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Language, Automata: , \alpha : usually denotes a string in this course. , \beta : usually denotes a string in this course. , \delta : usually denotes a transition function in this course. , \sigma : usually denotes a symbol in an alphabet in this course. , \Delta : usually denotes a blank space in this course. , \Gamma : usually denotes a set of stack symbols in this course. , \Lambda : usually denotes an empty string in this course. , \Pi : usually denotes a partition in this course. , \Sigma : usually denotes an alphabet in this course. , \goto : usually denotes a (one step) transition in this course. Logic: , ~ : logical not , ^ : logical and , V : logical or , -> : logical imply , <-> : logical if and only if (equivalent) , => : logical tautologically imply , <=> : logical tautologically equivalent , \A : logical for all , \E : logical for some (there exists)

Sets: , \in : belongs to , \not\in : does not belong to , @ : empty set U, : universal set , \subset : proper subset , \not\subset : not a proper subset , \subseteq : subset , \not\subseteq : not a subset , \cup : set union Ai , \cup(i=1 to n) A_i : union of n sets , \cap : set intersection Ai , \cap(i=1 to n) A_i : intersection of n sets , \bar A : complement of set A (A) , P(A) : power set of set A , X : Cartesian product Ai , X(i=1 to n) A_i : cartesian product of n sets Relation: < a, b > : ordered pair < a1, a2, ..., an > : ordered n-tuple , <= : precedes (partial order) Functions: xi , Sum(i=1 to n) x_i : sum of n xi's O(f) , O(f) : of order smaller than or equal to f

o(f) , o(f) : of order smaller than f (f) , Omega : of order greater than or equal to f (f) , omega : of order greater than f (f) , Theta : of the same order as f f(x) , lim(x -> inf) f(x) : limit of f as x goes to infinity

**Introduction to Theoretical Computer Science
**

Today computers are used everywhere: banks, hospitals, schools, airline companies, gas stations, grocery stores, in our cars, in home appliances, PCs, etc., etc. Some are used to crunch numbers, some are used to process images, some are used to process other nonnumeric data and some are used to control operations of various devices. They can reason, they can prove many mathematical theorems, they can beat chess experts in their game, they can solve some very complex problems, they can understand our languages, they can answer our questions and of course they can crunch numbers much much faster than us. Let us for a moment call what computers do computation for convenience, though some of the things computers do such as controling appliances, answering our questions etc. don't fall into our traditional sense of computation. Then these computers seem to be able to compute an awfully lot of things if not everything. But are they capable of computing anything ? Are there things computers can not do ? If there are things computers can not do, what are they ? And why ? If there aren't things computers can not do, then how can we tell ? What do we exactly mean by computation ? Unfortunately there are many things computers can not do. Computers can not solve certain types of problems. For example no computer can tell in general whether or not a given computer program stops after a finite amount of time on a given input. They can not solve some other types of problems fast enough even though they can solve them in some finite amount of time. For example take the traveling salesman problem: a salesman is given a road map with distances between cities and wants to find a shortest round trip route that visits all the cities on the map exactly once. At the moment the so called traveling salesman problem requires an extremely large amount of time to solve. No one has been able to find a reasonably fast algorithm to solve it and the consensus is that it is not likely that anyone can find such an algorithm. I have just given you an example of the problems that computers could not solve. How do we know that that is the case ? Are there other problems like that ? How can we tell whther or not a given problem can be solved and solved fast enough ?

Since so many systems in practice can be described by regular languages. it can actually be solving a problem. These two type of languages belong to a hierarchy of four languages called Homsky hierarchy. Before proceeding to the study of Turing machines and their computations in this course. Turing machines also recognize languages. every task modern computers perform can also be accomplished by Turing machines. Finite automata process strings. Then with Turing machines we investigate limitations of computers and computations. . There we learn how computers can be simulated by Turing machines and what it means that a Turing machine recognizes (decides) a language. Though it has not been proven.The main objective of this course is to answer those questions. We are going to learn their properties. In addition finite automata can model a large number of systems used in practice. Those four languages are together called formal languages. The languages Turing machines recognize are called Type 0 (or phrase structure) languages (regular languages are Type 3) and they are more complex than regular languages. After briefly studying context-free languges. In particular we are going to see a few problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers and how we can tell that they are unsolvable. So they provide a good introduction to our study of Turing machines. It was first conceived of by Alan Turing in early 20-th century. we go to Turing machines. Consequently they are less capable than Turing machines but then their operations are simpler. The other two are context-free languages and context-sensitive languages. which are also heavily used in practice. ways to describe them and how to use them to model many of the real life systems. we are also going to study regular languages in detail as well as finite automata. Thus they are a powerful tool to design and study those systems with. that is to study limitations of computers and computation. We are going to investigate limitations of computers and computations by studying the essence of compuers and computations rather than all the variations of computer and computation. More specifically they answer the question whether or not a given string belongs to a language. We call a set of strings (of symbols) a language. Thus by studying Turing machines we can learn capabilities hence limitatgions of computers. Thus when a finite automaton is processing strings. We say finite automata recognize languages. we study a simpler type of computing device called finite automata. This essence is a device called Turing machine. which is the key to the unsolvability of problem by computers. Finite automata are very similar to Turing machines but a few restrictions are imposed on them. The languages that are recognized by finite automata are called regular languages. It is a very simple device but remarkably. It turns out that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. it is generally believed (Church's thesis) that any "computation" humans do can be done by Turing machines and that "computation" is the computation performed by Turing machines.

true or false. The time needed to solve such a problem increases at least exponentially with the size of the problem as long as we use Turing machines (hence computers).Our last topic is time complexities of various problems. then with the increase in the processor speed of 1. For example for the traveling salesman problem if 100 cities were too many to solve fast enough. 4 is a perfect square. Unfortunately there is nothing we can do to speed them up. then even if the processor speed increased 1. • • • • Logic Sets Relations Functions Logic Proposition and Logical Connectives "Proposition" can be defined as a declarative statement having a specific truth-value. • • 2 is a odd number. "Connective": Two or more propositions can be combined together to make compound propositions with the help of logical connectives. The time complexity issues are investigated using Turing machines so that the results apply to all computers. Let us start with review of mathematics.000 times it can handle only ten or so more larger problem sizes. Increasing the processor speed does not help much for such problems. If the computation time is 2n where n is the size of the problem.000 times 110 cities would already be too many. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved within a reasonable amount of time and there are problems that are known to require a finite but very large amount of time to solve. . We are going to see some of those which take a large amount of time. respectively. Their truth values are false and true. Basic Mathematical Objects Back to Table of Contents The following are the contents of this introductory chapter. Example: The following statements are propositions as they have precise truth values.

Example: Above two propositions can be used to make a compound proposition using any of the logical connectives. Negation This is the logical "negation" and it is expressed by Truth table is given below as p for "not p". It is represented as " ^ ". 2 is an odd number OR 4 is a perfect square. Truth table for two individual propositions p and q with conjunction is given below p T T F F q T F T F p^q T F F F b. Conjunction The logical conjunction is understood in the same way as commonly used ôandö. . The compound proposition truth-value is true iff all the constituent propositions hold true. For the first compound proposition to be true both the propositions have to be true as the connective is AND and as OR is the connective for the second one if either of the propositions is true the truth value of the compound proposition is true. Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F pVq T T T F c. Their truth vales are false and true respectively. • • 2 is an odd number AND 4 is a perfect square. Disjunction This is logical "or" read as either true value of the individual propositions. The following are the logical connectives used commonly: a.

"p only if q" . E. "q is a necessity/consequence of p" and "q whenever p" are all differnt ways of saying "if p then q".: p V p g. which is true in every case. e. Following are some of the useful identities and implications from propositional logic: Identities . which is false in every case.p T F p F T d. and if q then p". If p and q have the same truth-value in every case then they are said to be logically equivalent and it is represented as p <=> q. Contradiction This is the opposite of tautology. then q" Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F p T F T T q p -> q is also expressed in a number of different (but equivalent) ways in English. For example. Biconditional A proposition (p q) ^ (q p) can be abbreviated using biconditional conjunction as p q and is read as "if p then q. then p is said to logically imply q. f.e.g. p q is read as "if p. E. "if not q then not p" . Tautology A compound proposition.: p ^ p Logical implication and equivalence If the value of p -> q is true in every case. Conditional This is used to define as "a proposition holds true if another proposition is true" i. It is represented as p => q.g. "q is necessary for p". "p is sufficient for q" .

or to express certain types of relationship between propositions such as equivalence ( for more detail click here for example for example ). "The sky is blue".modus tollens Q) (R S)] [(P R) (Q S)] Q) (Q R)] (P R) For explanations.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. [(P Q) Q] P ----.exportation Q) ( Q P) ----. The phrase "is blue" is a predicate and it describes the property of being blue. [(P 3.implication Q) R] [P (Q R)] ----. [(P 2.contrapositive For explanations. and "The cover of this book is blue" come from the template "is blue" by placing an appropriate noun/noun phrase in front of it. . (P 2. For example. (P 4. A predicate is a template involving a verb that describes a property of objects. For more complex reasoning we need more powerful logic capable of expressing complicated propositions and reasoning.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. Central to the predicate logic are the concepts of predicate and quantifier. the sentences "The car Tom is driving is blue". examples and proofs of these implications go to Implications Predicate and Predicate Logic The propositional logic is not powerful enough to represent all types of assertions that are used in computer science and mathematics. [(P 5. (P Q) ( P Q) ----. (P 3. The predicate logic is one of the extensions of propositional logic and it is fundamental to most other types of logic. examples and proofs of these identities go to Identities Implications 1.1. or a relationship among objects represented by the variables.

A predicate with variables. it is true or false in the universe of discourse. sentences that assert an object is blue can be represented as "B(x)". The universal quantifier turns. such as x > 1 or P(x). where x represents an arbitrary object. called atomic formula. can be made a proposition by applying one of the following two operations to each of its variables: 1. If we adopt B as the name for the predicate "is_blue". a quantification is performed on formulas of predicate logic (called wff ). assign a value to the variable 2. the statemen t x > 1 to "for every object x in the universe. "Blue" or "B" can be used to represent the predicate "is blue" among others. also called universe . by using quantifiers on variables .Predicates are often given a name. . Similarly the existential quantifier turns. The propositions in the predicate logic are statements on objects of a universe. for example. x > 1". x > 1 becomes 3 > 1 if 3 is assigned to x. for example. hence a proposition. Hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. There are two types of quantifiers: universal quantifier and existential quantifier. It can be the set of real numbers. which is expressed as " x x > 1". the statement x > 1 to "for some object x in the universe. B(x) reads as "x is blue". quantify the variable using a quantifier (see below)." Again. x > 1". For example any of "is_blue". and hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. In general. For example. is the set of objects of interest. Universe of Discourse The universe of discourse. This new statement is true or false in the universe of discourse. which is expressed as " x x > 1. and it becomes a true statement. The universe is thus the domain of the (individual) variables.

see Reasoning(with predicate logic) and Quantifiers and Connectives in Discrete Structures course. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 4. the set of all students in a classroom etc. But it should be obvious from the context. Important Inference Rules of Predicate Logic: First there is the following rule concerning the negation of quantified statement which is very useful: x P(x) x P(x) Next there is the following set of rules on quantifiers and connvectives: 1. some of which are given below. [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] x [ P(x) Q(x) ] 3. In predicate logic. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] For more discussions and examples on these rules and others. one can use some additional inference rules. implications and inference rules.the set of integers. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 2. Sets . Predicate logic is more powerful than propositional logic. It allows one to reason about properties and relationships of individual objects. the set of all cars on a parking lot. as well as those for propositional logic such as the equivalences. Also for proof and proof techniques see Mathematical Reasoning. The universe is often left implicit in practice.

if every element of A is an element of B. Universal Set The set U of all the elements we might ever consider in the discourse is called the universal set. Using this notation we can specify the set {0.4.3. All the elements belonging to the set are explicitly given.1.2. Example: B = {x | x is a positive integer less than or equal to 5} Some sets can also be defined recursively. A is a subset of B is represented as A B. Set terminology Belongs To x B means that x is an element of set B. Subset Let A and B be two sets. A is a subset of B.4} call it Z by writing Z = {x | x N | x 5} where N represents the set of natural numbers. but not equal to B represented as A B. Note: If A is a subset of B and B is a subset of A then A=B. having a property that characterizes those elements. It is read as "the set of natural numbers that are less than or equal to 5". if A is a subset of. How to specify a Set? One way is to enumerate the elements completely. Example: A = {1.What is a set? Set is a group of elements. Also.5} Alternate way is to give the properties that characterize the elements of the set.2. .3.

5 } . Union If A and B are two sets.2.3.3} B = {3.4.B B .4.5} then A .2.2} Note that in general A . then the difference of A from B is the set that consists of the elements of A that are not in B.2. Example: A = { 1.2. Intersection If A and B are two sets. Example: If U is the set of natural numbers and A = { 1.B = {1.Complement If A is a set.B. Difference If A and B are two sets.. It is denoted by A' or . Example: If A = {1. It is denoted by A B.5} . Disjoint sets A and B are said to be disjoint if they contain no elements in common i.9 } are disjoint. Example: If A = {1.2.3 } . Thus A' = { x | x U ^ x A } .A .3} and B = {3.A = {4. For A and B of the above example B .8} B = {3.8}.4.8. Set Operations The operations that can be performed on sets are: 1. A B= ø. Example: If A = {1. where means " is not an element of ".5} 2. then the union of A and B is the set that contains all the elements that are in A and B including the ones in both A and B. then the intersection of A and B is the set that consists of the elements in both A and B .3. It is denoted by A . then the complement of A is the set consisting of all elements of the universal set that are not in A.2.4. 3.5. then A' = { x | x U ^ x > 3}. It is denoted by A B.e.8} then A B = {3.5} then A B = {1. where ø is the Empty set.3. and B = { 6.4.

It is a very good tool to get a general idea. B. .Following is a list of some standard Set Identities A. The Commutative laws: A B=B A A B=B A The Associative laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Distributive laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Idempotent laws: A A=A A A=A The Absorptive laws: A (A B) = A A (A B) = A The De Morgan laws: (A B)' = A' B' (A B)' = A' B' Other laws involving Complements: ( A' )' = A A A A' = ø A' = U B) B) B) B) C C (A (A C) C) Other laws involving the empty set A A ø=A ø=ø Other laws involving the Universal Set: A U=U A U=A Venn Diagrams A common technique in working with Set Operations is to illustrate them by drawing Venn Diagrams. C represent arbitrary sets and ø is the empty set and U is the Universal Set.

Note. that Venn Diagrams must NOT be used for rigorous discussions. For example sets A = { 1.8. however.2.4 } and B = { 6. because they can represent only very limited situations and miss many other possibilities. .2. The idea of Venn Diagram is to draw a region representing the universe and within that to draw the regions representing the component sets we are starting with so that the resulting diagram describes their interrelationships.3.4 } can be represented as shown below using Venn Diagrams: Set A U represents the Universal set in which A is one of the Set.

Set B The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A B .

A B .

.The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A U B A A B B is the set consisting of all the different elements in A and B.

3.3.6.4 } A B = { 1.(A B)' is the yellow region in the Venn diagram given below.6.2. 7 } B = { 2.4.4.2.5.8 } (A B)' = U .4.8 } A = { 1.(A B) = { 5.2.7.8 } .6. For example: U = { 1.3.

To denote either of these B C. intersection and Cartesian product of sets are associative. A2 ..A .B is the yellow shaded region and B .A is the blue shaded region in the Venn Diagram shown below Generalized Set Operations Union. This can be generalized for the union of any finite number of sets as A1 An .. which we write as Ai This generalized union of sets can be rigorously defined as follows: Definition ( Ai) : . For example expressions we often use A holds..

Based on these definitions. Inductive Clause: Ai = ( Ai) An+1 Ai and generalized Cartesian product Similarly the generalized intersection Ai can be defined. . The basis clause (or simply basis) of the definition establishes that certain objects are in the set. and = Recursive Definition Recursive Definition Subjects to be Learned • • • • • recursive/inductive definition basis clause basis inductive clause extremal clause A recursive definition of a set always consists of three distinct clauses: 1. This part of the definition specifies the "seeds" of the set from which the elements of the set are generated using the methods given in the inductive clause. The set of elements specified here is called basis of the set being defined.Basis Clause: For n = 1 . Ai = A1. De Morgan's law on set union and intersection can also be generalized as follows: Theorem (Generalized De Morgan) = .

and the new object is their child . Then by (2) again. then they can be combined in certain specified ways to create other objects. 2. Then by (2). The extremal clause asserts that unless an object can be shown to be a member of the set by applying the basis and inductive clauses a finite number of times. . and 1 is the child of 0. 3.5. The x + 1 in the Inductive Clause is the parent of x. Example 3. Following this definition. since 0 is in N. 1 + 1 (= 2) is in N. The inductive clause always asserts that if objects are elements of the set. 0 is the parent of 1. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. x + 2 is in . can be included in N.. and x is the child of x + 1. Proceeding in this manner all the natural numbers are put into N..2. the object is not a member of the set. Note that if we don't have (3).5. 1 is the parent of 2. and 2 is the child of 1. Example 2. The Set of Natural Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . which is not what we want as the set of natural numbers. The inductive clause (or simply induction) of the definition establishes the ways in which elements of the set can be combined to produce new elements of the set. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. 1. The Set of Even Integers Basis Clause: . The basis for this set N is { 0 } . 0. The Set of Nonnegative Even Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in .5. Examples of Recursive Definition of Set Example 1. x + 1 is in . 0 is put into N. the set of natural numbers N can be obtained as follows: First by (1). Let us call the objects used to create a new object the parents of the new object. 0 + 1 (= 1) is in N.

Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses.Inductive Clause: For any element x in . x + 2. of the domain is defined using its value at the parent(s) of the element x. Then see how other elements can be obtained from them. Inductive Clause: For any element x in . How to define function recursively: First the values of the function for the basis elements of the domain are specified. and x . Test Your Understanding of Recursive Definition Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Condition: The domain of the function you wish to define recursively must be a set defined recursively. and . The set of propositions (propositional forms) can also be defined recursively. Tips for recursively defining a set: For the "Basis Clause". or 1). A few examples are given below. simplest expressions. say x. try simplest elements in the set such as smallest numbers (0. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. There are two sets of questions. Example 4. . etc. The Set of Strings over the alphabet excepting empty string This is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's such as abbab. Basis Clause: . Click Yes or No .2 are in . or shortest strings. Here ax means the concatenation of a with x. and . bbabaa. then Submit. and generalize that generation process for the "Inductive Clause". . They are all on functions from integer to integer except the last one. Then the value of the function at an element. Recursive Definition of Function Some functions can also be defined recursively. To see how it is defined click here.

f(n+1) = f(n) + 2 . Using this definition. This function L gives the number of a's and b's L(x) for a string x is also often denoted by | x |. Example 6: The function f(n) = 2n + 1 for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n.Example 5: The function f(n) = n! for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 0! = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. because the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively and that has the extremal clause in it. 1 ! = 1 * 0 ! = 1 * 1 = 1 . Example 8: The function L from the set S of strings over {a. Induction Mathematical Induction . where xy is the concatenation of strings x and y. Example 7: The function f(n) = 2n for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. b} to the set of natural numbers that gives the length of a string can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: For symbols a and b of the alphabet. Hence 3 ! = 3 * 2 ! = 3 * 2 * 1 = 6 . Note that here Extremal Clause is not necessary. See above for the extremal clause. Inductive Clause: For any string x and y of S. Hence 2 ! = 2 * 1 ! = 2 * 1 = 2 . See Example 5 for the extremal clause. See Example 5 for the extremal clause. f(n+1) = (n+1) f(n). 3! can be found as follows: Since 0 ! = 1. f(n+1) = 2 f(n) . So there is no chance of other elements to come into the function being defined. L(xy) = L(x) + L(y) . L(a) = 1 and L(b) = 1.

