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Language, Automata: , \alpha : usually denotes a string in this course. , \beta : usually denotes a string in this course. , \delta : usually denotes a transition function in this course. , \sigma : usually denotes a symbol in an alphabet in this course. , \Delta : usually denotes a blank space in this course. , \Gamma : usually denotes a set of stack symbols in this course. , \Lambda : usually denotes an empty string in this course. , \Pi : usually denotes a partition in this course. , \Sigma : usually denotes an alphabet in this course. , \goto : usually denotes a (one step) transition in this course. Logic: , ~ : logical not , ^ : logical and , V : logical or , -> : logical imply , <-> : logical if and only if (equivalent) , => : logical tautologically imply , <=> : logical tautologically equivalent , \A : logical for all , \E : logical for some (there exists)

Sets: , \in : belongs to , \not\in : does not belong to , @ : empty set U, : universal set , \subset : proper subset , \not\subset : not a proper subset , \subseteq : subset , \not\subseteq : not a subset , \cup : set union Ai , \cup(i=1 to n) A_i : union of n sets , \cap : set intersection Ai , \cap(i=1 to n) A_i : intersection of n sets , \bar A : complement of set A (A) , P(A) : power set of set A , X : Cartesian product Ai , X(i=1 to n) A_i : cartesian product of n sets Relation: < a, b > : ordered pair < a1, a2, ..., an > : ordered n-tuple , <= : precedes (partial order) Functions: xi , Sum(i=1 to n) x_i : sum of n xi's O(f) , O(f) : of order smaller than or equal to f

o(f) , o(f) : of order smaller than f (f) , Omega : of order greater than or equal to f (f) , omega : of order greater than f (f) , Theta : of the same order as f f(x) , lim(x -> inf) f(x) : limit of f as x goes to infinity

**Introduction to Theoretical Computer Science
**

Today computers are used everywhere: banks, hospitals, schools, airline companies, gas stations, grocery stores, in our cars, in home appliances, PCs, etc., etc. Some are used to crunch numbers, some are used to process images, some are used to process other nonnumeric data and some are used to control operations of various devices. They can reason, they can prove many mathematical theorems, they can beat chess experts in their game, they can solve some very complex problems, they can understand our languages, they can answer our questions and of course they can crunch numbers much much faster than us. Let us for a moment call what computers do computation for convenience, though some of the things computers do such as controling appliances, answering our questions etc. don't fall into our traditional sense of computation. Then these computers seem to be able to compute an awfully lot of things if not everything. But are they capable of computing anything ? Are there things computers can not do ? If there are things computers can not do, what are they ? And why ? If there aren't things computers can not do, then how can we tell ? What do we exactly mean by computation ? Unfortunately there are many things computers can not do. Computers can not solve certain types of problems. For example no computer can tell in general whether or not a given computer program stops after a finite amount of time on a given input. They can not solve some other types of problems fast enough even though they can solve them in some finite amount of time. For example take the traveling salesman problem: a salesman is given a road map with distances between cities and wants to find a shortest round trip route that visits all the cities on the map exactly once. At the moment the so called traveling salesman problem requires an extremely large amount of time to solve. No one has been able to find a reasonably fast algorithm to solve it and the consensus is that it is not likely that anyone can find such an algorithm. I have just given you an example of the problems that computers could not solve. How do we know that that is the case ? Are there other problems like that ? How can we tell whther or not a given problem can be solved and solved fast enough ?

Those four languages are together called formal languages. We are going to learn their properties. Since so many systems in practice can be described by regular languages. It is a very simple device but remarkably. The other two are context-free languages and context-sensitive languages. every task modern computers perform can also be accomplished by Turing machines. It was first conceived of by Alan Turing in early 20-th century. We call a set of strings (of symbols) a language. After briefly studying context-free languges. it can actually be solving a problem. More specifically they answer the question whether or not a given string belongs to a language. There we learn how computers can be simulated by Turing machines and what it means that a Turing machine recognizes (decides) a language. Turing machines also recognize languages. which are also heavily used in practice. Thus they are a powerful tool to design and study those systems with. it is generally believed (Church's thesis) that any "computation" humans do can be done by Turing machines and that "computation" is the computation performed by Turing machines. The languages that are recognized by finite automata are called regular languages. We say finite automata recognize languages. ways to describe them and how to use them to model many of the real life systems. Consequently they are less capable than Turing machines but then their operations are simpler. Then with Turing machines we investigate limitations of computers and computations. we are also going to study regular languages in detail as well as finite automata. which is the key to the unsolvability of problem by computers. we study a simpler type of computing device called finite automata. We are going to investigate limitations of computers and computations by studying the essence of compuers and computations rather than all the variations of computer and computation. In particular we are going to see a few problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers and how we can tell that they are unsolvable. that is to study limitations of computers and computation. These two type of languages belong to a hierarchy of four languages called Homsky hierarchy. Finite automata are very similar to Turing machines but a few restrictions are imposed on them. Before proceeding to the study of Turing machines and their computations in this course. The languages Turing machines recognize are called Type 0 (or phrase structure) languages (regular languages are Type 3) and they are more complex than regular languages. . So they provide a good introduction to our study of Turing machines. Thus by studying Turing machines we can learn capabilities hence limitatgions of computers. Though it has not been proven. This essence is a device called Turing machine. we go to Turing machines. In addition finite automata can model a large number of systems used in practice. Finite automata process strings. Thus when a finite automaton is processing strings. It turns out that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language.The main objective of this course is to answer those questions.

then with the increase in the processor speed of 1. If the computation time is 2n where n is the size of the problem.000 times it can handle only ten or so more larger problem sizes. Their truth values are false and true. The time complexity issues are investigated using Turing machines so that the results apply to all computers. true or false. Unfortunately there is nothing we can do to speed them up. We are going to see some of those which take a large amount of time. Let us start with review of mathematics. . then even if the processor speed increased 1. 4 is a perfect square. Increasing the processor speed does not help much for such problems. The time needed to solve such a problem increases at least exponentially with the size of the problem as long as we use Turing machines (hence computers). "Connective": Two or more propositions can be combined together to make compound propositions with the help of logical connectives. Basic Mathematical Objects Back to Table of Contents The following are the contents of this introductory chapter. Example: The following statements are propositions as they have precise truth values. For example for the traveling salesman problem if 100 cities were too many to solve fast enough. • • • • Logic Sets Relations Functions Logic Proposition and Logical Connectives "Proposition" can be defined as a declarative statement having a specific truth-value.Our last topic is time complexities of various problems. • • 2 is a odd number.000 times 110 cities would already be too many. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved within a reasonable amount of time and there are problems that are known to require a finite but very large amount of time to solve. respectively.

It is represented as " ^ ". Negation This is the logical "negation" and it is expressed by Truth table is given below as p for "not p". • • 2 is an odd number AND 4 is a perfect square. Disjunction This is logical "or" read as either true value of the individual propositions. For the first compound proposition to be true both the propositions have to be true as the connective is AND and as OR is the connective for the second one if either of the propositions is true the truth value of the compound proposition is true. The following are the logical connectives used commonly: a. Their truth vales are false and true respectively. Truth table for two individual propositions p and q with conjunction is given below p T T F F q T F T F p^q T F F F b. . 2 is an odd number OR 4 is a perfect square. Conjunction The logical conjunction is understood in the same way as commonly used ôandö. Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F pVq T T T F c.Example: Above two propositions can be used to make a compound proposition using any of the logical connectives. The compound proposition truth-value is true iff all the constituent propositions hold true.

Biconditional A proposition (p q) ^ (q p) can be abbreviated using biconditional conjunction as p q and is read as "if p then q. e. which is false in every case.g. It is represented as p => q.p T F p F T d. Following are some of the useful identities and implications from propositional logic: Identities . Tautology A compound proposition. E.: p ^ p Logical implication and equivalence If the value of p -> q is true in every case. "q is a necessity/consequence of p" and "q whenever p" are all differnt ways of saying "if p then q". Conditional This is used to define as "a proposition holds true if another proposition is true" i.e. then p is said to logically imply q. If p and q have the same truth-value in every case then they are said to be logically equivalent and it is represented as p <=> q. "p is sufficient for q" . E. "p only if q" . which is true in every case. p q is read as "if p. then q" Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F p T F T T q p -> q is also expressed in a number of different (but equivalent) ways in English.: p V p g. and if q then p". For example. "if not q then not p" . "q is necessary for p".g. f. Contradiction This is the opposite of tautology.

or to express certain types of relationship between propositions such as equivalence ( for more detail click here for example for example ). "The sky is blue". [(P 2. (P 2.contrapositive For explanations. A predicate is a template involving a verb that describes a property of objects. The phrase "is blue" is a predicate and it describes the property of being blue. . [(P 3. For more complex reasoning we need more powerful logic capable of expressing complicated propositions and reasoning.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. (P 4.modus tollens Q) (R S)] [(P R) (Q S)] Q) (Q R)] (P R) For explanations. The predicate logic is one of the extensions of propositional logic and it is fundamental to most other types of logic. (P 3. [(P 5. (P Q) ( P Q) ----. [(P Q) Q] P ----. or a relationship among objects represented by the variables.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. and "The cover of this book is blue" come from the template "is blue" by placing an appropriate noun/noun phrase in front of it. examples and proofs of these identities go to Identities Implications 1.implication Q) R] [P (Q R)] ----.1.exportation Q) ( Q P) ----. the sentences "The car Tom is driving is blue". For example. Central to the predicate logic are the concepts of predicate and quantifier. examples and proofs of these implications go to Implications Predicate and Predicate Logic The propositional logic is not powerful enough to represent all types of assertions that are used in computer science and mathematics.

which is expressed as " x x > 1. If we adopt B as the name for the predicate "is_blue". for example. Universe of Discourse The universe of discourse. for example. a quantification is performed on formulas of predicate logic (called wff ). which is expressed as " x x > 1". assign a value to the variable 2. This new statement is true or false in the universe of discourse. The universal quantifier turns. Hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. called atomic formula. and hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. and it becomes a true statement. The universe is thus the domain of the (individual) variables. is the set of objects of interest. x > 1". the statement x > 1 to "for some object x in the universe. quantify the variable using a quantifier (see below).Predicates are often given a name. "Blue" or "B" can be used to represent the predicate "is blue" among others. It can be the set of real numbers. Similarly the existential quantifier turns. the statemen t x > 1 to "for every object x in the universe. hence a proposition. sentences that assert an object is blue can be represented as "B(x)". For example. also called universe . x > 1". The propositions in the predicate logic are statements on objects of a universe." Again. For example any of "is_blue". by using quantifiers on variables . In general. A predicate with variables. it is true or false in the universe of discourse. such as x > 1 or P(x). x > 1 becomes 3 > 1 if 3 is assigned to x. . can be made a proposition by applying one of the following two operations to each of its variables: 1. where x represents an arbitrary object. B(x) reads as "x is blue". There are two types of quantifiers: universal quantifier and existential quantifier.

x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 4. implications and inference rules. see Reasoning(with predicate logic) and Quantifiers and Connectives in Discrete Structures course. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 2. as well as those for propositional logic such as the equivalences. But it should be obvious from the context. Important Inference Rules of Predicate Logic: First there is the following rule concerning the negation of quantified statement which is very useful: x P(x) x P(x) Next there is the following set of rules on quantifiers and connvectives: 1. [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] x [ P(x) Q(x) ] 3. The universe is often left implicit in practice. the set of all cars on a parking lot.the set of integers. It allows one to reason about properties and relationships of individual objects. Predicate logic is more powerful than propositional logic. In predicate logic. the set of all students in a classroom etc. Sets . some of which are given below. Also for proof and proof techniques see Mathematical Reasoning. one can use some additional inference rules. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] For more discussions and examples on these rules and others.

if A is a subset of. Set terminology Belongs To x B means that x is an element of set B. All the elements belonging to the set are explicitly given.2. . It is read as "the set of natural numbers that are less than or equal to 5". having a property that characterizes those elements. Universal Set The set U of all the elements we might ever consider in the discourse is called the universal set. Note: If A is a subset of B and B is a subset of A then A=B.1. but not equal to B represented as A B. Example: A = {1. Example: B = {x | x is a positive integer less than or equal to 5} Some sets can also be defined recursively.What is a set? Set is a group of elements. if every element of A is an element of B.4. Using this notation we can specify the set {0.3.2.4} call it Z by writing Z = {x | x N | x 5} where N represents the set of natural numbers. A is a subset of B is represented as A B.3. A is a subset of B. How to specify a Set? One way is to enumerate the elements completely.5} Alternate way is to give the properties that characterize the elements of the set. Also. Subset Let A and B be two sets.

5 } . and B = { 6. Thus A' = { x | x U ^ x A } .8} B = {3.8} then A B = {3. Set Operations The operations that can be performed on sets are: 1.4.2} Note that in general A . Union If A and B are two sets. Intersection If A and B are two sets. Example: If U is the set of natural numbers and A = { 1.5.5} then A B = {1.B B . then the complement of A is the set consisting of all elements of the universal set that are not in A. It is denoted by A B.Complement If A is a set.3} B = {3.4. For A and B of the above example B .8}.2. It is denoted by A B.5} then A .9 } are disjoint. where ø is the Empty set. Example: If A = {1. 3.A = {4.2.3 } . Example: If A = {1.4. then the intersection of A and B is the set that consists of the elements in both A and B .5} 2.. Difference If A and B are two sets.8.B = {1. A B= ø.3. Disjoint sets A and B are said to be disjoint if they contain no elements in common i. then the union of A and B is the set that contains all the elements that are in A and B including the ones in both A and B.2. then A' = { x | x U ^ x > 3}. where means " is not an element of ".3} and B = {3.A .3. It is denoted by A .5} . It is denoted by A' or .4.4. then the difference of A from B is the set that consists of the elements of A that are not in B.2. Example: A = { 1.2.3. Example: If A = {1.B.e.2.

C represent arbitrary sets and ø is the empty set and U is the Universal Set. The Commutative laws: A B=B A A B=B A The Associative laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Distributive laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Idempotent laws: A A=A A A=A The Absorptive laws: A (A B) = A A (A B) = A The De Morgan laws: (A B)' = A' B' (A B)' = A' B' Other laws involving Complements: ( A' )' = A A A A' = ø A' = U B) B) B) B) C C (A (A C) C) Other laws involving the empty set A A ø=A ø=ø Other laws involving the Universal Set: A U=U A U=A Venn Diagrams A common technique in working with Set Operations is to illustrate them by drawing Venn Diagrams. It is a very good tool to get a general idea.Following is a list of some standard Set Identities A. B. .

2.2. because they can represent only very limited situations and miss many other possibilities.Note. For example sets A = { 1.3.4 } and B = { 6. The idea of Venn Diagram is to draw a region representing the universe and within that to draw the regions representing the component sets we are starting with so that the resulting diagram describes their interrelationships. that Venn Diagrams must NOT be used for rigorous discussions. . however.8.4 } can be represented as shown below using Venn Diagrams: Set A U represents the Universal set in which A is one of the Set.

Set B The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A B .

A B .

The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A U B A A B B is the set consisting of all the different elements in A and B. .

3.(A B) = { 5.3.4 } A B = { 1.6. For example: U = { 1. 7 } B = { 2.8 } .4.3.2.2.6.4.8 } (A B)' = U .2.4.7.8 } A = { 1.(A B)' is the yellow region in the Venn diagram given below.6.5.

A is the blue shaded region in the Venn Diagram shown below Generalized Set Operations Union.. For example expressions we often use A holds. A2 . which we write as Ai This generalized union of sets can be rigorously defined as follows: Definition ( Ai) : .B is the yellow shaded region and B .. To denote either of these B C. This can be generalized for the union of any finite number of sets as A1 An . intersection and Cartesian product of sets are associative..A .

De Morgan's law on set union and intersection can also be generalized as follows: Theorem (Generalized De Morgan) = . This part of the definition specifies the "seeds" of the set from which the elements of the set are generated using the methods given in the inductive clause. Based on these definitions.Basis Clause: For n = 1 . . The basis clause (or simply basis) of the definition establishes that certain objects are in the set. Inductive Clause: Ai = ( Ai) An+1 Ai and generalized Cartesian product Similarly the generalized intersection Ai can be defined. Ai = A1. The set of elements specified here is called basis of the set being defined. and = Recursive Definition Recursive Definition Subjects to be Learned • • • • • recursive/inductive definition basis clause basis inductive clause extremal clause A recursive definition of a set always consists of three distinct clauses: 1.

1 + 1 (= 2) is in N. 1 is the parent of 2. 3. . 0 is the parent of 1. Note that if we don't have (3).5. can be included in N.5. The x + 1 in the Inductive Clause is the parent of x. 0 is put into N. Then by (2) again. x + 2 is in . Following this definition. The Set of Natural Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . and x is the child of x + 1. Example 3. The inductive clause always asserts that if objects are elements of the set. 2. 1. 0.2. and 2 is the child of 1. then they can be combined in certain specified ways to create other objects. The Set of Nonnegative Even Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . Example 2. the object is not a member of the set. The Set of Even Integers Basis Clause: . The extremal clause asserts that unless an object can be shown to be a member of the set by applying the basis and inductive clauses a finite number of times. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. and 1 is the child of 0. Then by (2). x + 1 is in . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. 0 + 1 (= 1) is in N. since 0 is in N. Let us call the objects used to create a new object the parents of the new object. Proceeding in this manner all the natural numbers are put into N. The inductive clause (or simply induction) of the definition establishes the ways in which elements of the set can be combined to produce new elements of the set.5.. which is not what we want as the set of natural numbers. Examples of Recursive Definition of Set Example 1. the set of natural numbers N can be obtained as follows: First by (1). and the new object is their child . The basis for this set N is { 0 } ..

then Submit. The Set of Strings over the alphabet excepting empty string This is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's such as abbab. simplest expressions. Basis Clause: . x + 2. Recursive Definition of Function Some functions can also be defined recursively. say x. of the domain is defined using its value at the parent(s) of the element x. Tips for recursively defining a set: For the "Basis Clause". Then see how other elements can be obtained from them. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Inductive Clause: For any element x in . or shortest strings. Condition: The domain of the function you wish to define recursively must be a set defined recursively. There are two sets of questions. Then the value of the function at an element. To see how it is defined click here.2 are in . The set of propositions (propositional forms) can also be defined recursively. and generalize that generation process for the "Inductive Clause". . They are all on functions from integer to integer except the last one. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Example 4. try simplest elements in the set such as smallest numbers (0. or 1).Inductive Clause: For any element x in . and x . and . Click Yes or No . Test Your Understanding of Recursive Definition Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. bbabaa. Here ax means the concatenation of a with x. etc. How to define function recursively: First the values of the function for the basis elements of the domain are specified. . and . A few examples are given below.

L(a) = 1 and L(b) = 1. 1 ! = 1 * 0 ! = 1 * 1 = 1 . See Example 5 for the extremal clause. See above for the extremal clause.Example 5: The function f(n) = n! for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 0! = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. Note that here Extremal Clause is not necessary. f(n+1) = (n+1) f(n). Example 6: The function f(n) = 2n + 1 for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. Inductive Clause: For any string x and y of S. b} to the set of natural numbers that gives the length of a string can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: For symbols a and b of the alphabet. f(n+1) = f(n) + 2 . where xy is the concatenation of strings x and y. Induction Mathematical Induction . See Example 5 for the extremal clause. L(xy) = L(x) + L(y) . Using this definition. f(n+1) = 2 f(n) . Example 7: The function f(n) = 2n for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. Hence 3 ! = 3 * 2 ! = 3 * 2 * 1 = 6 . Hence 2 ! = 2 * 1 ! = 2 * 1 = 2 . 3! can be found as follows: Since 0 ! = 1. This function L gives the number of a's and b's L(x) for a string x is also often denoted by | x |. Example 8: The function L from the set S of strings over {a. So there is no chance of other elements to come into the function being defined. because the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively and that has the extremal clause in it.

any natural number can be shown to have the property. we proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P( ) is true. that is n + 1. This process is somewhat analogous to the knocking over a row of dominos with knocking over the first domino corresponding to the basis step. that is 0. which is 2. Thus the set of natural numbers can be described completely by specifying the basis element (0).. the element next to it. the element next to it. it is often a good idea to restate P(k+1) in terms of . and its elements can be generated one by one starting with 0 by adding 1. More generally mathematical statements involving a natural number n such as 1 + 2 + . natural numbers can be proven to have certain properties as follows: First it is proven that the basis element. . the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively. The first principle of mathematical induction states that if the basis step and the inductive step are proven. has the property in question. For since 0 has the property by the basis step. then P(k+1) is true. then the next element. When these two are proven.. has the same property again by the inductive step. Taking advantage of this. has the same property by the inductive step. Proceeding likewise. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 can be proven by mathematical induction by the same token. then P(n) is true for all natural number . Then since 1 has the property. has that property (inductive step).Subjects to be Learned • • • • • first principle of mathematical induction basis step induction hypothesis induction second principle of mathematical induction Contents First Priciple of Mathematical Induction As we have seen in recursion . To prove that a statement P(n) is true for all natural number natural number. As a first step for proof by induction. and the process of generating an element from a known element in the set. denote it by n. where is a Induction: Prove that for any integer . then it follows that all the natural numbers have that property. Then it is proven that if an arbitrary natural number. which is 1. has the property in question (basis step). if P(k) is true (called induction hypothesis).

