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# Legend

Language, Automata: , \alpha : usually denotes a string in this course. , \beta : usually denotes a string in this course. , \delta : usually denotes a transition function in this course. , \sigma : usually denotes a symbol in an alphabet in this course. , \Delta : usually denotes a blank space in this course. , \Gamma : usually denotes a set of stack symbols in this course. , \Lambda : usually denotes an empty string in this course. , \Pi : usually denotes a partition in this course. , \Sigma : usually denotes an alphabet in this course. , \goto : usually denotes a (one step) transition in this course. Logic: , ~ : logical not , ^ : logical and , V : logical or , -> : logical imply , <-> : logical if and only if (equivalent) , => : logical tautologically imply , <=> : logical tautologically equivalent , \A : logical for all , \E : logical for some (there exists)

Sets: , \in : belongs to , \not\in : does not belong to , @ : empty set U, : universal set , \subset : proper subset , \not\subset : not a proper subset , \subseteq : subset , \not\subseteq : not a subset , \cup : set union Ai , \cup(i=1 to n) A_i : union of n sets , \cap : set intersection Ai , \cap(i=1 to n) A_i : intersection of n sets , \bar A : complement of set A (A) , P(A) : power set of set A , X : Cartesian product Ai , X(i=1 to n) A_i : cartesian product of n sets Relation: < a, b > : ordered pair < a1, a2, ..., an > : ordered n-tuple , <= : precedes (partial order) Functions: xi , Sum(i=1 to n) x_i : sum of n xi's O(f) , O(f) : of order smaller than or equal to f

o(f) , o(f) : of order smaller than f (f) , Omega : of order greater than or equal to f (f) , omega : of order greater than f (f) , Theta : of the same order as f f(x) , lim(x -> inf) f(x) : limit of f as x goes to infinity

**Introduction to Theoretical Computer Science
**

Today computers are used everywhere: banks, hospitals, schools, airline companies, gas stations, grocery stores, in our cars, in home appliances, PCs, etc., etc. Some are used to crunch numbers, some are used to process images, some are used to process other nonnumeric data and some are used to control operations of various devices. They can reason, they can prove many mathematical theorems, they can beat chess experts in their game, they can solve some very complex problems, they can understand our languages, they can answer our questions and of course they can crunch numbers much much faster than us. Let us for a moment call what computers do computation for convenience, though some of the things computers do such as controling appliances, answering our questions etc. don't fall into our traditional sense of computation. Then these computers seem to be able to compute an awfully lot of things if not everything. But are they capable of computing anything ? Are there things computers can not do ? If there are things computers can not do, what are they ? And why ? If there aren't things computers can not do, then how can we tell ? What do we exactly mean by computation ? Unfortunately there are many things computers can not do. Computers can not solve certain types of problems. For example no computer can tell in general whether or not a given computer program stops after a finite amount of time on a given input. They can not solve some other types of problems fast enough even though they can solve them in some finite amount of time. For example take the traveling salesman problem: a salesman is given a road map with distances between cities and wants to find a shortest round trip route that visits all the cities on the map exactly once. At the moment the so called traveling salesman problem requires an extremely large amount of time to solve. No one has been able to find a reasonably fast algorithm to solve it and the consensus is that it is not likely that anyone can find such an algorithm. I have just given you an example of the problems that computers could not solve. How do we know that that is the case ? Are there other problems like that ? How can we tell whther or not a given problem can be solved and solved fast enough ?

we are also going to study regular languages in detail as well as finite automata. More specifically they answer the question whether or not a given string belongs to a language. Before proceeding to the study of Turing machines and their computations in this course. The other two are context-free languages and context-sensitive languages. The languages Turing machines recognize are called Type 0 (or phrase structure) languages (regular languages are Type 3) and they are more complex than regular languages. that is to study limitations of computers and computation. Finite automata are very similar to Turing machines but a few restrictions are imposed on them. . we study a simpler type of computing device called finite automata. We are going to investigate limitations of computers and computations by studying the essence of compuers and computations rather than all the variations of computer and computation. Those four languages are together called formal languages. Thus when a finite automaton is processing strings. It is a very simple device but remarkably. These two type of languages belong to a hierarchy of four languages called Homsky hierarchy. it can actually be solving a problem. We say finite automata recognize languages.The main objective of this course is to answer those questions. In addition finite automata can model a large number of systems used in practice. Then with Turing machines we investigate limitations of computers and computations. Thus they are a powerful tool to design and study those systems with. it is generally believed (Church's thesis) that any "computation" humans do can be done by Turing machines and that "computation" is the computation performed by Turing machines. every task modern computers perform can also be accomplished by Turing machines. which is the key to the unsolvability of problem by computers. Turing machines also recognize languages. So they provide a good introduction to our study of Turing machines. Since so many systems in practice can be described by regular languages. we go to Turing machines. Finite automata process strings. We are going to learn their properties. It was first conceived of by Alan Turing in early 20-th century. Thus by studying Turing machines we can learn capabilities hence limitatgions of computers. It turns out that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. After briefly studying context-free languges. Though it has not been proven. Consequently they are less capable than Turing machines but then their operations are simpler. which are also heavily used in practice. The languages that are recognized by finite automata are called regular languages. This essence is a device called Turing machine. In particular we are going to see a few problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers and how we can tell that they are unsolvable. There we learn how computers can be simulated by Turing machines and what it means that a Turing machine recognizes (decides) a language. ways to describe them and how to use them to model many of the real life systems. We call a set of strings (of symbols) a language.

"Connective": Two or more propositions can be combined together to make compound propositions with the help of logical connectives. Example: The following statements are propositions as they have precise truth values. Increasing the processor speed does not help much for such problems. For example for the traveling salesman problem if 100 cities were too many to solve fast enough. then even if the processor speed increased 1. 4 is a perfect square.Our last topic is time complexities of various problems. Their truth values are false and true. If the computation time is 2n where n is the size of the problem. • • 2 is a odd number.000 times it can handle only ten or so more larger problem sizes. The time complexity issues are investigated using Turing machines so that the results apply to all computers. . Unfortunately there is nothing we can do to speed them up. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved within a reasonable amount of time and there are problems that are known to require a finite but very large amount of time to solve. respectively. We are going to see some of those which take a large amount of time. • • • • Logic Sets Relations Functions Logic Proposition and Logical Connectives "Proposition" can be defined as a declarative statement having a specific truth-value. then with the increase in the processor speed of 1.000 times 110 cities would already be too many. Let us start with review of mathematics. true or false. Basic Mathematical Objects Back to Table of Contents The following are the contents of this introductory chapter. The time needed to solve such a problem increases at least exponentially with the size of the problem as long as we use Turing machines (hence computers).

. The compound proposition truth-value is true iff all the constituent propositions hold true. Conjunction The logical conjunction is understood in the same way as commonly used ôandö. Disjunction This is logical "or" read as either true value of the individual propositions. Truth table for two individual propositions p and q with conjunction is given below p T T F F q T F T F p^q T F F F b. The following are the logical connectives used commonly: a. It is represented as " ^ ". For the first compound proposition to be true both the propositions have to be true as the connective is AND and as OR is the connective for the second one if either of the propositions is true the truth value of the compound proposition is true.Example: Above two propositions can be used to make a compound proposition using any of the logical connectives. Negation This is the logical "negation" and it is expressed by Truth table is given below as p for "not p". Their truth vales are false and true respectively. • • 2 is an odd number AND 4 is a perfect square. 2 is an odd number OR 4 is a perfect square. Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F pVq T T T F c.

then q" Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F p T F T T q p -> q is also expressed in a number of different (but equivalent) ways in English. If p and q have the same truth-value in every case then they are said to be logically equivalent and it is represented as p <=> q. which is true in every case. "p is sufficient for q" . "q is a necessity/consequence of p" and "q whenever p" are all differnt ways of saying "if p then q".: p ^ p Logical implication and equivalence If the value of p -> q is true in every case. then p is said to logically imply q.g. Tautology A compound proposition. which is false in every case. Biconditional A proposition (p q) ^ (q p) can be abbreviated using biconditional conjunction as p q and is read as "if p then q. "q is necessary for p".e. Following are some of the useful identities and implications from propositional logic: Identities . "p only if q" . For example. p q is read as "if p. e.g. It is represented as p => q. "if not q then not p" . f. E.p T F p F T d. Contradiction This is the opposite of tautology. and if q then p".: p V p g. E. Conditional This is used to define as "a proposition holds true if another proposition is true" i.

[(P 5. For example.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. .exportation Q) ( Q P) ----. (P 4. the sentences "The car Tom is driving is blue".contrapositive For explanations. (P 2.1. For more complex reasoning we need more powerful logic capable of expressing complicated propositions and reasoning. [(P Q) Q] P ----. or to express certain types of relationship between propositions such as equivalence ( for more detail click here for example for example ). examples and proofs of these identities go to Identities Implications 1. (P Q) ( P Q) ----. Central to the predicate logic are the concepts of predicate and quantifier. and "The cover of this book is blue" come from the template "is blue" by placing an appropriate noun/noun phrase in front of it. or a relationship among objects represented by the variables. [(P 3. The predicate logic is one of the extensions of propositional logic and it is fundamental to most other types of logic. examples and proofs of these implications go to Implications Predicate and Predicate Logic The propositional logic is not powerful enough to represent all types of assertions that are used in computer science and mathematics. (P 3. [(P 2. "The sky is blue". A predicate is a template involving a verb that describes a property of objects.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----.modus tollens Q) (R S)] [(P R) (Q S)] Q) (Q R)] (P R) For explanations.implication Q) R] [P (Q R)] ----. The phrase "is blue" is a predicate and it describes the property of being blue.

and hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. Universe of Discourse The universe of discourse. The universe is thus the domain of the (individual) variables. If we adopt B as the name for the predicate "is_blue". where x represents an arbitrary object. . the statemen t x > 1 to "for every object x in the universe. This new statement is true or false in the universe of discourse. hence a proposition. For example. x > 1". In general. "Blue" or "B" can be used to represent the predicate "is blue" among others. for example. It can be the set of real numbers. For example any of "is_blue". which is expressed as " x x > 1". There are two types of quantifiers: universal quantifier and existential quantifier. is the set of objects of interest. sentences that assert an object is blue can be represented as "B(x)". called atomic formula. The propositions in the predicate logic are statements on objects of a universe. Similarly the existential quantifier turns." Again. x > 1 becomes 3 > 1 if 3 is assigned to x. x > 1". quantify the variable using a quantifier (see below).Predicates are often given a name. a quantification is performed on formulas of predicate logic (called wff ). The universal quantifier turns. assign a value to the variable 2. and it becomes a true statement. B(x) reads as "x is blue". can be made a proposition by applying one of the following two operations to each of its variables: 1. which is expressed as " x x > 1. such as x > 1 or P(x). A predicate with variables. Hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. by using quantifiers on variables . the statement x > 1 to "for some object x in the universe. also called universe . it is true or false in the universe of discourse. for example.

the set of all cars on a parking lot.the set of integers. Predicate logic is more powerful than propositional logic. the set of all students in a classroom etc. In predicate logic. Sets . Also for proof and proof techniques see Mathematical Reasoning. The universe is often left implicit in practice. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] For more discussions and examples on these rules and others. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 4. implications and inference rules. Important Inference Rules of Predicate Logic: First there is the following rule concerning the negation of quantified statement which is very useful: x P(x) x P(x) Next there is the following set of rules on quantifiers and connvectives: 1. But it should be obvious from the context. see Reasoning(with predicate logic) and Quantifiers and Connectives in Discrete Structures course. one can use some additional inference rules. [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] x [ P(x) Q(x) ] 3. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 2. some of which are given below. It allows one to reason about properties and relationships of individual objects. as well as those for propositional logic such as the equivalences.

3. Note: If A is a subset of B and B is a subset of A then A=B. Also.What is a set? Set is a group of elements.4} call it Z by writing Z = {x | x N | x 5} where N represents the set of natural numbers. How to specify a Set? One way is to enumerate the elements completely. but not equal to B represented as A B.1. It is read as "the set of natural numbers that are less than or equal to 5". Universal Set The set U of all the elements we might ever consider in the discourse is called the universal set. Example: B = {x | x is a positive integer less than or equal to 5} Some sets can also be defined recursively. if A is a subset of.3.4. A is a subset of B is represented as A B. if every element of A is an element of B. . Subset Let A and B be two sets. Example: A = {1. Using this notation we can specify the set {0.5} Alternate way is to give the properties that characterize the elements of the set. A is a subset of B. having a property that characterizes those elements. All the elements belonging to the set are explicitly given.2. Set terminology Belongs To x B means that x is an element of set B.2.

A B= ø.8} then A B = {3. Example: If A = {1. then the union of A and B is the set that contains all the elements that are in A and B including the ones in both A and B. then the complement of A is the set consisting of all elements of the universal set that are not in A. then the difference of A from B is the set that consists of the elements of A that are not in B. It is denoted by A B. then A' = { x | x U ^ x > 3}. It is denoted by A .3} and B = {3. Difference If A and B are two sets.2.B = {1.9 } are disjoint.. where means " is not an element of ".2. Example: If A = {1. Thus A' = { x | x U ^ x A } . It is denoted by A' or . For A and B of the above example B .5} then A B = {1.Complement If A is a set. 3.A = {4.8}. Example: If A = {1. Disjoint sets A and B are said to be disjoint if they contain no elements in common i. Union If A and B are two sets. Example: If U is the set of natural numbers and A = { 1.5 } . Set Operations The operations that can be performed on sets are: 1.2} Note that in general A . Example: A = { 1.2.3.3.8} B = {3.A .4.5} 2.8.3.3 } .5.4.4.2.2.4.4.B B . Intersection If A and B are two sets.5} .5} then A .e.2.B. where ø is the Empty set. It is denoted by A B.3} B = {3. and B = { 6. then the intersection of A and B is the set that consists of the elements in both A and B .

Following is a list of some standard Set Identities A. B. The Commutative laws: A B=B A A B=B A The Associative laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Distributive laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Idempotent laws: A A=A A A=A The Absorptive laws: A (A B) = A A (A B) = A The De Morgan laws: (A B)' = A' B' (A B)' = A' B' Other laws involving Complements: ( A' )' = A A A A' = ø A' = U B) B) B) B) C C (A (A C) C) Other laws involving the empty set A A ø=A ø=ø Other laws involving the Universal Set: A U=U A U=A Venn Diagrams A common technique in working with Set Operations is to illustrate them by drawing Venn Diagrams. It is a very good tool to get a general idea. . C represent arbitrary sets and ø is the empty set and U is the Universal Set.

The idea of Venn Diagram is to draw a region representing the universe and within that to draw the regions representing the component sets we are starting with so that the resulting diagram describes their interrelationships. however. For example sets A = { 1.2.4 } and B = { 6.2. because they can represent only very limited situations and miss many other possibilities.8.Note.4 } can be represented as shown below using Venn Diagrams: Set A U represents the Universal set in which A is one of the Set.3. . that Venn Diagrams must NOT be used for rigorous discussions.

Set B The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A B .

A B .

The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A U B A A B B is the set consisting of all the different elements in A and B. .

4.4 } A B = { 1.6.5.4.(A B) = { 5.8 } A = { 1. For example: U = { 1.6.(A B)' is the yellow region in the Venn diagram given below.8 } (A B)' = U .2.4.3.7. 7 } B = { 2.2.6.2.3.3.8 } .

. To denote either of these B C. intersection and Cartesian product of sets are associative.A .A is the blue shaded region in the Venn Diagram shown below Generalized Set Operations Union... This can be generalized for the union of any finite number of sets as A1 An .B is the yellow shaded region and B . A2 . which we write as Ai This generalized union of sets can be rigorously defined as follows: Definition ( Ai) : . For example expressions we often use A holds.

Based on these definitions. .Basis Clause: For n = 1 . Inductive Clause: Ai = ( Ai) An+1 Ai and generalized Cartesian product Similarly the generalized intersection Ai can be defined. The set of elements specified here is called basis of the set being defined. The basis clause (or simply basis) of the definition establishes that certain objects are in the set. Ai = A1. and = Recursive Definition Recursive Definition Subjects to be Learned • • • • • recursive/inductive definition basis clause basis inductive clause extremal clause A recursive definition of a set always consists of three distinct clauses: 1. De Morgan's law on set union and intersection can also be generalized as follows: Theorem (Generalized De Morgan) = . This part of the definition specifies the "seeds" of the set from which the elements of the set are generated using the methods given in the inductive clause.

The Set of Nonnegative Even Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . . 1. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Note that if we don't have (3). 1 is the parent of 2. 1 + 1 (= 2) is in N.5.. 0 is the parent of 1. and the new object is their child . The Set of Natural Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . which is not what we want as the set of natural numbers. The inductive clause (or simply induction) of the definition establishes the ways in which elements of the set can be combined to produce new elements of the set. x + 2 is in . 0. and 2 is the child of 1. Proceeding in this manner all the natural numbers are put into N. Following this definition. Examples of Recursive Definition of Set Example 1. Example 3. the set of natural numbers N can be obtained as follows: First by (1). Example 2.5. The basis for this set N is { 0 } . and x is the child of x + 1. can be included in N. The inductive clause always asserts that if objects are elements of the set. 2. and 1 is the child of 0. The x + 1 in the Inductive Clause is the parent of x. x + 1 is in . Then by (2). Let us call the objects used to create a new object the parents of the new object. 0 is put into N. since 0 is in N. Then by (2) again. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. The extremal clause asserts that unless an object can be shown to be a member of the set by applying the basis and inductive clauses a finite number of times. the object is not a member of the set. then they can be combined in certain specified ways to create other objects. The Set of Even Integers Basis Clause: . 0 + 1 (= 1) is in N. 3.5..2.

Here ax means the concatenation of a with x. Test Your Understanding of Recursive Definition Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.Inductive Clause: For any element x in . A few examples are given below. Recursive Definition of Function Some functions can also be defined recursively. or shortest strings. simplest expressions. and generalize that generation process for the "Inductive Clause".2 are in . try simplest elements in the set such as smallest numbers (0. bbabaa. Click Yes or No . Condition: The domain of the function you wish to define recursively must be a set defined recursively. Inductive Clause: For any element x in . Example 4. then Submit. and . say x. The Set of Strings over the alphabet excepting empty string This is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's such as abbab. Then the value of the function at an element. How to define function recursively: First the values of the function for the basis elements of the domain are specified. . and . etc. or 1). The set of propositions (propositional forms) can also be defined recursively. and x . Then see how other elements can be obtained from them. They are all on functions from integer to integer except the last one. There are two sets of questions. Basis Clause: . . Tips for recursively defining a set: For the "Basis Clause". To see how it is defined click here. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. x + 2. of the domain is defined using its value at the parent(s) of the element x.

So there is no chance of other elements to come into the function being defined. Example 8: The function L from the set S of strings over {a. 1 ! = 1 * 0 ! = 1 * 1 = 1 . Hence 3 ! = 3 * 2 ! = 3 * 2 * 1 = 6 . Example 6: The function f(n) = 2n + 1 for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. See Example 5 for the extremal clause. b} to the set of natural numbers that gives the length of a string can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: For symbols a and b of the alphabet. f(n+1) = (n+1) f(n). Using this definition. See Example 5 for the extremal clause.Example 5: The function f(n) = n! for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 0! = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. because the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively and that has the extremal clause in it. f(n+1) = 2 f(n) . Note that here Extremal Clause is not necessary. See above for the extremal clause. L(xy) = L(x) + L(y) . where xy is the concatenation of strings x and y. f(n+1) = f(n) + 2 . Inductive Clause: For any string x and y of S. L(a) = 1 and L(b) = 1. This function L gives the number of a's and b's L(x) for a string x is also often denoted by | x |. Example 7: The function f(n) = 2n for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. Induction Mathematical Induction . 3! can be found as follows: Since 0 ! = 1. Hence 2 ! = 2 * 1 ! = 2 * 1 = 2 .

has the same property by the inductive step. To prove that a statement P(n) is true for all natural number natural number. As a first step for proof by induction. and its elements can be generated one by one starting with 0 by adding 1.. the element next to it. natural numbers can be proven to have certain properties as follows: First it is proven that the basis element. has the property in question (basis step). then P(n) is true for all natural number . that is n + 1. which is 2. has the same property again by the inductive step. the element next to it. has that property (inductive step). When these two are proven. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 can be proven by mathematical induction by the same token. For since 0 has the property by the basis step. Taking advantage of this. any natural number can be shown to have the property. then it follows that all the natural numbers have that property. then P(k+1) is true. Proceeding likewise. that is 0. Then since 1 has the property. which is 1.. we proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P( ) is true. has the property in question. then the next element. and the process of generating an element from a known element in the set. This process is somewhat analogous to the knocking over a row of dominos with knocking over the first domino corresponding to the basis step. it is often a good idea to restate P(k+1) in terms of . Thus the set of natural numbers can be described completely by specifying the basis element (0). if P(k) is true (called induction hypothesis). The first principle of mathematical induction states that if the basis step and the inductive step are proven. where is a Induction: Prove that for any integer . Then it is proven that if an arbitrary natural number. the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively.Subjects to be Learned • • • • • first principle of mathematical induction basis step induction hypothesis induction second principle of mathematical induction Contents First Priciple of Mathematical Induction As we have seen in recursion . . denote it by n. More generally mathematical statements involving a natural number n such as 1 + 2 + .

