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Language, Automata: , \alpha : usually denotes a string in this course. , \beta : usually denotes a string in this course. , \delta : usually denotes a transition function in this course. , \sigma : usually denotes a symbol in an alphabet in this course. , \Delta : usually denotes a blank space in this course. , \Gamma : usually denotes a set of stack symbols in this course. , \Lambda : usually denotes an empty string in this course. , \Pi : usually denotes a partition in this course. , \Sigma : usually denotes an alphabet in this course. , \goto : usually denotes a (one step) transition in this course. Logic: , ~ : logical not , ^ : logical and , V : logical or , -> : logical imply , <-> : logical if and only if (equivalent) , => : logical tautologically imply , <=> : logical tautologically equivalent , \A : logical for all , \E : logical for some (there exists)

Sets: , \in : belongs to , \not\in : does not belong to , @ : empty set U, : universal set , \subset : proper subset , \not\subset : not a proper subset , \subseteq : subset , \not\subseteq : not a subset , \cup : set union Ai , \cup(i=1 to n) A_i : union of n sets , \cap : set intersection Ai , \cap(i=1 to n) A_i : intersection of n sets , \bar A : complement of set A (A) , P(A) : power set of set A , X : Cartesian product Ai , X(i=1 to n) A_i : cartesian product of n sets Relation: < a, b > : ordered pair < a1, a2, ..., an > : ordered n-tuple , <= : precedes (partial order) Functions: xi , Sum(i=1 to n) x_i : sum of n xi's O(f) , O(f) : of order smaller than or equal to f

o(f) , o(f) : of order smaller than f (f) , Omega : of order greater than or equal to f (f) , omega : of order greater than f (f) , Theta : of the same order as f f(x) , lim(x -> inf) f(x) : limit of f as x goes to infinity

**Introduction to Theoretical Computer Science
**

Today computers are used everywhere: banks, hospitals, schools, airline companies, gas stations, grocery stores, in our cars, in home appliances, PCs, etc., etc. Some are used to crunch numbers, some are used to process images, some are used to process other nonnumeric data and some are used to control operations of various devices. They can reason, they can prove many mathematical theorems, they can beat chess experts in their game, they can solve some very complex problems, they can understand our languages, they can answer our questions and of course they can crunch numbers much much faster than us. Let us for a moment call what computers do computation for convenience, though some of the things computers do such as controling appliances, answering our questions etc. don't fall into our traditional sense of computation. Then these computers seem to be able to compute an awfully lot of things if not everything. But are they capable of computing anything ? Are there things computers can not do ? If there are things computers can not do, what are they ? And why ? If there aren't things computers can not do, then how can we tell ? What do we exactly mean by computation ? Unfortunately there are many things computers can not do. Computers can not solve certain types of problems. For example no computer can tell in general whether or not a given computer program stops after a finite amount of time on a given input. They can not solve some other types of problems fast enough even though they can solve them in some finite amount of time. For example take the traveling salesman problem: a salesman is given a road map with distances between cities and wants to find a shortest round trip route that visits all the cities on the map exactly once. At the moment the so called traveling salesman problem requires an extremely large amount of time to solve. No one has been able to find a reasonably fast algorithm to solve it and the consensus is that it is not likely that anyone can find such an algorithm. I have just given you an example of the problems that computers could not solve. How do we know that that is the case ? Are there other problems like that ? How can we tell whther or not a given problem can be solved and solved fast enough ?

These two type of languages belong to a hierarchy of four languages called Homsky hierarchy. Consequently they are less capable than Turing machines but then their operations are simpler. It is a very simple device but remarkably. Before proceeding to the study of Turing machines and their computations in this course. Turing machines also recognize languages. we study a simpler type of computing device called finite automata. every task modern computers perform can also be accomplished by Turing machines. which is the key to the unsolvability of problem by computers. it can actually be solving a problem. So they provide a good introduction to our study of Turing machines. Though it has not been proven. Finite automata process strings. We are going to investigate limitations of computers and computations by studying the essence of compuers and computations rather than all the variations of computer and computation. The other two are context-free languages and context-sensitive languages. We say finite automata recognize languages. Thus when a finite automaton is processing strings. . After briefly studying context-free languges. which are also heavily used in practice. that is to study limitations of computers and computation. Since so many systems in practice can be described by regular languages. This essence is a device called Turing machine. Finite automata are very similar to Turing machines but a few restrictions are imposed on them. we are also going to study regular languages in detail as well as finite automata. it is generally believed (Church's thesis) that any "computation" humans do can be done by Turing machines and that "computation" is the computation performed by Turing machines. There we learn how computers can be simulated by Turing machines and what it means that a Turing machine recognizes (decides) a language. It turns out that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Thus by studying Turing machines we can learn capabilities hence limitatgions of computers. We call a set of strings (of symbols) a language. In addition finite automata can model a large number of systems used in practice. In particular we are going to see a few problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers and how we can tell that they are unsolvable.The main objective of this course is to answer those questions. Then with Turing machines we investigate limitations of computers and computations. The languages Turing machines recognize are called Type 0 (or phrase structure) languages (regular languages are Type 3) and they are more complex than regular languages. We are going to learn their properties. ways to describe them and how to use them to model many of the real life systems. Those four languages are together called formal languages. More specifically they answer the question whether or not a given string belongs to a language. The languages that are recognized by finite automata are called regular languages. we go to Turing machines. Thus they are a powerful tool to design and study those systems with. It was first conceived of by Alan Turing in early 20-th century.

Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved within a reasonable amount of time and there are problems that are known to require a finite but very large amount of time to solve.000 times it can handle only ten or so more larger problem sizes. • • • • Logic Sets Relations Functions Logic Proposition and Logical Connectives "Proposition" can be defined as a declarative statement having a specific truth-value. then even if the processor speed increased 1. The time needed to solve such a problem increases at least exponentially with the size of the problem as long as we use Turing machines (hence computers). • • 2 is a odd number. Increasing the processor speed does not help much for such problems. .Our last topic is time complexities of various problems. Unfortunately there is nothing we can do to speed them up. Let us start with review of mathematics. Basic Mathematical Objects Back to Table of Contents The following are the contents of this introductory chapter. Their truth values are false and true. then with the increase in the processor speed of 1. Example: The following statements are propositions as they have precise truth values. We are going to see some of those which take a large amount of time. The time complexity issues are investigated using Turing machines so that the results apply to all computers. 4 is a perfect square. true or false. "Connective": Two or more propositions can be combined together to make compound propositions with the help of logical connectives. For example for the traveling salesman problem if 100 cities were too many to solve fast enough. respectively. If the computation time is 2n where n is the size of the problem.000 times 110 cities would already be too many.

• • 2 is an odd number AND 4 is a perfect square. Conjunction The logical conjunction is understood in the same way as commonly used ôandö. Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F pVq T T T F c. For the first compound proposition to be true both the propositions have to be true as the connective is AND and as OR is the connective for the second one if either of the propositions is true the truth value of the compound proposition is true. Truth table for two individual propositions p and q with conjunction is given below p T T F F q T F T F p^q T F F F b. Negation This is the logical "negation" and it is expressed by Truth table is given below as p for "not p". The compound proposition truth-value is true iff all the constituent propositions hold true. The following are the logical connectives used commonly: a. Their truth vales are false and true respectively. 2 is an odd number OR 4 is a perfect square. . Disjunction This is logical "or" read as either true value of the individual propositions. It is represented as " ^ ".Example: Above two propositions can be used to make a compound proposition using any of the logical connectives.

It is represented as p => q. "q is a necessity/consequence of p" and "q whenever p" are all differnt ways of saying "if p then q". Biconditional A proposition (p q) ^ (q p) can be abbreviated using biconditional conjunction as p q and is read as "if p then q. Conditional This is used to define as "a proposition holds true if another proposition is true" i. "if not q then not p" .g. "q is necessary for p". f. p q is read as "if p. then p is said to logically imply q. E.g. If p and q have the same truth-value in every case then they are said to be logically equivalent and it is represented as p <=> q. "p is sufficient for q" .p T F p F T d. Following are some of the useful identities and implications from propositional logic: Identities . which is true in every case. E. "p only if q" .e. For example. e.: p ^ p Logical implication and equivalence If the value of p -> q is true in every case. and if q then p".: p V p g. Contradiction This is the opposite of tautology. which is false in every case. then q" Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F p T F T T q p -> q is also expressed in a number of different (but equivalent) ways in English. Tautology A compound proposition.

[(P 5. examples and proofs of these implications go to Implications Predicate and Predicate Logic The propositional logic is not powerful enough to represent all types of assertions that are used in computer science and mathematics. (P 2. [(P 3. and "The cover of this book is blue" come from the template "is blue" by placing an appropriate noun/noun phrase in front of it. (P 3. . (P 4.modus tollens Q) (R S)] [(P R) (Q S)] Q) (Q R)] (P R) For explanations. (P Q) ( P Q) ----.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----.1. examples and proofs of these identities go to Identities Implications 1. the sentences "The car Tom is driving is blue". or a relationship among objects represented by the variables.implication Q) R] [P (Q R)] ----.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. The phrase "is blue" is a predicate and it describes the property of being blue. For example. Central to the predicate logic are the concepts of predicate and quantifier.contrapositive For explanations. The predicate logic is one of the extensions of propositional logic and it is fundamental to most other types of logic. [(P Q) Q] P ----.exportation Q) ( Q P) ----. A predicate is a template involving a verb that describes a property of objects. For more complex reasoning we need more powerful logic capable of expressing complicated propositions and reasoning. [(P 2. or to express certain types of relationship between propositions such as equivalence ( for more detail click here for example for example ). "The sky is blue".

There are two types of quantifiers: universal quantifier and existential quantifier. x > 1". quantify the variable using a quantifier (see below). The propositions in the predicate logic are statements on objects of a universe. where x represents an arbitrary object. Similarly the existential quantifier turns. the statemen t x > 1 to "for every object x in the universe. The universal quantifier turns. can be made a proposition by applying one of the following two operations to each of its variables: 1. In general. which is expressed as " x x > 1". for example. If we adopt B as the name for the predicate "is_blue".Predicates are often given a name. For example any of "is_blue". and it becomes a true statement. which is expressed as " x x > 1. also called universe . hence a proposition. x > 1". Hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. called atomic formula. is the set of objects of interest. and hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. For example. such as x > 1 or P(x). the statement x > 1 to "for some object x in the universe. This new statement is true or false in the universe of discourse. for example. . by using quantifiers on variables . B(x) reads as "x is blue". assign a value to the variable 2. The universe is thus the domain of the (individual) variables. Universe of Discourse The universe of discourse. It can be the set of real numbers. x > 1 becomes 3 > 1 if 3 is assigned to x. sentences that assert an object is blue can be represented as "B(x)". A predicate with variables. a quantification is performed on formulas of predicate logic (called wff ). "Blue" or "B" can be used to represent the predicate "is blue" among others. it is true or false in the universe of discourse." Again.

x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] For more discussions and examples on these rules and others. some of which are given below. Important Inference Rules of Predicate Logic: First there is the following rule concerning the negation of quantified statement which is very useful: x P(x) x P(x) Next there is the following set of rules on quantifiers and connvectives: 1. one can use some additional inference rules. implications and inference rules. The universe is often left implicit in practice. But it should be obvious from the context. see Reasoning(with predicate logic) and Quantifiers and Connectives in Discrete Structures course. as well as those for propositional logic such as the equivalences.the set of integers. the set of all students in a classroom etc. It allows one to reason about properties and relationships of individual objects. Also for proof and proof techniques see Mathematical Reasoning. Predicate logic is more powerful than propositional logic. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 4. [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] x [ P(x) Q(x) ] 3. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 2. the set of all cars on a parking lot. Sets . In predicate logic.

What is a set? Set is a group of elements. A is a subset of B is represented as A B.4} call it Z by writing Z = {x | x N | x 5} where N represents the set of natural numbers. All the elements belonging to the set are explicitly given. if every element of A is an element of B. A is a subset of B. . but not equal to B represented as A B. How to specify a Set? One way is to enumerate the elements completely.2.5} Alternate way is to give the properties that characterize the elements of the set. having a property that characterizes those elements. if A is a subset of.4. Universal Set The set U of all the elements we might ever consider in the discourse is called the universal set. Using this notation we can specify the set {0. Note: If A is a subset of B and B is a subset of A then A=B. Example: B = {x | x is a positive integer less than or equal to 5} Some sets can also be defined recursively.1.2. Example: A = {1.3. Set terminology Belongs To x B means that x is an element of set B. Subset Let A and B be two sets. Also.3. It is read as "the set of natural numbers that are less than or equal to 5".

5.8} then A B = {3.8}. Thus A' = { x | x U ^ x A } . Example: A = { 1. then A' = { x | x U ^ x > 3}.2. It is denoted by A B. A B= ø.B.3 } .3} and B = {3. then the complement of A is the set consisting of all elements of the universal set that are not in A. 3. It is denoted by A B.Complement If A is a set.4. Example: If A = {1.2. where ø is the Empty set. Example: If A = {1.5} then A . then the intersection of A and B is the set that consists of the elements in both A and B .4. then the union of A and B is the set that contains all the elements that are in A and B including the ones in both A and B. Example: If U is the set of natural numbers and A = { 1. Union If A and B are two sets. It is denoted by A' or .2. For A and B of the above example B .A .5 } .2} Note that in general A .4.4. Example: If A = {1. Difference If A and B are two sets.8} B = {3.9 } are disjoint. Intersection If A and B are two sets.3} B = {3.4.B B .e.2. where means " is not an element of ".5} .5} 2. It is denoted by A .2.2.3..B = {1. Disjoint sets A and B are said to be disjoint if they contain no elements in common i.A = {4. then the difference of A from B is the set that consists of the elements of A that are not in B.8.5} then A B = {1.3. and B = { 6.3. Set Operations The operations that can be performed on sets are: 1.

The Commutative laws: A B=B A A B=B A The Associative laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Distributive laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Idempotent laws: A A=A A A=A The Absorptive laws: A (A B) = A A (A B) = A The De Morgan laws: (A B)' = A' B' (A B)' = A' B' Other laws involving Complements: ( A' )' = A A A A' = ø A' = U B) B) B) B) C C (A (A C) C) Other laws involving the empty set A A ø=A ø=ø Other laws involving the Universal Set: A U=U A U=A Venn Diagrams A common technique in working with Set Operations is to illustrate them by drawing Venn Diagrams. It is a very good tool to get a general idea.Following is a list of some standard Set Identities A. C represent arbitrary sets and ø is the empty set and U is the Universal Set. . B.

3.2. however.4 } and B = { 6. The idea of Venn Diagram is to draw a region representing the universe and within that to draw the regions representing the component sets we are starting with so that the resulting diagram describes their interrelationships.Note.4 } can be represented as shown below using Venn Diagrams: Set A U represents the Universal set in which A is one of the Set. For example sets A = { 1. that Venn Diagrams must NOT be used for rigorous discussions.2. . because they can represent only very limited situations and miss many other possibilities.8.

Set B The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A B .

A B .

The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A U B A A B B is the set consisting of all the different elements in A and B. .

8 } (A B)' = U .6.3. 7 } B = { 2.3.8 } . For example: U = { 1.6.2.(A B) = { 5.4.4.2.6.(A B)' is the yellow region in the Venn diagram given below.2.8 } A = { 1.3.4.4 } A B = { 1.7.5.

For example expressions we often use A holds.. which we write as Ai This generalized union of sets can be rigorously defined as follows: Definition ( Ai) : . To denote either of these B C. A2 . This can be generalized for the union of any finite number of sets as A1 An . intersection and Cartesian product of sets are associative.A is the blue shaded region in the Venn Diagram shown below Generalized Set Operations Union...A .B is the yellow shaded region and B .

. Based on these definitions. The basis clause (or simply basis) of the definition establishes that certain objects are in the set. and = Recursive Definition Recursive Definition Subjects to be Learned • • • • • recursive/inductive definition basis clause basis inductive clause extremal clause A recursive definition of a set always consists of three distinct clauses: 1. This part of the definition specifies the "seeds" of the set from which the elements of the set are generated using the methods given in the inductive clause. The set of elements specified here is called basis of the set being defined. Inductive Clause: Ai = ( Ai) An+1 Ai and generalized Cartesian product Similarly the generalized intersection Ai can be defined. De Morgan's law on set union and intersection can also be generalized as follows: Theorem (Generalized De Morgan) = .Basis Clause: For n = 1 . Ai = A1.

Then by (2) again. 1. 3.5. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. the object is not a member of the set. The inductive clause always asserts that if objects are elements of the set. 0 + 1 (= 1) is in N. Following this definition. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses.. The x + 1 in the Inductive Clause is the parent of x. The Set of Even Integers Basis Clause: . 0 is put into N. which is not what we want as the set of natural numbers. The inductive clause (or simply induction) of the definition establishes the ways in which elements of the set can be combined to produce new elements of the set. 0. Examples of Recursive Definition of Set Example 1. 1 is the parent of 2. 1 + 1 (= 2) is in N. can be included in N.5. then they can be combined in certain specified ways to create other objects. Let us call the objects used to create a new object the parents of the new object. The Set of Natural Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . The basis for this set N is { 0 } . Note that if we don't have (3). Example 2. Example 3. x + 1 is in . Proceeding in this manner all the natural numbers are put into N. 2. and 1 is the child of 0. Then by (2). and the new object is their child . 0 is the parent of 1. since 0 is in N. the set of natural numbers N can be obtained as follows: First by (1).. and 2 is the child of 1. The extremal clause asserts that unless an object can be shown to be a member of the set by applying the basis and inductive clauses a finite number of times. The Set of Nonnegative Even Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . and x is the child of x + 1. x + 2 is in .5.2. .

To see how it is defined click here. Then the value of the function at an element. Here ax means the concatenation of a with x. . How to define function recursively: First the values of the function for the basis elements of the domain are specified. simplest expressions. bbabaa.Inductive Clause: For any element x in . etc. say x. Then see how other elements can be obtained from them. Recursive Definition of Function Some functions can also be defined recursively.2 are in . There are two sets of questions. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. or 1). A few examples are given below. and generalize that generation process for the "Inductive Clause". Basis Clause: . and . or shortest strings. try simplest elements in the set such as smallest numbers (0. Test Your Understanding of Recursive Definition Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. of the domain is defined using its value at the parent(s) of the element x. . then Submit. The set of propositions (propositional forms) can also be defined recursively. They are all on functions from integer to integer except the last one. Tips for recursively defining a set: For the "Basis Clause". The Set of Strings over the alphabet excepting empty string This is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's such as abbab. Inductive Clause: For any element x in . and . Example 4. Condition: The domain of the function you wish to define recursively must be a set defined recursively. and x . x + 2. Click Yes or No . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses.

Induction Mathematical Induction . Note that here Extremal Clause is not necessary. See Example 5 for the extremal clause. f(n+1) = (n+1) f(n). Inductive Clause: For any string x and y of S. See above for the extremal clause. f(n+1) = 2 f(n) .Example 5: The function f(n) = n! for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 0! = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. So there is no chance of other elements to come into the function being defined. L(a) = 1 and L(b) = 1. where xy is the concatenation of strings x and y. Using this definition. Hence 2 ! = 2 * 1 ! = 2 * 1 = 2 . because the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively and that has the extremal clause in it. See Example 5 for the extremal clause. 3! can be found as follows: Since 0 ! = 1. Hence 3 ! = 3 * 2 ! = 3 * 2 * 1 = 6 . Example 8: The function L from the set S of strings over {a. This function L gives the number of a's and b's L(x) for a string x is also often denoted by | x |. f(n+1) = f(n) + 2 . Example 6: The function f(n) = 2n + 1 for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. 1 ! = 1 * 0 ! = 1 * 1 = 1 . Example 7: The function f(n) = 2n for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. b} to the set of natural numbers that gives the length of a string can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: For symbols a and b of the alphabet. L(xy) = L(x) + L(y) .