. Example 1: Let us prove the following equality using the second principle: For any natural number n . + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2. Formally the second principle of induction states that if n [ k [ k < n P(k) ] P(n) ] .. Thus LHS = RHS for n+1. Factoring (n + 1) out. End of Proof. Certain problems can be proven more easily by using the second principle than the first principle because P(k) for all k < n can be used rather than just P(n . + n) + (n + 1) ... then n P(n) can be concluded. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . Proof: Basis Step: If n = 0. 0 + 1 + .P(k) so that P(k).. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . + n + (n + 1) = (0 + 1 + . Here k [ k < n P(k) ] is the induction hypothesis. Hence LHS = RHS. and in the inductive step P(n) is proved assuming P(k) holds for all k < n .. -------. then LHS = 0. 1 + 3 + . and RHS = 0 * (0 + 1) = 0 . .. first try to express LHS for n+1 in terms of LHS for n. can be used. 0 + 1 + .. which is equal to the RHS for n+1. the last expression can be rewritten as n( n + 1 )/2 + (n + 1) .. Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary natural number n.1) to prove P(n). Example: Prove that for any natural number n. Using the induction hypothesis.Induction Hypothesis To prove this for n+1. which is assumed to be true. This form of induction does not require the basis step. and somehow use the induction hypothesis. Here let us try LHS for n + 1 = 0 + 1 + . The reason that this principle holds is going to be explained later after a few examples of proof. we get (n + 1)(n + 2) / 2 . Second Priciple of Mathematical Induction There is another form of induction over the natural numbers based on the second principle of induction to prove assertions of the form x P(x) ..

Hence n can also be written as the product of prime numbers.Proof: Assume that 1 + 3 + . If n is a prime number. k < n.1 for all k.1 Proof: Assume that 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + .. n > k > 1. tan slacks}. Since n is an integer.1 Hence by the second principle of induction positive integers. Hence by the second principle of induction 1 + 3 + . Then certainly A x B is the set of all possible combinations (six) of shirts and slacks that nbsp.1 ) ) + ( 2n + 1 ) = n2 + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 by the induction hypothesis. Then 1 + 3 + . If n is not a prime number. k can be written as the product of prime numbers..1 )! + n * n! = n! . the individual can wear. + ( n .1 + n * n! by the induction hypothesis..1 holds for all Example 3: Prove that any positive integer n > 1. + ( 2k + 1 ) = ( k + 1 )2 holds for all k. then it is a product of two positive integers. the individual may wish to restrict .. However. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 holds for all natural numbers. it is either a prime number or not a prime number. Proof: Assume that for all positive integers k. say p and q. Example 2: Prove that for all positive integer n. + k * k! = ( k + 1 )! . can be written as the product of prime numbers. We are going to prove that n can be written as the product of prime numbers..1 ) * ( n . = ( n + 1 )n! . let A = {blue shirt. + ( 2n . mint green shirt} and B = {gray slacks. Relations Definition Relation Let A and B be sets. Let's assume that a person owns three shirts and two pairs of slacks.. Then 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( 1 + 3 + .. Therefore the statement holds true. Example1: nbsp. by the induction hypothesis they can be written as the product of prime numbers (Note that this is not possible if the First Principle is being used).. then it is the product of 1. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . Since both p and q are smaller than n. which is a prime number. and itself. A binary relation from A into B is any subset of the Cartesian product A x B. k < n. More precisely.....

and S be a relation from set B into set C. R could be more naturally expressed as R(x) = x2 . (3. 6}. one such subset may be { (blue shirt. 6). c) RS if and only if there exists b B such that (a. c) A x C. 2).6). y) | y is the square of x} and S = { (x. b) R if and only if a divides evenly into b. 6)}. R = { (x. (mint green shirt. is the set of pairs of the form(a. y). Composition Let R be a relation from a set A into set B. b) | a A ^ b A ^ a is a child of b } . Relation on a Set A relation from a set A into itself is called a relation on A. tan slacks) }. 5. c) S.himself to combinations which are color coordinated. gray slack). This may not be convenient if R is relatively large. So. (3. This may not be all possible pairs in A x B but will certainly be a subset of A x B. (2. is the composition of P with itself and it is a relation which we know as grandparentgrandchild relation. A typical element in R is an ordered pair (x. 3. or R(x) =y where y = x2 . as in the previous example. R = {(2. Other notations are used depending on the past practice. (5. b) Rand (b. Then P is a relation on A which we might call a parent-child relation. In some cases R can be described by actually listing the pairs which are in R. 3). where P is the parent-child relation given above. For example. written as RS. (6. 5. 6) and define a relation R from A into A by (a. tan slacks). 3. where (a. Example2: Let A = {2. PropertiesOf Relations . Let A be a set of people and let P = {(a. (black shirt. Consider the following relation on real numbers. or "related". 5). y) | x <= y}. R and S of Example 2 above are relations on A = {2. The composition of R and S. For example PP.

R R b to denote (a. denote it by f. 2. a R a.Assume R is a relation on set A. and 2. b and c in A. b) R . codomain image image of set range sum of functions product of functions one-to-one function (injection) onto function (surjection) one-to-one onto function (bijection) inverse function composite function Definition (function): A function. The set A in the above definition is called the domain of the function and B its codomain. then bRa. 4. Function Functions Subjects to be Reviewed • • • • • • • • • • • • function domain. 1. in other words. symmetric and transitive. 3. then aRc. if aRb. if <a. there is an element b in B such that <a. Equivalence: R is an equivalence relation on A if R is reflexive. A x A. Thus. from a set A to a set B is a relation from A to B that satisfies 1. Reflexive: R is reflexive if for every a A. . for each element a in A. if aRb and bRc. b> is in the relation. Let us write a Symmetric: R is symmetric if for every a and b in A. then b = c . Transitive: R is transitive if for every a. b> and <a. c> are in the relation. f is a function if it covers the domain (maps every element of the domain) and it is single valued.

say 3. i.e. under this function is 9. . 16. 9. { 0.The relation given by f between a and b represented by the ordered pair <a. Example: Let f(x) = 3x + 1 and g(x) = x2 . Then the domain and codomain of this f are N. there is an element x in A such that f(x) = y . if and only if whenever f(x) = f(y) . Thus it is a bijection. Definition (sum and product): Let f and g be functions from a set A to the set of real numbers R. f is onto if and only if f( A ) = B . The set of images of the elements of a set S under a function f is called the image of the set S under f.. if and only if for every element y of B . nothing in N can be mapped to 3 by this function. that is. f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to N is not onto. ( f*g )(x) = f(x)*g(x) . b> is denoted as f(a) = b . if it is onto and one-to-one. Definition (bijection): A function is called a bijection . Then the sum and the product of f and g are defined as follows: For all x. for example. Every bijection has a function called the inverse function. and for all x. Then ( f + g )(x) = x2 + 3x + 1 . Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is an onto function. Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is one-to-one and onto. x = y . and is denoted by f(S) .} .. because for example f(1) = f(-1) = 1 . However. because. 1. 4. f(S) = { f(a) | a S }. The image of the domain under f is called the range of f . and its range is the set of squares. the image of. Note that f(x) = x2 is not one-to-one if it is from the set of integers(negative as well as non-negative) to N . and ( f*g )(x) = 3x3 + x2 Definition (one-to-one): A function f is said to be one-to-one (injective) . that is. Example: Let f be the function from the set of natural numbers N to N that maps each natural number x to x2 . ( f + g )(x) = f(x) + g(x) . Definition (onto): A function f from a set A to a set B is said to be onto(surjective) .. . Example: The function f(x) = x2 from the set of natural numbers N to N is a one-to-one function. where S is a subset of the domain A of f . and b is called the image of a under f . where f(x)*g(x) is the product of two real numbers f(x) and g(x).

Then the composition of functions f and g . Example: The inverse function of f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of non-negative even numbers E is f -1(x) = 1/2 x from E to N . where f(x) = y . and it is denoted by f -1 . a set of strings of symbols. the points on the left are in the domain and the ones on the right are in the codomain. . and arrows show < x. It is also a bijection. Introduction to Language A language is. g(y) = x . denoted by fg . if for every element y of B. Then the function g is called the inverse function of f. and g(x) = x + 1 . are all languages in that sense. For example. Therefore one can also talk about composition of functions.These concepts are illustrated in the figure below. in this course. the rightmost function in the above figure is a bijection and its inverse is obtained by reversing the direction of each arrow. A function is a relation. Others such as languages of logics. Note that such an x is unique for each y because f is a bijection. natural languages etc. Definition (composite function): Let g be a function from a set A to a set B . In each figure below. Definition (inverse): Let f be a bijection from a set A to a set B. Programming langauges we use are a language in that sense. f(x) > relation. is the function from A to C that satisfies fg(x) = f( g(x) ) for all x in A . languages of mathematics. and let f be a function from B to a set C . Example: Let f(x) = x2 . Then f( g(x) ) = ( x + 1 )2 .

However. Then after seeing yet another way of representing regular laguages.e. in general there are more than one NFAs and DFAs that reconize one language. are quite useful for modeling systems used in practice such as co9mputer network communication protocols. together with regular expressions which are a method of representing regular languages.What we are going to study on languages in this course are four classes of languages called (Chomsky) formal languages and their properties. context-free (or type 2) languages. We are going to see an algorithm for converting NFAto NFA which recognizes the same language and another for NFA to DFA conversion. context-sensitive (or type 1) languages and phrase structure (or type 0) languages. solving them can be seen as recognizing languages i. Then we investigate various kinds of finite automata: deterministic finite automata (DFA). regular grammars. Our last topic on regular language is testing of languages for non-regularity. As we are going to learn next. These formal languages and automata capture the essense of various computing devices and computation in a very simple way. Using automata and formal languages we can study limitations of computer and computation. then the resulting DFA is unique up to the state names for a given regular language. Type 3 is a subset of type 2 which is a subset of type 1 and type 0 is the most general including the other three as a subset. Definitions on Language Subjects to be Learned . checking whether or not a string is in a language. Also there are various kinds of computing devices called automata which process these types of languages Thus formal languages can also be characterized by the computing devices which process them. In the following chapters we first learn about languages. nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) and nondeterministic finite automata with transitions (NFA. Also for some important classes of problems. They are devices that recognize regular languages. On the other hand DFAs are suited for writing a simulator program because there is no nondeterminism such as going to two or more states from a state upon reading one input symbol. lexical analyzers and parser for compilers for programming languages. NFA and NFAare conceptually simpler and easier to use when modeling a system because there are no restrictions on transitions for them unlike for DFA. It can be rigorously shown that some problems can not be solved by computers in any finite amount of time and that some others are practically unsolvable because of the time it takes to solve them. In asddition two of the formal languages. These formal languages are characterized by grammars which are essentially a set of rewrite rules for generating strings belonging to a language as we see later. regular and context-free languages. we are going to learn modeling of systems finite automata. Then we study regular languages. if the number of states of DFA is minimized. the simplest of the four formal languages. The four classes are regular (or type 3) languages.).

the set of all strings over (including the empty string) is denoted by . v is called a suffix of y. A string x is a prefix of another string y if there is a string v such that y = xv. ab. Thus a language over alphabet is a subset of . it has no symbols. So a string is a substring of itself. Basic concepts First. b} and 0. an alphabet is a finite set of symbols. A string x is called a substring of another string y if there are strings u and v such that y = uxv.• • • • alphabet string (word) language operations on languages: concatenation of strings. Thus | | = 0. For a string w its length is represented by |w|.1}). Let u and v be strings. The set { } is a language which has one string. 1} is an alphabet with two symbols. Then uv denotes the string obtained by concatenating u with v. intersection. 3. namely . union. Operations on languages Since languages are sets. 2. all the set operations can be applied to languages. Note that u and v may be an empty string. Some special languages The empty set is a language which has no strings. b} is another alphabet with two symbols and English alphabet is also an alphabet. For any alphabet . operations on languages and some of their properties. It can be defined more formally by recursive definition. Note that vu = bbabaab uv. That is. The number of symbols in a string is called the length of the string. Thus the union. that is. The empty string (also called null string) is the string with length 0. So it is not empty. {a. A language is a set of strings over an alphabet. A string (also called a word) is a finite sequence of symbols of an alphabet. The empty string is denoted by (capital lambda). b. baa} is a language (over alphabert {a. 1}. Kleene star Contents Here we are going to learn the concept of language in very abstract and general sense. Thus {a. intersetion and difference of two languages over an alphabet are languages over . a and aabab are examples of string over alphabet {a. this set has an object in it.b}) and {0. For example if u = aab and v = bbab. We are going to use first few symbols of English alphabet such as a and b to denote symbols of an alphabet and those toward the end such as u and v for strings. For example {0. Though has no symbols. then uv = aabbbab. uv is the string obtained by appending the sequence of symbols of v to that of u. 10 and 001 are examples of string over alphabet {0. 1. 111} is a language (over alphabet {0.

Here a0 = and u0 = . } The * in * is also the same Kleene star defined above. Let L1 and L2 be languages. Lk means the concatenation of k L's. bb. uk denotes the concatenation of k u's. ababb. baaba}. That is L1L2 is the set of strings obtained by concatenating strings of L1 with those of L2.L and it is also a Another operation onlanguages is concatenation. then L* = { . The complement of a language L over an alphabet language. Powers : For a symbol a and a natural number k. .. Then the concatenation of L1 with L2 is denoted as L1L2 and it is defined as L1L2 = { uv | u L1 and v L2 }. L* is the set of strings obtained by concatenating zero or more strings of L as we are going to see in Theorem 1. b} {aaa. Similarly for a language L. For example {ab. abaaba. ak and uk can be defined similarly. Hence Lk is the set of strings that can be obtained by concatenating k strings of L. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. aba. abb. babb. For a string u and a natural number k. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k. baaa. * The following two types of languages are generalizations of them quite often in this course. abaaba. aaba} = {abaaa. is . For example if L = { aba. ababb.. ak represents the concatenation of k a's. For example Lk can be defined recursively as follows. These powers can be formally defined recursively. bb }. Recursive definition of L*: Basis Clause: L* and we are going to see Inductive Clause: For any x L* and any w L. xw L*. bbaba. This * is called Kleene star. bbbb. Recursive definition of L+: Basis Clause: L L+ . the extremal clause is not necessary. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = Lk L..

. L* and L* have a number of interesting properties. } Let us also define natural number k } .wk for some k. Proof: Because we can see that L* (L*)*.. Thus L+ is the set of strings obtained by concatenating one or more strings of L. .. Theorem 5: L* = (L*)*..e. wi2. where wi's are strings of L. ababb.wk . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L+ unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. . Hence x is in L* ...wmmk . Let us list one of them as a theorem and prove it.wm1..... i.w2m2. For example if L = { aba. .... wimi in L such that wi = wi1wi2. xw L+. bbaba. bb. bb }. w2.. wk are strings of L*.w1m1w21. w1w2. L* can be proven as follows: by Theorem 2. ... Theorems 1 and 2 are proven in "General Induction" which you study in the next unit... (i.. bbbb. any nonempty string in L* or L+ can be expresssed as the concatenation of strings of L. Other proofs are omitted. wk in L* such that x = w1w2..wimi Hence x = w11 ... Since w1.... Then there are nonempty strings w1. by applying Theorem 2 to the language L* L* Conversely ( L* )* Let x be an arbitrary nonempty string of ( L* )*. abaaba. w2. then L+ = { aba.Inductive Clause: For any x L+ and any w L. Theorem 1: Ln Theorem 2: Theorem 3: Theorem 4: L+ = L L* = L*L Note: According to Theorems 2 and 3. .. L0 L L2 .e.. for each wi there are strings wi1. ) as ={x|x Lk for some Then the following relationships hold on L* and L+.

If x is an empty string, then it is obviously in L* . Hence ( L* )* Since L* L* . L* , L* = ( L* )* .

(L*)* and ( L* )*

**Problem Solving as Language Recognition
**

Subjects to be Learned

• • •

problem instance problem as language problem solving as language recognition

Contents

In the previous section the concept of language was introduced and its properties have been briefly studied. You might be wondering why we study language. The main reason for studying language is that solving problems can be viewed as a language recognition problem as explained below, that is, the problem of checking whether or not a string belongs to a language. Thus instead of studying what kind of problems can be solved by what kind of computational devices and how, we can study languages and devices to recognize them which are simpler to deal with uncluttered with variations in actual devices, programming languages etc. Below an example is given to illustrate how solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Consider the following problem: Is the longest of the distances between two nodes(i.e. the diameter) of a given graph less than a given integer k ? Here the distance is the smallest number of edges (or hops) between the nodes. Some of the instances of this problem are as shown below:

Instance 1 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with one edge and two nodes is less than 1. Instance 2 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with four edges and four nodes is less than 2. Simiarlyt for Instance 3. These problem instances can be represented by a string as follows: Instance 1: 1,2;(1,2);1 Instance 2: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(3,4);2 Instance 3: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(2,3)(2,4)(3,4);3 Here the set of nodes, the set of edges and k are separated by ; in that order in the strings. The solutions to these instances are: Instance 1: No Instance 2: No Instance 3: Yes There are infinitely many 'Yes' instances and 'No' instances for this problem. The set of 'Yes' instances is a language and so is the set of 'No' instances as well as the set of all

instances and many others for this problem. We can thus see that solving the problem for a given instance is equivalent to checking whether or not the string representing the given instance belongs to the language of 'Yes' instances of the problem. That is, the problem solving is the same as the language recognition. A problem can be solved if and only if the language of its 'Yes' instances is recognizable or decidable by a Turing machine. It is not solvable if the language is merely accecptable but not recognizable, or even worse if it is not even acceptable.

(a.k.a Structural Induction)

Mathematical statements involving an element of a recursively defined set can be proven by induction. To prove by induction that a statement P(x) is true for all the elements x of a recursively defined set S, proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P(x) is true for all the elements x in the basis of S. Induction: Prove that for any element(s) x of S if P(x) is true, then P(y) is true for any element y obtained from x by the induction step of the recursive definition of S. Note 1 : In the Induction we try to prove that if a parent has the property then all of its children also have that property. In the process we need the relationship between the parent and the children. That relationship is found in the Inductive Clause of the recursive definition of the set in question. Note 2 : As a first step for general induction proof, it is often a good idea to express y in terms of x so that P(x) can be used. Example 1 (Theorem 1 in "Language") : Prove that Ln L* for any natural number n and any language L. Let us first review the definitions. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = LkL. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k, the extremal clause is not necessary. Recursive definition of L*:

xy Hence w Thus Lk+1 L* . x Example 2 (Theorem 2 in "Language") Let us prove L* = Note that ={x|x Lk for some natural number k } . Proof: Let us first prove Suppose that x Lk for some natural L* .Basis Clause: L* Inductive Clause: For any string x L* and any string w L. . By Example 1 above . Hence . Note in the proof below that Basis and Inductive Steps mirror the Basis and Inductive Clauses of the definition of Ln . Now let us prove that Ln L* by induction on Ln. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. y Let w be an arbitrary string in Lk+1 . L0 L* . L* by theInduction Hypothesis. and L* . Since Lk L* . Hence x . Then by the definition of L* . number k.Induction L* . Then by the definition of L*. xw L*. L* . Lk . x L* . L* for an arbitrary natural numer k. L* since y L. . Lk Next let us prove L* . L* . Basis Step: Since by the definitions L0 = { Inductive Step: Assume that Lk Hypothesis We are going to show that Lk+1 }. --. Then there exist strings x and y that satisfy x L and w = xy by the definition of Lk+1.

say x. Hence xy End of Inductive Step and Proof Hence we have proven Example 3 . by Example 1 above. . Let us prove the inheritance. also have the property. x spelled backward). If x . then its children xy. and any symbol . xy holds. The function REV(x) on strings x over the alphabet is defined as follows. where y is an arbitrary elememt of L. Hence xy Lk+1 by the definition of Ln . x We are going to show that for an arbitrary element y L .e. by concatenating y) a child of x in is obtained. x Lk . Then we show that if any element. holds. It produces the reversal of a given string x (i. . REV(xa) = Inductive Clause: For any string aREV(x). Basis Step: L0 since L0 = { }. of L* has the property.e. then for some natural number k . . So we first prove that * the element of the basis of L has the propertyy. So we show that the property for x is inherited by its children xy. Prove that for arbitrary strings x and y of . Note here that x is a parent and by applying an operation (i. Note that each step mirror the recursive definition of . Hence by the definition of Inductive Step: Assume that for an arbitrary x in L*.Note that L* is defined recursively and that below we are trying to prove that the elements of L* have the property that they also belong to . Basis Clause: REV( )= . REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds.

