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Language, Automata: , \alpha : usually denotes a string in this course. , \beta : usually denotes a string in this course. , \delta : usually denotes a transition function in this course. , \sigma : usually denotes a symbol in an alphabet in this course. , \Delta : usually denotes a blank space in this course. , \Gamma : usually denotes a set of stack symbols in this course. , \Lambda : usually denotes an empty string in this course. , \Pi : usually denotes a partition in this course. , \Sigma : usually denotes an alphabet in this course. , \goto : usually denotes a (one step) transition in this course. Logic: , ~ : logical not , ^ : logical and , V : logical or , -> : logical imply , <-> : logical if and only if (equivalent) , => : logical tautologically imply , <=> : logical tautologically equivalent , \A : logical for all , \E : logical for some (there exists)

Sets: , \in : belongs to , \not\in : does not belong to , @ : empty set U, : universal set , \subset : proper subset , \not\subset : not a proper subset , \subseteq : subset , \not\subseteq : not a subset , \cup : set union Ai , \cup(i=1 to n) A_i : union of n sets , \cap : set intersection Ai , \cap(i=1 to n) A_i : intersection of n sets , \bar A : complement of set A (A) , P(A) : power set of set A , X : Cartesian product Ai , X(i=1 to n) A_i : cartesian product of n sets Relation: < a, b > : ordered pair < a1, a2, ..., an > : ordered n-tuple , <= : precedes (partial order) Functions: xi , Sum(i=1 to n) x_i : sum of n xi's O(f) , O(f) : of order smaller than or equal to f

o(f) , o(f) : of order smaller than f (f) , Omega : of order greater than or equal to f (f) , omega : of order greater than f (f) , Theta : of the same order as f f(x) , lim(x -> inf) f(x) : limit of f as x goes to infinity

**Introduction to Theoretical Computer Science
**

Today computers are used everywhere: banks, hospitals, schools, airline companies, gas stations, grocery stores, in our cars, in home appliances, PCs, etc., etc. Some are used to crunch numbers, some are used to process images, some are used to process other nonnumeric data and some are used to control operations of various devices. They can reason, they can prove many mathematical theorems, they can beat chess experts in their game, they can solve some very complex problems, they can understand our languages, they can answer our questions and of course they can crunch numbers much much faster than us. Let us for a moment call what computers do computation for convenience, though some of the things computers do such as controling appliances, answering our questions etc. don't fall into our traditional sense of computation. Then these computers seem to be able to compute an awfully lot of things if not everything. But are they capable of computing anything ? Are there things computers can not do ? If there are things computers can not do, what are they ? And why ? If there aren't things computers can not do, then how can we tell ? What do we exactly mean by computation ? Unfortunately there are many things computers can not do. Computers can not solve certain types of problems. For example no computer can tell in general whether or not a given computer program stops after a finite amount of time on a given input. They can not solve some other types of problems fast enough even though they can solve them in some finite amount of time. For example take the traveling salesman problem: a salesman is given a road map with distances between cities and wants to find a shortest round trip route that visits all the cities on the map exactly once. At the moment the so called traveling salesman problem requires an extremely large amount of time to solve. No one has been able to find a reasonably fast algorithm to solve it and the consensus is that it is not likely that anyone can find such an algorithm. I have just given you an example of the problems that computers could not solve. How do we know that that is the case ? Are there other problems like that ? How can we tell whther or not a given problem can be solved and solved fast enough ?

Turing machines also recognize languages. The other two are context-free languages and context-sensitive languages. So they provide a good introduction to our study of Turing machines. which is the key to the unsolvability of problem by computers. These two type of languages belong to a hierarchy of four languages called Homsky hierarchy. we study a simpler type of computing device called finite automata. it is generally believed (Church's thesis) that any "computation" humans do can be done by Turing machines and that "computation" is the computation performed by Turing machines. In particular we are going to see a few problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers and how we can tell that they are unsolvable. which are also heavily used in practice. It was first conceived of by Alan Turing in early 20-th century. It turns out that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. The languages Turing machines recognize are called Type 0 (or phrase structure) languages (regular languages are Type 3) and they are more complex than regular languages. Consequently they are less capable than Turing machines but then their operations are simpler. We are going to learn their properties. This essence is a device called Turing machine. The languages that are recognized by finite automata are called regular languages. Before proceeding to the study of Turing machines and their computations in this course. More specifically they answer the question whether or not a given string belongs to a language. Finite automata are very similar to Turing machines but a few restrictions are imposed on them. After briefly studying context-free languges. Since so many systems in practice can be described by regular languages. every task modern computers perform can also be accomplished by Turing machines. . Though it has not been proven. Thus by studying Turing machines we can learn capabilities hence limitatgions of computers. Those four languages are together called formal languages. We are going to investigate limitations of computers and computations by studying the essence of compuers and computations rather than all the variations of computer and computation. Then with Turing machines we investigate limitations of computers and computations. we go to Turing machines. that is to study limitations of computers and computation.The main objective of this course is to answer those questions. Finite automata process strings. In addition finite automata can model a large number of systems used in practice. We say finite automata recognize languages. Thus when a finite automaton is processing strings. There we learn how computers can be simulated by Turing machines and what it means that a Turing machine recognizes (decides) a language. it can actually be solving a problem. It is a very simple device but remarkably. we are also going to study regular languages in detail as well as finite automata. Thus they are a powerful tool to design and study those systems with. ways to describe them and how to use them to model many of the real life systems. We call a set of strings (of symbols) a language.

Let us start with review of mathematics. The time needed to solve such a problem increases at least exponentially with the size of the problem as long as we use Turing machines (hence computers). For example for the traveling salesman problem if 100 cities were too many to solve fast enough. The time complexity issues are investigated using Turing machines so that the results apply to all computers. • • • • Logic Sets Relations Functions Logic Proposition and Logical Connectives "Proposition" can be defined as a declarative statement having a specific truth-value. If the computation time is 2n where n is the size of the problem. then with the increase in the processor speed of 1. 4 is a perfect square. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved within a reasonable amount of time and there are problems that are known to require a finite but very large amount of time to solve. Basic Mathematical Objects Back to Table of Contents The following are the contents of this introductory chapter. We are going to see some of those which take a large amount of time.000 times it can handle only ten or so more larger problem sizes. . then even if the processor speed increased 1. respectively. Unfortunately there is nothing we can do to speed them up. true or false. Example: The following statements are propositions as they have precise truth values.000 times 110 cities would already be too many. "Connective": Two or more propositions can be combined together to make compound propositions with the help of logical connectives. Their truth values are false and true.Our last topic is time complexities of various problems. • • 2 is a odd number. Increasing the processor speed does not help much for such problems.

2 is an odd number OR 4 is a perfect square. Disjunction This is logical "or" read as either true value of the individual propositions. • • 2 is an odd number AND 4 is a perfect square. Their truth vales are false and true respectively. Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F pVq T T T F c. Conjunction The logical conjunction is understood in the same way as commonly used ôandö. . Truth table for two individual propositions p and q with conjunction is given below p T T F F q T F T F p^q T F F F b. The following are the logical connectives used commonly: a. For the first compound proposition to be true both the propositions have to be true as the connective is AND and as OR is the connective for the second one if either of the propositions is true the truth value of the compound proposition is true. The compound proposition truth-value is true iff all the constituent propositions hold true.Example: Above two propositions can be used to make a compound proposition using any of the logical connectives. Negation This is the logical "negation" and it is expressed by Truth table is given below as p for "not p". It is represented as " ^ ".

g. "if not q then not p" . "q is necessary for p". p q is read as "if p. e. Contradiction This is the opposite of tautology. It is represented as p => q. Conditional This is used to define as "a proposition holds true if another proposition is true" i. If p and q have the same truth-value in every case then they are said to be logically equivalent and it is represented as p <=> q. then p is said to logically imply q.: p V p g. which is false in every case. E. For example.p T F p F T d. Biconditional A proposition (p q) ^ (q p) can be abbreviated using biconditional conjunction as p q and is read as "if p then q.g. Following are some of the useful identities and implications from propositional logic: Identities . and if q then p". Tautology A compound proposition. f.: p ^ p Logical implication and equivalence If the value of p -> q is true in every case.e. "p only if q" . "p is sufficient for q" . which is true in every case. E. then q" Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F p T F T T q p -> q is also expressed in a number of different (but equivalent) ways in English. "q is a necessity/consequence of p" and "q whenever p" are all differnt ways of saying "if p then q".

(P 4. examples and proofs of these implications go to Implications Predicate and Predicate Logic The propositional logic is not powerful enough to represent all types of assertions that are used in computer science and mathematics. . [(P 5.contrapositive For explanations. (P 2. [(P 2. the sentences "The car Tom is driving is blue". and "The cover of this book is blue" come from the template "is blue" by placing an appropriate noun/noun phrase in front of it. The predicate logic is one of the extensions of propositional logic and it is fundamental to most other types of logic. Central to the predicate logic are the concepts of predicate and quantifier. A predicate is a template involving a verb that describes a property of objects.modus tollens Q) (R S)] [(P R) (Q S)] Q) (Q R)] (P R) For explanations. or to express certain types of relationship between propositions such as equivalence ( for more detail click here for example for example ).1. For more complex reasoning we need more powerful logic capable of expressing complicated propositions and reasoning.implication Q) R] [P (Q R)] ----.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. "The sky is blue".DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. (P 3. The phrase "is blue" is a predicate and it describes the property of being blue. (P Q) ( P Q) ----. examples and proofs of these identities go to Identities Implications 1. or a relationship among objects represented by the variables. [(P Q) Q] P ----. For example. [(P 3.exportation Q) ( Q P) ----.

such as x > 1 or P(x).Predicates are often given a name. the statemen t x > 1 to "for every object x in the universe. This new statement is true or false in the universe of discourse. which is expressed as " x x > 1". The universal quantifier turns. If we adopt B as the name for the predicate "is_blue". B(x) reads as "x is blue". There are two types of quantifiers: universal quantifier and existential quantifier. called atomic formula. The propositions in the predicate logic are statements on objects of a universe. x > 1 becomes 3 > 1 if 3 is assigned to x. sentences that assert an object is blue can be represented as "B(x)". "Blue" or "B" can be used to represent the predicate "is blue" among others. x > 1". and hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. The universe is thus the domain of the (individual) variables. can be made a proposition by applying one of the following two operations to each of its variables: 1. is the set of objects of interest. Hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. where x represents an arbitrary object. and it becomes a true statement. by using quantifiers on variables . It can be the set of real numbers. also called universe . . for example. a quantification is performed on formulas of predicate logic (called wff ). the statement x > 1 to "for some object x in the universe. For example. Similarly the existential quantifier turns. A predicate with variables. Universe of Discourse The universe of discourse. assign a value to the variable 2. For example any of "is_blue". quantify the variable using a quantifier (see below). it is true or false in the universe of discourse. In general." Again. for example. x > 1". hence a proposition. which is expressed as " x x > 1.

x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 2. The universe is often left implicit in practice. Also for proof and proof techniques see Mathematical Reasoning. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 4. implications and inference rules. the set of all cars on a parking lot. It allows one to reason about properties and relationships of individual objects. the set of all students in a classroom etc. Predicate logic is more powerful than propositional logic. as well as those for propositional logic such as the equivalences.the set of integers. Important Inference Rules of Predicate Logic: First there is the following rule concerning the negation of quantified statement which is very useful: x P(x) x P(x) Next there is the following set of rules on quantifiers and connvectives: 1. But it should be obvious from the context. [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] x [ P(x) Q(x) ] 3. some of which are given below. In predicate logic. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] For more discussions and examples on these rules and others. Sets . see Reasoning(with predicate logic) and Quantifiers and Connectives in Discrete Structures course. one can use some additional inference rules.

.2. having a property that characterizes those elements. Example: A = {1. A is a subset of B is represented as A B. A is a subset of B.5} Alternate way is to give the properties that characterize the elements of the set. Example: B = {x | x is a positive integer less than or equal to 5} Some sets can also be defined recursively. but not equal to B represented as A B.3. Universal Set The set U of all the elements we might ever consider in the discourse is called the universal set.3. if A is a subset of. Note: If A is a subset of B and B is a subset of A then A=B. It is read as "the set of natural numbers that are less than or equal to 5". Using this notation we can specify the set {0. Set terminology Belongs To x B means that x is an element of set B. Subset Let A and B be two sets. How to specify a Set? One way is to enumerate the elements completely. All the elements belonging to the set are explicitly given.2. Also.What is a set? Set is a group of elements. if every element of A is an element of B.4.4} call it Z by writing Z = {x | x N | x 5} where N represents the set of natural numbers.1.

3.2. Example: If A = {1.2. 3.5} 2. Set Operations The operations that can be performed on sets are: 1. It is denoted by A B. Disjoint sets A and B are said to be disjoint if they contain no elements in common i.2. Example: A = { 1.8. Union If A and B are two sets.3 } .Complement If A is a set.4. then the union of A and B is the set that contains all the elements that are in A and B including the ones in both A and B. and B = { 6. then the difference of A from B is the set that consists of the elements of A that are not in B.2. Difference If A and B are two sets. where means " is not an element of ". where ø is the Empty set. For A and B of the above example B .2} Note that in general A .e.3} B = {3.4.8} B = {3.B.3.B B . Intersection If A and B are two sets.A = {4.3.9 } are disjoint.4. then the complement of A is the set consisting of all elements of the universal set that are not in A.. Example: If A = {1.5} then A . It is denoted by A .5 } .4.A . then the intersection of A and B is the set that consists of the elements in both A and B .5} .8}. Example: If U is the set of natural numbers and A = { 1. Example: If A = {1.B = {1. then A' = { x | x U ^ x > 3}.5.5} then A B = {1.8} then A B = {3. It is denoted by A B.4.3} and B = {3.2. A B= ø.2. It is denoted by A' or . Thus A' = { x | x U ^ x A } .

. C represent arbitrary sets and ø is the empty set and U is the Universal Set. B. It is a very good tool to get a general idea.Following is a list of some standard Set Identities A. The Commutative laws: A B=B A A B=B A The Associative laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Distributive laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Idempotent laws: A A=A A A=A The Absorptive laws: A (A B) = A A (A B) = A The De Morgan laws: (A B)' = A' B' (A B)' = A' B' Other laws involving Complements: ( A' )' = A A A A' = ø A' = U B) B) B) B) C C (A (A C) C) Other laws involving the empty set A A ø=A ø=ø Other laws involving the Universal Set: A U=U A U=A Venn Diagrams A common technique in working with Set Operations is to illustrate them by drawing Venn Diagrams.

4 } can be represented as shown below using Venn Diagrams: Set A U represents the Universal set in which A is one of the Set.2.2. .3. however. For example sets A = { 1. because they can represent only very limited situations and miss many other possibilities. The idea of Venn Diagram is to draw a region representing the universe and within that to draw the regions representing the component sets we are starting with so that the resulting diagram describes their interrelationships.4 } and B = { 6.Note.8. that Venn Diagrams must NOT be used for rigorous discussions.

Set B The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A B .

A B .

The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A U B A A B B is the set consisting of all the different elements in A and B. .

8 } (A B)' = U .7.6.4 } A B = { 1.5.2.6.8 } .4.8 } A = { 1.2.3.3.(A B) = { 5. 7 } B = { 2.3.4.4.2. For example: U = { 1.(A B)' is the yellow region in the Venn diagram given below.6.

. intersection and Cartesian product of sets are associative. A2 .. This can be generalized for the union of any finite number of sets as A1 An . For example expressions we often use A holds. which we write as Ai This generalized union of sets can be rigorously defined as follows: Definition ( Ai) : .A is the blue shaded region in the Venn Diagram shown below Generalized Set Operations Union.. To denote either of these B C.B is the yellow shaded region and B .A .

The basis clause (or simply basis) of the definition establishes that certain objects are in the set. This part of the definition specifies the "seeds" of the set from which the elements of the set are generated using the methods given in the inductive clause. Ai = A1. . The set of elements specified here is called basis of the set being defined. Based on these definitions. and = Recursive Definition Recursive Definition Subjects to be Learned • • • • • recursive/inductive definition basis clause basis inductive clause extremal clause A recursive definition of a set always consists of three distinct clauses: 1. De Morgan's law on set union and intersection can also be generalized as follows: Theorem (Generalized De Morgan) = .Basis Clause: For n = 1 . Inductive Clause: Ai = ( Ai) An+1 Ai and generalized Cartesian product Similarly the generalized intersection Ai can be defined.

since 0 is in N. . Example 2. 1 is the parent of 2. The Set of Natural Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . can be included in N. and 1 is the child of 0. which is not what we want as the set of natural numbers. the set of natural numbers N can be obtained as follows: First by (1). 1. 3. 2. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses.2. Example 3. 0. Proceeding in this manner all the natural numbers are put into N. x + 2 is in .5. Note that if we don't have (3). Following this definition. 1 + 1 (= 2) is in N. The Set of Even Integers Basis Clause: . and x is the child of x + 1. Let us call the objects used to create a new object the parents of the new object. The inductive clause (or simply induction) of the definition establishes the ways in which elements of the set can be combined to produce new elements of the set. the object is not a member of the set. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. 0 + 1 (= 1) is in N. The extremal clause asserts that unless an object can be shown to be a member of the set by applying the basis and inductive clauses a finite number of times. and 2 is the child of 1.5. Then by (2). The inductive clause always asserts that if objects are elements of the set. x + 1 is in . then they can be combined in certain specified ways to create other objects... and the new object is their child . The basis for this set N is { 0 } . The Set of Nonnegative Even Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in .5. 0 is put into N. The x + 1 in the Inductive Clause is the parent of x. 0 is the parent of 1. Examples of Recursive Definition of Set Example 1. Then by (2) again.

Test Your Understanding of Recursive Definition Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. . The set of propositions (propositional forms) can also be defined recursively. The Set of Strings over the alphabet excepting empty string This is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's such as abbab. or shortest strings. etc. Condition: The domain of the function you wish to define recursively must be a set defined recursively. . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. They are all on functions from integer to integer except the last one. Then see how other elements can be obtained from them.2 are in . try simplest elements in the set such as smallest numbers (0. Inductive Clause: For any element x in . and x . and . or 1). Click Yes or No . and . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Basis Clause: . x + 2. say x. Recursive Definition of Function Some functions can also be defined recursively. To see how it is defined click here. How to define function recursively: First the values of the function for the basis elements of the domain are specified. and generalize that generation process for the "Inductive Clause". There are two sets of questions. Example 4. Then the value of the function at an element. of the domain is defined using its value at the parent(s) of the element x. then Submit. Here ax means the concatenation of a with x. simplest expressions. A few examples are given below. bbabaa. Tips for recursively defining a set: For the "Basis Clause".Inductive Clause: For any element x in .

Example 5: The function f(n) = n! for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 0! = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. So there is no chance of other elements to come into the function being defined. Induction Mathematical Induction . See Example 5 for the extremal clause. Hence 3 ! = 3 * 2 ! = 3 * 2 * 1 = 6 . Hence 2 ! = 2 * 1 ! = 2 * 1 = 2 . Example 7: The function f(n) = 2n for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. f(n+1) = (n+1) f(n). L(xy) = L(x) + L(y) . 1 ! = 1 * 0 ! = 1 * 1 = 1 . where xy is the concatenation of strings x and y. Using this definition. See above for the extremal clause. 3! can be found as follows: Since 0 ! = 1. f(n+1) = 2 f(n) . Note that here Extremal Clause is not necessary. because the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively and that has the extremal clause in it. This function L gives the number of a's and b's L(x) for a string x is also often denoted by | x |. f(n+1) = f(n) + 2 . b} to the set of natural numbers that gives the length of a string can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: For symbols a and b of the alphabet. Example 8: The function L from the set S of strings over {a. Inductive Clause: For any string x and y of S. L(a) = 1 and L(b) = 1. Example 6: The function f(n) = 2n + 1 for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. See Example 5 for the extremal clause.

