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Language, Automata: , \alpha : usually denotes a string in this course. , \beta : usually denotes a string in this course. , \delta : usually denotes a transition function in this course. , \sigma : usually denotes a symbol in an alphabet in this course. , \Delta : usually denotes a blank space in this course. , \Gamma : usually denotes a set of stack symbols in this course. , \Lambda : usually denotes an empty string in this course. , \Pi : usually denotes a partition in this course. , \Sigma : usually denotes an alphabet in this course. , \goto : usually denotes a (one step) transition in this course. Logic: , ~ : logical not , ^ : logical and , V : logical or , -> : logical imply , <-> : logical if and only if (equivalent) , => : logical tautologically imply , <=> : logical tautologically equivalent , \A : logical for all , \E : logical for some (there exists)

Sets: , \in : belongs to , \not\in : does not belong to , @ : empty set U, : universal set , \subset : proper subset , \not\subset : not a proper subset , \subseteq : subset , \not\subseteq : not a subset , \cup : set union Ai , \cup(i=1 to n) A_i : union of n sets , \cap : set intersection Ai , \cap(i=1 to n) A_i : intersection of n sets , \bar A : complement of set A (A) , P(A) : power set of set A , X : Cartesian product Ai , X(i=1 to n) A_i : cartesian product of n sets Relation: < a, b > : ordered pair < a1, a2, ..., an > : ordered n-tuple , <= : precedes (partial order) Functions: xi , Sum(i=1 to n) x_i : sum of n xi's O(f) , O(f) : of order smaller than or equal to f

o(f) , o(f) : of order smaller than f (f) , Omega : of order greater than or equal to f (f) , omega : of order greater than f (f) , Theta : of the same order as f f(x) , lim(x -> inf) f(x) : limit of f as x goes to infinity

**Introduction to Theoretical Computer Science
**

Today computers are used everywhere: banks, hospitals, schools, airline companies, gas stations, grocery stores, in our cars, in home appliances, PCs, etc., etc. Some are used to crunch numbers, some are used to process images, some are used to process other nonnumeric data and some are used to control operations of various devices. They can reason, they can prove many mathematical theorems, they can beat chess experts in their game, they can solve some very complex problems, they can understand our languages, they can answer our questions and of course they can crunch numbers much much faster than us. Let us for a moment call what computers do computation for convenience, though some of the things computers do such as controling appliances, answering our questions etc. don't fall into our traditional sense of computation. Then these computers seem to be able to compute an awfully lot of things if not everything. But are they capable of computing anything ? Are there things computers can not do ? If there are things computers can not do, what are they ? And why ? If there aren't things computers can not do, then how can we tell ? What do we exactly mean by computation ? Unfortunately there are many things computers can not do. Computers can not solve certain types of problems. For example no computer can tell in general whether or not a given computer program stops after a finite amount of time on a given input. They can not solve some other types of problems fast enough even though they can solve them in some finite amount of time. For example take the traveling salesman problem: a salesman is given a road map with distances between cities and wants to find a shortest round trip route that visits all the cities on the map exactly once. At the moment the so called traveling salesman problem requires an extremely large amount of time to solve. No one has been able to find a reasonably fast algorithm to solve it and the consensus is that it is not likely that anyone can find such an algorithm. I have just given you an example of the problems that computers could not solve. How do we know that that is the case ? Are there other problems like that ? How can we tell whther or not a given problem can be solved and solved fast enough ?

It turns out that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. we study a simpler type of computing device called finite automata. So they provide a good introduction to our study of Turing machines. There we learn how computers can be simulated by Turing machines and what it means that a Turing machine recognizes (decides) a language. Before proceeding to the study of Turing machines and their computations in this course. Finite automata are very similar to Turing machines but a few restrictions are imposed on them. which are also heavily used in practice. it is generally believed (Church's thesis) that any "computation" humans do can be done by Turing machines and that "computation" is the computation performed by Turing machines. These two type of languages belong to a hierarchy of four languages called Homsky hierarchy. We call a set of strings (of symbols) a language. . which is the key to the unsolvability of problem by computers. that is to study limitations of computers and computation. every task modern computers perform can also be accomplished by Turing machines. Those four languages are together called formal languages. It was first conceived of by Alan Turing in early 20-th century. we go to Turing machines. ways to describe them and how to use them to model many of the real life systems. Though it has not been proven. It is a very simple device but remarkably. The other two are context-free languages and context-sensitive languages. We say finite automata recognize languages. Consequently they are less capable than Turing machines but then their operations are simpler.The main objective of this course is to answer those questions. we are also going to study regular languages in detail as well as finite automata. After briefly studying context-free languges. Thus when a finite automaton is processing strings. In addition finite automata can model a large number of systems used in practice. Thus they are a powerful tool to design and study those systems with. Then with Turing machines we investigate limitations of computers and computations. it can actually be solving a problem. We are going to learn their properties. The languages that are recognized by finite automata are called regular languages. This essence is a device called Turing machine. We are going to investigate limitations of computers and computations by studying the essence of compuers and computations rather than all the variations of computer and computation. Since so many systems in practice can be described by regular languages. Finite automata process strings. Thus by studying Turing machines we can learn capabilities hence limitatgions of computers. In particular we are going to see a few problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers and how we can tell that they are unsolvable. The languages Turing machines recognize are called Type 0 (or phrase structure) languages (regular languages are Type 3) and they are more complex than regular languages. More specifically they answer the question whether or not a given string belongs to a language. Turing machines also recognize languages.

Let us start with review of mathematics. 4 is a perfect square. Their truth values are false and true. . If the computation time is 2n where n is the size of the problem. Unfortunately there is nothing we can do to speed them up. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved within a reasonable amount of time and there are problems that are known to require a finite but very large amount of time to solve. true or false. then even if the processor speed increased 1.000 times it can handle only ten or so more larger problem sizes.000 times 110 cities would already be too many. then with the increase in the processor speed of 1. The time needed to solve such a problem increases at least exponentially with the size of the problem as long as we use Turing machines (hence computers).Our last topic is time complexities of various problems. Basic Mathematical Objects Back to Table of Contents The following are the contents of this introductory chapter. For example for the traveling salesman problem if 100 cities were too many to solve fast enough. We are going to see some of those which take a large amount of time. Example: The following statements are propositions as they have precise truth values. respectively. • • 2 is a odd number. The time complexity issues are investigated using Turing machines so that the results apply to all computers. "Connective": Two or more propositions can be combined together to make compound propositions with the help of logical connectives. Increasing the processor speed does not help much for such problems. • • • • Logic Sets Relations Functions Logic Proposition and Logical Connectives "Proposition" can be defined as a declarative statement having a specific truth-value.

Disjunction This is logical "or" read as either true value of the individual propositions. Negation This is the logical "negation" and it is expressed by Truth table is given below as p for "not p". Truth table for two individual propositions p and q with conjunction is given below p T T F F q T F T F p^q T F F F b. Conjunction The logical conjunction is understood in the same way as commonly used ôandö.Example: Above two propositions can be used to make a compound proposition using any of the logical connectives. Their truth vales are false and true respectively. Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F pVq T T T F c. For the first compound proposition to be true both the propositions have to be true as the connective is AND and as OR is the connective for the second one if either of the propositions is true the truth value of the compound proposition is true. . • • 2 is an odd number AND 4 is a perfect square. The compound proposition truth-value is true iff all the constituent propositions hold true. The following are the logical connectives used commonly: a. It is represented as " ^ ". 2 is an odd number OR 4 is a perfect square.

"q is a necessity/consequence of p" and "q whenever p" are all differnt ways of saying "if p then q". which is false in every case. then q" Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F p T F T T q p -> q is also expressed in a number of different (but equivalent) ways in English. p q is read as "if p.g. "if not q then not p" . Conditional This is used to define as "a proposition holds true if another proposition is true" i. and if q then p". e. Contradiction This is the opposite of tautology. For example. "p only if q" . f. E. which is true in every case.: p V p g.: p ^ p Logical implication and equivalence If the value of p -> q is true in every case. Following are some of the useful identities and implications from propositional logic: Identities .e. Biconditional A proposition (p q) ^ (q p) can be abbreviated using biconditional conjunction as p q and is read as "if p then q. E.p T F p F T d. It is represented as p => q. "q is necessary for p". then p is said to logically imply q. Tautology A compound proposition. If p and q have the same truth-value in every case then they are said to be logically equivalent and it is represented as p <=> q.g. "p is sufficient for q" .

For more complex reasoning we need more powerful logic capable of expressing complicated propositions and reasoning.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. (P 4. or to express certain types of relationship between propositions such as equivalence ( for more detail click here for example for example ). (P 2. (P 3.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. [(P 3. Central to the predicate logic are the concepts of predicate and quantifier. For example. "The sky is blue".contrapositive For explanations. The predicate logic is one of the extensions of propositional logic and it is fundamental to most other types of logic. examples and proofs of these identities go to Identities Implications 1. [(P 5. and "The cover of this book is blue" come from the template "is blue" by placing an appropriate noun/noun phrase in front of it. [(P Q) Q] P ----.1. . The phrase "is blue" is a predicate and it describes the property of being blue. A predicate is a template involving a verb that describes a property of objects.exportation Q) ( Q P) ----. [(P 2.modus tollens Q) (R S)] [(P R) (Q S)] Q) (Q R)] (P R) For explanations. (P Q) ( P Q) ----. the sentences "The car Tom is driving is blue". or a relationship among objects represented by the variables. examples and proofs of these implications go to Implications Predicate and Predicate Logic The propositional logic is not powerful enough to represent all types of assertions that are used in computer science and mathematics.implication Q) R] [P (Q R)] ----.

A predicate with variables. Hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. by using quantifiers on variables . where x represents an arbitrary object. also called universe . sentences that assert an object is blue can be represented as "B(x)". There are two types of quantifiers: universal quantifier and existential quantifier. and it becomes a true statement. assign a value to the variable 2. which is expressed as " x x > 1". for example. The propositions in the predicate logic are statements on objects of a universe.Predicates are often given a name. and hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. The universal quantifier turns. For example. such as x > 1 or P(x). Similarly the existential quantifier turns. quantify the variable using a quantifier (see below). It can be the set of real numbers. . for example. This new statement is true or false in the universe of discourse. If we adopt B as the name for the predicate "is_blue". Universe of Discourse The universe of discourse. In general. x > 1". For example any of "is_blue". hence a proposition. the statemen t x > 1 to "for every object x in the universe. the statement x > 1 to "for some object x in the universe. x > 1". B(x) reads as "x is blue". "Blue" or "B" can be used to represent the predicate "is blue" among others. x > 1 becomes 3 > 1 if 3 is assigned to x. which is expressed as " x x > 1. it is true or false in the universe of discourse. a quantification is performed on formulas of predicate logic (called wff ). can be made a proposition by applying one of the following two operations to each of its variables: 1. The universe is thus the domain of the (individual) variables. is the set of objects of interest. called atomic formula." Again.

x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] For more discussions and examples on these rules and others. In predicate logic. as well as those for propositional logic such as the equivalences. Important Inference Rules of Predicate Logic: First there is the following rule concerning the negation of quantified statement which is very useful: x P(x) x P(x) Next there is the following set of rules on quantifiers and connvectives: 1. But it should be obvious from the context.the set of integers. the set of all students in a classroom etc. see Reasoning(with predicate logic) and Quantifiers and Connectives in Discrete Structures course. the set of all cars on a parking lot. [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] x [ P(x) Q(x) ] 3. It allows one to reason about properties and relationships of individual objects. one can use some additional inference rules. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 2. Sets . implications and inference rules. The universe is often left implicit in practice. some of which are given below. Also for proof and proof techniques see Mathematical Reasoning. Predicate logic is more powerful than propositional logic. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 4.

4.3. Universal Set The set U of all the elements we might ever consider in the discourse is called the universal set.2. Using this notation we can specify the set {0. Example: A = {1. A is a subset of B. Also. Subset Let A and B be two sets. .4} call it Z by writing Z = {x | x N | x 5} where N represents the set of natural numbers. It is read as "the set of natural numbers that are less than or equal to 5".What is a set? Set is a group of elements.2. Set terminology Belongs To x B means that x is an element of set B.5} Alternate way is to give the properties that characterize the elements of the set. if every element of A is an element of B. if A is a subset of. A is a subset of B is represented as A B. but not equal to B represented as A B. All the elements belonging to the set are explicitly given.3. Example: B = {x | x is a positive integer less than or equal to 5} Some sets can also be defined recursively. having a property that characterizes those elements. How to specify a Set? One way is to enumerate the elements completely. Note: If A is a subset of B and B is a subset of A then A=B.1.

5 } .2. It is denoted by A B. Example: If U is the set of natural numbers and A = { 1.8. For A and B of the above example B .2. Union If A and B are two sets. Example: If A = {1. It is denoted by A .A = {4. It is denoted by A B. A B= ø. Example: If A = {1. Thus A' = { x | x U ^ x A } .5} then A ..Complement If A is a set.B B . and B = { 6.2} Note that in general A . Example: A = { 1.3 } . 3. Example: If A = {1. Intersection If A and B are two sets.4. Disjoint sets A and B are said to be disjoint if they contain no elements in common i.8} then A B = {3.2.4.B = {1.3. then the union of A and B is the set that contains all the elements that are in A and B including the ones in both A and B. then A' = { x | x U ^ x > 3}.2.3} B = {3.e.3.5} then A B = {1.4.5} 2.2.8} B = {3.8}.2.4.4.A . then the complement of A is the set consisting of all elements of the universal set that are not in A. then the intersection of A and B is the set that consists of the elements in both A and B .5} . It is denoted by A' or . where ø is the Empty set. Set Operations The operations that can be performed on sets are: 1.9 } are disjoint.3. where means " is not an element of ". then the difference of A from B is the set that consists of the elements of A that are not in B.3} and B = {3. Difference If A and B are two sets.5.B.

The Commutative laws: A B=B A A B=B A The Associative laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Distributive laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Idempotent laws: A A=A A A=A The Absorptive laws: A (A B) = A A (A B) = A The De Morgan laws: (A B)' = A' B' (A B)' = A' B' Other laws involving Complements: ( A' )' = A A A A' = ø A' = U B) B) B) B) C C (A (A C) C) Other laws involving the empty set A A ø=A ø=ø Other laws involving the Universal Set: A U=U A U=A Venn Diagrams A common technique in working with Set Operations is to illustrate them by drawing Venn Diagrams. . C represent arbitrary sets and ø is the empty set and U is the Universal Set. It is a very good tool to get a general idea. B.Following is a list of some standard Set Identities A.

Note. however.4 } and B = { 6. that Venn Diagrams must NOT be used for rigorous discussions. For example sets A = { 1. .3.2. because they can represent only very limited situations and miss many other possibilities.2.4 } can be represented as shown below using Venn Diagrams: Set A U represents the Universal set in which A is one of the Set.8. The idea of Venn Diagram is to draw a region representing the universe and within that to draw the regions representing the component sets we are starting with so that the resulting diagram describes their interrelationships.

Set B The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A B .

A B .

The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A U B A A B B is the set consisting of all the different elements in A and B. .

(A B) = { 5.5.8 } .(A B)' is the yellow region in the Venn diagram given below. For example: U = { 1.6.4 } A B = { 1.6.7.8 } (A B)' = U .2.3.4.2.2.4.3.8 } A = { 1.3.4. 7 } B = { 2.6.

.A is the blue shaded region in the Venn Diagram shown below Generalized Set Operations Union. A2 . For example expressions we often use A holds..B is the yellow shaded region and B . intersection and Cartesian product of sets are associative.A . To denote either of these B C. which we write as Ai This generalized union of sets can be rigorously defined as follows: Definition ( Ai) : . This can be generalized for the union of any finite number of sets as A1 An ..

Ai = A1. Inductive Clause: Ai = ( Ai) An+1 Ai and generalized Cartesian product Similarly the generalized intersection Ai can be defined. The basis clause (or simply basis) of the definition establishes that certain objects are in the set. . This part of the definition specifies the "seeds" of the set from which the elements of the set are generated using the methods given in the inductive clause. The set of elements specified here is called basis of the set being defined.Basis Clause: For n = 1 . De Morgan's law on set union and intersection can also be generalized as follows: Theorem (Generalized De Morgan) = . Based on these definitions. and = Recursive Definition Recursive Definition Subjects to be Learned • • • • • recursive/inductive definition basis clause basis inductive clause extremal clause A recursive definition of a set always consists of three distinct clauses: 1.

which is not what we want as the set of natural numbers. 0.5. The inductive clause always asserts that if objects are elements of the set. can be included in N. x + 1 is in . 0 + 1 (= 1) is in N. Examples of Recursive Definition of Set Example 1. and x is the child of x + 1. the set of natural numbers N can be obtained as follows: First by (1). and 2 is the child of 1. 0 is put into N. Then by (2). Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. The Set of Nonnegative Even Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . . and the new object is their child . the object is not a member of the set.5. The extremal clause asserts that unless an object can be shown to be a member of the set by applying the basis and inductive clauses a finite number of times. 3. and 1 is the child of 0. The inductive clause (or simply induction) of the definition establishes the ways in which elements of the set can be combined to produce new elements of the set. Example 2. 1.. Let us call the objects used to create a new object the parents of the new object. The Set of Even Integers Basis Clause: . 1 is the parent of 2. Following this definition. The Set of Natural Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . 2. Then by (2) again. x + 2 is in .5. The x + 1 in the Inductive Clause is the parent of x. then they can be combined in certain specified ways to create other objects. Note that if we don't have (3). Proceeding in this manner all the natural numbers are put into N.2. The basis for this set N is { 0 } . Example 3. 0 is the parent of 1. since 0 is in N.. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. 1 + 1 (= 2) is in N.

How to define function recursively: First the values of the function for the basis elements of the domain are specified. The Set of Strings over the alphabet excepting empty string This is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's such as abbab.2 are in . simplest expressions. then Submit. Test Your Understanding of Recursive Definition Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. . Recursive Definition of Function Some functions can also be defined recursively. Tips for recursively defining a set: For the "Basis Clause". Then see how other elements can be obtained from them. The set of propositions (propositional forms) can also be defined recursively. Click Yes or No . etc. try simplest elements in the set such as smallest numbers (0. of the domain is defined using its value at the parent(s) of the element x. bbabaa. To see how it is defined click here. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. or 1). or shortest strings. x + 2. Condition: The domain of the function you wish to define recursively must be a set defined recursively.Inductive Clause: For any element x in . Inductive Clause: For any element x in . There are two sets of questions. Basis Clause: . and . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. and x . and . and generalize that generation process for the "Inductive Clause". A few examples are given below. Then the value of the function at an element. Here ax means the concatenation of a with x. They are all on functions from integer to integer except the last one. say x. Example 4. .

L(a) = 1 and L(b) = 1. So there is no chance of other elements to come into the function being defined. This function L gives the number of a's and b's L(x) for a string x is also often denoted by | x |. See above for the extremal clause. because the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively and that has the extremal clause in it. Example 7: The function f(n) = 2n for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. L(xy) = L(x) + L(y) . where xy is the concatenation of strings x and y. f(n+1) = 2 f(n) . b} to the set of natural numbers that gives the length of a string can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: For symbols a and b of the alphabet. Using this definition.Example 5: The function f(n) = n! for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 0! = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. Example 6: The function f(n) = 2n + 1 for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. Induction Mathematical Induction . Example 8: The function L from the set S of strings over {a. f(n+1) = (n+1) f(n). 1 ! = 1 * 0 ! = 1 * 1 = 1 . Hence 2 ! = 2 * 1 ! = 2 * 1 = 2 . See Example 5 for the extremal clause. f(n+1) = f(n) + 2 . Note that here Extremal Clause is not necessary. Inductive Clause: For any string x and y of S. 3! can be found as follows: Since 0 ! = 1. See Example 5 for the extremal clause. Hence 3 ! = 3 * 2 ! = 3 * 2 * 1 = 6 .

which is 1. Thus the set of natural numbers can be described completely by specifying the basis element (0). the element next to it. then P(k+1) is true. Then since 1 has the property. it is often a good idea to restate P(k+1) in terms of . and the process of generating an element from a known element in the set. any natural number can be shown to have the property. When these two are proven. which is 2.Subjects to be Learned • • • • • first principle of mathematical induction basis step induction hypothesis induction second principle of mathematical induction Contents First Priciple of Mathematical Induction As we have seen in recursion . + n = n( n + 1 )/2 can be proven by mathematical induction by the same token. More generally mathematical statements involving a natural number n such as 1 + 2 + . has the property in question.. we proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P( ) is true. . Taking advantage of this. that is n + 1. To prove that a statement P(n) is true for all natural number natural number. then it follows that all the natural numbers have that property. and its elements can be generated one by one starting with 0 by adding 1. has the property in question (basis step). then the next element. where is a Induction: Prove that for any integer . This process is somewhat analogous to the knocking over a row of dominos with knocking over the first domino corresponding to the basis step. Then it is proven that if an arbitrary natural number. has the same property again by the inductive step. if P(k) is true (called induction hypothesis). has that property (inductive step). For since 0 has the property by the basis step. that is 0. The first principle of mathematical induction states that if the basis step and the inductive step are proven. the element next to it. the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively. then P(n) is true for all natural number . denote it by n.. natural numbers can be proven to have certain properties as follows: First it is proven that the basis element. Proceeding likewise. As a first step for proof by induction. has the same property by the inductive step.

