such that for any string u in L with |u| n .context-free if and only if there is a PDA that accepts it. then add the result to x. However.

of limited capability and there are many languages that they can not process.Test Your Understanding of Contect-Free Language Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Turing machines were conceived of by the English mathematician Alan .Turing Machines Back to Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • • • Definition of Turing Machine Configuration Operation of Turing Machine Contents Introduction We have studied two types of languages from the Chomsky hierarchy: regular languages and context-free languages. These languages can describe many practically important systems and so they are heavily used in practice. however. and the machines that can process them: Turing machines. Next -. the phrase structure languages (also called Type 0 languages). then Submit. In this chapter we are going to study the most general of the languages in Chomsky hierarchy. Click True or Fals . They are.

We are going to study Turing machines here and through that limitations of computers and computation as we know today. Definition Conceptually a Turing machine. . The tape has the left end but it extends infinitely to the right. Computers we use today are as powerful as Turing machines except that computers have finite memory while Turing machines have infinite memory. At any time it is in one of the finite number of states. right or stay at the same square after a read or write.Turing as a model of human "computation". Given a string of symbols on the tape. either erases it or replaces it with a symbol (possibly the same symbol). unlike finite automata. This conjecture is known as Church's thesis and today it is generally accepted as true. a Turing machine starts at the initial state. like finite automata. It then moves the head to left or right or does not move it and goes to the next state which may be the same as the current state. its head is a read-write head and it can move left. it stops its operation. consists of a finite control and a tape. Later Alonzo Church conjectured that any computation done by humans or computers can be carried out by some Turing machine. However. One of its states is the halt state and when the Turing machine goes into the halt state. At any state it reads the symbol under the head. It is also divided into squares and a symbol can be written in each square.

R ) ( q3 . D ) . > accepts the language aba* . Y. where Q1 = { q0. is the transition function but its value may not be defined for certain points. = { a . X ) = ( r. . . b } . It is a mapping from Q ( { } ) to ( Q { h } ) ( { }) {R. The states are represented by vertices and for a transition ( q. . > . left and do not move it. q1. q0 . The symbol h is used to denote the halt state. D ) indicating that the state is changed from q to r. = { a . q0. L and S denote move the head right.L. an arc from q to r is drawn with label ( X/Y . is a finite set of symbols and it is the input alphabet. the symbol X currently being read is changed to Y and the tape head is moved as directed by D. respectively.Formally a Turing machine is a 5-tuple T = < Q. X) ) ( q1 . . q0 is the initial state. Here denotes the blank and R. State (q) Input (X) Move ( q0 q1 q2 q3 q3 a b a (q. It is assumed that the tape has at the left end and the head is initially at the left end of the tape. q2. S}. where Q is a finite set of states. q3 } . A transition diagram can also be drawn for a Turing machine.S) A transition diagram of this Turing machine is given below. b . Example 1 : The following Turing machine < Q1 . R ) (h. . which is assumed not to contain the symbol h. a . L or S . a . is a finite set of symbols containing as its subset and it is the set of tape symbols. where D represents R. R ) ( q2 . R ) ( q3 . b } and is as given by the table below. . .

and ( p . the taper contents are the string aababb and the head is reading the last a of the string. zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in zero or more moves. aba ) (h. yaz ) for some symbol a { } and some strings y and z in ( * { } ) . . For example the Turing machine of Example 1 above goes through the following sequence of configurations to accept the string aba: ( q0 . A configuration for a Turing machine is an ordered pair of the current state and the tape contents with the symbol currently under the head marked with underscore. The set of strings accepted by a Turing machine is the language accepted by the Turing machine. A string x is said to be accepted by a Turing machine* T = < Q . aababb ) shows that the Turing machine is currently in state q. aba ) ( q2 . For example ( q . . aba ) ( q1 .Turing Machine that accepts aba* To describe the operation of Turing machine we use configuration. We write ( p . Note that the Turing machine does not stop if a string is not in the language. xay ) * ( q . xay ) ( q . If the Turing machine needs to be explicitly indicated T or T* is used. ( q0 . > if x ) * ( h. In this case we also say that the Turing machine halts on input x. aba ) ( q3 . A Turing machine T is said to decide a language L if and only if T writes "yes" and halts if a string is in L and T writes "no" and halts if a string is not in L. zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in one move. q0 . aba ) .

where = { a }.The first of the following figures shows a Turing machine that accepts but does not decide the language { a }. the second is a Turing machine that accepts { a } but goes into a loop if a string is not in the language (hence it accepts but doe not decide { a }) and the third decides { a }. .

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to the right of Example 3 : The following Turing machine erases the string on the tape and moves the head to the left end. It is assumed that initially the tape has at the left end. .Example 2 : The following Turing machine moves the head to the first the current position. This Turing machine is denoted by TE. It is denoted by TR .