. has that property (inductive step). then P(k+1) is true. has the same property by the inductive step. the element next to it. which is 1. For since 0 has the property by the basis step. we proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P( ) is true. denote it by n. When these two are proven. the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively. Then it is proven that if an arbitrary natural number. has the same property again by the inductive step.Subjects to be Learned • • • • • first principle of mathematical induction basis step induction hypothesis induction second principle of mathematical induction Contents First Priciple of Mathematical Induction As we have seen in recursion . natural numbers can be proven to have certain properties as follows: First it is proven that the basis element. the element next to it. then it follows that all the natural numbers have that property. that is n + 1. and its elements can be generated one by one starting with 0 by adding 1.. has the property in question. Then since 1 has the property. which is 2. Proceeding likewise. that is 0. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 can be proven by mathematical induction by the same token. has the property in question (basis step). then P(n) is true for all natural number . As a first step for proof by induction. where is a Induction: Prove that for any integer . and the process of generating an element from a known element in the set. any natural number can be shown to have the property. This process is somewhat analogous to the knocking over a row of dominos with knocking over the first domino corresponding to the basis step. then the next element. if P(k) is true (called induction hypothesis). Taking advantage of this. The first principle of mathematical induction states that if the basis step and the inductive step are proven. Thus the set of natural numbers can be described completely by specifying the basis element (0). More generally mathematical statements involving a natural number n such as 1 + 2 + .. it is often a good idea to restate P(k+1) in terms of . To prove that a statement P(n) is true for all natural number natural number.

+ n = n( n + 1 )/2 . and in the inductive step P(n) is proved assuming P(k) holds for all k < n .Induction Hypothesis To prove this for n+1. + n) + (n + 1) . . and somehow use the induction hypothesis. Example: Prove that for any natural number n. This form of induction does not require the basis step.. can be used. Hence LHS = RHS.P(k) so that P(k). -------. which is equal to the RHS for n+1. Thus LHS = RHS for n+1. 0 + 1 + . Example 1: Let us prove the following equality using the second principle: For any natural number n .. then LHS = 0. Using the induction hypothesis. which is assumed to be true. The reason that this principle holds is going to be explained later after a few examples of proof. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 .. Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary natural number n. we get (n + 1)(n + 2) / 2 . End of Proof. Proof: Basis Step: If n = 0. the last expression can be rewritten as n( n + 1 )/2 + (n + 1) . then n P(n) can be concluded. and RHS = 0 * (0 + 1) = 0 .. 1 + 3 + . 0 + 1 + . + n + (n + 1) = (0 + 1 + .. first try to express LHS for n+1 in terms of LHS for n.1) to prove P(n). Here let us try LHS for n + 1 = 0 + 1 + . Factoring (n + 1) out. Formally the second principle of induction states that if n [ k [ k < n P(k) ] P(n) ] . + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2. Certain problems can be proven more easily by using the second principle than the first principle because P(k) for all k < n can be used rather than just P(n .... Here k [ k < n P(k) ] is the induction hypothesis. Second Priciple of Mathematical Induction There is another form of induction over the natural numbers based on the second principle of induction to prove assertions of the form x P(x) ...

If n is a prime number. Then 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + .1 Hence by the second principle of induction positive integers.1 + n * n! by the induction hypothesis. More precisely.1 )! + n * n! = n! . + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 holds for all natural numbers. n > k > 1.1 ) * ( n . + ( 2n .. say p and q.. + k * k! = ( k + 1 )! . it is either a prime number or not a prime number.1 holds for all Example 3: Prove that any positive integer n > 1. which is a prime number.1 Proof: Assume that 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . tan slacks}.. = ( n + 1 )n! . + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( 1 + 3 + . k < n.. We are going to prove that n can be written as the product of prime numbers. the individual can wear. Hence n can also be written as the product of prime numbers.. A binary relation from A into B is any subset of the Cartesian product A x B. then it is a product of two positive integers.. then it is the product of 1..Proof: Assume that 1 + 3 + . mint green shirt} and B = {gray slacks. Example 2: Prove that for all positive integer n. can be written as the product of prime numbers. Proof: Assume that for all positive integers k. Since both p and q are smaller than n. Therefore the statement holds true. + ( 2k + 1 ) = ( k + 1 )2 holds for all k. + ( n . let A = {blue shirt. Example1: nbsp.. However. and itself. If n is not a prime number.1 for all k. Since n is an integer. Relations Definition Relation Let A and B be sets. Hence by the second principle of induction 1 + 3 + . i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . k can be written as the product of prime numbers. by the induction hypothesis they can be written as the product of prime numbers (Note that this is not possible if the First Principle is being used).. the individual may wish to restrict .. Then certainly A x B is the set of all possible combinations (six) of shirts and slacks that nbsp. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . Then 1 + 3 + . k < n.. Let's assume that a person owns three shirts and two pairs of slacks..1 ) ) + ( 2n + 1 ) = n2 + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 by the induction hypothesis.

or R(x) =y where y = x2 . (mint green shirt. c) A x C. 3). and S be a relation from set B into set C. tan slacks). R could be more naturally expressed as R(x) = x2 . Composition Let R be a relation from a set A into set B. A typical element in R is an ordered pair (x. or "related". where P is the parent-child relation given above. For example. y) | y is the square of x} and S = { (x. 3. So. gray slack). R = {(2. This may not be all possible pairs in A x B but will certainly be a subset of A x B. (3. c) RS if and only if there exists b B such that (a. (5. This may not be convenient if R is relatively large. 6)}.6). as in the previous example. PropertiesOf Relations . is the set of pairs of the form(a. For example PP. c) S. 5. b) | a A ^ b A ^ a is a child of b } . y) | x <= y}. y). Then P is a relation on A which we might call a parent-child relation. Relation on a Set A relation from a set A into itself is called a relation on A. one such subset may be { (blue shirt. 5. 6}. (6. written as RS. (3. 5). b) Rand (b. (black shirt. is the composition of P with itself and it is a relation which we know as grandparentgrandchild relation. 2). 6) and define a relation R from A into A by (a. R = { (x. tan slacks) }. (2. b) R if and only if a divides evenly into b.himself to combinations which are color coordinated. Example2: Let A = {2. Let A be a set of people and let P = {(a. 3. R and S of Example 2 above are relations on A = {2. Other notations are used depending on the past practice. where (a. In some cases R can be described by actually listing the pairs which are in R. 6). Consider the following relation on real numbers. The composition of R and S.

Transitive: R is transitive if for every a. if aRb. . b) R . Thus. The set A in the above definition is called the domain of the function and B its codomain. b> and <a. if aRb and bRc. from a set A to a set B is a relation from A to B that satisfies 1. there is an element b in B such that <a. Let us write a Symmetric: R is symmetric if for every a and b in A. b and c in A. 3. Equivalence: R is an equivalence relation on A if R is reflexive. 2. and 2. A x A. for each element a in A. a R a. denote it by f.Assume R is a relation on set A. then aRc. 1. 4. f is a function if it covers the domain (maps every element of the domain) and it is single valued. R R b to denote (a. c> are in the relation. then b = c . then bRa. Function Functions Subjects to be Reviewed • • • • • • • • • • • • function domain. symmetric and transitive. if <a. Reflexive: R is reflexive if for every a A. b> is in the relation. in other words. codomain image image of set range sum of functions product of functions one-to-one function (injection) onto function (surjection) one-to-one onto function (bijection) inverse function composite function Definition (function): A function.

x = y . 1. Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is one-to-one and onto. say 3. Then ( f + g )(x) = x2 + 3x + 1 . if and only if for every element y of B . and for all x.e. because for example f(1) = f(-1) = 1 . under this function is 9. Definition (onto): A function f from a set A to a set B is said to be onto(surjective) . Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is an onto function. . 16. f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to N is not onto. Example: Let f(x) = 3x + 1 and g(x) = x2 . Then the domain and codomain of this f are N. b> is denoted as f(a) = b . and b is called the image of a under f . f is onto if and only if f( A ) = B . However. . f(S) = { f(a) | a S }. The set of images of the elements of a set S under a function f is called the image of the set S under f. if it is onto and one-to-one. for example. if and only if whenever f(x) = f(y) . Then the sum and the product of f and g are defined as follows: For all x. and its range is the set of squares. Note that f(x) = x2 is not one-to-one if it is from the set of integers(negative as well as non-negative) to N . that is. and ( f*g )(x) = 3x3 + x2 Definition (one-to-one): A function f is said to be one-to-one (injective) .. because.. Example: The function f(x) = x2 from the set of natural numbers N to N is a one-to-one function. Thus it is a bijection.} .The relation given by f between a and b represented by the ordered pair <a. i. and is denoted by f(S) . 4. ( f + g )(x) = f(x) + g(x) . Definition (bijection): A function is called a bijection . 9. where S is a subset of the domain A of f . ( f*g )(x) = f(x)*g(x) . Example: Let f be the function from the set of natural numbers N to N that maps each natural number x to x2 . where f(x)*g(x) is the product of two real numbers f(x) and g(x). that is. { 0.. Every bijection has a function called the inverse function. The image of the domain under f is called the range of f . the image of. nothing in N can be mapped to 3 by this function. Definition (sum and product): Let f and g be functions from a set A to the set of real numbers R. there is an element x in A such that f(x) = y .

Definition (composite function): Let g be a function from a set A to a set B . the points on the left are in the domain and the ones on the right are in the codomain. a set of strings of symbols. denoted by fg . and arrows show < x. Introduction to Language A language is. Then f( g(x) ) = ( x + 1 )2 . Example: The inverse function of f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of non-negative even numbers E is f -1(x) = 1/2 x from E to N . Programming langauges we use are a language in that sense. is the function from A to C that satisfies fg(x) = f( g(x) ) for all x in A . and it is denoted by f -1 . in this course. f(x) > relation. Then the composition of functions f and g . and let f be a function from B to a set C . Others such as languages of logics. . It is also a bijection. Note that such an x is unique for each y because f is a bijection. For example. natural languages etc. and g(x) = x + 1 . Definition (inverse): Let f be a bijection from a set A to a set B. Therefore one can also talk about composition of functions. languages of mathematics. Then the function g is called the inverse function of f. where f(x) = y .These concepts are illustrated in the figure below. the rightmost function in the above figure is a bijection and its inverse is obtained by reversing the direction of each arrow. A function is a relation. Example: Let f(x) = x2 . g(y) = x . In each figure below. if for every element y of B. are all languages in that sense.

lexical analyzers and parser for compilers for programming languages. These formal languages are characterized by grammars which are essentially a set of rewrite rules for generating strings belonging to a language as we see later. In the following chapters we first learn about languages. checking whether or not a string is in a language. They are devices that recognize regular languages.What we are going to study on languages in this course are four classes of languages called (Chomsky) formal languages and their properties. As we are going to learn next. then the resulting DFA is unique up to the state names for a given regular language. Type 3 is a subset of type 2 which is a subset of type 1 and type 0 is the most general including the other three as a subset.). solving them can be seen as recognizing languages i. Also there are various kinds of computing devices called automata which process these types of languages Thus formal languages can also be characterized by the computing devices which process them. context-free (or type 2) languages. NFA and NFAare conceptually simpler and easier to use when modeling a system because there are no restrictions on transitions for them unlike for DFA. It can be rigorously shown that some problems can not be solved by computers in any finite amount of time and that some others are practically unsolvable because of the time it takes to solve them. In asddition two of the formal languages. Using automata and formal languages we can study limitations of computer and computation. the simplest of the four formal languages. context-sensitive (or type 1) languages and phrase structure (or type 0) languages. Then we study regular languages. regular grammars. However. We are going to see an algorithm for converting NFAto NFA which recognizes the same language and another for NFA to DFA conversion. in general there are more than one NFAs and DFAs that reconize one language.e. Also for some important classes of problems. Definitions on Language Subjects to be Learned . Then after seeing yet another way of representing regular laguages. Then we investigate various kinds of finite automata: deterministic finite automata (DFA). together with regular expressions which are a method of representing regular languages. we are going to learn modeling of systems finite automata. if the number of states of DFA is minimized. These formal languages and automata capture the essense of various computing devices and computation in a very simple way. nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) and nondeterministic finite automata with transitions (NFA. The four classes are regular (or type 3) languages. regular and context-free languages. are quite useful for modeling systems used in practice such as co9mputer network communication protocols. Our last topic on regular language is testing of languages for non-regularity. On the other hand DFAs are suited for writing a simulator program because there is no nondeterminism such as going to two or more states from a state upon reading one input symbol.

b} is another alphabet with two symbols and English alphabet is also an alphabet. It can be defined more formally by recursive definition. 1. the set of all strings over (including the empty string) is denoted by . For example if u = aab and v = bbab. this set has an object in it. So a string is a substring of itself. union. Thus a language over alphabet is a subset of . A string (also called a word) is a finite sequence of symbols of an alphabet. uv is the string obtained by appending the sequence of symbols of v to that of u. namely . {a. a and aabab are examples of string over alphabet {a. v is called a suffix of y.b}) and {0. That is. operations on languages and some of their properties.1}). A language is a set of strings over an alphabet.• • • • alphabet string (word) language operations on languages: concatenation of strings. Kleene star Contents Here we are going to learn the concept of language in very abstract and general sense. The empty string (also called null string) is the string with length 0. A string x is called a substring of another string y if there are strings u and v such that y = uxv. 10 and 001 are examples of string over alphabet {0. The empty string is denoted by (capital lambda). For example {0. For a string w its length is represented by |w|. ab. an alphabet is a finite set of symbols. Note that vu = bbabaab uv. The number of symbols in a string is called the length of the string. b. 3. We are going to use first few symbols of English alphabet such as a and b to denote symbols of an alphabet and those toward the end such as u and v for strings. then uv = aabbbab. all the set operations can be applied to languages. Thus {a. Then uv denotes the string obtained by concatenating u with v. Note that u and v may be an empty string. 111} is a language (over alphabet {0. Basic concepts First. it has no symbols. The set { } is a language which has one string. A string x is a prefix of another string y if there is a string v such that y = xv. 1} is an alphabet with two symbols. intersection. Operations on languages Since languages are sets. intersetion and difference of two languages over an alphabet are languages over . Some special languages The empty set is a language which has no strings. Though has no symbols. 2. Thus | | = 0. Thus the union. For any alphabet . that is. 1}. Let u and v be strings. So it is not empty. baa} is a language (over alphabert {a. b} and 0.

For example Lk can be defined recursively as follows. That is L1L2 is the set of strings obtained by concatenating strings of L1 with those of L2. baaba}. the extremal clause is not necessary. Recursive definition of L+: Basis Clause: L L+ . Hence Lk is the set of strings that can be obtained by concatenating k strings of L. uk denotes the concatenation of k u's. * The following two types of languages are generalizations of them quite often in this course. xw L*. b} {aaa. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k.. Let L1 and L2 be languages. Powers : For a symbol a and a natural number k. abaaba. The complement of a language L over an alphabet language. abb. bb. is . Lk means the concatenation of k L's. Here a0 = and u0 = . bbbb. ak represents the concatenation of k a's. Then the concatenation of L1 with L2 is denoted as L1L2 and it is defined as L1L2 = { uv | u L1 and v L2 }. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. These powers can be formally defined recursively. For example {ab.. L* is the set of strings obtained by concatenating zero or more strings of L as we are going to see in Theorem 1. then L* = { . Similarly for a language L. Recursive definition of L*: Basis Clause: L* and we are going to see Inductive Clause: For any x L* and any w L. ababb. bb }. } The * in * is also the same Kleene star defined above. ababb. . bbaba. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = Lk L. aba. This * is called Kleene star.. For example if L = { aba. aaba} = {abaaa. For a string u and a natural number k. babb.L and it is also a Another operation onlanguages is concatenation. baaa. abaaba. ak and uk can be defined similarly.

.. wk are strings of L*.. xw L+.wm1... .e. Other proofs are omitted. Then there are nonempty strings w1. bb }. (i.. w2. Since w1. Theorem 5: L* = (L*)*.e. .. bbbb.. Theorem 1: Ln Theorem 2: Theorem 3: Theorem 4: L+ = L L* = L*L Note: According to Theorems 2 and 3.wmmk ..wk for some k.. ababb. ... } Let us also define natural number k } . L* and L* have a number of interesting properties. wk in L* such that x = w1w2. any nonempty string in L* or L+ can be expresssed as the concatenation of strings of L.w2m2. . i. w1w2. w2.Inductive Clause: For any x L+ and any w L. For example if L = { aba.. Thus L+ is the set of strings obtained by concatenating one or more strings of L. abaaba.wimi Hence x = w11 .. by applying Theorem 2 to the language L* L* Conversely ( L* )* Let x be an arbitrary nonempty string of ( L* )*.. ) as ={x|x Lk for some Then the following relationships hold on L* and L+. where wi's are strings of L. Let us list one of them as a theorem and prove it. wimi in L such that wi = wi1wi2. Theorems 1 and 2 are proven in "General Induction" which you study in the next unit. .. .w1m1w21.. for each wi there are strings wi1.. L0 L L2 ... then L+ = { aba.. L* can be proven as follows: by Theorem 2. bb. wi2.... Hence x is in L* .wk ... Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L+ unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Proof: Because we can see that L* (L*)*. bbaba.

If x is an empty string, then it is obviously in L* . Hence ( L* )* Since L* L* . L* , L* = ( L* )* .

(L*)* and ( L* )*

**Problem Solving as Language Recognition
**

Subjects to be Learned

• • •

problem instance problem as language problem solving as language recognition

Contents

In the previous section the concept of language was introduced and its properties have been briefly studied. You might be wondering why we study language. The main reason for studying language is that solving problems can be viewed as a language recognition problem as explained below, that is, the problem of checking whether or not a string belongs to a language. Thus instead of studying what kind of problems can be solved by what kind of computational devices and how, we can study languages and devices to recognize them which are simpler to deal with uncluttered with variations in actual devices, programming languages etc. Below an example is given to illustrate how solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Consider the following problem: Is the longest of the distances between two nodes(i.e. the diameter) of a given graph less than a given integer k ? Here the distance is the smallest number of edges (or hops) between the nodes. Some of the instances of this problem are as shown below:

Instance 1 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with one edge and two nodes is less than 1. Instance 2 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with four edges and four nodes is less than 2. Simiarlyt for Instance 3. These problem instances can be represented by a string as follows: Instance 1: 1,2;(1,2);1 Instance 2: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(3,4);2 Instance 3: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(2,3)(2,4)(3,4);3 Here the set of nodes, the set of edges and k are separated by ; in that order in the strings. The solutions to these instances are: Instance 1: No Instance 2: No Instance 3: Yes There are infinitely many 'Yes' instances and 'No' instances for this problem. The set of 'Yes' instances is a language and so is the set of 'No' instances as well as the set of all

instances and many others for this problem. We can thus see that solving the problem for a given instance is equivalent to checking whether or not the string representing the given instance belongs to the language of 'Yes' instances of the problem. That is, the problem solving is the same as the language recognition. A problem can be solved if and only if the language of its 'Yes' instances is recognizable or decidable by a Turing machine. It is not solvable if the language is merely accecptable but not recognizable, or even worse if it is not even acceptable.

(a.k.a Structural Induction)

Mathematical statements involving an element of a recursively defined set can be proven by induction. To prove by induction that a statement P(x) is true for all the elements x of a recursively defined set S, proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P(x) is true for all the elements x in the basis of S. Induction: Prove that for any element(s) x of S if P(x) is true, then P(y) is true for any element y obtained from x by the induction step of the recursive definition of S. Note 1 : In the Induction we try to prove that if a parent has the property then all of its children also have that property. In the process we need the relationship between the parent and the children. That relationship is found in the Inductive Clause of the recursive definition of the set in question. Note 2 : As a first step for general induction proof, it is often a good idea to express y in terms of x so that P(x) can be used. Example 1 (Theorem 1 in "Language") : Prove that Ln L* for any natural number n and any language L. Let us first review the definitions. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = LkL. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k, the extremal clause is not necessary. Recursive definition of L*:

. Since Lk L* . L* since y L. x Example 2 (Theorem 2 in "Language") Let us prove L* = Note that ={x|x Lk for some natural number k } . xy Hence w Thus Lk+1 L* . Then there exist strings x and y that satisfy x L and w = xy by the definition of Lk+1. Hence . L* . Now let us prove that Ln L* by induction on Ln. Note in the proof below that Basis and Inductive Steps mirror the Basis and Inductive Clauses of the definition of Ln . Hence x . L* for an arbitrary natural numer k. L* . y Let w be an arbitrary string in Lk+1 .Basis Clause: L* Inductive Clause: For any string x L* and any string w L. L0 L* . and L* . .Induction L* . xw L*. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. --. By Example 1 above . Basis Step: Since by the definitions L0 = { Inductive Step: Assume that Lk Hypothesis We are going to show that Lk+1 }. Proof: Let us first prove Suppose that x Lk for some natural L* . x L* . Then by the definition of L* . Lk Next let us prove L* . number k. L* by theInduction Hypothesis. Lk . Then by the definition of L*.

e. and any symbol . . REV(xa) = Inductive Clause: For any string aREV(x). x We are going to show that for an arbitrary element y L . Prove that for arbitrary strings x and y of . Basis Clause: REV( )= . then its children xy. Note that each step mirror the recursive definition of . The function REV(x) on strings x over the alphabet is defined as follows. It produces the reversal of a given string x (i. where y is an arbitrary elememt of L. Let us prove the inheritance. So we first prove that * the element of the basis of L has the propertyy. . then for some natural number k . Hence by the definition of Inductive Step: Assume that for an arbitrary x in L*. Hence xy End of Inductive Step and Proof Hence we have proven Example 3 . Then we show that if any element. Hence xy Lk+1 by the definition of Ln . REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. holds. x Lk . of L* has the property. by concatenating y) a child of x in is obtained. also have the property. x spelled backward).e. by Example 1 above. So we show that the property for x is inherited by its children xy. say x.Note that L* is defined recursively and that below we are trying to prove that the elements of L* have the property that they also belong to . Note here that x is a parent and by applying an operation (i. xy holds. If x . Basis Step: L0 since L0 = { }. .

Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular language unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.Proof First let us note that * can be defined recursively as follows: . REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. The proof of the equality in question is going to be proven for an arbitrary fixed x by induction on y. and an arbitrary string y of . xa is also in . Thus the statement to be proven is for an arbitrary fixed string x. { } and {a} for any symbol a are regular languages. But by induction hypothesis a REV(xy) = a REV(y)REV(x). REV(xya) = REV((xy)a) = a REV(xy). Definitions of Regular Language and Regular Expression Subjects to be Learned • • regular language regular expression 1. Inductive Clause: For arbitrary strings x of and a of ExtremalClause: As usual. . Omitted. Any language belonging to this set is a regular language over . Inductive Clause: If Lr and Ls are regular languages.Induction Hypothesis Then for an arbitrary symbol a of . then Lr Ls . which is what we needed. * Basis Clause: where is an empty string. Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary string y of . Basis Step: REV(x ) = REV( x ) = REV( )REV( x ) . Since a REV(y) = REV(ya). Regular language The set of regular languages over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. -. Definition of Set of Regular Languages : Basis Clause: . LrLs and Lr* are regular languages. REV(xya) = REV(ya)REV(x). The proof mirrors the recursive definition of . End of Proof.

which is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's. (4) We use ( r+) as a regular expression to represent Lr+ . bold face may not be used for regular expressions. b} is regular. Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular expression unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Also since {a} is regular. Conventions on regular expressions (1) When there is no danger of confusion. where r is a regular expression. Regular expression Regular expressions are used to denote regular languages. respectively. . LrLs and Lr* . (2) The operation * has precedence over concatenation. which has precedence over union ( + ). b} ( = {a} {b} ) and {ab} ( = {a}{b} ) are regular languages. 2. is written as rk. aaa. Then since {a} and {b} are regular languages. Note also that *.For example. and a are regular expressions corresponding to languages . Any element of that set is a regular expression. ( r + s ) is used in stead of ( r + s ). { } and {a}. then ( r + s ) . So for example. aa. (3) The concatenation of k r's . aaaa etc. Basis Clause: . b}. a. Thus the regular expression ( a + ( b( c*) ) ) is written as a + bc*. They can represent regular languages and operations on them succinctly. The set of regular expressions over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. is a regular language because {a. where Lr is the language corresponding to the regular expression r. let = {a. respectively. The language corresponding to rk is Lrk. Thus for example rr = r2 . Inductive Clause: If r and s are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr and Ls . where a is an element of . ( rs ) and ( r*) are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr Ls . {a. {a}* is a regular language which is the set of strings consisting of a's such as . For a recursive definition of Lrk click here.

b}. In general. a regular language. corresponds to more than one regular expressions. }. b}. For example ( a + b )* and ( a*b* )* correspond to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. that is the set of strings of length 2 over the alphabet {a.. Thus for example ( a + b )* = ( a*b* )* . Note:A regular expression is not unique for a language. that is. b}. . ( ab )+ corresponds to the language {ab. in general. ( a + b )* corresponds to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. abab. bb}. That is. a*b* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by zero or more b's. ba. it is not easy to see by inspection whether or not two regular expressions are equal. ab. Definition of Equality of Regular Expressions Regular expressions are equal if and only if they correspond to the same language. ababab. . because they both represent the language of all strings over the alphabet {a.. the set of strings of repeated ab's. b}.Examples of regular expression and regular languages corresponding to them • • • • ( a + b )2 corresponds to the language {aa. In general ( a + b )k corresponds to the set of strings of length k over the alphabet {a. a*b+a* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by one or more b's followed by zero or more a's. b}.

a+. bb and ab are in the language. However. (a) find a string corresponding to r2 but not to r1 and (b) find a string corresponding to both r1 and r2. a. Thus (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* is reduced to (r1 + r2)*. b. b and the strings consiting of only b's (from (a*b)*). (a + b)*. (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ means that all the strings represented by it must consist of one or more strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*). Ex. Thus anything that comes after the first r1 in (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is represented by (r1 + r2)*.Exercise Questions on Regular Language and Regular Expression Ex. However. Solution: It can easily be seen that . r1r2 + r2r1 in the given regular expression is redundant. (b) A string corresponding to r1 consists of only a's or only b's or the empty string. The only strings corresponding to r2 which consist of only a's or b's are a. (a) (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ Solution: One general strategy to approach this type of question is to try to see whether or not they are equal to simple regular expressions that are familiar to us such as a. they do not produce any strings that are not represented by (r1 + r2)*. that is. Thus the answer is ba. 3: Let r1 and r2 be arbitrary regular expressions over some alphabet. For example ab and ba are such strings. 2: For the two regular expressions given below. r1 = a* + b* r2 = ab* + ba* + b*a + (a*b)* Solution: (a) Any string consisting of only a's or only b's and the empty string are in r1. the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*) start with a string of r1 followed by any number of strings taken arbitrarily from r1 and/or r2. ba is not in it. 1: Find the shortest string that is not in the language represented by the regular expression a*(ab)*b*. which are strings in the language with length 1 or less. (a) Since (r1 + r2)* represents all strings consisting of strings of r1 and/or r2 . (a + b)+ etc. Ex. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*) . Find a simple (the shortest and with the smallest nesting of * and +) regular expression which is equal to each of the following regular expressions. Of the strings wiht length 2 aa. So we need to find strings of r2 which contain at least one a and at least one b. a*.

5: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L and a L. Ex. and conversely (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ represents the strings represented by (r1(r1 + r2)*). Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. First of all L . behind the second a and between the two a's. Since any string of b's can be placed in front of the first a.also represents the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*)+. Inductive Clause: If x L . Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is reduced to (r1(r1 + r2)*). Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. Then starting with or a. strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or bb to any of the already generated strings. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. then aabx L and bbx L . Then starting with . Hence a string of L consists of zero or more aab's in front and zero or more bb's following them. Ex. Hence a string of L has zero or more of aab's and bb's in front possibly followed by a at the end. b } defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L Inductive Clause: If x L . strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or appending bb to any of the already generated strings. 6: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. b } that contain exactly two a's. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. Thus (aab)*(bb)* is a regular expression for L. 4: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L over the alphabet { a . First of all and a are in L . and since an arbitrasry string of b's can be represented by the regular expression b*. then aabx L and xbb L . b*a b*a b* is a regular expression for this language. Solution: A string in this language must have at least two a's. 7: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the . Thus (aab + bb)*(a + ) is a regular expression for L. Ex. Ex.

bb. Solution: Since any string of even length can be expressed as the concatenation of strings of length 2 and since the strings of length 2 are aa. b }. then applying the same argument as for aa to . Hence a string preceding the aa can be represented by ( b + ab )*. it has at least one b. 9: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of strings of even lengths over the alphabet of { a. then applying the same argument as for aa to a. b } must end in a or b. ( b + ab )*a( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. If there is no aa but at least one a exists in a string of the language. Hence any string that follows aa is represented by ( b + ba )*. 10: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression a*b(a*ba*b)*a* . ab. 11: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the . 8: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. then that a must be preceded by b because otherwise there are two occurences of aa. it is the set of strings over the alphabet { a. Ex. Solution: Any string in a language over { a . then it must be followed by b. ba. b } that contain an odd number of b's Ex. If there may not be any a in a string of the language. b } that do not end with ab. b } that contain no more than one occurence of the string aa. Hence if a string does not end with ab then it ends with a or if it ends with b the last b must be preceded by a symbol b. Thus simply put. On the other hand if an a precedes the aa. Solution: A string in the language can start and end with a or b. Ex. and after the first b all the b's in the string appear in pairs. Hence if a string of the language contains aa then it corresponds to the regular expression ( b + ab )*aa( b + ba )* . Ex. Hence the string is in this language. If an a comes after that aa.alphabet { a. ( b + ab )*( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. ( a + b )*( a + bb ) is a regular expression for the language. Solution: If there is one substring aa in a string of the language. then that aa can be followed by any number of b. Note that 0 is an even number. a regular expression corresponding to the language is ( aa + ab + ba + bb )*. Altogether ( b + ab )*( + a + aa )( b + ba )* is a regular expression for the language. Since it can have any string in front of the last a or bb. Any numbe of a's can appear any place in the string.

Lr Ls . Note 2: The union of infinitely many regular languages is not necessarily regular. Ex. concatenation and Kleene star. 12: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression ( b + ab )*( a + ab )*. Then by the definition of the set of regular languages . Proof: Let Lr and Ls be regular languages over an alphabet . Since (( a + b )3)*( a + b ) represents the strings of length 3n + 1. where n is a natural number. Properties of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • Closure of the set of regular languages under union. is not regular as we shall see later. For example while { akbk } is regular for any natural number k .regular expression (( a + b )3)*( +a+b). Thus the set of regular languages is closed under those operations. Solution: ( b + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring aa and which end in b. Regularity of finite languages Theorem 1: The set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed under operations union. Note 1: Later we shall see that the complement of a regular language and the intersection of regular laguages are also regular. the given regular expression represents the strings of length 3n and 3n + 1. We say a language is finite if it consists of a finite number of strings. Solution: (( a + b )3) represents the strings of length 3. Hence (( a + b )3)* represents the strings of length a multiple of 3. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages and they are obviously over the alphabet . where n is a natural number. that is. { anbn | n is a natural number } which is the union of all the languages { akbk } . The following theorem shows that any finite language is regular. Hence altogether it represents any string consisting of a substring with no aa followed by one b followed by a substring with no bb. and ( a + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring bb. concatenation and Kleene star operations. a finite language is a set of n .

Then for any symbol a of . then we have proven the theorem. End of proof of Theorem 2. Basis Step: (corresponding to n = 0) is a regular language by the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. a finite language is regular) if { w } is regular for any string w. { regular languages for any arbitrary symbol a of . Proof of the Claim 1: Proof by induction on the number of strings. End of proof of Claim 1 Thus if we can show that { w } is a regular language for any string w. } and { a } are Inductive Step: Assume that { w } is a regular language for an arbitrary string w over . Claim 2: Let w be a string over an alphabet . .strings for some natural number n. Then { w } is a regular language. Proof of Claim 2: Proof by induction on strings. We then prove that a language consisting of a single string is regular. L { w } is a regular language by the definition of regular language. Inductive Step: Assume that a language L consisting of n strings is a regular language (induction hypothesis). Basis Step: By the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. Claim 1: A language consisting of n strings is regular for any natural number n (that is. End of proof for Claim 2 Note that Claim 2 can also be proven by induction on the length of string. Proof: Let us first assume that a language consisting of a single string is regular and prove the theorem by induction. { a } is a regular language from the Basis Step. Hence by the Inductive Clause of the definition of regular language { a }{ w } is regular. Hence { aw } is regular. Then since { w } is a regular language as proven below. Theorem 2: A finite language is regular.

you are in the waiting-for-customer state. and equivalence and conversions between them. then you have now received 15 cents and you wait for the customer to select a soft drink. can not be recognized by finite automata. Initially you are waiting for a customer to come and put some coins. There are languages which are not regular and which. When the customer selects a soft drink. Later we are going to learn an extension of finite automata called Turing machines. say a dime. that is. If the customer puts in a nickel. Unfortunately not all languages and systems are simple like regular languages or finite automata. Let us consider the operation of a soft drink vending machine which charges 15 cents for a can. Let us assume that only nickels and dimes are used for simplicity. So you are in another state. So we might say you are in the 10-cents state.e. The states and the transitions between them of this vending machine can be represented with the diagram below. Their operations can be simulated by a very simple computer program. In fact Turing machines are as . you must give the customer a can of soft drink. Ds on arrows represent a dime and Ns a nickel. You have received 10 cents and are waiting for more coins to come. Finite automata are computing devices that accept/recognize regular languages and are used to model operations of many systems we find in practice. In the figure. Then we are going to see that for every regular language a unique finite automaton can be constructed which can recognize the language (i. A vending machine looked at this way is an example of finite automaton. In this example you as a vending machine have gone through (transitions between) a number of states responding to the inputs from the customer (coins in this case). In the next few chapters first we are going to learn different kinds of finite automata. After that you stay in that state until another coin is put in to start the process anew or you may terminate the operation and start all over from the initial state. We are going to learn languages which are not regular and ways to test languages for non-regularity. Click "NICKEL" or "DIME" in the figure and see how it operates (see how arrows turn red). Pretend that you are the machine. circles represent states and arrows state transitions. you are no longer in the waiting-for-customer state. It is assumed that the machine terminates its operation when it receives 15 cents or more. We have learned that regular languages are represented by regular expressions and conversely. therefore. A kind of systems finite automnata can model and a computer program to simulate their operations are discussed later. say 15-cents state. Though Turing machines are simple modification of finite automata. tell whether or not a given string belongs to the regular language). When a customer comes and puts in the first coin. We are then going to study how finite automata can be used to simulate operations of systems we see in practice. they are much more powerful computing devices than finite automata.Introduction to Finite Automata In this chapter we are going to study a class of machines called finite automata.

a) is equal to "have received 5 cents". Definition of Deterministic Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • • • Finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of deterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. Then a deterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . Its elements can. The accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. . then (q. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". The set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. Thus in the example of vending machine. be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in.powerful as computers and it is generally believed. though not proven. for example. 3. are the elements of Q. the states of the machine such as "waiting for a customer to put a coin in". 2. if q is the initial state and a nickel is put in. however. Thus in the example of vending machine. in the Example 1 below. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. Also let be a function from Q to Q . . a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. . If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ceases to come. For example. the transition function. We call the elements of Q a state. (q. q0 . Note that is a function. A > Notes on the definition 1. "Waiting for a customer to put a coin in" can be considered the initial state of this automaton and the state in which the machine gives out a soda can can be considered the accepting state. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of . a) must be specified. 4. Otherwise it is not accepted. "have received 5 cents" etc. The transition function is also called a next state function meaning that the automaton moves into the state (q. that any computation human beings do (with or without computers) can be performed by Turing machines.

But any other strings such as aa. ) = q . = { a }. . The vertices (denoted by single circles) of a transition diagram represent the states of the DFA and the arcs labeled with an input symbol correspond to the transitions. are not accepted. etc. b } in stead of { a }. Transition functions can also be represented by tables as seen below.the string a is accepted by the finite automaton. 5. aaa. They are called transition table. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 1 a 2 2 a 2 (q. Abbreviations such as FA and DFA are used to denote deterministic finite automaton. A deterministic finite automaton is also called simply a "finite automaton". then we need a DFA such as shown in the following examle to accept the same string a. the following table. If the alphabet of the Example 1 is changed to { a. It is a little more complex DFA. q ) from vertex p to vertex q with label represents the transition (p. A = { 1 }. 2 }. Examples of finite automaton Example 1: Q = { 0. a) ) A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. 1. DFAs are often represented by digraphs called (state) transition diagram. An arc ( p . The accepting states are indicated by double circles.

while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. 2 }. b }. a) ) . Example 3: Q = { 0. b } is the next example. = { a. the following table. 1 }. A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. A = { 0 }. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 0 b 2 1 a 2 1 b 2 2 a 2 2 b 2 (q.Example 2: Q = { 0. 1. in the following table. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 0 0 b 1 1 a 1 1 b 1 (q. b }. = { a. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. A DFA that accepts all strings consisting of only symbol a over the alphabet { a. A = { 1 }.

A = { 15. Example 4: For the example of vending machine of the previous section. a) ) . If we make it a DFA. Q = { 0. State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 N 5 0 D 10 5 N 10 5 D 15 10 N 15 10 D 20 15 N 5 15 D 10 20 N 5 20 D 10 (q. = { D. 5. its transition function is as shown in the following table. 10. 20 }. the initial state q0 = 0. 15. N }. 20 }.A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below.

When it sees no symbol. it stops and the automaton terminates its operation. The tape has the left end and extends to the right without an end. . The head moves to the right one square every time it reads a symbol. 6. 2. 5. It never moves to the left. The head is always at the leftmost square at the beginning of the operation. The tape is divide into squares in each of which a symbol can be written prior to the start of the operation of the automaton. 3. There is a finite control which determines the state of the automaton and also controls the movement of the head. 4. The tape has a read only head.A finite automaton as a machine A finite automaton can also be thought of as the device shown below consisting of a tape and a control circuit which satisfy the following conditions: 1.

are accepted but strings such as aaba. Once it gets to state 1. it moves to state 1. the DFA is in the accepting state.Operation of finite automata Let us see how an automaton operates when it is given some inputs. then no matter what symbol is read. are not accepted by this automaton. For example strings aaa. it goes into state 1 and the input string is not accepted by the DFA. When zero or more a's are given as an input to it. If b is read while it is in state 0 (initially or after reading some a's). . Thus this automaton accepts any string of a's. it stays in state 0 while it reads all the a's (without breaks) on the tape. b etc. when all the a's on the tape are read. aaaaaa etc. Since the state 0 is also the accepting state. Initially it is in state 0. this DFA never leaves state 1. As an example let us consider the DFA of Example 3 above. Hence when b appears anywhere in the input.

*

of DFA and its Properties

Subjects to be Learned

• •

*

Language accepted by DFA

Contents

Here we are going to formally describe what is meant by applying a transition repeatedly, that is the concept of * For a state q and string w, *( q , w ) is the state the DFA goes into when it reads the string w starting at the state q. In general a DFA goes through a number of states from the state q responding to the symbols in the string w. Thus for a DFA < Q , , q0 , , A > , the function

* :Q -> Q is defined recursively as follows: *

Definition of

*

:

*

Basis Clause: For any state q of Q ,

(q,

) = q , where

*

denotes the empty string. and any symbol a ,

Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q, any string y * ( q , ya ) = ( *( q , y ) , a ) .

In the definition, the Basis Clause says that a DFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the state DFA reaches after reading string ya starting at state q is the state it reaches by reading symbol a after reading string y from state q. Example For example suppose that a DFA contains the transitions shown below.

Then

*

*

( q , DNR ) can be calculated as follows:

( q , DNR ) = ( *( q , DN ) , R ) by the Inductive Clause. = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , DN ). = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) since D = D . = ( ( ( *( q , ) , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , D ). = ( ( ( q , D ) , N ) , R ) , since ( q , ) = q . = ( ( q1 , N ) , R ) , since ( q , D ) = q1 as seen from the diagram. = ( q2 , R ) , since ( q1 , N ) = q2 as seen from the diagram. = q3 since ( q2 , R ) = q3 as seen from the diagram. Properties of

*

We can see the following two properties of

*

. for a DFA < Q , , q0 , ,A

**Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >,
**

*

(q,a)=

(q,a)

Proof : Since a = a , * ( q , a ) = *( q , a ) . By the definition of * , * ( q , a ) = ( *( q , ) , a ) But *( q , ) = q by the definition of Hence ( *( q , ) , a ) = ( q , a ) .

*

.

The next theorem states that the state reached from any state, say q , by reading a string, say w , is the same as the state reached by first reading a prefix of w, call it x, and then by reading the rest of the w, call it y. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 , , A > , for a DFA < Q , ,

*

( q , xy ) =

*

(

*

(q,x),y).

Proof : This is going to be proven by induction on string y. That is the statement to be proven is the following: * For an arbitrary fixed string x, ( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for any arbitrary string y. First let us review the recursive definition of *. Recursive definition of Basis Clause:

* *

:

.

* * Inductive Clause: If x and a , then xa . * Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.

