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# Legend

Language, Automata: , \alpha : usually denotes a string in this course. , \beta : usually denotes a string in this course. , \delta : usually denotes a transition function in this course. , \sigma : usually denotes a symbol in an alphabet in this course. , \Delta : usually denotes a blank space in this course. , \Gamma : usually denotes a set of stack symbols in this course. , \Lambda : usually denotes an empty string in this course. , \Pi : usually denotes a partition in this course. , \Sigma : usually denotes an alphabet in this course. , \goto : usually denotes a (one step) transition in this course. Logic: , ~ : logical not , ^ : logical and , V : logical or , -> : logical imply , <-> : logical if and only if (equivalent) , => : logical tautologically imply , <=> : logical tautologically equivalent , \A : logical for all , \E : logical for some (there exists)

Sets: , \in : belongs to , \not\in : does not belong to , @ : empty set U, : universal set , \subset : proper subset , \not\subset : not a proper subset , \subseteq : subset , \not\subseteq : not a subset , \cup : set union Ai , \cup(i=1 to n) A_i : union of n sets , \cap : set intersection Ai , \cap(i=1 to n) A_i : intersection of n sets , \bar A : complement of set A (A) , P(A) : power set of set A , X : Cartesian product Ai , X(i=1 to n) A_i : cartesian product of n sets Relation: < a, b > : ordered pair < a1, a2, ..., an > : ordered n-tuple , <= : precedes (partial order) Functions: xi , Sum(i=1 to n) x_i : sum of n xi's O(f) , O(f) : of order smaller than or equal to f

o(f) , o(f) : of order smaller than f (f) , Omega : of order greater than or equal to f (f) , omega : of order greater than f (f) , Theta : of the same order as f f(x) , lim(x -> inf) f(x) : limit of f as x goes to infinity

**Introduction to Theoretical Computer Science
**

Today computers are used everywhere: banks, hospitals, schools, airline companies, gas stations, grocery stores, in our cars, in home appliances, PCs, etc., etc. Some are used to crunch numbers, some are used to process images, some are used to process other nonnumeric data and some are used to control operations of various devices. They can reason, they can prove many mathematical theorems, they can beat chess experts in their game, they can solve some very complex problems, they can understand our languages, they can answer our questions and of course they can crunch numbers much much faster than us. Let us for a moment call what computers do computation for convenience, though some of the things computers do such as controling appliances, answering our questions etc. don't fall into our traditional sense of computation. Then these computers seem to be able to compute an awfully lot of things if not everything. But are they capable of computing anything ? Are there things computers can not do ? If there are things computers can not do, what are they ? And why ? If there aren't things computers can not do, then how can we tell ? What do we exactly mean by computation ? Unfortunately there are many things computers can not do. Computers can not solve certain types of problems. For example no computer can tell in general whether or not a given computer program stops after a finite amount of time on a given input. They can not solve some other types of problems fast enough even though they can solve them in some finite amount of time. For example take the traveling salesman problem: a salesman is given a road map with distances between cities and wants to find a shortest round trip route that visits all the cities on the map exactly once. At the moment the so called traveling salesman problem requires an extremely large amount of time to solve. No one has been able to find a reasonably fast algorithm to solve it and the consensus is that it is not likely that anyone can find such an algorithm. I have just given you an example of the problems that computers could not solve. How do we know that that is the case ? Are there other problems like that ? How can we tell whther or not a given problem can be solved and solved fast enough ?

The other two are context-free languages and context-sensitive languages.The main objective of this course is to answer those questions. Finite automata process strings. Though it has not been proven. There we learn how computers can be simulated by Turing machines and what it means that a Turing machine recognizes (decides) a language. Thus they are a powerful tool to design and study those systems with. we go to Turing machines. The languages that are recognized by finite automata are called regular languages. Then with Turing machines we investigate limitations of computers and computations. every task modern computers perform can also be accomplished by Turing machines. we study a simpler type of computing device called finite automata. Turing machines also recognize languages. More specifically they answer the question whether or not a given string belongs to a language. Thus by studying Turing machines we can learn capabilities hence limitatgions of computers. . which are also heavily used in practice. Consequently they are less capable than Turing machines but then their operations are simpler. We are going to investigate limitations of computers and computations by studying the essence of compuers and computations rather than all the variations of computer and computation. Finite automata are very similar to Turing machines but a few restrictions are imposed on them. Before proceeding to the study of Turing machines and their computations in this course. It was first conceived of by Alan Turing in early 20-th century. So they provide a good introduction to our study of Turing machines. that is to study limitations of computers and computation. In particular we are going to see a few problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers and how we can tell that they are unsolvable. Thus when a finite automaton is processing strings. We are going to learn their properties. These two type of languages belong to a hierarchy of four languages called Homsky hierarchy. It is a very simple device but remarkably. We say finite automata recognize languages. which is the key to the unsolvability of problem by computers. We call a set of strings (of symbols) a language. This essence is a device called Turing machine. it can actually be solving a problem. ways to describe them and how to use them to model many of the real life systems. Since so many systems in practice can be described by regular languages. In addition finite automata can model a large number of systems used in practice. The languages Turing machines recognize are called Type 0 (or phrase structure) languages (regular languages are Type 3) and they are more complex than regular languages. Those four languages are together called formal languages. It turns out that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. it is generally believed (Church's thesis) that any "computation" humans do can be done by Turing machines and that "computation" is the computation performed by Turing machines. we are also going to study regular languages in detail as well as finite automata. After briefly studying context-free languges.

. We are going to see some of those which take a large amount of time. • • 2 is a odd number. If the computation time is 2n where n is the size of the problem. Let us start with review of mathematics. Increasing the processor speed does not help much for such problems. For example for the traveling salesman problem if 100 cities were too many to solve fast enough. respectively. Their truth values are false and true. true or false. 4 is a perfect square. The time complexity issues are investigated using Turing machines so that the results apply to all computers. Basic Mathematical Objects Back to Table of Contents The following are the contents of this introductory chapter. then even if the processor speed increased 1. Unfortunately there is nothing we can do to speed them up. "Connective": Two or more propositions can be combined together to make compound propositions with the help of logical connectives. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved within a reasonable amount of time and there are problems that are known to require a finite but very large amount of time to solve.000 times 110 cities would already be too many. The time needed to solve such a problem increases at least exponentially with the size of the problem as long as we use Turing machines (hence computers). Example: The following statements are propositions as they have precise truth values. • • • • Logic Sets Relations Functions Logic Proposition and Logical Connectives "Proposition" can be defined as a declarative statement having a specific truth-value. then with the increase in the processor speed of 1.Our last topic is time complexities of various problems.000 times it can handle only ten or so more larger problem sizes.

. Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F pVq T T T F c. Truth table for two individual propositions p and q with conjunction is given below p T T F F q T F T F p^q T F F F b. For the first compound proposition to be true both the propositions have to be true as the connective is AND and as OR is the connective for the second one if either of the propositions is true the truth value of the compound proposition is true. The following are the logical connectives used commonly: a. 2 is an odd number OR 4 is a perfect square. Negation This is the logical "negation" and it is expressed by Truth table is given below as p for "not p". Their truth vales are false and true respectively. • • 2 is an odd number AND 4 is a perfect square. Disjunction This is logical "or" read as either true value of the individual propositions.Example: Above two propositions can be used to make a compound proposition using any of the logical connectives. Conjunction The logical conjunction is understood in the same way as commonly used ôandö. The compound proposition truth-value is true iff all the constituent propositions hold true. It is represented as " ^ ".

e. "q is a necessity/consequence of p" and "q whenever p" are all differnt ways of saying "if p then q". f.g. which is false in every case. If p and q have the same truth-value in every case then they are said to be logically equivalent and it is represented as p <=> q. "p only if q" . Tautology A compound proposition. Conditional This is used to define as "a proposition holds true if another proposition is true" i. which is true in every case. and if q then p". then q" Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F p T F T T q p -> q is also expressed in a number of different (but equivalent) ways in English.p T F p F T d. p q is read as "if p. E. E. For example. e. Contradiction This is the opposite of tautology. "if not q then not p" . "p is sufficient for q" .: p ^ p Logical implication and equivalence If the value of p -> q is true in every case.g. "q is necessary for p". Following are some of the useful identities and implications from propositional logic: Identities .: p V p g. then p is said to logically imply q. Biconditional A proposition (p q) ^ (q p) can be abbreviated using biconditional conjunction as p q and is read as "if p then q. It is represented as p => q.

. [(P 5. Central to the predicate logic are the concepts of predicate and quantifier.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. (P Q) ( P Q) ----. [(P 2. The predicate logic is one of the extensions of propositional logic and it is fundamental to most other types of logic. examples and proofs of these identities go to Identities Implications 1. For more complex reasoning we need more powerful logic capable of expressing complicated propositions and reasoning. (P 3. and "The cover of this book is blue" come from the template "is blue" by placing an appropriate noun/noun phrase in front of it.exportation Q) ( Q P) ----. (P 4. or to express certain types of relationship between propositions such as equivalence ( for more detail click here for example for example ).DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. The phrase "is blue" is a predicate and it describes the property of being blue. examples and proofs of these implications go to Implications Predicate and Predicate Logic The propositional logic is not powerful enough to represent all types of assertions that are used in computer science and mathematics.contrapositive For explanations. [(P 3.1. the sentences "The car Tom is driving is blue".implication Q) R] [P (Q R)] ----. (P 2. "The sky is blue". [(P Q) Q] P ----.modus tollens Q) (R S)] [(P R) (Q S)] Q) (Q R)] (P R) For explanations. For example. A predicate is a template involving a verb that describes a property of objects. or a relationship among objects represented by the variables.

can be made a proposition by applying one of the following two operations to each of its variables: 1. by using quantifiers on variables . a quantification is performed on formulas of predicate logic (called wff ). The propositions in the predicate logic are statements on objects of a universe. is the set of objects of interest. x > 1 becomes 3 > 1 if 3 is assigned to x. also called universe . Hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. The universe is thus the domain of the (individual) variables. quantify the variable using a quantifier (see below). the statement x > 1 to "for some object x in the universe. called atomic formula. and hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. such as x > 1 or P(x). A predicate with variables. For example. For example any of "is_blue". it is true or false in the universe of discourse. hence a proposition. . Universe of Discourse The universe of discourse. the statemen t x > 1 to "for every object x in the universe. There are two types of quantifiers: universal quantifier and existential quantifier. It can be the set of real numbers. "Blue" or "B" can be used to represent the predicate "is blue" among others. The universal quantifier turns. for example. Similarly the existential quantifier turns. If we adopt B as the name for the predicate "is_blue". In general. B(x) reads as "x is blue". x > 1". sentences that assert an object is blue can be represented as "B(x)". which is expressed as " x x > 1". where x represents an arbitrary object. and it becomes a true statement. x > 1".Predicates are often given a name." Again. assign a value to the variable 2. which is expressed as " x x > 1. for example. This new statement is true or false in the universe of discourse.

one can use some additional inference rules. see Reasoning(with predicate logic) and Quantifiers and Connectives in Discrete Structures course. the set of all cars on a parking lot.the set of integers. It allows one to reason about properties and relationships of individual objects. Also for proof and proof techniques see Mathematical Reasoning. as well as those for propositional logic such as the equivalences. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 4. But it should be obvious from the context. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] For more discussions and examples on these rules and others. Important Inference Rules of Predicate Logic: First there is the following rule concerning the negation of quantified statement which is very useful: x P(x) x P(x) Next there is the following set of rules on quantifiers and connvectives: 1. Predicate logic is more powerful than propositional logic. The universe is often left implicit in practice. implications and inference rules. In predicate logic. Sets . the set of all students in a classroom etc. some of which are given below. [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] x [ P(x) Q(x) ] 3. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 2.

Example: A = {1.3. It is read as "the set of natural numbers that are less than or equal to 5".4. if every element of A is an element of B. Note: If A is a subset of B and B is a subset of A then A=B.1. All the elements belonging to the set are explicitly given.2. having a property that characterizes those elements. Subset Let A and B be two sets. A is a subset of B is represented as A B.4} call it Z by writing Z = {x | x N | x 5} where N represents the set of natural numbers.5} Alternate way is to give the properties that characterize the elements of the set.What is a set? Set is a group of elements. Using this notation we can specify the set {0. but not equal to B represented as A B. Set terminology Belongs To x B means that x is an element of set B.3. How to specify a Set? One way is to enumerate the elements completely. A is a subset of B. if A is a subset of. Also.2. Example: B = {x | x is a positive integer less than or equal to 5} Some sets can also be defined recursively. Universal Set The set U of all the elements we might ever consider in the discourse is called the universal set. .

4. Example: If A = {1.2.4.8.2.5} then A .9 } are disjoint. then the union of A and B is the set that contains all the elements that are in A and B including the ones in both A and B. Example: A = { 1. It is denoted by A B. then the intersection of A and B is the set that consists of the elements in both A and B .5} 2.3. It is denoted by A' or .8}.3} and B = {3. A B= ø. It is denoted by A . Difference If A and B are two sets.B.A = {4.5} .3.2.4. then A' = { x | x U ^ x > 3}. then the difference of A from B is the set that consists of the elements of A that are not in B.4..2.5 } . It is denoted by A B.8} B = {3.2} Note that in general A .4. Disjoint sets A and B are said to be disjoint if they contain no elements in common i.B = {1. For A and B of the above example B . where means " is not an element of ".B B . Intersection If A and B are two sets.3 } . 3. Set Operations The operations that can be performed on sets are: 1.e.2. Example: If U is the set of natural numbers and A = { 1. Union If A and B are two sets. then the complement of A is the set consisting of all elements of the universal set that are not in A.5.3.A . where ø is the Empty set. Thus A' = { x | x U ^ x A } .8} then A B = {3.2.3} B = {3.Complement If A is a set. and B = { 6.5} then A B = {1. Example: If A = {1. Example: If A = {1.

C represent arbitrary sets and ø is the empty set and U is the Universal Set. The Commutative laws: A B=B A A B=B A The Associative laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Distributive laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Idempotent laws: A A=A A A=A The Absorptive laws: A (A B) = A A (A B) = A The De Morgan laws: (A B)' = A' B' (A B)' = A' B' Other laws involving Complements: ( A' )' = A A A A' = ø A' = U B) B) B) B) C C (A (A C) C) Other laws involving the empty set A A ø=A ø=ø Other laws involving the Universal Set: A U=U A U=A Venn Diagrams A common technique in working with Set Operations is to illustrate them by drawing Venn Diagrams. It is a very good tool to get a general idea.Following is a list of some standard Set Identities A. B. .

.Note.4 } and B = { 6. The idea of Venn Diagram is to draw a region representing the universe and within that to draw the regions representing the component sets we are starting with so that the resulting diagram describes their interrelationships.8. that Venn Diagrams must NOT be used for rigorous discussions. because they can represent only very limited situations and miss many other possibilities. For example sets A = { 1.3.2.4 } can be represented as shown below using Venn Diagrams: Set A U represents the Universal set in which A is one of the Set. however.2.

Set B The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A B .

A B .

.The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A U B A A B B is the set consisting of all the different elements in A and B.

6.6.2.4 } A B = { 1.8 } (A B)' = U .6.8 } A = { 1.(A B) = { 5.4.4.3.(A B)' is the yellow region in the Venn diagram given below.7.3.8 } . 7 } B = { 2.2.3. For example: U = { 1.4.5.2.

This can be generalized for the union of any finite number of sets as A1 An . For example expressions we often use A holds. intersection and Cartesian product of sets are associative..A .. A2 . which we write as Ai This generalized union of sets can be rigorously defined as follows: Definition ( Ai) : .A is the blue shaded region in the Venn Diagram shown below Generalized Set Operations Union. To denote either of these B C.B is the yellow shaded region and B ..

De Morgan's law on set union and intersection can also be generalized as follows: Theorem (Generalized De Morgan) = .Basis Clause: For n = 1 . The basis clause (or simply basis) of the definition establishes that certain objects are in the set. Ai = A1. and = Recursive Definition Recursive Definition Subjects to be Learned • • • • • recursive/inductive definition basis clause basis inductive clause extremal clause A recursive definition of a set always consists of three distinct clauses: 1. Based on these definitions. . The set of elements specified here is called basis of the set being defined. This part of the definition specifies the "seeds" of the set from which the elements of the set are generated using the methods given in the inductive clause. Inductive Clause: Ai = ( Ai) An+1 Ai and generalized Cartesian product Similarly the generalized intersection Ai can be defined.

0 is put into N. Then by (2) again. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. The extremal clause asserts that unless an object can be shown to be a member of the set by applying the basis and inductive clauses a finite number of times. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. 2. The Set of Even Integers Basis Clause: . Example 2.5.. and x is the child of x + 1.5. The inductive clause (or simply induction) of the definition establishes the ways in which elements of the set can be combined to produce new elements of the set. Let us call the objects used to create a new object the parents of the new object. the object is not a member of the set. The x + 1 in the Inductive Clause is the parent of x. and the new object is their child . The Set of Nonnegative Even Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in .2. Following this definition. 1.5. x + 1 is in . The basis for this set N is { 0 } . which is not what we want as the set of natural numbers. 1 is the parent of 2. and 2 is the child of 1. . 0 + 1 (= 1) is in N. The Set of Natural Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . since 0 is in N. Note that if we don't have (3). The inductive clause always asserts that if objects are elements of the set. 3. 0 is the parent of 1.. then they can be combined in certain specified ways to create other objects. Proceeding in this manner all the natural numbers are put into N. Then by (2). can be included in N. 0. Example 3. and 1 is the child of 0. 1 + 1 (= 2) is in N. x + 2 is in . Examples of Recursive Definition of Set Example 1. the set of natural numbers N can be obtained as follows: First by (1).

2 are in . Test Your Understanding of Recursive Definition Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. simplest expressions. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. The set of propositions (propositional forms) can also be defined recursively. . Condition: The domain of the function you wish to define recursively must be a set defined recursively. of the domain is defined using its value at the parent(s) of the element x. Click Yes or No . say x. x + 2. Tips for recursively defining a set: For the "Basis Clause".Inductive Clause: For any element x in . A few examples are given below. and x . Here ax means the concatenation of a with x. The Set of Strings over the alphabet excepting empty string This is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's such as abbab. or 1). There are two sets of questions. then Submit. and generalize that generation process for the "Inductive Clause". How to define function recursively: First the values of the function for the basis elements of the domain are specified. Example 4. Then the value of the function at an element. etc. and . Recursive Definition of Function Some functions can also be defined recursively. bbabaa. They are all on functions from integer to integer except the last one. Basis Clause: . try simplest elements in the set such as smallest numbers (0. Then see how other elements can be obtained from them. . or shortest strings. Inductive Clause: For any element x in . and . To see how it is defined click here. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses.