. then P(n) is true for all natural number . has that property (inductive step). if P(k) is true (called induction hypothesis). natural numbers can be proven to have certain properties as follows: First it is proven that the basis element. The first principle of mathematical induction states that if the basis step and the inductive step are proven. then the next element. any natural number can be shown to have the property. it is often a good idea to restate P(k+1) in terms of . the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively. that is 0. This process is somewhat analogous to the knocking over a row of dominos with knocking over the first domino corresponding to the basis step. As a first step for proof by induction. More generally mathematical statements involving a natural number n such as 1 + 2 + . Taking advantage of this. the element next to it. When these two are proven. denote it by n. which is 1. which is 2.Subjects to be Learned • • • • • first principle of mathematical induction basis step induction hypothesis induction second principle of mathematical induction Contents First Priciple of Mathematical Induction As we have seen in recursion . then P(k+1) is true.. has the same property again by the inductive step. To prove that a statement P(n) is true for all natural number natural number. . has the property in question (basis step). Proceeding likewise. and the process of generating an element from a known element in the set. the element next to it. then it follows that all the natural numbers have that property. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 can be proven by mathematical induction by the same token. Then since 1 has the property. we proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P( ) is true. has the same property by the inductive step. has the property in question. Then it is proven that if an arbitrary natural number. that is n + 1. and its elements can be generated one by one starting with 0 by adding 1. Thus the set of natural numbers can be described completely by specifying the basis element (0). For since 0 has the property by the basis step. where is a Induction: Prove that for any integer .

Using the induction hypothesis. and RHS = 0 * (0 + 1) = 0 .. This form of induction does not require the basis step.. 1 + 3 + . 0 + 1 + . Here k [ k < n P(k) ] is the induction hypothesis. Factoring (n + 1) out.. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2. Example 1: Let us prove the following equality using the second principle: For any natural number n . 0 + 1 + . Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary natural number n. Proof: Basis Step: If n = 0. and somehow use the induction hypothesis. Thus LHS = RHS for n+1. can be used. the last expression can be rewritten as n( n + 1 )/2 + (n + 1) .P(k) so that P(k). + n + (n + 1) = (0 + 1 + . Formally the second principle of induction states that if n [ k [ k < n P(k) ] P(n) ] ... . first try to express LHS for n+1 in terms of LHS for n. Example: Prove that for any natural number n... + n) + (n + 1) . which is equal to the RHS for n+1. End of Proof... then n P(n) can be concluded. -------.1) to prove P(n). + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . Hence LHS = RHS. Certain problems can be proven more easily by using the second principle than the first principle because P(k) for all k < n can be used rather than just P(n . then LHS = 0. and in the inductive step P(n) is proved assuming P(k) holds for all k < n . Second Priciple of Mathematical Induction There is another form of induction over the natural numbers based on the second principle of induction to prove assertions of the form x P(x) .. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . we get (n + 1)(n + 2) / 2 . Here let us try LHS for n + 1 = 0 + 1 + . which is assumed to be true. The reason that this principle holds is going to be explained later after a few examples of proof.Induction Hypothesis To prove this for n+1.

.Proof: Assume that 1 + 3 + .. can be written as the product of prime numbers. Then certainly A x B is the set of all possible combinations (six) of shirts and slacks that nbsp. k < n.. A binary relation from A into B is any subset of the Cartesian product A x B. More precisely.. let A = {blue shirt. Proof: Assume that for all positive integers k. Relations Definition Relation Let A and B be sets. Example 2: Prove that for all positive integer n. = ( n + 1 )n! .1 Hence by the second principle of induction positive integers. say p and q. If n is a prime number.1 holds for all Example 3: Prove that any positive integer n > 1. If n is not a prime number. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 holds for all natural numbers.. the individual may wish to restrict . i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! .1 ) * ( n . n > k > 1. tan slacks}. Hence n can also be written as the product of prime numbers.1 )! + n * n! = n! . Since n is an integer. Since both p and q are smaller than n. + ( n . + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( 1 + 3 + .. Therefore the statement holds true.1 ) ) + ( 2n + 1 ) = n2 + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 by the induction hypothesis... by the induction hypothesis they can be written as the product of prime numbers (Note that this is not possible if the First Principle is being used). Then 1 + 3 + . Then 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . then it is the product of 1. + ( 2k + 1 ) = ( k + 1 )2 holds for all k. it is either a prime number or not a prime number. Let's assume that a person owns three shirts and two pairs of slacks.. k < n. k can be written as the product of prime numbers. + k * k! = ( k + 1 )! . the individual can wear. Hence by the second principle of induction 1 + 3 + .1 for all k. Example1: nbsp. which is a prime number. + ( 2n . and itself..1 + n * n! by the induction hypothesis. then it is a product of two positive integers. mint green shirt} and B = {gray slacks.1 Proof: Assume that 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . However. We are going to prove that n can be written as the product of prime numbers...

5. 3. In some cases R can be described by actually listing the pairs which are in R. 6) and define a relation R from A into A by (a. R and S of Example 2 above are relations on A = {2. Relation on a Set A relation from a set A into itself is called a relation on A. A typical element in R is an ordered pair (x. b) Rand (b. 6). is the composition of P with itself and it is a relation which we know as grandparentgrandchild relation. (5. 2). Example2: Let A = {2. is the set of pairs of the form(a. R could be more naturally expressed as R(x) = x2 . c) A x C. 5). written as RS.himself to combinations which are color coordinated. as in the previous example. This may not be all possible pairs in A x B but will certainly be a subset of A x B. So. c) RS if and only if there exists b B such that (a. Then P is a relation on A which we might call a parent-child relation. For example PP. Let A be a set of people and let P = {(a. This may not be convenient if R is relatively large. 3.6). (3. For example. (black shirt. where P is the parent-child relation given above. PropertiesOf Relations . (2. Consider the following relation on real numbers. (mint green shirt. and S be a relation from set B into set C. Composition Let R be a relation from a set A into set B. The composition of R and S. gray slack). R = {(2. 3). tan slacks) }. (6. c) S. b) | a A ^ b A ^ a is a child of b } . or "related". R = { (x. Other notations are used depending on the past practice. 6}. (3. where (a. y) | y is the square of x} and S = { (x. tan slacks). y). or R(x) =y where y = x2 . b) R if and only if a divides evenly into b. 6)}. one such subset may be { (blue shirt. y) | x <= y}. 5.

Equivalence: R is an equivalence relation on A if R is reflexive. then b = c .Assume R is a relation on set A. from a set A to a set B is a relation from A to B that satisfies 1. 1. codomain image image of set range sum of functions product of functions one-to-one function (injection) onto function (surjection) one-to-one onto function (bijection) inverse function composite function Definition (function): A function. b> is in the relation. 3. if <a. Thus. 2. in other words. Reflexive: R is reflexive if for every a A. denote it by f. b and c in A. if aRb and bRc. b) R . then aRc. Let us write a Symmetric: R is symmetric if for every a and b in A. 4. Function Functions Subjects to be Reviewed • • • • • • • • • • • • function domain. for each element a in A. c> are in the relation. R R b to denote (a. The set A in the above definition is called the domain of the function and B its codomain. a R a. b> and <a. there is an element b in B such that <a. . Transitive: R is transitive if for every a. A x A. if aRb. and 2. f is a function if it covers the domain (maps every element of the domain) and it is single valued. symmetric and transitive. then bRa.

where f(x)*g(x) is the product of two real numbers f(x) and g(x). Definition (bijection): A function is called a bijection . the image of. Thus it is a bijection.. Then ( f + g )(x) = x2 + 3x + 1 .} . say 3. if it is onto and one-to-one. that is. 16. 4. Note that f(x) = x2 is not one-to-one if it is from the set of integers(negative as well as non-negative) to N . Example: Let f be the function from the set of natural numbers N to N that maps each natural number x to x2 . i. nothing in N can be mapped to 3 by this function. there is an element x in A such that f(x) = y .. 1. if and only if for every element y of B . under this function is 9. The image of the domain under f is called the range of f . and for all x. that is. and ( f*g )(x) = 3x3 + x2 Definition (one-to-one): A function f is said to be one-to-one (injective) .e. However. Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is an onto function. x = y . for example. f is onto if and only if f( A ) = B . Definition (onto): A function f from a set A to a set B is said to be onto(surjective) .. b> is denoted as f(a) = b . Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is one-to-one and onto. f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to N is not onto. and its range is the set of squares. Then the domain and codomain of this f are N. . because for example f(1) = f(-1) = 1 . Then the sum and the product of f and g are defined as follows: For all x. . 9. { 0. ( f*g )(x) = f(x)*g(x) . Example: The function f(x) = x2 from the set of natural numbers N to N is a one-to-one function.The relation given by f between a and b represented by the ordered pair <a. The set of images of the elements of a set S under a function f is called the image of the set S under f. Every bijection has a function called the inverse function. because. and is denoted by f(S) . ( f + g )(x) = f(x) + g(x) . and b is called the image of a under f . if and only if whenever f(x) = f(y) . f(S) = { f(a) | a S }. Definition (sum and product): Let f and g be functions from a set A to the set of real numbers R. Example: Let f(x) = 3x + 1 and g(x) = x2 . where S is a subset of the domain A of f .

Then the function g is called the inverse function of f. Example: The inverse function of f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of non-negative even numbers E is f -1(x) = 1/2 x from E to N . and it is denoted by f -1 . the rightmost function in the above figure is a bijection and its inverse is obtained by reversing the direction of each arrow. Therefore one can also talk about composition of functions. It is also a bijection.These concepts are illustrated in the figure below. Note that such an x is unique for each y because f is a bijection. Introduction to Language A language is. Definition (inverse): Let f be a bijection from a set A to a set B. Then the composition of functions f and g . natural languages etc. In each figure below. and arrows show < x. f(x) > relation. the points on the left are in the domain and the ones on the right are in the codomain. Then f( g(x) ) = ( x + 1 )2 . if for every element y of B. and g(x) = x + 1 . are all languages in that sense. Definition (composite function): Let g be a function from a set A to a set B . For example. languages of mathematics. in this course. Programming langauges we use are a language in that sense. g(y) = x . is the function from A to C that satisfies fg(x) = f( g(x) ) for all x in A . where f(x) = y . A function is a relation. a set of strings of symbols. Example: Let f(x) = x2 . . denoted by fg . Others such as languages of logics. and let f be a function from B to a set C .

Then after seeing yet another way of representing regular laguages. nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) and nondeterministic finite automata with transitions (NFA. In the following chapters we first learn about languages. We are going to see an algorithm for converting NFAto NFA which recognizes the same language and another for NFA to DFA conversion.What we are going to study on languages in this course are four classes of languages called (Chomsky) formal languages and their properties. These formal languages and automata capture the essense of various computing devices and computation in a very simple way. They are devices that recognize regular languages. However. In asddition two of the formal languages. The four classes are regular (or type 3) languages. are quite useful for modeling systems used in practice such as co9mputer network communication protocols. Also there are various kinds of computing devices called automata which process these types of languages Thus formal languages can also be characterized by the computing devices which process them. lexical analyzers and parser for compilers for programming languages. if the number of states of DFA is minimized. in general there are more than one NFAs and DFAs that reconize one language. Using automata and formal languages we can study limitations of computer and computation. context-free (or type 2) languages.e. These formal languages are characterized by grammars which are essentially a set of rewrite rules for generating strings belonging to a language as we see later. context-sensitive (or type 1) languages and phrase structure (or type 0) languages.). then the resulting DFA is unique up to the state names for a given regular language. Our last topic on regular language is testing of languages for non-regularity. regular grammars. the simplest of the four formal languages. As we are going to learn next. Definitions on Language Subjects to be Learned . Then we investigate various kinds of finite automata: deterministic finite automata (DFA). together with regular expressions which are a method of representing regular languages. Then we study regular languages. we are going to learn modeling of systems finite automata. On the other hand DFAs are suited for writing a simulator program because there is no nondeterminism such as going to two or more states from a state upon reading one input symbol. Also for some important classes of problems. checking whether or not a string is in a language. regular and context-free languages. Type 3 is a subset of type 2 which is a subset of type 1 and type 0 is the most general including the other three as a subset. NFA and NFAare conceptually simpler and easier to use when modeling a system because there are no restrictions on transitions for them unlike for DFA. It can be rigorously shown that some problems can not be solved by computers in any finite amount of time and that some others are practically unsolvable because of the time it takes to solve them. solving them can be seen as recognizing languages i.

1} is an alphabet with two symbols. Operations on languages Since languages are sets. For example if u = aab and v = bbab. A string x is a prefix of another string y if there is a string v such that y = xv. It can be defined more formally by recursive definition. A language is a set of strings over an alphabet.• • • • alphabet string (word) language operations on languages: concatenation of strings. Note that u and v may be an empty string. Some special languages The empty set is a language which has no strings. an alphabet is a finite set of symbols. A string (also called a word) is a finite sequence of symbols of an alphabet. b. 1. operations on languages and some of their properties. Though has no symbols. that is. So a string is a substring of itself. this set has an object in it. Thus the union. Kleene star Contents Here we are going to learn the concept of language in very abstract and general sense. Let u and v be strings. {a. That is. Note that vu = bbabaab uv. We are going to use first few symbols of English alphabet such as a and b to denote symbols of an alphabet and those toward the end such as u and v for strings. Then uv denotes the string obtained by concatenating u with v. b} is another alphabet with two symbols and English alphabet is also an alphabet. For any alphabet . Thus a language over alphabet is a subset of . For a string w its length is represented by |w|. The number of symbols in a string is called the length of the string. the set of all strings over (including the empty string) is denoted by . union. then uv = aabbbab. intersection. For example {0. The set { } is a language which has one string. it has no symbols. Thus | | = 0. 3. Basic concepts First.b}) and {0. A string x is called a substring of another string y if there are strings u and v such that y = uxv. baa} is a language (over alphabert {a. b} and 0. uv is the string obtained by appending the sequence of symbols of v to that of u. The empty string (also called null string) is the string with length 0. v is called a suffix of y. a and aabab are examples of string over alphabet {a. Thus {a. ab.1}). So it is not empty. 2. 1}. all the set operations can be applied to languages. namely . 111} is a language (over alphabet {0. intersetion and difference of two languages over an alphabet are languages over . 10 and 001 are examples of string over alphabet {0. The empty string is denoted by (capital lambda).

bbbb. . abb. then L* = { . b} {aaa. the extremal clause is not necessary. This * is called Kleene star. bb. babb. These powers can be formally defined recursively. ababb. Lk means the concatenation of k L's. That is L1L2 is the set of strings obtained by concatenating strings of L1 with those of L2. xw L*. bb }. is .. ababb. The complement of a language L over an alphabet language. For example {ab. ak represents the concatenation of k a's. For a string u and a natural number k. Let L1 and L2 be languages. bbaba. Recursive definition of L+: Basis Clause: L L+ . aaba} = {abaaa. Similarly for a language L. Here a0 = and u0 = . For example if L = { aba. abaaba.. baaba}. Powers : For a symbol a and a natural number k. abaaba. L* is the set of strings obtained by concatenating zero or more strings of L as we are going to see in Theorem 1.. Recursive definition of L*: Basis Clause: L* and we are going to see Inductive Clause: For any x L* and any w L. uk denotes the concatenation of k u's. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = Lk L. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k. Then the concatenation of L1 with L2 is denoted as L1L2 and it is defined as L1L2 = { uv | u L1 and v L2 }.L and it is also a Another operation onlanguages is concatenation. baaa. Hence Lk is the set of strings that can be obtained by concatenating k strings of L. * The following two types of languages are generalizations of them quite often in this course. aba. } The * in * is also the same Kleene star defined above. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. For example Lk can be defined recursively as follows. ak and uk can be defined similarly.

) as ={x|x Lk for some Then the following relationships hold on L* and L+. Then there are nonempty strings w1.w2m2... Hence x is in L* .. where wi's are strings of L. w1w2. Theorem 1: Ln Theorem 2: Theorem 3: Theorem 4: L+ = L L* = L*L Note: According to Theorems 2 and 3.wmmk .wimi Hence x = w11 . (i. then L+ = { aba.. abaaba....w1m1w21..wm1.e. w2. bbaba. Theorems 1 and 2 are proven in "General Induction" which you study in the next unit. Since w1.e... For example if L = { aba.. i.. bb. xw L+.wk for some k.. ... . by applying Theorem 2 to the language L* L* Conversely ( L* )* Let x be an arbitrary nonempty string of ( L* )*. Theorem 5: L* = (L*)*. w2.. L* can be proven as follows: by Theorem 2.. for each wi there are strings wi1.Inductive Clause: For any x L+ and any w L. ababb. Let us list one of them as a theorem and prove it. Thus L+ is the set of strings obtained by concatenating one or more strings of L. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L+ unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.... Other proofs are omitted. L* and L* have a number of interesting properties. . } Let us also define natural number k } . any nonempty string in L* or L+ can be expresssed as the concatenation of strings of L. . bb }... bbbb... . wimi in L such that wi = wi1wi2..wk . wk are strings of L*. L0 L L2 .. Proof: Because we can see that L* (L*)*. wk in L* such that x = w1w2. . wi2.

If x is an empty string, then it is obviously in L* . Hence ( L* )* Since L* L* . L* , L* = ( L* )* .

(L*)* and ( L* )*

**Problem Solving as Language Recognition
**

Subjects to be Learned

• • •

problem instance problem as language problem solving as language recognition

Contents

In the previous section the concept of language was introduced and its properties have been briefly studied. You might be wondering why we study language. The main reason for studying language is that solving problems can be viewed as a language recognition problem as explained below, that is, the problem of checking whether or not a string belongs to a language. Thus instead of studying what kind of problems can be solved by what kind of computational devices and how, we can study languages and devices to recognize them which are simpler to deal with uncluttered with variations in actual devices, programming languages etc. Below an example is given to illustrate how solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Consider the following problem: Is the longest of the distances between two nodes(i.e. the diameter) of a given graph less than a given integer k ? Here the distance is the smallest number of edges (or hops) between the nodes. Some of the instances of this problem are as shown below:

Instance 1 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with one edge and two nodes is less than 1. Instance 2 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with four edges and four nodes is less than 2. Simiarlyt for Instance 3. These problem instances can be represented by a string as follows: Instance 1: 1,2;(1,2);1 Instance 2: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(3,4);2 Instance 3: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(2,3)(2,4)(3,4);3 Here the set of nodes, the set of edges and k are separated by ; in that order in the strings. The solutions to these instances are: Instance 1: No Instance 2: No Instance 3: Yes There are infinitely many 'Yes' instances and 'No' instances for this problem. The set of 'Yes' instances is a language and so is the set of 'No' instances as well as the set of all

instances and many others for this problem. We can thus see that solving the problem for a given instance is equivalent to checking whether or not the string representing the given instance belongs to the language of 'Yes' instances of the problem. That is, the problem solving is the same as the language recognition. A problem can be solved if and only if the language of its 'Yes' instances is recognizable or decidable by a Turing machine. It is not solvable if the language is merely accecptable but not recognizable, or even worse if it is not even acceptable.

(a.k.a Structural Induction)

Mathematical statements involving an element of a recursively defined set can be proven by induction. To prove by induction that a statement P(x) is true for all the elements x of a recursively defined set S, proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P(x) is true for all the elements x in the basis of S. Induction: Prove that for any element(s) x of S if P(x) is true, then P(y) is true for any element y obtained from x by the induction step of the recursive definition of S. Note 1 : In the Induction we try to prove that if a parent has the property then all of its children also have that property. In the process we need the relationship between the parent and the children. That relationship is found in the Inductive Clause of the recursive definition of the set in question. Note 2 : As a first step for general induction proof, it is often a good idea to express y in terms of x so that P(x) can be used. Example 1 (Theorem 1 in "Language") : Prove that Ln L* for any natural number n and any language L. Let us first review the definitions. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = LkL. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k, the extremal clause is not necessary. Recursive definition of L*:

L0 L* . Since Lk L* . --.Basis Clause: L* Inductive Clause: For any string x L* and any string w L. L* since y L. Lk Next let us prove L* . y Let w be an arbitrary string in Lk+1 . Note in the proof below that Basis and Inductive Steps mirror the Basis and Inductive Clauses of the definition of Ln . Then there exist strings x and y that satisfy x L and w = xy by the definition of Lk+1. x L* . number k. Then by the definition of L* .Induction L* . Proof: Let us first prove Suppose that x Lk for some natural L* . Hence . . xy Hence w Thus Lk+1 L* . Hence x . Now let us prove that Ln L* by induction on Ln. L* by theInduction Hypothesis. and L* . By Example 1 above . L* . x Example 2 (Theorem 2 in "Language") Let us prove L* = Note that ={x|x Lk for some natural number k } . L* . . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. L* for an arbitrary natural numer k. Then by the definition of L*. Basis Step: Since by the definitions L0 = { Inductive Step: Assume that Lk Hypothesis We are going to show that Lk+1 }. Lk . xw L*.

of L* has the property. It produces the reversal of a given string x (i.Note that L* is defined recursively and that below we are trying to prove that the elements of L* have the property that they also belong to . REV(xa) = Inductive Clause: For any string aREV(x). Basis Clause: REV( )= . x Lk . Hence xy End of Inductive Step and Proof Hence we have proven Example 3 . then its children xy. . holds. The function REV(x) on strings x over the alphabet is defined as follows. x spelled backward). Then we show that if any element. by Example 1 above. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. So we show that the property for x is inherited by its children xy. Note that each step mirror the recursive definition of . xy holds. So we first prove that * the element of the basis of L has the propertyy. say x. x We are going to show that for an arbitrary element y L . where y is an arbitrary elememt of L. . and any symbol . Hence by the definition of Inductive Step: Assume that for an arbitrary x in L*. If x . also have the property.e.e. then for some natural number k . Hence xy Lk+1 by the definition of Ln . . Note here that x is a parent and by applying an operation (i. Prove that for arbitrary strings x and y of . Basis Step: L0 since L0 = { }. Let us prove the inheritance. by concatenating y) a child of x in is obtained.