Now the proof of the theorem. Basis Step: If y = , then *( q , xy ) = *( q , x ) = *( q , x ) . Also *( *( q , x ) , y ) = *( *( q , x ) , ) = *( q , x ) by the definition of * . Hence the theorem holds for y = . Inductive Step: Assume that *( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for an arbitrary string y. This is the induction hypothesis. We are going to prove that *( q , xya ) = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) for any arbitrary symbol a of . ( q , xya ) = ( *( q , xy ) , a ) by the definition of * = ( * ( *( q , x ) , y ) , a ) by the induction hypothesis. = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) by the definition of * . Thus the theorem has been proven.

*

For the following DFA answer the questions given below.

the language accepted by a DFA is the set of strings accepted by the DFA. w ) A . if and only if ( q0 . A > . w ) A } . . Example 1 : . That is. * .The following notations are used in the questions: : \delta * : \delta^* : \Lambda Language Accepted by DFA Subjects to be Learned • Language accepted by DFA A string w is accepted by a DFA < Q . . . q0 . q0 . A > . if and only if L = { w | *( q0 . That is a string is accepted by a DFA if and only if the DFA starting at the initial state ends in an accepting state after reading the string. A language L is accepted by a DFA < Q .

first from the initial state go to state 1 by reading one a. This is represented by (ab)*.e.1 any number of times by reading substring ab any number of times to come back to state 1. Then from state 1 go through the cycle 1 . This DFA has a cycle: 1 .2 . Example 2 : This DFA does not accept any string because it has no accepting state.1 and it can go through this cycle any number of times by reading substring ab repeatedly. Thus the language it accepts is the empty set Example 3 : DFA with one cycle . . by reading an empty string . which is not an accepting state. Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by a(ab)*aa . and it stays there. To find the language it accepts.2 . Then from state 1 go to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading aa. It accepts nothing else because any non-empty symbol would take it to state 1.This DFA accepts { } because it can go from the initial state to the accepting state (also the initial state) without reading any symbol of the alphabet i.

1 and 1 . To find the language accepted by this DFA.1 .0.2 .Example 4 : DFA with two independent cycles This DFA has two independent cycles: 0 .1 .2 .0 and it can move through these cycles any number of times in any order to reach the accepting state from the initial state such as 0 .0 .0 . first from state 0 go to state 1 by .3 .0 .2 .1. Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by ( ab + bb )*.2 .0 and 0 . Example 5 : DFA with two interleaved cycles This DFA has two cycles: 1 .2 .

There is a systematic way of finding the language accepted by a DFA and we are going to learn it later. Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata . first at state 0 read any number of b's. Thus altogether a( baa + bba )*bb will have been read when state 3 is reached from state 0.1 any number of times in any order by reading substrings baa and bba. The language accepted at state 0 is b* . Thus the language accepted at state 1 is b*a(ba)* . So we are not going to go any further on this problem here.3 .1 and 1 . Thus the language that is accepted by this DFA is the union of the language accepted at state 0 and the one accepted at state 1. At this point (b*a) will have been read. Example 6 : This DFA has two accepting states: 0 and 1. Then go from state 1 to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading bb. To find the language accepted at state 1. respectively.1 any number of times by reading substring ba repeatedly. At state 1 go through the cycle 1 .0 .2 . Then go to state 1 by reading one a. Then from state 1 go through the two cycles 1 . At this point a substring a( baa + bba )* will have been read.reading a ( any other state which is common to these cycles such as state 2 can also be used instead of state 1 ).2 .2 .

A = { 1 }.Subjects to be Learned • • • Nondeterministic finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. = { a }. The transition function is also called a next state function . a) must be specified. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 1 a (q. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . We call the elements of Q a state. the transition function. . the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". As in the case of DFA the accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. ceases to come. a) to select is determined nondeterministically. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ends i. a) ) . Otherwise it is not accepted. Unlike DFAs an NFA moves into one of the states given by (q. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of (q. 4. As in the case of DFA the set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. q0 . 3. Examples of NFA Example 1: Q = { 0. the following table. Note that is a function. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. Its elements can be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. Which one of the states in (q. Also let be a function from Q to 2Q . But it can be the empty set. 1 }. 5. in which case the NFA aborts its operation.e. Note that any DFA is also a NFA. . 2. A > Notes on the definition 1.

2} 0 1 1 2 2 b a b a b {2} (q. If the alphabet a}. . is changed to { a. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. b }. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1. in the following table. 1. = { a. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. A = { 2 }. b } in stead of { a }.A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. 2 }. this is still an NFA that accepts { Example 2: Q = { 0.

When it reads the symbol a. then it stays in the accepting state. If any other strings are given to this NFA. if it moves to state 2 and no more inputs are given. if the next input is b and if no more inputs are given. it moves to either state 1 or state 2. then it goes to state 2 and remains there. Thus the string ab is also accepted by this NFA. We say that this automaton accepts the string a. Let us now define the function strings and languages by NFA. Since the state 2 is the accepting state. it does not accept any of them. Initially it is in state 0. If on the other hand it moves to state 1 after reading a.Operation of NFA Let us see how an automaton operates when some inputs are applied to it. As an example let us consider the automaton of Example 2 above. * and then formalize the concepts of acceptance of .

1. where * denotes the empty . a) ) For example consider the NFA with the following transition table: . w ) is the set of states that the NFA can reach when it reads the string w starting at the state q.3} 0 b {2} 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b {1} {3} {3} (q. ya ) = In the definition. the function * :Q -> 2Q is defined recursively as follows: * Definition of *: Basis Clause: For any state q of Q. . A > . Example State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {0. Thus for an NFA < Q . string. * (q. Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q. any string y * and any symbol a ( q . q0 . the Basis Clause says that an NFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the set of states NFA can reach after reading string ya starting at state q is the set of states it can reach by reading symbol a after reading string y starting at state q. .Language Accepted by NFA Subjects to be Learned • • • for NFA Language accepted by NFA Properties of * * Definition of * For a state q and string w. In general an NFA nondeterministically goes through a number of states from the state q as it reads the symbols in the string w. *( q . ) = { q }.

*( 0 .b)={2} {3} {1}={1. b ) (1. Then * * ( 0 .The transition diagram for this NFA is as given below.2. ab ) is the union of the definition of * . Hence *( 0 . ) = { 0 } . ( 0 . 3}. 1 . a ) is the union of ( p. ) again by the Inductive * Clause of the definition of . Suppose that the state 3 is an accepting state of this NFA. b ) for all p * ( 0 . a ) = ( 0 .b) (3. a ) for all p ( 0 . . Hence *( 0 . ab ) can be calculated as follows: ( p. ab ) = ( 0 . 3 } . a ) = { 0 . a ) by the Inductive Clause of * Now *( 0 . By the Basis Clause of the definition of *.

aaa. if and only if it can reach an accepting state by reading x starting at the initial state. * ( q .a) for an NFA < Q . The language accepted by an NFA < Q. abbbb etc. * . * (q. A > is the set of strings that are accepted by the NFA. q0. q0 . ab. q0. . . . .* We say that a string x is accepted by an NFA < Q. x ) A is not empty.A Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >. A > if and only if * ( q0 . .a)= (q. a. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 . xy ) = These theorems can be proven in a manner similar to those for Theorems 1 and 2 for DFA. . A > . Some of the strings accepted by the NFA given above are the language it accepts is a*( ab + a + ba )(bb)* . and for NFA has properties similar to that for DFA. . . that is. . for an NFA < Q .

.Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata with Transitions Subjects to be Learned • • • - Nondeterministic finite automata with State transition diagram State transition table -Transitions Contents One of the objectives of this chapter is to show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between regular languages and finite automata. Also let { } to 2Q . .) and see some examples. Basically an NFA with -Transitions is an NFA but can respond to an empty string and move to the next state. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton with -Transitions is a 5-tuple < Q . Thus the tape head does not move when is read. Here we are going to formally define NFA with -Transitions (abbreviated as NFA. concatenation and Kleene star operations. These operations on FAs can be described conveniently if -Transitions are used. We are going to do that by showing that a finite automaton can be constructed from a given regular expression by combining simpler FAs using union. for any NFA. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. We call the elements of Q a state.there is a NFA (hence DFA) which accepts the same language and vice versa. . 2. As we are going to see later. Note that any NFA is also a NFA. Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton with Let Q be a finite set and let -Transitions be a function from Q be a finite set of symbols. q0 . the transition function. A transition on reading means that the NFA..makes the transition without reading any symbol in the input. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q.A> Notes on the definition 1.

If you read string ab. 3. 4. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. For once you are in state 1. = { a. it can move to any of the states other than 0. Thus 4 is the only state you can go to from the initial state . 3. 3. a) ) Here the transitions to are omitted from the table. 2. following table. then you come to state 4. for example. When a symbol a is read at the initial state 0. there are no transitions on reading b except from state 3. 1. A = . 4 } 3 {5} 3 b {4} 4 a {5} (q. for example. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in the State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 0 {4} 1 {2} 2 { 3. 5 }. 4 and 5 by reading a. For though you go to states 1.Example of NFA- Q = { 0. b }. 4 and 5 without reading any symbol on the tape. 2. you can go to state 2.

by reading ab.

**Language Accepted by NFASubjects to be Learned
**

• • • •

**-closure for NFALanguage accepted by NFAProperties of *
**

*

Contents

To formally define * for NFA- , we start with the concept of -closure for a state which is the set of states reachable from the state without reading any symbol. Using that concept we define * and then strings and languqges accepted by NFA- . Definition of -closure

Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA- . Let us denote the -closure of a set S of states of Q by ( S ). Then ( S ) is defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: S (S)

Inductive Clause: For any state q of Q, if q ( S ) , then ( q , ) (S). Extremal Clause: Nothing is in ( S ) unless it is obtained by the above two clauses.

For the NFAFirst { 2 }

of the above figure, ( { 2 } ) , that is, 2 (2, )

( { 2 } ) is obtained as follows: ( { 2 } ) . Then since 2 ( { 2 } ) , by the

Inductive Clause, Since (2,

({2}). ({2}).

) = { 3 , 4 }, we now have { 2 , 3 , 4 }

Since 3 and 4 have been added to

({2}),

(3,

) = { 5 } and

(4,

)=

must

be included in ( { 2 } ) . Thus now { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } ({2}). Though 5 has become a memeber of the closure, since ( 5 , ) is empty, no new members are added to ( { 2 } ) . Since ( q , ) has been examined for all the states currently in ( { 2 } ) and no more elements are added to it, this process of generating the closure terminates and ( { 2 } ) = { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } is obtained. As we can see from the example, ( S ) is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S by traversing any number of arcs. That is, it is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S without reading any symbols in . Now with this -closure, we can define

*

recursively as follows:

As in the cases of DFA and NFA, * gives the result of applying the transition function repeatedly as dictated by the given string. Definition of

* *

is going to be defined recursively. Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA-

.

**Basis Clause: For any state q of Q,
**

*

(q,

)=

({q}).

*

Inductive Clause: For any state q, a string y in

and a symbol a in

,

*

( q , ya ) =

(

).

What the Inductive Clause means is that *( q , ya ) is obtained by first finding the states that can be reached from q by reading y ( *( q , y ) ), then from each of those states p by reading a (i.e. by finding ( p , a ) ), and then by reading 's ( i.e. by taking the closure of the ( p , a )'s ) . Example : For the NFAbelow: of the following figure,

*

( 0 , ab ) can be obtained as

First let us compute *( 0 , a ) . For that we need ( { 0 } ). Since it is the set of states reached by traversing the arcs from state 0, ( { 0 } ) = {0,3,4}. Next from each of the states in ( { 0 } ) we read symbol a and move to another state (i.e. apply ). They are ( 0 , a ) = { 1 } , ( 3 , a ) = ( 4 , a ) = { 5 }. Hence We then traverse the } ) = { 1 , 2 , 3 } and = { 1 , 5 } for q = 0 . arcs from { 1 , 5 } to get to the states in *( 0 , a ) . Since * ({5})={5}, (0,a)={1,2,3,5}.

({1

. . The language accepted by an NFA.0 .to (equivalent) NFA Conversion of NFA to (equivalent) DFA Equivalence of DFAs. b ) are empty sets.< Q . NFAs and NFAto NFA 1 Conversion of NFA- Let M1 = < Q1 . Equivalence of DFAs. .Then to find *( 0 . a ) and then take the arcs from there. and ( 2 . ab ) = { 3 . A > is the set of strings accepted by the NFA. 4 } . . q0 . Then the 2 . A > if and only if *( q0 . For example the NFAof the figure given above accepts the language { . x ) contains at least one accepting state. NFAs and NFA. A2 > that satisfies the following conditions recognizes L: . a . q2.0 . *( 0 . NFA M2 = < Q2. q1. ab } . A1 > be an NFA. b ) = { 4 } . ab ) read b from each of the states in *( 0 . A string x is accepted by an NFA. q0 . Thus Since ( { 4 } ) = { 3 . .s Subjects to be Learned • • • Conversion of NFA. Now ( 1 . . b ) .that recognizes a language L. b ) and ( 5 . 4 } .. .< Q . ( 3 .

0 } ) A1 = A1 otherwise .0 } if ( { q1.M1 = < Q1 . q2. Thus to obtain an NFA M2 = < Q2. Example 1: Let us convert the following NFAto NFA. . 3 ). q2. 2 first copy the states of Q1 into Q2. a ) = 1 * (q. that is all the states that can be reached from q by traversing arcs. 2.0 . that is if an accepting state can be reached from the initial state q1. The set of accepting states A2 is the same as A1 if no accepting states can be reached from the initial state q1.0 . Otherwise. A1 > does.0 through arcs in M1 . Then from the transition function of the NFA- .0 through arcs in M1 . 2 ( q. a ) . Then for each state q of Q2 and each symbol a of find 2 ( q . 1. 1 } .0. . A2 > which accepts the same language 1 . the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0. The closure of the set of those states is 2( q . The transition function 2 is obtained as follows: 2( 0 .0 are the accepting states of M2 .Q2 = Q1.a)= ( ) A2 = A1 { q1.0 = q1. as the given NFA. then all the accepting states of M1 plus state q1. . since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) . q1. Then collect all the states that can be reached from each state of ( {q} ) by traversing one arc labeled with the symbol a. a ) as follows: Find ( {q} ). a ): First ( { 0 } ) = { 0 .

. They are given in the table ( { q } ) and 2 below together with State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b a b .2} {1.( 0 .2} The NFA thus obtained is shown below.1} {0.2})={1. a ) = { 1 . b ) = .2}. (q. 1 For . a ) = 1 ( 1 .2} {1.2} )) ({q}) {0.3} {1. b ) . )(= ( {1.1} {1} {1} {2} {2} {1. 2 ( 0 . 2 }. since ( { 0 } ) = { 0 . 1 } and 1 (0.b)= Similarly 2 can be obtained for other states and symbols. and Hence 2( 0 .b)= 1 ( 1.3} {1.2} {1.2} {1.3} {3} {1. a ) = . 2 (0. ({1.

2.2. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) . 2 is given in the table below together with ( { q } ) .3} )) {1. ) and State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 a b a b a b a b a ({q}) {0. 3.3} {1. 2. 1.4} {1.2. 4 ).2} {1. The transition function 2 is obtained as for Example 1. 1 ( p .1} {1} {1} {2. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0.4} {1.3} {3} {3} {1.3} .4} {1.3} {2.2} {4} {4} {4} {1.2} 2 (q.Example 2: Let us convert the following NFA- to NFA. )(= ( {1.4} {1.1} {0.

4 b {1. .4} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. Proof of Equivalence of NFA- and NFA We are going to prove that the NFA obtained from NFAby the conversion algorithm accepts the same language as the NFA.

w ) for an arbitrary string w (Induction Hypothesis). w ) for any non-empty string w. = 1 * Then we show that ( q .w). )={q}.a)= 2 2 * (q . First we are going to prove that To review the definition of * 1 * .(2) Hence from (1) and (2). Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. = = 2 * 2 (q . the induction hypothesis and the construction of NFA from NFA. A2 > (q.a)= 2 * (q. Basis Step: We need to show that for any symbol a in 1 * (q. A1 > and 2 NFA obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. .a)= 2 ( q . it implies that NFAM1 and NFA M2 accept the same non-empty strings. Inductive Step: We need to show that if 1 * (q. that is wa for any symbol a in the alphabet. a ) --. wa ) holds for any arbitrary symbol a in First we show that using the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . 1 * (q. Thus we first prove that it is true for any arbitrary symbol. --. wa ) --. . a)= by the definition of Since * 2 * for NFA (click here for a review) .(1) because of the way NFA is constructed from NFA(click here for a review) . (q. (q. Secondly 2 * (q.w)= 2 * ( q .NFA- that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 .0 . Claim 1: For any non-empty string w and for any state q. a ) .(1) .. wa ) = 2 * ( q . a ) = 1*( q . q2. and NFA- When it is proven.w)= 2 * ( q .w)= 2 * (q. q1. 1 * (q.a). . wa ) = --. Hence (q. The case when w is an empty string is going to be proven separately.(2) .a). Recall that the set of strings is defined recursively (click here for a quick review). and the conversion of NFAto NFA click here.a).0 . . . for NFA. 1 . then assuming it holds for any arbitrary string w we prove it for any of the children of w.a)= 2 * 2 (q. then * 1 ( q .a). We are going to prove it by showing that both of them are equal to Firstly 2( q .

that is By the definition of 1 * = 1 * 1 * ( q . By the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . Let us first prove (1). Hence we have proven (2). . as proven below in Claim 3. The right hand side of this equality is equal to ( the first and have been swapped to get this) .basically using the definition of Then from (1) and (2) we can see that 1 * 1 * . because = . = Since 2 (q. for NFA- (p.a)= Substituting this into the left hand side of (2) produces = . by the definition of 1 * . Let us next prove (2). . wa ) = Since 2 * (q. wa ) = 2 * ( q . . This can be shown to be equal to . Hence On the other hand = Hence 1 * = ( q . 1 * Thus from (1) and (2) ( q . To see an explanation for this click here. wa ) . Hence 2 * ( q .a)= 1 * ( q . = 1*( q . wa ) . wa ) = 2 * ( q . wa ) . a ) by the way NFA is constructed from NFA= . wa ) .w)= 1 * ( q . wa ) . ( q . w ) by the induction hypothesis. that is (1) has been proven. wa ) = .

Inductive Clause: If q ( X ) . Claim 2: (S T)= (S) (T). Since (S T ) is defined recursively. Hence is accepted by NFA.End of Induction With this Claim 1 we can see that any non-empty string w is accepted by NFA if and only if it is accepted by the corresponding NFA. then its childen also have it. Hence by the way A2 is constructed.. Then the -closure of X is defined recursively as Basis Clause: X (X). then q20 this means that Thus NFA( { q10 } ) A1 A2 . By the way NFA is constructed from . and the corresponding NFA accept the same language. Extremal Clause: Nothng is in ( X ) unless it is obtained by the Basis and Inductive Clauses. in the Basis Step of our proof we prove the property for the elements of the basis of (S T ) and in the Inductive Step we prove that if an arbitrary element of (S T ) has that property. As for the empty string . Let X be the set of states of an NFA. if it is accepted by an NFA. ) (X). As a preparation for the proof of commutativity of union and -closure operations. let us prove the following claim. then ( q . q20 Conversely if NFAis accepted by NFA. Let us review the definition of the -closure of the set of states of an NFA. A2 . What Part 1 states is that all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in the set (S) (T). . Hence is accepted by NFA. then ( { q10 } ) A1 . We are going to prove this in two parts: (S T) (S) (S) (T) ( T ) and (S T). Part 1 : (S T) (S) (T) This is going to be proven by induction on (S T). For that let us restate the statement so that the induction becomes clearer.

(T).S (S T). Basis Step: We need to show that S Since S (S T ) . ) (S) (S) (T). Hence (T). T). Hence ) Similarly if q Hence if q is an arbitrary element of (S) (T). then (q.q ( S ) or q ( S ) . (S T ) with the property of being in (S) ( T ) . Inductive Step: We need to prove that for an arbitrary element q in ( S ) . T T).Proof of Part 1: Basis Step: We need to prove that ( S Since S ( S ) and T T) (S) (S) (S (S) (S) (T). then (q. then (q. ) (S) (T). ) (S) (T). if q is in . ( T ) . (T) Thus all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in (S T) which is to say that (S) (T). T ) with (T). End of Proof for Part 1 Part 2 : Proof of Part 2: We are going to prove (S) (S (S) T ) and (S) (T) (T) (T) (S (S (S T). (q. then ( q . S and T are subsets of (S T) Inductive Step: We need to prove that if q is an arbitrary element of the property of being in (S) (S ( T ) . ) . and ( S T) (S T). ) Let q be an arbitrary element of T ) with the property of being in ( S ) by the definition of ( T ) . Since q If q ( S ) . ( T ) . That would imply that Proof of (S) (S By induction on (S T): (S). (S) (T).