+ n = n( n + 1 )/2 can be proven by mathematical induction by the same token. the element next to it. More generally mathematical statements involving a natural number n such as 1 + 2 + . the element next to it. has that property (inductive step). This process is somewhat analogous to the knocking over a row of dominos with knocking over the first domino corresponding to the basis step. has the property in question (basis step). natural numbers can be proven to have certain properties as follows: First it is proven that the basis element. it is often a good idea to restate P(k+1) in terms of . To prove that a statement P(n) is true for all natural number natural number. has the property in question. When these two are proven.. any natural number can be shown to have the property. and its elements can be generated one by one starting with 0 by adding 1. Then since 1 has the property. that is n + 1. the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively. The first principle of mathematical induction states that if the basis step and the inductive step are proven. . then P(n) is true for all natural number . then the next element. that is 0. Thus the set of natural numbers can be described completely by specifying the basis element (0). which is 1. and the process of generating an element from a known element in the set.Subjects to be Learned • • • • • first principle of mathematical induction basis step induction hypothesis induction second principle of mathematical induction Contents First Priciple of Mathematical Induction As we have seen in recursion . Taking advantage of this. if P(k) is true (called induction hypothesis). As a first step for proof by induction. we proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P( ) is true. has the same property again by the inductive step. denote it by n. then it follows that all the natural numbers have that property. then P(k+1) is true. Then it is proven that if an arbitrary natural number. has the same property by the inductive step.. where is a Induction: Prove that for any integer . For since 0 has the property by the basis step. which is 2. Proceeding likewise.

.1) to prove P(n).. Example 1: Let us prove the following equality using the second principle: For any natural number n .. + n + (n + 1) = (0 + 1 + .. 0 + 1 + . . + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2. -------. Factoring (n + 1) out. Second Priciple of Mathematical Induction There is another form of induction over the natural numbers based on the second principle of induction to prove assertions of the form x P(x) . + n) + (n + 1) . the last expression can be rewritten as n( n + 1 )/2 + (n + 1) . which is equal to the RHS for n+1. then LHS = 0. we get (n + 1)(n + 2) / 2 . first try to express LHS for n+1 in terms of LHS for n.Induction Hypothesis To prove this for n+1.. Here k [ k < n P(k) ] is the induction hypothesis. can be used. Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary natural number n. and RHS = 0 * (0 + 1) = 0 . This form of induction does not require the basis step. Formally the second principle of induction states that if n [ k [ k < n P(k) ] P(n) ] . Hence LHS = RHS. 1 + 3 + .P(k) so that P(k).. The reason that this principle holds is going to be explained later after a few examples of proof. and somehow use the induction hypothesis. Certain problems can be proven more easily by using the second principle than the first principle because P(k) for all k < n can be used rather than just P(n . + n = n( n + 1 )/2 .. Example: Prove that for any natural number n. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 .. Using the induction hypothesis. which is assumed to be true.. 0 + 1 + . then n P(n) can be concluded. Proof: Basis Step: If n = 0. Thus LHS = RHS for n+1. Here let us try LHS for n + 1 = 0 + 1 + . and in the inductive step P(n) is proved assuming P(k) holds for all k < n .. End of Proof.

. Relations Definition Relation Let A and B be sets.1 for all k. + ( 2n . then it is the product of 1. = ( n + 1 )n! .1 Proof: Assume that 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . say p and q. Example 2: Prove that for all positive integer n. If n is a prime number. Therefore the statement holds true... the individual can wear. + k * k! = ( k + 1 )! . which is a prime number.. it is either a prime number or not a prime number... by the induction hypothesis they can be written as the product of prime numbers (Note that this is not possible if the First Principle is being used). Since both p and q are smaller than n. + ( 2k + 1 ) = ( k + 1 )2 holds for all k. Then 1 + 3 + .. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . Hence n can also be written as the product of prime numbers. Proof: Assume that for all positive integers k. More precisely.1 ) * ( n . Let's assume that a person owns three shirts and two pairs of slacks. and itself. k can be written as the product of prime numbers. A binary relation from A into B is any subset of the Cartesian product A x B. Then certainly A x B is the set of all possible combinations (six) of shirts and slacks that nbsp.1 ) ) + ( 2n + 1 ) = n2 + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 by the induction hypothesis. tan slacks}. k < n..1 + n * n! by the induction hypothesis. We are going to prove that n can be written as the product of prime numbers.1 holds for all Example 3: Prove that any positive integer n > 1. mint green shirt} and B = {gray slacks. can be written as the product of prime numbers. However. Example1: nbsp. k < n. then it is a product of two positive integers. the individual may wish to restrict . + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 holds for all natural numbers. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! .. let A = {blue shirt. Hence by the second principle of induction 1 + 3 + . If n is not a prime number. Since n is an integer.Proof: Assume that 1 + 3 + . + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( 1 + 3 + .. n > k > 1. + ( n .1 Hence by the second principle of induction positive integers.1 )! + n * n! = n! . Then 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + ...

(2. y). where P is the parent-child relation given above. 6)}. where (a. y) | y is the square of x} and S = { (x.6). So. 6). tan slacks). (black shirt. Composition Let R be a relation from a set A into set B. c) S. b) Rand (b. 3. Let A be a set of people and let P = {(a. b) | a A ^ b A ^ a is a child of b } . R = { (x. written as RS. For example. is the composition of P with itself and it is a relation which we know as grandparentgrandchild relation. one such subset may be { (blue shirt. R and S of Example 2 above are relations on A = {2. (5. (3. 6}. The composition of R and S. 3. R could be more naturally expressed as R(x) = x2 . or R(x) =y where y = x2 . c) RS if and only if there exists b B such that (a. R = {(2. This may not be all possible pairs in A x B but will certainly be a subset of A x B. c) A x C. 6) and define a relation R from A into A by (a.himself to combinations which are color coordinated. tan slacks) }. y) | x <= y}. Example2: Let A = {2. 3). (mint green shirt. gray slack). PropertiesOf Relations . Other notations are used depending on the past practice. 5. This may not be convenient if R is relatively large. In some cases R can be described by actually listing the pairs which are in R. Consider the following relation on real numbers. b) R if and only if a divides evenly into b. is the set of pairs of the form(a. (3. as in the previous example. 5. Then P is a relation on A which we might call a parent-child relation. A typical element in R is an ordered pair (x. (6. For example PP. or "related". and S be a relation from set B into set C. 5). 2). Relation on a Set A relation from a set A into itself is called a relation on A.

b> and <a. Let us write a Symmetric: R is symmetric if for every a and b in A. if <a. R R b to denote (a.Assume R is a relation on set A. then aRc. for each element a in A. b) R . Thus. b and c in A. Equivalence: R is an equivalence relation on A if R is reflexive. 1. if aRb. A x A. The set A in the above definition is called the domain of the function and B its codomain. Transitive: R is transitive if for every a. if aRb and bRc. and 2. 3. f is a function if it covers the domain (maps every element of the domain) and it is single valued. Function Functions Subjects to be Reviewed • • • • • • • • • • • • function domain. denote it by f. Reflexive: R is reflexive if for every a A. then bRa. from a set A to a set B is a relation from A to B that satisfies 1. 2. there is an element b in B such that <a. then b = c . c> are in the relation. 4. symmetric and transitive. b> is in the relation. codomain image image of set range sum of functions product of functions one-to-one function (injection) onto function (surjection) one-to-one onto function (bijection) inverse function composite function Definition (function): A function. . in other words. a R a.

The relation given by f between a and b represented by the ordered pair <a. ( f*g )(x) = f(x)*g(x) . Example: Let f(x) = 3x + 1 and g(x) = x2 . and its range is the set of squares. if and only if whenever f(x) = f(y) . where S is a subset of the domain A of f . Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is one-to-one and onto. Note that f(x) = x2 is not one-to-one if it is from the set of integers(negative as well as non-negative) to N . Thus it is a bijection.. x = y . if and only if for every element y of B . Example: Let f be the function from the set of natural numbers N to N that maps each natural number x to x2 . Definition (sum and product): Let f and g be functions from a set A to the set of real numbers R. there is an element x in A such that f(x) = y . Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is an onto function. Definition (bijection): A function is called a bijection . The image of the domain under f is called the range of f . However. and b is called the image of a under f . Then ( f + g )(x) = x2 + 3x + 1 . for example.. where f(x)*g(x) is the product of two real numbers f(x) and g(x).e. and is denoted by f(S) . The set of images of the elements of a set S under a function f is called the image of the set S under f. under this function is 9. 9. Every bijection has a function called the inverse function. that is. Example: The function f(x) = x2 from the set of natural numbers N to N is a one-to-one function. . Then the sum and the product of f and g are defined as follows: For all x. { 0. and ( f*g )(x) = 3x3 + x2 Definition (one-to-one): A function f is said to be one-to-one (injective) . . and for all x. f(S) = { f(a) | a S }. 16. that is. because for example f(1) = f(-1) = 1 . i. f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to N is not onto. 4. if it is onto and one-to-one. Then the domain and codomain of this f are N. b> is denoted as f(a) = b . ( f + g )(x) = f(x) + g(x) . because. f is onto if and only if f( A ) = B .. Definition (onto): A function f from a set A to a set B is said to be onto(surjective) .} . 1. nothing in N can be mapped to 3 by this function. the image of. say 3.

in this course. denoted by fg . and let f be a function from B to a set C . Programming langauges we use are a language in that sense. Introduction to Language A language is. if for every element y of B. Example: The inverse function of f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of non-negative even numbers E is f -1(x) = 1/2 x from E to N . For example. f(x) > relation. natural languages etc. Then the function g is called the inverse function of f.These concepts are illustrated in the figure below. A function is a relation. Therefore one can also talk about composition of functions. and arrows show < x. the points on the left are in the domain and the ones on the right are in the codomain. and it is denoted by f -1 . Note that such an x is unique for each y because f is a bijection. and g(x) = x + 1 . where f(x) = y . Definition (inverse): Let f be a bijection from a set A to a set B. a set of strings of symbols. Definition (composite function): Let g be a function from a set A to a set B . languages of mathematics. . the rightmost function in the above figure is a bijection and its inverse is obtained by reversing the direction of each arrow. are all languages in that sense. g(y) = x . Example: Let f(x) = x2 . Others such as languages of logics. It is also a bijection. is the function from A to C that satisfies fg(x) = f( g(x) ) for all x in A . In each figure below. Then f( g(x) ) = ( x + 1 )2 . Then the composition of functions f and g .

e. These formal languages and automata capture the essense of various computing devices and computation in a very simple way.). It can be rigorously shown that some problems can not be solved by computers in any finite amount of time and that some others are practically unsolvable because of the time it takes to solve them. Then after seeing yet another way of representing regular laguages. In the following chapters we first learn about languages. together with regular expressions which are a method of representing regular languages. nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) and nondeterministic finite automata with transitions (NFA. On the other hand DFAs are suited for writing a simulator program because there is no nondeterminism such as going to two or more states from a state upon reading one input symbol. Using automata and formal languages we can study limitations of computer and computation. if the number of states of DFA is minimized. regular grammars. the simplest of the four formal languages. Then we study regular languages. Our last topic on regular language is testing of languages for non-regularity. They are devices that recognize regular languages. In asddition two of the formal languages. are quite useful for modeling systems used in practice such as co9mputer network communication protocols. Also for some important classes of problems. context-free (or type 2) languages.What we are going to study on languages in this course are four classes of languages called (Chomsky) formal languages and their properties. The four classes are regular (or type 3) languages. checking whether or not a string is in a language. solving them can be seen as recognizing languages i. NFA and NFAare conceptually simpler and easier to use when modeling a system because there are no restrictions on transitions for them unlike for DFA. We are going to see an algorithm for converting NFAto NFA which recognizes the same language and another for NFA to DFA conversion. Definitions on Language Subjects to be Learned . in general there are more than one NFAs and DFAs that reconize one language. These formal languages are characterized by grammars which are essentially a set of rewrite rules for generating strings belonging to a language as we see later. Then we investigate various kinds of finite automata: deterministic finite automata (DFA). As we are going to learn next. regular and context-free languages. lexical analyzers and parser for compilers for programming languages. context-sensitive (or type 1) languages and phrase structure (or type 0) languages. Also there are various kinds of computing devices called automata which process these types of languages Thus formal languages can also be characterized by the computing devices which process them. However. we are going to learn modeling of systems finite automata. Type 3 is a subset of type 2 which is a subset of type 1 and type 0 is the most general including the other three as a subset. then the resulting DFA is unique up to the state names for a given regular language.

A string (also called a word) is a finite sequence of symbols of an alphabet. 111} is a language (over alphabet {0. b} is another alphabet with two symbols and English alphabet is also an alphabet. So a string is a substring of itself. Thus | | = 0. For example if u = aab and v = bbab. Some special languages The empty set is a language which has no strings. 3. b. b} and 0. it has no symbols.b}) and {0. 2. A string x is a prefix of another string y if there is a string v such that y = xv. a and aabab are examples of string over alphabet {a. the set of all strings over (including the empty string) is denoted by . this set has an object in it. Operations on languages Since languages are sets. The empty string (also called null string) is the string with length 0. all the set operations can be applied to languages. We are going to use first few symbols of English alphabet such as a and b to denote symbols of an alphabet and those toward the end such as u and v for strings. 1. Note that u and v may be an empty string. namely . 10 and 001 are examples of string over alphabet {0. 1} is an alphabet with two symbols. union. The empty string is denoted by (capital lambda).1}). v is called a suffix of y. The set { } is a language which has one string. A string x is called a substring of another string y if there are strings u and v such that y = uxv. Thus a language over alphabet is a subset of . The number of symbols in a string is called the length of the string. intersetion and difference of two languages over an alphabet are languages over .• • • • alphabet string (word) language operations on languages: concatenation of strings. Then uv denotes the string obtained by concatenating u with v. baa} is a language (over alphabert {a. that is. {a. then uv = aabbbab. Though has no symbols. an alphabet is a finite set of symbols. ab. So it is not empty. operations on languages and some of their properties. A language is a set of strings over an alphabet. uv is the string obtained by appending the sequence of symbols of v to that of u. Thus {a. For a string w its length is represented by |w|. Thus the union. Basic concepts First. 1}. intersection. Note that vu = bbabaab uv. For example {0. That is. Kleene star Contents Here we are going to learn the concept of language in very abstract and general sense. For any alphabet . Let u and v be strings. It can be defined more formally by recursive definition.

Recursive definition of L*: Basis Clause: L* and we are going to see Inductive Clause: For any x L* and any w L. Similarly for a language L. bbaba. } The * in * is also the same Kleene star defined above. Recursive definition of L+: Basis Clause: L L+ . babb. b} {aaa. * The following two types of languages are generalizations of them quite often in this course. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. aaba} = {abaaa. bb.. For example if L = { aba. Here a0 = and u0 = . abaaba. abaaba. For a string u and a natural number k.. baaa. is . The complement of a language L over an alphabet language. the extremal clause is not necessary. Then the concatenation of L1 with L2 is denoted as L1L2 and it is defined as L1L2 = { uv | u L1 and v L2 }. These powers can be formally defined recursively. Let L1 and L2 be languages. ak and uk can be defined similarly. That is L1L2 is the set of strings obtained by concatenating strings of L1 with those of L2. uk denotes the concatenation of k u's. For example Lk can be defined recursively as follows. then L* = { . aba. bb }. xw L*. ababb. . ababb. This * is called Kleene star. L* is the set of strings obtained by concatenating zero or more strings of L as we are going to see in Theorem 1.L and it is also a Another operation onlanguages is concatenation. ak represents the concatenation of k a's. Lk means the concatenation of k L's. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k. abb. bbbb. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = Lk L. Powers : For a symbol a and a natural number k. baaba}. Hence Lk is the set of strings that can be obtained by concatenating k strings of L.. For example {ab.

wmmk . wk in L* such that x = w1w2. L* and L* have a number of interesting properties. w1w2. wi2. wk are strings of L*. abaaba. ababb. then L+ = { aba. i.wm1. .w1m1w21. Let us list one of them as a theorem and prove it.. for each wi there are strings wi1. by applying Theorem 2 to the language L* L* Conversely ( L* )* Let x be an arbitrary nonempty string of ( L* )*.e. } Let us also define natural number k } .... L0 L L2 .... bbbb. Theorems 1 and 2 are proven in "General Induction" which you study in the next unit.. Then there are nonempty strings w1. wimi in L such that wi = wi1wi2.. any nonempty string in L* or L+ can be expresssed as the concatenation of strings of L. Thus L+ is the set of strings obtained by concatenating one or more strings of L... Since w1.. . (i. ) as ={x|x Lk for some Then the following relationships hold on L* and L+. Proof: Because we can see that L* (L*)*. . .. Other proofs are omitted.w2m2.wk for some k. Hence x is in L* .. bb }. bb.wimi Hence x = w11 . w2. Theorem 5: L* = (L*)*.e. w2... where wi's are strings of L. bbaba.. . For example if L = { aba.Inductive Clause: For any x L+ and any w L. .. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L+ unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.... L* can be proven as follows: by Theorem 2.wk . Theorem 1: Ln Theorem 2: Theorem 3: Theorem 4: L+ = L L* = L*L Note: According to Theorems 2 and 3... xw L+....

If x is an empty string, then it is obviously in L* . Hence ( L* )* Since L* L* . L* , L* = ( L* )* .

(L*)* and ( L* )*

**Problem Solving as Language Recognition
**

Subjects to be Learned

• • •

problem instance problem as language problem solving as language recognition

Contents

In the previous section the concept of language was introduced and its properties have been briefly studied. You might be wondering why we study language. The main reason for studying language is that solving problems can be viewed as a language recognition problem as explained below, that is, the problem of checking whether or not a string belongs to a language. Thus instead of studying what kind of problems can be solved by what kind of computational devices and how, we can study languages and devices to recognize them which are simpler to deal with uncluttered with variations in actual devices, programming languages etc. Below an example is given to illustrate how solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Consider the following problem: Is the longest of the distances between two nodes(i.e. the diameter) of a given graph less than a given integer k ? Here the distance is the smallest number of edges (or hops) between the nodes. Some of the instances of this problem are as shown below:

Instance 1 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with one edge and two nodes is less than 1. Instance 2 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with four edges and four nodes is less than 2. Simiarlyt for Instance 3. These problem instances can be represented by a string as follows: Instance 1: 1,2;(1,2);1 Instance 2: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(3,4);2 Instance 3: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(2,3)(2,4)(3,4);3 Here the set of nodes, the set of edges and k are separated by ; in that order in the strings. The solutions to these instances are: Instance 1: No Instance 2: No Instance 3: Yes There are infinitely many 'Yes' instances and 'No' instances for this problem. The set of 'Yes' instances is a language and so is the set of 'No' instances as well as the set of all

instances and many others for this problem. We can thus see that solving the problem for a given instance is equivalent to checking whether or not the string representing the given instance belongs to the language of 'Yes' instances of the problem. That is, the problem solving is the same as the language recognition. A problem can be solved if and only if the language of its 'Yes' instances is recognizable or decidable by a Turing machine. It is not solvable if the language is merely accecptable but not recognizable, or even worse if it is not even acceptable.

(a.k.a Structural Induction)

Mathematical statements involving an element of a recursively defined set can be proven by induction. To prove by induction that a statement P(x) is true for all the elements x of a recursively defined set S, proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P(x) is true for all the elements x in the basis of S. Induction: Prove that for any element(s) x of S if P(x) is true, then P(y) is true for any element y obtained from x by the induction step of the recursive definition of S. Note 1 : In the Induction we try to prove that if a parent has the property then all of its children also have that property. In the process we need the relationship between the parent and the children. That relationship is found in the Inductive Clause of the recursive definition of the set in question. Note 2 : As a first step for general induction proof, it is often a good idea to express y in terms of x so that P(x) can be used. Example 1 (Theorem 1 in "Language") : Prove that Ln L* for any natural number n and any language L. Let us first review the definitions. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = LkL. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k, the extremal clause is not necessary. Recursive definition of L*:

Then there exist strings x and y that satisfy x L and w = xy by the definition of Lk+1. Hence x . xy Hence w Thus Lk+1 L* . L* . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. number k. x L* . . Now let us prove that Ln L* by induction on Ln. L* since y L. Basis Step: Since by the definitions L0 = { Inductive Step: Assume that Lk Hypothesis We are going to show that Lk+1 }. Then by the definition of L*. x Example 2 (Theorem 2 in "Language") Let us prove L* = Note that ={x|x Lk for some natural number k } . xw L*. L0 L* . Lk Next let us prove L* .Basis Clause: L* Inductive Clause: For any string x L* and any string w L. Proof: Let us first prove Suppose that x Lk for some natural L* . Note in the proof below that Basis and Inductive Steps mirror the Basis and Inductive Clauses of the definition of Ln . L* by theInduction Hypothesis. --. L* for an arbitrary natural numer k. Since Lk L* . Hence . By Example 1 above . . Lk . and L* .Induction L* . Then by the definition of L* . L* . y Let w be an arbitrary string in Lk+1 .

e. . then for some natural number k . REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. So we show that the property for x is inherited by its children xy. then its children xy. Hence by the definition of Inductive Step: Assume that for an arbitrary x in L*.e. Basis Clause: REV( )= . x Lk . Hence xy End of Inductive Step and Proof Hence we have proven Example 3 . The function REV(x) on strings x over the alphabet is defined as follows. x We are going to show that for an arbitrary element y L . It produces the reversal of a given string x (i. and any symbol . . also have the property. REV(xa) = Inductive Clause: For any string aREV(x). Note that each step mirror the recursive definition of . where y is an arbitrary elememt of L. xy holds. So we first prove that * the element of the basis of L has the propertyy. Let us prove the inheritance. by Example 1 above. x spelled backward). . Basis Step: L0 since L0 = { }. of L* has the property. say x. Note here that x is a parent and by applying an operation (i. If x . by concatenating y) a child of x in is obtained. holds. Then we show that if any element. Hence xy Lk+1 by the definition of Ln . Prove that for arbitrary strings x and y of .Note that L* is defined recursively and that below we are trying to prove that the elements of L* have the property that they also belong to .

