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Language, Automata: , \alpha : usually denotes a string in this course. , \beta : usually denotes a string in this course. , \delta : usually denotes a transition function in this course. , \sigma : usually denotes a symbol in an alphabet in this course. , \Delta : usually denotes a blank space in this course. , \Gamma : usually denotes a set of stack symbols in this course. , \Lambda : usually denotes an empty string in this course. , \Pi : usually denotes a partition in this course. , \Sigma : usually denotes an alphabet in this course. , \goto : usually denotes a (one step) transition in this course. Logic: , ~ : logical not , ^ : logical and , V : logical or , -> : logical imply , <-> : logical if and only if (equivalent) , => : logical tautologically imply , <=> : logical tautologically equivalent , \A : logical for all , \E : logical for some (there exists)

Sets: , \in : belongs to , \not\in : does not belong to , @ : empty set U, : universal set , \subset : proper subset , \not\subset : not a proper subset , \subseteq : subset , \not\subseteq : not a subset , \cup : set union Ai , \cup(i=1 to n) A_i : union of n sets , \cap : set intersection Ai , \cap(i=1 to n) A_i : intersection of n sets , \bar A : complement of set A (A) , P(A) : power set of set A , X : Cartesian product Ai , X(i=1 to n) A_i : cartesian product of n sets Relation: < a, b > : ordered pair < a1, a2, ..., an > : ordered n-tuple , <= : precedes (partial order) Functions: xi , Sum(i=1 to n) x_i : sum of n xi's O(f) , O(f) : of order smaller than or equal to f

o(f) , o(f) : of order smaller than f (f) , Omega : of order greater than or equal to f (f) , omega : of order greater than f (f) , Theta : of the same order as f f(x) , lim(x -> inf) f(x) : limit of f as x goes to infinity

**Introduction to Theoretical Computer Science
**

Today computers are used everywhere: banks, hospitals, schools, airline companies, gas stations, grocery stores, in our cars, in home appliances, PCs, etc., etc. Some are used to crunch numbers, some are used to process images, some are used to process other nonnumeric data and some are used to control operations of various devices. They can reason, they can prove many mathematical theorems, they can beat chess experts in their game, they can solve some very complex problems, they can understand our languages, they can answer our questions and of course they can crunch numbers much much faster than us. Let us for a moment call what computers do computation for convenience, though some of the things computers do such as controling appliances, answering our questions etc. don't fall into our traditional sense of computation. Then these computers seem to be able to compute an awfully lot of things if not everything. But are they capable of computing anything ? Are there things computers can not do ? If there are things computers can not do, what are they ? And why ? If there aren't things computers can not do, then how can we tell ? What do we exactly mean by computation ? Unfortunately there are many things computers can not do. Computers can not solve certain types of problems. For example no computer can tell in general whether or not a given computer program stops after a finite amount of time on a given input. They can not solve some other types of problems fast enough even though they can solve them in some finite amount of time. For example take the traveling salesman problem: a salesman is given a road map with distances between cities and wants to find a shortest round trip route that visits all the cities on the map exactly once. At the moment the so called traveling salesman problem requires an extremely large amount of time to solve. No one has been able to find a reasonably fast algorithm to solve it and the consensus is that it is not likely that anyone can find such an algorithm. I have just given you an example of the problems that computers could not solve. How do we know that that is the case ? Are there other problems like that ? How can we tell whther or not a given problem can be solved and solved fast enough ?

which is the key to the unsolvability of problem by computers. which are also heavily used in practice. These two type of languages belong to a hierarchy of four languages called Homsky hierarchy. Though it has not been proven. We say finite automata recognize languages. We are going to learn their properties. More specifically they answer the question whether or not a given string belongs to a language. The languages that are recognized by finite automata are called regular languages. it can actually be solving a problem. Thus by studying Turing machines we can learn capabilities hence limitatgions of computers. This essence is a device called Turing machine. We are going to investigate limitations of computers and computations by studying the essence of compuers and computations rather than all the variations of computer and computation. Consequently they are less capable than Turing machines but then their operations are simpler. It turns out that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Thus they are a powerful tool to design and study those systems with. Thus when a finite automaton is processing strings. Finite automata process strings. every task modern computers perform can also be accomplished by Turing machines. . We call a set of strings (of symbols) a language. that is to study limitations of computers and computation. Finite automata are very similar to Turing machines but a few restrictions are imposed on them. The other two are context-free languages and context-sensitive languages. In particular we are going to see a few problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers and how we can tell that they are unsolvable. Then with Turing machines we investigate limitations of computers and computations. It is a very simple device but remarkably. we study a simpler type of computing device called finite automata. There we learn how computers can be simulated by Turing machines and what it means that a Turing machine recognizes (decides) a language. It was first conceived of by Alan Turing in early 20-th century. we are also going to study regular languages in detail as well as finite automata. it is generally believed (Church's thesis) that any "computation" humans do can be done by Turing machines and that "computation" is the computation performed by Turing machines. After briefly studying context-free languges. The languages Turing machines recognize are called Type 0 (or phrase structure) languages (regular languages are Type 3) and they are more complex than regular languages. In addition finite automata can model a large number of systems used in practice. Turing machines also recognize languages. Those four languages are together called formal languages. ways to describe them and how to use them to model many of the real life systems.The main objective of this course is to answer those questions. Since so many systems in practice can be described by regular languages. we go to Turing machines. Before proceeding to the study of Turing machines and their computations in this course. So they provide a good introduction to our study of Turing machines.

Unfortunately there is nothing we can do to speed them up. "Connective": Two or more propositions can be combined together to make compound propositions with the help of logical connectives. respectively.000 times it can handle only ten or so more larger problem sizes. true or false. 4 is a perfect square. then even if the processor speed increased 1. Increasing the processor speed does not help much for such problems. Their truth values are false and true.000 times 110 cities would already be too many. Let us start with review of mathematics. The time needed to solve such a problem increases at least exponentially with the size of the problem as long as we use Turing machines (hence computers). . Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved within a reasonable amount of time and there are problems that are known to require a finite but very large amount of time to solve. If the computation time is 2n where n is the size of the problem.Our last topic is time complexities of various problems. • • 2 is a odd number. For example for the traveling salesman problem if 100 cities were too many to solve fast enough. then with the increase in the processor speed of 1. Basic Mathematical Objects Back to Table of Contents The following are the contents of this introductory chapter. We are going to see some of those which take a large amount of time. The time complexity issues are investigated using Turing machines so that the results apply to all computers. • • • • Logic Sets Relations Functions Logic Proposition and Logical Connectives "Proposition" can be defined as a declarative statement having a specific truth-value. Example: The following statements are propositions as they have precise truth values.

2 is an odd number OR 4 is a perfect square. .Example: Above two propositions can be used to make a compound proposition using any of the logical connectives. Their truth vales are false and true respectively. Truth table for two individual propositions p and q with conjunction is given below p T T F F q T F T F p^q T F F F b. Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F pVq T T T F c. Disjunction This is logical "or" read as either true value of the individual propositions. For the first compound proposition to be true both the propositions have to be true as the connective is AND and as OR is the connective for the second one if either of the propositions is true the truth value of the compound proposition is true. Negation This is the logical "negation" and it is expressed by Truth table is given below as p for "not p". Conjunction The logical conjunction is understood in the same way as commonly used ôandö. • • 2 is an odd number AND 4 is a perfect square. The compound proposition truth-value is true iff all the constituent propositions hold true. The following are the logical connectives used commonly: a. It is represented as " ^ ".

"if not q then not p" .: p V p g.: p ^ p Logical implication and equivalence If the value of p -> q is true in every case. Conditional This is used to define as "a proposition holds true if another proposition is true" i.p T F p F T d.g. For example. Contradiction This is the opposite of tautology. Biconditional A proposition (p q) ^ (q p) can be abbreviated using biconditional conjunction as p q and is read as "if p then q. E. then p is said to logically imply q. e. which is true in every case. then q" Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F p T F T T q p -> q is also expressed in a number of different (but equivalent) ways in English. f. "q is necessary for p". which is false in every case. p q is read as "if p. Following are some of the useful identities and implications from propositional logic: Identities .e. Tautology A compound proposition. It is represented as p => q. "p is sufficient for q" .g. E. "p only if q" . If p and q have the same truth-value in every case then they are said to be logically equivalent and it is represented as p <=> q. "q is a necessity/consequence of p" and "q whenever p" are all differnt ways of saying "if p then q". and if q then p".

For more complex reasoning we need more powerful logic capable of expressing complicated propositions and reasoning. [(P Q) Q] P ----. examples and proofs of these implications go to Implications Predicate and Predicate Logic The propositional logic is not powerful enough to represent all types of assertions that are used in computer science and mathematics. [(P 3. A predicate is a template involving a verb that describes a property of objects. (P Q) ( P Q) ----. (P 3. examples and proofs of these identities go to Identities Implications 1. (P 2. and "The cover of this book is blue" come from the template "is blue" by placing an appropriate noun/noun phrase in front of it.1.implication Q) R] [P (Q R)] ----. the sentences "The car Tom is driving is blue". [(P 2.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. [(P 5. (P 4. Central to the predicate logic are the concepts of predicate and quantifier.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. The phrase "is blue" is a predicate and it describes the property of being blue. or to express certain types of relationship between propositions such as equivalence ( for more detail click here for example for example ). "The sky is blue". For example.exportation Q) ( Q P) ----. or a relationship among objects represented by the variables.contrapositive For explanations. The predicate logic is one of the extensions of propositional logic and it is fundamental to most other types of logic.modus tollens Q) (R S)] [(P R) (Q S)] Q) (Q R)] (P R) For explanations. .

For example any of "is_blue". the statemen t x > 1 to "for every object x in the universe. A predicate with variables. In general. B(x) reads as "x is blue". which is expressed as " x x > 1". for example. . which is expressed as " x x > 1. and hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. and it becomes a true statement. the statement x > 1 to "for some object x in the universe. sentences that assert an object is blue can be represented as "B(x)". There are two types of quantifiers: universal quantifier and existential quantifier. where x represents an arbitrary object. Hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. is the set of objects of interest. for example. For example. it is true or false in the universe of discourse." Again. x > 1". The universal quantifier turns. If we adopt B as the name for the predicate "is_blue". assign a value to the variable 2. x > 1 becomes 3 > 1 if 3 is assigned to x. also called universe . The universe is thus the domain of the (individual) variables. Similarly the existential quantifier turns. hence a proposition.Predicates are often given a name. This new statement is true or false in the universe of discourse. by using quantifiers on variables . a quantification is performed on formulas of predicate logic (called wff ). "Blue" or "B" can be used to represent the predicate "is blue" among others. such as x > 1 or P(x). x > 1". can be made a proposition by applying one of the following two operations to each of its variables: 1. quantify the variable using a quantifier (see below). Universe of Discourse The universe of discourse. The propositions in the predicate logic are statements on objects of a universe. called atomic formula. It can be the set of real numbers.

Sets . implications and inference rules. But it should be obvious from the context. some of which are given below. see Reasoning(with predicate logic) and Quantifiers and Connectives in Discrete Structures course. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 2. In predicate logic. one can use some additional inference rules. the set of all students in a classroom etc. Predicate logic is more powerful than propositional logic. the set of all cars on a parking lot. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] For more discussions and examples on these rules and others. [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] x [ P(x) Q(x) ] 3. Also for proof and proof techniques see Mathematical Reasoning. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 4.the set of integers. Important Inference Rules of Predicate Logic: First there is the following rule concerning the negation of quantified statement which is very useful: x P(x) x P(x) Next there is the following set of rules on quantifiers and connvectives: 1. It allows one to reason about properties and relationships of individual objects. as well as those for propositional logic such as the equivalences. The universe is often left implicit in practice.

5} Alternate way is to give the properties that characterize the elements of the set. All the elements belonging to the set are explicitly given. How to specify a Set? One way is to enumerate the elements completely. Universal Set The set U of all the elements we might ever consider in the discourse is called the universal set.3. Example: B = {x | x is a positive integer less than or equal to 5} Some sets can also be defined recursively. having a property that characterizes those elements. A is a subset of B. Subset Let A and B be two sets.4. if A is a subset of. if every element of A is an element of B.1.2. but not equal to B represented as A B.2. Also. . Example: A = {1.4} call it Z by writing Z = {x | x N | x 5} where N represents the set of natural numbers.3. Note: If A is a subset of B and B is a subset of A then A=B. A is a subset of B is represented as A B.What is a set? Set is a group of elements. It is read as "the set of natural numbers that are less than or equal to 5". Set terminology Belongs To x B means that x is an element of set B. Using this notation we can specify the set {0.

A B= ø.4.2. and B = { 6.4.9 } are disjoint.5.3.3 } . It is denoted by A B. Disjoint sets A and B are said to be disjoint if they contain no elements in common i.8} then A B = {3.2.5 } .2. then the complement of A is the set consisting of all elements of the universal set that are not in A.2.Complement If A is a set.8.5} then A B = {1.5} .5} then A .4.A = {4. It is denoted by A B. where means " is not an element of ".8} B = {3. then the difference of A from B is the set that consists of the elements of A that are not in B. Union If A and B are two sets.2} Note that in general A .2. Intersection If A and B are two sets. For A and B of the above example B .e.A . Example: If U is the set of natural numbers and A = { 1. Example: A = { 1.B B .4. Example: If A = {1.3.B = {1. Set Operations The operations that can be performed on sets are: 1.B.8}.3. then A' = { x | x U ^ x > 3}. where ø is the Empty set.3} and B = {3. then the union of A and B is the set that contains all the elements that are in A and B including the ones in both A and B. Example: If A = {1. It is denoted by A' or . 3. Difference If A and B are two sets.4. Thus A' = { x | x U ^ x A } .2.3} B = {3.5} 2.. then the intersection of A and B is the set that consists of the elements in both A and B . Example: If A = {1. It is denoted by A .

B. The Commutative laws: A B=B A A B=B A The Associative laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Distributive laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Idempotent laws: A A=A A A=A The Absorptive laws: A (A B) = A A (A B) = A The De Morgan laws: (A B)' = A' B' (A B)' = A' B' Other laws involving Complements: ( A' )' = A A A A' = ø A' = U B) B) B) B) C C (A (A C) C) Other laws involving the empty set A A ø=A ø=ø Other laws involving the Universal Set: A U=U A U=A Venn Diagrams A common technique in working with Set Operations is to illustrate them by drawing Venn Diagrams. . It is a very good tool to get a general idea.Following is a list of some standard Set Identities A. C represent arbitrary sets and ø is the empty set and U is the Universal Set.

.4 } and B = { 6.Note.4 } can be represented as shown below using Venn Diagrams: Set A U represents the Universal set in which A is one of the Set.8. The idea of Venn Diagram is to draw a region representing the universe and within that to draw the regions representing the component sets we are starting with so that the resulting diagram describes their interrelationships.2.2. because they can represent only very limited situations and miss many other possibilities.3. that Venn Diagrams must NOT be used for rigorous discussions. however. For example sets A = { 1.

Set B The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A B .

A B .

The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A U B A A B B is the set consisting of all the different elements in A and B. .

6.(A B)' is the yellow region in the Venn diagram given below.(A B) = { 5.7. 7 } B = { 2.4.5. For example: U = { 1.6.2.2.8 } .4.8 } (A B)' = U .4 } A B = { 1.3.3.3.2.8 } A = { 1.4.6.

. For example expressions we often use A holds. A2 ... which we write as Ai This generalized union of sets can be rigorously defined as follows: Definition ( Ai) : .B is the yellow shaded region and B .A is the blue shaded region in the Venn Diagram shown below Generalized Set Operations Union. To denote either of these B C. This can be generalized for the union of any finite number of sets as A1 An .A . intersection and Cartesian product of sets are associative.

. Ai = A1. The set of elements specified here is called basis of the set being defined. Inductive Clause: Ai = ( Ai) An+1 Ai and generalized Cartesian product Similarly the generalized intersection Ai can be defined. This part of the definition specifies the "seeds" of the set from which the elements of the set are generated using the methods given in the inductive clause. De Morgan's law on set union and intersection can also be generalized as follows: Theorem (Generalized De Morgan) = .Basis Clause: For n = 1 . Based on these definitions. The basis clause (or simply basis) of the definition establishes that certain objects are in the set. and = Recursive Definition Recursive Definition Subjects to be Learned • • • • • recursive/inductive definition basis clause basis inductive clause extremal clause A recursive definition of a set always consists of three distinct clauses: 1.

The Set of Natural Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . Following this definition. The basis for this set N is { 0 } .. 1. 1 + 1 (= 2) is in N.. and the new object is their child . The Set of Even Integers Basis Clause: . Example 2. Example 3.5. and x is the child of x + 1. The inductive clause (or simply induction) of the definition establishes the ways in which elements of the set can be combined to produce new elements of the set. the set of natural numbers N can be obtained as follows: First by (1). The Set of Nonnegative Even Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . can be included in N. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. and 1 is the child of 0. Let us call the objects used to create a new object the parents of the new object. 0 + 1 (= 1) is in N. and 2 is the child of 1. Proceeding in this manner all the natural numbers are put into N. The extremal clause asserts that unless an object can be shown to be a member of the set by applying the basis and inductive clauses a finite number of times. x + 2 is in . Then by (2). 0 is the parent of 1. 3. since 0 is in N.5. Then by (2) again. 2.5. x + 1 is in . Note that if we don't have (3). Examples of Recursive Definition of Set Example 1. 1 is the parent of 2.2. The inductive clause always asserts that if objects are elements of the set. 0 is put into N. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. then they can be combined in certain specified ways to create other objects. . The x + 1 in the Inductive Clause is the parent of x. which is not what we want as the set of natural numbers. 0. the object is not a member of the set.

. say x.2 are in . . Then the value of the function at an element. There are two sets of questions. then Submit. Basis Clause: . Condition: The domain of the function you wish to define recursively must be a set defined recursively. The set of propositions (propositional forms) can also be defined recursively. simplest expressions. Inductive Clause: For any element x in . A few examples are given below. or shortest strings. Tips for recursively defining a set: For the "Basis Clause". Click Yes or No .Inductive Clause: For any element x in . bbabaa. Here ax means the concatenation of a with x. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. To see how it is defined click here. The Set of Strings over the alphabet excepting empty string This is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's such as abbab. and . and x . etc. Then see how other elements can be obtained from them. and generalize that generation process for the "Inductive Clause". How to define function recursively: First the values of the function for the basis elements of the domain are specified. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Example 4. They are all on functions from integer to integer except the last one. Recursive Definition of Function Some functions can also be defined recursively. try simplest elements in the set such as smallest numbers (0. or 1). x + 2. Test Your Understanding of Recursive Definition Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. of the domain is defined using its value at the parent(s) of the element x. and .

3! can be found as follows: Since 0 ! = 1.Example 5: The function f(n) = n! for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 0! = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. f(n+1) = f(n) + 2 . where xy is the concatenation of strings x and y. Example 8: The function L from the set S of strings over {a. This function L gives the number of a's and b's L(x) for a string x is also often denoted by | x |. Hence 2 ! = 2 * 1 ! = 2 * 1 = 2 . because the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively and that has the extremal clause in it. See above for the extremal clause. See Example 5 for the extremal clause. Example 7: The function f(n) = 2n for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. Using this definition. b} to the set of natural numbers that gives the length of a string can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: For symbols a and b of the alphabet. Note that here Extremal Clause is not necessary. Induction Mathematical Induction . L(xy) = L(x) + L(y) . L(a) = 1 and L(b) = 1. f(n+1) = (n+1) f(n). 1 ! = 1 * 0 ! = 1 * 1 = 1 . Inductive Clause: For any string x and y of S. f(n+1) = 2 f(n) . Example 6: The function f(n) = 2n + 1 for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. Hence 3 ! = 3 * 2 ! = 3 * 2 * 1 = 6 . See Example 5 for the extremal clause. So there is no chance of other elements to come into the function being defined.