Proof First let us note that * can be defined recursively as follows: . REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. . REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. xa is also in . The proof mirrors the recursive definition of . Regular language The set of regular languages over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. * Basis Clause: where is an empty string. Definitions of Regular Language and Regular Expression Subjects to be Learned • • regular language regular expression 1. and an arbitrary string y of .Induction Hypothesis Then for an arbitrary symbol a of . -. which is what we needed. Basis Step: REV(x ) = REV( x ) = REV( )REV( x ) . The proof of the equality in question is going to be proven for an arbitrary fixed x by induction on y. Inductive Clause: For arbitrary strings x of and a of ExtremalClause: As usual. End of Proof. Inductive Clause: If Lr and Ls are regular languages. Thus the statement to be proven is for an arbitrary fixed string x. then Lr Ls . Definition of Set of Regular Languages : Basis Clause: . Any language belonging to this set is a regular language over . Since a REV(y) = REV(ya). { } and {a} for any symbol a are regular languages. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages. Omitted. REV(xya) = REV((xy)a) = a REV(xy). Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary string y of . Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular language unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. But by induction hypothesis a REV(xy) = a REV(y)REV(x). REV(xya) = REV(ya)REV(x).

Then since {a} and {b} are regular languages. a. The language corresponding to rk is Lrk. ( r + s ) is used in stead of ( r + s ). (3) The concatenation of k r's . then ( r + s ) . They can represent regular languages and operations on them succinctly. (2) The operation * has precedence over concatenation. {a}* is a regular language which is the set of strings consisting of a's such as . LrLs and Lr* . (4) We use ( r+) as a regular expression to represent Lr+ . is written as rk. where a is an element of . The set of regular expressions over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. Thus for example rr = r2 . let = {a. { } and {a}.For example. respectively. For a recursive definition of Lrk click here. where r is a regular expression. Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular expression unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. which has precedence over union ( + ). respectively. where Lr is the language corresponding to the regular expression r. aaa. bold face may not be used for regular expressions. which is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's. So for example. . b} is regular. Thus the regular expression ( a + ( b( c*) ) ) is written as a + bc*. b} ( = {a} {b} ) and {ab} ( = {a}{b} ) are regular languages. {a. Any element of that set is a regular expression. Note also that *. is a regular language because {a. Conventions on regular expressions (1) When there is no danger of confusion. 2. b}. Basis Clause: . aaaa etc. Inductive Clause: If r and s are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr and Ls . Regular expression Regular expressions are used to denote regular languages. aa. ( rs ) and ( r*) are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr Ls . Also since {a} is regular. and a are regular expressions corresponding to languages .

corresponds to more than one regular expressions. Note:A regular expression is not unique for a language. bb}.. a*b+a* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by one or more b's followed by zero or more a's. . ba. ababab. a*b* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by zero or more b's. it is not easy to see by inspection whether or not two regular expressions are equal. the set of strings of repeated ab's. Thus for example ( a + b )* = ( a*b* )* . b}. ( a + b )* corresponds to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a.. For example ( a + b )* and ( a*b* )* correspond to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. b}. Definition of Equality of Regular Expressions Regular expressions are equal if and only if they correspond to the same language. b}. b}. ab. }. that is. in general. In general. that is the set of strings of length 2 over the alphabet {a. . a regular language. ( ab )+ corresponds to the language {ab.Examples of regular expression and regular languages corresponding to them • • • • ( a + b )2 corresponds to the language {aa. b}. because they both represent the language of all strings over the alphabet {a. That is. In general ( a + b )k corresponds to the set of strings of length k over the alphabet {a. abab.

The only strings corresponding to r2 which consist of only a's or b's are a. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*) . the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*) start with a string of r1 followed by any number of strings taken arbitrarily from r1 and/or r2. that is. b. Solution: It can easily be seen that . However. a*. Of the strings wiht length 2 aa. (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ means that all the strings represented by it must consist of one or more strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*). (b) A string corresponding to r1 consists of only a's or only b's or the empty string. r1r2 + r2r1 in the given regular expression is redundant. Thus anything that comes after the first r1 in (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is represented by (r1 + r2)*. 3: Let r1 and r2 be arbitrary regular expressions over some alphabet. bb and ab are in the language. a+.Exercise Questions on Regular Language and Regular Expression Ex. which are strings in the language with length 1 or less. 1: Find the shortest string that is not in the language represented by the regular expression a*(ab)*b*. ba is not in it. Find a simple (the shortest and with the smallest nesting of * and +) regular expression which is equal to each of the following regular expressions. (a + b)*. For example ab and ba are such strings. they do not produce any strings that are not represented by (r1 + r2)*. However. (a) (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ Solution: One general strategy to approach this type of question is to try to see whether or not they are equal to simple regular expressions that are familiar to us such as a. (a + b)+ etc. Thus the answer is ba. Thus (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* is reduced to (r1 + r2)*. (a) find a string corresponding to r2 but not to r1 and (b) find a string corresponding to both r1 and r2. (a) Since (r1 + r2)* represents all strings consisting of strings of r1 and/or r2 . r1 = a* + b* r2 = ab* + ba* + b*a + (a*b)* Solution: (a) Any string consisting of only a's or only b's and the empty string are in r1. Ex. Ex. 2: For the two regular expressions given below. b and the strings consiting of only b's (from (a*b)*). So we need to find strings of r2 which contain at least one a and at least one b. a.

Then starting with . and conversely (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ represents the strings represented by (r1(r1 + r2)*). Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. Ex. Ex. 6: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. Ex. and since an arbitrasry string of b's can be represented by the regular expression b*. 5: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L and a L. b } that contain exactly two a's. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is reduced to (r1(r1 + r2)*). Inductive Clause: If x L . Since any string of b's can be placed in front of the first a. behind the second a and between the two a's. b*a b*a b* is a regular expression for this language. Thus (aab + bb)*(a + ) is a regular expression for L. 7: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the . Ex. Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or appending bb to any of the already generated strings. Hence a string of L has zero or more of aab's and bb's in front possibly followed by a at the end. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. 4: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L over the alphabet { a . Then starting with or a. First of all and a are in L . then aabx L and xbb L . Hence a string of L consists of zero or more aab's in front and zero or more bb's following them. then aabx L and bbx L . Thus (aab)*(bb)* is a regular expression for L. Solution: A string in this language must have at least two a's. strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or bb to any of the already generated strings.also represents the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*)+. First of all L . b } defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L Inductive Clause: If x L . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses.

ab. ba. Solution: A string in the language can start and end with a or b. Ex. b } that do not end with ab. ( b + ab )*( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. it is the set of strings over the alphabet { a. If there may not be any a in a string of the language. bb. then that aa can be followed by any number of b. Hence if a string does not end with ab then it ends with a or if it ends with b the last b must be preceded by a symbol b. On the other hand if an a precedes the aa. a regular expression corresponding to the language is ( aa + ab + ba + bb )*. Hence the string is in this language. then applying the same argument as for aa to a. Hence a string preceding the aa can be represented by ( b + ab )*. Ex. then it must be followed by b.alphabet { a. 9: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of strings of even lengths over the alphabet of { a. ( a + b )*( a + bb ) is a regular expression for the language. b } must end in a or b. Thus simply put. Solution: If there is one substring aa in a string of the language. Any numbe of a's can appear any place in the string. If an a comes after that aa. then that a must be preceded by b because otherwise there are two occurences of aa. Solution: Since any string of even length can be expressed as the concatenation of strings of length 2 and since the strings of length 2 are aa. Hence if a string of the language contains aa then it corresponds to the regular expression ( b + ab )*aa( b + ba )* . Ex. Hence any string that follows aa is represented by ( b + ba )*. Note that 0 is an even number. 8: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. 11: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the . b } that contain no more than one occurence of the string aa. then applying the same argument as for aa to . Solution: Any string in a language over { a . ( b + ab )*a( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. b }. Altogether ( b + ab )*( + a + aa )( b + ba )* is a regular expression for the language. 10: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression a*b(a*ba*b)*a* . Since it can have any string in front of the last a or bb. it has at least one b. b } that contain an odd number of b's Ex. and after the first b all the b's in the string appear in pairs. If there is no aa but at least one a exists in a string of the language.

concatenation and Kleene star operations. concatenation and Kleene star. Solution: (( a + b )3) represents the strings of length 3. Solution: ( b + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring aa and which end in b. Regularity of finite languages Theorem 1: The set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed under operations union. Note 1: Later we shall see that the complement of a regular language and the intersection of regular laguages are also regular. is not regular as we shall see later.regular expression (( a + b )3)*( +a+b). Hence (( a + b )3)* represents the strings of length a multiple of 3. that is. For example while { akbk } is regular for any natural number k . We say a language is finite if it consists of a finite number of strings. { anbn | n is a natural number } which is the union of all the languages { akbk } . where n is a natural number. Ex. Thus the set of regular languages is closed under those operations. a finite language is a set of n . The following theorem shows that any finite language is regular. Note 2: The union of infinitely many regular languages is not necessarily regular. Lr Ls . the given regular expression represents the strings of length 3n and 3n + 1. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages and they are obviously over the alphabet . Hence altogether it represents any string consisting of a substring with no aa followed by one b followed by a substring with no bb. where n is a natural number. Then by the definition of the set of regular languages . Since (( a + b )3)*( a + b ) represents the strings of length 3n + 1. and ( a + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring bb. 12: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression ( b + ab )*( a + ab )*. Properties of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • Closure of the set of regular languages under union. Proof: Let Lr and Ls be regular languages over an alphabet .

Proof of the Claim 1: Proof by induction on the number of strings. Then { w } is a regular language. Basis Step: (corresponding to n = 0) is a regular language by the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. End of proof for Claim 2 Note that Claim 2 can also be proven by induction on the length of string. End of proof of Theorem 2. Then for any symbol a of . Hence by the Inductive Clause of the definition of regular language { a }{ w } is regular. Proof: Let us first assume that a language consisting of a single string is regular and prove the theorem by induction. L { w } is a regular language by the definition of regular language.strings for some natural number n. Proof of Claim 2: Proof by induction on strings. We then prove that a language consisting of a single string is regular. Claim 2: Let w be a string over an alphabet . Hence { aw } is regular. End of proof of Claim 1 Thus if we can show that { w } is a regular language for any string w. Basis Step: By the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. Theorem 2: A finite language is regular. Inductive Step: Assume that a language L consisting of n strings is a regular language (induction hypothesis). { a } is a regular language from the Basis Step. . } and { a } are Inductive Step: Assume that { w } is a regular language for an arbitrary string w over . Claim 1: A language consisting of n strings is regular for any natural number n (that is. a finite language is regular) if { w } is regular for any string w. Then since { w } is a regular language as proven below. then we have proven the theorem. { regular languages for any arbitrary symbol a of .

It is assumed that the machine terminates its operation when it receives 15 cents or more. In this example you as a vending machine have gone through (transitions between) a number of states responding to the inputs from the customer (coins in this case). tell whether or not a given string belongs to the regular language). say a dime.Introduction to Finite Automata In this chapter we are going to study a class of machines called finite automata. So we might say you are in the 10-cents state. Click "NICKEL" or "DIME" in the figure and see how it operates (see how arrows turn red). say 15-cents state. A vending machine looked at this way is an example of finite automaton. We have learned that regular languages are represented by regular expressions and conversely. Finite automata are computing devices that accept/recognize regular languages and are used to model operations of many systems we find in practice. Unfortunately not all languages and systems are simple like regular languages or finite automata. In fact Turing machines are as . Initially you are waiting for a customer to come and put some coins. After that you stay in that state until another coin is put in to start the process anew or you may terminate the operation and start all over from the initial state. Their operations can be simulated by a very simple computer program. Then we are going to see that for every regular language a unique finite automaton can be constructed which can recognize the language (i. you are no longer in the waiting-for-customer state. therefore. A kind of systems finite automnata can model and a computer program to simulate their operations are discussed later. The states and the transitions between them of this vending machine can be represented with the diagram below. If the customer puts in a nickel. We are then going to study how finite automata can be used to simulate operations of systems we see in practice. Let us assume that only nickels and dimes are used for simplicity.e. Pretend that you are the machine. When the customer selects a soft drink. You have received 10 cents and are waiting for more coins to come. that is. Though Turing machines are simple modification of finite automata. So you are in another state. you must give the customer a can of soft drink. can not be recognized by finite automata. Ds on arrows represent a dime and Ns a nickel. then you have now received 15 cents and you wait for the customer to select a soft drink. Later we are going to learn an extension of finite automata called Turing machines. and equivalence and conversions between them. There are languages which are not regular and which. Let us consider the operation of a soft drink vending machine which charges 15 cents for a can. they are much more powerful computing devices than finite automata. In the figure. circles represent states and arrows state transitions. When a customer comes and puts in the first coin. you are in the waiting-for-customer state. We are going to learn languages which are not regular and ways to test languages for non-regularity. In the next few chapters first we are going to learn different kinds of finite automata.

4. "have received 5 cents" etc. The transition function is also called a next state function meaning that the automaton moves into the state (q. though not proven. A > Notes on the definition 1. for example. q0 . If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ceases to come. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of . For example. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. 2. in the Example 1 below. are the elements of Q. a) is equal to "have received 5 cents". Definition of Deterministic Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • • • Finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of deterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. however. (q. Also let be a function from Q to Q . . The accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. . the transition function. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". .powerful as computers and it is generally believed. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. that any computation human beings do (with or without computers) can be performed by Turing machines. "Waiting for a customer to put a coin in" can be considered the initial state of this automaton and the state in which the machine gives out a soda can can be considered the accepting state. Otherwise it is not accepted. then (q. Thus in the example of vending machine. Then a deterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . if q is the initial state and a nickel is put in. Note that is a function. a) must be specified. Its elements can. The set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. the states of the machine such as "waiting for a customer to put a coin in". Thus in the example of vending machine. 3. We call the elements of Q a state.

a) ) A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. A deterministic finite automaton is also called simply a "finite automaton". Abbreviations such as FA and DFA are used to denote deterministic finite automaton. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 1 a 2 2 a 2 (q. A = { 1 }. Examples of finite automaton Example 1: Q = { 0. ) = q . DFAs are often represented by digraphs called (state) transition diagram.the string a is accepted by the finite automaton. It is a little more complex DFA. But any other strings such as aa. then we need a DFA such as shown in the following examle to accept the same string a. b } in stead of { a }. aaa. etc. 5. The accepting states are indicated by double circles. 1. If the alphabet of the Example 1 is changed to { a. Transition functions can also be represented by tables as seen below. 2 }. are not accepted. The vertices (denoted by single circles) of a transition diagram represent the states of the DFA and the arcs labeled with an input symbol correspond to the transitions. = { a }. They are called transition table. . q ) from vertex p to vertex q with label represents the transition (p. the following table. An arc ( p .

b } is the next example. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 0 0 b 1 1 a 1 1 b 1 (q. = { a. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 0 b 2 1 a 2 1 b 2 2 a 2 2 b 2 (q. A = { 0 }. Example 3: Q = { 0. the following table. a) ) . b }. 1 }. b }. in the following table. A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. A = { 1 }.Example 2: Q = { 0. 2 }. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. = { a. 1. A DFA that accepts all strings consisting of only symbol a over the alphabet { a.

Example 4: For the example of vending machine of the previous section. 15. the initial state q0 = 0. = { D. 10. Q = { 0. A = { 15. its transition function is as shown in the following table. 20 }. 5. State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 N 5 0 D 10 5 N 10 5 D 15 10 N 15 10 D 20 15 N 5 15 D 10 20 N 5 20 D 10 (q. a) ) .A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. If we make it a DFA. N }. 20 }.

3. It never moves to the left. The tape has a read only head.A finite automaton as a machine A finite automaton can also be thought of as the device shown below consisting of a tape and a control circuit which satisfy the following conditions: 1. The tape has the left end and extends to the right without an end. it stops and the automaton terminates its operation. 6. 2. There is a finite control which determines the state of the automaton and also controls the movement of the head. The tape is divide into squares in each of which a symbol can be written prior to the start of the operation of the automaton. . The head moves to the right one square every time it reads a symbol. The head is always at the leftmost square at the beginning of the operation. When it sees no symbol. 5. 4.

. As an example let us consider the DFA of Example 3 above. it goes into state 1 and the input string is not accepted by the DFA.Operation of finite automata Let us see how an automaton operates when it is given some inputs. then no matter what symbol is read. when all the a's on the tape are read. Hence when b appears anywhere in the input. the DFA is in the accepting state. When zero or more a's are given as an input to it. Thus this automaton accepts any string of a's. are accepted but strings such as aaba. b etc. Once it gets to state 1. Initially it is in state 0. are not accepted by this automaton. For example strings aaa. Since the state 0 is also the accepting state. it moves to state 1. it stays in state 0 while it reads all the a's (without breaks) on the tape. this DFA never leaves state 1. aaaaaa etc. If b is read while it is in state 0 (initially or after reading some a's).

*

of DFA and its Properties

Subjects to be Learned

• •

*

Language accepted by DFA

Contents

Here we are going to formally describe what is meant by applying a transition repeatedly, that is the concept of * For a state q and string w, *( q , w ) is the state the DFA goes into when it reads the string w starting at the state q. In general a DFA goes through a number of states from the state q responding to the symbols in the string w. Thus for a DFA < Q , , q0 , , A > , the function

* :Q -> Q is defined recursively as follows: *

Definition of

*

:

*

Basis Clause: For any state q of Q ,

(q,

) = q , where

*

denotes the empty string. and any symbol a ,

Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q, any string y * ( q , ya ) = ( *( q , y ) , a ) .

In the definition, the Basis Clause says that a DFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the state DFA reaches after reading string ya starting at state q is the state it reaches by reading symbol a after reading string y from state q. Example For example suppose that a DFA contains the transitions shown below.

Then

*

*

( q , DNR ) can be calculated as follows:

( q , DNR ) = ( *( q , DN ) , R ) by the Inductive Clause. = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , DN ). = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) since D = D . = ( ( ( *( q , ) , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , D ). = ( ( ( q , D ) , N ) , R ) , since ( q , ) = q . = ( ( q1 , N ) , R ) , since ( q , D ) = q1 as seen from the diagram. = ( q2 , R ) , since ( q1 , N ) = q2 as seen from the diagram. = q3 since ( q2 , R ) = q3 as seen from the diagram. Properties of

*

We can see the following two properties of

*

. for a DFA < Q , , q0 , ,A

**Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >,
**

*

(q,a)=

(q,a)

Proof : Since a = a , * ( q , a ) = *( q , a ) . By the definition of * , * ( q , a ) = ( *( q , ) , a ) But *( q , ) = q by the definition of Hence ( *( q , ) , a ) = ( q , a ) .

*

.

The next theorem states that the state reached from any state, say q , by reading a string, say w , is the same as the state reached by first reading a prefix of w, call it x, and then by reading the rest of the w, call it y. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 , , A > , for a DFA < Q , ,

*

( q , xy ) =

*

(

*

(q,x),y).

Proof : This is going to be proven by induction on string y. That is the statement to be proven is the following: * For an arbitrary fixed string x, ( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for any arbitrary string y. First let us review the recursive definition of *. Recursive definition of Basis Clause:

* *

:

.

* * Inductive Clause: If x and a , then xa . * Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.

Now the proof of the theorem. Basis Step: If y = , then *( q , xy ) = *( q , x ) = *( q , x ) . Also *( *( q , x ) , y ) = *( *( q , x ) , ) = *( q , x ) by the definition of * . Hence the theorem holds for y = . Inductive Step: Assume that *( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for an arbitrary string y. This is the induction hypothesis. We are going to prove that *( q , xya ) = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) for any arbitrary symbol a of . ( q , xya ) = ( *( q , xy ) , a ) by the definition of * = ( * ( *( q , x ) , y ) , a ) by the induction hypothesis. = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) by the definition of * . Thus the theorem has been proven.