Induction Hypothesis Then for an arbitrary symbol a of . -. xa is also in . LrLs and Lr* are regular languages. Any language belonging to this set is a regular language over . . which is what we needed. End of Proof.Proof First let us note that * can be defined recursively as follows: . Inductive Clause: If Lr and Ls are regular languages. Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary string y of . Regular language The set of regular languages over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. The proof mirrors the recursive definition of . Definition of Set of Regular Languages : Basis Clause: . REV(xya) = REV((xy)a) = a REV(xy). But by induction hypothesis a REV(xy) = a REV(y)REV(x). Since a REV(y) = REV(ya). Basis Step: REV(x ) = REV( x ) = REV( )REV( x ) . and an arbitrary string y of . { } and {a} for any symbol a are regular languages. * Basis Clause: where is an empty string. Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular language unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. REV(xya) = REV(ya)REV(x). The proof of the equality in question is going to be proven for an arbitrary fixed x by induction on y. Thus the statement to be proven is for an arbitrary fixed string x. then Lr Ls . Definitions of Regular Language and Regular Expression Subjects to be Learned • • regular language regular expression 1. Omitted. Inductive Clause: For arbitrary strings x of and a of ExtremalClause: As usual. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds.

b} ( = {a} {b} ) and {ab} ( = {a}{b} ) are regular languages. (3) The concatenation of k r's . 2. Thus for example rr = r2 . Note also that *. b}. let = {a. Thus the regular expression ( a + ( b( c*) ) ) is written as a + bc*. Basis Clause: . bold face may not be used for regular expressions. {a. ( rs ) and ( r*) are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr Ls . which is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's. then ( r + s ) . The language corresponding to rk is Lrk. where Lr is the language corresponding to the regular expression r. where a is an element of . aaaa etc. aaa. is written as rk. For a recursive definition of Lrk click here. and a are regular expressions corresponding to languages . . Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular expression unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. (2) The operation * has precedence over concatenation. a. They can represent regular languages and operations on them succinctly. aa. Regular expression Regular expressions are used to denote regular languages. Any element of that set is a regular expression. where r is a regular expression. Conventions on regular expressions (1) When there is no danger of confusion. The set of regular expressions over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. { } and {a}. respectively. b} is regular. ( r + s ) is used in stead of ( r + s ). is a regular language because {a. (4) We use ( r+) as a regular expression to represent Lr+ . LrLs and Lr* . {a}* is a regular language which is the set of strings consisting of a's such as . So for example.For example. which has precedence over union ( + ). Inductive Clause: If r and s are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr and Ls . Also since {a} is regular. Then since {a} and {b} are regular languages. respectively.

b}. in general. ( ab )+ corresponds to the language {ab. abab. that is the set of strings of length 2 over the alphabet {a. Note:A regular expression is not unique for a language. bb}. In general ( a + b )k corresponds to the set of strings of length k over the alphabet {a. b}. that is.. . That is.. . Definition of Equality of Regular Expressions Regular expressions are equal if and only if they correspond to the same language.Examples of regular expression and regular languages corresponding to them • • • • ( a + b )2 corresponds to the language {aa. the set of strings of repeated ab's. a*b* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by zero or more b's. a*b+a* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by one or more b's followed by zero or more a's. Thus for example ( a + b )* = ( a*b* )* . ab. because they both represent the language of all strings over the alphabet {a. corresponds to more than one regular expressions. ba. b}. ( a + b )* corresponds to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. In general. it is not easy to see by inspection whether or not two regular expressions are equal. For example ( a + b )* and ( a*b* )* correspond to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. b}. ababab. b}. a regular language. }.

(a) find a string corresponding to r2 but not to r1 and (b) find a string corresponding to both r1 and r2. Ex. they do not produce any strings that are not represented by (r1 + r2)*. For example ab and ba are such strings. (a) Since (r1 + r2)* represents all strings consisting of strings of r1 and/or r2 . Find a simple (the shortest and with the smallest nesting of * and +) regular expression which is equal to each of the following regular expressions. b. (a + b)+ etc. Thus anything that comes after the first r1 in (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is represented by (r1 + r2)*. a*. bb and ab are in the language. a+. (a) (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ Solution: One general strategy to approach this type of question is to try to see whether or not they are equal to simple regular expressions that are familiar to us such as a. the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*) start with a string of r1 followed by any number of strings taken arbitrarily from r1 and/or r2. However. The only strings corresponding to r2 which consist of only a's or b's are a. 1: Find the shortest string that is not in the language represented by the regular expression a*(ab)*b*. r1r2 + r2r1 in the given regular expression is redundant. b and the strings consiting of only b's (from (a*b)*). (b) A string corresponding to r1 consists of only a's or only b's or the empty string. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*) . However. Thus (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* is reduced to (r1 + r2)*. Ex. ba is not in it. Thus the answer is ba. that is. Solution: It can easily be seen that . So we need to find strings of r2 which contain at least one a and at least one b. a. r1 = a* + b* r2 = ab* + ba* + b*a + (a*b)* Solution: (a) Any string consisting of only a's or only b's and the empty string are in r1. 3: Let r1 and r2 be arbitrary regular expressions over some alphabet. Of the strings wiht length 2 aa. (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ means that all the strings represented by it must consist of one or more strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*). 2: For the two regular expressions given below.Exercise Questions on Regular Language and Regular Expression Ex. which are strings in the language with length 1 or less. (a + b)*.

5: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L and a L. Ex. First of all L . 7: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the . Ex. 4: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L over the alphabet { a . strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or bb to any of the already generated strings. Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. and since an arbitrasry string of b's can be represented by the regular expression b*. Thus (aab + bb)*(a + ) is a regular expression for L. b*a b*a b* is a regular expression for this language. Then starting with or a. Ex. behind the second a and between the two a's. Since any string of b's can be placed in front of the first a.also represents the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*)+. then aabx L and xbb L . strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or appending bb to any of the already generated strings. then aabx L and bbx L . and conversely (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ represents the strings represented by (r1(r1 + r2)*). Thus (aab)*(bb)* is a regular expression for L. Then starting with . 6: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. Hence a string of L consists of zero or more aab's in front and zero or more bb's following them. b } that contain exactly two a's. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is reduced to (r1(r1 + r2)*). Hence a string of L has zero or more of aab's and bb's in front possibly followed by a at the end. Ex. Inductive Clause: If x L . Solution: A string in this language must have at least two a's. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. First of all and a are in L . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. b } defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L Inductive Clause: If x L . Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L.

If an a comes after that aa. Hence if a string of the language contains aa then it corresponds to the regular expression ( b + ab )*aa( b + ba )* . b }. Hence a string preceding the aa can be represented by ( b + ab )*. then it must be followed by b. it is the set of strings over the alphabet { a. Note that 0 is an even number. then applying the same argument as for aa to . Hence any string that follows aa is represented by ( b + ba )*. 10: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression a*b(a*ba*b)*a* . Solution: Since any string of even length can be expressed as the concatenation of strings of length 2 and since the strings of length 2 are aa. 11: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the . Hence if a string does not end with ab then it ends with a or if it ends with b the last b must be preceded by a symbol b. Since it can have any string in front of the last a or bb. Solution: A string in the language can start and end with a or b. Solution: If there is one substring aa in a string of the language. 9: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of strings of even lengths over the alphabet of { a. and after the first b all the b's in the string appear in pairs. Thus simply put. 8: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. b } that do not end with ab. Solution: Any string in a language over { a . b } must end in a or b. it has at least one b. ba. ( b + ab )*( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. On the other hand if an a precedes the aa. then applying the same argument as for aa to a. ab. a regular expression corresponding to the language is ( aa + ab + ba + bb )*. b } that contain an odd number of b's Ex. Any numbe of a's can appear any place in the string.alphabet { a. Altogether ( b + ab )*( + a + aa )( b + ba )* is a regular expression for the language. bb. Ex. Hence the string is in this language. ( a + b )*( a + bb ) is a regular expression for the language. ( b + ab )*a( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. then that aa can be followed by any number of b. Ex. If there may not be any a in a string of the language. b } that contain no more than one occurence of the string aa. then that a must be preceded by b because otherwise there are two occurences of aa. If there is no aa but at least one a exists in a string of the language. Ex.

where n is a natural number. Solution: (( a + b )3) represents the strings of length 3. Proof: Let Lr and Ls be regular languages over an alphabet . Note 2: The union of infinitely many regular languages is not necessarily regular. that is.regular expression (( a + b )3)*( +a+b). Since (( a + b )3)*( a + b ) represents the strings of length 3n + 1. Lr Ls . Regularity of finite languages Theorem 1: The set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed under operations union. We say a language is finite if it consists of a finite number of strings. Ex. where n is a natural number. Hence altogether it represents any string consisting of a substring with no aa followed by one b followed by a substring with no bb. Properties of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • Closure of the set of regular languages under union. is not regular as we shall see later. concatenation and Kleene star operations. 12: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression ( b + ab )*( a + ab )*. { anbn | n is a natural number } which is the union of all the languages { akbk } . The following theorem shows that any finite language is regular. For example while { akbk } is regular for any natural number k . Hence (( a + b )3)* represents the strings of length a multiple of 3. the given regular expression represents the strings of length 3n and 3n + 1. Solution: ( b + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring aa and which end in b. a finite language is a set of n . concatenation and Kleene star. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages and they are obviously over the alphabet . and ( a + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring bb. Thus the set of regular languages is closed under those operations. Then by the definition of the set of regular languages . Note 1: Later we shall see that the complement of a regular language and the intersection of regular laguages are also regular.

End of proof of Theorem 2. { a } is a regular language from the Basis Step. Inductive Step: Assume that a language L consisting of n strings is a regular language (induction hypothesis). } and { a } are Inductive Step: Assume that { w } is a regular language for an arbitrary string w over . Basis Step: (corresponding to n = 0) is a regular language by the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. Proof: Let us first assume that a language consisting of a single string is regular and prove the theorem by induction. Then since { w } is a regular language as proven below. Proof of Claim 2: Proof by induction on strings. Hence { aw } is regular. Then for any symbol a of . End of proof for Claim 2 Note that Claim 2 can also be proven by induction on the length of string. a finite language is regular) if { w } is regular for any string w. . { regular languages for any arbitrary symbol a of .strings for some natural number n. Then { w } is a regular language. Hence by the Inductive Clause of the definition of regular language { a }{ w } is regular. Theorem 2: A finite language is regular. Proof of the Claim 1: Proof by induction on the number of strings. Basis Step: By the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. End of proof of Claim 1 Thus if we can show that { w } is a regular language for any string w. then we have proven the theorem. We then prove that a language consisting of a single string is regular. Claim 2: Let w be a string over an alphabet . Claim 1: A language consisting of n strings is regular for any natural number n (that is. L { w } is a regular language by the definition of regular language.

say 15-cents state. you must give the customer a can of soft drink. that is. The states and the transitions between them of this vending machine can be represented with the diagram below. We have learned that regular languages are represented by regular expressions and conversely.e. Click "NICKEL" or "DIME" in the figure and see how it operates (see how arrows turn red). We are going to learn languages which are not regular and ways to test languages for non-regularity.Introduction to Finite Automata In this chapter we are going to study a class of machines called finite automata. If the customer puts in a nickel. Initially you are waiting for a customer to come and put some coins. So you are in another state. There are languages which are not regular and which. A kind of systems finite automnata can model and a computer program to simulate their operations are discussed later. tell whether or not a given string belongs to the regular language). We are then going to study how finite automata can be used to simulate operations of systems we see in practice. In the figure. you are in the waiting-for-customer state. After that you stay in that state until another coin is put in to start the process anew or you may terminate the operation and start all over from the initial state. Later we are going to learn an extension of finite automata called Turing machines. So we might say you are in the 10-cents state. Though Turing machines are simple modification of finite automata. Then we are going to see that for every regular language a unique finite automaton can be constructed which can recognize the language (i. When a customer comes and puts in the first coin. In this example you as a vending machine have gone through (transitions between) a number of states responding to the inputs from the customer (coins in this case). can not be recognized by finite automata. circles represent states and arrows state transitions. Their operations can be simulated by a very simple computer program. Pretend that you are the machine. say a dime. You have received 10 cents and are waiting for more coins to come. Ds on arrows represent a dime and Ns a nickel. Let us consider the operation of a soft drink vending machine which charges 15 cents for a can. you are no longer in the waiting-for-customer state. It is assumed that the machine terminates its operation when it receives 15 cents or more. A vending machine looked at this way is an example of finite automaton. In the next few chapters first we are going to learn different kinds of finite automata. Unfortunately not all languages and systems are simple like regular languages or finite automata. they are much more powerful computing devices than finite automata. When the customer selects a soft drink. then you have now received 15 cents and you wait for the customer to select a soft drink. and equivalence and conversions between them. Finite automata are computing devices that accept/recognize regular languages and are used to model operations of many systems we find in practice. therefore. In fact Turing machines are as . Let us assume that only nickels and dimes are used for simplicity.

Also let be a function from Q to Q . The transition function is also called a next state function meaning that the automaton moves into the state (q. however. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ceases to come. the transition function. The accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. in the Example 1 below. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. Definition of Deterministic Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • • • Finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of deterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. For example. 3. Thus in the example of vending machine. Its elements can. though not proven. The set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. . be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. 4. We call the elements of Q a state. Thus in the example of vending machine. the states of the machine such as "waiting for a customer to put a coin in". that any computation human beings do (with or without computers) can be performed by Turing machines. a) must be specified. for example. "Waiting for a customer to put a coin in" can be considered the initial state of this automaton and the state in which the machine gives out a soda can can be considered the accepting state. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. then (q. q0 . Otherwise it is not accepted. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of . Note that is a function. are the elements of Q. "have received 5 cents" etc.powerful as computers and it is generally believed. a) is equal to "have received 5 cents". q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. (q. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". . Then a deterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . if q is the initial state and a nickel is put in. . 2. A > Notes on the definition 1.

But any other strings such as aa. An arc ( p . then we need a DFA such as shown in the following examle to accept the same string a. 1. DFAs are often represented by digraphs called (state) transition diagram. Transition functions can also be represented by tables as seen below. Examples of finite automaton Example 1: Q = { 0. etc. Abbreviations such as FA and DFA are used to denote deterministic finite automaton. The accepting states are indicated by double circles. It is a little more complex DFA. 5. 2 }. aaa. b } in stead of { a }. = { a }. A = { 1 }. ) = q . q ) from vertex p to vertex q with label represents the transition (p. the following table. A deterministic finite automaton is also called simply a "finite automaton". . a) ) A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 1 a 2 2 a 2 (q. If the alphabet of the Example 1 is changed to { a. are not accepted. The vertices (denoted by single circles) of a transition diagram represent the states of the DFA and the arcs labeled with an input symbol correspond to the transitions. They are called transition table.the string a is accepted by the finite automaton.

A DFA that accepts all strings consisting of only symbol a over the alphabet { a. b }. A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 0 b 2 1 a 2 1 b 2 2 a 2 2 b 2 (q.Example 2: Q = { 0. b }. Example 3: Q = { 0. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. = { a. a) ) . 2 }. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. 1 }. the following table. = { a. A = { 0 }. 1. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 0 0 b 1 1 a 1 1 b 1 (q. in the following table. b } is the next example. A = { 1 }.

20 }. the initial state q0 = 0. Q = { 0. N }. 5.A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. A = { 15. its transition function is as shown in the following table. 10. If we make it a DFA. a) ) . = { D. Example 4: For the example of vending machine of the previous section. State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 N 5 0 D 10 5 N 10 5 D 15 10 N 15 10 D 20 15 N 5 15 D 10 20 N 5 20 D 10 (q. 15. 20 }.

The tape has a read only head. When it sees no symbol. 4. The tape has the left end and extends to the right without an end.A finite automaton as a machine A finite automaton can also be thought of as the device shown below consisting of a tape and a control circuit which satisfy the following conditions: 1. it stops and the automaton terminates its operation. The head is always at the leftmost square at the beginning of the operation. There is a finite control which determines the state of the automaton and also controls the movement of the head. It never moves to the left. 5. . 3. 6. The tape is divide into squares in each of which a symbol can be written prior to the start of the operation of the automaton. The head moves to the right one square every time it reads a symbol. 2.

it moves to state 1. it stays in state 0 while it reads all the a's (without breaks) on the tape. this DFA never leaves state 1. . the DFA is in the accepting state. For example strings aaa. Once it gets to state 1. when all the a's on the tape are read. When zero or more a's are given as an input to it. then no matter what symbol is read. Initially it is in state 0. b etc. aaaaaa etc. are not accepted by this automaton. As an example let us consider the DFA of Example 3 above.Operation of finite automata Let us see how an automaton operates when it is given some inputs. it goes into state 1 and the input string is not accepted by the DFA. Thus this automaton accepts any string of a's. Hence when b appears anywhere in the input. are accepted but strings such as aaba. If b is read while it is in state 0 (initially or after reading some a's). Since the state 0 is also the accepting state.

*

of DFA and its Properties

Subjects to be Learned

• •

*

Language accepted by DFA

Contents

Here we are going to formally describe what is meant by applying a transition repeatedly, that is the concept of * For a state q and string w, *( q , w ) is the state the DFA goes into when it reads the string w starting at the state q. In general a DFA goes through a number of states from the state q responding to the symbols in the string w. Thus for a DFA < Q , , q0 , , A > , the function

* :Q -> Q is defined recursively as follows: *

Definition of

*

:

*

Basis Clause: For any state q of Q ,

(q,

) = q , where

*

denotes the empty string. and any symbol a ,

Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q, any string y * ( q , ya ) = ( *( q , y ) , a ) .

In the definition, the Basis Clause says that a DFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the state DFA reaches after reading string ya starting at state q is the state it reaches by reading symbol a after reading string y from state q. Example For example suppose that a DFA contains the transitions shown below.

Then

*

*

( q , DNR ) can be calculated as follows:

( q , DNR ) = ( *( q , DN ) , R ) by the Inductive Clause. = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , DN ). = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) since D = D . = ( ( ( *( q , ) , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , D ). = ( ( ( q , D ) , N ) , R ) , since ( q , ) = q . = ( ( q1 , N ) , R ) , since ( q , D ) = q1 as seen from the diagram. = ( q2 , R ) , since ( q1 , N ) = q2 as seen from the diagram. = q3 since ( q2 , R ) = q3 as seen from the diagram. Properties of

*

We can see the following two properties of

*

. for a DFA < Q , , q0 , ,A

**Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >,
**

*

(q,a)=

(q,a)

Proof : Since a = a , * ( q , a ) = *( q , a ) . By the definition of * , * ( q , a ) = ( *( q , ) , a ) But *( q , ) = q by the definition of Hence ( *( q , ) , a ) = ( q , a ) .

*

.

The next theorem states that the state reached from any state, say q , by reading a string, say w , is the same as the state reached by first reading a prefix of w, call it x, and then by reading the rest of the w, call it y. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 , , A > , for a DFA < Q , ,

*

( q , xy ) =

*

(

*

(q,x),y).

Proof : This is going to be proven by induction on string y. That is the statement to be proven is the following: * For an arbitrary fixed string x, ( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for any arbitrary string y. First let us review the recursive definition of *. Recursive definition of Basis Clause:

* *

:

.

* * Inductive Clause: If x and a , then xa . * Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.