As a first step for proof by induction. that is 0.. the element next to it. Thus the set of natural numbers can be described completely by specifying the basis element (0). the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively. any natural number can be shown to have the property. This process is somewhat analogous to the knocking over a row of dominos with knocking over the first domino corresponding to the basis step. Then it is proven that if an arbitrary natural number. where is a Induction: Prove that for any integer . Then since 1 has the property. which is 1. natural numbers can be proven to have certain properties as follows: First it is proven that the basis element. that is n + 1. denote it by n. . has that property (inductive step). Taking advantage of this. To prove that a statement P(n) is true for all natural number natural number.Subjects to be Learned • • • • • first principle of mathematical induction basis step induction hypothesis induction second principle of mathematical induction Contents First Priciple of Mathematical Induction As we have seen in recursion . When these two are proven. has the same property by the inductive step. and its elements can be generated one by one starting with 0 by adding 1. The first principle of mathematical induction states that if the basis step and the inductive step are proven.. the element next to it. has the property in question. has the same property again by the inductive step. More generally mathematical statements involving a natural number n such as 1 + 2 + . which is 2. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 can be proven by mathematical induction by the same token. then P(n) is true for all natural number . then it follows that all the natural numbers have that property. For since 0 has the property by the basis step. then the next element. it is often a good idea to restate P(k+1) in terms of . Proceeding likewise. has the property in question (basis step). if P(k) is true (called induction hypothesis). and the process of generating an element from a known element in the set. we proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P( ) is true. then P(k+1) is true.

. 0 + 1 + .P(k) so that P(k). This form of induction does not require the basis step. and RHS = 0 * (0 + 1) = 0 . the last expression can be rewritten as n( n + 1 )/2 + (n + 1) . The reason that this principle holds is going to be explained later after a few examples of proof. Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary natural number n. which is equal to the RHS for n+1. Using the induction hypothesis. Formally the second principle of induction states that if n [ k [ k < n P(k) ] P(n) ] .. then n P(n) can be concluded. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . Here k [ k < n P(k) ] is the induction hypothesis. which is assumed to be true. End of Proof.. 0 + 1 + ... and in the inductive step P(n) is proved assuming P(k) holds for all k < n . Proof: Basis Step: If n = 0. we get (n + 1)(n + 2) / 2 . and somehow use the induction hypothesis.1) to prove P(n).. + n + (n + 1) = (0 + 1 + . then LHS = 0. Example: Prove that for any natural number n. -------.. first try to express LHS for n+1 in terms of LHS for n. . Thus LHS = RHS for n+1..Induction Hypothesis To prove this for n+1.. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 .. Hence LHS = RHS. + n) + (n + 1) . 1 + 3 + . Example 1: Let us prove the following equality using the second principle: For any natural number n . can be used. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2. Factoring (n + 1) out. Here let us try LHS for n + 1 = 0 + 1 + . Certain problems can be proven more easily by using the second principle than the first principle because P(k) for all k < n can be used rather than just P(n . Second Priciple of Mathematical Induction There is another form of induction over the natural numbers based on the second principle of induction to prove assertions of the form x P(x) .

Let's assume that a person owns three shirts and two pairs of slacks.1 + n * n! by the induction hypothesis.1 Hence by the second principle of induction positive integers. let A = {blue shirt. + ( n . Then 1 + 3 + . i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . k < n. Relations Definition Relation Let A and B be sets.. If n is a prime number. If n is not a prime number. Since both p and q are smaller than n. n > k > 1. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( 1 + 3 + . However. Example 2: Prove that for all positive integer n..Proof: Assume that 1 + 3 + . and itself. k can be written as the product of prime numbers. + k * k! = ( k + 1 )! .1 ) * ( n . say p and q.. then it is a product of two positive integers... Hence n can also be written as the product of prime numbers. Example1: nbsp. Then 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . which is a prime number.. + ( 2n . Proof: Assume that for all positive integers k. then it is the product of 1. Hence by the second principle of induction 1 + 3 + . + ( 2k + 1 ) = ( k + 1 )2 holds for all k. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 holds for all natural numbers.1 ) ) + ( 2n + 1 ) = n2 + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 by the induction hypothesis. Then certainly A x B is the set of all possible combinations (six) of shirts and slacks that nbsp..1 )! + n * n! = n! . the individual may wish to restrict . = ( n + 1 )n! . it is either a prime number or not a prime number. Therefore the statement holds true. can be written as the product of prime numbers.. A binary relation from A into B is any subset of the Cartesian product A x B... the individual can wear..1 holds for all Example 3: Prove that any positive integer n > 1..1 Proof: Assume that 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . tan slacks}. We are going to prove that n can be written as the product of prime numbers. by the induction hypothesis they can be written as the product of prime numbers (Note that this is not possible if the First Principle is being used). More precisely. mint green shirt} and B = {gray slacks.1 for all k. Since n is an integer. k < n.

For example. 2). Let A be a set of people and let P = {(a. written as RS. or "related". c) RS if and only if there exists b B such that (a. (black shirt. y) | x <= y}. 5. or R(x) =y where y = x2 . A typical element in R is an ordered pair (x. This may not be all possible pairs in A x B but will certainly be a subset of A x B. 5. 6}. is the composition of P with itself and it is a relation which we know as grandparentgrandchild relation. 3. (5. y). In some cases R can be described by actually listing the pairs which are in R. tan slacks). (3. c) A x C. 5). Then P is a relation on A which we might call a parent-child relation. Composition Let R be a relation from a set A into set B. c) S. b) | a A ^ b A ^ a is a child of b } . tan slacks) }. Other notations are used depending on the past practice. R and S of Example 2 above are relations on A = {2. For example PP.himself to combinations which are color coordinated. b) Rand (b. PropertiesOf Relations . (3. (6. one such subset may be { (blue shirt. (2. 3). R = { (x. y) | y is the square of x} and S = { (x. 6) and define a relation R from A into A by (a. (mint green shirt. The composition of R and S. This may not be convenient if R is relatively large. R = {(2. is the set of pairs of the form(a. as in the previous example. gray slack). R could be more naturally expressed as R(x) = x2 . 6)}. and S be a relation from set B into set C. So. where P is the parent-child relation given above.6). where (a. Relation on a Set A relation from a set A into itself is called a relation on A. 3. Example2: Let A = {2. 6). b) R if and only if a divides evenly into b. Consider the following relation on real numbers.

f is a function if it covers the domain (maps every element of the domain) and it is single valued. 3. if aRb. 1. . c> are in the relation.Assume R is a relation on set A. b and c in A. from a set A to a set B is a relation from A to B that satisfies 1. then aRc. symmetric and transitive. denote it by f. and 2. b> and <a. if <a. if aRb and bRc. b> is in the relation. 4. The set A in the above definition is called the domain of the function and B its codomain. A x A. a R a. then b = c . Reflexive: R is reflexive if for every a A. Function Functions Subjects to be Reviewed • • • • • • • • • • • • function domain. Thus. for each element a in A. 2. there is an element b in B such that <a. b) R . in other words. codomain image image of set range sum of functions product of functions one-to-one function (injection) onto function (surjection) one-to-one onto function (bijection) inverse function composite function Definition (function): A function. Transitive: R is transitive if for every a. Let us write a Symmetric: R is symmetric if for every a and b in A. R R b to denote (a. then bRa. Equivalence: R is an equivalence relation on A if R is reflexive.

where f(x)*g(x) is the product of two real numbers f(x) and g(x). The set of images of the elements of a set S under a function f is called the image of the set S under f. Every bijection has a function called the inverse function. Then ( f + g )(x) = x2 + 3x + 1 . say 3. 16. Example: The function f(x) = x2 from the set of natural numbers N to N is a one-to-one function. if and only if whenever f(x) = f(y) . Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is an onto function.. because for example f(1) = f(-1) = 1 . Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is one-to-one and onto. Definition (bijection): A function is called a bijection . under this function is 9. where S is a subset of the domain A of f . 4. . 1. x = y . 9. ( f + g )(x) = f(x) + g(x) . because. Example: Let f(x) = 3x + 1 and g(x) = x2 . and ( f*g )(x) = 3x3 + x2 Definition (one-to-one): A function f is said to be one-to-one (injective) . The image of the domain under f is called the range of f .} . there is an element x in A such that f(x) = y . that is. if and only if for every element y of B . ( f*g )(x) = f(x)*g(x) . and is denoted by f(S) . for example. Then the sum and the product of f and g are defined as follows: For all x. and for all x. b> is denoted as f(a) = b . . However. { 0.The relation given by f between a and b represented by the ordered pair <a.. Definition (sum and product): Let f and g be functions from a set A to the set of real numbers R. f is onto if and only if f( A ) = B . Note that f(x) = x2 is not one-to-one if it is from the set of integers(negative as well as non-negative) to N . Example: Let f be the function from the set of natural numbers N to N that maps each natural number x to x2 . f(S) = { f(a) | a S }. and b is called the image of a under f .e. Thus it is a bijection. Definition (onto): A function f from a set A to a set B is said to be onto(surjective) . if it is onto and one-to-one. nothing in N can be mapped to 3 by this function. f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to N is not onto. that is.. Then the domain and codomain of this f are N. and its range is the set of squares. i. the image of.

Programming langauges we use are a language in that sense. is the function from A to C that satisfies fg(x) = f( g(x) ) for all x in A .These concepts are illustrated in the figure below. f(x) > relation. the rightmost function in the above figure is a bijection and its inverse is obtained by reversing the direction of each arrow. are all languages in that sense. and it is denoted by f -1 . Others such as languages of logics. languages of mathematics. Definition (composite function): Let g be a function from a set A to a set B . and g(x) = x + 1 . Then f( g(x) ) = ( x + 1 )2 . where f(x) = y . and let f be a function from B to a set C . Definition (inverse): Let f be a bijection from a set A to a set B. It is also a bijection. A function is a relation. In each figure below. Example: The inverse function of f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of non-negative even numbers E is f -1(x) = 1/2 x from E to N . denoted by fg . Then the function g is called the inverse function of f. if for every element y of B. the points on the left are in the domain and the ones on the right are in the codomain. Note that such an x is unique for each y because f is a bijection. Then the composition of functions f and g . in this course. and arrows show < x. Introduction to Language A language is. Therefore one can also talk about composition of functions. natural languages etc. Example: Let f(x) = x2 . a set of strings of symbols. For example. . g(y) = x .

we are going to learn modeling of systems finite automata. Also for some important classes of problems. regular and context-free languages. It can be rigorously shown that some problems can not be solved by computers in any finite amount of time and that some others are practically unsolvable because of the time it takes to solve them.What we are going to study on languages in this course are four classes of languages called (Chomsky) formal languages and their properties. Type 3 is a subset of type 2 which is a subset of type 1 and type 0 is the most general including the other three as a subset. Definitions on Language Subjects to be Learned . are quite useful for modeling systems used in practice such as co9mputer network communication protocols. Then we study regular languages. In asddition two of the formal languages. then the resulting DFA is unique up to the state names for a given regular language. solving them can be seen as recognizing languages i. Also there are various kinds of computing devices called automata which process these types of languages Thus formal languages can also be characterized by the computing devices which process them. Our last topic on regular language is testing of languages for non-regularity. lexical analyzers and parser for compilers for programming languages.e. together with regular expressions which are a method of representing regular languages. In the following chapters we first learn about languages. On the other hand DFAs are suited for writing a simulator program because there is no nondeterminism such as going to two or more states from a state upon reading one input symbol. These formal languages are characterized by grammars which are essentially a set of rewrite rules for generating strings belonging to a language as we see later. regular grammars. We are going to see an algorithm for converting NFAto NFA which recognizes the same language and another for NFA to DFA conversion. checking whether or not a string is in a language. in general there are more than one NFAs and DFAs that reconize one language. nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) and nondeterministic finite automata with transitions (NFA. However. Using automata and formal languages we can study limitations of computer and computation. the simplest of the four formal languages. The four classes are regular (or type 3) languages. context-sensitive (or type 1) languages and phrase structure (or type 0) languages. They are devices that recognize regular languages. As we are going to learn next.). These formal languages and automata capture the essense of various computing devices and computation in a very simple way. if the number of states of DFA is minimized. NFA and NFAare conceptually simpler and easier to use when modeling a system because there are no restrictions on transitions for them unlike for DFA. Then we investigate various kinds of finite automata: deterministic finite automata (DFA). Then after seeing yet another way of representing regular laguages. context-free (or type 2) languages.

that is. intersection. v is called a suffix of y. a and aabab are examples of string over alphabet {a. Basic concepts First. Though has no symbols. all the set operations can be applied to languages. 111} is a language (over alphabet {0. intersetion and difference of two languages over an alphabet are languages over .1}). 1}. 1. The empty string is denoted by (capital lambda). The set { } is a language which has one string. The empty string (also called null string) is the string with length 0.b}) and {0. Operations on languages Since languages are sets. 3. b. union. Note that u and v may be an empty string. b} and 0. A string x is called a substring of another string y if there are strings u and v such that y = uxv. this set has an object in it. Then uv denotes the string obtained by concatenating u with v. operations on languages and some of their properties. Thus the union. 1} is an alphabet with two symbols. For a string w its length is represented by |w|. Kleene star Contents Here we are going to learn the concept of language in very abstract and general sense. Thus | | = 0. Thus a language over alphabet is a subset of . {a.• • • • alphabet string (word) language operations on languages: concatenation of strings. namely . Note that vu = bbabaab uv. b} is another alphabet with two symbols and English alphabet is also an alphabet. So it is not empty. 10 and 001 are examples of string over alphabet {0. A language is a set of strings over an alphabet. For example {0. Thus {a. The number of symbols in a string is called the length of the string. baa} is a language (over alphabert {a. For any alphabet . For example if u = aab and v = bbab. the set of all strings over (including the empty string) is denoted by . We are going to use first few symbols of English alphabet such as a and b to denote symbols of an alphabet and those toward the end such as u and v for strings. Let u and v be strings. then uv = aabbbab. 2. uv is the string obtained by appending the sequence of symbols of v to that of u. Some special languages The empty set is a language which has no strings. it has no symbols. A string x is a prefix of another string y if there is a string v such that y = xv. So a string is a substring of itself. It can be defined more formally by recursive definition. That is. A string (also called a word) is a finite sequence of symbols of an alphabet. an alphabet is a finite set of symbols. ab.

bbbb. b} {aaa. These powers can be formally defined recursively.. Recursive definition of L+: Basis Clause: L L+ . Then the concatenation of L1 with L2 is denoted as L1L2 and it is defined as L1L2 = { uv | u L1 and v L2 }. Powers : For a symbol a and a natural number k. For example if L = { aba. aba. ababb. The complement of a language L over an alphabet language. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k. abaaba. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = Lk L. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.L and it is also a Another operation onlanguages is concatenation. then L* = { . Hence Lk is the set of strings that can be obtained by concatenating k strings of L. the extremal clause is not necessary. bb }. bbaba.. This * is called Kleene star. ak and uk can be defined similarly. Let L1 and L2 be languages.. * The following two types of languages are generalizations of them quite often in this course. ak represents the concatenation of k a's. For example Lk can be defined recursively as follows. For a string u and a natural number k. } The * in * is also the same Kleene star defined above. L* is the set of strings obtained by concatenating zero or more strings of L as we are going to see in Theorem 1. bb. baaa. baaba}. abb. xw L*. abaaba. Similarly for a language L. Here a0 = and u0 = . For example {ab. That is L1L2 is the set of strings obtained by concatenating strings of L1 with those of L2. Recursive definition of L*: Basis Clause: L* and we are going to see Inductive Clause: For any x L* and any w L. . babb. uk denotes the concatenation of k u's. Lk means the concatenation of k L's. aaba} = {abaaa. ababb. is .

bb }. ababb. For example if L = { aba... ... w2.. for each wi there are strings wi1. L* and L* have a number of interesting properties..Inductive Clause: For any x L+ and any w L. bbaba.wk . Since w1. w2. any nonempty string in L* or L+ can be expresssed as the concatenation of strings of L. i... Proof: Because we can see that L* (L*)*. Then there are nonempty strings w1. } Let us also define natural number k } . Theorem 1: Ln Theorem 2: Theorem 3: Theorem 4: L+ = L L* = L*L Note: According to Theorems 2 and 3. where wi's are strings of L.e...wmmk .wk for some k. Let us list one of them as a theorem and prove it.e.wm1. Hence x is in L* . . .. wk are strings of L*.. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L+ unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. .. Theorems 1 and 2 are proven in "General Induction" which you study in the next unit.. xw L+.. then L+ = { aba.wimi Hence x = w11 . Theorem 5: L* = (L*)*. L* can be proven as follows: by Theorem 2. by applying Theorem 2 to the language L* L* Conversely ( L* )* Let x be an arbitrary nonempty string of ( L* )*. .. Other proofs are omitted. . L0 L L2 .w2m2. (i.. wi2. abaaba. ) as ={x|x Lk for some Then the following relationships hold on L* and L+.w1m1w21. w1w2. Thus L+ is the set of strings obtained by concatenating one or more strings of L. bb. bbbb..... wk in L* such that x = w1w2...... wimi in L such that wi = wi1wi2.

If x is an empty string, then it is obviously in L* . Hence ( L* )* Since L* L* . L* , L* = ( L* )* .

(L*)* and ( L* )*

**Problem Solving as Language Recognition
**

Subjects to be Learned

• • •

problem instance problem as language problem solving as language recognition

Contents

In the previous section the concept of language was introduced and its properties have been briefly studied. You might be wondering why we study language. The main reason for studying language is that solving problems can be viewed as a language recognition problem as explained below, that is, the problem of checking whether or not a string belongs to a language. Thus instead of studying what kind of problems can be solved by what kind of computational devices and how, we can study languages and devices to recognize them which are simpler to deal with uncluttered with variations in actual devices, programming languages etc. Below an example is given to illustrate how solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Consider the following problem: Is the longest of the distances between two nodes(i.e. the diameter) of a given graph less than a given integer k ? Here the distance is the smallest number of edges (or hops) between the nodes. Some of the instances of this problem are as shown below:

Instance 1 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with one edge and two nodes is less than 1. Instance 2 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with four edges and four nodes is less than 2. Simiarlyt for Instance 3. These problem instances can be represented by a string as follows: Instance 1: 1,2;(1,2);1 Instance 2: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(3,4);2 Instance 3: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(2,3)(2,4)(3,4);3 Here the set of nodes, the set of edges and k are separated by ; in that order in the strings. The solutions to these instances are: Instance 1: No Instance 2: No Instance 3: Yes There are infinitely many 'Yes' instances and 'No' instances for this problem. The set of 'Yes' instances is a language and so is the set of 'No' instances as well as the set of all

instances and many others for this problem. We can thus see that solving the problem for a given instance is equivalent to checking whether or not the string representing the given instance belongs to the language of 'Yes' instances of the problem. That is, the problem solving is the same as the language recognition. A problem can be solved if and only if the language of its 'Yes' instances is recognizable or decidable by a Turing machine. It is not solvable if the language is merely accecptable but not recognizable, or even worse if it is not even acceptable.

(a.k.a Structural Induction)

Mathematical statements involving an element of a recursively defined set can be proven by induction. To prove by induction that a statement P(x) is true for all the elements x of a recursively defined set S, proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P(x) is true for all the elements x in the basis of S. Induction: Prove that for any element(s) x of S if P(x) is true, then P(y) is true for any element y obtained from x by the induction step of the recursive definition of S. Note 1 : In the Induction we try to prove that if a parent has the property then all of its children also have that property. In the process we need the relationship between the parent and the children. That relationship is found in the Inductive Clause of the recursive definition of the set in question. Note 2 : As a first step for general induction proof, it is often a good idea to express y in terms of x so that P(x) can be used. Example 1 (Theorem 1 in "Language") : Prove that Ln L* for any natural number n and any language L. Let us first review the definitions. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = LkL. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k, the extremal clause is not necessary. Recursive definition of L*:

L* since y L. L* for an arbitrary natural numer k. L0 L* . Note in the proof below that Basis and Inductive Steps mirror the Basis and Inductive Clauses of the definition of Ln . xy Hence w Thus Lk+1 L* . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.Induction L* . Basis Step: Since by the definitions L0 = { Inductive Step: Assume that Lk Hypothesis We are going to show that Lk+1 }.Basis Clause: L* Inductive Clause: For any string x L* and any string w L. --. Lk Next let us prove L* . By Example 1 above . and L* . Now let us prove that Ln L* by induction on Ln. . Then by the definition of L*. number k. . L* . Hence . Then there exist strings x and y that satisfy x L and w = xy by the definition of Lk+1. Proof: Let us first prove Suppose that x Lk for some natural L* . Then by the definition of L* . L* . L* by theInduction Hypothesis. Hence x . Lk . x L* . y Let w be an arbitrary string in Lk+1 . Since Lk L* . xw L*. x Example 2 (Theorem 2 in "Language") Let us prove L* = Note that ={x|x Lk for some natural number k } .