*

For the following DFA answer the questions given below.

A > . w ) A .The following notations are used in the questions: : \delta * : \delta^* : \Lambda Language Accepted by DFA Subjects to be Learned • Language accepted by DFA A string w is accepted by a DFA < Q . . if and only if L = { w | *( q0 . A > . q0 . . q0 . Example 1 : . . if and only if ( q0 . w ) A } . That is. A language L is accepted by a DFA < Q . That is a string is accepted by a DFA if and only if the DFA starting at the initial state ends in an accepting state after reading the string. * . the language accepted by a DFA is the set of strings accepted by the DFA.

.This DFA accepts { } because it can go from the initial state to the accepting state (also the initial state) without reading any symbol of the alphabet i.1 and it can go through this cycle any number of times by reading substring ab repeatedly. Example 2 : This DFA does not accept any string because it has no accepting state. Thus the language it accepts is the empty set Example 3 : DFA with one cycle . and it stays there.2 . To find the language it accepts. by reading an empty string .e. which is not an accepting state. This is represented by (ab)*.2 .1 any number of times by reading substring ab any number of times to come back to state 1. Then from state 1 go through the cycle 1 . first from the initial state go to state 1 by reading one a. It accepts nothing else because any non-empty symbol would take it to state 1. Then from state 1 go to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading aa. This DFA has a cycle: 1 . Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by a(ab)*aa .

0 .2 .1 .2 .1.1 and 1 .2 .0.0 and 0 . Example 5 : DFA with two interleaved cycles This DFA has two cycles: 1 .2 .2 .1 . To find the language accepted by this DFA.0 .0 and it can move through these cycles any number of times in any order to reach the accepting state from the initial state such as 0 . Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by ( ab + bb )*.3 .0 . first from state 0 go to state 1 by .Example 4 : DFA with two independent cycles This DFA has two independent cycles: 0 .

respectively. At this point a substring a( baa + bba )* will have been read. To find the language accepted at state 1. So we are not going to go any further on this problem here. Thus the language accepted at state 1 is b*a(ba)* .1 and 1 . Thus altogether a( baa + bba )*bb will have been read when state 3 is reached from state 0. At state 1 go through the cycle 1 . Thus the language that is accepted by this DFA is the union of the language accepted at state 0 and the one accepted at state 1.3 . The language accepted at state 0 is b* .2 .reading a ( any other state which is common to these cycles such as state 2 can also be used instead of state 1 ). Then go from state 1 to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading bb.1 any number of times by reading substring ba repeatedly. Then from state 1 go through the two cycles 1 . Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata . Then go to state 1 by reading one a.2 . At this point (b*a) will have been read.2 .0 . There is a systematic way of finding the language accepted by a DFA and we are going to learn it later. first at state 0 read any number of b's. Example 6 : This DFA has two accepting states: 0 and 1.1 any number of times in any order by reading substrings baa and bba.

As in the case of DFA the set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. Otherwise it is not accepted. But it can be the empty set. Also let be a function from Q to 2Q . in which case the NFA aborts its operation. . a) to select is determined nondeterministically. 3. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 1 a (q. A > Notes on the definition 1. 4. a) must be specified. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . We call the elements of Q a state.Subjects to be Learned • • • Nondeterministic finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. Which one of the states in (q. Unlike DFAs an NFA moves into one of the states given by (q. 2. Its elements can be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. q0 . Note that any DFA is also a NFA. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. . Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of (q. the transition function. the following table. a) ) . q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". A = { 1 }. 5. 1 }. ceases to come. Examples of NFA Example 1: Q = { 0.e. Note that is a function. The transition function is also called a next state function . let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. As in the case of DFA the accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ends i. = { a }.

2 }. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. A = { 2 }. this is still an NFA that accepts { Example 2: Q = { 0. = { a. b } in stead of { a }. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. in the following table. b }. . is changed to { a. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1. If the alphabet a}. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. 1.A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below.2} 0 1 1 2 2 b a b a b {2} (q.

We say that this automaton accepts the string a. Let us now define the function strings and languages by NFA. if the next input is b and if no more inputs are given. As an example let us consider the automaton of Example 2 above. it does not accept any of them. Initially it is in state 0.Operation of NFA Let us see how an automaton operates when some inputs are applied to it. then it goes to state 2 and remains there. it moves to either state 1 or state 2. * and then formalize the concepts of acceptance of . When it reads the symbol a. If any other strings are given to this NFA. If on the other hand it moves to state 1 after reading a. if it moves to state 2 and no more inputs are given. Since the state 2 is the accepting state. Thus the string ab is also accepted by this NFA. then it stays in the accepting state.

. Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q. string. ) = { q }.3} 0 b {2} 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b {1} {3} {3} (q. the Basis Clause says that an NFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the set of states NFA can reach after reading string ya starting at state q is the set of states it can reach by reading symbol a after reading string y starting at state q. *( q . the function * :Q -> 2Q is defined recursively as follows: * Definition of *: Basis Clause: For any state q of Q. ya ) = In the definition. q0 . In general an NFA nondeterministically goes through a number of states from the state q as it reads the symbols in the string w. A > .1. Thus for an NFA < Q . w ) is the set of states that the NFA can reach when it reads the string w starting at the state q. where * denotes the empty . a) ) For example consider the NFA with the following transition table: . .Language Accepted by NFA Subjects to be Learned • • • for NFA Language accepted by NFA Properties of * * Definition of * For a state q and string w. * (q. Example State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {0. any string y * and any symbol a ( q .

3}. ( 0 . ) again by the Inductive * Clause of the definition of . a ) = ( 0 .The transition diagram for this NFA is as given below. a ) is the union of ( p. Then * * ( 0 . a ) by the Inductive Clause of * Now *( 0 . ) = { 0 } . 3 } . a ) = { 0 .2. b ) for all p * ( 0 . ab ) = ( 0 . a ) for all p ( 0 . ab ) can be calculated as follows: ( p. *( 0 . ab ) is the union of the definition of * .b) (3. . b ) (1. Hence *( 0 . Suppose that the state 3 is an accepting state of this NFA. 1 . Hence *( 0 . By the Basis Clause of the definition of *.b)={2} {3} {1}={1.

and for NFA has properties similar to that for DFA. . a.a) for an NFA < Q . Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 . * . * (q. . Some of the strings accepted by the NFA given above are the language it accepts is a*( ab + a + ba )(bb)* .a)= (q. A > is the set of strings that are accepted by the NFA.A Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >. abbbb etc. xy ) = These theorems can be proven in a manner similar to those for Theorems 1 and 2 for DFA.* We say that a string x is accepted by an NFA < Q. q0 . . . if and only if it can reach an accepting state by reading x starting at the initial state. The language accepted by an NFA < Q. . q0. for an NFA < Q . q0. x ) A is not empty. . ab. . . aaa. that is. A > . . * ( q . A > if and only if * ( q0 .

there is a NFA (hence DFA) which accepts the same language and vice versa. We call the elements of Q a state. . A transition on reading means that the NFA. Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton with Let Q be a finite set and let -Transitions be a function from Q be a finite set of symbols. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. for any NFA. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton with -Transitions is a 5-tuple < Q ..makes the transition without reading any symbol in the input. Here we are going to formally define NFA with -Transitions (abbreviated as NFA. As we are going to see later. Thus the tape head does not move when is read. 2.Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata with Transitions Subjects to be Learned • • • - Nondeterministic finite automata with State transition diagram State transition table -Transitions Contents One of the objectives of this chapter is to show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between regular languages and finite automata. Also let { } to 2Q .A> Notes on the definition 1. Note that any NFA is also a NFA. Basically an NFA with -Transitions is an NFA but can respond to an empty string and move to the next state. . concatenation and Kleene star operations. the transition function. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. q0 . We are going to do that by showing that a finite automaton can be constructed from a given regular expression by combining simpler FAs using union. These operations on FAs can be described conveniently if -Transitions are used. .) and see some examples.

3. If you read string ab. 1. Thus 4 is the only state you can go to from the initial state . 3. a) ) Here the transitions to are omitted from the table. 2. 5 }. you can go to state 2. for example. 4. For once you are in state 1. there are no transitions on reading b except from state 3. When a symbol a is read at the initial state 0. 4 } 3 {5} 3 b {4} 4 a {5} (q. following table. 4 and 5 by reading a. For though you go to states 1. 4 and 5 without reading any symbol on the tape. A = . it can move to any of the states other than 0. 2. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below.Example of NFA- Q = { 0. 3. b }. then you come to state 4. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in the State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 0 {4} 1 {2} 2 { 3. = { a. for example.

by reading ab.

**Language Accepted by NFASubjects to be Learned
**

• • • •

**-closure for NFALanguage accepted by NFAProperties of *
**

*

Contents

To formally define * for NFA- , we start with the concept of -closure for a state which is the set of states reachable from the state without reading any symbol. Using that concept we define * and then strings and languqges accepted by NFA- . Definition of -closure

Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA- . Let us denote the -closure of a set S of states of Q by ( S ). Then ( S ) is defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: S (S)

Inductive Clause: For any state q of Q, if q ( S ) , then ( q , ) (S). Extremal Clause: Nothing is in ( S ) unless it is obtained by the above two clauses.

For the NFAFirst { 2 }

of the above figure, ( { 2 } ) , that is, 2 (2, )

( { 2 } ) is obtained as follows: ( { 2 } ) . Then since 2 ( { 2 } ) , by the

Inductive Clause, Since (2,

({2}). ({2}).

) = { 3 , 4 }, we now have { 2 , 3 , 4 }

Since 3 and 4 have been added to

({2}),

(3,

) = { 5 } and

(4,

)=

must

be included in ( { 2 } ) . Thus now { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } ({2}). Though 5 has become a memeber of the closure, since ( 5 , ) is empty, no new members are added to ( { 2 } ) . Since ( q , ) has been examined for all the states currently in ( { 2 } ) and no more elements are added to it, this process of generating the closure terminates and ( { 2 } ) = { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } is obtained. As we can see from the example, ( S ) is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S by traversing any number of arcs. That is, it is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S without reading any symbols in . Now with this -closure, we can define

*

recursively as follows:

As in the cases of DFA and NFA, * gives the result of applying the transition function repeatedly as dictated by the given string. Definition of

* *

is going to be defined recursively. Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA-

.

**Basis Clause: For any state q of Q,
**

*

(q,

)=

({q}).

*

Inductive Clause: For any state q, a string y in

and a symbol a in

,

*

( q , ya ) =

(

).

What the Inductive Clause means is that *( q , ya ) is obtained by first finding the states that can be reached from q by reading y ( *( q , y ) ), then from each of those states p by reading a (i.e. by finding ( p , a ) ), and then by reading 's ( i.e. by taking the closure of the ( p , a )'s ) . Example : For the NFAbelow: of the following figure,

*

( 0 , ab ) can be obtained as

First let us compute *( 0 , a ) . For that we need ( { 0 } ). Since it is the set of states reached by traversing the arcs from state 0, ( { 0 } ) = {0,3,4}. Next from each of the states in ( { 0 } ) we read symbol a and move to another state (i.e. apply ). They are ( 0 , a ) = { 1 } , ( 3 , a ) = ( 4 , a ) = { 5 }. Hence We then traverse the } ) = { 1 , 2 , 3 } and = { 1 , 5 } for q = 0 . arcs from { 1 , 5 } to get to the states in *( 0 , a ) . Since * ({5})={5}, (0,a)={1,2,3,5}.

({1

< Q . . x ) contains at least one accepting state.Then to find *( 0 .. q0 . A > is the set of strings accepted by the NFA. A2 > that satisfies the following conditions recognizes L: . ab } . Now ( 1 .to (equivalent) NFA Conversion of NFA to (equivalent) DFA Equivalence of DFAs. . ( 3 . NFA M2 = < Q2. and ( 2 . The language accepted by an NFA.that recognizes a language L. Then the 2 . . . a . NFAs and NFA. 4 } . . b ) = { 4 } . A > if and only if *( q0 . *( 0 . . q0 . A1 > be an NFA. NFAs and NFAto NFA 1 Conversion of NFA- Let M1 = < Q1 .0 . Thus Since ( { 4 } ) = { 3 . A string x is accepted by an NFA. b ) . ab ) = { 3 . Equivalence of DFAs. a ) and then take the arcs from there. 4 } . q2.< Q .s Subjects to be Learned • • • Conversion of NFA.0 . b ) and ( 5 . ab ) read b from each of the states in *( 0 . b ) are empty sets. q1. For example the NFAof the figure given above accepts the language { . .

0 through arcs in M1 . a ): First ( { 0 } ) = { 0 . 3 ).0 } ) A1 = A1 otherwise . a ) as follows: Find ( {q} ). Then from the transition function of the NFA- . Thus to obtain an NFA M2 = < Q2. 2. The set of accepting states A2 is the same as A1 if no accepting states can be reached from the initial state q1. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0.0 .Q2 = Q1. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) .0 are the accepting states of M2 . Example 1: Let us convert the following NFAto NFA.a)= ( ) A2 = A1 { q1. Otherwise.0 through arcs in M1 . that is if an accepting state can be reached from the initial state q1. . a ) = 1 * (q. The transition function 2 is obtained as follows: 2( 0 .0 } if ( { q1. Then collect all the states that can be reached from each state of ( {q} ) by traversing one arc labeled with the symbol a. then all the accepting states of M1 plus state q1. as the given NFA. 1 } .0 = q1. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. that is all the states that can be reached from q by traversing arcs. q1. Then for each state q of Q2 and each symbol a of find 2 ( q .M1 = < Q1 . The closure of the set of those states is 2( q . A1 > does. 1.0. A2 > which accepts the same language 1 . 2 ( q. 2 first copy the states of Q1 into Q2. a ) . . . q2.0 . q2.

(q.3} {1.2})={1. ({1. They are given in the table ( { q } ) and 2 below together with State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b a b .3} {1. and Hence 2( 0 . 1 For . a ) = .b)= 1 ( 1.3} {3} {1.( 0 .2} )) ({q}) {0.1} {0.2} The NFA thus obtained is shown below.b)= Similarly 2 can be obtained for other states and symbols. 2 (0.1} {1} {1} {2} {2} {1.2} {1. since ( { 0 } ) = { 0 . b ) . 1 } and 1 (0.2}. 2 ( 0 . b ) = .2} {1.2} {1. 2 }. a ) = 1 ( 1 . a ) = { 1 . .2} {1. )(= ( {1.

2} {1.Example 2: Let us convert the following NFA- to NFA. 4 ).4} {1. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0.2} {4} {4} {4} {1. )(= ( {1.2.2.3} .4} {1.1} {0. 1 ( p . 3.3} )) {1. 2 is given in the table below together with ( { q } ) .2} 2 (q.3} {2.4} {1.4} {1.3} {3} {3} {1.2. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0. ) and State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 a b a b a b a b a ({q}) {0. The transition function 2 is obtained as for Example 1. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) . 1.1} {1} {1} {2. 2.3} {1.

Proof of Equivalence of NFA- and NFA We are going to prove that the NFA obtained from NFAby the conversion algorithm accepts the same language as the NFA.4} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. .4 b {1.

First we are going to prove that To review the definition of * 1 * . Inductive Step: We need to show that if 1 * (q. w ) for an arbitrary string w (Induction Hypothesis). a)= by the definition of Since * 2 * for NFA (click here for a review) .w). = 1 * Then we show that ( q . it implies that NFAM1 and NFA M2 accept the same non-empty strings. that is wa for any symbol a in the alphabet. 1 * (q. for NFA. . Thus we first prove that it is true for any arbitrary symbol. We are going to prove it by showing that both of them are equal to Firstly 2( q .a)= 2 * 2 (q. then * 1 ( q . Secondly 2 * (q.w)= 2 * (q. q2.. The case when w is an empty string is going to be proven separately. wa ) = --. (q. the induction hypothesis and the construction of NFA from NFA. Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. = = 2 * 2 (q . 1 . a ) --.(2) . (q.0 .(1) . wa ) --. then assuming it holds for any arbitrary string w we prove it for any of the children of w.w)= 2 * ( q . . and the conversion of NFAto NFA click here. wa ) holds for any arbitrary symbol a in First we show that using the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q .a). and NFA- When it is proven.a)= 2 2 * (q . )={q}. .a). A2 > (q.a)= 2 ( q . Hence (q. Basis Step: We need to show that for any symbol a in 1 * (q. a ) .NFA- that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 . . .a).w)= 2 * ( q .0 . A1 > and 2 NFA obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. a ) = 1*( q .a). w ) for any non-empty string w. q1. wa ) = 2 * ( q .(1) because of the way NFA is constructed from NFA(click here for a review) . Claim 1: For any non-empty string w and for any state q.(2) Hence from (1) and (2). --. 1 * (q.a)= 2 * (q. Recall that the set of strings is defined recursively (click here for a quick review).

Hence On the other hand = Hence 1 * = ( q . wa ) . wa ) . that is (1) has been proven.a)= Substituting this into the left hand side of (2) produces = . wa ) = .a)= 1 * ( q . To see an explanation for this click here. Hence 2 * ( q . = 1*( q . wa ) . Let us first prove (1). Hence we have proven (2). . .basically using the definition of Then from (1) and (2) we can see that 1 * 1 * . wa ) . wa ) . The right hand side of this equality is equal to ( the first and have been swapped to get this) .w)= 1 * ( q . as proven below in Claim 3. because = . w ) by the induction hypothesis. wa ) = Since 2 * (q. = Since 2 (q. wa ) = 2 * ( q . a ) by the way NFA is constructed from NFA= . for NFA- (p. By the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . by the definition of 1 * . Let us next prove (2). that is By the definition of 1 * = 1 * 1 * ( q . 1 * Thus from (1) and (2) ( q . . wa ) = 2 * ( q . This can be shown to be equal to . ( q .

. then ( { q10 } ) A1 . and the corresponding NFA accept the same language. We are going to prove this in two parts: (S T) (S) (S) (T) ( T ) and (S T). Then the -closure of X is defined recursively as Basis Clause: X (X). in the Basis Step of our proof we prove the property for the elements of the basis of (S T ) and in the Inductive Step we prove that if an arbitrary element of (S T ) has that property. q20 Conversely if NFAis accepted by NFA. then q20 this means that Thus NFA( { q10 } ) A1 A2 . then its childen also have it. For that let us restate the statement so that the induction becomes clearer. ) (X).End of Induction With this Claim 1 we can see that any non-empty string w is accepted by NFA if and only if it is accepted by the corresponding NFA. Let X be the set of states of an NFA. Hence by the way A2 is constructed. let us prove the following claim. Extremal Clause: Nothng is in ( X ) unless it is obtained by the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Inductive Clause: If q ( X ) . Hence is accepted by NFA. A2 . What Part 1 states is that all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in the set (S) (T). As for the empty string . As a preparation for the proof of commutativity of union and -closure operations. Hence is accepted by NFA. . Since (S T ) is defined recursively. Claim 2: (S T)= (S) (T). Let us review the definition of the -closure of the set of states of an NFA. Part 1 : (S T) (S) (T) This is going to be proven by induction on (S T). By the way NFA is constructed from . if it is accepted by an NFA. then ( q .

T). ) Let q be an arbitrary element of T ) with the property of being in ( S ) by the definition of ( T ) . (q. (S T ) with the property of being in (S) ( T ) . ( T ) . ) (S) (S) (T). ) (S) (T). Hence ) Similarly if q Hence if q is an arbitrary element of (S) (T). Basis Step: We need to show that S Since S (S T ) . End of Proof for Part 1 Part 2 : Proof of Part 2: We are going to prove (S) (S (S) T ) and (S) (T) (T) (T) (S (S (S T). ) . and ( S T) (S T). T T). ( T ) . (T). if q is in . T ) with (T).q ( S ) or q ( S ) . S and T are subsets of (S T) Inductive Step: We need to prove that if q is an arbitrary element of the property of being in (S) (S ( T ) .Proof of Part 1: Basis Step: We need to prove that ( S Since S ( S ) and T T) (S) (S) (S (S) (S) (T). (S) (T). then (q. That would imply that Proof of (S) (S By induction on (S T): (S). ) (S) (T). Hence (T). Since q If q ( S ) . (T) Thus all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in (S T) which is to say that (S) (T). then ( q . then (q. then (q.S (S T). Inductive Step: We need to prove that for an arbitrary element q in ( S ) .