Now the proof of the theorem. Basis Step: If y = , then *( q , xy ) = *( q , x ) = *( q , x ) . Also *( *( q , x ) , y ) = *( *( q , x ) , ) = *( q , x ) by the definition of * . Hence the theorem holds for y = . Inductive Step: Assume that *( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for an arbitrary string y. This is the induction hypothesis. We are going to prove that *( q , xya ) = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) for any arbitrary symbol a of . ( q , xya ) = ( *( q , xy ) , a ) by the definition of * = ( * ( *( q , x ) , y ) , a ) by the induction hypothesis. = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) by the definition of * . Thus the theorem has been proven.

*

For the following DFA answer the questions given below.

A language L is accepted by a DFA < Q . . . A > .The following notations are used in the questions: : \delta * : \delta^* : \Lambda Language Accepted by DFA Subjects to be Learned • Language accepted by DFA A string w is accepted by a DFA < Q . if and only if ( q0 . That is a string is accepted by a DFA if and only if the DFA starting at the initial state ends in an accepting state after reading the string. w ) A } . if and only if L = { w | *( q0 . w ) A . Example 1 : . A > . q0 . * . the language accepted by a DFA is the set of strings accepted by the DFA. . That is. q0 .

It accepts nothing else because any non-empty symbol would take it to state 1. Example 2 : This DFA does not accept any string because it has no accepting state.2 . Then from state 1 go to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading aa. and it stays there. Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by a(ab)*aa .This DFA accepts { } because it can go from the initial state to the accepting state (also the initial state) without reading any symbol of the alphabet i. Thus the language it accepts is the empty set Example 3 : DFA with one cycle . To find the language it accepts.1 any number of times by reading substring ab any number of times to come back to state 1. first from the initial state go to state 1 by reading one a. Then from state 1 go through the cycle 1 . . by reading an empty string .2 . which is not an accepting state. This DFA has a cycle: 1 .1 and it can go through this cycle any number of times by reading substring ab repeatedly.e. This is represented by (ab)*.

1 . To find the language accepted by this DFA.1.Example 4 : DFA with two independent cycles This DFA has two independent cycles: 0 .2 .1 .0.2 .3 .2 . first from state 0 go to state 1 by .0 and it can move through these cycles any number of times in any order to reach the accepting state from the initial state such as 0 .0 .2 .2 .1 and 1 . Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by ( ab + bb )*.0 .0 and 0 . Example 5 : DFA with two interleaved cycles This DFA has two cycles: 1 .0 .

3 . To find the language accepted at state 1.2 . Then from state 1 go through the two cycles 1 . Thus the language accepted at state 1 is b*a(ba)* . Example 6 : This DFA has two accepting states: 0 and 1.2 . So we are not going to go any further on this problem here. At this point (b*a) will have been read.reading a ( any other state which is common to these cycles such as state 2 can also be used instead of state 1 ).1 any number of times in any order by reading substrings baa and bba.1 and 1 . There is a systematic way of finding the language accepted by a DFA and we are going to learn it later. Thus altogether a( baa + bba )*bb will have been read when state 3 is reached from state 0. The language accepted at state 0 is b* . At state 1 go through the cycle 1 . At this point a substring a( baa + bba )* will have been read. respectively.0 .2 . Then go from state 1 to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading bb.1 any number of times by reading substring ba repeatedly. Then go to state 1 by reading one a. first at state 0 read any number of b's. Thus the language that is accepted by this DFA is the union of the language accepted at state 0 and the one accepted at state 1. Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata .

Otherwise it is not accepted. But it can be the empty set. Also let be a function from Q to 2Q .Subjects to be Learned • • • Nondeterministic finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of (q. We call the elements of Q a state. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 1 a (q. 1 }. As in the case of DFA the set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. Note that any DFA is also a NFA. 2. the following table. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ends i. Examples of NFA Example 1: Q = { 0. the transition function. = { a }. Note that is a function. Its elements can be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. As in the case of DFA the accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. ceases to come. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. a) to select is determined nondeterministically. in which case the NFA aborts its operation. a) ) .e. 3. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. 5. a) must be specified. q0 . let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. A = { 1 }. . Unlike DFAs an NFA moves into one of the states given by (q. The transition function is also called a next state function . Which one of the states in (q. . A > Notes on the definition 1. 4.

. b } in stead of { a }. in the following table. b }. = { a. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1. is changed to { a. 1. A = { 2 }.A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below.2} 0 1 1 2 2 b a b a b {2} (q. 2 }. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. this is still an NFA that accepts { Example 2: Q = { 0. If the alphabet a}. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b.

Since the state 2 is the accepting state.Operation of NFA Let us see how an automaton operates when some inputs are applied to it. Let us now define the function strings and languages by NFA. it moves to either state 1 or state 2. it does not accept any of them. then it stays in the accepting state. When it reads the symbol a. if the next input is b and if no more inputs are given. If on the other hand it moves to state 1 after reading a. We say that this automaton accepts the string a. then it goes to state 2 and remains there. * and then formalize the concepts of acceptance of . As an example let us consider the automaton of Example 2 above. If any other strings are given to this NFA. Thus the string ab is also accepted by this NFA. if it moves to state 2 and no more inputs are given. Initially it is in state 0.

Example State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {0. ) = { q }. the Basis Clause says that an NFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the set of states NFA can reach after reading string ya starting at state q is the set of states it can reach by reading symbol a after reading string y starting at state q. Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q. . In general an NFA nondeterministically goes through a number of states from the state q as it reads the symbols in the string w. . * (q. *( q . ya ) = In the definition.Language Accepted by NFA Subjects to be Learned • • • for NFA Language accepted by NFA Properties of * * Definition of * For a state q and string w. A > . the function * :Q -> 2Q is defined recursively as follows: * Definition of *: Basis Clause: For any state q of Q. where * denotes the empty .3} 0 b {2} 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b {1} {3} {3} (q. a) ) For example consider the NFA with the following transition table: . string.1. Thus for an NFA < Q . q0 . w ) is the set of states that the NFA can reach when it reads the string w starting at the state q. any string y * and any symbol a ( q .

Suppose that the state 3 is an accepting state of this NFA. b ) (1. Then * * ( 0 . ab ) = ( 0 . Hence *( 0 . a ) = ( 0 . . ( 0 . 3}. ab ) is the union of the definition of * . a ) for all p ( 0 . *( 0 . b ) for all p * ( 0 .b) (3. By the Basis Clause of the definition of *. a ) = { 0 . Hence *( 0 . ab ) can be calculated as follows: ( p. ) again by the Inductive * Clause of the definition of . a ) is the union of ( p. a ) by the Inductive Clause of * Now *( 0 . 1 . ) = { 0 } .The transition diagram for this NFA is as given below.2. 3 } .b)={2} {3} {1}={1.

Some of the strings accepted by the NFA given above are the language it accepts is a*( ab + a + ba )(bb)* . A > .A Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >. that is. . xy ) = These theorems can be proven in a manner similar to those for Theorems 1 and 2 for DFA. . .a) for an NFA < Q . . The language accepted by an NFA < Q. . * .* We say that a string x is accepted by an NFA < Q. * (q. if and only if it can reach an accepting state by reading x starting at the initial state. . a. . ab. x ) A is not empty.a)= (q. aaa. . A > if and only if * ( q0 . . q0. for an NFA < Q . Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 . abbbb etc. A > is the set of strings that are accepted by the NFA. q0. and for NFA has properties similar to that for DFA. q0 . * ( q .

We are going to do that by showing that a finite automaton can be constructed from a given regular expression by combining simpler FAs using union. These operations on FAs can be described conveniently if -Transitions are used. Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton with Let Q be a finite set and let -Transitions be a function from Q be a finite set of symbols. concatenation and Kleene star operations.there is a NFA (hence DFA) which accepts the same language and vice versa. Here we are going to formally define NFA with -Transitions (abbreviated as NFA. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton with -Transitions is a 5-tuple < Q . . A transition on reading means that the NFA. 2.Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata with Transitions Subjects to be Learned • • • - Nondeterministic finite automata with State transition diagram State transition table -Transitions Contents One of the objectives of this chapter is to show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between regular languages and finite automata. . for any NFA.makes the transition without reading any symbol in the input. . the transition function. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. Also let { } to 2Q . As we are going to see later. Note that any NFA is also a NFA.A> Notes on the definition 1. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. Thus the tape head does not move when is read.. We call the elements of Q a state. Basically an NFA with -Transitions is an NFA but can respond to an empty string and move to the next state. q0 .) and see some examples.

1. 2. 2. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in the State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 0 {4} 1 {2} 2 { 3. For though you go to states 1. 4 and 5 by reading a. for example. there are no transitions on reading b except from state 3. A = . When a symbol a is read at the initial state 0. 3. it can move to any of the states other than 0. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. 3. For once you are in state 1. you can go to state 2.Example of NFA- Q = { 0. 5 }. for example. = { a. then you come to state 4. Thus 4 is the only state you can go to from the initial state . 3. 4 } 3 {5} 3 b {4} 4 a {5} (q. If you read string ab. 4 and 5 without reading any symbol on the tape. 4. a) ) Here the transitions to are omitted from the table. following table. b }.

by reading ab.

**Language Accepted by NFASubjects to be Learned
**

• • • •

**-closure for NFALanguage accepted by NFAProperties of *
**

*

Contents

To formally define * for NFA- , we start with the concept of -closure for a state which is the set of states reachable from the state without reading any symbol. Using that concept we define * and then strings and languqges accepted by NFA- . Definition of -closure

Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA- . Let us denote the -closure of a set S of states of Q by ( S ). Then ( S ) is defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: S (S)

Inductive Clause: For any state q of Q, if q ( S ) , then ( q , ) (S). Extremal Clause: Nothing is in ( S ) unless it is obtained by the above two clauses.

For the NFAFirst { 2 }

of the above figure, ( { 2 } ) , that is, 2 (2, )

( { 2 } ) is obtained as follows: ( { 2 } ) . Then since 2 ( { 2 } ) , by the

Inductive Clause, Since (2,

({2}). ({2}).

) = { 3 , 4 }, we now have { 2 , 3 , 4 }

Since 3 and 4 have been added to

({2}),

(3,

) = { 5 } and

(4,

)=

must

be included in ( { 2 } ) . Thus now { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } ({2}). Though 5 has become a memeber of the closure, since ( 5 , ) is empty, no new members are added to ( { 2 } ) . Since ( q , ) has been examined for all the states currently in ( { 2 } ) and no more elements are added to it, this process of generating the closure terminates and ( { 2 } ) = { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } is obtained. As we can see from the example, ( S ) is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S by traversing any number of arcs. That is, it is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S without reading any symbols in . Now with this -closure, we can define

*

recursively as follows:

As in the cases of DFA and NFA, * gives the result of applying the transition function repeatedly as dictated by the given string. Definition of

* *

is going to be defined recursively. Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA-

.

**Basis Clause: For any state q of Q,
**

*

(q,

)=

({q}).

*

Inductive Clause: For any state q, a string y in

and a symbol a in

,

*

( q , ya ) =

(

).

What the Inductive Clause means is that *( q , ya ) is obtained by first finding the states that can be reached from q by reading y ( *( q , y ) ), then from each of those states p by reading a (i.e. by finding ( p , a ) ), and then by reading 's ( i.e. by taking the closure of the ( p , a )'s ) . Example : For the NFAbelow: of the following figure,

*

( 0 , ab ) can be obtained as

First let us compute *( 0 , a ) . For that we need ( { 0 } ). Since it is the set of states reached by traversing the arcs from state 0, ( { 0 } ) = {0,3,4}. Next from each of the states in ( { 0 } ) we read symbol a and move to another state (i.e. apply ). They are ( 0 , a ) = { 1 } , ( 3 , a ) = ( 4 , a ) = { 5 }. Hence We then traverse the } ) = { 1 , 2 , 3 } and = { 1 , 5 } for q = 0 . arcs from { 1 , 5 } to get to the states in *( 0 , a ) . Since * ({5})={5}, (0,a)={1,2,3,5}.

({1

The language accepted by an NFA.0 . b ) and ( 5 . Thus Since ( { 4 } ) = { 3 . 4 } .to (equivalent) NFA Conversion of NFA to (equivalent) DFA Equivalence of DFAs.< Q . . NFA M2 = < Q2. *( 0 . . ab ) read b from each of the states in *( 0 . a .< Q . A > if and only if *( q0 . and ( 2 . A2 > that satisfies the following conditions recognizes L: . NFAs and NFAto NFA 1 Conversion of NFA- Let M1 = < Q1 . Equivalence of DFAs. ab ) = { 3 . 4 } . b ) . b ) = { 4 } . Now ( 1 . Then the 2 . For example the NFAof the figure given above accepts the language { .that recognizes a language L. NFAs and NFA. x ) contains at least one accepting state. a ) and then take the arcs from there. ( 3 . A > is the set of strings accepted by the NFA. .Then to find *( 0 . .s Subjects to be Learned • • • Conversion of NFA. q1. . . q0 . A string x is accepted by an NFA.. b ) are empty sets. q0 . q2. . ab } . A1 > be an NFA.0 .

q2. a ) . The set of accepting states A2 is the same as A1 if no accepting states can be reached from the initial state q1. q2. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0.0 through arcs in M1 . 1 } .0.0 } ) A1 = A1 otherwise . . Thus to obtain an NFA M2 = < Q2. a ): First ( { 0 } ) = { 0 .a)= ( ) A2 = A1 { q1. Otherwise. 2.0 through arcs in M1 . Example 1: Let us convert the following NFAto NFA. then all the accepting states of M1 plus state q1.0 } if ( { q1. A2 > which accepts the same language 1 . q1. that is if an accepting state can be reached from the initial state q1. .0 = q1. Then from the transition function of the NFA- . A1 > does. 1. 3 ). 2 ( q. a ) = 1 * (q. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0.0 . since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) . that is all the states that can be reached from q by traversing arcs.M1 = < Q1 . as the given NFA. Then collect all the states that can be reached from each state of ( {q} ) by traversing one arc labeled with the symbol a. .Q2 = Q1. a ) as follows: Find ( {q} ). The transition function 2 is obtained as follows: 2( 0 . 2 first copy the states of Q1 into Q2.0 are the accepting states of M2 . The closure of the set of those states is 2( q .0 . Then for each state q of Q2 and each symbol a of find 2 ( q .

2} {1.3} {1.2} {1.2})={1. b ) = . a ) = .b)= 1 ( 1.2} {1. a ) = { 1 . (q. 2 }. 2 ( 0 .2} )) ({q}) {0.3} {3} {1.1} {1} {1} {2} {2} {1. b ) .1} {0. )(= ( {1.2} {1.3} {1.( 0 . since ( { 0 } ) = { 0 . 1 For . 2 (0. They are given in the table ( { q } ) and 2 below together with State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b a b .2}. ({1.2} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. and Hence 2( 0 . 1 } and 1 (0. a ) = 1 ( 1 . .b)= Similarly 2 can be obtained for other states and symbols.

1} {0. 1. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) .1} {1} {1} {2. 2 is given in the table below together with ( { q } ) .Example 2: Let us convert the following NFA- to NFA. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. 4 ).2. ) and State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 a b a b a b a b a ({q}) {0. 1 ( p .2} {1.3} )) {1.3} {1.3} .2.2} 2 (q.3} {2.2} {4} {4} {4} {1. )(= ( {1.2.4} {1. 2.4} {1.4} {1. The transition function 2 is obtained as for Example 1.3} {3} {3} {1. 3.4} {1. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0.

4} The NFA thus obtained is shown below.4 b {1. Proof of Equivalence of NFA- and NFA We are going to prove that the NFA obtained from NFAby the conversion algorithm accepts the same language as the NFA. .

w)= 2 * ( q .(1) because of the way NFA is constructed from NFA(click here for a review) .a)= 2 ( q . then * 1 ( q . 1 * (q. 1 . --. . a)= by the definition of Since * 2 * for NFA (click here for a review) . wa ) holds for any arbitrary symbol a in First we show that using the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . wa ) --.(1) . it implies that NFAM1 and NFA M2 accept the same non-empty strings. a ) = 1*( q .a). w ) for an arbitrary string w (Induction Hypothesis).a). )={q}.a). Claim 1: For any non-empty string w and for any state q.a). 1 * (q. . Recall that the set of strings is defined recursively (click here for a quick review). q2. First we are going to prove that To review the definition of * 1 * . (q. a ) --. .a)= 2 2 * (q . a ) . Inductive Step: We need to show that if 1 * (q.(2) Hence from (1) and (2).0 .. and NFA- When it is proven. the induction hypothesis and the construction of NFA from NFA. .a)= 2 * 2 (q. The case when w is an empty string is going to be proven separately. then assuming it holds for any arbitrary string w we prove it for any of the children of w.0 . wa ) = 2 * ( q .a)= 2 * (q. = 1 * Then we show that ( q .NFA- that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 . for NFA. wa ) = --.w)= 2 * (q. (q.w)= 2 * ( q . A2 > (q. Secondly 2 * (q. . Hence (q. w ) for any non-empty string w. Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. Thus we first prove that it is true for any arbitrary symbol. Basis Step: We need to show that for any symbol a in 1 * (q.(2) . We are going to prove it by showing that both of them are equal to Firstly 2( q . A1 > and 2 NFA obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2.w). that is wa for any symbol a in the alphabet. = = 2 * 2 (q . and the conversion of NFAto NFA click here. q1.

Hence 2 * ( q . .a)= 1 * ( q . that is By the definition of 1 * = 1 * 1 * ( q . Let us next prove (2). that is (1) has been proven. To see an explanation for this click here. wa ) = . Hence On the other hand = Hence 1 * = ( q . as proven below in Claim 3. = 1*( q . wa ) . for NFA- (p. ( q . a ) by the way NFA is constructed from NFA= . wa ) . This can be shown to be equal to . 1 * Thus from (1) and (2) ( q . by the definition of 1 * . Let us first prove (1). = Since 2 (q. . wa ) . wa ) . By the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . wa ) = 2 * ( q .w)= 1 * ( q . w ) by the induction hypothesis.a)= Substituting this into the left hand side of (2) produces = . because = . wa ) = 2 * ( q . . The right hand side of this equality is equal to ( the first and have been swapped to get this) .basically using the definition of Then from (1) and (2) we can see that 1 * 1 * . wa ) = Since 2 * (q. Hence we have proven (2). wa ) .

A2 . ) (X).End of Induction With this Claim 1 we can see that any non-empty string w is accepted by NFA if and only if it is accepted by the corresponding NFA. in the Basis Step of our proof we prove the property for the elements of the basis of (S T ) and in the Inductive Step we prove that if an arbitrary element of (S T ) has that property. if it is accepted by an NFA. Inductive Clause: If q ( X ) . Then the -closure of X is defined recursively as Basis Clause: X (X). then ( q . and the corresponding NFA accept the same language. Let X be the set of states of an NFA. Extremal Clause: Nothng is in ( X ) unless it is obtained by the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Hence is accepted by NFA. We are going to prove this in two parts: (S T) (S) (S) (T) ( T ) and (S T). then q20 this means that Thus NFA( { q10 } ) A1 A2 . As a preparation for the proof of commutativity of union and -closure operations. Claim 2: (S T)= (S) (T). As for the empty string . By the way NFA is constructed from . Part 1 : (S T) (S) (T) This is going to be proven by induction on (S T). then its childen also have it. Hence by the way A2 is constructed. . then ( { q10 } ) A1 . What Part 1 states is that all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in the set (S) (T). let us prove the following claim. For that let us restate the statement so that the induction becomes clearer.. Let us review the definition of the -closure of the set of states of an NFA. Since (S T ) is defined recursively. q20 Conversely if NFAis accepted by NFA. Hence is accepted by NFA.