L(xy) = L(x) + L(y) . 1 ! = 1 * 0 ! = 1 * 1 = 1 . b} to the set of natural numbers that gives the length of a string can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: For symbols a and b of the alphabet. Example 6: The function f(n) = 2n + 1 for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. Induction Mathematical Induction . where xy is the concatenation of strings x and y. See above for the extremal clause. This function L gives the number of a's and b's L(x) for a string x is also often denoted by | x |. Inductive Clause: For any string x and y of S. See Example 5 for the extremal clause. because the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively and that has the extremal clause in it. Hence 2 ! = 2 * 1 ! = 2 * 1 = 2 . f(n+1) = 2 f(n) . So there is no chance of other elements to come into the function being defined. Hence 3 ! = 3 * 2 ! = 3 * 2 * 1 = 6 . L(a) = 1 and L(b) = 1. Using this definition. 3! can be found as follows: Since 0 ! = 1. See Example 5 for the extremal clause. Example 8: The function L from the set S of strings over {a. f(n+1) = (n+1) f(n). Example 7: The function f(n) = 2n for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. Note that here Extremal Clause is not necessary.Example 5: The function f(n) = n! for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 0! = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. f(n+1) = f(n) + 2 .

that is n + 1. where is a Induction: Prove that for any integer . then it follows that all the natural numbers have that property. has that property (inductive step). denote it by n. natural numbers can be proven to have certain properties as follows: First it is proven that the basis element. the element next to it. any natural number can be shown to have the property. then P(n) is true for all natural number . it is often a good idea to restate P(k+1) in terms of . Then since 1 has the property. To prove that a statement P(n) is true for all natural number natural number. has the same property again by the inductive step. we proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P( ) is true.. When these two are proven. that is 0. This process is somewhat analogous to the knocking over a row of dominos with knocking over the first domino corresponding to the basis step. which is 2. has the same property by the inductive step. Then it is proven that if an arbitrary natural number. the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 can be proven by mathematical induction by the same token.. As a first step for proof by induction. Thus the set of natural numbers can be described completely by specifying the basis element (0). The first principle of mathematical induction states that if the basis step and the inductive step are proven. which is 1. has the property in question. For since 0 has the property by the basis step. and the process of generating an element from a known element in the set. then P(k+1) is true. . has the property in question (basis step).Subjects to be Learned • • • • • first principle of mathematical induction basis step induction hypothesis induction second principle of mathematical induction Contents First Priciple of Mathematical Induction As we have seen in recursion . Proceeding likewise. and its elements can be generated one by one starting with 0 by adding 1. Taking advantage of this. if P(k) is true (called induction hypothesis). then the next element. the element next to it. More generally mathematical statements involving a natural number n such as 1 + 2 + .

and in the inductive step P(n) is proved assuming P(k) holds for all k < n .. Example: Prove that for any natural number n. -------. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2.. 0 + 1 + .. first try to express LHS for n+1 in terms of LHS for n. Hence LHS = RHS. and somehow use the induction hypothesis. the last expression can be rewritten as n( n + 1 )/2 + (n + 1) .Induction Hypothesis To prove this for n+1. Using the induction hypothesis. Factoring (n + 1) out. Second Priciple of Mathematical Induction There is another form of induction over the natural numbers based on the second principle of induction to prove assertions of the form x P(x) . can be used.. which is assumed to be true. + n + (n + 1) = (0 + 1 + .1) to prove P(n). Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary natural number n. we get (n + 1)(n + 2) / 2 . Here let us try LHS for n + 1 = 0 + 1 + . Thus LHS = RHS for n+1.. Formally the second principle of induction states that if n [ k [ k < n P(k) ] P(n) ] . Proof: Basis Step: If n = 0. The reason that this principle holds is going to be explained later after a few examples of proof. and RHS = 0 * (0 + 1) = 0 .. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . Example 1: Let us prove the following equality using the second principle: For any natural number n . + n) + (n + 1) . 1 + 3 + . which is equal to the RHS for n+1. then n P(n) can be concluded.. Certain problems can be proven more easily by using the second principle than the first principle because P(k) for all k < n can be used rather than just P(n . then LHS = 0. 0 + 1 + .. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . .P(k) so that P(k).. End of Proof. Here k [ k < n P(k) ] is the induction hypothesis. This form of induction does not require the basis step..

.1 Proof: Assume that 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . k can be written as the product of prime numbers. then it is the product of 1. More precisely. Then 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + ... Hence n can also be written as the product of prime numbers. + ( n . by the induction hypothesis they can be written as the product of prime numbers (Note that this is not possible if the First Principle is being used). Proof: Assume that for all positive integers k. We are going to prove that n can be written as the product of prime numbers. However.Proof: Assume that 1 + 3 + . Since n is an integer.. Example 2: Prove that for all positive integer n... tan slacks}. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . Then certainly A x B is the set of all possible combinations (six) of shirts and slacks that nbsp. k < n.1 holds for all Example 3: Prove that any positive integer n > 1. Hence by the second principle of induction 1 + 3 + . + ( 2n . i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . Example1: nbsp. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 holds for all natural numbers.1 Hence by the second principle of induction positive integers.. then it is a product of two positive integers. + k * k! = ( k + 1 )! .1 + n * n! by the induction hypothesis. let A = {blue shirt. which is a prime number.1 ) ) + ( 2n + 1 ) = n2 + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 by the induction hypothesis...1 for all k.1 ) * ( n . mint green shirt} and B = {gray slacks. A binary relation from A into B is any subset of the Cartesian product A x B. Therefore the statement holds true. can be written as the product of prime numbers.. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( 1 + 3 + . + ( 2k + 1 ) = ( k + 1 )2 holds for all k. If n is not a prime number. and itself. n > k > 1. the individual can wear.. k < n. If n is a prime number. = ( n + 1 )n! . Since both p and q are smaller than n. Then 1 + 3 + . Relations Definition Relation Let A and B be sets. say p and q.1 )! + n * n! = n! . it is either a prime number or not a prime number. the individual may wish to restrict .. Let's assume that a person owns three shirts and two pairs of slacks.

or R(x) =y where y = x2 . b) | a A ^ b A ^ a is a child of b } . and S be a relation from set B into set C. one such subset may be { (blue shirt. b) Rand (b. as in the previous example. where (a. y). 6}. 6)}.himself to combinations which are color coordinated. c) A x C. (mint green shirt. (3. Consider the following relation on real numbers. Then P is a relation on A which we might call a parent-child relation. is the composition of P with itself and it is a relation which we know as grandparentgrandchild relation. This may not be all possible pairs in A x B but will certainly be a subset of A x B. (6. A typical element in R is an ordered pair (x. y) | y is the square of x} and S = { (x. Composition Let R be a relation from a set A into set B. (black shirt. (2. 5. 3. written as RS.6). 2). 3). 3. or "related". b) R if and only if a divides evenly into b. The composition of R and S. 6) and define a relation R from A into A by (a. In some cases R can be described by actually listing the pairs which are in R. 5. R could be more naturally expressed as R(x) = x2 . tan slacks) }. Example2: Let A = {2. c) S. c) RS if and only if there exists b B such that (a. Relation on a Set A relation from a set A into itself is called a relation on A. (5. For example PP. So. is the set of pairs of the form(a. This may not be convenient if R is relatively large. (3. gray slack). where P is the parent-child relation given above. PropertiesOf Relations . 5). tan slacks). R = {(2. R and S of Example 2 above are relations on A = {2. 6). For example. y) | x <= y}. Other notations are used depending on the past practice. Let A be a set of people and let P = {(a. R = { (x.

in other words. . if aRb. and 2. symmetric and transitive. 3. if <a. if aRb and bRc. A x A. 1. Function Functions Subjects to be Reviewed • • • • • • • • • • • • function domain. 4. Thus. R R b to denote (a. then b = c . then aRc. there is an element b in B such that <a. f is a function if it covers the domain (maps every element of the domain) and it is single valued. 2. Transitive: R is transitive if for every a. b> and <a. Reflexive: R is reflexive if for every a A. a R a. b> is in the relation. b) R . c> are in the relation. Let us write a Symmetric: R is symmetric if for every a and b in A. then bRa. The set A in the above definition is called the domain of the function and B its codomain. denote it by f. Equivalence: R is an equivalence relation on A if R is reflexive. for each element a in A.Assume R is a relation on set A. from a set A to a set B is a relation from A to B that satisfies 1. codomain image image of set range sum of functions product of functions one-to-one function (injection) onto function (surjection) one-to-one onto function (bijection) inverse function composite function Definition (function): A function. b and c in A.

that is. 16. 4. x = y . f is onto if and only if f( A ) = B . and is denoted by f(S) .. because. Definition (sum and product): Let f and g be functions from a set A to the set of real numbers R. and its range is the set of squares. because for example f(1) = f(-1) = 1 . if and only if for every element y of B . Then the domain and codomain of this f are N. where f(x)*g(x) is the product of two real numbers f(x) and g(x). Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is an onto function.e. b> is denoted as f(a) = b . Then ( f + g )(x) = x2 + 3x + 1 . where S is a subset of the domain A of f . i.. Then the sum and the product of f and g are defined as follows: For all x. under this function is 9. f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to N is not onto. 9.. Definition (bijection): A function is called a bijection . Every bijection has a function called the inverse function. ( f*g )(x) = f(x)*g(x) . Definition (onto): A function f from a set A to a set B is said to be onto(surjective) . Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is one-to-one and onto. if and only if whenever f(x) = f(y) . the image of. { 0. nothing in N can be mapped to 3 by this function.} . say 3. and for all x. if it is onto and one-to-one. there is an element x in A such that f(x) = y . that is. The image of the domain under f is called the range of f . . ( f + g )(x) = f(x) + g(x) . Example: The function f(x) = x2 from the set of natural numbers N to N is a one-to-one function. The set of images of the elements of a set S under a function f is called the image of the set S under f.The relation given by f between a and b represented by the ordered pair <a. 1. for example. and ( f*g )(x) = 3x3 + x2 Definition (one-to-one): A function f is said to be one-to-one (injective) . Note that f(x) = x2 is not one-to-one if it is from the set of integers(negative as well as non-negative) to N . and b is called the image of a under f . f(S) = { f(a) | a S }. Example: Let f(x) = 3x + 1 and g(x) = x2 . Example: Let f be the function from the set of natural numbers N to N that maps each natural number x to x2 . However. . Thus it is a bijection.

Note that such an x is unique for each y because f is a bijection. Definition (inverse): Let f be a bijection from a set A to a set B. the rightmost function in the above figure is a bijection and its inverse is obtained by reversing the direction of each arrow. Then f( g(x) ) = ( x + 1 )2 . f(x) > relation. is the function from A to C that satisfies fg(x) = f( g(x) ) for all x in A . the points on the left are in the domain and the ones on the right are in the codomain. where f(x) = y . and let f be a function from B to a set C . Example: Let f(x) = x2 . Definition (composite function): Let g be a function from a set A to a set B . if for every element y of B. Programming langauges we use are a language in that sense. languages of mathematics. . It is also a bijection. Others such as languages of logics. Then the function g is called the inverse function of f. For example. Introduction to Language A language is. are all languages in that sense. and it is denoted by f -1 . In each figure below. Therefore one can also talk about composition of functions. in this course. A function is a relation. a set of strings of symbols. natural languages etc. and arrows show < x. Example: The inverse function of f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of non-negative even numbers E is f -1(x) = 1/2 x from E to N . g(y) = x . Then the composition of functions f and g .These concepts are illustrated in the figure below. and g(x) = x + 1 . denoted by fg .

The four classes are regular (or type 3) languages. Type 3 is a subset of type 2 which is a subset of type 1 and type 0 is the most general including the other three as a subset. In the following chapters we first learn about languages. lexical analyzers and parser for compilers for programming languages. However. Definitions on Language Subjects to be Learned . Using automata and formal languages we can study limitations of computer and computation. if the number of states of DFA is minimized. Then after seeing yet another way of representing regular laguages. solving them can be seen as recognizing languages i. Also there are various kinds of computing devices called automata which process these types of languages Thus formal languages can also be characterized by the computing devices which process them. Then we investigate various kinds of finite automata: deterministic finite automata (DFA).). checking whether or not a string is in a language. Our last topic on regular language is testing of languages for non-regularity. context-free (or type 2) languages. Also for some important classes of problems.What we are going to study on languages in this course are four classes of languages called (Chomsky) formal languages and their properties. context-sensitive (or type 1) languages and phrase structure (or type 0) languages. We are going to see an algorithm for converting NFAto NFA which recognizes the same language and another for NFA to DFA conversion. together with regular expressions which are a method of representing regular languages. regular grammars. These formal languages and automata capture the essense of various computing devices and computation in a very simple way. we are going to learn modeling of systems finite automata. NFA and NFAare conceptually simpler and easier to use when modeling a system because there are no restrictions on transitions for them unlike for DFA.e. are quite useful for modeling systems used in practice such as co9mputer network communication protocols. the simplest of the four formal languages. On the other hand DFAs are suited for writing a simulator program because there is no nondeterminism such as going to two or more states from a state upon reading one input symbol. then the resulting DFA is unique up to the state names for a given regular language. nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) and nondeterministic finite automata with transitions (NFA. As we are going to learn next. in general there are more than one NFAs and DFAs that reconize one language. Then we study regular languages. It can be rigorously shown that some problems can not be solved by computers in any finite amount of time and that some others are practically unsolvable because of the time it takes to solve them. These formal languages are characterized by grammars which are essentially a set of rewrite rules for generating strings belonging to a language as we see later. In asddition two of the formal languages. regular and context-free languages. They are devices that recognize regular languages.

1}). b} and 0. Thus | | = 0. an alphabet is a finite set of symbols. uv is the string obtained by appending the sequence of symbols of v to that of u. 2. Thus a language over alphabet is a subset of . 10 and 001 are examples of string over alphabet {0. b. Note that u and v may be an empty string. Then uv denotes the string obtained by concatenating u with v. this set has an object in it. it has no symbols. The empty string (also called null string) is the string with length 0. For any alphabet . It can be defined more formally by recursive definition. For example {0. namely . Kleene star Contents Here we are going to learn the concept of language in very abstract and general sense. ab. So it is not empty. b} is another alphabet with two symbols and English alphabet is also an alphabet. Some special languages The empty set is a language which has no strings. For example if u = aab and v = bbab. that is. For a string w its length is represented by |w|.b}) and {0. Thus the union. A language is a set of strings over an alphabet. The empty string is denoted by (capital lambda). 1}. 3. all the set operations can be applied to languages. {a. Note that vu = bbabaab uv. Though has no symbols. 111} is a language (over alphabet {0. Basic concepts First. the set of all strings over (including the empty string) is denoted by . union. A string (also called a word) is a finite sequence of symbols of an alphabet. So a string is a substring of itself. intersetion and difference of two languages over an alphabet are languages over . The number of symbols in a string is called the length of the string. then uv = aabbbab. a and aabab are examples of string over alphabet {a. A string x is a prefix of another string y if there is a string v such that y = xv. That is. 1. Let u and v be strings. Thus {a. intersection. Operations on languages Since languages are sets. baa} is a language (over alphabert {a. The set { } is a language which has one string. A string x is called a substring of another string y if there are strings u and v such that y = uxv. 1} is an alphabet with two symbols. operations on languages and some of their properties. v is called a suffix of y. We are going to use first few symbols of English alphabet such as a and b to denote symbols of an alphabet and those toward the end such as u and v for strings.• • • • alphabet string (word) language operations on languages: concatenation of strings.

} The * in * is also the same Kleene star defined above. abaaba. The complement of a language L over an alphabet language. uk denotes the concatenation of k u's. ababb. For a string u and a natural number k. For example if L = { aba. baaa. aaba} = {abaaa. . L* is the set of strings obtained by concatenating zero or more strings of L as we are going to see in Theorem 1. abaaba.L and it is also a Another operation onlanguages is concatenation. Here a0 = and u0 = . b} {aaa. ak and uk can be defined similarly. Hence Lk is the set of strings that can be obtained by concatenating k strings of L. baaba}. xw L*. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = Lk L. Lk means the concatenation of k L's. bbbb. is . Recursive definition of L*: Basis Clause: L* and we are going to see Inductive Clause: For any x L* and any w L. Recursive definition of L+: Basis Clause: L L+ . ak represents the concatenation of k a's.. * The following two types of languages are generalizations of them quite often in this course. For example {ab. bbaba. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k. then L* = { . These powers can be formally defined recursively. aba. bb. the extremal clause is not necessary.. Similarly for a language L. For example Lk can be defined recursively as follows. Powers : For a symbol a and a natural number k.. abb. This * is called Kleene star. babb. That is L1L2 is the set of strings obtained by concatenating strings of L1 with those of L2. bb }. ababb. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Then the concatenation of L1 with L2 is denoted as L1L2 and it is defined as L1L2 = { uv | u L1 and v L2 }. Let L1 and L2 be languages.

. Then there are nonempty strings w1.. (i... } Let us also define natural number k } . Proof: Because we can see that L* (L*)*. . bbaba. Since w1.wk for some k.... wi2. wk in L* such that x = w1w2.. L0 L L2 . For example if L = { aba.e. for each wi there are strings wi1. i. bbbb. bb. . Theorem 5: L* = (L*)*.. any nonempty string in L* or L+ can be expresssed as the concatenation of strings of L. Thus L+ is the set of strings obtained by concatenating one or more strings of L. . wimi in L such that wi = wi1wi2.. abaaba.wmmk ... where wi's are strings of L.. L* and L* have a number of interesting properties. Other proofs are omitted. Let us list one of them as a theorem and prove it.wm1. then L+ = { aba. L* can be proven as follows: by Theorem 2. ) as ={x|x Lk for some Then the following relationships hold on L* and L+. Hence x is in L* .w2m2. w2.. Theorem 1: Ln Theorem 2: Theorem 3: Theorem 4: L+ = L L* = L*L Note: According to Theorems 2 and 3. w2.e. ababb... . w1w2..w1m1w21... wk are strings of L*. ... by applying Theorem 2 to the language L* L* Conversely ( L* )* Let x be an arbitrary nonempty string of ( L* )*.. xw L+. . bb }. Theorems 1 and 2 are proven in "General Induction" which you study in the next unit.wimi Hence x = w11 ...wk ... Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L+ unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.Inductive Clause: For any x L+ and any w L.

If x is an empty string, then it is obviously in L* . Hence ( L* )* Since L* L* . L* , L* = ( L* )* .

(L*)* and ( L* )*

**Problem Solving as Language Recognition
**

Subjects to be Learned

• • •

problem instance problem as language problem solving as language recognition

Contents

In the previous section the concept of language was introduced and its properties have been briefly studied. You might be wondering why we study language. The main reason for studying language is that solving problems can be viewed as a language recognition problem as explained below, that is, the problem of checking whether or not a string belongs to a language. Thus instead of studying what kind of problems can be solved by what kind of computational devices and how, we can study languages and devices to recognize them which are simpler to deal with uncluttered with variations in actual devices, programming languages etc. Below an example is given to illustrate how solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Consider the following problem: Is the longest of the distances between two nodes(i.e. the diameter) of a given graph less than a given integer k ? Here the distance is the smallest number of edges (or hops) between the nodes. Some of the instances of this problem are as shown below:

Instance 1 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with one edge and two nodes is less than 1. Instance 2 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with four edges and four nodes is less than 2. Simiarlyt for Instance 3. These problem instances can be represented by a string as follows: Instance 1: 1,2;(1,2);1 Instance 2: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(3,4);2 Instance 3: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(2,3)(2,4)(3,4);3 Here the set of nodes, the set of edges and k are separated by ; in that order in the strings. The solutions to these instances are: Instance 1: No Instance 2: No Instance 3: Yes There are infinitely many 'Yes' instances and 'No' instances for this problem. The set of 'Yes' instances is a language and so is the set of 'No' instances as well as the set of all

instances and many others for this problem. We can thus see that solving the problem for a given instance is equivalent to checking whether or not the string representing the given instance belongs to the language of 'Yes' instances of the problem. That is, the problem solving is the same as the language recognition. A problem can be solved if and only if the language of its 'Yes' instances is recognizable or decidable by a Turing machine. It is not solvable if the language is merely accecptable but not recognizable, or even worse if it is not even acceptable.

(a.k.a Structural Induction)

Mathematical statements involving an element of a recursively defined set can be proven by induction. To prove by induction that a statement P(x) is true for all the elements x of a recursively defined set S, proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P(x) is true for all the elements x in the basis of S. Induction: Prove that for any element(s) x of S if P(x) is true, then P(y) is true for any element y obtained from x by the induction step of the recursive definition of S. Note 1 : In the Induction we try to prove that if a parent has the property then all of its children also have that property. In the process we need the relationship between the parent and the children. That relationship is found in the Inductive Clause of the recursive definition of the set in question. Note 2 : As a first step for general induction proof, it is often a good idea to express y in terms of x so that P(x) can be used. Example 1 (Theorem 1 in "Language") : Prove that Ln L* for any natural number n and any language L. Let us first review the definitions. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = LkL. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k, the extremal clause is not necessary. Recursive definition of L*:

Proof: Let us first prove Suppose that x Lk for some natural L* . Lk Next let us prove L* . number k. y Let w be an arbitrary string in Lk+1 . Note in the proof below that Basis and Inductive Steps mirror the Basis and Inductive Clauses of the definition of Ln . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. and L* . L* . Hence . L0 L* . L* since y L. Basis Step: Since by the definitions L0 = { Inductive Step: Assume that Lk Hypothesis We are going to show that Lk+1 }. Now let us prove that Ln L* by induction on Ln. Hence x . Then by the definition of L*. Then there exist strings x and y that satisfy x L and w = xy by the definition of Lk+1. Since Lk L* . Then by the definition of L* .Induction L* .Basis Clause: L* Inductive Clause: For any string x L* and any string w L. By Example 1 above . x Example 2 (Theorem 2 in "Language") Let us prove L* = Note that ={x|x Lk for some natural number k } . . Lk . L* . xw L*. L* for an arbitrary natural numer k. . --. xy Hence w Thus Lk+1 L* . L* by theInduction Hypothesis. x L* .