The reason that this principle holds is going to be explained later after a few examples of proof. 0 + 1 + . then n P(n) can be concluded. -------. End of Proof. Factoring (n + 1) out. Here let us try LHS for n + 1 = 0 + 1 + . and in the inductive step P(n) is proved assuming P(k) holds for all k < n . + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . 1 + 3 + .. Certain problems can be proven more easily by using the second principle than the first principle because P(k) for all k < n can be used rather than just P(n . we get (n + 1)(n + 2) / 2 .. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2. which is assumed to be true. Formally the second principle of induction states that if n [ k [ k < n P(k) ] P(n) ] . Second Priciple of Mathematical Induction There is another form of induction over the natural numbers based on the second principle of induction to prove assertions of the form x P(x) . + n + (n + 1) = (0 + 1 + .. Proof: Basis Step: If n = 0. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . first try to express LHS for n+1 in terms of LHS for n... the last expression can be rewritten as n( n + 1 )/2 + (n + 1) . can be used.. Hence LHS = RHS.... Thus LHS = RHS for n+1. and RHS = 0 * (0 + 1) = 0 . . Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary natural number n. Here k [ k < n P(k) ] is the induction hypothesis.Induction Hypothesis To prove this for n+1. + n) + (n + 1) . This form of induction does not require the basis step. Example: Prove that for any natural number n. Example 1: Let us prove the following equality using the second principle: For any natural number n . and somehow use the induction hypothesis..1) to prove P(n). 0 + 1 + . then LHS = 0. which is equal to the RHS for n+1. Using the induction hypothesis.P(k) so that P(k).

Then 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . say p and q. the individual may wish to restrict .1 ) * ( n .1 )! + n * n! = n! . by the induction hypothesis they can be written as the product of prime numbers (Note that this is not possible if the First Principle is being used).1 Hence by the second principle of induction positive integers. then it is a product of two positive integers. then it is the product of 1.1 Proof: Assume that 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + .. let A = {blue shirt. Then 1 + 3 + . it is either a prime number or not a prime number. Since both p and q are smaller than n.. If n is a prime number. Proof: Assume that for all positive integers k. Relations Definition Relation Let A and B be sets. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . Let's assume that a person owns three shirts and two pairs of slacks...1 for all k. tan slacks}. Since n is an integer. which is a prime number. More precisely. Therefore the statement holds true.1 holds for all Example 3: Prove that any positive integer n > 1. We are going to prove that n can be written as the product of prime numbers. Hence n can also be written as the product of prime numbers. k < n.1 ) ) + ( 2n + 1 ) = n2 + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 by the induction hypothesis.. However. + ( n . can be written as the product of prime numbers. + k * k! = ( k + 1 )! ... n > k > 1. k can be written as the product of prime numbers.. and itself. + ( 2k + 1 ) = ( k + 1 )2 holds for all k.Proof: Assume that 1 + 3 + . the individual can wear. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( 1 + 3 + . Example1: nbsp. Hence by the second principle of induction 1 + 3 + .. k < n. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 holds for all natural numbers. If n is not a prime number. mint green shirt} and B = {gray slacks.. A binary relation from A into B is any subset of the Cartesian product A x B.1 + n * n! by the induction hypothesis.. Example 2: Prove that for all positive integer n. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! .. + ( 2n . = ( n + 1 )n! . Then certainly A x B is the set of all possible combinations (six) of shirts and slacks that nbsp.

This may not be all possible pairs in A x B but will certainly be a subset of A x B. 6)}. 5. This may not be convenient if R is relatively large. c) A x C. Relation on a Set A relation from a set A into itself is called a relation on A. 6) and define a relation R from A into A by (a. or R(x) =y where y = x2 . (3. For example PP. 3). Consider the following relation on real numbers. b) | a A ^ b A ^ a is a child of b } . (2. The composition of R and S. 5). 3. is the composition of P with itself and it is a relation which we know as grandparentgrandchild relation. For example. (5. 6). y) | y is the square of x} and S = { (x. (black shirt. c) RS if and only if there exists b B such that (a. y).himself to combinations which are color coordinated. y) | x <= y}. Other notations are used depending on the past practice. one such subset may be { (blue shirt. gray slack). (6. tan slacks). Then P is a relation on A which we might call a parent-child relation. Composition Let R be a relation from a set A into set B. or "related". is the set of pairs of the form(a. 6}. where P is the parent-child relation given above. R and S of Example 2 above are relations on A = {2. written as RS. Let A be a set of people and let P = {(a. 2). as in the previous example. 3. tan slacks) }. b) R if and only if a divides evenly into b.6). R = { (x. R could be more naturally expressed as R(x) = x2 . PropertiesOf Relations . A typical element in R is an ordered pair (x. b) Rand (b. and S be a relation from set B into set C. c) S. (mint green shirt. where (a. 5. (3. In some cases R can be described by actually listing the pairs which are in R. So. Example2: Let A = {2. R = {(2.

c> are in the relation. if aRb and bRc. in other words. denote it by f. if aRb.Assume R is a relation on set A. then bRa. 4. Reflexive: R is reflexive if for every a A. Thus. The set A in the above definition is called the domain of the function and B its codomain. a R a. for each element a in A. if <a. 1. . then b = c . Equivalence: R is an equivalence relation on A if R is reflexive. R R b to denote (a. symmetric and transitive. Let us write a Symmetric: R is symmetric if for every a and b in A. b) R . 3. b> and <a. Function Functions Subjects to be Reviewed • • • • • • • • • • • • function domain. codomain image image of set range sum of functions product of functions one-to-one function (injection) onto function (surjection) one-to-one onto function (bijection) inverse function composite function Definition (function): A function. and 2. b and c in A. then aRc. A x A. b> is in the relation. 2. Transitive: R is transitive if for every a. f is a function if it covers the domain (maps every element of the domain) and it is single valued. there is an element b in B such that <a. from a set A to a set B is a relation from A to B that satisfies 1.

nothing in N can be mapped to 3 by this function. for example. where S is a subset of the domain A of f ..} . that is. . if and only if whenever f(x) = f(y) . Example: Let f be the function from the set of natural numbers N to N that maps each natural number x to x2 . and for all x. say 3. Definition (bijection): A function is called a bijection . 4.The relation given by f between a and b represented by the ordered pair <a. i. Thus it is a bijection. 9. f(S) = { f(a) | a S }. and ( f*g )(x) = 3x3 + x2 Definition (one-to-one): A function f is said to be one-to-one (injective) . Note that f(x) = x2 is not one-to-one if it is from the set of integers(negative as well as non-negative) to N . Example: The function f(x) = x2 from the set of natural numbers N to N is a one-to-one function. . Every bijection has a function called the inverse function. 1. Definition (sum and product): Let f and g be functions from a set A to the set of real numbers R. Example: Let f(x) = 3x + 1 and g(x) = x2 .. if and only if for every element y of B . if it is onto and one-to-one. Definition (onto): A function f from a set A to a set B is said to be onto(surjective) . ( f*g )(x) = f(x)*g(x) . where f(x)*g(x) is the product of two real numbers f(x) and g(x). because for example f(1) = f(-1) = 1 . The set of images of the elements of a set S under a function f is called the image of the set S under f. under this function is 9. ( f + g )(x) = f(x) + g(x) . the image of.e. However. b> is denoted as f(a) = b . Then ( f + g )(x) = x2 + 3x + 1 . { 0. Then the domain and codomain of this f are N. The image of the domain under f is called the range of f . and b is called the image of a under f . because. f is onto if and only if f( A ) = B . that is.. Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is one-to-one and onto. Then the sum and the product of f and g are defined as follows: For all x. and is denoted by f(S) . x = y . 16. there is an element x in A such that f(x) = y . and its range is the set of squares. f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to N is not onto. Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is an onto function.

are all languages in that sense. and let f be a function from B to a set C . languages of mathematics. where f(x) = y . Then the composition of functions f and g . Then the function g is called the inverse function of f. Introduction to Language A language is. A function is a relation. the rightmost function in the above figure is a bijection and its inverse is obtained by reversing the direction of each arrow. is the function from A to C that satisfies fg(x) = f( g(x) ) for all x in A . Others such as languages of logics. Example: Let f(x) = x2 . It is also a bijection. and g(x) = x + 1 . Note that such an x is unique for each y because f is a bijection. if for every element y of B. a set of strings of symbols. f(x) > relation. . natural languages etc. and arrows show < x. denoted by fg . the points on the left are in the domain and the ones on the right are in the codomain. g(y) = x . Example: The inverse function of f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of non-negative even numbers E is f -1(x) = 1/2 x from E to N . Therefore one can also talk about composition of functions. In each figure below. Definition (inverse): Let f be a bijection from a set A to a set B. Then f( g(x) ) = ( x + 1 )2 . in this course. and it is denoted by f -1 .These concepts are illustrated in the figure below. For example. Definition (composite function): Let g be a function from a set A to a set B . Programming langauges we use are a language in that sense.

checking whether or not a string is in a language. They are devices that recognize regular languages. We are going to see an algorithm for converting NFAto NFA which recognizes the same language and another for NFA to DFA conversion. context-free (or type 2) languages. In the following chapters we first learn about languages.What we are going to study on languages in this course are four classes of languages called (Chomsky) formal languages and their properties. regular grammars. Using automata and formal languages we can study limitations of computer and computation. The four classes are regular (or type 3) languages. However. the simplest of the four formal languages. Definitions on Language Subjects to be Learned . solving them can be seen as recognizing languages i. Then we investigate various kinds of finite automata: deterministic finite automata (DFA). are quite useful for modeling systems used in practice such as co9mputer network communication protocols. In asddition two of the formal languages. Our last topic on regular language is testing of languages for non-regularity.). context-sensitive (or type 1) languages and phrase structure (or type 0) languages. NFA and NFAare conceptually simpler and easier to use when modeling a system because there are no restrictions on transitions for them unlike for DFA. lexical analyzers and parser for compilers for programming languages. As we are going to learn next. nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) and nondeterministic finite automata with transitions (NFA. regular and context-free languages. On the other hand DFAs are suited for writing a simulator program because there is no nondeterminism such as going to two or more states from a state upon reading one input symbol. together with regular expressions which are a method of representing regular languages. Also there are various kinds of computing devices called automata which process these types of languages Thus formal languages can also be characterized by the computing devices which process them. Also for some important classes of problems. Then we study regular languages. in general there are more than one NFAs and DFAs that reconize one language. we are going to learn modeling of systems finite automata. These formal languages are characterized by grammars which are essentially a set of rewrite rules for generating strings belonging to a language as we see later.e. then the resulting DFA is unique up to the state names for a given regular language. Then after seeing yet another way of representing regular laguages. Type 3 is a subset of type 2 which is a subset of type 1 and type 0 is the most general including the other three as a subset. These formal languages and automata capture the essense of various computing devices and computation in a very simple way. It can be rigorously shown that some problems can not be solved by computers in any finite amount of time and that some others are practically unsolvable because of the time it takes to solve them. if the number of states of DFA is minimized.

all the set operations can be applied to languages.• • • • alphabet string (word) language operations on languages: concatenation of strings. Note that vu = bbabaab uv. So it is not empty. 2.b}) and {0. The number of symbols in a string is called the length of the string. A language is a set of strings over an alphabet. b} is another alphabet with two symbols and English alphabet is also an alphabet. Thus | | = 0. ab. the set of all strings over (including the empty string) is denoted by . For example if u = aab and v = bbab. uv is the string obtained by appending the sequence of symbols of v to that of u. Some special languages The empty set is a language which has no strings. {a. Though has no symbols. b} and 0. Kleene star Contents Here we are going to learn the concept of language in very abstract and general sense. The empty string (also called null string) is the string with length 0. operations on languages and some of their properties. Thus a language over alphabet is a subset of . Basic concepts First. 3. 1} is an alphabet with two symbols. a and aabab are examples of string over alphabet {a. The empty string is denoted by (capital lambda). For a string w its length is represented by |w|. 1}. that is. baa} is a language (over alphabert {a. namely . v is called a suffix of y. 1. That is. Operations on languages Since languages are sets. intersetion and difference of two languages over an alphabet are languages over . b. it has no symbols. intersection. It can be defined more formally by recursive definition. Thus the union. Note that u and v may be an empty string. 10 and 001 are examples of string over alphabet {0. this set has an object in it. A string x is a prefix of another string y if there is a string v such that y = xv.1}). an alphabet is a finite set of symbols. then uv = aabbbab. So a string is a substring of itself. 111} is a language (over alphabet {0. For example {0. For any alphabet . A string x is called a substring of another string y if there are strings u and v such that y = uxv. We are going to use first few symbols of English alphabet such as a and b to denote symbols of an alphabet and those toward the end such as u and v for strings. union. A string (also called a word) is a finite sequence of symbols of an alphabet. Thus {a. The set { } is a language which has one string. Let u and v be strings. Then uv denotes the string obtained by concatenating u with v.

These powers can be formally defined recursively. Powers : For a symbol a and a natural number k. Here a0 = and u0 = . bbbb. abaaba. aba. aaba} = {abaaa. bb }. baaa. uk denotes the concatenation of k u's. Lk means the concatenation of k L's. bb. ababb. then L* = { . babb. ak represents the concatenation of k a's.. For example Lk can be defined recursively as follows. Recursive definition of L+: Basis Clause: L L+ .L and it is also a Another operation onlanguages is concatenation. For a string u and a natural number k. baaba}. This * is called Kleene star. abaaba. For example if L = { aba. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k. ak and uk can be defined similarly. b} {aaa. Let L1 and L2 be languages. ababb. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. bbaba. .. xw L*. Then the concatenation of L1 with L2 is denoted as L1L2 and it is defined as L1L2 = { uv | u L1 and v L2 }. Hence Lk is the set of strings that can be obtained by concatenating k strings of L. } The * in * is also the same Kleene star defined above. L* is the set of strings obtained by concatenating zero or more strings of L as we are going to see in Theorem 1. the extremal clause is not necessary. abb. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = Lk L. That is L1L2 is the set of strings obtained by concatenating strings of L1 with those of L2. * The following two types of languages are generalizations of them quite often in this course. For example {ab. The complement of a language L over an alphabet language. Recursive definition of L*: Basis Clause: L* and we are going to see Inductive Clause: For any x L* and any w L. is .. Similarly for a language L.

. Theorems 1 and 2 are proven in "General Induction" which you study in the next unit.e.. Let us list one of them as a theorem and prove it. ) as ={x|x Lk for some Then the following relationships hold on L* and L+. where wi's are strings of L.. . For example if L = { aba.. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L+ unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.wm1.. wimi in L such that wi = wi1wi2. L* and L* have a number of interesting properties...w1m1w21. ..Inductive Clause: For any x L+ and any w L.. bb }.e. bb. bbaba. Other proofs are omitted. wi2. Proof: Because we can see that L* (L*)*.. xw L+. w2....... wk are strings of L*.. w1w2. by applying Theorem 2 to the language L* L* Conversely ( L* )* Let x be an arbitrary nonempty string of ( L* )*. abaaba. any nonempty string in L* or L+ can be expresssed as the concatenation of strings of L.wimi Hence x = w11 . (i.. Theorem 5: L* = (L*)*. then L+ = { aba.wk .wk for some k.. for each wi there are strings wi1...wmmk . L* can be proven as follows: by Theorem 2.w2m2. Hence x is in L* . i. . } Let us also define natural number k } . ababb. L0 L L2 .. . wk in L* such that x = w1w2. . Then there are nonempty strings w1. bbbb. Theorem 1: Ln Theorem 2: Theorem 3: Theorem 4: L+ = L L* = L*L Note: According to Theorems 2 and 3. Thus L+ is the set of strings obtained by concatenating one or more strings of L.... . Since w1.. w2.

If x is an empty string, then it is obviously in L* . Hence ( L* )* Since L* L* . L* , L* = ( L* )* .

(L*)* and ( L* )*

**Problem Solving as Language Recognition
**

Subjects to be Learned

• • •

problem instance problem as language problem solving as language recognition

Contents

In the previous section the concept of language was introduced and its properties have been briefly studied. You might be wondering why we study language. The main reason for studying language is that solving problems can be viewed as a language recognition problem as explained below, that is, the problem of checking whether or not a string belongs to a language. Thus instead of studying what kind of problems can be solved by what kind of computational devices and how, we can study languages and devices to recognize them which are simpler to deal with uncluttered with variations in actual devices, programming languages etc. Below an example is given to illustrate how solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Consider the following problem: Is the longest of the distances between two nodes(i.e. the diameter) of a given graph less than a given integer k ? Here the distance is the smallest number of edges (or hops) between the nodes. Some of the instances of this problem are as shown below:

Instance 1 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with one edge and two nodes is less than 1. Instance 2 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with four edges and four nodes is less than 2. Simiarlyt for Instance 3. These problem instances can be represented by a string as follows: Instance 1: 1,2;(1,2);1 Instance 2: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(3,4);2 Instance 3: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(2,3)(2,4)(3,4);3 Here the set of nodes, the set of edges and k are separated by ; in that order in the strings. The solutions to these instances are: Instance 1: No Instance 2: No Instance 3: Yes There are infinitely many 'Yes' instances and 'No' instances for this problem. The set of 'Yes' instances is a language and so is the set of 'No' instances as well as the set of all

instances and many others for this problem. We can thus see that solving the problem for a given instance is equivalent to checking whether or not the string representing the given instance belongs to the language of 'Yes' instances of the problem. That is, the problem solving is the same as the language recognition. A problem can be solved if and only if the language of its 'Yes' instances is recognizable or decidable by a Turing machine. It is not solvable if the language is merely accecptable but not recognizable, or even worse if it is not even acceptable.

(a.k.a Structural Induction)

Mathematical statements involving an element of a recursively defined set can be proven by induction. To prove by induction that a statement P(x) is true for all the elements x of a recursively defined set S, proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P(x) is true for all the elements x in the basis of S. Induction: Prove that for any element(s) x of S if P(x) is true, then P(y) is true for any element y obtained from x by the induction step of the recursive definition of S. Note 1 : In the Induction we try to prove that if a parent has the property then all of its children also have that property. In the process we need the relationship between the parent and the children. That relationship is found in the Inductive Clause of the recursive definition of the set in question. Note 2 : As a first step for general induction proof, it is often a good idea to express y in terms of x so that P(x) can be used. Example 1 (Theorem 1 in "Language") : Prove that Ln L* for any natural number n and any language L. Let us first review the definitions. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = LkL. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k, the extremal clause is not necessary. Recursive definition of L*:

xy Hence w Thus Lk+1 L* . and L* . Basis Step: Since by the definitions L0 = { Inductive Step: Assume that Lk Hypothesis We are going to show that Lk+1 }.Induction L* . L* since y L. . Note in the proof below that Basis and Inductive Steps mirror the Basis and Inductive Clauses of the definition of Ln . y Let w be an arbitrary string in Lk+1 . Then by the definition of L* . L* for an arbitrary natural numer k. L0 L* . number k. Hence . Lk . L* . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Hence x . By Example 1 above . Proof: Let us first prove Suppose that x Lk for some natural L* . . x Example 2 (Theorem 2 in "Language") Let us prove L* = Note that ={x|x Lk for some natural number k } . Now let us prove that Ln L* by induction on Ln. L* . L* by theInduction Hypothesis. --. Then there exist strings x and y that satisfy x L and w = xy by the definition of Lk+1. Then by the definition of L*. x L* . Lk Next let us prove L* . Since Lk L* .Basis Clause: L* Inductive Clause: For any string x L* and any string w L. xw L*.

xy holds. . The function REV(x) on strings x over the alphabet is defined as follows. and any symbol . by Example 1 above. then its children xy. Let us prove the inheritance. . holds. It produces the reversal of a given string x (i. then for some natural number k .Note that L* is defined recursively and that below we are trying to prove that the elements of L* have the property that they also belong to . Basis Clause: REV( )= . x Lk . Prove that for arbitrary strings x and y of . Note that each step mirror the recursive definition of . Hence by the definition of Inductive Step: Assume that for an arbitrary x in L*.e. Hence xy End of Inductive Step and Proof Hence we have proven Example 3 .e. So we show that the property for x is inherited by its children xy. by concatenating y) a child of x in is obtained. also have the property. Hence xy Lk+1 by the definition of Ln . Then we show that if any element. Basis Step: L0 since L0 = { }. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. x spelled backward). say x. So we first prove that * the element of the basis of L has the propertyy. If x . x We are going to show that for an arbitrary element y L . . REV(xa) = Inductive Clause: For any string aREV(x). Note here that x is a parent and by applying an operation (i. where y is an arbitrary elememt of L. of L* has the property.