Basis Step: n = 1. - T ) is a -closure.Inducion Hypothesis ( Si ) = ( = = (( Si ) ( ( Si ) ) Si ) ( Sn+1 ) by the definition of union. If n = 1. Thus (S) (S T ) has been proven. ( Si ) holds for n. ) (S closure T).(S Since q is in (S T ) and since (S T ) . by the definition of (q. (S T ) holds. End of Proof for Claim 3 Sn+1 ) by Claim 2 above. ( Sn+1 ) by the induction hypothesis. Similarly Hence (S) (T) (T) (S T ) holds. since = ( Equivalence of NFA and DFA We are going to prove that the DFA obtained from NFA by the conversion algorithm . then (q. Proof : Proof by induction on n. Si is a set as well as Sn+1. --. ) (S T). End of Proof of Part 2 End of Proof of Claim 2 Claim 3: ( Si ) = ( Si ) . then Hence Inductive Step: Assume that ( ( Si ) = Si ) = ( Si ) holds for n = 1. ( Si ) = ( Si ) = ( S1 ) and ( S1 ) . Si ) by the definition of union.

0 . ) by the definition of 1 * . ) = q2. w ) = 2 * ( q2. ( q1.0 .0 . = * 1 ( q1.0 . Theorem: For any string w. a ) ( q2. w ) = 2 * ( q2. .0 . ( q2. w ) holds. q1. Kleene's Theorem --.0 . A1 > and DFA . w ) = 2*( q2.0 .0 . 2 1 . obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. w ) .0 . Basis Step: For w = 2 * . w ) for an arbitrary string w. w ) . When it is proven.0 .0 . q2. wa ) = = = = 2 ( 1 2 * * ( q1.0 . NFA that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 .accepts the same language as the NFA.Part 1 Subjects to be Learned • • • • Union of FAs Concatenation of FAs Kleene Star of FAs Acceptance of regular languages by FAs Contents . w ) for any string w. w ) = 2 * ( q2. it obviously implies that NFA M1 and DFA M2 accept the same strings. w ) . wa ) * 1 Thus for any string w ( q1.0 . a ) 2( * 2 ( q2. Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w.0 by the definition of 2* . 1 * ( q1. = { q1. . A2 > First we are going to prove by induction on strings that 1*( q1.0 .0 } by the construction of DFA M2 .0 . --- For the string w and an arbitrry symbol a in 1 * .0 . Inductive Step: Assume that Induction Hypothesis 1 * ( q1.

0 . qk. Then L1 = < Qc . Proof: This is going to be proven by (general) induction following the recursive definition of regular language.0 . Suppose that L1 and L2 are accepted by FAs M1 = < Q1 . Qu = Q1 Q2 . u Mu = < Qu . Au > : { qu. Ak > . We assume that Q1 Q2 = without loss of generality since states can be renamed if necessary. k .0 . where qu. qc. which are given below. concatenation and Kleene star operations.0 . q1. 2 . Au > . qu. c . qu. Theorem 1 (Part 1 of Kleene's theorem): Any regular language is accepted by a finite automaton. then L1 L2 . . . respectively. It states that any regular language is accepted by an FA and conversely that any language accepted by an FA is regular.0 } . . 1 .0 .0 . Inductive Step: We are going to show that for any languages L1 and L2 if they are accepted by FAs.0 is a state which is neither in Q1 nor in Q2 . Mc . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by the FAs Mu = < Qu . Basis Step: As shown below the languages .Kleene's theorem. . . . Ac > and Mk = < Q2 . Since any regular language is obtained from { } and { a } for any symbol a in by using union. A1 > and M2 = < Q2 .{ } and { a } for any symbol a in are accepted by an FA. u L2 . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by FAs. A2 > . . respectively. q2. that together with the Basis Step would prove the theorem.

q2.0 .u = 1 2 { (qu.0 } ) | q A1 } Ak = { qk.0.0 } ) | q A1 } Ac = A2 Mk = < Qk . k .0. . a ) = for all a in .0 c = 1 2 { (q. u ) = { q1. .0 . . that is u (qu. { qk. c . qc. qk. Note that (qu. . where qk. { q2. q2. Ak > : { qk.0. Qk = Q1 k . .0 } = 1 { (qk.0 . { q1.0 } .0 } .0 .0 is a state which is not in Q1 . { q1. Au = A1 A2 Mc = < Qc .0 } ) } .0 } ) } { (q. . Ac > : Qc = Q1 Q2 qc.0.0 = q1. These NFA- s are illustrated below.

L1L2 and L1*. Mc and Mk . though we omit proofs. . that these NFA.s .It can be proven. Mu. respectively. End of Proof Examples of Mu . Mc and Mk: Example 1: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression (aa + b)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above. in fact accept L1 L2 .

Example 2: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression ((a + b)a*)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above. .

Part 2 .Kleene's Theorem -.

k)*L(k+1. then from k+1 to q. k) . q. L(p. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. all without passing through states labeled higher than k. k+1. k)*L(k+1. k+1. k) the set of strings representing paths from state p to state q that go through only states numbered no higher than k. . k) : The set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled wiht k or lower numbers. k) L(p. k+1. Before proceeding to a proof outline for the converse. first relabel its states with the integers 1 through n. Lemma 1: L(p. See the figure below for the illustration. q. k)L(k+1. Given a finite automaton. Next denote by L(p. It states that any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. Then the following lemmas hold. k) : The set of strings going first from p to k+1. let us study a method to compute the set of strings accepted by a finite automaton.Subjects to be Learned • Languages accepted by FAs are regular Contents The converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem also holds true. q. k)L(k+1. Note that paths may go through arcs and vertices any number of times. q. k+1. k+1) = L(p. q. then from k+1 to k+1 any number of times. 2. What this lemma says is that the set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled with k+1 or lower numbers consists of the following two sets: 1. L(p. q.

we have the following converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem. Lemma 3: L(p. Since the number of symbols is finite and since any finite language is regular. q. L(p.Lemma 2: L(p. Since the language accepted by a finite automaton is the union of L(q0. Theorem 2 (Part 2 of Kleene's Theorem): Any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. >From Lemmas 1 and 2 by induction the following lemma holds. 0) is regular. Proof: L(p. Hence if p and q are different. Example : Let us find the language accepted by the following finite automaton using the . then is in it as well as the strings representing any loops at p (they are all single symbols). q. 0) is regular. If p = q. q. n) over all accepting states q. k) is regular for any states p and q and any natural number k. q. then it consists of single symbols representing arcs from p to q. q. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. 0) is the set of strings representing paths from p to q without passing any states in between.

3. 2. 1) r(3.1.2.0)r(1. 1. r(1. 1. 2.0) = ba+ . 3. 2): r(1.1. 1)r(2. 1. 2): r(1.0) = b. 1. 3. r(1.0)*r(1.0)*r(1.1.1. q. 1. Hence r(1. 1) = r(2.0)*r(1. 3. 2.0) = b . 3. 1)*r(2. 1) = r(1. 3.0) + r(1. 2) .2.1. 1. 3.0) = a* .0)*r(1.0) + r(2.1. By Lemma 1. q.2. k) the regular expression for the set of strings L(p. since r(3. 2.0) = a . 2): r(3.1. 1)*r(2. 1) = r(2.lemmas. r(1.1.2.2. 2) = r(1. 2)*r(3. 2) + r(1. 1)*r(2.2. Then the language accepted by this NFA is r(1. 2) = r(1. 2.1. 1) + r(3.0)r(1. 3). r(1. 3.1. since r(2. 3) = r(1. 1) + r(1. 2. )*a r(3. 1) r(1. 3.1. 1) = r(1. 2) = a* + a+(b a+)*b a* . 1)r(2. r(2.0)r(1.2. 1) = r(3. 3.0) + r(1. 1.0)r(1. 2.0) = a + . since r(1. 1) = r(2. 3.0) = and r(3. 1) = r(3.1. 1.0) = a+ .1.1.1.0) = ba+ + . k). .0) + r(3. 1) = a Hence r(1. 2) = r(3. 1) + r(1. 2. 3. 1. 3.0) + r(2. 2) = a+(b a+ + = a+(b a+ )*a .0)*r(1. 1. r(2.0)r(1.0) = ba* .2.1. 1.2. 1) r(1.0) = and r(2.1. 2. 2)r(3. Let us denote by r(p. 1)r(2. 3. since r(1.

1) + r(3. 2.1. 1. The detail is left as an exercise though it would be quite challenging.1. 1. In this example there is only one accepting state. Hence r(1. . Comlement and Intersection of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • • Complement of Regular Language Complement of DFA Intersection of Regular Languages Contents Complement Let M = < Q . 1. 3.1. 1)*r(2. 2) = r(3.0) = ba* Hence r(3. 2): r(3. .0)<SUP*< SUP>r(1.Hence r(3. . 3) = a* + a+(b a+)*ba* + ( a+( ba+ )*a )( This can be further simplified to (a + ab + abb)*. 2) = ba* + ba+( ba+ + = ( ba+ )*ba* . If there are more accepting states. 1) = r(3.0) + r(3. 1. n) must be found for each accepting state q. Then a DFA that accepts the complement of L. then to (a + ab)*.e. i. * . Q . and all the r(p. 1.1. where p is the initial state and n is the number of states in the given finite automaton.A > is a DFA that accepts * . q0 .L.0)r(1. . can be obtained by swapping its accepting states with its non-accepting states. 2) = = + ( ba+)+a + ba+( ba+ + )*a r(3. 1. 1) r(3. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. )*ba* + ( ba+)+a )*( ba+ )*ba*. 1. q. 1)r(2. . 2. that is Mc = < Q .L . q. n)'s must be added together to get the regular expression for the language accepted by the automaton. then r(p. q0 .

b }.For example the following DFA accepts the language a+ over = { a . the complement of a regular language is also regular. Remark 2: Since a language is regular if and only if it is accepted by some NFA. . A DFA that accepts its complement is obtained from the above DFA by changing all single circles to double circles and vice versa as shown below. we must first convert it to DFA before swapping states to get its complement. Remark 1: If we have NFA rather than DFA.

Thus summing all this up we can say that the set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed with respect to union. Test Your Understanding of Complemnent and Intersection of FAs Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Since L1 L2 = by De Morgan's law. Click True or Fals . Next -. if L1 and L2 are regular languages. In particular De Morgan's law also applies to languages. By Remark 2 above. L1 L2 is regular. then their complements are regular languages. Context-Sensitive and Phrase Structure Grammars . intersection. then Submit.Intersection of Regular Languages Langauges are sets.Regular Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Regular Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Production and Grammar Regular Grammar Context-Free. Therefore all the properties of sets are inherited by languages. concatenation and Kleene star operations. difference.

aa. To generate the string aa for example. The following theorem holds for regular grammars.Contents We have learned three ways of characterising regular languages: regular expressions. and a set of rewrite rules (productions) P. For example. a ) = Z. finite automata and construction from simple languages using simple operations. . For example consider the language represented by a+. where X and Y are nonterminals and a is a terminal. S -> bS. A grammar is regular if and only if is a single nonterminal and is a single terminal or a single terminal followed by a single nonterminal. In general if a string a grammar G. One can generate the strings of this language by the following procedure: Let S be a symbol to start the process with. a start symbol S. that is a production is of the form X -> a or X -> aY.e. . = {a. . If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. aS. that is by something called grammar. We write S => aS to express that aS is obtained from S by applying a single production. These rules mean that S is rewritten as a or as aS. If there is no is derived from ambiguity about the grammar G that is referred to. That gives us aa.{ by a regular grammar. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals with at least one nonterminal in it and is a string of terminals and nonterminals. then we simply write =>* Formally a grammar consists of a set of nonterminals (or variables) V. Then for every production X -> aY. Add another state as the accepting state Z. Then apply the first rule to aS to rewrite S as a. which ia a nonterminal. Theorem 3: A language L is accepted by an FA i. . a ) = Y and for every production X -> a add the transition ( X. start with S and apply the second rule to replace S with the right hand side of the rule. the fact that aa is obtained from S is written as S =>* aa . b}. i. A production has in general the form -> . if L . to obtain aS. regular. and S -> aS . add the transition ( X. } . There is yet another way of characterizing them. we write =>*G is obtained from a string and say that by applying productions of . S -> } is a regular grammar and it generates all the strings consisting of a's and b's including the empty string. which is { a.e. aaa. a set of terminals (the alphabet of the language). A grammar is a set of rewrite rules which are used to generarte strings by successively rewriting symbols. } can be generated This can be proven by constructing an FA for the given grammar as follows: For each nonterminal create a state. Thus the process of obtaining aa from S is written as S => aS => aa . Rewrite S using one of the following two rules: S -> a . S corresponds to the initial state.

S -> aX. S > . X. a regular grammar corresponding to the NFA given below is < Q. S -> a. b ) = { S. The NFA thus obtained is shown below. Thus the following converse of Theorem 3 is obtained. X -> aY is in P if and only if (X. where Q = { S. L = Conversely from any NFA < Q.{ regular grammar. Z } . V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. An NFA that recognizes this language can be obtained by creating two states S and Z. { a. X -> a is in P if and only if (X. and adding transitions ( S. . then L . Z } and ( S.For example = {a. accepted by an NFA. S -> b } form a regular grammar which generates the language ( a + b )+. Y -> bS. .e. b}. and nonterminals X and Y. P. q0 > is obtained as follows: for any a in . Theorem 4 : If L is regular i. a ) = { S. A > a regular grammar < Q. then since { } is regular . where S is the initial state and Z is the accepting state of the NFA.{ } is regular. . Y } . as its member. S -> a }. Thus L . P = { S -> aS. . } is generated by a For example. If L contains ( L -{ } ) { } is also regular. a) = Y for some accepting state Y. q0. b }. a) = Y . S -> bS. X -> bS. P. X -> aY. and for any a in and any nonterminal X.

S1 } is a context-sensitive grammar and it generates the language { anbncn | n is a positive integer } .| | | |. for every production -> . context-sensitive grammars and phrase structure grammars. X -> a. A grammar is a context-sensitive grammar if and only if its production is of the form 1 X 2 -> 1 2 . . S1 -> XYZS1. For example P = { S -> XYZS1.In addition to regular languages there are three other types of languages in Chomsky hierarchy : context-free languages. b } and V = { S } is a contex-free grammar and it generates the language { anbn | n is a positive integer } . These grammars are distinguished by the kind of productions they have but they also form a hierarchy. where X is a nonterminal and . possibly empty except Thus the nonterminal X can be rewritten as only in the context of 1X 2 . S. 1 . possibly the empty string. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals. that is the set of regular languages is a subset of the set of context-free languages which is in turn a subset of the set of context-sensitive languages and the set of context-sensitive languages is a subset of the set of phrase structure languages. that is. ZX -> XZ. S -> XYZ. ZY -> YZ. S -> ab } with = { a. Y. They are characterized by context-free grammars. For example P = { S -> aSb. S1 -> XYZ. BY -> bb. It is an example of context-sensitive language which is not context-free. Z. YX -> XY. cZ -> cc } with = { a. b. Context-sensitive grammars are also characterized by productions whose left hand side is not longer than the right hand side. aY -> ab. respectively. aX -> aa. A grammar is a context-free grammar if and only if its production is of the form X -> . bZ -> bc. As we shall see later this is an example of context-free language which is not regular. 2 and are strings of terminals and nonterminals. context-sensitive languages and phrase structure languages. c } and V = { X.

q0 . Q . -> .For a phrase structure grammar. Then the following algorithm produces the DFA. denote it by M1. then Submit. new := new_partition( . Next -. there is no restriction on the form of production. both theoretically and practically. There are two sets of questions. . that has the smallest number of states amomg the DFAs that accept L. .Minimization of DFA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Minimization of DFA One important result on finite automata. where and Test Your Understanding of Regular Grammar Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. }. Let M = < Q . Click True or Fals . A > be a DFA that accepts a language L.A } of the set of states Q . is that for any regular language there is a unique DFA having the smallest number of states that accepts it. that is a production of a phrase structure grammar can take the form can be any string. Minimization Algorithm for DFA Construct a partition = { A.

The accepting states of M1 are representatives that are in A. These representatives are states of minimum DFA M1. end Minimum DFA M1 is constructed from • • final as follows: • • Select one state in each set of the partition final as the representative for the set. Note that the sets of final are either a subset of A or disjoint from A. S remains in the output partition. The subsets thus formed are sets of the output partition in place of S. Let p and q be representatives i. The start state of M1 is the representative which contains the start state of M. If a transition from s to t on symbol a exists in M. Any transitions to a dead state become undefined. If S is not partitioned in this process. final function new_partition( ) for each set S of do partition S into subsets such that two states p and q of S are in the same subset of S if and only if for each input symbol. Let us also denote by p and q the sets of states of the original DFA M represented by p and q. new := new_partition( := . if there are any. . Remove from M1 the dead states and the states not reachable from the start state. then the minimum DFA M1 has a transition from p to q on symbol a.while ( := new new ) ) . p and q make a transition to (states of) the same set of . A state is a dead state if it is not an accepting state and has no out-going transitions except to itself. Let s be a state in p and t a state in q. states of minimum DFA M1.e. Example 1 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. respectively.

2 . and 3 goes to 1 on a in the original DFA. So they are not going to be split. Select 1 as the representative for { 1 . { 4 ] }. remains unchanged. 2 and 4 are separated from each other in new. Since on b state 2 goes to state 1. all transitions between them are inherited for the minimized DFA. Since the rest are singletons. { 3 } . { 4 ] }. { 2 } . 5 } . since 1 and 5 do the same transitions. 5 } . Thus final = { { 1 .Initially = { { 1 . { 2 } . Also since 2 goes to 1 on b. 5 }. Thus the new partition is { { 1 . since on b 2 goes to 1. state 3 goes to state 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . 5 } . Since the rest of the states are singletons. states 3 and 4 are going to be separated from each other in new. Also since on a sate 4 goes to sate 4. On the other hand 1 and 5 make the same transitions. 3 }. 4 goes to 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 1 to 3 on a. they have the obvious representatives. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 2 to 1 on b. For the transitions. . and to 2 on b in the original DFA. new_partition is applied to . 3 . since 1 goes to 3 on a. and from 3 to 1 on a. states 2 and 3 are going to be separated from each other in new . { 3 } . state 3 goes to state 5 and 4 and 5 are in different sets in . Thus the set of states for the minimized DFA is { 1 . and 1 to 2 on b. This becomes the second iteration. 4 } }. Further. in the When new_partition is applied to this new . { 2 . Note here that state 4 is a dead state because the only transitionout of it is to itself.

.Thus the minimized DFA is as given in the following figure: Example 2 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA.

Click True or Fals . { 1 . { 2 . 6 } } is obtained. { 2 } . Thus the number of states of the given DFA is already minimum and it can not be reduced any further. { 2 } .Application of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Application of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Reactive system . { 1 . { 6 } } is obtained. new = { { 3 } . new = { { 1 } . 2 . { 5 } . Next -. { 4 } . 4 . By applying new_partition to this . { 3 } . new = { { 3 } . 4 } . 4 . { 5 } . then Submit. Test Your Understanding of Minimization of DFA Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.Initially = { { 3 } . 5 } . 6 } }. { 6 } } is obtained. { 1 . Applyting new_partition to this . 5 . Applyting new_partition again.