If n = 1. End of Proof for Claim 3 Sn+1 ) by Claim 2 above. ( Si ) = ( Si ) = ( S1 ) and ( S1 ) . (S T ) holds.Inducion Hypothesis ( Si ) = ( = = (( Si ) ( ( Si ) ) Si ) ( Sn+1 ) by the definition of union. ) (S T). Similarly Hence (S) (T) (T) (S T ) holds. - T ) is a -closure. Thus (S) (S T ) has been proven. Proof : Proof by induction on n. then (q. by the definition of (q. ) (S closure T). ( Sn+1 ) by the induction hypothesis.(S Since q is in (S T ) and since (S T ) . Basis Step: n = 1. Si is a set as well as Sn+1. Si ) by the definition of union. --. then Hence Inductive Step: Assume that ( ( Si ) = Si ) = ( Si ) holds for n = 1. since = ( Equivalence of NFA and DFA We are going to prove that the DFA obtained from NFA by the conversion algorithm . End of Proof of Part 2 End of Proof of Claim 2 Claim 3: ( Si ) = ( Si ) . ( Si ) holds for n.

( q1. wa ) * 1 Thus for any string w ( q1. .0 .0 . w ) .Part 1 Subjects to be Learned • • • • Union of FAs Concatenation of FAs Kleene Star of FAs Acceptance of regular languages by FAs Contents . obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. Inductive Step: Assume that Induction Hypothesis 1 * ( q1. w ) = 2 * ( q2. = * 1 ( q1. w ) = 2 * ( q2. = { q1. Theorem: For any string w. Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. w ) for any string w.0 .0 . .0 . ( q2. --- For the string w and an arbitrry symbol a in 1 * . ) = q2. When it is proven. w ) . 2 1 . w ) for an arbitrary string w.0 .0 . w ) = 2 * ( q2. w ) = 2*( q2. q1.0 by the definition of 2* . w ) holds. a ) ( q2.0 .0 . w ) .0 . a ) 2( * 2 ( q2.0 .0 .accepts the same language as the NFA. A2 > First we are going to prove by induction on strings that 1*( q1. 1 * ( q1.0 . q2. A1 > and DFA . NFA that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 .0 . ) by the definition of 1 * .0 } by the construction of DFA M2 . it obviously implies that NFA M1 and DFA M2 accept the same strings.0 .0 . Basis Step: For w = 2 * . wa ) = = = = 2 ( 1 2 * * ( q1. Kleene's Theorem --.

2 .0 . u Mu = < Qu . . Ak > . It states that any regular language is accepted by an FA and conversely that any language accepted by an FA is regular. respectively. Since any regular language is obtained from { } and { a } for any symbol a in by using union. Theorem 1 (Part 1 of Kleene's theorem): Any regular language is accepted by a finite automaton. . q1.0 . . Au > : { qu. qu. u L2 . . Suppose that L1 and L2 are accepted by FAs M1 = < Q1 .0 } . Basis Step: As shown below the languages . concatenation and Kleene star operations. Mc . 1 .0 .0 . . where qu.{ } and { a } for any symbol a in are accepted by an FA. k . We assume that Q1 Q2 = without loss of generality since states can be renamed if necessary. L1L2 and L1* are accepted by the FAs Mu = < Qu . qu. . respectively. which are given below. qc. . q2. L1L2 and L1* are accepted by FAs. c .Kleene's theorem. Au > . that together with the Basis Step would prove the theorem. Inductive Step: We are going to show that for any languages L1 and L2 if they are accepted by FAs. A1 > and M2 = < Q2 . A2 > .0 . Qu = Q1 Q2 . then L1 L2 . Then L1 = < Qc .0 is a state which is neither in Q1 nor in Q2 . Proof: This is going to be proven by (general) induction following the recursive definition of regular language. Ac > and Mk = < Q2 .0 . qk.

{ qk. { q1. . c .0 . qc.0.0 c = 1 2 { (q.0. qk. { q1. u ) = { q1.0 } .0 . Ac > : Qc = Q1 Q2 qc. Note that (qu.0 } ) } . These NFA- s are illustrated below.0 } .0 } ) | q A1 } Ac = A2 Mk = < Qk .0 is a state which is not in Q1 .0 } = 1 { (qk. . q2. where qk.0.0 = q1.0. .0 } ) | q A1 } Ak = { qk. . q2.0 . . Qk = Q1 k . Au = A1 A2 Mc = < Qc . Ak > : { qk. { q2. a ) = for all a in .0 . that is u (qu. k .u = 1 2 { (qu. .0 } ) } { (q.

. in fact accept L1 L2 . L1L2 and L1*. End of Proof Examples of Mu . though we omit proofs. Mc and Mk: Example 1: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression (aa + b)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above. Mu.It can be proven. Mc and Mk .s . respectively. that these NFA.

.Example 2: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression ((a + b)a*)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above.

Part 2 .Kleene's Theorem -.

k) : The set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled wiht k or lower numbers. Lemma 1: L(p. q. Note that paths may go through arcs and vertices any number of times. L(p. k+1) = L(p. then from k+1 to k+1 any number of times. k+1. k)*L(k+1. q. k)L(k+1. then from k+1 to q. k+1.Subjects to be Learned • Languages accepted by FAs are regular Contents The converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem also holds true. q. k+1. Then the following lemmas hold. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. What this lemma says is that the set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled with k+1 or lower numbers consists of the following two sets: 1. q. all without passing through states labeled higher than k. Before proceeding to a proof outline for the converse. let us study a method to compute the set of strings accepted by a finite automaton. k)L(k+1. k) the set of strings representing paths from state p to state q that go through only states numbered no higher than k. 2. . L(p. k) : The set of strings going first from p to k+1. q. It states that any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. k+1. k)*L(k+1. k) . See the figure below for the illustration. k) L(p. Next denote by L(p. Given a finite automaton. first relabel its states with the integers 1 through n. q.

If p = q. we have the following converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem. k) is regular for any states p and q and any natural number k. Example : Let us find the language accepted by the following finite automaton using the . L(p. q. Lemma 3: L(p.Lemma 2: L(p. q. Proof: L(p. Hence if p and q are different. 0) is regular. q. Since the language accepted by a finite automaton is the union of L(q0. q. Theorem 2 (Part 2 of Kleene's Theorem): Any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. Since the number of symbols is finite and since any finite language is regular. then it consists of single symbols representing arcs from p to q. q. 0) is regular. 0) is the set of strings representing paths from p to q without passing any states in between. then is in it as well as the strings representing any loops at p (they are all single symbols). where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. n) over all accepting states q. >From Lemmas 1 and 2 by induction the following lemma holds.

1) r(1.1. 2): r(3. 1) r(3.0) + r(1. 1) = r(3. r(1. 1) = r(3. r(2.0)r(1.1. 1. 1)*r(2. 2.2. 1.0) = a* .1. 2. q.0) = a . 2) = r(1. k) the regular expression for the set of strings L(p. r(1. since r(1.0) = a+ .1. 1) + r(1. 1) = r(2.0) = and r(3.2.1.0) = ba* . since r(2.0)*r(1. 2.2. 3.1. 1.2. 3. 1. )*a r(3.2.0) + r(3.0)r(1. 2.1. 3. 3.0) = a + . 1.0) + r(2.0) = ba+ .0) + r(2. 1) + r(1. 1) = r(1. 1)*r(2.0)r(1. 1.0)*r(1.1. 3. 1.0)*r(1. 3. 2. 2): r(1. 3. 3.0)r(1. 3.1.0)r(1. 2. 3. 1) = r(2. since r(1. Hence r(1. 2)r(3.1. 1) = a Hence r(1. 2) + r(1. Then the language accepted by this NFA is r(1.0) = b. k).1. 3. 1.2. By Lemma 1. q. 1. 2) = a* + a+(b a+)*b a* . 2) .0)*r(1. 1. r(1. 1)r(2. 3) = r(1. 1) + r(3. 3.1.1. 1)*r(2. 1)r(2.2.0) = b .2.1. 1) = r(2.0) = ba+ + . r(1.1. 2. 2): r(1.1. 3. Let us denote by r(p. since r(3. 1) = r(1.0)*r(1.0) = and r(2.lemmas. 3.2. 1) r(1.1. 2) = r(3. 2) = a+(b a+ + = a+(b a+ )*a .0) + r(1. r(2. 1)r(2. 2. 2. 2)*r(3. . 2) = r(1. 3). 1.

Then a DFA that accepts the complement of L. 1. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. Hence r(1. In this example there is only one accepting state. 1) = r(3. 1. 1)*r(2.Hence r(3. 1) + r(3. 3) = a* + a+(b a+)*ba* + ( a+( ba+ )*a )( This can be further simplified to (a + ab + abb)*. then r(p. q. * . can be obtained by swapping its accepting states with its non-accepting states.A > is a DFA that accepts * . . If there are more accepting states. 2): r(3. 3. Q . n) must be found for each accepting state q. Comlement and Intersection of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • • Complement of Regular Language Complement of DFA Intersection of Regular Languages Contents Complement Let M = < Q . .L. 1) r(3.1. n)'s must be added together to get the regular expression for the language accepted by the automaton. then to (a + ab)*. i. . 2) = ba* + ba+( ba+ + = ( ba+ )*ba* . The detail is left as an exercise though it would be quite challenging. where p is the initial state and n is the number of states in the given finite automaton.0) + r(3. 2) = = + ( ba+)+a + ba+( ba+ + )*a r(3. 1)r(2. q0 . and all the r(p. q0 . . . 1.0)<SUP*< SUP>r(1.0)r(1. 1. q.1. that is Mc = < Q . 2) = r(3. 2.L . 2. 1.1. )*ba* + ( ba+)+a )*( ba+ )*ba*. 1.e.1.0) = ba* Hence r(3. 1.

b }. the complement of a regular language is also regular. A DFA that accepts its complement is obtained from the above DFA by changing all single circles to double circles and vice versa as shown below. Remark 2: Since a language is regular if and only if it is accepted by some NFA. we must first convert it to DFA before swapping states to get its complement.For example the following DFA accepts the language a+ over = { a . . Remark 1: If we have NFA rather than DFA.

if L1 and L2 are regular languages.Regular Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Regular Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Production and Grammar Regular Grammar Context-Free. L1 L2 is regular. Next -. Since L1 L2 = by De Morgan's law. Click True or Fals . Therefore all the properties of sets are inherited by languages. difference. Context-Sensitive and Phrase Structure Grammars . In particular De Morgan's law also applies to languages. Test Your Understanding of Complemnent and Intersection of FAs Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.Intersection of Regular Languages Langauges are sets. Thus summing all this up we can say that the set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed with respect to union. then their complements are regular languages. concatenation and Kleene star operations. By Remark 2 above. intersection. then Submit.

} . Rewrite S using one of the following two rules: S -> a . a start symbol S. These rules mean that S is rewritten as a or as aS.{ by a regular grammar. Add another state as the accepting state Z. a ) = Z. Then for every production X -> aY. if L . aS. S -> } is a regular grammar and it generates all the strings consisting of a's and b's including the empty string. = {a. a set of terminals (the alphabet of the language). that is by something called grammar. a ) = Y and for every production X -> a add the transition ( X. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. Then apply the first rule to aS to rewrite S as a. The following theorem holds for regular grammars. aaa. A production has in general the form -> . Theorem 3: A language L is accepted by an FA i. . regular. In general if a string a grammar G. to obtain aS. . which ia a nonterminal. We write S => aS to express that aS is obtained from S by applying a single production. One can generate the strings of this language by the following procedure: Let S be a symbol to start the process with. the fact that aa is obtained from S is written as S =>* aa . A grammar is regular if and only if is a single nonterminal and is a single terminal or a single terminal followed by a single nonterminal. and S -> aS . There is yet another way of characterizing them. b}. S corresponds to the initial state. Thus the process of obtaining aa from S is written as S => aS => aa . aa. That gives us aa. For example consider the language represented by a+. start with S and apply the second rule to replace S with the right hand side of the rule. . A grammar is a set of rewrite rules which are used to generarte strings by successively rewriting symbols. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals with at least one nonterminal in it and is a string of terminals and nonterminals. To generate the string aa for example. } can be generated This can be proven by constructing an FA for the given grammar as follows: For each nonterminal create a state. . finite automata and construction from simple languages using simple operations. that is a production is of the form X -> a or X -> aY. For example.e. which is { a. we write =>*G is obtained from a string and say that by applying productions of . If we are not interested in the intermediate steps.Contents We have learned three ways of characterising regular languages: regular expressions. and a set of rewrite rules (productions) P. S -> bS. add the transition ( X. where X and Y are nonterminals and a is a terminal.e. i. then we simply write =>* Formally a grammar consists of a set of nonterminals (or variables) V. If there is no is derived from ambiguity about the grammar G that is referred to.

L = Conversely from any NFA < Q. A > a regular grammar < Q. X. An NFA that recognizes this language can be obtained by creating two states S and Z. where S is the initial state and Z is the accepting state of the NFA. as its member. then L . S -> a. . S -> bS. . Thus the following converse of Theorem 3 is obtained. The NFA thus obtained is shown below. a regular grammar corresponding to the NFA given below is < Q. b}. S -> aX. P. S > . V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. b }. S -> a }. { a. where Q = { S. a ) = { S.{ } is regular. P. Z } . a) = Y . X -> a is in P if and only if (X. S -> b } form a regular grammar which generates the language ( a + b )+. Y -> bS. P = { S -> aS. Theorem 4 : If L is regular i. accepted by an NFA. . Thus L .e. X -> aY.For example = {a.{ regular grammar. and nonterminals X and Y. X -> bS. If L contains ( L -{ } ) { } is also regular. and for any a in and any nonterminal X. Z } and ( S. and adding transitions ( S. q0. . X -> aY is in P if and only if (X. b ) = { S. a) = Y for some accepting state Y. then since { } is regular . } is generated by a For example. q0 > is obtained as follows: for any a in . Y } .

S1 -> XYZS1. where X is a nonterminal and . bZ -> bc.In addition to regular languages there are three other types of languages in Chomsky hierarchy : context-free languages. S -> XYZ. 2 and are strings of terminals and nonterminals. aY -> ab. For example P = { S -> aSb. They are characterized by context-free grammars. S -> ab } with = { a. . b } and V = { S } is a contex-free grammar and it generates the language { anbn | n is a positive integer } . As we shall see later this is an example of context-free language which is not regular. A grammar is a context-free grammar if and only if its production is of the form X -> . 1 . context-sensitive grammars and phrase structure grammars. YX -> XY. cZ -> cc } with = { a. possibly the empty string. aX -> aa. These grammars are distinguished by the kind of productions they have but they also form a hierarchy. context-sensitive languages and phrase structure languages. that is the set of regular languages is a subset of the set of context-free languages which is in turn a subset of the set of context-sensitive languages and the set of context-sensitive languages is a subset of the set of phrase structure languages. b. X -> a. c } and V = { X. A grammar is a context-sensitive grammar if and only if its production is of the form 1 X 2 -> 1 2 . for every production -> . S1 } is a context-sensitive grammar and it generates the language { anbncn | n is a positive integer } . S. BY -> bb. Context-sensitive grammars are also characterized by productions whose left hand side is not longer than the right hand side. Z. It is an example of context-sensitive language which is not context-free. For example P = { S -> XYZS1. S1 -> XYZ. respectively. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals. ZY -> YZ.| | | |. possibly empty except Thus the nonterminal X can be rewritten as only in the context of 1X 2 . ZX -> XZ. Y. that is.

q0 .For a phrase structure grammar. new := new_partition( . Q . }. There are two sets of questions. Next -. where and Test Your Understanding of Regular Grammar Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. -> . Let M = < Q .A } of the set of states Q . both theoretically and practically. denote it by M1. that is a production of a phrase structure grammar can take the form can be any string. . Then the following algorithm produces the DFA. .Minimization of DFA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Minimization of DFA One important result on finite automata. Click True or Fals . Minimization Algorithm for DFA Construct a partition = { A. that has the smallest number of states amomg the DFAs that accept L. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. there is no restriction on the form of production. is that for any regular language there is a unique DFA having the smallest number of states that accepts it. then Submit.

e.while ( := new new ) ) . respectively. Remove from M1 the dead states and the states not reachable from the start state. final function new_partition( ) for each set S of do partition S into subsets such that two states p and q of S are in the same subset of S if and only if for each input symbol. If S is not partitioned in this process. end Minimum DFA M1 is constructed from • • final as follows: • • Select one state in each set of the partition final as the representative for the set. new := new_partition( := . . If a transition from s to t on symbol a exists in M. A state is a dead state if it is not an accepting state and has no out-going transitions except to itself. p and q make a transition to (states of) the same set of . states of minimum DFA M1. The start state of M1 is the representative which contains the start state of M. The accepting states of M1 are representatives that are in A. These representatives are states of minimum DFA M1. S remains in the output partition. Any transitions to a dead state become undefined. Example 1 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. Let s be a state in p and t a state in q. The subsets thus formed are sets of the output partition in place of S. Let us also denote by p and q the sets of states of the original DFA M represented by p and q. Let p and q be representatives i. if there are any. then the minimum DFA M1 has a transition from p to q on symbol a. Note that the sets of final are either a subset of A or disjoint from A.

and 3 goes to 1 on a in the original DFA. { 2 } . 5 }. Since the rest of the states are singletons. since on b 2 goes to 1. Thus the new partition is { { 1 . since 1 goes to 3 on a. . On the other hand 1 and 5 make the same transitions. For the transitions. states 2 and 3 are going to be separated from each other in new . state 3 goes to state 5 and 4 and 5 are in different sets in . { 2 } . Thus final = { { 1 . Note here that state 4 is a dead state because the only transitionout of it is to itself. { 2 . new_partition is applied to . { 3 } . 5 } . 5 } . 2 and 4 are separated from each other in new. and to 2 on b in the original DFA. So they are not going to be split. 2 .Initially = { { 1 . and from 3 to 1 on a. Thus the set of states for the minimized DFA is { 1 . { 3 } . 4 } }. state 3 goes to state 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . 5 } . Since on b state 2 goes to state 1. This becomes the second iteration. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 1 to 3 on a. all transitions between them are inherited for the minimized DFA. Also since on a sate 4 goes to sate 4. Further. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 2 to 1 on b. 4 goes to 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . { 4 ] }. Select 1 as the representative for { 1 . they have the obvious representatives. 3 . since 1 and 5 do the same transitions. { 4 ] }. in the When new_partition is applied to this new . and 1 to 2 on b. Since the rest are singletons. remains unchanged. states 3 and 4 are going to be separated from each other in new. Also since 2 goes to 1 on b. 3 }.

.Thus the minimized DFA is as given in the following figure: Example 2 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA.

4 . Applyting new_partition again. { 6 } } is obtained. { 1 . 6 } } is obtained. { 5 } . 6 } }. Next -. { 2 } . { 2 . Thus the number of states of the given DFA is already minimum and it can not be reduced any further. By applying new_partition to this . 2 . { 1 . then Submit. Test Your Understanding of Minimization of DFA Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. new = { { 3 } . { 5 } .Application of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Application of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Reactive system .Initially = { { 3 } . { 6 } } is obtained. 4 . new = { { 1 } . Applyting new_partition to this . new = { { 3 } . Click True or Fals . { 1 . { 3 } . { 4 } . 4 } . { 2 } . 5 . 5 } .

For example consider the following very simplified version of login process to a computer from the computer point of view. Many of those systems fall into the class of systems called reactive system. A system such as an adder is called a transformational system. . A reactive system is a system that changes its actions. are identified and they become arcs in the transition diagram of the finite automaton. The inputs for a reactive system are never ready unlike for example when two numbers are added together by an adder (Here we are considering an adder at a higher level of abstraction than physical devices level ignoring for example the transient states of the electronic circuit that realizes an adder). Many other systems operating in practice can also be modeled by finite automata such as control circuits of computers. a system must respond to each stimulus. two numbers to be added are ready. first the states the system goes in or the modes of its operation are identified. external or internal to the system. Then the transitions between the states triggered by events and conditions. These become the states of the finite automaton that models it. It is an event driven or control driven system continuously having to react to external and/or internal stimuli. outputs and conditions/status in response to stimuli from within or outside it. even to a fragment of input such as each coin tossed in for a can of soda or every message received.e. It is generally agreed that finite automata are a natural medium to describe dynamic behaviors of reactive systems. To model a reactive system with finite automaton. Finite automata are formal and rigorous and computer programs can be easily written to simulate their behaviors. on the other hand. Let us assume for simplicity that this computer accepts a single user at a time. computer network communication protocols. In addition actions that may take place in those states can also be added to the model. lexical analysers for compilers etc.• Modeling reactive systems with FA Contents We have seen an example of use of finite automata in describing the operation of a simplified version of vending machine. An adder does not respond unless the input i. In the case of vending machine or communication protocol.