So we first prove that * the element of the basis of L has the propertyy. and any symbol . So we show that the property for x is inherited by its children xy. It produces the reversal of a given string x (i. Hence by the definition of Inductive Step: Assume that for an arbitrary x in L*. xy holds.e. Prove that for arbitrary strings x and y of . x spelled backward).e. Hence xy Lk+1 by the definition of Ln . then its children xy. then for some natural number k . where y is an arbitrary elememt of L. REV(xa) = Inductive Clause: For any string aREV(x). Note here that x is a parent and by applying an operation (i. Then we show that if any element. . Basis Clause: REV( )= . x Lk . holds. Basis Step: L0 since L0 = { }. . Note that each step mirror the recursive definition of . of L* has the property. say x.Note that L* is defined recursively and that below we are trying to prove that the elements of L* have the property that they also belong to . Let us prove the inheritance. also have the property. . by Example 1 above. by concatenating y) a child of x in is obtained. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. If x . x We are going to show that for an arbitrary element y L . Hence xy End of Inductive Step and Proof Hence we have proven Example 3 . The function REV(x) on strings x over the alphabet is defined as follows.

But by induction hypothesis a REV(xy) = a REV(y)REV(x). -. REV(xya) = REV((xy)a) = a REV(xy). { } and {a} for any symbol a are regular languages. The proof mirrors the recursive definition of . Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary string y of . xa is also in . Basis Step: REV(x ) = REV( x ) = REV( )REV( x ) . REV(xya) = REV(ya)REV(x). REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. which is what we needed.Induction Hypothesis Then for an arbitrary symbol a of . Omitted. End of Proof. then Lr Ls . Regular language The set of regular languages over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. Since a REV(y) = REV(ya). LrLs and Lr* are regular languages. . and an arbitrary string y of . Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular language unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.Proof First let us note that * can be defined recursively as follows: . Definitions of Regular Language and Regular Expression Subjects to be Learned • • regular language regular expression 1. * Basis Clause: where is an empty string. Any language belonging to this set is a regular language over . Inductive Clause: For arbitrary strings x of and a of ExtremalClause: As usual. Thus the statement to be proven is for an arbitrary fixed string x. Inductive Clause: If Lr and Ls are regular languages. Definition of Set of Regular Languages : Basis Clause: . The proof of the equality in question is going to be proven for an arbitrary fixed x by induction on y. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds.

is written as rk. which has precedence over union ( + ). The language corresponding to rk is Lrk. {a. aa. Also since {a} is regular. Then since {a} and {b} are regular languages. Regular expression Regular expressions are used to denote regular languages. and a are regular expressions corresponding to languages . (4) We use ( r+) as a regular expression to represent Lr+ . Basis Clause: . is a regular language because {a. (2) The operation * has precedence over concatenation. b} ( = {a} {b} ) and {ab} ( = {a}{b} ) are regular languages. ( r + s ) is used in stead of ( r + s ). where a is an element of . Any element of that set is a regular expression. a. The set of regular expressions over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. Conventions on regular expressions (1) When there is no danger of confusion. bold face may not be used for regular expressions. let = {a. Note also that *. respectively. Thus for example rr = r2 . respectively. Inductive Clause: If r and s are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr and Ls . (3) The concatenation of k r's . ( rs ) and ( r*) are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr Ls . They can represent regular languages and operations on them succinctly. b} is regular. . Thus the regular expression ( a + ( b( c*) ) ) is written as a + bc*.For example. aaaa etc. Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular expression unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. which is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's. then ( r + s ) . { } and {a}. {a}* is a regular language which is the set of strings consisting of a's such as . For a recursive definition of Lrk click here. 2. where Lr is the language corresponding to the regular expression r. LrLs and Lr* . So for example. where r is a regular expression. aaa. b}.

( a + b )* corresponds to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. b}. Note:A regular expression is not unique for a language. abab. b}. b}. a*b* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by zero or more b's. ( ab )+ corresponds to the language {ab.. That is. b}. ab. the set of strings of repeated ab's. in general.. a regular language. because they both represent the language of all strings over the alphabet {a. that is the set of strings of length 2 over the alphabet {a. . In general. ababab. }. . ba.Examples of regular expression and regular languages corresponding to them • • • • ( a + b )2 corresponds to the language {aa. b}. bb}. a*b+a* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by one or more b's followed by zero or more a's. that is. Definition of Equality of Regular Expressions Regular expressions are equal if and only if they correspond to the same language. corresponds to more than one regular expressions. In general ( a + b )k corresponds to the set of strings of length k over the alphabet {a. For example ( a + b )* and ( a*b* )* correspond to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. it is not easy to see by inspection whether or not two regular expressions are equal. Thus for example ( a + b )* = ( a*b* )* .

(a + b)+ etc. a*. However. The only strings corresponding to r2 which consist of only a's or b's are a. that is. Thus (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* is reduced to (r1 + r2)*. Find a simple (the shortest and with the smallest nesting of * and +) regular expression which is equal to each of the following regular expressions. Solution: It can easily be seen that . b and the strings consiting of only b's (from (a*b)*). the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*) start with a string of r1 followed by any number of strings taken arbitrarily from r1 and/or r2. So we need to find strings of r2 which contain at least one a and at least one b. which are strings in the language with length 1 or less. r1r2 + r2r1 in the given regular expression is redundant. (b) A string corresponding to r1 consists of only a's or only b's or the empty string. (a) find a string corresponding to r2 but not to r1 and (b) find a string corresponding to both r1 and r2. (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ means that all the strings represented by it must consist of one or more strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*). bb and ab are in the language. Thus the answer is ba. 1: Find the shortest string that is not in the language represented by the regular expression a*(ab)*b*. ba is not in it. Ex. Of the strings wiht length 2 aa. Thus anything that comes after the first r1 in (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is represented by (r1 + r2)*. a+. 2: For the two regular expressions given below. they do not produce any strings that are not represented by (r1 + r2)*. (a) Since (r1 + r2)* represents all strings consisting of strings of r1 and/or r2 . (a) (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ Solution: One general strategy to approach this type of question is to try to see whether or not they are equal to simple regular expressions that are familiar to us such as a. (a + b)*. 3: Let r1 and r2 be arbitrary regular expressions over some alphabet. For example ab and ba are such strings.Exercise Questions on Regular Language and Regular Expression Ex. a. Ex. r1 = a* + b* r2 = ab* + ba* + b*a + (a*b)* Solution: (a) Any string consisting of only a's or only b's and the empty string are in r1. b. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*) . However.

Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. Ex. 7: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the . Since any string of b's can be placed in front of the first a. and conversely (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ represents the strings represented by (r1(r1 + r2)*). 6: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. Thus (aab + bb)*(a + ) is a regular expression for L. First of all and a are in L . Thus (aab)*(bb)* is a regular expression for L.also represents the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*)+. 5: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L and a L. Ex. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. Hence a string of L has zero or more of aab's and bb's in front possibly followed by a at the end. Inductive Clause: If x L . behind the second a and between the two a's. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. Solution: A string in this language must have at least two a's. then aabx L and xbb L . First of all L . then aabx L and bbx L . b } that contain exactly two a's. Then starting with . strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or appending bb to any of the already generated strings. 4: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L over the alphabet { a . Ex. and since an arbitrasry string of b's can be represented by the regular expression b*. Then starting with or a. b*a b*a b* is a regular expression for this language. Hence a string of L consists of zero or more aab's in front and zero or more bb's following them. Ex. Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. b } defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L Inductive Clause: If x L . strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or bb to any of the already generated strings. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is reduced to (r1(r1 + r2)*).

b } that contain an odd number of b's Ex. it has at least one b. then that aa can be followed by any number of b. b } that do not end with ab. Ex. Thus simply put. 9: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of strings of even lengths over the alphabet of { a. Hence if a string does not end with ab then it ends with a or if it ends with b the last b must be preceded by a symbol b. ( b + ab )*a( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. Hence the string is in this language. a regular expression corresponding to the language is ( aa + ab + ba + bb )*. Ex. ( a + b )*( a + bb ) is a regular expression for the language. then it must be followed by b. ba. If there may not be any a in a string of the language. bb. Solution: If there is one substring aa in a string of the language. b }. If an a comes after that aa. If there is no aa but at least one a exists in a string of the language. it is the set of strings over the alphabet { a. b } that contain no more than one occurence of the string aa. Note that 0 is an even number. then that a must be preceded by b because otherwise there are two occurences of aa. Solution: Any string in a language over { a . 8: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. Solution: A string in the language can start and end with a or b. and after the first b all the b's in the string appear in pairs. Ex. On the other hand if an a precedes the aa. Any numbe of a's can appear any place in the string. Solution: Since any string of even length can be expressed as the concatenation of strings of length 2 and since the strings of length 2 are aa. Hence if a string of the language contains aa then it corresponds to the regular expression ( b + ab )*aa( b + ba )* . Hence any string that follows aa is represented by ( b + ba )*. Hence a string preceding the aa can be represented by ( b + ab )*. ab. Altogether ( b + ab )*( + a + aa )( b + ba )* is a regular expression for the language. then applying the same argument as for aa to a. 11: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the . Since it can have any string in front of the last a or bb. b } must end in a or b.alphabet { a. 10: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression a*b(a*ba*b)*a* . ( b + ab )*( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. then applying the same argument as for aa to .

{ anbn | n is a natural number } which is the union of all the languages { akbk } . Properties of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • Closure of the set of regular languages under union. Then by the definition of the set of regular languages . 12: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression ( b + ab )*( a + ab )*. where n is a natural number. concatenation and Kleene star operations. where n is a natural number. The following theorem shows that any finite language is regular. Regularity of finite languages Theorem 1: The set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed under operations union. the given regular expression represents the strings of length 3n and 3n + 1. Solution: ( b + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring aa and which end in b. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages and they are obviously over the alphabet . Solution: (( a + b )3) represents the strings of length 3. Thus the set of regular languages is closed under those operations.regular expression (( a + b )3)*( +a+b). Hence altogether it represents any string consisting of a substring with no aa followed by one b followed by a substring with no bb. Lr Ls . Since (( a + b )3)*( a + b ) represents the strings of length 3n + 1. that is. We say a language is finite if it consists of a finite number of strings. Hence (( a + b )3)* represents the strings of length a multiple of 3. Note 1: Later we shall see that the complement of a regular language and the intersection of regular laguages are also regular. Note 2: The union of infinitely many regular languages is not necessarily regular. For example while { akbk } is regular for any natural number k . concatenation and Kleene star. and ( a + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring bb. Ex. is not regular as we shall see later. a finite language is a set of n . Proof: Let Lr and Ls be regular languages over an alphabet .

End of proof for Claim 2 Note that Claim 2 can also be proven by induction on the length of string. Proof of the Claim 1: Proof by induction on the number of strings. Claim 2: Let w be a string over an alphabet . Proof of Claim 2: Proof by induction on strings. then we have proven the theorem. { regular languages for any arbitrary symbol a of . We then prove that a language consisting of a single string is regular. Then for any symbol a of . } and { a } are Inductive Step: Assume that { w } is a regular language for an arbitrary string w over . Then { w } is a regular language. Proof: Let us first assume that a language consisting of a single string is regular and prove the theorem by induction. Basis Step: By the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. . Claim 1: A language consisting of n strings is regular for any natural number n (that is. L { w } is a regular language by the definition of regular language. Hence { aw } is regular. Inductive Step: Assume that a language L consisting of n strings is a regular language (induction hypothesis). { a } is a regular language from the Basis Step. End of proof of Theorem 2. Basis Step: (corresponding to n = 0) is a regular language by the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. Then since { w } is a regular language as proven below. End of proof of Claim 1 Thus if we can show that { w } is a regular language for any string w. a finite language is regular) if { w } is regular for any string w. Theorem 2: A finite language is regular. Hence by the Inductive Clause of the definition of regular language { a }{ w } is regular.strings for some natural number n.

can not be recognized by finite automata. There are languages which are not regular and which.Introduction to Finite Automata In this chapter we are going to study a class of machines called finite automata. When the customer selects a soft drink. We are going to learn languages which are not regular and ways to test languages for non-regularity. Though Turing machines are simple modification of finite automata. If the customer puts in a nickel. Click "NICKEL" or "DIME" in the figure and see how it operates (see how arrows turn red). Finite automata are computing devices that accept/recognize regular languages and are used to model operations of many systems we find in practice. Ds on arrows represent a dime and Ns a nickel. Unfortunately not all languages and systems are simple like regular languages or finite automata. Initially you are waiting for a customer to come and put some coins. you are in the waiting-for-customer state. say a dime. you are no longer in the waiting-for-customer state. Their operations can be simulated by a very simple computer program. tell whether or not a given string belongs to the regular language). A kind of systems finite automnata can model and a computer program to simulate their operations are discussed later. Let us consider the operation of a soft drink vending machine which charges 15 cents for a can. say 15-cents state. In the next few chapters first we are going to learn different kinds of finite automata. that is. It is assumed that the machine terminates its operation when it receives 15 cents or more. A vending machine looked at this way is an example of finite automaton. In the figure.e. In fact Turing machines are as . Let us assume that only nickels and dimes are used for simplicity. So you are in another state. When a customer comes and puts in the first coin. Then we are going to see that for every regular language a unique finite automaton can be constructed which can recognize the language (i. So we might say you are in the 10-cents state. then you have now received 15 cents and you wait for the customer to select a soft drink. they are much more powerful computing devices than finite automata. Later we are going to learn an extension of finite automata called Turing machines. and equivalence and conversions between them. We are then going to study how finite automata can be used to simulate operations of systems we see in practice. Pretend that you are the machine. We have learned that regular languages are represented by regular expressions and conversely. After that you stay in that state until another coin is put in to start the process anew or you may terminate the operation and start all over from the initial state. circles represent states and arrows state transitions. therefore. The states and the transitions between them of this vending machine can be represented with the diagram below. You have received 10 cents and are waiting for more coins to come. In this example you as a vending machine have gone through (transitions between) a number of states responding to the inputs from the customer (coins in this case). you must give the customer a can of soft drink.

if q is the initial state and a nickel is put in. Its elements can. The set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. in the Example 1 below. A > Notes on the definition 1. We call the elements of Q a state. for example. q0 . Definition of Deterministic Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • • • Finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of deterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. a) is equal to "have received 5 cents". Also let be a function from Q to Q . the transition function. The accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. "have received 5 cents" etc. (q. 3. be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. 4. 2. the states of the machine such as "waiting for a customer to put a coin in". are the elements of Q. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ceases to come. however. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of . . though not proven. that any computation human beings do (with or without computers) can be performed by Turing machines. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. . Note that is a function. For example. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. then (q. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". a) must be specified. "Waiting for a customer to put a coin in" can be considered the initial state of this automaton and the state in which the machine gives out a soda can can be considered the accepting state. The transition function is also called a next state function meaning that the automaton moves into the state (q. Thus in the example of vending machine. Then a deterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . Otherwise it is not accepted.powerful as computers and it is generally believed. Thus in the example of vending machine. .

The accepting states are indicated by double circles. 2 }. 5. the following table. Examples of finite automaton Example 1: Q = { 0. . q ) from vertex p to vertex q with label represents the transition (p. Transition functions can also be represented by tables as seen below. They are called transition table. Abbreviations such as FA and DFA are used to denote deterministic finite automaton. 1. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 1 a 2 2 a 2 (q. DFAs are often represented by digraphs called (state) transition diagram. are not accepted. then we need a DFA such as shown in the following examle to accept the same string a. But any other strings such as aa. An arc ( p . = { a }. etc.the string a is accepted by the finite automaton. If the alphabet of the Example 1 is changed to { a. It is a little more complex DFA. ) = q . A deterministic finite automaton is also called simply a "finite automaton". A = { 1 }. a) ) A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. aaa. The vertices (denoted by single circles) of a transition diagram represent the states of the DFA and the arcs labeled with an input symbol correspond to the transitions. b } in stead of { a }.

= { a. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. A = { 0 }. in the following table. Example 3: Q = { 0.Example 2: Q = { 0. the following table. A = { 1 }. A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. b }. b }. 2 }. b } is the next example. a) ) . while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. 1. A DFA that accepts all strings consisting of only symbol a over the alphabet { a. = { a. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 0 0 b 1 1 a 1 1 b 1 (q. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 0 b 2 1 a 2 1 b 2 2 a 2 2 b 2 (q. 1 }.

Example 4: For the example of vending machine of the previous section. the initial state q0 = 0. 10. = { D. A = { 15. If we make it a DFA. a) ) . Q = { 0. 20 }. 5.A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. 15. N }. its transition function is as shown in the following table. 20 }. State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 N 5 0 D 10 5 N 10 5 D 15 10 N 15 10 D 20 15 N 5 15 D 10 20 N 5 20 D 10 (q.

The head is always at the leftmost square at the beginning of the operation. . The head moves to the right one square every time it reads a symbol. 2. It never moves to the left. There is a finite control which determines the state of the automaton and also controls the movement of the head. The tape has a read only head. 5. it stops and the automaton terminates its operation. 6. 3. When it sees no symbol.A finite automaton as a machine A finite automaton can also be thought of as the device shown below consisting of a tape and a control circuit which satisfy the following conditions: 1. 4. The tape is divide into squares in each of which a symbol can be written prior to the start of the operation of the automaton. The tape has the left end and extends to the right without an end.

it goes into state 1 and the input string is not accepted by the DFA. . b etc. As an example let us consider the DFA of Example 3 above. Initially it is in state 0. aaaaaa etc. are not accepted by this automaton. this DFA never leaves state 1. Once it gets to state 1. it moves to state 1. When zero or more a's are given as an input to it. when all the a's on the tape are read. the DFA is in the accepting state.Operation of finite automata Let us see how an automaton operates when it is given some inputs. If b is read while it is in state 0 (initially or after reading some a's). Thus this automaton accepts any string of a's. are accepted but strings such as aaba. Hence when b appears anywhere in the input. it stays in state 0 while it reads all the a's (without breaks) on the tape. then no matter what symbol is read. Since the state 0 is also the accepting state. For example strings aaa.

*

of DFA and its Properties

Subjects to be Learned

• •

*

Language accepted by DFA

Contents

Here we are going to formally describe what is meant by applying a transition repeatedly, that is the concept of * For a state q and string w, *( q , w ) is the state the DFA goes into when it reads the string w starting at the state q. In general a DFA goes through a number of states from the state q responding to the symbols in the string w. Thus for a DFA < Q , , q0 , , A > , the function

* :Q -> Q is defined recursively as follows: *

Definition of

*

:

*

Basis Clause: For any state q of Q ,

(q,

) = q , where

*

denotes the empty string. and any symbol a ,

Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q, any string y * ( q , ya ) = ( *( q , y ) , a ) .

In the definition, the Basis Clause says that a DFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the state DFA reaches after reading string ya starting at state q is the state it reaches by reading symbol a after reading string y from state q. Example For example suppose that a DFA contains the transitions shown below.

Then

*

*

( q , DNR ) can be calculated as follows:

( q , DNR ) = ( *( q , DN ) , R ) by the Inductive Clause. = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , DN ). = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) since D = D . = ( ( ( *( q , ) , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , D ). = ( ( ( q , D ) , N ) , R ) , since ( q , ) = q . = ( ( q1 , N ) , R ) , since ( q , D ) = q1 as seen from the diagram. = ( q2 , R ) , since ( q1 , N ) = q2 as seen from the diagram. = q3 since ( q2 , R ) = q3 as seen from the diagram. Properties of

*

We can see the following two properties of

*

. for a DFA < Q , , q0 , ,A

**Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >,
**

*

(q,a)=

(q,a)

Proof : Since a = a , * ( q , a ) = *( q , a ) . By the definition of * , * ( q , a ) = ( *( q , ) , a ) But *( q , ) = q by the definition of Hence ( *( q , ) , a ) = ( q , a ) .

*

.

The next theorem states that the state reached from any state, say q , by reading a string, say w , is the same as the state reached by first reading a prefix of w, call it x, and then by reading the rest of the w, call it y. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 , , A > , for a DFA < Q , ,

*

( q , xy ) =

*

(

*

(q,x),y).

Proof : This is going to be proven by induction on string y. That is the statement to be proven is the following: * For an arbitrary fixed string x, ( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for any arbitrary string y. First let us review the recursive definition of *. Recursive definition of Basis Clause:

* *

:

.

* * Inductive Clause: If x and a , then xa . * Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.

Now the proof of the theorem. Basis Step: If y = , then *( q , xy ) = *( q , x ) = *( q , x ) . Also *( *( q , x ) , y ) = *( *( q , x ) , ) = *( q , x ) by the definition of * . Hence the theorem holds for y = . Inductive Step: Assume that *( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for an arbitrary string y. This is the induction hypothesis. We are going to prove that *( q , xya ) = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) for any arbitrary symbol a of . ( q , xya ) = ( *( q , xy ) , a ) by the definition of * = ( * ( *( q , x ) , y ) , a ) by the induction hypothesis. = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) by the definition of * . Thus the theorem has been proven.