) . (T).S (S T).q ( S ) or q ( S ) . ) (S) (T). That would imply that Proof of (S) (S By induction on (S T): (S). if q is in . Hence (T). End of Proof for Part 1 Part 2 : Proof of Part 2: We are going to prove (S) (S (S) T ) and (S) (T) (T) (T) (S (S (S T). Since q If q ( S ) . S and T are subsets of (S T) Inductive Step: We need to prove that if q is an arbitrary element of the property of being in (S) (S ( T ) . then (q. (S) (T). ) (S) (T). then (q. Basis Step: We need to show that S Since S (S T ) . T T). ( T ) . T). then ( q .Proof of Part 1: Basis Step: We need to prove that ( S Since S ( S ) and T T) (S) (S) (S (S) (S) (T). ( T ) . Inductive Step: We need to prove that for an arbitrary element q in ( S ) . ) (S) (S) (T). and ( S T) (S T). (q. T ) with (T). Hence ) Similarly if q Hence if q is an arbitrary element of (S) (T). ) Let q be an arbitrary element of T ) with the property of being in ( S ) by the definition of ( T ) . (S T ) with the property of being in (S) ( T ) . then (q. (T) Thus all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in (S T) which is to say that (S) (T).

since = ( Equivalence of NFA and DFA We are going to prove that the DFA obtained from NFA by the conversion algorithm . Si is a set as well as Sn+1.Inducion Hypothesis ( Si ) = ( = = (( Si ) ( ( Si ) ) Si ) ( Sn+1 ) by the definition of union. End of Proof of Part 2 End of Proof of Claim 2 Claim 3: ( Si ) = ( Si ) . ) (S closure T). --. Si ) by the definition of union. Thus (S) (S T ) has been proven. (S T ) holds. then Hence Inductive Step: Assume that ( ( Si ) = Si ) = ( Si ) holds for n = 1. If n = 1. ( Si ) holds for n. ) (S T). - T ) is a -closure. ( Si ) = ( Si ) = ( S1 ) and ( S1 ) . Similarly Hence (S) (T) (T) (S T ) holds. then (q. Proof : Proof by induction on n.(S Since q is in (S T ) and since (S T ) . End of Proof for Claim 3 Sn+1 ) by Claim 2 above. Basis Step: n = 1. ( Sn+1 ) by the induction hypothesis. by the definition of (q.

When it is proven. 2 1 . . w ) .Part 1 Subjects to be Learned • • • • Union of FAs Concatenation of FAs Kleene Star of FAs Acceptance of regular languages by FAs Contents . NFA that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 . w ) for an arbitrary string w. it obviously implies that NFA M1 and DFA M2 accept the same strings. . wa ) = = = = 2 ( 1 2 * * ( q1.0 . w ) = 2*( q2.0 . = { q1.0 . ) = q2. Inductive Step: Assume that Induction Hypothesis 1 * ( q1.0 .0 .0 . = * 1 ( q1.0 . ( q1. ) by the definition of 1 * . Basis Step: For w = 2 * . obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2.0 . Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. w ) .0 . Kleene's Theorem --.0 . a ) 2( * 2 ( q2.accepts the same language as the NFA.0 .0 .0 . wa ) * 1 Thus for any string w ( q1. w ) holds.0 .0 } by the construction of DFA M2 . w ) = 2 * ( q2. w ) . w ) for any string w. A2 > First we are going to prove by induction on strings that 1*( q1. w ) = 2 * ( q2.0 . A1 > and DFA . 1 * ( q1.0 . --- For the string w and an arbitrry symbol a in 1 * .0 by the definition of 2* . w ) = 2 * ( q2. q1. ( q2. q2. a ) ( q2. Theorem: For any string w.

. Basis Step: As shown below the languages . Mc . .{ } and { a } for any symbol a in are accepted by an FA. respectively. . Ak > . . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by FAs. Proof: This is going to be proven by (general) induction following the recursive definition of regular language. q2. u Mu = < Qu . . Suppose that L1 and L2 are accepted by FAs M1 = < Q1 . Inductive Step: We are going to show that for any languages L1 and L2 if they are accepted by FAs. Since any regular language is obtained from { } and { a } for any symbol a in by using union. where qu. u L2 . 2 . qk. Qu = Q1 Q2 .0 .0 . which are given below.0 } . Ac > and Mk = < Q2 . .0 . concatenation and Kleene star operations. Au > . respectively. Au > : { qu. A1 > and M2 = < Q2 . that together with the Basis Step would prove the theorem. 1 . We assume that Q1 Q2 = without loss of generality since states can be renamed if necessary. Theorem 1 (Part 1 of Kleene's theorem): Any regular language is accepted by a finite automaton. q1. then L1 L2 .0 . It states that any regular language is accepted by an FA and conversely that any language accepted by an FA is regular.Kleene's theorem.0 .0 is a state which is neither in Q1 nor in Q2 . qc. L1L2 and L1* are accepted by the FAs Mu = < Qu . c . A2 > . Then L1 = < Qc .0 . k . qu. . qu.

qk.0 . q2. Au = A1 A2 Mc = < Qc .u = 1 2 { (qu.0 } = 1 { (qk. qc. . { q1. .0 . Ac > : Qc = Q1 Q2 qc.0 = q1.0.0 } .0 } ) } { (q.0.0.0 } ) | q A1 } Ac = A2 Mk = < Qk .0 is a state which is not in Q1 .0 } . Ak > : { qk. k . a ) = for all a in . where qk.0 . { q1.0.0 } ) | q A1 } Ak = { qk. These NFA- s are illustrated below.0 c = 1 2 { (q. c . .0 } ) } . that is u (qu. . Qk = Q1 k . . q2. { qk. u ) = { q1. . { q2.0 . Note that (qu.

though we omit proofs. in fact accept L1 L2 . Mu. End of Proof Examples of Mu . that these NFA. respectively.It can be proven. . Mc and Mk: Example 1: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression (aa + b)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above.s . Mc and Mk . L1L2 and L1*.

Example 2: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression ((a + b)a*)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above. .

Part 2 .Kleene's Theorem -.

Next denote by L(p. L(p. Lemma 1: L(p. Given a finite automaton. q. k+1. k) : The set of strings going first from p to k+1.Subjects to be Learned • Languages accepted by FAs are regular Contents The converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem also holds true. all without passing through states labeled higher than k. k+1. q. It states that any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. q. What this lemma says is that the set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled with k+1 or lower numbers consists of the following two sets: 1. q. then from k+1 to q. k)L(k+1. let us study a method to compute the set of strings accepted by a finite automaton. Note that paths may go through arcs and vertices any number of times. k)*L(k+1. k) the set of strings representing paths from state p to state q that go through only states numbered no higher than k. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. Then the following lemmas hold. k+1. k) L(p. k+1) = L(p. . k) : The set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled wiht k or lower numbers. L(p. q. k) . k)*L(k+1. Before proceeding to a proof outline for the converse. See the figure below for the illustration. k+1. q. first relabel its states with the integers 1 through n. 2. k)L(k+1. then from k+1 to k+1 any number of times.

q. q. we have the following converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem. L(p. then it consists of single symbols representing arcs from p to q. 0) is regular. q. k) is regular for any states p and q and any natural number k. Theorem 2 (Part 2 of Kleene's Theorem): Any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. Hence if p and q are different. q. Proof: L(p. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. Since the number of symbols is finite and since any finite language is regular. Lemma 3: L(p. q. If p = q. n) over all accepting states q. Since the language accepted by a finite automaton is the union of L(q0. Example : Let us find the language accepted by the following finite automaton using the . 0) is the set of strings representing paths from p to q without passing any states in between. then is in it as well as the strings representing any loops at p (they are all single symbols).Lemma 2: L(p. 0) is regular. >From Lemmas 1 and 2 by induction the following lemma holds.

Hence r(1. 1) = r(2. 3. 1.0)*r(1.0)*r(1. 1) = a Hence r(1.0)r(1. r(1.0) = ba* . r(2. 1.0) = ba+ + . 2): r(1. 2)*r(3. 1) r(1. 1) + r(3.1.1. 3.0)*r(1.1. 2)r(3. 1. 3.2. 3.0) = b. r(1. 1)r(2. 1) = r(3.0)r(1. 1. 2) = a+(b a+ + = a+(b a+ )*a . 2): r(1.2. 2) = r(1.1. 1)*r(2. 2.2.2.1. q. 1)r(2. 1) r(1. 1. 3. 2.2. k) the regular expression for the set of strings L(p. 3. 3.1.1.2.1. 2) . 3.1.0)r(1. 1.0) + r(2. 2) = r(3.2. 1) r(3. 3. 2. 1)*r(2. 2. Let us denote by r(p.0)r(1.0) = a . 1.0) = and r(2. 3. since r(2. 1. Then the language accepted by this NFA is r(1.0) = and r(3. since r(3.1.0) + r(3.lemmas. since r(1.1. 1) = r(2. 3. 1) = r(1. 3.0) = b . r(1. . By Lemma 1. )*a r(3. 2) = r(1.1. 2) + r(1. 1.1.0)*r(1. 1)r(2. r(2.0) = a+ . 1) = r(2.0) = ba+ .0) = a + . q. 2) = a* + a+(b a+)*b a* . 2): r(3. 3). 1) = r(1. 3. r(1.2.2.1.1.0)r(1.0) + r(1. 3) = r(1.0) = a* . 1. 1) + r(1.0) + r(1.0)*r(1. 2. 2. 2. 1) = r(3. 3. k). since r(1. 1)*r(2. 1) + r(1. 1.1. 2.0) + r(2.1. 2.

can be obtained by swapping its accepting states with its non-accepting states. Q . 1. 1)r(2.0) = ba* Hence r(3. 1) = r(3. 1)*r(2. 1. 1. and all the r(p. n) must be found for each accepting state q.L. 1. If there are more accepting states. where p is the initial state and n is the number of states in the given finite automaton. 1) r(3.1. i. . 1) + r(3. q0 . Then a DFA that accepts the complement of L.0)r(1. .e. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. q. then to (a + ab)*. 2): r(3.L . .0) + r(3. .A > is a DFA that accepts * .1.1. 2) = = + ( ba+)+a + ba+( ba+ + )*a r(3. In this example there is only one accepting state. . )*ba* + ( ba+)+a )*( ba+ )*ba*. then r(p. 2) = r(3. 2. n)'s must be added together to get the regular expression for the language accepted by the automaton. 2. that is Mc = < Q . * . 1.0)<SUP*< SUP>r(1.Hence r(3. q0 . 2) = ba* + ba+( ba+ + = ( ba+ )*ba* . Hence r(1.1. Comlement and Intersection of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • • Complement of Regular Language Complement of DFA Intersection of Regular Languages Contents Complement Let M = < Q . 1. 3. The detail is left as an exercise though it would be quite challenging. 3) = a* + a+(b a+)*ba* + ( a+( ba+ )*a )( This can be further simplified to (a + ab + abb)*. q. 1.

b }. A DFA that accepts its complement is obtained from the above DFA by changing all single circles to double circles and vice versa as shown below. Remark 1: If we have NFA rather than DFA. the complement of a regular language is also regular.For example the following DFA accepts the language a+ over = { a . Remark 2: Since a language is regular if and only if it is accepted by some NFA. . we must first convert it to DFA before swapping states to get its complement.

Regular Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Regular Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Production and Grammar Regular Grammar Context-Free. L1 L2 is regular. In particular De Morgan's law also applies to languages. Test Your Understanding of Complemnent and Intersection of FAs Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. difference. concatenation and Kleene star operations. if L1 and L2 are regular languages. intersection. Context-Sensitive and Phrase Structure Grammars . Click True or Fals . Therefore all the properties of sets are inherited by languages. Next -. Since L1 L2 = by De Morgan's law. Thus summing all this up we can say that the set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed with respect to union. By Remark 2 above.Intersection of Regular Languages Langauges are sets. then their complements are regular languages. then Submit.

A grammar is a set of rewrite rules which are used to generarte strings by successively rewriting symbols. we write =>*G is obtained from a string and say that by applying productions of . i. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. = {a. then we simply write =>* Formally a grammar consists of a set of nonterminals (or variables) V. b}. aS. and S -> aS . If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. which is { a. finite automata and construction from simple languages using simple operations. Then apply the first rule to aS to rewrite S as a. S -> } is a regular grammar and it generates all the strings consisting of a's and b's including the empty string. that is a production is of the form X -> a or X -> aY. A production has in general the form -> . .{ by a regular grammar. aa. S corresponds to the initial state. regular. A grammar is regular if and only if is a single nonterminal and is a single terminal or a single terminal followed by a single nonterminal. To generate the string aa for example.e. that is by something called grammar. . aaa. which ia a nonterminal. That gives us aa. } . If there is no is derived from ambiguity about the grammar G that is referred to. Thus the process of obtaining aa from S is written as S => aS => aa .e. Then for every production X -> aY. } can be generated This can be proven by constructing an FA for the given grammar as follows: For each nonterminal create a state. One can generate the strings of this language by the following procedure: Let S be a symbol to start the process with. S -> bS. Add another state as the accepting state Z. a ) = Y and for every production X -> a add the transition ( X. a ) = Z. where X and Y are nonterminals and a is a terminal. the fact that aa is obtained from S is written as S =>* aa . a start symbol S. In general if a string a grammar G. a set of terminals (the alphabet of the language). These rules mean that S is rewritten as a or as aS. Rewrite S using one of the following two rules: S -> a . start with S and apply the second rule to replace S with the right hand side of the rule. We write S => aS to express that aS is obtained from S by applying a single production. For example consider the language represented by a+. The following theorem holds for regular grammars. Theorem 3: A language L is accepted by an FA i. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals with at least one nonterminal in it and is a string of terminals and nonterminals. if L . There is yet another way of characterizing them. add the transition ( X. . and a set of rewrite rules (productions) P. For example. . to obtain aS.Contents We have learned three ways of characterising regular languages: regular expressions.

An NFA that recognizes this language can be obtained by creating two states S and Z. b }. then since { } is regular . X -> aY is in P if and only if (X. X -> bS. a regular grammar corresponding to the NFA given below is < Q. L = Conversely from any NFA < Q. a) = Y .{ regular grammar. . b}. accepted by an NFA. P = { S -> aS.{ } is regular. X -> a is in P if and only if (X. Thus L . The NFA thus obtained is shown below. . S -> a }. where S is the initial state and Z is the accepting state of the NFA. as its member. { a. q0. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. A > a regular grammar < Q. q0 > is obtained as follows: for any a in . b ) = { S. Z } and ( S. S -> bS. P. . S -> aX. and for any a in and any nonterminal X. Y -> bS.For example = {a. a ) = { S. then L .e. P. If L contains ( L -{ } ) { } is also regular. X. S -> a. Thus the following converse of Theorem 3 is obtained. and nonterminals X and Y. . S -> b } form a regular grammar which generates the language ( a + b )+. Z } . a) = Y for some accepting state Y. Theorem 4 : If L is regular i. X -> aY. Y } . } is generated by a For example. and adding transitions ( S. where Q = { S. S > .

ZY -> YZ. context-sensitive languages and phrase structure languages. A grammar is a context-free grammar if and only if its production is of the form X -> . They are characterized by context-free grammars. c } and V = { X. for every production -> . A grammar is a context-sensitive grammar if and only if its production is of the form 1 X 2 -> 1 2 . cZ -> cc } with = { a. X -> a. These grammars are distinguished by the kind of productions they have but they also form a hierarchy. 2 and are strings of terminals and nonterminals.| | | |. bZ -> bc. that is the set of regular languages is a subset of the set of context-free languages which is in turn a subset of the set of context-sensitive languages and the set of context-sensitive languages is a subset of the set of phrase structure languages. For example P = { S -> XYZS1. possibly empty except Thus the nonterminal X can be rewritten as only in the context of 1X 2 . As we shall see later this is an example of context-free language which is not regular. Y. b } and V = { S } is a contex-free grammar and it generates the language { anbn | n is a positive integer } . aY -> ab. For example P = { S -> aSb. BY -> bb. . Context-sensitive grammars are also characterized by productions whose left hand side is not longer than the right hand side. YX -> XY. It is an example of context-sensitive language which is not context-free. S. ZX -> XZ. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals.In addition to regular languages there are three other types of languages in Chomsky hierarchy : context-free languages. possibly the empty string. that is. b. Z. where X is a nonterminal and . 1 . aX -> aa. S1 -> XYZS1. respectively. context-sensitive grammars and phrase structure grammars. S1 } is a context-sensitive grammar and it generates the language { anbncn | n is a positive integer } . S -> XYZ. S1 -> XYZ. S -> ab } with = { a.

}. q0 . that has the smallest number of states amomg the DFAs that accept L. -> . then Submit. .Minimization of DFA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Minimization of DFA One important result on finite automata. new := new_partition( . Minimization Algorithm for DFA Construct a partition = { A. Let M = < Q . where and Test Your Understanding of Regular Grammar Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.A } of the set of states Q . Click True or Fals . that is a production of a phrase structure grammar can take the form can be any string. There are two sets of questions. there is no restriction on the form of production. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L.For a phrase structure grammar. both theoretically and practically. Then the following algorithm produces the DFA. denote it by M1. Q . is that for any regular language there is a unique DFA having the smallest number of states that accepts it. . Next -.

If a transition from s to t on symbol a exists in M. If S is not partitioned in this process. end Minimum DFA M1 is constructed from • • final as follows: • • Select one state in each set of the partition final as the representative for the set. then the minimum DFA M1 has a transition from p to q on symbol a. respectively. Let s be a state in p and t a state in q. p and q make a transition to (states of) the same set of . These representatives are states of minimum DFA M1. A state is a dead state if it is not an accepting state and has no out-going transitions except to itself. Any transitions to a dead state become undefined. final function new_partition( ) for each set S of do partition S into subsets such that two states p and q of S are in the same subset of S if and only if for each input symbol. S remains in the output partition.while ( := new new ) ) . new := new_partition( := . Remove from M1 the dead states and the states not reachable from the start state. Let p and q be representatives i.e. The accepting states of M1 are representatives that are in A. if there are any. Example 1 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. The subsets thus formed are sets of the output partition in place of S. states of minimum DFA M1. . Let us also denote by p and q the sets of states of the original DFA M represented by p and q. The start state of M1 is the representative which contains the start state of M. Note that the sets of final are either a subset of A or disjoint from A.

and from 3 to 1 on a. 3 }. since on b 2 goes to 1. since 1 and 5 do the same transitions. Further. { 2 } . 5 }. Thus final = { { 1 .Initially = { { 1 . states 3 and 4 are going to be separated from each other in new. 2 . and to 2 on b in the original DFA. state 3 goes to state 5 and 4 and 5 are in different sets in . { 4 ] }. Since the rest of the states are singletons. Since the rest are singletons. This becomes the second iteration. 5 } . { 2 } . . remains unchanged. 3 . they have the obvious representatives. Thus the set of states for the minimized DFA is { 1 . Also since 2 goes to 1 on b. and 3 goes to 1 on a in the original DFA. states 2 and 3 are going to be separated from each other in new . { 4 ] }. For the transitions. and 1 to 2 on b. state 3 goes to state 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . 4 goes to 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . since 1 goes to 3 on a. { 3 } . On the other hand 1 and 5 make the same transitions. Select 1 as the representative for { 1 . new_partition is applied to . 2 and 4 are separated from each other in new. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 1 to 3 on a. Since on b state 2 goes to state 1. all transitions between them are inherited for the minimized DFA. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 2 to 1 on b. So they are not going to be split. 4 } }. 5 } . { 3 } . Note here that state 4 is a dead state because the only transitionout of it is to itself. 5 } . in the When new_partition is applied to this new . Thus the new partition is { { 1 . Also since on a sate 4 goes to sate 4. { 2 .

Thus the minimized DFA is as given in the following figure: Example 2 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. .