-. The proof of the equality in question is going to be proven for an arbitrary fixed x by induction on y. .Induction Hypothesis Then for an arbitrary symbol a of . REV(xya) = REV(ya)REV(x). LrLs and Lr* are regular languages. The proof mirrors the recursive definition of . REV(xya) = REV((xy)a) = a REV(xy). Inductive Clause: If Lr and Ls are regular languages. Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary string y of . { } and {a} for any symbol a are regular languages. Inductive Clause: For arbitrary strings x of and a of ExtremalClause: As usual. Omitted. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. Definition of Set of Regular Languages : Basis Clause: . Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular language unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Basis Step: REV(x ) = REV( x ) = REV( )REV( x ) . then Lr Ls . But by induction hypothesis a REV(xy) = a REV(y)REV(x). End of Proof. which is what we needed. Since a REV(y) = REV(ya).Proof First let us note that * can be defined recursively as follows: . Thus the statement to be proven is for an arbitrary fixed string x. and an arbitrary string y of . Definitions of Regular Language and Regular Expression Subjects to be Learned • • regular language regular expression 1. xa is also in . REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. Regular language The set of regular languages over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. Any language belonging to this set is a regular language over . * Basis Clause: where is an empty string.

bold face may not be used for regular expressions. then ( r + s ) . aaaa etc. and a are regular expressions corresponding to languages . {a}* is a regular language which is the set of strings consisting of a's such as . They can represent regular languages and operations on them succinctly. a. where a is an element of . (2) The operation * has precedence over concatenation. So for example. Also since {a} is regular. (4) We use ( r+) as a regular expression to represent Lr+ . Thus the regular expression ( a + ( b( c*) ) ) is written as a + bc*. which is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's. ( rs ) and ( r*) are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr Ls . which has precedence over union ( + ). b}. b} is regular. where Lr is the language corresponding to the regular expression r. Basis Clause: . Then since {a} and {b} are regular languages. b} ( = {a} {b} ) and {ab} ( = {a}{b} ) are regular languages. Inductive Clause: If r and s are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr and Ls . let = {a. is written as rk. aaa. respectively. {a. Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular expression unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Note also that *. Conventions on regular expressions (1) When there is no danger of confusion. Regular expression Regular expressions are used to denote regular languages. The language corresponding to rk is Lrk. (3) The concatenation of k r's . Thus for example rr = r2 . 2. Any element of that set is a regular expression. ( r + s ) is used in stead of ( r + s ). where r is a regular expression. The set of regular expressions over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. . For a recursive definition of Lrk click here. respectively. is a regular language because {a. { } and {a}. LrLs and Lr* . aa.For example.

. bb}. That is. ababab. For example ( a + b )* and ( a*b* )* correspond to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. a*b+a* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by one or more b's followed by zero or more a's. abab. In general ( a + b )k corresponds to the set of strings of length k over the alphabet {a. . Note:A regular expression is not unique for a language.. b}. b}. a regular language. ( ab )+ corresponds to the language {ab. it is not easy to see by inspection whether or not two regular expressions are equal. b}. a*b* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by zero or more b's. corresponds to more than one regular expressions. Definition of Equality of Regular Expressions Regular expressions are equal if and only if they correspond to the same language. the set of strings of repeated ab's. In general. ( a + b )* corresponds to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. }.Examples of regular expression and regular languages corresponding to them • • • • ( a + b )2 corresponds to the language {aa.. ba. b}. in general. that is. b}. Thus for example ( a + b )* = ( a*b* )* . that is the set of strings of length 2 over the alphabet {a. because they both represent the language of all strings over the alphabet {a. ab.

a*. b. However. ba is not in it. Solution: It can easily be seen that . a+. Find a simple (the shortest and with the smallest nesting of * and +) regular expression which is equal to each of the following regular expressions. (a) Since (r1 + r2)* represents all strings consisting of strings of r1 and/or r2 . The only strings corresponding to r2 which consist of only a's or b's are a. Of the strings wiht length 2 aa. 3: Let r1 and r2 be arbitrary regular expressions over some alphabet. (a + b)*. 1: Find the shortest string that is not in the language represented by the regular expression a*(ab)*b*. a. However. (a) find a string corresponding to r2 but not to r1 and (b) find a string corresponding to both r1 and r2. Thus anything that comes after the first r1 in (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is represented by (r1 + r2)*. (a) (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ Solution: One general strategy to approach this type of question is to try to see whether or not they are equal to simple regular expressions that are familiar to us such as a. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*) . So we need to find strings of r2 which contain at least one a and at least one b. b and the strings consiting of only b's (from (a*b)*). (a + b)+ etc. Ex. the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*) start with a string of r1 followed by any number of strings taken arbitrarily from r1 and/or r2. (b) A string corresponding to r1 consists of only a's or only b's or the empty string. Ex. For example ab and ba are such strings. 2: For the two regular expressions given below. Thus (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* is reduced to (r1 + r2)*. r1 = a* + b* r2 = ab* + ba* + b*a + (a*b)* Solution: (a) Any string consisting of only a's or only b's and the empty string are in r1.Exercise Questions on Regular Language and Regular Expression Ex. which are strings in the language with length 1 or less. r1r2 + r2r1 in the given regular expression is redundant. that is. (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ means that all the strings represented by it must consist of one or more strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*). they do not produce any strings that are not represented by (r1 + r2)*. bb and ab are in the language. Thus the answer is ba.

then aabx L and xbb L . Thus (aab)*(bb)* is a regular expression for L. Ex. Ex. 6: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. Ex. 5: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L and a L. Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. Since any string of b's can be placed in front of the first a. Solution: A string in this language must have at least two a's. strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or bb to any of the already generated strings. b } that contain exactly two a's. 4: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L over the alphabet { a . First of all and a are in L . 7: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the . Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is reduced to (r1(r1 + r2)*). Inductive Clause: If x L . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. Hence a string of L has zero or more of aab's and bb's in front possibly followed by a at the end.also represents the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*)+. b } defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L Inductive Clause: If x L . strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or appending bb to any of the already generated strings. Then starting with . then aabx L and bbx L . behind the second a and between the two a's. Hence a string of L consists of zero or more aab's in front and zero or more bb's following them. Then starting with or a. and conversely (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ represents the strings represented by (r1(r1 + r2)*). Thus (aab + bb)*(a + ) is a regular expression for L. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. First of all L . and since an arbitrasry string of b's can be represented by the regular expression b*. Ex. b*a b*a b* is a regular expression for this language. Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L.

Ex. b } must end in a or b. then that aa can be followed by any number of b. Hence a string preceding the aa can be represented by ( b + ab )*. Thus simply put. On the other hand if an a precedes the aa. bb. Note that 0 is an even number. b } that contain no more than one occurence of the string aa. Hence the string is in this language. it is the set of strings over the alphabet { a. If there is no aa but at least one a exists in a string of the language.alphabet { a. and after the first b all the b's in the string appear in pairs. 11: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the . 10: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression a*b(a*ba*b)*a* . it has at least one b. Solution: A string in the language can start and end with a or b. ( b + ab )*a( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. Solution: If there is one substring aa in a string of the language. Since it can have any string in front of the last a or bb. Hence if a string does not end with ab then it ends with a or if it ends with b the last b must be preceded by a symbol b. a regular expression corresponding to the language is ( aa + ab + ba + bb )*. then applying the same argument as for aa to . Solution: Since any string of even length can be expressed as the concatenation of strings of length 2 and since the strings of length 2 are aa. b } that contain an odd number of b's Ex. ab. Any numbe of a's can appear any place in the string. b }. 8: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. Solution: Any string in a language over { a . Hence if a string of the language contains aa then it corresponds to the regular expression ( b + ab )*aa( b + ba )* . Hence any string that follows aa is represented by ( b + ba )*. then applying the same argument as for aa to a. then it must be followed by b. 9: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of strings of even lengths over the alphabet of { a. ( b + ab )*( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. then that a must be preceded by b because otherwise there are two occurences of aa. b } that do not end with ab. Altogether ( b + ab )*( + a + aa )( b + ba )* is a regular expression for the language. If an a comes after that aa. ba. Ex. ( a + b )*( a + bb ) is a regular expression for the language. If there may not be any a in a string of the language. Ex.

We say a language is finite if it consists of a finite number of strings. Hence altogether it represents any string consisting of a substring with no aa followed by one b followed by a substring with no bb. The following theorem shows that any finite language is regular. Regularity of finite languages Theorem 1: The set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed under operations union. Thus the set of regular languages is closed under those operations. Proof: Let Lr and Ls be regular languages over an alphabet . { anbn | n is a natural number } which is the union of all the languages { akbk } . and ( a + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring bb. where n is a natural number. Solution: (( a + b )3) represents the strings of length 3.regular expression (( a + b )3)*( +a+b). Hence (( a + b )3)* represents the strings of length a multiple of 3. 12: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression ( b + ab )*( a + ab )*. For example while { akbk } is regular for any natural number k . Note 1: Later we shall see that the complement of a regular language and the intersection of regular laguages are also regular. Solution: ( b + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring aa and which end in b. Lr Ls . that is. where n is a natural number. the given regular expression represents the strings of length 3n and 3n + 1. Properties of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • Closure of the set of regular languages under union. Note 2: The union of infinitely many regular languages is not necessarily regular. concatenation and Kleene star. concatenation and Kleene star operations. is not regular as we shall see later. Ex. a finite language is a set of n . LrLs and Lr* are regular languages and they are obviously over the alphabet . Since (( a + b )3)*( a + b ) represents the strings of length 3n + 1. Then by the definition of the set of regular languages .

{ regular languages for any arbitrary symbol a of . Basis Step: (corresponding to n = 0) is a regular language by the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. then we have proven the theorem. Then { w } is a regular language. L { w } is a regular language by the definition of regular language. Inductive Step: Assume that a language L consisting of n strings is a regular language (induction hypothesis).strings for some natural number n. Claim 2: Let w be a string over an alphabet . Proof of the Claim 1: Proof by induction on the number of strings. End of proof of Theorem 2. Hence { aw } is regular. End of proof for Claim 2 Note that Claim 2 can also be proven by induction on the length of string. We then prove that a language consisting of a single string is regular. } and { a } are Inductive Step: Assume that { w } is a regular language for an arbitrary string w over . Proof: Let us first assume that a language consisting of a single string is regular and prove the theorem by induction. Theorem 2: A finite language is regular. . Hence by the Inductive Clause of the definition of regular language { a }{ w } is regular. Proof of Claim 2: Proof by induction on strings. Then for any symbol a of . Then since { w } is a regular language as proven below. Basis Step: By the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. a finite language is regular) if { w } is regular for any string w. Claim 1: A language consisting of n strings is regular for any natural number n (that is. { a } is a regular language from the Basis Step. End of proof of Claim 1 Thus if we can show that { w } is a regular language for any string w.

Unfortunately not all languages and systems are simple like regular languages or finite automata. Ds on arrows represent a dime and Ns a nickel. When the customer selects a soft drink. If the customer puts in a nickel. say a dime. So we might say you are in the 10-cents state. and equivalence and conversions between them. You have received 10 cents and are waiting for more coins to come. tell whether or not a given string belongs to the regular language).e. When a customer comes and puts in the first coin. Pretend that you are the machine. In fact Turing machines are as . It is assumed that the machine terminates its operation when it receives 15 cents or more. Later we are going to learn an extension of finite automata called Turing machines. you are in the waiting-for-customer state. can not be recognized by finite automata. There are languages which are not regular and which. A kind of systems finite automnata can model and a computer program to simulate their operations are discussed later. So you are in another state. In the next few chapters first we are going to learn different kinds of finite automata. In this example you as a vending machine have gone through (transitions between) a number of states responding to the inputs from the customer (coins in this case). that is. therefore. Let us consider the operation of a soft drink vending machine which charges 15 cents for a can. A vending machine looked at this way is an example of finite automaton. Finite automata are computing devices that accept/recognize regular languages and are used to model operations of many systems we find in practice. you must give the customer a can of soft drink. The states and the transitions between them of this vending machine can be represented with the diagram below. Then we are going to see that for every regular language a unique finite automaton can be constructed which can recognize the language (i. Click "NICKEL" or "DIME" in the figure and see how it operates (see how arrows turn red). then you have now received 15 cents and you wait for the customer to select a soft drink. After that you stay in that state until another coin is put in to start the process anew or you may terminate the operation and start all over from the initial state. circles represent states and arrows state transitions. We are going to learn languages which are not regular and ways to test languages for non-regularity. you are no longer in the waiting-for-customer state. We are then going to study how finite automata can be used to simulate operations of systems we see in practice. Let us assume that only nickels and dimes are used for simplicity.Introduction to Finite Automata In this chapter we are going to study a class of machines called finite automata. they are much more powerful computing devices than finite automata. Their operations can be simulated by a very simple computer program. Though Turing machines are simple modification of finite automata. Initially you are waiting for a customer to come and put some coins. We have learned that regular languages are represented by regular expressions and conversely. In the figure. say 15-cents state.

. Definition of Deterministic Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • • • Finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of deterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. that any computation human beings do (with or without computers) can be performed by Turing machines. if q is the initial state and a nickel is put in. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. The set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. The accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. the states of the machine such as "waiting for a customer to put a coin in". 4. for example. . in the Example 1 below. then (q. however. "Waiting for a customer to put a coin in" can be considered the initial state of this automaton and the state in which the machine gives out a soda can can be considered the accepting state. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". 3. are the elements of Q. q0 . 2. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of . (q. Its elements can. . a) must be specified. The transition function is also called a next state function meaning that the automaton moves into the state (q. a) is equal to "have received 5 cents". Then a deterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . Thus in the example of vending machine. Note that is a function. Otherwise it is not accepted. "have received 5 cents" etc. be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. For example. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states.powerful as computers and it is generally believed. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. We call the elements of Q a state. A > Notes on the definition 1. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ceases to come. Also let be a function from Q to Q . the transition function. though not proven. Thus in the example of vending machine.

If the alphabet of the Example 1 is changed to { a. = { a }. A = { 1 }. ) = q . The vertices (denoted by single circles) of a transition diagram represent the states of the DFA and the arcs labeled with an input symbol correspond to the transitions. 1. are not accepted. DFAs are often represented by digraphs called (state) transition diagram. It is a little more complex DFA. then we need a DFA such as shown in the following examle to accept the same string a. A deterministic finite automaton is also called simply a "finite automaton".the string a is accepted by the finite automaton. They are called transition table. Transition functions can also be represented by tables as seen below. b } in stead of { a }. Abbreviations such as FA and DFA are used to denote deterministic finite automaton. An arc ( p . 2 }. But any other strings such as aa. The accepting states are indicated by double circles. . a) ) A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. the following table. Examples of finite automaton Example 1: Q = { 0. q ) from vertex p to vertex q with label represents the transition (p. etc. aaa. 5. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 1 a 2 2 a 2 (q.

a) ) . b }. the following table. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 0 b 2 1 a 2 1 b 2 2 a 2 2 b 2 (q.Example 2: Q = { 0. = { a. Example 3: Q = { 0. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 0 0 b 1 1 a 1 1 b 1 (q. = { a. A = { 0 }. 1 }. A = { 1 }. b } is the next example. A DFA that accepts all strings consisting of only symbol a over the alphabet { a. 1. in the following table. 2 }. A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. b }.

A = { 15. the initial state q0 = 0. its transition function is as shown in the following table. 20 }. Example 4: For the example of vending machine of the previous section. a) ) . 10. = { D. 5. If we make it a DFA.A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. 15. State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 N 5 0 D 10 5 N 10 5 D 15 10 N 15 10 D 20 15 N 5 15 D 10 20 N 5 20 D 10 (q. N }. 20 }. Q = { 0.

6. 5. 3. When it sees no symbol. There is a finite control which determines the state of the automaton and also controls the movement of the head. It never moves to the left. The head moves to the right one square every time it reads a symbol. it stops and the automaton terminates its operation. The tape has a read only head. 2. The head is always at the leftmost square at the beginning of the operation.A finite automaton as a machine A finite automaton can also be thought of as the device shown below consisting of a tape and a control circuit which satisfy the following conditions: 1. 4. The tape has the left end and extends to the right without an end. The tape is divide into squares in each of which a symbol can be written prior to the start of the operation of the automaton. .

Operation of finite automata Let us see how an automaton operates when it is given some inputs. it moves to state 1. b etc. If b is read while it is in state 0 (initially or after reading some a's). Since the state 0 is also the accepting state. Hence when b appears anywhere in the input. are not accepted by this automaton. the DFA is in the accepting state. Once it gets to state 1. For example strings aaa. this DFA never leaves state 1. it goes into state 1 and the input string is not accepted by the DFA. . are accepted but strings such as aaba. it stays in state 0 while it reads all the a's (without breaks) on the tape. when all the a's on the tape are read. then no matter what symbol is read. Thus this automaton accepts any string of a's. When zero or more a's are given as an input to it. aaaaaa etc. Initially it is in state 0. As an example let us consider the DFA of Example 3 above.

*

of DFA and its Properties

Subjects to be Learned

• •

*

Language accepted by DFA

Contents

Here we are going to formally describe what is meant by applying a transition repeatedly, that is the concept of * For a state q and string w, *( q , w ) is the state the DFA goes into when it reads the string w starting at the state q. In general a DFA goes through a number of states from the state q responding to the symbols in the string w. Thus for a DFA < Q , , q0 , , A > , the function

* :Q -> Q is defined recursively as follows: *

Definition of

*

:

*

Basis Clause: For any state q of Q ,

(q,

) = q , where

*

denotes the empty string. and any symbol a ,

Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q, any string y * ( q , ya ) = ( *( q , y ) , a ) .

In the definition, the Basis Clause says that a DFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the state DFA reaches after reading string ya starting at state q is the state it reaches by reading symbol a after reading string y from state q. Example For example suppose that a DFA contains the transitions shown below.

Then

*

*

( q , DNR ) can be calculated as follows:

( q , DNR ) = ( *( q , DN ) , R ) by the Inductive Clause. = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , DN ). = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) since D = D . = ( ( ( *( q , ) , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , D ). = ( ( ( q , D ) , N ) , R ) , since ( q , ) = q . = ( ( q1 , N ) , R ) , since ( q , D ) = q1 as seen from the diagram. = ( q2 , R ) , since ( q1 , N ) = q2 as seen from the diagram. = q3 since ( q2 , R ) = q3 as seen from the diagram. Properties of

*

We can see the following two properties of

*

. for a DFA < Q , , q0 , ,A

**Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >,
**

*

(q,a)=

(q,a)

Proof : Since a = a , * ( q , a ) = *( q , a ) . By the definition of * , * ( q , a ) = ( *( q , ) , a ) But *( q , ) = q by the definition of Hence ( *( q , ) , a ) = ( q , a ) .

*

.

The next theorem states that the state reached from any state, say q , by reading a string, say w , is the same as the state reached by first reading a prefix of w, call it x, and then by reading the rest of the w, call it y. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 , , A > , for a DFA < Q , ,

*

( q , xy ) =

*

(

*

(q,x),y).

Proof : This is going to be proven by induction on string y. That is the statement to be proven is the following: * For an arbitrary fixed string x, ( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for any arbitrary string y. First let us review the recursive definition of *. Recursive definition of Basis Clause:

* *

:

.

* * Inductive Clause: If x and a , then xa . * Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.