It produces the reversal of a given string x (i. So we first prove that * the element of the basis of L has the propertyy. by Example 1 above. Basis Step: L0 since L0 = { }. then for some natural number k . Prove that for arbitrary strings x and y of . also have the property. xy holds. where y is an arbitrary elememt of L. .e. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. Note here that x is a parent and by applying an operation (i. then its children xy. holds. Hence xy Lk+1 by the definition of Ln . . x We are going to show that for an arbitrary element y L . . say x. The function REV(x) on strings x over the alphabet is defined as follows. Let us prove the inheritance. REV(xa) = Inductive Clause: For any string aREV(x). of L* has the property. by concatenating y) a child of x in is obtained.Note that L* is defined recursively and that below we are trying to prove that the elements of L* have the property that they also belong to . Note that each step mirror the recursive definition of . x Lk . Hence by the definition of Inductive Step: Assume that for an arbitrary x in L*. Hence xy End of Inductive Step and Proof Hence we have proven Example 3 .e. x spelled backward). So we show that the property for x is inherited by its children xy. Basis Clause: REV( )= . Then we show that if any element. and any symbol . If x .

REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. But by induction hypothesis a REV(xy) = a REV(y)REV(x). Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular language unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Inductive Clause: If Lr and Ls are regular languages. * Basis Clause: where is an empty string.Proof First let us note that * can be defined recursively as follows: . then Lr Ls . REV(xya) = REV((xy)a) = a REV(xy). and an arbitrary string y of . REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. Thus the statement to be proven is for an arbitrary fixed string x. Omitted. xa is also in . Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary string y of . which is what we needed. Regular language The set of regular languages over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. -. .Induction Hypothesis Then for an arbitrary symbol a of . Any language belonging to this set is a regular language over . Basis Step: REV(x ) = REV( x ) = REV( )REV( x ) . REV(xya) = REV(ya)REV(x). The proof mirrors the recursive definition of . LrLs and Lr* are regular languages. Definition of Set of Regular Languages : Basis Clause: . Since a REV(y) = REV(ya). Definitions of Regular Language and Regular Expression Subjects to be Learned • • regular language regular expression 1. The proof of the equality in question is going to be proven for an arbitrary fixed x by induction on y. End of Proof. Inductive Clause: For arbitrary strings x of and a of ExtremalClause: As usual. { } and {a} for any symbol a are regular languages.

Any element of that set is a regular expression. aaaa etc. Basis Clause: . let = {a.For example. bold face may not be used for regular expressions. which is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's. LrLs and Lr* . where r is a regular expression. a. {a}* is a regular language which is the set of strings consisting of a's such as . aaa. respectively. is written as rk. Regular expression Regular expressions are used to denote regular languages. and a are regular expressions corresponding to languages . where Lr is the language corresponding to the regular expression r. where a is an element of . The set of regular expressions over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. The language corresponding to rk is Lrk. So for example. b} ( = {a} {b} ) and {ab} ( = {a}{b} ) are regular languages. Thus the regular expression ( a + ( b( c*) ) ) is written as a + bc*. which has precedence over union ( + ). Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular expression unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. aa. They can represent regular languages and operations on them succinctly. 2. b}. Note also that *. . Inductive Clause: If r and s are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr and Ls . Thus for example rr = r2 . For a recursive definition of Lrk click here. then ( r + s ) . Conventions on regular expressions (1) When there is no danger of confusion. is a regular language because {a. {a. ( r + s ) is used in stead of ( r + s ). Also since {a} is regular. (2) The operation * has precedence over concatenation. ( rs ) and ( r*) are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr Ls . { } and {a}. (3) The concatenation of k r's . (4) We use ( r+) as a regular expression to represent Lr+ . b} is regular. Then since {a} and {b} are regular languages. respectively.

that is. . a*b+a* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by one or more b's followed by zero or more a's. in general. Note:A regular expression is not unique for a language. In general. Definition of Equality of Regular Expressions Regular expressions are equal if and only if they correspond to the same language. b}. b}. b}. In general ( a + b )k corresponds to the set of strings of length k over the alphabet {a.. because they both represent the language of all strings over the alphabet {a. it is not easy to see by inspection whether or not two regular expressions are equal. the set of strings of repeated ab's. ab. That is. ( ab )+ corresponds to the language {ab. abab. ababab. corresponds to more than one regular expressions. b}. ba. .Examples of regular expression and regular languages corresponding to them • • • • ( a + b )2 corresponds to the language {aa. }. ( a + b )* corresponds to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a.. that is the set of strings of length 2 over the alphabet {a. For example ( a + b )* and ( a*b* )* correspond to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. a*b* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by zero or more b's. a regular language. b}. Thus for example ( a + b )* = ( a*b* )* . bb}.

a*. ba is not in it. Of the strings wiht length 2 aa. Ex. a. that is. Solution: It can easily be seen that . For example ab and ba are such strings. Thus the answer is ba. Ex. r1 = a* + b* r2 = ab* + ba* + b*a + (a*b)* Solution: (a) Any string consisting of only a's or only b's and the empty string are in r1. which are strings in the language with length 1 or less. However. (a) find a string corresponding to r2 but not to r1 and (b) find a string corresponding to both r1 and r2. Find a simple (the shortest and with the smallest nesting of * and +) regular expression which is equal to each of the following regular expressions. Thus anything that comes after the first r1 in (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is represented by (r1 + r2)*. (a + b)*. r1r2 + r2r1 in the given regular expression is redundant. (b) A string corresponding to r1 consists of only a's or only b's or the empty string. b and the strings consiting of only b's (from (a*b)*). (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ means that all the strings represented by it must consist of one or more strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*).Exercise Questions on Regular Language and Regular Expression Ex. (a) Since (r1 + r2)* represents all strings consisting of strings of r1 and/or r2 . (a) (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ Solution: One general strategy to approach this type of question is to try to see whether or not they are equal to simple regular expressions that are familiar to us such as a. 2: For the two regular expressions given below. So we need to find strings of r2 which contain at least one a and at least one b. 3: Let r1 and r2 be arbitrary regular expressions over some alphabet. The only strings corresponding to r2 which consist of only a's or b's are a. bb and ab are in the language. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*) . However. Thus (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* is reduced to (r1 + r2)*. (a + b)+ etc. they do not produce any strings that are not represented by (r1 + r2)*. b. the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*) start with a string of r1 followed by any number of strings taken arbitrarily from r1 and/or r2. 1: Find the shortest string that is not in the language represented by the regular expression a*(ab)*b*. a+.

b*a b*a b* is a regular expression for this language. 6: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. Inductive Clause: If x L . behind the second a and between the two a's. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. 7: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the . Hence a string of L consists of zero or more aab's in front and zero or more bb's following them. Ex. Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. Ex. Then starting with or a. b } defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L Inductive Clause: If x L . Solution: A string in this language must have at least two a's. Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. Thus (aab + bb)*(a + ) is a regular expression for L. then aabx L and bbx L . 5: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L and a L. Ex. strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or bb to any of the already generated strings. strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or appending bb to any of the already generated strings. and conversely (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ represents the strings represented by (r1(r1 + r2)*). then aabx L and xbb L . Thus (aab)*(bb)* is a regular expression for L. Then starting with . Hence a string of L has zero or more of aab's and bb's in front possibly followed by a at the end. Since any string of b's can be placed in front of the first a. 4: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L over the alphabet { a . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. Ex.also represents the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*)+. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is reduced to (r1(r1 + r2)*). First of all and a are in L . First of all L . b } that contain exactly two a's. and since an arbitrasry string of b's can be represented by the regular expression b*.

b } that contain an odd number of b's Ex. Hence the string is in this language. Altogether ( b + ab )*( + a + aa )( b + ba )* is a regular expression for the language. Solution: A string in the language can start and end with a or b. Since it can have any string in front of the last a or bb. bb. Note that 0 is an even number. ( b + ab )*a( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. Hence if a string of the language contains aa then it corresponds to the regular expression ( b + ab )*aa( b + ba )* . Ex. then it must be followed by b. ab. If there may not be any a in a string of the language. then applying the same argument as for aa to a. then that a must be preceded by b because otherwise there are two occurences of aa. and after the first b all the b's in the string appear in pairs. Solution: If there is one substring aa in a string of the language. 8: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. Hence any string that follows aa is represented by ( b + ba )*. Thus simply put. On the other hand if an a precedes the aa. ( b + ab )*( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. Solution: Since any string of even length can be expressed as the concatenation of strings of length 2 and since the strings of length 2 are aa. a regular expression corresponding to the language is ( aa + ab + ba + bb )*. Any numbe of a's can appear any place in the string. If there is no aa but at least one a exists in a string of the language. Ex. ( a + b )*( a + bb ) is a regular expression for the language. it is the set of strings over the alphabet { a. 11: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the . b } that do not end with ab.alphabet { a. Ex. 9: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of strings of even lengths over the alphabet of { a. ba. 10: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression a*b(a*ba*b)*a* . it has at least one b. Hence if a string does not end with ab then it ends with a or if it ends with b the last b must be preceded by a symbol b. Hence a string preceding the aa can be represented by ( b + ab )*. b }. b } must end in a or b. Solution: Any string in a language over { a . b } that contain no more than one occurence of the string aa. then that aa can be followed by any number of b. If an a comes after that aa. then applying the same argument as for aa to .

Regularity of finite languages Theorem 1: The set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed under operations union. Ex. is not regular as we shall see later. 12: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression ( b + ab )*( a + ab )*. a finite language is a set of n . concatenation and Kleene star operations. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages and they are obviously over the alphabet . concatenation and Kleene star. Thus the set of regular languages is closed under those operations. Hence (( a + b )3)* represents the strings of length a multiple of 3. We say a language is finite if it consists of a finite number of strings. the given regular expression represents the strings of length 3n and 3n + 1. { anbn | n is a natural number } which is the union of all the languages { akbk } . and ( a + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring bb. where n is a natural number. Solution: (( a + b )3) represents the strings of length 3. Then by the definition of the set of regular languages . Properties of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • Closure of the set of regular languages under union. The following theorem shows that any finite language is regular. For example while { akbk } is regular for any natural number k . Since (( a + b )3)*( a + b ) represents the strings of length 3n + 1. Note 2: The union of infinitely many regular languages is not necessarily regular. Proof: Let Lr and Ls be regular languages over an alphabet . Solution: ( b + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring aa and which end in b.regular expression (( a + b )3)*( +a+b). Hence altogether it represents any string consisting of a substring with no aa followed by one b followed by a substring with no bb. where n is a natural number. Lr Ls . that is. Note 1: Later we shall see that the complement of a regular language and the intersection of regular laguages are also regular.

Claim 1: A language consisting of n strings is regular for any natural number n (that is. Hence by the Inductive Clause of the definition of regular language { a }{ w } is regular.strings for some natural number n. Claim 2: Let w be a string over an alphabet . Basis Step: (corresponding to n = 0) is a regular language by the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. End of proof of Theorem 2. Theorem 2: A finite language is regular. Then for any symbol a of . Proof: Let us first assume that a language consisting of a single string is regular and prove the theorem by induction. Proof of Claim 2: Proof by induction on strings. Proof of the Claim 1: Proof by induction on the number of strings. { a } is a regular language from the Basis Step. } and { a } are Inductive Step: Assume that { w } is a regular language for an arbitrary string w over . Then since { w } is a regular language as proven below. . Hence { aw } is regular. then we have proven the theorem. Inductive Step: Assume that a language L consisting of n strings is a regular language (induction hypothesis). End of proof for Claim 2 Note that Claim 2 can also be proven by induction on the length of string. L { w } is a regular language by the definition of regular language. { regular languages for any arbitrary symbol a of . End of proof of Claim 1 Thus if we can show that { w } is a regular language for any string w. Then { w } is a regular language. a finite language is regular) if { w } is regular for any string w. Basis Step: By the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. We then prove that a language consisting of a single string is regular.

you must give the customer a can of soft drink. In fact Turing machines are as . that is. therefore. If the customer puts in a nickel. The states and the transitions between them of this vending machine can be represented with the diagram below. you are no longer in the waiting-for-customer state. It is assumed that the machine terminates its operation when it receives 15 cents or more. say a dime. In this example you as a vending machine have gone through (transitions between) a number of states responding to the inputs from the customer (coins in this case). After that you stay in that state until another coin is put in to start the process anew or you may terminate the operation and start all over from the initial state. Let us consider the operation of a soft drink vending machine which charges 15 cents for a can. Then we are going to see that for every regular language a unique finite automaton can be constructed which can recognize the language (i. say 15-cents state. When a customer comes and puts in the first coin. Click "NICKEL" or "DIME" in the figure and see how it operates (see how arrows turn red). When the customer selects a soft drink. Pretend that you are the machine. circles represent states and arrows state transitions. We have learned that regular languages are represented by regular expressions and conversely. Finite automata are computing devices that accept/recognize regular languages and are used to model operations of many systems we find in practice. and equivalence and conversions between them. Though Turing machines are simple modification of finite automata. Unfortunately not all languages and systems are simple like regular languages or finite automata. In the figure. Let us assume that only nickels and dimes are used for simplicity. Later we are going to learn an extension of finite automata called Turing machines. A kind of systems finite automnata can model and a computer program to simulate their operations are discussed later. Their operations can be simulated by a very simple computer program. There are languages which are not regular and which. We are then going to study how finite automata can be used to simulate operations of systems we see in practice. Ds on arrows represent a dime and Ns a nickel.Introduction to Finite Automata In this chapter we are going to study a class of machines called finite automata. they are much more powerful computing devices than finite automata. tell whether or not a given string belongs to the regular language). Initially you are waiting for a customer to come and put some coins. We are going to learn languages which are not regular and ways to test languages for non-regularity.e. can not be recognized by finite automata. then you have now received 15 cents and you wait for the customer to select a soft drink. So you are in another state. you are in the waiting-for-customer state. In the next few chapters first we are going to learn different kinds of finite automata. You have received 10 cents and are waiting for more coins to come. So we might say you are in the 10-cents state. A vending machine looked at this way is an example of finite automaton.

Also let be a function from Q to Q . 2. 3.powerful as computers and it is generally believed. "have received 5 cents" etc. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. The transition function is also called a next state function meaning that the automaton moves into the state (q. A > Notes on the definition 1. The set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. Definition of Deterministic Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • • • Finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of deterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. the states of the machine such as "waiting for a customer to put a coin in". Its elements can. Thus in the example of vending machine. Thus in the example of vending machine. Otherwise it is not accepted. (q. are the elements of Q. . however. be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. then (q. The accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. Then a deterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. q0 . that any computation human beings do (with or without computers) can be performed by Turing machines. "Waiting for a customer to put a coin in" can be considered the initial state of this automaton and the state in which the machine gives out a soda can can be considered the accepting state. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of . We call the elements of Q a state. though not proven. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. 4. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". a) is equal to "have received 5 cents". if q is the initial state and a nickel is put in. Note that is a function. . for example. a) must be specified. in the Example 1 below. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ceases to come. the transition function. For example. .

a) ) A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. = { a }. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 1 a 2 2 a 2 (q. etc. Transition functions can also be represented by tables as seen below. A = { 1 }. Abbreviations such as FA and DFA are used to denote deterministic finite automaton. Examples of finite automaton Example 1: Q = { 0. The accepting states are indicated by double circles. An arc ( p . q ) from vertex p to vertex q with label represents the transition (p. aaa. It is a little more complex DFA. The vertices (denoted by single circles) of a transition diagram represent the states of the DFA and the arcs labeled with an input symbol correspond to the transitions. . 1. A deterministic finite automaton is also called simply a "finite automaton".the string a is accepted by the finite automaton. then we need a DFA such as shown in the following examle to accept the same string a. But any other strings such as aa. 2 }. are not accepted. They are called transition table. 5. ) = q . If the alphabet of the Example 1 is changed to { a. the following table. DFAs are often represented by digraphs called (state) transition diagram. b } in stead of { a }.

A DFA that accepts all strings consisting of only symbol a over the alphabet { a. = { a. the following table.Example 2: Q = { 0. a) ) . a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. 1 }. A = { 0 }. 2 }. b }. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 0 b 2 1 a 2 1 b 2 2 a 2 2 b 2 (q. Example 3: Q = { 0. 1. in the following table. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 0 0 b 1 1 a 1 1 b 1 (q. b } is the next example. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. = { a. A = { 1 }. b }.

15. 10. = { D. A = { 15. its transition function is as shown in the following table. State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 N 5 0 D 10 5 N 10 5 D 15 10 N 15 10 D 20 15 N 5 15 D 10 20 N 5 20 D 10 (q. If we make it a DFA. 20 }.A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. Q = { 0. 5. Example 4: For the example of vending machine of the previous section. 20 }. a) ) . the initial state q0 = 0. N }.

A finite automaton as a machine A finite automaton can also be thought of as the device shown below consisting of a tape and a control circuit which satisfy the following conditions: 1. It never moves to the left. . 2. 3. 6. When it sees no symbol. There is a finite control which determines the state of the automaton and also controls the movement of the head. The head moves to the right one square every time it reads a symbol. it stops and the automaton terminates its operation. The head is always at the leftmost square at the beginning of the operation. The tape is divide into squares in each of which a symbol can be written prior to the start of the operation of the automaton. The tape has the left end and extends to the right without an end. 5. The tape has a read only head. 4.

When zero or more a's are given as an input to it. aaaaaa etc. Once it gets to state 1. then no matter what symbol is read. As an example let us consider the DFA of Example 3 above. If b is read while it is in state 0 (initially or after reading some a's). are not accepted by this automaton. it stays in state 0 while it reads all the a's (without breaks) on the tape. when all the a's on the tape are read. . this DFA never leaves state 1.Operation of finite automata Let us see how an automaton operates when it is given some inputs. Hence when b appears anywhere in the input. it goes into state 1 and the input string is not accepted by the DFA. it moves to state 1. For example strings aaa. Thus this automaton accepts any string of a's. Initially it is in state 0. are accepted but strings such as aaba. the DFA is in the accepting state. Since the state 0 is also the accepting state. b etc.

*

of DFA and its Properties

Subjects to be Learned

• •

*

Language accepted by DFA

Contents

Here we are going to formally describe what is meant by applying a transition repeatedly, that is the concept of * For a state q and string w, *( q , w ) is the state the DFA goes into when it reads the string w starting at the state q. In general a DFA goes through a number of states from the state q responding to the symbols in the string w. Thus for a DFA < Q , , q0 , , A > , the function

* :Q -> Q is defined recursively as follows: *

Definition of

*

:

*

Basis Clause: For any state q of Q ,

(q,

) = q , where

*

denotes the empty string. and any symbol a ,

Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q, any string y * ( q , ya ) = ( *( q , y ) , a ) .

In the definition, the Basis Clause says that a DFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the state DFA reaches after reading string ya starting at state q is the state it reaches by reading symbol a after reading string y from state q. Example For example suppose that a DFA contains the transitions shown below.

Then

*

*

( q , DNR ) can be calculated as follows:

( q , DNR ) = ( *( q , DN ) , R ) by the Inductive Clause. = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , DN ). = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) since D = D . = ( ( ( *( q , ) , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , D ). = ( ( ( q , D ) , N ) , R ) , since ( q , ) = q . = ( ( q1 , N ) , R ) , since ( q , D ) = q1 as seen from the diagram. = ( q2 , R ) , since ( q1 , N ) = q2 as seen from the diagram. = q3 since ( q2 , R ) = q3 as seen from the diagram. Properties of

*

We can see the following two properties of

*

. for a DFA < Q , , q0 , ,A

**Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >,
**

*

(q,a)=

(q,a)

Proof : Since a = a , * ( q , a ) = *( q , a ) . By the definition of * , * ( q , a ) = ( *( q , ) , a ) But *( q , ) = q by the definition of Hence ( *( q , ) , a ) = ( q , a ) .

*

.

The next theorem states that the state reached from any state, say q , by reading a string, say w , is the same as the state reached by first reading a prefix of w, call it x, and then by reading the rest of the w, call it y. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 , , A > , for a DFA < Q , ,

*

( q , xy ) =

*

(

*

(q,x),y).

Proof : This is going to be proven by induction on string y. That is the statement to be proven is the following: * For an arbitrary fixed string x, ( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for any arbitrary string y. First let us review the recursive definition of *. Recursive definition of Basis Clause:

* *

:

.

* * Inductive Clause: If x and a , then xa . * Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.