In the case of vending machine or communication protocol. first the states the system goes in or the modes of its operation are identified. It is generally agreed that finite automata are a natural medium to describe dynamic behaviors of reactive systems. These become the states of the finite automaton that models it.e. lexical analysers for compilers etc. external or internal to the system. two numbers to be added are ready. Let us assume for simplicity that this computer accepts a single user at a time. Many other systems operating in practice can also be modeled by finite automata such as control circuits of computers. It is an event driven or control driven system continuously having to react to external and/or internal stimuli. Finite automata are formal and rigorous and computer programs can be easily written to simulate their behaviors. even to a fragment of input such as each coin tossed in for a can of soda or every message received. on the other hand. A system such as an adder is called a transformational system.• Modeling reactive systems with FA Contents We have seen an example of use of finite automata in describing the operation of a simplified version of vending machine. computer network communication protocols. a system must respond to each stimulus. For example consider the following very simplified version of login process to a computer from the computer point of view. An adder does not respond unless the input i. To model a reactive system with finite automaton. A reactive system is a system that changes its actions. . are identified and they become arcs in the transition diagram of the finite automaton. Then the transitions between the states triggered by events and conditions. Many of those systems fall into the class of systems called reactive system. The inputs for a reactive system are never ready unlike for example when two numbers are added together by an adder (Here we are considering an adder at a higher level of abstraction than physical devices level ignoring for example the transient states of the electronic circuit that realizes an adder). outputs and conditions/status in response to stimuli from within or outside it. In addition actions that may take place in those states can also be added to the model.

it checks whether or not the name is valid. That is another state though it could further be broken down into a number of more states. it goes back to the initial state and waits for another RFNM to come. then it accepts the user and starts a session. When it is complete. That is a fourth state. it gets a signal. which is another state. different states would be identified and transitions would have to be selected accrdingly. If the user name typed in is not valid. . then it asks for and then waits for the password. Again depending on the level of abstraction. If a positive ACK is received. Depending on how much detail we are interested in. When a password is typed in and it is correct. If the password typed in is incorrect. When a RFNM starts coming. Again what we have seen is a model for one level of abstraction. If a negative ACK is received. The next example is a protocol for a computer to follow in communicating with another computer. different states and transitions would have to be chosen. goes back to the initial state and waits for another login. it resends the message. Initially the computer is in wait state waiting for "Request for Next Message" (RFNM) to come from another computer. it goes back to the initial state. Again it is a very simplified version. sending ACK. When a name is typed in. it goes into another wait state waiting for an ACK to come from the other computer. If the second password fails. If it is valid. it goes to the initial state and starts all over again. which is another state. then it informs the user of that and waits for the next try. Upon completion of the RFNM. Thus a finite automaton that models this protocol has the following five states: initial state (wait for RFNM). receiving RFNM. This is one state of the system. it sends "Acknowledgement" (ACK) to the other computer. When the session terminates. it goes into the state of receiving it (Our interpretation is that the computer is in a state of receiving an RFNM and it is taking the action of receiving the RFNM) . After sending the ACK. But let us make it simple. sending message and waiting for ACK. We could make it go to a different state and count the number of login attempts for security purpose. it starts sending the requested message to the other party.Initially the computer waits for a user name to be typed in.

+ ) ( d+. that indicates that a sign has been received. If the first digit is received before a decimal point. then it goes into a state. i. they can be represented by the following regular expression: ( s+ + s. respectively and d {0. If a decimal point has been read (i. If a decimal point is received before a digit.1. Since these numbers are represented by strings consisting of a possible sign. in state P). where s+ and s. This Q is an accepting state. +213. After one digit it can continue receiving digits. D is another accepting state. that indicates a digit has been read before a decimal point. Therefore from state P it goes to another state. denote it by Q.d+ + d+ + .378. then it must receive at least one digit after that. This system can be modeled by the following finite automaton: . then it goes to state P indicating that a decimal point has been read.e.represent the positive and negative signs..2. .8 etc. it is in state D. If a decimal point is read while in D. . regardless of whether a sign has been read or not. On the other hand if a digit has been read before a decimal point.e. it goes into a state. If the first symbol is a sign. 9 } . denote it by G.d+ ). One such system initially waits for the first symbol to come in. followed by zero or more digits. . denote it by D. then it goes into a state. after reading a digit and stays there as long as digits are read.Our third example is a system that recognizes numbers with or without a sign such as 5. denote it by P. followed by one or more digits. -15. This system can also be described by a regular expression. then it can continue receiving digits and stay in D. followed by a possible decimal point. that indicates that a decimal point has been read.

Another array. called STATEX. Those indices are used to access the contents of the other arrays. input := read_input( ) .Simulation of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Simulation of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Simulation of FA Contents Once a finite automaton is constructed.Next -. indicates the actions taken at each state and a fourth. we can use a general purpose program to simulate its operation. called NEXT_STATE. while ( state NO_of_STATES and not End of Input ) index := STATEX [state] . 0 and TOKEN [index] input ) index := index + 1. One array. called ACTION. stores for each state the input symbols that trigger transitions from the state. Algorithm FA Simulator state := INITIAL_STATE. It uses four arrays. A third array. holds the next state for each input symbol for each state. called TOKEN. keeps the index of the first symbol in the TOKEN array for each state. One such simulation algorithm is given below. while ( TOKEN [index] .

The corresponding transitions are going to be shown by red arrows in the transition diagram. state := NEXT_STATE [index]. Tab 4 Tab 5. C and H. first click the box under the red arrow. empty transitions) are omitted. The numbers below NEXT_STATE array show the correspondence between the indices of the STATEX array and the states A.e. In the DFA below all the transitions to the empty state (i. You must hit the "Tab" key to move to the next box. . The ACTION array would contain pointers to actions to be taken corresponding to arcs traversed such as converting a digit in BCD form to the corresponding binary number.45. Then every time you click "SHOW" the number is processed digit by digit. S is the initial state and B and H are accepting states. S corresponds to 1. B. first click the box pointed by the red arrow in the figure below. For example. Then type 3 Tab . To see how this algorithm works. to input 3. Then type in a number you want the FA to recognize. At the moment it is empty. end Here 0 in the TOKEN array is a marker between states.if ( TOKEN [index] 0) perform the action specified by ACTION [index]. else error input := read_input( ) . So no action is taken as a number is processed.

. click here It is extremely slow. So be patient.If you are also interested in how code is executed.

Next -.Non-Regular Languages Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Regular Languages Non-Regular Languages Subjects to be Learned • • • Existence of non-regular languages Myhill . Thus it must be in different states when it has read different number of a's and starts reading the first b. Since a regular language must be recognized by a finite automaton. we can conclude that { anbn | n is a natural number} is not regular.Nerode Theorem for non-regularity test Pumping Lemma Contents We have learned regular languages. where n is a positive integer. There are. In this section we are going to study some of the methods for testing given languages for regularity and see some of the languages that are not regular. languages that are not regular and therefore require devices other than finite automata to recognize them. This is the basis of two of the regularity test methods we are going to study below: Myhill-Nerode Theorem and Pumping Lemma. For example. because aak and aaak are in the language an for any . The main idea behind these test methods is that finite automata have only finite amount of memory in the form of states and that they can not distinguish infinitely many strings. a and aa are indistinguishable with respect to the language an over alphabet { a }. their properties and their usefulness for describing various systems. Non-regularity test based on Myhill-Nerode's theorem Indistinguishability of strings: Strings x and y in * are indistinguishable with respect to a language L if and only if for every string z in *. a finite automaton must remember how many a's it has read when it starts reading b's. however. But any finite automaton has only finite number of states. Thus there is no way for a finite automaton to remember how many a's it has read for all possible strings anbn . That is the main limitation of finite automata. either xz and yz are both in L or they are both not in L. For example to recognize the language { anbn | n is a natural number} .

(x*y) . with respect to the language anbn . Consider the set of strings S2 which is the same as S1 of Example 1 above. because ab is in the language anbn while aab is not in the language. Hence L1 is nonregular. It is stated without a proof. This set is infinite . a and aa are not indistinguishable (hence distinguishable). b }* } is nonregular. b } can be shown to be nonregular using Myhill-Nerode as follows: Consider the set of strings S1 = { an | n is a positive integer } . We are going to show that its strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L1. Select bm as a string to be appended to ak and am . the set of strings consisting of one or more right parentheses followed by identifier x. that is. However. L3 can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: x and y are in L3 . operations + and * and left and right parentheses. Using this concept of indistinguishability. For example. S2 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set S1.positive integer k. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S1. S1 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. then ( + ) and ( * ) are in L3 . Hence L2 is nonregular. Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. Select bakb as a string to be appended to ak and am . Inductive Clause: If and are in L3 . For more on Myhill-Nerode theorem click here. Then akbakb is in L2 while ambakb is not in L2 . where k and m are positive integers and k m . Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S2. x . Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L1 . Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } over alphabet { a . whose strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L. b } and it is infinite. Consider the set of strings S3 = { (k x | k is a positive integer } . Theorem : A language L over alphabet is nonregular if and only if there is an infinite subset of * . It can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L2 as follows. where k and m are positive integers and k m . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L3 unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. ( ( x + y ) * x ) and (( (x*y) + x ) + (y*y) ) are algebraic expressions. Then akbm is not in L1 while ambm is in L1 . Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L2 . Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set. the following theorem by Myhill and Nerod gives a criterion for (non)regularity of a language. S1 is over alphabet { a . Example 2: L2 = { ww | w {a.

are also accepted by the NFA. In general if a string w (such as abbabbb in the example above) is accepted by an NFA with n states and if its length is longer than n. abbabbabbb etc. the resultant strings such as abbb (bba repeated 0 times). For example [ + x ) ]3 is +x) +x)+x) . Those strings which are accepted by this NFA and whose length is greater than 5 have a substring which can be repeated any number of times without being rejected by the NFA. For example the string abbabbb is accepted by the NFA and if one of its substrings bba is repeated any number of times in abbabbb. Then (k x + [ + x ) ]k is in L3 but (m x + [ + x ) ]k is not in L3 because the number of ('s is not equal to the number of )'s in the latter string. This NFA accepts among others some strings of length greater than 5 such as abbabbb. where k and m are positive integers and k m . Hence L3 is not regular. The following theorem which is called Pumping Lemma is based on this observation. Hence S3 is pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 . then there must be a cycle in the NFA along some path from the initial state to some accepting state (such as the cycle 2-3-4-2 in the above example). Pumping Lemma Let us consider the NFA given below.and it can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 as follows: Let (k x and (m x be arbitrary two strings of S3 . abbabbabbb. Then the substring representing that cycle (bba in the example) can be repeated any number of times within the string w without being rejected by the NFA. Select [ + x ) ]k as a string to be appended to (k and (m . It . abbabbabbabbb etc.

v = ap. let us prove that the language L = akbk is nonregular. for some p > 0 . It is stated without a proof here. uvmw L. Consider a string x = anbn for that n. Then there is an FA that accepts L. and w such that x = uvw. where k is a natural number. then any long enough string of the language has a substring which can be repeated any number of times with the resultant strings still in the language. Note that Pumping Lemma gives a necessity for regular languages and that it is not a sufficiency. that is. n + p language L represented by akbk . n. |uv| n |v| > 0 . uvmw L. Then for any string x in L with |x| n. Also since |uv| Let us now consider the string uvmw for m = 2. Since p > 0 . Then there must be strings u. Suppose that L is regular and let n be the number of states of an FA that accepts L. v. and for every m 0. v and w which satisfy the following relationships: x = uvw |uv| n |v| > 0 and for every integer m 0. Then uv2w = an-pa2pbn = an+pbn . there are strings u. the language is not necessarily regular. It can only show that a language is nonregular. Thus Pumping Lemma can not be used to prove the regularity of a language. Since |v| > 0 . n . uvmw Test Your Understanding of Non-regularity . Let n be the number of states of that FA. Example 4: As an example to illustrate how Pumping Lemma might be used to prove that a language is nonregular. Hence L is not a regular 0. This violates the condition that for every m language. Pumping Lemma : Suppose that a language L is regular. v has at least one symbol. even if there is an integer n that satisfies the conditions of Pumping Lemma.states that if a language is regular. Hence an+pbn can not be in the L.

are distinguishable with respect to L. if and only if }. if and only if they are indistinguishable with respect to .Context-Free Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Myhill-Nerode Theorem The non-regularity test for languages by Myhill-Nerode is based on the following theorem which is in the contrapositive form of the theorem used for nonregularity test. the DFA reaches different states. Proof of Theorem Necessity Suppose that a language L is regular and two strings. Then the theorem is is staed as follows: Theorem: A language L over alphabet is regular if and only if the set of equivalence classes of is finite. Then there is a string z such that xz is in L and yz is not in L (or xz is not in L and yz is in L).Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. This means that if x and y are read by an DFA that recognizes L. If there are three strings that are distinguished with respect . say x and y. that is. Also it is a corollary to Myhill-Nerode theorem: Let { be the followijg relation on }={ : For strings and of . Click True or Fals . then Submit. Next -.

Hence if there are infinitely many strings to be distinguished with respect to L. ) as follows: ]} ].. are in different classes for and are distinguishable with respect to L. . note that for every string [ ].. Let us now show that this machine is in fact a DFA and it accepts the language First. Then we construct a .. be the number of distinct equivalence classes (i. where [ ] =[ ] for all .. then the DFA must have infinitely many states. ]. making them belong to different [ Hence is a function. let [x] denote a class of strings that are indistinguishable from a string x with respect to L.. Let . is in exactly one equivalence class. be representatives of those distinct equivalence classes. then the language is not regular. To prove this. . [ ]=[ } ]. ]. We will show that a DFA that accepts L can be constructed using these equivalence classes. then ]'s. which it can not because a DFA must have a finite number of states. For.e. [ . the index) of and let . then the DFA reaches three different states after reading those three strings.to L. Hence if there is an infinite set of strings which are pairwise distinguishable with respect to a language. .. . . if and in [ ].. if the number of classes of strings that are pairwise indistinguishable with respect to a language L is finite. then the language L is regular. DFA ( = {[ =[ = {[ ( . namely ] and ]. Note that "indistinguishable with respect to L" is an equivalence relation over the set of strings (denote it by ) and [x]'s are equivalence classes... Sufficiency Conversely.

. by the definition of = . where ]. this means that the DFA accepts Myhill-Nerode Theorem Let us here state Myhill-Nerode Theorem. For that. for DFA. An equivalence relation on is said to be right invariant if for every . . Also an equivalence relation is said to be of finite index. Myhill-Nerode Theorem can now be stated as follows: The following three statements are equivalent: (1) A language is regular. let us show that this DFA accepts string in [ ] is also in L. . if then for every . if the set of its equivalence classes is finite. . then every We then show that for every string . = [ ].Next. Hence Hence we have shown that for every string ]. . ]. Then by the definition of . first note that if . First some terminology. =[ ]. =[ ]. if a string in [ in ] is in . ] by the induction hypothesis. by the definition of = . Our proof is by structural induction on string Basis Step: = =[ ]. . Inductive Step: Assume Then for every But =[ Hence =[ ]. Hence =[ = . where . Since . With these terminology. where ] is the equivalence class that belongs to.

S . where X the start symbol. S . For the following context-free grammar G1 = < V1 . A language is a context-free language (CFL) if all of its strings are generated by a context-free grammar.(2) L is the union of some of the equivalence classes of a right invariant equivalent relation of finite index. b } and P1 = { S -> aSb . P > is a context-free V is V. They are grammars whose productions have the form X -> . S -> ab }. Let us define context-free grammars and context-free languages here. grammar (CFG) if V and . Context-Free Languages Context-Free Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Context-Free Grammar Context-Free Languages Push Down Automata Contents Earlier in the discussion of grammars we saw context-free grammars. are finite sets sharing no elements between them. Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } is a context-free language. . Proofs are omitted. = { a . The set of strings generated by a context-free grammar is called a context-free language and context-free languages can describe many practically important systems. (3) is of finite index. Definition (Context-Free Grammar) : A 4-tuple G = < V . Most programming languages can be approximated by context-free grammar and compilers for them have been developed based on properties of context-free languages. where X is a nonterminal and is a nonempty string of terminals and nonterminals. and P is a finite set of productions of the form X -> and (V )* . S . P1 > generates L1 : V1 = { S } . .

Then let Sc be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . . For example { < statement > -> < if-statement > . first relabel symbols of V2 . and L1* are . ) . . w is spelled backward to obtain wr . < statement > -> < for-statement > . 3. P1 > and G2 = < V2 . let Ss be a symbol which is not in V1 . S -> aa . . < forstatement > -> for ( < expression > . Pc > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1L2 . that is. b }+ } is a context-free language . S -> y }. Next define Vu = V1 V2 { Su } and Pu = P1 P2 { Su -> S1 . < expression > . Then for L1 L2 . < expression > -> < algebraic-expression > . + . . Then let Su be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . < expression > -> < logicalexpression > . .Example 2: L2 = { wwr| w {a. Then let Ps = P1 { Ss -> SsS1 . S -> x . . Then it can be easily seen that Gc = < Vc . first relabel symbols of V2 . . Next define Vc = V1 V2 { Sc } and Pc = P1 P2 { Sc -> S1S2 } . . . y . Then it can be easily seen that Gu = < Vu . . Sc . . = { a . b } and P2 = { S -> aSa . For the following context-free grammar G2 = < V2 . Then L3 is a context-free language. P2 > generates L2 : V2 = { S } . . 3 = { x . Properties of Context-Free Language Theorem 1: Let L1 and L2 be context-free languages. so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. if necessary. S -> S*S . < statement > -> < assignment > . . S . Then L1 context-free languages. L1L2 . . if necessary. where w is a nonempty string and wr denotes the reversal of string w. concatenation and Kleene star of context-free grammars as follows: Let G1 = < V1 . Ss -> L2 . < if-statement > -> if ( < expression > ) < statement > . Outline of Proof This theorem can be verified by constructing context-free grammars for union. < expression > ) < statement > . . respectively. operations + and * and left and right parentheses. Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. P2 > be context-free grammars generating L1 and L2 . Similarly for L1L2 . For the following context-free grammar G3 = < V3 . S -> bb }. Pu > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1 L2 . Example 4: Portions of the syntaxes of programming languages can be described by context-free grammars. S -> bSb . Su -> S2 } . S1 . . * } and P3 = { S -> ( S + S ) . For L1* . S . } . P3 > generates L3 : V3 = { S } . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. S2 . Su . ( .

Example 1 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . They need a little more complex automata called pushdown automata. A pushdown automaton ( or PDA for short ) is a 7-tuple M = < Q . the contents of the stack can also be changed every time an input symbol is read. Any string of this language can be tested for the membership for the language by a finite automaton if there is a memory such as a pushdown stack that can store a's of a given input string. respectively ). its next state is determined not only by the input symbol being read. Pushdown Automata . X ) = ( q . . . > . Thus ( p . q0 . where Q = { q0 . reject the string. When all the symbols of the input string are read. . It can be seen that the grammar Gs = < Vs . As soon as the symbol b appears stop storing a's and start popping a's one by one every time a b is read. A is the set of accepting states is the transition function and :Q ( ( } -> 2 Q * . A . a . context-free languages are also accepted by automata but not finite automata. If another a (or anything other than b) is read after the first b. Let us define this new type of automaton formally. Z0 is the initial stack symbol and it is a member of . Z0 . Otherwise reject it. ) means the following: The automaton moves from the current state of p to the next state q when it sees an input symbol a at the input and X at the top of the stack. q0 . and are finite sets ( the input and stack alphabet. q0 is the initial state. Second. accept the string. A . push them into the stack. Ss . If it is empty. Z0 . Ps > is a context-free grammar that Like regular languages which are accepted by finite automata. and it replaces X with the string at the top of the stack.} . check the stack. generates the language L1* . Thus its transition function specifies the new top of the stack contents as well as the next state. This automaton behaves like a finite automaton except the following two points: First. as a's are read by the finite automaton. Let us consider a context-free language anbn . but also by the symbol at the top of the stack. . For example. where Q is a finite set of states. . > .

y. A .q1 . Z0 ) q2 . This entire process can be expressed using the configurations as ( q0 . x . . aaZ0 ). x . ) ) (q. To describe the operation of a PDA we are going to use a configuration of PDA. aa ) q0 q1 q1 b b a a Z0 ( q1 . (p. Z0 ) . Z0 ). Thus aabb is accepted by this PDA. * (q. it is ( q0 . Let us now see how the PDA of Example 1 operates when it is given the string aabb . x . bb . aZ0 ) ( q1 . we write ) is reached from ( p . aZ0 ) ( q0 . Z0 } . aabb . q2 } . Next it moves to the state q2 which is the accepting state. ) . aZ0 ). . x is the unread portion of the input string and is the current stack contents. where the input is read from left to right and the top of the stack corresponds to the leftmost symbol of .x. y . A = { q2 } and let be as given in the State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . . Z0 ) ( If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. abb . we can also write ( q0 . aZ0 ). where q is the state the PDA is currently in. . . ) ( q1 . . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . another a is popped from the top of the stack and the PDA stays in state q1 . Initially its configuration is ( q0 . If ( q . b . A configuration of a PDA M = < Q . following table: = { a . To express that the PDA moves from configuration ( p . Z0 ) This pushdown automaton accepts the language anbn . > is a triple ( q .x. aabb . ). aaZ0 ) ( q1 . ) by a sequence of zero or more moves. Z0 . Z0 ). q0 . ( q0 . Z0 ) * ( q2 . aZ 0 ) q0 a a ( q0 . After reading the first a. Thus the configuration is ( q1 . = { a . ) in a single move (a single application of the transition function) we write (p. y . ). abb . Then when the first b is read. ) ( q2 . it moves to state q1 and pops a from the top of the stack. b } . b . . for example. Z0 ). ) to configuration ( q . its configuration is ( q0 . bb . b . After reading the second a. aabb .y. When the second b is read.