{ 5 } . { 6 } } is obtained. 5 . new = { { 3 } . { 4 } . 2 . { 2 . By applying new_partition to this . 4 } . { 2 } . { 1 . Applyting new_partition again. { 6 } } is obtained. { 1 . Applyting new_partition to this . Click True or Fals . { 2 } .Initially = { { 3 } . 5 } . 6 } }. then Submit. { 1 . new = { { 3 } . 4 . 6 } } is obtained. new = { { 1 } . { 5 } .Application of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Application of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Reactive system . { 3 } . Next -. Test Your Understanding of Minimization of DFA Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. 4 . Thus the number of states of the given DFA is already minimum and it can not be reduced any further.

e. two numbers to be added are ready. The inputs for a reactive system are never ready unlike for example when two numbers are added together by an adder (Here we are considering an adder at a higher level of abstraction than physical devices level ignoring for example the transient states of the electronic circuit that realizes an adder). are identified and they become arcs in the transition diagram of the finite automaton. These become the states of the finite automaton that models it. A system such as an adder is called a transformational system. outputs and conditions/status in response to stimuli from within or outside it. lexical analysers for compilers etc. computer network communication protocols. In the case of vending machine or communication protocol. a system must respond to each stimulus. Many other systems operating in practice can also be modeled by finite automata such as control circuits of computers. Then the transitions between the states triggered by events and conditions. It is an event driven or control driven system continuously having to react to external and/or internal stimuli. external or internal to the system. It is generally agreed that finite automata are a natural medium to describe dynamic behaviors of reactive systems.• Modeling reactive systems with FA Contents We have seen an example of use of finite automata in describing the operation of a simplified version of vending machine. Many of those systems fall into the class of systems called reactive system. To model a reactive system with finite automaton. first the states the system goes in or the modes of its operation are identified. . even to a fragment of input such as each coin tossed in for a can of soda or every message received. For example consider the following very simplified version of login process to a computer from the computer point of view. An adder does not respond unless the input i. In addition actions that may take place in those states can also be added to the model. Finite automata are formal and rigorous and computer programs can be easily written to simulate their behaviors. Let us assume for simplicity that this computer accepts a single user at a time. A reactive system is a system that changes its actions. on the other hand.

sending message and waiting for ACK. If a positive ACK is received. receiving RFNM. Upon completion of the RFNM. then it accepts the user and starts a session. That is another state though it could further be broken down into a number of more states. After sending the ACK. We could make it go to a different state and count the number of login attempts for security purpose. This is one state of the system. it goes to the initial state and starts all over again. then it informs the user of that and waits for the next try. Again it is a very simplified version. which is another state. Again depending on the level of abstraction. If a negative ACK is received. Depending on how much detail we are interested in. But let us make it simple. When it is complete. it gets a signal. When a name is typed in. The next example is a protocol for a computer to follow in communicating with another computer. different states would be identified and transitions would have to be selected accrdingly. goes back to the initial state and waits for another login. it goes back to the initial state. different states and transitions would have to be chosen. it sends "Acknowledgement" (ACK) to the other computer. If it is valid. . If the password typed in is incorrect. which is another state. When a RFNM starts coming. If the user name typed in is not valid. it starts sending the requested message to the other party. sending ACK.Initially the computer waits for a user name to be typed in. it goes into another wait state waiting for an ACK to come from the other computer. then it asks for and then waits for the password. Initially the computer is in wait state waiting for "Request for Next Message" (RFNM) to come from another computer. When the session terminates. it goes into the state of receiving it (Our interpretation is that the computer is in a state of receiving an RFNM and it is taking the action of receiving the RFNM) . it checks whether or not the name is valid. Again what we have seen is a model for one level of abstraction. When a password is typed in and it is correct. That is a fourth state. it resends the message. it goes back to the initial state and waits for another RFNM to come. If the second password fails. Thus a finite automaton that models this protocol has the following five states: initial state (wait for RFNM).

8 etc.e. +213. then it goes into a state. If a decimal point is read while in D. If a decimal point is received before a digit. D is another accepting state..2. On the other hand if a digit has been read before a decimal point. This Q is an accepting state. One such system initially waits for the first symbol to come in.d+ + d+ + . Therefore from state P it goes to another state. . followed by zero or more digits. then it can continue receiving digits and stay in D. . .represent the positive and negative signs. followed by one or more digits. 9 } . then it goes to state P indicating that a decimal point has been read. i.e. denote it by P. that indicates a digit has been read before a decimal point. after reading a digit and stays there as long as digits are read. followed by a possible decimal point. regardless of whether a sign has been read or not. Since these numbers are represented by strings consisting of a possible sign. that indicates that a sign has been received. it is in state D. This system can be modeled by the following finite automaton: . If the first symbol is a sign.1. that indicates that a decimal point has been read. After one digit it can continue receiving digits. -15. then it must receive at least one digit after that. If a decimal point has been read (i.Our third example is a system that recognizes numbers with or without a sign such as 5. they can be represented by the following regular expression: ( s+ + s. denote it by Q. then it goes into a state. denote it by G. where s+ and s. in state P). If the first digit is received before a decimal point. This system can also be described by a regular expression.378. it goes into a state. denote it by D.d+ ).+ ) ( d+. respectively and d {0.

while ( state NO_of_STATES and not End of Input ) index := STATEX [state] . holds the next state for each input symbol for each state. One array. input := read_input( ) . A third array. It uses four arrays. indicates the actions taken at each state and a fourth. called STATEX. while ( TOKEN [index] . One such simulation algorithm is given below. called NEXT_STATE. Another array. Algorithm FA Simulator state := INITIAL_STATE. called TOKEN.Next -.Simulation of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Simulation of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Simulation of FA Contents Once a finite automaton is constructed. stores for each state the input symbols that trigger transitions from the state. keeps the index of the first symbol in the TOKEN array for each state. we can use a general purpose program to simulate its operation. called ACTION. Those indices are used to access the contents of the other arrays. 0 and TOKEN [index] input ) index := index + 1.

B. empty transitions) are omitted.e. state := NEXT_STATE [index]. The corresponding transitions are going to be shown by red arrows in the transition diagram. S corresponds to 1. In the DFA below all the transitions to the empty state (i. So no action is taken as a number is processed. Tab 4 Tab 5. . S is the initial state and B and H are accepting states.45. Then type in a number you want the FA to recognize. end Here 0 in the TOKEN array is a marker between states. first click the box pointed by the red arrow in the figure below. To see how this algorithm works. At the moment it is empty. C and H. first click the box under the red arrow. The ACTION array would contain pointers to actions to be taken corresponding to arcs traversed such as converting a digit in BCD form to the corresponding binary number. You must hit the "Tab" key to move to the next box. The numbers below NEXT_STATE array show the correspondence between the indices of the STATEX array and the states A. to input 3. For example. Then every time you click "SHOW" the number is processed digit by digit.if ( TOKEN [index] 0) perform the action specified by ACTION [index]. else error input := read_input( ) . Then type 3 Tab .

click here It is extremely slow.If you are also interested in how code is executed. . So be patient.

Non-Regular Languages Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Regular Languages Non-Regular Languages Subjects to be Learned • • • Existence of non-regular languages Myhill . For example to recognize the language { anbn | n is a natural number} . either xz and yz are both in L or they are both not in L.Next -. Thus it must be in different states when it has read different number of a's and starts reading the first b. The main idea behind these test methods is that finite automata have only finite amount of memory in the form of states and that they can not distinguish infinitely many strings.Nerode Theorem for non-regularity test Pumping Lemma Contents We have learned regular languages. we can conclude that { anbn | n is a natural number} is not regular. Since a regular language must be recognized by a finite automaton. their properties and their usefulness for describing various systems. a finite automaton must remember how many a's it has read when it starts reading b's. That is the main limitation of finite automata. where n is a positive integer. In this section we are going to study some of the methods for testing given languages for regularity and see some of the languages that are not regular. But any finite automaton has only finite number of states. There are. because aak and aaak are in the language an for any . a and aa are indistinguishable with respect to the language an over alphabet { a }. Thus there is no way for a finite automaton to remember how many a's it has read for all possible strings anbn . languages that are not regular and therefore require devices other than finite automata to recognize them. This is the basis of two of the regularity test methods we are going to study below: Myhill-Nerode Theorem and Pumping Lemma. Non-regularity test based on Myhill-Nerode's theorem Indistinguishability of strings: Strings x and y in * are indistinguishable with respect to a language L if and only if for every string z in *. For example. however.

S2 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. ( ( x + y ) * x ) and (( (x*y) + x ) + (y*y) ) are algebraic expressions. Consider the set of strings S2 which is the same as S1 of Example 1 above. Inductive Clause: If and are in L3 . Consider the set of strings S3 = { (k x | k is a positive integer } . b } can be shown to be nonregular using Myhill-Nerode as follows: Consider the set of strings S1 = { an | n is a positive integer } . Select bm as a string to be appended to ak and am . that is. Then akbakb is in L2 while ambakb is not in L2 . This set is infinite . because ab is in the language anbn while aab is not in the language. b }* } is nonregular. then ( + ) and ( * ) are in L3 . Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S2. Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. S1 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. Hence L2 is nonregular. Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set. It can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L2 as follows. It is stated without a proof. Example 2: L2 = { ww | w {a. the following theorem by Myhill and Nerod gives a criterion for (non)regularity of a language. Hence L1 is nonregular. Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L2 . whose strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L. the set of strings consisting of one or more right parentheses followed by identifier x. b } and it is infinite. where k and m are positive integers and k m . Select bakb as a string to be appended to ak and am . operations + and * and left and right parentheses. For example. For more on Myhill-Nerode theorem click here. However. Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L1 . L3 can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: x and y are in L3 . x . S1 is over alphabet { a . (x*y) . a and aa are not indistinguishable (hence distinguishable). with respect to the language anbn . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L3 unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. where k and m are positive integers and k m . We are going to show that its strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L1. Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } over alphabet { a . Theorem : A language L over alphabet is nonregular if and only if there is an infinite subset of * . Then akbm is not in L1 while ambm is in L1 . Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set S1.positive integer k. Using this concept of indistinguishability. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S1.

In general if a string w (such as abbabbb in the example above) is accepted by an NFA with n states and if its length is longer than n. Those strings which are accepted by this NFA and whose length is greater than 5 have a substring which can be repeated any number of times without being rejected by the NFA. Hence S3 is pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 . abbabbabbb. abbabbabbabbb etc. Then (k x + [ + x ) ]k is in L3 but (m x + [ + x ) ]k is not in L3 because the number of ('s is not equal to the number of )'s in the latter string. For example [ + x ) ]3 is +x) +x)+x) . the resultant strings such as abbb (bba repeated 0 times). This NFA accepts among others some strings of length greater than 5 such as abbabbb. where k and m are positive integers and k m . Then the substring representing that cycle (bba in the example) can be repeated any number of times within the string w without being rejected by the NFA. It . Pumping Lemma Let us consider the NFA given below. For example the string abbabbb is accepted by the NFA and if one of its substrings bba is repeated any number of times in abbabbb. then there must be a cycle in the NFA along some path from the initial state to some accepting state (such as the cycle 2-3-4-2 in the above example). abbabbabbb etc.and it can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 as follows: Let (k x and (m x be arbitrary two strings of S3 . are also accepted by the NFA. The following theorem which is called Pumping Lemma is based on this observation. Hence L3 is not regular. Select [ + x ) ]k as a string to be appended to (k and (m .

Also since |uv| Let us now consider the string uvmw for m = 2. uvmw Test Your Understanding of Non-regularity . then any long enough string of the language has a substring which can be repeated any number of times with the resultant strings still in the language. where k is a natural number. v. Let n be the number of states of that FA. Hence L is not a regular 0. v has at least one symbol. and for every m 0. let us prove that the language L = akbk is nonregular. v = ap. |uv| n |v| > 0 .states that if a language is regular. even if there is an integer n that satisfies the conditions of Pumping Lemma. This violates the condition that for every m language. Then there must be strings u. uvmw L. and w such that x = uvw. v and w which satisfy the following relationships: x = uvw |uv| n |v| > 0 and for every integer m 0. n. for some p > 0 . It is stated without a proof here. the language is not necessarily regular. uvmw L. Since p > 0 . Then for any string x in L with |x| n. Thus Pumping Lemma can not be used to prove the regularity of a language. Then there is an FA that accepts L. Since |v| > 0 . Then uv2w = an-pa2pbn = an+pbn . It can only show that a language is nonregular. that is. Consider a string x = anbn for that n. Hence an+pbn can not be in the L. n + p language L represented by akbk . Note that Pumping Lemma gives a necessity for regular languages and that it is not a sufficiency. Example 4: As an example to illustrate how Pumping Lemma might be used to prove that a language is nonregular. there are strings u. Pumping Lemma : Suppose that a language L is regular. n . Suppose that L is regular and let n be the number of states of an FA that accepts L.

if and only if they are indistinguishable with respect to . Proof of Theorem Necessity Suppose that a language L is regular and two strings. are distinguishable with respect to L. Next -. This means that if x and y are read by an DFA that recognizes L. that is. Then the theorem is is staed as follows: Theorem: A language L over alphabet is regular if and only if the set of equivalence classes of is finite. If there are three strings that are distinguished with respect . Also it is a corollary to Myhill-Nerode theorem: Let { be the followijg relation on }={ : For strings and of . say x and y.Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.Context-Free Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Myhill-Nerode Theorem The non-regularity test for languages by Myhill-Nerode is based on the following theorem which is in the contrapositive form of the theorem used for nonregularity test. Then there is a string z such that xz is in L and yz is not in L (or xz is not in L and yz is in L). if and only if }. then Submit. the DFA reaches different states. Click True or Fals .

[ . if the number of classes of strings that are pairwise indistinguishable with respect to a language L is finite. be the number of distinct equivalence classes (i. then the language L is regular. then ]'s. . ]. DFA ( = {[ =[ = {[ ( . making them belong to different [ Hence is a function. For. We will show that a DFA that accepts L can be constructed using these equivalence classes.. where [ ] =[ ] for all . To prove this. Sufficiency Conversely.. Then we construct a . then the language is not regular.to L. be representatives of those distinct equivalence classes.e... ) as follows: ]} ]. note that for every string [ ]. Hence if there is an infinite set of strings which are pairwise distinguishable with respect to a language... Note that "indistinguishable with respect to L" is an equivalence relation over the set of strings (denote it by ) and [x]'s are equivalence classes.. which it can not because a DFA must have a finite number of states. the index) of and let . if and in [ ]. let [x] denote a class of strings that are indistinguishable from a string x with respect to L. then the DFA reaches three different states after reading those three strings. ]. Let . . namely ] and ]. [ ]=[ } ]... is in exactly one equivalence class. . then the DFA must have infinitely many states. Let us now show that this machine is in fact a DFA and it accepts the language First. are in different classes for and are distinguishable with respect to L. Hence if there are infinitely many strings to be distinguished with respect to L. . .

where ]. Inductive Step: Assume Then for every But =[ Hence =[ ]. =[ ]. For that. by the definition of = . . . ] by the induction hypothesis. then every We then show that for every string . this means that the DFA accepts Myhill-Nerode Theorem Let us here state Myhill-Nerode Theorem. Also an equivalence relation is said to be of finite index. for DFA.Next. Since . where ] is the equivalence class that belongs to. = [ ]. Hence =[ = . . let us show that this DFA accepts string in [ ] is also in L. first note that if . Then by the definition of . First some terminology. An equivalence relation on is said to be right invariant if for every . . Myhill-Nerode Theorem can now be stated as follows: The following three statements are equivalent: (1) A language is regular. . by the definition of = . where . if then for every . Our proof is by structural induction on string Basis Step: = =[ ]. Hence Hence we have shown that for every string ]. if the set of its equivalence classes is finite. With these terminology. =[ ]. . ]. if a string in [ in ] is in .

Proofs are omitted. P > is a context-free V is V. Let us define context-free grammars and context-free languages here. Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } is a context-free language. grammar (CFG) if V and . The set of strings generated by a context-free grammar is called a context-free language and context-free languages can describe many practically important systems. where X is a nonterminal and is a nonempty string of terminals and nonterminals. S . .(2) L is the union of some of the equivalence classes of a right invariant equivalent relation of finite index. For the following context-free grammar G1 = < V1 . . Context-Free Languages Context-Free Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Context-Free Grammar Context-Free Languages Push Down Automata Contents Earlier in the discussion of grammars we saw context-free grammars. S -> ab }. S . S . where X the start symbol. Most programming languages can be approximated by context-free grammar and compilers for them have been developed based on properties of context-free languages. P1 > generates L1 : V1 = { S } . are finite sets sharing no elements between them. = { a . b } and P1 = { S -> aSb . and P is a finite set of productions of the form X -> and (V )* . Definition (Context-Free Grammar) : A 4-tuple G = < V . A language is a context-free language (CFL) if all of its strings are generated by a context-free grammar. They are grammars whose productions have the form X -> . (3) is of finite index.

P3 > generates L3 : V3 = { S } . Properties of Context-Free Language Theorem 1: Let L1 and L2 be context-free languages. . For the following context-free grammar G3 = < V3 . . Then let Sc be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . Sc . . < expression > . . P2 > generates L2 : V2 = { S } . 3 = { x .Example 2: L2 = { wwr| w {a. S -> bb }. if necessary. < statement > -> < assignment > . 3. Pu > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1 L2 . For example { < statement > -> < if-statement > . Then L3 is a context-free language. . P1 > and G2 = < V2 . S -> x . S . * } and P3 = { S -> ( S + S ) . if necessary. . < forstatement > -> for ( < expression > . b }+ } is a context-free language . S1 . Then let Su be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . < expression > -> < logicalexpression > . } . and L1* are . . Su -> S2 } . Then let Ps = P1 { Ss -> SsS1 . S2 . . S -> S*S . P2 > be context-free grammars generating L1 and L2 . y . S -> y }. L1L2 . S -> aa . . let Ss be a symbol which is not in V1 . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. . = { a . Ss -> L2 . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. Pc > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1L2 . ) . where w is a nonempty string and wr denotes the reversal of string w. < expression > ) < statement > . For L1* . . S . Outline of Proof This theorem can be verified by constructing context-free grammars for union. + . Then it can be easily seen that Gc = < Vc . Next define Vc = V1 V2 { Sc } and Pc = P1 P2 { Sc -> S1S2 } . w is spelled backward to obtain wr . < expression > -> < algebraic-expression > . . . Similarly for L1L2 . . Then L1 context-free languages. Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. Then it can be easily seen that Gu = < Vu . Example 4: Portions of the syntaxes of programming languages can be described by context-free grammars. concatenation and Kleene star of context-free grammars as follows: Let G1 = < V1 . . S -> bSb . < if-statement > -> if ( < expression > ) < statement > . first relabel symbols of V2 . ( . b } and P2 = { S -> aSa . < statement > -> < for-statement > . . Su . that is. Then for L1 L2 . respectively. For the following context-free grammar G2 = < V2 . operations + and * and left and right parentheses. first relabel symbols of V2 . Next define Vu = V1 V2 { Su } and Pu = P1 P2 { Su -> S1 .

A is the set of accepting states is the transition function and :Q ( ( } -> 2 Q * . A . q0 . but also by the symbol at the top of the stack. Otherwise reject it. > . This automaton behaves like a finite automaton except the following two points: First. a . push them into the stack. reject the string. Z0 . Pushdown Automata . where Q is a finite set of states. Z0 . Thus ( p . As soon as the symbol b appears stop storing a's and start popping a's one by one every time a b is read. . Example 1 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . and are finite sets ( the input and stack alphabet. For example. accept the string. context-free languages are also accepted by automata but not finite automata. It can be seen that the grammar Gs = < Vs . its next state is determined not only by the input symbol being read. q0 is the initial state. check the stack. as a's are read by the finite automaton. generates the language L1* . > . where Q = { q0 . Let us consider a context-free language anbn . q0 . respectively ). .} . the contents of the stack can also be changed every time an input symbol is read. Let us define this new type of automaton formally. Thus its transition function specifies the new top of the stack contents as well as the next state. . A . Ps > is a context-free grammar that Like regular languages which are accepted by finite automata. Any string of this language can be tested for the membership for the language by a finite automaton if there is a memory such as a pushdown stack that can store a's of a given input string. ) means the following: The automaton moves from the current state of p to the next state q when it sees an input symbol a at the input and X at the top of the stack. and it replaces X with the string at the top of the stack. When all the symbols of the input string are read. Second. If it is empty. Ss . . Z0 is the initial stack symbol and it is a member of . A pushdown automaton ( or PDA for short ) is a 7-tuple M = < Q . If another a (or anything other than b) is read after the first b. X ) = ( q . . They need a little more complex automata called pushdown automata.

A configuration of a PDA M = < Q . > is a triple ( q . ( q0 . y . . . ) ( q1 . another a is popped from the top of the stack and the PDA stays in state q1 . = { a . . Z0 ). ) ( q2 . ) in a single move (a single application of the transition function) we write (p. Z0 ). aabb . for example. Then when the first b is read. x is the unread portion of the input string and is the current stack contents. (p. Z0 ) q2 . x . ) by a sequence of zero or more moves. bb . After reading the first a. where q is the state the PDA is currently in. Thus the configuration is ( q1 . aaZ0 ) ( q1 . q2 } . aZ 0 ) q0 a a ( q0 . Initially its configuration is ( q0 . its configuration is ( q0 . If ( q . After reading the second a. abb . aabb .x. This entire process can be expressed using the configurations as ( q0 . Thus aabb is accepted by this PDA. q0 . aZ0 ) ( q1 . . Z0 ). aZ0 ). b . Z0 ) ( If we are not interested in the intermediate steps.q1 . Next it moves to the state q2 which is the accepting state. Z0 . aZ0 ). aaZ0 ). ) to configuration ( q . x . . aZ0 ) ( q0 . abb . Z0 ) This pushdown automaton accepts the language anbn . . aa ) q0 q1 q1 b b a a Z0 ( q1 .y. To describe the operation of a PDA we are going to use a configuration of PDA. b .x. Thus the configuration is ( q1 . y . * (q. .y. To express that the PDA moves from configuration ( p . where the input is read from left to right and the top of the stack corresponds to the leftmost symbol of . x . A . ) . b . following table: = { a . ) ) (q. we can also write ( q0 . When the second b is read. A = { q2 } and let be as given in the State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . Z0 ) * ( q2 . Z0 ) . Let us now see how the PDA of Example 1 operates when it is given the string aabb . ). it is ( q0 . ). it moves to state q1 and pops a from the top of the stack. b } . bb . Z0 } . we write ) is reached from ( p . aabb .