Now the proof of the theorem. Basis Step: If y = , then *( q , xy ) = *( q , x ) = *( q , x ) . Also *( *( q , x ) , y ) = *( *( q , x ) , ) = *( q , x ) by the definition of * . Hence the theorem holds for y = . Inductive Step: Assume that *( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for an arbitrary string y. This is the induction hypothesis. We are going to prove that *( q , xya ) = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) for any arbitrary symbol a of . ( q , xya ) = ( *( q , xy ) , a ) by the definition of * = ( * ( *( q , x ) , y ) , a ) by the induction hypothesis. = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) by the definition of * . Thus the theorem has been proven.

*

For the following DFA answer the questions given below.

. if and only if L = { w | *( q0 . That is a string is accepted by a DFA if and only if the DFA starting at the initial state ends in an accepting state after reading the string. q0 . q0 . the language accepted by a DFA is the set of strings accepted by the DFA. A language L is accepted by a DFA < Q . . A > . A > . That is. . * . w ) A } . w ) A .The following notations are used in the questions: : \delta * : \delta^* : \Lambda Language Accepted by DFA Subjects to be Learned • Language accepted by DFA A string w is accepted by a DFA < Q . if and only if ( q0 . Example 1 : .

Example 2 : This DFA does not accept any string because it has no accepting state. Then from state 1 go to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading aa.1 and it can go through this cycle any number of times by reading substring ab repeatedly. Thus the language it accepts is the empty set Example 3 : DFA with one cycle . It accepts nothing else because any non-empty symbol would take it to state 1. To find the language it accepts.2 .e. This is represented by (ab)*. which is not an accepting state. and it stays there.This DFA accepts { } because it can go from the initial state to the accepting state (also the initial state) without reading any symbol of the alphabet i.2 . . Then from state 1 go through the cycle 1 . first from the initial state go to state 1 by reading one a. Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by a(ab)*aa . This DFA has a cycle: 1 . by reading an empty string .1 any number of times by reading substring ab any number of times to come back to state 1.

0 and it can move through these cycles any number of times in any order to reach the accepting state from the initial state such as 0 .0 .2 .1 . first from state 0 go to state 1 by . To find the language accepted by this DFA. Example 5 : DFA with two interleaved cycles This DFA has two cycles: 1 .2 .1.0 and 0 .0 .1 .0 .2 .0.Example 4 : DFA with two independent cycles This DFA has two independent cycles: 0 .1 and 1 . Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by ( ab + bb )*.2 .2 .3 .

Thus the language that is accepted by this DFA is the union of the language accepted at state 0 and the one accepted at state 1. Then go from state 1 to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading bb. At this point a substring a( baa + bba )* will have been read. At state 1 go through the cycle 1 .1 and 1 .1 any number of times by reading substring ba repeatedly.3 . Thus the language accepted at state 1 is b*a(ba)* .2 . Then go to state 1 by reading one a.0 . respectively. Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata . The language accepted at state 0 is b* . Thus altogether a( baa + bba )*bb will have been read when state 3 is reached from state 0.2 . There is a systematic way of finding the language accepted by a DFA and we are going to learn it later. So we are not going to go any further on this problem here.2 . first at state 0 read any number of b's.reading a ( any other state which is common to these cycles such as state 2 can also be used instead of state 1 ). Then from state 1 go through the two cycles 1 . Example 6 : This DFA has two accepting states: 0 and 1. At this point (b*a) will have been read.1 any number of times in any order by reading substrings baa and bba. To find the language accepted at state 1.

q0 . 5. Also let be a function from Q to 2Q . the transition function. As in the case of DFA the set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . Otherwise it is not accepted. Unlike DFAs an NFA moves into one of the states given by (q. A = { 1 }. 3.Subjects to be Learned • • • Nondeterministic finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. Which one of the states in (q. = { a }. We call the elements of Q a state. Note that is a function. the following table. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of (q. a) to select is determined nondeterministically.e. 1 }. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 1 a (q. A > Notes on the definition 1. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ends i. . a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. Its elements can be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. Examples of NFA Example 1: Q = { 0. 2. in which case the NFA aborts its operation. . 4. Note that any DFA is also a NFA. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. But it can be the empty set. ceases to come. a) ) . the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". The transition function is also called a next state function . a) must be specified. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. As in the case of DFA the accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton.

= { a. in the following table. b } in stead of { a }.A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. this is still an NFA that accepts { Example 2: Q = { 0. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1. . is changed to { a. b }. 2 }. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. If the alphabet a}. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state.2} 0 1 1 2 2 b a b a b {2} (q. 1. A = { 2 }.

Thus the string ab is also accepted by this NFA. When it reads the symbol a. Initially it is in state 0. then it stays in the accepting state. Let us now define the function strings and languages by NFA. it moves to either state 1 or state 2. it does not accept any of them. If any other strings are given to this NFA. If on the other hand it moves to state 1 after reading a. then it goes to state 2 and remains there. * and then formalize the concepts of acceptance of .Operation of NFA Let us see how an automaton operates when some inputs are applied to it. We say that this automaton accepts the string a. As an example let us consider the automaton of Example 2 above. Since the state 2 is the accepting state. if the next input is b and if no more inputs are given. if it moves to state 2 and no more inputs are given.

Language Accepted by NFA Subjects to be Learned • • • for NFA Language accepted by NFA Properties of * * Definition of * For a state q and string w.3} 0 b {2} 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b {1} {3} {3} (q. *( q . q0 . . the function * :Q -> 2Q is defined recursively as follows: * Definition of *: Basis Clause: For any state q of Q. Example State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {0. In general an NFA nondeterministically goes through a number of states from the state q as it reads the symbols in the string w. any string y * and any symbol a ( q . where * denotes the empty . ya ) = In the definition. the Basis Clause says that an NFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the set of states NFA can reach after reading string ya starting at state q is the set of states it can reach by reading symbol a after reading string y starting at state q. string. w ) is the set of states that the NFA can reach when it reads the string w starting at the state q. * (q. A > .1. . Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q. a) ) For example consider the NFA with the following transition table: . Thus for an NFA < Q . ) = { q }.

a ) is the union of ( p. Suppose that the state 3 is an accepting state of this NFA.The transition diagram for this NFA is as given below.b) (3. b ) for all p * ( 0 . Hence *( 0 . *( 0 .2. ) again by the Inductive * Clause of the definition of . 3}. Then * * ( 0 . a ) = { 0 . By the Basis Clause of the definition of *. 1 .b)={2} {3} {1}={1. ( 0 . ab ) = ( 0 . a ) by the Inductive Clause of * Now *( 0 . a ) for all p ( 0 . b ) (1. . 3 } . ab ) can be calculated as follows: ( p. ) = { 0 } . ab ) is the union of the definition of * . Hence *( 0 . a ) = ( 0 .

A > . * (q. and for NFA has properties similar to that for DFA.a)= (q. A > is the set of strings that are accepted by the NFA.* We say that a string x is accepted by an NFA < Q. * ( q . . aaa. . . A > if and only if * ( q0 . for an NFA < Q . q0. The language accepted by an NFA < Q. . q0. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 . a. abbbb etc. x ) A is not empty. . xy ) = These theorems can be proven in a manner similar to those for Theorems 1 and 2 for DFA.A Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >. . . . * . if and only if it can reach an accepting state by reading x starting at the initial state. Some of the strings accepted by the NFA given above are the language it accepts is a*( ab + a + ba )(bb)* .a) for an NFA < Q . ab. that is. q0 . .

q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. Thus the tape head does not move when is read. We are going to do that by showing that a finite automaton can be constructed from a given regular expression by combining simpler FAs using union. for any NFA.there is a NFA (hence DFA) which accepts the same language and vice versa. 2.. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton with -Transitions is a 5-tuple < Q . the transition function. We call the elements of Q a state.makes the transition without reading any symbol in the input. Here we are going to formally define NFA with -Transitions (abbreviated as NFA. A transition on reading means that the NFA. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. Also let { } to 2Q . Note that any NFA is also a NFA. Basically an NFA with -Transitions is an NFA but can respond to an empty string and move to the next state. . These operations on FAs can be described conveniently if -Transitions are used.) and see some examples.A> Notes on the definition 1. Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton with Let Q be a finite set and let -Transitions be a function from Q be a finite set of symbols. concatenation and Kleene star operations. . . As we are going to see later.Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata with Transitions Subjects to be Learned • • • - Nondeterministic finite automata with State transition diagram State transition table -Transitions Contents One of the objectives of this chapter is to show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between regular languages and finite automata. q0 .

When a symbol a is read at the initial state 0. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. you can go to state 2. For once you are in state 1. 3. Thus 4 is the only state you can go to from the initial state . 2.Example of NFA- Q = { 0. 4. 2. If you read string ab. 4 and 5 without reading any symbol on the tape. 4 } 3 {5} 3 b {4} 4 a {5} (q. b }. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in the State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 0 {4} 1 {2} 2 { 3. following table. = { a. For though you go to states 1. 4 and 5 by reading a. 3. then you come to state 4. 3. A = . it can move to any of the states other than 0. for example. 5 }. there are no transitions on reading b except from state 3. a) ) Here the transitions to are omitted from the table. for example. 1.

by reading ab.

**Language Accepted by NFASubjects to be Learned
**

• • • •

**-closure for NFALanguage accepted by NFAProperties of *
**

*

Contents

To formally define * for NFA- , we start with the concept of -closure for a state which is the set of states reachable from the state without reading any symbol. Using that concept we define * and then strings and languqges accepted by NFA- . Definition of -closure

Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA- . Let us denote the -closure of a set S of states of Q by ( S ). Then ( S ) is defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: S (S)

Inductive Clause: For any state q of Q, if q ( S ) , then ( q , ) (S). Extremal Clause: Nothing is in ( S ) unless it is obtained by the above two clauses.

For the NFAFirst { 2 }

of the above figure, ( { 2 } ) , that is, 2 (2, )

( { 2 } ) is obtained as follows: ( { 2 } ) . Then since 2 ( { 2 } ) , by the

Inductive Clause, Since (2,

({2}). ({2}).

) = { 3 , 4 }, we now have { 2 , 3 , 4 }

Since 3 and 4 have been added to

({2}),

(3,

) = { 5 } and

(4,

)=

must

be included in ( { 2 } ) . Thus now { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } ({2}). Though 5 has become a memeber of the closure, since ( 5 , ) is empty, no new members are added to ( { 2 } ) . Since ( q , ) has been examined for all the states currently in ( { 2 } ) and no more elements are added to it, this process of generating the closure terminates and ( { 2 } ) = { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } is obtained. As we can see from the example, ( S ) is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S by traversing any number of arcs. That is, it is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S without reading any symbols in . Now with this -closure, we can define

*

recursively as follows:

As in the cases of DFA and NFA, * gives the result of applying the transition function repeatedly as dictated by the given string. Definition of

* *

is going to be defined recursively. Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA-

.

**Basis Clause: For any state q of Q,
**

*

(q,

)=

({q}).

*

Inductive Clause: For any state q, a string y in

and a symbol a in

,

*

( q , ya ) =

(

).

What the Inductive Clause means is that *( q , ya ) is obtained by first finding the states that can be reached from q by reading y ( *( q , y ) ), then from each of those states p by reading a (i.e. by finding ( p , a ) ), and then by reading 's ( i.e. by taking the closure of the ( p , a )'s ) . Example : For the NFAbelow: of the following figure,

*

( 0 , ab ) can be obtained as

First let us compute *( 0 , a ) . For that we need ( { 0 } ). Since it is the set of states reached by traversing the arcs from state 0, ( { 0 } ) = {0,3,4}. Next from each of the states in ( { 0 } ) we read symbol a and move to another state (i.e. apply ). They are ( 0 , a ) = { 1 } , ( 3 , a ) = ( 4 , a ) = { 5 }. Hence We then traverse the } ) = { 1 , 2 , 3 } and = { 1 , 5 } for q = 0 . arcs from { 1 , 5 } to get to the states in *( 0 , a ) . Since * ({5})={5}, (0,a)={1,2,3,5}.

({1

x ) contains at least one accepting state. For example the NFAof the figure given above accepts the language { . .to (equivalent) NFA Conversion of NFA to (equivalent) DFA Equivalence of DFAs. 4 } . . The language accepted by an NFA. a . . A2 > that satisfies the following conditions recognizes L: . .s Subjects to be Learned • • • Conversion of NFA. Then the 2 .0 . Now ( 1 . A > is the set of strings accepted by the NFA. NFAs and NFA. ab } . *( 0 . a ) and then take the arcs from there. A1 > be an NFA. NFA M2 = < Q2.< Q . ab ) = { 3 . 4 } . b ) are empty sets. A > if and only if *( q0 . . A string x is accepted by an NFA. . Thus Since ( { 4 } ) = { 3 . . b ) = { 4 } .Then to find *( 0 . q0 . b ) and ( 5 . q1. and ( 2 . ( 3 . NFAs and NFAto NFA 1 Conversion of NFA- Let M1 = < Q1 . Equivalence of DFAs.< Q . b ) .0 . ab ) read b from each of the states in *( 0 . q2.that recognizes a language L. q0 ..

0 = q1. The transition function 2 is obtained as follows: 2( 0 . A1 > does. q2. 1 } . A2 > which accepts the same language 1 .0 } ) A1 = A1 otherwise .0 . Then from the transition function of the NFA- .0 } if ( { q1. that is if an accepting state can be reached from the initial state q1. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. as the given NFA.0 through arcs in M1 . q1. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) .Q2 = Q1.M1 = < Q1 . then all the accepting states of M1 plus state q1. a ) . 3 ). The closure of the set of those states is 2( q .0. . Then collect all the states that can be reached from each state of ( {q} ) by traversing one arc labeled with the symbol a. 1. Example 1: Let us convert the following NFAto NFA. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0. a ) = 1 * (q. a ): First ( { 0 } ) = { 0 . Otherwise. .0 are the accepting states of M2 . that is all the states that can be reached from q by traversing arcs. q2. 2 first copy the states of Q1 into Q2. .a)= ( ) A2 = A1 { q1. 2 ( q. Thus to obtain an NFA M2 = < Q2. The set of accepting states A2 is the same as A1 if no accepting states can be reached from the initial state q1.0 through arcs in M1 . a ) as follows: Find ( {q} ). Then for each state q of Q2 and each symbol a of find 2 ( q . 2.0 .

2} {1.2} {1. 1 For .2}. ({1. 2 ( 0 .3} {3} {1.2} {1.2} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. 2 (0.2} )) ({q}) {0.1} {0.b)= Similarly 2 can be obtained for other states and symbols. a ) = 1 ( 1 .3} {1. and Hence 2( 0 .1} {1} {1} {2} {2} {1. b ) = .( 0 . a ) = { 1 . since ( { 0 } ) = { 0 .b)= 1 ( 1. 2 }. a ) = . They are given in the table ( { q } ) and 2 below together with State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b a b .3} {1.2})={1. (q. b ) . 1 } and 1 (0.2} {1. . )(= ( {1.

the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0.3} . 4 ).2. 2 is given in the table below together with ( { q } ) .3} {1. 1 ( p .3} )) {1.4} {1.2} {4} {4} {4} {1.3} {3} {3} {1. )(= ( {1.2} {1. ) and State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 a b a b a b a b a ({q}) {0. The transition function 2 is obtained as for Example 1.2} 2 (q.1} {1} {1} {2. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0. 2.1} {0.2.3} {2. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) .2.4} {1.4} {1.4} {1.Example 2: Let us convert the following NFA- to NFA. 1. 3.

4} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. Proof of Equivalence of NFA- and NFA We are going to prove that the NFA obtained from NFAby the conversion algorithm accepts the same language as the NFA.4 b {1. .

and NFA- When it is proven.w)= 2 * ( q . wa ) holds for any arbitrary symbol a in First we show that using the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . .a)= 2 * (q. q2. Secondly 2 * (q. We are going to prove it by showing that both of them are equal to Firstly 2( q . . . A2 > (q.(1) .0 . . The case when w is an empty string is going to be proven separately. A1 > and 2 NFA obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2.w).. Hence (q. the induction hypothesis and the construction of NFA from NFA. a ) = 1*( q .a). (q. Basis Step: We need to show that for any symbol a in 1 * (q. then * 1 ( q . Recall that the set of strings is defined recursively (click here for a quick review).a). it implies that NFAM1 and NFA M2 accept the same non-empty strings. --.a)= 2 2 * (q . .a)= 2 ( q . = = 2 * 2 (q . for NFA. (q.a). = 1 * Then we show that ( q . wa ) = 2 * ( q . wa ) = --. Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. that is wa for any symbol a in the alphabet. then assuming it holds for any arbitrary string w we prove it for any of the children of w. 1 . wa ) --. 1 * (q.(2) . q1. )={q}. a ) . w ) for any non-empty string w. and the conversion of NFAto NFA click here. First we are going to prove that To review the definition of * 1 * .(1) because of the way NFA is constructed from NFA(click here for a review) . 1 * (q.w)= 2 * ( q . Inductive Step: We need to show that if 1 * (q. a ) --.0 . Thus we first prove that it is true for any arbitrary symbol.(2) Hence from (1) and (2).a)= 2 * 2 (q. a)= by the definition of Since * 2 * for NFA (click here for a review) . w ) for an arbitrary string w (Induction Hypothesis).w)= 2 * (q.NFA- that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 .a). Claim 1: For any non-empty string w and for any state q.

The right hand side of this equality is equal to ( the first and have been swapped to get this) . . = 1*( q . Hence On the other hand = Hence 1 * = ( q . wa ) . This can be shown to be equal to .a)= Substituting this into the left hand side of (2) produces = . 1 * Thus from (1) and (2) ( q . wa ) . wa ) . because = . wa ) . wa ) = 2 * ( q . wa ) = 2 * ( q . wa ) = Since 2 * (q. Hence we have proven (2). Hence 2 * ( q . for NFA- (p. = Since 2 (q.w)= 1 * ( q . that is By the definition of 1 * = 1 * 1 * ( q . w ) by the induction hypothesis. . a ) by the way NFA is constructed from NFA= . By the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . To see an explanation for this click here. ( q . Let us next prove (2). wa ) = . . Let us first prove (1). wa ) .a)= 1 * ( q . by the definition of 1 * . that is (1) has been proven.basically using the definition of Then from (1) and (2) we can see that 1 * 1 * . as proven below in Claim 3.

then its childen also have it.End of Induction With this Claim 1 we can see that any non-empty string w is accepted by NFA if and only if it is accepted by the corresponding NFA. Since (S T ) is defined recursively. if it is accepted by an NFA. in the Basis Step of our proof we prove the property for the elements of the basis of (S T ) and in the Inductive Step we prove that if an arbitrary element of (S T ) has that property. Extremal Clause: Nothng is in ( X ) unless it is obtained by the Basis and Inductive Clauses. then q20 this means that Thus NFA( { q10 } ) A1 A2 . Inductive Clause: If q ( X ) . Then the -closure of X is defined recursively as Basis Clause: X (X). q20 Conversely if NFAis accepted by NFA. Hence is accepted by NFA. As for the empty string . Hence by the way A2 is constructed. We are going to prove this in two parts: (S T) (S) (S) (T) ( T ) and (S T). Let us review the definition of the -closure of the set of states of an NFA. By the way NFA is constructed from . What Part 1 states is that all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in the set (S) (T).. Hence is accepted by NFA. As a preparation for the proof of commutativity of union and -closure operations. let us prove the following claim. then ( q . then ( { q10 } ) A1 . Claim 2: (S T)= (S) (T). ) (X). A2 . Let X be the set of states of an NFA. For that let us restate the statement so that the induction becomes clearer. and the corresponding NFA accept the same language. . Part 1 : (S T) (S) (T) This is going to be proven by induction on (S T).

(S T ) with the property of being in (S) ( T ) . End of Proof for Part 1 Part 2 : Proof of Part 2: We are going to prove (S) (S (S) T ) and (S) (T) (T) (T) (S (S (S T). S and T are subsets of (S T) Inductive Step: We need to prove that if q is an arbitrary element of the property of being in (S) (S ( T ) . (S) (T). ) (S) (T). then ( q . That would imply that Proof of (S) (S By induction on (S T): (S). ) (S) (S) (T). and ( S T) (S T). ( T ) . ) (S) (T). (T) Thus all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in (S T) which is to say that (S) (T). Inductive Step: We need to prove that for an arbitrary element q in ( S ) . ) . (q. T T). Hence ) Similarly if q Hence if q is an arbitrary element of (S) (T).S (S T).Proof of Part 1: Basis Step: We need to prove that ( S Since S ( S ) and T T) (S) (S) (S (S) (S) (T). then (q. then (q. T). Hence (T). (T). T ) with (T). if q is in .q ( S ) or q ( S ) . ( T ) . ) Let q be an arbitrary element of T ) with the property of being in ( S ) by the definition of ( T ) . then (q. Since q If q ( S ) . Basis Step: We need to show that S Since S (S T ) .