That is another state though it could further be broken down into a number of more states. it goes to the initial state and starts all over again. it goes back to the initial state. Again it is a very simplified version. Upon completion of the RFNM. But let us make it simple. sending message and waiting for ACK. Depending on how much detail we are interested in. different states would be identified and transitions would have to be selected accrdingly. When it is complete. Initially the computer is in wait state waiting for "Request for Next Message" (RFNM) to come from another computer. it resends the message.Initially the computer waits for a user name to be typed in. If a positive ACK is received. We could make it go to a different state and count the number of login attempts for security purpose. it gets a signal. it goes back to the initial state and waits for another RFNM to come. receiving RFNM. Thus a finite automaton that models this protocol has the following five states: initial state (wait for RFNM). If the user name typed in is not valid. goes back to the initial state and waits for another login. If a negative ACK is received. If the password typed in is incorrect. Again what we have seen is a model for one level of abstraction. it goes into another wait state waiting for an ACK to come from the other computer. After sending the ACK. then it asks for and then waits for the password. If it is valid. then it informs the user of that and waits for the next try. This is one state of the system. it starts sending the requested message to the other party. which is another state. The next example is a protocol for a computer to follow in communicating with another computer. When a name is typed in. it sends "Acknowledgement" (ACK) to the other computer. When the session terminates. it goes into the state of receiving it (Our interpretation is that the computer is in a state of receiving an RFNM and it is taking the action of receiving the RFNM) . That is a fourth state. it checks whether or not the name is valid. which is another state. then it accepts the user and starts a session. If the second password fails. sending ACK. When a RFNM starts coming. different states and transitions would have to be chosen. . Again depending on the level of abstraction. When a password is typed in and it is correct.

followed by zero or more digits. -15. If the first digit is received before a decimal point.+ ) ( d+. then it goes into a state. If the first symbol is a sign.d+ + d+ + . +213. If a decimal point is received before a digit. regardless of whether a sign has been read or not. followed by a possible decimal point. that indicates that a sign has been received.e.e. then it goes into a state.. they can be represented by the following regular expression: ( s+ + s. where s+ and s. followed by one or more digits. If a decimal point has been read (i. it is in state D. i. it goes into a state. then it can continue receiving digits and stay in D.2. that indicates that a decimal point has been read. On the other hand if a digit has been read before a decimal point. then it goes to state P indicating that a decimal point has been read. This system can also be described by a regular expression. After one digit it can continue receiving digits.8 etc. denote it by G.Our third example is a system that recognizes numbers with or without a sign such as 5. denote it by Q. that indicates a digit has been read before a decimal point. Since these numbers are represented by strings consisting of a possible sign. This system can be modeled by the following finite automaton: . in state P). D is another accepting state. .represent the positive and negative signs. denote it by P. . denote it by D. If a decimal point is read while in D.d+ ). . after reading a digit and stays there as long as digits are read. This Q is an accepting state. One such system initially waits for the first symbol to come in. then it must receive at least one digit after that. respectively and d {0.1. Therefore from state P it goes to another state.378. 9 } .

keeps the index of the first symbol in the TOKEN array for each state.Next -. holds the next state for each input symbol for each state. Algorithm FA Simulator state := INITIAL_STATE. One array. input := read_input( ) . called STATEX. One such simulation algorithm is given below. A third array. we can use a general purpose program to simulate its operation. stores for each state the input symbols that trigger transitions from the state. It uses four arrays. Another array.Simulation of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Simulation of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Simulation of FA Contents Once a finite automaton is constructed. while ( TOKEN [index] . called ACTION. while ( state NO_of_STATES and not End of Input ) index := STATEX [state] . Those indices are used to access the contents of the other arrays. called TOKEN. called NEXT_STATE. indicates the actions taken at each state and a fourth. 0 and TOKEN [index] input ) index := index + 1.

if ( TOKEN [index] 0) perform the action specified by ACTION [index]. end Here 0 in the TOKEN array is a marker between states. empty transitions) are omitted. Tab 4 Tab 5. .45. At the moment it is empty. So no action is taken as a number is processed. To see how this algorithm works.e. The numbers below NEXT_STATE array show the correspondence between the indices of the STATEX array and the states A. S is the initial state and B and H are accepting states. The ACTION array would contain pointers to actions to be taken corresponding to arcs traversed such as converting a digit in BCD form to the corresponding binary number. Then type in a number you want the FA to recognize. Then type 3 Tab . first click the box under the red arrow. The corresponding transitions are going to be shown by red arrows in the transition diagram. to input 3. In the DFA below all the transitions to the empty state (i. B. S corresponds to 1. Then every time you click "SHOW" the number is processed digit by digit. else error input := read_input( ) . first click the box pointed by the red arrow in the figure below. For example. C and H. You must hit the "Tab" key to move to the next box. state := NEXT_STATE [index].

If you are also interested in how code is executed. So be patient. click here It is extremely slow. .

a finite automaton must remember how many a's it has read when it starts reading b's. There are. Thus it must be in different states when it has read different number of a's and starts reading the first b.Non-Regular Languages Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Regular Languages Non-Regular Languages Subjects to be Learned • • • Existence of non-regular languages Myhill . however. Non-regularity test based on Myhill-Nerode's theorem Indistinguishability of strings: Strings x and y in * are indistinguishable with respect to a language L if and only if for every string z in *. For example to recognize the language { anbn | n is a natural number} . where n is a positive integer. languages that are not regular and therefore require devices other than finite automata to recognize them. either xz and yz are both in L or they are both not in L. a and aa are indistinguishable with respect to the language an over alphabet { a }. This is the basis of two of the regularity test methods we are going to study below: Myhill-Nerode Theorem and Pumping Lemma. their properties and their usefulness for describing various systems. That is the main limitation of finite automata. we can conclude that { anbn | n is a natural number} is not regular. Thus there is no way for a finite automaton to remember how many a's it has read for all possible strings anbn . Since a regular language must be recognized by a finite automaton. The main idea behind these test methods is that finite automata have only finite amount of memory in the form of states and that they can not distinguish infinitely many strings. For example.Nerode Theorem for non-regularity test Pumping Lemma Contents We have learned regular languages.Next -. In this section we are going to study some of the methods for testing given languages for regularity and see some of the languages that are not regular. because aak and aaak are in the language an for any . But any finite automaton has only finite number of states.

This set is infinite . Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L2 . where k and m are positive integers and k m . It is stated without a proof. whose strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L. b }* } is nonregular. that is. Inductive Clause: If and are in L3 . because ab is in the language anbn while aab is not in the language. Select bm as a string to be appended to ak and am . L3 can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: x and y are in L3 .positive integer k. where k and m are positive integers and k m . Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } over alphabet { a . For more on Myhill-Nerode theorem click here. S1 is over alphabet { a . (x*y) . For example. Consider the set of strings S2 which is the same as S1 of Example 1 above. It can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L2 as follows. S1 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. However. with respect to the language anbn . a and aa are not indistinguishable (hence distinguishable). Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. b } can be shown to be nonregular using Myhill-Nerode as follows: Consider the set of strings S1 = { an | n is a positive integer } . Using this concept of indistinguishability. We are going to show that its strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L1. then ( + ) and ( * ) are in L3 . Then akbakb is in L2 while ambakb is not in L2 . the set of strings consisting of one or more right parentheses followed by identifier x. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S2. S2 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. Hence L2 is nonregular. Theorem : A language L over alphabet is nonregular if and only if there is an infinite subset of * . Hence L1 is nonregular. operations + and * and left and right parentheses. Select bakb as a string to be appended to ak and am . Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S1. Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set S1. Then akbm is not in L1 while ambm is in L1 . Consider the set of strings S3 = { (k x | k is a positive integer } . Example 2: L2 = { ww | w {a. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L3 unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. x . Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L1 . the following theorem by Myhill and Nerod gives a criterion for (non)regularity of a language. ( ( x + y ) * x ) and (( (x*y) + x ) + (y*y) ) are algebraic expressions. b } and it is infinite. Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set.

abbabbabbabbb etc. Pumping Lemma Let us consider the NFA given below. Then the substring representing that cycle (bba in the example) can be repeated any number of times within the string w without being rejected by the NFA. are also accepted by the NFA. Select [ + x ) ]k as a string to be appended to (k and (m . the resultant strings such as abbb (bba repeated 0 times). Those strings which are accepted by this NFA and whose length is greater than 5 have a substring which can be repeated any number of times without being rejected by the NFA. Hence S3 is pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 . For example the string abbabbb is accepted by the NFA and if one of its substrings bba is repeated any number of times in abbabbb. The following theorem which is called Pumping Lemma is based on this observation. then there must be a cycle in the NFA along some path from the initial state to some accepting state (such as the cycle 2-3-4-2 in the above example). It . For example [ + x ) ]3 is +x) +x)+x) . Hence L3 is not regular. Then (k x + [ + x ) ]k is in L3 but (m x + [ + x ) ]k is not in L3 because the number of ('s is not equal to the number of )'s in the latter string. where k and m are positive integers and k m . abbabbabbb etc. In general if a string w (such as abbabbb in the example above) is accepted by an NFA with n states and if its length is longer than n.and it can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 as follows: Let (k x and (m x be arbitrary two strings of S3 . abbabbabbb. This NFA accepts among others some strings of length greater than 5 such as abbabbb.

Example 4: As an example to illustrate how Pumping Lemma might be used to prove that a language is nonregular. that is. Let n be the number of states of that FA. where k is a natural number. This violates the condition that for every m language. Since |v| > 0 . uvmw Test Your Understanding of Non-regularity . Hence L is not a regular 0. n + p language L represented by akbk . then any long enough string of the language has a substring which can be repeated any number of times with the resultant strings still in the language. there are strings u. Pumping Lemma : Suppose that a language L is regular. uvmw L. v = ap. Consider a string x = anbn for that n. n . Note that Pumping Lemma gives a necessity for regular languages and that it is not a sufficiency. v. |uv| n |v| > 0 . the language is not necessarily regular. Also since |uv| Let us now consider the string uvmw for m = 2. Since p > 0 . n. let us prove that the language L = akbk is nonregular. It is stated without a proof here. Then there must be strings u. Hence an+pbn can not be in the L. Thus Pumping Lemma can not be used to prove the regularity of a language. Then for any string x in L with |x| n.states that if a language is regular. Then uv2w = an-pa2pbn = an+pbn . Then there is an FA that accepts L. It can only show that a language is nonregular. and for every m 0. v and w which satisfy the following relationships: x = uvw |uv| n |v| > 0 and for every integer m 0. Suppose that L is regular and let n be the number of states of an FA that accepts L. even if there is an integer n that satisfies the conditions of Pumping Lemma. and w such that x = uvw. for some p > 0 . uvmw L. v has at least one symbol.

Then there is a string z such that xz is in L and yz is not in L (or xz is not in L and yz is in L). if and only if they are indistinguishable with respect to . Then the theorem is is staed as follows: Theorem: A language L over alphabet is regular if and only if the set of equivalence classes of is finite. say x and y. that is. the DFA reaches different states. Proof of Theorem Necessity Suppose that a language L is regular and two strings. if and only if }. are distinguishable with respect to L. Next -. This means that if x and y are read by an DFA that recognizes L. If there are three strings that are distinguished with respect . Click True or Fals .Context-Free Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Myhill-Nerode Theorem The non-regularity test for languages by Myhill-Nerode is based on the following theorem which is in the contrapositive form of the theorem used for nonregularity test. then Submit.Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Also it is a corollary to Myhill-Nerode theorem: Let { be the followijg relation on }={ : For strings and of .

be the number of distinct equivalence classes (i. ]. . DFA ( = {[ =[ = {[ ( . then the language is not regular. is in exactly one equivalence class. making them belong to different [ Hence is a function. where [ ] =[ ] for all .to L. then the DFA must have infinitely many states. be representatives of those distinct equivalence classes. then ]'s. namely ] and ]. are in different classes for and are distinguishable with respect to L. if the number of classes of strings that are pairwise indistinguishable with respect to a language L is finite. Note that "indistinguishable with respect to L" is an equivalence relation over the set of strings (denote it by ) and [x]'s are equivalence classes. [ . Sufficiency Conversely. [ ]=[ } ]. if and in [ ]. let [x] denote a class of strings that are indistinguishable from a string x with respect to L. Let us now show that this machine is in fact a DFA and it accepts the language First. Hence if there is an infinite set of strings which are pairwise distinguishable with respect to a language... . Let . Then we construct a .... note that for every string [ ].. ]. . which it can not because a DFA must have a finite number of states. then the language L is regular. Hence if there are infinitely many strings to be distinguished with respect to L.e. ) as follows: ]} ]. then the DFA reaches three different states after reading those three strings.. For. To prove this. . We will show that a DFA that accepts L can be constructed using these equivalence classes.. the index) of and let .. .

then every We then show that for every string . . Hence =[ = . this means that the DFA accepts Myhill-Nerode Theorem Let us here state Myhill-Nerode Theorem. where ] is the equivalence class that belongs to. if a string in [ in ] is in . Hence Hence we have shown that for every string ]. Myhill-Nerode Theorem can now be stated as follows: The following three statements are equivalent: (1) A language is regular. by the definition of = . For that.Next. Inductive Step: Assume Then for every But =[ Hence =[ ]. . first note that if . . An equivalence relation on is said to be right invariant if for every . With these terminology. if then for every . First some terminology. where . for DFA. ]. by the definition of = . = [ ]. where ]. . . Our proof is by structural induction on string Basis Step: = =[ ]. Also an equivalence relation is said to be of finite index. let us show that this DFA accepts string in [ ] is also in L. Then by the definition of . . =[ ]. =[ ]. if the set of its equivalence classes is finite. ] by the induction hypothesis. Since .

The set of strings generated by a context-free grammar is called a context-free language and context-free languages can describe many practically important systems. S . (3) is of finite index. = { a . P1 > generates L1 : V1 = { S } . Most programming languages can be approximated by context-free grammar and compilers for them have been developed based on properties of context-free languages. . A language is a context-free language (CFL) if all of its strings are generated by a context-free grammar. P > is a context-free V is V. Let us define context-free grammars and context-free languages here. b } and P1 = { S -> aSb . S -> ab }. where X is a nonterminal and is a nonempty string of terminals and nonterminals. are finite sets sharing no elements between them. where X the start symbol. . Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } is a context-free language. For the following context-free grammar G1 = < V1 . and P is a finite set of productions of the form X -> and (V )* . Context-Free Languages Context-Free Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Context-Free Grammar Context-Free Languages Push Down Automata Contents Earlier in the discussion of grammars we saw context-free grammars. Proofs are omitted. grammar (CFG) if V and .(2) L is the union of some of the equivalence classes of a right invariant equivalent relation of finite index. Definition (Context-Free Grammar) : A 4-tuple G = < V . S . S . They are grammars whose productions have the form X -> .

< expression > ) < statement > . S -> S*S . . if necessary. S -> aa . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. first relabel symbols of V2 . ( . = { a . Then for L1 L2 . that is. P2 > generates L2 : V2 = { S } . < statement > -> < assignment > . . w is spelled backward to obtain wr . Then it can be easily seen that Gc = < Vc . + . Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. For the following context-free grammar G2 = < V2 . < expression > -> < logicalexpression > . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. Similarly for L1L2 . Su -> S2 } . Then let Su be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . ) . . . Su . For the following context-free grammar G3 = < V3 . S .Example 2: L2 = { wwr| w {a. . . S -> bb }. S1 . For L1* . < expression > -> < algebraic-expression > . < if-statement > -> if ( < expression > ) < statement > . } . . S -> bSb . . where w is a nonempty string and wr denotes the reversal of string w. S . Then L1 context-free languages. Pc > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1L2 . Properties of Context-Free Language Theorem 1: Let L1 and L2 be context-free languages. S -> y }. . y . if necessary. . Then it can be easily seen that Gu = < Vu . let Ss be a symbol which is not in V1 . 3. < statement > -> < for-statement > . Then L3 is a context-free language. 3 = { x . P3 > generates L3 : V3 = { S } . . Sc . Outline of Proof This theorem can be verified by constructing context-free grammars for union. operations + and * and left and right parentheses. < forstatement > -> for ( < expression > . . Next define Vc = V1 V2 { Sc } and Pc = P1 P2 { Sc -> S1S2 } . Then let Ps = P1 { Ss -> SsS1 . . . respectively. L1L2 . . Example 4: Portions of the syntaxes of programming languages can be described by context-free grammars. b } and P2 = { S -> aSa . . * } and P3 = { S -> ( S + S ) . b }+ } is a context-free language . S -> x . Pu > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1 L2 . P2 > be context-free grammars generating L1 and L2 . < expression > . first relabel symbols of V2 . Next define Vu = V1 V2 { Su } and Pu = P1 P2 { Su -> S1 . P1 > and G2 = < V2 . and L1* are . Then let Sc be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . Ss -> L2 . S2 . For example { < statement > -> < if-statement > . concatenation and Kleene star of context-free grammars as follows: Let G1 = < V1 .

Z0 . respectively ). as a's are read by the finite automaton. where Q = { q0 . Let us consider a context-free language anbn . This automaton behaves like a finite automaton except the following two points: First. Z0 is the initial stack symbol and it is a member of . ) means the following: The automaton moves from the current state of p to the next state q when it sees an input symbol a at the input and X at the top of the stack. . push them into the stack. > . where Q is a finite set of states. Second. q0 is the initial state. . reject the string. generates the language L1* . When all the symbols of the input string are read. Ps > is a context-free grammar that Like regular languages which are accepted by finite automata. As soon as the symbol b appears stop storing a's and start popping a's one by one every time a b is read. It can be seen that the grammar Gs = < Vs . . Let us define this new type of automaton formally. Thus its transition function specifies the new top of the stack contents as well as the next state. and are finite sets ( the input and stack alphabet. Any string of this language can be tested for the membership for the language by a finite automaton if there is a memory such as a pushdown stack that can store a's of a given input string. q0 . A . A is the set of accepting states is the transition function and :Q ( ( } -> 2 Q * . Pushdown Automata . the contents of the stack can also be changed every time an input symbol is read. context-free languages are also accepted by automata but not finite automata. Otherwise reject it. q0 . If it is empty. A pushdown automaton ( or PDA for short ) is a 7-tuple M = < Q . a . X ) = ( q . Z0 . If another a (or anything other than b) is read after the first b. Thus ( p . A . check the stack. its next state is determined not only by the input symbol being read. > . For example. They need a little more complex automata called pushdown automata. but also by the symbol at the top of the stack. .} . accept the string. . and it replaces X with the string at the top of the stack. Ss . Example 1 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q .