1) to prove P(n).. + n + (n + 1) = (0 + 1 + . Thus LHS = RHS for n+1. then LHS = 0.Induction Hypothesis To prove this for n+1..... + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . which is equal to the RHS for n+1. Second Priciple of Mathematical Induction There is another form of induction over the natural numbers based on the second principle of induction to prove assertions of the form x P(x) . Factoring (n + 1) out. and RHS = 0 * (0 + 1) = 0 . End of Proof. then n P(n) can be concluded. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . we get (n + 1)(n + 2) / 2 . -------. 0 + 1 + . Formally the second principle of induction states that if n [ k [ k < n P(k) ] P(n) ] . Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary natural number n. This form of induction does not require the basis step. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2. can be used. Certain problems can be proven more easily by using the second principle than the first principle because P(k) for all k < n can be used rather than just P(n . the last expression can be rewritten as n( n + 1 )/2 + (n + 1) . Proof: Basis Step: If n = 0. and somehow use the induction hypothesis. Here k [ k < n P(k) ] is the induction hypothesis.. 0 + 1 + . Example: Prove that for any natural number n. Using the induction hypothesis. The reason that this principle holds is going to be explained later after a few examples of proof.. and in the inductive step P(n) is proved assuming P(k) holds for all k < n .. + n) + (n + 1) . which is assumed to be true. 1 + 3 + . Hence LHS = RHS. . Here let us try LHS for n + 1 = 0 + 1 + ...P(k) so that P(k). first try to express LHS for n+1 in terms of LHS for n. Example 1: Let us prove the following equality using the second principle: For any natural number n .

Example 2: Prove that for all positive integer n.. the individual can wear. Then 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . Relations Definition Relation Let A and B be sets. it is either a prime number or not a prime number. k < n.. which is a prime number. by the induction hypothesis they can be written as the product of prime numbers (Note that this is not possible if the First Principle is being used).1 holds for all Example 3: Prove that any positive integer n > 1. + ( 2k + 1 ) = ( k + 1 )2 holds for all k. k can be written as the product of prime numbers. Hence n can also be written as the product of prime numbers.1 )! + n * n! = n! . If n is a prime number. Since n is an integer. mint green shirt} and B = {gray slacks..1 ) ) + ( 2n + 1 ) = n2 + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 by the induction hypothesis. Hence by the second principle of induction 1 + 3 + . tan slacks}. We are going to prove that n can be written as the product of prime numbers. Then 1 + 3 + ..1 ) * ( n .. + k * k! = ( k + 1 )! . Therefore the statement holds true. let A = {blue shirt. Since both p and q are smaller than n.. If n is not a prime number. Let's assume that a person owns three shirts and two pairs of slacks. + ( 2n . n > k > 1. More precisely. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( 1 + 3 + . then it is a product of two positive integers.1 Proof: Assume that 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . + ( n . Proof: Assume that for all positive integers k. However. Example1: nbsp... then it is the product of 1. the individual may wish to restrict .1 for all k.Proof: Assume that 1 + 3 + . A binary relation from A into B is any subset of the Cartesian product A x B. and itself...1 Hence by the second principle of induction positive integers.1 + n * n! by the induction hypothesis. k < n. say p and q. Then certainly A x B is the set of all possible combinations (six) of shirts and slacks that nbsp.. can be written as the product of prime numbers. = ( n + 1 )n! .. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 holds for all natural numbers. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! .

(3. This may not be all possible pairs in A x B but will certainly be a subset of A x B. y) | x <= y}. b) R if and only if a divides evenly into b. gray slack). PropertiesOf Relations . (6. 2). or "related". as in the previous example. tan slacks) }. 3). 5). Then P is a relation on A which we might call a parent-child relation. R = {(2. For example PP. In some cases R can be described by actually listing the pairs which are in R. R could be more naturally expressed as R(x) = x2 .himself to combinations which are color coordinated. (2. The composition of R and S. one such subset may be { (blue shirt. R = { (x. 3. written as RS. Other notations are used depending on the past practice. where P is the parent-child relation given above. Consider the following relation on real numbers. tan slacks). y). is the set of pairs of the form(a. c) RS if and only if there exists b B such that (a. Composition Let R be a relation from a set A into set B. 3. b) | a A ^ b A ^ a is a child of b } . or R(x) =y where y = x2 . A typical element in R is an ordered pair (x. For example. So. Let A be a set of people and let P = {(a. 6}. This may not be convenient if R is relatively large. y) | y is the square of x} and S = { (x. 6)}. 6) and define a relation R from A into A by (a. 5. (mint green shirt. c) S. Example2: Let A = {2. is the composition of P with itself and it is a relation which we know as grandparentgrandchild relation. (5. Relation on a Set A relation from a set A into itself is called a relation on A. 5. (3. b) Rand (b. 6). c) A x C. (black shirt. where (a. and S be a relation from set B into set C.6). R and S of Example 2 above are relations on A = {2.

c> are in the relation. The set A in the above definition is called the domain of the function and B its codomain. there is an element b in B such that <a. b and c in A. A x A. Equivalence: R is an equivalence relation on A if R is reflexive. Reflexive: R is reflexive if for every a A.Assume R is a relation on set A. Let us write a Symmetric: R is symmetric if for every a and b in A. in other words. codomain image image of set range sum of functions product of functions one-to-one function (injection) onto function (surjection) one-to-one onto function (bijection) inverse function composite function Definition (function): A function. then b = c . 3. b> and <a. b> is in the relation. from a set A to a set B is a relation from A to B that satisfies 1. if <a. Thus. and 2. R R b to denote (a. b) R . . symmetric and transitive. then bRa. a R a. then aRc. Transitive: R is transitive if for every a. 1. if aRb. f is a function if it covers the domain (maps every element of the domain) and it is single valued. for each element a in A. 4. if aRb and bRc. 2. Function Functions Subjects to be Reviewed • • • • • • • • • • • • function domain. denote it by f.

e. and ( f*g )(x) = 3x3 + x2 Definition (one-to-one): A function f is said to be one-to-one (injective) . there is an element x in A such that f(x) = y .} . where S is a subset of the domain A of f . Then the domain and codomain of this f are N. Thus it is a bijection. 9. However. if it is onto and one-to-one. because. 1. b> is denoted as f(a) = b . Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is one-to-one and onto. Note that f(x) = x2 is not one-to-one if it is from the set of integers(negative as well as non-negative) to N .. Then the sum and the product of f and g are defined as follows: For all x. f is onto if and only if f( A ) = B . Example: Let f be the function from the set of natural numbers N to N that maps each natural number x to x2 . say 3. Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is an onto function. and its range is the set of squares. f(S) = { f(a) | a S }. The set of images of the elements of a set S under a function f is called the image of the set S under f. Every bijection has a function called the inverse function. . Definition (onto): A function f from a set A to a set B is said to be onto(surjective) . 4. under this function is 9. The image of the domain under f is called the range of f .. f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to N is not onto. 16. Example: Let f(x) = 3x + 1 and g(x) = x2 . Example: The function f(x) = x2 from the set of natural numbers N to N is a one-to-one function. and is denoted by f(S) .The relation given by f between a and b represented by the ordered pair <a. because for example f(1) = f(-1) = 1 . and b is called the image of a under f . nothing in N can be mapped to 3 by this function. . Definition (sum and product): Let f and g be functions from a set A to the set of real numbers R. i. where f(x)*g(x) is the product of two real numbers f(x) and g(x). Then ( f + g )(x) = x2 + 3x + 1 . ( f + g )(x) = f(x) + g(x) . if and only if for every element y of B . Definition (bijection): A function is called a bijection . the image of. and for all x. { 0. that is.. x = y . if and only if whenever f(x) = f(y) . for example. ( f*g )(x) = f(x)*g(x) . that is.

f(x) > relation. Then the function g is called the inverse function of f. and let f be a function from B to a set C . Therefore one can also talk about composition of functions. and arrows show < x. natural languages etc. Example: The inverse function of f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of non-negative even numbers E is f -1(x) = 1/2 x from E to N . Introduction to Language A language is. Example: Let f(x) = x2 . Others such as languages of logics. For example. A function is a relation. g(y) = x . in this course. Definition (inverse): Let f be a bijection from a set A to a set B. Programming langauges we use are a language in that sense. the rightmost function in the above figure is a bijection and its inverse is obtained by reversing the direction of each arrow. Note that such an x is unique for each y because f is a bijection. are all languages in that sense. Definition (composite function): Let g be a function from a set A to a set B . and it is denoted by f -1 . Then the composition of functions f and g .These concepts are illustrated in the figure below. and g(x) = x + 1 . In each figure below. a set of strings of symbols. is the function from A to C that satisfies fg(x) = f( g(x) ) for all x in A . the points on the left are in the domain and the ones on the right are in the codomain. where f(x) = y . It is also a bijection. Then f( g(x) ) = ( x + 1 )2 . denoted by fg . . if for every element y of B. languages of mathematics.

Definitions on Language Subjects to be Learned . if the number of states of DFA is minimized. lexical analyzers and parser for compilers for programming languages. NFA and NFAare conceptually simpler and easier to use when modeling a system because there are no restrictions on transitions for them unlike for DFA. Then we investigate various kinds of finite automata: deterministic finite automata (DFA). These formal languages are characterized by grammars which are essentially a set of rewrite rules for generating strings belonging to a language as we see later. Also for some important classes of problems. context-free (or type 2) languages.). Using automata and formal languages we can study limitations of computer and computation. In the following chapters we first learn about languages. The four classes are regular (or type 3) languages. nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) and nondeterministic finite automata with transitions (NFA. We are going to see an algorithm for converting NFAto NFA which recognizes the same language and another for NFA to DFA conversion. Then we study regular languages. together with regular expressions which are a method of representing regular languages. the simplest of the four formal languages. solving them can be seen as recognizing languages i. checking whether or not a string is in a language. These formal languages and automata capture the essense of various computing devices and computation in a very simple way. They are devices that recognize regular languages. Type 3 is a subset of type 2 which is a subset of type 1 and type 0 is the most general including the other three as a subset. On the other hand DFAs are suited for writing a simulator program because there is no nondeterminism such as going to two or more states from a state upon reading one input symbol. It can be rigorously shown that some problems can not be solved by computers in any finite amount of time and that some others are practically unsolvable because of the time it takes to solve them. In asddition two of the formal languages. we are going to learn modeling of systems finite automata. Then after seeing yet another way of representing regular laguages. Also there are various kinds of computing devices called automata which process these types of languages Thus formal languages can also be characterized by the computing devices which process them. context-sensitive (or type 1) languages and phrase structure (or type 0) languages. However.What we are going to study on languages in this course are four classes of languages called (Chomsky) formal languages and their properties.e. regular grammars. Our last topic on regular language is testing of languages for non-regularity. in general there are more than one NFAs and DFAs that reconize one language. regular and context-free languages. are quite useful for modeling systems used in practice such as co9mputer network communication protocols. As we are going to learn next. then the resulting DFA is unique up to the state names for a given regular language.

Let u and v be strings. ab. an alphabet is a finite set of symbols. 10 and 001 are examples of string over alphabet {0. 3. {a. The empty string (also called null string) is the string with length 0. A string x is a prefix of another string y if there is a string v such that y = xv. that is. 111} is a language (over alphabet {0. a and aabab are examples of string over alphabet {a.• • • • alphabet string (word) language operations on languages: concatenation of strings. That is.b}) and {0. this set has an object in it. b. then uv = aabbbab. For a string w its length is represented by |w|. Thus | | = 0. Kleene star Contents Here we are going to learn the concept of language in very abstract and general sense.1}). Then uv denotes the string obtained by concatenating u with v. The set { } is a language which has one string. 2. b} and 0. For example {0. So it is not empty. The empty string is denoted by (capital lambda). Though has no symbols. It can be defined more formally by recursive definition. Thus a language over alphabet is a subset of . Some special languages The empty set is a language which has no strings. 1. Note that vu = bbabaab uv. 1}. operations on languages and some of their properties. For example if u = aab and v = bbab. the set of all strings over (including the empty string) is denoted by . intersetion and difference of two languages over an alphabet are languages over . it has no symbols. intersection. So a string is a substring of itself. A language is a set of strings over an alphabet. A string (also called a word) is a finite sequence of symbols of an alphabet. Operations on languages Since languages are sets. baa} is a language (over alphabert {a. uv is the string obtained by appending the sequence of symbols of v to that of u. v is called a suffix of y. Thus {a. We are going to use first few symbols of English alphabet such as a and b to denote symbols of an alphabet and those toward the end such as u and v for strings. Basic concepts First. all the set operations can be applied to languages. 1} is an alphabet with two symbols. namely . Note that u and v may be an empty string. The number of symbols in a string is called the length of the string. Thus the union. A string x is called a substring of another string y if there are strings u and v such that y = uxv. For any alphabet . union. b} is another alphabet with two symbols and English alphabet is also an alphabet.

xw L*. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = Lk L. These powers can be formally defined recursively. ababb. ak represents the concatenation of k a's. b} {aaa. * The following two types of languages are generalizations of them quite often in this course. ababb. Let L1 and L2 be languages. Hence Lk is the set of strings that can be obtained by concatenating k strings of L. For a string u and a natural number k. Recursive definition of L*: Basis Clause: L* and we are going to see Inductive Clause: For any x L* and any w L. babb. Then the concatenation of L1 with L2 is denoted as L1L2 and it is defined as L1L2 = { uv | u L1 and v L2 }. } The * in * is also the same Kleene star defined above. the extremal clause is not necessary.. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k. aba. bb }. abb. Lk means the concatenation of k L's. aaba} = {abaaa. For example if L = { aba. then L* = { . The complement of a language L over an alphabet language. Recursive definition of L+: Basis Clause: L L+ .. That is L1L2 is the set of strings obtained by concatenating strings of L1 with those of L2. bbbb. Here a0 = and u0 = . baaba}. ak and uk can be defined similarly. bb. abaaba. L* is the set of strings obtained by concatenating zero or more strings of L as we are going to see in Theorem 1. uk denotes the concatenation of k u's. baaa. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. abaaba. bbaba.L and it is also a Another operation onlanguages is concatenation. For example Lk can be defined recursively as follows. Similarly for a language L. is . . Powers : For a symbol a and a natural number k. This * is called Kleene star.. For example {ab.

) as ={x|x Lk for some Then the following relationships hold on L* and L+.. ababb..wm1.e.. then L+ = { aba.wmmk .wk for some k.. L* can be proven as follows: by Theorem 2.. wimi in L such that wi = wi1wi2... Proof: Because we can see that L* (L*)*. . Since w1. xw L+. ..wk . L* and L* have a number of interesting properties. Then there are nonempty strings w1.. . Hence x is in L* . Theorem 5: L* = (L*)*. by applying Theorem 2 to the language L* L* Conversely ( L* )* Let x be an arbitrary nonempty string of ( L* )*. Let us list one of them as a theorem and prove it. bb... w2.. .. } Let us also define natural number k } . any nonempty string in L* or L+ can be expresssed as the concatenation of strings of L.w2m2. Thus L+ is the set of strings obtained by concatenating one or more strings of L. Theorems 1 and 2 are proven in "General Induction" which you study in the next unit. bb }. . wk in L* such that x = w1w2. for each wi there are strings wi1. w2. bbaba. Other proofs are omitted..w1m1w21. For example if L = { aba. w1w2... wi2.. . abaaba. i..Inductive Clause: For any x L+ and any w L.. wk are strings of L*. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L+ unless it is obtained from the above two clauses... bbbb. where wi's are strings of L..wimi Hence x = w11 . Theorem 1: Ln Theorem 2: Theorem 3: Theorem 4: L+ = L L* = L*L Note: According to Theorems 2 and 3.. L0 L L2 .. (i..e..

If x is an empty string, then it is obviously in L* . Hence ( L* )* Since L* L* . L* , L* = ( L* )* .

(L*)* and ( L* )*

**Problem Solving as Language Recognition
**

Subjects to be Learned

• • •

problem instance problem as language problem solving as language recognition

Contents

In the previous section the concept of language was introduced and its properties have been briefly studied. You might be wondering why we study language. The main reason for studying language is that solving problems can be viewed as a language recognition problem as explained below, that is, the problem of checking whether or not a string belongs to a language. Thus instead of studying what kind of problems can be solved by what kind of computational devices and how, we can study languages and devices to recognize them which are simpler to deal with uncluttered with variations in actual devices, programming languages etc. Below an example is given to illustrate how solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Consider the following problem: Is the longest of the distances between two nodes(i.e. the diameter) of a given graph less than a given integer k ? Here the distance is the smallest number of edges (or hops) between the nodes. Some of the instances of this problem are as shown below:

Instance 1 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with one edge and two nodes is less than 1. Instance 2 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with four edges and four nodes is less than 2. Simiarlyt for Instance 3. These problem instances can be represented by a string as follows: Instance 1: 1,2;(1,2);1 Instance 2: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(3,4);2 Instance 3: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(2,3)(2,4)(3,4);3 Here the set of nodes, the set of edges and k are separated by ; in that order in the strings. The solutions to these instances are: Instance 1: No Instance 2: No Instance 3: Yes There are infinitely many 'Yes' instances and 'No' instances for this problem. The set of 'Yes' instances is a language and so is the set of 'No' instances as well as the set of all

instances and many others for this problem. We can thus see that solving the problem for a given instance is equivalent to checking whether or not the string representing the given instance belongs to the language of 'Yes' instances of the problem. That is, the problem solving is the same as the language recognition. A problem can be solved if and only if the language of its 'Yes' instances is recognizable or decidable by a Turing machine. It is not solvable if the language is merely accecptable but not recognizable, or even worse if it is not even acceptable.

(a.k.a Structural Induction)

Mathematical statements involving an element of a recursively defined set can be proven by induction. To prove by induction that a statement P(x) is true for all the elements x of a recursively defined set S, proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P(x) is true for all the elements x in the basis of S. Induction: Prove that for any element(s) x of S if P(x) is true, then P(y) is true for any element y obtained from x by the induction step of the recursive definition of S. Note 1 : In the Induction we try to prove that if a parent has the property then all of its children also have that property. In the process we need the relationship between the parent and the children. That relationship is found in the Inductive Clause of the recursive definition of the set in question. Note 2 : As a first step for general induction proof, it is often a good idea to express y in terms of x so that P(x) can be used. Example 1 (Theorem 1 in "Language") : Prove that Ln L* for any natural number n and any language L. Let us first review the definitions. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = LkL. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k, the extremal clause is not necessary. Recursive definition of L*:

Basis Clause: L* Inductive Clause: For any string x L* and any string w L. Hence x . L0 L* . Then by the definition of L*. and L* . xw L*. xy Hence w Thus Lk+1 L* . L* since y L. number k. x Example 2 (Theorem 2 in "Language") Let us prove L* = Note that ={x|x Lk for some natural number k } . --. Then by the definition of L* . Since Lk L* . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. y Let w be an arbitrary string in Lk+1 . L* for an arbitrary natural numer k. Hence . By Example 1 above . . Note in the proof below that Basis and Inductive Steps mirror the Basis and Inductive Clauses of the definition of Ln . L* by theInduction Hypothesis. Basis Step: Since by the definitions L0 = { Inductive Step: Assume that Lk Hypothesis We are going to show that Lk+1 }. Lk Next let us prove L* . Now let us prove that Ln L* by induction on Ln. Proof: Let us first prove Suppose that x Lk for some natural L* . x L* . L* . L* . Lk . . Then there exist strings x and y that satisfy x L and w = xy by the definition of Lk+1.Induction L* .