Now the proof of the theorem. Basis Step: If y = , then *( q , xy ) = *( q , x ) = *( q , x ) . Also *( *( q , x ) , y ) = *( *( q , x ) , ) = *( q , x ) by the definition of * . Hence the theorem holds for y = . Inductive Step: Assume that *( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for an arbitrary string y. This is the induction hypothesis. We are going to prove that *( q , xya ) = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) for any arbitrary symbol a of . ( q , xya ) = ( *( q , xy ) , a ) by the definition of * = ( * ( *( q , x ) , y ) , a ) by the induction hypothesis. = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) by the definition of * . Thus the theorem has been proven.

*

For the following DFA answer the questions given below.

w ) A . Example 1 : . * . A language L is accepted by a DFA < Q . That is. A > . . . w ) A } . . A > . if and only if ( q0 . q0 . the language accepted by a DFA is the set of strings accepted by the DFA. That is a string is accepted by a DFA if and only if the DFA starting at the initial state ends in an accepting state after reading the string.The following notations are used in the questions: : \delta * : \delta^* : \Lambda Language Accepted by DFA Subjects to be Learned • Language accepted by DFA A string w is accepted by a DFA < Q . q0 . if and only if L = { w | *( q0 .

This DFA accepts { } because it can go from the initial state to the accepting state (also the initial state) without reading any symbol of the alphabet i.2 . first from the initial state go to state 1 by reading one a. Then from state 1 go through the cycle 1 . . by reading an empty string . This DFA has a cycle: 1 . Then from state 1 go to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading aa.1 any number of times by reading substring ab any number of times to come back to state 1. This is represented by (ab)*. It accepts nothing else because any non-empty symbol would take it to state 1.e.1 and it can go through this cycle any number of times by reading substring ab repeatedly. Example 2 : This DFA does not accept any string because it has no accepting state.2 . which is not an accepting state. Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by a(ab)*aa . To find the language it accepts. Thus the language it accepts is the empty set Example 3 : DFA with one cycle . and it stays there.

0 and 0 .1 .0 . first from state 0 go to state 1 by .Example 4 : DFA with two independent cycles This DFA has two independent cycles: 0 .0.1.0 and it can move through these cycles any number of times in any order to reach the accepting state from the initial state such as 0 .3 . Example 5 : DFA with two interleaved cycles This DFA has two cycles: 1 .2 .2 . To find the language accepted by this DFA.2 .2 .1 and 1 .0 .1 .0 . Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by ( ab + bb )*.2 .

reading a ( any other state which is common to these cycles such as state 2 can also be used instead of state 1 ). At this point a substring a( baa + bba )* will have been read.1 any number of times in any order by reading substrings baa and bba.1 and 1 . Example 6 : This DFA has two accepting states: 0 and 1. Thus the language that is accepted by this DFA is the union of the language accepted at state 0 and the one accepted at state 1. There is a systematic way of finding the language accepted by a DFA and we are going to learn it later. Then from state 1 go through the two cycles 1 . first at state 0 read any number of b's.0 . At this point (b*a) will have been read. Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata .3 . Then go from state 1 to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading bb. Then go to state 1 by reading one a.2 . Thus the language accepted at state 1 is b*a(ba)* . Thus altogether a( baa + bba )*bb will have been read when state 3 is reached from state 0.1 any number of times by reading substring ba repeatedly. To find the language accepted at state 1. The language accepted at state 0 is b* .2 . At state 1 go through the cycle 1 . So we are not going to go any further on this problem here. respectively.2 .

a) ) . 3. Its elements can be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in.e. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. As in the case of DFA the set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. But it can be the empty set. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of (q. We call the elements of Q a state.Subjects to be Learned • • • Nondeterministic finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. 5. the transition function. Which one of the states in (q. . Note that any DFA is also a NFA. Examples of NFA Example 1: Q = { 0. ceases to come. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". Unlike DFAs an NFA moves into one of the states given by (q. . q0 . q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. in which case the NFA aborts its operation. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . 2. a) must be specified. 1 }. A > Notes on the definition 1. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ends i. 4. Note that is a function. A = { 1 }. = { a }. Otherwise it is not accepted. The transition function is also called a next state function . As in the case of DFA the accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 1 a (q. the following table. a) to select is determined nondeterministically. Also let be a function from Q to 2Q .

2 }. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. = { a. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. A = { 2 }. in the following table. If the alphabet a}. 1. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state.2} 0 1 1 2 2 b a b a b {2} (q.A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. . the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1. b } in stead of { a }. b }. this is still an NFA that accepts { Example 2: Q = { 0. is changed to { a.

If any other strings are given to this NFA. then it goes to state 2 and remains there. it moves to either state 1 or state 2. Let us now define the function strings and languages by NFA. Thus the string ab is also accepted by this NFA. if it moves to state 2 and no more inputs are given.Operation of NFA Let us see how an automaton operates when some inputs are applied to it. it does not accept any of them. then it stays in the accepting state. Initially it is in state 0. * and then formalize the concepts of acceptance of . Since the state 2 is the accepting state. When it reads the symbol a. We say that this automaton accepts the string a. As an example let us consider the automaton of Example 2 above. if the next input is b and if no more inputs are given. If on the other hand it moves to state 1 after reading a.

3} 0 b {2} 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b {1} {3} {3} (q. Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q. . string. *( q . where * denotes the empty . the function * :Q -> 2Q is defined recursively as follows: * Definition of *: Basis Clause: For any state q of Q. any string y * and any symbol a ( q . In general an NFA nondeterministically goes through a number of states from the state q as it reads the symbols in the string w. . Example State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {0. ) = { q }. * (q.1. w ) is the set of states that the NFA can reach when it reads the string w starting at the state q. the Basis Clause says that an NFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the set of states NFA can reach after reading string ya starting at state q is the set of states it can reach by reading symbol a after reading string y starting at state q. A > . q0 . a) ) For example consider the NFA with the following transition table: . Thus for an NFA < Q .Language Accepted by NFA Subjects to be Learned • • • for NFA Language accepted by NFA Properties of * * Definition of * For a state q and string w. ya ) = In the definition.

Hence *( 0 .The transition diagram for this NFA is as given below. 1 . . Then * * ( 0 . a ) by the Inductive Clause of * Now *( 0 . Hence *( 0 . ab ) can be calculated as follows: ( p. b ) for all p * ( 0 . 3}. a ) is the union of ( p.b) (3.2. ) again by the Inductive * Clause of the definition of . ( 0 . By the Basis Clause of the definition of *. ) = { 0 } . 3 } . a ) = { 0 . a ) = ( 0 . ab ) is the union of the definition of * . ab ) = ( 0 .b)={2} {3} {1}={1. *( 0 . a ) for all p ( 0 . Suppose that the state 3 is an accepting state of this NFA. b ) (1.

Some of the strings accepted by the NFA given above are the language it accepts is a*( ab + a + ba )(bb)* . . * ( q . q0 . and for NFA has properties similar to that for DFA. q0. * (q.* We say that a string x is accepted by an NFA < Q.A Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >. abbbb etc. x ) A is not empty. . The language accepted by an NFA < Q. ab. that is.a)= (q. a. * . A > . A > is the set of strings that are accepted by the NFA. .a) for an NFA < Q . . Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 . . . xy ) = These theorems can be proven in a manner similar to those for Theorems 1 and 2 for DFA. . q0. for an NFA < Q . aaa. . A > if and only if * ( q0 . . if and only if it can reach an accepting state by reading x starting at the initial state.

A transition on reading means that the NFA.) and see some examples. . We are going to do that by showing that a finite automaton can be constructed from a given regular expression by combining simpler FAs using union. the transition function. q0 . for any NFA. As we are going to see later. 2. We call the elements of Q a state. Also let { } to 2Q .A> Notes on the definition 1. . q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states.there is a NFA (hence DFA) which accepts the same language and vice versa.. . Note that any NFA is also a NFA.Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata with Transitions Subjects to be Learned • • • - Nondeterministic finite automata with State transition diagram State transition table -Transitions Contents One of the objectives of this chapter is to show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between regular languages and finite automata. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. Thus the tape head does not move when is read. concatenation and Kleene star operations. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton with -Transitions is a 5-tuple < Q . Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton with Let Q be a finite set and let -Transitions be a function from Q be a finite set of symbols. Here we are going to formally define NFA with -Transitions (abbreviated as NFA. Basically an NFA with -Transitions is an NFA but can respond to an empty string and move to the next state.makes the transition without reading any symbol in the input. These operations on FAs can be described conveniently if -Transitions are used.

5 }. it can move to any of the states other than 0. Thus 4 is the only state you can go to from the initial state . a) ) Here the transitions to are omitted from the table. then you come to state 4. When a symbol a is read at the initial state 0. you can go to state 2. For though you go to states 1. 4 } 3 {5} 3 b {4} 4 a {5} (q. For once you are in state 1. following table. for example. 3. 4 and 5 by reading a. for example. A = . 4. there are no transitions on reading b except from state 3. 3. 2. If you read string ab. = { a. 4 and 5 without reading any symbol on the tape. 3. 2. b }. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. 1.Example of NFA- Q = { 0. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in the State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 0 {4} 1 {2} 2 { 3.

by reading ab.

**Language Accepted by NFASubjects to be Learned
**

• • • •

**-closure for NFALanguage accepted by NFAProperties of *
**

*

Contents

To formally define * for NFA- , we start with the concept of -closure for a state which is the set of states reachable from the state without reading any symbol. Using that concept we define * and then strings and languqges accepted by NFA- . Definition of -closure

Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA- . Let us denote the -closure of a set S of states of Q by ( S ). Then ( S ) is defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: S (S)

Inductive Clause: For any state q of Q, if q ( S ) , then ( q , ) (S). Extremal Clause: Nothing is in ( S ) unless it is obtained by the above two clauses.

For the NFAFirst { 2 }

of the above figure, ( { 2 } ) , that is, 2 (2, )

( { 2 } ) is obtained as follows: ( { 2 } ) . Then since 2 ( { 2 } ) , by the

Inductive Clause, Since (2,

({2}). ({2}).

) = { 3 , 4 }, we now have { 2 , 3 , 4 }

Since 3 and 4 have been added to

({2}),

(3,

) = { 5 } and

(4,

)=

must

be included in ( { 2 } ) . Thus now { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } ({2}). Though 5 has become a memeber of the closure, since ( 5 , ) is empty, no new members are added to ( { 2 } ) . Since ( q , ) has been examined for all the states currently in ( { 2 } ) and no more elements are added to it, this process of generating the closure terminates and ( { 2 } ) = { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } is obtained. As we can see from the example, ( S ) is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S by traversing any number of arcs. That is, it is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S without reading any symbols in . Now with this -closure, we can define

*

recursively as follows:

As in the cases of DFA and NFA, * gives the result of applying the transition function repeatedly as dictated by the given string. Definition of

* *

is going to be defined recursively. Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA-

.

**Basis Clause: For any state q of Q,
**

*

(q,

)=

({q}).

*

Inductive Clause: For any state q, a string y in

and a symbol a in

,

*

( q , ya ) =

(

).

What the Inductive Clause means is that *( q , ya ) is obtained by first finding the states that can be reached from q by reading y ( *( q , y ) ), then from each of those states p by reading a (i.e. by finding ( p , a ) ), and then by reading 's ( i.e. by taking the closure of the ( p , a )'s ) . Example : For the NFAbelow: of the following figure,

*

( 0 , ab ) can be obtained as

First let us compute *( 0 , a ) . For that we need ( { 0 } ). Since it is the set of states reached by traversing the arcs from state 0, ( { 0 } ) = {0,3,4}. Next from each of the states in ( { 0 } ) we read symbol a and move to another state (i.e. apply ). They are ( 0 , a ) = { 1 } , ( 3 , a ) = ( 4 , a ) = { 5 }. Hence We then traverse the } ) = { 1 , 2 , 3 } and = { 1 , 5 } for q = 0 . arcs from { 1 , 5 } to get to the states in *( 0 , a ) . Since * ({5})={5}, (0,a)={1,2,3,5}.

({1

q2. ab ) read b from each of the states in *( 0 ..< Q . . For example the NFAof the figure given above accepts the language { . NFAs and NFAto NFA 1 Conversion of NFA- Let M1 = < Q1 . A1 > be an NFA. q1. NFA M2 = < Q2. The language accepted by an NFA. 4 } . Now ( 1 .to (equivalent) NFA Conversion of NFA to (equivalent) DFA Equivalence of DFAs. b ) . . b ) are empty sets. 4 } .Then to find *( 0 .0 . q0 . a ) and then take the arcs from there. Equivalence of DFAs. q0 . ( 3 . b ) = { 4 } . ab ) = { 3 . . ab } . . Then the 2 . NFAs and NFA. and ( 2 . *( 0 . .< Q . A string x is accepted by an NFA. A > is the set of strings accepted by the NFA. .that recognizes a language L. A2 > that satisfies the following conditions recognizes L: . A > if and only if *( q0 . .0 . a . x ) contains at least one accepting state. Thus Since ( { 4 } ) = { 3 .s Subjects to be Learned • • • Conversion of NFA. b ) and ( 5 .

Then for each state q of Q2 and each symbol a of find 2 ( q .Q2 = Q1. . q1. Then collect all the states that can be reached from each state of ( {q} ) by traversing one arc labeled with the symbol a. The transition function 2 is obtained as follows: 2( 0 .0 through arcs in M1 . a ) = 1 * (q.0.0 are the accepting states of M2 . The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0. as the given NFA. A2 > which accepts the same language 1 . a ) as follows: Find ( {q} ). 2 ( q. that is if an accepting state can be reached from the initial state q1. . then all the accepting states of M1 plus state q1. Example 1: Let us convert the following NFAto NFA.M1 = < Q1 . A1 > does. that is all the states that can be reached from q by traversing arcs. 2 first copy the states of Q1 into Q2.0 . Otherwise. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) . q2. a ): First ( { 0 } ) = { 0 . Thus to obtain an NFA M2 = < Q2.0 = q1. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. . The closure of the set of those states is 2( q . q2.0 } ) A1 = A1 otherwise . 1 } . 1.0 . Then from the transition function of the NFA- .a)= ( ) A2 = A1 { q1. 2. The set of accepting states A2 is the same as A1 if no accepting states can be reached from the initial state q1.0 through arcs in M1 . 3 ).0 } if ( { q1. a ) .

3} {1.2} {1. 2 }. 1 For .2}. They are given in the table ( { q } ) and 2 below together with State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b a b .2} {1. b ) .2} {1. a ) = 1 ( 1 . and Hence 2( 0 .b)= Similarly 2 can be obtained for other states and symbols. )(= ( {1.2} {1. a ) = { 1 .3} {1. ({1. 1 } and 1 (0. .3} {3} {1. (q.1} {1} {1} {2} {2} {1.2} )) ({q}) {0. a ) = . 2 ( 0 .2})={1. since ( { 0 } ) = { 0 .1} {0.b)= 1 ( 1. 2 (0.2} The NFA thus obtained is shown below.( 0 . b ) = .

3} )) {1.4} {1.2.1} {1} {1} {2.2. 2 is given in the table below together with ( { q } ) . The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0. 3.4} {1.3} {1.2} {4} {4} {4} {1. ) and State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 a b a b a b a b a ({q}) {0. The transition function 2 is obtained as for Example 1.4} {1. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) . 2. 1 ( p .Example 2: Let us convert the following NFA- to NFA. 1.3} . 4 ).2} 2 (q. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. )(= ( {1.1} {0.3} {3} {3} {1.2.3} {2.2} {1.4} {1.

4 b {1. Proof of Equivalence of NFA- and NFA We are going to prove that the NFA obtained from NFAby the conversion algorithm accepts the same language as the NFA.4} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. .

w).w)= 2 * (q. w ) for an arbitrary string w (Induction Hypothesis).(1) . . w ) for any non-empty string w.. wa ) = 2 * ( q .w)= 2 * ( q .(2) Hence from (1) and (2). . a ) = 1*( q . First we are going to prove that To review the definition of * 1 * . it implies that NFAM1 and NFA M2 accept the same non-empty strings. a ) . and NFA- When it is proven.a)= 2 ( q . q2. --.0 .a).a)= 2 * 2 (q. A1 > and 2 NFA obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2.w)= 2 * ( q .NFA- that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 . then assuming it holds for any arbitrary string w we prove it for any of the children of w. for NFA. that is wa for any symbol a in the alphabet. The case when w is an empty string is going to be proven separately. wa ) = --.(1) because of the way NFA is constructed from NFA(click here for a review) .a).a)= 2 2 * (q . Basis Step: We need to show that for any symbol a in 1 * (q. )={q}. then * 1 ( q . A2 > (q. a)= by the definition of Since * 2 * for NFA (click here for a review) . We are going to prove it by showing that both of them are equal to Firstly 2( q . Claim 1: For any non-empty string w and for any state q. Hence (q. 1 * (q.a).0 . (q. wa ) holds for any arbitrary symbol a in First we show that using the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . q1. . . = = 2 * 2 (q . and the conversion of NFAto NFA click here. Secondly 2 * (q. 1 * (q. wa ) --. (q.(2) .a). Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. Inductive Step: We need to show that if 1 * (q. Thus we first prove that it is true for any arbitrary symbol.a)= 2 * (q. 1 . = 1 * Then we show that ( q . . a ) --. the induction hypothesis and the construction of NFA from NFA. Recall that the set of strings is defined recursively (click here for a quick review).

To see an explanation for this click here. Hence On the other hand = Hence 1 * = ( q . as proven below in Claim 3. w ) by the induction hypothesis. by the definition of 1 * . The right hand side of this equality is equal to ( the first and have been swapped to get this) . By the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . . wa ) . . .a)= 1 * ( q . wa ) = . Let us next prove (2). 1 * Thus from (1) and (2) ( q . because = .basically using the definition of Then from (1) and (2) we can see that 1 * 1 * . wa ) . wa ) = 2 * ( q . wa ) . This can be shown to be equal to . wa ) = Since 2 * (q.a)= Substituting this into the left hand side of (2) produces = . for NFA- (p. = 1*( q . that is By the definition of 1 * = 1 * 1 * ( q . wa ) .w)= 1 * ( q . Hence we have proven (2). wa ) = 2 * ( q . wa ) . a ) by the way NFA is constructed from NFA= . = Since 2 (q. ( q . that is (1) has been proven. Hence 2 * ( q . Let us first prove (1).

As a preparation for the proof of commutativity of union and -closure operations. As for the empty string . if it is accepted by an NFA. Let us review the definition of the -closure of the set of states of an NFA.. A2 . Let X be the set of states of an NFA. Hence by the way A2 is constructed. By the way NFA is constructed from . We are going to prove this in two parts: (S T) (S) (S) (T) ( T ) and (S T). ) (X). then its childen also have it. q20 Conversely if NFAis accepted by NFA. Claim 2: (S T)= (S) (T). and the corresponding NFA accept the same language. Hence is accepted by NFA. then q20 this means that Thus NFA( { q10 } ) A1 A2 . . Hence is accepted by NFA. in the Basis Step of our proof we prove the property for the elements of the basis of (S T ) and in the Inductive Step we prove that if an arbitrary element of (S T ) has that property. let us prove the following claim. then ( q . Then the -closure of X is defined recursively as Basis Clause: X (X). For that let us restate the statement so that the induction becomes clearer. Extremal Clause: Nothng is in ( X ) unless it is obtained by the Basis and Inductive Clauses. What Part 1 states is that all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in the set (S) (T). Part 1 : (S T) (S) (T) This is going to be proven by induction on (S T). Since (S T ) is defined recursively. then ( { q10 } ) A1 . Inductive Clause: If q ( X ) .End of Induction With this Claim 1 we can see that any non-empty string w is accepted by NFA if and only if it is accepted by the corresponding NFA.

Inductive Step: We need to prove that for an arbitrary element q in ( S ) . then (q. T ) with (T). ) (S) (S) (T). (S T ) with the property of being in (S) ( T ) .S (S T). End of Proof for Part 1 Part 2 : Proof of Part 2: We are going to prove (S) (S (S) T ) and (S) (T) (T) (T) (S (S (S T). Basis Step: We need to show that S Since S (S T ) . Hence (T). Since q If q ( S ) . ) (S) (T). Hence ) Similarly if q Hence if q is an arbitrary element of (S) (T). ) Let q be an arbitrary element of T ) with the property of being in ( S ) by the definition of ( T ) .q ( S ) or q ( S ) . ( T ) . T). then (q. then (q. T T). (T). (q. (S) (T). ) . and ( S T) (S T). That would imply that Proof of (S) (S By induction on (S T): (S). then ( q . (T) Thus all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in (S T) which is to say that (S) (T). if q is in . ) (S) (T).Proof of Part 1: Basis Step: We need to prove that ( S Since S ( S ) and T T) (S) (S) (S (S) (S) (T). S and T are subsets of (S T) Inductive Step: We need to prove that if q is an arbitrary element of the property of being in (S) (S ( T ) . ( T ) .