Similarly Hence (S) (T) (T) (S T ) holds. Si ) by the definition of union. If n = 1. since = ( Equivalence of NFA and DFA We are going to prove that the DFA obtained from NFA by the conversion algorithm . Si is a set as well as Sn+1. End of Proof of Part 2 End of Proof of Claim 2 Claim 3: ( Si ) = ( Si ) . then (q. End of Proof for Claim 3 Sn+1 ) by Claim 2 above. ( Si ) = ( Si ) = ( S1 ) and ( S1 ) . ( Si ) holds for n.(S Since q is in (S T ) and since (S T ) . (S T ) holds.Inducion Hypothesis ( Si ) = ( = = (( Si ) ( ( Si ) ) Si ) ( Sn+1 ) by the definition of union. --. ) (S closure T). Basis Step: n = 1. then Hence Inductive Step: Assume that ( ( Si ) = Si ) = ( Si ) holds for n = 1. Proof : Proof by induction on n. ) (S T). by the definition of (q. Thus (S) (S T ) has been proven. ( Sn+1 ) by the induction hypothesis. - T ) is a -closure.

When it is proven.0 } by the construction of DFA M2 . w ) = 2*( q2.0 .0 .0 . wa ) = = = = 2 ( 1 2 * * ( q1. --- For the string w and an arbitrry symbol a in 1 * . .0 by the definition of 2* . ( q2. w ) for an arbitrary string w.accepts the same language as the NFA. ) = q2. obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2.0 .0 . Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. 2 1 . it obviously implies that NFA M1 and DFA M2 accept the same strings.0 . w ) . Basis Step: For w = 2 * . A2 > First we are going to prove by induction on strings that 1*( q1.0 .0 . w ) = 2 * ( q2. wa ) * 1 Thus for any string w ( q1. ) by the definition of 1 * . w ) . w ) for any string w. ( q1. q2.0 .0 . Theorem: For any string w. = { q1.Part 1 Subjects to be Learned • • • • Union of FAs Concatenation of FAs Kleene Star of FAs Acceptance of regular languages by FAs Contents . w ) . A1 > and DFA . Inductive Step: Assume that Induction Hypothesis 1 * ( q1. w ) = 2 * ( q2. = * 1 ( q1. 1 * ( q1.0 . q1.0 .0 . Kleene's Theorem --. w ) = 2 * ( q2.0 . w ) holds. a ) ( q2. a ) 2( * 2 ( q2. NFA that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 .0 .0 . .

Proof: This is going to be proven by (general) induction following the recursive definition of regular language. . Qu = Q1 Q2 . Ak > . Since any regular language is obtained from { } and { a } for any symbol a in by using union. A2 > . respectively.0 . qk. A1 > and M2 = < Q2 . Au > . q2. Theorem 1 (Part 1 of Kleene's theorem): Any regular language is accepted by a finite automaton. 2 . then L1 L2 . k . u Mu = < Qu . qc. u L2 . . 1 .0 . where qu.0 . .Kleene's theorem. . .0 is a state which is neither in Q1 nor in Q2 .0 . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by the FAs Mu = < Qu .0 } . .0 . Au > : { qu.0 .{ } and { a } for any symbol a in are accepted by an FA. Then L1 = < Qc . Mc . Inductive Step: We are going to show that for any languages L1 and L2 if they are accepted by FAs. Ac > and Mk = < Q2 . qu. respectively. c . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by FAs. q1. It states that any regular language is accepted by an FA and conversely that any language accepted by an FA is regular. We assume that Q1 Q2 = without loss of generality since states can be renamed if necessary. Basis Step: As shown below the languages . . Suppose that L1 and L2 are accepted by FAs M1 = < Q1 . qu. which are given below. that together with the Basis Step would prove the theorem. concatenation and Kleene star operations.

q2.0. .0 c = 1 2 { (q.0 } .0 } . qk. . { q1. that is u (qu. . . c .0 .0 } ) } .0 . Ac > : Qc = Q1 Q2 qc. Note that (qu. qc.0.0 is a state which is not in Q1 .0 } = 1 { (qk.0 .0 . k .0 } ) } { (q. Ak > : { qk. where qk.0 } ) | q A1 } Ac = A2 Mk = < Qk . { q1. q2.0.0 } ) | q A1 } Ak = { qk. a ) = for all a in . . These NFA- s are illustrated below. { qk. Au = A1 A2 Mc = < Qc . Qk = Q1 k . u ) = { q1. .0.u = 1 2 { (qu. { q2.0 = q1.

L1L2 and L1*. Mu. Mc and Mk: Example 1: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression (aa + b)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above. . respectively.It can be proven. in fact accept L1 L2 . that these NFA. Mc and Mk . though we omit proofs. End of Proof Examples of Mu .s .

.Example 2: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression ((a + b)a*)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above.

Kleene's Theorem -.Part 2 .

L(p. It states that any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. k+1.Subjects to be Learned • Languages accepted by FAs are regular Contents The converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem also holds true. k)L(k+1. all without passing through states labeled higher than k. Before proceeding to a proof outline for the converse. See the figure below for the illustration. . k+1. k)L(k+1. q. then from k+1 to k+1 any number of times. What this lemma says is that the set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled with k+1 or lower numbers consists of the following two sets: 1. k) : The set of strings going first from p to k+1. q. q. k+1) = L(p. q. Then the following lemmas hold. first relabel its states with the integers 1 through n. Note that paths may go through arcs and vertices any number of times. q. k) . Lemma 1: L(p. k+1. Given a finite automaton. 2. k) L(p. k+1. k)*L(k+1. k) : The set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled wiht k or lower numbers. k) the set of strings representing paths from state p to state q that go through only states numbered no higher than k. q. let us study a method to compute the set of strings accepted by a finite automaton. then from k+1 to q. Next denote by L(p. L(p. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. k)*L(k+1.

q. Theorem 2 (Part 2 of Kleene's Theorem): Any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. 0) is regular. Lemma 3: L(p. Since the language accepted by a finite automaton is the union of L(q0. 0) is the set of strings representing paths from p to q without passing any states in between. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. Example : Let us find the language accepted by the following finite automaton using the . Since the number of symbols is finite and since any finite language is regular. Hence if p and q are different. >From Lemmas 1 and 2 by induction the following lemma holds. q. q. q. then it consists of single symbols representing arcs from p to q.Lemma 2: L(p. n) over all accepting states q. Proof: L(p. L(p. q. we have the following converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem. If p = q. k) is regular for any states p and q and any natural number k. 0) is regular. then is in it as well as the strings representing any loops at p (they are all single symbols).

1)*r(2. r(1. 1) + r(1.1.0)*r(1. 2) = r(1.0) = and r(2.2. 1) r(3.0) + r(2. r(1. 1. 2.0) = ba+ + . 1) = r(3. 1) = r(1. 3. 1)r(2.1.2.2.0) + r(1. 3. 1) r(1. 3.1. since r(1. 2.1.1. 2.0) = and r(3. r(1. 1) = r(2. 2)*r(3.1. 3. By Lemma 1.lemmas. k) the regular expression for the set of strings L(p. 3.1.0)r(1. 1.0)*r(1. 3.0) + r(3. 2.0) = ba+ .2.0)r(1. r(2. 1. 1)r(2.2.1. 3. 1.0) + r(1. 2)r(3. 2): r(1.1. 1) = r(2. q.0)*r(1.2.0)*r(1.0)r(1. 3. k). q. Let us denote by r(p.0)*r(1. 1) r(1. 2. 1) + r(1. 3) = r(1. 3. 2) = r(3.0)r(1.0) = b . 2) .0)r(1.1. 2. 1)r(2. 2): r(1. 2.1. 2) = r(1. since r(3. 3. since r(1. 1. 2.0) + r(2.1. 2) = a* + a+(b a+)*b a* . 1. 1. 1.1. 3.2.1.1. r(2. 2) + r(1. 1. 1) + r(3. 2): r(3. since r(2.0) = b. Then the language accepted by this NFA is r(1. 1) = r(1. Hence r(1. 2. 1)*r(2. 1) = a Hence r(1. . 2) = a+(b a+ + = a+(b a+ )*a .2.0) = a . 1) = r(3. 3.1.2.0) = a + . )*a r(3.0) = ba* .1. 1. 1. 3. 3). r(1. 3.0) = a* . 1)*r(2. 1) = r(2.0) = a+ .

1. 2) = = + ( ba+)+a + ba+( ba+ + )*a r(3. where p is the initial state and n is the number of states in the given finite automaton.1. 2) = r(3. 1)*r(2.L.1. . 3. then to (a + ab)*. 1) + r(3. n)'s must be added together to get the regular expression for the language accepted by the automaton. Comlement and Intersection of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • • Complement of Regular Language Complement of DFA Intersection of Regular Languages Contents Complement Let M = < Q .1. 1. If there are more accepting states. )*ba* + ( ba+)+a )*( ba+ )*ba*.Hence r(3. * . then r(p. 1) r(3.A > is a DFA that accepts * . and all the r(p.0) + r(3. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. can be obtained by swapping its accepting states with its non-accepting states. 1. In this example there is only one accepting state. 2.0) = ba* Hence r(3. 1) = r(3. 1. q0 . q0 . 1. .0)r(1. 2. that is Mc = < Q . 3) = a* + a+(b a+)*ba* + ( a+( ba+ )*a )( This can be further simplified to (a + ab + abb)*. . q.e. i. 1)r(2. The detail is left as an exercise though it would be quite challenging.L .0)<SUP*< SUP>r(1. 1.1. . n) must be found for each accepting state q. . 2): r(3. Hence r(1. Then a DFA that accepts the complement of L. 1. Q . q. 2) = ba* + ba+( ba+ + = ( ba+ )*ba* .

b }. Remark 2: Since a language is regular if and only if it is accepted by some NFA. we must first convert it to DFA before swapping states to get its complement. Remark 1: If we have NFA rather than DFA. . the complement of a regular language is also regular. A DFA that accepts its complement is obtained from the above DFA by changing all single circles to double circles and vice versa as shown below.For example the following DFA accepts the language a+ over = { a .

Since L1 L2 = by De Morgan's law. Next -. By Remark 2 above. L1 L2 is regular. if L1 and L2 are regular languages.Regular Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Regular Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Production and Grammar Regular Grammar Context-Free. Therefore all the properties of sets are inherited by languages. Click True or Fals . Context-Sensitive and Phrase Structure Grammars . concatenation and Kleene star operations. In particular De Morgan's law also applies to languages. then Submit. difference. Test Your Understanding of Complemnent and Intersection of FAs Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. then their complements are regular languages.Intersection of Regular Languages Langauges are sets. intersection. Thus summing all this up we can say that the set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed with respect to union.

If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. b}. that is by something called grammar. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals with at least one nonterminal in it and is a string of terminals and nonterminals. where X and Y are nonterminals and a is a terminal. we write =>*G is obtained from a string and say that by applying productions of . S -> bS. aS. and S -> aS . . A grammar is a set of rewrite rules which are used to generarte strings by successively rewriting symbols. a ) = Z. We write S => aS to express that aS is obtained from S by applying a single production. S corresponds to the initial state. then we simply write =>* Formally a grammar consists of a set of nonterminals (or variables) V. Add another state as the accepting state Z. . and a set of rewrite rules (productions) P. a ) = Y and for every production X -> a add the transition ( X. aaa. The following theorem holds for regular grammars. A production has in general the form -> . Theorem 3: A language L is accepted by an FA i. Thus the process of obtaining aa from S is written as S => aS => aa . the fact that aa is obtained from S is written as S =>* aa . aa. That gives us aa. } . Then for every production X -> aY. which is { a. Then apply the first rule to aS to rewrite S as a. which ia a nonterminal. a set of terminals (the alphabet of the language). add the transition ( X.{ by a regular grammar. These rules mean that S is rewritten as a or as aS. if L . to obtain aS. . = {a.e. i. If there is no is derived from ambiguity about the grammar G that is referred to. a start symbol S.e. finite automata and construction from simple languages using simple operations. One can generate the strings of this language by the following procedure: Let S be a symbol to start the process with. } can be generated This can be proven by constructing an FA for the given grammar as follows: For each nonterminal create a state. There is yet another way of characterizing them. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. that is a production is of the form X -> a or X -> aY. In general if a string a grammar G. A grammar is regular if and only if is a single nonterminal and is a single terminal or a single terminal followed by a single nonterminal. For example. . For example consider the language represented by a+. To generate the string aa for example. S -> } is a regular grammar and it generates all the strings consisting of a's and b's including the empty string. Rewrite S using one of the following two rules: S -> a . start with S and apply the second rule to replace S with the right hand side of the rule. regular.Contents We have learned three ways of characterising regular languages: regular expressions.

P = { S -> aS. Theorem 4 : If L is regular i. . and nonterminals X and Y. L = Conversely from any NFA < Q. Z } . V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. X -> bS. a) = Y . Y } . accepted by an NFA. as its member. . } is generated by a For example. b ) = { S. X -> a is in P if and only if (X.For example = {a. . q0. Y -> bS. S -> a }.{ regular grammar. where S is the initial state and Z is the accepting state of the NFA.e. . S > . b }. S -> a. b}. then since { } is regular . { a. Z } and ( S. a regular grammar corresponding to the NFA given below is < Q. X -> aY is in P if and only if (X. A > a regular grammar < Q. If L contains ( L -{ } ) { } is also regular. X. S -> b } form a regular grammar which generates the language ( a + b )+. where Q = { S. X -> aY. Thus the following converse of Theorem 3 is obtained. Thus L . and for any a in and any nonterminal X. and adding transitions ( S. a) = Y for some accepting state Y. S -> bS.{ } is regular. a ) = { S. The NFA thus obtained is shown below. P. An NFA that recognizes this language can be obtained by creating two states S and Z. then L . q0 > is obtained as follows: for any a in . S -> aX. P.

Z. X -> a. These grammars are distinguished by the kind of productions they have but they also form a hierarchy. S1 -> XYZ. It is an example of context-sensitive language which is not context-free. S. that is the set of regular languages is a subset of the set of context-free languages which is in turn a subset of the set of context-sensitive languages and the set of context-sensitive languages is a subset of the set of phrase structure languages. context-sensitive languages and phrase structure languages. ZX -> XZ. where X is a nonterminal and . possibly the empty string.In addition to regular languages there are three other types of languages in Chomsky hierarchy : context-free languages. A grammar is a context-sensitive grammar if and only if its production is of the form 1 X 2 -> 1 2 . context-sensitive grammars and phrase structure grammars. respectively. for every production -> . b. S1 } is a context-sensitive grammar and it generates the language { anbncn | n is a positive integer } . YX -> XY. They are characterized by context-free grammars. 2 and are strings of terminals and nonterminals. 1 . c } and V = { X.| | | |. A grammar is a context-free grammar if and only if its production is of the form X -> . S -> XYZ. aY -> ab. that is. Y. ZY -> YZ. bZ -> bc. S1 -> XYZS1. For example P = { S -> XYZS1. aX -> aa. . S -> ab } with = { a. possibly empty except Thus the nonterminal X can be rewritten as only in the context of 1X 2 . For example P = { S -> aSb. cZ -> cc } with = { a. BY -> bb. Context-sensitive grammars are also characterized by productions whose left hand side is not longer than the right hand side. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals. As we shall see later this is an example of context-free language which is not regular. b } and V = { S } is a contex-free grammar and it generates the language { anbn | n is a positive integer } .

is that for any regular language there is a unique DFA having the smallest number of states that accepts it. Let M = < Q . Q . new := new_partition( . Next -. . There are two sets of questions. }. that has the smallest number of states amomg the DFAs that accept L.Minimization of DFA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Minimization of DFA One important result on finite automata. denote it by M1. where and Test Your Understanding of Regular Grammar Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.For a phrase structure grammar. Click True or Fals .A } of the set of states Q . Then the following algorithm produces the DFA. . Minimization Algorithm for DFA Construct a partition = { A. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. both theoretically and practically. then Submit. there is no restriction on the form of production. that is a production of a phrase structure grammar can take the form can be any string. -> . q0 .

then the minimum DFA M1 has a transition from p to q on symbol a. Note that the sets of final are either a subset of A or disjoint from A. respectively. if there are any. states of minimum DFA M1. Any transitions to a dead state become undefined. new := new_partition( := . The start state of M1 is the representative which contains the start state of M. The subsets thus formed are sets of the output partition in place of S. A state is a dead state if it is not an accepting state and has no out-going transitions except to itself. S remains in the output partition. Example 1 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. . Let s be a state in p and t a state in q. end Minimum DFA M1 is constructed from • • final as follows: • • Select one state in each set of the partition final as the representative for the set. The accepting states of M1 are representatives that are in A. These representatives are states of minimum DFA M1. final function new_partition( ) for each set S of do partition S into subsets such that two states p and q of S are in the same subset of S if and only if for each input symbol. If S is not partitioned in this process. Let us also denote by p and q the sets of states of the original DFA M represented by p and q. If a transition from s to t on symbol a exists in M. Let p and q be representatives i.while ( := new new ) ) . Remove from M1 the dead states and the states not reachable from the start state. p and q make a transition to (states of) the same set of .e.

states 2 and 3 are going to be separated from each other in new . Since on b state 2 goes to state 1. So they are not going to be split. 3 }. state 3 goes to state 5 and 4 and 5 are in different sets in . { 2 . Thus final = { { 1 . and 1 to 2 on b.Initially = { { 1 . Select 1 as the representative for { 1 . . new_partition is applied to . 4 goes to 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . state 3 goes to state 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 2 to 1 on b. in the When new_partition is applied to this new . { 2 } . 5 }. all transitions between them are inherited for the minimized DFA. Also since on a sate 4 goes to sate 4. Thus the new partition is { { 1 . 5 } . 5 } . { 4 ] }. 4 } }. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 1 to 3 on a. Thus the set of states for the minimized DFA is { 1 . and to 2 on b in the original DFA. 2 . 3 . and 3 goes to 1 on a in the original DFA. Since the rest of the states are singletons. Since the rest are singletons. { 3 } . This becomes the second iteration. Further. { 3 } . since 1 and 5 do the same transitions. since on b 2 goes to 1. states 3 and 4 are going to be separated from each other in new. Also since 2 goes to 1 on b. and from 3 to 1 on a. On the other hand 1 and 5 make the same transitions. they have the obvious representatives. since 1 goes to 3 on a. Note here that state 4 is a dead state because the only transitionout of it is to itself. remains unchanged. For the transitions. 2 and 4 are separated from each other in new. { 2 } . { 4 ] }. 5 } .

Thus the minimized DFA is as given in the following figure: Example 2 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. .