Note here that x is a parent and by applying an operation (i. xy holds. Then we show that if any element. Note that each step mirror the recursive definition of . then its children xy. then for some natural number k . . So we show that the property for x is inherited by its children xy. REV(xa) = Inductive Clause: For any string aREV(x). . It produces the reversal of a given string x (i. of L* has the property. Let us prove the inheritance. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds.e. x Lk . .Note that L* is defined recursively and that below we are trying to prove that the elements of L* have the property that they also belong to . So we first prove that * the element of the basis of L has the propertyy. Hence xy Lk+1 by the definition of Ln . Hence xy End of Inductive Step and Proof Hence we have proven Example 3 . by concatenating y) a child of x in is obtained. If x . Basis Clause: REV( )= .e. holds. say x. x We are going to show that for an arbitrary element y L . and any symbol . Hence by the definition of Inductive Step: Assume that for an arbitrary x in L*. by Example 1 above. Prove that for arbitrary strings x and y of . where y is an arbitrary elememt of L. The function REV(x) on strings x over the alphabet is defined as follows. x spelled backward). Basis Step: L0 since L0 = { }. also have the property.

Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary string y of . REV(xya) = REV((xy)a) = a REV(xy). { } and {a} for any symbol a are regular languages. -. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages. But by induction hypothesis a REV(xy) = a REV(y)REV(x). REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. . Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular language unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Definition of Set of Regular Languages : Basis Clause: . Basis Step: REV(x ) = REV( x ) = REV( )REV( x ) .Proof First let us note that * can be defined recursively as follows: .Induction Hypothesis Then for an arbitrary symbol a of . and an arbitrary string y of . Inductive Clause: If Lr and Ls are regular languages. Definitions of Regular Language and Regular Expression Subjects to be Learned • • regular language regular expression 1. REV(xya) = REV(ya)REV(x). End of Proof. then Lr Ls . Since a REV(y) = REV(ya). Regular language The set of regular languages over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. xa is also in . which is what we needed. Omitted. The proof mirrors the recursive definition of . Any language belonging to this set is a regular language over . * Basis Clause: where is an empty string. Inductive Clause: For arbitrary strings x of and a of ExtremalClause: As usual. The proof of the equality in question is going to be proven for an arbitrary fixed x by induction on y. Thus the statement to be proven is for an arbitrary fixed string x.

which has precedence over union ( + ). Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular expression unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. is a regular language because {a. Conventions on regular expressions (1) When there is no danger of confusion. (3) The concatenation of k r's . aaa. b} ( = {a} {b} ) and {ab} ( = {a}{b} ) are regular languages. LrLs and Lr* . bold face may not be used for regular expressions. respectively. b} is regular. respectively. { } and {a}. Then since {a} and {b} are regular languages. They can represent regular languages and operations on them succinctly.For example. then ( r + s ) . ( rs ) and ( r*) are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr Ls . 2. b}. . and a are regular expressions corresponding to languages . where r is a regular expression. where a is an element of . aaaa etc. Thus for example rr = r2 . So for example. is written as rk. where Lr is the language corresponding to the regular expression r. The language corresponding to rk is Lrk. For a recursive definition of Lrk click here. Inductive Clause: If r and s are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr and Ls . aa. let = {a. Regular expression Regular expressions are used to denote regular languages. Any element of that set is a regular expression. (2) The operation * has precedence over concatenation. Basis Clause: . The set of regular expressions over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. {a. a. Also since {a} is regular. ( r + s ) is used in stead of ( r + s ). {a}* is a regular language which is the set of strings consisting of a's such as . which is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's. (4) We use ( r+) as a regular expression to represent Lr+ . Thus the regular expression ( a + ( b( c*) ) ) is written as a + bc*. Note also that *.

. a*b+a* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by one or more b's followed by zero or more a's. bb}. ababab. a regular language. ab. Definition of Equality of Regular Expressions Regular expressions are equal if and only if they correspond to the same language. b}. ( a + b )* corresponds to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. . }. b}. For example ( a + b )* and ( a*b* )* correspond to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. b}.Examples of regular expression and regular languages corresponding to them • • • • ( a + b )2 corresponds to the language {aa. abab. ( ab )+ corresponds to the language {ab. in general. . In general. Note:A regular expression is not unique for a language. b}. because they both represent the language of all strings over the alphabet {a.. a*b* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by zero or more b's. ba. that is the set of strings of length 2 over the alphabet {a. b}. it is not easy to see by inspection whether or not two regular expressions are equal. corresponds to more than one regular expressions. the set of strings of repeated ab's. that is. Thus for example ( a + b )* = ( a*b* )* . In general ( a + b )k corresponds to the set of strings of length k over the alphabet {a. That is.

they do not produce any strings that are not represented by (r1 + r2)*. 2: For the two regular expressions given below. b and the strings consiting of only b's (from (a*b)*). For example ab and ba are such strings. (a) (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ Solution: One general strategy to approach this type of question is to try to see whether or not they are equal to simple regular expressions that are familiar to us such as a. a+. (a + b)*. The only strings corresponding to r2 which consist of only a's or b's are a. However. ba is not in it. r1r2 + r2r1 in the given regular expression is redundant. r1 = a* + b* r2 = ab* + ba* + b*a + (a*b)* Solution: (a) Any string consisting of only a's or only b's and the empty string are in r1. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*) . (b) A string corresponding to r1 consists of only a's or only b's or the empty string. Thus the answer is ba. So we need to find strings of r2 which contain at least one a and at least one b. (a) find a string corresponding to r2 but not to r1 and (b) find a string corresponding to both r1 and r2. 1: Find the shortest string that is not in the language represented by the regular expression a*(ab)*b*. However. Of the strings wiht length 2 aa. Thus (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* is reduced to (r1 + r2)*. (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ means that all the strings represented by it must consist of one or more strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*). which are strings in the language with length 1 or less. Find a simple (the shortest and with the smallest nesting of * and +) regular expression which is equal to each of the following regular expressions. the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*) start with a string of r1 followed by any number of strings taken arbitrarily from r1 and/or r2. that is. (a + b)+ etc.Exercise Questions on Regular Language and Regular Expression Ex. Thus anything that comes after the first r1 in (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is represented by (r1 + r2)*. bb and ab are in the language. b. Ex. a*. (a) Since (r1 + r2)* represents all strings consisting of strings of r1 and/or r2 . Solution: It can easily be seen that . Ex. 3: Let r1 and r2 be arbitrary regular expressions over some alphabet. a.

Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is reduced to (r1(r1 + r2)*). Hence a string of L consists of zero or more aab's in front and zero or more bb's following them. b } that contain exactly two a's. Ex. 7: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the . strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or appending bb to any of the already generated strings. Then starting with . Solution: A string in this language must have at least two a's. Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. 6: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. Hence a string of L has zero or more of aab's and bb's in front possibly followed by a at the end. and conversely (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ represents the strings represented by (r1(r1 + r2)*). 5: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L and a L. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. 4: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L over the alphabet { a . and since an arbitrasry string of b's can be represented by the regular expression b*. b*a b*a b* is a regular expression for this language. Thus (aab)*(bb)* is a regular expression for L. Ex. Ex. behind the second a and between the two a's. b } defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L Inductive Clause: If x L . Ex. Since any string of b's can be placed in front of the first a. First of all and a are in L . strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or bb to any of the already generated strings. Inductive Clause: If x L . Then starting with or a. then aabx L and xbb L . Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. First of all L . then aabx L and bbx L .also represents the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*)+. Thus (aab + bb)*(a + ) is a regular expression for L.

it is the set of strings over the alphabet { a. If an a comes after that aa. Ex. bb. 8: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. If there may not be any a in a string of the language. Hence the string is in this language. If there is no aa but at least one a exists in a string of the language. Note that 0 is an even number.alphabet { a. Since it can have any string in front of the last a or bb. and after the first b all the b's in the string appear in pairs. Any numbe of a's can appear any place in the string. Altogether ( b + ab )*( + a + aa )( b + ba )* is a regular expression for the language. Solution: A string in the language can start and end with a or b. On the other hand if an a precedes the aa. ( a + b )*( a + bb ) is a regular expression for the language. b } that contain no more than one occurence of the string aa. ( b + ab )*a( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. Solution: Any string in a language over { a . 9: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of strings of even lengths over the alphabet of { a. Solution: If there is one substring aa in a string of the language. it has at least one b. Hence if a string of the language contains aa then it corresponds to the regular expression ( b + ab )*aa( b + ba )* . b } that do not end with ab. then that a must be preceded by b because otherwise there are two occurences of aa. then applying the same argument as for aa to . ba. ab. Hence any string that follows aa is represented by ( b + ba )*. 11: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the . Ex. Ex. b } must end in a or b. ( b + ab )*( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. b }. b } that contain an odd number of b's Ex. then applying the same argument as for aa to a. Thus simply put. then that aa can be followed by any number of b. Hence if a string does not end with ab then it ends with a or if it ends with b the last b must be preceded by a symbol b. Hence a string preceding the aa can be represented by ( b + ab )*. a regular expression corresponding to the language is ( aa + ab + ba + bb )*. then it must be followed by b. 10: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression a*b(a*ba*b)*a* . Solution: Since any string of even length can be expressed as the concatenation of strings of length 2 and since the strings of length 2 are aa.

is not regular as we shall see later. Thus the set of regular languages is closed under those operations. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages and they are obviously over the alphabet . Ex. where n is a natural number. and ( a + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring bb. The following theorem shows that any finite language is regular. Proof: Let Lr and Ls be regular languages over an alphabet . 12: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression ( b + ab )*( a + ab )*. Hence altogether it represents any string consisting of a substring with no aa followed by one b followed by a substring with no bb. For example while { akbk } is regular for any natural number k . We say a language is finite if it consists of a finite number of strings. Note 1: Later we shall see that the complement of a regular language and the intersection of regular laguages are also regular. Since (( a + b )3)*( a + b ) represents the strings of length 3n + 1. a finite language is a set of n . the given regular expression represents the strings of length 3n and 3n + 1. Solution: ( b + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring aa and which end in b. where n is a natural number. concatenation and Kleene star. Lr Ls . Hence (( a + b )3)* represents the strings of length a multiple of 3. that is. { anbn | n is a natural number } which is the union of all the languages { akbk } . concatenation and Kleene star operations. Properties of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • Closure of the set of regular languages under union. Note 2: The union of infinitely many regular languages is not necessarily regular. Then by the definition of the set of regular languages . Solution: (( a + b )3) represents the strings of length 3.regular expression (( a + b )3)*( +a+b). Regularity of finite languages Theorem 1: The set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed under operations union.

Theorem 2: A finite language is regular. Then { w } is a regular language. Proof: Let us first assume that a language consisting of a single string is regular and prove the theorem by induction. a finite language is regular) if { w } is regular for any string w. Hence by the Inductive Clause of the definition of regular language { a }{ w } is regular. Basis Step: (corresponding to n = 0) is a regular language by the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. End of proof for Claim 2 Note that Claim 2 can also be proven by induction on the length of string. . Proof of the Claim 1: Proof by induction on the number of strings. { regular languages for any arbitrary symbol a of . Proof of Claim 2: Proof by induction on strings.strings for some natural number n. End of proof of Theorem 2. Claim 1: A language consisting of n strings is regular for any natural number n (that is. End of proof of Claim 1 Thus if we can show that { w } is a regular language for any string w. We then prove that a language consisting of a single string is regular. { a } is a regular language from the Basis Step. } and { a } are Inductive Step: Assume that { w } is a regular language for an arbitrary string w over . Then since { w } is a regular language as proven below. Then for any symbol a of . Hence { aw } is regular. L { w } is a regular language by the definition of regular language. Inductive Step: Assume that a language L consisting of n strings is a regular language (induction hypothesis). then we have proven the theorem. Basis Step: By the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. Claim 2: Let w be a string over an alphabet .

Unfortunately not all languages and systems are simple like regular languages or finite automata. After that you stay in that state until another coin is put in to start the process anew or you may terminate the operation and start all over from the initial state. In fact Turing machines are as . and equivalence and conversions between them. Then we are going to see that for every regular language a unique finite automaton can be constructed which can recognize the language (i. So we might say you are in the 10-cents state.Introduction to Finite Automata In this chapter we are going to study a class of machines called finite automata. say a dime. The states and the transitions between them of this vending machine can be represented with the diagram below. then you have now received 15 cents and you wait for the customer to select a soft drink. tell whether or not a given string belongs to the regular language). Later we are going to learn an extension of finite automata called Turing machines. that is. therefore. We are then going to study how finite automata can be used to simulate operations of systems we see in practice. say 15-cents state. You have received 10 cents and are waiting for more coins to come. We are going to learn languages which are not regular and ways to test languages for non-regularity. When a customer comes and puts in the first coin. can not be recognized by finite automata. So you are in another state. they are much more powerful computing devices than finite automata. We have learned that regular languages are represented by regular expressions and conversely. Ds on arrows represent a dime and Ns a nickel. A kind of systems finite automnata can model and a computer program to simulate their operations are discussed later. Though Turing machines are simple modification of finite automata. Their operations can be simulated by a very simple computer program. A vending machine looked at this way is an example of finite automaton. There are languages which are not regular and which. Initially you are waiting for a customer to come and put some coins. you are in the waiting-for-customer state. you are no longer in the waiting-for-customer state. In the figure. In this example you as a vending machine have gone through (transitions between) a number of states responding to the inputs from the customer (coins in this case). Pretend that you are the machine.e. circles represent states and arrows state transitions. It is assumed that the machine terminates its operation when it receives 15 cents or more. Let us assume that only nickels and dimes are used for simplicity. Click "NICKEL" or "DIME" in the figure and see how it operates (see how arrows turn red). Let us consider the operation of a soft drink vending machine which charges 15 cents for a can. Finite automata are computing devices that accept/recognize regular languages and are used to model operations of many systems we find in practice. In the next few chapters first we are going to learn different kinds of finite automata. If the customer puts in a nickel. When the customer selects a soft drink. you must give the customer a can of soft drink.

the states of the machine such as "waiting for a customer to put a coin in". a) must be specified. . Also let be a function from Q to Q . are the elements of Q. Definition of Deterministic Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • • • Finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of deterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. for example. The accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. Note that is a function. Thus in the example of vending machine. Then a deterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . that any computation human beings do (with or without computers) can be performed by Turing machines. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ceases to come. Its elements can. The transition function is also called a next state function meaning that the automaton moves into the state (q. though not proven. Otherwise it is not accepted. a) is equal to "have received 5 cents". (q. 3. 4. "have received 5 cents" etc. if q is the initial state and a nickel is put in. Thus in the example of vending machine. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. 2. however. . the transition function. . a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. A > Notes on the definition 1. For example.powerful as computers and it is generally believed. in the Example 1 below. q0 . the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of . be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. We call the elements of Q a state. "Waiting for a customer to put a coin in" can be considered the initial state of this automaton and the state in which the machine gives out a soda can can be considered the accepting state. then (q. The set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements.

= { a }. etc. 5. 2 }. But any other strings such as aa. An arc ( p . the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 1 a 2 2 a 2 (q. The accepting states are indicated by double circles. A deterministic finite automaton is also called simply a "finite automaton". Abbreviations such as FA and DFA are used to denote deterministic finite automaton. It is a little more complex DFA. the following table. Examples of finite automaton Example 1: Q = { 0. q ) from vertex p to vertex q with label represents the transition (p. They are called transition table. aaa. The vertices (denoted by single circles) of a transition diagram represent the states of the DFA and the arcs labeled with an input symbol correspond to the transitions. ) = q . 1. If the alphabet of the Example 1 is changed to { a. Transition functions can also be represented by tables as seen below. A = { 1 }. . b } in stead of { a }. are not accepted. then we need a DFA such as shown in the following examle to accept the same string a. a) ) A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. DFAs are often represented by digraphs called (state) transition diagram.the string a is accepted by the finite automaton.

the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 0 0 b 1 1 a 1 1 b 1 (q. 1 }. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. A DFA that accepts all strings consisting of only symbol a over the alphabet { a. the following table. b }. 1. b } is the next example. A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. 2 }. b }. = { a. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 0 b 2 1 a 2 1 b 2 2 a 2 2 b 2 (q. = { a. in the following table. a) ) . A = { 0 }.Example 2: Q = { 0. Example 3: Q = { 0. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. A = { 1 }.

the initial state q0 = 0. 15. Example 4: For the example of vending machine of the previous section. a) ) . If we make it a DFA. N }. 20 }. 20 }. its transition function is as shown in the following table. = { D. 10. State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 N 5 0 D 10 5 N 10 5 D 15 10 N 15 10 D 20 15 N 5 15 D 10 20 N 5 20 D 10 (q. Q = { 0. 5.A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. A = { 15.

The head is always at the leftmost square at the beginning of the operation. It never moves to the left.A finite automaton as a machine A finite automaton can also be thought of as the device shown below consisting of a tape and a control circuit which satisfy the following conditions: 1. 2. The tape has a read only head. 5. . There is a finite control which determines the state of the automaton and also controls the movement of the head. The tape is divide into squares in each of which a symbol can be written prior to the start of the operation of the automaton. 3. When it sees no symbol. 4. 6. The head moves to the right one square every time it reads a symbol. The tape has the left end and extends to the right without an end. it stops and the automaton terminates its operation.

Thus this automaton accepts any string of a's. .Operation of finite automata Let us see how an automaton operates when it is given some inputs. are accepted but strings such as aaba. b etc. it stays in state 0 while it reads all the a's (without breaks) on the tape. Since the state 0 is also the accepting state. then no matter what symbol is read. it moves to state 1. When zero or more a's are given as an input to it. Hence when b appears anywhere in the input. If b is read while it is in state 0 (initially or after reading some a's). Initially it is in state 0. when all the a's on the tape are read. this DFA never leaves state 1. are not accepted by this automaton. Once it gets to state 1. the DFA is in the accepting state. For example strings aaa. As an example let us consider the DFA of Example 3 above. it goes into state 1 and the input string is not accepted by the DFA. aaaaaa etc.

*

of DFA and its Properties

Subjects to be Learned

• •

*

Language accepted by DFA

Contents

Here we are going to formally describe what is meant by applying a transition repeatedly, that is the concept of * For a state q and string w, *( q , w ) is the state the DFA goes into when it reads the string w starting at the state q. In general a DFA goes through a number of states from the state q responding to the symbols in the string w. Thus for a DFA < Q , , q0 , , A > , the function

* :Q -> Q is defined recursively as follows: *

Definition of

*

:

*

Basis Clause: For any state q of Q ,

(q,

) = q , where

*

denotes the empty string. and any symbol a ,

Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q, any string y * ( q , ya ) = ( *( q , y ) , a ) .

In the definition, the Basis Clause says that a DFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the state DFA reaches after reading string ya starting at state q is the state it reaches by reading symbol a after reading string y from state q. Example For example suppose that a DFA contains the transitions shown below.

Then

*

*

( q , DNR ) can be calculated as follows:

( q , DNR ) = ( *( q , DN ) , R ) by the Inductive Clause. = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , DN ). = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) since D = D . = ( ( ( *( q , ) , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , D ). = ( ( ( q , D ) , N ) , R ) , since ( q , ) = q . = ( ( q1 , N ) , R ) , since ( q , D ) = q1 as seen from the diagram. = ( q2 , R ) , since ( q1 , N ) = q2 as seen from the diagram. = q3 since ( q2 , R ) = q3 as seen from the diagram. Properties of

*

We can see the following two properties of

*

. for a DFA < Q , , q0 , ,A

**Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >,
**

*

(q,a)=

(q,a)

Proof : Since a = a , * ( q , a ) = *( q , a ) . By the definition of * , * ( q , a ) = ( *( q , ) , a ) But *( q , ) = q by the definition of Hence ( *( q , ) , a ) = ( q , a ) .

*

.

The next theorem states that the state reached from any state, say q , by reading a string, say w , is the same as the state reached by first reading a prefix of w, call it x, and then by reading the rest of the w, call it y. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 , , A > , for a DFA < Q , ,

*

( q , xy ) =

*

(

*

(q,x),y).

Proof : This is going to be proven by induction on string y. That is the statement to be proven is the following: * For an arbitrary fixed string x, ( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for any arbitrary string y. First let us review the recursive definition of *. Recursive definition of Basis Clause:

* *

:

.

* * Inductive Clause: If x and a , then xa . * Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.

Now the proof of the theorem. Basis Step: If y = , then *( q , xy ) = *( q , x ) = *( q , x ) . Also *( *( q , x ) , y ) = *( *( q , x ) , ) = *( q , x ) by the definition of * . Hence the theorem holds for y = . Inductive Step: Assume that *( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for an arbitrary string y. This is the induction hypothesis. We are going to prove that *( q , xya ) = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) for any arbitrary symbol a of . ( q , xya ) = ( *( q , xy ) , a ) by the definition of * = ( * ( *( q , x ) , y ) , a ) by the induction hypothesis. = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) by the definition of * . Thus the theorem has been proven.