Proof : Proof by induction on n. then (q. (S T ) holds. ) (S closure T). then Hence Inductive Step: Assume that ( ( Si ) = Si ) = ( Si ) holds for n = 1. since = ( Equivalence of NFA and DFA We are going to prove that the DFA obtained from NFA by the conversion algorithm . ( Si ) = ( Si ) = ( S1 ) and ( S1 ) . ( Sn+1 ) by the induction hypothesis. --. Thus (S) (S T ) has been proven. ( Si ) holds for n. Si ) by the definition of union. End of Proof for Claim 3 Sn+1 ) by Claim 2 above. End of Proof of Part 2 End of Proof of Claim 2 Claim 3: ( Si ) = ( Si ) . Si is a set as well as Sn+1.(S Since q is in (S T ) and since (S T ) .Inducion Hypothesis ( Si ) = ( = = (( Si ) ( ( Si ) ) Si ) ( Sn+1 ) by the definition of union. - T ) is a -closure. Similarly Hence (S) (T) (T) (S T ) holds. by the definition of (q. ) (S T). Basis Step: n = 1. If n = 1.

w ) for an arbitrary string w. it obviously implies that NFA M1 and DFA M2 accept the same strings.0 . A1 > and DFA .0 . NFA that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 .0 .0 .Part 1 Subjects to be Learned • • • • Union of FAs Concatenation of FAs Kleene Star of FAs Acceptance of regular languages by FAs Contents . Basis Step: For w = 2 * .0 } by the construction of DFA M2 . Theorem: For any string w. q1.0 . w ) = 2*( q2. wa ) * 1 Thus for any string w ( q1. wa ) = = = = 2 ( 1 2 * * ( q1. Inductive Step: Assume that Induction Hypothesis 1 * ( q1. ) by the definition of 1 * .0 . w ) = 2 * ( q2.0 .0 .0 . w ) holds. a ) 2( * 2 ( q2. = * 1 ( q1. . When it is proven.0 . ( q1.0 . w ) .0 .0 .0 . ) = q2.accepts the same language as the NFA. w ) = 2 * ( q2. Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. w ) . obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. ( q2. w ) . 1 * ( q1. --- For the string w and an arbitrry symbol a in 1 * . q2. = { q1. a ) ( q2.0 . Kleene's Theorem --.0 .0 by the definition of 2* . . A2 > First we are going to prove by induction on strings that 1*( q1. 2 1 . w ) for any string w. w ) = 2 * ( q2.

A1 > and M2 = < Q2 . where qu. qc. respectively. Ak > . 2 .Kleene's theorem. Since any regular language is obtained from { } and { a } for any symbol a in by using union. A2 > . Inductive Step: We are going to show that for any languages L1 and L2 if they are accepted by FAs.0 . .0 . c . Au > . Mc . .{ } and { a } for any symbol a in are accepted by an FA. qk. Au > : { qu. then L1 L2 . respectively. q2. qu. Then L1 = < Qc . . .0 } . We assume that Q1 Q2 = without loss of generality since states can be renamed if necessary. Suppose that L1 and L2 are accepted by FAs M1 = < Q1 . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by the FAs Mu = < Qu . Proof: This is going to be proven by (general) induction following the recursive definition of regular language. u Mu = < Qu . It states that any regular language is accepted by an FA and conversely that any language accepted by an FA is regular. that together with the Basis Step would prove the theorem. qu. Qu = Q1 Q2 . Theorem 1 (Part 1 of Kleene's theorem): Any regular language is accepted by a finite automaton. Ac > and Mk = < Q2 . . 1 . u L2 . Basis Step: As shown below the languages .0 . which are given below. . concatenation and Kleene star operations. L1L2 and L1* are accepted by FAs. .0 .0 is a state which is neither in Q1 nor in Q2 . q1. k .0 .0 .

. c .0 } = 1 { (qk. qc.0. . . u ) = { q1. Ac > : Qc = Q1 Q2 qc. { qk. { q2.0.0 } ) } { (q.0 . Ak > : { qk.0 is a state which is not in Q1 .u = 1 2 { (qu. Qk = Q1 k . .0 } ) | q A1 } Ac = A2 Mk = < Qk . These NFA- s are illustrated below. where qk.0 c = 1 2 { (q. . k . Au = A1 A2 Mc = < Qc .0 } ) | q A1 } Ak = { qk. Note that (qu.0. qk.0 . { q1. that is u (qu.0 } .0 } . a ) = for all a in .0 .0 = q1. . { q1.0 } ) } .0. q2. q2.0 .

Mc and Mk: Example 1: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression (aa + b)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above. End of Proof Examples of Mu . L1L2 and L1*. in fact accept L1 L2 .It can be proven. Mu. respectively.s . though we omit proofs. that these NFA. . Mc and Mk .

.Example 2: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression ((a + b)a*)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above.

Part 2 .Kleene's Theorem -.

q. k) : The set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled wiht k or lower numbers. k+1. k) : The set of strings going first from p to k+1. k+1. k)*L(k+1. k+1) = L(p. L(p. Given a finite automaton. . then from k+1 to k+1 any number of times. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. k)*L(k+1. Note that paths may go through arcs and vertices any number of times. See the figure below for the illustration. It states that any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. k+1. q. 2. k) L(p. L(p. Next denote by L(p. k) the set of strings representing paths from state p to state q that go through only states numbered no higher than k. q. Lemma 1: L(p. k+1. then from k+1 to q. q. q. let us study a method to compute the set of strings accepted by a finite automaton. k)L(k+1.Subjects to be Learned • Languages accepted by FAs are regular Contents The converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem also holds true. What this lemma says is that the set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled with k+1 or lower numbers consists of the following two sets: 1. k) . Then the following lemmas hold. all without passing through states labeled higher than k. k)L(k+1. q. first relabel its states with the integers 1 through n. Before proceeding to a proof outline for the converse.

we have the following converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem.Lemma 2: L(p. 0) is regular. q. then it consists of single symbols representing arcs from p to q. 0) is the set of strings representing paths from p to q without passing any states in between. n) over all accepting states q. Lemma 3: L(p. Since the language accepted by a finite automaton is the union of L(q0. 0) is regular. Since the number of symbols is finite and since any finite language is regular. >From Lemmas 1 and 2 by induction the following lemma holds. q. Example : Let us find the language accepted by the following finite automaton using the . Proof: L(p. L(p. q. q. then is in it as well as the strings representing any loops at p (they are all single symbols). If p = q. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. Theorem 2 (Part 2 of Kleene's Theorem): Any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. k) is regular for any states p and q and any natural number k. Hence if p and q are different. q.

1.0) = and r(3.0)r(1. 1)*r(2.0)r(1. 2. 2) . 1) r(1.2. 2.2.1.1. 1) = r(2.0)r(1. 3) = r(1.0)*r(1. 2) + r(1. 2.1. 2): r(1. 3. 1) + r(1. r(1. since r(1.1. 2)*r(3. 1.1. 3.0) = b . 1. 3).0)r(1. 3. 2) = a+(b a+ + = a+(b a+ )*a . 3.0) = a + .2. 3. )*a r(3. 1) = r(2.2. 2) = r(1. 2): r(3. 2) = r(1.0)*r(1. since r(1. 1) + r(1. 1.1. 1) = r(2.2. 3. 2. since r(3.0)*r(1. r(2.0) = and r(2.1. 1) r(3. 2) = a* + a+(b a+)*b a* . 1. q. r(1.1.lemmas. 3.1.1. 3.1. 1)r(2. 1) = a Hence r(1. 1) r(1.0) = ba* . 3. By Lemma 1. 1. Let us denote by r(p. k) the regular expression for the set of strings L(p. r(2. Hence r(1. 3.2.0) = ba+ .0) + r(3.1. 2)r(3.0)*r(1. 2) = r(3.1.2.0) = a+ . q.1. 1)r(2.0) + r(2. 3.0) + r(1.1. since r(2. 1)*r(2. 1. 1) + r(3. 2. 1)*r(2.0)r(1. 2. 3. 1. 3. Then the language accepted by this NFA is r(1. 1) = r(1.0) = ba+ + . 2): r(1.1.0) = b. 1) = r(3.0)*r(1. 1.0) = a* . 1. 1) = r(3. . 2.2. r(1. k). 1) = r(1.0) + r(1. 1)r(2.0) = a . r(1. 2. 1. 2.2. 3.0) + r(2. 1.

. Q . 1) + r(3. 1)*r(2. 2) = r(3.0) + r(3. . and all the r(p.e.1. n)'s must be added together to get the regular expression for the language accepted by the automaton. 1.A > is a DFA that accepts * . 2): r(3. where p is the initial state and n is the number of states in the given finite automaton. then to (a + ab)*. 2) = ba* + ba+( ba+ + = ( ba+ )*ba* . q0 . that is Mc = < Q . 2. can be obtained by swapping its accepting states with its non-accepting states. 1. Hence r(1. . Comlement and Intersection of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • • Complement of Regular Language Complement of DFA Intersection of Regular Languages Contents Complement Let M = < Q . q0 . 1)r(2. q.0) = ba* Hence r(3. 2. 1) = r(3.L . n) must be found for each accepting state q. Then a DFA that accepts the complement of L.0)<SUP*< SUP>r(1. i. q.1. . 1. 1. 1. If there are more accepting states. 1.0)r(1.Hence r(3. 2) = = + ( ba+)+a + ba+( ba+ + )*a r(3. 1) r(3. . then r(p. In this example there is only one accepting state.L. )*ba* + ( ba+)+a )*( ba+ )*ba*. * . A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. The detail is left as an exercise though it would be quite challenging. 3.1. 1.1. 3) = a* + a+(b a+)*ba* + ( a+( ba+ )*a )( This can be further simplified to (a + ab + abb)*.

.For example the following DFA accepts the language a+ over = { a . Remark 2: Since a language is regular if and only if it is accepted by some NFA. the complement of a regular language is also regular. we must first convert it to DFA before swapping states to get its complement. b }. Remark 1: If we have NFA rather than DFA. A DFA that accepts its complement is obtained from the above DFA by changing all single circles to double circles and vice versa as shown below.

Thus summing all this up we can say that the set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed with respect to union.Intersection of Regular Languages Langauges are sets. By Remark 2 above.Regular Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Regular Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Production and Grammar Regular Grammar Context-Free. if L1 and L2 are regular languages. Test Your Understanding of Complemnent and Intersection of FAs Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. concatenation and Kleene star operations. L1 L2 is regular. then Submit. Since L1 L2 = by De Morgan's law. Click True or Fals . Therefore all the properties of sets are inherited by languages. difference. Next -. intersection. In particular De Morgan's law also applies to languages. then their complements are regular languages. Context-Sensitive and Phrase Structure Grammars .

That gives us aa. . In general if a string a grammar G. a set of terminals (the alphabet of the language). where is a string of terminals and nonterminals with at least one nonterminal in it and is a string of terminals and nonterminals. which is { a. a ) = Y and for every production X -> a add the transition ( X. b}. and a set of rewrite rules (productions) P. These rules mean that S is rewritten as a or as aS. Then apply the first rule to aS to rewrite S as a. add the transition ( X. aS. and S -> aS . A production has in general the form -> . } can be generated This can be proven by constructing an FA for the given grammar as follows: For each nonterminal create a state. S -> bS. Thus the process of obtaining aa from S is written as S => aS => aa . For example. A grammar is a set of rewrite rules which are used to generarte strings by successively rewriting symbols. a ) = Z. . where X and Y are nonterminals and a is a terminal. } . We write S => aS to express that aS is obtained from S by applying a single production. aaa. If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. start with S and apply the second rule to replace S with the right hand side of the rule. if L . For example consider the language represented by a+.Contents We have learned three ways of characterising regular languages: regular expressions. One can generate the strings of this language by the following procedure: Let S be a symbol to start the process with.{ by a regular grammar. S corresponds to the initial state. . A grammar is regular if and only if is a single nonterminal and is a single terminal or a single terminal followed by a single nonterminal. To generate the string aa for example. that is by something called grammar. finite automata and construction from simple languages using simple operations. . that is a production is of the form X -> a or X -> aY. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. Theorem 3: A language L is accepted by an FA i. the fact that aa is obtained from S is written as S =>* aa .e. Add another state as the accepting state Z. The following theorem holds for regular grammars. There is yet another way of characterizing them. a start symbol S. to obtain aS. we write =>*G is obtained from a string and say that by applying productions of . S -> } is a regular grammar and it generates all the strings consisting of a's and b's including the empty string. which ia a nonterminal. aa. i. If there is no is derived from ambiguity about the grammar G that is referred to. Rewrite S using one of the following two rules: S -> a . Then for every production X -> aY. = {a.e. then we simply write =>* Formally a grammar consists of a set of nonterminals (or variables) V. regular.

as its member. q0 > is obtained as follows: for any a in . . { a. b}. S -> a }. q0. b }. L = Conversely from any NFA < Q. accepted by an NFA. S -> a. and for any a in and any nonterminal X. A > a regular grammar < Q. X -> aY is in P if and only if (X. S -> bS. Z } and ( S. a) = Y for some accepting state Y. Thus L . a) = Y . Y } . . Y -> bS. where S is the initial state and Z is the accepting state of the NFA. X. S -> aX.{ regular grammar.{ } is regular. then L . a regular grammar corresponding to the NFA given below is < Q. S -> b } form a regular grammar which generates the language ( a + b )+. Z } . X -> aY. An NFA that recognizes this language can be obtained by creating two states S and Z. X -> a is in P if and only if (X. and nonterminals X and Y. . S > . Thus the following converse of Theorem 3 is obtained.e. P = { S -> aS. and adding transitions ( S. . a ) = { S. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. b ) = { S. } is generated by a For example. X -> bS. If L contains ( L -{ } ) { } is also regular. then since { } is regular . Theorem 4 : If L is regular i. P. The NFA thus obtained is shown below. P.For example = {a. where Q = { S.

Z. S. Y. respectively.| | | |. YX -> XY. For example P = { S -> aSb. aX -> aa. bZ -> bc. context-sensitive grammars and phrase structure grammars. cZ -> cc } with = { a. S1 } is a context-sensitive grammar and it generates the language { anbncn | n is a positive integer } . A grammar is a context-free grammar if and only if its production is of the form X -> . 1 . 2 and are strings of terminals and nonterminals. X -> a. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals. where X is a nonterminal and . It is an example of context-sensitive language which is not context-free. b. context-sensitive languages and phrase structure languages. that is. b } and V = { S } is a contex-free grammar and it generates the language { anbn | n is a positive integer } . S -> XYZ. ZX -> XZ. As we shall see later this is an example of context-free language which is not regular. possibly empty except Thus the nonterminal X can be rewritten as only in the context of 1X 2 . S -> ab } with = { a. BY -> bb. For example P = { S -> XYZS1. A grammar is a context-sensitive grammar if and only if its production is of the form 1 X 2 -> 1 2 . ZY -> YZ. They are characterized by context-free grammars. c } and V = { X. These grammars are distinguished by the kind of productions they have but they also form a hierarchy. aY -> ab. S1 -> XYZS1. S1 -> XYZ. Context-sensitive grammars are also characterized by productions whose left hand side is not longer than the right hand side. that is the set of regular languages is a subset of the set of context-free languages which is in turn a subset of the set of context-sensitive languages and the set of context-sensitive languages is a subset of the set of phrase structure languages. . for every production -> .In addition to regular languages there are three other types of languages in Chomsky hierarchy : context-free languages. possibly the empty string.

There are two sets of questions. }.Minimization of DFA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Minimization of DFA One important result on finite automata. Then the following algorithm produces the DFA.For a phrase structure grammar. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. then Submit. Next -. both theoretically and practically. Minimization Algorithm for DFA Construct a partition = { A. Let M = < Q . where and Test Your Understanding of Regular Grammar Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Q . -> . Click True or Fals . denote it by M1. that is a production of a phrase structure grammar can take the form can be any string. there is no restriction on the form of production. . is that for any regular language there is a unique DFA having the smallest number of states that accepts it. new := new_partition( . q0 . .A } of the set of states Q . that has the smallest number of states amomg the DFAs that accept L.

S remains in the output partition. Let p and q be representatives i. The subsets thus formed are sets of the output partition in place of S. . If S is not partitioned in this process. final function new_partition( ) for each set S of do partition S into subsets such that two states p and q of S are in the same subset of S if and only if for each input symbol. states of minimum DFA M1. Let us also denote by p and q the sets of states of the original DFA M represented by p and q.e. These representatives are states of minimum DFA M1. end Minimum DFA M1 is constructed from • • final as follows: • • Select one state in each set of the partition final as the representative for the set. Note that the sets of final are either a subset of A or disjoint from A. The start state of M1 is the representative which contains the start state of M. then the minimum DFA M1 has a transition from p to q on symbol a. A state is a dead state if it is not an accepting state and has no out-going transitions except to itself. new := new_partition( := . Let s be a state in p and t a state in q. p and q make a transition to (states of) the same set of . respectively.while ( := new new ) ) . Example 1 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. if there are any. The accepting states of M1 are representatives that are in A. Remove from M1 the dead states and the states not reachable from the start state. If a transition from s to t on symbol a exists in M. Any transitions to a dead state become undefined.

and 1 to 2 on b. and 3 goes to 1 on a in the original DFA. remains unchanged. On the other hand 1 and 5 make the same transitions. 2 and 4 are separated from each other in new. 2 . in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 1 to 3 on a. state 3 goes to state 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . { 2 } . 5 }. since 1 and 5 do the same transitions. and from 3 to 1 on a. Further. Thus the new partition is { { 1 . 4 goes to 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . { 3 } . Since on b state 2 goes to state 1. { 2 .Initially = { { 1 . Since the rest are singletons. { 4 ] }. they have the obvious representatives. Since the rest of the states are singletons. Also since on a sate 4 goes to sate 4. all transitions between them are inherited for the minimized DFA. For the transitions. 5 } . So they are not going to be split. 3 . states 3 and 4 are going to be separated from each other in new. Select 1 as the representative for { 1 . . since on b 2 goes to 1. Thus final = { { 1 . 5 } . states 2 and 3 are going to be separated from each other in new . since 1 goes to 3 on a. 5 } . Thus the set of states for the minimized DFA is { 1 . 3 }. { 2 } . 4 } }. Also since 2 goes to 1 on b. new_partition is applied to . state 3 goes to state 5 and 4 and 5 are in different sets in . Note here that state 4 is a dead state because the only transitionout of it is to itself. This becomes the second iteration. in the When new_partition is applied to this new . in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 2 to 1 on b. { 4 ] }. { 3 } . and to 2 on b in the original DFA.

Thus the minimized DFA is as given in the following figure: Example 2 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. .

6 } }. { 3 } . 2 . 5 . new = { { 1 } .Application of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Application of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Reactive system . { 1 . { 1 . 4 . Click True or Fals . 4 } . new = { { 3 } . Thus the number of states of the given DFA is already minimum and it can not be reduced any further. { 5 } . { 4 } . { 6 } } is obtained. new = { { 3 } . Test Your Understanding of Minimization of DFA Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. { 2 . { 5 } . Next -. { 6 } } is obtained. 6 } } is obtained.Initially = { { 3 } . 4 . { 2 } . { 1 . Applyting new_partition again. { 2 } . 5 } . then Submit. Applyting new_partition to this . By applying new_partition to this .

computer network communication protocols. To model a reactive system with finite automaton. Then the transitions between the states triggered by events and conditions. Finite automata are formal and rigorous and computer programs can be easily written to simulate their behaviors. These become the states of the finite automaton that models it. Many of those systems fall into the class of systems called reactive system. The inputs for a reactive system are never ready unlike for example when two numbers are added together by an adder (Here we are considering an adder at a higher level of abstraction than physical devices level ignoring for example the transient states of the electronic circuit that realizes an adder). two numbers to be added are ready.e. . first the states the system goes in or the modes of its operation are identified. Let us assume for simplicity that this computer accepts a single user at a time. a system must respond to each stimulus. For example consider the following very simplified version of login process to a computer from the computer point of view. are identified and they become arcs in the transition diagram of the finite automaton.• Modeling reactive systems with FA Contents We have seen an example of use of finite automata in describing the operation of a simplified version of vending machine. even to a fragment of input such as each coin tossed in for a can of soda or every message received. An adder does not respond unless the input i. A system such as an adder is called a transformational system. In the case of vending machine or communication protocol. on the other hand. In addition actions that may take place in those states can also be added to the model. A reactive system is a system that changes its actions. lexical analysers for compilers etc. external or internal to the system. It is an event driven or control driven system continuously having to react to external and/or internal stimuli. outputs and conditions/status in response to stimuli from within or outside it. It is generally agreed that finite automata are a natural medium to describe dynamic behaviors of reactive systems. Many other systems operating in practice can also be modeled by finite automata such as control circuits of computers.