For example the following Turing machine accepts the language a+. . that is when a Turing machine does not halt on a string. In cases (2) and (3).Strings not Accepted by Turing Machines When a string is not accepted by a Turing machine. (2) no transition is specified for the current configuration and (3) the head is at the left end and it is instructed to move left. the operation of the Turing machine is aborted. one of the following three things happens: (1) The Turing machine goes into an infinite loop. but it goes into an infinite loop for any strings that are not in the language.

reject a string and halt.Turing machine accepting a+ Computabler Function Let S * and let f be a function f : S -> S. or loop. there is no difference between these two definitions of "accept". the Turing machine eventually goes into the accept halt state. Then we say T computes f or f is computable if for every x ( q0 . . there are two halt states: "accept halt" and "reject halt". As far as the material discussed in this class note. A language is a phrase structure (type 0) langauage if and only if it is Turing-acceptable in either sense and it has no effects on decidablility. A Turing machine thus may accept a string and halt. T does not halt on x. in the Turing machines those books define. With this definition. * Note on "Turing-acceptable": Some books define "acceptance by Turing machine" slightly differently. That is. f(x) ) * . a string is accepted by a Turing machine if given the string. x) * ( h. * and for every x that is not in S.

Click True or Fals . It moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) . Next -. then Submit. any "computation" done by human beings or machines can be done by some Turing machine. Here we are going to study how complex Turing machines can be constructed using simple Turing machines and how computers can be simulated by Turing machines.Combination of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Combination of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Combination of Turing Machines Contents Combination of Turing Machines We have seen the definition of Turing machine and a few simple examples. Let us start with some basic Turing machines. One can construct many more Turing machines that perform various functions.Test Your Understanding of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. In fact Turing machines that simulate computers and Turing machines that perform computations done by any algorithm can be constructed. There are two sets of questions. We have already seen TR . Furthermore according to the Church's thesis.

Similarly by TL we denote a Turing machine that moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) to the left of the current position. takes the head to the right end of the string and halts. Example 4: The following machine shifts the tape contents to the left one position. respectively. T1T2 and T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that behaves initially like T1 and when T1 halts T2 takes over inheriting the head position and the tape contents of T1 . Below is assumed to be at the left end of the tape initially. To combine Turing machines we use the following conventions: Let T1 and T2 represent arbitrary Turing machines. Then if T1 halts and if the symbol currently under the head is . let us construct a little more complex Turing machines.to the right of the current position. Otherwise it crashes. then T2 is started as in the case of T1T2 . . Then by T we denote a Turing machine that writes symbol at the current position and does not move the head (stays). The halt state of T1 becomes the initial state of T2 . Using these basic machines and the convention. T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that first executes T1. Also by TR and TL we denote Turing machines that move the head to right and left one position.

So the initial configuration for adding 2 and 3 is ( q0 . x) * b b (h. x x). After adding two numbers placed on the tape it moves the head to the left end and halts. m I's and n I's with a blank between them are placed on the tape. Example 6: The following Turing machine copies the tape contents at the left end to their right separated by a blank . that is ( q0 .For example with the initial tape contents of sequence of tape contents and ends with ab ab -> ab : ab . To add two numbers m and n. First. For example the number 3 is represented by three consecutive I's on the tape and 5 by five I's. it goes through the following -> aab -> a -> a -> abb -> ab -> ab -> ab Example 5: The left-shift machine of Example 4 can be used to construct an adder for natural numbers. After the addition the configuration becomes ( h . IIIII ) . k consecutive I's are put on the tape. natural numbers are represented on a Turing machine using symbol I. In general to represent a natural number k. An adder can be constructed for example as TR -> TSL TL . . II III ) .

the branch operation is already in Turing machines because next configurations are determined based on the current state and tape symbol being looked at.Today's computers are very complex machines and their instruction sets contain complicated operations. On the other hand as we have seen above. Click True or Fals . branching. The following notations are used in the questions: . Furthermore if the subtraction operation is necessary. it is not difficult to construct a Turing machine that performs subtraction using the same representation of numbers as for the addition. one can say that computers can be simulated by Turing machines. Thus by combining appropriate Turing machines a computer with a minimal instruction set can be constructed. all of those instructions can be realized using combinations of a small number of basic instructions. there is a Turing machine that performs addition. and store and load operations can be taken care of by a Turing machine that copies tape contents. In fact many of the earlier computers had a much smaller instruction set but still could do everything today's computers can do albeit much more slowly. However. store and load operations. All the other operations can be realized by using those basic operations. then Submit. Since any complex computer instructions can be realized using those basic instructions. Test Your Understanding of Combination of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. A bare minimum instruction set would contain addition.