*

For the following DFA answer the questions given below.

A language L is accepted by a DFA < Q . . A > . q0 . That is. w ) A } . . A > . if and only if ( q0 . * . Example 1 : . That is a string is accepted by a DFA if and only if the DFA starting at the initial state ends in an accepting state after reading the string.The following notations are used in the questions: : \delta * : \delta^* : \Lambda Language Accepted by DFA Subjects to be Learned • Language accepted by DFA A string w is accepted by a DFA < Q . w ) A . the language accepted by a DFA is the set of strings accepted by the DFA. if and only if L = { w | *( q0 . . q0 .

which is not an accepting state.1 any number of times by reading substring ab any number of times to come back to state 1. Example 2 : This DFA does not accept any string because it has no accepting state.2 . Thus the language it accepts is the empty set Example 3 : DFA with one cycle . This is represented by (ab)*. Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by a(ab)*aa . .This DFA accepts { } because it can go from the initial state to the accepting state (also the initial state) without reading any symbol of the alphabet i.2 . To find the language it accepts. Then from state 1 go through the cycle 1 .e. It accepts nothing else because any non-empty symbol would take it to state 1. This DFA has a cycle: 1 . and it stays there. Then from state 1 go to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading aa.1 and it can go through this cycle any number of times by reading substring ab repeatedly. by reading an empty string . first from the initial state go to state 1 by reading one a.

2 .1 .0. Example 5 : DFA with two interleaved cycles This DFA has two cycles: 1 .1 .0 .2 .2 . first from state 0 go to state 1 by .3 .Example 4 : DFA with two independent cycles This DFA has two independent cycles: 0 .1.1 and 1 .0 and it can move through these cycles any number of times in any order to reach the accepting state from the initial state such as 0 .0 . To find the language accepted by this DFA.2 . Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by ( ab + bb )*.0 .0 and 0 .2 .

1 any number of times by reading substring ba repeatedly. Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata .0 .1 and 1 . So we are not going to go any further on this problem here. At this point a substring a( baa + bba )* will have been read. respectively. At this point (b*a) will have been read. At state 1 go through the cycle 1 . Example 6 : This DFA has two accepting states: 0 and 1. The language accepted at state 0 is b* . first at state 0 read any number of b's.1 any number of times in any order by reading substrings baa and bba. Thus the language that is accepted by this DFA is the union of the language accepted at state 0 and the one accepted at state 1.2 . Then go to state 1 by reading one a. To find the language accepted at state 1.reading a ( any other state which is common to these cycles such as state 2 can also be used instead of state 1 ). Thus the language accepted at state 1 is b*a(ba)* .3 .2 . Thus altogether a( baa + bba )*bb will have been read when state 3 is reached from state 0. Then go from state 1 to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading bb. Then from state 1 go through the two cycles 1 .2 . There is a systematic way of finding the language accepted by a DFA and we are going to learn it later.

As in the case of DFA the accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. But it can be the empty set. As in the case of DFA the set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. 5. Also let be a function from Q to 2Q . a) to select is determined nondeterministically. A = { 1 }. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 1 a (q. in which case the NFA aborts its operation. We call the elements of Q a state. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ends i. Examples of NFA Example 1: Q = { 0. The transition function is also called a next state function . 1 }. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. A > Notes on the definition 1. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. Which one of the states in (q. . q0 . the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". 2. a) must be specified. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of (q. Its elements can be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in.e. the transition function. Unlike DFAs an NFA moves into one of the states given by (q. Note that any DFA is also a NFA. 3. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. a) ) . Otherwise it is not accepted. Note that is a function.Subjects to be Learned • • • Nondeterministic finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. . Then a nondeterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . the following table. 4. = { a }. ceases to come.

this is still an NFA that accepts { Example 2: Q = { 0. 1. b }. If the alphabet a}. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. = { a.2} 0 1 1 2 2 b a b a b {2} (q. b } in stead of { a }. in the following table. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. is changed to { a.A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. A = { 2 }. . 2 }.

If any other strings are given to this NFA. if the next input is b and if no more inputs are given. Initially it is in state 0. then it goes to state 2 and remains there. it does not accept any of them. As an example let us consider the automaton of Example 2 above. If on the other hand it moves to state 1 after reading a. * and then formalize the concepts of acceptance of . Since the state 2 is the accepting state. then it stays in the accepting state. We say that this automaton accepts the string a.Operation of NFA Let us see how an automaton operates when some inputs are applied to it. Let us now define the function strings and languages by NFA. When it reads the symbol a. if it moves to state 2 and no more inputs are given. it moves to either state 1 or state 2. Thus the string ab is also accepted by this NFA.

*( q . where * denotes the empty . Thus for an NFA < Q . w ) is the set of states that the NFA can reach when it reads the string w starting at the state q. . a) ) For example consider the NFA with the following transition table: .Language Accepted by NFA Subjects to be Learned • • • for NFA Language accepted by NFA Properties of * * Definition of * For a state q and string w.1. Example State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {0. ya ) = In the definition. any string y * and any symbol a ( q . the Basis Clause says that an NFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the set of states NFA can reach after reading string ya starting at state q is the set of states it can reach by reading symbol a after reading string y starting at state q. string. ) = { q }. Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q.3} 0 b {2} 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b {1} {3} {3} (q. * (q. . A > . the function * :Q -> 2Q is defined recursively as follows: * Definition of *: Basis Clause: For any state q of Q. q0 . In general an NFA nondeterministically goes through a number of states from the state q as it reads the symbols in the string w.

Hence *( 0 . 3 } . a ) for all p ( 0 . ( 0 . a ) by the Inductive Clause of * Now *( 0 . ab ) is the union of the definition of * . ) = { 0 } . ) again by the Inductive * Clause of the definition of . By the Basis Clause of the definition of *.b) (3. a ) = { 0 . a ) is the union of ( p. a ) = ( 0 . b ) for all p * ( 0 .b)={2} {3} {1}={1.The transition diagram for this NFA is as given below. 3}. b ) (1. ab ) = ( 0 . Hence *( 0 . . *( 0 .2. 1 . Suppose that the state 3 is an accepting state of this NFA. ab ) can be calculated as follows: ( p. Then * * ( 0 .

* (q. * ( q . aaa. A > if and only if * ( q0 . q0 .a)= (q. that is. a. * . for an NFA < Q . . q0. if and only if it can reach an accepting state by reading x starting at the initial state. . The language accepted by an NFA < Q. .a) for an NFA < Q . . Some of the strings accepted by the NFA given above are the language it accepts is a*( ab + a + ba )(bb)* . . x ) A is not empty. . q0. ab. A > is the set of strings that are accepted by the NFA. abbbb etc.A Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >.* We say that a string x is accepted by an NFA < Q. . and for NFA has properties similar to that for DFA. xy ) = These theorems can be proven in a manner similar to those for Theorems 1 and 2 for DFA. . Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 . . A > .

Here we are going to formally define NFA with -Transitions (abbreviated as NFA. We are going to do that by showing that a finite automaton can be constructed from a given regular expression by combining simpler FAs using union. We call the elements of Q a state.there is a NFA (hence DFA) which accepts the same language and vice versa. As we are going to see later. Also let { } to 2Q . . .. Note that any NFA is also a NFA. the transition function.) and see some examples. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton with -Transitions is a 5-tuple < Q . let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. concatenation and Kleene star operations. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. A transition on reading means that the NFA.Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata with Transitions Subjects to be Learned • • • - Nondeterministic finite automata with State transition diagram State transition table -Transitions Contents One of the objectives of this chapter is to show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between regular languages and finite automata.makes the transition without reading any symbol in the input. . 2. Thus the tape head does not move when is read. q0 . for any NFA. These operations on FAs can be described conveniently if -Transitions are used.A> Notes on the definition 1. Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton with Let Q be a finite set and let -Transitions be a function from Q be a finite set of symbols. Basically an NFA with -Transitions is an NFA but can respond to an empty string and move to the next state.

5 }. 1. there are no transitions on reading b except from state 3. 3.Example of NFA- Q = { 0. Thus 4 is the only state you can go to from the initial state . 2. For once you are in state 1. 3. 4 and 5 by reading a. 3. For though you go to states 1. If you read string ab. for example. 4. 2. = { a. then you come to state 4. A = . a) ) Here the transitions to are omitted from the table. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. you can go to state 2. 4 and 5 without reading any symbol on the tape. When a symbol a is read at the initial state 0. for example. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in the State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 0 {4} 1 {2} 2 { 3. following table. b }. it can move to any of the states other than 0. 4 } 3 {5} 3 b {4} 4 a {5} (q.

by reading ab.

**Language Accepted by NFASubjects to be Learned
**

• • • •

**-closure for NFALanguage accepted by NFAProperties of *
**

*

Contents

To formally define * for NFA- , we start with the concept of -closure for a state which is the set of states reachable from the state without reading any symbol. Using that concept we define * and then strings and languqges accepted by NFA- . Definition of -closure

Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA- . Let us denote the -closure of a set S of states of Q by ( S ). Then ( S ) is defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: S (S)

Inductive Clause: For any state q of Q, if q ( S ) , then ( q , ) (S). Extremal Clause: Nothing is in ( S ) unless it is obtained by the above two clauses.

For the NFAFirst { 2 }

of the above figure, ( { 2 } ) , that is, 2 (2, )

( { 2 } ) is obtained as follows: ( { 2 } ) . Then since 2 ( { 2 } ) , by the

Inductive Clause, Since (2,

({2}). ({2}).

) = { 3 , 4 }, we now have { 2 , 3 , 4 }

Since 3 and 4 have been added to

({2}),

(3,

) = { 5 } and

(4,

)=

must

be included in ( { 2 } ) . Thus now { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } ({2}). Though 5 has become a memeber of the closure, since ( 5 , ) is empty, no new members are added to ( { 2 } ) . Since ( q , ) has been examined for all the states currently in ( { 2 } ) and no more elements are added to it, this process of generating the closure terminates and ( { 2 } ) = { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } is obtained. As we can see from the example, ( S ) is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S by traversing any number of arcs. That is, it is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S without reading any symbols in . Now with this -closure, we can define

*

recursively as follows:

As in the cases of DFA and NFA, * gives the result of applying the transition function repeatedly as dictated by the given string. Definition of

* *

is going to be defined recursively. Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA-

.

**Basis Clause: For any state q of Q,
**

*

(q,

)=

({q}).

*

Inductive Clause: For any state q, a string y in

and a symbol a in

,

*

( q , ya ) =

(

).

What the Inductive Clause means is that *( q , ya ) is obtained by first finding the states that can be reached from q by reading y ( *( q , y ) ), then from each of those states p by reading a (i.e. by finding ( p , a ) ), and then by reading 's ( i.e. by taking the closure of the ( p , a )'s ) . Example : For the NFAbelow: of the following figure,

*

( 0 , ab ) can be obtained as

First let us compute *( 0 , a ) . For that we need ( { 0 } ). Since it is the set of states reached by traversing the arcs from state 0, ( { 0 } ) = {0,3,4}. Next from each of the states in ( { 0 } ) we read symbol a and move to another state (i.e. apply ). They are ( 0 , a ) = { 1 } , ( 3 , a ) = ( 4 , a ) = { 5 }. Hence We then traverse the } ) = { 1 , 2 , 3 } and = { 1 , 5 } for q = 0 . arcs from { 1 , 5 } to get to the states in *( 0 , a ) . Since * ({5})={5}, (0,a)={1,2,3,5}.

({1

< Q . The language accepted by an NFA. . *( 0 . .0 . and ( 2 . A > is the set of strings accepted by the NFA. 4 } .to (equivalent) NFA Conversion of NFA to (equivalent) DFA Equivalence of DFAs. ab ) read b from each of the states in *( 0 . Then the 2 . NFAs and NFAto NFA 1 Conversion of NFA- Let M1 = < Q1 . 4 } . Thus Since ( { 4 } ) = { 3 . x ) contains at least one accepting state.Then to find *( 0 . NFAs and NFA.0 . b ) and ( 5 . . . For example the NFAof the figure given above accepts the language { . b ) . . q0 . q1. b ) = { 4 } .< Q .that recognizes a language L.s Subjects to be Learned • • • Conversion of NFA. q0 . ab } .. a . A string x is accepted by an NFA. . A > if and only if *( q0 . NFA M2 = < Q2. b ) are empty sets. ( 3 . . A2 > that satisfies the following conditions recognizes L: . q2. Now ( 1 . A1 > be an NFA. Equivalence of DFAs. a ) and then take the arcs from there. ab ) = { 3 .

q1. then all the accepting states of M1 plus state q1. 2.0 = q1. q2.0 through arcs in M1 . 1. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. Then for each state q of Q2 and each symbol a of find 2 ( q . that is if an accepting state can be reached from the initial state q1. . . a ) .M1 = < Q1 . A1 > does.Q2 = Q1.0 through arcs in M1 .0 are the accepting states of M2 .0 .a)= ( ) A2 = A1 { q1.0 } if ( { q1. a ): First ( { 0 } ) = { 0 . Thus to obtain an NFA M2 = < Q2. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0. The transition function 2 is obtained as follows: 2( 0 . 1 } . The closure of the set of those states is 2( q . as the given NFA. 2 ( q.0. The set of accepting states A2 is the same as A1 if no accepting states can be reached from the initial state q1. Otherwise. Then collect all the states that can be reached from each state of ( {q} ) by traversing one arc labeled with the symbol a.0 } ) A1 = A1 otherwise . Then from the transition function of the NFA- . a ) as follows: Find ( {q} ). a ) = 1 * (q. 3 ). Example 1: Let us convert the following NFAto NFA. 2 first copy the states of Q1 into Q2. . that is all the states that can be reached from q by traversing arcs. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) . q2.0 . A2 > which accepts the same language 1 .

2} )) ({q}) {0. . a ) = { 1 .b)= Similarly 2 can be obtained for other states and symbols. 1 For . 2 }. b ) = .3} {1. 1 } and 1 (0. since ( { 0 } ) = { 0 .2} The NFA thus obtained is shown below.2} {1. They are given in the table ( { q } ) and 2 below together with State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b a b .2} {1. (q. b ) . a ) = . ({1. )(= ( {1.2})={1.b)= 1 ( 1.( 0 .3} {1.2}. 2 (0.2} {1. and Hence 2( 0 . a ) = 1 ( 1 .3} {3} {1.1} {0. 2 ( 0 .2} {1.1} {1} {1} {2} {2} {1.

2} {4} {4} {4} {1. 3. )(= ( {1. 1. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) .Example 2: Let us convert the following NFA- to NFA.1} {1} {1} {2. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0.4} {1.2.2} {1.4} {1.3} {3} {3} {1.4} {1. ) and State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 a b a b a b a b a ({q}) {0. 1 ( p .2. 2. The transition function 2 is obtained as for Example 1. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. 2 is given in the table below together with ( { q } ) .2.3} .3} {1.3} )) {1.4} {1. 4 ).3} {2.2} 2 (q.1} {0.

.4 b {1. Proof of Equivalence of NFA- and NFA We are going to prove that the NFA obtained from NFAby the conversion algorithm accepts the same language as the NFA.4} The NFA thus obtained is shown below.

1 * (q. it implies that NFAM1 and NFA M2 accept the same non-empty strings. a ) = 1*( q .a)= 2 ( q . Recall that the set of strings is defined recursively (click here for a quick review). 1 * (q.0 . then * 1 ( q . Hence (q. a ) --. wa ) = 2 * ( q . q2. Secondly 2 * (q.w). . (q.a)= 2 * (q. . --. )={q}. Basis Step: We need to show that for any symbol a in 1 * (q. . a)= by the definition of Since * 2 * for NFA (click here for a review) . = = 2 * 2 (q . A2 > (q.(2) Hence from (1) and (2). wa ) holds for any arbitrary symbol a in First we show that using the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q .(2) .(1) because of the way NFA is constructed from NFA(click here for a review) . q1.NFA- that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 . a ) . w ) for any non-empty string w. Claim 1: For any non-empty string w and for any state q. Inductive Step: We need to show that if 1 * (q.a). wa ) --. = 1 * Then we show that ( q .a)= 2 * 2 (q. wa ) = --. w ) for an arbitrary string w (Induction Hypothesis)..a).w)= 2 * ( q . A1 > and 2 NFA obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2.a). Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w.w)= 2 * (q. and NFA- When it is proven. that is wa for any symbol a in the alphabet. for NFA. . We are going to prove it by showing that both of them are equal to Firstly 2( q .0 .w)= 2 * ( q . 1 . First we are going to prove that To review the definition of * 1 * . and the conversion of NFAto NFA click here. the induction hypothesis and the construction of NFA from NFA. (q. . The case when w is an empty string is going to be proven separately. then assuming it holds for any arbitrary string w we prove it for any of the children of w.(1) .a)= 2 2 * (q .a). Thus we first prove that it is true for any arbitrary symbol.

a ) by the way NFA is constructed from NFA= . because = . Hence On the other hand = Hence 1 * = ( q . This can be shown to be equal to .basically using the definition of Then from (1) and (2) we can see that 1 * 1 * . wa ) = Since 2 * (q. . = 1*( q . To see an explanation for this click here. wa ) = . . w ) by the induction hypothesis. wa ) . that is By the definition of 1 * = 1 * 1 * ( q . 1 * Thus from (1) and (2) ( q . wa ) . The right hand side of this equality is equal to ( the first and have been swapped to get this) . wa ) . . wa ) = 2 * ( q . that is (1) has been proven. Hence 2 * ( q . as proven below in Claim 3. Hence we have proven (2).a)= Substituting this into the left hand side of (2) produces = . wa ) .a)= 1 * ( q . Let us first prove (1). = Since 2 (q. by the definition of 1 * . By the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . wa ) .w)= 1 * ( q . for NFA- (p. ( q . Let us next prove (2). wa ) = 2 * ( q .

then ( q . Part 1 : (S T) (S) (T) This is going to be proven by induction on (S T). . then ( { q10 } ) A1 . ) (X). if it is accepted by an NFA. For that let us restate the statement so that the induction becomes clearer. Let X be the set of states of an NFA. then q20 this means that Thus NFA( { q10 } ) A1 A2 . What Part 1 states is that all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in the set (S) (T).End of Induction With this Claim 1 we can see that any non-empty string w is accepted by NFA if and only if it is accepted by the corresponding NFA. then its childen also have it. Let us review the definition of the -closure of the set of states of an NFA. Extremal Clause: Nothng is in ( X ) unless it is obtained by the Basis and Inductive Clauses. q20 Conversely if NFAis accepted by NFA. As a preparation for the proof of commutativity of union and -closure operations.. A2 . let us prove the following claim. Claim 2: (S T)= (S) (T). in the Basis Step of our proof we prove the property for the elements of the basis of (S T ) and in the Inductive Step we prove that if an arbitrary element of (S T ) has that property. and the corresponding NFA accept the same language. Hence is accepted by NFA. Then the -closure of X is defined recursively as Basis Clause: X (X). Hence is accepted by NFA. Hence by the way A2 is constructed. Since (S T ) is defined recursively. Inductive Clause: If q ( X ) . By the way NFA is constructed from . As for the empty string . We are going to prove this in two parts: (S T) (S) (S) (T) ( T ) and (S T).

then ( q . (S T ) with the property of being in (S) ( T ) .Proof of Part 1: Basis Step: We need to prove that ( S Since S ( S ) and T T) (S) (S) (S (S) (S) (T). ( T ) . then (q. then (q. ( T ) . That would imply that Proof of (S) (S By induction on (S T): (S). if q is in .q ( S ) or q ( S ) . ) (S) (T). ) (S) (T). Basis Step: We need to show that S Since S (S T ) . (T). Inductive Step: We need to prove that for an arbitrary element q in ( S ) . Since q If q ( S ) . T ) with (T). then (q. ) Let q be an arbitrary element of T ) with the property of being in ( S ) by the definition of ( T ) . (T) Thus all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in (S T) which is to say that (S) (T). and ( S T) (S T). (S) (T). S and T are subsets of (S T) Inductive Step: We need to prove that if q is an arbitrary element of the property of being in (S) (S ( T ) . Hence (T). (q. Hence ) Similarly if q Hence if q is an arbitrary element of (S) (T). ) . ) (S) (S) (T). T). T T). End of Proof for Part 1 Part 2 : Proof of Part 2: We are going to prove (S) (S (S) T ) and (S) (T) (T) (T) (S (S (S T).S (S T).