*

For the following DFA answer the questions given below.

w ) A . . if and only if ( q0 . w ) A } . the language accepted by a DFA is the set of strings accepted by the DFA.The following notations are used in the questions: : \delta * : \delta^* : \Lambda Language Accepted by DFA Subjects to be Learned • Language accepted by DFA A string w is accepted by a DFA < Q . q0 . A language L is accepted by a DFA < Q . . . * . A > . if and only if L = { w | *( q0 . That is. q0 . That is a string is accepted by a DFA if and only if the DFA starting at the initial state ends in an accepting state after reading the string. Example 1 : . A > .

. Thus the language it accepts is the empty set Example 3 : DFA with one cycle .2 . and it stays there.This DFA accepts { } because it can go from the initial state to the accepting state (also the initial state) without reading any symbol of the alphabet i. first from the initial state go to state 1 by reading one a. Then from state 1 go through the cycle 1 . This is represented by (ab)*.2 . which is not an accepting state. To find the language it accepts. Then from state 1 go to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading aa. Example 2 : This DFA does not accept any string because it has no accepting state. It accepts nothing else because any non-empty symbol would take it to state 1. Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by a(ab)*aa .1 and it can go through this cycle any number of times by reading substring ab repeatedly.1 any number of times by reading substring ab any number of times to come back to state 1. by reading an empty string .e. This DFA has a cycle: 1 .

Example 4 : DFA with two independent cycles This DFA has two independent cycles: 0 .1 .0 and 0 .0.2 .1 . To find the language accepted by this DFA.2 . Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by ( ab + bb )*.2 .0 and it can move through these cycles any number of times in any order to reach the accepting state from the initial state such as 0 .3 .0 . Example 5 : DFA with two interleaved cycles This DFA has two cycles: 1 .1.2 .0 . first from state 0 go to state 1 by .1 and 1 .0 .2 .

At state 1 go through the cycle 1 . Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata . At this point a substring a( baa + bba )* will have been read. The language accepted at state 0 is b* . Then from state 1 go through the two cycles 1 . Then go to state 1 by reading one a.1 any number of times by reading substring ba repeatedly. Example 6 : This DFA has two accepting states: 0 and 1. first at state 0 read any number of b's. Then go from state 1 to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading bb. To find the language accepted at state 1.1 any number of times in any order by reading substrings baa and bba.1 and 1 .3 . respectively. There is a systematic way of finding the language accepted by a DFA and we are going to learn it later.2 . So we are not going to go any further on this problem here.0 . At this point (b*a) will have been read.2 . Thus altogether a( baa + bba )*bb will have been read when state 3 is reached from state 0.2 .reading a ( any other state which is common to these cycles such as state 2 can also be used instead of state 1 ). Thus the language accepted at state 1 is b*a(ba)* . Thus the language that is accepted by this DFA is the union of the language accepted at state 0 and the one accepted at state 1.

in which case the NFA aborts its operation. = { a }. Also let be a function from Q to 2Q . Note that any DFA is also a NFA. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. A > Notes on the definition 1. q0 . Its elements can be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. 4. 3. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . . Unlike DFAs an NFA moves into one of the states given by (q. Which one of the states in (q. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. . 2.Subjects to be Learned • • • Nondeterministic finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. We call the elements of Q a state. But it can be the empty set. The transition function is also called a next state function .e. Note that is a function. As in the case of DFA the accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. Examples of NFA Example 1: Q = { 0. As in the case of DFA the set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. A = { 1 }. a) to select is determined nondeterministically. Otherwise it is not accepted. ceases to come. 1 }. the following table. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. a) must be specified. a) ) . the transition function. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of (q. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ends i. 5. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 1 a (q.

a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1. If the alphabet a}.2} 0 1 1 2 2 b a b a b {2} (q. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. b }.A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. 1. = { a. . this is still an NFA that accepts { Example 2: Q = { 0. 2 }. is changed to { a. in the following table. b } in stead of { a }. A = { 2 }.

We say that this automaton accepts the string a. Since the state 2 is the accepting state. Let us now define the function strings and languages by NFA. if the next input is b and if no more inputs are given. As an example let us consider the automaton of Example 2 above. then it stays in the accepting state. When it reads the symbol a. If on the other hand it moves to state 1 after reading a. Thus the string ab is also accepted by this NFA. * and then formalize the concepts of acceptance of . if it moves to state 2 and no more inputs are given. If any other strings are given to this NFA.Operation of NFA Let us see how an automaton operates when some inputs are applied to it. it does not accept any of them. Initially it is in state 0. it moves to either state 1 or state 2. then it goes to state 2 and remains there.

1. A > . In general an NFA nondeterministically goes through a number of states from the state q as it reads the symbols in the string w. Thus for an NFA < Q . ya ) = In the definition. the Basis Clause says that an NFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the set of states NFA can reach after reading string ya starting at state q is the set of states it can reach by reading symbol a after reading string y starting at state q. q0 . any string y * and any symbol a ( q . a) ) For example consider the NFA with the following transition table: . ) = { q }. the function * :Q -> 2Q is defined recursively as follows: * Definition of *: Basis Clause: For any state q of Q. *( q . where * denotes the empty .3} 0 b {2} 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b {1} {3} {3} (q. * (q. w ) is the set of states that the NFA can reach when it reads the string w starting at the state q. . . Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q.Language Accepted by NFA Subjects to be Learned • • • for NFA Language accepted by NFA Properties of * * Definition of * For a state q and string w. Example State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {0. string.

a ) = ( 0 . 1 . ) = { 0 } . b ) for all p * ( 0 . 3}.The transition diagram for this NFA is as given below. Hence *( 0 .b)={2} {3} {1}={1. . Then * * ( 0 . Suppose that the state 3 is an accepting state of this NFA.b) (3. ) again by the Inductive * Clause of the definition of . b ) (1. ab ) is the union of the definition of * . a ) by the Inductive Clause of * Now *( 0 . *( 0 . Hence *( 0 . ab ) can be calculated as follows: ( p. By the Basis Clause of the definition of *. ab ) = ( 0 .2. a ) = { 0 . a ) is the union of ( p. 3 } . a ) for all p ( 0 . ( 0 .

if and only if it can reach an accepting state by reading x starting at the initial state. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 . q0. ab. The language accepted by an NFA < Q. . . * . and for NFA has properties similar to that for DFA. x ) A is not empty. . that is. xy ) = These theorems can be proven in a manner similar to those for Theorems 1 and 2 for DFA. for an NFA < Q . q0 . q0. aaa. A > is the set of strings that are accepted by the NFA.a) for an NFA < Q . .A Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >. . .* We say that a string x is accepted by an NFA < Q. . . . A > if and only if * ( q0 . abbbb etc. A > . Some of the strings accepted by the NFA given above are the language it accepts is a*( ab + a + ba )(bb)* .a)= (q. a. * ( q . * (q.

Basically an NFA with -Transitions is an NFA but can respond to an empty string and move to the next state. Here we are going to formally define NFA with -Transitions (abbreviated as NFA. Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton with Let Q be a finite set and let -Transitions be a function from Q be a finite set of symbols.there is a NFA (hence DFA) which accepts the same language and vice versa. q0 .makes the transition without reading any symbol in the input. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. the transition function. We are going to do that by showing that a finite automaton can be constructed from a given regular expression by combining simpler FAs using union. . Then a nondeterministic finite automaton with -Transitions is a 5-tuple < Q . These operations on FAs can be described conveniently if -Transitions are used.A> Notes on the definition 1. Note that any NFA is also a NFA. Thus the tape head does not move when is read. 2. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. Also let { } to 2Q . . A transition on reading means that the NFA. concatenation and Kleene star operations.. . As we are going to see later. We call the elements of Q a state.) and see some examples.Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata with Transitions Subjects to be Learned • • • - Nondeterministic finite automata with State transition diagram State transition table -Transitions Contents One of the objectives of this chapter is to show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between regular languages and finite automata. for any NFA.

following table. 5 }. for example. 4. there are no transitions on reading b except from state 3. A = . the initial state is 0 and is as shown in the State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 0 {4} 1 {2} 2 { 3. 4 } 3 {5} 3 b {4} 4 a {5} (q. 1. 2. Thus 4 is the only state you can go to from the initial state . 2. a) ) Here the transitions to are omitted from the table. 3. 3. 4 and 5 without reading any symbol on the tape. When a symbol a is read at the initial state 0. then you come to state 4. For once you are in state 1. 3. you can go to state 2. for example. = { a. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. For though you go to states 1.Example of NFA- Q = { 0. If you read string ab. b }. 4 and 5 by reading a. it can move to any of the states other than 0.

by reading ab.

**Language Accepted by NFASubjects to be Learned
**

• • • •

**-closure for NFALanguage accepted by NFAProperties of *
**

*

Contents

To formally define * for NFA- , we start with the concept of -closure for a state which is the set of states reachable from the state without reading any symbol. Using that concept we define * and then strings and languqges accepted by NFA- . Definition of -closure

Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA- . Let us denote the -closure of a set S of states of Q by ( S ). Then ( S ) is defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: S (S)

Inductive Clause: For any state q of Q, if q ( S ) , then ( q , ) (S). Extremal Clause: Nothing is in ( S ) unless it is obtained by the above two clauses.

For the NFAFirst { 2 }

of the above figure, ( { 2 } ) , that is, 2 (2, )

( { 2 } ) is obtained as follows: ( { 2 } ) . Then since 2 ( { 2 } ) , by the

Inductive Clause, Since (2,

({2}). ({2}).

) = { 3 , 4 }, we now have { 2 , 3 , 4 }

Since 3 and 4 have been added to

({2}),

(3,

) = { 5 } and

(4,

)=

must

be included in ( { 2 } ) . Thus now { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } ({2}). Though 5 has become a memeber of the closure, since ( 5 , ) is empty, no new members are added to ( { 2 } ) . Since ( q , ) has been examined for all the states currently in ( { 2 } ) and no more elements are added to it, this process of generating the closure terminates and ( { 2 } ) = { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } is obtained. As we can see from the example, ( S ) is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S by traversing any number of arcs. That is, it is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S without reading any symbols in . Now with this -closure, we can define

*

recursively as follows:

As in the cases of DFA and NFA, * gives the result of applying the transition function repeatedly as dictated by the given string. Definition of

* *

is going to be defined recursively. Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA-

.

**Basis Clause: For any state q of Q,
**

*

(q,

)=

({q}).

*

Inductive Clause: For any state q, a string y in

and a symbol a in

,

*

( q , ya ) =

(

).

What the Inductive Clause means is that *( q , ya ) is obtained by first finding the states that can be reached from q by reading y ( *( q , y ) ), then from each of those states p by reading a (i.e. by finding ( p , a ) ), and then by reading 's ( i.e. by taking the closure of the ( p , a )'s ) . Example : For the NFAbelow: of the following figure,

*

( 0 , ab ) can be obtained as

First let us compute *( 0 , a ) . For that we need ( { 0 } ). Since it is the set of states reached by traversing the arcs from state 0, ( { 0 } ) = {0,3,4}. Next from each of the states in ( { 0 } ) we read symbol a and move to another state (i.e. apply ). They are ( 0 , a ) = { 1 } , ( 3 , a ) = ( 4 , a ) = { 5 }. Hence We then traverse the } ) = { 1 , 2 , 3 } and = { 1 , 5 } for q = 0 . arcs from { 1 , 5 } to get to the states in *( 0 , a ) . Since * ({5})={5}, (0,a)={1,2,3,5}.

({1

and ( 2 . ab ) = { 3 . For example the NFAof the figure given above accepts the language { . x ) contains at least one accepting state.that recognizes a language L.. Thus Since ( { 4 } ) = { 3 . b ) are empty sets. . *( 0 . ( 3 . . . NFAs and NFAto NFA 1 Conversion of NFA- Let M1 = < Q1 . a ) and then take the arcs from there. q1. q0 . a . 4 } .s Subjects to be Learned • • • Conversion of NFA.0 .Then to find *( 0 . b ) and ( 5 . .0 . . A2 > that satisfies the following conditions recognizes L: . Now ( 1 . NFA M2 = < Q2. Equivalence of DFAs. ab ) read b from each of the states in *( 0 . Then the 2 . A string x is accepted by an NFA. . NFAs and NFA. ab } .< Q . A1 > be an NFA. 4 } . The language accepted by an NFA.to (equivalent) NFA Conversion of NFA to (equivalent) DFA Equivalence of DFAs. . A > if and only if *( q0 . q0 . q2. b ) = { 4 } . A > is the set of strings accepted by the NFA.< Q . b ) .

then all the accepting states of M1 plus state q1. q2. . A1 > does.0 = q1. . since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) . The closure of the set of those states is 2( q . Example 1: Let us convert the following NFAto NFA. . The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0. q1. q2.0 through arcs in M1 . Then from the transition function of the NFA- . Thus to obtain an NFA M2 = < Q2. 2.M1 = < Q1 . 1 } . 3 ).0 are the accepting states of M2 . The transition function 2 is obtained as follows: 2( 0 . Otherwise. that is if an accepting state can be reached from the initial state q1. a ) as follows: Find ( {q} ).0 } ) A1 = A1 otherwise . a ) = 1 * (q.a)= ( ) A2 = A1 { q1.Q2 = Q1. 2 ( q.0 . 1. Then for each state q of Q2 and each symbol a of find 2 ( q . that is all the states that can be reached from q by traversing arcs. a ): First ( { 0 } ) = { 0 . Then collect all the states that can be reached from each state of ( {q} ) by traversing one arc labeled with the symbol a.0 . The set of accepting states A2 is the same as A1 if no accepting states can be reached from the initial state q1.0 through arcs in M1 . the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. a ) .0. as the given NFA. 2 first copy the states of Q1 into Q2. A2 > which accepts the same language 1 .0 } if ( { q1.

3} {1.b)= 1 ( 1. b ) .2}. 2 (0.( 0 . b ) = .2} {1. )(= ( {1. 1 } and 1 (0. 2 }. a ) = .b)= Similarly 2 can be obtained for other states and symbols.2})={1. (q.2} The NFA thus obtained is shown below.1} {0.3} {1.1} {1} {1} {2} {2} {1. and Hence 2( 0 . .2} {1.2} {1. since ( { 0 } ) = { 0 . 1 For . ({1.3} {3} {1. a ) = { 1 . a ) = 1 ( 1 .2} )) ({q}) {0.2} {1. They are given in the table ( { q } ) and 2 below together with State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b a b . 2 ( 0 .

4} {1. 1 ( p . 2 is given in the table below together with ( { q } ) . 4 ). 2.Example 2: Let us convert the following NFA- to NFA. 3.1} {0.4} {1. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0. ) and State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 a b a b a b a b a ({q}) {0. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0.3} {3} {3} {1.4} {1.4} {1. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) . 1.2.3} {1.2} {4} {4} {4} {1.3} {2.2.3} .2.2} 2 (q.3} )) {1.1} {1} {1} {2. )(= ( {1. The transition function 2 is obtained as for Example 1.2} {1.

4} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. Proof of Equivalence of NFA- and NFA We are going to prove that the NFA obtained from NFAby the conversion algorithm accepts the same language as the NFA. .4 b {1.

(q. 1 . 1 * (q.w). q1.(1) .a). 1 * (q. A2 > (q. . A1 > and 2 NFA obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. wa ) --. it implies that NFAM1 and NFA M2 accept the same non-empty strings.a)= 2 2 * (q . then * 1 ( q . (q. a ) --.w)= 2 * ( q . Secondly 2 * (q.a).0 . Hence (q. then assuming it holds for any arbitrary string w we prove it for any of the children of w. wa ) = 2 * ( q . First we are going to prove that To review the definition of * 1 * .a). wa ) = --. w ) for any non-empty string w. Claim 1: For any non-empty string w and for any state q.. that is wa for any symbol a in the alphabet. --. Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. We are going to prove it by showing that both of them are equal to Firstly 2( q . )={q}. for NFA. . w ) for an arbitrary string w (Induction Hypothesis). Basis Step: We need to show that for any symbol a in 1 * (q.a).a)= 2 ( q . .a)= 2 * 2 (q. a ) = 1*( q . and NFA- When it is proven. q2. a ) .NFA- that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 . = = 2 * 2 (q . .w)= 2 * ( q . Inductive Step: We need to show that if 1 * (q.w)= 2 * (q.(2) . = 1 * Then we show that ( q . wa ) holds for any arbitrary symbol a in First we show that using the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q .(1) because of the way NFA is constructed from NFA(click here for a review) .a)= 2 * (q. a)= by the definition of Since * 2 * for NFA (click here for a review) . and the conversion of NFAto NFA click here. Thus we first prove that it is true for any arbitrary symbol.(2) Hence from (1) and (2). Recall that the set of strings is defined recursively (click here for a quick review). The case when w is an empty string is going to be proven separately.0 . . the induction hypothesis and the construction of NFA from NFA.

wa ) = 2 * ( q . wa ) = 2 * ( q . ( q . w ) by the induction hypothesis. Hence we have proven (2). wa ) . wa ) . Hence On the other hand = Hence 1 * = ( q . wa ) = Since 2 * (q.basically using the definition of Then from (1) and (2) we can see that 1 * 1 * . that is (1) has been proven. This can be shown to be equal to . . The right hand side of this equality is equal to ( the first and have been swapped to get this) . 1 * Thus from (1) and (2) ( q .a)= 1 * ( q . Hence 2 * ( q . wa ) . as proven below in Claim 3. wa ) . By the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . that is By the definition of 1 * = 1 * 1 * ( q . by the definition of 1 * . Let us next prove (2).a)= Substituting this into the left hand side of (2) produces = . = 1*( q . wa ) = . Let us first prove (1). wa ) . . = Since 2 (q. To see an explanation for this click here. because = . . for NFA- (p.w)= 1 * ( q . a ) by the way NFA is constructed from NFA= .

Hence is accepted by NFA. As a preparation for the proof of commutativity of union and -closure operations. Hence by the way A2 is constructed. let us prove the following claim. What Part 1 states is that all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in the set (S) (T). then its childen also have it. then ( q . ) (X).End of Induction With this Claim 1 we can see that any non-empty string w is accepted by NFA if and only if it is accepted by the corresponding NFA. Inductive Clause: If q ( X ) . in the Basis Step of our proof we prove the property for the elements of the basis of (S T ) and in the Inductive Step we prove that if an arbitrary element of (S T ) has that property. Then the -closure of X is defined recursively as Basis Clause: X (X). A2 . Claim 2: (S T)= (S) (T).. q20 Conversely if NFAis accepted by NFA. Let X be the set of states of an NFA. if it is accepted by an NFA. Let us review the definition of the -closure of the set of states of an NFA. then ( { q10 } ) A1 . Extremal Clause: Nothng is in ( X ) unless it is obtained by the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Part 1 : (S T) (S) (T) This is going to be proven by induction on (S T). then q20 this means that Thus NFA( { q10 } ) A1 A2 . We are going to prove this in two parts: (S T) (S) (S) (T) ( T ) and (S T). . and the corresponding NFA accept the same language. Hence is accepted by NFA. Since (S T ) is defined recursively. As for the empty string . By the way NFA is constructed from . For that let us restate the statement so that the induction becomes clearer.