. When a RFNM starts coming. Initially the computer is in wait state waiting for "Request for Next Message" (RFNM) to come from another computer. it sends "Acknowledgement" (ACK) to the other computer. If the user name typed in is not valid. If the password typed in is incorrect. Again what we have seen is a model for one level of abstraction. The next example is a protocol for a computer to follow in communicating with another computer. different states would be identified and transitions would have to be selected accrdingly. That is another state though it could further be broken down into a number of more states. That is a fourth state. This is one state of the system. it goes to the initial state and starts all over again. it starts sending the requested message to the other party. If it is valid.Initially the computer waits for a user name to be typed in. Thus a finite automaton that models this protocol has the following five states: initial state (wait for RFNM). sending ACK. it goes back to the initial state and waits for another RFNM to come. then it asks for and then waits for the password. it gets a signal. Again it is a very simplified version. When it is complete. which is another state. If a positive ACK is received. When the session terminates. receiving RFNM. which is another state. If a negative ACK is received. then it accepts the user and starts a session. Again depending on the level of abstraction. it resends the message. it checks whether or not the name is valid. But let us make it simple. If the second password fails. goes back to the initial state and waits for another login. then it informs the user of that and waits for the next try. When a name is typed in. Depending on how much detail we are interested in. sending message and waiting for ACK. When a password is typed in and it is correct. it goes back to the initial state. Upon completion of the RFNM. After sending the ACK. different states and transitions would have to be chosen. it goes into the state of receiving it (Our interpretation is that the computer is in a state of receiving an RFNM and it is taking the action of receiving the RFNM) . We could make it go to a different state and count the number of login attempts for security purpose. it goes into another wait state waiting for an ACK to come from the other computer.

+213.e.represent the positive and negative signs.+ ) ( d+. respectively and d {0. On the other hand if a digit has been read before a decimal point. then it must receive at least one digit after that. If a decimal point is read while in D. Since these numbers are represented by strings consisting of a possible sign. then it goes into a state. where s+ and s. then it can continue receiving digits and stay in D. -15. denote it by D. that indicates a digit has been read before a decimal point. it is in state D. followed by zero or more digits.d+ ). Therefore from state P it goes to another state.378. If a decimal point is received before a digit. After one digit it can continue receiving digits. after reading a digit and stays there as long as digits are read. This system can also be described by a regular expression. . This Q is an accepting state. . denote it by G. followed by a possible decimal point.. denote it by P.2. If the first digit is received before a decimal point. it goes into a state. 9 } .1. i. . that indicates that a sign has been received. denote it by Q. If a decimal point has been read (i. they can be represented by the following regular expression: ( s+ + s. that indicates that a decimal point has been read. then it goes into a state. in state P). One such system initially waits for the first symbol to come in. If the first symbol is a sign. This system can be modeled by the following finite automaton: . followed by one or more digits.8 etc.d+ + d+ + . then it goes to state P indicating that a decimal point has been read.e. regardless of whether a sign has been read or not.Our third example is a system that recognizes numbers with or without a sign such as 5. D is another accepting state.

Another array. A third array.Simulation of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Simulation of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Simulation of FA Contents Once a finite automaton is constructed. It uses four arrays. Algorithm FA Simulator state := INITIAL_STATE. while ( TOKEN [index] . keeps the index of the first symbol in the TOKEN array for each state. holds the next state for each input symbol for each state. Those indices are used to access the contents of the other arrays. called NEXT_STATE. input := read_input( ) . while ( state NO_of_STATES and not End of Input ) index := STATEX [state] . called ACTION. One such simulation algorithm is given below. One array. stores for each state the input symbols that trigger transitions from the state. we can use a general purpose program to simulate its operation. called TOKEN. 0 and TOKEN [index] input ) index := index + 1. indicates the actions taken at each state and a fourth. called STATEX.Next -.

In the DFA below all the transitions to the empty state (i. to input 3. S is the initial state and B and H are accepting states. C and H. The corresponding transitions are going to be shown by red arrows in the transition diagram. first click the box pointed by the red arrow in the figure below. S corresponds to 1. else error input := read_input( ) . To see how this algorithm works.45. The ACTION array would contain pointers to actions to be taken corresponding to arcs traversed such as converting a digit in BCD form to the corresponding binary number. So no action is taken as a number is processed. Then type in a number you want the FA to recognize. state := NEXT_STATE [index]. Then type 3 Tab .if ( TOKEN [index] 0) perform the action specified by ACTION [index]. The numbers below NEXT_STATE array show the correspondence between the indices of the STATEX array and the states A. . Tab 4 Tab 5. Then every time you click "SHOW" the number is processed digit by digit. At the moment it is empty.e. B. You must hit the "Tab" key to move to the next box. end Here 0 in the TOKEN array is a marker between states. empty transitions) are omitted. first click the box under the red arrow. For example.

click here It is extremely slow. So be patient. .If you are also interested in how code is executed.

Thus there is no way for a finite automaton to remember how many a's it has read for all possible strings anbn . we can conclude that { anbn | n is a natural number} is not regular. Since a regular language must be recognized by a finite automaton. a and aa are indistinguishable with respect to the language an over alphabet { a }. where n is a positive integer. their properties and their usefulness for describing various systems. either xz and yz are both in L or they are both not in L.Nerode Theorem for non-regularity test Pumping Lemma Contents We have learned regular languages.Next -. In this section we are going to study some of the methods for testing given languages for regularity and see some of the languages that are not regular. But any finite automaton has only finite number of states. because aak and aaak are in the language an for any .Non-Regular Languages Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Regular Languages Non-Regular Languages Subjects to be Learned • • • Existence of non-regular languages Myhill . however. This is the basis of two of the regularity test methods we are going to study below: Myhill-Nerode Theorem and Pumping Lemma. There are. Thus it must be in different states when it has read different number of a's and starts reading the first b. For example to recognize the language { anbn | n is a natural number} . a finite automaton must remember how many a's it has read when it starts reading b's. The main idea behind these test methods is that finite automata have only finite amount of memory in the form of states and that they can not distinguish infinitely many strings. Non-regularity test based on Myhill-Nerode's theorem Indistinguishability of strings: Strings x and y in * are indistinguishable with respect to a language L if and only if for every string z in *. That is the main limitation of finite automata. languages that are not regular and therefore require devices other than finite automata to recognize them. For example.

Example 2: L2 = { ww | w {a. Theorem : A language L over alphabet is nonregular if and only if there is an infinite subset of * . because ab is in the language anbn while aab is not in the language. whose strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L. Consider the set of strings S3 = { (k x | k is a positive integer } . This set is infinite . Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set S1. Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } over alphabet { a . a and aa are not indistinguishable (hence distinguishable). the set of strings consisting of one or more right parentheses followed by identifier x. Hence L2 is nonregular. Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L1 . We are going to show that its strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L1. It can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L2 as follows. Select bakb as a string to be appended to ak and am . b } can be shown to be nonregular using Myhill-Nerode as follows: Consider the set of strings S1 = { an | n is a positive integer } . However. Select bm as a string to be appended to ak and am . the following theorem by Myhill and Nerod gives a criterion for (non)regularity of a language. then ( + ) and ( * ) are in L3 . where k and m are positive integers and k m . Using this concept of indistinguishability. x . S1 is over alphabet { a . Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S2. that is. L3 can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: x and y are in L3 . b }* } is nonregular. with respect to the language anbn . Then akbm is not in L1 while ambm is in L1 . It is stated without a proof. Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. For more on Myhill-Nerode theorem click here. S2 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L3 unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Then akbakb is in L2 while ambakb is not in L2 . (x*y) . where k and m are positive integers and k m .positive integer k. S1 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set. ( ( x + y ) * x ) and (( (x*y) + x ) + (y*y) ) are algebraic expressions. Hence L1 is nonregular. Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L2 . Inductive Clause: If and are in L3 . b } and it is infinite. operations + and * and left and right parentheses. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S1. Consider the set of strings S2 which is the same as S1 of Example 1 above. For example.

Then the substring representing that cycle (bba in the example) can be repeated any number of times within the string w without being rejected by the NFA. For example [ + x ) ]3 is +x) +x)+x) . Hence L3 is not regular. abbabbabbb. then there must be a cycle in the NFA along some path from the initial state to some accepting state (such as the cycle 2-3-4-2 in the above example). For example the string abbabbb is accepted by the NFA and if one of its substrings bba is repeated any number of times in abbabbb. Those strings which are accepted by this NFA and whose length is greater than 5 have a substring which can be repeated any number of times without being rejected by the NFA. This NFA accepts among others some strings of length greater than 5 such as abbabbb. where k and m are positive integers and k m . abbabbabbabbb etc. Pumping Lemma Let us consider the NFA given below. The following theorem which is called Pumping Lemma is based on this observation. Hence S3 is pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 . abbabbabbb etc. In general if a string w (such as abbabbb in the example above) is accepted by an NFA with n states and if its length is longer than n. the resultant strings such as abbb (bba repeated 0 times). It .and it can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 as follows: Let (k x and (m x be arbitrary two strings of S3 . Then (k x + [ + x ) ]k is in L3 but (m x + [ + x ) ]k is not in L3 because the number of ('s is not equal to the number of )'s in the latter string. are also accepted by the NFA. Select [ + x ) ]k as a string to be appended to (k and (m .

for some p > 0 . |uv| n |v| > 0 . v has at least one symbol. uvmw L. It is stated without a proof here. n . Pumping Lemma : Suppose that a language L is regular. Note that Pumping Lemma gives a necessity for regular languages and that it is not a sufficiency. uvmw Test Your Understanding of Non-regularity . Hence an+pbn can not be in the L. Thus Pumping Lemma can not be used to prove the regularity of a language. Then uv2w = an-pa2pbn = an+pbn . that is. v = ap. and for every m 0. v. Example 4: As an example to illustrate how Pumping Lemma might be used to prove that a language is nonregular. where k is a natural number. Consider a string x = anbn for that n. It can only show that a language is nonregular. Since p > 0 . even if there is an integer n that satisfies the conditions of Pumping Lemma. let us prove that the language L = akbk is nonregular. there are strings u. n. Also since |uv| Let us now consider the string uvmw for m = 2. Since |v| > 0 . and w such that x = uvw. the language is not necessarily regular. v and w which satisfy the following relationships: x = uvw |uv| n |v| > 0 and for every integer m 0. n + p language L represented by akbk . uvmw L. Hence L is not a regular 0. Suppose that L is regular and let n be the number of states of an FA that accepts L. Then there must be strings u. then any long enough string of the language has a substring which can be repeated any number of times with the resultant strings still in the language.states that if a language is regular. Then for any string x in L with |x| n. This violates the condition that for every m language. Let n be the number of states of that FA. Then there is an FA that accepts L.

If there are three strings that are distinguished with respect . if and only if they are indistinguishable with respect to . that is. Then the theorem is is staed as follows: Theorem: A language L over alphabet is regular if and only if the set of equivalence classes of is finite. are distinguishable with respect to L. Proof of Theorem Necessity Suppose that a language L is regular and two strings. then Submit. Then there is a string z such that xz is in L and yz is not in L (or xz is not in L and yz is in L). say x and y. This means that if x and y are read by an DFA that recognizes L. if and only if }. the DFA reaches different states. Next -.Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Click True or Fals .Context-Free Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Myhill-Nerode Theorem The non-regularity test for languages by Myhill-Nerode is based on the following theorem which is in the contrapositive form of the theorem used for nonregularity test. Also it is a corollary to Myhill-Nerode theorem: Let { be the followijg relation on }={ : For strings and of .

]. if the number of classes of strings that are pairwise indistinguishable with respect to a language L is finite. [ .. be the number of distinct equivalence classes (i. For.. which it can not because a DFA must have a finite number of states. Let .to L. be representatives of those distinct equivalence classes. .. DFA ( = {[ =[ = {[ ( . if and in [ ]. are in different classes for and are distinguishable with respect to L. Then we construct a . . then the DFA reaches three different states after reading those three strings. Sufficiency Conversely.. where [ ] =[ ] for all . [ ]=[ } ].. then the language is not regular. . then the DFA must have infinitely many states. Note that "indistinguishable with respect to L" is an equivalence relation over the set of strings (denote it by ) and [x]'s are equivalence classes. then ]'s. namely ] and ].. We will show that a DFA that accepts L can be constructed using these equivalence classes.e.. Let us now show that this machine is in fact a DFA and it accepts the language First. Hence if there is an infinite set of strings which are pairwise distinguishable with respect to a language. then the language L is regular. .. . making them belong to different [ Hence is a function. Hence if there are infinitely many strings to be distinguished with respect to L. ].. note that for every string [ ]. is in exactly one equivalence class. let [x] denote a class of strings that are indistinguishable from a string x with respect to L. To prove this. ) as follows: ]} ]. the index) of and let .

where . Our proof is by structural induction on string Basis Step: = =[ ]. by the definition of = . Hence Hence we have shown that for every string ]. if then for every . First some terminology. For that. Hence =[ = . Inductive Step: Assume Then for every But =[ Hence =[ ]. ] by the induction hypothesis. if the set of its equivalence classes is finite. then every We then show that for every string . where ]. =[ ]. where ] is the equivalence class that belongs to. first note that if . . Since . With these terminology. by the definition of = . Myhill-Nerode Theorem can now be stated as follows: The following three statements are equivalent: (1) A language is regular.Next. . =[ ]. . this means that the DFA accepts Myhill-Nerode Theorem Let us here state Myhill-Nerode Theorem. Then by the definition of . . if a string in [ in ] is in . An equivalence relation on is said to be right invariant if for every . . for DFA. Also an equivalence relation is said to be of finite index. . ]. let us show that this DFA accepts string in [ ] is also in L. = [ ].

where X the start symbol. grammar (CFG) if V and . S . P1 > generates L1 : V1 = { S } .(2) L is the union of some of the equivalence classes of a right invariant equivalent relation of finite index. . Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } is a context-free language. b } and P1 = { S -> aSb . They are grammars whose productions have the form X -> . P > is a context-free V is V. The set of strings generated by a context-free grammar is called a context-free language and context-free languages can describe many practically important systems. are finite sets sharing no elements between them. S . (3) is of finite index. Definition (Context-Free Grammar) : A 4-tuple G = < V . For the following context-free grammar G1 = < V1 . Proofs are omitted. A language is a context-free language (CFL) if all of its strings are generated by a context-free grammar. Context-Free Languages Context-Free Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Context-Free Grammar Context-Free Languages Push Down Automata Contents Earlier in the discussion of grammars we saw context-free grammars. and P is a finite set of productions of the form X -> and (V )* . . Let us define context-free grammars and context-free languages here. where X is a nonterminal and is a nonempty string of terminals and nonterminals. S -> ab }. Most programming languages can be approximated by context-free grammar and compilers for them have been developed based on properties of context-free languages. S . = { a .

. y . } . < if-statement > -> if ( < expression > ) < statement > . . S -> y }. first relabel symbols of V2 . Properties of Context-Free Language Theorem 1: Let L1 and L2 be context-free languages. if necessary. . . where w is a nonempty string and wr denotes the reversal of string w. Outline of Proof This theorem can be verified by constructing context-free grammars for union. P2 > be context-free grammars generating L1 and L2 . = { a . . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. Then L3 is a context-free language. operations + and * and left and right parentheses. For the following context-free grammar G3 = < V3 . S2 . Then let Sc be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . respectively. S -> bSb . Su . that is. Next define Vu = V1 V2 { Su } and Pu = P1 P2 { Su -> S1 . Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. w is spelled backward to obtain wr . Then it can be easily seen that Gc = < Vc . if necessary. so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. ) . Next define Vc = V1 V2 { Sc } and Pc = P1 P2 { Sc -> S1S2 } . . < statement > -> < for-statement > . concatenation and Kleene star of context-free grammars as follows: Let G1 = < V1 . < expression > -> < algebraic-expression > . b } and P2 = { S -> aSa . For L1* . S -> S*S . * } and P3 = { S -> ( S + S ) . S -> bb }. . Pu > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1 L2 . P2 > generates L2 : V2 = { S } . . . . L1L2 . . . . Then let Ps = P1 { Ss -> SsS1 . first relabel symbols of V2 . < forstatement > -> for ( < expression > . Sc . < statement > -> < assignment > . P1 > and G2 = < V2 . . and L1* are . Then L1 context-free languages. Then it can be easily seen that Gu = < Vu . < expression > . Su -> S2 } .Example 2: L2 = { wwr| w {a. Example 4: Portions of the syntaxes of programming languages can be described by context-free grammars. S -> aa . < expression > ) < statement > . S . Similarly for L1L2 . b }+ } is a context-free language . S . For the following context-free grammar G2 = < V2 . . < expression > -> < logicalexpression > . let Ss be a symbol which is not in V1 . Then let Su be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . S -> x . P3 > generates L3 : V3 = { S } . S1 . For example { < statement > -> < if-statement > . ( . Pc > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1L2 . 3 = { x . Then for L1 L2 . . 3. Ss -> L2 . + .

> . Thus its transition function specifies the new top of the stack contents as well as the next state. check the stack. ) means the following: The automaton moves from the current state of p to the next state q when it sees an input symbol a at the input and X at the top of the stack. A . > . generates the language L1* . accept the string. a . Let us define this new type of automaton formally. Z0 . . where Q = { q0 . q0 . . A pushdown automaton ( or PDA for short ) is a 7-tuple M = < Q . where Q is a finite set of states. They need a little more complex automata called pushdown automata. Let us consider a context-free language anbn . . It can be seen that the grammar Gs = < Vs . For example. A . as a's are read by the finite automaton. If another a (or anything other than b) is read after the first b. A is the set of accepting states is the transition function and :Q ( ( } -> 2 Q * . .} . Pushdown Automata . push them into the stack. As soon as the symbol b appears stop storing a's and start popping a's one by one every time a b is read. When all the symbols of the input string are read. . and are finite sets ( the input and stack alphabet. and it replaces X with the string at the top of the stack. q0 . This automaton behaves like a finite automaton except the following two points: First. Z0 is the initial stack symbol and it is a member of . its next state is determined not only by the input symbol being read. but also by the symbol at the top of the stack. context-free languages are also accepted by automata but not finite automata. Ps > is a context-free grammar that Like regular languages which are accepted by finite automata. reject the string. Second. Example 1 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . q0 is the initial state. If it is empty. Thus ( p . Z0 . Any string of this language can be tested for the membership for the language by a finite automaton if there is a memory such as a pushdown stack that can store a's of a given input string. respectively ). Otherwise reject it. Ss . the contents of the stack can also be changed every time an input symbol is read. X ) = ( q .

we can also write ( q0 . aZ0 ) ( q0 . aZ0 ) ( q1 . we write ) is reached from ( p . abb . aZ0 ). ) ( q1 . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . its configuration is ( q0 . . y . Z0 ). aaZ0 ). (p. . y . To express that the PDA moves from configuration ( p .x. Let us now see how the PDA of Example 1 operates when it is given the string aabb . . x is the unread portion of the input string and is the current stack contents. Z0 ) This pushdown automaton accepts the language anbn . aaZ0 ) ( q1 . This entire process can be expressed using the configurations as ( q0 .q1 . ) . it is ( q0 . where q is the state the PDA is currently in. Initially its configuration is ( q0 . A = { q2 } and let be as given in the State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . bb . x . Z0 ) ( If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. b . . aabb . Next it moves to the state q2 which is the accepting state. x . for example. To describe the operation of a PDA we are going to use a configuration of PDA. aZ0 ). it moves to state q1 and pops a from the top of the stack. q2 } .x. bb . another a is popped from the top of the stack and the PDA stays in state q1 . q0 . abb . b .y. Z0 . . Z0 ). aabb . * (q. b . ). Thus aabb is accepted by this PDA. = { a . . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . where the input is read from left to right and the top of the stack corresponds to the leftmost symbol of . > is a triple ( q . A configuration of a PDA M = < Q .y. Z0 ) * ( q2 . following table: = { a . aabb . aa ) q0 q1 q1 b b a a Z0 ( q1 . After reading the first a. . b } . ). ( q0 . Then when the first b is read. Z0 ) q2 . ) in a single move (a single application of the transition function) we write (p. ) by a sequence of zero or more moves. aZ 0 ) q0 a a ( q0 . ) ( q2 . Z0 ). x . ) ) (q. If ( q . A . When the second b is read. Z0 ) . ) to configuration ( q . After reading the second a. Z0 } .

a . = { a . arcs are labeled differently than FAs. A = { q2 } and let be as given in the following table: State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . . q0 . If ( q . ( q1 . ) . a ( q0 . b . where Q = { q0 . PDAs can also be represented by transition diagrams. A . aZ 0 ) q0 b Z0 ( q0 . Z0 . x. ) ) ) ) ( q1 . . b ( q1 . b . X / ) indicating that X at the top of the stack is replaced by upon reading a from the input. Z 0 ) In this table represents either a or b. q1 . ) ( q2 . > . Like FAs. . Example 2 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q .A string x is accepted by a PDA (a.a. For PDAs. bZ 0 ) q0 q0 q0 q1 q1 q1 a b c a b a b Z0 ( q0 . Z0) . ). Z0 } . q2 } . then an arc from state p to state q is added to the diagram and it is labeled with ( a . X ) = ( p . For example the transition diagram of the PDA of Example 1 is as shown below. however. c } . acceptance by final state) if (q0. for some in *. * (q. and an accepting state q.k. = { a .

