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Language, Automata: , \alpha : usually denotes a string in this course. , \beta : usually denotes a string in this course. , \delta : usually denotes a transition function in this course. , \sigma : usually denotes a symbol in an alphabet in this course. , \Delta : usually denotes a blank space in this course. , \Gamma : usually denotes a set of stack symbols in this course. , \Lambda : usually denotes an empty string in this course. , \Pi : usually denotes a partition in this course. , \Sigma : usually denotes an alphabet in this course. , \goto : usually denotes a (one step) transition in this course. Logic: , ~ : logical not , ^ : logical and , V : logical or , -> : logical imply , <-> : logical if and only if (equivalent) , => : logical tautologically imply , <=> : logical tautologically equivalent , \A : logical for all , \E : logical for some (there exists)

Sets: , \in : belongs to , \not\in : does not belong to , @ : empty set U, : universal set , \subset : proper subset , \not\subset : not a proper subset , \subseteq : subset , \not\subseteq : not a subset , \cup : set union Ai , \cup(i=1 to n) A_i : union of n sets , \cap : set intersection Ai , \cap(i=1 to n) A_i : intersection of n sets , \bar A : complement of set A (A) , P(A) : power set of set A , X : Cartesian product Ai , X(i=1 to n) A_i : cartesian product of n sets Relation: < a, b > : ordered pair < a1, a2, ..., an > : ordered n-tuple , <= : precedes (partial order) Functions: xi , Sum(i=1 to n) x_i : sum of n xi's O(f) , O(f) : of order smaller than or equal to f

o(f) , o(f) : of order smaller than f (f) , Omega : of order greater than or equal to f (f) , omega : of order greater than f (f) , Theta : of the same order as f f(x) , lim(x -> inf) f(x) : limit of f as x goes to infinity

**Introduction to Theoretical Computer Science
**

Today computers are used everywhere: banks, hospitals, schools, airline companies, gas stations, grocery stores, in our cars, in home appliances, PCs, etc., etc. Some are used to crunch numbers, some are used to process images, some are used to process other nonnumeric data and some are used to control operations of various devices. They can reason, they can prove many mathematical theorems, they can beat chess experts in their game, they can solve some very complex problems, they can understand our languages, they can answer our questions and of course they can crunch numbers much much faster than us. Let us for a moment call what computers do computation for convenience, though some of the things computers do such as controling appliances, answering our questions etc. don't fall into our traditional sense of computation. Then these computers seem to be able to compute an awfully lot of things if not everything. But are they capable of computing anything ? Are there things computers can not do ? If there are things computers can not do, what are they ? And why ? If there aren't things computers can not do, then how can we tell ? What do we exactly mean by computation ? Unfortunately there are many things computers can not do. Computers can not solve certain types of problems. For example no computer can tell in general whether or not a given computer program stops after a finite amount of time on a given input. They can not solve some other types of problems fast enough even though they can solve them in some finite amount of time. For example take the traveling salesman problem: a salesman is given a road map with distances between cities and wants to find a shortest round trip route that visits all the cities on the map exactly once. At the moment the so called traveling salesman problem requires an extremely large amount of time to solve. No one has been able to find a reasonably fast algorithm to solve it and the consensus is that it is not likely that anyone can find such an algorithm. I have just given you an example of the problems that computers could not solve. How do we know that that is the case ? Are there other problems like that ? How can we tell whther or not a given problem can be solved and solved fast enough ?