Hence ) Similarly if q Hence if q is an arbitrary element of (S) (T).Proof of Part 1: Basis Step: We need to prove that ( S Since S ( S ) and T T) (S) (S) (S (S) (S) (T).q ( S ) or q ( S ) . Inductive Step: We need to prove that for an arbitrary element q in ( S ) . (S T ) with the property of being in (S) ( T ) . (S) (T). and ( S T) (S T). then (q. ) (S) (T). Since q If q ( S ) . ) Let q be an arbitrary element of T ) with the property of being in ( S ) by the definition of ( T ) . ( T ) . (T). T T). Hence (T). ( T ) . That would imply that Proof of (S) (S By induction on (S T): (S). S and T are subsets of (S T) Inductive Step: We need to prove that if q is an arbitrary element of the property of being in (S) (S ( T ) . then (q. ) (S) (S) (T). then ( q . (q. Basis Step: We need to show that S Since S (S T ) . End of Proof for Part 1 Part 2 : Proof of Part 2: We are going to prove (S) (S (S) T ) and (S) (T) (T) (T) (S (S (S T). T). if q is in .S (S T). (T) Thus all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in (S T) which is to say that (S) (T). then (q. ) (S) (T). ) . T ) with (T).

then Hence Inductive Step: Assume that ( ( Si ) = Si ) = ( Si ) holds for n = 1. Thus (S) (S T ) has been proven. ( Si ) = ( Si ) = ( S1 ) and ( S1 ) . End of Proof of Part 2 End of Proof of Claim 2 Claim 3: ( Si ) = ( Si ) . Basis Step: n = 1. ) (S T). ) (S closure T). If n = 1. by the definition of (q.(S Since q is in (S T ) and since (S T ) . (S T ) holds. since = ( Equivalence of NFA and DFA We are going to prove that the DFA obtained from NFA by the conversion algorithm . Si is a set as well as Sn+1. Si ) by the definition of union.Inducion Hypothesis ( Si ) = ( = = (( Si ) ( ( Si ) ) Si ) ( Sn+1 ) by the definition of union. Proof : Proof by induction on n. ( Sn+1 ) by the induction hypothesis. ( Si ) holds for n. Similarly Hence (S) (T) (T) (S T ) holds. End of Proof for Claim 3 Sn+1 ) by Claim 2 above. --. - T ) is a -closure. then (q.

obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. A1 > and DFA . w ) for any string w. q2.0 . --- For the string w and an arbitrry symbol a in 1 * .0 . it obviously implies that NFA M1 and DFA M2 accept the same strings. = { q1. w ) for an arbitrary string w. 1 * ( q1. w ) . Kleene's Theorem --.Part 1 Subjects to be Learned • • • • Union of FAs Concatenation of FAs Kleene Star of FAs Acceptance of regular languages by FAs Contents .0 by the definition of 2* .0 . w ) = 2 * ( q2. = * 1 ( q1. w ) .0 . w ) = 2 * ( q2. a ) ( q2. When it is proven. w ) = 2 * ( q2. wa ) = = = = 2 ( 1 2 * * ( q1. . ( q2.0 . Theorem: For any string w.0 .0 . 2 1 . ) = q2.0 . ( q1. w ) = 2*( q2.0 . a ) 2( * 2 ( q2. w ) . q1. wa ) * 1 Thus for any string w ( q1.0 . A2 > First we are going to prove by induction on strings that 1*( q1.0 . NFA that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 .0 . ) by the definition of 1 * .0 . Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w.accepts the same language as the NFA.0 . Basis Step: For w = 2 * . w ) holds. Inductive Step: Assume that Induction Hypothesis 1 * ( q1.0 .0 . .0 } by the construction of DFA M2 .

We assume that Q1 Q2 = without loss of generality since states can be renamed if necessary. A2 > .0 . Since any regular language is obtained from { } and { a } for any symbol a in by using union. c . that together with the Basis Step would prove the theorem. qk. q2. . concatenation and Kleene star operations. qu.Kleene's theorem. Theorem 1 (Part 1 of Kleene's theorem): Any regular language is accepted by a finite automaton. Inductive Step: We are going to show that for any languages L1 and L2 if they are accepted by FAs. Proof: This is going to be proven by (general) induction following the recursive definition of regular language.{ } and { a } for any symbol a in are accepted by an FA. L1L2 and L1* are accepted by FAs.0 is a state which is neither in Q1 nor in Q2 . Qu = Q1 Q2 . . where qu. 1 .0 . u Mu = < Qu . q1. qu.0 . Basis Step: As shown below the languages . 2 . Au > : { qu. . k . . It states that any regular language is accepted by an FA and conversely that any language accepted by an FA is regular. A1 > and M2 = < Q2 .0 .0 . u L2 .0 . qc. . Ak > . Mc . . respectively.0 } . . then L1 L2 . Suppose that L1 and L2 are accepted by FAs M1 = < Q1 . which are given below. Then L1 = < Qc . respectively. Ac > and Mk = < Q2 . Au > . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by the FAs Mu = < Qu .

. u ) = { q1.0 .0 } ) | q A1 } Ak = { qk.0 } = 1 { (qk.0 } . Ak > : { qk.0 = q1.u = 1 2 { (qu. { q1. q2. k .0.0 . { qk.0 c = 1 2 { (q.0. Qk = Q1 k . a ) = for all a in . q2. that is u (qu.0 } ) } { (q.0 . . .0 } ) } . These NFA- s are illustrated below.0. . . where qk.0 } ) | q A1 } Ac = A2 Mk = < Qk . Au = A1 A2 Mc = < Qc . qk. { q1.0 is a state which is not in Q1 . . Ac > : Qc = Q1 Q2 qc.0 } . c . qc.0.0 . { q2. Note that (qu.

respectively. Mu. L1L2 and L1*. Mc and Mk . . End of Proof Examples of Mu . Mc and Mk: Example 1: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression (aa + b)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above.It can be proven. though we omit proofs. in fact accept L1 L2 . that these NFA.s .

.Example 2: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression ((a + b)a*)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above.

Kleene's Theorem -.Part 2 .

k)L(k+1. then from k+1 to q. k) the set of strings representing paths from state p to state q that go through only states numbered no higher than k. . 2. k) L(p. then from k+1 to k+1 any number of times. q. L(p. k+1. k+1) = L(p. Before proceeding to a proof outline for the converse. Lemma 1: L(p. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. k)*L(k+1. It states that any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. q. q. q. Then the following lemmas hold. all without passing through states labeled higher than k. Next denote by L(p. See the figure below for the illustration. q. q. k)*L(k+1. let us study a method to compute the set of strings accepted by a finite automaton. k) : The set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled wiht k or lower numbers.Subjects to be Learned • Languages accepted by FAs are regular Contents The converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem also holds true. Given a finite automaton. Note that paths may go through arcs and vertices any number of times. first relabel its states with the integers 1 through n. k) : The set of strings going first from p to k+1. k) . k+1. L(p. k+1. k)L(k+1. What this lemma says is that the set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled with k+1 or lower numbers consists of the following two sets: 1. k+1.

q. 0) is regular. >From Lemmas 1 and 2 by induction the following lemma holds. Since the number of symbols is finite and since any finite language is regular. 0) is regular. Theorem 2 (Part 2 of Kleene's Theorem): Any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. then is in it as well as the strings representing any loops at p (they are all single symbols). n) over all accepting states q. Since the language accepted by a finite automaton is the union of L(q0. q. Example : Let us find the language accepted by the following finite automaton using the . k) is regular for any states p and q and any natural number k. q. L(p. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. If p = q. Lemma 3: L(p. then it consists of single symbols representing arcs from p to q. q. Proof: L(p.Lemma 2: L(p. 0) is the set of strings representing paths from p to q without passing any states in between. we have the following converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem. q. Hence if p and q are different.

3. 1) = r(2. r(1.0) + r(1. 3. 1. r(1.0)*r(1. 3. 3.1. r(2. 3.0)*r(1. since r(1.lemmas.2.1.1. 2): r(3.1. 2) = r(1. 1. since r(3.1. 1)*r(2.0)r(1. 2) = r(1.1.0) = ba+ . 2)r(3. 1)r(2. 2. 1.0)r(1. 3. 2) = a* + a+(b a+)*b a* . 2.0) = a* . 1.0) = ba+ + . 1. 1)r(2. k). 1.0)*r(1. 2) = r(3.2. 3. 2): r(1.1. 1.0) = a .1. 1) r(1. 1) = a Hence r(1.1. r(1. 1) r(1. 1. 1) = r(2.0)*r(1. 2. 1) = r(1.2. 1)*r(2. 1) + r(3. 2)*r(3. Let us denote by r(p.1. 2): r(1.0) + r(1. By Lemma 1.1. . 1)r(2. Hence r(1. Then the language accepted by this NFA is r(1. 2.0) + r(2. 1) = r(2.1. 1) + r(1. 1) r(3. 3. k) the regular expression for the set of strings L(p.2.2. since r(2. 2. 1) + r(1. 2. 3.0)r(1. 2.1.1.0)*r(1. 2) .0) = and r(2. 1. 1. 2. 3. since r(1. r(2.0) = a + . r(1. 1)*r(2. 3. 1) = r(1.1.0) + r(3. 2) + r(1.0) = ba* . 1) = r(3. 3) = r(1. )*a r(3. 3. 3.0) = b. 3). q.2. 2. 2) = a+(b a+ + = a+(b a+ )*a .0) = a+ .0) = b .0)r(1.2.2.0)r(1. 3. 1.1.2. 1) = r(3.0) = and r(3.1. q.0) + r(2.

. 1) = r(3. where p is the initial state and n is the number of states in the given finite automaton. q0 . 1.1. then to (a + ab)*. 1. 1. 2) = r(3. 1.1. 2): r(3. 1.0) + r(3.Hence r(3. 2) = ba* + ba+( ba+ + = ( ba+ )*ba* . q0 .1. q. and all the r(p. )*ba* + ( ba+)+a )*( ba+ )*ba*. that is Mc = < Q . Hence r(1. . Then a DFA that accepts the complement of L. . .L .1. Comlement and Intersection of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • • Complement of Regular Language Complement of DFA Intersection of Regular Languages Contents Complement Let M = < Q .e. 2. n)'s must be added together to get the regular expression for the language accepted by the automaton. In this example there is only one accepting state. 1. n) must be found for each accepting state q. 1) + r(3. If there are more accepting states.0)<SUP*< SUP>r(1. 1)r(2. 3) = a* + a+(b a+)*ba* + ( a+( ba+ )*a )( This can be further simplified to (a + ab + abb)*. i.0) = ba* Hence r(3. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. can be obtained by swapping its accepting states with its non-accepting states. q.L. 2) = = + ( ba+)+a + ba+( ba+ + )*a r(3. . 2. * . Q . then r(p. 3. 1. 1)*r(2.0)r(1.A > is a DFA that accepts * . 1) r(3. The detail is left as an exercise though it would be quite challenging.

b }. A DFA that accepts its complement is obtained from the above DFA by changing all single circles to double circles and vice versa as shown below. . Remark 1: If we have NFA rather than DFA. the complement of a regular language is also regular. Remark 2: Since a language is regular if and only if it is accepted by some NFA.For example the following DFA accepts the language a+ over = { a . we must first convert it to DFA before swapping states to get its complement.

L1 L2 is regular.Regular Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Regular Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Production and Grammar Regular Grammar Context-Free. Test Your Understanding of Complemnent and Intersection of FAs Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Context-Sensitive and Phrase Structure Grammars . difference. Therefore all the properties of sets are inherited by languages. then Submit. In particular De Morgan's law also applies to languages. if L1 and L2 are regular languages. Since L1 L2 = by De Morgan's law. Next -. Thus summing all this up we can say that the set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed with respect to union. intersection. Click True or Fals . By Remark 2 above. then their complements are regular languages. concatenation and Kleene star operations.Intersection of Regular Languages Langauges are sets.

regular. . These rules mean that S is rewritten as a or as aS. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. S corresponds to the initial state. the fact that aa is obtained from S is written as S =>* aa . A production has in general the form -> . We write S => aS to express that aS is obtained from S by applying a single production. a start symbol S. Then apply the first rule to aS to rewrite S as a. Then for every production X -> aY. To generate the string aa for example. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals with at least one nonterminal in it and is a string of terminals and nonterminals. } .Contents We have learned three ways of characterising regular languages: regular expressions.e.e. finite automata and construction from simple languages using simple operations. add the transition ( X. then we simply write =>* Formally a grammar consists of a set of nonterminals (or variables) V. That gives us aa. b}. . } can be generated This can be proven by constructing an FA for the given grammar as follows: For each nonterminal create a state. that is a production is of the form X -> a or X -> aY. A grammar is regular if and only if is a single nonterminal and is a single terminal or a single terminal followed by a single nonterminal. A grammar is a set of rewrite rules which are used to generarte strings by successively rewriting symbols. aa. For example consider the language represented by a+. a ) = Y and for every production X -> a add the transition ( X. which is { a. aaa. Add another state as the accepting state Z. a ) = Z. = {a. to obtain aS. If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. Rewrite S using one of the following two rules: S -> a . where X and Y are nonterminals and a is a terminal. Thus the process of obtaining aa from S is written as S => aS => aa . Theorem 3: A language L is accepted by an FA i.{ by a regular grammar. start with S and apply the second rule to replace S with the right hand side of the rule. aS. S -> bS. S -> } is a regular grammar and it generates all the strings consisting of a's and b's including the empty string. . a set of terminals (the alphabet of the language). which ia a nonterminal. For example. If there is no is derived from ambiguity about the grammar G that is referred to. that is by something called grammar. and a set of rewrite rules (productions) P. In general if a string a grammar G. if L . One can generate the strings of this language by the following procedure: Let S be a symbol to start the process with. and S -> aS . i. . There is yet another way of characterizing them. The following theorem holds for regular grammars. we write =>*G is obtained from a string and say that by applying productions of .

Z } . q0 > is obtained as follows: for any a in . . Y -> bS.e. a) = Y for some accepting state Y. L = Conversely from any NFA < Q. X -> aY is in P if and only if (X. and for any a in and any nonterminal X. An NFA that recognizes this language can be obtained by creating two states S and Z. a) = Y .{ } is regular. X -> aY. S > . b ) = { S. where S is the initial state and Z is the accepting state of the NFA. If L contains ( L -{ } ) { } is also regular. where Q = { S. X -> bS. . b}. .For example = {a. The NFA thus obtained is shown below. a regular grammar corresponding to the NFA given below is < Q. Thus the following converse of Theorem 3 is obtained. Z } and ( S. and nonterminals X and Y. then L . q0. X. S -> a }. Y } . P. A > a regular grammar < Q.{ regular grammar. a ) = { S. Theorem 4 : If L is regular i. } is generated by a For example. X -> a is in P if and only if (X. S -> aX. accepted by an NFA. S -> bS. b }. S -> b } form a regular grammar which generates the language ( a + b )+. P. as its member. Thus L . and adding transitions ( S. then since { } is regular . . P = { S -> aS. S -> a. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. { a.

As we shall see later this is an example of context-free language which is not regular. Y. . context-sensitive languages and phrase structure languages. A grammar is a context-free grammar if and only if its production is of the form X -> . S1 -> XYZS1. 2 and are strings of terminals and nonterminals. that is the set of regular languages is a subset of the set of context-free languages which is in turn a subset of the set of context-sensitive languages and the set of context-sensitive languages is a subset of the set of phrase structure languages. A grammar is a context-sensitive grammar if and only if its production is of the form 1 X 2 -> 1 2 . bZ -> bc. They are characterized by context-free grammars. S -> ab } with = { a. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals. for every production -> . For example P = { S -> aSb. For example P = { S -> XYZS1. ZX -> XZ. respectively. possibly empty except Thus the nonterminal X can be rewritten as only in the context of 1X 2 . Context-sensitive grammars are also characterized by productions whose left hand side is not longer than the right hand side. aX -> aa. S1 -> XYZ. It is an example of context-sensitive language which is not context-free. S -> XYZ. context-sensitive grammars and phrase structure grammars. S1 } is a context-sensitive grammar and it generates the language { anbncn | n is a positive integer } . Z. possibly the empty string. X -> a. c } and V = { X. These grammars are distinguished by the kind of productions they have but they also form a hierarchy.| | | |. where X is a nonterminal and . BY -> bb. b } and V = { S } is a contex-free grammar and it generates the language { anbn | n is a positive integer } . YX -> XY. aY -> ab. that is. b. 1 . S.In addition to regular languages there are three other types of languages in Chomsky hierarchy : context-free languages. cZ -> cc } with = { a. ZY -> YZ.

new := new_partition( . that is a production of a phrase structure grammar can take the form can be any string.For a phrase structure grammar. Next -. that has the smallest number of states amomg the DFAs that accept L. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. q0 .A } of the set of states Q . . then Submit. there is no restriction on the form of production. denote it by M1. }. . Minimization Algorithm for DFA Construct a partition = { A.Minimization of DFA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Minimization of DFA One important result on finite automata. -> . Click True or Fals . There are two sets of questions. Q . where and Test Your Understanding of Regular Grammar Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Let M = < Q . both theoretically and practically. is that for any regular language there is a unique DFA having the smallest number of states that accepts it. Then the following algorithm produces the DFA.

Let us also denote by p and q the sets of states of the original DFA M represented by p and q. p and q make a transition to (states of) the same set of . . These representatives are states of minimum DFA M1. states of minimum DFA M1. Example 1 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. if there are any. Remove from M1 the dead states and the states not reachable from the start state. Any transitions to a dead state become undefined. Note that the sets of final are either a subset of A or disjoint from A. S remains in the output partition. then the minimum DFA M1 has a transition from p to q on symbol a. The subsets thus formed are sets of the output partition in place of S. final function new_partition( ) for each set S of do partition S into subsets such that two states p and q of S are in the same subset of S if and only if for each input symbol. The accepting states of M1 are representatives that are in A.while ( := new new ) ) . respectively. If S is not partitioned in this process. If a transition from s to t on symbol a exists in M. Let p and q be representatives i. end Minimum DFA M1 is constructed from • • final as follows: • • Select one state in each set of the partition final as the representative for the set. new := new_partition( := . The start state of M1 is the representative which contains the start state of M. A state is a dead state if it is not an accepting state and has no out-going transitions except to itself.e. Let s be a state in p and t a state in q.

5 }. states 3 and 4 are going to be separated from each other in new. in the When new_partition is applied to this new . Since on b state 2 goes to state 1. Select 1 as the representative for { 1 . Thus final = { { 1 . 2 and 4 are separated from each other in new. Since the rest of the states are singletons. { 3 } . since on b 2 goes to 1. they have the obvious representatives. Also since on a sate 4 goes to sate 4. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 1 to 3 on a. all transitions between them are inherited for the minimized DFA. { 4 ] }. and from 3 to 1 on a. since 1 and 5 do the same transitions. 5 } . and 3 goes to 1 on a in the original DFA. since 1 goes to 3 on a. { 2 . For the transitions. { 2 } . . state 3 goes to state 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . { 4 ] }. 5 } . state 3 goes to state 5 and 4 and 5 are in different sets in . So they are not going to be split. On the other hand 1 and 5 make the same transitions.Initially = { { 1 . new_partition is applied to . and to 2 on b in the original DFA. 5 } . { 2 } . Thus the set of states for the minimized DFA is { 1 . { 3 } . 3 }. 4 } }. 3 . states 2 and 3 are going to be separated from each other in new . Since the rest are singletons. 4 goes to 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . and 1 to 2 on b. 2 . Thus the new partition is { { 1 . Note here that state 4 is a dead state because the only transitionout of it is to itself. remains unchanged. Further. This becomes the second iteration. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 2 to 1 on b. Also since 2 goes to 1 on b.

.Thus the minimized DFA is as given in the following figure: Example 2 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA.

{ 1 . { 4 } . By applying new_partition to this . then Submit. { 6 } } is obtained. Click True or Fals . 5 } .Initially = { { 3 } . { 1 . Test Your Understanding of Minimization of DFA Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. 4 } . { 2 . { 6 } } is obtained. 2 . { 3 } . Applyting new_partition to this . Next -. { 2 } . { 1 . { 5 } . new = { { 3 } . 4 . 4 .Application of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Application of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Reactive system . 6 } }. 6 } } is obtained. { 5 } . Thus the number of states of the given DFA is already minimum and it can not be reduced any further. Applyting new_partition again. new = { { 3 } . new = { { 1 } . 5 . { 2 } .