( Si ) holds for n. If n = 1. Si is a set as well as Sn+1. End of Proof of Part 2 End of Proof of Claim 2 Claim 3: ( Si ) = ( Si ) . (S T ) holds. Si ) by the definition of union. ) (S closure T). then Hence Inductive Step: Assume that ( ( Si ) = Si ) = ( Si ) holds for n = 1. since = ( Equivalence of NFA and DFA We are going to prove that the DFA obtained from NFA by the conversion algorithm . --. ( Si ) = ( Si ) = ( S1 ) and ( S1 ) . then (q. ) (S T).Inducion Hypothesis ( Si ) = ( = = (( Si ) ( ( Si ) ) Si ) ( Sn+1 ) by the definition of union. Basis Step: n = 1. by the definition of (q.(S Since q is in (S T ) and since (S T ) . Similarly Hence (S) (T) (T) (S T ) holds. Proof : Proof by induction on n. ( Sn+1 ) by the induction hypothesis. - T ) is a -closure. Thus (S) (S T ) has been proven. End of Proof for Claim 3 Sn+1 ) by Claim 2 above.

= * 1 ( q1. Inductive Step: Assume that Induction Hypothesis 1 * ( q1. obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. = { q1.Part 1 Subjects to be Learned • • • • Union of FAs Concatenation of FAs Kleene Star of FAs Acceptance of regular languages by FAs Contents . A1 > and DFA . q1. 1 * ( q1. it obviously implies that NFA M1 and DFA M2 accept the same strings.0 .0 . w ) = 2*( q2. .0 } by the construction of DFA M2 . 2 1 . Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. w ) = 2 * ( q2. Theorem: For any string w. --- For the string w and an arbitrry symbol a in 1 * .0 by the definition of 2* . w ) . wa ) = = = = 2 ( 1 2 * * ( q1. Kleene's Theorem --.0 .0 . ) = q2. A2 > First we are going to prove by induction on strings that 1*( q1. . ) by the definition of 1 * . a ) 2( * 2 ( q2. ( q1.0 . When it is proven. w ) .0 .0 . NFA that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 . w ) holds.0 .0 .accepts the same language as the NFA. w ) = 2 * ( q2. a ) ( q2. w ) . ( q2.0 . wa ) * 1 Thus for any string w ( q1. q2.0 . w ) for an arbitrary string w. w ) for any string w.0 .0 .0 . w ) = 2 * ( q2.0 .0 . Basis Step: For w = 2 * .

Proof: This is going to be proven by (general) induction following the recursive definition of regular language. . u Mu = < Qu . u L2 . Ak > .0 . Mc . Suppose that L1 and L2 are accepted by FAs M1 = < Q1 . We assume that Q1 Q2 = without loss of generality since states can be renamed if necessary. Basis Step: As shown below the languages .0 . . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by FAs. . q1. Qu = Q1 Q2 . respectively. . . k . that together with the Basis Step would prove the theorem.0 } . Since any regular language is obtained from { } and { a } for any symbol a in by using union. respectively. c . Then L1 = < Qc .0 . Au > . qu. A1 > and M2 = < Q2 . where qu. then L1 L2 . which are given below. qk.0 . . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by the FAs Mu = < Qu .0 . 2 . . qc. It states that any regular language is accepted by an FA and conversely that any language accepted by an FA is regular. Au > : { qu. qu. Theorem 1 (Part 1 of Kleene's theorem): Any regular language is accepted by a finite automaton. q2. concatenation and Kleene star operations. Inductive Step: We are going to show that for any languages L1 and L2 if they are accepted by FAs. A2 > .{ } and { a } for any symbol a in are accepted by an FA. 1 .Kleene's theorem.0 .0 is a state which is neither in Q1 nor in Q2 . Ac > and Mk = < Q2 .

0 . { q1.0.0.0 . Qk = Q1 k .0 = q1. q2. u ) = { q1.0 } .0 } ) } { (q. { q1. { q2.0 } = 1 { (qk.0 } ) | q A1 } Ac = A2 Mk = < Qk . Note that (qu.0 } .0 } ) | q A1 } Ak = { qk. where qk.0. These NFA- s are illustrated below.0 } ) } . Ac > : Qc = Q1 Q2 qc.u = 1 2 { (qu. c . Au = A1 A2 Mc = < Qc .0 c = 1 2 { (q. . that is u (qu. { qk. qk. . . . qc. .0 is a state which is not in Q1 .0 .0. k .0 . q2. . a ) = for all a in . Ak > : { qk.

L1L2 and L1*. in fact accept L1 L2 . Mc and Mk: Example 1: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression (aa + b)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above.s . that these NFA. End of Proof Examples of Mu .It can be proven. respectively. . though we omit proofs. Mc and Mk . Mu.

Example 2: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression ((a + b)a*)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above. .

Part 2 .Kleene's Theorem -.

Next denote by L(p. What this lemma says is that the set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled with k+1 or lower numbers consists of the following two sets: 1.Subjects to be Learned • Languages accepted by FAs are regular Contents The converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem also holds true. k+1. q. k+1. k)L(k+1. k)*L(k+1. Lemma 1: L(p. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. all without passing through states labeled higher than k. L(p. k+1) = L(p. q. q. . k+1. Before proceeding to a proof outline for the converse. k)L(k+1. q. q. See the figure below for the illustration. Then the following lemmas hold. then from k+1 to q. 2. L(p. k) . k) : The set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled wiht k or lower numbers. Note that paths may go through arcs and vertices any number of times. k) L(p. k+1. q. k)*L(k+1. k) the set of strings representing paths from state p to state q that go through only states numbered no higher than k. let us study a method to compute the set of strings accepted by a finite automaton. k) : The set of strings going first from p to k+1. It states that any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. then from k+1 to k+1 any number of times. Given a finite automaton. first relabel its states with the integers 1 through n.

Theorem 2 (Part 2 of Kleene's Theorem): Any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. Lemma 3: L(p. q. we have the following converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem. n) over all accepting states q. k) is regular for any states p and q and any natural number k. >From Lemmas 1 and 2 by induction the following lemma holds. Proof: L(p. Since the language accepted by a finite automaton is the union of L(q0. then it consists of single symbols representing arcs from p to q. q. q. If p = q. Since the number of symbols is finite and since any finite language is regular. 0) is the set of strings representing paths from p to q without passing any states in between. q. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. 0) is regular.Lemma 2: L(p. Example : Let us find the language accepted by the following finite automaton using the . Hence if p and q are different. q. then is in it as well as the strings representing any loops at p (they are all single symbols). 0) is regular. L(p.

2): r(1.1. Hence r(1. q.2. since r(1. 3. 2) = a* + a+(b a+)*b a* . 1)*r(2. 2.0) = a+ .0)*r(1.1.0) = ba* .2. k). 2. 1) = r(1.0) + r(2. 3. 1) + r(3. 2) = r(1. Then the language accepted by this NFA is r(1. 1) r(1.1. . 2)r(3. 2)*r(3.lemmas. 1) = r(3.0) = a . 3. 1) = r(2. r(2.0) = a* . 1)*r(2. since r(1. 1. 2) = r(1. r(1.1. 1.0)r(1.0) + r(2.1. 1) = r(1.0) = b. 2.0)r(1. 1.0) = ba+ + .1. 1. 3. since r(3.0) = and r(2. 3. r(1.1.2.1.2.0)*r(1. 1. 1) = a Hence r(1. r(2.1.1.0)r(1.2. 1) r(3. 2): r(1.0) + r(3. r(1.1.0) = ba+ . 3. 1) r(1. 2. 1.1.0) = a + .2. 2) . 1) + r(1. 2) = a+(b a+ + = a+(b a+ )*a . 2) + r(1. )*a r(3. 3. 1.1. 3.0)r(1. 1) = r(2. 1. 1)r(2. 3).1.1.0)*r(1. 3.1. 1. 3.0)r(1. 2. 3. since r(2.2. 1. q.0)*r(1.1. 3) = r(1.2. 3. 1)*r(2. 2) = r(3. 3. 1) + r(1.2. 1)r(2. Let us denote by r(p. By Lemma 1.0)*r(1.0) + r(1. 2. 1) = r(3. 2. 1.0) = b . 2. 2. 1)r(2. 1) = r(2.0) + r(1. k) the regular expression for the set of strings L(p. 3. 2): r(3. r(1.0) = and r(3.

2): r(3.e. 1)*r(2. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. 1. In this example there is only one accepting state.0) = ba* Hence r(3.1.0)<SUP*< SUP>r(1.L. q. 1. 1. can be obtained by swapping its accepting states with its non-accepting states. . that is Mc = < Q . 2) = = + ( ba+)+a + ba+( ba+ + )*a r(3. 1) r(3.1. q0 . 2) = r(3. . Q . 1) = r(3. and all the r(p. If there are more accepting states. i. Hence r(1. 1. . then to (a + ab)*. 1. n)'s must be added together to get the regular expression for the language accepted by the automaton.0) + r(3. 3) = a* + a+(b a+)*ba* + ( a+( ba+ )*a )( This can be further simplified to (a + ab + abb)*. 1)r(2. . n) must be found for each accepting state q. 3. )*ba* + ( ba+)+a )*( ba+ )*ba*. 2) = ba* + ba+( ba+ + = ( ba+ )*ba* . * .1.1. 1) + r(3.A > is a DFA that accepts * .0)r(1. 1. q.Hence r(3. The detail is left as an exercise though it would be quite challenging. Then a DFA that accepts the complement of L. where p is the initial state and n is the number of states in the given finite automaton. . Comlement and Intersection of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • • Complement of Regular Language Complement of DFA Intersection of Regular Languages Contents Complement Let M = < Q . 1.L . 2. 2. then r(p. q0 .

A DFA that accepts its complement is obtained from the above DFA by changing all single circles to double circles and vice versa as shown below. we must first convert it to DFA before swapping states to get its complement.For example the following DFA accepts the language a+ over = { a . Remark 2: Since a language is regular if and only if it is accepted by some NFA. the complement of a regular language is also regular. Remark 1: If we have NFA rather than DFA. . b }.

if L1 and L2 are regular languages. Therefore all the properties of sets are inherited by languages. By Remark 2 above. Test Your Understanding of Complemnent and Intersection of FAs Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. In particular De Morgan's law also applies to languages. L1 L2 is regular. difference. then Submit.Intersection of Regular Languages Langauges are sets. concatenation and Kleene star operations. intersection. Thus summing all this up we can say that the set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed with respect to union. then their complements are regular languages. Since L1 L2 = by De Morgan's law. Next -.Regular Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Regular Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Production and Grammar Regular Grammar Context-Free. Context-Sensitive and Phrase Structure Grammars . Click True or Fals .

we write =>*G is obtained from a string and say that by applying productions of . a start symbol S. to obtain aS. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. For example. S -> bS. These rules mean that S is rewritten as a or as aS. We write S => aS to express that aS is obtained from S by applying a single production. aS. . which is { a. . If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. a set of terminals (the alphabet of the language). To generate the string aa for example. . Theorem 3: A language L is accepted by an FA i. For example consider the language represented by a+. finite automata and construction from simple languages using simple operations. .Contents We have learned three ways of characterising regular languages: regular expressions. Add another state as the accepting state Z. i. A grammar is regular if and only if is a single nonterminal and is a single terminal or a single terminal followed by a single nonterminal. a ) = Z. Then apply the first rule to aS to rewrite S as a. add the transition ( X. which ia a nonterminal. The following theorem holds for regular grammars. S corresponds to the initial state. the fact that aa is obtained from S is written as S =>* aa .{ by a regular grammar. Then for every production X -> aY. That gives us aa. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals with at least one nonterminal in it and is a string of terminals and nonterminals. that is a production is of the form X -> a or X -> aY. S -> } is a regular grammar and it generates all the strings consisting of a's and b's including the empty string. aaa. A grammar is a set of rewrite rules which are used to generarte strings by successively rewriting symbols. b}. If there is no is derived from ambiguity about the grammar G that is referred to. } can be generated This can be proven by constructing an FA for the given grammar as follows: For each nonterminal create a state. In general if a string a grammar G. start with S and apply the second rule to replace S with the right hand side of the rule. then we simply write =>* Formally a grammar consists of a set of nonterminals (or variables) V. and S -> aS . if L .e. that is by something called grammar. There is yet another way of characterizing them.e. = {a. regular. } . Thus the process of obtaining aa from S is written as S => aS => aa . A production has in general the form -> . a ) = Y and for every production X -> a add the transition ( X. where X and Y are nonterminals and a is a terminal. Rewrite S using one of the following two rules: S -> a . One can generate the strings of this language by the following procedure: Let S be a symbol to start the process with. aa. and a set of rewrite rules (productions) P.

a) = Y .For example = {a. S -> b } form a regular grammar which generates the language ( a + b )+. where S is the initial state and Z is the accepting state of the NFA. The NFA thus obtained is shown below. Y -> bS. S -> bS. Z } and ( S. a ) = { S. Thus the following converse of Theorem 3 is obtained. L = Conversely from any NFA < Q. X -> aY. P. P. X -> bS. { a. . X -> aY is in P if and only if (X. S -> aX. An NFA that recognizes this language can be obtained by creating two states S and Z. . a regular grammar corresponding to the NFA given below is < Q.{ regular grammar. S > . Y } . then since { } is regular . and adding transitions ( S. S -> a }. a) = Y for some accepting state Y. b }. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. P = { S -> aS.{ } is regular. b}. Z } . and nonterminals X and Y. accepted by an NFA. X. X -> a is in P if and only if (X. Theorem 4 : If L is regular i.e. } is generated by a For example. where Q = { S. then L . Thus L . . q0 > is obtained as follows: for any a in . If L contains ( L -{ } ) { } is also regular. and for any a in and any nonterminal X. A > a regular grammar < Q. as its member. . q0. b ) = { S. S -> a.

These grammars are distinguished by the kind of productions they have but they also form a hierarchy. ZY -> YZ. that is the set of regular languages is a subset of the set of context-free languages which is in turn a subset of the set of context-sensitive languages and the set of context-sensitive languages is a subset of the set of phrase structure languages. Context-sensitive grammars are also characterized by productions whose left hand side is not longer than the right hand side. cZ -> cc } with = { a. bZ -> bc. S -> ab } with = { a. 1 . aY -> ab. As we shall see later this is an example of context-free language which is not regular. aX -> aa. that is. S1 } is a context-sensitive grammar and it generates the language { anbncn | n is a positive integer } . S1 -> XYZS1. 2 and are strings of terminals and nonterminals. S1 -> XYZ. YX -> XY. for every production -> . c } and V = { X. Z. A grammar is a context-sensitive grammar if and only if its production is of the form 1 X 2 -> 1 2 . They are characterized by context-free grammars. Y. S. For example P = { S -> XYZS1. It is an example of context-sensitive language which is not context-free. context-sensitive grammars and phrase structure grammars. possibly empty except Thus the nonterminal X can be rewritten as only in the context of 1X 2 . where is a string of terminals and nonterminals. A grammar is a context-free grammar if and only if its production is of the form X -> .In addition to regular languages there are three other types of languages in Chomsky hierarchy : context-free languages. respectively. where X is a nonterminal and . possibly the empty string. . BY -> bb. S -> XYZ. For example P = { S -> aSb. b. X -> a. ZX -> XZ.| | | |. context-sensitive languages and phrase structure languages. b } and V = { S } is a contex-free grammar and it generates the language { anbn | n is a positive integer } .

For a phrase structure grammar. is that for any regular language there is a unique DFA having the smallest number of states that accepts it. that has the smallest number of states amomg the DFAs that accept L. Minimization Algorithm for DFA Construct a partition = { A.Minimization of DFA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Minimization of DFA One important result on finite automata. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. that is a production of a phrase structure grammar can take the form can be any string. There are two sets of questions. q0 . -> . both theoretically and practically. then Submit. Then the following algorithm produces the DFA. . }. Let M = < Q . where and Test Your Understanding of Regular Grammar Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.A } of the set of states Q . . new := new_partition( . denote it by M1. Q . Click True or Fals . there is no restriction on the form of production. Next -.

Example 1 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. The subsets thus formed are sets of the output partition in place of S. end Minimum DFA M1 is constructed from • • final as follows: • • Select one state in each set of the partition final as the representative for the set. Note that the sets of final are either a subset of A or disjoint from A. If a transition from s to t on symbol a exists in M. final function new_partition( ) for each set S of do partition S into subsets such that two states p and q of S are in the same subset of S if and only if for each input symbol. S remains in the output partition. These representatives are states of minimum DFA M1. Let us also denote by p and q the sets of states of the original DFA M represented by p and q. . The accepting states of M1 are representatives that are in A. Let s be a state in p and t a state in q. A state is a dead state if it is not an accepting state and has no out-going transitions except to itself. Any transitions to a dead state become undefined. states of minimum DFA M1. respectively. Remove from M1 the dead states and the states not reachable from the start state. Let p and q be representatives i. new := new_partition( := . if there are any.while ( := new new ) ) . If S is not partitioned in this process.e. The start state of M1 is the representative which contains the start state of M. p and q make a transition to (states of) the same set of . then the minimum DFA M1 has a transition from p to q on symbol a.

{ 3 } . For the transitions.Initially = { { 1 . Since the rest of the states are singletons. { 4 ] }. . all transitions between them are inherited for the minimized DFA. remains unchanged. Also since on a sate 4 goes to sate 4. Select 1 as the representative for { 1 . { 3 } . state 3 goes to state 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . 3 . So they are not going to be split. state 3 goes to state 5 and 4 and 5 are in different sets in . 5 }. 4 goes to 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . Thus final = { { 1 . and from 3 to 1 on a. they have the obvious representatives. Since on b state 2 goes to state 1. states 2 and 3 are going to be separated from each other in new . and 3 goes to 1 on a in the original DFA. 5 } . This becomes the second iteration. { 4 ] }. 5 } . 2 and 4 are separated from each other in new. Thus the new partition is { { 1 . Further. 5 } . since 1 goes to 3 on a. { 2 } . Thus the set of states for the minimized DFA is { 1 . { 2 } . 3 }. Note here that state 4 is a dead state because the only transitionout of it is to itself. in the When new_partition is applied to this new . On the other hand 1 and 5 make the same transitions. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 2 to 1 on b. states 3 and 4 are going to be separated from each other in new. Since the rest are singletons. and 1 to 2 on b. new_partition is applied to . in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 1 to 3 on a. 2 . and to 2 on b in the original DFA. since on b 2 goes to 1. since 1 and 5 do the same transitions. 4 } }. Also since 2 goes to 1 on b. { 2 .

Thus the minimized DFA is as given in the following figure: Example 2 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. .

{ 2 . { 5 } . { 1 .Initially = { { 3 } . { 2 } . new = { { 3 } . { 5 } . Applyting new_partition again. { 6 } } is obtained. { 2 } . Test Your Understanding of Minimization of DFA Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. 5 } . { 3 } . Click True or Fals . 2 . Thus the number of states of the given DFA is already minimum and it can not be reduced any further. 5 . new = { { 3 } . { 4 } . 6 } } is obtained. 6 } }. { 6 } } is obtained.Application of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Application of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Reactive system . By applying new_partition to this . then Submit. { 1 . new = { { 1 } . Next -. { 1 . 4 . Applyting new_partition to this . 4 . 4 } .

To model a reactive system with finite automaton. even to a fragment of input such as each coin tossed in for a can of soda or every message received. on the other hand. Finite automata are formal and rigorous and computer programs can be easily written to simulate their behaviors. are identified and they become arcs in the transition diagram of the finite automaton. external or internal to the system. first the states the system goes in or the modes of its operation are identified. outputs and conditions/status in response to stimuli from within or outside it. computer network communication protocols. lexical analysers for compilers etc. It is an event driven or control driven system continuously having to react to external and/or internal stimuli.e. Many of those systems fall into the class of systems called reactive system. A reactive system is a system that changes its actions. The inputs for a reactive system are never ready unlike for example when two numbers are added together by an adder (Here we are considering an adder at a higher level of abstraction than physical devices level ignoring for example the transient states of the electronic circuit that realizes an adder). In addition actions that may take place in those states can also be added to the model. In the case of vending machine or communication protocol. Let us assume for simplicity that this computer accepts a single user at a time. These become the states of the finite automaton that models it. two numbers to be added are ready. Then the transitions between the states triggered by events and conditions. a system must respond to each stimulus. An adder does not respond unless the input i.• Modeling reactive systems with FA Contents We have seen an example of use of finite automata in describing the operation of a simplified version of vending machine. It is generally agreed that finite automata are a natural medium to describe dynamic behaviors of reactive systems. For example consider the following very simplified version of login process to a computer from the computer point of view. . A system such as an adder is called a transformational system. Many other systems operating in practice can also be modeled by finite automata such as control circuits of computers.