Induction Hypothesis Then for an arbitrary symbol a of . REV(xya) = REV(ya)REV(x). Basis Step: REV(x ) = REV( x ) = REV( )REV( x ) . REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. which is what we needed. Since a REV(y) = REV(ya). Thus the statement to be proven is for an arbitrary fixed string x. and an arbitrary string y of . then Lr Ls . Inductive Clause: For arbitrary strings x of and a of ExtremalClause: As usual. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages. -.Proof First let us note that * can be defined recursively as follows: . Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary string y of . { } and {a} for any symbol a are regular languages. The proof of the equality in question is going to be proven for an arbitrary fixed x by induction on y. Definitions of Regular Language and Regular Expression Subjects to be Learned • • regular language regular expression 1. End of Proof. Inductive Clause: If Lr and Ls are regular languages. Any language belonging to this set is a regular language over . Regular language The set of regular languages over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. xa is also in . REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. The proof mirrors the recursive definition of . But by induction hypothesis a REV(xy) = a REV(y)REV(x). . REV(xya) = REV((xy)a) = a REV(xy). Definition of Set of Regular Languages : Basis Clause: . Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular language unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. * Basis Clause: where is an empty string. Omitted.

where a is an element of . They can represent regular languages and operations on them succinctly. where r is a regular expression.For example. b}. Note also that *. { } and {a}. ( r + s ) is used in stead of ( r + s ). which has precedence over union ( + ). where Lr is the language corresponding to the regular expression r. {a}* is a regular language which is the set of strings consisting of a's such as . aaa. ( rs ) and ( r*) are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr Ls . Thus the regular expression ( a + ( b( c*) ) ) is written as a + bc*. . Regular expression Regular expressions are used to denote regular languages. aa. (2) The operation * has precedence over concatenation. a. respectively. b} is regular. aaaa etc. Any element of that set is a regular expression. LrLs and Lr* . Basis Clause: . So for example. Also since {a} is regular. Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular expression unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. For a recursive definition of Lrk click here. (4) We use ( r+) as a regular expression to represent Lr+ . Conventions on regular expressions (1) When there is no danger of confusion. Thus for example rr = r2 . which is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's. (3) The concatenation of k r's . The set of regular expressions over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. 2. then ( r + s ) . {a. is written as rk. The language corresponding to rk is Lrk. respectively. Then since {a} and {b} are regular languages. bold face may not be used for regular expressions. Inductive Clause: If r and s are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr and Ls . and a are regular expressions corresponding to languages . b} ( = {a} {b} ) and {ab} ( = {a}{b} ) are regular languages. let = {a. is a regular language because {a.

b}. it is not easy to see by inspection whether or not two regular expressions are equal. Definition of Equality of Regular Expressions Regular expressions are equal if and only if they correspond to the same language. That is. abab. For example ( a + b )* and ( a*b* )* correspond to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a.Examples of regular expression and regular languages corresponding to them • • • • ( a + b )2 corresponds to the language {aa.. . ababab. a*b+a* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by one or more b's followed by zero or more a's. because they both represent the language of all strings over the alphabet {a.. }. b}. a*b* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by zero or more b's. that is. in general. that is the set of strings of length 2 over the alphabet {a. ba. b}. . Thus for example ( a + b )* = ( a*b* )* . b}. ( a + b )* corresponds to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. ( ab )+ corresponds to the language {ab. In general. the set of strings of repeated ab's. a regular language. ab. In general ( a + b )k corresponds to the set of strings of length k over the alphabet {a. corresponds to more than one regular expressions. bb}. Note:A regular expression is not unique for a language. b}.

a*. b and the strings consiting of only b's (from (a*b)*). However. (b) A string corresponding to r1 consists of only a's or only b's or the empty string. (a + b)*. (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ means that all the strings represented by it must consist of one or more strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*). a. they do not produce any strings that are not represented by (r1 + r2)*. 2: For the two regular expressions given below. bb and ab are in the language. b. r1 = a* + b* r2 = ab* + ba* + b*a + (a*b)* Solution: (a) Any string consisting of only a's or only b's and the empty string are in r1. Solution: It can easily be seen that . Thus anything that comes after the first r1 in (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is represented by (r1 + r2)*. (a) (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ Solution: One general strategy to approach this type of question is to try to see whether or not they are equal to simple regular expressions that are familiar to us such as a. r1r2 + r2r1 in the given regular expression is redundant. So we need to find strings of r2 which contain at least one a and at least one b. 3: Let r1 and r2 be arbitrary regular expressions over some alphabet. Find a simple (the shortest and with the smallest nesting of * and +) regular expression which is equal to each of the following regular expressions. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*) . (a + b)+ etc. Of the strings wiht length 2 aa. the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*) start with a string of r1 followed by any number of strings taken arbitrarily from r1 and/or r2. (a) Since (r1 + r2)* represents all strings consisting of strings of r1 and/or r2 . For example ab and ba are such strings. that is. which are strings in the language with length 1 or less. However. Ex. Thus the answer is ba. Ex.Exercise Questions on Regular Language and Regular Expression Ex. a+. ba is not in it. (a) find a string corresponding to r2 but not to r1 and (b) find a string corresponding to both r1 and r2. The only strings corresponding to r2 which consist of only a's or b's are a. 1: Find the shortest string that is not in the language represented by the regular expression a*(ab)*b*. Thus (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* is reduced to (r1 + r2)*.

Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. then aabx L and xbb L . Hence a string of L has zero or more of aab's and bb's in front possibly followed by a at the end. Ex. b } that contain exactly two a's. 5: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L and a L. b } defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L Inductive Clause: If x L . 6: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. 7: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the . strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or appending bb to any of the already generated strings. strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or bb to any of the already generated strings. First of all and a are in L . b*a b*a b* is a regular expression for this language. Hence a string of L consists of zero or more aab's in front and zero or more bb's following them. Then starting with . Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is reduced to (r1(r1 + r2)*). Ex. First of all L . Since any string of b's can be placed in front of the first a. Solution: A string in this language must have at least two a's. Inductive Clause: If x L . and since an arbitrasry string of b's can be represented by the regular expression b*. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. behind the second a and between the two a's. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. 4: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L over the alphabet { a . Ex. Then starting with or a. then aabx L and bbx L . Ex. Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. Thus (aab + bb)*(a + ) is a regular expression for L.also represents the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*)+. Thus (aab)*(bb)* is a regular expression for L. and conversely (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ represents the strings represented by (r1(r1 + r2)*).

Solution: A string in the language can start and end with a or b. On the other hand if an a precedes the aa. Thus simply put. Ex. it is the set of strings over the alphabet { a.alphabet { a. then that aa can be followed by any number of b. ( b + ab )*( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. bb. Since it can have any string in front of the last a or bb. b } that do not end with ab. Any numbe of a's can appear any place in the string. ba. Hence any string that follows aa is represented by ( b + ba )*. Hence if a string does not end with ab then it ends with a or if it ends with b the last b must be preceded by a symbol b. ab. 11: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the . and after the first b all the b's in the string appear in pairs. b }. ( a + b )*( a + bb ) is a regular expression for the language. Ex. Ex. 10: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression a*b(a*ba*b)*a* . 9: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of strings of even lengths over the alphabet of { a. If there is no aa but at least one a exists in a string of the language. a regular expression corresponding to the language is ( aa + ab + ba + bb )*. b } must end in a or b. If there may not be any a in a string of the language. Hence the string is in this language. 8: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. Solution: If there is one substring aa in a string of the language. ( b + ab )*a( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. b } that contain no more than one occurence of the string aa. b } that contain an odd number of b's Ex. If an a comes after that aa. Hence a string preceding the aa can be represented by ( b + ab )*. it has at least one b. then that a must be preceded by b because otherwise there are two occurences of aa. then it must be followed by b. Hence if a string of the language contains aa then it corresponds to the regular expression ( b + ab )*aa( b + ba )* . Altogether ( b + ab )*( + a + aa )( b + ba )* is a regular expression for the language. Note that 0 is an even number. Solution: Any string in a language over { a . Solution: Since any string of even length can be expressed as the concatenation of strings of length 2 and since the strings of length 2 are aa. then applying the same argument as for aa to . then applying the same argument as for aa to a.

Regularity of finite languages Theorem 1: The set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed under operations union. concatenation and Kleene star. Hence (( a + b )3)* represents the strings of length a multiple of 3. that is. Note 1: Later we shall see that the complement of a regular language and the intersection of regular laguages are also regular. Lr Ls . Solution: ( b + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring aa and which end in b. is not regular as we shall see later.regular expression (( a + b )3)*( +a+b). Solution: (( a + b )3) represents the strings of length 3. For example while { akbk } is regular for any natural number k . Thus the set of regular languages is closed under those operations. a finite language is a set of n . Ex. Hence altogether it represents any string consisting of a substring with no aa followed by one b followed by a substring with no bb. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages and they are obviously over the alphabet . and ( a + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring bb. concatenation and Kleene star operations. Since (( a + b )3)*( a + b ) represents the strings of length 3n + 1. { anbn | n is a natural number } which is the union of all the languages { akbk } . where n is a natural number. where n is a natural number. Proof: Let Lr and Ls be regular languages over an alphabet . The following theorem shows that any finite language is regular. We say a language is finite if it consists of a finite number of strings. Then by the definition of the set of regular languages . Note 2: The union of infinitely many regular languages is not necessarily regular. 12: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression ( b + ab )*( a + ab )*. the given regular expression represents the strings of length 3n and 3n + 1. Properties of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • Closure of the set of regular languages under union.

End of proof of Theorem 2. Proof of Claim 2: Proof by induction on strings. then we have proven the theorem. Then since { w } is a regular language as proven below. L { w } is a regular language by the definition of regular language. Claim 1: A language consisting of n strings is regular for any natural number n (that is. We then prove that a language consisting of a single string is regular. Then { w } is a regular language. Theorem 2: A finite language is regular. Proof of the Claim 1: Proof by induction on the number of strings. Inductive Step: Assume that a language L consisting of n strings is a regular language (induction hypothesis). a finite language is regular) if { w } is regular for any string w. Basis Step: (corresponding to n = 0) is a regular language by the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. End of proof for Claim 2 Note that Claim 2 can also be proven by induction on the length of string. { regular languages for any arbitrary symbol a of . Hence { aw } is regular. End of proof of Claim 1 Thus if we can show that { w } is a regular language for any string w. } and { a } are Inductive Step: Assume that { w } is a regular language for an arbitrary string w over .strings for some natural number n. Then for any symbol a of . Basis Step: By the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. Proof: Let us first assume that a language consisting of a single string is regular and prove the theorem by induction. . Hence by the Inductive Clause of the definition of regular language { a }{ w } is regular. { a } is a regular language from the Basis Step. Claim 2: Let w be a string over an alphabet .

A vending machine looked at this way is an example of finite automaton. In the next few chapters first we are going to learn different kinds of finite automata. they are much more powerful computing devices than finite automata. say 15-cents state. When a customer comes and puts in the first coin.e. that is. In fact Turing machines are as . say a dime. After that you stay in that state until another coin is put in to start the process anew or you may terminate the operation and start all over from the initial state. A kind of systems finite automnata can model and a computer program to simulate their operations are discussed later. you are in the waiting-for-customer state.Introduction to Finite Automata In this chapter we are going to study a class of machines called finite automata. Ds on arrows represent a dime and Ns a nickel. Later we are going to learn an extension of finite automata called Turing machines. can not be recognized by finite automata. Initially you are waiting for a customer to come and put some coins. You have received 10 cents and are waiting for more coins to come. We have learned that regular languages are represented by regular expressions and conversely. We are going to learn languages which are not regular and ways to test languages for non-regularity. So we might say you are in the 10-cents state. The states and the transitions between them of this vending machine can be represented with the diagram below. you are no longer in the waiting-for-customer state. circles represent states and arrows state transitions. and equivalence and conversions between them. It is assumed that the machine terminates its operation when it receives 15 cents or more. then you have now received 15 cents and you wait for the customer to select a soft drink. Let us consider the operation of a soft drink vending machine which charges 15 cents for a can. If the customer puts in a nickel. Their operations can be simulated by a very simple computer program. Unfortunately not all languages and systems are simple like regular languages or finite automata. In this example you as a vending machine have gone through (transitions between) a number of states responding to the inputs from the customer (coins in this case). Click "NICKEL" or "DIME" in the figure and see how it operates (see how arrows turn red). When the customer selects a soft drink. therefore. Finite automata are computing devices that accept/recognize regular languages and are used to model operations of many systems we find in practice. tell whether or not a given string belongs to the regular language). In the figure. Then we are going to see that for every regular language a unique finite automaton can be constructed which can recognize the language (i. So you are in another state. Let us assume that only nickels and dimes are used for simplicity. There are languages which are not regular and which. Pretend that you are the machine. Though Turing machines are simple modification of finite automata. you must give the customer a can of soft drink. We are then going to study how finite automata can be used to simulate operations of systems we see in practice.

2. Then a deterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . The accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. Thus in the example of vending machine. are the elements of Q. however. q0 . 3. (q. if q is the initial state and a nickel is put in. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of . The transition function is also called a next state function meaning that the automaton moves into the state (q. Also let be a function from Q to Q . Thus in the example of vending machine. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. for example. We call the elements of Q a state. Otherwise it is not accepted. the transition function. a) must be specified. "Waiting for a customer to put a coin in" can be considered the initial state of this automaton and the state in which the machine gives out a soda can can be considered the accepting state. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. though not proven. . Note that is a function. the states of the machine such as "waiting for a customer to put a coin in". in the Example 1 below. that any computation human beings do (with or without computers) can be performed by Turing machines. Definition of Deterministic Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • • • Finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of deterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ceases to come. . Its elements can.powerful as computers and it is generally believed. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". For example. "have received 5 cents" etc. a) is equal to "have received 5 cents". 4. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. The set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. . A > Notes on the definition 1. then (q.

5. A deterministic finite automaton is also called simply a "finite automaton". are not accepted. They are called transition table. . An arc ( p . the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 1 a 2 2 a 2 (q. A = { 1 }. Abbreviations such as FA and DFA are used to denote deterministic finite automaton. It is a little more complex DFA. 2 }. 1. But any other strings such as aa. b } in stead of { a }. DFAs are often represented by digraphs called (state) transition diagram. aaa. a) ) A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. = { a }. q ) from vertex p to vertex q with label represents the transition (p. Examples of finite automaton Example 1: Q = { 0. The vertices (denoted by single circles) of a transition diagram represent the states of the DFA and the arcs labeled with an input symbol correspond to the transitions. ) = q . The accepting states are indicated by double circles. then we need a DFA such as shown in the following examle to accept the same string a.the string a is accepted by the finite automaton. Transition functions can also be represented by tables as seen below. etc. If the alphabet of the Example 1 is changed to { a. the following table.

b }. Example 3: Q = { 0. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 0 0 b 1 1 a 1 1 b 1 (q. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 0 b 2 1 a 2 1 b 2 2 a 2 2 b 2 (q. b }. A = { 0 }. = { a. b } is the next example. A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. a) ) . a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. 1. A = { 1 }. in the following table. = { a.Example 2: Q = { 0. 2 }. 1 }. A DFA that accepts all strings consisting of only symbol a over the alphabet { a. the following table.

10. the initial state q0 = 0. 15. 5. Example 4: For the example of vending machine of the previous section. 20 }. N }. its transition function is as shown in the following table.A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. 20 }. Q = { 0. A = { 15. State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 N 5 0 D 10 5 N 10 5 D 15 10 N 15 10 D 20 15 N 5 15 D 10 20 N 5 20 D 10 (q. = { D. If we make it a DFA. a) ) .

The tape is divide into squares in each of which a symbol can be written prior to the start of the operation of the automaton. it stops and the automaton terminates its operation. The head is always at the leftmost square at the beginning of the operation. There is a finite control which determines the state of the automaton and also controls the movement of the head. The tape has a read only head. . The tape has the left end and extends to the right without an end. 4. It never moves to the left.A finite automaton as a machine A finite automaton can also be thought of as the device shown below consisting of a tape and a control circuit which satisfy the following conditions: 1. 2. The head moves to the right one square every time it reads a symbol. When it sees no symbol. 6. 3. 5.

For example strings aaa. the DFA is in the accepting state. . it stays in state 0 while it reads all the a's (without breaks) on the tape. Once it gets to state 1. Since the state 0 is also the accepting state. are accepted but strings such as aaba. are not accepted by this automaton. it moves to state 1. then no matter what symbol is read.Operation of finite automata Let us see how an automaton operates when it is given some inputs. Initially it is in state 0. Thus this automaton accepts any string of a's. it goes into state 1 and the input string is not accepted by the DFA. when all the a's on the tape are read. this DFA never leaves state 1. aaaaaa etc. b etc. Hence when b appears anywhere in the input. If b is read while it is in state 0 (initially or after reading some a's). When zero or more a's are given as an input to it. As an example let us consider the DFA of Example 3 above.

*

of DFA and its Properties

Subjects to be Learned

• •

*

Language accepted by DFA

Contents

Here we are going to formally describe what is meant by applying a transition repeatedly, that is the concept of * For a state q and string w, *( q , w ) is the state the DFA goes into when it reads the string w starting at the state q. In general a DFA goes through a number of states from the state q responding to the symbols in the string w. Thus for a DFA < Q , , q0 , , A > , the function

* :Q -> Q is defined recursively as follows: *

Definition of

*

:

*

Basis Clause: For any state q of Q ,

(q,

) = q , where

*

denotes the empty string. and any symbol a ,

Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q, any string y * ( q , ya ) = ( *( q , y ) , a ) .

In the definition, the Basis Clause says that a DFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the state DFA reaches after reading string ya starting at state q is the state it reaches by reading symbol a after reading string y from state q. Example For example suppose that a DFA contains the transitions shown below.

Then

*

*

( q , DNR ) can be calculated as follows:

( q , DNR ) = ( *( q , DN ) , R ) by the Inductive Clause. = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , DN ). = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) since D = D . = ( ( ( *( q , ) , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , D ). = ( ( ( q , D ) , N ) , R ) , since ( q , ) = q . = ( ( q1 , N ) , R ) , since ( q , D ) = q1 as seen from the diagram. = ( q2 , R ) , since ( q1 , N ) = q2 as seen from the diagram. = q3 since ( q2 , R ) = q3 as seen from the diagram. Properties of

*

We can see the following two properties of

*

. for a DFA < Q , , q0 , ,A

**Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >,
**

*

(q,a)=

(q,a)

Proof : Since a = a , * ( q , a ) = *( q , a ) . By the definition of * , * ( q , a ) = ( *( q , ) , a ) But *( q , ) = q by the definition of Hence ( *( q , ) , a ) = ( q , a ) .

*

.

The next theorem states that the state reached from any state, say q , by reading a string, say w , is the same as the state reached by first reading a prefix of w, call it x, and then by reading the rest of the w, call it y. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 , , A > , for a DFA < Q , ,

*

( q , xy ) =

*

(

*

(q,x),y).

Proof : This is going to be proven by induction on string y. That is the statement to be proven is the following: * For an arbitrary fixed string x, ( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for any arbitrary string y. First let us review the recursive definition of *. Recursive definition of Basis Clause:

* *

:

.

* * Inductive Clause: If x and a , then xa . * Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.

Now the proof of the theorem. Basis Step: If y = , then *( q , xy ) = *( q , x ) = *( q , x ) . Also *( *( q , x ) , y ) = *( *( q , x ) , ) = *( q , x ) by the definition of * . Hence the theorem holds for y = . Inductive Step: Assume that *( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for an arbitrary string y. This is the induction hypothesis. We are going to prove that *( q , xya ) = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) for any arbitrary symbol a of . ( q , xya ) = ( *( q , xy ) , a ) by the definition of * = ( * ( *( q , x ) , y ) , a ) by the induction hypothesis. = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) by the definition of * . Thus the theorem has been proven.