what one type can compute any other can also compute.Types of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Types of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Variation of Turing Machine Contents There are a number of other types of Turing machines in addition to the one we have seen such as Turing machines with multiple tapes. However. the efficiency of computation. first we map the squares of the two dimensional tape to those of the one dimensional tape diagonally as shown in . the former can be simulated by the latter. nondeterministic Turing machines etc. It turns out that computationally all these Turing machines are equally powerful. ones having one tape but with multiple heads. To simulate a two dimensional tape with a one dimensional tape. how fast they can compute. The tape has the top end and the left end but extends indefinitely to the right and down. ones with two dimensional tapes. Turing Machines with Two Dimensional Tapes This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control. that is. may vary. That is.T_a : Ta T_R : TR ->^b : ->b Next -. For any Turing machine of this type there is a Turing machine with a one dimensional tape that is equally powerful. one read-write head and one two dimensional tape. that is. It is divided into rows of small squares.

Let k be the number of squares visited by the head of the one dimensional tape.. Let i be the head position of the two dimensional tape. One Dimensional Tape v 1 v 2 3 h 4 5 6 v 7 8 9 10 h 11 . v 7 14 18 24 .. the head moves from position 8 to right. that is i = 8... Thus this time the third square is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 9 on the two dimensional tape... . . ..> ...the following tables: Two Dimensional Tape v v h 1 h 3 h 4 h 10 h 11 h 21 ..... ..< . . . ..... If the head moves down to position 13. Thus from h.... v 15 17 25 . ...... suppose that the head position is at 8 for the two dimensional tape in the above table... . . left or right. .... then move the head of the one dimensional tape to right until it hits h or v counting the number of squares it has visited after i.. The head of a two dimensional tape moves one square up. .... If h was hit first. . . . . If v was hit first.... then for the one dimensional tape. . . respectively..... .. . . .. v 16 26 .. v 6 8 13 19 23 .... v 2 5 9 12 20 22 . That is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 13 on the two dimensional tape. .. move 3 positions to the right.. .. For example.. If the head moves down from i. Here the numbers indicate the correspondence of squares in the two tapes: square i of the two dimensional tape is mapped to square i of the one dimensional tape. . .. h and v are symbols which are not in the tape alphabet and they are used to mark the left and the top end of the tape. ... which is the third square from 8.. If i = 5 and the head moves down on the other hand.. . . . . . That is the square corresponding to the square below i in the two dimensional tape... then (k+1)-th square to the right from v is the new head position. then on the one dimensional tape the head moves to the right and it hits v first. . then from h move the head of the one dimensional tape further right to the k-th square from h. Let us simulate this head move with a one dimensional tape.. which is the second square from i = 5... down.... Then it meets h first.

S It can be easily seen that this type of Turing machines are as powerful as one tape Turing machines. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . L ..Similarly formulas can be found for the head position on the one dimensional tape corresponding to move up. Hence they are at least as powerful as Turing machines with a two dimensional tape. >. Since Turing machines with a two dimensional tape obviously can simulate Turing machines with a one dimensional tape. Thus some Turing machines with a one dimensional tape can simulate every move of a Turing machine with one two dimensional tape. Nondeterministic Turing Machines . right or left on the two dimensional tape.. Details are omitted.L. {h}) ( { } {R. > . . Turing Machines with Multiple Tapes : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and more than one tapes each with its own read-write head. Turing Machines with Multiple Heads : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape but more than one read-write heads. . H2 . It can be proven that any language accepted by an n-tape Turing machine can be accepted by a one tape Turing machine and that any function computed by an n-tape Turing machine can be computed by a one tape Turing machine. Turing Machines with Infinite Tape : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape which extends infinitely in both directions. S } n . where H1 .. q0. Hn denote the tape heads. Its transition function is a partial function :Q ( { } )n -> ( Q { h } ) ( { } )n { R . It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . q0. Hn } ( { } ) -> ( Q }. . H2 . A configuration for this kind of Turing machine must show the current state the machine is in and the state of each tape. Since the converses are obviously true. In each state only one of the heads is allowed to read and write. .. it can be said that they are equally powerful. . . It turns out that this type of Turing machines are only as powerful as one tape Turing machines whose tape has a left end. The transition function is a partial function : Q { H1 . one can say that one tape Turing machines are as powerful as n-tape Turing machines.

All possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN once form the children of the initial configuration.L. a nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts this language L would first guess the midpoint of x. The children of all the vertices of level i form level i+1. Formally a nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine whose transition function takes values that are subsets of ( Q {h}) ( { } {R. In general for each vertex of level i all possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN are its children. The set of all possible computations that TN can perform for a given string x can be represented by a rooted tree as follows. can not guess the midpoint of the string x. They form level 1. Then it would compare the first half of x with the second half by comparing the i-th symbol of the first half with the i-th symbol of the second half for i = 1. Theorem Any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by some deterministic Turing machine. goes into an infinite loop or aborts. Proof : Let TN denote a nondeterministic Turing machine. can take any action selecting from a set of specified actions rather than taking one definite predetermined action. The root of the tree is the initial configuration and it is the only vertex of level 0. It can be shown that a nondeterministic Turing machine is only as powerful as a deterministic Turing machine.. 2. It must find the midpoint by for example pairing off symbols from either end of x. at any state it is in and for the tape symbol it is reading.. . Even in the same situation it may take different actions at different times. Given a string x.S}. A deterministic Turing machine. . As in the case of NFA. For example consider the following nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts a+ . it is understood that a nondeterministic Turing machine at any configuration selects one combination of next state. that is the place where the second half of x starts. .A nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine which. At any point in the process TN is in some configuration and has a finite set of configurations to choose from for its next configuration. on the other hand. moving the tape head and going to a next state. TN starts at the initial configuration and goes through a sequence of configurations until it reaches a halt configuration . like nondeterministic finite automata. Given a string x . b }* } . Note that the number of children for a vertex in this tree is finite because the number of states is finite and there are a finite number of tape symbols. Here an action means the combination of writing a symbol on the tape. For example let us consider the language L = { ww : w { a . tape symbol and head movement out of the set of triples without following any specific predetermined rule.

aa ) for the second. aa ) ( h . aa ) for the third. aa ) . and ( q1 . aa ) ( q2 . aa ) and ( q2 . aa ) ( q1 . it has two candidates for the next configuration: ( q1 . At the second and third configurations in the above sequence. aa ) and ( q2 . The tree for this case would be as follows: .Turing machine accepting a+ Given the string aa. aa ) ( q1 . it would proceed as follows to accept it: ( q0 .

At each level of the tree. is to traverse this tree breadth-first way from the root until the halt state is reached. Click True or Fals . These children are the configurations of the next level and they are stored on the tape (if necessary a second tape may be used). It can be easily seen that T2 accepts a string if and only if T1 accepts it. call it T1. However. it has been shown that none of them exceed the capability of basic deterministic Turing machine as far as accepting languages is concerned.Unsolvable Problems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Unsolvable Problems . then Submit. T2 applies the transition function of T1 to each configuration at that level and computes its children. with a deterministic one. In fact the Church's thesis conjectures that any so called computation done by humans or computers can be performed by a basic deterministic Turing machine. If there is the halting state among these children. call it T2. Next -.One way to simulate a nondeterministic Turing machine. Test Your Understanding of Different Types of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. though a deterministic Turing machine might take much more time than a nondeterministic Turing machine to accept a string. Many other variations of Turing machine are possible. Thus any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by a deterministic Turing machine. then T2 accepts the string and halts.

the question is unanswerable that is the problem is unsolvable. the question of whether or not a string is in the language may not be answered in any finite amount of time. T writes "yes" if M halts on w and "no" if M does not halt on w. In this chapter we are going to learn that there are problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers. Minsky): This is going to be proven by "proof by contradiction". L. So we are going to look at the unsolvability in terms of language recognition. b } . That is. there is no way of telling whether it is in an infinite loop or along the way to a solution and it needs more time. Proof (by M. and that any of their variations do not exceed the computational power of deterministic Turing machines. Since we can not wait forever for an answer. Here "unsolvability" is in the following sense. Below we are going to see some well known unsolvable problems and see why we can say they are unsolvable. It asks the following question: Given an arbitrary Turing machine M over alphabet = { a . Then given a string a Turing machine that accept the language starts the computation. . given a description of a Turing machine M (over the alphabet ) and a string w. It is also conjectured that any "computation" human beings perform can be done by Turing machines (Church's thesis).Subjects to be Learned • • • Halting Problem Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents We have learned that deterministic Turing machines are capable of doing any computation that computers can do. hence unsolvable. that is computationally they are equally powerful. Suppose that the halting problem is decidable. and then T halts. At any point in time. Theorem 1 : The halting problem is undecidable. and an arbitrary string w over . First recall that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language (see Problem Solving as Language Recognition). Halting Problem One of well known unsolvable problems is the halting problem. Suppose that a language is acceptable but not decidable. does M halt when it is given w as an input ? It can be shown that the halting problem is not decidable. Thus if a language is not decidable. Then there is a Turing machine T that solves the halting problem. if the Turing machine is running.

where * is a symbol that separates the two copies of d(M) and then supplies d(M)*d(M) to the Turing machine Tm . First we construct a Turing machine Tm by modifying T so that if T accepts a string and halts. Next using Tm we are going to construct another Turing machine Tc as follows: Tc takes as input a description of a Turing machine M. copies it to obtain the string d(M)*d(M).We are now going to construct the following new Turing machine Tc. . denoted by d(M). then Tm goes into an infinite loop (Tm halts if the original T rejects a string and halts).