That means that a language is . aZ0 ) ( q0 . In the figure and 2 represent a or b. For example for the input abbcbba. a . bbcbba . This PDA pushes all the a's and b's in the input into stack until c is encountered. Z 0 ) . it accepts the input string. The transition diagram of the PDA of Example 2 is as shown below. ( q0 . abbcbba . it goes through the following configurations and accepts it. .This pushdown automaton accepts the language { wcwr | w { a . bcbba . . ( q0 . Z0 ) ( q0 . cbba . bbaZ0 ) ( q1 . When c is detected. which is the set of palindromes with c in the middle. b }* } . When there are no more unread input symbols and Z0 is at the top of the stack. Z 0 ) ( q2 . bba . baZ0 ) ( q1 . aZ0 ) ( q1 . Otherwise it rejects the input string. 1 Further topics on CFL • PDA and Context-Free Language There is a procedure to construct a PDA that accepts the language generated by a given context-free grammar and conversely. it ignores c and from that point on if the top of the stack matches the input symbol. bbaZ0 ) . it pops the stack. ba . baZ0 ) ( q1 .

a computer like non-English speaking people must be told how to interpret sentences such as the first noun phrase (" A dog") is usually the subject of a sentence. we are not going to study parsing here.context-free if and only if there is a PDA that accepts it. They can describe much of programming languages and basic structures of natural languages. "bites" is the verb and "a man" is the object of the verb. ???? references on Parsing ???? . a verb phrase usually follow the noun phrase and the first word in the verb phrase is the verb and it is followed by noun phrases reprtesenting object(s) of the verb. For example in the sentence "A man bites a dog". then add the result to x. there are strings v. Though we are accustomed to interpreting this as x + (yz) i. Then there is a positive integer n such that for any string u in L with |u| n . then multiply the result by z. Interested readers are referred to the textbook and other sources. However. Similar things happen when English sentences are processed by computers (or people as well for that matter).e. productions of grammars. it could also be interpreted as ( x + y )z meaning that first compute x + y. vwmxymz L for every integer m • Parsing and Parsers for CFL Consider the algebraic expression x + yz.e. native English speakers know that it is the dog that bites and not the other way round. Thus they are widely used for compilers for high level programming languages and natural language processing systems. x. w. it does not know which interpretation to use unless it is explicitly instructed to follow one or the other. However. Parsing is the process of interpreting given input strings according to predetermined rules i. y and z which satisfy u = vwxyz |wy| > 0 |wxy| n 0 . "A dog" is the subject. The parsing for context-free languages and regular languages have been extensively studied. Contect-free grammars are powerful grammars. Thus if a computer is given the string x + yz. compute yz first. Those procedures are omitted here. By parsing sentences we identify the parts of the sentences and determine the strutures of the sentences so that their meanings can be understood correctly. • Pumping Lemma for Context-Free Language Let L be a CFL.

Test Your Understanding of Contect-Free Language Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. then Submit. of limited capability and there are many languages that they can not process. Turing machines were conceived of by the English mathematician Alan . and the machines that can process them: Turing machines. Next -. Click True or Fals . the phrase structure languages (also called Type 0 languages).Turing Machines Back to Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • • • Definition of Turing Machine Configuration Operation of Turing Machine Contents Introduction We have studied two types of languages from the Chomsky hierarchy: regular languages and context-free languages. These languages can describe many practically important systems and so they are heavily used in practice. In this chapter we are going to study the most general of the languages in Chomsky hierarchy. They are. however.

It then moves the head to left or right or does not move it and goes to the next state which may be the same as the current state. right or stay at the same square after a read or write. Computers we use today are as powerful as Turing machines except that computers have finite memory while Turing machines have infinite memory. Later Alonzo Church conjectured that any computation done by humans or computers can be carried out by some Turing machine. It is also divided into squares and a symbol can be written in each square. Definition Conceptually a Turing machine. We are going to study Turing machines here and through that limitations of computers and computation as we know today. . either erases it or replaces it with a symbol (possibly the same symbol). consists of a finite control and a tape. However. unlike finite automata. The tape has the left end but it extends infinitely to the right. a Turing machine starts at the initial state. Given a string of symbols on the tape. One of its states is the halt state and when the Turing machine goes into the halt state. its head is a read-write head and it can move left. At any state it reads the symbol under the head. At any time it is in one of the finite number of states. like finite automata. This conjecture is known as Church's thesis and today it is generally accepted as true. it stops its operation.Turing as a model of human "computation".

L or S . R ) (h. left and do not move it.Formally a Turing machine is a 5-tuple T = < Q. R ) ( q3 . . b . State (q) Input (X) Move ( q0 q1 q2 q3 q3 a b a (q. It is a mapping from Q ( { } ) to ( Q { h } ) ( { }) {R. Example 1 : The following Turing machine < Q1 . b } . q0 is the initial state. Y. a . a . q1. is a finite set of symbols containing as its subset and it is the set of tape symbols. The symbol h is used to denote the halt state. > . X) ) ( q1 .S) A transition diagram of this Turing machine is given below. b } and is as given by the table below. D ) indicating that the state is changed from q to r. an arc from q to r is drawn with label ( X/Y . = { a . D ) . R ) ( q2 . L and S denote move the head right. Here denotes the blank and R. . . where Q1 = { q0. A transition diagram can also be drawn for a Turing machine. . = { a . X ) = ( r. The states are represented by vertices and for a transition ( q. respectively. q3 } . where D represents R. q0 .L. . which is assumed not to contain the symbol h. . . S}. is the transition function but its value may not be defined for certain points. the symbol X currently being read is changed to Y and the tape head is moved as directed by D. q0. where Q is a finite set of states. is a finite set of symbols and it is the input alphabet. R ) ( q3 . It is assumed that the tape has at the left end and the head is initially at the left end of the tape. > accepts the language aba* . q2.

Note that the Turing machine does not stop if a string is not in the language. zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in one move. ( q0 . A Turing machine T is said to decide a language L if and only if T writes "yes" and halts if a string is in L and T writes "no" and halts if a string is not in L. the taper contents are the string aababb and the head is reading the last a of the string. The set of strings accepted by a Turing machine is the language accepted by the Turing machine. aba ) ( q2 . aba ) (h. aba ) ( q3 . For example ( q . If the Turing machine needs to be explicitly indicated T or T* is used. q0 . > if x ) * ( h. In this case we also say that the Turing machine halts on input x. yaz ) for some symbol a { } and some strings y and z in ( * { } ) .Turing Machine that accepts aba* To describe the operation of Turing machine we use configuration. A string x is said to be accepted by a Turing machine* T = < Q . xay ) * ( q . We write ( p . aba ) ( q1 . aababb ) shows that the Turing machine is currently in state q. For example the Turing machine of Example 1 above goes through the following sequence of configurations to accept the string aba: ( q0 . zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in zero or more moves. . xay ) ( q . A configuration for a Turing machine is an ordered pair of the current state and the tape contents with the symbol currently under the head marked with underscore. and ( p . . aba ) .

. the second is a Turing machine that accepts { a } but goes into a loop if a string is not in the language (hence it accepts but doe not decide { a }) and the third decides { a }. where = { a }.The first of the following figures shows a Turing machine that accepts but does not decide the language { a }.

.

This Turing machine is denoted by TE. . It is assumed that initially the tape has at the left end. It is denoted by TR . to the right of Example 3 : The following Turing machine erases the string on the tape and moves the head to the left end.Example 2 : The following Turing machine moves the head to the first the current position.

Strings not Accepted by Turing Machines When a string is not accepted by a Turing machine. one of the following three things happens: (1) The Turing machine goes into an infinite loop. (2) no transition is specified for the current configuration and (3) the head is at the left end and it is instructed to move left. For example the following Turing machine accepts the language a+. but it goes into an infinite loop for any strings that are not in the language. the operation of the Turing machine is aborted. that is when a Turing machine does not halt on a string. In cases (2) and (3). .

f(x) ) * . the Turing machine eventually goes into the accept halt state. or loop. reject a string and halt.Turing machine accepting a+ Computabler Function Let S * and let f be a function f : S -> S. A Turing machine thus may accept a string and halt. Then we say T computes f or f is computable if for every x ( q0 . there is no difference between these two definitions of "accept". in the Turing machines those books define. a string is accepted by a Turing machine if given the string. . T does not halt on x. With this definition. * Note on "Turing-acceptable": Some books define "acceptance by Turing machine" slightly differently. A language is a phrase structure (type 0) langauage if and only if it is Turing-acceptable in either sense and it has no effects on decidablility. As far as the material discussed in this class note. there are two halt states: "accept halt" and "reject halt". * and for every x that is not in S. That is. x) * ( h.

Click True or Fals . We have already seen TR . then Submit. Here we are going to study how complex Turing machines can be constructed using simple Turing machines and how computers can be simulated by Turing machines. Furthermore according to the Church's thesis. In fact Turing machines that simulate computers and Turing machines that perform computations done by any algorithm can be constructed. One can construct many more Turing machines that perform various functions. Let us start with some basic Turing machines.Test Your Understanding of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. There are two sets of questions. Next -.Combination of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Combination of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Combination of Turing Machines Contents Combination of Turing Machines We have seen the definition of Turing machine and a few simple examples. It moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) . any "computation" done by human beings or machines can be done by some Turing machine.

Example 4: The following machine shifts the tape contents to the left one position. The halt state of T1 becomes the initial state of T2 . Similarly by TL we denote a Turing machine that moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) to the left of the current position. then T2 is started as in the case of T1T2 . takes the head to the right end of the string and halts. T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that first executes T1. respectively. To combine Turing machines we use the following conventions: Let T1 and T2 represent arbitrary Turing machines. let us construct a little more complex Turing machines. T1T2 and T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that behaves initially like T1 and when T1 halts T2 takes over inheriting the head position and the tape contents of T1 . Otherwise it crashes. Also by TR and TL we denote Turing machines that move the head to right and left one position. Using these basic machines and the convention. . Then if T1 halts and if the symbol currently under the head is . Then by T we denote a Turing machine that writes symbol at the current position and does not move the head (stays).to the right of the current position. Below is assumed to be at the left end of the tape initially.

Example 6: The following Turing machine copies the tape contents at the left end to their right separated by a blank . IIIII ) . After the addition the configuration becomes ( h . After adding two numbers placed on the tape it moves the head to the left end and halts. m I's and n I's with a blank between them are placed on the tape. k consecutive I's are put on the tape. natural numbers are represented on a Turing machine using symbol I. x x). that is ( q0 . II III ) . First. In general to represent a natural number k. For example the number 3 is represented by three consecutive I's on the tape and 5 by five I's. it goes through the following -> aab -> a -> a -> abb -> ab -> ab -> ab Example 5: The left-shift machine of Example 4 can be used to construct an adder for natural numbers. An adder can be constructed for example as TR -> TSL TL . To add two numbers m and n. . x) * b b (h. So the initial configuration for adding 2 and 3 is ( q0 .For example with the initial tape contents of sequence of tape contents and ends with ab ab -> ab : ab .

Furthermore if the subtraction operation is necessary. it is not difficult to construct a Turing machine that performs subtraction using the same representation of numbers as for the addition. branching. one can say that computers can be simulated by Turing machines. Since any complex computer instructions can be realized using those basic instructions. However. Click True or Fals . Test Your Understanding of Combination of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Thus by combining appropriate Turing machines a computer with a minimal instruction set can be constructed. On the other hand as we have seen above. A bare minimum instruction set would contain addition. the branch operation is already in Turing machines because next configurations are determined based on the current state and tape symbol being looked at.Today's computers are very complex machines and their instruction sets contain complicated operations. In fact many of the earlier computers had a much smaller instruction set but still could do everything today's computers can do albeit much more slowly. there is a Turing machine that performs addition. The following notations are used in the questions: . all of those instructions can be realized using combinations of a small number of basic instructions. store and load operations. then Submit. and store and load operations can be taken care of by a Turing machine that copies tape contents. All the other operations can be realized by using those basic operations.

To simulate a two dimensional tape with a one dimensional tape.Types of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Types of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Variation of Turing Machine Contents There are a number of other types of Turing machines in addition to the one we have seen such as Turing machines with multiple tapes. ones with two dimensional tapes. For any Turing machine of this type there is a Turing machine with a one dimensional tape that is equally powerful. that is. However. nondeterministic Turing machines etc. ones having one tape but with multiple heads. the former can be simulated by the latter. how fast they can compute. The tape has the top end and the left end but extends indefinitely to the right and down.T_a : Ta T_R : TR ->^b : ->b Next -. what one type can compute any other can also compute. may vary. first we map the squares of the two dimensional tape to those of the one dimensional tape diagonally as shown in . one read-write head and one two dimensional tape. It is divided into rows of small squares. the efficiency of computation. That is. It turns out that computationally all these Turing machines are equally powerful. that is. Turing Machines with Two Dimensional Tapes This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control.

. v 16 26 .. . . If i = 5 and the head moves down on the other hand.. then (k+1)-th square to the right from v is the new head position. that is i = 8.... If the head moves down to position 13. Let k be the number of squares visited by the head of the one dimensional tape.. .... One Dimensional Tape v 1 v 2 3 h 4 5 6 v 7 8 9 10 h 11 . If h was hit first.. .. ... then for the one dimensional tape.. . ... move 3 positions to the right. . .. The head of a two dimensional tape moves one square up. then move the head of the one dimensional tape to right until it hits h or v counting the number of squares it has visited after i.. . . Here the numbers indicate the correspondence of squares in the two tapes: square i of the two dimensional tape is mapped to square i of the one dimensional tape.. . then from h move the head of the one dimensional tape further right to the k-th square from h. v 7 14 18 24 .... Thus this time the third square is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 9 on the two dimensional tape.. Let i be the head position of the two dimensional tape. down. . . ..... That is the square corresponding to the square below i in the two dimensional tape.......... left or right. . the head moves from position 8 to right. ... ...< .> .. Let us simulate this head move with a one dimensional tape. .. . If the head moves down from i. . which is the second square from i = 5. For example. That is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 13 on the two dimensional tape. . h and v are symbols which are not in the tape alphabet and they are used to mark the left and the top end of the tape. .... ... then on the one dimensional tape the head moves to the right and it hits v first.the following tables: Two Dimensional Tape v v h 1 h 3 h 4 h 10 h 11 h 21 . v 2 5 9 12 20 22 .. Then it meets h first... .. . suppose that the head position is at 8 for the two dimensional tape in the above table. . .. . .. which is the third square from 8.. ... ...... v 15 17 25 . respectively. v 6 8 13 19 23 . .. Thus from h. If v was hit first...

one can say that one tape Turing machines are as powerful as n-tape Turing machines. >. . Thus some Turing machines with a one dimensional tape can simulate every move of a Turing machine with one two dimensional tape. Since the converses are obviously true. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . Hn denote the tape heads. Its transition function is a partial function :Q ( { } )n -> ( Q { h } ) ( { } )n { R . Details are omitted. In each state only one of the heads is allowed to read and write. Nondeterministic Turing Machines . . Hence they are at least as powerful as Turing machines with a two dimensional tape.Similarly formulas can be found for the head position on the one dimensional tape corresponding to move up. H2 . it can be said that they are equally powerful. Turing Machines with Multiple Tapes : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and more than one tapes each with its own read-write head. .. q0. It can be proven that any language accepted by an n-tape Turing machine can be accepted by a one tape Turing machine and that any function computed by an n-tape Turing machine can be computed by a one tape Turing machine. Since Turing machines with a two dimensional tape obviously can simulate Turing machines with a one dimensional tape. . L .. Hn } ( { } ) -> ( Q }.L.. Turing Machines with Infinite Tape : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape which extends infinitely in both directions. . S } n . right or left on the two dimensional tape. where H1 .S It can be easily seen that this type of Turing machines are as powerful as one tape Turing machines. A configuration for this kind of Turing machine must show the current state the machine is in and the state of each tape. > . . It turns out that this type of Turing machines are only as powerful as one tape Turing machines whose tape has a left end. Turing Machines with Multiple Heads : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape but more than one read-write heads. The transition function is a partial function : Q { H1 .. {h}) ( { } {R. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . q0. H2 .

like nondeterministic finite automata.S}. Theorem Any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by some deterministic Turing machine. Here an action means the combination of writing a symbol on the tape. it is understood that a nondeterministic Turing machine at any configuration selects one combination of next state. Then it would compare the first half of x with the second half by comparing the i-th symbol of the first half with the i-th symbol of the second half for i = 1. They form level 1. The set of all possible computations that TN can perform for a given string x can be represented by a rooted tree as follows. TN starts at the initial configuration and goes through a sequence of configurations until it reaches a halt configuration . Note that the number of children for a vertex in this tree is finite because the number of states is finite and there are a finite number of tape symbols. that is the place where the second half of x starts. The root of the tree is the initial configuration and it is the only vertex of level 0.. Given a string x. Formally a nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine whose transition function takes values that are subsets of ( Q {h}) ( { } {R. tape symbol and head movement out of the set of triples without following any specific predetermined rule. 2. . . A deterministic Turing machine. . Given a string x . It must find the midpoint by for example pairing off symbols from either end of x. As in the case of NFA.L. goes into an infinite loop or aborts. For example consider the following nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts a+ . Proof : Let TN denote a nondeterministic Turing machine. At any point in the process TN is in some configuration and has a finite set of configurations to choose from for its next configuration. It can be shown that a nondeterministic Turing machine is only as powerful as a deterministic Turing machine.A nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine which. All possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN once form the children of the initial configuration. can take any action selecting from a set of specified actions rather than taking one definite predetermined action. For example let us consider the language L = { ww : w { a . moving the tape head and going to a next state. Even in the same situation it may take different actions at different times. b }* } .. at any state it is in and for the tape symbol it is reading. In general for each vertex of level i all possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN are its children. The children of all the vertices of level i form level i+1. on the other hand. a nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts this language L would first guess the midpoint of x. can not guess the midpoint of the string x.

aa ) and ( q2 . aa ) ( h . aa ) . aa ) ( q1 . it would proceed as follows to accept it: ( q0 . and ( q1 . aa ) and ( q2 . aa ) ( q2 . At the second and third configurations in the above sequence. The tree for this case would be as follows: . aa ) ( q1 . it has two candidates for the next configuration: ( q1 . aa ) for the second. aa ) for the third.Turing machine accepting a+ Given the string aa.