*

For the following DFA answer the questions given below.

* . q0 . q0 . . A > . if and only if ( q0 . Example 1 : .The following notations are used in the questions: : \delta * : \delta^* : \Lambda Language Accepted by DFA Subjects to be Learned • Language accepted by DFA A string w is accepted by a DFA < Q . . w ) A } . if and only if L = { w | *( q0 . . A language L is accepted by a DFA < Q . w ) A . A > . That is. the language accepted by a DFA is the set of strings accepted by the DFA. That is a string is accepted by a DFA if and only if the DFA starting at the initial state ends in an accepting state after reading the string.

e. . To find the language it accepts. It accepts nothing else because any non-empty symbol would take it to state 1. Thus the language it accepts is the empty set Example 3 : DFA with one cycle . This is represented by (ab)*. Then from state 1 go to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading aa. which is not an accepting state. and it stays there.1 any number of times by reading substring ab any number of times to come back to state 1. Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by a(ab)*aa .2 .This DFA accepts { } because it can go from the initial state to the accepting state (also the initial state) without reading any symbol of the alphabet i.1 and it can go through this cycle any number of times by reading substring ab repeatedly.2 . by reading an empty string . This DFA has a cycle: 1 . Example 2 : This DFA does not accept any string because it has no accepting state. first from the initial state go to state 1 by reading one a. Then from state 1 go through the cycle 1 .

2 .0 .1.0. first from state 0 go to state 1 by .0 and it can move through these cycles any number of times in any order to reach the accepting state from the initial state such as 0 .3 .1 . Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by ( ab + bb )*.2 .0 and 0 .2 .0 .1 .2 . To find the language accepted by this DFA. Example 5 : DFA with two interleaved cycles This DFA has two cycles: 1 .1 and 1 .Example 4 : DFA with two independent cycles This DFA has two independent cycles: 0 .0 .2 .

So we are not going to go any further on this problem here.0 . Thus the language accepted at state 1 is b*a(ba)* . Thus the language that is accepted by this DFA is the union of the language accepted at state 0 and the one accepted at state 1. Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata .2 .2 .3 .1 any number of times in any order by reading substrings baa and bba. At state 1 go through the cycle 1 . At this point (b*a) will have been read. To find the language accepted at state 1. The language accepted at state 0 is b* . Then go from state 1 to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading bb. first at state 0 read any number of b's. At this point a substring a( baa + bba )* will have been read.2 . Then go to state 1 by reading one a.reading a ( any other state which is common to these cycles such as state 2 can also be used instead of state 1 ). Thus altogether a( baa + bba )*bb will have been read when state 3 is reached from state 0.1 any number of times by reading substring ba repeatedly.1 and 1 . Then from state 1 go through the two cycles 1 . Example 6 : This DFA has two accepting states: 0 and 1. There is a systematic way of finding the language accepted by a DFA and we are going to learn it later. respectively.

Note that any DFA is also a NFA. A > Notes on the definition 1. a) ) . Then a nondeterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . We call the elements of Q a state. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 1 a (q. Which one of the states in (q. 4. Otherwise it is not accepted.Subjects to be Learned • • • Nondeterministic finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". 1 }. . The transition function is also called a next state function . Note that is a function. But it can be the empty set. a) must be specified. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. Examples of NFA Example 1: Q = { 0. A = { 1 }. ceases to come. the following table. Its elements can be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. a) to select is determined nondeterministically. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of (q. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ends i. As in the case of DFA the accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. Also let be a function from Q to 2Q . a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. 5. As in the case of DFA the set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. 3.e. the transition function. Unlike DFAs an NFA moves into one of the states given by (q. = { a }. . in which case the NFA aborts its operation. 2. q0 .

the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1. in the following table.A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. is changed to { a. 1. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. b } in stead of { a }. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. this is still an NFA that accepts { Example 2: Q = { 0. = { a. 2 }. . b }.2} 0 1 1 2 2 b a b a b {2} (q. If the alphabet a}. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. A = { 2 }.

it does not accept any of them. then it stays in the accepting state.Operation of NFA Let us see how an automaton operates when some inputs are applied to it. As an example let us consider the automaton of Example 2 above. Initially it is in state 0. Since the state 2 is the accepting state. if the next input is b and if no more inputs are given. if it moves to state 2 and no more inputs are given. If any other strings are given to this NFA. * and then formalize the concepts of acceptance of . it moves to either state 1 or state 2. Thus the string ab is also accepted by this NFA. If on the other hand it moves to state 1 after reading a. When it reads the symbol a. then it goes to state 2 and remains there. Let us now define the function strings and languages by NFA. We say that this automaton accepts the string a.

A > .Language Accepted by NFA Subjects to be Learned • • • for NFA Language accepted by NFA Properties of * * Definition of * For a state q and string w. Thus for an NFA < Q . ) = { q }. In general an NFA nondeterministically goes through a number of states from the state q as it reads the symbols in the string w. the Basis Clause says that an NFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the set of states NFA can reach after reading string ya starting at state q is the set of states it can reach by reading symbol a after reading string y starting at state q. a) ) For example consider the NFA with the following transition table: . the function * :Q -> 2Q is defined recursively as follows: * Definition of *: Basis Clause: For any state q of Q. ya ) = In the definition. * (q. any string y * and any symbol a ( q . where * denotes the empty . w ) is the set of states that the NFA can reach when it reads the string w starting at the state q. string.3} 0 b {2} 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b {1} {3} {3} (q. . q0 . Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q. Example State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {0. *( q . .1.

ab ) is the union of the definition of * . 3}. Hence *( 0 . ab ) can be calculated as follows: ( p. a ) = ( 0 . ) again by the Inductive * Clause of the definition of . ( 0 . b ) for all p * ( 0 . ) = { 0 } . ab ) = ( 0 . Suppose that the state 3 is an accepting state of this NFA.b) (3. a ) for all p ( 0 . By the Basis Clause of the definition of *. a ) = { 0 .The transition diagram for this NFA is as given below. 1 . *( 0 . 3 } .2. . a ) by the Inductive Clause of * Now *( 0 . b ) (1.b)={2} {3} {1}={1. Then * * ( 0 . a ) is the union of ( p. Hence *( 0 .

* ( q . q0.* We say that a string x is accepted by an NFA < Q. * . .A Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 . A > .a)= (q. xy ) = These theorems can be proven in a manner similar to those for Theorems 1 and 2 for DFA. . q0. A > if and only if * ( q0 . . . . abbbb etc. The language accepted by an NFA < Q. . * (q. that is. . aaa. x ) A is not empty. . for an NFA < Q . Some of the strings accepted by the NFA given above are the language it accepts is a*( ab + a + ba )(bb)* . q0 . if and only if it can reach an accepting state by reading x starting at the initial state.a) for an NFA < Q . and for NFA has properties similar to that for DFA. A > is the set of strings that are accepted by the NFA. ab. a. .

A> Notes on the definition 1. . Here we are going to formally define NFA with -Transitions (abbreviated as NFA. concatenation and Kleene star operations. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. We call the elements of Q a state. Thus the tape head does not move when is read.) and see some examples. Also let { } to 2Q . .makes the transition without reading any symbol in the input. Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton with Let Q be a finite set and let -Transitions be a function from Q be a finite set of symbols. These operations on FAs can be described conveniently if -Transitions are used.Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata with Transitions Subjects to be Learned • • • - Nondeterministic finite automata with State transition diagram State transition table -Transitions Contents One of the objectives of this chapter is to show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between regular languages and finite automata. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. Basically an NFA with -Transitions is an NFA but can respond to an empty string and move to the next state. As we are going to see later.there is a NFA (hence DFA) which accepts the same language and vice versa. We are going to do that by showing that a finite automaton can be constructed from a given regular expression by combining simpler FAs using union. Note that any NFA is also a NFA. . A transition on reading means that the NFA. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton with -Transitions is a 5-tuple < Q . for any NFA. 2. q0 . the transition function..

a) ) Here the transitions to are omitted from the table.Example of NFA- Q = { 0. 2. = { a. 3. 3. 1. If you read string ab. it can move to any of the states other than 0. 2. Thus 4 is the only state you can go to from the initial state . for example. you can go to state 2. for example. 4 and 5 without reading any symbol on the tape. then you come to state 4. following table. 4 and 5 by reading a. For once you are in state 1. 4. 4 } 3 {5} 3 b {4} 4 a {5} (q. there are no transitions on reading b except from state 3. A = . A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. For though you go to states 1. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in the State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 0 {4} 1 {2} 2 { 3. 3. When a symbol a is read at the initial state 0. b }. 5 }.

by reading ab.

**Language Accepted by NFASubjects to be Learned
**

• • • •

**-closure for NFALanguage accepted by NFAProperties of *
**

*

Contents

To formally define * for NFA- , we start with the concept of -closure for a state which is the set of states reachable from the state without reading any symbol. Using that concept we define * and then strings and languqges accepted by NFA- . Definition of -closure

Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA- . Let us denote the -closure of a set S of states of Q by ( S ). Then ( S ) is defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: S (S)

Inductive Clause: For any state q of Q, if q ( S ) , then ( q , ) (S). Extremal Clause: Nothing is in ( S ) unless it is obtained by the above two clauses.

For the NFAFirst { 2 }

of the above figure, ( { 2 } ) , that is, 2 (2, )

( { 2 } ) is obtained as follows: ( { 2 } ) . Then since 2 ( { 2 } ) , by the

Inductive Clause, Since (2,

({2}). ({2}).

) = { 3 , 4 }, we now have { 2 , 3 , 4 }

Since 3 and 4 have been added to

({2}),

(3,

) = { 5 } and

(4,

)=

must

be included in ( { 2 } ) . Thus now { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } ({2}). Though 5 has become a memeber of the closure, since ( 5 , ) is empty, no new members are added to ( { 2 } ) . Since ( q , ) has been examined for all the states currently in ( { 2 } ) and no more elements are added to it, this process of generating the closure terminates and ( { 2 } ) = { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } is obtained. As we can see from the example, ( S ) is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S by traversing any number of arcs. That is, it is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S without reading any symbols in . Now with this -closure, we can define

*

recursively as follows:

As in the cases of DFA and NFA, * gives the result of applying the transition function repeatedly as dictated by the given string. Definition of

* *

is going to be defined recursively. Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA-

.

**Basis Clause: For any state q of Q,
**

*

(q,

)=

({q}).

*

Inductive Clause: For any state q, a string y in

and a symbol a in

,

*

( q , ya ) =

(

).

What the Inductive Clause means is that *( q , ya ) is obtained by first finding the states that can be reached from q by reading y ( *( q , y ) ), then from each of those states p by reading a (i.e. by finding ( p , a ) ), and then by reading 's ( i.e. by taking the closure of the ( p , a )'s ) . Example : For the NFAbelow: of the following figure,

*

( 0 , ab ) can be obtained as

First let us compute *( 0 , a ) . For that we need ( { 0 } ). Since it is the set of states reached by traversing the arcs from state 0, ( { 0 } ) = {0,3,4}. Next from each of the states in ( { 0 } ) we read symbol a and move to another state (i.e. apply ). They are ( 0 , a ) = { 1 } , ( 3 , a ) = ( 4 , a ) = { 5 }. Hence We then traverse the } ) = { 1 , 2 , 3 } and = { 1 , 5 } for q = 0 . arcs from { 1 , 5 } to get to the states in *( 0 , a ) . Since * ({5})={5}, (0,a)={1,2,3,5}.

({1

to (equivalent) NFA Conversion of NFA to (equivalent) DFA Equivalence of DFAs. For example the NFAof the figure given above accepts the language { . . . A2 > that satisfies the following conditions recognizes L: .s Subjects to be Learned • • • Conversion of NFA. NFAs and NFA. NFAs and NFAto NFA 1 Conversion of NFA- Let M1 = < Q1 . . Equivalence of DFAs. q0 . Thus Since ( { 4 } ) = { 3 . and ( 2 . ( 3 . A > if and only if *( q0 . 4 } . b ) and ( 5 .that recognizes a language L. Now ( 1 .. b ) are empty sets. *( 0 . . Then the 2 . a . . .0 . A > is the set of strings accepted by the NFA.0 . ab ) read b from each of the states in *( 0 . 4 } .< Q . The language accepted by an NFA. b ) . q0 . q1. a ) and then take the arcs from there. q2. ab } .< Q . NFA M2 = < Q2. A1 > be an NFA. x ) contains at least one accepting state.Then to find *( 0 . b ) = { 4 } . ab ) = { 3 . . A string x is accepted by an NFA.

The set of accepting states A2 is the same as A1 if no accepting states can be reached from the initial state q1. 2 first copy the states of Q1 into Q2. a ) = 1 * (q.0.M1 = < Q1 . 2. Then from the transition function of the NFA- .0 through arcs in M1 . then all the accepting states of M1 plus state q1. Then for each state q of Q2 and each symbol a of find 2 ( q .0 = q1. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) .a)= ( ) A2 = A1 { q1. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. q2. Otherwise. as the given NFA. The transition function 2 is obtained as follows: 2( 0 . 1 } . Then collect all the states that can be reached from each state of ( {q} ) by traversing one arc labeled with the symbol a. a ) .0 . that is if an accepting state can be reached from the initial state q1. 1. . The closure of the set of those states is 2( q .0 through arcs in M1 .0 } ) A1 = A1 otherwise . that is all the states that can be reached from q by traversing arcs. . The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0. A2 > which accepts the same language 1 . Thus to obtain an NFA M2 = < Q2. 3 ). a ) as follows: Find ( {q} ).Q2 = Q1. a ): First ( { 0 } ) = { 0 . q2. . q1. 2 ( q. A1 > does. Example 1: Let us convert the following NFAto NFA.0 } if ( { q1.0 are the accepting states of M2 .0 .

2} {1.2}. since ( { 0 } ) = { 0 .b)= 1 ( 1. b ) = . b ) . a ) = 1 ( 1 . ({1.2})={1. 2 ( 0 .3} {3} {1.2} The NFA thus obtained is shown below.2} )) ({q}) {0. 2 (0.b)= Similarly 2 can be obtained for other states and symbols. and Hence 2( 0 .( 0 .2} {1.1} {1} {1} {2} {2} {1.3} {1.3} {1. 2 }. a ) = { 1 . 1 For . They are given in the table ( { q } ) and 2 below together with State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b a b . 1 } and 1 (0. )(= ( {1.1} {0. a ) = .2} {1. (q. .2} {1.

2.3} {3} {3} {1.2. 1. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0.4} {1.4} {1.2} {4} {4} {4} {1. The transition function 2 is obtained as for Example 1. 2.Example 2: Let us convert the following NFA- to NFA. ) and State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 a b a b a b a b a ({q}) {0.1} {1} {1} {2.1} {0.2} 2 (q.2} {1. )(= ( {1.3} . the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. 1 ( p .4} {1. 2 is given in the table below together with ( { q } ) .3} )) {1.4} {1.2.3} {1. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) .3} {2. 3. 4 ).

4} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. .4 b {1. Proof of Equivalence of NFA- and NFA We are going to prove that the NFA obtained from NFAby the conversion algorithm accepts the same language as the NFA.

0 .w)= 2 * (q.a)= 2 * 2 (q. a)= by the definition of Since * 2 * for NFA (click here for a review) . Basis Step: We need to show that for any symbol a in 1 * (q.a)= 2 2 * (q . wa ) = 2 * ( q .a)= 2 ( q . wa ) = --. . 1 * (q.(1) . Secondly 2 * (q. then * 1 ( q . Claim 1: For any non-empty string w and for any state q.a). . A2 > (q. . q2. (q.(1) because of the way NFA is constructed from NFA(click here for a review) . q1. We are going to prove it by showing that both of them are equal to Firstly 2( q . a ) = 1*( q . a ) .. = 1 * Then we show that ( q . then assuming it holds for any arbitrary string w we prove it for any of the children of w.w)= 2 * ( q . wa ) --. and the conversion of NFAto NFA click here. (q. . )={q}. wa ) holds for any arbitrary symbol a in First we show that using the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . w ) for an arbitrary string w (Induction Hypothesis). 1 * (q.a). --.a)= 2 * (q. Hence (q.(2) Hence from (1) and (2). for NFA. Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. Recall that the set of strings is defined recursively (click here for a quick review). = = 2 * 2 (q . A1 > and 2 NFA obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. that is wa for any symbol a in the alphabet.a).w).(2) . a ) --.0 . The case when w is an empty string is going to be proven separately. 1 . w ) for any non-empty string w. and NFA- When it is proven.NFA- that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 . Thus we first prove that it is true for any arbitrary symbol. Inductive Step: We need to show that if 1 * (q.a). First we are going to prove that To review the definition of * 1 * . it implies that NFAM1 and NFA M2 accept the same non-empty strings. .w)= 2 * ( q . the induction hypothesis and the construction of NFA from NFA.

w)= 1 * ( q . To see an explanation for this click here. wa ) = 2 * ( q . w ) by the induction hypothesis. Let us first prove (1).a)= 1 * ( q . wa ) = 2 * ( q . . wa ) . . a ) by the way NFA is constructed from NFA= . Hence On the other hand = Hence 1 * = ( q . Let us next prove (2). = 1*( q . = Since 2 (q. as proven below in Claim 3. Hence 2 * ( q . ( q . 1 * Thus from (1) and (2) ( q . by the definition of 1 * . that is By the definition of 1 * = 1 * 1 * ( q . This can be shown to be equal to . By the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . wa ) = Since 2 * (q.a)= Substituting this into the left hand side of (2) produces = . wa ) . because = . The right hand side of this equality is equal to ( the first and have been swapped to get this) . wa ) .basically using the definition of Then from (1) and (2) we can see that 1 * 1 * . that is (1) has been proven. . Hence we have proven (2). wa ) = . wa ) . wa ) . for NFA- (p.

Part 1 : (S T) (S) (T) This is going to be proven by induction on (S T). Claim 2: (S T)= (S) (T). Hence is accepted by NFA. Extremal Clause: Nothng is in ( X ) unless it is obtained by the Basis and Inductive Clauses. A2 .End of Induction With this Claim 1 we can see that any non-empty string w is accepted by NFA if and only if it is accepted by the corresponding NFA. We are going to prove this in two parts: (S T) (S) (S) (T) ( T ) and (S T). let us prove the following claim. Let X be the set of states of an NFA. and the corresponding NFA accept the same language. . Hence by the way A2 is constructed. What Part 1 states is that all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in the set (S) (T). then q20 this means that Thus NFA( { q10 } ) A1 A2 . Then the -closure of X is defined recursively as Basis Clause: X (X). in the Basis Step of our proof we prove the property for the elements of the basis of (S T ) and in the Inductive Step we prove that if an arbitrary element of (S T ) has that property. Hence is accepted by NFA. if it is accepted by an NFA. Since (S T ) is defined recursively. Let us review the definition of the -closure of the set of states of an NFA. q20 Conversely if NFAis accepted by NFA. then ( { q10 } ) A1 .. then ( q . By the way NFA is constructed from . ) (X). Inductive Clause: If q ( X ) . then its childen also have it. For that let us restate the statement so that the induction becomes clearer. As a preparation for the proof of commutativity of union and -closure operations. As for the empty string .

T).S (S T). (q. T ) with (T). then (q. ) Let q be an arbitrary element of T ) with the property of being in ( S ) by the definition of ( T ) . ) (S) (T). That would imply that Proof of (S) (S By induction on (S T): (S). ( T ) . (S) (T). T T).Proof of Part 1: Basis Step: We need to prove that ( S Since S ( S ) and T T) (S) (S) (S (S) (S) (T). (S T ) with the property of being in (S) ( T ) . (T). if q is in . Hence ) Similarly if q Hence if q is an arbitrary element of (S) (T). Inductive Step: We need to prove that for an arbitrary element q in ( S ) . ) (S) (T). Basis Step: We need to show that S Since S (S T ) . then (q. Hence (T). ( T ) . ) (S) (S) (T). (T) Thus all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in (S T) which is to say that (S) (T). End of Proof for Part 1 Part 2 : Proof of Part 2: We are going to prove (S) (S (S) T ) and (S) (T) (T) (T) (S (S (S T). Since q If q ( S ) . S and T are subsets of (S T) Inductive Step: We need to prove that if q is an arbitrary element of the property of being in (S) (S ( T ) . then (q. ) . and ( S T) (S T). then ( q .q ( S ) or q ( S ) .