Thus the question of whether or not a program halts for a given input is nothing but the halting problem. Hence that assumption must be wrong. Thus the modified T is given a description of Turing machine Tc and the string d(Tc). Program correctness and Halting Problem Note that for any computer program a Turing machine can be constructed that performs the task of the program.Let us now see what Tc does when a string describing Tc itself is given to it. Thus one implication of the halting problem is that there can be no computer programs (Turing machines) that check whether or not any arbitrary computer program stops for a given input. Thus Tc goes into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and it halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). it makes a copy. constructs the string d(Tc)*d(Tc) and gives it to the modified T. The way T was modified the modified T is going to go into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). Hence there is no Turing machine that solves the halting problem. When Tc gets the input d(Tc) . This is a contradiction. This contradiction has been deduced from our assumption that there is a Turing machine that solves the halting problem. .

Next -. It is presented as a language and it can be shown that there are no Turing machines that accept the language. Click True or Fals .Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. then Submit. Language NonSelfAccepting Let us first define two languages NSA1 and NSA2 as follows: .More Unsolvable Preoblems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines More Unsolvable Problems Subjects to be Learned • • Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents The next unsolvable problem is in a sense more difficult than the halting problem.

Then there is no Turing machine that can be described by the string a. Hence it is in SelfAccepting . Hence by the definition of NSA1 . w0 is in NSA1 . (2) If T0 does not accept w0 . then w0 NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. This is again a contradiction. Knowing the unsolvability of the halting problem some other problems can be shown to be unsolvable. However. Hence a is in NSA2 . Hence T0 can not accept w0 . w d(T) for any Turing machine T } . For NSA2. It . We are going to see that T0 neither accepts w0 nor rejects it. Certainly more symbols than a single a are needed to describe even the simplest Turing machine. Proof: This is going to be proven by contradiction. that accepts NonSelfAccepting. NSA2 is the set of strings that do not describe any Turing machine. which is absurd. Let us define the language NonSelfAccepting as NonSelfAccepting = NSA1 Then we can prove the following theorem: NSA2 . Theorem 2 There are no Turing machines that accept the language NonSelfAccepting. Hence either T0 accepts w0 or rejects it. Thus there can not be Turing machine T0 that accepts the language SelfAccepting . where d(T) is a description of the Turing machine T. Let w0 = d( T0 ). w = d(T) for a Turing machine T and T does not accept NSA2 = { w | w { a. But w0 = d( T0 ) because that is how we selected w0 . then w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. Hence it is not accepted by T. This is a contradiction. Hence w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting . Then this w is a description of a Turing machine but it must be longer than one symbol. w0 is in neither NSA1 nor NSA2 . that is w0 is a description of the Turing machine T0 . let w = a. NSA1 is the set of strings that describe a Turing machine but that are not accepted by the Turing machine they describe. (1) If T0 accepts w0. b }*. call it T0.NSA1 = { w | w w} { a. Since NonSelfAccepting is a language. For let T be a Turing machine that accepts { a } and let w = d(T). b }*. This means that there can not be any Turing machine that accepts the language NonSelfAccepting. either w0 is in NonSelfAccepting or it isn't. by the definitions of NSA1 and NSA2. Hence w is in NSA1 . Thus neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. Neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. Also T0 does not accept w0 . Suppose there is a Turing machine. Problem Accepts( ) The problem Accepts( ) asks whetehr or not a given Turing machine T accepts .

a Turing machine. Let A be a Turing machine that solves AcceptsEverything. Since the halting problem is unsolvable. Let A be a Turing machine that solves Accepts( ). Let T' be an instance of Accepts( ).can be shown to be unsolvable. Then there is a Turing machine that solves it. Let a Turing machine T' and a string w be an instance of the halting problem. call it M. That is. We are going to show that the halting problem becomes solvable using this A. Using a similar idea the following problem can also be shown to be unsolvable. Using this T. We are going to show that Accepts( ) can be solved using the solution to it. Problem AcceptsEverything The problem AcceptsEverything asks whether or not a given Turing machine T halts on every string over a given alphabet . call it M. that solves the halting problem can be constructed as follows: Given a description d(T') of a Turing machine T' and a string w as inputs. M solves the halting problem. This T halts on if and only if T' halts on w. Suppose that Accepts( ) is solvable. Then M halts on d(T') and w if and only if T' halts on w. Suppose that AcceptsEverything is solvable. where Terase is a Turing machine that erases the input on the tape and halts. Thus if Accepts( ) is solvable. This T halts on every string over if and only if T1 halts on . Consider a Turing machine T = TwT'. this means that Accepts( ) is unsolvable. M writes the string d( T ) on the tape and let A take over. which is an instance of the halting problem. where machine Tw is a Turing machine that writes w. Using this T. Then consider the Turing machine T = TeraseT' . that solves Accepts( ) can be constructed as . a Turing machine. the halting problem can be solved.