Application of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Application of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Reactive system . Thus the number of states of the given DFA is already minimum and it can not be reduced any further. { 2 } . { 6 } } is obtained. Applyting new_partition to this . new = { { 3 } . { 5 } . { 5 } . { 2 } . { 6 } } is obtained. Next -. { 1 . Test Your Understanding of Minimization of DFA Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Click True or Fals . { 4 } . 4 } . { 2 . { 1 . 4 . 2 . 6 } } is obtained.Initially = { { 3 } . 5 . new = { { 1 } . { 3 } . 5 } . By applying new_partition to this . 6 } }. Applyting new_partition again. { 1 . then Submit. 4 . new = { { 3 } .

e. An adder does not respond unless the input i. These become the states of the finite automaton that models it. For example consider the following very simplified version of login process to a computer from the computer point of view. Many of those systems fall into the class of systems called reactive system. Then the transitions between the states triggered by events and conditions. Many other systems operating in practice can also be modeled by finite automata such as control circuits of computers. In addition actions that may take place in those states can also be added to the model. two numbers to be added are ready. To model a reactive system with finite automaton. Let us assume for simplicity that this computer accepts a single user at a time. external or internal to the system. first the states the system goes in or the modes of its operation are identified. It is an event driven or control driven system continuously having to react to external and/or internal stimuli. are identified and they become arcs in the transition diagram of the finite automaton. A system such as an adder is called a transformational system. Finite automata are formal and rigorous and computer programs can be easily written to simulate their behaviors. even to a fragment of input such as each coin tossed in for a can of soda or every message received. The inputs for a reactive system are never ready unlike for example when two numbers are added together by an adder (Here we are considering an adder at a higher level of abstraction than physical devices level ignoring for example the transient states of the electronic circuit that realizes an adder).• Modeling reactive systems with FA Contents We have seen an example of use of finite automata in describing the operation of a simplified version of vending machine. lexical analysers for compilers etc. computer network communication protocols. a system must respond to each stimulus. on the other hand. outputs and conditions/status in response to stimuli from within or outside it. A reactive system is a system that changes its actions. . In the case of vending machine or communication protocol. It is generally agreed that finite automata are a natural medium to describe dynamic behaviors of reactive systems.

it goes to the initial state and starts all over again. If the password typed in is incorrect. it starts sending the requested message to the other party. We could make it go to a different state and count the number of login attempts for security purpose. it checks whether or not the name is valid. If a negative ACK is received. which is another state. which is another state. Again it is a very simplified version. Again depending on the level of abstraction. But let us make it simple. sending message and waiting for ACK. When it is complete. When a RFNM starts coming. If a positive ACK is received. Upon completion of the RFNM. After sending the ACK. The next example is a protocol for a computer to follow in communicating with another computer. This is one state of the system. When a password is typed in and it is correct. If it is valid. goes back to the initial state and waits for another login. Depending on how much detail we are interested in. When a name is typed in. When the session terminates. it goes into the state of receiving it (Our interpretation is that the computer is in a state of receiving an RFNM and it is taking the action of receiving the RFNM) .Initially the computer waits for a user name to be typed in. then it accepts the user and starts a session. it goes back to the initial state and waits for another RFNM to come. different states would be identified and transitions would have to be selected accrdingly. then it asks for and then waits for the password. If the second password fails. it sends "Acknowledgement" (ACK) to the other computer. Thus a finite automaton that models this protocol has the following five states: initial state (wait for RFNM). it goes back to the initial state. sending ACK. it gets a signal. it resends the message. different states and transitions would have to be chosen. That is another state though it could further be broken down into a number of more states. Again what we have seen is a model for one level of abstraction. then it informs the user of that and waits for the next try. receiving RFNM. That is a fourth state. Initially the computer is in wait state waiting for "Request for Next Message" (RFNM) to come from another computer. . it goes into another wait state waiting for an ACK to come from the other computer. If the user name typed in is not valid.

after reading a digit and stays there as long as digits are read. denote it by D. it goes into a state.d+ ). they can be represented by the following regular expression: ( s+ + s.+ ) ( d+. followed by a possible decimal point. D is another accepting state. denote it by Q. If a decimal point is read while in D.e. On the other hand if a digit has been read before a decimal point. After one digit it can continue receiving digits. If a decimal point is received before a digit. This Q is an accepting state. followed by one or more digits. . that indicates that a sign has been received. denote it by P. then it goes into a state.2.d+ + d+ + . This system can be modeled by the following finite automaton: . . then it goes to state P indicating that a decimal point has been read. respectively and d {0.Our third example is a system that recognizes numbers with or without a sign such as 5.e. Since these numbers are represented by strings consisting of a possible sign.378. then it can continue receiving digits and stay in D. -15.. This system can also be described by a regular expression. Therefore from state P it goes to another state.represent the positive and negative signs. followed by zero or more digits. If the first digit is received before a decimal point. regardless of whether a sign has been read or not. +213. i. denote it by G. 9 } . If a decimal point has been read (i. where s+ and s. .1. it is in state D.8 etc. that indicates a digit has been read before a decimal point. in state P). then it must receive at least one digit after that. that indicates that a decimal point has been read. If the first symbol is a sign. then it goes into a state. One such system initially waits for the first symbol to come in.

stores for each state the input symbols that trigger transitions from the state. A third array. keeps the index of the first symbol in the TOKEN array for each state. called TOKEN. called STATEX. we can use a general purpose program to simulate its operation. Another array. while ( state NO_of_STATES and not End of Input ) index := STATEX [state] . Those indices are used to access the contents of the other arrays. called NEXT_STATE. It uses four arrays.Simulation of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Simulation of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Simulation of FA Contents Once a finite automaton is constructed. One array. indicates the actions taken at each state and a fourth. One such simulation algorithm is given below. Algorithm FA Simulator state := INITIAL_STATE. while ( TOKEN [index] . input := read_input( ) . holds the next state for each input symbol for each state.Next -. called ACTION. 0 and TOKEN [index] input ) index := index + 1.

In the DFA below all the transitions to the empty state (i. state := NEXT_STATE [index]. Then every time you click "SHOW" the number is processed digit by digit. end Here 0 in the TOKEN array is a marker between states. S is the initial state and B and H are accepting states. B. first click the box pointed by the red arrow in the figure below. So no action is taken as a number is processed. The corresponding transitions are going to be shown by red arrows in the transition diagram. else error input := read_input( ) . The numbers below NEXT_STATE array show the correspondence between the indices of the STATEX array and the states A. For example. The ACTION array would contain pointers to actions to be taken corresponding to arcs traversed such as converting a digit in BCD form to the corresponding binary number.45. You must hit the "Tab" key to move to the next box. . Then type 3 Tab .if ( TOKEN [index] 0) perform the action specified by ACTION [index]. C and H. At the moment it is empty. S corresponds to 1. Then type in a number you want the FA to recognize.e. to input 3. first click the box under the red arrow. empty transitions) are omitted. To see how this algorithm works. Tab 4 Tab 5.

.If you are also interested in how code is executed. click here It is extremely slow. So be patient.

Thus there is no way for a finite automaton to remember how many a's it has read for all possible strings anbn .Next -. This is the basis of two of the regularity test methods we are going to study below: Myhill-Nerode Theorem and Pumping Lemma. There are. Thus it must be in different states when it has read different number of a's and starts reading the first b. a finite automaton must remember how many a's it has read when it starts reading b's. languages that are not regular and therefore require devices other than finite automata to recognize them. their properties and their usefulness for describing various systems. Non-regularity test based on Myhill-Nerode's theorem Indistinguishability of strings: Strings x and y in * are indistinguishable with respect to a language L if and only if for every string z in *. a and aa are indistinguishable with respect to the language an over alphabet { a }. Since a regular language must be recognized by a finite automaton. The main idea behind these test methods is that finite automata have only finite amount of memory in the form of states and that they can not distinguish infinitely many strings.Nerode Theorem for non-regularity test Pumping Lemma Contents We have learned regular languages. where n is a positive integer. For example.Non-Regular Languages Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Regular Languages Non-Regular Languages Subjects to be Learned • • • Existence of non-regular languages Myhill . because aak and aaak are in the language an for any . either xz and yz are both in L or they are both not in L. In this section we are going to study some of the methods for testing given languages for regularity and see some of the languages that are not regular. That is the main limitation of finite automata. we can conclude that { anbn | n is a natural number} is not regular. For example to recognize the language { anbn | n is a natural number} . But any finite automaton has only finite number of states. however.

Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set. that is. Consider the set of strings S2 which is the same as S1 of Example 1 above. Consider the set of strings S3 = { (k x | k is a positive integer } . Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L2 . This set is infinite . because ab is in the language anbn while aab is not in the language. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S2. the set of strings consisting of one or more right parentheses followed by identifier x. For example. where k and m are positive integers and k m . For more on Myhill-Nerode theorem click here. a and aa are not indistinguishable (hence distinguishable). S1 is over alphabet { a . then ( + ) and ( * ) are in L3 . S2 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. (x*y) . Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L1 . with respect to the language anbn . Select bm as a string to be appended to ak and am . We are going to show that its strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L1. the following theorem by Myhill and Nerod gives a criterion for (non)regularity of a language. b } can be shown to be nonregular using Myhill-Nerode as follows: Consider the set of strings S1 = { an | n is a positive integer } . Hence L2 is nonregular. x . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L3 unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. whose strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L. ( ( x + y ) * x ) and (( (x*y) + x ) + (y*y) ) are algebraic expressions. Then akbakb is in L2 while ambakb is not in L2 . L3 can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: x and y are in L3 . Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S1. Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set S1. where k and m are positive integers and k m . Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } over alphabet { a . Select bakb as a string to be appended to ak and am . Inductive Clause: If and are in L3 . S1 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. Theorem : A language L over alphabet is nonregular if and only if there is an infinite subset of * . However. Using this concept of indistinguishability. Hence L1 is nonregular. It can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L2 as follows. It is stated without a proof. b }* } is nonregular. b } and it is infinite. operations + and * and left and right parentheses.positive integer k. Then akbm is not in L1 while ambm is in L1 . Example 2: L2 = { ww | w {a.

This NFA accepts among others some strings of length greater than 5 such as abbabbb. It . For example the string abbabbb is accepted by the NFA and if one of its substrings bba is repeated any number of times in abbabbb.and it can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 as follows: Let (k x and (m x be arbitrary two strings of S3 . Those strings which are accepted by this NFA and whose length is greater than 5 have a substring which can be repeated any number of times without being rejected by the NFA. Then (k x + [ + x ) ]k is in L3 but (m x + [ + x ) ]k is not in L3 because the number of ('s is not equal to the number of )'s in the latter string. abbabbabbb. abbabbabbb etc. For example [ + x ) ]3 is +x) +x)+x) . then there must be a cycle in the NFA along some path from the initial state to some accepting state (such as the cycle 2-3-4-2 in the above example). abbabbabbabbb etc. Pumping Lemma Let us consider the NFA given below. Hence S3 is pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 . Then the substring representing that cycle (bba in the example) can be repeated any number of times within the string w without being rejected by the NFA. are also accepted by the NFA. The following theorem which is called Pumping Lemma is based on this observation. where k and m are positive integers and k m . the resultant strings such as abbb (bba repeated 0 times). Hence L3 is not regular. Select [ + x ) ]k as a string to be appended to (k and (m . In general if a string w (such as abbabbb in the example above) is accepted by an NFA with n states and if its length is longer than n.

even if there is an integer n that satisfies the conditions of Pumping Lemma.states that if a language is regular. Pumping Lemma : Suppose that a language L is regular. n. Consider a string x = anbn for that n. Suppose that L is regular and let n be the number of states of an FA that accepts L. uvmw Test Your Understanding of Non-regularity . Example 4: As an example to illustrate how Pumping Lemma might be used to prove that a language is nonregular. Hence an+pbn can not be in the L. and w such that x = uvw. Note that Pumping Lemma gives a necessity for regular languages and that it is not a sufficiency. v = ap. n + p language L represented by akbk . Since p > 0 . where k is a natural number. and for every m 0. |uv| n |v| > 0 . that is. v has at least one symbol. This violates the condition that for every m language. It can only show that a language is nonregular. n . v. Then there must be strings u. uvmw L. v and w which satisfy the following relationships: x = uvw |uv| n |v| > 0 and for every integer m 0. for some p > 0 . there are strings u. It is stated without a proof here. Since |v| > 0 . Then for any string x in L with |x| n. Let n be the number of states of that FA. Also since |uv| Let us now consider the string uvmw for m = 2. Then there is an FA that accepts L. then any long enough string of the language has a substring which can be repeated any number of times with the resultant strings still in the language. let us prove that the language L = akbk is nonregular. uvmw L. Hence L is not a regular 0. the language is not necessarily regular. Then uv2w = an-pa2pbn = an+pbn . Thus Pumping Lemma can not be used to prove the regularity of a language.

then Submit. Next -. are distinguishable with respect to L.Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.Context-Free Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Myhill-Nerode Theorem The non-regularity test for languages by Myhill-Nerode is based on the following theorem which is in the contrapositive form of the theorem used for nonregularity test. If there are three strings that are distinguished with respect . if and only if }. Click True or Fals . say x and y. This means that if x and y are read by an DFA that recognizes L. that is. Then the theorem is is staed as follows: Theorem: A language L over alphabet is regular if and only if the set of equivalence classes of is finite. the DFA reaches different states. Also it is a corollary to Myhill-Nerode theorem: Let { be the followijg relation on }={ : For strings and of . Proof of Theorem Necessity Suppose that a language L is regular and two strings. Then there is a string z such that xz is in L and yz is not in L (or xz is not in L and yz is in L). if and only if they are indistinguishable with respect to .

is in exactly one equivalence class. . Let us now show that this machine is in fact a DFA and it accepts the language First.. To prove this. . then the language is not regular. then the DFA must have infinitely many states. note that for every string [ ]. ]. [ . let [x] denote a class of strings that are indistinguishable from a string x with respect to L. .. then the language L is regular. For. are in different classes for and are distinguishable with respect to L... Sufficiency Conversely.e.. ]. then the DFA reaches three different states after reading those three strings. . ) as follows: ]} ]. be representatives of those distinct equivalence classes. Hence if there is an infinite set of strings which are pairwise distinguishable with respect to a language. Let . . Note that "indistinguishable with respect to L" is an equivalence relation over the set of strings (denote it by ) and [x]'s are equivalence classes. where [ ] =[ ] for all . the index) of and let . be the number of distinct equivalence classes (i. We will show that a DFA that accepts L can be constructed using these equivalence classes.to L. namely ] and ]. which it can not because a DFA must have a finite number of states.. if the number of classes of strings that are pairwise indistinguishable with respect to a language L is finite. DFA ( = {[ =[ = {[ ( . Then we construct a .. Hence if there are infinitely many strings to be distinguished with respect to L. then ]'s.. [ ]=[ } ]. if and in [ ].. making them belong to different [ Hence is a function.

let us show that this DFA accepts string in [ ] is also in L. ]. by the definition of = . . Hence Hence we have shown that for every string ]. For that. where ]. Then by the definition of . Inductive Step: Assume Then for every But =[ Hence =[ ]. . by the definition of = . if then for every . =[ ]. First some terminology. =[ ]. Since . this means that the DFA accepts Myhill-Nerode Theorem Let us here state Myhill-Nerode Theorem. . . = [ ]. Myhill-Nerode Theorem can now be stated as follows: The following three statements are equivalent: (1) A language is regular. for DFA. where ] is the equivalence class that belongs to. Also an equivalence relation is said to be of finite index. if a string in [ in ] is in . . Hence =[ = . where . first note that if . Our proof is by structural induction on string Basis Step: = =[ ].Next. ] by the induction hypothesis. if the set of its equivalence classes is finite. then every We then show that for every string . With these terminology. An equivalence relation on is said to be right invariant if for every . .

grammar (CFG) if V and . Definition (Context-Free Grammar) : A 4-tuple G = < V . are finite sets sharing no elements between them. S -> ab }.(2) L is the union of some of the equivalence classes of a right invariant equivalent relation of finite index. A language is a context-free language (CFL) if all of its strings are generated by a context-free grammar. Proofs are omitted. Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } is a context-free language. and P is a finite set of productions of the form X -> and (V )* . The set of strings generated by a context-free grammar is called a context-free language and context-free languages can describe many practically important systems. P1 > generates L1 : V1 = { S } . b } and P1 = { S -> aSb . S . For the following context-free grammar G1 = < V1 . Context-Free Languages Context-Free Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Context-Free Grammar Context-Free Languages Push Down Automata Contents Earlier in the discussion of grammars we saw context-free grammars. where X the start symbol. S . P > is a context-free V is V. (3) is of finite index. Most programming languages can be approximated by context-free grammar and compilers for them have been developed based on properties of context-free languages. S . Let us define context-free grammars and context-free languages here. . . where X is a nonterminal and is a nonempty string of terminals and nonterminals. = { a . They are grammars whose productions have the form X -> .

. Then L1 context-free languages. For example { < statement > -> < if-statement > . . respectively. Pu > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1 L2 . Sc . S1 . . S -> bSb . S2 . For L1* . < statement > -> < for-statement > . Su -> S2 } . For the following context-free grammar G2 = < V2 . Then let Sc be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . Then L3 is a context-free language. . Pc > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1L2 . Properties of Context-Free Language Theorem 1: Let L1 and L2 be context-free languages. = { a . S . Then it can be easily seen that Gu = < Vu . b } and P2 = { S -> aSa . . 3 = { x . S -> y }. < expression > -> < algebraic-expression > . . ) . < expression > ) < statement > . 3. S -> aa . P2 > be context-free grammars generating L1 and L2 . Example 4: Portions of the syntaxes of programming languages can be described by context-free grammars. Then it can be easily seen that Gc = < Vc . * } and P3 = { S -> ( S + S ) . Next define Vc = V1 V2 { Sc } and Pc = P1 P2 { Sc -> S1S2 } . Similarly for L1L2 . where w is a nonempty string and wr denotes the reversal of string w. operations + and * and left and right parentheses. first relabel symbols of V2 . P2 > generates L2 : V2 = { S } . Then for L1 L2 . S -> bb }. < expression > . . L1L2 . b }+ } is a context-free language . For the following context-free grammar G3 = < V3 . . Su . . let Ss be a symbol which is not in V1 . ( . first relabel symbols of V2 . Outline of Proof This theorem can be verified by constructing context-free grammars for union. + . P1 > and G2 = < V2 . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. } . Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y.Example 2: L2 = { wwr| w {a. if necessary. if necessary. < statement > -> < assignment > . S -> x . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. P3 > generates L3 : V3 = { S } . and L1* are . w is spelled backward to obtain wr . that is. . S -> S*S . Ss -> L2 . Next define Vu = V1 V2 { Su } and Pu = P1 P2 { Su -> S1 . < expression > -> < logicalexpression > . Then let Su be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . < forstatement > -> for ( < expression > . . y . . . . . . Then let Ps = P1 { Ss -> SsS1 . concatenation and Kleene star of context-free grammars as follows: Let G1 = < V1 . < if-statement > -> if ( < expression > ) < statement > . S .

Let us consider a context-free language anbn . Z0 is the initial stack symbol and it is a member of . and it replaces X with the string at the top of the stack. . If another a (or anything other than b) is read after the first b. As soon as the symbol b appears stop storing a's and start popping a's one by one every time a b is read. It can be seen that the grammar Gs = < Vs . > . a . > . but also by the symbol at the top of the stack. Z0 . . Z0 . q0 . Otherwise reject it. Thus its transition function specifies the new top of the stack contents as well as the next state. push them into the stack. If it is empty. as a's are read by the finite automaton. For example. X ) = ( q . Second. respectively ). . q0 . They need a little more complex automata called pushdown automata. and are finite sets ( the input and stack alphabet. A pushdown automaton ( or PDA for short ) is a 7-tuple M = < Q . ) means the following: The automaton moves from the current state of p to the next state q when it sees an input symbol a at the input and X at the top of the stack. Thus ( p . where Q = { q0 . context-free languages are also accepted by automata but not finite automata. This automaton behaves like a finite automaton except the following two points: First. Any string of this language can be tested for the membership for the language by a finite automaton if there is a memory such as a pushdown stack that can store a's of a given input string. the contents of the stack can also be changed every time an input symbol is read. where Q is a finite set of states.} . check the stack. reject the string. A is the set of accepting states is the transition function and :Q ( ( } -> 2 Q * . accept the string. A . its next state is determined not only by the input symbol being read. q0 is the initial state. A . Example 1 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . Ss . generates the language L1* . Pushdown Automata . When all the symbols of the input string are read. . . Ps > is a context-free grammar that Like regular languages which are accepted by finite automata. Let us define this new type of automaton formally.

it is ( q0 . To describe the operation of a PDA we are going to use a configuration of PDA. aabb . . x . ) ) (q. Let us now see how the PDA of Example 1 operates when it is given the string aabb . . bb . abb . Next it moves to the state q2 which is the accepting state.x. x . aZ0 ). . This entire process can be expressed using the configurations as ( q0 . b . If ( q . q2 } . > is a triple ( q . aZ0 ) ( q0 . aa ) q0 q1 q1 b b a a Z0 ( q1 . After reading the second a. ). aaZ0 ) ( q1 . Then when the first b is read. . * (q. A = { q2 } and let be as given in the State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . Z0 ) q2 . ) in a single move (a single application of the transition function) we write (p. ). where the input is read from left to right and the top of the stack corresponds to the leftmost symbol of . ) ( q1 . q0 . b } . . ) ( q2 . = { a . . ) by a sequence of zero or more moves.x. ( q0 . Z0 ). Z0 ). y . abb . we can also write ( q0 . Z0 ) . aaZ0 ). following table: = { a . ) to configuration ( q . b . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . y . Z0 ) ( If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. (p. When the second b is read. Initially its configuration is ( q0 . To express that the PDA moves from configuration ( p . . aZ0 ). bb . A . Thus aabb is accepted by this PDA. aabb . Z0 } . it moves to state q1 and pops a from the top of the stack.y. ) . Z0 ) This pushdown automaton accepts the language anbn . Z0 ). we write ) is reached from ( p . Z0 . b . its configuration is ( q0 . After reading the first a. another a is popped from the top of the stack and the PDA stays in state q1 . aZ 0 ) q0 a a ( q0 . A configuration of a PDA M = < Q . x is the unread portion of the input string and is the current stack contents. Thus the configuration is ( q1 .q1 .y. Z0 ) * ( q2 . for example. where q is the state the PDA is currently in. aabb . aZ0 ) ( q1 . x .