A string x is accepted by a PDA (a. a . b ( q1 . and an accepting state q. aZ 0 ) q0 b Z0 ( q0 . ) ) ) ) ( q1 . q2 } . where Q = { q0 . ). For example the transition diagram of the PDA of Example 1 is as shown below. for some in *.k. PDAs can also be represented by transition diagrams. q1 . . Z 0 ) In this table represents either a or b. For PDAs. q0 .a. ) . ( q1 . acceptance by final state) if (q0. Z0 } . = { a . ) ( q2 . a ( q0 . then an arc from state p to state q is added to the diagram and it is labeled with ( a . x. Example 2 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . Like FAs. arcs are labeled differently than FAs. however. . c } . X / ) indicating that X at the top of the stack is replaced by upon reading a from the input. Z0 . A . = { a . X ) = ( p . Z0) . b . A = { q2 } and let be as given in the following table: State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . b . If ( q . bZ 0 ) q0 q0 q0 q1 q1 q1 a b c a b a b Z0 ( q0 . > . * (q. .

. For example for the input abbcbba. ( q0 . a . baZ0 ) ( q1 . bbcbba . The transition diagram of the PDA of Example 2 is as shown below. it ignores c and from that point on if the top of the stack matches the input symbol. bbaZ0 ) . bcbba . Z 0 ) ( q2 . bbaZ0 ) ( q1 . When c is detected. Otherwise it rejects the input string. aZ0 ) ( q0 . This PDA pushes all the a's and b's in the input into stack until c is encountered. Z 0 ) .This pushdown automaton accepts the language { wcwr | w { a . In the figure and 2 represent a or b. which is the set of palindromes with c in the middle. When there are no more unread input symbols and Z0 is at the top of the stack. cbba . 1 Further topics on CFL • PDA and Context-Free Language There is a procedure to construct a PDA that accepts the language generated by a given context-free grammar and conversely. . aZ0 ) ( q1 . it pops the stack. Z0 ) ( q0 . b }* } . bba . baZ0 ) ( q1 . it accepts the input string. abbcbba . ( q0 . it goes through the following configurations and accepts it. That means that a language is . ba .

Though we are accustomed to interpreting this as x + (yz) i. w. Thus if a computer is given the string x + yz. They can describe much of programming languages and basic structures of natural languages. x. Parsing is the process of interpreting given input strings according to predetermined rules i.context-free if and only if there is a PDA that accepts it. y and z which satisfy u = vwxyz |wy| > 0 |wxy| n 0 . a computer like non-English speaking people must be told how to interpret sentences such as the first noun phrase (" A dog") is usually the subject of a sentence. a verb phrase usually follow the noun phrase and the first word in the verb phrase is the verb and it is followed by noun phrases reprtesenting object(s) of the verb. there are strings v. ???? references on Parsing ???? . vwmxymz L for every integer m • Parsing and Parsers for CFL Consider the algebraic expression x + yz. "A dog" is the subject. Contect-free grammars are powerful grammars. Thus they are widely used for compilers for high level programming languages and natural language processing systems. we are not going to study parsing here. Then there is a positive integer n such that for any string u in L with |u| n . it does not know which interpretation to use unless it is explicitly instructed to follow one or the other. For example in the sentence "A man bites a dog". compute yz first. native English speakers know that it is the dog that bites and not the other way round. • Pumping Lemma for Context-Free Language Let L be a CFL. then add the result to x. it could also be interpreted as ( x + y )z meaning that first compute x + y. The parsing for context-free languages and regular languages have been extensively studied. Interested readers are referred to the textbook and other sources. then multiply the result by z. productions of grammars. Similar things happen when English sentences are processed by computers (or people as well for that matter). By parsing sentences we identify the parts of the sentences and determine the strutures of the sentences so that their meanings can be understood correctly. However.e. However. "bites" is the verb and "a man" is the object of the verb. Those procedures are omitted here.e.

Next -. Turing machines were conceived of by the English mathematician Alan . the phrase structure languages (also called Type 0 languages). In this chapter we are going to study the most general of the languages in Chomsky hierarchy. however. of limited capability and there are many languages that they can not process. These languages can describe many practically important systems and so they are heavily used in practice. They are.Test Your Understanding of Contect-Free Language Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. and the machines that can process them: Turing machines. then Submit.Turing Machines Back to Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • • • Definition of Turing Machine Configuration Operation of Turing Machine Contents Introduction We have studied two types of languages from the Chomsky hierarchy: regular languages and context-free languages. Click True or Fals .

Later Alonzo Church conjectured that any computation done by humans or computers can be carried out by some Turing machine. Given a string of symbols on the tape. . a Turing machine starts at the initial state. However. either erases it or replaces it with a symbol (possibly the same symbol). its head is a read-write head and it can move left. unlike finite automata. right or stay at the same square after a read or write. It then moves the head to left or right or does not move it and goes to the next state which may be the same as the current state. consists of a finite control and a tape. Computers we use today are as powerful as Turing machines except that computers have finite memory while Turing machines have infinite memory. It is also divided into squares and a symbol can be written in each square. One of its states is the halt state and when the Turing machine goes into the halt state. like finite automata. Definition Conceptually a Turing machine. The tape has the left end but it extends infinitely to the right.Turing as a model of human "computation". it stops its operation. This conjecture is known as Church's thesis and today it is generally accepted as true. We are going to study Turing machines here and through that limitations of computers and computation as we know today. At any time it is in one of the finite number of states. At any state it reads the symbol under the head.

S) A transition diagram of this Turing machine is given below. . where Q1 = { q0. . q1. is the transition function but its value may not be defined for certain points. X) ) ( q1 . a . R ) ( q3 . Y. where Q is a finite set of states. q2. a . b . State (q) Input (X) Move ( q0 q1 q2 q3 q3 a b a (q. The symbol h is used to denote the halt state. R ) ( q3 . A transition diagram can also be drawn for a Turing machine. = { a . q0 is the initial state. L and S denote move the head right. D ) . R ) (h.L. the symbol X currently being read is changed to Y and the tape head is moved as directed by D. X ) = ( r. = { a . b } . . It is assumed that the tape has at the left end and the head is initially at the left end of the tape. q3 } . which is assumed not to contain the symbol h.Formally a Turing machine is a 5-tuple T = < Q. q0 . . > accepts the language aba* . R ) ( q2 . Here denotes the blank and R. . > . left and do not move it. It is a mapping from Q ( { } ) to ( Q { h } ) ( { }) {R. D ) indicating that the state is changed from q to r. is a finite set of symbols and it is the input alphabet. q0. L or S . . respectively. S}. an arc from q to r is drawn with label ( X/Y . The states are represented by vertices and for a transition ( q. is a finite set of symbols containing as its subset and it is the set of tape symbols. Example 1 : The following Turing machine < Q1 . . where D represents R. b } and is as given by the table below.

Turing Machine that accepts aba* To describe the operation of Turing machine we use configuration. We write ( p . q0 . aba ) . the taper contents are the string aababb and the head is reading the last a of the string. For example the Turing machine of Example 1 above goes through the following sequence of configurations to accept the string aba: ( q0 . For example ( q . aababb ) shows that the Turing machine is currently in state q. aba ) (h. The set of strings accepted by a Turing machine is the language accepted by the Turing machine. zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in zero or more moves. Note that the Turing machine does not stop if a string is not in the language. aba ) ( q2 . A string x is said to be accepted by a Turing machine* T = < Q . ( q0 . and ( p . yaz ) for some symbol a { } and some strings y and z in ( * { } ) . . If the Turing machine needs to be explicitly indicated T or T* is used. aba ) ( q3 . aba ) ( q1 . . xay ) * ( q . zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in one move. In this case we also say that the Turing machine halts on input x. A configuration for a Turing machine is an ordered pair of the current state and the tape contents with the symbol currently under the head marked with underscore. > if x ) * ( h. xay ) ( q . A Turing machine T is said to decide a language L if and only if T writes "yes" and halts if a string is in L and T writes "no" and halts if a string is not in L.

. where = { a }.The first of the following figures shows a Turing machine that accepts but does not decide the language { a }. the second is a Turing machine that accepts { a } but goes into a loop if a string is not in the language (hence it accepts but doe not decide { a }) and the third decides { a }.

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It is denoted by TR . It is assumed that initially the tape has at the left end.Example 2 : The following Turing machine moves the head to the first the current position. . to the right of Example 3 : The following Turing machine erases the string on the tape and moves the head to the left end. This Turing machine is denoted by TE.

Strings not Accepted by Turing Machines When a string is not accepted by a Turing machine. (2) no transition is specified for the current configuration and (3) the head is at the left end and it is instructed to move left. . but it goes into an infinite loop for any strings that are not in the language. the operation of the Turing machine is aborted. In cases (2) and (3). one of the following three things happens: (1) The Turing machine goes into an infinite loop. For example the following Turing machine accepts the language a+. that is when a Turing machine does not halt on a string.

in the Turing machines those books define. * Note on "Turing-acceptable": Some books define "acceptance by Turing machine" slightly differently. . reject a string and halt. f(x) ) * . A Turing machine thus may accept a string and halt. Then we say T computes f or f is computable if for every x ( q0 . the Turing machine eventually goes into the accept halt state. there is no difference between these two definitions of "accept". there are two halt states: "accept halt" and "reject halt". x) * ( h. * and for every x that is not in S. a string is accepted by a Turing machine if given the string.Turing machine accepting a+ Computabler Function Let S * and let f be a function f : S -> S. As far as the material discussed in this class note. With this definition. T does not halt on x. A language is a phrase structure (type 0) langauage if and only if it is Turing-acceptable in either sense and it has no effects on decidablility. or loop. That is.

Combination of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Combination of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Combination of Turing Machines Contents Combination of Turing Machines We have seen the definition of Turing machine and a few simple examples. In fact Turing machines that simulate computers and Turing machines that perform computations done by any algorithm can be constructed. There are two sets of questions. Let us start with some basic Turing machines. Furthermore according to the Church's thesis. We have already seen TR . It moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) . Here we are going to study how complex Turing machines can be constructed using simple Turing machines and how computers can be simulated by Turing machines. Next -. then Submit.Test Your Understanding of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Click True or Fals . any "computation" done by human beings or machines can be done by some Turing machine. One can construct many more Turing machines that perform various functions.

then T2 is started as in the case of T1T2 . respectively. Similarly by TL we denote a Turing machine that moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) to the left of the current position. Then by T we denote a Turing machine that writes symbol at the current position and does not move the head (stays). To combine Turing machines we use the following conventions: Let T1 and T2 represent arbitrary Turing machines. . Using these basic machines and the convention. Example 4: The following machine shifts the tape contents to the left one position. Otherwise it crashes. Then if T1 halts and if the symbol currently under the head is . T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that first executes T1. takes the head to the right end of the string and halts. Below is assumed to be at the left end of the tape initially.to the right of the current position. T1T2 and T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that behaves initially like T1 and when T1 halts T2 takes over inheriting the head position and the tape contents of T1 . let us construct a little more complex Turing machines. The halt state of T1 becomes the initial state of T2 . Also by TR and TL we denote Turing machines that move the head to right and left one position.

In general to represent a natural number k.For example with the initial tape contents of sequence of tape contents and ends with ab ab -> ab : ab . natural numbers are represented on a Turing machine using symbol I. II III ) . First. After adding two numbers placed on the tape it moves the head to the left end and halts. To add two numbers m and n. After the addition the configuration becomes ( h . x) * b b (h. k consecutive I's are put on the tape. For example the number 3 is represented by three consecutive I's on the tape and 5 by five I's. that is ( q0 . it goes through the following -> aab -> a -> a -> abb -> ab -> ab -> ab Example 5: The left-shift machine of Example 4 can be used to construct an adder for natural numbers. m I's and n I's with a blank between them are placed on the tape. IIIII ) . An adder can be constructed for example as TR -> TSL TL . So the initial configuration for adding 2 and 3 is ( q0 . x x). Example 6: The following Turing machine copies the tape contents at the left end to their right separated by a blank . .

the branch operation is already in Turing machines because next configurations are determined based on the current state and tape symbol being looked at. all of those instructions can be realized using combinations of a small number of basic instructions. Thus by combining appropriate Turing machines a computer with a minimal instruction set can be constructed. Click True or Fals . In fact many of the earlier computers had a much smaller instruction set but still could do everything today's computers can do albeit much more slowly. On the other hand as we have seen above. The following notations are used in the questions: . it is not difficult to construct a Turing machine that performs subtraction using the same representation of numbers as for the addition. However. A bare minimum instruction set would contain addition. All the other operations can be realized by using those basic operations.Today's computers are very complex machines and their instruction sets contain complicated operations. then Submit. Since any complex computer instructions can be realized using those basic instructions. one can say that computers can be simulated by Turing machines. Furthermore if the subtraction operation is necessary. there is a Turing machine that performs addition. and store and load operations can be taken care of by a Turing machine that copies tape contents. store and load operations. branching. Test Your Understanding of Combination of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.

Types of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Types of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Variation of Turing Machine Contents There are a number of other types of Turing machines in addition to the one we have seen such as Turing machines with multiple tapes. how fast they can compute. ones with two dimensional tapes. that is. That is. first we map the squares of the two dimensional tape to those of the one dimensional tape diagonally as shown in . ones having one tape but with multiple heads.T_a : Ta T_R : TR ->^b : ->b Next -. what one type can compute any other can also compute. the former can be simulated by the latter. For any Turing machine of this type there is a Turing machine with a one dimensional tape that is equally powerful. one read-write head and one two dimensional tape. The tape has the top end and the left end but extends indefinitely to the right and down. It turns out that computationally all these Turing machines are equally powerful. However. may vary. It is divided into rows of small squares. that is. To simulate a two dimensional tape with a one dimensional tape. Turing Machines with Two Dimensional Tapes This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control. nondeterministic Turing machines etc. the efficiency of computation.

If the head moves down to position 13. ... ... Let k be the number of squares visited by the head of the one dimensional tape. . . . .. v 15 17 25 .... v 2 5 9 12 20 22 .the following tables: Two Dimensional Tape v v h 1 h 3 h 4 h 10 h 11 h 21 .. v 16 26 .. then move the head of the one dimensional tape to right until it hits h or v counting the number of squares it has visited after i. If the head moves down from i.. If v was hit first...< ..... Here the numbers indicate the correspondence of squares in the two tapes: square i of the two dimensional tape is mapped to square i of the one dimensional tape. That is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 13 on the two dimensional tape... .. . v 7 14 18 24 .... v 6 8 13 19 23 . move 3 positions to the right.. .. then for the one dimensional tape. which is the third square from 8. . Let us simulate this head move with a one dimensional tape. . . . .... which is the second square from i = 5... ... . that is i = 8. the head moves from position 8 to right. If i = 5 and the head moves down on the other hand. . .. .. ... .. . . Then it meets h first.... . For example. h and v are symbols which are not in the tape alphabet and they are used to mark the left and the top end of the tape.. Thus this time the third square is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 9 on the two dimensional tape... ... Thus from h.... .. If h was hit first.. then on the one dimensional tape the head moves to the right and it hits v first... . down. then from h move the head of the one dimensional tape further right to the k-th square from h. suppose that the head position is at 8 for the two dimensional tape in the above table... then (k+1)-th square to the right from v is the new head position. One Dimensional Tape v 1 v 2 3 h 4 5 6 v 7 8 9 10 h 11 . respectively.... . ...> ... . Let i be the head position of the two dimensional tape.. . left or right.. . ... The head of a two dimensional tape moves one square up. That is the square corresponding to the square below i in the two dimensional tape.

Turing Machines with Multiple Heads : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape but more than one read-write heads. . Hn } ( { } ) -> ( Q }. L .L. right or left on the two dimensional tape. Hn denote the tape heads. .. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . It turns out that this type of Turing machines are only as powerful as one tape Turing machines whose tape has a left end. where H1 . Details are omitted. q0. one can say that one tape Turing machines are as powerful as n-tape Turing machines. H2 . Hence they are at least as powerful as Turing machines with a two dimensional tape. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . > . H2 . . >. It can be proven that any language accepted by an n-tape Turing machine can be accepted by a one tape Turing machine and that any function computed by an n-tape Turing machine can be computed by a one tape Turing machine. The transition function is a partial function : Q { H1 . . S } n .Similarly formulas can be found for the head position on the one dimensional tape corresponding to move up. .. Thus some Turing machines with a one dimensional tape can simulate every move of a Turing machine with one two dimensional tape. Its transition function is a partial function :Q ( { } )n -> ( Q { h } ) ( { } )n { R . Turing Machines with Infinite Tape : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape which extends infinitely in both directions. q0.. {h}) ( { } {R. In each state only one of the heads is allowed to read and write.. Nondeterministic Turing Machines . Since the converses are obviously true. Since Turing machines with a two dimensional tape obviously can simulate Turing machines with a one dimensional tape.S It can be easily seen that this type of Turing machines are as powerful as one tape Turing machines. Turing Machines with Multiple Tapes : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and more than one tapes each with its own read-write head. . it can be said that they are equally powerful. A configuration for this kind of Turing machine must show the current state the machine is in and the state of each tape.

At any point in the process TN is in some configuration and has a finite set of configurations to choose from for its next configuration. For example let us consider the language L = { ww : w { a . The root of the tree is the initial configuration and it is the only vertex of level 0..L. a nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts this language L would first guess the midpoint of x.. like nondeterministic finite automata. Given a string x .S}. A deterministic Turing machine. . Then it would compare the first half of x with the second half by comparing the i-th symbol of the first half with the i-th symbol of the second half for i = 1. can take any action selecting from a set of specified actions rather than taking one definite predetermined action. Theorem Any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by some deterministic Turing machine. Given a string x. it is understood that a nondeterministic Turing machine at any configuration selects one combination of next state. It can be shown that a nondeterministic Turing machine is only as powerful as a deterministic Turing machine. . goes into an infinite loop or aborts.A nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine which. The children of all the vertices of level i form level i+1. They form level 1. The set of all possible computations that TN can perform for a given string x can be represented by a rooted tree as follows. For example consider the following nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts a+ . TN starts at the initial configuration and goes through a sequence of configurations until it reaches a halt configuration . moving the tape head and going to a next state. can not guess the midpoint of the string x. b }* } . Proof : Let TN denote a nondeterministic Turing machine. 2. Even in the same situation it may take different actions at different times. Formally a nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine whose transition function takes values that are subsets of ( Q {h}) ( { } {R. Note that the number of children for a vertex in this tree is finite because the number of states is finite and there are a finite number of tape symbols. All possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN once form the children of the initial configuration. on the other hand. that is the place where the second half of x starts. Here an action means the combination of writing a symbol on the tape. tape symbol and head movement out of the set of triples without following any specific predetermined rule. It must find the midpoint by for example pairing off symbols from either end of x. In general for each vertex of level i all possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN are its children. . As in the case of NFA. at any state it is in and for the tape symbol it is reading.

it would proceed as follows to accept it: ( q0 . aa ) ( h . The tree for this case would be as follows: . aa ) ( q1 .Turing machine accepting a+ Given the string aa. aa ) ( q1 . At the second and third configurations in the above sequence. it has two candidates for the next configuration: ( q1 . aa ) ( q2 . aa ) and ( q2 . aa ) . aa ) for the third. and ( q1 . aa ) for the second. aa ) and ( q2 .

call it T1. Many other variations of Turing machine are possible. Test Your Understanding of Different Types of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. with a deterministic one. it has been shown that none of them exceed the capability of basic deterministic Turing machine as far as accepting languages is concerned. call it T2. If there is the halting state among these children. Thus any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by a deterministic Turing machine. though a deterministic Turing machine might take much more time than a nondeterministic Turing machine to accept a string. These children are the configurations of the next level and they are stored on the tape (if necessary a second tape may be used).Unsolvable Problems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Unsolvable Problems . At each level of the tree. Click True or Fals . T2 applies the transition function of T1 to each configuration at that level and computes its children. In fact the Church's thesis conjectures that any so called computation done by humans or computers can be performed by a basic deterministic Turing machine.One way to simulate a nondeterministic Turing machine. then Submit. then T2 accepts the string and halts. It can be easily seen that T2 accepts a string if and only if T1 accepts it. is to traverse this tree breadth-first way from the root until the halt state is reached. However. Next -.