Equivalence This problem asks whether or not two Turing machines accept the same language. It can be shown to be unsolvable using Accepts( ) . AcceptsNothing This problem asks whether or not a Turing machine accepts nothing. Since Accepts( ) is unsolvable. It can be shown to be unsolvable using AcceptsEverything. it means that AcceptsEverything is unsolvable. Other Unsolvable Problems Let G1 and G2 be context-free grammars and let L(G) denote the language generated by grammar G. Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) = ? finite ? infinite ? context-free ? Is L( G1 ) = L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) = * ? Is the complement of L( G1 ) context-free ? . Then the following problems are all unsolvable.shown below. By similar arguments the following problems can be shown to be unsolvable.

No one can write computer programs that solve those problems and halt after a finite amount of time. Next -. Click True or Fals . A problem is solvable if some Turing .Time Complexity of Problem Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Complexity Time Complexity Subjects to be Learned • • • • • Time Complexity of Problems Decision Tree Class NP Polynomial Time Transformation NP-Complete Problems Contents In the previous sections we have learned that some problems are unsolvable by Turing machines hence by computers. then Submit.Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.

For example.g.machine can solve it in finite time. For example. They take much more time to execute than polynomial time algorithms. the equality symbol = and quantifiers and . and there are problems that require algorithms with the worst case time worse than k-exponential time for any natural number k. For example a binary search takes O(lg n) time. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved by algorithms with the worst case time which is a polynomial in the problem size (polynomial time algorithms). In this section we are going to study solvable problems and learn a hierarchy of solvable problems based on the computation time required to solve them. after(A. where P and Q are propositions. etc. For example the formula ( P V ~P ) is always true. S). In logic there is a well known problem of "satisfiability". It is estimated by counting the largest possible number of key operations to be performed in terms of the input size. Before proceeding to predicate logic let us consider the following logic called propositional dynamic logic (PDL for short). S) says that S is true after executing A. are propositions of PDL. X [ if ~( X = 1 ). Presburger arithmetic is a logic that allows statements involving positive integers. 22n ) time algorithms. The satisfiability problem for PDL is known to take at least exponential time to solve in the worst case. a heap sort needs O(n lg n) time. One can ask the same question for formulas of first order predicate logic. O(f(x)) (big-oh) and other related subjects click here. For example the satisfiability problem for Presburger arithmetic is double-exponential (2-fold exponentail). So it is certainly satisfiable. However. as we are going to see below. The satisfiability problem becomes even harder when logic becomes more complex. Similarly ( P V Q ) is also satisfiable. For more detailed review of this. variables taking positive integers as their values. a quick sort needs O(n2) time. They are all polynomial time algorithms. in practice if it takes a million years. Even if it takes a million years to solve a problem. ~Q )" and "if P then after( if P then Q else ~Q. it is as good (or bad) as unsolvable. second order logic. Then there are problems that require double exponential ( e. For many problems a day or even an hour would be too long. The measure for computation time we use is the worst case time. There are also problems that must be solved at best by exponential time algorithms in the worst case. or etc. it is still solvable. So it is not satisfiable. problems that need k-exponential time algorithms. This is a propositional logic with an extra construct (proposition) after(A. as well as all the connectives such as and. the addition operation +. etc. where P is a propositional variable. . where k is a natural number. But (P ^ ~P ) is always false. For example "after( if P then Q else ~Q. This is the problem of asking whether or not a given formula can take the value true for some values of its variables. where A is an algorithm and S is a statement. Let us see some of those intractable problems. the satisfiability problem for the propositional dynamic logic is proven to take exponential time to solve in the worst case. They are both satisfiable. then Y Z [ X = Y + Z ] ] is a proposition of Presburger arithmetic. The problems that can not be solved with any polynomial time algorithm are called intractable problems . that is it requires at least O( aan ) time to solve in the worst case. Q )" .

sets of integers and the predicate "belongs to" (an element X belongs to a set S) are allowed. This problem is called "Graph Coloring" problem or more precisely "Vertex Color" problem. First. Below we are going to characterize this class of problems. there are no K-fold exponential time algorithms to solve it for any number K. Let us try to solve the following instances of this graph coloring problem: Given the following graph. however. in addition. the consensus is that they ca not be solved with polynomial time algorithms. At the moment. Now let us go back to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. For the satisfiability problem of WS1S. These problems are called decision problems. "Is it possible to schedule committee meetings without conflicts into a given number of time slots ? " . "Is a string w in the language a*b ? ". if. Such a problem (having no K-fold exponential time algorithms) is called nonelementary. Some of these decision problems are NP-complete problems. there are problems that are solved by answering with yes or no. For example. " Is it possible to assign colors to vertices of a given graph using a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned ? " etc.In Presburger arithmetic (minus addition operation). the logic is called WS1S (Weak Second-order theory of 1 Successor). For the problems of this class there are no known polynomial time algorithms for solving them nor are they known to be unsolvable with polynomial time algorithms. is it possible to color its vertices with three or less colors ? . This problem belongs to a peculiar class of problems called NP-Complete problems. Consider the problem of coloring vertices of a graph with a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned. Let us here review nondeterministic Turing machines.