If n = 1. ( Sn+1 ) by the induction hypothesis. End of Proof for Claim 3 Sn+1 ) by Claim 2 above. then (q. --. Basis Step: n = 1.Inducion Hypothesis ( Si ) = ( = = (( Si ) ( ( Si ) ) Si ) ( Sn+1 ) by the definition of union. by the definition of (q. ) (S T). Thus (S) (S T ) has been proven. Proof : Proof by induction on n. since = ( Equivalence of NFA and DFA We are going to prove that the DFA obtained from NFA by the conversion algorithm . Similarly Hence (S) (T) (T) (S T ) holds. - T ) is a -closure.(S Since q is in (S T ) and since (S T ) . Si ) by the definition of union. ( Si ) holds for n. End of Proof of Part 2 End of Proof of Claim 2 Claim 3: ( Si ) = ( Si ) . ) (S closure T). ( Si ) = ( Si ) = ( S1 ) and ( S1 ) . Si is a set as well as Sn+1. (S T ) holds. then Hence Inductive Step: Assume that ( ( Si ) = Si ) = ( Si ) holds for n = 1.

0 . = * 1 ( q1. Theorem: For any string w. q1. a ) ( q2. .0 . Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. ( q2.0 . ) by the definition of 1 * .0 .0 . = { q1.0 } by the construction of DFA M2 . Inductive Step: Assume that Induction Hypothesis 1 * ( q1.0 . When it is proven.0 . 1 * ( q1. w ) for an arbitrary string w. A2 > First we are going to prove by induction on strings that 1*( q1. wa ) * 1 Thus for any string w ( q1. --- For the string w and an arbitrry symbol a in 1 * . ) = q2. w ) .0 . q2. w ) = 2 * ( q2. obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. w ) .Part 1 Subjects to be Learned • • • • Union of FAs Concatenation of FAs Kleene Star of FAs Acceptance of regular languages by FAs Contents .0 . ( q1. w ) = 2*( q2. w ) = 2 * ( q2. 2 1 . w ) holds. Kleene's Theorem --.0 . w ) = 2 * ( q2. Basis Step: For w = 2 * .0 .0 . wa ) = = = = 2 ( 1 2 * * ( q1. NFA that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 . a ) 2( * 2 ( q2. w ) . it obviously implies that NFA M1 and DFA M2 accept the same strings.0 .0 . w ) for any string w.0 .accepts the same language as the NFA.0 by the definition of 2* .0 . A1 > and DFA . .

. 1 .0 . which are given below. Ak > . then L1 L2 . 2 . Mc . We assume that Q1 Q2 = without loss of generality since states can be renamed if necessary. u L2 .Kleene's theorem.0 .0 . . c . Qu = Q1 Q2 . . concatenation and Kleene star operations. qk. L1L2 and L1* are accepted by the FAs Mu = < Qu .{ } and { a } for any symbol a in are accepted by an FA.0 .0 } . Inductive Step: We are going to show that for any languages L1 and L2 if they are accepted by FAs. u Mu = < Qu . Au > . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by FAs. qu. respectively. Suppose that L1 and L2 are accepted by FAs M1 = < Q1 .0 . Since any regular language is obtained from { } and { a } for any symbol a in by using union.0 . . A1 > and M2 = < Q2 . Ac > and Mk = < Q2 . where qu. respectively. A2 > . qc. . Au > : { qu. Then L1 = < Qc . q1. q2.0 is a state which is neither in Q1 nor in Q2 . . k . that together with the Basis Step would prove the theorem. qu. Theorem 1 (Part 1 of Kleene's theorem): Any regular language is accepted by a finite automaton. Basis Step: As shown below the languages . Proof: This is going to be proven by (general) induction following the recursive definition of regular language. . It states that any regular language is accepted by an FA and conversely that any language accepted by an FA is regular.

0 . { q2. .0 = q1. . { q1. Ak > : { qk. Note that (qu. a ) = for all a in .0. These NFA- s are illustrated below. .0 .0 } ) | q A1 } Ac = A2 Mk = < Qk .0 } ) } { (q. Au = A1 A2 Mc = < Qc .0. . . qk. { q1. that is u (qu.u = 1 2 { (qu.0 } = 1 { (qk.0 c = 1 2 { (q.0. where qk.0 } .0 .0 } ) } . qc. { qk. . Qk = Q1 k . q2. u ) = { q1.0.0 is a state which is not in Q1 . k . q2.0 } ) | q A1 } Ak = { qk. c .0 .0 } . Ac > : Qc = Q1 Q2 qc.

Mc and Mk . End of Proof Examples of Mu . L1L2 and L1*. Mc and Mk: Example 1: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression (aa + b)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above. in fact accept L1 L2 . that these NFA. though we omit proofs. respectively. Mu.It can be proven.s . .

.Example 2: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression ((a + b)a*)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above.

Part 2 .Kleene's Theorem -.

where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. k)*L(k+1. q. Note that paths may go through arcs and vertices any number of times. It states that any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. Then the following lemmas hold. 2. k+1. k)*L(k+1. then from k+1 to k+1 any number of times. q. q. k)L(k+1. then from k+1 to q. k+1. Before proceeding to a proof outline for the converse. k+1) = L(p. L(p. k)L(k+1. . all without passing through states labeled higher than k. q. Given a finite automaton. See the figure below for the illustration. let us study a method to compute the set of strings accepted by a finite automaton. What this lemma says is that the set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled with k+1 or lower numbers consists of the following two sets: 1. k) L(p. Next denote by L(p.Subjects to be Learned • Languages accepted by FAs are regular Contents The converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem also holds true. first relabel its states with the integers 1 through n. k) : The set of strings going first from p to k+1. q. Lemma 1: L(p. L(p. k) . q. k+1. k) : The set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled wiht k or lower numbers. k+1. k) the set of strings representing paths from state p to state q that go through only states numbered no higher than k.

0) is regular. n) over all accepting states q. q.Lemma 2: L(p. q. q. then it consists of single symbols representing arcs from p to q. k) is regular for any states p and q and any natural number k. Lemma 3: L(p. then is in it as well as the strings representing any loops at p (they are all single symbols). 0) is the set of strings representing paths from p to q without passing any states in between. q. Since the number of symbols is finite and since any finite language is regular. L(p. q. Example : Let us find the language accepted by the following finite automaton using the . 0) is regular. If p = q. Since the language accepted by a finite automaton is the union of L(q0. Theorem 2 (Part 2 of Kleene's Theorem): Any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. Proof: L(p. Hence if p and q are different. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. >From Lemmas 1 and 2 by induction the following lemma holds. we have the following converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem.

2): r(3. 1) = r(1. 3. 3. 1) + r(3.0)*r(1.1. 3.0)r(1.1. 2): r(1.1. 2) = a* + a+(b a+)*b a* .1.1. 1) = r(3. 1) r(3. Then the language accepted by this NFA is r(1. 1. since r(3.2. 3) = r(1. 2) = r(1.0) = b.0) = a . 1) = r(2. 3. 1.1. r(1.0)r(1.0) = ba+ + . 1) = r(3.1.0) = and r(3. 2. 2. 1)r(2.1. 2): r(1.0)r(1.1. 3. r(1. 3. 2. 1. Hence r(1.0)*r(1.1. By Lemma 1. 1. since r(1. since r(2. 1. 3.2. Let us denote by r(p.0) = ba+ . 1) = r(1. 1.1. 3. 3.0) = ba* . 1) r(1. 1) = r(2.0) = a + . 1. 2) + r(1. 1.1. k) the regular expression for the set of strings L(p.2.2. 2) = r(3.0)*r(1.1. 2)*r(3. 2. k). 1)r(2. 1) = r(2.2. r(1. 1.0) = and r(2.1.0) + r(3. 2.0) + r(2. 1) = a Hence r(1. 1)r(2. 3. 2.0)*r(1. 3. 2) = a+(b a+ + = a+(b a+ )*a .0)r(1.0) + r(1. 1. 2) . 2. 1. 3.2. 1) + r(1.0) = a* .0) + r(1.1.2. r(2. 1) + r(1. 1)*r(2. r(1. 3). )*a r(3.1. . 2. q. 2.0) = a+ .lemmas.0)*r(1.1. since r(1. 1)*r(2. 3.0) = b . 3.0) + r(2. 2) = r(1. 1) r(1. q.2.2.0)r(1. 2)r(3. 1)*r(2. r(2.

q. 1. )*ba* + ( ba+)+a )*( ba+ )*ba*. Q . then to (a + ab)*. where p is the initial state and n is the number of states in the given finite automaton. Hence r(1. Comlement and Intersection of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • • Complement of Regular Language Complement of DFA Intersection of Regular Languages Contents Complement Let M = < Q . 1. . 3. n) must be found for each accepting state q. 1)r(2. . The detail is left as an exercise though it would be quite challenging.1. can be obtained by swapping its accepting states with its non-accepting states. . 2): r(3.0)r(1. 3) = a* + a+(b a+)*ba* + ( a+( ba+ )*a )( This can be further simplified to (a + ab + abb)*. 1. q. 1)*r(2.1.L . A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. 1) + r(3. then r(p. In this example there is only one accepting state.A > is a DFA that accepts * . 2.L. 2.1. 1) = r(3.0) = ba* Hence r(3. . that is Mc = < Q . and all the r(p. i.0) + r(3. Then a DFA that accepts the complement of L. . 1) r(3. * . If there are more accepting states. 2) = ba* + ba+( ba+ + = ( ba+ )*ba* . 2) = r(3.e. 1.1. n)'s must be added together to get the regular expression for the language accepted by the automaton. q0 .0)<SUP*< SUP>r(1.Hence r(3. 2) = = + ( ba+)+a + ba+( ba+ + )*a r(3. q0 . 1. 1. 1.

b }. . Remark 1: If we have NFA rather than DFA. Remark 2: Since a language is regular if and only if it is accepted by some NFA. we must first convert it to DFA before swapping states to get its complement. the complement of a regular language is also regular. A DFA that accepts its complement is obtained from the above DFA by changing all single circles to double circles and vice versa as shown below.For example the following DFA accepts the language a+ over = { a .

difference. then their complements are regular languages.Intersection of Regular Languages Langauges are sets. Context-Sensitive and Phrase Structure Grammars . if L1 and L2 are regular languages. Since L1 L2 = by De Morgan's law. concatenation and Kleene star operations.Regular Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Regular Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Production and Grammar Regular Grammar Context-Free. Test Your Understanding of Complemnent and Intersection of FAs Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. intersection. Next -. By Remark 2 above. In particular De Morgan's law also applies to languages. L1 L2 is regular. Therefore all the properties of sets are inherited by languages. Thus summing all this up we can say that the set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed with respect to union. Click True or Fals . then Submit.

One can generate the strings of this language by the following procedure: Let S be a symbol to start the process with. That gives us aa. if L . . For example. A production has in general the form -> . S -> bS. A grammar is regular if and only if is a single nonterminal and is a single terminal or a single terminal followed by a single nonterminal.e. and a set of rewrite rules (productions) P. aaa. b}. that is a production is of the form X -> a or X -> aY. a set of terminals (the alphabet of the language). which is { a. Add another state as the accepting state Z. Then apply the first rule to aS to rewrite S as a. which ia a nonterminal. In general if a string a grammar G.{ by a regular grammar. S -> } is a regular grammar and it generates all the strings consisting of a's and b's including the empty string. where X and Y are nonterminals and a is a terminal. These rules mean that S is rewritten as a or as aS. then we simply write =>* Formally a grammar consists of a set of nonterminals (or variables) V. Thus the process of obtaining aa from S is written as S => aS => aa .Contents We have learned three ways of characterising regular languages: regular expressions. The following theorem holds for regular grammars. If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. i. . V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. To generate the string aa for example. Rewrite S using one of the following two rules: S -> a . A grammar is a set of rewrite rules which are used to generarte strings by successively rewriting symbols. Then for every production X -> aY. regular. . we write =>*G is obtained from a string and say that by applying productions of . aa. finite automata and construction from simple languages using simple operations. a start symbol S.e. } can be generated This can be proven by constructing an FA for the given grammar as follows: For each nonterminal create a state. the fact that aa is obtained from S is written as S =>* aa . add the transition ( X. a ) = Y and for every production X -> a add the transition ( X. If there is no is derived from ambiguity about the grammar G that is referred to. For example consider the language represented by a+. to obtain aS. . a ) = Z. = {a. that is by something called grammar. Theorem 3: A language L is accepted by an FA i. We write S => aS to express that aS is obtained from S by applying a single production. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals with at least one nonterminal in it and is a string of terminals and nonterminals. } . start with S and apply the second rule to replace S with the right hand side of the rule. There is yet another way of characterizing them. and S -> aS . S corresponds to the initial state. aS.

S -> a. accepted by an NFA. If L contains ( L -{ } ) { } is also regular. . Z } and ( S. The NFA thus obtained is shown below. . q0. P. as its member. a regular grammar corresponding to the NFA given below is < Q. . and nonterminals X and Y. { a. Y } . S -> a }. Thus the following converse of Theorem 3 is obtained. X. P. X -> a is in P if and only if (X. S -> b } form a regular grammar which generates the language ( a + b )+. a) = Y . where Q = { S. q0 > is obtained as follows: for any a in .{ } is regular. L = Conversely from any NFA < Q. S -> bS. Z } . a) = Y for some accepting state Y. b }. then L . X -> bS.{ regular grammar. Thus L . An NFA that recognizes this language can be obtained by creating two states S and Z. S > . and adding transitions ( S. Y -> bS. S -> aX.e. and for any a in and any nonterminal X. X -> aY is in P if and only if (X. b}. b ) = { S. then since { } is regular . X -> aY. A > a regular grammar < Q. . a ) = { S. } is generated by a For example. Theorem 4 : If L is regular i.For example = {a. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. where S is the initial state and Z is the accepting state of the NFA. P = { S -> aS.

bZ -> bc. X -> a. c } and V = { X. Context-sensitive grammars are also characterized by productions whose left hand side is not longer than the right hand side. ZX -> XZ. S. where X is a nonterminal and . S -> ab } with = { a. YX -> XY. that is. aX -> aa. For example P = { S -> aSb. b. Z. S -> XYZ. aY -> ab. BY -> bb. As we shall see later this is an example of context-free language which is not regular. These grammars are distinguished by the kind of productions they have but they also form a hierarchy.In addition to regular languages there are three other types of languages in Chomsky hierarchy : context-free languages. b } and V = { S } is a contex-free grammar and it generates the language { anbn | n is a positive integer } . 2 and are strings of terminals and nonterminals. possibly the empty string. For example P = { S -> XYZS1. ZY -> YZ. S1 -> XYZS1. possibly empty except Thus the nonterminal X can be rewritten as only in the context of 1X 2 . cZ -> cc } with = { a. They are characterized by context-free grammars. A grammar is a context-free grammar if and only if its production is of the form X -> . A grammar is a context-sensitive grammar if and only if its production is of the form 1 X 2 -> 1 2 . . 1 .| | | |. S1 -> XYZ. that is the set of regular languages is a subset of the set of context-free languages which is in turn a subset of the set of context-sensitive languages and the set of context-sensitive languages is a subset of the set of phrase structure languages. respectively. context-sensitive languages and phrase structure languages. for every production -> . where is a string of terminals and nonterminals. Y. S1 } is a context-sensitive grammar and it generates the language { anbncn | n is a positive integer } . context-sensitive grammars and phrase structure grammars. It is an example of context-sensitive language which is not context-free.

}. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. that has the smallest number of states amomg the DFAs that accept L. both theoretically and practically. .For a phrase structure grammar. new := new_partition( . denote it by M1. Let M = < Q . where and Test Your Understanding of Regular Grammar Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.A } of the set of states Q . q0 . Then the following algorithm produces the DFA. There are two sets of questions. Next -. Q . is that for any regular language there is a unique DFA having the smallest number of states that accepts it. then Submit. Minimization Algorithm for DFA Construct a partition = { A. that is a production of a phrase structure grammar can take the form can be any string.Minimization of DFA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Minimization of DFA One important result on finite automata. -> . . there is no restriction on the form of production. Click True or Fals .

Let us also denote by p and q the sets of states of the original DFA M represented by p and q. Let s be a state in p and t a state in q.while ( := new new ) ) .e. Note that the sets of final are either a subset of A or disjoint from A. then the minimum DFA M1 has a transition from p to q on symbol a. respectively. These representatives are states of minimum DFA M1. states of minimum DFA M1. The subsets thus formed are sets of the output partition in place of S. The start state of M1 is the representative which contains the start state of M. Let p and q be representatives i. p and q make a transition to (states of) the same set of . if there are any. A state is a dead state if it is not an accepting state and has no out-going transitions except to itself. If S is not partitioned in this process. new := new_partition( := . S remains in the output partition. end Minimum DFA M1 is constructed from • • final as follows: • • Select one state in each set of the partition final as the representative for the set. final function new_partition( ) for each set S of do partition S into subsets such that two states p and q of S are in the same subset of S if and only if for each input symbol. If a transition from s to t on symbol a exists in M. Remove from M1 the dead states and the states not reachable from the start state. Any transitions to a dead state become undefined. The accepting states of M1 are representatives that are in A. Example 1 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. .

Thus the set of states for the minimized DFA is { 1 . Further. since 1 and 5 do the same transitions. and 3 goes to 1 on a in the original DFA. Since the rest of the states are singletons. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 2 to 1 on b. in the When new_partition is applied to this new . Thus final = { { 1 . remains unchanged. Also since 2 goes to 1 on b. { 3 } . 2 and 4 are separated from each other in new.Initially = { { 1 . { 2 . all transitions between them are inherited for the minimized DFA. since 1 goes to 3 on a. { 2 } . state 3 goes to state 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . they have the obvious representatives. 4 goes to 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . and 1 to 2 on b. . Select 1 as the representative for { 1 . This becomes the second iteration. 5 } . 3 . Since on b state 2 goes to state 1. 5 } . 4 } }. Note here that state 4 is a dead state because the only transitionout of it is to itself. 5 } . { 3 } . 3 }. Thus the new partition is { { 1 . Since the rest are singletons. For the transitions. and to 2 on b in the original DFA. So they are not going to be split. { 4 ] }. since on b 2 goes to 1. Also since on a sate 4 goes to sate 4. states 2 and 3 are going to be separated from each other in new . { 4 ] }. 5 }. 2 . { 2 } . new_partition is applied to . and from 3 to 1 on a. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 1 to 3 on a. On the other hand 1 and 5 make the same transitions. states 3 and 4 are going to be separated from each other in new. state 3 goes to state 5 and 4 and 5 are in different sets in .

.Thus the minimized DFA is as given in the following figure: Example 2 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA.

{ 2 } . { 5 } . { 1 . then Submit. new = { { 1 } . { 1 . 4 . Applyting new_partition again. 6 } } is obtained. Click True or Fals . 2 . 4 } . 4 . Next -.Initially = { { 3 } . Applyting new_partition to this . 5 . { 6 } } is obtained. { 2 . { 6 } } is obtained. { 2 } . new = { { 3 } . By applying new_partition to this . { 3 } . Test Your Understanding of Minimization of DFA Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. { 5 } . { 4 } .Application of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Application of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Reactive system . Thus the number of states of the given DFA is already minimum and it can not be reduced any further. { 1 . new = { { 3 } . 6 } }. 5 } .