Unsolvable Problems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Unsolvable Problems . In fact the Church's thesis conjectures that any so called computation done by humans or computers can be performed by a basic deterministic Turing machine. then T2 accepts the string and halts. Next -. though a deterministic Turing machine might take much more time than a nondeterministic Turing machine to accept a string. Click True or Fals . These children are the configurations of the next level and they are stored on the tape (if necessary a second tape may be used). call it T2.One way to simulate a nondeterministic Turing machine. is to traverse this tree breadth-first way from the root until the halt state is reached. it has been shown that none of them exceed the capability of basic deterministic Turing machine as far as accepting languages is concerned. Test Your Understanding of Different Types of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. then Submit. At each level of the tree. Thus any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by a deterministic Turing machine. However. with a deterministic one. It can be easily seen that T2 accepts a string if and only if T1 accepts it. If there is the halting state among these children. T2 applies the transition function of T1 to each configuration at that level and computes its children. call it T1. Many other variations of Turing machine are possible.

and an arbitrary string w over . That is. First recall that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language (see Problem Solving as Language Recognition). Proof (by M. and that any of their variations do not exceed the computational power of deterministic Turing machines.Subjects to be Learned • • • Halting Problem Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents We have learned that deterministic Turing machines are capable of doing any computation that computers can do. In this chapter we are going to learn that there are problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers. the question of whether or not a string is in the language may not be answered in any finite amount of time. Then there is a Turing machine T that solves the halting problem. Suppose that the halting problem is decidable. that is computationally they are equally powerful. So we are going to look at the unsolvability in terms of language recognition. there is no way of telling whether it is in an infinite loop or along the way to a solution and it needs more time. Thus if a language is not decidable. hence unsolvable. Since we can not wait forever for an answer. Minsky): This is going to be proven by "proof by contradiction". At any point in time. given a description of a Turing machine M (over the alphabet ) and a string w. Halting Problem One of well known unsolvable problems is the halting problem. Here "unsolvability" is in the following sense. and then T halts. Suppose that a language is acceptable but not decidable. It asks the following question: Given an arbitrary Turing machine M over alphabet = { a . the question is unanswerable that is the problem is unsolvable. does M halt when it is given w as an input ? It can be shown that the halting problem is not decidable. It is also conjectured that any "computation" human beings perform can be done by Turing machines (Church's thesis). L. . if the Turing machine is running. Theorem 1 : The halting problem is undecidable. Below we are going to see some well known unsolvable problems and see why we can say they are unsolvable. Then given a string a Turing machine that accept the language starts the computation. T writes "yes" if M halts on w and "no" if M does not halt on w. b } .

copies it to obtain the string d(M)*d(M). denoted by d(M). Next using Tm we are going to construct another Turing machine Tc as follows: Tc takes as input a description of a Turing machine M.We are now going to construct the following new Turing machine Tc. First we construct a Turing machine Tm by modifying T so that if T accepts a string and halts. then Tm goes into an infinite loop (Tm halts if the original T rejects a string and halts). . where * is a symbol that separates the two copies of d(M) and then supplies d(M)*d(M) to the Turing machine Tm .

Hence that assumption must be wrong. The way T was modified the modified T is going to go into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). Thus Tc goes into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and it halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). This contradiction has been deduced from our assumption that there is a Turing machine that solves the halting problem. Hence there is no Turing machine that solves the halting problem. it makes a copy.Let us now see what Tc does when a string describing Tc itself is given to it. Thus the modified T is given a description of Turing machine Tc and the string d(Tc). When Tc gets the input d(Tc) . Thus one implication of the halting problem is that there can be no computer programs (Turing machines) that check whether or not any arbitrary computer program stops for a given input. Thus the question of whether or not a program halts for a given input is nothing but the halting problem. constructs the string d(Tc)*d(Tc) and gives it to the modified T. This is a contradiction. . Program correctness and Halting Problem Note that for any computer program a Turing machine can be constructed that performs the task of the program.

then Submit. Click True or Fals . It is presented as a language and it can be shown that there are no Turing machines that accept the language.More Unsolvable Preoblems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines More Unsolvable Problems Subjects to be Learned • • Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents The next unsolvable problem is in a sense more difficult than the halting problem. Language NonSelfAccepting Let us first define two languages NSA1 and NSA2 as follows: . Next -.Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.

which is absurd. This means that there can not be any Turing machine that accepts the language NonSelfAccepting. by the definitions of NSA1 and NSA2. Proof: This is going to be proven by contradiction. Also T0 does not accept w0 . Hence by the definition of NSA1 . Hence it is in SelfAccepting . w d(T) for any Turing machine T } .NSA1 = { w | w w} { a. Knowing the unsolvability of the halting problem some other problems can be shown to be unsolvable. that accepts NonSelfAccepting. then w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. either w0 is in NonSelfAccepting or it isn't. But w0 = d( T0 ) because that is how we selected w0 . Then there is no Turing machine that can be described by the string a. NSA2 is the set of strings that do not describe any Turing machine. Then this w is a description of a Turing machine but it must be longer than one symbol. For let T be a Turing machine that accepts { a } and let w = d(T). However. that is w0 is a description of the Turing machine T0 . b }*. Certainly more symbols than a single a are needed to describe even the simplest Turing machine. For NSA2. where d(T) is a description of the Turing machine T. Problem Accepts( ) The problem Accepts( ) asks whetehr or not a given Turing machine T accepts . Hence either T0 accepts w0 or rejects it. Hence a is in NSA2 . Since NonSelfAccepting is a language. call it T0. w0 is in neither NSA1 nor NSA2 . b }*. Neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. Hence T0 can not accept w0 . It . This is a contradiction. Hence w is in NSA1 . Suppose there is a Turing machine. Hence it is not accepted by T. (2) If T0 does not accept w0 . NSA1 is the set of strings that describe a Turing machine but that are not accepted by the Turing machine they describe. then w0 NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. This is again a contradiction. Thus neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. let w = a. Theorem 2 There are no Turing machines that accept the language NonSelfAccepting. w = d(T) for a Turing machine T and T does not accept NSA2 = { w | w { a. Thus there can not be Turing machine T0 that accepts the language SelfAccepting . Hence w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting . (1) If T0 accepts w0. We are going to see that T0 neither accepts w0 nor rejects it. w0 is in NSA1 . Let w0 = d( T0 ). Let us define the language NonSelfAccepting as NonSelfAccepting = NSA1 Then we can prove the following theorem: NSA2 .

the halting problem can be solved. We are going to show that the halting problem becomes solvable using this A. call it M. Using a similar idea the following problem can also be shown to be unsolvable. Consider a Turing machine T = TwT'. M solves the halting problem.can be shown to be unsolvable. Problem AcceptsEverything The problem AcceptsEverything asks whether or not a given Turing machine T halts on every string over a given alphabet . where Terase is a Turing machine that erases the input on the tape and halts. Let A be a Turing machine that solves AcceptsEverything. that solves Accepts( ) can be constructed as . Let T' be an instance of Accepts( ). This T halts on every string over if and only if T1 halts on . Then there is a Turing machine that solves it. Since the halting problem is unsolvable. That is. which is an instance of the halting problem. This T halts on if and only if T' halts on w. Using this T. Then M halts on d(T') and w if and only if T' halts on w. Suppose that AcceptsEverything is solvable. Using this T. a Turing machine. Let a Turing machine T' and a string w be an instance of the halting problem. this means that Accepts( ) is unsolvable. Let A be a Turing machine that solves Accepts( ). M writes the string d( T ) on the tape and let A take over. Suppose that Accepts( ) is solvable. call it M. We are going to show that Accepts( ) can be solved using the solution to it. Then consider the Turing machine T = TeraseT' . a Turing machine. Thus if Accepts( ) is solvable. where machine Tw is a Turing machine that writes w. that solves the halting problem can be constructed as follows: Given a description d(T') of a Turing machine T' and a string w as inputs.

Other Unsolvable Problems Let G1 and G2 be context-free grammars and let L(G) denote the language generated by grammar G. AcceptsNothing This problem asks whether or not a Turing machine accepts nothing. it means that AcceptsEverything is unsolvable.shown below. By similar arguments the following problems can be shown to be unsolvable. Equivalence This problem asks whether or not two Turing machines accept the same language. Since Accepts( ) is unsolvable. Then the following problems are all unsolvable. Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) = ? finite ? infinite ? context-free ? Is L( G1 ) = L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) = * ? Is the complement of L( G1 ) context-free ? . It can be shown to be unsolvable using Accepts( ) . It can be shown to be unsolvable using AcceptsEverything.

Time Complexity of Problem Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Complexity Time Complexity Subjects to be Learned • • • • • Time Complexity of Problems Decision Tree Class NP Polynomial Time Transformation NP-Complete Problems Contents In the previous sections we have learned that some problems are unsolvable by Turing machines hence by computers. A problem is solvable if some Turing .Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Next -. No one can write computer programs that solve those problems and halt after a finite amount of time. then Submit. Click True or Fals .

For example a binary search takes O(lg n) time. They are both satisfiable. For example. So it is certainly satisfiable. The satisfiability problem for PDL is known to take at least exponential time to solve in the worst case. etc. etc. The satisfiability problem becomes even harder when logic becomes more complex. Then there are problems that require double exponential ( e. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved by algorithms with the worst case time which is a polynomial in the problem size (polynomial time algorithms). Let us see some of those intractable problems. For example the satisfiability problem for Presburger arithmetic is double-exponential (2-fold exponentail). where P is a propositional variable. For many problems a day or even an hour would be too long. then Y Z [ X = Y + Z ] ] is a proposition of Presburger arithmetic. where P and Q are propositions. One can ask the same question for formulas of first order predicate logic. the equality symbol = and quantifiers and . For example. are propositions of PDL. second order logic. as we are going to see below. in practice if it takes a million years. the addition operation +. X [ if ~( X = 1 ). where k is a natural number. after(A.g. There are also problems that must be solved at best by exponential time algorithms in the worst case. This is the problem of asking whether or not a given formula can take the value true for some values of its variables. a heap sort needs O(n lg n) time. The problems that can not be solved with any polynomial time algorithm are called intractable problems . it is still solvable. They take much more time to execute than polynomial time algorithms. 22n ) time algorithms. O(f(x)) (big-oh) and other related subjects click here. This is a propositional logic with an extra construct (proposition) after(A. variables taking positive integers as their values. For example "after( if P then Q else ~Q. For example the formula ( P V ~P ) is always true. as well as all the connectives such as and. Similarly ( P V Q ) is also satisfiable. that is it requires at least O( aan ) time to solve in the worst case. Q )" . or etc. In logic there is a well known problem of "satisfiability". S). Even if it takes a million years to solve a problem.machine can solve it in finite time. They are all polynomial time algorithms. where A is an algorithm and S is a statement. It is estimated by counting the largest possible number of key operations to be performed in terms of the input size. it is as good (or bad) as unsolvable. problems that need k-exponential time algorithms. However. So it is not satisfiable. But (P ^ ~P ) is always false. Before proceeding to predicate logic let us consider the following logic called propositional dynamic logic (PDL for short). The measure for computation time we use is the worst case time. and there are problems that require algorithms with the worst case time worse than k-exponential time for any natural number k. For more detailed review of this. a quick sort needs O(n2) time. . the satisfiability problem for the propositional dynamic logic is proven to take exponential time to solve in the worst case. S) says that S is true after executing A. In this section we are going to study solvable problems and learn a hierarchy of solvable problems based on the computation time required to solve them. Presburger arithmetic is a logic that allows statements involving positive integers. ~Q )" and "if P then after( if P then Q else ~Q.

Consider the problem of coloring vertices of a graph with a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned. For example. " Is it possible to assign colors to vertices of a given graph using a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned ? " etc. Let us try to solve the following instances of this graph coloring problem: Given the following graph. there are no K-fold exponential time algorithms to solve it for any number K. Let us here review nondeterministic Turing machines. This problem belongs to a peculiar class of problems called NP-Complete problems.In Presburger arithmetic (minus addition operation). This problem is called "Graph Coloring" problem or more precisely "Vertex Color" problem. First. "Is it possible to schedule committee meetings without conflicts into a given number of time slots ? " . the logic is called WS1S (Weak Second-order theory of 1 Successor). For the satisfiability problem of WS1S. Below we are going to characterize this class of problems. Such a problem (having no K-fold exponential time algorithms) is called nonelementary. the consensus is that they ca not be solved with polynomial time algorithms. sets of integers and the predicate "belongs to" (an element X belongs to a set S) are allowed. there are problems that are solved by answering with yes or no. in addition. For the problems of this class there are no known polynomial time algorithms for solving them nor are they known to be unsolvable with polynomial time algorithms. however. is it possible to color its vertices with three or less colors ? . if. "Is a string w in the language a*b ? ". At the moment. Now let us go back to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. Some of these decision problems are NP-complete problems. These problems are called decision problems.

For the graphs of (a) and (b), you could find a solution very easily by inspection. You could see a right coloring as soon as you saw the graphs. However, you can most likely not tell how you arrived at your solutions. You probably don't have any algorithms you could use to solve them. You could somehow see the solutions. This is basically the idea of nondeterministic (Turing) machine. There is no fixed procedure which you can use repeatedly to solve instance after instance of this problem. But you can somehow solve them. Let us move on to a slightly more complex example of (c). For this graph to find a right coloring you could start with vertex 1 and assign color a. Then move on to vertex 2 and assign color b(it has to be something other than a ). Then go to vertex 3 and assign a third color, say c. Then at vertex 4 select color b and for vertex 5 use color a. In this process we make a decision as to what color to use for each vertex and when a decision is made for all the vertices we have a solution to the problem. This process applies to any decision problem. That is to solve a decision problem a number of smaller decisions are made one after another and as a result a solution to the problem is obtained. This process can be represented by a tree called decision tree. For example, for the graph coloring problem let us first decide on the order of vertices we color in, say 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for the graph of (c) above. Then the root of its decision tree corresponds to the vertex we assign a color to first (vertex 1 in this example). Then for each possible color for the first vertex, a child is created for the first vertex of the tree. So the second level of the

decision tree corresponds to the second vertex to be colored. Then in general, for each possible color for each vertex of level i of the decision tree, a child is created. Those children form level i+1 of the decision tree. The decision tree for the graph of (c) is given below. Since any color can be assigned to vertex 1 without loss of generality, it has just one child in the actual decision tree. Also since in this case the i-th and (i+1)-th vertices are connected by an edge for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, they can not have the same color. So each vertex after vertex 1 has two colors to choose from. So they each have two children in the decision tree.

Thus during the process of solving the problem a decision is made at each level and when all levels are covered, the problem is solved. A path from the root to a leaf corresponds to a coloring of the vertices of the given graph. A decision tree, however, does not tell us how to make decisions. Also a decision tree does not tell how to order the vertices for coloring, that is which vertex to color first, second etc. A deterministic machine (or algorithm) has a specific fixed set of rules for making a decision at each level of the decision tree. Although it knows what to do at every stage of problem solving, the decisions it makes are not necessarily the right ones. When it makes wrong decisions, it must retract earlier decisions and try different paths, which is called backtracking. For the graph coloring problem a deterministic algorithm might first order the vertices of the graph in decreasing order of their degree and also order colors. Then, following the

order of the vertices, assign to each vertex the highest order color available for the vertex. Since that kind of algorithm is not guaranteed to use the minimum number of colors, it may produce a wrong answer unless there is some provision for backtracking. A nondeterministic (Turing) machine, on the other hand, is a fictitious machine and somehow knows which branch (child) to select at each step. It always makes a right selection. A decision problem is said to belong to class NP if each vertex in its decision tree has a finite number of children and if it can be solved by a nondeterministic (Turing) machine in polynomial time. The graph coloring problem is in class NP, so are the satisfiability problem for propositional logic and most of the scheduling problems just to name a few. Also there are other characterizations of class NP. Interested readers click here. At this moment it is not known whether or not problems in class NP can be solved with a polynomial time algorithm in the worst case. The consensus is that there is no polynomial time algorithm to solve them. It would take at least exponential time. Among the problems in class NP, there are problems which all problems of class NP can be transformed to in polynomial time. Those problems are called NP-complete problems. If a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of the NP-complete problems, all the problems in NP can be solved in polynomial time. Below we are going to study NPcomplete problems. We start our discussion with the concept of polynomial time transformation (reduction). Basically we say a decision problem Q1 is polynomially reducible to a decision problem Q2 if and only if there is a transformation that transforms any arbitrary instance of Q1 into an instance of Q2 in polynomial time such that the answer to Q1 is yes if and only if the answer to Q2 is yes. A little more formally we define this in terms of languages. Note that a decision problem can be viewed as a language of its instances and that solving it can be considered as recognizing the language as we have seen earlier. Let L1 and L2 be languages over alphabets 1 and 2, respectively. We say that L1 is polynomial-time reducible to L2 if and only if there is a function f from 1* to 2* such that for any string x in polynomial time.

1 *

,x

L1 if and only if f(x)

L2 and f can be computed

For example let us consider the following two problems: graph coloring and scheduling of committee meetings. The graph coloring problem is as given above. In the scheduling of committee meetings problem, committees with their members and a positive integer k are given. The problem is whether or not the meetings of the committees can be scheduled in k or less time slots so that everyone can attend one's meetings. Note that some people may be in more than one committee. Let us try to show that this scheduling problem is polynomial time reducible to the graph coloring problem.

where p k. 3 and 4 with the memberships { a. d } and { a. an edge is inserted between vertices 1 and 2. Similarly since committees 1 and 3. and 1 and 4 share members. add vertices 1. c. Then the meetings can be scheduled in k or less time slots if and only if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. d }. { b.What we need to do is given an instance of the scheduling problem construct an instance of the graph coloring problem. b }. 2. 3 and 4. For example suppose that we are given the committees 1. c }. Suppose that the meetings can be scheduled in p time slots. {a. edges are added between 1 and 3. Then since committees 1 and 2 share a. 3 and 4 to the graph. Thus the scheduling problem asks whether or not the meetings of the given committees can be scheduled in 3 time slots without any conflicts. Proceeding similarly the following graph is obtained corresponding to the committee memberships. Then the committees can be grouped into p groups so that the committees in the same group can meet at the same time. that is construct a graph and give the number of colors to be used to color its vertices so that the meetings can be scheduled if and only if graph can be colored. connect with an edge the vertices corresponding to the committees. and if and only if two committee have some members in common. 2. and 1 and 4. Suppose also that k = 3. respectively. The corresponding graph for the graph coloring problem can be constructed as follows: Corresponding to the committees 1. 2. Let us consider the following transformation: For each committee add a vertex to the graph. Corresponding to this grouping assign colors to the vertices of the graph so that the vertices in the same group are given the same color and those in .

Partition Problem Given a set of integers. that is the construction of graph for a given set of committees. It is also easily seen that the transformation. their sizes and a number of bins of the same size. Subgraph Isomorphism Problem Given two graphs. We are now ready to discuss NP-completeness. If a problem is NP-complete. It can be easily seen that if a problem P at hand is NP-hard and if a problem known to be NP-complete can be polynomial time reducible to P. Conversely if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. can be done in time polynomial in the size of the problem. This group of problems are called NP-complete problems. then that means that the corresponding committees share some members and that they are scheduled to meet in different time slots. all the problems can be solved with polynomial time algorithms.e. Formally a problem is NP-hard if every problem in class NP can be polynomial time reducible to it. find out whether or not the objects can be put into the bins.different groups are given different colors. group them into two groups so that the sum of the numbers of one group is equal to that of the other group. Thus these two vertices must get different colors. fast algorithms exist to solve it. For all the problems in class NP can be reduced to P through the known NP-complete problem in polynomial time. then the consensus today is that it is most likely that no polynomial time algorithms i. For if any two vertices are connected with an edge. Cook that the problems of class NP can be polynomial time reducible to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. This coloring uses p colors which does not exceed k. 4. Bin Packing Problem Given a set of objects. then P is also NP-complete. 5. and vertices connected with an edge have different colors. NP-complete Problems 1. As a consequence if a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of those problems. Some of them are listed below. a traveling salesman wants to know a shortest route to visit all cities exactly once and come back to where he/she started. Graph Color Problem 3. Subsequently the satisfiability problem was found to be polynomial time reducible to many other problems. 6. find out whether or not one is a subgraph of the other. Traveling Salesman Problem Given cities and traveling times between cities. A problem is NP-complete if it is in class NP and NP-hard. 7. Committee Meeting Schedule Problem In fact most scheduling problems are NPcomplete. Today hundreds of problems are known to be NP-complete. . It was first proven by S. Satisfiability Problem for Propositional Logic 2. which in this case can be taken as the number of committees. then it can be easily seen that the committees can meet in k or less time slots.

a collection of subsets of S and an integer k.2}. 9.y). (2.b. Is there a subset T. Set Cover Problem Given a set S. of S such that every element of A. their values and an integer V.(2. B. and C appears exactly once in T ? For example. find out whether or not there are k or less subsets in the collection whose union is S.x). B and C of the same size.x)} is not a matching.b.a. a set of objects. called a matching. . Then T = {(1. (2. their sizes.b}.b.x). Note that {(1. is it possible to select objects so that the sum of their sizes does not exceed S and the sum of their values is V or larger ? 10. (2.b. let A = {1. 3-Dimensional Matching Given three sets A. and C = {x.(1. and S = {(1.y). and a subset S of the Cartesian product A X B X C.a.y}. Knapsack Problem Given a knapsack of size S.a.x)} is a desired set satisfying all the requirements.8.y)}.b. B = {a.x).

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