For the graphs of (a) and (b), you could find a solution very easily by inspection. You could see a right coloring as soon as you saw the graphs. However, you can most likely not tell how you arrived at your solutions. You probably don't have any algorithms you could use to solve them. You could somehow see the solutions. This is basically the idea of nondeterministic (Turing) machine. There is no fixed procedure which you can use repeatedly to solve instance after instance of this problem. But you can somehow solve them. Let us move on to a slightly more complex example of (c). For this graph to find a right coloring you could start with vertex 1 and assign color a. Then move on to vertex 2 and assign color b(it has to be something other than a ). Then go to vertex 3 and assign a third color, say c. Then at vertex 4 select color b and for vertex 5 use color a. In this process we make a decision as to what color to use for each vertex and when a decision is made for all the vertices we have a solution to the problem. This process applies to any decision problem. That is to solve a decision problem a number of smaller decisions are made one after another and as a result a solution to the problem is obtained. This process can be represented by a tree called decision tree. For example, for the graph coloring problem let us first decide on the order of vertices we color in, say 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for the graph of (c) above. Then the root of its decision tree corresponds to the vertex we assign a color to first (vertex 1 in this example). Then for each possible color for the first vertex, a child is created for the first vertex of the tree. So the second level of the

decision tree corresponds to the second vertex to be colored. Then in general, for each possible color for each vertex of level i of the decision tree, a child is created. Those children form level i+1 of the decision tree. The decision tree for the graph of (c) is given below. Since any color can be assigned to vertex 1 without loss of generality, it has just one child in the actual decision tree. Also since in this case the i-th and (i+1)-th vertices are connected by an edge for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, they can not have the same color. So each vertex after vertex 1 has two colors to choose from. So they each have two children in the decision tree.

Thus during the process of solving the problem a decision is made at each level and when all levels are covered, the problem is solved. A path from the root to a leaf corresponds to a coloring of the vertices of the given graph. A decision tree, however, does not tell us how to make decisions. Also a decision tree does not tell how to order the vertices for coloring, that is which vertex to color first, second etc. A deterministic machine (or algorithm) has a specific fixed set of rules for making a decision at each level of the decision tree. Although it knows what to do at every stage of problem solving, the decisions it makes are not necessarily the right ones. When it makes wrong decisions, it must retract earlier decisions and try different paths, which is called backtracking. For the graph coloring problem a deterministic algorithm might first order the vertices of the graph in decreasing order of their degree and also order colors. Then, following the

order of the vertices, assign to each vertex the highest order color available for the vertex. Since that kind of algorithm is not guaranteed to use the minimum number of colors, it may produce a wrong answer unless there is some provision for backtracking. A nondeterministic (Turing) machine, on the other hand, is a fictitious machine and somehow knows which branch (child) to select at each step. It always makes a right selection. A decision problem is said to belong to class NP if each vertex in its decision tree has a finite number of children and if it can be solved by a nondeterministic (Turing) machine in polynomial time. The graph coloring problem is in class NP, so are the satisfiability problem for propositional logic and most of the scheduling problems just to name a few. Also there are other characterizations of class NP. Interested readers click here. At this moment it is not known whether or not problems in class NP can be solved with a polynomial time algorithm in the worst case. The consensus is that there is no polynomial time algorithm to solve them. It would take at least exponential time. Among the problems in class NP, there are problems which all problems of class NP can be transformed to in polynomial time. Those problems are called NP-complete problems. If a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of the NP-complete problems, all the problems in NP can be solved in polynomial time. Below we are going to study NPcomplete problems. We start our discussion with the concept of polynomial time transformation (reduction). Basically we say a decision problem Q1 is polynomially reducible to a decision problem Q2 if and only if there is a transformation that transforms any arbitrary instance of Q1 into an instance of Q2 in polynomial time such that the answer to Q1 is yes if and only if the answer to Q2 is yes. A little more formally we define this in terms of languages. Note that a decision problem can be viewed as a language of its instances and that solving it can be considered as recognizing the language as we have seen earlier. Let L1 and L2 be languages over alphabets 1 and 2, respectively. We say that L1 is polynomial-time reducible to L2 if and only if there is a function f from 1* to 2* such that for any string x in polynomial time.