If ( q . Z 0 ) In this table represents either a or b.A string x is accepted by a PDA (a.k. b . then an arc from state p to state q is added to the diagram and it is labeled with ( a . for some in *. q1 . ( q1 . ) ) ) ) ( q1 . ). . Z0 } . ) . > . . = { a . For PDAs. ) ( q2 . q0 . Like FAs. a ( q0 . x. Z0 . c } . PDAs can also be represented by transition diagrams. and an accepting state q. aZ 0 ) q0 b Z0 ( q0 . A . A = { q2 } and let be as given in the following table: State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . Example 2 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . = { a . * (q. acceptance by final state) if (q0. For example the transition diagram of the PDA of Example 1 is as shown below. X / ) indicating that X at the top of the stack is replaced by upon reading a from the input. q2 } . where Q = { q0 . b ( q1 . bZ 0 ) q0 q0 q0 q1 q1 q1 a b c a b a b Z0 ( q0 . a . however. arcs are labeled differently than FAs.a. Z0) . X ) = ( p . . b .

Z 0 ) . it goes through the following configurations and accepts it. This PDA pushes all the a's and b's in the input into stack until c is encountered. which is the set of palindromes with c in the middle. ba . Otherwise it rejects the input string. aZ0 ) ( q0 . bbaZ0 ) . Z 0 ) ( q2 . it ignores c and from that point on if the top of the stack matches the input symbol. ( q0 . bba . ( q0 . . Z0 ) ( q0 . it accepts the input string. bcbba . cbba . 1 Further topics on CFL • PDA and Context-Free Language There is a procedure to construct a PDA that accepts the language generated by a given context-free grammar and conversely. it pops the stack. In the figure and 2 represent a or b. baZ0 ) ( q1 . baZ0 ) ( q1 . bbcbba . For example for the input abbcbba. . a . bbaZ0 ) ( q1 . When c is detected. That means that a language is . b }* } . The transition diagram of the PDA of Example 2 is as shown below.This pushdown automaton accepts the language { wcwr | w { a . When there are no more unread input symbols and Z0 is at the top of the stack. abbcbba . aZ0 ) ( q1 .

then add the result to x. Then there is a positive integer n such that for any string u in L with |u| n . productions of grammars. Thus if a computer is given the string x + yz. Those procedures are omitted here. Parsing is the process of interpreting given input strings according to predetermined rules i. w. Thus they are widely used for compilers for high level programming languages and natural language processing systems. there are strings v. native English speakers know that it is the dog that bites and not the other way round. Contect-free grammars are powerful grammars. "A dog" is the subject. y and z which satisfy u = vwxyz |wy| > 0 |wxy| n 0 . ???? references on Parsing ???? .e. They can describe much of programming languages and basic structures of natural languages.e. Though we are accustomed to interpreting this as x + (yz) i. However. By parsing sentences we identify the parts of the sentences and determine the strutures of the sentences so that their meanings can be understood correctly. compute yz first. Similar things happen when English sentences are processed by computers (or people as well for that matter). • Pumping Lemma for Context-Free Language Let L be a CFL. we are not going to study parsing here. For example in the sentence "A man bites a dog".context-free if and only if there is a PDA that accepts it. it does not know which interpretation to use unless it is explicitly instructed to follow one or the other. then multiply the result by z. "bites" is the verb and "a man" is the object of the verb. However. it could also be interpreted as ( x + y )z meaning that first compute x + y. The parsing for context-free languages and regular languages have been extensively studied. Interested readers are referred to the textbook and other sources. a computer like non-English speaking people must be told how to interpret sentences such as the first noun phrase (" A dog") is usually the subject of a sentence. vwmxymz L for every integer m • Parsing and Parsers for CFL Consider the algebraic expression x + yz. x. a verb phrase usually follow the noun phrase and the first word in the verb phrase is the verb and it is followed by noun phrases reprtesenting object(s) of the verb.

then Submit. however. These languages can describe many practically important systems and so they are heavily used in practice.Turing Machines Back to Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • • • Definition of Turing Machine Configuration Operation of Turing Machine Contents Introduction We have studied two types of languages from the Chomsky hierarchy: regular languages and context-free languages. and the machines that can process them: Turing machines. Next -. the phrase structure languages (also called Type 0 languages). of limited capability and there are many languages that they can not process. In this chapter we are going to study the most general of the languages in Chomsky hierarchy. Click True or Fals .Test Your Understanding of Contect-Free Language Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. They are. Turing machines were conceived of by the English mathematician Alan .

right or stay at the same square after a read or write. a Turing machine starts at the initial state. However. Definition Conceptually a Turing machine. At any state it reads the symbol under the head. Given a string of symbols on the tape. This conjecture is known as Church's thesis and today it is generally accepted as true. consists of a finite control and a tape. either erases it or replaces it with a symbol (possibly the same symbol).Turing as a model of human "computation". its head is a read-write head and it can move left. At any time it is in one of the finite number of states. it stops its operation. The tape has the left end but it extends infinitely to the right. unlike finite automata. It then moves the head to left or right or does not move it and goes to the next state which may be the same as the current state. One of its states is the halt state and when the Turing machine goes into the halt state. Later Alonzo Church conjectured that any computation done by humans or computers can be carried out by some Turing machine. We are going to study Turing machines here and through that limitations of computers and computation as we know today. It is also divided into squares and a symbol can be written in each square. like finite automata. . Computers we use today are as powerful as Turing machines except that computers have finite memory while Turing machines have infinite memory.

. > accepts the language aba* . q0. where Q1 = { q0. X ) = ( r. D ) . a . A transition diagram can also be drawn for a Turing machine. . b } . Y. .L. The symbol h is used to denote the halt state. It is assumed that the tape has at the left end and the head is initially at the left end of the tape. D ) indicating that the state is changed from q to r. q0 is the initial state. is the transition function but its value may not be defined for certain points. . L or S . q3 } . . where D represents R. = { a . R ) ( q2 . . The states are represented by vertices and for a transition ( q. It is a mapping from Q ( { } ) to ( Q { h } ) ( { }) {R. L and S denote move the head right. which is assumed not to contain the symbol h. is a finite set of symbols containing as its subset and it is the set of tape symbols. R ) (h. a . q0 . R ) ( q3 . the symbol X currently being read is changed to Y and the tape head is moved as directed by D. q1. State (q) Input (X) Move ( q0 q1 q2 q3 q3 a b a (q. = { a . where Q is a finite set of states. > . S}. . q2. X) ) ( q1 .S) A transition diagram of this Turing machine is given below. R ) ( q3 . b . Example 1 : The following Turing machine < Q1 . left and do not move it. b } and is as given by the table below.Formally a Turing machine is a 5-tuple T = < Q. an arc from q to r is drawn with label ( X/Y . Here denotes the blank and R. is a finite set of symbols and it is the input alphabet. respectively.

> if x ) * ( h. xay ) * ( q . aba ) (h. If the Turing machine needs to be explicitly indicated T or T* is used. the taper contents are the string aababb and the head is reading the last a of the string. aba ) ( q1 . aababb ) shows that the Turing machine is currently in state q. . Note that the Turing machine does not stop if a string is not in the language. For example the Turing machine of Example 1 above goes through the following sequence of configurations to accept the string aba: ( q0 . A string x is said to be accepted by a Turing machine* T = < Q . A Turing machine T is said to decide a language L if and only if T writes "yes" and halts if a string is in L and T writes "no" and halts if a string is not in L. We write ( p . The set of strings accepted by a Turing machine is the language accepted by the Turing machine.Turing Machine that accepts aba* To describe the operation of Turing machine we use configuration. aba ) . A configuration for a Turing machine is an ordered pair of the current state and the tape contents with the symbol currently under the head marked with underscore. zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in one move. zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in zero or more moves. yaz ) for some symbol a { } and some strings y and z in ( * { } ) . In this case we also say that the Turing machine halts on input x. and ( p . . For example ( q . aba ) ( q3 . ( q0 . q0 . xay ) ( q . aba ) ( q2 .

where = { a }.The first of the following figures shows a Turing machine that accepts but does not decide the language { a }. the second is a Turing machine that accepts { a } but goes into a loop if a string is not in the language (hence it accepts but doe not decide { a }) and the third decides { a }. .

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to the right of Example 3 : The following Turing machine erases the string on the tape and moves the head to the left end.Example 2 : The following Turing machine moves the head to the first the current position. This Turing machine is denoted by TE. . It is assumed that initially the tape has at the left end. It is denoted by TR .

In cases (2) and (3).Strings not Accepted by Turing Machines When a string is not accepted by a Turing machine. (2) no transition is specified for the current configuration and (3) the head is at the left end and it is instructed to move left. but it goes into an infinite loop for any strings that are not in the language. that is when a Turing machine does not halt on a string. . one of the following three things happens: (1) The Turing machine goes into an infinite loop. For example the following Turing machine accepts the language a+. the operation of the Turing machine is aborted.

Then we say T computes f or f is computable if for every x ( q0 . . * Note on "Turing-acceptable": Some books define "acceptance by Turing machine" slightly differently. T does not halt on x. there are two halt states: "accept halt" and "reject halt". the Turing machine eventually goes into the accept halt state. A language is a phrase structure (type 0) langauage if and only if it is Turing-acceptable in either sense and it has no effects on decidablility. there is no difference between these two definitions of "accept". With this definition. x) * ( h. * and for every x that is not in S.Turing machine accepting a+ Computabler Function Let S * and let f be a function f : S -> S. A Turing machine thus may accept a string and halt. or loop. in the Turing machines those books define. That is. a string is accepted by a Turing machine if given the string. f(x) ) * . reject a string and halt. As far as the material discussed in this class note.

any "computation" done by human beings or machines can be done by some Turing machine. Click True or Fals . then Submit. Here we are going to study how complex Turing machines can be constructed using simple Turing machines and how computers can be simulated by Turing machines. Next -. Furthermore according to the Church's thesis. Let us start with some basic Turing machines.Combination of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Combination of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Combination of Turing Machines Contents Combination of Turing Machines We have seen the definition of Turing machine and a few simple examples. We have already seen TR . There are two sets of questions. One can construct many more Turing machines that perform various functions. In fact Turing machines that simulate computers and Turing machines that perform computations done by any algorithm can be constructed.Test Your Understanding of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. It moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) .

let us construct a little more complex Turing machines. Below is assumed to be at the left end of the tape initially. respectively. takes the head to the right end of the string and halts. The halt state of T1 becomes the initial state of T2 . Using these basic machines and the convention. Then by T we denote a Turing machine that writes symbol at the current position and does not move the head (stays). Then if T1 halts and if the symbol currently under the head is . To combine Turing machines we use the following conventions: Let T1 and T2 represent arbitrary Turing machines. . Similarly by TL we denote a Turing machine that moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) to the left of the current position. Otherwise it crashes. Also by TR and TL we denote Turing machines that move the head to right and left one position.to the right of the current position. T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that first executes T1. Example 4: The following machine shifts the tape contents to the left one position. then T2 is started as in the case of T1T2 . T1T2 and T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that behaves initially like T1 and when T1 halts T2 takes over inheriting the head position and the tape contents of T1 .

After adding two numbers placed on the tape it moves the head to the left end and halts. After the addition the configuration becomes ( h . m I's and n I's with a blank between them are placed on the tape. IIIII ) . First. An adder can be constructed for example as TR -> TSL TL . To add two numbers m and n. For example the number 3 is represented by three consecutive I's on the tape and 5 by five I's. it goes through the following -> aab -> a -> a -> abb -> ab -> ab -> ab Example 5: The left-shift machine of Example 4 can be used to construct an adder for natural numbers. So the initial configuration for adding 2 and 3 is ( q0 . . that is ( q0 .For example with the initial tape contents of sequence of tape contents and ends with ab ab -> ab : ab . k consecutive I's are put on the tape. In general to represent a natural number k. x x). Example 6: The following Turing machine copies the tape contents at the left end to their right separated by a blank . II III ) . x) * b b (h. natural numbers are represented on a Turing machine using symbol I.

it is not difficult to construct a Turing machine that performs subtraction using the same representation of numbers as for the addition. Click True or Fals . Since any complex computer instructions can be realized using those basic instructions. All the other operations can be realized by using those basic operations. branching. Furthermore if the subtraction operation is necessary. A bare minimum instruction set would contain addition. In fact many of the earlier computers had a much smaller instruction set but still could do everything today's computers can do albeit much more slowly. and store and load operations can be taken care of by a Turing machine that copies tape contents. On the other hand as we have seen above. However. the branch operation is already in Turing machines because next configurations are determined based on the current state and tape symbol being looked at. one can say that computers can be simulated by Turing machines. then Submit. Test Your Understanding of Combination of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Thus by combining appropriate Turing machines a computer with a minimal instruction set can be constructed. store and load operations. there is a Turing machine that performs addition. The following notations are used in the questions: .Today's computers are very complex machines and their instruction sets contain complicated operations. all of those instructions can be realized using combinations of a small number of basic instructions.

That is. first we map the squares of the two dimensional tape to those of the one dimensional tape diagonally as shown in . To simulate a two dimensional tape with a one dimensional tape. ones with two dimensional tapes. may vary. one read-write head and one two dimensional tape. For any Turing machine of this type there is a Turing machine with a one dimensional tape that is equally powerful. Turing Machines with Two Dimensional Tapes This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control. ones having one tape but with multiple heads. However. It is divided into rows of small squares. how fast they can compute. The tape has the top end and the left end but extends indefinitely to the right and down. what one type can compute any other can also compute. It turns out that computationally all these Turing machines are equally powerful. nondeterministic Turing machines etc. that is.T_a : Ta T_R : TR ->^b : ->b Next -. the efficiency of computation.Types of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Types of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Variation of Turing Machine Contents There are a number of other types of Turing machines in addition to the one we have seen such as Turing machines with multiple tapes. the former can be simulated by the latter. that is.

.< . . which is the third square from 8.. . . v 16 26 . down... then from h move the head of the one dimensional tape further right to the k-th square from h. If the head moves down from i. then on the one dimensional tape the head moves to the right and it hits v first. That is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 13 on the two dimensional tape. .. which is the second square from i = 5....... ... then for the one dimensional tape... . . One Dimensional Tape v 1 v 2 3 h 4 5 6 v 7 8 9 10 h 11 ...... Thus from h.. ...... The head of a two dimensional tape moves one square up. ..> . . .. .. suppose that the head position is at 8 for the two dimensional tape in the above table.. the head moves from position 8 to right. . .. Then it meets h first. .... respectively... . If i = 5 and the head moves down on the other hand. move 3 positions to the right. . If h was hit first...... Thus this time the third square is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 9 on the two dimensional tape. then move the head of the one dimensional tape to right until it hits h or v counting the number of squares it has visited after i. . .. h and v are symbols which are not in the tape alphabet and they are used to mark the left and the top end of the tape. v 2 5 9 12 20 22 .. If v was hit first. . Let k be the number of squares visited by the head of the one dimensional tape.... v 7 14 18 24 .. that is i = 8.. left or right.. .. Let i be the head position of the two dimensional tape.. . .. If the head moves down to position 13.. .. For example..... That is the square corresponding to the square below i in the two dimensional tape. ... v 15 17 25 . v 6 8 13 19 23 . . .. . .. . . Let us simulate this head move with a one dimensional tape. Here the numbers indicate the correspondence of squares in the two tapes: square i of the two dimensional tape is mapped to square i of the one dimensional tape..the following tables: Two Dimensional Tape v v h 1 h 3 h 4 h 10 h 11 h 21 . then (k+1)-th square to the right from v is the new head position... . .

L . . Turing Machines with Multiple Heads : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape but more than one read-write heads. .S It can be easily seen that this type of Turing machines are as powerful as one tape Turing machines.Similarly formulas can be found for the head position on the one dimensional tape corresponding to move up. Details are omitted. Hn denote the tape heads. Nondeterministic Turing Machines . It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . . The transition function is a partial function : Q { H1 . A configuration for this kind of Turing machine must show the current state the machine is in and the state of each tape. one can say that one tape Turing machines are as powerful as n-tape Turing machines. S } n . >. Since the converses are obviously true. It can be proven that any language accepted by an n-tape Turing machine can be accepted by a one tape Turing machine and that any function computed by an n-tape Turing machine can be computed by a one tape Turing machine. {h}) ( { } {R.. Its transition function is a partial function :Q ( { } )n -> ( Q { h } ) ( { } )n { R . It turns out that this type of Turing machines are only as powerful as one tape Turing machines whose tape has a left end. In each state only one of the heads is allowed to read and write. Turing Machines with Multiple Tapes : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and more than one tapes each with its own read-write head. Since Turing machines with a two dimensional tape obviously can simulate Turing machines with a one dimensional tape. Thus some Turing machines with a one dimensional tape can simulate every move of a Turing machine with one two dimensional tape. right or left on the two dimensional tape. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . > . where H1 . .L. Hn } ( { } ) -> ( Q }. q0.. q0.. Turing Machines with Infinite Tape : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape which extends infinitely in both directions. H2 . .. Hence they are at least as powerful as Turing machines with a two dimensional tape. H2 . . it can be said that they are equally powerful.

A deterministic Turing machine. Given a string x . moving the tape head and going to a next state. In general for each vertex of level i all possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN are its children. Formally a nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine whose transition function takes values that are subsets of ( Q {h}) ( { } {R. The root of the tree is the initial configuration and it is the only vertex of level 0.S}.. 2. Theorem Any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by some deterministic Turing machine. All possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN once form the children of the initial configuration. at any state it is in and for the tape symbol it is reading. TN starts at the initial configuration and goes through a sequence of configurations until it reaches a halt configuration . can not guess the midpoint of the string x. tape symbol and head movement out of the set of triples without following any specific predetermined rule. goes into an infinite loop or aborts. Proof : Let TN denote a nondeterministic Turing machine. can take any action selecting from a set of specified actions rather than taking one definite predetermined action. Note that the number of children for a vertex in this tree is finite because the number of states is finite and there are a finite number of tape symbols. The children of all the vertices of level i form level i+1. Here an action means the combination of writing a symbol on the tape. For example let us consider the language L = { ww : w { a . .A nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine which. They form level 1. At any point in the process TN is in some configuration and has a finite set of configurations to choose from for its next configuration. Given a string x. that is the place where the second half of x starts. . on the other hand. For example consider the following nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts a+ . As in the case of NFA. It can be shown that a nondeterministic Turing machine is only as powerful as a deterministic Turing machine. It must find the midpoint by for example pairing off symbols from either end of x.. it is understood that a nondeterministic Turing machine at any configuration selects one combination of next state. Then it would compare the first half of x with the second half by comparing the i-th symbol of the first half with the i-th symbol of the second half for i = 1. b }* } . Even in the same situation it may take different actions at different times. The set of all possible computations that TN can perform for a given string x can be represented by a rooted tree as follows.L. . like nondeterministic finite automata. a nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts this language L would first guess the midpoint of x.

and ( q1 . aa ) ( q1 . aa ) ( q2 . aa ) ( q1 . aa ) ( h . aa ) . it has two candidates for the next configuration: ( q1 . it would proceed as follows to accept it: ( q0 . The tree for this case would be as follows: . aa ) and ( q2 . aa ) for the third. At the second and third configurations in the above sequence.Turing machine accepting a+ Given the string aa. aa ) for the second. aa ) and ( q2 .

call it T2. At each level of the tree. it has been shown that none of them exceed the capability of basic deterministic Turing machine as far as accepting languages is concerned. In fact the Church's thesis conjectures that any so called computation done by humans or computers can be performed by a basic deterministic Turing machine.One way to simulate a nondeterministic Turing machine. call it T1. though a deterministic Turing machine might take much more time than a nondeterministic Turing machine to accept a string. then Submit.Unsolvable Problems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Unsolvable Problems . Next -. is to traverse this tree breadth-first way from the root until the halt state is reached. Click True or Fals . Many other variations of Turing machine are possible. These children are the configurations of the next level and they are stored on the tape (if necessary a second tape may be used). then T2 accepts the string and halts. Test Your Understanding of Different Types of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. It can be easily seen that T2 accepts a string if and only if T1 accepts it. with a deterministic one. If there is the halting state among these children. Thus any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by a deterministic Turing machine. However. T2 applies the transition function of T1 to each configuration at that level and computes its children.