Here "unsolvability" is in the following sense. the question is unanswerable that is the problem is unsolvable. Theorem 1 : The halting problem is undecidable. It asks the following question: Given an arbitrary Turing machine M over alphabet = { a . and an arbitrary string w over . T writes "yes" if M halts on w and "no" if M does not halt on w. Minsky): This is going to be proven by "proof by contradiction". given a description of a Turing machine M (over the alphabet ) and a string w. That is.Subjects to be Learned • • • Halting Problem Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents We have learned that deterministic Turing machines are capable of doing any computation that computers can do. At any point in time. It is also conjectured that any "computation" human beings perform can be done by Turing machines (Church's thesis). Halting Problem One of well known unsolvable problems is the halting problem. In this chapter we are going to learn that there are problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers. Below we are going to see some well known unsolvable problems and see why we can say they are unsolvable. b } . Then given a string a Turing machine that accept the language starts the computation. the question of whether or not a string is in the language may not be answered in any finite amount of time. . there is no way of telling whether it is in an infinite loop or along the way to a solution and it needs more time. does M halt when it is given w as an input ? It can be shown that the halting problem is not decidable. Then there is a Turing machine T that solves the halting problem. Thus if a language is not decidable. Suppose that a language is acceptable but not decidable. hence unsolvable. L. and that any of their variations do not exceed the computational power of deterministic Turing machines. and then T halts. Proof (by M. if the Turing machine is running. Suppose that the halting problem is decidable. So we are going to look at the unsolvability in terms of language recognition. Since we can not wait forever for an answer. that is computationally they are equally powerful. First recall that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language (see Problem Solving as Language Recognition).

We are now going to construct the following new Turing machine Tc. denoted by d(M). Next using Tm we are going to construct another Turing machine Tc as follows: Tc takes as input a description of a Turing machine M. First we construct a Turing machine Tm by modifying T so that if T accepts a string and halts. where * is a symbol that separates the two copies of d(M) and then supplies d(M)*d(M) to the Turing machine Tm . copies it to obtain the string d(M)*d(M). then Tm goes into an infinite loop (Tm halts if the original T rejects a string and halts). .

Let us now see what Tc does when a string describing Tc itself is given to it. Thus the question of whether or not a program halts for a given input is nothing but the halting problem. Thus the modified T is given a description of Turing machine Tc and the string d(Tc). Thus one implication of the halting problem is that there can be no computer programs (Turing machines) that check whether or not any arbitrary computer program stops for a given input. When Tc gets the input d(Tc) . The way T was modified the modified T is going to go into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). Hence that assumption must be wrong. constructs the string d(Tc)*d(Tc) and gives it to the modified T. This is a contradiction. Hence there is no Turing machine that solves the halting problem. . it makes a copy. Program correctness and Halting Problem Note that for any computer program a Turing machine can be constructed that performs the task of the program. This contradiction has been deduced from our assumption that there is a Turing machine that solves the halting problem. Thus Tc goes into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and it halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc).

More Unsolvable Preoblems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines More Unsolvable Problems Subjects to be Learned • • Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents The next unsolvable problem is in a sense more difficult than the halting problem.Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Language NonSelfAccepting Let us first define two languages NSA1 and NSA2 as follows: . It is presented as a language and it can be shown that there are no Turing machines that accept the language. Next -. then Submit. Click True or Fals .

(1) If T0 accepts w0. Thus there can not be Turing machine T0 that accepts the language SelfAccepting . let w = a. w d(T) for any Turing machine T } . Hence it is not accepted by T. Hence by the definition of NSA1 . Hence either T0 accepts w0 or rejects it. Hence w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting . Also T0 does not accept w0 . call it T0. (2) If T0 does not accept w0 . NSA1 is the set of strings that describe a Turing machine but that are not accepted by the Turing machine they describe. by the definitions of NSA1 and NSA2. Certainly more symbols than a single a are needed to describe even the simplest Turing machine. However. Let us define the language NonSelfAccepting as NonSelfAccepting = NSA1 Then we can prove the following theorem: NSA2 . Theorem 2 There are no Turing machines that accept the language NonSelfAccepting. which is absurd. then w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. Hence a is in NSA2 . NSA2 is the set of strings that do not describe any Turing machine. This means that there can not be any Turing machine that accepts the language NonSelfAccepting.NSA1 = { w | w w} { a. Suppose there is a Turing machine. w0 is in NSA1 . Then there is no Turing machine that can be described by the string a. This is again a contradiction. that accepts NonSelfAccepting. Hence T0 can not accept w0 . This is a contradiction. b }*. w0 is in neither NSA1 nor NSA2 . Proof: This is going to be proven by contradiction. We are going to see that T0 neither accepts w0 nor rejects it. Problem Accepts( ) The problem Accepts( ) asks whetehr or not a given Turing machine T accepts . Since NonSelfAccepting is a language. It . For NSA2. w = d(T) for a Turing machine T and T does not accept NSA2 = { w | w { a. Knowing the unsolvability of the halting problem some other problems can be shown to be unsolvable. Let w0 = d( T0 ). b }*. Hence it is in SelfAccepting . But w0 = d( T0 ) because that is how we selected w0 . that is w0 is a description of the Turing machine T0 . Neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. then w0 NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. where d(T) is a description of the Turing machine T. Thus neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. either w0 is in NonSelfAccepting or it isn't. Then this w is a description of a Turing machine but it must be longer than one symbol. For let T be a Turing machine that accepts { a } and let w = d(T). Hence w is in NSA1 .

Then consider the Turing machine T = TeraseT' . this means that Accepts( ) is unsolvable. a Turing machine. This T halts on if and only if T' halts on w. Using this T. call it M. We are going to show that the halting problem becomes solvable using this A. Let A be a Turing machine that solves Accepts( ). that solves the halting problem can be constructed as follows: Given a description d(T') of a Turing machine T' and a string w as inputs. Consider a Turing machine T = TwT'. This T halts on every string over if and only if T1 halts on . Thus if Accepts( ) is solvable. where machine Tw is a Turing machine that writes w. Using a similar idea the following problem can also be shown to be unsolvable. Using this T. where Terase is a Turing machine that erases the input on the tape and halts. Let A be a Turing machine that solves AcceptsEverything. Then there is a Turing machine that solves it. Then M halts on d(T') and w if and only if T' halts on w. Let a Turing machine T' and a string w be an instance of the halting problem. which is an instance of the halting problem. M writes the string d( T ) on the tape and let A take over. Let T' be an instance of Accepts( ). Suppose that Accepts( ) is solvable. We are going to show that Accepts( ) can be solved using the solution to it. That is. call it M.can be shown to be unsolvable. Problem AcceptsEverything The problem AcceptsEverything asks whether or not a given Turing machine T halts on every string over a given alphabet . a Turing machine. Suppose that AcceptsEverything is solvable. Since the halting problem is unsolvable. M solves the halting problem. that solves Accepts( ) can be constructed as . the halting problem can be solved.

By similar arguments the following problems can be shown to be unsolvable. Since Accepts( ) is unsolvable. Other Unsolvable Problems Let G1 and G2 be context-free grammars and let L(G) denote the language generated by grammar G.shown below. It can be shown to be unsolvable using AcceptsEverything. It can be shown to be unsolvable using Accepts( ) . Equivalence This problem asks whether or not two Turing machines accept the same language. it means that AcceptsEverything is unsolvable. AcceptsNothing This problem asks whether or not a Turing machine accepts nothing. Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) = ? finite ? infinite ? context-free ? Is L( G1 ) = L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) = * ? Is the complement of L( G1 ) context-free ? . Then the following problems are all unsolvable.

Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Next -. then Submit. A problem is solvable if some Turing . Click True or Fals . No one can write computer programs that solve those problems and halt after a finite amount of time.Time Complexity of Problem Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Complexity Time Complexity Subjects to be Learned • • • • • Time Complexity of Problems Decision Tree Class NP Polynomial Time Transformation NP-Complete Problems Contents In the previous sections we have learned that some problems are unsolvable by Turing machines hence by computers.

In this section we are going to study solvable problems and learn a hierarchy of solvable problems based on the computation time required to solve them. Let us see some of those intractable problems. The satisfiability problem becomes even harder when logic becomes more complex. This is the problem of asking whether or not a given formula can take the value true for some values of its variables. in practice if it takes a million years. For example. Similarly ( P V Q ) is also satisfiable. . a heap sort needs O(n lg n) time. where k is a natural number. second order logic. The problems that can not be solved with any polynomial time algorithm are called intractable problems . Q )" . and there are problems that require algorithms with the worst case time worse than k-exponential time for any natural number k. the equality symbol = and quantifiers and . then Y Z [ X = Y + Z ] ] is a proposition of Presburger arithmetic. For many problems a day or even an hour would be too long. There are also problems that must be solved at best by exponential time algorithms in the worst case. it is as good (or bad) as unsolvable. It is estimated by counting the largest possible number of key operations to be performed in terms of the input size. For example a binary search takes O(lg n) time.g. For example. where A is an algorithm and S is a statement. variables taking positive integers as their values. 22n ) time algorithms. For example "after( if P then Q else ~Q. For example the satisfiability problem for Presburger arithmetic is double-exponential (2-fold exponentail).machine can solve it in finite time. where P and Q are propositions. the addition operation +. etc. where P is a propositional variable. So it is not satisfiable. X [ if ~( X = 1 ). Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved by algorithms with the worst case time which is a polynomial in the problem size (polynomial time algorithms). as we are going to see below. Presburger arithmetic is a logic that allows statements involving positive integers. O(f(x)) (big-oh) and other related subjects click here. ~Q )" and "if P then after( if P then Q else ~Q. as well as all the connectives such as and. S) says that S is true after executing A. But (P ^ ~P ) is always false. after(A. They are all polynomial time algorithms. Before proceeding to predicate logic let us consider the following logic called propositional dynamic logic (PDL for short). or etc. In logic there is a well known problem of "satisfiability". The measure for computation time we use is the worst case time. the satisfiability problem for the propositional dynamic logic is proven to take exponential time to solve in the worst case. One can ask the same question for formulas of first order predicate logic. They are both satisfiable. Even if it takes a million years to solve a problem. etc. problems that need k-exponential time algorithms. S). However. a quick sort needs O(n2) time. Then there are problems that require double exponential ( e. So it is certainly satisfiable. that is it requires at least O( aan ) time to solve in the worst case. This is a propositional logic with an extra construct (proposition) after(A. The satisfiability problem for PDL is known to take at least exponential time to solve in the worst case. For more detailed review of this. are propositions of PDL. For example the formula ( P V ~P ) is always true. They take much more time to execute than polynomial time algorithms. it is still solvable.

the logic is called WS1S (Weak Second-order theory of 1 Successor). the consensus is that they ca not be solved with polynomial time algorithms. At the moment. Such a problem (having no K-fold exponential time algorithms) is called nonelementary. Below we are going to characterize this class of problems. These problems are called decision problems. there are no K-fold exponential time algorithms to solve it for any number K. Let us here review nondeterministic Turing machines. For the problems of this class there are no known polynomial time algorithms for solving them nor are they known to be unsolvable with polynomial time algorithms.In Presburger arithmetic (minus addition operation). "Is it possible to schedule committee meetings without conflicts into a given number of time slots ? " . Let us try to solve the following instances of this graph coloring problem: Given the following graph. Now let us go back to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. For the satisfiability problem of WS1S. This problem is called "Graph Coloring" problem or more precisely "Vertex Color" problem. in addition. For example. however. if. Consider the problem of coloring vertices of a graph with a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned. " Is it possible to assign colors to vertices of a given graph using a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned ? " etc. is it possible to color its vertices with three or less colors ? . First. sets of integers and the predicate "belongs to" (an element X belongs to a set S) are allowed. there are problems that are solved by answering with yes or no. Some of these decision problems are NP-complete problems. "Is a string w in the language a*b ? ". This problem belongs to a peculiar class of problems called NP-Complete problems.

For the graphs of (a) and (b), you could find a solution very easily by inspection. You could see a right coloring as soon as you saw the graphs. However, you can most likely not tell how you arrived at your solutions. You probably don't have any algorithms you could use to solve them. You could somehow see the solutions. This is basically the idea of nondeterministic (Turing) machine. There is no fixed procedure which you can use repeatedly to solve instance after instance of this problem. But you can somehow solve them. Let us move on to a slightly more complex example of (c). For this graph to find a right coloring you could start with vertex 1 and assign color a. Then move on to vertex 2 and assign color b(it has to be something other than a ). Then go to vertex 3 and assign a third color, say c. Then at vertex 4 select color b and for vertex 5 use color a. In this process we make a decision as to what color to use for each vertex and when a decision is made for all the vertices we have a solution to the problem. This process applies to any decision problem. That is to solve a decision problem a number of smaller decisions are made one after another and as a result a solution to the problem is obtained. This process can be represented by a tree called decision tree. For example, for the graph coloring problem let us first decide on the order of vertices we color in, say 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for the graph of (c) above. Then the root of its decision tree corresponds to the vertex we assign a color to first (vertex 1 in this example). Then for each possible color for the first vertex, a child is created for the first vertex of the tree. So the second level of the

decision tree corresponds to the second vertex to be colored. Then in general, for each possible color for each vertex of level i of the decision tree, a child is created. Those children form level i+1 of the decision tree. The decision tree for the graph of (c) is given below. Since any color can be assigned to vertex 1 without loss of generality, it has just one child in the actual decision tree. Also since in this case the i-th and (i+1)-th vertices are connected by an edge for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, they can not have the same color. So each vertex after vertex 1 has two colors to choose from. So they each have two children in the decision tree.

Thus during the process of solving the problem a decision is made at each level and when all levels are covered, the problem is solved. A path from the root to a leaf corresponds to a coloring of the vertices of the given graph. A decision tree, however, does not tell us how to make decisions. Also a decision tree does not tell how to order the vertices for coloring, that is which vertex to color first, second etc. A deterministic machine (or algorithm) has a specific fixed set of rules for making a decision at each level of the decision tree. Although it knows what to do at every stage of problem solving, the decisions it makes are not necessarily the right ones. When it makes wrong decisions, it must retract earlier decisions and try different paths, which is called backtracking. For the graph coloring problem a deterministic algorithm might first order the vertices of the graph in decreasing order of their degree and also order colors. Then, following the

order of the vertices, assign to each vertex the highest order color available for the vertex. Since that kind of algorithm is not guaranteed to use the minimum number of colors, it may produce a wrong answer unless there is some provision for backtracking. A nondeterministic (Turing) machine, on the other hand, is a fictitious machine and somehow knows which branch (child) to select at each step. It always makes a right selection. A decision problem is said to belong to class NP if each vertex in its decision tree has a finite number of children and if it can be solved by a nondeterministic (Turing) machine in polynomial time. The graph coloring problem is in class NP, so are the satisfiability problem for propositional logic and most of the scheduling problems just to name a few. Also there are other characterizations of class NP. Interested readers click here. At this moment it is not known whether or not problems in class NP can be solved with a polynomial time algorithm in the worst case. The consensus is that there is no polynomial time algorithm to solve them. It would take at least exponential time. Among the problems in class NP, there are problems which all problems of class NP can be transformed to in polynomial time. Those problems are called NP-complete problems. If a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of the NP-complete problems, all the problems in NP can be solved in polynomial time. Below we are going to study NPcomplete problems. We start our discussion with the concept of polynomial time transformation (reduction). Basically we say a decision problem Q1 is polynomially reducible to a decision problem Q2 if and only if there is a transformation that transforms any arbitrary instance of Q1 into an instance of Q2 in polynomial time such that the answer to Q1 is yes if and only if the answer to Q2 is yes. A little more formally we define this in terms of languages. Note that a decision problem can be viewed as a language of its instances and that solving it can be considered as recognizing the language as we have seen earlier. Let L1 and L2 be languages over alphabets 1 and 2, respectively. We say that L1 is polynomial-time reducible to L2 if and only if there is a function f from 1* to 2* such that for any string x in polynomial time.

1 *

,x

L1 if and only if f(x)

L2 and f can be computed

For example let us consider the following two problems: graph coloring and scheduling of committee meetings. The graph coloring problem is as given above. In the scheduling of committee meetings problem, committees with their members and a positive integer k are given. The problem is whether or not the meetings of the committees can be scheduled in k or less time slots so that everyone can attend one's meetings. Note that some people may be in more than one committee. Let us try to show that this scheduling problem is polynomial time reducible to the graph coloring problem.

Thus the scheduling problem asks whether or not the meetings of the given committees can be scheduled in 3 time slots without any conflicts. that is construct a graph and give the number of colors to be used to color its vertices so that the meetings can be scheduled if and only if graph can be colored. an edge is inserted between vertices 1 and 2. c }. connect with an edge the vertices corresponding to the committees. Then the committees can be grouped into p groups so that the committees in the same group can meet at the same time. Suppose that the meetings can be scheduled in p time slots. b }. 2. Corresponding to this grouping assign colors to the vertices of the graph so that the vertices in the same group are given the same color and those in . Proceeding similarly the following graph is obtained corresponding to the committee memberships. {a. 3 and 4 to the graph. The corresponding graph for the graph coloring problem can be constructed as follows: Corresponding to the committees 1. Let us consider the following transformation: For each committee add a vertex to the graph. 2. 3 and 4 with the memberships { a. 3 and 4. respectively. Similarly since committees 1 and 3.What we need to do is given an instance of the scheduling problem construct an instance of the graph coloring problem. c. For example suppose that we are given the committees 1. edges are added between 1 and 3. Then the meetings can be scheduled in k or less time slots if and only if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. and 1 and 4 share members. 2. where p k. Suppose also that k = 3. { b. d }. and if and only if two committee have some members in common. add vertices 1. d } and { a. Then since committees 1 and 2 share a. and 1 and 4.

5. Partition Problem Given a set of integers. 7. 4. then that means that the corresponding committees share some members and that they are scheduled to meet in different time slots. then P is also NP-complete. all the problems can be solved with polynomial time algorithms. find out whether or not the objects can be put into the bins. Committee Meeting Schedule Problem In fact most scheduling problems are NPcomplete. Cook that the problems of class NP can be polynomial time reducible to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. which in this case can be taken as the number of committees. As a consequence if a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of those problems. group them into two groups so that the sum of the numbers of one group is equal to that of the other group. a traveling salesman wants to know a shortest route to visit all cities exactly once and come back to where he/she started. then it can be easily seen that the committees can meet in k or less time slots. . For if any two vertices are connected with an edge. It was first proven by S. Subsequently the satisfiability problem was found to be polynomial time reducible to many other problems. their sizes and a number of bins of the same size. Today hundreds of problems are known to be NP-complete. can be done in time polynomial in the size of the problem. Conversely if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. Graph Color Problem 3. Some of them are listed below.different groups are given different colors. This coloring uses p colors which does not exceed k. This group of problems are called NP-complete problems. Traveling Salesman Problem Given cities and traveling times between cities. A problem is NP-complete if it is in class NP and NP-hard. It can be easily seen that if a problem P at hand is NP-hard and if a problem known to be NP-complete can be polynomial time reducible to P. and vertices connected with an edge have different colors. fast algorithms exist to solve it. that is the construction of graph for a given set of committees. find out whether or not one is a subgraph of the other. then the consensus today is that it is most likely that no polynomial time algorithms i. Subgraph Isomorphism Problem Given two graphs. If a problem is NP-complete. Thus these two vertices must get different colors. For all the problems in class NP can be reduced to P through the known NP-complete problem in polynomial time. Formally a problem is NP-hard if every problem in class NP can be polynomial time reducible to it.e. 6. Bin Packing Problem Given a set of objects. NP-complete Problems 1. It is also easily seen that the transformation. We are now ready to discuss NP-completeness. Satisfiability Problem for Propositional Logic 2.

and a subset S of the Cartesian product A X B X C. is it possible to select objects so that the sum of their sizes does not exceed S and the sum of their values is V or larger ? 10.x). (2. (2.a. 3-Dimensional Matching Given three sets A. called a matching.b. and C = {x.b.(1.b}. . of S such that every element of A.y)}. Set Cover Problem Given a set S.b. and S = {(1. B = {a. let A = {1.x). and C appears exactly once in T ? For example. find out whether or not there are k or less subsets in the collection whose union is S.x)} is not a matching.8.y}. B.a.b.y). their sizes. a set of objects. (2. their values and an integer V.b. a collection of subsets of S and an integer k. Is there a subset T. Note that {(1.a. 9. B and C of the same size.(2.x)} is a desired set satisfying all the requirements. Then T = {(1.y).x). Knapsack Problem Given a knapsack of size S.2}.

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