A system such as an adder is called a transformational system. Finite automata are formal and rigorous and computer programs can be easily written to simulate their behaviors. computer network communication protocols. In the case of vending machine or communication protocol. In addition actions that may take place in those states can also be added to the model. on the other hand. lexical analysers for compilers etc. It is an event driven or control driven system continuously having to react to external and/or internal stimuli. It is generally agreed that finite automata are a natural medium to describe dynamic behaviors of reactive systems. outputs and conditions/status in response to stimuli from within or outside it. A reactive system is a system that changes its actions. Many other systems operating in practice can also be modeled by finite automata such as control circuits of computers. For example consider the following very simplified version of login process to a computer from the computer point of view. a system must respond to each stimulus. These become the states of the finite automaton that models it.• Modeling reactive systems with FA Contents We have seen an example of use of finite automata in describing the operation of a simplified version of vending machine. To model a reactive system with finite automaton. Then the transitions between the states triggered by events and conditions. . even to a fragment of input such as each coin tossed in for a can of soda or every message received. external or internal to the system. two numbers to be added are ready. first the states the system goes in or the modes of its operation are identified. The inputs for a reactive system are never ready unlike for example when two numbers are added together by an adder (Here we are considering an adder at a higher level of abstraction than physical devices level ignoring for example the transient states of the electronic circuit that realizes an adder). An adder does not respond unless the input i.e. are identified and they become arcs in the transition diagram of the finite automaton. Let us assume for simplicity that this computer accepts a single user at a time. Many of those systems fall into the class of systems called reactive system.

it goes to the initial state and starts all over again. When a password is typed in and it is correct.Initially the computer waits for a user name to be typed in. When it is complete. it goes back to the initial state and waits for another RFNM to come. it goes into the state of receiving it (Our interpretation is that the computer is in a state of receiving an RFNM and it is taking the action of receiving the RFNM) . it resends the message. When the session terminates. That is a fourth state. If it is valid. If a positive ACK is received. which is another state. . Upon completion of the RFNM. We could make it go to a different state and count the number of login attempts for security purpose. If the second password fails. Again depending on the level of abstraction. Initially the computer is in wait state waiting for "Request for Next Message" (RFNM) to come from another computer. That is another state though it could further be broken down into a number of more states. Depending on how much detail we are interested in. it gets a signal. After sending the ACK. When a RFNM starts coming. it starts sending the requested message to the other party. then it asks for and then waits for the password. it checks whether or not the name is valid. receiving RFNM. then it informs the user of that and waits for the next try. sending ACK. Again it is a very simplified version. different states would be identified and transitions would have to be selected accrdingly. When a name is typed in. sending message and waiting for ACK. Again what we have seen is a model for one level of abstraction. But let us make it simple. If the user name typed in is not valid. which is another state. it sends "Acknowledgement" (ACK) to the other computer. The next example is a protocol for a computer to follow in communicating with another computer. If the password typed in is incorrect. goes back to the initial state and waits for another login. it goes back to the initial state. If a negative ACK is received. different states and transitions would have to be chosen. This is one state of the system. Thus a finite automaton that models this protocol has the following five states: initial state (wait for RFNM). it goes into another wait state waiting for an ACK to come from the other computer. then it accepts the user and starts a session.

denote it by G. after reading a digit and stays there as long as digits are read. If a decimal point has been read (i. respectively and d {0. then it can continue receiving digits and stay in D. where s+ and s.represent the positive and negative signs. -15. If the first digit is received before a decimal point.Our third example is a system that recognizes numbers with or without a sign such as 5. . then it goes into a state. it goes into a state.+ ) ( d+.2.. This Q is an accepting state. it is in state D. Therefore from state P it goes to another state. that indicates a digit has been read before a decimal point.d+ ).378. then it goes into a state. followed by a possible decimal point. 9 } . then it must receive at least one digit after that. denote it by Q. denote it by P. After one digit it can continue receiving digits. One such system initially waits for the first symbol to come in.e.e.8 etc. .d+ + d+ + . If a decimal point is received before a digit. . then it goes to state P indicating that a decimal point has been read. followed by zero or more digits.1. followed by one or more digits. On the other hand if a digit has been read before a decimal point. that indicates that a decimal point has been read. i. denote it by D. that indicates that a sign has been received. D is another accepting state. Since these numbers are represented by strings consisting of a possible sign. If a decimal point is read while in D. This system can be modeled by the following finite automaton: . +213. If the first symbol is a sign. they can be represented by the following regular expression: ( s+ + s. This system can also be described by a regular expression. regardless of whether a sign has been read or not. in state P).

while ( TOKEN [index] .Next -. 0 and TOKEN [index] input ) index := index + 1. called TOKEN. called NEXT_STATE. Algorithm FA Simulator state := INITIAL_STATE. input := read_input( ) . called STATEX. Another array. A third array. One array. It uses four arrays. keeps the index of the first symbol in the TOKEN array for each state. One such simulation algorithm is given below. Those indices are used to access the contents of the other arrays. holds the next state for each input symbol for each state. stores for each state the input symbols that trigger transitions from the state.Simulation of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Simulation of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Simulation of FA Contents Once a finite automaton is constructed. while ( state NO_of_STATES and not End of Input ) index := STATEX [state] . we can use a general purpose program to simulate its operation. called ACTION. indicates the actions taken at each state and a fourth.

Tab 4 Tab 5. state := NEXT_STATE [index]. So no action is taken as a number is processed. first click the box under the red arrow.45. Then every time you click "SHOW" the number is processed digit by digit. The corresponding transitions are going to be shown by red arrows in the transition diagram. B. empty transitions) are omitted. In the DFA below all the transitions to the empty state (i. To see how this algorithm works.e. S is the initial state and B and H are accepting states. S corresponds to 1. C and H. The ACTION array would contain pointers to actions to be taken corresponding to arcs traversed such as converting a digit in BCD form to the corresponding binary number. else error input := read_input( ) . Then type 3 Tab . to input 3. end Here 0 in the TOKEN array is a marker between states. . The numbers below NEXT_STATE array show the correspondence between the indices of the STATEX array and the states A. first click the box pointed by the red arrow in the figure below. At the moment it is empty. Then type in a number you want the FA to recognize. For example. You must hit the "Tab" key to move to the next box.if ( TOKEN [index] 0) perform the action specified by ACTION [index].

So be patient.If you are also interested in how code is executed. . click here It is extremely slow.

For example. For example to recognize the language { anbn | n is a natural number} . we can conclude that { anbn | n is a natural number} is not regular. Since a regular language must be recognized by a finite automaton.Next -. That is the main limitation of finite automata. because aak and aaak are in the language an for any . a and aa are indistinguishable with respect to the language an over alphabet { a }. either xz and yz are both in L or they are both not in L. Thus it must be in different states when it has read different number of a's and starts reading the first b.Non-Regular Languages Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Regular Languages Non-Regular Languages Subjects to be Learned • • • Existence of non-regular languages Myhill . The main idea behind these test methods is that finite automata have only finite amount of memory in the form of states and that they can not distinguish infinitely many strings. There are. their properties and their usefulness for describing various systems. This is the basis of two of the regularity test methods we are going to study below: Myhill-Nerode Theorem and Pumping Lemma. Thus there is no way for a finite automaton to remember how many a's it has read for all possible strings anbn . a finite automaton must remember how many a's it has read when it starts reading b's. however.Nerode Theorem for non-regularity test Pumping Lemma Contents We have learned regular languages. where n is a positive integer. In this section we are going to study some of the methods for testing given languages for regularity and see some of the languages that are not regular. But any finite automaton has only finite number of states. languages that are not regular and therefore require devices other than finite automata to recognize them. Non-regularity test based on Myhill-Nerode's theorem Indistinguishability of strings: Strings x and y in * are indistinguishable with respect to a language L if and only if for every string z in *.

Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set S1. Select bm as a string to be appended to ak and am . For example. the set of strings consisting of one or more right parentheses followed by identifier x. Hence L1 is nonregular. For more on Myhill-Nerode theorem click here. Then akbm is not in L1 while ambm is in L1 . x . It is stated without a proof. Using this concept of indistinguishability. Consider the set of strings S3 = { (k x | k is a positive integer } . L3 can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: x and y are in L3 . Consider the set of strings S2 which is the same as S1 of Example 1 above. However. ( ( x + y ) * x ) and (( (x*y) + x ) + (y*y) ) are algebraic expressions. a and aa are not indistinguishable (hence distinguishable). We are going to show that its strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L1. Hence L2 is nonregular. Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set. Theorem : A language L over alphabet is nonregular if and only if there is an infinite subset of * . Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. S2 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. where k and m are positive integers and k m . S1 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. because ab is in the language anbn while aab is not in the language. where k and m are positive integers and k m . Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S2. b } can be shown to be nonregular using Myhill-Nerode as follows: Consider the set of strings S1 = { an | n is a positive integer } . Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L2 . that is. This set is infinite . whose strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L. Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } over alphabet { a . Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S1. Then akbakb is in L2 while ambakb is not in L2 . Example 2: L2 = { ww | w {a. with respect to the language anbn . Select bakb as a string to be appended to ak and am . S1 is over alphabet { a . b } and it is infinite. (x*y) . Inductive Clause: If and are in L3 . It can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L2 as follows. Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L1 . the following theorem by Myhill and Nerod gives a criterion for (non)regularity of a language. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L3 unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. b }* } is nonregular.positive integer k. then ( + ) and ( * ) are in L3 . operations + and * and left and right parentheses.

Then (k x + [ + x ) ]k is in L3 but (m x + [ + x ) ]k is not in L3 because the number of ('s is not equal to the number of )'s in the latter string. For example the string abbabbb is accepted by the NFA and if one of its substrings bba is repeated any number of times in abbabbb. Hence L3 is not regular. This NFA accepts among others some strings of length greater than 5 such as abbabbb. Those strings which are accepted by this NFA and whose length is greater than 5 have a substring which can be repeated any number of times without being rejected by the NFA. the resultant strings such as abbb (bba repeated 0 times). Hence S3 is pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 . It .and it can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 as follows: Let (k x and (m x be arbitrary two strings of S3 . Pumping Lemma Let us consider the NFA given below. abbabbabbb etc. Then the substring representing that cycle (bba in the example) can be repeated any number of times within the string w without being rejected by the NFA. abbabbabbabbb etc. abbabbabbb. where k and m are positive integers and k m . The following theorem which is called Pumping Lemma is based on this observation. Select [ + x ) ]k as a string to be appended to (k and (m . then there must be a cycle in the NFA along some path from the initial state to some accepting state (such as the cycle 2-3-4-2 in the above example). For example [ + x ) ]3 is +x) +x)+x) . are also accepted by the NFA. In general if a string w (such as abbabbb in the example above) is accepted by an NFA with n states and if its length is longer than n.

Let n be the number of states of that FA. n. there are strings u. Thus Pumping Lemma can not be used to prove the regularity of a language. uvmw L. Consider a string x = anbn for that n. v. It can only show that a language is nonregular. Since |v| > 0 . v has at least one symbol. Also since |uv| Let us now consider the string uvmw for m = 2. even if there is an integer n that satisfies the conditions of Pumping Lemma. that is. and w such that x = uvw. uvmw Test Your Understanding of Non-regularity . and for every m 0. Note that Pumping Lemma gives a necessity for regular languages and that it is not a sufficiency. Hence an+pbn can not be in the L. Then there is an FA that accepts L. It is stated without a proof here. uvmw L. n + p language L represented by akbk . Since p > 0 . This violates the condition that for every m language. n . v and w which satisfy the following relationships: x = uvw |uv| n |v| > 0 and for every integer m 0. Hence L is not a regular 0. Suppose that L is regular and let n be the number of states of an FA that accepts L. Then uv2w = an-pa2pbn = an+pbn . v = ap.states that if a language is regular. Then for any string x in L with |x| n. the language is not necessarily regular. Pumping Lemma : Suppose that a language L is regular. Then there must be strings u. let us prove that the language L = akbk is nonregular. where k is a natural number. Example 4: As an example to illustrate how Pumping Lemma might be used to prove that a language is nonregular. then any long enough string of the language has a substring which can be repeated any number of times with the resultant strings still in the language. for some p > 0 . |uv| n |v| > 0 .

Context-Free Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Myhill-Nerode Theorem The non-regularity test for languages by Myhill-Nerode is based on the following theorem which is in the contrapositive form of the theorem used for nonregularity test. Then there is a string z such that xz is in L and yz is not in L (or xz is not in L and yz is in L). then Submit. Proof of Theorem Necessity Suppose that a language L is regular and two strings. If there are three strings that are distinguished with respect . the DFA reaches different states. that is. are distinguishable with respect to L.Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Next -. This means that if x and y are read by an DFA that recognizes L. say x and y. if and only if }. Then the theorem is is staed as follows: Theorem: A language L over alphabet is regular if and only if the set of equivalence classes of is finite. if and only if they are indistinguishable with respect to . Click True or Fals . Also it is a corollary to Myhill-Nerode theorem: Let { be the followijg relation on }={ : For strings and of .

. namely ] and ]. making them belong to different [ Hence is a function. To prove this. . [ ]=[ } ]... ]. are in different classes for and are distinguishable with respect to L.. note that for every string [ ]. . then the DFA must have infinitely many states. Let . be the number of distinct equivalence classes (i... then the language L is regular. where [ ] =[ ] for all . is in exactly one equivalence class. then the DFA reaches three different states after reading those three strings. which it can not because a DFA must have a finite number of states. ]. Sufficiency Conversely. then the language is not regular. Let us now show that this machine is in fact a DFA and it accepts the language First. Then we construct a . . let [x] denote a class of strings that are indistinguishable from a string x with respect to L. We will show that a DFA that accepts L can be constructed using these equivalence classes.. if and in [ ]. then ]'s. the index) of and let . Note that "indistinguishable with respect to L" is an equivalence relation over the set of strings (denote it by ) and [x]'s are equivalence classes. [ .. ) as follows: ]} ]. . be representatives of those distinct equivalence classes. For.e. . DFA ( = {[ =[ = {[ ( .. Hence if there is an infinite set of strings which are pairwise distinguishable with respect to a language. Hence if there are infinitely many strings to be distinguished with respect to L. if the number of classes of strings that are pairwise indistinguishable with respect to a language L is finite.to L.

then every We then show that for every string . if a string in [ in ] is in . first note that if . . ]. . where ].Next. First some terminology. Then by the definition of . if then for every . . let us show that this DFA accepts string in [ ] is also in L. if the set of its equivalence classes is finite. for DFA. =[ ]. With these terminology. Hence =[ = . Hence Hence we have shown that for every string ]. Also an equivalence relation is said to be of finite index. by the definition of = . Our proof is by structural induction on string Basis Step: = =[ ]. where ] is the equivalence class that belongs to. where . =[ ]. ] by the induction hypothesis. by the definition of = . An equivalence relation on is said to be right invariant if for every . = [ ]. For that. . . this means that the DFA accepts Myhill-Nerode Theorem Let us here state Myhill-Nerode Theorem. . Since . Inductive Step: Assume Then for every But =[ Hence =[ ]. Myhill-Nerode Theorem can now be stated as follows: The following three statements are equivalent: (1) A language is regular.

For the following context-free grammar G1 = < V1 . . where X is a nonterminal and is a nonempty string of terminals and nonterminals. P1 > generates L1 : V1 = { S } . Proofs are omitted. . S . are finite sets sharing no elements between them. P > is a context-free V is V. Most programming languages can be approximated by context-free grammar and compilers for them have been developed based on properties of context-free languages. S -> ab }. S . S . (3) is of finite index. b } and P1 = { S -> aSb . and P is a finite set of productions of the form X -> and (V )* . The set of strings generated by a context-free grammar is called a context-free language and context-free languages can describe many practically important systems. Let us define context-free grammars and context-free languages here. = { a . grammar (CFG) if V and . Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } is a context-free language. Definition (Context-Free Grammar) : A 4-tuple G = < V . Context-Free Languages Context-Free Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Context-Free Grammar Context-Free Languages Push Down Automata Contents Earlier in the discussion of grammars we saw context-free grammars. where X the start symbol.(2) L is the union of some of the equivalence classes of a right invariant equivalent relation of finite index. They are grammars whose productions have the form X -> . A language is a context-free language (CFL) if all of its strings are generated by a context-free grammar.

S2 . P2 > generates L2 : V2 = { S } . concatenation and Kleene star of context-free grammars as follows: Let G1 = < V1 . where w is a nonempty string and wr denotes the reversal of string w. first relabel symbols of V2 . . y . Then it can be easily seen that Gu = < Vu . Outline of Proof This theorem can be verified by constructing context-free grammars for union. < expression > -> < algebraic-expression > .Example 2: L2 = { wwr| w {a. Ss -> L2 . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. S . . S -> bSb . let Ss be a symbol which is not in V1 . Properties of Context-Free Language Theorem 1: Let L1 and L2 be context-free languages. 3 = { x . . S . . S -> aa . Su -> S2 } . S -> S*S . . < if-statement > -> if ( < expression > ) < statement > . respectively. Then it can be easily seen that Gc = < Vc . . operations + and * and left and right parentheses. if necessary. + . . 3. For L1* . . b }+ } is a context-free language . first relabel symbols of V2 . Then let Ps = P1 { Ss -> SsS1 . Next define Vc = V1 V2 { Sc } and Pc = P1 P2 { Sc -> S1S2 } . } . < expression > . = { a . For example { < statement > -> < if-statement > . . Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. S -> y }. Then L3 is a context-free language. . . Then let Sc be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . For the following context-free grammar G2 = < V2 . < expression > -> < logicalexpression > . b } and P2 = { S -> aSa . < statement > -> < assignment > . Pu > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1 L2 . w is spelled backward to obtain wr . Sc . ( . Then L1 context-free languages. . ) . Similarly for L1L2 . Then for L1 L2 . S -> bb }. that is. . P1 > and G2 = < V2 . Next define Vu = V1 V2 { Su } and Pu = P1 P2 { Su -> S1 . For the following context-free grammar G3 = < V3 . and L1* are . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. Then let Su be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . * } and P3 = { S -> ( S + S ) . S -> x . < statement > -> < for-statement > . < forstatement > -> for ( < expression > . < expression > ) < statement > . P2 > be context-free grammars generating L1 and L2 . P3 > generates L3 : V3 = { S } . Pc > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1L2 . . if necessary. Example 4: Portions of the syntaxes of programming languages can be described by context-free grammars. . Su . S1 . L1L2 . .

Any string of this language can be tested for the membership for the language by a finite automaton if there is a memory such as a pushdown stack that can store a's of a given input string. and it replaces X with the string at the top of the stack. As soon as the symbol b appears stop storing a's and start popping a's one by one every time a b is read. its next state is determined not only by the input symbol being read. check the stack. as a's are read by the finite automaton. respectively ). Let us define this new type of automaton formally. push them into the stack. a . Second. A . ) means the following: The automaton moves from the current state of p to the next state q when it sees an input symbol a at the input and X at the top of the stack. Z0 . q0 . . > . If another a (or anything other than b) is read after the first b. . For example. This automaton behaves like a finite automaton except the following two points: First. context-free languages are also accepted by automata but not finite automata. Z0 . Let us consider a context-free language anbn . Example 1 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . Ss . where Q = { q0 . Z0 is the initial stack symbol and it is a member of . X ) = ( q . Ps > is a context-free grammar that Like regular languages which are accepted by finite automata. Pushdown Automata . generates the language L1* . They need a little more complex automata called pushdown automata. but also by the symbol at the top of the stack. accept the string. Thus ( p . Otherwise reject it. the contents of the stack can also be changed every time an input symbol is read. reject the string. q0 . . If it is empty. and are finite sets ( the input and stack alphabet.} . Thus its transition function specifies the new top of the stack contents as well as the next state. A . A pushdown automaton ( or PDA for short ) is a 7-tuple M = < Q . > . . A is the set of accepting states is the transition function and :Q ( ( } -> 2 Q * . . q0 is the initial state. It can be seen that the grammar Gs = < Vs . When all the symbols of the input string are read. where Q is a finite set of states.

bb . ) ) (q. . aZ0 ). b . Let us now see how the PDA of Example 1 operates when it is given the string aabb . aabb . After reading the first a. . Z0 . x . ) ( q1 . where the input is read from left to right and the top of the stack corresponds to the leftmost symbol of . When the second b is read.y. ). ). bb . A configuration of a PDA M = < Q . Z0 ) * ( q2 . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . Initially its configuration is ( q0 . b . Z0 ) This pushdown automaton accepts the language anbn .q1 . Z0 } . To describe the operation of a PDA we are going to use a configuration of PDA. y . aabb . Z0 ). ( q0 . b } . . its configuration is ( q0 . another a is popped from the top of the stack and the PDA stays in state q1 . aa ) q0 q1 q1 b b a a Z0 ( q1 . where q is the state the PDA is currently in. A = { q2 } and let be as given in the State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . . This entire process can be expressed using the configurations as ( q0 . = { a . .x. Z0 ). To express that the PDA moves from configuration ( p . x is the unread portion of the input string and is the current stack contents. ) to configuration ( q . aabb . ) . aZ0 ) ( q1 . aaZ0 ) ( q1 . q2 } . ) ( q2 . b . Thus aabb is accepted by this PDA. aZ0 ) ( q0 . it moves to state q1 and pops a from the top of the stack. aZ 0 ) q0 a a ( q0 . Z0 ) . aaZ0 ). Z0 ) ( If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. Next it moves to the state q2 which is the accepting state. After reading the second a. . ) in a single move (a single application of the transition function) we write (p. following table: = { a . (p.y. Z0 ). A . it is ( q0 . abb . x . If ( q . ) by a sequence of zero or more moves. x .x. Then when the first b is read. > is a triple ( q . aZ0 ). Z0 ) q2 . y . . abb . we write ) is reached from ( p . we can also write ( q0 . for example. * (q. Thus the configuration is ( q1 . q0 .