For example consider the following very simplified version of login process to a computer from the computer point of view. first the states the system goes in or the modes of its operation are identified. It is generally agreed that finite automata are a natural medium to describe dynamic behaviors of reactive systems. on the other hand. outputs and conditions/status in response to stimuli from within or outside it. Many other systems operating in practice can also be modeled by finite automata such as control circuits of computers. An adder does not respond unless the input i. Then the transitions between the states triggered by events and conditions. A system such as an adder is called a transformational system. external or internal to the system. Many of those systems fall into the class of systems called reactive system. To model a reactive system with finite automaton. two numbers to be added are ready. are identified and they become arcs in the transition diagram of the finite automaton. lexical analysers for compilers etc. In the case of vending machine or communication protocol. It is an event driven or control driven system continuously having to react to external and/or internal stimuli. The inputs for a reactive system are never ready unlike for example when two numbers are added together by an adder (Here we are considering an adder at a higher level of abstraction than physical devices level ignoring for example the transient states of the electronic circuit that realizes an adder). Let us assume for simplicity that this computer accepts a single user at a time.• Modeling reactive systems with FA Contents We have seen an example of use of finite automata in describing the operation of a simplified version of vending machine. even to a fragment of input such as each coin tossed in for a can of soda or every message received. . Finite automata are formal and rigorous and computer programs can be easily written to simulate their behaviors. A reactive system is a system that changes its actions. In addition actions that may take place in those states can also be added to the model. a system must respond to each stimulus. These become the states of the finite automaton that models it. computer network communication protocols.e.

it goes back to the initial state and waits for another RFNM to come. When a password is typed in and it is correct. If a positive ACK is received. it goes into the state of receiving it (Our interpretation is that the computer is in a state of receiving an RFNM and it is taking the action of receiving the RFNM) . which is another state. it starts sending the requested message to the other party. Depending on how much detail we are interested in. receiving RFNM. That is another state though it could further be broken down into a number of more states. it sends "Acknowledgement" (ACK) to the other computer. When the session terminates. it checks whether or not the name is valid. it gets a signal. If the user name typed in is not valid. then it accepts the user and starts a session. it goes back to the initial state. sending ACK. If the second password fails. Again it is a very simplified version. This is one state of the system. That is a fourth state. The next example is a protocol for a computer to follow in communicating with another computer. Initially the computer is in wait state waiting for "Request for Next Message" (RFNM) to come from another computer. Again what we have seen is a model for one level of abstraction.Initially the computer waits for a user name to be typed in. When a RFNM starts coming. Thus a finite automaton that models this protocol has the following five states: initial state (wait for RFNM). If a negative ACK is received. . then it informs the user of that and waits for the next try. We could make it go to a different state and count the number of login attempts for security purpose. it resends the message. sending message and waiting for ACK. If the password typed in is incorrect. goes back to the initial state and waits for another login. If it is valid. which is another state. then it asks for and then waits for the password. When it is complete. different states and transitions would have to be chosen. After sending the ACK. When a name is typed in. Again depending on the level of abstraction. But let us make it simple. it goes to the initial state and starts all over again. it goes into another wait state waiting for an ACK to come from the other computer. different states would be identified and transitions would have to be selected accrdingly. Upon completion of the RFNM.

If a decimal point is read while in D. respectively and d {0. One such system initially waits for the first symbol to come in. followed by a possible decimal point. followed by one or more digits. it is in state D. This system can be modeled by the following finite automaton: .+ ) ( d+. then it goes into a state. +213. then it goes to state P indicating that a decimal point has been read.represent the positive and negative signs. . -15. If a decimal point is received before a digit.d+ ).e. then it must receive at least one digit after that.. after reading a digit and stays there as long as digits are read. then it goes into a state.e. it goes into a state. After one digit it can continue receiving digits. If the first digit is received before a decimal point. then it can continue receiving digits and stay in D. If a decimal point has been read (i.378.d+ + d+ + . D is another accepting state. regardless of whether a sign has been read or not. i. they can be represented by the following regular expression: ( s+ + s.Our third example is a system that recognizes numbers with or without a sign such as 5.2. that indicates a digit has been read before a decimal point. . This system can also be described by a regular expression. On the other hand if a digit has been read before a decimal point.1. that indicates that a decimal point has been read. that indicates that a sign has been received. denote it by Q. denote it by D. . 9 } . in state P). This Q is an accepting state. If the first symbol is a sign. Since these numbers are represented by strings consisting of a possible sign. Therefore from state P it goes to another state. followed by zero or more digits.8 etc. denote it by G. denote it by P. where s+ and s.

we can use a general purpose program to simulate its operation. It uses four arrays. called STATEX. keeps the index of the first symbol in the TOKEN array for each state. indicates the actions taken at each state and a fourth. while ( state NO_of_STATES and not End of Input ) index := STATEX [state] .Next -. while ( TOKEN [index] . Another array. holds the next state for each input symbol for each state. called NEXT_STATE. stores for each state the input symbols that trigger transitions from the state. called ACTION. 0 and TOKEN [index] input ) index := index + 1. A third array. Those indices are used to access the contents of the other arrays. One array. One such simulation algorithm is given below. called TOKEN. Algorithm FA Simulator state := INITIAL_STATE. input := read_input( ) .Simulation of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Simulation of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Simulation of FA Contents Once a finite automaton is constructed.

e. Then every time you click "SHOW" the number is processed digit by digit. The corresponding transitions are going to be shown by red arrows in the transition diagram. S corresponds to 1. first click the box pointed by the red arrow in the figure below. So no action is taken as a number is processed. .if ( TOKEN [index] 0) perform the action specified by ACTION [index]. C and H. To see how this algorithm works. empty transitions) are omitted. At the moment it is empty. else error input := read_input( ) . S is the initial state and B and H are accepting states. Then type in a number you want the FA to recognize. first click the box under the red arrow. Tab 4 Tab 5. to input 3. The numbers below NEXT_STATE array show the correspondence between the indices of the STATEX array and the states A. You must hit the "Tab" key to move to the next box. Then type 3 Tab . B. The ACTION array would contain pointers to actions to be taken corresponding to arcs traversed such as converting a digit in BCD form to the corresponding binary number. end Here 0 in the TOKEN array is a marker between states.45. state := NEXT_STATE [index]. In the DFA below all the transitions to the empty state (i. For example.

click here It is extremely slow. So be patient. .If you are also interested in how code is executed.

The main idea behind these test methods is that finite automata have only finite amount of memory in the form of states and that they can not distinguish infinitely many strings. But any finite automaton has only finite number of states. Since a regular language must be recognized by a finite automaton. languages that are not regular and therefore require devices other than finite automata to recognize them. This is the basis of two of the regularity test methods we are going to study below: Myhill-Nerode Theorem and Pumping Lemma. That is the main limitation of finite automata. a and aa are indistinguishable with respect to the language an over alphabet { a }. In this section we are going to study some of the methods for testing given languages for regularity and see some of the languages that are not regular. Thus there is no way for a finite automaton to remember how many a's it has read for all possible strings anbn . For example to recognize the language { anbn | n is a natural number} . we can conclude that { anbn | n is a natural number} is not regular. either xz and yz are both in L or they are both not in L.Nerode Theorem for non-regularity test Pumping Lemma Contents We have learned regular languages.Non-Regular Languages Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Regular Languages Non-Regular Languages Subjects to be Learned • • • Existence of non-regular languages Myhill . their properties and their usefulness for describing various systems. a finite automaton must remember how many a's it has read when it starts reading b's. Non-regularity test based on Myhill-Nerode's theorem Indistinguishability of strings: Strings x and y in * are indistinguishable with respect to a language L if and only if for every string z in *. Thus it must be in different states when it has read different number of a's and starts reading the first b. however. where n is a positive integer. because aak and aaak are in the language an for any .Next -. For example. There are.

a and aa are not indistinguishable (hence distinguishable).positive integer k. Hence L1 is nonregular. Then akbakb is in L2 while ambakb is not in L2 . because ab is in the language anbn while aab is not in the language. (x*y) . For more on Myhill-Nerode theorem click here. This set is infinite . L3 can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: x and y are in L3 . However. It is stated without a proof. b } and it is infinite. that is. Hence L2 is nonregular. then ( + ) and ( * ) are in L3 . Inductive Clause: If and are in L3 . Consider the set of strings S2 which is the same as S1 of Example 1 above. Select bakb as a string to be appended to ak and am . We are going to show that its strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L1. Consider the set of strings S3 = { (k x | k is a positive integer } . x . with respect to the language anbn . Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set S1. Then akbm is not in L1 while ambm is in L1 . It can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L2 as follows. Example 2: L2 = { ww | w {a. Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set. Using this concept of indistinguishability. the following theorem by Myhill and Nerod gives a criterion for (non)regularity of a language. b }* } is nonregular. Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } over alphabet { a . Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. S1 is over alphabet { a . whose strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L. S1 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. where k and m are positive integers and k m . b } can be shown to be nonregular using Myhill-Nerode as follows: Consider the set of strings S1 = { an | n is a positive integer } . Select bm as a string to be appended to ak and am . Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L2 . Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S2. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S1. S2 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. operations + and * and left and right parentheses. Theorem : A language L over alphabet is nonregular if and only if there is an infinite subset of * . Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L1 . where k and m are positive integers and k m . For example. ( ( x + y ) * x ) and (( (x*y) + x ) + (y*y) ) are algebraic expressions. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L3 unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. the set of strings consisting of one or more right parentheses followed by identifier x.

abbabbabbabbb etc. Hence L3 is not regular. where k and m are positive integers and k m . Then (k x + [ + x ) ]k is in L3 but (m x + [ + x ) ]k is not in L3 because the number of ('s is not equal to the number of )'s in the latter string. the resultant strings such as abbb (bba repeated 0 times). Pumping Lemma Let us consider the NFA given below. It . In general if a string w (such as abbabbb in the example above) is accepted by an NFA with n states and if its length is longer than n.and it can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 as follows: Let (k x and (m x be arbitrary two strings of S3 . This NFA accepts among others some strings of length greater than 5 such as abbabbb. Select [ + x ) ]k as a string to be appended to (k and (m . For example [ + x ) ]3 is +x) +x)+x) . For example the string abbabbb is accepted by the NFA and if one of its substrings bba is repeated any number of times in abbabbb. Then the substring representing that cycle (bba in the example) can be repeated any number of times within the string w without being rejected by the NFA. The following theorem which is called Pumping Lemma is based on this observation. are also accepted by the NFA. abbabbabbb etc. abbabbabbb. Those strings which are accepted by this NFA and whose length is greater than 5 have a substring which can be repeated any number of times without being rejected by the NFA. then there must be a cycle in the NFA along some path from the initial state to some accepting state (such as the cycle 2-3-4-2 in the above example). Hence S3 is pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 .

n . and w such that x = uvw. v = ap. |uv| n |v| > 0 . Then there is an FA that accepts L. Hence L is not a regular 0. It is stated without a proof here. then any long enough string of the language has a substring which can be repeated any number of times with the resultant strings still in the language. v. Let n be the number of states of that FA. v and w which satisfy the following relationships: x = uvw |uv| n |v| > 0 and for every integer m 0.states that if a language is regular. Since |v| > 0 . where k is a natural number. and for every m 0. Then uv2w = an-pa2pbn = an+pbn . Also since |uv| Let us now consider the string uvmw for m = 2. n + p language L represented by akbk . let us prove that the language L = akbk is nonregular. Consider a string x = anbn for that n. Note that Pumping Lemma gives a necessity for regular languages and that it is not a sufficiency. uvmw Test Your Understanding of Non-regularity . that is. uvmw L. for some p > 0 . Then there must be strings u. Suppose that L is regular and let n be the number of states of an FA that accepts L. Example 4: As an example to illustrate how Pumping Lemma might be used to prove that a language is nonregular. the language is not necessarily regular. Hence an+pbn can not be in the L. Pumping Lemma : Suppose that a language L is regular. v has at least one symbol. Then for any string x in L with |x| n. Since p > 0 . n. uvmw L. It can only show that a language is nonregular. even if there is an integer n that satisfies the conditions of Pumping Lemma. there are strings u. Thus Pumping Lemma can not be used to prove the regularity of a language. This violates the condition that for every m language.

that is. the DFA reaches different states. then Submit. If there are three strings that are distinguished with respect .Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Proof of Theorem Necessity Suppose that a language L is regular and two strings. Click True or Fals . Also it is a corollary to Myhill-Nerode theorem: Let { be the followijg relation on }={ : For strings and of . Next -. This means that if x and y are read by an DFA that recognizes L. Then the theorem is is staed as follows: Theorem: A language L over alphabet is regular if and only if the set of equivalence classes of is finite. Then there is a string z such that xz is in L and yz is not in L (or xz is not in L and yz is in L). say x and y.Context-Free Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Myhill-Nerode Theorem The non-regularity test for languages by Myhill-Nerode is based on the following theorem which is in the contrapositive form of the theorem used for nonregularity test. if and only if }. are distinguishable with respect to L. if and only if they are indistinguishable with respect to .

. then the language is not regular. ]. To prove this. We will show that a DFA that accepts L can be constructed using these equivalence classes. Hence if there are infinitely many strings to be distinguished with respect to L.. where [ ] =[ ] for all . be representatives of those distinct equivalence classes. Hence if there is an infinite set of strings which are pairwise distinguishable with respect to a language. . then the language L is regular.. ..to L. are in different classes for and are distinguishable with respect to L. be the number of distinct equivalence classes (i. then the DFA reaches three different states after reading those three strings. the index) of and let . namely ] and ].... let [x] denote a class of strings that are indistinguishable from a string x with respect to L. . ]. making them belong to different [ Hence is a function. ) as follows: ]} ]. [ . For. DFA ( = {[ =[ = {[ ( . Let . is in exactly one equivalence class. .e. which it can not because a DFA must have a finite number of states.. if and in [ ]. Note that "indistinguishable with respect to L" is an equivalence relation over the set of strings (denote it by ) and [x]'s are equivalence classes. then the DFA must have infinitely many states. Then we construct a . . note that for every string [ ]. then ]'s. if the number of classes of strings that are pairwise indistinguishable with respect to a language L is finite. Sufficiency Conversely. Let us now show that this machine is in fact a DFA and it accepts the language First. [ ]=[ } ]..

. Inductive Step: Assume Then for every But =[ Hence =[ ]. For that. . for DFA. by the definition of = . if the set of its equivalence classes is finite.Next. let us show that this DFA accepts string in [ ] is also in L. where ] is the equivalence class that belongs to. = [ ]. first note that if . if then for every . ]. Hence =[ = . by the definition of = . . Hence Hence we have shown that for every string ]. =[ ]. Myhill-Nerode Theorem can now be stated as follows: The following three statements are equivalent: (1) A language is regular. First some terminology. Since . where ]. Also an equivalence relation is said to be of finite index. this means that the DFA accepts Myhill-Nerode Theorem Let us here state Myhill-Nerode Theorem. An equivalence relation on is said to be right invariant if for every . . . With these terminology. =[ ]. . Then by the definition of . then every We then show that for every string . where . Our proof is by structural induction on string Basis Step: = =[ ]. if a string in [ in ] is in . ] by the induction hypothesis.

Definition (Context-Free Grammar) : A 4-tuple G = < V . and P is a finite set of productions of the form X -> and (V )* . P > is a context-free V is V. Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } is a context-free language. The set of strings generated by a context-free grammar is called a context-free language and context-free languages can describe many practically important systems. S . where X the start symbol. . They are grammars whose productions have the form X -> . S . Let us define context-free grammars and context-free languages here. are finite sets sharing no elements between them. grammar (CFG) if V and .(2) L is the union of some of the equivalence classes of a right invariant equivalent relation of finite index. Proofs are omitted. For the following context-free grammar G1 = < V1 . b } and P1 = { S -> aSb . S -> ab }. P1 > generates L1 : V1 = { S } . (3) is of finite index. Most programming languages can be approximated by context-free grammar and compilers for them have been developed based on properties of context-free languages. Context-Free Languages Context-Free Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Context-Free Grammar Context-Free Languages Push Down Automata Contents Earlier in the discussion of grammars we saw context-free grammars. = { a . where X is a nonterminal and is a nonempty string of terminals and nonterminals. A language is a context-free language (CFL) if all of its strings are generated by a context-free grammar. . S .

. Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. y . S -> y }. S .Example 2: L2 = { wwr| w {a. Similarly for L1L2 . . Then L1 context-free languages. < expression > . 3 = { x . Example 4: Portions of the syntaxes of programming languages can be described by context-free grammars. Then let Ps = P1 { Ss -> SsS1 . S -> bb }. . Then it can be easily seen that Gc = < Vc . Properties of Context-Free Language Theorem 1: Let L1 and L2 be context-free languages. S2 . let Ss be a symbol which is not in V1 . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. Then let Su be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . < if-statement > -> if ( < expression > ) < statement > . < expression > -> < algebraic-expression > . Outline of Proof This theorem can be verified by constructing context-free grammars for union. < statement > -> < assignment > . ) . operations + and * and left and right parentheses. Ss -> L2 . P1 > and G2 = < V2 . < expression > ) < statement > . . b }+ } is a context-free language . . if necessary. Sc . if necessary. . < forstatement > -> for ( < expression > . where w is a nonempty string and wr denotes the reversal of string w. respectively. Pu > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1 L2 . Then for L1 L2 . For the following context-free grammar G3 = < V3 . Then let Sc be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . concatenation and Kleene star of context-free grammars as follows: Let G1 = < V1 . . Then L3 is a context-free language. ( . * } and P3 = { S -> ( S + S ) . } . = { a . w is spelled backward to obtain wr . . + . S -> bSb . < expression > -> < logicalexpression > . Pc > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1L2 . L1L2 . For the following context-free grammar G2 = < V2 . < statement > -> < for-statement > . Next define Vc = V1 V2 { Sc } and Pc = P1 P2 { Sc -> S1S2 } . S1 . . Then it can be easily seen that Gu = < Vu . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. Next define Vu = V1 V2 { Su } and Pu = P1 P2 { Su -> S1 . . S -> x . . Su . . 3. and L1* are . S . . that is. . P3 > generates L3 : V3 = { S } . S -> S*S . P2 > be context-free grammars generating L1 and L2 . P2 > generates L2 : V2 = { S } . For example { < statement > -> < if-statement > . . S -> aa . For L1* . first relabel symbols of V2 . b } and P2 = { S -> aSa . Su -> S2 } . first relabel symbols of V2 . .

> . Let us consider a context-free language anbn . the contents of the stack can also be changed every time an input symbol is read. Z0 . push them into the stack. Z0 .} . q0 . If another a (or anything other than b) is read after the first b. q0 . ) means the following: The automaton moves from the current state of p to the next state q when it sees an input symbol a at the input and X at the top of the stack. q0 is the initial state. A pushdown automaton ( or PDA for short ) is a 7-tuple M = < Q . If it is empty. Second. a . where Q is a finite set of states. respectively ). For example. As soon as the symbol b appears stop storing a's and start popping a's one by one every time a b is read. A is the set of accepting states is the transition function and :Q ( ( } -> 2 Q * . Thus its transition function specifies the new top of the stack contents as well as the next state. generates the language L1* . Otherwise reject it. accept the string. check the stack. When all the symbols of the input string are read. A . reject the string. Ss . context-free languages are also accepted by automata but not finite automata. and are finite sets ( the input and stack alphabet. It can be seen that the grammar Gs = < Vs . . . Let us define this new type of automaton formally. Ps > is a context-free grammar that Like regular languages which are accepted by finite automata. but also by the symbol at the top of the stack. . They need a little more complex automata called pushdown automata. its next state is determined not only by the input symbol being read. Pushdown Automata . > . and it replaces X with the string at the top of the stack. A . Any string of this language can be tested for the membership for the language by a finite automaton if there is a memory such as a pushdown stack that can store a's of a given input string. . X ) = ( q . as a's are read by the finite automaton. . This automaton behaves like a finite automaton except the following two points: First. Thus ( p . where Q = { q0 . Example 1 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . Z0 is the initial stack symbol and it is a member of .

y . where q is the state the PDA is currently in. x . A configuration of a PDA M = < Q . Next it moves to the state q2 which is the accepting state. we write ) is reached from ( p . following table: = { a . aZ0 ) ( q1 . aZ0 ). ). it moves to state q1 and pops a from the top of the stack. aZ0 ) ( q0 . . x is the unread portion of the input string and is the current stack contents. Z0 ). ) ) (q. If ( q . Let us now see how the PDA of Example 1 operates when it is given the string aabb . Thus aabb is accepted by this PDA. bb . bb .x. ) by a sequence of zero or more moves.x.y. ) in a single move (a single application of the transition function) we write (p. > is a triple ( q .y. . (p. After reading the second a. To express that the PDA moves from configuration ( p . for example. it is ( q0 . Z0 . After reading the first a. ) ( q1 . aa ) q0 q1 q1 b b a a Z0 ( q1 . . Z0 ) ( If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. q2 } . = { a . abb . x . * (q. its configuration is ( q0 . Z0 ). aabb . ) to configuration ( q . b . Z0 ) q2 . ( q0 . Z0 ) * ( q2 . Z0 } . aaZ0 ) ( q1 . where the input is read from left to right and the top of the stack corresponds to the leftmost symbol of . . b . aaZ0 ). Z0 ) This pushdown automaton accepts the language anbn . . y . aZ 0 ) q0 a a ( q0 . ) . b } . aabb . aZ0 ). Z0 ). When the second b is read. another a is popped from the top of the stack and the PDA stays in state q1 . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . Initially its configuration is ( q0 . To describe the operation of a PDA we are going to use a configuration of PDA. A = { q2 } and let be as given in the State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . aabb . abb . ). x .q1 . . This entire process can be expressed using the configurations as ( q0 . ) ( q2 . Then when the first b is read. we can also write ( q0 . Z0 ) . . b . A . q0 .