1 *

,x

L1 if and only if f(x)

L2 and f can be computed

For example let us consider the following two problems: graph coloring and scheduling of committee meetings. The graph coloring problem is as given above. In the scheduling of committee meetings problem, committees with their members and a positive integer k are given. The problem is whether or not the meetings of the committees can be scheduled in k or less time slots so that everyone can attend one's meetings. Note that some people may be in more than one committee. Let us try to show that this scheduling problem is polynomial time reducible to the graph coloring problem.

c }. 3 and 4 to the graph. Let us consider the following transformation: For each committee add a vertex to the graph. d }. an edge is inserted between vertices 1 and 2. Suppose that the meetings can be scheduled in p time slots. 2. Then the meetings can be scheduled in k or less time slots if and only if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. 2. add vertices 1. and 1 and 4. { b. Suppose also that k = 3. that is construct a graph and give the number of colors to be used to color its vertices so that the meetings can be scheduled if and only if graph can be colored. Similarly since committees 1 and 3. b }. c. 3 and 4 with the memberships { a. Thus the scheduling problem asks whether or not the meetings of the given committees can be scheduled in 3 time slots without any conflicts. connect with an edge the vertices corresponding to the committees. and if and only if two committee have some members in common. Proceeding similarly the following graph is obtained corresponding to the committee memberships. The corresponding graph for the graph coloring problem can be constructed as follows: Corresponding to the committees 1. 2. For example suppose that we are given the committees 1. 3 and 4. where p k. Corresponding to this grouping assign colors to the vertices of the graph so that the vertices in the same group are given the same color and those in . Then since committees 1 and 2 share a. respectively. edges are added between 1 and 3. Then the committees can be grouped into p groups so that the committees in the same group can meet at the same time. d } and { a. {a.What we need to do is given an instance of the scheduling problem construct an instance of the graph coloring problem. and 1 and 4 share members.

For all the problems in class NP can be reduced to P through the known NP-complete problem in polynomial time. Satisfiability Problem for Propositional Logic 2. This coloring uses p colors which does not exceed k. Graph Color Problem 3. This group of problems are called NP-complete problems. Subsequently the satisfiability problem was found to be polynomial time reducible to many other problems. then P is also NP-complete.different groups are given different colors. then the consensus today is that it is most likely that no polynomial time algorithms i. We are now ready to discuss NP-completeness. then it can be easily seen that the committees can meet in k or less time slots. Cook that the problems of class NP can be polynomial time reducible to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. Bin Packing Problem Given a set of objects. that is the construction of graph for a given set of committees. group them into two groups so that the sum of the numbers of one group is equal to that of the other group. Committee Meeting Schedule Problem In fact most scheduling problems are NPcomplete. 4. their sizes and a number of bins of the same size. find out whether or not one is a subgraph of the other. 7. Some of them are listed below. Conversely if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. a traveling salesman wants to know a shortest route to visit all cities exactly once and come back to where he/she started. and vertices connected with an edge have different colors. It is also easily seen that the transformation. Thus these two vertices must get different colors. It was first proven by S. fast algorithms exist to solve it. . Traveling Salesman Problem Given cities and traveling times between cities. Partition Problem Given a set of integers. As a consequence if a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of those problems. 6. It can be easily seen that if a problem P at hand is NP-hard and if a problem known to be NP-complete can be polynomial time reducible to P. 5. If a problem is NP-complete. find out whether or not the objects can be put into the bins. Formally a problem is NP-hard if every problem in class NP can be polynomial time reducible to it. which in this case can be taken as the number of committees. A problem is NP-complete if it is in class NP and NP-hard. can be done in time polynomial in the size of the problem. Today hundreds of problems are known to be NP-complete. NP-complete Problems 1. Subgraph Isomorphism Problem Given two graphs. then that means that the corresponding committees share some members and that they are scheduled to meet in different time slots. For if any two vertices are connected with an edge.e. all the problems can be solved with polynomial time algorithms.

is it possible to select objects so that the sum of their sizes does not exceed S and the sum of their values is V or larger ? 10.b.y)}.8.a. let A = {1. Note that {(1. 3-Dimensional Matching Given three sets A. B = {a. their sizes. Set Cover Problem Given a set S. and S = {(1.x)} is a desired set satisfying all the requirements.2}.b. and a subset S of the Cartesian product A X B X C. (2.(1.x).b}. (2. and C appears exactly once in T ? For example. B.b.b.a.x)} is not a matching.y). B and C of the same size. Knapsack Problem Given a knapsack of size S. 9. a set of objects.x). and C = {x. a collection of subsets of S and an integer k. .x).a.y).y}. called a matching. Then T = {(1. their values and an integer V.b. Is there a subset T.(2. (2. of S such that every element of A. find out whether or not there are k or less subsets in the collection whose union is S.

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