Z0) . x. q1 . a ( q0 . = { a . where Q = { q0 . = { a . b ( q1 . ) . acceptance by final state) if (q0. For example the transition diagram of the PDA of Example 1 is as shown below. A = { q2 } and let be as given in the following table: State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . bZ 0 ) q0 q0 q0 q1 q1 q1 a b c a b a b Z0 ( q0 . then an arc from state p to state q is added to the diagram and it is labeled with ( a . * (q. Example 2 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . however.k. Z0 } . aZ 0 ) q0 b Z0 ( q0 . b . for some in *. Z 0 ) In this table represents either a or b. arcs are labeled differently than FAs. c } . X / ) indicating that X at the top of the stack is replaced by upon reading a from the input.A string x is accepted by a PDA (a. . Z0 . > . A . PDAs can also be represented by transition diagrams. If ( q . ) ( q2 . .a. b . ). ( q1 . q0 . For PDAs. and an accepting state q. a . q2 } . X ) = ( p . ) ) ) ) ( q1 . Like FAs. .

( q0 . b }* } . aZ0 ) ( q1 . cbba . This PDA pushes all the a's and b's in the input into stack until c is encountered. bcbba . baZ0 ) ( q1 . which is the set of palindromes with c in the middle. ( q0 .This pushdown automaton accepts the language { wcwr | w { a . it accepts the input string. aZ0 ) ( q0 . Z 0 ) . it ignores c and from that point on if the top of the stack matches the input symbol. Z0 ) ( q0 . abbcbba . When c is detected. In the figure and 2 represent a or b. The transition diagram of the PDA of Example 2 is as shown below. bbaZ0 ) ( q1 . bbcbba . it pops the stack. For example for the input abbcbba. bba . When there are no more unread input symbols and Z0 is at the top of the stack. baZ0 ) ( q1 . Z 0 ) ( q2 . it goes through the following configurations and accepts it. bbaZ0 ) . That means that a language is . 1 Further topics on CFL • PDA and Context-Free Language There is a procedure to construct a PDA that accepts the language generated by a given context-free grammar and conversely. Otherwise it rejects the input string. . ba . a . .

Contect-free grammars are powerful grammars. native English speakers know that it is the dog that bites and not the other way round. we are not going to study parsing here. "bites" is the verb and "a man" is the object of the verb. Thus if a computer is given the string x + yz. • Pumping Lemma for Context-Free Language Let L be a CFL. "A dog" is the subject. then add the result to x. They can describe much of programming languages and basic structures of natural languages. y and z which satisfy u = vwxyz |wy| > 0 |wxy| n 0 . Parsing is the process of interpreting given input strings according to predetermined rules i. vwmxymz L for every integer m • Parsing and Parsers for CFL Consider the algebraic expression x + yz. a verb phrase usually follow the noun phrase and the first word in the verb phrase is the verb and it is followed by noun phrases reprtesenting object(s) of the verb. Interested readers are referred to the textbook and other sources. By parsing sentences we identify the parts of the sentences and determine the strutures of the sentences so that their meanings can be understood correctly. there are strings v. then multiply the result by z. The parsing for context-free languages and regular languages have been extensively studied. Thus they are widely used for compilers for high level programming languages and natural language processing systems.e.e. Though we are accustomed to interpreting this as x + (yz) i. ???? references on Parsing ???? . productions of grammars. compute yz first. Those procedures are omitted here. x. it could also be interpreted as ( x + y )z meaning that first compute x + y. However. For example in the sentence "A man bites a dog". it does not know which interpretation to use unless it is explicitly instructed to follow one or the other. a computer like non-English speaking people must be told how to interpret sentences such as the first noun phrase (" A dog") is usually the subject of a sentence. Then there is a positive integer n such that for any string u in L with |u| n . Similar things happen when English sentences are processed by computers (or people as well for that matter).context-free if and only if there is a PDA that accepts it. w. However.

and the machines that can process them: Turing machines. of limited capability and there are many languages that they can not process.Test Your Understanding of Contect-Free Language Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. the phrase structure languages (also called Type 0 languages). however. They are. Next -.Turing Machines Back to Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • • • Definition of Turing Machine Configuration Operation of Turing Machine Contents Introduction We have studied two types of languages from the Chomsky hierarchy: regular languages and context-free languages. then Submit. These languages can describe many practically important systems and so they are heavily used in practice. In this chapter we are going to study the most general of the languages in Chomsky hierarchy. Turing machines were conceived of by the English mathematician Alan . Click True or Fals .

consists of a finite control and a tape. It is also divided into squares and a symbol can be written in each square.Turing as a model of human "computation". unlike finite automata. At any state it reads the symbol under the head. Computers we use today are as powerful as Turing machines except that computers have finite memory while Turing machines have infinite memory. The tape has the left end but it extends infinitely to the right. It then moves the head to left or right or does not move it and goes to the next state which may be the same as the current state. This conjecture is known as Church's thesis and today it is generally accepted as true. a Turing machine starts at the initial state. it stops its operation. At any time it is in one of the finite number of states. Definition Conceptually a Turing machine. . One of its states is the halt state and when the Turing machine goes into the halt state. like finite automata. We are going to study Turing machines here and through that limitations of computers and computation as we know today. its head is a read-write head and it can move left. Given a string of symbols on the tape. either erases it or replaces it with a symbol (possibly the same symbol). right or stay at the same square after a read or write. Later Alonzo Church conjectured that any computation done by humans or computers can be carried out by some Turing machine. However.

q0 is the initial state. . The states are represented by vertices and for a transition ( q. . Here denotes the blank and R. is the transition function but its value may not be defined for certain points. Y. . . D ) . R ) ( q2 . L or S . b } . q1. q3 } . D ) indicating that the state is changed from q to r. State (q) Input (X) Move ( q0 q1 q2 q3 q3 a b a (q. q0. is a finite set of symbols and it is the input alphabet. = { a . R ) (h. an arc from q to r is drawn with label ( X/Y . where D represents R. which is assumed not to contain the symbol h. q2.S) A transition diagram of this Turing machine is given below. S}.Formally a Turing machine is a 5-tuple T = < Q. = { a . the symbol X currently being read is changed to Y and the tape head is moved as directed by D. a . A transition diagram can also be drawn for a Turing machine. . L and S denote move the head right. respectively. q0 . > . b . X) ) ( q1 . X ) = ( r. R ) ( q3 . b } and is as given by the table below. where Q is a finite set of states. . Example 1 : The following Turing machine < Q1 . a . left and do not move it. The symbol h is used to denote the halt state.L. > accepts the language aba* . . It is assumed that the tape has at the left end and the head is initially at the left end of the tape. is a finite set of symbols containing as its subset and it is the set of tape symbols. R ) ( q3 . where Q1 = { q0. It is a mapping from Q ( { } ) to ( Q { h } ) ( { }) {R.

and ( p . For example ( q . zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in one move. In this case we also say that the Turing machine halts on input x. A configuration for a Turing machine is an ordered pair of the current state and the tape contents with the symbol currently under the head marked with underscore. The set of strings accepted by a Turing machine is the language accepted by the Turing machine. A Turing machine T is said to decide a language L if and only if T writes "yes" and halts if a string is in L and T writes "no" and halts if a string is not in L. aba ) ( q1 . We write ( p . q0 . xay ) * ( q . A string x is said to be accepted by a Turing machine* T = < Q . If the Turing machine needs to be explicitly indicated T or T* is used. zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in zero or more moves. . the taper contents are the string aababb and the head is reading the last a of the string. > if x ) * ( h. For example the Turing machine of Example 1 above goes through the following sequence of configurations to accept the string aba: ( q0 . ( q0 . aba ) ( q2 . Note that the Turing machine does not stop if a string is not in the language. aababb ) shows that the Turing machine is currently in state q. . xay ) ( q . aba ) . aba ) ( q3 . aba ) (h. yaz ) for some symbol a { } and some strings y and z in ( * { } ) .Turing Machine that accepts aba* To describe the operation of Turing machine we use configuration.

where = { a }. .The first of the following figures shows a Turing machine that accepts but does not decide the language { a }. the second is a Turing machine that accepts { a } but goes into a loop if a string is not in the language (hence it accepts but doe not decide { a }) and the third decides { a }.

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It is assumed that initially the tape has at the left end.Example 2 : The following Turing machine moves the head to the first the current position. . to the right of Example 3 : The following Turing machine erases the string on the tape and moves the head to the left end. It is denoted by TR . This Turing machine is denoted by TE.

but it goes into an infinite loop for any strings that are not in the language.Strings not Accepted by Turing Machines When a string is not accepted by a Turing machine. (2) no transition is specified for the current configuration and (3) the head is at the left end and it is instructed to move left. one of the following three things happens: (1) The Turing machine goes into an infinite loop. In cases (2) and (3). the operation of the Turing machine is aborted. For example the following Turing machine accepts the language a+. . that is when a Turing machine does not halt on a string.

or loop. * Note on "Turing-acceptable": Some books define "acceptance by Turing machine" slightly differently. With this definition. A language is a phrase structure (type 0) langauage if and only if it is Turing-acceptable in either sense and it has no effects on decidablility. x) * ( h. That is. Then we say T computes f or f is computable if for every x ( q0 . T does not halt on x. . A Turing machine thus may accept a string and halt. reject a string and halt. the Turing machine eventually goes into the accept halt state. As far as the material discussed in this class note. f(x) ) * . * and for every x that is not in S. there are two halt states: "accept halt" and "reject halt". in the Turing machines those books define. a string is accepted by a Turing machine if given the string.Turing machine accepting a+ Computabler Function Let S * and let f be a function f : S -> S. there is no difference between these two definitions of "accept".

Next -. Click True or Fals . any "computation" done by human beings or machines can be done by some Turing machine. Furthermore according to the Church's thesis.Test Your Understanding of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. There are two sets of questions. One can construct many more Turing machines that perform various functions. In fact Turing machines that simulate computers and Turing machines that perform computations done by any algorithm can be constructed. Let us start with some basic Turing machines. We have already seen TR .Combination of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Combination of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Combination of Turing Machines Contents Combination of Turing Machines We have seen the definition of Turing machine and a few simple examples. then Submit. It moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) . Here we are going to study how complex Turing machines can be constructed using simple Turing machines and how computers can be simulated by Turing machines.

Below is assumed to be at the left end of the tape initially. Similarly by TL we denote a Turing machine that moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) to the left of the current position.to the right of the current position. Then if T1 halts and if the symbol currently under the head is . Otherwise it crashes. . T1T2 and T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that behaves initially like T1 and when T1 halts T2 takes over inheriting the head position and the tape contents of T1 . respectively. Then by T we denote a Turing machine that writes symbol at the current position and does not move the head (stays). The halt state of T1 becomes the initial state of T2 . Using these basic machines and the convention. To combine Turing machines we use the following conventions: Let T1 and T2 represent arbitrary Turing machines. T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that first executes T1. Example 4: The following machine shifts the tape contents to the left one position. let us construct a little more complex Turing machines. then T2 is started as in the case of T1T2 . takes the head to the right end of the string and halts. Also by TR and TL we denote Turing machines that move the head to right and left one position.

After adding two numbers placed on the tape it moves the head to the left end and halts. natural numbers are represented on a Turing machine using symbol I. that is ( q0 . First. So the initial configuration for adding 2 and 3 is ( q0 . II III ) . m I's and n I's with a blank between them are placed on the tape. x x). x) * b b (h. For example the number 3 is represented by three consecutive I's on the tape and 5 by five I's. Example 6: The following Turing machine copies the tape contents at the left end to their right separated by a blank . To add two numbers m and n. After the addition the configuration becomes ( h . IIIII ) . . An adder can be constructed for example as TR -> TSL TL . In general to represent a natural number k.For example with the initial tape contents of sequence of tape contents and ends with ab ab -> ab : ab . k consecutive I's are put on the tape. it goes through the following -> aab -> a -> a -> abb -> ab -> ab -> ab Example 5: The left-shift machine of Example 4 can be used to construct an adder for natural numbers.

All the other operations can be realized by using those basic operations. branching. store and load operations. then Submit. and store and load operations can be taken care of by a Turing machine that copies tape contents. it is not difficult to construct a Turing machine that performs subtraction using the same representation of numbers as for the addition. The following notations are used in the questions: . A bare minimum instruction set would contain addition. Furthermore if the subtraction operation is necessary. However. Thus by combining appropriate Turing machines a computer with a minimal instruction set can be constructed. Since any complex computer instructions can be realized using those basic instructions. Test Your Understanding of Combination of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. In fact many of the earlier computers had a much smaller instruction set but still could do everything today's computers can do albeit much more slowly. one can say that computers can be simulated by Turing machines. all of those instructions can be realized using combinations of a small number of basic instructions. the branch operation is already in Turing machines because next configurations are determined based on the current state and tape symbol being looked at. there is a Turing machine that performs addition.Today's computers are very complex machines and their instruction sets contain complicated operations. Click True or Fals . On the other hand as we have seen above.

T_a : Ta T_R : TR ->^b : ->b Next -. It turns out that computationally all these Turing machines are equally powerful. that is.Types of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Types of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Variation of Turing Machine Contents There are a number of other types of Turing machines in addition to the one we have seen such as Turing machines with multiple tapes. To simulate a two dimensional tape with a one dimensional tape. first we map the squares of the two dimensional tape to those of the one dimensional tape diagonally as shown in . ones with two dimensional tapes. ones having one tape but with multiple heads. the former can be simulated by the latter. The tape has the top end and the left end but extends indefinitely to the right and down. one read-write head and one two dimensional tape. Turing Machines with Two Dimensional Tapes This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control. That is. what one type can compute any other can also compute. It is divided into rows of small squares. the efficiency of computation. However. that is. For any Turing machine of this type there is a Turing machine with a one dimensional tape that is equally powerful. how fast they can compute. may vary. nondeterministic Turing machines etc.

.. ..... v 16 26 . Let us simulate this head move with a one dimensional tape. .. then (k+1)-th square to the right from v is the new head position.the following tables: Two Dimensional Tape v v h 1 h 3 h 4 h 10 h 11 h 21 . .. which is the third square from 8. v 6 8 13 19 23 .... ... . then from h move the head of the one dimensional tape further right to the k-th square from h... If the head moves down to position 13. . ... h and v are symbols which are not in the tape alphabet and they are used to mark the left and the top end of the tape. which is the second square from i = 5. If the head moves down from i.... .. . That is the square corresponding to the square below i in the two dimensional tape.. The head of a two dimensional tape moves one square up... .> .. .. move 3 positions to the right.. . . For example.. . . One Dimensional Tape v 1 v 2 3 h 4 5 6 v 7 8 9 10 h 11 . .. If v was hit first. v 15 17 25 . . That is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 13 on the two dimensional tape. then on the one dimensional tape the head moves to the right and it hits v first........ Then it meets h first...... .. Here the numbers indicate the correspondence of squares in the two tapes: square i of the two dimensional tape is mapped to square i of the one dimensional tape. v 7 14 18 24 . . . ... then for the one dimensional tape... . . Thus from h.. . .... Thus this time the third square is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 9 on the two dimensional tape... .. v 2 5 9 12 20 22 . left or right. respectively. the head moves from position 8 to right. . . . If i = 5 and the head moves down on the other hand.... then move the head of the one dimensional tape to right until it hits h or v counting the number of squares it has visited after i. suppose that the head position is at 8 for the two dimensional tape in the above table..< .. that is i = 8.... .. Let k be the number of squares visited by the head of the one dimensional tape. If h was hit first... Let i be the head position of the two dimensional tape. .. down. ..

S } n . In each state only one of the heads is allowed to read and write. Nondeterministic Turing Machines . It can be proven that any language accepted by an n-tape Turing machine can be accepted by a one tape Turing machine and that any function computed by an n-tape Turing machine can be computed by a one tape Turing machine. Since Turing machines with a two dimensional tape obviously can simulate Turing machines with a one dimensional tape. it can be said that they are equally powerful. H2 . . Turing Machines with Infinite Tape : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape which extends infinitely in both directions.Similarly formulas can be found for the head position on the one dimensional tape corresponding to move up.. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . . q0. Since the converses are obviously true. Hn denote the tape heads. Thus some Turing machines with a one dimensional tape can simulate every move of a Turing machine with one two dimensional tape. The transition function is a partial function : Q { H1 . right or left on the two dimensional tape.. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . > . H2 . A configuration for this kind of Turing machine must show the current state the machine is in and the state of each tape. It turns out that this type of Turing machines are only as powerful as one tape Turing machines whose tape has a left end. Its transition function is a partial function :Q ( { } )n -> ( Q { h } ) ( { } )n { R .. . . >. Hence they are at least as powerful as Turing machines with a two dimensional tape. {h}) ( { } {R. L . Turing Machines with Multiple Heads : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape but more than one read-write heads. where H1 . Turing Machines with Multiple Tapes : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and more than one tapes each with its own read-write head.L. Hn } ( { } ) -> ( Q }. . . q0. Details are omitted..S It can be easily seen that this type of Turing machines are as powerful as one tape Turing machines. one can say that one tape Turing machines are as powerful as n-tape Turing machines.

The root of the tree is the initial configuration and it is the only vertex of level 0. goes into an infinite loop or aborts. like nondeterministic finite automata. Here an action means the combination of writing a symbol on the tape. Proof : Let TN denote a nondeterministic Turing machine. Given a string x. Theorem Any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by some deterministic Turing machine. For example consider the following nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts a+ . 2. The set of all possible computations that TN can perform for a given string x can be represented by a rooted tree as follows. Note that the number of children for a vertex in this tree is finite because the number of states is finite and there are a finite number of tape symbols.S}. moving the tape head and going to a next state. At any point in the process TN is in some configuration and has a finite set of configurations to choose from for its next configuration. can not guess the midpoint of the string x. Given a string x . tape symbol and head movement out of the set of triples without following any specific predetermined rule. a nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts this language L would first guess the midpoint of x. The children of all the vertices of level i form level i+1. b }* } . Formally a nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine whose transition function takes values that are subsets of ( Q {h}) ( { } {R. that is the place where the second half of x starts. All possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN once form the children of the initial configuration. . It can be shown that a nondeterministic Turing machine is only as powerful as a deterministic Turing machine. In general for each vertex of level i all possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN are its children.. Even in the same situation it may take different actions at different times. Then it would compare the first half of x with the second half by comparing the i-th symbol of the first half with the i-th symbol of the second half for i = 1.L. at any state it is in and for the tape symbol it is reading. . can take any action selecting from a set of specified actions rather than taking one definite predetermined action.. it is understood that a nondeterministic Turing machine at any configuration selects one combination of next state. TN starts at the initial configuration and goes through a sequence of configurations until it reaches a halt configuration . It must find the midpoint by for example pairing off symbols from either end of x. As in the case of NFA.A nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine which. A deterministic Turing machine. They form level 1. on the other hand. For example let us consider the language L = { ww : w { a . .

aa ) ( q1 . aa ) . aa ) ( q1 . At the second and third configurations in the above sequence.Turing machine accepting a+ Given the string aa. aa ) ( h . it has two candidates for the next configuration: ( q1 . and ( q1 . aa ) ( q2 . it would proceed as follows to accept it: ( q0 . aa ) for the third. aa ) and ( q2 . The tree for this case would be as follows: . aa ) for the second. aa ) and ( q2 .

is to traverse this tree breadth-first way from the root until the halt state is reached. Next -.Unsolvable Problems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Unsolvable Problems . T2 applies the transition function of T1 to each configuration at that level and computes its children. At each level of the tree. These children are the configurations of the next level and they are stored on the tape (if necessary a second tape may be used). It can be easily seen that T2 accepts a string if and only if T1 accepts it. Click True or Fals . call it T2. then T2 accepts the string and halts. Many other variations of Turing machine are possible. Test Your Understanding of Different Types of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. with a deterministic one. call it T1. However. Thus any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by a deterministic Turing machine. If there is the halting state among these children. it has been shown that none of them exceed the capability of basic deterministic Turing machine as far as accepting languages is concerned. In fact the Church's thesis conjectures that any so called computation done by humans or computers can be performed by a basic deterministic Turing machine.One way to simulate a nondeterministic Turing machine. then Submit. though a deterministic Turing machine might take much more time than a nondeterministic Turing machine to accept a string.