If the password typed in is incorrect. it resends the message. Again what we have seen is a model for one level of abstraction. then it informs the user of that and waits for the next try. . If a negative ACK is received. it goes to the initial state and starts all over again. different states would be identified and transitions would have to be selected accrdingly. receiving RFNM. then it asks for and then waits for the password. different states and transitions would have to be chosen. That is another state though it could further be broken down into a number of more states. When a password is typed in and it is correct. it goes into another wait state waiting for an ACK to come from the other computer. This is one state of the system. sending message and waiting for ACK. If the second password fails. Upon completion of the RFNM. When a RFNM starts coming. If a positive ACK is received. Again it is a very simplified version. goes back to the initial state and waits for another login. Initially the computer is in wait state waiting for "Request for Next Message" (RFNM) to come from another computer. When it is complete. When a name is typed in. it gets a signal. The next example is a protocol for a computer to follow in communicating with another computer. Thus a finite automaton that models this protocol has the following five states: initial state (wait for RFNM).Initially the computer waits for a user name to be typed in. We could make it go to a different state and count the number of login attempts for security purpose. When the session terminates. then it accepts the user and starts a session. That is a fourth state. it starts sending the requested message to the other party. After sending the ACK. Again depending on the level of abstraction. it checks whether or not the name is valid. it goes back to the initial state. it goes into the state of receiving it (Our interpretation is that the computer is in a state of receiving an RFNM and it is taking the action of receiving the RFNM) . which is another state. it sends "Acknowledgement" (ACK) to the other computer. If the user name typed in is not valid. it goes back to the initial state and waits for another RFNM to come. sending ACK. If it is valid. which is another state. But let us make it simple. Depending on how much detail we are interested in.

9 } . that indicates that a sign has been received. denote it by Q. This system can also be described by a regular expression. D is another accepting state. On the other hand if a digit has been read before a decimal point. . that indicates that a decimal point has been read. Since these numbers are represented by strings consisting of a possible sign. denote it by D.. After one digit it can continue receiving digits. i.+ ) ( d+. If a decimal point is read while in D. +213. it is in state D. This system can be modeled by the following finite automaton: . that indicates a digit has been read before a decimal point. in state P). If the first symbol is a sign. If the first digit is received before a decimal point.2.e. -15.Our third example is a system that recognizes numbers with or without a sign such as 5. If a decimal point is received before a digit. This Q is an accepting state.d+ + d+ + . they can be represented by the following regular expression: ( s+ + s. One such system initially waits for the first symbol to come in. . Therefore from state P it goes to another state.1. denote it by P. after reading a digit and stays there as long as digits are read. denote it by G.d+ ). followed by a possible decimal point. where s+ and s.8 etc.378. then it must receive at least one digit after that. regardless of whether a sign has been read or not. then it goes into a state. followed by one or more digits.represent the positive and negative signs. then it goes to state P indicating that a decimal point has been read. If a decimal point has been read (i. then it can continue receiving digits and stay in D.e. it goes into a state. followed by zero or more digits. respectively and d {0. . then it goes into a state.

holds the next state for each input symbol for each state. keeps the index of the first symbol in the TOKEN array for each state. input := read_input( ) . while ( state NO_of_STATES and not End of Input ) index := STATEX [state] . called STATEX.Simulation of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Simulation of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Simulation of FA Contents Once a finite automaton is constructed. indicates the actions taken at each state and a fourth. 0 and TOKEN [index] input ) index := index + 1. called TOKEN. Another array. while ( TOKEN [index] . A third array.Next -. Algorithm FA Simulator state := INITIAL_STATE. It uses four arrays. Those indices are used to access the contents of the other arrays. we can use a general purpose program to simulate its operation. called NEXT_STATE. One array. called ACTION. stores for each state the input symbols that trigger transitions from the state. One such simulation algorithm is given below.

B. Then every time you click "SHOW" the number is processed digit by digit. In the DFA below all the transitions to the empty state (i. At the moment it is empty. So no action is taken as a number is processed. C and H.if ( TOKEN [index] 0) perform the action specified by ACTION [index]. Then type in a number you want the FA to recognize. The ACTION array would contain pointers to actions to be taken corresponding to arcs traversed such as converting a digit in BCD form to the corresponding binary number.45. . first click the box pointed by the red arrow in the figure below. to input 3. To see how this algorithm works. The corresponding transitions are going to be shown by red arrows in the transition diagram. first click the box under the red arrow.e. For example. S corresponds to 1. You must hit the "Tab" key to move to the next box. The numbers below NEXT_STATE array show the correspondence between the indices of the STATEX array and the states A. Tab 4 Tab 5. state := NEXT_STATE [index]. else error input := read_input( ) . empty transitions) are omitted. end Here 0 in the TOKEN array is a marker between states. Then type 3 Tab . S is the initial state and B and H are accepting states.

click here It is extremely slow.If you are also interested in how code is executed. . So be patient.

That is the main limitation of finite automata. Thus it must be in different states when it has read different number of a's and starts reading the first b. Since a regular language must be recognized by a finite automaton.Non-Regular Languages Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Regular Languages Non-Regular Languages Subjects to be Learned • • • Existence of non-regular languages Myhill . languages that are not regular and therefore require devices other than finite automata to recognize them.Nerode Theorem for non-regularity test Pumping Lemma Contents We have learned regular languages. For example to recognize the language { anbn | n is a natural number} . There are. a finite automaton must remember how many a's it has read when it starts reading b's. But any finite automaton has only finite number of states. The main idea behind these test methods is that finite automata have only finite amount of memory in the form of states and that they can not distinguish infinitely many strings. This is the basis of two of the regularity test methods we are going to study below: Myhill-Nerode Theorem and Pumping Lemma. however. a and aa are indistinguishable with respect to the language an over alphabet { a }. For example. Thus there is no way for a finite automaton to remember how many a's it has read for all possible strings anbn . either xz and yz are both in L or they are both not in L. Non-regularity test based on Myhill-Nerode's theorem Indistinguishability of strings: Strings x and y in * are indistinguishable with respect to a language L if and only if for every string z in *. where n is a positive integer. their properties and their usefulness for describing various systems. we can conclude that { anbn | n is a natural number} is not regular. because aak and aaak are in the language an for any .Next -. In this section we are going to study some of the methods for testing given languages for regularity and see some of the languages that are not regular.

Select bm as a string to be appended to ak and am . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L3 unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S2. Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set. Using this concept of indistinguishability. Then akbakb is in L2 while ambakb is not in L2 . whose strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L. x . Select bakb as a string to be appended to ak and am . However. Hence L1 is nonregular. Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set S1. Example 2: L2 = { ww | w {a. the set of strings consisting of one or more right parentheses followed by identifier x. b } and it is infinite. with respect to the language anbn . that is. (x*y) . S1 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L2 . This set is infinite . ( ( x + y ) * x ) and (( (x*y) + x ) + (y*y) ) are algebraic expressions. It can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L2 as follows. L3 can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: x and y are in L3 .positive integer k. b } can be shown to be nonregular using Myhill-Nerode as follows: Consider the set of strings S1 = { an | n is a positive integer } . S1 is over alphabet { a . where k and m are positive integers and k m . the following theorem by Myhill and Nerod gives a criterion for (non)regularity of a language. a and aa are not indistinguishable (hence distinguishable). then ( + ) and ( * ) are in L3 . where k and m are positive integers and k m . For more on Myhill-Nerode theorem click here. Consider the set of strings S3 = { (k x | k is a positive integer } . operations + and * and left and right parentheses. Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L1 . Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } over alphabet { a . S2 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. Hence L2 is nonregular. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S1. Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. b }* } is nonregular. Inductive Clause: If and are in L3 . We are going to show that its strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L1. Theorem : A language L over alphabet is nonregular if and only if there is an infinite subset of * . Then akbm is not in L1 while ambm is in L1 . Consider the set of strings S2 which is the same as S1 of Example 1 above. because ab is in the language anbn while aab is not in the language. For example. It is stated without a proof.

and it can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 as follows: Let (k x and (m x be arbitrary two strings of S3 . then there must be a cycle in the NFA along some path from the initial state to some accepting state (such as the cycle 2-3-4-2 in the above example). Then the substring representing that cycle (bba in the example) can be repeated any number of times within the string w without being rejected by the NFA. Hence L3 is not regular. abbabbabbb etc. the resultant strings such as abbb (bba repeated 0 times). abbabbabbabbb etc. Those strings which are accepted by this NFA and whose length is greater than 5 have a substring which can be repeated any number of times without being rejected by the NFA. For example the string abbabbb is accepted by the NFA and if one of its substrings bba is repeated any number of times in abbabbb. The following theorem which is called Pumping Lemma is based on this observation. It . For example [ + x ) ]3 is +x) +x)+x) . Select [ + x ) ]k as a string to be appended to (k and (m . where k and m are positive integers and k m . Hence S3 is pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 . Pumping Lemma Let us consider the NFA given below. abbabbabbb. This NFA accepts among others some strings of length greater than 5 such as abbabbb. In general if a string w (such as abbabbb in the example above) is accepted by an NFA with n states and if its length is longer than n. Then (k x + [ + x ) ]k is in L3 but (m x + [ + x ) ]k is not in L3 because the number of ('s is not equal to the number of )'s in the latter string. are also accepted by the NFA.

even if there is an integer n that satisfies the conditions of Pumping Lemma. Let n be the number of states of that FA. Suppose that L is regular and let n be the number of states of an FA that accepts L. v has at least one symbol. uvmw L. Consider a string x = anbn for that n. Thus Pumping Lemma can not be used to prove the regularity of a language. where k is a natural number. Note that Pumping Lemma gives a necessity for regular languages and that it is not a sufficiency. Hence an+pbn can not be in the L. n + p language L represented by akbk . v and w which satisfy the following relationships: x = uvw |uv| n |v| > 0 and for every integer m 0. Then there is an FA that accepts L. Since p > 0 . v. |uv| n |v| > 0 . for some p > 0 . It is stated without a proof here. Then uv2w = an-pa2pbn = an+pbn . It can only show that a language is nonregular. This violates the condition that for every m language. then any long enough string of the language has a substring which can be repeated any number of times with the resultant strings still in the language. Then for any string x in L with |x| n. the language is not necessarily regular. let us prove that the language L = akbk is nonregular. Also since |uv| Let us now consider the string uvmw for m = 2. Pumping Lemma : Suppose that a language L is regular. n . v = ap. Hence L is not a regular 0. and w such that x = uvw. there are strings u. uvmw Test Your Understanding of Non-regularity .states that if a language is regular. and for every m 0. n. Since |v| > 0 . that is. Example 4: As an example to illustrate how Pumping Lemma might be used to prove that a language is nonregular. Then there must be strings u. uvmw L.

Click True or Fals .Context-Free Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Myhill-Nerode Theorem The non-regularity test for languages by Myhill-Nerode is based on the following theorem which is in the contrapositive form of the theorem used for nonregularity test. Proof of Theorem Necessity Suppose that a language L is regular and two strings. This means that if x and y are read by an DFA that recognizes L. then Submit. if and only if }.Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. say x and y. that is. if and only if they are indistinguishable with respect to . the DFA reaches different states. Also it is a corollary to Myhill-Nerode theorem: Let { be the followijg relation on }={ : For strings and of . are distinguishable with respect to L. Then there is a string z such that xz is in L and yz is not in L (or xz is not in L and yz is in L). Next -. If there are three strings that are distinguished with respect . Then the theorem is is staed as follows: Theorem: A language L over alphabet is regular if and only if the set of equivalence classes of is finite.

then the language L is regular. then the language is not regular. . Let us now show that this machine is in fact a DFA and it accepts the language First.. [ ]=[ } ]. making them belong to different [ Hence is a function. Then we construct a . For. Note that "indistinguishable with respect to L" is an equivalence relation over the set of strings (denote it by ) and [x]'s are equivalence classes. then the DFA must have infinitely many states..e. if the number of classes of strings that are pairwise indistinguishable with respect to a language L is finite. Hence if there are infinitely many strings to be distinguished with respect to L. be representatives of those distinct equivalence classes.. [ . is in exactly one equivalence class.. are in different classes for and are distinguishable with respect to L. DFA ( = {[ =[ = {[ ( .... namely ] and ]. . be the number of distinct equivalence classes (i. Let .to L.. Hence if there is an infinite set of strings which are pairwise distinguishable with respect to a language. . the index) of and let . . note that for every string [ ]. let [x] denote a class of strings that are indistinguishable from a string x with respect to L. if and in [ ]. which it can not because a DFA must have a finite number of states. To prove this. Sufficiency Conversely. then ]'s.. ) as follows: ]} ]. then the DFA reaches three different states after reading those three strings. where [ ] =[ ] for all . ]. . ]. We will show that a DFA that accepts L can be constructed using these equivalence classes.

=[ ]. First some terminology. Hence =[ = . Then by the definition of . Hence Hence we have shown that for every string ]. . where . if the set of its equivalence classes is finite. . by the definition of = . Myhill-Nerode Theorem can now be stated as follows: The following three statements are equivalent: (1) A language is regular. Inductive Step: Assume Then for every But =[ Hence =[ ]. where ] is the equivalence class that belongs to. ] by the induction hypothesis. =[ ]. for DFA. ]. For that. An equivalence relation on is said to be right invariant if for every . first note that if . Our proof is by structural induction on string Basis Step: = =[ ]. . . where ]. by the definition of = . = [ ]. if a string in [ in ] is in . then every We then show that for every string . let us show that this DFA accepts string in [ ] is also in L. Also an equivalence relation is said to be of finite index. . . if then for every .Next. this means that the DFA accepts Myhill-Nerode Theorem Let us here state Myhill-Nerode Theorem. Since . With these terminology.

. P1 > generates L1 : V1 = { S } . A language is a context-free language (CFL) if all of its strings are generated by a context-free grammar. S . where X the start symbol. and P is a finite set of productions of the form X -> and (V )* . grammar (CFG) if V and . Let us define context-free grammars and context-free languages here. = { a . are finite sets sharing no elements between them. (3) is of finite index. Most programming languages can be approximated by context-free grammar and compilers for them have been developed based on properties of context-free languages. They are grammars whose productions have the form X -> . S . Definition (Context-Free Grammar) : A 4-tuple G = < V . P > is a context-free V is V. S -> ab }. Proofs are omitted.(2) L is the union of some of the equivalence classes of a right invariant equivalent relation of finite index. Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } is a context-free language. . The set of strings generated by a context-free grammar is called a context-free language and context-free languages can describe many practically important systems. S . For the following context-free grammar G1 = < V1 . b } and P1 = { S -> aSb . where X is a nonterminal and is a nonempty string of terminals and nonterminals. Context-Free Languages Context-Free Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Context-Free Grammar Context-Free Languages Push Down Automata Contents Earlier in the discussion of grammars we saw context-free grammars.

) . Ss -> L2 . . Then L1 context-free languages. S -> y }. Similarly for L1L2 . Su -> S2 } . < expression > -> < algebraic-expression > . . . . < statement > -> < for-statement > . . P2 > be context-free grammars generating L1 and L2 . For the following context-free grammar G2 = < V2 . < statement > -> < assignment > . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. ( . < if-statement > -> if ( < expression > ) < statement > . . . < forstatement > -> for ( < expression > . and L1* are . * } and P3 = { S -> ( S + S ) . . S . Then let Su be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . . . S -> bb }. + . b } and P2 = { S -> aSa . S -> aa . Example 4: Portions of the syntaxes of programming languages can be described by context-free grammars. Then it can be easily seen that Gu = < Vu . Next define Vc = V1 V2 { Sc } and Pc = P1 P2 { Sc -> S1S2 } . = { a . where w is a nonempty string and wr denotes the reversal of string w. Then let Sc be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . w is spelled backward to obtain wr . concatenation and Kleene star of context-free grammars as follows: Let G1 = < V1 . . b }+ } is a context-free language . P3 > generates L3 : V3 = { S } . < expression > . . y . . For the following context-free grammar G3 = < V3 . < expression > -> < logicalexpression > . Properties of Context-Free Language Theorem 1: Let L1 and L2 be context-free languages. Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. Outline of Proof This theorem can be verified by constructing context-free grammars for union. that is. . respectively. let Ss be a symbol which is not in V1 . S -> bSb . S1 . S -> x . Pu > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1 L2 . P2 > generates L2 : V2 = { S } . Sc . P1 > and G2 = < V2 . Pc > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1L2 . Su . first relabel symbols of V2 . first relabel symbols of V2 . < expression > ) < statement > . Then it can be easily seen that Gc = < Vc . Then let Ps = P1 { Ss -> SsS1 . For example { < statement > -> < if-statement > . For L1* . if necessary. } . . operations + and * and left and right parentheses. 3. Next define Vu = V1 V2 { Su } and Pu = P1 P2 { Su -> S1 . Then for L1 L2 . S -> S*S . S . . if necessary.Example 2: L2 = { wwr| w {a. S2 . L1L2 . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. 3 = { x . Then L3 is a context-free language.

and are finite sets ( the input and stack alphabet. Any string of this language can be tested for the membership for the language by a finite automaton if there is a memory such as a pushdown stack that can store a's of a given input string. accept the string. Otherwise reject it. check the stack. reject the string. A pushdown automaton ( or PDA for short ) is a 7-tuple M = < Q . They need a little more complex automata called pushdown automata. Example 1 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . Ss . push them into the stack. q0 . Z0 . the contents of the stack can also be changed every time an input symbol is read. ) means the following: The automaton moves from the current state of p to the next state q when it sees an input symbol a at the input and X at the top of the stack. If another a (or anything other than b) is read after the first b. > . where Q is a finite set of states. but also by the symbol at the top of the stack. respectively ). its next state is determined not only by the input symbol being read. context-free languages are also accepted by automata but not finite automata. Z0 . Pushdown Automata . > . For example. Thus its transition function specifies the new top of the stack contents as well as the next state. Z0 is the initial stack symbol and it is a member of . Thus ( p . A is the set of accepting states is the transition function and :Q ( ( } -> 2 Q * . Ps > is a context-free grammar that Like regular languages which are accepted by finite automata. If it is empty. As soon as the symbol b appears stop storing a's and start popping a's one by one every time a b is read. Second. Let us consider a context-free language anbn . . A . A . This automaton behaves like a finite automaton except the following two points: First. generates the language L1* . as a's are read by the finite automaton. When all the symbols of the input string are read. . and it replaces X with the string at the top of the stack. a . . where Q = { q0 . . X ) = ( q .} . q0 is the initial state. . Let us define this new type of automaton formally. q0 . It can be seen that the grammar Gs = < Vs .

aabb . where the input is read from left to right and the top of the stack corresponds to the leftmost symbol of .x. Z0 ) ( If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. aabb . Z0 ). . abb . aaZ0 ). bb . b . Z0 ). aa ) q0 q1 q1 b b a a Z0 ( q1 . b . y . Let us now see how the PDA of Example 1 operates when it is given the string aabb . ). following table: = { a . b . After reading the first a. * (q. Z0 ) This pushdown automaton accepts the language anbn . . ) in a single move (a single application of the transition function) we write (p. . . Z0 ) q2 . another a is popped from the top of the stack and the PDA stays in state q1 . aZ0 ). aabb . where q is the state the PDA is currently in. bb . x is the unread portion of the input string and is the current stack contents. aaZ0 ) ( q1 . aZ 0 ) q0 a a ( q0 . q2 } . A configuration of a PDA M = < Q . Z0 ) . > is a triple ( q . . we can also write ( q0 . ) .q1 . = { a . When the second b is read. aZ0 ) ( q0 . y . ) by a sequence of zero or more moves. ). Thus the configuration is ( q1 . ( q0 . we write ) is reached from ( p .y. ) to configuration ( q . A = { q2 } and let be as given in the State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . Thus aabb is accepted by this PDA. ) ( q2 . Z0 ). it moves to state q1 and pops a from the top of the stack.x. If ( q . for example. x . To describe the operation of a PDA we are going to use a configuration of PDA. Z0 .y. After reading the second a. To express that the PDA moves from configuration ( p . (p. Initially its configuration is ( q0 . x . Z0 } . aZ0 ) ( q1 . abb . A . This entire process can be expressed using the configurations as ( q0 . Then when the first b is read. it is ( q0 . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . q0 . . b } . Next it moves to the state q2 which is the accepting state. ) ( q1 . Z0 ) * ( q2 . its configuration is ( q0 . . ) ) (q. aZ0 ). x .