( q0 .x. for example. bb . Thus aabb is accepted by this PDA. b } . Initially its configuration is ( q0 . Z0 ). When the second b is read. A . To describe the operation of a PDA we are going to use a configuration of PDA. . ) . following table: = { a . Z0 } . aZ0 ). aabb . Z0 ) . * (q. ) in a single move (a single application of the transition function) we write (p. ) by a sequence of zero or more moves. If ( q . abb . aZ0 ) ( q1 . > is a triple ( q .x. it is ( q0 . Then when the first b is read. Z0 ) q2 . ). aaZ0 ). After reading the first a. ) to configuration ( q . Let us now see how the PDA of Example 1 operates when it is given the string aabb . ) ( q1 . x is the unread portion of the input string and is the current stack contents. aa ) q0 q1 q1 b b a a Z0 ( q1 . b . aZ0 ) ( q0 . y . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . . = { a . . we can also write ( q0 . y .q1 . This entire process can be expressed using the configurations as ( q0 . aZ0 ). Z0 . x . ) ) (q. it moves to state q1 and pops a from the top of the stack. b . bb . aabb . aZ 0 ) q0 a a ( q0 .y. Next it moves to the state q2 which is the accepting state. A configuration of a PDA M = < Q . (p. ). Z0 ) This pushdown automaton accepts the language anbn . A = { q2 } and let be as given in the State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . its configuration is ( q0 . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . Z0 ) ( If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. Z0 ). x . To express that the PDA moves from configuration ( p .y. abb . Z0 ). After reading the second a. we write ) is reached from ( p . where the input is read from left to right and the top of the stack corresponds to the leftmost symbol of . q0 . . another a is popped from the top of the stack and the PDA stays in state q1 . . x . . q2 } . . Z0 ) * ( q2 . b . ) ( q2 . where q is the state the PDA is currently in. aabb . aaZ0 ) ( q1 .

c } . bZ 0 ) q0 q0 q0 q1 q1 q1 a b c a b a b Z0 ( q0 . arcs are labeled differently than FAs. acceptance by final state) if (q0. q0 . . b . ( q1 . If ( q . x. X ) = ( p . Z0 . where Q = { q0 . PDAs can also be represented by transition diagrams. and an accepting state q. Like FAs. X / ) indicating that X at the top of the stack is replaced by upon reading a from the input. Z0 } . = { a . A = { q2 } and let be as given in the following table: State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . ) . > . b . for some in *. ) ( q2 . q1 . . a ( q0 . Z 0 ) In this table represents either a or b. aZ 0 ) q0 b Z0 ( q0 . .k. Z0) . For example the transition diagram of the PDA of Example 1 is as shown below. ) ) ) ) ( q1 . however. * (q.a. ). then an arc from state p to state q is added to the diagram and it is labeled with ( a . = { a .A string x is accepted by a PDA (a. b ( q1 . Example 2 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . a . A . For PDAs. q2 } .

bbcbba . bbaZ0 ) ( q1 . This PDA pushes all the a's and b's in the input into stack until c is encountered.This pushdown automaton accepts the language { wcwr | w { a . The transition diagram of the PDA of Example 2 is as shown below. That means that a language is . baZ0 ) ( q1 . it ignores c and from that point on if the top of the stack matches the input symbol. abbcbba . . Otherwise it rejects the input string. a . Z 0 ) . bbaZ0 ) . When c is detected. baZ0 ) ( q1 . aZ0 ) ( q1 . bba . b }* } . bcbba . cbba . For example for the input abbcbba. When there are no more unread input symbols and Z0 is at the top of the stack. ba . aZ0 ) ( q0 . ( q0 . Z 0 ) ( q2 . it goes through the following configurations and accepts it. Z0 ) ( q0 . it accepts the input string. In the figure and 2 represent a or b. which is the set of palindromes with c in the middle. it pops the stack. . ( q0 . 1 Further topics on CFL • PDA and Context-Free Language There is a procedure to construct a PDA that accepts the language generated by a given context-free grammar and conversely.

Thus they are widely used for compilers for high level programming languages and natural language processing systems. Those procedures are omitted here. However. there are strings v. Thus if a computer is given the string x + yz.context-free if and only if there is a PDA that accepts it. then multiply the result by z. ???? references on Parsing ???? . Contect-free grammars are powerful grammars. The parsing for context-free languages and regular languages have been extensively studied.e. Similar things happen when English sentences are processed by computers (or people as well for that matter). However. x. it could also be interpreted as ( x + y )z meaning that first compute x + y.e. • Pumping Lemma for Context-Free Language Let L be a CFL. compute yz first. w. vwmxymz L for every integer m • Parsing and Parsers for CFL Consider the algebraic expression x + yz. They can describe much of programming languages and basic structures of natural languages. "bites" is the verb and "a man" is the object of the verb. a computer like non-English speaking people must be told how to interpret sentences such as the first noun phrase (" A dog") is usually the subject of a sentence. For example in the sentence "A man bites a dog". Interested readers are referred to the textbook and other sources. Then there is a positive integer n such that for any string u in L with |u| n . By parsing sentences we identify the parts of the sentences and determine the strutures of the sentences so that their meanings can be understood correctly. we are not going to study parsing here. then add the result to x. native English speakers know that it is the dog that bites and not the other way round. Parsing is the process of interpreting given input strings according to predetermined rules i. productions of grammars. y and z which satisfy u = vwxyz |wy| > 0 |wxy| n 0 . a verb phrase usually follow the noun phrase and the first word in the verb phrase is the verb and it is followed by noun phrases reprtesenting object(s) of the verb. Though we are accustomed to interpreting this as x + (yz) i. it does not know which interpretation to use unless it is explicitly instructed to follow one or the other. "A dog" is the subject.

In this chapter we are going to study the most general of the languages in Chomsky hierarchy. Turing machines were conceived of by the English mathematician Alan . These languages can describe many practically important systems and so they are heavily used in practice.Turing Machines Back to Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • • • Definition of Turing Machine Configuration Operation of Turing Machine Contents Introduction We have studied two types of languages from the Chomsky hierarchy: regular languages and context-free languages. Next -. of limited capability and there are many languages that they can not process. however. and the machines that can process them: Turing machines. They are. Click True or Fals . then Submit.Test Your Understanding of Contect-Free Language Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. the phrase structure languages (also called Type 0 languages).

Turing as a model of human "computation". consists of a finite control and a tape. At any state it reads the symbol under the head. Computers we use today are as powerful as Turing machines except that computers have finite memory while Turing machines have infinite memory. It then moves the head to left or right or does not move it and goes to the next state which may be the same as the current state. We are going to study Turing machines here and through that limitations of computers and computation as we know today. . either erases it or replaces it with a symbol (possibly the same symbol). a Turing machine starts at the initial state. Given a string of symbols on the tape. like finite automata. It is also divided into squares and a symbol can be written in each square. This conjecture is known as Church's thesis and today it is generally accepted as true. However. its head is a read-write head and it can move left. right or stay at the same square after a read or write. unlike finite automata. it stops its operation. At any time it is in one of the finite number of states. The tape has the left end but it extends infinitely to the right. Later Alonzo Church conjectured that any computation done by humans or computers can be carried out by some Turing machine. Definition Conceptually a Turing machine. One of its states is the halt state and when the Turing machine goes into the halt state.

D ) . . R ) ( q2 . an arc from q to r is drawn with label ( X/Y . X ) = ( r. respectively. is a finite set of symbols and it is the input alphabet. It is assumed that the tape has at the left end and the head is initially at the left end of the tape. . a . . R ) (h. X) ) ( q1 . left and do not move it. = { a . q1. A transition diagram can also be drawn for a Turing machine. The symbol h is used to denote the halt state. q3 } .S) A transition diagram of this Turing machine is given below. Example 1 : The following Turing machine < Q1 . Y. The states are represented by vertices and for a transition ( q. where Q is a finite set of states. is the transition function but its value may not be defined for certain points. . . b } and is as given by the table below. q0 . which is assumed not to contain the symbol h. q2. . is a finite set of symbols containing as its subset and it is the set of tape symbols. Here denotes the blank and R. the symbol X currently being read is changed to Y and the tape head is moved as directed by D. > accepts the language aba* . b . > .Formally a Turing machine is a 5-tuple T = < Q. where Q1 = { q0. = { a . It is a mapping from Q ( { } ) to ( Q { h } ) ( { }) {R. D ) indicating that the state is changed from q to r. a . R ) ( q3 . q0 is the initial state. b } . State (q) Input (X) Move ( q0 q1 q2 q3 q3 a b a (q. . L and S denote move the head right. L or S . where D represents R. S}. q0.L. R ) ( q3 .

A string x is said to be accepted by a Turing machine* T = < Q . aba ) ( q1 . aba ) . . For example the Turing machine of Example 1 above goes through the following sequence of configurations to accept the string aba: ( q0 . If the Turing machine needs to be explicitly indicated T or T* is used. zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in one move. In this case we also say that the Turing machine halts on input x. aababb ) shows that the Turing machine is currently in state q. Note that the Turing machine does not stop if a string is not in the language. xay ) * ( q . zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in zero or more moves. q0 . aba ) ( q2 . A Turing machine T is said to decide a language L if and only if T writes "yes" and halts if a string is in L and T writes "no" and halts if a string is not in L. For example ( q . and ( p . the taper contents are the string aababb and the head is reading the last a of the string. The set of strings accepted by a Turing machine is the language accepted by the Turing machine.Turing Machine that accepts aba* To describe the operation of Turing machine we use configuration. ( q0 . > if x ) * ( h. xay ) ( q . yaz ) for some symbol a { } and some strings y and z in ( * { } ) . We write ( p . A configuration for a Turing machine is an ordered pair of the current state and the tape contents with the symbol currently under the head marked with underscore. . aba ) ( q3 . aba ) (h.

where = { a }. the second is a Turing machine that accepts { a } but goes into a loop if a string is not in the language (hence it accepts but doe not decide { a }) and the third decides { a }.The first of the following figures shows a Turing machine that accepts but does not decide the language { a }. .

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It is assumed that initially the tape has at the left end. It is denoted by TR . This Turing machine is denoted by TE. . to the right of Example 3 : The following Turing machine erases the string on the tape and moves the head to the left end.Example 2 : The following Turing machine moves the head to the first the current position.

the operation of the Turing machine is aborted. that is when a Turing machine does not halt on a string. . For example the following Turing machine accepts the language a+. but it goes into an infinite loop for any strings that are not in the language.Strings not Accepted by Turing Machines When a string is not accepted by a Turing machine. (2) no transition is specified for the current configuration and (3) the head is at the left end and it is instructed to move left. In cases (2) and (3). one of the following three things happens: (1) The Turing machine goes into an infinite loop.

Then we say T computes f or f is computable if for every x ( q0 . x) * ( h. there is no difference between these two definitions of "accept". a string is accepted by a Turing machine if given the string.Turing machine accepting a+ Computabler Function Let S * and let f be a function f : S -> S. With this definition. * and for every x that is not in S. A language is a phrase structure (type 0) langauage if and only if it is Turing-acceptable in either sense and it has no effects on decidablility. As far as the material discussed in this class note. the Turing machine eventually goes into the accept halt state. f(x) ) * . reject a string and halt. . That is. or loop. * Note on "Turing-acceptable": Some books define "acceptance by Turing machine" slightly differently. A Turing machine thus may accept a string and halt. in the Turing machines those books define. there are two halt states: "accept halt" and "reject halt". T does not halt on x.

Click True or Fals . any "computation" done by human beings or machines can be done by some Turing machine. Here we are going to study how complex Turing machines can be constructed using simple Turing machines and how computers can be simulated by Turing machines. Next -. It moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) . There are two sets of questions. We have already seen TR . Let us start with some basic Turing machines.Test Your Understanding of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Furthermore according to the Church's thesis. In fact Turing machines that simulate computers and Turing machines that perform computations done by any algorithm can be constructed. One can construct many more Turing machines that perform various functions.Combination of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Combination of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Combination of Turing Machines Contents Combination of Turing Machines We have seen the definition of Turing machine and a few simple examples. then Submit.

Below is assumed to be at the left end of the tape initially. Otherwise it crashes. takes the head to the right end of the string and halts. let us construct a little more complex Turing machines. The halt state of T1 becomes the initial state of T2 . then T2 is started as in the case of T1T2 . Example 4: The following machine shifts the tape contents to the left one position. Similarly by TL we denote a Turing machine that moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) to the left of the current position. To combine Turing machines we use the following conventions: Let T1 and T2 represent arbitrary Turing machines. Then if T1 halts and if the symbol currently under the head is . T1T2 and T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that behaves initially like T1 and when T1 halts T2 takes over inheriting the head position and the tape contents of T1 . Using these basic machines and the convention. respectively. Then by T we denote a Turing machine that writes symbol at the current position and does not move the head (stays).to the right of the current position. T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that first executes T1. . Also by TR and TL we denote Turing machines that move the head to right and left one position.

In general to represent a natural number k. x) * b b (h. An adder can be constructed for example as TR -> TSL TL . it goes through the following -> aab -> a -> a -> abb -> ab -> ab -> ab Example 5: The left-shift machine of Example 4 can be used to construct an adder for natural numbers. For example the number 3 is represented by three consecutive I's on the tape and 5 by five I's. To add two numbers m and n. m I's and n I's with a blank between them are placed on the tape. k consecutive I's are put on the tape. II III ) .For example with the initial tape contents of sequence of tape contents and ends with ab ab -> ab : ab . . So the initial configuration for adding 2 and 3 is ( q0 . natural numbers are represented on a Turing machine using symbol I. x x). Example 6: The following Turing machine copies the tape contents at the left end to their right separated by a blank . that is ( q0 . First. IIIII ) . After adding two numbers placed on the tape it moves the head to the left end and halts. After the addition the configuration becomes ( h .

Today's computers are very complex machines and their instruction sets contain complicated operations. Test Your Understanding of Combination of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. the branch operation is already in Turing machines because next configurations are determined based on the current state and tape symbol being looked at. branching. it is not difficult to construct a Turing machine that performs subtraction using the same representation of numbers as for the addition. Thus by combining appropriate Turing machines a computer with a minimal instruction set can be constructed. store and load operations. A bare minimum instruction set would contain addition. On the other hand as we have seen above. then Submit. one can say that computers can be simulated by Turing machines. there is a Turing machine that performs addition. Since any complex computer instructions can be realized using those basic instructions. all of those instructions can be realized using combinations of a small number of basic instructions. Furthermore if the subtraction operation is necessary. The following notations are used in the questions: . However. In fact many of the earlier computers had a much smaller instruction set but still could do everything today's computers can do albeit much more slowly. All the other operations can be realized by using those basic operations. and store and load operations can be taken care of by a Turing machine that copies tape contents. Click True or Fals .

For any Turing machine of this type there is a Turing machine with a one dimensional tape that is equally powerful. However. It turns out that computationally all these Turing machines are equally powerful.Types of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Types of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Variation of Turing Machine Contents There are a number of other types of Turing machines in addition to the one we have seen such as Turing machines with multiple tapes. Turing Machines with Two Dimensional Tapes This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control. that is. first we map the squares of the two dimensional tape to those of the one dimensional tape diagonally as shown in . ones having one tape but with multiple heads. that is. nondeterministic Turing machines etc. the efficiency of computation. The tape has the top end and the left end but extends indefinitely to the right and down. what one type can compute any other can also compute. That is. how fast they can compute. may vary. It is divided into rows of small squares.T_a : Ta T_R : TR ->^b : ->b Next -. the former can be simulated by the latter. one read-write head and one two dimensional tape. To simulate a two dimensional tape with a one dimensional tape. ones with two dimensional tapes.

.. .. The head of a two dimensional tape moves one square up. Here the numbers indicate the correspondence of squares in the two tapes: square i of the two dimensional tape is mapped to square i of the one dimensional tape. . ..... down... . .. Let i be the head position of the two dimensional tape.... . then from h move the head of the one dimensional tape further right to the k-th square from h. h and v are symbols which are not in the tape alphabet and they are used to mark the left and the top end of the tape.. .. .. . left or right..... . .. .. then on the one dimensional tape the head moves to the right and it hits v first. v 6 8 13 19 23 .. .. If the head moves down to position 13.. the head moves from position 8 to right.. then move the head of the one dimensional tape to right until it hits h or v counting the number of squares it has visited after i. ...... Thus from h. If v was hit first. One Dimensional Tape v 1 v 2 3 h 4 5 6 v 7 8 9 10 h 11 . ... which is the third square from 8. .. .. v 16 26 ..... . Then it meets h first.. then for the one dimensional tape. . If the head moves down from i.. Thus this time the third square is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 9 on the two dimensional tape. Let k be the number of squares visited by the head of the one dimensional tape. then (k+1)-th square to the right from v is the new head position.... respectively.. move 3 positions to the right..... . That is the square corresponding to the square below i in the two dimensional tape..> . ... ... .< . which is the second square from i = 5. . .the following tables: Two Dimensional Tape v v h 1 h 3 h 4 h 10 h 11 h 21 . If h was hit first. that is i = 8. suppose that the head position is at 8 for the two dimensional tape in the above table. v 2 5 9 12 20 22 .. ...... .. For example. v 7 14 18 24 .. . Let us simulate this head move with a one dimensional tape. . . . That is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 13 on the two dimensional tape. If i = 5 and the head moves down on the other hand. v 15 17 25 .. . ...

Turing Machines with Infinite Tape : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape which extends infinitely in both directions. L . In each state only one of the heads is allowed to read and write.. Since the converses are obviously true. It turns out that this type of Turing machines are only as powerful as one tape Turing machines whose tape has a left end. it can be said that they are equally powerful. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . . one can say that one tape Turing machines are as powerful as n-tape Turing machines. The transition function is a partial function : Q { H1 . Its transition function is a partial function :Q ( { } )n -> ( Q { h } ) ( { } )n { R . q0. where H1 . Turing Machines with Multiple Tapes : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and more than one tapes each with its own read-write head.L. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q .S It can be easily seen that this type of Turing machines are as powerful as one tape Turing machines. Thus some Turing machines with a one dimensional tape can simulate every move of a Turing machine with one two dimensional tape. . . Hence they are at least as powerful as Turing machines with a two dimensional tape. Hn denote the tape heads. Hn } ( { } ) -> ( Q }. It can be proven that any language accepted by an n-tape Turing machine can be accepted by a one tape Turing machine and that any function computed by an n-tape Turing machine can be computed by a one tape Turing machine. Turing Machines with Multiple Heads : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape but more than one read-write heads.. S } n . .Similarly formulas can be found for the head position on the one dimensional tape corresponding to move up. right or left on the two dimensional tape. Since Turing machines with a two dimensional tape obviously can simulate Turing machines with a one dimensional tape. >. > . H2 . Details are omitted. H2 . q0. . Nondeterministic Turing Machines . A configuration for this kind of Turing machine must show the current state the machine is in and the state of each tape.. {h}) ( { } {R. ..

on the other hand. .A nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine which.S}. can not guess the midpoint of the string x. can take any action selecting from a set of specified actions rather than taking one definite predetermined action. . .. 2. Note that the number of children for a vertex in this tree is finite because the number of states is finite and there are a finite number of tape symbols. a nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts this language L would first guess the midpoint of x. that is the place where the second half of x starts. It can be shown that a nondeterministic Turing machine is only as powerful as a deterministic Turing machine. Even in the same situation it may take different actions at different times. at any state it is in and for the tape symbol it is reading. moving the tape head and going to a next state. They form level 1. Formally a nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine whose transition function takes values that are subsets of ( Q {h}) ( { } {R. All possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN once form the children of the initial configuration. For example let us consider the language L = { ww : w { a . Theorem Any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by some deterministic Turing machine. It must find the midpoint by for example pairing off symbols from either end of x. Here an action means the combination of writing a symbol on the tape. The root of the tree is the initial configuration and it is the only vertex of level 0. Proof : Let TN denote a nondeterministic Turing machine. it is understood that a nondeterministic Turing machine at any configuration selects one combination of next state. goes into an infinite loop or aborts.L. For example consider the following nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts a+ . In general for each vertex of level i all possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN are its children.. The set of all possible computations that TN can perform for a given string x can be represented by a rooted tree as follows. Given a string x. As in the case of NFA. TN starts at the initial configuration and goes through a sequence of configurations until it reaches a halt configuration . The children of all the vertices of level i form level i+1. like nondeterministic finite automata. Then it would compare the first half of x with the second half by comparing the i-th symbol of the first half with the i-th symbol of the second half for i = 1. b }* } . At any point in the process TN is in some configuration and has a finite set of configurations to choose from for its next configuration. Given a string x . A deterministic Turing machine. tape symbol and head movement out of the set of triples without following any specific predetermined rule.

The tree for this case would be as follows: . and ( q1 . aa ) for the third. aa ) and ( q2 . aa ) . aa ) and ( q2 . aa ) ( q1 . aa ) ( q2 . aa ) ( h . aa ) ( q1 . At the second and third configurations in the above sequence.Turing machine accepting a+ Given the string aa. it has two candidates for the next configuration: ( q1 . aa ) for the second. it would proceed as follows to accept it: ( q0 .

call it T2. However. then Submit. In fact the Church's thesis conjectures that any so called computation done by humans or computers can be performed by a basic deterministic Turing machine. Many other variations of Turing machine are possible. T2 applies the transition function of T1 to each configuration at that level and computes its children. Next -. At each level of the tree. It can be easily seen that T2 accepts a string if and only if T1 accepts it. If there is the halting state among these children. with a deterministic one. These children are the configurations of the next level and they are stored on the tape (if necessary a second tape may be used). though a deterministic Turing machine might take much more time than a nondeterministic Turing machine to accept a string.One way to simulate a nondeterministic Turing machine. Click True or Fals . it has been shown that none of them exceed the capability of basic deterministic Turing machine as far as accepting languages is concerned. call it T1. Thus any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by a deterministic Turing machine. then T2 accepts the string and halts. is to traverse this tree breadth-first way from the root until the halt state is reached.Unsolvable Problems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Unsolvable Problems . Test Your Understanding of Different Types of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.