A = { q2 } and let be as given in the following table: State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . For PDAs. b ( q1 . x. arcs are labeled differently than FAs. PDAs can also be represented by transition diagrams. . however. Z0 . ) . a .a. Z0 } . acceptance by final state) if (q0. a ( q0 . aZ 0 ) q0 b Z0 ( q0 . b . = { a . ) ) ) ) ( q1 . = { a . q0 . If ( q . * (q. . A . then an arc from state p to state q is added to the diagram and it is labeled with ( a . ). Z0) . ( q1 . > . Example 2 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . and an accepting state q. q2 } . q1 . Z 0 ) In this table represents either a or b. X ) = ( p .k. b . Like FAs. where Q = { q0 .A string x is accepted by a PDA (a. For example the transition diagram of the PDA of Example 1 is as shown below. c } . X / ) indicating that X at the top of the stack is replaced by upon reading a from the input. for some in *. . bZ 0 ) q0 q0 q0 q1 q1 q1 a b c a b a b Z0 ( q0 . ) ( q2 .

baZ0 ) ( q1 . When c is detected. This PDA pushes all the a's and b's in the input into stack until c is encountered. In the figure and 2 represent a or b. That means that a language is . it accepts the input string. it ignores c and from that point on if the top of the stack matches the input symbol. a . baZ0 ) ( q1 . abbcbba . bbaZ0 ) . . Z 0 ) ( q2 . Z0 ) ( q0 . The transition diagram of the PDA of Example 2 is as shown below. ba . bbaZ0 ) ( q1 .This pushdown automaton accepts the language { wcwr | w { a . b }* } . Otherwise it rejects the input string. which is the set of palindromes with c in the middle. Z 0 ) . it goes through the following configurations and accepts it. bbcbba . 1 Further topics on CFL • PDA and Context-Free Language There is a procedure to construct a PDA that accepts the language generated by a given context-free grammar and conversely. When there are no more unread input symbols and Z0 is at the top of the stack. cbba . aZ0 ) ( q0 . ( q0 . . aZ0 ) ( q1 . bba . ( q0 . For example for the input abbcbba. bcbba . it pops the stack.

y and z which satisfy u = vwxyz |wy| > 0 |wxy| n 0 . Contect-free grammars are powerful grammars. a computer like non-English speaking people must be told how to interpret sentences such as the first noun phrase (" A dog") is usually the subject of a sentence. Though we are accustomed to interpreting this as x + (yz) i. By parsing sentences we identify the parts of the sentences and determine the strutures of the sentences so that their meanings can be understood correctly. native English speakers know that it is the dog that bites and not the other way round. productions of grammars. "A dog" is the subject. Similar things happen when English sentences are processed by computers (or people as well for that matter). For example in the sentence "A man bites a dog". ???? references on Parsing ???? . However. compute yz first.e.context-free if and only if there is a PDA that accepts it. vwmxymz L for every integer m • Parsing and Parsers for CFL Consider the algebraic expression x + yz. Thus if a computer is given the string x + yz. it does not know which interpretation to use unless it is explicitly instructed to follow one or the other. Those procedures are omitted here. They can describe much of programming languages and basic structures of natural languages. then add the result to x. Then there is a positive integer n such that for any string u in L with |u| n . "bites" is the verb and "a man" is the object of the verb. Thus they are widely used for compilers for high level programming languages and natural language processing systems. The parsing for context-free languages and regular languages have been extensively studied. w. x. • Pumping Lemma for Context-Free Language Let L be a CFL.e. a verb phrase usually follow the noun phrase and the first word in the verb phrase is the verb and it is followed by noun phrases reprtesenting object(s) of the verb. Parsing is the process of interpreting given input strings according to predetermined rules i. Interested readers are referred to the textbook and other sources. then multiply the result by z. However. we are not going to study parsing here. there are strings v. it could also be interpreted as ( x + y )z meaning that first compute x + y.

They are. of limited capability and there are many languages that they can not process. and the machines that can process them: Turing machines. Turing machines were conceived of by the English mathematician Alan . Click True or Fals . These languages can describe many practically important systems and so they are heavily used in practice. then Submit.Turing Machines Back to Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • • • Definition of Turing Machine Configuration Operation of Turing Machine Contents Introduction We have studied two types of languages from the Chomsky hierarchy: regular languages and context-free languages. the phrase structure languages (also called Type 0 languages). In this chapter we are going to study the most general of the languages in Chomsky hierarchy. however.Test Your Understanding of Contect-Free Language Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Next -.

unlike finite automata. It then moves the head to left or right or does not move it and goes to the next state which may be the same as the current state. We are going to study Turing machines here and through that limitations of computers and computation as we know today. It is also divided into squares and a symbol can be written in each square. right or stay at the same square after a read or write. At any time it is in one of the finite number of states. However. One of its states is the halt state and when the Turing machine goes into the halt state. a Turing machine starts at the initial state. . either erases it or replaces it with a symbol (possibly the same symbol). Given a string of symbols on the tape. Computers we use today are as powerful as Turing machines except that computers have finite memory while Turing machines have infinite memory.Turing as a model of human "computation". At any state it reads the symbol under the head. Later Alonzo Church conjectured that any computation done by humans or computers can be carried out by some Turing machine. The tape has the left end but it extends infinitely to the right. it stops its operation. like finite automata. consists of a finite control and a tape. its head is a read-write head and it can move left. Definition Conceptually a Turing machine. This conjecture is known as Church's thesis and today it is generally accepted as true.

q1. D ) . R ) (h. where Q is a finite set of states. . is a finite set of symbols and it is the input alphabet. b } and is as given by the table below. . b . . X) ) ( q1 . > . . . X ) = ( r. where D represents R. S}. It is a mapping from Q ( { } ) to ( Q { h } ) ( { }) {R. The states are represented by vertices and for a transition ( q. R ) ( q2 . respectively. = { a .S) A transition diagram of this Turing machine is given below. q0. It is assumed that the tape has at the left end and the head is initially at the left end of the tape. a . A transition diagram can also be drawn for a Turing machine. Y. The symbol h is used to denote the halt state.L. q3 } . . the symbol X currently being read is changed to Y and the tape head is moved as directed by D. left and do not move it. b } . is the transition function but its value may not be defined for certain points. where Q1 = { q0. Here denotes the blank and R. = { a .Formally a Turing machine is a 5-tuple T = < Q. R ) ( q3 . Example 1 : The following Turing machine < Q1 . q2. State (q) Input (X) Move ( q0 q1 q2 q3 q3 a b a (q. q0 . L or S . is a finite set of symbols containing as its subset and it is the set of tape symbols. . q0 is the initial state. D ) indicating that the state is changed from q to r. L and S denote move the head right. R ) ( q3 . an arc from q to r is drawn with label ( X/Y . > accepts the language aba* . which is assumed not to contain the symbol h. a .

yaz ) for some symbol a { } and some strings y and z in ( * { } ) . zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in one move. Note that the Turing machine does not stop if a string is not in the language. the taper contents are the string aababb and the head is reading the last a of the string. The set of strings accepted by a Turing machine is the language accepted by the Turing machine. aba ) . A configuration for a Turing machine is an ordered pair of the current state and the tape contents with the symbol currently under the head marked with underscore. We write ( p . q0 . xay ) * ( q . zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in zero or more moves. ( q0 . For example the Turing machine of Example 1 above goes through the following sequence of configurations to accept the string aba: ( q0 . aababb ) shows that the Turing machine is currently in state q. > if x ) * ( h. xay ) ( q . aba ) (h. aba ) ( q3 . A string x is said to be accepted by a Turing machine* T = < Q . .Turing Machine that accepts aba* To describe the operation of Turing machine we use configuration. If the Turing machine needs to be explicitly indicated T or T* is used. and ( p . In this case we also say that the Turing machine halts on input x. . aba ) ( q2 . aba ) ( q1 . For example ( q . A Turing machine T is said to decide a language L if and only if T writes "yes" and halts if a string is in L and T writes "no" and halts if a string is not in L.

The first of the following figures shows a Turing machine that accepts but does not decide the language { a }. the second is a Turing machine that accepts { a } but goes into a loop if a string is not in the language (hence it accepts but doe not decide { a }) and the third decides { a }. . where = { a }.

.

This Turing machine is denoted by TE. . to the right of Example 3 : The following Turing machine erases the string on the tape and moves the head to the left end. It is denoted by TR . It is assumed that initially the tape has at the left end.Example 2 : The following Turing machine moves the head to the first the current position.

For example the following Turing machine accepts the language a+. but it goes into an infinite loop for any strings that are not in the language. that is when a Turing machine does not halt on a string. . one of the following three things happens: (1) The Turing machine goes into an infinite loop. the operation of the Turing machine is aborted. In cases (2) and (3). (2) no transition is specified for the current configuration and (3) the head is at the left end and it is instructed to move left.Strings not Accepted by Turing Machines When a string is not accepted by a Turing machine.

A language is a phrase structure (type 0) langauage if and only if it is Turing-acceptable in either sense and it has no effects on decidablility. the Turing machine eventually goes into the accept halt state. or loop. * Note on "Turing-acceptable": Some books define "acceptance by Turing machine" slightly differently.Turing machine accepting a+ Computabler Function Let S * and let f be a function f : S -> S. With this definition. in the Turing machines those books define. reject a string and halt. T does not halt on x. That is. there is no difference between these two definitions of "accept". a string is accepted by a Turing machine if given the string. As far as the material discussed in this class note. x) * ( h. * and for every x that is not in S. . A Turing machine thus may accept a string and halt. f(x) ) * . Then we say T computes f or f is computable if for every x ( q0 . there are two halt states: "accept halt" and "reject halt".

There are two sets of questions. In fact Turing machines that simulate computers and Turing machines that perform computations done by any algorithm can be constructed. Let us start with some basic Turing machines. One can construct many more Turing machines that perform various functions. Here we are going to study how complex Turing machines can be constructed using simple Turing machines and how computers can be simulated by Turing machines. It moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) . Click True or Fals . any "computation" done by human beings or machines can be done by some Turing machine.Test Your Understanding of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. We have already seen TR . Next -. Furthermore according to the Church's thesis. then Submit.Combination of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Combination of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Combination of Turing Machines Contents Combination of Turing Machines We have seen the definition of Turing machine and a few simple examples.

Then by T we denote a Turing machine that writes symbol at the current position and does not move the head (stays). To combine Turing machines we use the following conventions: Let T1 and T2 represent arbitrary Turing machines. The halt state of T1 becomes the initial state of T2 . Then if T1 halts and if the symbol currently under the head is . Otherwise it crashes. let us construct a little more complex Turing machines. takes the head to the right end of the string and halts.to the right of the current position. T1T2 and T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that behaves initially like T1 and when T1 halts T2 takes over inheriting the head position and the tape contents of T1 . Using these basic machines and the convention. T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that first executes T1. Below is assumed to be at the left end of the tape initially. Also by TR and TL we denote Turing machines that move the head to right and left one position. . then T2 is started as in the case of T1T2 . Similarly by TL we denote a Turing machine that moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) to the left of the current position. respectively. Example 4: The following machine shifts the tape contents to the left one position.

To add two numbers m and n. natural numbers are represented on a Turing machine using symbol I. II III ) . it goes through the following -> aab -> a -> a -> abb -> ab -> ab -> ab Example 5: The left-shift machine of Example 4 can be used to construct an adder for natural numbers. k consecutive I's are put on the tape. x) * b b (h. Example 6: The following Turing machine copies the tape contents at the left end to their right separated by a blank . First. that is ( q0 . For example the number 3 is represented by three consecutive I's on the tape and 5 by five I's. x x).For example with the initial tape contents of sequence of tape contents and ends with ab ab -> ab : ab . . m I's and n I's with a blank between them are placed on the tape. IIIII ) . After adding two numbers placed on the tape it moves the head to the left end and halts. So the initial configuration for adding 2 and 3 is ( q0 . After the addition the configuration becomes ( h . In general to represent a natural number k. An adder can be constructed for example as TR -> TSL TL .

Furthermore if the subtraction operation is necessary. In fact many of the earlier computers had a much smaller instruction set but still could do everything today's computers can do albeit much more slowly. Since any complex computer instructions can be realized using those basic instructions. and store and load operations can be taken care of by a Turing machine that copies tape contents. On the other hand as we have seen above. store and load operations. there is a Turing machine that performs addition. Test Your Understanding of Combination of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Thus by combining appropriate Turing machines a computer with a minimal instruction set can be constructed. the branch operation is already in Turing machines because next configurations are determined based on the current state and tape symbol being looked at. Click True or Fals . A bare minimum instruction set would contain addition. All the other operations can be realized by using those basic operations. then Submit. However. The following notations are used in the questions: .Today's computers are very complex machines and their instruction sets contain complicated operations. one can say that computers can be simulated by Turing machines. it is not difficult to construct a Turing machine that performs subtraction using the same representation of numbers as for the addition. all of those instructions can be realized using combinations of a small number of basic instructions. branching.

how fast they can compute.T_a : Ta T_R : TR ->^b : ->b Next -. It turns out that computationally all these Turing machines are equally powerful. That is. that is. first we map the squares of the two dimensional tape to those of the one dimensional tape diagonally as shown in . ones having one tape but with multiple heads. what one type can compute any other can also compute. However. nondeterministic Turing machines etc. that is. Turing Machines with Two Dimensional Tapes This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control. To simulate a two dimensional tape with a one dimensional tape. the former can be simulated by the latter. ones with two dimensional tapes. the efficiency of computation. one read-write head and one two dimensional tape. For any Turing machine of this type there is a Turing machine with a one dimensional tape that is equally powerful. It is divided into rows of small squares. The tape has the top end and the left end but extends indefinitely to the right and down.Types of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Types of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Variation of Turing Machine Contents There are a number of other types of Turing machines in addition to the one we have seen such as Turing machines with multiple tapes. may vary.

.. If the head moves down to position 13. Here the numbers indicate the correspondence of squares in the two tapes: square i of the two dimensional tape is mapped to square i of the one dimensional tape. .. That is the square corresponding to the square below i in the two dimensional tape.. . ... . . which is the third square from 8. . left or right. v 15 17 25 . .. .. Let i be the head position of the two dimensional tape.. move 3 positions to the right. suppose that the head position is at 8 for the two dimensional tape in the above table.. that is i = 8.. v 6 8 13 19 23 ... . For example.... . .. The head of a two dimensional tape moves one square up.... . v 7 14 18 24 . That is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 13 on the two dimensional tape. . One Dimensional Tape v 1 v 2 3 h 4 5 6 v 7 8 9 10 h 11 . ... . then on the one dimensional tape the head moves to the right and it hits v first.. then (k+1)-th square to the right from v is the new head position..... ..... v 2 5 9 12 20 22 .. .... . . then move the head of the one dimensional tape to right until it hits h or v counting the number of squares it has visited after i. . . then for the one dimensional tape. ... Then it meets h first. ... ...the following tables: Two Dimensional Tape v v h 1 h 3 h 4 h 10 h 11 h 21 . respectively. . which is the second square from i = 5......< .. . . If i = 5 and the head moves down on the other hand. the head moves from position 8 to right. v 16 26 .. If the head moves down from i. Thus this time the third square is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 9 on the two dimensional tape.. . . Let k be the number of squares visited by the head of the one dimensional tape....... .. then from h move the head of the one dimensional tape further right to the k-th square from h. .. down.. h and v are symbols which are not in the tape alphabet and they are used to mark the left and the top end of the tape. .... If v was hit first.... If h was hit first. .> . Thus from h.. Let us simulate this head move with a one dimensional tape.

one can say that one tape Turing machines are as powerful as n-tape Turing machines. H2 . > .. right or left on the two dimensional tape. Turing Machines with Multiple Tapes : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and more than one tapes each with its own read-write head. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . S } n . Details are omitted. q0. where H1 . . Its transition function is a partial function :Q ( { } )n -> ( Q { h } ) ( { } )n { R . . It can be proven that any language accepted by an n-tape Turing machine can be accepted by a one tape Turing machine and that any function computed by an n-tape Turing machine can be computed by a one tape Turing machine. >. . The transition function is a partial function : Q { H1 . .S It can be easily seen that this type of Turing machines are as powerful as one tape Turing machines. It turns out that this type of Turing machines are only as powerful as one tape Turing machines whose tape has a left end. L . Since the converses are obviously true. Hn } ( { } ) -> ( Q }. . A configuration for this kind of Turing machine must show the current state the machine is in and the state of each tape. Since Turing machines with a two dimensional tape obviously can simulate Turing machines with a one dimensional tape. {h}) ( { } {R.L. Nondeterministic Turing Machines . H2 . q0. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q .. Turing Machines with Multiple Heads : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape but more than one read-write heads. Turing Machines with Infinite Tape : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape which extends infinitely in both directions.Similarly formulas can be found for the head position on the one dimensional tape corresponding to move up... Hn denote the tape heads. In each state only one of the heads is allowed to read and write. Hence they are at least as powerful as Turing machines with a two dimensional tape. it can be said that they are equally powerful. . Thus some Turing machines with a one dimensional tape can simulate every move of a Turing machine with one two dimensional tape.

The children of all the vertices of level i form level i+1. They form level 1. For example let us consider the language L = { ww : w { a . Note that the number of children for a vertex in this tree is finite because the number of states is finite and there are a finite number of tape symbols. . like nondeterministic finite automata. TN starts at the initial configuration and goes through a sequence of configurations until it reaches a halt configuration .S}. For example consider the following nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts a+ . . at any state it is in and for the tape symbol it is reading. b }* } . moving the tape head and going to a next state. As in the case of NFA.. At any point in the process TN is in some configuration and has a finite set of configurations to choose from for its next configuration. tape symbol and head movement out of the set of triples without following any specific predetermined rule. It must find the midpoint by for example pairing off symbols from either end of x. that is the place where the second half of x starts. Given a string x . Here an action means the combination of writing a symbol on the tape. can take any action selecting from a set of specified actions rather than taking one definite predetermined action. goes into an infinite loop or aborts. Then it would compare the first half of x with the second half by comparing the i-th symbol of the first half with the i-th symbol of the second half for i = 1. The set of all possible computations that TN can perform for a given string x can be represented by a rooted tree as follows.L.A nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine which. In general for each vertex of level i all possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN are its children. can not guess the midpoint of the string x. Given a string x. Proof : Let TN denote a nondeterministic Turing machine. on the other hand. A deterministic Turing machine. 2.. It can be shown that a nondeterministic Turing machine is only as powerful as a deterministic Turing machine. All possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN once form the children of the initial configuration. Theorem Any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by some deterministic Turing machine. Formally a nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine whose transition function takes values that are subsets of ( Q {h}) ( { } {R. The root of the tree is the initial configuration and it is the only vertex of level 0. . Even in the same situation it may take different actions at different times. a nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts this language L would first guess the midpoint of x. it is understood that a nondeterministic Turing machine at any configuration selects one combination of next state.

and ( q1 . aa ) for the third. it would proceed as follows to accept it: ( q0 . aa ) and ( q2 . aa ) ( h . aa ) ( q1 . At the second and third configurations in the above sequence. aa ) and ( q2 . The tree for this case would be as follows: . aa ) ( q2 . aa ) ( q1 . aa ) . aa ) for the second.Turing machine accepting a+ Given the string aa. it has two candidates for the next configuration: ( q1 .

Unsolvable Problems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Unsolvable Problems . Click True or Fals .One way to simulate a nondeterministic Turing machine. In fact the Church's thesis conjectures that any so called computation done by humans or computers can be performed by a basic deterministic Turing machine. though a deterministic Turing machine might take much more time than a nondeterministic Turing machine to accept a string. Next -. At each level of the tree. It can be easily seen that T2 accepts a string if and only if T1 accepts it. However. then Submit. Many other variations of Turing machine are possible. Test Your Understanding of Different Types of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. call it T2. with a deterministic one. These children are the configurations of the next level and they are stored on the tape (if necessary a second tape may be used). it has been shown that none of them exceed the capability of basic deterministic Turing machine as far as accepting languages is concerned. call it T1. If there is the halting state among these children. then T2 accepts the string and halts. is to traverse this tree breadth-first way from the root until the halt state is reached. Thus any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by a deterministic Turing machine. T2 applies the transition function of T1 to each configuration at that level and computes its children.