Z0 } . a . bZ 0 ) q0 q0 q0 q1 q1 q1 a b c a b a b Z0 ( q0 . For PDAs. x. Like FAs. q1 . . arcs are labeled differently than FAs.a. X ) = ( p . ). For example the transition diagram of the PDA of Example 1 is as shown below. . then an arc from state p to state q is added to the diagram and it is labeled with ( a . . b . aZ 0 ) q0 b Z0 ( q0 . > . however. If ( q . ) ( q2 . for some in *. c } . A = { q2 } and let be as given in the following table: State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . * (q.A string x is accepted by a PDA (a.k. a ( q0 . q2 } . ( q1 . ) ) ) ) ( q1 . and an accepting state q. X / ) indicating that X at the top of the stack is replaced by upon reading a from the input. = { a . Z0) . b ( q1 . Example 2 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . Z 0 ) In this table represents either a or b. ) . Z0 . q0 . acceptance by final state) if (q0. A . PDAs can also be represented by transition diagrams. = { a . where Q = { q0 . b .

bbaZ0 ) . In the figure and 2 represent a or b. ( q0 . ba . 1 Further topics on CFL • PDA and Context-Free Language There is a procedure to construct a PDA that accepts the language generated by a given context-free grammar and conversely. For example for the input abbcbba. aZ0 ) ( q1 . cbba . When c is detected. That means that a language is . Z 0 ) . bba . abbcbba . b }* } . it ignores c and from that point on if the top of the stack matches the input symbol. bbcbba . When there are no more unread input symbols and Z0 is at the top of the stack. . which is the set of palindromes with c in the middle.This pushdown automaton accepts the language { wcwr | w { a . it goes through the following configurations and accepts it. The transition diagram of the PDA of Example 2 is as shown below. Z 0 ) ( q2 . Otherwise it rejects the input string. baZ0 ) ( q1 . baZ0 ) ( q1 . bcbba . . Z0 ) ( q0 . This PDA pushes all the a's and b's in the input into stack until c is encountered. it pops the stack. bbaZ0 ) ( q1 . a . ( q0 . aZ0 ) ( q0 . it accepts the input string.

Interested readers are referred to the textbook and other sources. Thus if a computer is given the string x + yz. compute yz first. it could also be interpreted as ( x + y )z meaning that first compute x + y. By parsing sentences we identify the parts of the sentences and determine the strutures of the sentences so that their meanings can be understood correctly.e. it does not know which interpretation to use unless it is explicitly instructed to follow one or the other. we are not going to study parsing here. However. "A dog" is the subject. ???? references on Parsing ???? . w.e. a computer like non-English speaking people must be told how to interpret sentences such as the first noun phrase (" A dog") is usually the subject of a sentence. vwmxymz L for every integer m • Parsing and Parsers for CFL Consider the algebraic expression x + yz. native English speakers know that it is the dog that bites and not the other way round. They can describe much of programming languages and basic structures of natural languages. then add the result to x. For example in the sentence "A man bites a dog". Similar things happen when English sentences are processed by computers (or people as well for that matter). Thus they are widely used for compilers for high level programming languages and natural language processing systems. However. Those procedures are omitted here.context-free if and only if there is a PDA that accepts it. a verb phrase usually follow the noun phrase and the first word in the verb phrase is the verb and it is followed by noun phrases reprtesenting object(s) of the verb. Then there is a positive integer n such that for any string u in L with |u| n . "bites" is the verb and "a man" is the object of the verb. then multiply the result by z. Contect-free grammars are powerful grammars. there are strings v. The parsing for context-free languages and regular languages have been extensively studied. productions of grammars. y and z which satisfy u = vwxyz |wy| > 0 |wxy| n 0 . • Pumping Lemma for Context-Free Language Let L be a CFL. Parsing is the process of interpreting given input strings according to predetermined rules i. Though we are accustomed to interpreting this as x + (yz) i. x.

however. and the machines that can process them: Turing machines.Turing Machines Back to Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • • • Definition of Turing Machine Configuration Operation of Turing Machine Contents Introduction We have studied two types of languages from the Chomsky hierarchy: regular languages and context-free languages. Next -. the phrase structure languages (also called Type 0 languages). Turing machines were conceived of by the English mathematician Alan . In this chapter we are going to study the most general of the languages in Chomsky hierarchy. Click True or Fals . then Submit. of limited capability and there are many languages that they can not process.Test Your Understanding of Contect-Free Language Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. They are. These languages can describe many practically important systems and so they are heavily used in practice.

It is also divided into squares and a symbol can be written in each square. its head is a read-write head and it can move left. We are going to study Turing machines here and through that limitations of computers and computation as we know today. like finite automata. At any time it is in one of the finite number of states. either erases it or replaces it with a symbol (possibly the same symbol). The tape has the left end but it extends infinitely to the right. However.Turing as a model of human "computation". It then moves the head to left or right or does not move it and goes to the next state which may be the same as the current state. a Turing machine starts at the initial state. right or stay at the same square after a read or write. Later Alonzo Church conjectured that any computation done by humans or computers can be carried out by some Turing machine. Computers we use today are as powerful as Turing machines except that computers have finite memory while Turing machines have infinite memory. it stops its operation. At any state it reads the symbol under the head. Given a string of symbols on the tape. unlike finite automata. This conjecture is known as Church's thesis and today it is generally accepted as true. . Definition Conceptually a Turing machine. One of its states is the halt state and when the Turing machine goes into the halt state. consists of a finite control and a tape.

q0 is the initial state. X ) = ( r. R ) (h. The symbol h is used to denote the halt state. left and do not move it. the symbol X currently being read is changed to Y and the tape head is moved as directed by D. D ) . R ) ( q2 . The states are represented by vertices and for a transition ( q. S}. = { a . = { a . State (q) Input (X) Move ( q0 q1 q2 q3 q3 a b a (q. which is assumed not to contain the symbol h. X) ) ( q1 . R ) ( q3 . q1. > . . R ) ( q3 . where Q is a finite set of states. b } and is as given by the table below. q2. L or S . is a finite set of symbols containing as its subset and it is the set of tape symbols. Here denotes the blank and R. . q0. is the transition function but its value may not be defined for certain points. It is a mapping from Q ( { } ) to ( Q { h } ) ( { }) {R. . respectively. . It is assumed that the tape has at the left end and the head is initially at the left end of the tape. D ) indicating that the state is changed from q to r. Example 1 : The following Turing machine < Q1 . an arc from q to r is drawn with label ( X/Y .S) A transition diagram of this Turing machine is given below. Y. is a finite set of symbols and it is the input alphabet. > accepts the language aba* . where D represents R. b .L. . . b } . where Q1 = { q0.Formally a Turing machine is a 5-tuple T = < Q. q0 . q3 } . . a . a . L and S denote move the head right. A transition diagram can also be drawn for a Turing machine.

aababb ) shows that the Turing machine is currently in state q. yaz ) for some symbol a { } and some strings y and z in ( * { } ) . . A configuration for a Turing machine is an ordered pair of the current state and the tape contents with the symbol currently under the head marked with underscore. aba ) (h. q0 . the taper contents are the string aababb and the head is reading the last a of the string. aba ) ( q3 .Turing Machine that accepts aba* To describe the operation of Turing machine we use configuration. aba ) . zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in zero or more moves. and ( p . xay ) ( q . > if x ) * ( h. zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in one move. A string x is said to be accepted by a Turing machine* T = < Q . We write ( p . xay ) * ( q . If the Turing machine needs to be explicitly indicated T or T* is used. A Turing machine T is said to decide a language L if and only if T writes "yes" and halts if a string is in L and T writes "no" and halts if a string is not in L. For example ( q . . ( q0 . Note that the Turing machine does not stop if a string is not in the language. aba ) ( q2 . aba ) ( q1 . The set of strings accepted by a Turing machine is the language accepted by the Turing machine. For example the Turing machine of Example 1 above goes through the following sequence of configurations to accept the string aba: ( q0 . In this case we also say that the Turing machine halts on input x.

The first of the following figures shows a Turing machine that accepts but does not decide the language { a }. the second is a Turing machine that accepts { a } but goes into a loop if a string is not in the language (hence it accepts but doe not decide { a }) and the third decides { a }. where = { a }. .

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.Example 2 : The following Turing machine moves the head to the first the current position. It is assumed that initially the tape has at the left end. This Turing machine is denoted by TE. It is denoted by TR . to the right of Example 3 : The following Turing machine erases the string on the tape and moves the head to the left end.

In cases (2) and (3). but it goes into an infinite loop for any strings that are not in the language. For example the following Turing machine accepts the language a+. . the operation of the Turing machine is aborted.Strings not Accepted by Turing Machines When a string is not accepted by a Turing machine. one of the following three things happens: (1) The Turing machine goes into an infinite loop. that is when a Turing machine does not halt on a string. (2) no transition is specified for the current configuration and (3) the head is at the left end and it is instructed to move left.

A Turing machine thus may accept a string and halt.Turing machine accepting a+ Computabler Function Let S * and let f be a function f : S -> S. there are two halt states: "accept halt" and "reject halt". x) * ( h. That is. the Turing machine eventually goes into the accept halt state. reject a string and halt. . a string is accepted by a Turing machine if given the string. As far as the material discussed in this class note. in the Turing machines those books define. A language is a phrase structure (type 0) langauage if and only if it is Turing-acceptable in either sense and it has no effects on decidablility. * Note on "Turing-acceptable": Some books define "acceptance by Turing machine" slightly differently. there is no difference between these two definitions of "accept". f(x) ) * . With this definition. * and for every x that is not in S. or loop. Then we say T computes f or f is computable if for every x ( q0 . T does not halt on x.

Click True or Fals .Test Your Understanding of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. We have already seen TR . Let us start with some basic Turing machines. then Submit.Combination of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Combination of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Combination of Turing Machines Contents Combination of Turing Machines We have seen the definition of Turing machine and a few simple examples. Here we are going to study how complex Turing machines can be constructed using simple Turing machines and how computers can be simulated by Turing machines. Next -. any "computation" done by human beings or machines can be done by some Turing machine. In fact Turing machines that simulate computers and Turing machines that perform computations done by any algorithm can be constructed. One can construct many more Turing machines that perform various functions. There are two sets of questions. Furthermore according to the Church's thesis. It moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) .

Similarly by TL we denote a Turing machine that moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) to the left of the current position. Below is assumed to be at the left end of the tape initially. Then if T1 halts and if the symbol currently under the head is .to the right of the current position. Otherwise it crashes. To combine Turing machines we use the following conventions: Let T1 and T2 represent arbitrary Turing machines. takes the head to the right end of the string and halts. Also by TR and TL we denote Turing machines that move the head to right and left one position. let us construct a little more complex Turing machines. then T2 is started as in the case of T1T2 . T1T2 and T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that behaves initially like T1 and when T1 halts T2 takes over inheriting the head position and the tape contents of T1 . Then by T we denote a Turing machine that writes symbol at the current position and does not move the head (stays). T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that first executes T1. . respectively. Using these basic machines and the convention. The halt state of T1 becomes the initial state of T2 . Example 4: The following machine shifts the tape contents to the left one position.

To add two numbers m and n. First. that is ( q0 .For example with the initial tape contents of sequence of tape contents and ends with ab ab -> ab : ab . An adder can be constructed for example as TR -> TSL TL . In general to represent a natural number k. II III ) . natural numbers are represented on a Turing machine using symbol I. IIIII ) . x) * b b (h. x x). For example the number 3 is represented by three consecutive I's on the tape and 5 by five I's. After adding two numbers placed on the tape it moves the head to the left end and halts. m I's and n I's with a blank between them are placed on the tape. it goes through the following -> aab -> a -> a -> abb -> ab -> ab -> ab Example 5: The left-shift machine of Example 4 can be used to construct an adder for natural numbers. . After the addition the configuration becomes ( h . k consecutive I's are put on the tape. Example 6: The following Turing machine copies the tape contents at the left end to their right separated by a blank . So the initial configuration for adding 2 and 3 is ( q0 .

one can say that computers can be simulated by Turing machines. The following notations are used in the questions: . All the other operations can be realized by using those basic operations.Today's computers are very complex machines and their instruction sets contain complicated operations. A bare minimum instruction set would contain addition. there is a Turing machine that performs addition. and store and load operations can be taken care of by a Turing machine that copies tape contents. all of those instructions can be realized using combinations of a small number of basic instructions. Since any complex computer instructions can be realized using those basic instructions. However. it is not difficult to construct a Turing machine that performs subtraction using the same representation of numbers as for the addition. the branch operation is already in Turing machines because next configurations are determined based on the current state and tape symbol being looked at. In fact many of the earlier computers had a much smaller instruction set but still could do everything today's computers can do albeit much more slowly. then Submit. Thus by combining appropriate Turing machines a computer with a minimal instruction set can be constructed. Test Your Understanding of Combination of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. On the other hand as we have seen above. store and load operations. branching. Click True or Fals . Furthermore if the subtraction operation is necessary.

It turns out that computationally all these Turing machines are equally powerful.T_a : Ta T_R : TR ->^b : ->b Next -.Types of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Types of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Variation of Turing Machine Contents There are a number of other types of Turing machines in addition to the one we have seen such as Turing machines with multiple tapes. may vary. The tape has the top end and the left end but extends indefinitely to the right and down. That is. one read-write head and one two dimensional tape. Turing Machines with Two Dimensional Tapes This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control. that is. However. how fast they can compute. It is divided into rows of small squares. To simulate a two dimensional tape with a one dimensional tape. For any Turing machine of this type there is a Turing machine with a one dimensional tape that is equally powerful. ones having one tape but with multiple heads. nondeterministic Turing machines etc. what one type can compute any other can also compute. the former can be simulated by the latter. first we map the squares of the two dimensional tape to those of the one dimensional tape diagonally as shown in . ones with two dimensional tapes. the efficiency of computation. that is.

. .. . .. For example. .. . Here the numbers indicate the correspondence of squares in the two tapes: square i of the two dimensional tape is mapped to square i of the one dimensional tape.< . If i = 5 and the head moves down on the other hand.. v 16 26 . Let k be the number of squares visited by the head of the one dimensional tape. . then on the one dimensional tape the head moves to the right and it hits v first. If v was hit first........ . the head moves from position 8 to right. That is the square corresponding to the square below i in the two dimensional tape.. h and v are symbols which are not in the tape alphabet and they are used to mark the left and the top end of the tape.. . Thus from h.. .. .. .> . .. then for the one dimensional tape. Let i be the head position of the two dimensional tape. v 7 14 18 24 . That is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 13 on the two dimensional tape... which is the second square from i = 5. . left or right.. . .... .. .... .. which is the third square from 8. The head of a two dimensional tape moves one square up. . v 6 8 13 19 23 . Thus this time the third square is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 9 on the two dimensional tape.. then move the head of the one dimensional tape to right until it hits h or v counting the number of squares it has visited after i.. Let us simulate this head move with a one dimensional tape. .... . . then from h move the head of the one dimensional tape further right to the k-th square from h. move 3 positions to the right.. then (k+1)-th square to the right from v is the new head position. If h was hit first. . v 15 17 25 . .. ...the following tables: Two Dimensional Tape v v h 1 h 3 h 4 h 10 h 11 h 21 ..... Then it meets h first.. ... v 2 5 9 12 20 22 .... ... ... One Dimensional Tape v 1 v 2 3 h 4 5 6 v 7 8 9 10 h 11 . respectively.. ... ..... suppose that the head position is at 8 for the two dimensional tape in the above table. .. . If the head moves down from i. down. ... that is i = 8... If the head moves down to position 13..

It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . right or left on the two dimensional tape. Turing Machines with Multiple Heads : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape but more than one read-write heads. Since Turing machines with a two dimensional tape obviously can simulate Turing machines with a one dimensional tape. > .S It can be easily seen that this type of Turing machines are as powerful as one tape Turing machines. one can say that one tape Turing machines are as powerful as n-tape Turing machines. In each state only one of the heads is allowed to read and write. L . . Hn denote the tape heads. H2 . A configuration for this kind of Turing machine must show the current state the machine is in and the state of each tape. The transition function is a partial function : Q { H1 .Similarly formulas can be found for the head position on the one dimensional tape corresponding to move up.L. where H1 . Nondeterministic Turing Machines . It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . q0. . Hn } ( { } ) -> ( Q }... . . . Turing Machines with Multiple Tapes : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and more than one tapes each with its own read-write head. Its transition function is a partial function :Q ( { } )n -> ( Q { h } ) ( { } )n { R .. Thus some Turing machines with a one dimensional tape can simulate every move of a Turing machine with one two dimensional tape. H2 . Details are omitted. {h}) ( { } {R.. Hence they are at least as powerful as Turing machines with a two dimensional tape. >. It can be proven that any language accepted by an n-tape Turing machine can be accepted by a one tape Turing machine and that any function computed by an n-tape Turing machine can be computed by a one tape Turing machine. S } n . Turing Machines with Infinite Tape : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape which extends infinitely in both directions. Since the converses are obviously true. it can be said that they are equally powerful. It turns out that this type of Turing machines are only as powerful as one tape Turing machines whose tape has a left end. q0. .

In general for each vertex of level i all possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN are its children. Then it would compare the first half of x with the second half by comparing the i-th symbol of the first half with the i-th symbol of the second half for i = 1. . It can be shown that a nondeterministic Turing machine is only as powerful as a deterministic Turing machine. The root of the tree is the initial configuration and it is the only vertex of level 0. that is the place where the second half of x starts. It must find the midpoint by for example pairing off symbols from either end of x. goes into an infinite loop or aborts. 2. . All possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN once form the children of the initial configuration. At any point in the process TN is in some configuration and has a finite set of configurations to choose from for its next configuration. like nondeterministic finite automata. A deterministic Turing machine. Note that the number of children for a vertex in this tree is finite because the number of states is finite and there are a finite number of tape symbols. Formally a nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine whose transition function takes values that are subsets of ( Q {h}) ( { } {R. can not guess the midpoint of the string x.L. Given a string x. can take any action selecting from a set of specified actions rather than taking one definite predetermined action. on the other hand. a nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts this language L would first guess the midpoint of x. The children of all the vertices of level i form level i+1.A nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine which.. Proof : Let TN denote a nondeterministic Turing machine. For example consider the following nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts a+ . As in the case of NFA. at any state it is in and for the tape symbol it is reading. TN starts at the initial configuration and goes through a sequence of configurations until it reaches a halt configuration . tape symbol and head movement out of the set of triples without following any specific predetermined rule. ..S}. it is understood that a nondeterministic Turing machine at any configuration selects one combination of next state. Given a string x . moving the tape head and going to a next state. Here an action means the combination of writing a symbol on the tape. Theorem Any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by some deterministic Turing machine. Even in the same situation it may take different actions at different times. They form level 1. The set of all possible computations that TN can perform for a given string x can be represented by a rooted tree as follows. b }* } . For example let us consider the language L = { ww : w { a .

At the second and third configurations in the above sequence. aa ) and ( q2 . and ( q1 . aa ) ( h .Turing machine accepting a+ Given the string aa. aa ) for the second. it would proceed as follows to accept it: ( q0 . The tree for this case would be as follows: . aa ) ( q2 . aa ) ( q1 . aa ) ( q1 . aa ) . it has two candidates for the next configuration: ( q1 . aa ) for the third. aa ) and ( q2 .

These children are the configurations of the next level and they are stored on the tape (if necessary a second tape may be used). then Submit. However.Unsolvable Problems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Unsolvable Problems . is to traverse this tree breadth-first way from the root until the halt state is reached. It can be easily seen that T2 accepts a string if and only if T1 accepts it. Many other variations of Turing machine are possible. T2 applies the transition function of T1 to each configuration at that level and computes its children. with a deterministic one. If there is the halting state among these children. then T2 accepts the string and halts. Next -. though a deterministic Turing machine might take much more time than a nondeterministic Turing machine to accept a string. Click True or Fals . Thus any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by a deterministic Turing machine. call it T1. In fact the Church's thesis conjectures that any so called computation done by humans or computers can be performed by a basic deterministic Turing machine. Test Your Understanding of Different Types of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. call it T2. it has been shown that none of them exceed the capability of basic deterministic Turing machine as far as accepting languages is concerned. At each level of the tree.One way to simulate a nondeterministic Turing machine.