Here "unsolvability" is in the following sense. Since we can not wait forever for an answer. T writes "yes" if M halts on w and "no" if M does not halt on w. . if the Turing machine is running. Halting Problem One of well known unsolvable problems is the halting problem. Suppose that the halting problem is decidable. the question is unanswerable that is the problem is unsolvable. b } . It asks the following question: Given an arbitrary Turing machine M over alphabet = { a . the question of whether or not a string is in the language may not be answered in any finite amount of time. Then there is a Turing machine T that solves the halting problem. Below we are going to see some well known unsolvable problems and see why we can say they are unsolvable. hence unsolvable. does M halt when it is given w as an input ? It can be shown that the halting problem is not decidable. and an arbitrary string w over . Suppose that a language is acceptable but not decidable. Minsky): This is going to be proven by "proof by contradiction". It is also conjectured that any "computation" human beings perform can be done by Turing machines (Church's thesis). and then T halts. that is computationally they are equally powerful. L. Thus if a language is not decidable. That is. At any point in time. Theorem 1 : The halting problem is undecidable. Then given a string a Turing machine that accept the language starts the computation. Proof (by M. and that any of their variations do not exceed the computational power of deterministic Turing machines.Subjects to be Learned • • • Halting Problem Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents We have learned that deterministic Turing machines are capable of doing any computation that computers can do. First recall that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language (see Problem Solving as Language Recognition). So we are going to look at the unsolvability in terms of language recognition. there is no way of telling whether it is in an infinite loop or along the way to a solution and it needs more time. given a description of a Turing machine M (over the alphabet ) and a string w. In this chapter we are going to learn that there are problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers.

Next using Tm we are going to construct another Turing machine Tc as follows: Tc takes as input a description of a Turing machine M. . copies it to obtain the string d(M)*d(M). denoted by d(M).We are now going to construct the following new Turing machine Tc. where * is a symbol that separates the two copies of d(M) and then supplies d(M)*d(M) to the Turing machine Tm . First we construct a Turing machine Tm by modifying T so that if T accepts a string and halts. then Tm goes into an infinite loop (Tm halts if the original T rejects a string and halts).

Thus the modified T is given a description of Turing machine Tc and the string d(Tc). Hence that assumption must be wrong. . Thus the question of whether or not a program halts for a given input is nothing but the halting problem. The way T was modified the modified T is going to go into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). Thus one implication of the halting problem is that there can be no computer programs (Turing machines) that check whether or not any arbitrary computer program stops for a given input. constructs the string d(Tc)*d(Tc) and gives it to the modified T. When Tc gets the input d(Tc) . This contradiction has been deduced from our assumption that there is a Turing machine that solves the halting problem. it makes a copy. Hence there is no Turing machine that solves the halting problem. Thus Tc goes into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and it halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). This is a contradiction.Let us now see what Tc does when a string describing Tc itself is given to it. Program correctness and Halting Problem Note that for any computer program a Turing machine can be constructed that performs the task of the program.

Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.More Unsolvable Preoblems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines More Unsolvable Problems Subjects to be Learned • • Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents The next unsolvable problem is in a sense more difficult than the halting problem. Next -. then Submit. Language NonSelfAccepting Let us first define two languages NSA1 and NSA2 as follows: . Click True or Fals . It is presented as a language and it can be shown that there are no Turing machines that accept the language.

b }*. Neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. w0 is in NSA1 . Thus neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. This is again a contradiction. Suppose there is a Turing machine. Theorem 2 There are no Turing machines that accept the language NonSelfAccepting. Problem Accepts( ) The problem Accepts( ) asks whetehr or not a given Turing machine T accepts . Hence it is not accepted by T. But w0 = d( T0 ) because that is how we selected w0 . Hence by the definition of NSA1 . For let T be a Turing machine that accepts { a } and let w = d(T). We are going to see that T0 neither accepts w0 nor rejects it. Since NonSelfAccepting is a language. NSA2 is the set of strings that do not describe any Turing machine. that is w0 is a description of the Turing machine T0 . w = d(T) for a Turing machine T and T does not accept NSA2 = { w | w { a. which is absurd. (1) If T0 accepts w0. then w0 NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. Hence either T0 accepts w0 or rejects it. either w0 is in NonSelfAccepting or it isn't. Hence T0 can not accept w0 . by the definitions of NSA1 and NSA2. This is a contradiction. Hence w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting . Let us define the language NonSelfAccepting as NonSelfAccepting = NSA1 Then we can prove the following theorem: NSA2 . Let w0 = d( T0 ). Hence a is in NSA2 . Then there is no Turing machine that can be described by the string a. Thus there can not be Turing machine T0 that accepts the language SelfAccepting . call it T0. NSA1 is the set of strings that describe a Turing machine but that are not accepted by the Turing machine they describe. let w = a. Also T0 does not accept w0 . w0 is in neither NSA1 nor NSA2 . b }*.NSA1 = { w | w w} { a. Then this w is a description of a Turing machine but it must be longer than one symbol. then w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. Proof: This is going to be proven by contradiction. Hence it is in SelfAccepting . Knowing the unsolvability of the halting problem some other problems can be shown to be unsolvable. w d(T) for any Turing machine T } . where d(T) is a description of the Turing machine T. However. For NSA2. It . Hence w is in NSA1 . This means that there can not be any Turing machine that accepts the language NonSelfAccepting. (2) If T0 does not accept w0 . that accepts NonSelfAccepting. Certainly more symbols than a single a are needed to describe even the simplest Turing machine.

Suppose that AcceptsEverything is solvable. We are going to show that the halting problem becomes solvable using this A. Suppose that Accepts( ) is solvable. M writes the string d( T ) on the tape and let A take over. Let A be a Turing machine that solves AcceptsEverything. Then there is a Turing machine that solves it. where machine Tw is a Turing machine that writes w.can be shown to be unsolvable. Consider a Turing machine T = TwT'. Using this T. a Turing machine. Thus if Accepts( ) is solvable. Let A be a Turing machine that solves Accepts( ). call it M. That is. which is an instance of the halting problem. Then consider the Turing machine T = TeraseT' . that solves Accepts( ) can be constructed as . We are going to show that Accepts( ) can be solved using the solution to it. call it M. that solves the halting problem can be constructed as follows: Given a description d(T') of a Turing machine T' and a string w as inputs. This T halts on if and only if T' halts on w. Problem AcceptsEverything The problem AcceptsEverything asks whether or not a given Turing machine T halts on every string over a given alphabet . Using this T. This T halts on every string over if and only if T1 halts on . this means that Accepts( ) is unsolvable. the halting problem can be solved. Using a similar idea the following problem can also be shown to be unsolvable. a Turing machine. Since the halting problem is unsolvable. M solves the halting problem. Then M halts on d(T') and w if and only if T' halts on w. where Terase is a Turing machine that erases the input on the tape and halts. Let a Turing machine T' and a string w be an instance of the halting problem. Let T' be an instance of Accepts( ).

Since Accepts( ) is unsolvable. It can be shown to be unsolvable using Accepts( ) . It can be shown to be unsolvable using AcceptsEverything. Other Unsolvable Problems Let G1 and G2 be context-free grammars and let L(G) denote the language generated by grammar G. Then the following problems are all unsolvable. Equivalence This problem asks whether or not two Turing machines accept the same language. By similar arguments the following problems can be shown to be unsolvable. AcceptsNothing This problem asks whether or not a Turing machine accepts nothing.shown below. it means that AcceptsEverything is unsolvable. Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) = ? finite ? infinite ? context-free ? Is L( G1 ) = L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) = * ? Is the complement of L( G1 ) context-free ? .

Next -.Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Click True or Fals . then Submit.Time Complexity of Problem Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Complexity Time Complexity Subjects to be Learned • • • • • Time Complexity of Problems Decision Tree Class NP Polynomial Time Transformation NP-Complete Problems Contents In the previous sections we have learned that some problems are unsolvable by Turing machines hence by computers. A problem is solvable if some Turing . No one can write computer programs that solve those problems and halt after a finite amount of time.

problems that need k-exponential time algorithms. This is a propositional logic with an extra construct (proposition) after(A. For example the formula ( P V ~P ) is always true. after(A. In this section we are going to study solvable problems and learn a hierarchy of solvable problems based on the computation time required to solve them. Presburger arithmetic is a logic that allows statements involving positive integers. a heap sort needs O(n lg n) time. where A is an algorithm and S is a statement. Similarly ( P V Q ) is also satisfiable. The problems that can not be solved with any polynomial time algorithm are called intractable problems . as we are going to see below. or etc. The satisfiability problem for PDL is known to take at least exponential time to solve in the worst case. For example the satisfiability problem for Presburger arithmetic is double-exponential (2-fold exponentail). then Y Z [ X = Y + Z ] ] is a proposition of Presburger arithmetic. They take much more time to execute than polynomial time algorithms. Even if it takes a million years to solve a problem. O(f(x)) (big-oh) and other related subjects click here. where k is a natural number. a quick sort needs O(n2) time. etc. However. For example. They are both satisfiable. S). it is still solvable. Q )" . ~Q )" and "if P then after( if P then Q else ~Q. So it is not satisfiable. the equality symbol = and quantifiers and . The measure for computation time we use is the worst case time. as well as all the connectives such as and. The satisfiability problem becomes even harder when logic becomes more complex. variables taking positive integers as their values. But (P ^ ~P ) is always false. in practice if it takes a million years.machine can solve it in finite time. the addition operation +. are propositions of PDL. 22n ) time algorithms. where P is a propositional variable. For example a binary search takes O(lg n) time. where P and Q are propositions.g. One can ask the same question for formulas of first order predicate logic. For many problems a day or even an hour would be too long. . For example. the satisfiability problem for the propositional dynamic logic is proven to take exponential time to solve in the worst case. For example "after( if P then Q else ~Q. that is it requires at least O( aan ) time to solve in the worst case. This is the problem of asking whether or not a given formula can take the value true for some values of its variables. There are also problems that must be solved at best by exponential time algorithms in the worst case. For more detailed review of this. They are all polynomial time algorithms. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved by algorithms with the worst case time which is a polynomial in the problem size (polynomial time algorithms). etc. and there are problems that require algorithms with the worst case time worse than k-exponential time for any natural number k. X [ if ~( X = 1 ). It is estimated by counting the largest possible number of key operations to be performed in terms of the input size. Then there are problems that require double exponential ( e. In logic there is a well known problem of "satisfiability". it is as good (or bad) as unsolvable. Before proceeding to predicate logic let us consider the following logic called propositional dynamic logic (PDL for short). S) says that S is true after executing A. So it is certainly satisfiable. Let us see some of those intractable problems. second order logic.

"Is a string w in the language a*b ? ". For the satisfiability problem of WS1S. " Is it possible to assign colors to vertices of a given graph using a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned ? " etc. there are problems that are solved by answering with yes or no. "Is it possible to schedule committee meetings without conflicts into a given number of time slots ? " . First. is it possible to color its vertices with three or less colors ? . however. if. Below we are going to characterize this class of problems. Such a problem (having no K-fold exponential time algorithms) is called nonelementary. At the moment. For example. Let us try to solve the following instances of this graph coloring problem: Given the following graph.In Presburger arithmetic (minus addition operation). These problems are called decision problems. there are no K-fold exponential time algorithms to solve it for any number K. in addition. sets of integers and the predicate "belongs to" (an element X belongs to a set S) are allowed. the logic is called WS1S (Weak Second-order theory of 1 Successor). This problem is called "Graph Coloring" problem or more precisely "Vertex Color" problem. Consider the problem of coloring vertices of a graph with a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned. Some of these decision problems are NP-complete problems. Now let us go back to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. Let us here review nondeterministic Turing machines. the consensus is that they ca not be solved with polynomial time algorithms. For the problems of this class there are no known polynomial time algorithms for solving them nor are they known to be unsolvable with polynomial time algorithms. This problem belongs to a peculiar class of problems called NP-Complete problems.

For the graphs of (a) and (b), you could find a solution very easily by inspection. You could see a right coloring as soon as you saw the graphs. However, you can most likely not tell how you arrived at your solutions. You probably don't have any algorithms you could use to solve them. You could somehow see the solutions. This is basically the idea of nondeterministic (Turing) machine. There is no fixed procedure which you can use repeatedly to solve instance after instance of this problem. But you can somehow solve them. Let us move on to a slightly more complex example of (c). For this graph to find a right coloring you could start with vertex 1 and assign color a. Then move on to vertex 2 and assign color b(it has to be something other than a ). Then go to vertex 3 and assign a third color, say c. Then at vertex 4 select color b and for vertex 5 use color a. In this process we make a decision as to what color to use for each vertex and when a decision is made for all the vertices we have a solution to the problem. This process applies to any decision problem. That is to solve a decision problem a number of smaller decisions are made one after another and as a result a solution to the problem is obtained. This process can be represented by a tree called decision tree. For example, for the graph coloring problem let us first decide on the order of vertices we color in, say 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for the graph of (c) above. Then the root of its decision tree corresponds to the vertex we assign a color to first (vertex 1 in this example). Then for each possible color for the first vertex, a child is created for the first vertex of the tree. So the second level of the

decision tree corresponds to the second vertex to be colored. Then in general, for each possible color for each vertex of level i of the decision tree, a child is created. Those children form level i+1 of the decision tree. The decision tree for the graph of (c) is given below. Since any color can be assigned to vertex 1 without loss of generality, it has just one child in the actual decision tree. Also since in this case the i-th and (i+1)-th vertices are connected by an edge for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, they can not have the same color. So each vertex after vertex 1 has two colors to choose from. So they each have two children in the decision tree.

Thus during the process of solving the problem a decision is made at each level and when all levels are covered, the problem is solved. A path from the root to a leaf corresponds to a coloring of the vertices of the given graph. A decision tree, however, does not tell us how to make decisions. Also a decision tree does not tell how to order the vertices for coloring, that is which vertex to color first, second etc. A deterministic machine (or algorithm) has a specific fixed set of rules for making a decision at each level of the decision tree. Although it knows what to do at every stage of problem solving, the decisions it makes are not necessarily the right ones. When it makes wrong decisions, it must retract earlier decisions and try different paths, which is called backtracking. For the graph coloring problem a deterministic algorithm might first order the vertices of the graph in decreasing order of their degree and also order colors. Then, following the

order of the vertices, assign to each vertex the highest order color available for the vertex. Since that kind of algorithm is not guaranteed to use the minimum number of colors, it may produce a wrong answer unless there is some provision for backtracking. A nondeterministic (Turing) machine, on the other hand, is a fictitious machine and somehow knows which branch (child) to select at each step. It always makes a right selection. A decision problem is said to belong to class NP if each vertex in its decision tree has a finite number of children and if it can be solved by a nondeterministic (Turing) machine in polynomial time. The graph coloring problem is in class NP, so are the satisfiability problem for propositional logic and most of the scheduling problems just to name a few. Also there are other characterizations of class NP. Interested readers click here. At this moment it is not known whether or not problems in class NP can be solved with a polynomial time algorithm in the worst case. The consensus is that there is no polynomial time algorithm to solve them. It would take at least exponential time. Among the problems in class NP, there are problems which all problems of class NP can be transformed to in polynomial time. Those problems are called NP-complete problems. If a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of the NP-complete problems, all the problems in NP can be solved in polynomial time. Below we are going to study NPcomplete problems. We start our discussion with the concept of polynomial time transformation (reduction). Basically we say a decision problem Q1 is polynomially reducible to a decision problem Q2 if and only if there is a transformation that transforms any arbitrary instance of Q1 into an instance of Q2 in polynomial time such that the answer to Q1 is yes if and only if the answer to Q2 is yes. A little more formally we define this in terms of languages. Note that a decision problem can be viewed as a language of its instances and that solving it can be considered as recognizing the language as we have seen earlier. Let L1 and L2 be languages over alphabets 1 and 2, respectively. We say that L1 is polynomial-time reducible to L2 if and only if there is a function f from 1* to 2* such that for any string x in polynomial time.

1 *

,x

L1 if and only if f(x)

L2 and f can be computed

For example let us consider the following two problems: graph coloring and scheduling of committee meetings. The graph coloring problem is as given above. In the scheduling of committee meetings problem, committees with their members and a positive integer k are given. The problem is whether or not the meetings of the committees can be scheduled in k or less time slots so that everyone can attend one's meetings. Note that some people may be in more than one committee. Let us try to show that this scheduling problem is polynomial time reducible to the graph coloring problem.

Then the meetings can be scheduled in k or less time slots if and only if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. add vertices 1.What we need to do is given an instance of the scheduling problem construct an instance of the graph coloring problem. Suppose also that k = 3. 2. b }. Proceeding similarly the following graph is obtained corresponding to the committee memberships. c }. 3 and 4 to the graph. {a. Then since committees 1 and 2 share a. connect with an edge the vertices corresponding to the committees. { b. 3 and 4 with the memberships { a. and if and only if two committee have some members in common. respectively. and 1 and 4 share members. Suppose that the meetings can be scheduled in p time slots. that is construct a graph and give the number of colors to be used to color its vertices so that the meetings can be scheduled if and only if graph can be colored. 2. 2. Similarly since committees 1 and 3. where p k. For example suppose that we are given the committees 1. Thus the scheduling problem asks whether or not the meetings of the given committees can be scheduled in 3 time slots without any conflicts. The corresponding graph for the graph coloring problem can be constructed as follows: Corresponding to the committees 1. d } and { a. d }. 3 and 4. Corresponding to this grouping assign colors to the vertices of the graph so that the vertices in the same group are given the same color and those in . Let us consider the following transformation: For each committee add a vertex to the graph. and 1 and 4. edges are added between 1 and 3. Then the committees can be grouped into p groups so that the committees in the same group can meet at the same time. c. an edge is inserted between vertices 1 and 2.

7. It is also easily seen that the transformation. then P is also NP-complete. Some of them are listed below. fast algorithms exist to solve it.different groups are given different colors. This group of problems are called NP-complete problems. Committee Meeting Schedule Problem In fact most scheduling problems are NPcomplete. all the problems can be solved with polynomial time algorithms. It can be easily seen that if a problem P at hand is NP-hard and if a problem known to be NP-complete can be polynomial time reducible to P. then that means that the corresponding committees share some members and that they are scheduled to meet in different time slots. This coloring uses p colors which does not exceed k. It was first proven by S. then it can be easily seen that the committees can meet in k or less time slots. Subsequently the satisfiability problem was found to be polynomial time reducible to many other problems. A problem is NP-complete if it is in class NP and NP-hard. Thus these two vertices must get different colors. Satisfiability Problem for Propositional Logic 2. group them into two groups so that the sum of the numbers of one group is equal to that of the other group. Cook that the problems of class NP can be polynomial time reducible to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic.e. We are now ready to discuss NP-completeness. find out whether or not one is a subgraph of the other. a traveling salesman wants to know a shortest route to visit all cities exactly once and come back to where he/she started. Graph Color Problem 3. As a consequence if a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of those problems. Conversely if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. Today hundreds of problems are known to be NP-complete. then the consensus today is that it is most likely that no polynomial time algorithms i. and vertices connected with an edge have different colors. For all the problems in class NP can be reduced to P through the known NP-complete problem in polynomial time. find out whether or not the objects can be put into the bins. Traveling Salesman Problem Given cities and traveling times between cities. 4. For if any two vertices are connected with an edge. 5. that is the construction of graph for a given set of committees. Formally a problem is NP-hard if every problem in class NP can be polynomial time reducible to it. their sizes and a number of bins of the same size. If a problem is NP-complete. . Subgraph Isomorphism Problem Given two graphs. 6. which in this case can be taken as the number of committees. Bin Packing Problem Given a set of objects. can be done in time polynomial in the size of the problem. NP-complete Problems 1. Partition Problem Given a set of integers.

Knapsack Problem Given a knapsack of size S. Set Cover Problem Given a set S. and C appears exactly once in T ? For example. and C = {x.b}. (2.y). find out whether or not there are k or less subsets in the collection whose union is S.b. and S = {(1.x). 3-Dimensional Matching Given three sets A.y). Is there a subset T. B.y}. called a matching.a. (2. their sizes.b. their values and an integer V.x).x).y)}.a. B and C of the same size. Note that {(1.x)} is not a matching.b.a. 9.b. . is it possible to select objects so that the sum of their sizes does not exceed S and the sum of their values is V or larger ? 10.2}. and a subset S of the Cartesian product A X B X C. Then T = {(1.8. a set of objects. B = {a. let A = {1. of S such that every element of A.(1. (2.b.(2. a collection of subsets of S and an integer k.x)} is a desired set satisfying all the requirements.

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