That is. there is no way of telling whether it is in an infinite loop or along the way to a solution and it needs more time. L. T writes "yes" if M halts on w and "no" if M does not halt on w. . if the Turing machine is running. Theorem 1 : The halting problem is undecidable. given a description of a Turing machine M (over the alphabet ) and a string w. Then there is a Turing machine T that solves the halting problem. hence unsolvable. Here "unsolvability" is in the following sense. Suppose that the halting problem is decidable. Thus if a language is not decidable. the question of whether or not a string is in the language may not be answered in any finite amount of time. So we are going to look at the unsolvability in terms of language recognition. Minsky): This is going to be proven by "proof by contradiction". b } . Below we are going to see some well known unsolvable problems and see why we can say they are unsolvable. It is also conjectured that any "computation" human beings perform can be done by Turing machines (Church's thesis). Proof (by M. In this chapter we are going to learn that there are problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers. First recall that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language (see Problem Solving as Language Recognition). Halting Problem One of well known unsolvable problems is the halting problem. does M halt when it is given w as an input ? It can be shown that the halting problem is not decidable. that is computationally they are equally powerful. and that any of their variations do not exceed the computational power of deterministic Turing machines. the question is unanswerable that is the problem is unsolvable. Since we can not wait forever for an answer.Subjects to be Learned • • • Halting Problem Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents We have learned that deterministic Turing machines are capable of doing any computation that computers can do. At any point in time. and then T halts. Suppose that a language is acceptable but not decidable. It asks the following question: Given an arbitrary Turing machine M over alphabet = { a . Then given a string a Turing machine that accept the language starts the computation. and an arbitrary string w over .

copies it to obtain the string d(M)*d(M). . where * is a symbol that separates the two copies of d(M) and then supplies d(M)*d(M) to the Turing machine Tm . Next using Tm we are going to construct another Turing machine Tc as follows: Tc takes as input a description of a Turing machine M. then Tm goes into an infinite loop (Tm halts if the original T rejects a string and halts).We are now going to construct the following new Turing machine Tc. denoted by d(M). First we construct a Turing machine Tm by modifying T so that if T accepts a string and halts.

Hence that assumption must be wrong. Thus the modified T is given a description of Turing machine Tc and the string d(Tc). Program correctness and Halting Problem Note that for any computer program a Turing machine can be constructed that performs the task of the program.Let us now see what Tc does when a string describing Tc itself is given to it. When Tc gets the input d(Tc) . it makes a copy. Thus the question of whether or not a program halts for a given input is nothing but the halting problem. Thus one implication of the halting problem is that there can be no computer programs (Turing machines) that check whether or not any arbitrary computer program stops for a given input. Thus Tc goes into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and it halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). This contradiction has been deduced from our assumption that there is a Turing machine that solves the halting problem. This is a contradiction. . constructs the string d(Tc)*d(Tc) and gives it to the modified T. Hence there is no Turing machine that solves the halting problem. The way T was modified the modified T is going to go into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc).

More Unsolvable Preoblems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines More Unsolvable Problems Subjects to be Learned • • Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents The next unsolvable problem is in a sense more difficult than the halting problem. Next -.Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Click True or Fals . It is presented as a language and it can be shown that there are no Turing machines that accept the language. Language NonSelfAccepting Let us first define two languages NSA1 and NSA2 as follows: . then Submit.

For let T be a Turing machine that accepts { a } and let w = d(T). Proof: This is going to be proven by contradiction. Hence T0 can not accept w0 . Theorem 2 There are no Turing machines that accept the language NonSelfAccepting. But w0 = d( T0 ) because that is how we selected w0 . Also T0 does not accept w0 . This is again a contradiction. This means that there can not be any Turing machine that accepts the language NonSelfAccepting. (2) If T0 does not accept w0 . Hence either T0 accepts w0 or rejects it. Hence it is not accepted by T. then w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. let w = a. w0 is in NSA1 . w0 is in neither NSA1 nor NSA2 . Suppose there is a Turing machine. call it T0. NSA1 is the set of strings that describe a Turing machine but that are not accepted by the Turing machine they describe. Hence a is in NSA2 . Knowing the unsolvability of the halting problem some other problems can be shown to be unsolvable. w = d(T) for a Turing machine T and T does not accept NSA2 = { w | w { a. It . For NSA2. Hence w is in NSA1 . w d(T) for any Turing machine T } . b }*. Thus there can not be Turing machine T0 that accepts the language SelfAccepting . Hence it is in SelfAccepting . Hence w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting . Problem Accepts( ) The problem Accepts( ) asks whetehr or not a given Turing machine T accepts . either w0 is in NonSelfAccepting or it isn't. where d(T) is a description of the Turing machine T. Certainly more symbols than a single a are needed to describe even the simplest Turing machine. Then this w is a description of a Turing machine but it must be longer than one symbol. However. which is absurd. Hence by the definition of NSA1 . This is a contradiction. then w0 NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. NSA2 is the set of strings that do not describe any Turing machine. (1) If T0 accepts w0. Neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. that is w0 is a description of the Turing machine T0 . Let w0 = d( T0 ). by the definitions of NSA1 and NSA2. Thus neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. b }*. Since NonSelfAccepting is a language. Let us define the language NonSelfAccepting as NonSelfAccepting = NSA1 Then we can prove the following theorem: NSA2 . that accepts NonSelfAccepting.NSA1 = { w | w w} { a. Then there is no Turing machine that can be described by the string a. We are going to see that T0 neither accepts w0 nor rejects it.

Consider a Turing machine T = TwT'. This T halts on every string over if and only if T1 halts on . a Turing machine. which is an instance of the halting problem. Suppose that Accepts( ) is solvable. a Turing machine. call it M. Then consider the Turing machine T = TeraseT' . Then there is a Turing machine that solves it. We are going to show that Accepts( ) can be solved using the solution to it. Thus if Accepts( ) is solvable. Let A be a Turing machine that solves Accepts( ). where Terase is a Turing machine that erases the input on the tape and halts. Problem AcceptsEverything The problem AcceptsEverything asks whether or not a given Turing machine T halts on every string over a given alphabet . Suppose that AcceptsEverything is solvable. Using this T. This T halts on if and only if T' halts on w. Using this T. Let A be a Turing machine that solves AcceptsEverything. Let T' be an instance of Accepts( ). M writes the string d( T ) on the tape and let A take over. M solves the halting problem. Using a similar idea the following problem can also be shown to be unsolvable. the halting problem can be solved. this means that Accepts( ) is unsolvable. That is. where machine Tw is a Turing machine that writes w.can be shown to be unsolvable. call it M. that solves the halting problem can be constructed as follows: Given a description d(T') of a Turing machine T' and a string w as inputs. Let a Turing machine T' and a string w be an instance of the halting problem. Then M halts on d(T') and w if and only if T' halts on w. that solves Accepts( ) can be constructed as . We are going to show that the halting problem becomes solvable using this A. Since the halting problem is unsolvable.

it means that AcceptsEverything is unsolvable. Since Accepts( ) is unsolvable.shown below. AcceptsNothing This problem asks whether or not a Turing machine accepts nothing. Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) = ? finite ? infinite ? context-free ? Is L( G1 ) = L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) = * ? Is the complement of L( G1 ) context-free ? . Then the following problems are all unsolvable. By similar arguments the following problems can be shown to be unsolvable. It can be shown to be unsolvable using Accepts( ) . Other Unsolvable Problems Let G1 and G2 be context-free grammars and let L(G) denote the language generated by grammar G. It can be shown to be unsolvable using AcceptsEverything. Equivalence This problem asks whether or not two Turing machines accept the same language.

Click True or Fals . then Submit. No one can write computer programs that solve those problems and halt after a finite amount of time.Time Complexity of Problem Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Complexity Time Complexity Subjects to be Learned • • • • • Time Complexity of Problems Decision Tree Class NP Polynomial Time Transformation NP-Complete Problems Contents In the previous sections we have learned that some problems are unsolvable by Turing machines hence by computers.Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. A problem is solvable if some Turing . Next -.

There are also problems that must be solved at best by exponential time algorithms in the worst case. a heap sort needs O(n lg n) time. One can ask the same question for formulas of first order predicate logic. This is the problem of asking whether or not a given formula can take the value true for some values of its variables. So it is not satisfiable. the equality symbol = and quantifiers and . They are all polynomial time algorithms. The measure for computation time we use is the worst case time. ~Q )" and "if P then after( if P then Q else ~Q. that is it requires at least O( aan ) time to solve in the worst case. The satisfiability problem becomes even harder when logic becomes more complex. S). It is estimated by counting the largest possible number of key operations to be performed in terms of the input size. in practice if it takes a million years. a quick sort needs O(n2) time. it is as good (or bad) as unsolvable. where P and Q are propositions. as we are going to see below. Then there are problems that require double exponential ( e. In logic there is a well known problem of "satisfiability". X [ if ~( X = 1 ). Let us see some of those intractable problems. Even if it takes a million years to solve a problem. where k is a natural number. They take much more time to execute than polynomial time algorithms. 22n ) time algorithms. as well as all the connectives such as and. For example "after( if P then Q else ~Q. For example. Presburger arithmetic is a logic that allows statements involving positive integers. are propositions of PDL. For example. This is a propositional logic with an extra construct (proposition) after(A. For example the formula ( P V ~P ) is always true. They are both satisfiable. S) says that S is true after executing A. then Y Z [ X = Y + Z ] ] is a proposition of Presburger arithmetic. variables taking positive integers as their values. the satisfiability problem for the propositional dynamic logic is proven to take exponential time to solve in the worst case. etc. Similarly ( P V Q ) is also satisfiable. But (P ^ ~P ) is always false. The problems that can not be solved with any polynomial time algorithm are called intractable problems . etc. . For many problems a day or even an hour would be too long. and there are problems that require algorithms with the worst case time worse than k-exponential time for any natural number k. Q )" . problems that need k-exponential time algorithms. For more detailed review of this. where P is a propositional variable. Before proceeding to predicate logic let us consider the following logic called propositional dynamic logic (PDL for short). after(A.machine can solve it in finite time. However. where A is an algorithm and S is a statement. In this section we are going to study solvable problems and learn a hierarchy of solvable problems based on the computation time required to solve them. The satisfiability problem for PDL is known to take at least exponential time to solve in the worst case. So it is certainly satisfiable. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved by algorithms with the worst case time which is a polynomial in the problem size (polynomial time algorithms). O(f(x)) (big-oh) and other related subjects click here. For example the satisfiability problem for Presburger arithmetic is double-exponential (2-fold exponentail). it is still solvable. For example a binary search takes O(lg n) time.g. second order logic. or etc. the addition operation +.

This problem is called "Graph Coloring" problem or more precisely "Vertex Color" problem. Consider the problem of coloring vertices of a graph with a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned. there are no K-fold exponential time algorithms to solve it for any number K. in addition. there are problems that are solved by answering with yes or no. Now let us go back to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. For example. Let us try to solve the following instances of this graph coloring problem: Given the following graph. the consensus is that they ca not be solved with polynomial time algorithms. " Is it possible to assign colors to vertices of a given graph using a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned ? " etc. Let us here review nondeterministic Turing machines. First. "Is it possible to schedule committee meetings without conflicts into a given number of time slots ? " . For the problems of this class there are no known polynomial time algorithms for solving them nor are they known to be unsolvable with polynomial time algorithms. These problems are called decision problems. Below we are going to characterize this class of problems. At the moment. This problem belongs to a peculiar class of problems called NP-Complete problems. the logic is called WS1S (Weak Second-order theory of 1 Successor). For the satisfiability problem of WS1S. "Is a string w in the language a*b ? ". however. is it possible to color its vertices with three or less colors ? . sets of integers and the predicate "belongs to" (an element X belongs to a set S) are allowed. Such a problem (having no K-fold exponential time algorithms) is called nonelementary.In Presburger arithmetic (minus addition operation). Some of these decision problems are NP-complete problems. if.

For the graphs of (a) and (b), you could find a solution very easily by inspection. You could see a right coloring as soon as you saw the graphs. However, you can most likely not tell how you arrived at your solutions. You probably don't have any algorithms you could use to solve them. You could somehow see the solutions. This is basically the idea of nondeterministic (Turing) machine. There is no fixed procedure which you can use repeatedly to solve instance after instance of this problem. But you can somehow solve them. Let us move on to a slightly more complex example of (c). For this graph to find a right coloring you could start with vertex 1 and assign color a. Then move on to vertex 2 and assign color b(it has to be something other than a ). Then go to vertex 3 and assign a third color, say c. Then at vertex 4 select color b and for vertex 5 use color a. In this process we make a decision as to what color to use for each vertex and when a decision is made for all the vertices we have a solution to the problem. This process applies to any decision problem. That is to solve a decision problem a number of smaller decisions are made one after another and as a result a solution to the problem is obtained. This process can be represented by a tree called decision tree. For example, for the graph coloring problem let us first decide on the order of vertices we color in, say 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for the graph of (c) above. Then the root of its decision tree corresponds to the vertex we assign a color to first (vertex 1 in this example). Then for each possible color for the first vertex, a child is created for the first vertex of the tree. So the second level of the

decision tree corresponds to the second vertex to be colored. Then in general, for each possible color for each vertex of level i of the decision tree, a child is created. Those children form level i+1 of the decision tree. The decision tree for the graph of (c) is given below. Since any color can be assigned to vertex 1 without loss of generality, it has just one child in the actual decision tree. Also since in this case the i-th and (i+1)-th vertices are connected by an edge for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, they can not have the same color. So each vertex after vertex 1 has two colors to choose from. So they each have two children in the decision tree.

Thus during the process of solving the problem a decision is made at each level and when all levels are covered, the problem is solved. A path from the root to a leaf corresponds to a coloring of the vertices of the given graph. A decision tree, however, does not tell us how to make decisions. Also a decision tree does not tell how to order the vertices for coloring, that is which vertex to color first, second etc. A deterministic machine (or algorithm) has a specific fixed set of rules for making a decision at each level of the decision tree. Although it knows what to do at every stage of problem solving, the decisions it makes are not necessarily the right ones. When it makes wrong decisions, it must retract earlier decisions and try different paths, which is called backtracking. For the graph coloring problem a deterministic algorithm might first order the vertices of the graph in decreasing order of their degree and also order colors. Then, following the

order of the vertices, assign to each vertex the highest order color available for the vertex. Since that kind of algorithm is not guaranteed to use the minimum number of colors, it may produce a wrong answer unless there is some provision for backtracking. A nondeterministic (Turing) machine, on the other hand, is a fictitious machine and somehow knows which branch (child) to select at each step. It always makes a right selection. A decision problem is said to belong to class NP if each vertex in its decision tree has a finite number of children and if it can be solved by a nondeterministic (Turing) machine in polynomial time. The graph coloring problem is in class NP, so are the satisfiability problem for propositional logic and most of the scheduling problems just to name a few. Also there are other characterizations of class NP. Interested readers click here. At this moment it is not known whether or not problems in class NP can be solved with a polynomial time algorithm in the worst case. The consensus is that there is no polynomial time algorithm to solve them. It would take at least exponential time. Among the problems in class NP, there are problems which all problems of class NP can be transformed to in polynomial time. Those problems are called NP-complete problems. If a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of the NP-complete problems, all the problems in NP can be solved in polynomial time. Below we are going to study NPcomplete problems. We start our discussion with the concept of polynomial time transformation (reduction). Basically we say a decision problem Q1 is polynomially reducible to a decision problem Q2 if and only if there is a transformation that transforms any arbitrary instance of Q1 into an instance of Q2 in polynomial time such that the answer to Q1 is yes if and only if the answer to Q2 is yes. A little more formally we define this in terms of languages. Note that a decision problem can be viewed as a language of its instances and that solving it can be considered as recognizing the language as we have seen earlier. Let L1 and L2 be languages over alphabets 1 and 2, respectively. We say that L1 is polynomial-time reducible to L2 if and only if there is a function f from 1* to 2* such that for any string x in polynomial time.

1 *

,x

L1 if and only if f(x)

L2 and f can be computed

For example let us consider the following two problems: graph coloring and scheduling of committee meetings. The graph coloring problem is as given above. In the scheduling of committee meetings problem, committees with their members and a positive integer k are given. The problem is whether or not the meetings of the committees can be scheduled in k or less time slots so that everyone can attend one's meetings. Note that some people may be in more than one committee. Let us try to show that this scheduling problem is polynomial time reducible to the graph coloring problem.

3 and 4.What we need to do is given an instance of the scheduling problem construct an instance of the graph coloring problem. 2. Similarly since committees 1 and 3. { b. add vertices 1. Suppose that the meetings can be scheduled in p time slots. respectively. and 1 and 4 share members. 2. d } and { a. b }. where p k. Then the meetings can be scheduled in k or less time slots if and only if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. The corresponding graph for the graph coloring problem can be constructed as follows: Corresponding to the committees 1. Corresponding to this grouping assign colors to the vertices of the graph so that the vertices in the same group are given the same color and those in . d }. edges are added between 1 and 3. Proceeding similarly the following graph is obtained corresponding to the committee memberships. c }. an edge is inserted between vertices 1 and 2. Suppose also that k = 3. 3 and 4 with the memberships { a. connect with an edge the vertices corresponding to the committees. Then since committees 1 and 2 share a. 2. that is construct a graph and give the number of colors to be used to color its vertices so that the meetings can be scheduled if and only if graph can be colored. {a. For example suppose that we are given the committees 1. 3 and 4 to the graph. and if and only if two committee have some members in common. c. Thus the scheduling problem asks whether or not the meetings of the given committees can be scheduled in 3 time slots without any conflicts. Let us consider the following transformation: For each committee add a vertex to the graph. Then the committees can be grouped into p groups so that the committees in the same group can meet at the same time. and 1 and 4.

then that means that the corresponding committees share some members and that they are scheduled to meet in different time slots. find out whether or not one is a subgraph of the other. then the consensus today is that it is most likely that no polynomial time algorithms i. It is also easily seen that the transformation. This coloring uses p colors which does not exceed k. find out whether or not the objects can be put into the bins.e. Thus these two vertices must get different colors. 5. and vertices connected with an edge have different colors. Traveling Salesman Problem Given cities and traveling times between cities. group them into two groups so that the sum of the numbers of one group is equal to that of the other group. It was first proven by S. NP-complete Problems 1. Committee Meeting Schedule Problem In fact most scheduling problems are NPcomplete. Subgraph Isomorphism Problem Given two graphs. It can be easily seen that if a problem P at hand is NP-hard and if a problem known to be NP-complete can be polynomial time reducible to P. fast algorithms exist to solve it.different groups are given different colors. Today hundreds of problems are known to be NP-complete. For if any two vertices are connected with an edge. Some of them are listed below. 4. Conversely if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. Formally a problem is NP-hard if every problem in class NP can be polynomial time reducible to it. Bin Packing Problem Given a set of objects. their sizes and a number of bins of the same size. For all the problems in class NP can be reduced to P through the known NP-complete problem in polynomial time. 6. A problem is NP-complete if it is in class NP and NP-hard. Partition Problem Given a set of integers. 7. then P is also NP-complete. which in this case can be taken as the number of committees. Graph Color Problem 3. all the problems can be solved with polynomial time algorithms. a traveling salesman wants to know a shortest route to visit all cities exactly once and come back to where he/she started. As a consequence if a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of those problems. If a problem is NP-complete. This group of problems are called NP-complete problems. We are now ready to discuss NP-completeness. . Satisfiability Problem for Propositional Logic 2. then it can be easily seen that the committees can meet in k or less time slots. that is the construction of graph for a given set of committees. Subsequently the satisfiability problem was found to be polynomial time reducible to many other problems. can be done in time polynomial in the size of the problem. Cook that the problems of class NP can be polynomial time reducible to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic.

Is there a subset T. and S = {(1. of S such that every element of A. and a subset S of the Cartesian product A X B X C. called a matching. a collection of subsets of S and an integer k.y}. (2.b. 3-Dimensional Matching Given three sets A. find out whether or not there are k or less subsets in the collection whose union is S.y)}.x). (2. (2. B.8.(1.x).a.b.x)} is a desired set satisfying all the requirements. . Then T = {(1.b. let A = {1. Set Cover Problem Given a set S. Note that {(1. is it possible to select objects so that the sum of their sizes does not exceed S and the sum of their values is V or larger ? 10.b. Knapsack Problem Given a knapsack of size S. and C appears exactly once in T ? For example. 9.a. B and C of the same size.x).y).2}. their values and an integer V.x)} is not a matching.b}. and C = {x.y). B = {a. a set of objects.(2.b. their sizes.a.

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