Below we are going to see some well known unsolvable problems and see why we can say they are unsolvable. L. that is computationally they are equally powerful. T writes "yes" if M halts on w and "no" if M does not halt on w. Minsky): This is going to be proven by "proof by contradiction". Theorem 1 : The halting problem is undecidable. So we are going to look at the unsolvability in terms of language recognition. there is no way of telling whether it is in an infinite loop or along the way to a solution and it needs more time. Halting Problem One of well known unsolvable problems is the halting problem. In this chapter we are going to learn that there are problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers. First recall that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language (see Problem Solving as Language Recognition). and that any of their variations do not exceed the computational power of deterministic Turing machines. Suppose that a language is acceptable but not decidable. does M halt when it is given w as an input ? It can be shown that the halting problem is not decidable. Then there is a Turing machine T that solves the halting problem. b } . It is also conjectured that any "computation" human beings perform can be done by Turing machines (Church's thesis). Suppose that the halting problem is decidable. Since we can not wait forever for an answer. Proof (by M. Here "unsolvability" is in the following sense. and then T halts. . if the Turing machine is running.Subjects to be Learned • • • Halting Problem Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents We have learned that deterministic Turing machines are capable of doing any computation that computers can do. the question of whether or not a string is in the language may not be answered in any finite amount of time. and an arbitrary string w over . That is. given a description of a Turing machine M (over the alphabet ) and a string w. Thus if a language is not decidable. At any point in time. It asks the following question: Given an arbitrary Turing machine M over alphabet = { a . hence unsolvable. Then given a string a Turing machine that accept the language starts the computation. the question is unanswerable that is the problem is unsolvable.

. where * is a symbol that separates the two copies of d(M) and then supplies d(M)*d(M) to the Turing machine Tm . denoted by d(M). then Tm goes into an infinite loop (Tm halts if the original T rejects a string and halts).We are now going to construct the following new Turing machine Tc. copies it to obtain the string d(M)*d(M). Next using Tm we are going to construct another Turing machine Tc as follows: Tc takes as input a description of a Turing machine M. First we construct a Turing machine Tm by modifying T so that if T accepts a string and halts.

Hence that assumption must be wrong. Thus Tc goes into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and it halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). it makes a copy. When Tc gets the input d(Tc) . The way T was modified the modified T is going to go into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc).Let us now see what Tc does when a string describing Tc itself is given to it. This contradiction has been deduced from our assumption that there is a Turing machine that solves the halting problem. Hence there is no Turing machine that solves the halting problem. This is a contradiction. constructs the string d(Tc)*d(Tc) and gives it to the modified T. Thus the modified T is given a description of Turing machine Tc and the string d(Tc). Thus the question of whether or not a program halts for a given input is nothing but the halting problem. Program correctness and Halting Problem Note that for any computer program a Turing machine can be constructed that performs the task of the program. . Thus one implication of the halting problem is that there can be no computer programs (Turing machines) that check whether or not any arbitrary computer program stops for a given input.

then Submit. Language NonSelfAccepting Let us first define two languages NSA1 and NSA2 as follows: .More Unsolvable Preoblems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines More Unsolvable Problems Subjects to be Learned • • Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents The next unsolvable problem is in a sense more difficult than the halting problem. Click True or Fals . Next -.Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. It is presented as a language and it can be shown that there are no Turing machines that accept the language.

w0 is in NSA1 . Neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. Hence it is in SelfAccepting . Hence a is in NSA2 . where d(T) is a description of the Turing machine T. (2) If T0 does not accept w0 . w = d(T) for a Turing machine T and T does not accept NSA2 = { w | w { a. Then there is no Turing machine that can be described by the string a. It . Thus neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty.NSA1 = { w | w w} { a. For NSA2. that accepts NonSelfAccepting. either w0 is in NonSelfAccepting or it isn't. which is absurd. Since NonSelfAccepting is a language. Also T0 does not accept w0 . Hence either T0 accepts w0 or rejects it. Then this w is a description of a Turing machine but it must be longer than one symbol. b }*. This means that there can not be any Turing machine that accepts the language NonSelfAccepting. Suppose there is a Turing machine. NSA2 is the set of strings that do not describe any Turing machine. Theorem 2 There are no Turing machines that accept the language NonSelfAccepting. Hence by the definition of NSA1 . We are going to see that T0 neither accepts w0 nor rejects it. Hence it is not accepted by T. Proof: This is going to be proven by contradiction. Let w0 = d( T0 ). w0 is in neither NSA1 nor NSA2 . w d(T) for any Turing machine T } . call it T0. Knowing the unsolvability of the halting problem some other problems can be shown to be unsolvable. However. then w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. This is a contradiction. Hence w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting . b }*. Problem Accepts( ) The problem Accepts( ) asks whetehr or not a given Turing machine T accepts . then w0 NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. (1) If T0 accepts w0. that is w0 is a description of the Turing machine T0 . For let T be a Turing machine that accepts { a } and let w = d(T). NSA1 is the set of strings that describe a Turing machine but that are not accepted by the Turing machine they describe. Hence T0 can not accept w0 . Certainly more symbols than a single a are needed to describe even the simplest Turing machine. Hence w is in NSA1 . Let us define the language NonSelfAccepting as NonSelfAccepting = NSA1 Then we can prove the following theorem: NSA2 . Thus there can not be Turing machine T0 that accepts the language SelfAccepting . This is again a contradiction. But w0 = d( T0 ) because that is how we selected w0 . let w = a. by the definitions of NSA1 and NSA2.

We are going to show that Accepts( ) can be solved using the solution to it. which is an instance of the halting problem. Then M halts on d(T') and w if and only if T' halts on w. the halting problem can be solved. We are going to show that the halting problem becomes solvable using this A. Let A be a Turing machine that solves AcceptsEverything. Using a similar idea the following problem can also be shown to be unsolvable. Then consider the Turing machine T = TeraseT' . Let a Turing machine T' and a string w be an instance of the halting problem. Let T' be an instance of Accepts( ). Let A be a Turing machine that solves Accepts( ). this means that Accepts( ) is unsolvable. M solves the halting problem. Using this T. that solves Accepts( ) can be constructed as . that solves the halting problem can be constructed as follows: Given a description d(T') of a Turing machine T' and a string w as inputs. Using this T. a Turing machine.can be shown to be unsolvable. That is. Suppose that AcceptsEverything is solvable. where machine Tw is a Turing machine that writes w. Problem AcceptsEverything The problem AcceptsEverything asks whether or not a given Turing machine T halts on every string over a given alphabet . This T halts on if and only if T' halts on w. Consider a Turing machine T = TwT'. call it M. M writes the string d( T ) on the tape and let A take over. This T halts on every string over if and only if T1 halts on . where Terase is a Turing machine that erases the input on the tape and halts. call it M. Suppose that Accepts( ) is solvable. Thus if Accepts( ) is solvable. Then there is a Turing machine that solves it. Since the halting problem is unsolvable. a Turing machine.

Equivalence This problem asks whether or not two Turing machines accept the same language. it means that AcceptsEverything is unsolvable.shown below. It can be shown to be unsolvable using AcceptsEverything. AcceptsNothing This problem asks whether or not a Turing machine accepts nothing. Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) = ? finite ? infinite ? context-free ? Is L( G1 ) = L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) = * ? Is the complement of L( G1 ) context-free ? . Then the following problems are all unsolvable. By similar arguments the following problems can be shown to be unsolvable. It can be shown to be unsolvable using Accepts( ) . Since Accepts( ) is unsolvable. Other Unsolvable Problems Let G1 and G2 be context-free grammars and let L(G) denote the language generated by grammar G.

Next -. A problem is solvable if some Turing . Click True or Fals . then Submit.Time Complexity of Problem Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Complexity Time Complexity Subjects to be Learned • • • • • Time Complexity of Problems Decision Tree Class NP Polynomial Time Transformation NP-Complete Problems Contents In the previous sections we have learned that some problems are unsolvable by Turing machines hence by computers.Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. No one can write computer programs that solve those problems and halt after a finite amount of time.

after(A. This is a propositional logic with an extra construct (proposition) after(A. O(f(x)) (big-oh) and other related subjects click here. a quick sort needs O(n2) time. where k is a natural number. . The satisfiability problem becomes even harder when logic becomes more complex. a heap sort needs O(n lg n) time. or etc.g. For many problems a day or even an hour would be too long. For example "after( if P then Q else ~Q. Q )" . Let us see some of those intractable problems. it is as good (or bad) as unsolvable. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved by algorithms with the worst case time which is a polynomial in the problem size (polynomial time algorithms). For example. So it is not satisfiable. In this section we are going to study solvable problems and learn a hierarchy of solvable problems based on the computation time required to solve them. There are also problems that must be solved at best by exponential time algorithms in the worst case. as well as all the connectives such as and. second order logic. where P and Q are propositions. ~Q )" and "if P then after( if P then Q else ~Q. However. For example the satisfiability problem for Presburger arithmetic is double-exponential (2-fold exponentail). it is still solvable. that is it requires at least O( aan ) time to solve in the worst case. are propositions of PDL. The problems that can not be solved with any polynomial time algorithm are called intractable problems .machine can solve it in finite time. They are all polynomial time algorithms. variables taking positive integers as their values. For more detailed review of this. then Y Z [ X = Y + Z ] ] is a proposition of Presburger arithmetic. 22n ) time algorithms. as we are going to see below. They are both satisfiable. The satisfiability problem for PDL is known to take at least exponential time to solve in the worst case. the addition operation +. It is estimated by counting the largest possible number of key operations to be performed in terms of the input size. The measure for computation time we use is the worst case time. where A is an algorithm and S is a statement. So it is certainly satisfiable. One can ask the same question for formulas of first order predicate logic. S) says that S is true after executing A. This is the problem of asking whether or not a given formula can take the value true for some values of its variables. Before proceeding to predicate logic let us consider the following logic called propositional dynamic logic (PDL for short). S). For example. the equality symbol = and quantifiers and . Then there are problems that require double exponential ( e. Even if it takes a million years to solve a problem. Similarly ( P V Q ) is also satisfiable. But (P ^ ~P ) is always false. For example the formula ( P V ~P ) is always true. in practice if it takes a million years. They take much more time to execute than polynomial time algorithms. X [ if ~( X = 1 ). the satisfiability problem for the propositional dynamic logic is proven to take exponential time to solve in the worst case. problems that need k-exponential time algorithms. etc. Presburger arithmetic is a logic that allows statements involving positive integers. For example a binary search takes O(lg n) time. and there are problems that require algorithms with the worst case time worse than k-exponential time for any natural number k. where P is a propositional variable. etc. In logic there is a well known problem of "satisfiability".

sets of integers and the predicate "belongs to" (an element X belongs to a set S) are allowed. Some of these decision problems are NP-complete problems.In Presburger arithmetic (minus addition operation). "Is a string w in the language a*b ? ". if. This problem belongs to a peculiar class of problems called NP-Complete problems. For the problems of this class there are no known polynomial time algorithms for solving them nor are they known to be unsolvable with polynomial time algorithms. Consider the problem of coloring vertices of a graph with a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned. Such a problem (having no K-fold exponential time algorithms) is called nonelementary. Now let us go back to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. At the moment. there are no K-fold exponential time algorithms to solve it for any number K. the logic is called WS1S (Weak Second-order theory of 1 Successor). Below we are going to characterize this class of problems. "Is it possible to schedule committee meetings without conflicts into a given number of time slots ? " . there are problems that are solved by answering with yes or no. These problems are called decision problems. the consensus is that they ca not be solved with polynomial time algorithms. is it possible to color its vertices with three or less colors ? . For example. however. Let us here review nondeterministic Turing machines. Let us try to solve the following instances of this graph coloring problem: Given the following graph. " Is it possible to assign colors to vertices of a given graph using a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned ? " etc. For the satisfiability problem of WS1S. First. This problem is called "Graph Coloring" problem or more precisely "Vertex Color" problem. in addition.

For the graphs of (a) and (b), you could find a solution very easily by inspection. You could see a right coloring as soon as you saw the graphs. However, you can most likely not tell how you arrived at your solutions. You probably don't have any algorithms you could use to solve them. You could somehow see the solutions. This is basically the idea of nondeterministic (Turing) machine. There is no fixed procedure which you can use repeatedly to solve instance after instance of this problem. But you can somehow solve them. Let us move on to a slightly more complex example of (c). For this graph to find a right coloring you could start with vertex 1 and assign color a. Then move on to vertex 2 and assign color b(it has to be something other than a ). Then go to vertex 3 and assign a third color, say c. Then at vertex 4 select color b and for vertex 5 use color a. In this process we make a decision as to what color to use for each vertex and when a decision is made for all the vertices we have a solution to the problem. This process applies to any decision problem. That is to solve a decision problem a number of smaller decisions are made one after another and as a result a solution to the problem is obtained. This process can be represented by a tree called decision tree. For example, for the graph coloring problem let us first decide on the order of vertices we color in, say 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for the graph of (c) above. Then the root of its decision tree corresponds to the vertex we assign a color to first (vertex 1 in this example). Then for each possible color for the first vertex, a child is created for the first vertex of the tree. So the second level of the

decision tree corresponds to the second vertex to be colored. Then in general, for each possible color for each vertex of level i of the decision tree, a child is created. Those children form level i+1 of the decision tree. The decision tree for the graph of (c) is given below. Since any color can be assigned to vertex 1 without loss of generality, it has just one child in the actual decision tree. Also since in this case the i-th and (i+1)-th vertices are connected by an edge for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, they can not have the same color. So each vertex after vertex 1 has two colors to choose from. So they each have two children in the decision tree.

Thus during the process of solving the problem a decision is made at each level and when all levels are covered, the problem is solved. A path from the root to a leaf corresponds to a coloring of the vertices of the given graph. A decision tree, however, does not tell us how to make decisions. Also a decision tree does not tell how to order the vertices for coloring, that is which vertex to color first, second etc. A deterministic machine (or algorithm) has a specific fixed set of rules for making a decision at each level of the decision tree. Although it knows what to do at every stage of problem solving, the decisions it makes are not necessarily the right ones. When it makes wrong decisions, it must retract earlier decisions and try different paths, which is called backtracking. For the graph coloring problem a deterministic algorithm might first order the vertices of the graph in decreasing order of their degree and also order colors. Then, following the

order of the vertices, assign to each vertex the highest order color available for the vertex. Since that kind of algorithm is not guaranteed to use the minimum number of colors, it may produce a wrong answer unless there is some provision for backtracking. A nondeterministic (Turing) machine, on the other hand, is a fictitious machine and somehow knows which branch (child) to select at each step. It always makes a right selection. A decision problem is said to belong to class NP if each vertex in its decision tree has a finite number of children and if it can be solved by a nondeterministic (Turing) machine in polynomial time. The graph coloring problem is in class NP, so are the satisfiability problem for propositional logic and most of the scheduling problems just to name a few. Also there are other characterizations of class NP. Interested readers click here. At this moment it is not known whether or not problems in class NP can be solved with a polynomial time algorithm in the worst case. The consensus is that there is no polynomial time algorithm to solve them. It would take at least exponential time. Among the problems in class NP, there are problems which all problems of class NP can be transformed to in polynomial time. Those problems are called NP-complete problems. If a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of the NP-complete problems, all the problems in NP can be solved in polynomial time. Below we are going to study NPcomplete problems. We start our discussion with the concept of polynomial time transformation (reduction). Basically we say a decision problem Q1 is polynomially reducible to a decision problem Q2 if and only if there is a transformation that transforms any arbitrary instance of Q1 into an instance of Q2 in polynomial time such that the answer to Q1 is yes if and only if the answer to Q2 is yes. A little more formally we define this in terms of languages. Note that a decision problem can be viewed as a language of its instances and that solving it can be considered as recognizing the language as we have seen earlier. Let L1 and L2 be languages over alphabets 1 and 2, respectively. We say that L1 is polynomial-time reducible to L2 if and only if there is a function f from 1* to 2* such that for any string x in polynomial time.

1 *

,x

L1 if and only if f(x)

L2 and f can be computed

For example let us consider the following two problems: graph coloring and scheduling of committee meetings. The graph coloring problem is as given above. In the scheduling of committee meetings problem, committees with their members and a positive integer k are given. The problem is whether or not the meetings of the committees can be scheduled in k or less time slots so that everyone can attend one's meetings. Note that some people may be in more than one committee. Let us try to show that this scheduling problem is polynomial time reducible to the graph coloring problem.

2. 2.What we need to do is given an instance of the scheduling problem construct an instance of the graph coloring problem. and if and only if two committee have some members in common. respectively. Similarly since committees 1 and 3. and 1 and 4. 3 and 4. b }. d }. Proceeding similarly the following graph is obtained corresponding to the committee memberships. Then the committees can be grouped into p groups so that the committees in the same group can meet at the same time. Then since committees 1 and 2 share a. Suppose also that k = 3. Thus the scheduling problem asks whether or not the meetings of the given committees can be scheduled in 3 time slots without any conflicts. 3 and 4 with the memberships { a. For example suppose that we are given the committees 1. Suppose that the meetings can be scheduled in p time slots. an edge is inserted between vertices 1 and 2. and 1 and 4 share members. c }. that is construct a graph and give the number of colors to be used to color its vertices so that the meetings can be scheduled if and only if graph can be colored. c. Let us consider the following transformation: For each committee add a vertex to the graph. Then the meetings can be scheduled in k or less time slots if and only if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. where p k. connect with an edge the vertices corresponding to the committees. edges are added between 1 and 3. Corresponding to this grouping assign colors to the vertices of the graph so that the vertices in the same group are given the same color and those in . { b. d } and { a. 2. add vertices 1. {a. The corresponding graph for the graph coloring problem can be constructed as follows: Corresponding to the committees 1. 3 and 4 to the graph.

Committee Meeting Schedule Problem In fact most scheduling problems are NPcomplete. and vertices connected with an edge have different colors. Satisfiability Problem for Propositional Logic 2. 6. As a consequence if a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of those problems.different groups are given different colors. If a problem is NP-complete. . We are now ready to discuss NP-completeness. 7. can be done in time polynomial in the size of the problem. Subgraph Isomorphism Problem Given two graphs. that is the construction of graph for a given set of committees. Some of them are listed below. then the consensus today is that it is most likely that no polynomial time algorithms i. Bin Packing Problem Given a set of objects. Thus these two vertices must get different colors. 4. It is also easily seen that the transformation. 5. Partition Problem Given a set of integers.e. find out whether or not one is a subgraph of the other. Formally a problem is NP-hard if every problem in class NP can be polynomial time reducible to it. Subsequently the satisfiability problem was found to be polynomial time reducible to many other problems. Traveling Salesman Problem Given cities and traveling times between cities. find out whether or not the objects can be put into the bins. Today hundreds of problems are known to be NP-complete. a traveling salesman wants to know a shortest route to visit all cities exactly once and come back to where he/she started. A problem is NP-complete if it is in class NP and NP-hard. This group of problems are called NP-complete problems. Cook that the problems of class NP can be polynomial time reducible to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. group them into two groups so that the sum of the numbers of one group is equal to that of the other group. Conversely if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. their sizes and a number of bins of the same size. This coloring uses p colors which does not exceed k. all the problems can be solved with polynomial time algorithms. Graph Color Problem 3. then that means that the corresponding committees share some members and that they are scheduled to meet in different time slots. then it can be easily seen that the committees can meet in k or less time slots. For all the problems in class NP can be reduced to P through the known NP-complete problem in polynomial time. which in this case can be taken as the number of committees. fast algorithms exist to solve it. then P is also NP-complete. NP-complete Problems 1. It was first proven by S. For if any two vertices are connected with an edge. It can be easily seen that if a problem P at hand is NP-hard and if a problem known to be NP-complete can be polynomial time reducible to P.

a. their sizes. B and C of the same size.x).y). Is there a subset T.(2.b}.x)} is not a matching.y)}.b.a. is it possible to select objects so that the sum of their sizes does not exceed S and the sum of their values is V or larger ? 10. and C = {x.2}. (2. and C appears exactly once in T ? For example.x). 3-Dimensional Matching Given three sets A. a set of objects.8. called a matching. .(1. B = {a. B.y). and a subset S of the Cartesian product A X B X C. let A = {1. of S such that every element of A.x)} is a desired set satisfying all the requirements.a.x). (2.b. Knapsack Problem Given a knapsack of size S.b. (2.y}. 9. Then T = {(1.b. and S = {(1. their values and an integer V. a collection of subsets of S and an integer k. find out whether or not there are k or less subsets in the collection whose union is S. Note that {(1. Set Cover Problem Given a set S.b.