Halting Problem One of well known unsolvable problems is the halting problem. T writes "yes" if M halts on w and "no" if M does not halt on w. and an arbitrary string w over . . Since we can not wait forever for an answer. First recall that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language (see Problem Solving as Language Recognition). Proof (by M. It asks the following question: Given an arbitrary Turing machine M over alphabet = { a . Below we are going to see some well known unsolvable problems and see why we can say they are unsolvable. In this chapter we are going to learn that there are problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers. hence unsolvable. b } . At any point in time. and that any of their variations do not exceed the computational power of deterministic Turing machines. So we are going to look at the unsolvability in terms of language recognition. the question is unanswerable that is the problem is unsolvable. That is. Minsky): This is going to be proven by "proof by contradiction". It is also conjectured that any "computation" human beings perform can be done by Turing machines (Church's thesis). Here "unsolvability" is in the following sense. if the Turing machine is running. does M halt when it is given w as an input ? It can be shown that the halting problem is not decidable. that is computationally they are equally powerful. L.Subjects to be Learned • • • Halting Problem Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents We have learned that deterministic Turing machines are capable of doing any computation that computers can do. given a description of a Turing machine M (over the alphabet ) and a string w. Suppose that a language is acceptable but not decidable. and then T halts. Thus if a language is not decidable. Then there is a Turing machine T that solves the halting problem. Theorem 1 : The halting problem is undecidable. the question of whether or not a string is in the language may not be answered in any finite amount of time. there is no way of telling whether it is in an infinite loop or along the way to a solution and it needs more time. Then given a string a Turing machine that accept the language starts the computation. Suppose that the halting problem is decidable.

. copies it to obtain the string d(M)*d(M). Next using Tm we are going to construct another Turing machine Tc as follows: Tc takes as input a description of a Turing machine M. then Tm goes into an infinite loop (Tm halts if the original T rejects a string and halts). where * is a symbol that separates the two copies of d(M) and then supplies d(M)*d(M) to the Turing machine Tm .We are now going to construct the following new Turing machine Tc. denoted by d(M). First we construct a Turing machine Tm by modifying T so that if T accepts a string and halts.

Thus one implication of the halting problem is that there can be no computer programs (Turing machines) that check whether or not any arbitrary computer program stops for a given input. This is a contradiction.Let us now see what Tc does when a string describing Tc itself is given to it. The way T was modified the modified T is going to go into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). This contradiction has been deduced from our assumption that there is a Turing machine that solves the halting problem. constructs the string d(Tc)*d(Tc) and gives it to the modified T. Thus Tc goes into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and it halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). When Tc gets the input d(Tc) . Hence that assumption must be wrong. Hence there is no Turing machine that solves the halting problem. Thus the question of whether or not a program halts for a given input is nothing but the halting problem. Program correctness and Halting Problem Note that for any computer program a Turing machine can be constructed that performs the task of the program. Thus the modified T is given a description of Turing machine Tc and the string d(Tc). . it makes a copy.

Next -.More Unsolvable Preoblems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines More Unsolvable Problems Subjects to be Learned • • Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents The next unsolvable problem is in a sense more difficult than the halting problem. Click True or Fals . Language NonSelfAccepting Let us first define two languages NSA1 and NSA2 as follows: .Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. then Submit. It is presented as a language and it can be shown that there are no Turing machines that accept the language.

Hence w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting . b }*. But w0 = d( T0 ) because that is how we selected w0 . Hence w is in NSA1 . This is a contradiction. Proof: This is going to be proven by contradiction. Since NonSelfAccepting is a language. Neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. Problem Accepts( ) The problem Accepts( ) asks whetehr or not a given Turing machine T accepts . call it T0. Hence by the definition of NSA1 . where d(T) is a description of the Turing machine T. NSA2 is the set of strings that do not describe any Turing machine. either w0 is in NonSelfAccepting or it isn't. This means that there can not be any Turing machine that accepts the language NonSelfAccepting. b }*. w d(T) for any Turing machine T } . Let us define the language NonSelfAccepting as NonSelfAccepting = NSA1 Then we can prove the following theorem: NSA2 . Then this w is a description of a Turing machine but it must be longer than one symbol. Knowing the unsolvability of the halting problem some other problems can be shown to be unsolvable. w = d(T) for a Turing machine T and T does not accept NSA2 = { w | w { a. which is absurd. w0 is in NSA1 . Hence either T0 accepts w0 or rejects it. Then there is no Turing machine that can be described by the string a.NSA1 = { w | w w} { a. Certainly more symbols than a single a are needed to describe even the simplest Turing machine. Hence T0 can not accept w0 . Thus neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. Hence a is in NSA2 . Hence it is in SelfAccepting . that accepts NonSelfAccepting. Suppose there is a Turing machine. For let T be a Turing machine that accepts { a } and let w = d(T). (1) If T0 accepts w0. let w = a. This is again a contradiction. Hence it is not accepted by T. NSA1 is the set of strings that describe a Turing machine but that are not accepted by the Turing machine they describe. It . then w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. Thus there can not be Turing machine T0 that accepts the language SelfAccepting . by the definitions of NSA1 and NSA2. For NSA2. then w0 NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. Let w0 = d( T0 ). We are going to see that T0 neither accepts w0 nor rejects it. (2) If T0 does not accept w0 . However. w0 is in neither NSA1 nor NSA2 . Also T0 does not accept w0 . Theorem 2 There are no Turing machines that accept the language NonSelfAccepting. that is w0 is a description of the Turing machine T0 .

which is an instance of the halting problem. This T halts on if and only if T' halts on w. this means that Accepts( ) is unsolvable. We are going to show that the halting problem becomes solvable using this A. Since the halting problem is unsolvable. Then consider the Turing machine T = TeraseT' .can be shown to be unsolvable. where Terase is a Turing machine that erases the input on the tape and halts. call it M. Let a Turing machine T' and a string w be an instance of the halting problem. Using this T. This T halts on every string over if and only if T1 halts on . where machine Tw is a Turing machine that writes w. Then M halts on d(T') and w if and only if T' halts on w. Using this T. Let T' be an instance of Accepts( ). Suppose that Accepts( ) is solvable. M solves the halting problem. We are going to show that Accepts( ) can be solved using the solution to it. Problem AcceptsEverything The problem AcceptsEverything asks whether or not a given Turing machine T halts on every string over a given alphabet . Thus if Accepts( ) is solvable. that solves the halting problem can be constructed as follows: Given a description d(T') of a Turing machine T' and a string w as inputs. call it M. That is. Suppose that AcceptsEverything is solvable. a Turing machine. the halting problem can be solved. M writes the string d( T ) on the tape and let A take over. Then there is a Turing machine that solves it. that solves Accepts( ) can be constructed as . Let A be a Turing machine that solves Accepts( ). Using a similar idea the following problem can also be shown to be unsolvable. Consider a Turing machine T = TwT'. Let A be a Turing machine that solves AcceptsEverything. a Turing machine.

shown below. it means that AcceptsEverything is unsolvable. Then the following problems are all unsolvable. Since Accepts( ) is unsolvable. Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) = ? finite ? infinite ? context-free ? Is L( G1 ) = L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) = * ? Is the complement of L( G1 ) context-free ? . It can be shown to be unsolvable using AcceptsEverything. Other Unsolvable Problems Let G1 and G2 be context-free grammars and let L(G) denote the language generated by grammar G. AcceptsNothing This problem asks whether or not a Turing machine accepts nothing. Equivalence This problem asks whether or not two Turing machines accept the same language. It can be shown to be unsolvable using Accepts( ) . By similar arguments the following problems can be shown to be unsolvable.

Click True or Fals . Next -.Time Complexity of Problem Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Complexity Time Complexity Subjects to be Learned • • • • • Time Complexity of Problems Decision Tree Class NP Polynomial Time Transformation NP-Complete Problems Contents In the previous sections we have learned that some problems are unsolvable by Turing machines hence by computers.Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. then Submit. No one can write computer programs that solve those problems and halt after a finite amount of time. A problem is solvable if some Turing .

Presburger arithmetic is a logic that allows statements involving positive integers. it is still solvable. variables taking positive integers as their values. In logic there is a well known problem of "satisfiability". Even if it takes a million years to solve a problem. It is estimated by counting the largest possible number of key operations to be performed in terms of the input size. The measure for computation time we use is the worst case time. the satisfiability problem for the propositional dynamic logic is proven to take exponential time to solve in the worst case. the equality symbol = and quantifiers and . They are all polynomial time algorithms. For many problems a day or even an hour would be too long. as well as all the connectives such as and. O(f(x)) (big-oh) and other related subjects click here. that is it requires at least O( aan ) time to solve in the worst case. Before proceeding to predicate logic let us consider the following logic called propositional dynamic logic (PDL for short).machine can solve it in finite time. where P and Q are propositions. second order logic. For example the satisfiability problem for Presburger arithmetic is double-exponential (2-fold exponentail). However. The satisfiability problem for PDL is known to take at least exponential time to solve in the worst case. For example. it is as good (or bad) as unsolvable. But (P ^ ~P ) is always false. One can ask the same question for formulas of first order predicate logic. X [ if ~( X = 1 ). . There are also problems that must be solved at best by exponential time algorithms in the worst case. the addition operation +. For example. and there are problems that require algorithms with the worst case time worse than k-exponential time for any natural number k. The problems that can not be solved with any polynomial time algorithm are called intractable problems . Q )" .g. where P is a propositional variable. For more detailed review of this. For example a binary search takes O(lg n) time. a heap sort needs O(n lg n) time. or etc. Similarly ( P V Q ) is also satisfiable. S) says that S is true after executing A. In this section we are going to study solvable problems and learn a hierarchy of solvable problems based on the computation time required to solve them. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved by algorithms with the worst case time which is a polynomial in the problem size (polynomial time algorithms). This is a propositional logic with an extra construct (proposition) after(A. For example the formula ( P V ~P ) is always true. after(A. S). problems that need k-exponential time algorithms. in practice if it takes a million years. etc. So it is not satisfiable. as we are going to see below. This is the problem of asking whether or not a given formula can take the value true for some values of its variables. are propositions of PDL. Let us see some of those intractable problems. Then there are problems that require double exponential ( e. a quick sort needs O(n2) time. So it is certainly satisfiable. where A is an algorithm and S is a statement. 22n ) time algorithms. They take much more time to execute than polynomial time algorithms. The satisfiability problem becomes even harder when logic becomes more complex. They are both satisfiable. where k is a natural number. ~Q )" and "if P then after( if P then Q else ~Q. then Y Z [ X = Y + Z ] ] is a proposition of Presburger arithmetic. For example "after( if P then Q else ~Q. etc.

sets of integers and the predicate "belongs to" (an element X belongs to a set S) are allowed.In Presburger arithmetic (minus addition operation). This problem is called "Graph Coloring" problem or more precisely "Vertex Color" problem. This problem belongs to a peculiar class of problems called NP-Complete problems. Let us here review nondeterministic Turing machines. Below we are going to characterize this class of problems. "Is it possible to schedule committee meetings without conflicts into a given number of time slots ? " . " Is it possible to assign colors to vertices of a given graph using a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned ? " etc. Let us try to solve the following instances of this graph coloring problem: Given the following graph. "Is a string w in the language a*b ? ". the logic is called WS1S (Weak Second-order theory of 1 Successor). the consensus is that they ca not be solved with polynomial time algorithms. is it possible to color its vertices with three or less colors ? . For example. Such a problem (having no K-fold exponential time algorithms) is called nonelementary. however. Some of these decision problems are NP-complete problems. there are no K-fold exponential time algorithms to solve it for any number K. For the satisfiability problem of WS1S. in addition. Consider the problem of coloring vertices of a graph with a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned. First. For the problems of this class there are no known polynomial time algorithms for solving them nor are they known to be unsolvable with polynomial time algorithms. if. At the moment. Now let us go back to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. there are problems that are solved by answering with yes or no. These problems are called decision problems.

For the graphs of (a) and (b), you could find a solution very easily by inspection. You could see a right coloring as soon as you saw the graphs. However, you can most likely not tell how you arrived at your solutions. You probably don't have any algorithms you could use to solve them. You could somehow see the solutions. This is basically the idea of nondeterministic (Turing) machine. There is no fixed procedure which you can use repeatedly to solve instance after instance of this problem. But you can somehow solve them. Let us move on to a slightly more complex example of (c). For this graph to find a right coloring you could start with vertex 1 and assign color a. Then move on to vertex 2 and assign color b(it has to be something other than a ). Then go to vertex 3 and assign a third color, say c. Then at vertex 4 select color b and for vertex 5 use color a. In this process we make a decision as to what color to use for each vertex and when a decision is made for all the vertices we have a solution to the problem. This process applies to any decision problem. That is to solve a decision problem a number of smaller decisions are made one after another and as a result a solution to the problem is obtained. This process can be represented by a tree called decision tree. For example, for the graph coloring problem let us first decide on the order of vertices we color in, say 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for the graph of (c) above. Then the root of its decision tree corresponds to the vertex we assign a color to first (vertex 1 in this example). Then for each possible color for the first vertex, a child is created for the first vertex of the tree. So the second level of the

decision tree corresponds to the second vertex to be colored. Then in general, for each possible color for each vertex of level i of the decision tree, a child is created. Those children form level i+1 of the decision tree. The decision tree for the graph of (c) is given below. Since any color can be assigned to vertex 1 without loss of generality, it has just one child in the actual decision tree. Also since in this case the i-th and (i+1)-th vertices are connected by an edge for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, they can not have the same color. So each vertex after vertex 1 has two colors to choose from. So they each have two children in the decision tree.

Thus during the process of solving the problem a decision is made at each level and when all levels are covered, the problem is solved. A path from the root to a leaf corresponds to a coloring of the vertices of the given graph. A decision tree, however, does not tell us how to make decisions. Also a decision tree does not tell how to order the vertices for coloring, that is which vertex to color first, second etc. A deterministic machine (or algorithm) has a specific fixed set of rules for making a decision at each level of the decision tree. Although it knows what to do at every stage of problem solving, the decisions it makes are not necessarily the right ones. When it makes wrong decisions, it must retract earlier decisions and try different paths, which is called backtracking. For the graph coloring problem a deterministic algorithm might first order the vertices of the graph in decreasing order of their degree and also order colors. Then, following the

order of the vertices, assign to each vertex the highest order color available for the vertex. Since that kind of algorithm is not guaranteed to use the minimum number of colors, it may produce a wrong answer unless there is some provision for backtracking. A nondeterministic (Turing) machine, on the other hand, is a fictitious machine and somehow knows which branch (child) to select at each step. It always makes a right selection. A decision problem is said to belong to class NP if each vertex in its decision tree has a finite number of children and if it can be solved by a nondeterministic (Turing) machine in polynomial time. The graph coloring problem is in class NP, so are the satisfiability problem for propositional logic and most of the scheduling problems just to name a few. Also there are other characterizations of class NP. Interested readers click here. At this moment it is not known whether or not problems in class NP can be solved with a polynomial time algorithm in the worst case. The consensus is that there is no polynomial time algorithm to solve them. It would take at least exponential time. Among the problems in class NP, there are problems which all problems of class NP can be transformed to in polynomial time. Those problems are called NP-complete problems. If a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of the NP-complete problems, all the problems in NP can be solved in polynomial time. Below we are going to study NPcomplete problems. We start our discussion with the concept of polynomial time transformation (reduction). Basically we say a decision problem Q1 is polynomially reducible to a decision problem Q2 if and only if there is a transformation that transforms any arbitrary instance of Q1 into an instance of Q2 in polynomial time such that the answer to Q1 is yes if and only if the answer to Q2 is yes. A little more formally we define this in terms of languages. Note that a decision problem can be viewed as a language of its instances and that solving it can be considered as recognizing the language as we have seen earlier. Let L1 and L2 be languages over alphabets 1 and 2, respectively. We say that L1 is polynomial-time reducible to L2 if and only if there is a function f from 1* to 2* such that for any string x in polynomial time.

1 *

,x

L1 if and only if f(x)

L2 and f can be computed

For example let us consider the following two problems: graph coloring and scheduling of committee meetings. The graph coloring problem is as given above. In the scheduling of committee meetings problem, committees with their members and a positive integer k are given. The problem is whether or not the meetings of the committees can be scheduled in k or less time slots so that everyone can attend one's meetings. Note that some people may be in more than one committee. Let us try to show that this scheduling problem is polynomial time reducible to the graph coloring problem.

Suppose also that k = 3. 2. { b. {a. Suppose that the meetings can be scheduled in p time slots. 3 and 4 with the memberships { a. where p k. c }. an edge is inserted between vertices 1 and 2. Proceeding similarly the following graph is obtained corresponding to the committee memberships. d } and { a. that is construct a graph and give the number of colors to be used to color its vertices so that the meetings can be scheduled if and only if graph can be colored. add vertices 1. d }. For example suppose that we are given the committees 1. edges are added between 1 and 3. respectively. Thus the scheduling problem asks whether or not the meetings of the given committees can be scheduled in 3 time slots without any conflicts. Then since committees 1 and 2 share a. Corresponding to this grouping assign colors to the vertices of the graph so that the vertices in the same group are given the same color and those in . 3 and 4. The corresponding graph for the graph coloring problem can be constructed as follows: Corresponding to the committees 1. b }. and if and only if two committee have some members in common. Then the committees can be grouped into p groups so that the committees in the same group can meet at the same time. 2. 3 and 4 to the graph. 2.What we need to do is given an instance of the scheduling problem construct an instance of the graph coloring problem. connect with an edge the vertices corresponding to the committees. Let us consider the following transformation: For each committee add a vertex to the graph. Similarly since committees 1 and 3. and 1 and 4. c. Then the meetings can be scheduled in k or less time slots if and only if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. and 1 and 4 share members.

then P is also NP-complete. can be done in time polynomial in the size of the problem. then it can be easily seen that the committees can meet in k or less time slots. Conversely if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. then that means that the corresponding committees share some members and that they are scheduled to meet in different time slots. Committee Meeting Schedule Problem In fact most scheduling problems are NPcomplete. 5. If a problem is NP-complete. their sizes and a number of bins of the same size. . Cook that the problems of class NP can be polynomial time reducible to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. A problem is NP-complete if it is in class NP and NP-hard. Partition Problem Given a set of integers. Subgraph Isomorphism Problem Given two graphs. Formally a problem is NP-hard if every problem in class NP can be polynomial time reducible to it. It is also easily seen that the transformation. As a consequence if a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of those problems. It can be easily seen that if a problem P at hand is NP-hard and if a problem known to be NP-complete can be polynomial time reducible to P. Thus these two vertices must get different colors. fast algorithms exist to solve it. We are now ready to discuss NP-completeness. Satisfiability Problem for Propositional Logic 2. find out whether or not the objects can be put into the bins. It was first proven by S. which in this case can be taken as the number of committees. Bin Packing Problem Given a set of objects. Traveling Salesman Problem Given cities and traveling times between cities.different groups are given different colors. For if any two vertices are connected with an edge.e. then the consensus today is that it is most likely that no polynomial time algorithms i. 4. Today hundreds of problems are known to be NP-complete. This coloring uses p colors which does not exceed k. that is the construction of graph for a given set of committees. Graph Color Problem 3. group them into two groups so that the sum of the numbers of one group is equal to that of the other group. a traveling salesman wants to know a shortest route to visit all cities exactly once and come back to where he/she started. 6. Subsequently the satisfiability problem was found to be polynomial time reducible to many other problems. NP-complete Problems 1. and vertices connected with an edge have different colors. 7. For all the problems in class NP can be reduced to P through the known NP-complete problem in polynomial time. all the problems can be solved with polynomial time algorithms. find out whether or not one is a subgraph of the other. This group of problems are called NP-complete problems. Some of them are listed below.

a.b. called a matching.x)} is not a matching. let A = {1.a. and C = {x.a. B = {a.x). their values and an integer V.2}. and C appears exactly once in T ? For example. their sizes. a collection of subsets of S and an integer k. a set of objects.x).y)}. Knapsack Problem Given a knapsack of size S. Then T = {(1. .b. (2. is it possible to select objects so that the sum of their sizes does not exceed S and the sum of their values is V or larger ? 10.(2. Note that {(1. Is there a subset T. of S such that every element of A.y}. find out whether or not there are k or less subsets in the collection whose union is S.b}.b.x).b. B. 3-Dimensional Matching Given three sets A. 9.y).y).8. and S = {(1. (2. Set Cover Problem Given a set S.b.x)} is a desired set satisfying all the requirements.(1. B and C of the same size. and a subset S of the Cartesian product A X B X C. (2.