A . for some in *. aZ 0 ) q0 b Z0 ( q0 . For example the transition diagram of the PDA of Example 1 is as shown below. where Q = { q0 . a ( q0 . = { a . = { a . b ( q1 . If ( q . * (q. ) . Like FAs. and an accepting state q. > . Z0) . c } .a. q0 . . X ) = ( p . b . b . ( q1 . Example 2 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . ) ( q2 . . Z0 .k. arcs are labeled differently than FAs. Z0 } . then an arc from state p to state q is added to the diagram and it is labeled with ( a . q1 . acceptance by final state) if (q0. q2 } . however. PDAs can also be represented by transition diagrams. Z 0 ) In this table represents either a or b. x.A string x is accepted by a PDA (a. ). X / ) indicating that X at the top of the stack is replaced by upon reading a from the input. A = { q2 } and let be as given in the following table: State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . bZ 0 ) q0 q0 q0 q1 q1 q1 a b c a b a b Z0 ( q0 . a . . For PDAs. ) ) ) ) ( q1 .

In the figure and 2 represent a or b. ( q0 . Z0 ) ( q0 . a . . bba . bcbba . When c is detected. baZ0 ) ( q1 .This pushdown automaton accepts the language { wcwr | w { a . it pops the stack. it ignores c and from that point on if the top of the stack matches the input symbol. abbcbba . bbcbba . Otherwise it rejects the input string. The transition diagram of the PDA of Example 2 is as shown below. aZ0 ) ( q0 . it accepts the input string. bbaZ0 ) ( q1 . 1 Further topics on CFL • PDA and Context-Free Language There is a procedure to construct a PDA that accepts the language generated by a given context-free grammar and conversely. ( q0 . When there are no more unread input symbols and Z0 is at the top of the stack. That means that a language is . baZ0 ) ( q1 . b }* } . Z 0 ) ( q2 . it goes through the following configurations and accepts it. cbba . For example for the input abbcbba. Z 0 ) . which is the set of palindromes with c in the middle. aZ0 ) ( q1 . . ba . bbaZ0 ) . This PDA pushes all the a's and b's in the input into stack until c is encountered.

"bites" is the verb and "a man" is the object of the verb. we are not going to study parsing here. The parsing for context-free languages and regular languages have been extensively studied. w. native English speakers know that it is the dog that bites and not the other way round. For example in the sentence "A man bites a dog". y and z which satisfy u = vwxyz |wy| > 0 |wxy| n 0 . vwmxymz L for every integer m • Parsing and Parsers for CFL Consider the algebraic expression x + yz. Contect-free grammars are powerful grammars. then multiply the result by z. x. Those procedures are omitted here. They can describe much of programming languages and basic structures of natural languages. then add the result to x. it could also be interpreted as ( x + y )z meaning that first compute x + y. However. Then there is a positive integer n such that for any string u in L with |u| n . "A dog" is the subject. compute yz first. By parsing sentences we identify the parts of the sentences and determine the strutures of the sentences so that their meanings can be understood correctly. it does not know which interpretation to use unless it is explicitly instructed to follow one or the other. Interested readers are referred to the textbook and other sources. Thus if a computer is given the string x + yz. there are strings v. Parsing is the process of interpreting given input strings according to predetermined rules i.context-free if and only if there is a PDA that accepts it.e. Similar things happen when English sentences are processed by computers (or people as well for that matter). However. Though we are accustomed to interpreting this as x + (yz) i. productions of grammars. a computer like non-English speaking people must be told how to interpret sentences such as the first noun phrase (" A dog") is usually the subject of a sentence. a verb phrase usually follow the noun phrase and the first word in the verb phrase is the verb and it is followed by noun phrases reprtesenting object(s) of the verb. ???? references on Parsing ???? . • Pumping Lemma for Context-Free Language Let L be a CFL.e. Thus they are widely used for compilers for high level programming languages and natural language processing systems.

the phrase structure languages (also called Type 0 languages). Next -. Click True or Fals . They are. of limited capability and there are many languages that they can not process. and the machines that can process them: Turing machines. then Submit. however. Turing machines were conceived of by the English mathematician Alan . In this chapter we are going to study the most general of the languages in Chomsky hierarchy.Turing Machines Back to Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • • • Definition of Turing Machine Configuration Operation of Turing Machine Contents Introduction We have studied two types of languages from the Chomsky hierarchy: regular languages and context-free languages.Test Your Understanding of Contect-Free Language Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. These languages can describe many practically important systems and so they are heavily used in practice.

its head is a read-write head and it can move left. either erases it or replaces it with a symbol (possibly the same symbol). unlike finite automata. Definition Conceptually a Turing machine. This conjecture is known as Church's thesis and today it is generally accepted as true. Given a string of symbols on the tape. It then moves the head to left or right or does not move it and goes to the next state which may be the same as the current state. it stops its operation. consists of a finite control and a tape. One of its states is the halt state and when the Turing machine goes into the halt state. a Turing machine starts at the initial state. The tape has the left end but it extends infinitely to the right. Computers we use today are as powerful as Turing machines except that computers have finite memory while Turing machines have infinite memory. right or stay at the same square after a read or write.Turing as a model of human "computation". At any state it reads the symbol under the head. However. At any time it is in one of the finite number of states. It is also divided into squares and a symbol can be written in each square. . Later Alonzo Church conjectured that any computation done by humans or computers can be carried out by some Turing machine. We are going to study Turing machines here and through that limitations of computers and computation as we know today. like finite automata.

is a finite set of symbols and it is the input alphabet. S}. R ) (h. a .Formally a Turing machine is a 5-tuple T = < Q. State (q) Input (X) Move ( q0 q1 q2 q3 q3 a b a (q. Example 1 : The following Turing machine < Q1 . L or S . q3 } . L and S denote move the head right. b } . where Q1 = { q0. q2. . > accepts the language aba* . an arc from q to r is drawn with label ( X/Y . > . . . . = { a . a . It is a mapping from Q ( { } ) to ( Q { h } ) ( { }) {R. X) ) ( q1 . R ) ( q3 . b . q1. q0 . left and do not move it. = { a .L. b } and is as given by the table below. R ) ( q2 . The states are represented by vertices and for a transition ( q. It is assumed that the tape has at the left end and the head is initially at the left end of the tape. . q0 is the initial state. Y.S) A transition diagram of this Turing machine is given below. where Q is a finite set of states. . is the transition function but its value may not be defined for certain points. The symbol h is used to denote the halt state. respectively. Here denotes the blank and R. D ) indicating that the state is changed from q to r. where D represents R. q0. A transition diagram can also be drawn for a Turing machine. D ) . . is a finite set of symbols containing as its subset and it is the set of tape symbols. R ) ( q3 . the symbol X currently being read is changed to Y and the tape head is moved as directed by D. X ) = ( r. which is assumed not to contain the symbol h.

Note that the Turing machine does not stop if a string is not in the language. A configuration for a Turing machine is an ordered pair of the current state and the tape contents with the symbol currently under the head marked with underscore. The set of strings accepted by a Turing machine is the language accepted by the Turing machine. xay ) ( q . xay ) * ( q . aba ) ( q1 . q0 . zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in zero or more moves. A Turing machine T is said to decide a language L if and only if T writes "yes" and halts if a string is in L and T writes "no" and halts if a string is not in L. yaz ) for some symbol a { } and some strings y and z in ( * { } ) . . aba ) (h. If the Turing machine needs to be explicitly indicated T or T* is used. aababb ) shows that the Turing machine is currently in state q. We write ( p . .Turing Machine that accepts aba* To describe the operation of Turing machine we use configuration. aba ) . zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in one move. ( q0 . aba ) ( q2 . For example the Turing machine of Example 1 above goes through the following sequence of configurations to accept the string aba: ( q0 . A string x is said to be accepted by a Turing machine* T = < Q . In this case we also say that the Turing machine halts on input x. the taper contents are the string aababb and the head is reading the last a of the string. > if x ) * ( h. aba ) ( q3 . For example ( q . and ( p .

the second is a Turing machine that accepts { a } but goes into a loop if a string is not in the language (hence it accepts but doe not decide { a }) and the third decides { a }. . where = { a }.The first of the following figures shows a Turing machine that accepts but does not decide the language { a }.

.

This Turing machine is denoted by TE. It is denoted by TR . It is assumed that initially the tape has at the left end. . to the right of Example 3 : The following Turing machine erases the string on the tape and moves the head to the left end.Example 2 : The following Turing machine moves the head to the first the current position.

that is when a Turing machine does not halt on a string. one of the following three things happens: (1) The Turing machine goes into an infinite loop. but it goes into an infinite loop for any strings that are not in the language. the operation of the Turing machine is aborted. In cases (2) and (3). . (2) no transition is specified for the current configuration and (3) the head is at the left end and it is instructed to move left.Strings not Accepted by Turing Machines When a string is not accepted by a Turing machine. For example the following Turing machine accepts the language a+.

* and for every x that is not in S. f(x) ) * . As far as the material discussed in this class note. A language is a phrase structure (type 0) langauage if and only if it is Turing-acceptable in either sense and it has no effects on decidablility. That is. reject a string and halt. * Note on "Turing-acceptable": Some books define "acceptance by Turing machine" slightly differently. Then we say T computes f or f is computable if for every x ( q0 . there is no difference between these two definitions of "accept". . T does not halt on x. or loop. there are two halt states: "accept halt" and "reject halt". the Turing machine eventually goes into the accept halt state.Turing machine accepting a+ Computabler Function Let S * and let f be a function f : S -> S. in the Turing machines those books define. a string is accepted by a Turing machine if given the string. x) * ( h. With this definition. A Turing machine thus may accept a string and halt.

Here we are going to study how complex Turing machines can be constructed using simple Turing machines and how computers can be simulated by Turing machines.Test Your Understanding of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. any "computation" done by human beings or machines can be done by some Turing machine.Combination of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Combination of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Combination of Turing Machines Contents Combination of Turing Machines We have seen the definition of Turing machine and a few simple examples. Let us start with some basic Turing machines. Next -. It moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) . There are two sets of questions. Click True or Fals . then Submit. We have already seen TR . In fact Turing machines that simulate computers and Turing machines that perform computations done by any algorithm can be constructed. One can construct many more Turing machines that perform various functions. Furthermore according to the Church's thesis.

Otherwise it crashes. T1T2 and T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that behaves initially like T1 and when T1 halts T2 takes over inheriting the head position and the tape contents of T1 . respectively. Below is assumed to be at the left end of the tape initially. Then if T1 halts and if the symbol currently under the head is . Then by T we denote a Turing machine that writes symbol at the current position and does not move the head (stays). takes the head to the right end of the string and halts. Using these basic machines and the convention.to the right of the current position. T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that first executes T1. The halt state of T1 becomes the initial state of T2 . . then T2 is started as in the case of T1T2 . Also by TR and TL we denote Turing machines that move the head to right and left one position. let us construct a little more complex Turing machines. Similarly by TL we denote a Turing machine that moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) to the left of the current position. Example 4: The following machine shifts the tape contents to the left one position. To combine Turing machines we use the following conventions: Let T1 and T2 represent arbitrary Turing machines.

x) * b b (h. x x). After the addition the configuration becomes ( h . Example 6: The following Turing machine copies the tape contents at the left end to their right separated by a blank . In general to represent a natural number k. natural numbers are represented on a Turing machine using symbol I. k consecutive I's are put on the tape. . m I's and n I's with a blank between them are placed on the tape. An adder can be constructed for example as TR -> TSL TL . II III ) .For example with the initial tape contents of sequence of tape contents and ends with ab ab -> ab : ab . So the initial configuration for adding 2 and 3 is ( q0 . For example the number 3 is represented by three consecutive I's on the tape and 5 by five I's. First. To add two numbers m and n. After adding two numbers placed on the tape it moves the head to the left end and halts. that is ( q0 . it goes through the following -> aab -> a -> a -> abb -> ab -> ab -> ab Example 5: The left-shift machine of Example 4 can be used to construct an adder for natural numbers. IIIII ) .

Test Your Understanding of Combination of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. However. all of those instructions can be realized using combinations of a small number of basic instructions. and store and load operations can be taken care of by a Turing machine that copies tape contents. there is a Turing machine that performs addition. branching. Furthermore if the subtraction operation is necessary. store and load operations.Today's computers are very complex machines and their instruction sets contain complicated operations. In fact many of the earlier computers had a much smaller instruction set but still could do everything today's computers can do albeit much more slowly. Thus by combining appropriate Turing machines a computer with a minimal instruction set can be constructed. A bare minimum instruction set would contain addition. The following notations are used in the questions: . one can say that computers can be simulated by Turing machines. then Submit. Since any complex computer instructions can be realized using those basic instructions. it is not difficult to construct a Turing machine that performs subtraction using the same representation of numbers as for the addition. Click True or Fals . the branch operation is already in Turing machines because next configurations are determined based on the current state and tape symbol being looked at. All the other operations can be realized by using those basic operations. On the other hand as we have seen above.

For any Turing machine of this type there is a Turing machine with a one dimensional tape that is equally powerful. The tape has the top end and the left end but extends indefinitely to the right and down. It is divided into rows of small squares. how fast they can compute. the efficiency of computation. ones having one tape but with multiple heads.T_a : Ta T_R : TR ->^b : ->b Next -. may vary. first we map the squares of the two dimensional tape to those of the one dimensional tape diagonally as shown in . Turing Machines with Two Dimensional Tapes This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control. what one type can compute any other can also compute. that is. one read-write head and one two dimensional tape.Types of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Types of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Variation of Turing Machine Contents There are a number of other types of Turing machines in addition to the one we have seen such as Turing machines with multiple tapes. that is. ones with two dimensional tapes. nondeterministic Turing machines etc. To simulate a two dimensional tape with a one dimensional tape. the former can be simulated by the latter. It turns out that computationally all these Turing machines are equally powerful. That is. However.

Thus this time the third square is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 9 on the two dimensional tape. ... . .... suppose that the head position is at 8 for the two dimensional tape in the above table... . .. ..... the head moves from position 8 to right. .. . . ... One Dimensional Tape v 1 v 2 3 h 4 5 6 v 7 8 9 10 h 11 .> . ... . . v 16 26 ... respectively. If h was hit first....... which is the third square from 8.. v 2 5 9 12 20 22 . . If the head moves down from i..... If the head moves down to position 13.. that is i = 8... .... If v was hit first. then for the one dimensional tape. then move the head of the one dimensional tape to right until it hits h or v counting the number of squares it has visited after i. ... which is the second square from i = 5. down... . Let k be the number of squares visited by the head of the one dimensional tape. .. The head of a two dimensional tape moves one square up.... . . .. h and v are symbols which are not in the tape alphabet and they are used to mark the left and the top end of the tape. left or right. . .< .. v 7 14 18 24 .. Thus from h.. .. ... Then it meets h first.. . . If i = 5 and the head moves down on the other hand. ... then from h move the head of the one dimensional tape further right to the k-th square from h... Let us simulate this head move with a one dimensional tape.. ...the following tables: Two Dimensional Tape v v h 1 h 3 h 4 h 10 h 11 h 21 .. . Let i be the head position of the two dimensional tape.. v 15 17 25 . That is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 13 on the two dimensional tape. . For example.. v 6 8 13 19 23 . then (k+1)-th square to the right from v is the new head position. Here the numbers indicate the correspondence of squares in the two tapes: square i of the two dimensional tape is mapped to square i of the one dimensional tape. move 3 positions to the right. . then on the one dimensional tape the head moves to the right and it hits v first. That is the square corresponding to the square below i in the two dimensional tape.. ...

> . >. Turing Machines with Infinite Tape : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape which extends infinitely in both directions. Hn } ( { } ) -> ( Q }. H2 . Since Turing machines with a two dimensional tape obviously can simulate Turing machines with a one dimensional tape. L . . . Hn denote the tape heads. It turns out that this type of Turing machines are only as powerful as one tape Turing machines whose tape has a left end. S } n . right or left on the two dimensional tape. In each state only one of the heads is allowed to read and write. A configuration for this kind of Turing machine must show the current state the machine is in and the state of each tape. it can be said that they are equally powerful. q0. H2 . . .L. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . Hence they are at least as powerful as Turing machines with a two dimensional tape. Nondeterministic Turing Machines . Turing Machines with Multiple Tapes : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and more than one tapes each with its own read-write head. It can be proven that any language accepted by an n-tape Turing machine can be accepted by a one tape Turing machine and that any function computed by an n-tape Turing machine can be computed by a one tape Turing machine. .S It can be easily seen that this type of Turing machines are as powerful as one tape Turing machines.. The transition function is a partial function : Q { H1 . .. Its transition function is a partial function :Q ( { } )n -> ( Q { h } ) ( { } )n { R . Since the converses are obviously true. Turing Machines with Multiple Heads : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape but more than one read-write heads. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . Details are omitted. Thus some Turing machines with a one dimensional tape can simulate every move of a Turing machine with one two dimensional tape. q0.Similarly formulas can be found for the head position on the one dimensional tape corresponding to move up... where H1 . {h}) ( { } {R. one can say that one tape Turing machines are as powerful as n-tape Turing machines.

moving the tape head and going to a next state. b }* } . Theorem Any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by some deterministic Turing machine. At any point in the process TN is in some configuration and has a finite set of configurations to choose from for its next configuration.A nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine which. . The root of the tree is the initial configuration and it is the only vertex of level 0. Given a string x. Given a string x . 2. A deterministic Turing machine. like nondeterministic finite automata. it is understood that a nondeterministic Turing machine at any configuration selects one combination of next state. They form level 1.. . It must find the midpoint by for example pairing off symbols from either end of x. In general for each vertex of level i all possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN are its children. All possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN once form the children of the initial configuration. can not guess the midpoint of the string x. The set of all possible computations that TN can perform for a given string x can be represented by a rooted tree as follows. TN starts at the initial configuration and goes through a sequence of configurations until it reaches a halt configuration . The children of all the vertices of level i form level i+1. Formally a nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine whose transition function takes values that are subsets of ( Q {h}) ( { } {R. Even in the same situation it may take different actions at different times. Proof : Let TN denote a nondeterministic Turing machine. at any state it is in and for the tape symbol it is reading.. can take any action selecting from a set of specified actions rather than taking one definite predetermined action. a nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts this language L would first guess the midpoint of x. Note that the number of children for a vertex in this tree is finite because the number of states is finite and there are a finite number of tape symbols. For example let us consider the language L = { ww : w { a . Here an action means the combination of writing a symbol on the tape. on the other hand. that is the place where the second half of x starts. goes into an infinite loop or aborts. tape symbol and head movement out of the set of triples without following any specific predetermined rule. As in the case of NFA. Then it would compare the first half of x with the second half by comparing the i-th symbol of the first half with the i-th symbol of the second half for i = 1. It can be shown that a nondeterministic Turing machine is only as powerful as a deterministic Turing machine.S}.L. . For example consider the following nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts a+ .

it would proceed as follows to accept it: ( q0 .Turing machine accepting a+ Given the string aa. aa ) . The tree for this case would be as follows: . aa ) ( q2 . aa ) and ( q2 . and ( q1 . aa ) ( q1 . aa ) for the second. At the second and third configurations in the above sequence. aa ) and ( q2 . aa ) for the third. aa ) ( q1 . it has two candidates for the next configuration: ( q1 . aa ) ( h .

Many other variations of Turing machine are possible. is to traverse this tree breadth-first way from the root until the halt state is reached. Click True or Fals . Thus any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by a deterministic Turing machine. Test Your Understanding of Different Types of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. then T2 accepts the string and halts. it has been shown that none of them exceed the capability of basic deterministic Turing machine as far as accepting languages is concerned.One way to simulate a nondeterministic Turing machine.Unsolvable Problems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Unsolvable Problems . However. At each level of the tree. Next -. though a deterministic Turing machine might take much more time than a nondeterministic Turing machine to accept a string. If there is the halting state among these children. In fact the Church's thesis conjectures that any so called computation done by humans or computers can be performed by a basic deterministic Turing machine. with a deterministic one. then Submit. T2 applies the transition function of T1 to each configuration at that level and computes its children. It can be easily seen that T2 accepts a string if and only if T1 accepts it. These children are the configurations of the next level and they are stored on the tape (if necessary a second tape may be used). call it T1. call it T2.