Since we can not wait forever for an answer. First recall that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language (see Problem Solving as Language Recognition). L. b } . Then given a string a Turing machine that accept the language starts the computation. It is also conjectured that any "computation" human beings perform can be done by Turing machines (Church's thesis). In this chapter we are going to learn that there are problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers. and that any of their variations do not exceed the computational power of deterministic Turing machines. Minsky): This is going to be proven by "proof by contradiction". Below we are going to see some well known unsolvable problems and see why we can say they are unsolvable. At any point in time. Suppose that the halting problem is decidable. the question is unanswerable that is the problem is unsolvable.Subjects to be Learned • • • Halting Problem Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents We have learned that deterministic Turing machines are capable of doing any computation that computers can do. given a description of a Turing machine M (over the alphabet ) and a string w. does M halt when it is given w as an input ? It can be shown that the halting problem is not decidable. Halting Problem One of well known unsolvable problems is the halting problem. Then there is a Turing machine T that solves the halting problem. So we are going to look at the unsolvability in terms of language recognition. Suppose that a language is acceptable but not decidable. T writes "yes" if M halts on w and "no" if M does not halt on w. It asks the following question: Given an arbitrary Turing machine M over alphabet = { a . and then T halts. the question of whether or not a string is in the language may not be answered in any finite amount of time. hence unsolvable. Proof (by M. . if the Turing machine is running. Thus if a language is not decidable. Here "unsolvability" is in the following sense. that is computationally they are equally powerful. and an arbitrary string w over . That is. Theorem 1 : The halting problem is undecidable. there is no way of telling whether it is in an infinite loop or along the way to a solution and it needs more time.

Next using Tm we are going to construct another Turing machine Tc as follows: Tc takes as input a description of a Turing machine M. . denoted by d(M). then Tm goes into an infinite loop (Tm halts if the original T rejects a string and halts). copies it to obtain the string d(M)*d(M). First we construct a Turing machine Tm by modifying T so that if T accepts a string and halts.We are now going to construct the following new Turing machine Tc. where * is a symbol that separates the two copies of d(M) and then supplies d(M)*d(M) to the Turing machine Tm .

constructs the string d(Tc)*d(Tc) and gives it to the modified T. Hence there is no Turing machine that solves the halting problem. . Thus the modified T is given a description of Turing machine Tc and the string d(Tc).Let us now see what Tc does when a string describing Tc itself is given to it. The way T was modified the modified T is going to go into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). it makes a copy. Thus the question of whether or not a program halts for a given input is nothing but the halting problem. This contradiction has been deduced from our assumption that there is a Turing machine that solves the halting problem. Hence that assumption must be wrong. Program correctness and Halting Problem Note that for any computer program a Turing machine can be constructed that performs the task of the program. Thus Tc goes into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and it halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). This is a contradiction. Thus one implication of the halting problem is that there can be no computer programs (Turing machines) that check whether or not any arbitrary computer program stops for a given input. When Tc gets the input d(Tc) .

It is presented as a language and it can be shown that there are no Turing machines that accept the language. Next -. Click True or Fals . Language NonSelfAccepting Let us first define two languages NSA1 and NSA2 as follows: .More Unsolvable Preoblems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines More Unsolvable Problems Subjects to be Learned • • Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents The next unsolvable problem is in a sense more difficult than the halting problem. then Submit.Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.

let w = a. Let w0 = d( T0 ). (1) If T0 accepts w0. Certainly more symbols than a single a are needed to describe even the simplest Turing machine. Hence w is in NSA1 . (2) If T0 does not accept w0 . Proof: This is going to be proven by contradiction. Hence either T0 accepts w0 or rejects it. For let T be a Turing machine that accepts { a } and let w = d(T). Thus neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. that is w0 is a description of the Turing machine T0 .NSA1 = { w | w w} { a. Hence by the definition of NSA1 . Theorem 2 There are no Turing machines that accept the language NonSelfAccepting. However. Problem Accepts( ) The problem Accepts( ) asks whetehr or not a given Turing machine T accepts . Also T0 does not accept w0 . w = d(T) for a Turing machine T and T does not accept NSA2 = { w | w { a. Thus there can not be Turing machine T0 that accepts the language SelfAccepting . call it T0. But w0 = d( T0 ) because that is how we selected w0 . This is again a contradiction. which is absurd. Suppose there is a Turing machine. Then this w is a description of a Turing machine but it must be longer than one symbol. Hence it is in SelfAccepting . Then there is no Turing machine that can be described by the string a. NSA2 is the set of strings that do not describe any Turing machine. We are going to see that T0 neither accepts w0 nor rejects it. w0 is in neither NSA1 nor NSA2 . where d(T) is a description of the Turing machine T. w0 is in NSA1 . Hence a is in NSA2 . Since NonSelfAccepting is a language. Knowing the unsolvability of the halting problem some other problems can be shown to be unsolvable. Let us define the language NonSelfAccepting as NonSelfAccepting = NSA1 Then we can prove the following theorem: NSA2 . Hence w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting . w d(T) for any Turing machine T } . Hence it is not accepted by T. This means that there can not be any Turing machine that accepts the language NonSelfAccepting. b }*. Neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. then w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. by the definitions of NSA1 and NSA2. For NSA2. b }*. that accepts NonSelfAccepting. then w0 NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. either w0 is in NonSelfAccepting or it isn't. It . Hence T0 can not accept w0 . This is a contradiction. NSA1 is the set of strings that describe a Turing machine but that are not accepted by the Turing machine they describe.

M solves the halting problem. Using this T. that solves Accepts( ) can be constructed as . where Terase is a Turing machine that erases the input on the tape and halts. We are going to show that the halting problem becomes solvable using this A. This T halts on every string over if and only if T1 halts on . Problem AcceptsEverything The problem AcceptsEverything asks whether or not a given Turing machine T halts on every string over a given alphabet . a Turing machine. the halting problem can be solved. Using this T.can be shown to be unsolvable. Suppose that AcceptsEverything is solvable. Let A be a Turing machine that solves Accepts( ). that solves the halting problem can be constructed as follows: Given a description d(T') of a Turing machine T' and a string w as inputs. call it M. Then consider the Turing machine T = TeraseT' . We are going to show that Accepts( ) can be solved using the solution to it. a Turing machine. Using a similar idea the following problem can also be shown to be unsolvable. Then M halts on d(T') and w if and only if T' halts on w. Suppose that Accepts( ) is solvable. M writes the string d( T ) on the tape and let A take over. This T halts on if and only if T' halts on w. which is an instance of the halting problem. That is. Consider a Turing machine T = TwT'. Let A be a Turing machine that solves AcceptsEverything. where machine Tw is a Turing machine that writes w. Let T' be an instance of Accepts( ). Let a Turing machine T' and a string w be an instance of the halting problem. Then there is a Turing machine that solves it. Thus if Accepts( ) is solvable. call it M. this means that Accepts( ) is unsolvable. Since the halting problem is unsolvable.

Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) = ? finite ? infinite ? context-free ? Is L( G1 ) = L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) = * ? Is the complement of L( G1 ) context-free ? . it means that AcceptsEverything is unsolvable. AcceptsNothing This problem asks whether or not a Turing machine accepts nothing. Equivalence This problem asks whether or not two Turing machines accept the same language. It can be shown to be unsolvable using AcceptsEverything. By similar arguments the following problems can be shown to be unsolvable. Other Unsolvable Problems Let G1 and G2 be context-free grammars and let L(G) denote the language generated by grammar G. It can be shown to be unsolvable using Accepts( ) . Since Accepts( ) is unsolvable. Then the following problems are all unsolvable.shown below.

Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. No one can write computer programs that solve those problems and halt after a finite amount of time. then Submit. A problem is solvable if some Turing . Next -. Click True or Fals .Time Complexity of Problem Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Complexity Time Complexity Subjects to be Learned • • • • • Time Complexity of Problems Decision Tree Class NP Polynomial Time Transformation NP-Complete Problems Contents In the previous sections we have learned that some problems are unsolvable by Turing machines hence by computers.

Then there are problems that require double exponential ( e. It is estimated by counting the largest possible number of key operations to be performed in terms of the input size. There are also problems that must be solved at best by exponential time algorithms in the worst case. are propositions of PDL. or etc. For many problems a day or even an hour would be too long. However. where P is a propositional variable. Similarly ( P V Q ) is also satisfiable. a quick sort needs O(n2) time. S) says that S is true after executing A. X [ if ~( X = 1 ). as well as all the connectives such as and. then Y Z [ X = Y + Z ] ] is a proposition of Presburger arithmetic. . a heap sort needs O(n lg n) time. in practice if it takes a million years. problems that need k-exponential time algorithms. But (P ^ ~P ) is always false. the satisfiability problem for the propositional dynamic logic is proven to take exponential time to solve in the worst case. For example a binary search takes O(lg n) time. In this section we are going to study solvable problems and learn a hierarchy of solvable problems based on the computation time required to solve them. second order logic. the equality symbol = and quantifiers and . This is a propositional logic with an extra construct (proposition) after(A. For example. Before proceeding to predicate logic let us consider the following logic called propositional dynamic logic (PDL for short). For example the formula ( P V ~P ) is always true. The problems that can not be solved with any polynomial time algorithm are called intractable problems . S). the addition operation +. O(f(x)) (big-oh) and other related subjects click here. The satisfiability problem for PDL is known to take at least exponential time to solve in the worst case.machine can solve it in finite time. it is as good (or bad) as unsolvable. 22n ) time algorithms. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved by algorithms with the worst case time which is a polynomial in the problem size (polynomial time algorithms). ~Q )" and "if P then after( if P then Q else ~Q. and there are problems that require algorithms with the worst case time worse than k-exponential time for any natural number k. So it is certainly satisfiable. They are all polynomial time algorithms. The measure for computation time we use is the worst case time. Even if it takes a million years to solve a problem. They are both satisfiable. it is still solvable. They take much more time to execute than polynomial time algorithms. One can ask the same question for formulas of first order predicate logic. For example the satisfiability problem for Presburger arithmetic is double-exponential (2-fold exponentail). Let us see some of those intractable problems. that is it requires at least O( aan ) time to solve in the worst case.g. Q )" . where k is a natural number. as we are going to see below. where A is an algorithm and S is a statement. after(A. where P and Q are propositions. In logic there is a well known problem of "satisfiability". For example. variables taking positive integers as their values. This is the problem of asking whether or not a given formula can take the value true for some values of its variables. For more detailed review of this. The satisfiability problem becomes even harder when logic becomes more complex. Presburger arithmetic is a logic that allows statements involving positive integers. For example "after( if P then Q else ~Q. So it is not satisfiable. etc. etc.

Consider the problem of coloring vertices of a graph with a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned. Such a problem (having no K-fold exponential time algorithms) is called nonelementary. At the moment. however. For the problems of this class there are no known polynomial time algorithms for solving them nor are they known to be unsolvable with polynomial time algorithms. First. These problems are called decision problems. Now let us go back to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. For example. Let us try to solve the following instances of this graph coloring problem: Given the following graph. Let us here review nondeterministic Turing machines. the logic is called WS1S (Weak Second-order theory of 1 Successor). "Is a string w in the language a*b ? ".In Presburger arithmetic (minus addition operation). Below we are going to characterize this class of problems. This problem is called "Graph Coloring" problem or more precisely "Vertex Color" problem. if. Some of these decision problems are NP-complete problems. in addition. is it possible to color its vertices with three or less colors ? . there are no K-fold exponential time algorithms to solve it for any number K. For the satisfiability problem of WS1S. sets of integers and the predicate "belongs to" (an element X belongs to a set S) are allowed. This problem belongs to a peculiar class of problems called NP-Complete problems. there are problems that are solved by answering with yes or no. the consensus is that they ca not be solved with polynomial time algorithms. " Is it possible to assign colors to vertices of a given graph using a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned ? " etc. "Is it possible to schedule committee meetings without conflicts into a given number of time slots ? " .

For the graphs of (a) and (b), you could find a solution very easily by inspection. You could see a right coloring as soon as you saw the graphs. However, you can most likely not tell how you arrived at your solutions. You probably don't have any algorithms you could use to solve them. You could somehow see the solutions. This is basically the idea of nondeterministic (Turing) machine. There is no fixed procedure which you can use repeatedly to solve instance after instance of this problem. But you can somehow solve them. Let us move on to a slightly more complex example of (c). For this graph to find a right coloring you could start with vertex 1 and assign color a. Then move on to vertex 2 and assign color b(it has to be something other than a ). Then go to vertex 3 and assign a third color, say c. Then at vertex 4 select color b and for vertex 5 use color a. In this process we make a decision as to what color to use for each vertex and when a decision is made for all the vertices we have a solution to the problem. This process applies to any decision problem. That is to solve a decision problem a number of smaller decisions are made one after another and as a result a solution to the problem is obtained. This process can be represented by a tree called decision tree. For example, for the graph coloring problem let us first decide on the order of vertices we color in, say 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for the graph of (c) above. Then the root of its decision tree corresponds to the vertex we assign a color to first (vertex 1 in this example). Then for each possible color for the first vertex, a child is created for the first vertex of the tree. So the second level of the

decision tree corresponds to the second vertex to be colored. Then in general, for each possible color for each vertex of level i of the decision tree, a child is created. Those children form level i+1 of the decision tree. The decision tree for the graph of (c) is given below. Since any color can be assigned to vertex 1 without loss of generality, it has just one child in the actual decision tree. Also since in this case the i-th and (i+1)-th vertices are connected by an edge for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, they can not have the same color. So each vertex after vertex 1 has two colors to choose from. So they each have two children in the decision tree.

Thus during the process of solving the problem a decision is made at each level and when all levels are covered, the problem is solved. A path from the root to a leaf corresponds to a coloring of the vertices of the given graph. A decision tree, however, does not tell us how to make decisions. Also a decision tree does not tell how to order the vertices for coloring, that is which vertex to color first, second etc. A deterministic machine (or algorithm) has a specific fixed set of rules for making a decision at each level of the decision tree. Although it knows what to do at every stage of problem solving, the decisions it makes are not necessarily the right ones. When it makes wrong decisions, it must retract earlier decisions and try different paths, which is called backtracking. For the graph coloring problem a deterministic algorithm might first order the vertices of the graph in decreasing order of their degree and also order colors. Then, following the

order of the vertices, assign to each vertex the highest order color available for the vertex. Since that kind of algorithm is not guaranteed to use the minimum number of colors, it may produce a wrong answer unless there is some provision for backtracking. A nondeterministic (Turing) machine, on the other hand, is a fictitious machine and somehow knows which branch (child) to select at each step. It always makes a right selection. A decision problem is said to belong to class NP if each vertex in its decision tree has a finite number of children and if it can be solved by a nondeterministic (Turing) machine in polynomial time. The graph coloring problem is in class NP, so are the satisfiability problem for propositional logic and most of the scheduling problems just to name a few. Also there are other characterizations of class NP. Interested readers click here. At this moment it is not known whether or not problems in class NP can be solved with a polynomial time algorithm in the worst case. The consensus is that there is no polynomial time algorithm to solve them. It would take at least exponential time. Among the problems in class NP, there are problems which all problems of class NP can be transformed to in polynomial time. Those problems are called NP-complete problems. If a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of the NP-complete problems, all the problems in NP can be solved in polynomial time. Below we are going to study NPcomplete problems. We start our discussion with the concept of polynomial time transformation (reduction). Basically we say a decision problem Q1 is polynomially reducible to a decision problem Q2 if and only if there is a transformation that transforms any arbitrary instance of Q1 into an instance of Q2 in polynomial time such that the answer to Q1 is yes if and only if the answer to Q2 is yes. A little more formally we define this in terms of languages. Note that a decision problem can be viewed as a language of its instances and that solving it can be considered as recognizing the language as we have seen earlier. Let L1 and L2 be languages over alphabets 1 and 2, respectively. We say that L1 is polynomial-time reducible to L2 if and only if there is a function f from 1* to 2* such that for any string x in polynomial time.

1 *

,x

L1 if and only if f(x)

L2 and f can be computed

For example let us consider the following two problems: graph coloring and scheduling of committee meetings. The graph coloring problem is as given above. In the scheduling of committee meetings problem, committees with their members and a positive integer k are given. The problem is whether or not the meetings of the committees can be scheduled in k or less time slots so that everyone can attend one's meetings. Note that some people may be in more than one committee. Let us try to show that this scheduling problem is polynomial time reducible to the graph coloring problem.

d }. respectively. 2. 2. edges are added between 1 and 3. 3 and 4 with the memberships { a. Suppose that the meetings can be scheduled in p time slots. 3 and 4 to the graph. and if and only if two committee have some members in common. Proceeding similarly the following graph is obtained corresponding to the committee memberships. d } and { a. Then the meetings can be scheduled in k or less time slots if and only if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. Let us consider the following transformation: For each committee add a vertex to the graph. b }.What we need to do is given an instance of the scheduling problem construct an instance of the graph coloring problem. Corresponding to this grouping assign colors to the vertices of the graph so that the vertices in the same group are given the same color and those in . Suppose also that k = 3. Then since committees 1 and 2 share a. c. { b. an edge is inserted between vertices 1 and 2. and 1 and 4. Similarly since committees 1 and 3. that is construct a graph and give the number of colors to be used to color its vertices so that the meetings can be scheduled if and only if graph can be colored. 2. Thus the scheduling problem asks whether or not the meetings of the given committees can be scheduled in 3 time slots without any conflicts. Then the committees can be grouped into p groups so that the committees in the same group can meet at the same time. The corresponding graph for the graph coloring problem can be constructed as follows: Corresponding to the committees 1. add vertices 1. where p k. For example suppose that we are given the committees 1. and 1 and 4 share members. connect with an edge the vertices corresponding to the committees. {a. c }. 3 and 4.

Cook that the problems of class NP can be polynomial time reducible to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. . It was first proven by S. Subsequently the satisfiability problem was found to be polynomial time reducible to many other problems. It can be easily seen that if a problem P at hand is NP-hard and if a problem known to be NP-complete can be polynomial time reducible to P. Subgraph Isomorphism Problem Given two graphs. Thus these two vertices must get different colors. Formally a problem is NP-hard if every problem in class NP can be polynomial time reducible to it. For if any two vertices are connected with an edge.different groups are given different colors. that is the construction of graph for a given set of committees. group them into two groups so that the sum of the numbers of one group is equal to that of the other group. can be done in time polynomial in the size of the problem. As a consequence if a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of those problems. 7. This group of problems are called NP-complete problems. which in this case can be taken as the number of committees. NP-complete Problems 1. If a problem is NP-complete. 4. all the problems can be solved with polynomial time algorithms. Bin Packing Problem Given a set of objects. a traveling salesman wants to know a shortest route to visit all cities exactly once and come back to where he/she started. We are now ready to discuss NP-completeness. find out whether or not the objects can be put into the bins. find out whether or not one is a subgraph of the other. Graph Color Problem 3. It is also easily seen that the transformation. then P is also NP-complete. 5. then that means that the corresponding committees share some members and that they are scheduled to meet in different time slots. Committee Meeting Schedule Problem In fact most scheduling problems are NPcomplete. then it can be easily seen that the committees can meet in k or less time slots. For all the problems in class NP can be reduced to P through the known NP-complete problem in polynomial time. fast algorithms exist to solve it. and vertices connected with an edge have different colors. their sizes and a number of bins of the same size. Conversely if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. Partition Problem Given a set of integers. This coloring uses p colors which does not exceed k. Satisfiability Problem for Propositional Logic 2. then the consensus today is that it is most likely that no polynomial time algorithms i. Today hundreds of problems are known to be NP-complete. A problem is NP-complete if it is in class NP and NP-hard. 6.e. Some of them are listed below. Traveling Salesman Problem Given cities and traveling times between cities.

of S such that every element of A. a set of objects. and C appears exactly once in T ? For example.y).a. (2. Note that {(1.b. and a subset S of the Cartesian product A X B X C. and C = {x.a.(1. a collection of subsets of S and an integer k.2}. find out whether or not there are k or less subsets in the collection whose union is S. Knapsack Problem Given a knapsack of size S.b. . B.y}. (2.x).x).b. Set Cover Problem Given a set S. is it possible to select objects so that the sum of their sizes does not exceed S and the sum of their values is V or larger ? 10. Then T = {(1. 9. called a matching.y)}. (2. Is there a subset T.8. their values and an integer V. 3-Dimensional Matching Given three sets A.b}.a.(2. B = {a. their sizes.b.x)} is not a matching.x)} is a desired set satisfying all the requirements.b. and S = {(1. let A = {1.x).y). B and C of the same size.

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