. and that any of their variations do not exceed the computational power of deterministic Turing machines. Theorem 1 : The halting problem is undecidable.Subjects to be Learned • • • Halting Problem Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents We have learned that deterministic Turing machines are capable of doing any computation that computers can do. if the Turing machine is running. Then there is a Turing machine T that solves the halting problem. Here "unsolvability" is in the following sense. Minsky): This is going to be proven by "proof by contradiction". Halting Problem One of well known unsolvable problems is the halting problem. and an arbitrary string w over . First recall that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language (see Problem Solving as Language Recognition). It asks the following question: Given an arbitrary Turing machine M over alphabet = { a . So we are going to look at the unsolvability in terms of language recognition. Suppose that a language is acceptable but not decidable. Thus if a language is not decidable. b } . It is also conjectured that any "computation" human beings perform can be done by Turing machines (Church's thesis). given a description of a Turing machine M (over the alphabet ) and a string w. That is. the question is unanswerable that is the problem is unsolvable. L. At any point in time. In this chapter we are going to learn that there are problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers. Since we can not wait forever for an answer. there is no way of telling whether it is in an infinite loop or along the way to a solution and it needs more time. Suppose that the halting problem is decidable. that is computationally they are equally powerful. hence unsolvable. does M halt when it is given w as an input ? It can be shown that the halting problem is not decidable. T writes "yes" if M halts on w and "no" if M does not halt on w. the question of whether or not a string is in the language may not be answered in any finite amount of time. Then given a string a Turing machine that accept the language starts the computation. and then T halts. Proof (by M. Below we are going to see some well known unsolvable problems and see why we can say they are unsolvable.

copies it to obtain the string d(M)*d(M). then Tm goes into an infinite loop (Tm halts if the original T rejects a string and halts). Next using Tm we are going to construct another Turing machine Tc as follows: Tc takes as input a description of a Turing machine M. . First we construct a Turing machine Tm by modifying T so that if T accepts a string and halts. where * is a symbol that separates the two copies of d(M) and then supplies d(M)*d(M) to the Turing machine Tm . denoted by d(M).We are now going to construct the following new Turing machine Tc.

Hence that assumption must be wrong. .Let us now see what Tc does when a string describing Tc itself is given to it. Thus the question of whether or not a program halts for a given input is nothing but the halting problem. Hence there is no Turing machine that solves the halting problem. The way T was modified the modified T is going to go into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). When Tc gets the input d(Tc) . constructs the string d(Tc)*d(Tc) and gives it to the modified T. Thus Tc goes into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and it halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). it makes a copy. This is a contradiction. Thus the modified T is given a description of Turing machine Tc and the string d(Tc). Thus one implication of the halting problem is that there can be no computer programs (Turing machines) that check whether or not any arbitrary computer program stops for a given input. This contradiction has been deduced from our assumption that there is a Turing machine that solves the halting problem. Program correctness and Halting Problem Note that for any computer program a Turing machine can be constructed that performs the task of the program.

Language NonSelfAccepting Let us first define two languages NSA1 and NSA2 as follows: . Click True or Fals .Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Next -. then Submit.More Unsolvable Preoblems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines More Unsolvable Problems Subjects to be Learned • • Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents The next unsolvable problem is in a sense more difficult than the halting problem. It is presented as a language and it can be shown that there are no Turing machines that accept the language.

However. We are going to see that T0 neither accepts w0 nor rejects it. Hence a is in NSA2 . Certainly more symbols than a single a are needed to describe even the simplest Turing machine. Proof: This is going to be proven by contradiction. let w = a. w0 is in neither NSA1 nor NSA2 . But w0 = d( T0 ) because that is how we selected w0 . Since NonSelfAccepting is a language. b }*. Problem Accepts( ) The problem Accepts( ) asks whetehr or not a given Turing machine T accepts . call it T0. It . w = d(T) for a Turing machine T and T does not accept NSA2 = { w | w { a. Theorem 2 There are no Turing machines that accept the language NonSelfAccepting. NSA2 is the set of strings that do not describe any Turing machine. This is a contradiction. Hence it is in SelfAccepting . b }*. that is w0 is a description of the Turing machine T0 . Hence w is in NSA1 . Let w0 = d( T0 ). Knowing the unsolvability of the halting problem some other problems can be shown to be unsolvable. where d(T) is a description of the Turing machine T. (2) If T0 does not accept w0 . For NSA2. Then this w is a description of a Turing machine but it must be longer than one symbol. This means that there can not be any Turing machine that accepts the language NonSelfAccepting. w0 is in NSA1 . NSA1 is the set of strings that describe a Turing machine but that are not accepted by the Turing machine they describe. then w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. Suppose there is a Turing machine. For let T be a Turing machine that accepts { a } and let w = d(T). either w0 is in NonSelfAccepting or it isn't. Hence it is not accepted by T. w d(T) for any Turing machine T } . Then there is no Turing machine that can be described by the string a. Neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. Thus there can not be Turing machine T0 that accepts the language SelfAccepting . (1) If T0 accepts w0. This is again a contradiction. Hence either T0 accepts w0 or rejects it. Thus neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. which is absurd. then w0 NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. Hence w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting . Also T0 does not accept w0 . by the definitions of NSA1 and NSA2. that accepts NonSelfAccepting. Hence by the definition of NSA1 . Let us define the language NonSelfAccepting as NonSelfAccepting = NSA1 Then we can prove the following theorem: NSA2 .NSA1 = { w | w w} { a. Hence T0 can not accept w0 .

call it M. Then consider the Turing machine T = TeraseT' . Let a Turing machine T' and a string w be an instance of the halting problem. This T halts on if and only if T' halts on w. Using this T. call it M. We are going to show that Accepts( ) can be solved using the solution to it. Suppose that Accepts( ) is solvable. Consider a Turing machine T = TwT'. Suppose that AcceptsEverything is solvable. the halting problem can be solved. Thus if Accepts( ) is solvable. Let A be a Turing machine that solves AcceptsEverything. M solves the halting problem. This T halts on every string over if and only if T1 halts on . Using a similar idea the following problem can also be shown to be unsolvable. Since the halting problem is unsolvable. Let A be a Turing machine that solves Accepts( ).can be shown to be unsolvable. where Terase is a Turing machine that erases the input on the tape and halts. M writes the string d( T ) on the tape and let A take over. Problem AcceptsEverything The problem AcceptsEverything asks whether or not a given Turing machine T halts on every string over a given alphabet . Let T' be an instance of Accepts( ). We are going to show that the halting problem becomes solvable using this A. this means that Accepts( ) is unsolvable. which is an instance of the halting problem. where machine Tw is a Turing machine that writes w. a Turing machine. Then M halts on d(T') and w if and only if T' halts on w. That is. that solves Accepts( ) can be constructed as . Using this T. Then there is a Turing machine that solves it. that solves the halting problem can be constructed as follows: Given a description d(T') of a Turing machine T' and a string w as inputs. a Turing machine.

it means that AcceptsEverything is unsolvable. Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) = ? finite ? infinite ? context-free ? Is L( G1 ) = L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) = * ? Is the complement of L( G1 ) context-free ? .shown below. It can be shown to be unsolvable using AcceptsEverything. By similar arguments the following problems can be shown to be unsolvable. Other Unsolvable Problems Let G1 and G2 be context-free grammars and let L(G) denote the language generated by grammar G. It can be shown to be unsolvable using Accepts( ) . Since Accepts( ) is unsolvable. Then the following problems are all unsolvable. AcceptsNothing This problem asks whether or not a Turing machine accepts nothing. Equivalence This problem asks whether or not two Turing machines accept the same language.

Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. then Submit. A problem is solvable if some Turing . Click True or Fals . No one can write computer programs that solve those problems and halt after a finite amount of time.Time Complexity of Problem Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Complexity Time Complexity Subjects to be Learned • • • • • Time Complexity of Problems Decision Tree Class NP Polynomial Time Transformation NP-Complete Problems Contents In the previous sections we have learned that some problems are unsolvable by Turing machines hence by computers. Next -.

as we are going to see below. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved by algorithms with the worst case time which is a polynomial in the problem size (polynomial time algorithms). problems that need k-exponential time algorithms. the addition operation +. They are all polynomial time algorithms. Let us see some of those intractable problems. However. ~Q )" and "if P then after( if P then Q else ~Q. The satisfiability problem for PDL is known to take at least exponential time to solve in the worst case. They are both satisfiable. The measure for computation time we use is the worst case time. it is still solvable. It is estimated by counting the largest possible number of key operations to be performed in terms of the input size. then Y Z [ X = Y + Z ] ] is a proposition of Presburger arithmetic.machine can solve it in finite time. For example. There are also problems that must be solved at best by exponential time algorithms in the worst case. For example the formula ( P V ~P ) is always true. In this section we are going to study solvable problems and learn a hierarchy of solvable problems based on the computation time required to solve them. and there are problems that require algorithms with the worst case time worse than k-exponential time for any natural number k. The problems that can not be solved with any polynomial time algorithm are called intractable problems . a heap sort needs O(n lg n) time. S) says that S is true after executing A. The satisfiability problem becomes even harder when logic becomes more complex. For example. where P is a propositional variable. where P and Q are propositions. Similarly ( P V Q ) is also satisfiable. a quick sort needs O(n2) time. For many problems a day or even an hour would be too long. etc. So it is not satisfiable. it is as good (or bad) as unsolvable. They take much more time to execute than polynomial time algorithms. Q )" . This is the problem of asking whether or not a given formula can take the value true for some values of its variables. Then there are problems that require double exponential ( e. Before proceeding to predicate logic let us consider the following logic called propositional dynamic logic (PDL for short). For example "after( if P then Q else ~Q. where k is a natural number. where A is an algorithm and S is a statement. are propositions of PDL. or etc. O(f(x)) (big-oh) and other related subjects click here. So it is certainly satisfiable. In logic there is a well known problem of "satisfiability". Presburger arithmetic is a logic that allows statements involving positive integers. For example a binary search takes O(lg n) time. in practice if it takes a million years. X [ if ~( X = 1 ). as well as all the connectives such as and. S). that is it requires at least O( aan ) time to solve in the worst case. second order logic. This is a propositional logic with an extra construct (proposition) after(A. the equality symbol = and quantifiers and . variables taking positive integers as their values. . For more detailed review of this.g. 22n ) time algorithms. For example the satisfiability problem for Presburger arithmetic is double-exponential (2-fold exponentail). Even if it takes a million years to solve a problem. after(A. One can ask the same question for formulas of first order predicate logic. But (P ^ ~P ) is always false. etc. the satisfiability problem for the propositional dynamic logic is proven to take exponential time to solve in the worst case.

the logic is called WS1S (Weak Second-order theory of 1 Successor). For the satisfiability problem of WS1S.In Presburger arithmetic (minus addition operation). Now let us go back to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. there are no K-fold exponential time algorithms to solve it for any number K. "Is a string w in the language a*b ? ". in addition. if. Let us try to solve the following instances of this graph coloring problem: Given the following graph. is it possible to color its vertices with three or less colors ? . " Is it possible to assign colors to vertices of a given graph using a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned ? " etc. "Is it possible to schedule committee meetings without conflicts into a given number of time slots ? " . Consider the problem of coloring vertices of a graph with a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned. At the moment. there are problems that are solved by answering with yes or no. Below we are going to characterize this class of problems. Let us here review nondeterministic Turing machines. First. the consensus is that they ca not be solved with polynomial time algorithms. These problems are called decision problems. sets of integers and the predicate "belongs to" (an element X belongs to a set S) are allowed. For example. This problem is called "Graph Coloring" problem or more precisely "Vertex Color" problem. This problem belongs to a peculiar class of problems called NP-Complete problems. however. Such a problem (having no K-fold exponential time algorithms) is called nonelementary. For the problems of this class there are no known polynomial time algorithms for solving them nor are they known to be unsolvable with polynomial time algorithms. Some of these decision problems are NP-complete problems.

For the graphs of (a) and (b), you could find a solution very easily by inspection. You could see a right coloring as soon as you saw the graphs. However, you can most likely not tell how you arrived at your solutions. You probably don't have any algorithms you could use to solve them. You could somehow see the solutions. This is basically the idea of nondeterministic (Turing) machine. There is no fixed procedure which you can use repeatedly to solve instance after instance of this problem. But you can somehow solve them. Let us move on to a slightly more complex example of (c). For this graph to find a right coloring you could start with vertex 1 and assign color a. Then move on to vertex 2 and assign color b(it has to be something other than a ). Then go to vertex 3 and assign a third color, say c. Then at vertex 4 select color b and for vertex 5 use color a. In this process we make a decision as to what color to use for each vertex and when a decision is made for all the vertices we have a solution to the problem. This process applies to any decision problem. That is to solve a decision problem a number of smaller decisions are made one after another and as a result a solution to the problem is obtained. This process can be represented by a tree called decision tree. For example, for the graph coloring problem let us first decide on the order of vertices we color in, say 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for the graph of (c) above. Then the root of its decision tree corresponds to the vertex we assign a color to first (vertex 1 in this example). Then for each possible color for the first vertex, a child is created for the first vertex of the tree. So the second level of the

decision tree corresponds to the second vertex to be colored. Then in general, for each possible color for each vertex of level i of the decision tree, a child is created. Those children form level i+1 of the decision tree. The decision tree for the graph of (c) is given below. Since any color can be assigned to vertex 1 without loss of generality, it has just one child in the actual decision tree. Also since in this case the i-th and (i+1)-th vertices are connected by an edge for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, they can not have the same color. So each vertex after vertex 1 has two colors to choose from. So they each have two children in the decision tree.

Thus during the process of solving the problem a decision is made at each level and when all levels are covered, the problem is solved. A path from the root to a leaf corresponds to a coloring of the vertices of the given graph. A decision tree, however, does not tell us how to make decisions. Also a decision tree does not tell how to order the vertices for coloring, that is which vertex to color first, second etc. A deterministic machine (or algorithm) has a specific fixed set of rules for making a decision at each level of the decision tree. Although it knows what to do at every stage of problem solving, the decisions it makes are not necessarily the right ones. When it makes wrong decisions, it must retract earlier decisions and try different paths, which is called backtracking. For the graph coloring problem a deterministic algorithm might first order the vertices of the graph in decreasing order of their degree and also order colors. Then, following the

order of the vertices, assign to each vertex the highest order color available for the vertex. Since that kind of algorithm is not guaranteed to use the minimum number of colors, it may produce a wrong answer unless there is some provision for backtracking. A nondeterministic (Turing) machine, on the other hand, is a fictitious machine and somehow knows which branch (child) to select at each step. It always makes a right selection. A decision problem is said to belong to class NP if each vertex in its decision tree has a finite number of children and if it can be solved by a nondeterministic (Turing) machine in polynomial time. The graph coloring problem is in class NP, so are the satisfiability problem for propositional logic and most of the scheduling problems just to name a few. Also there are other characterizations of class NP. Interested readers click here. At this moment it is not known whether or not problems in class NP can be solved with a polynomial time algorithm in the worst case. The consensus is that there is no polynomial time algorithm to solve them. It would take at least exponential time. Among the problems in class NP, there are problems which all problems of class NP can be transformed to in polynomial time. Those problems are called NP-complete problems. If a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of the NP-complete problems, all the problems in NP can be solved in polynomial time. Below we are going to study NPcomplete problems. We start our discussion with the concept of polynomial time transformation (reduction). Basically we say a decision problem Q1 is polynomially reducible to a decision problem Q2 if and only if there is a transformation that transforms any arbitrary instance of Q1 into an instance of Q2 in polynomial time such that the answer to Q1 is yes if and only if the answer to Q2 is yes. A little more formally we define this in terms of languages. Note that a decision problem can be viewed as a language of its instances and that solving it can be considered as recognizing the language as we have seen earlier. Let L1 and L2 be languages over alphabets 1 and 2, respectively. We say that L1 is polynomial-time reducible to L2 if and only if there is a function f from 1* to 2* such that for any string x in polynomial time.

1 *

,x

L1 if and only if f(x)

L2 and f can be computed

For example let us consider the following two problems: graph coloring and scheduling of committee meetings. The graph coloring problem is as given above. In the scheduling of committee meetings problem, committees with their members and a positive integer k are given. The problem is whether or not the meetings of the committees can be scheduled in k or less time slots so that everyone can attend one's meetings. Note that some people may be in more than one committee. Let us try to show that this scheduling problem is polynomial time reducible to the graph coloring problem.

Then the committees can be grouped into p groups so that the committees in the same group can meet at the same time. respectively. For example suppose that we are given the committees 1. d }. an edge is inserted between vertices 1 and 2. {a. 3 and 4. 3 and 4 with the memberships { a. where p k. d } and { a. edges are added between 1 and 3.What we need to do is given an instance of the scheduling problem construct an instance of the graph coloring problem. b }. 3 and 4 to the graph. connect with an edge the vertices corresponding to the committees. Suppose also that k = 3. c }. that is construct a graph and give the number of colors to be used to color its vertices so that the meetings can be scheduled if and only if graph can be colored. Corresponding to this grouping assign colors to the vertices of the graph so that the vertices in the same group are given the same color and those in . Let us consider the following transformation: For each committee add a vertex to the graph. add vertices 1. and if and only if two committee have some members in common. c. { b. 2. Then the meetings can be scheduled in k or less time slots if and only if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. 2. Proceeding similarly the following graph is obtained corresponding to the committee memberships. The corresponding graph for the graph coloring problem can be constructed as follows: Corresponding to the committees 1. and 1 and 4. 2. Then since committees 1 and 2 share a. Suppose that the meetings can be scheduled in p time slots. Similarly since committees 1 and 3. Thus the scheduling problem asks whether or not the meetings of the given committees can be scheduled in 3 time slots without any conflicts. and 1 and 4 share members.

can be done in time polynomial in the size of the problem. Cook that the problems of class NP can be polynomial time reducible to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. Graph Color Problem 3.different groups are given different colors. It is also easily seen that the transformation. We are now ready to discuss NP-completeness. their sizes and a number of bins of the same size. NP-complete Problems 1. Today hundreds of problems are known to be NP-complete. find out whether or not one is a subgraph of the other. find out whether or not the objects can be put into the bins. For if any two vertices are connected with an edge. This group of problems are called NP-complete problems. Committee Meeting Schedule Problem In fact most scheduling problems are NPcomplete. Subsequently the satisfiability problem was found to be polynomial time reducible to many other problems. group them into two groups so that the sum of the numbers of one group is equal to that of the other group. 6. Traveling Salesman Problem Given cities and traveling times between cities. . Some of them are listed below. that is the construction of graph for a given set of committees. a traveling salesman wants to know a shortest route to visit all cities exactly once and come back to where he/she started. Partition Problem Given a set of integers. It can be easily seen that if a problem P at hand is NP-hard and if a problem known to be NP-complete can be polynomial time reducible to P. A problem is NP-complete if it is in class NP and NP-hard. Thus these two vertices must get different colors. then P is also NP-complete. 7.e. Subgraph Isomorphism Problem Given two graphs. This coloring uses p colors which does not exceed k. then that means that the corresponding committees share some members and that they are scheduled to meet in different time slots. which in this case can be taken as the number of committees. then the consensus today is that it is most likely that no polynomial time algorithms i. Formally a problem is NP-hard if every problem in class NP can be polynomial time reducible to it. If a problem is NP-complete. 5. then it can be easily seen that the committees can meet in k or less time slots. Bin Packing Problem Given a set of objects. For all the problems in class NP can be reduced to P through the known NP-complete problem in polynomial time. It was first proven by S. As a consequence if a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of those problems. and vertices connected with an edge have different colors. Satisfiability Problem for Propositional Logic 2. 4. Conversely if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. fast algorithms exist to solve it. all the problems can be solved with polynomial time algorithms.

of S such that every element of A.b. B and C of the same size.b. 3-Dimensional Matching Given three sets A. Then T = {(1.b. and S = {(1.x)} is not a matching.(2. Set Cover Problem Given a set S. called a matching. is it possible to select objects so that the sum of their sizes does not exceed S and the sum of their values is V or larger ? 10. and a subset S of the Cartesian product A X B X C.(1. and C appears exactly once in T ? For example. Note that {(1. their sizes.y). their values and an integer V.b.y)}.x). (2. Is there a subset T.y). 9. let A = {1. (2. B = {a. a set of objects.x).b}. B.a.a.x)} is a desired set satisfying all the requirements. find out whether or not there are k or less subsets in the collection whose union is S.b. .2}.a. a collection of subsets of S and an integer k. (2.x). and C = {x.y}. Knapsack Problem Given a knapsack of size S.8.

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