We say finite automata recognize languages. In addition finite automata can model a large number of systems used in practice. it can actually be solving a problem. This essence is a device called Turing machine. The other two are context-free languages and context-sensitive languages. We are going to learn their properties. we are also going to study regular languages in detail as well as finite automata.The main objective of this course is to answer those questions. Thus when a finite automaton is processing strings. . we study a simpler type of computing device called finite automata. So they provide a good introduction to our study of Turing machines. More specifically they answer the question whether or not a given string belongs to a language. It was first conceived of by Alan Turing in early 20-th century. Those four languages are together called formal languages. The languages Turing machines recognize are called Type 0 (or phrase structure) languages (regular languages are Type 3) and they are more complex than regular languages. We are going to investigate limitations of computers and computations by studying the essence of compuers and computations rather than all the variations of computer and computation. It is a very simple device but remarkably. There we learn how computers can be simulated by Turing machines and what it means that a Turing machine recognizes (decides) a language. Finite automata are very similar to Turing machines but a few restrictions are imposed on them. we go to Turing machines. every task modern computers perform can also be accomplished by Turing machines. Turing machines also recognize languages. which are also heavily used in practice. We call a set of strings (of symbols) a language. Though it has not been proven. that is to study limitations of computers and computation. Thus by studying Turing machines we can learn capabilities hence limitatgions of computers. These two type of languages belong to a hierarchy of four languages called Homsky hierarchy. Since so many systems in practice can be described by regular languages. Finite automata process strings. Before proceeding to the study of Turing machines and their computations in this course. Thus they are a powerful tool to design and study those systems with. After briefly studying context-free languges. ways to describe them and how to use them to model many of the real life systems. Then with Turing machines we investigate limitations of computers and computations. which is the key to the unsolvability of problem by computers. It turns out that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Consequently they are less capable than Turing machines but then their operations are simpler. it is generally believed (Church's thesis) that any "computation" humans do can be done by Turing machines and that "computation" is the computation performed by Turing machines. In particular we are going to see a few problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers and how we can tell that they are unsolvable. The languages that are recognized by finite automata are called regular languages.

000 times 110 cities would already be too many. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved within a reasonable amount of time and there are problems that are known to require a finite but very large amount of time to solve. The time complexity issues are investigated using Turing machines so that the results apply to all computers. • • 2 is a odd number. Example: The following statements are propositions as they have precise truth values. true or false. If the computation time is 2n where n is the size of the problem. then even if the processor speed increased 1. The time needed to solve such a problem increases at least exponentially with the size of the problem as long as we use Turing machines (hence computers). Increasing the processor speed does not help much for such problems.Our last topic is time complexities of various problems. • • • • Logic Sets Relations Functions Logic Proposition and Logical Connectives "Proposition" can be defined as a declarative statement having a specific truth-value. For example for the traveling salesman problem if 100 cities were too many to solve fast enough. 4 is a perfect square.000 times it can handle only ten or so more larger problem sizes. Their truth values are false and true. Basic Mathematical Objects Back to Table of Contents The following are the contents of this introductory chapter. "Connective": Two or more propositions can be combined together to make compound propositions with the help of logical connectives. We are going to see some of those which take a large amount of time. . respectively. Let us start with review of mathematics. then with the increase in the processor speed of 1. Unfortunately there is nothing we can do to speed them up.

It is represented as " ^ ". Truth table for two individual propositions p and q with conjunction is given below p T T F F q T F T F p^q T F F F b. Conjunction The logical conjunction is understood in the same way as commonly used ôandö. . The following are the logical connectives used commonly: a. Negation This is the logical "negation" and it is expressed by Truth table is given below as p for "not p". For the first compound proposition to be true both the propositions have to be true as the connective is AND and as OR is the connective for the second one if either of the propositions is true the truth value of the compound proposition is true. • • 2 is an odd number AND 4 is a perfect square. Their truth vales are false and true respectively. Disjunction This is logical "or" read as either true value of the individual propositions.Example: Above two propositions can be used to make a compound proposition using any of the logical connectives. The compound proposition truth-value is true iff all the constituent propositions hold true. 2 is an odd number OR 4 is a perfect square. Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F pVq T T T F c.

: p V p g. E.g.: p ^ p Logical implication and equivalence If the value of p -> q is true in every case. Conditional This is used to define as "a proposition holds true if another proposition is true" i. E. and if q then p". It is represented as p => q. which is true in every case. "p is sufficient for q" . Biconditional A proposition (p q) ^ (q p) can be abbreviated using biconditional conjunction as p q and is read as "if p then q. Contradiction This is the opposite of tautology. Tautology A compound proposition. e. then q" Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F p T F T T q p -> q is also expressed in a number of different (but equivalent) ways in English. Following are some of the useful identities and implications from propositional logic: Identities . "p only if q" . f.g. "if not q then not p" .p T F p F T d. then p is said to logically imply q. For example. "q is a necessity/consequence of p" and "q whenever p" are all differnt ways of saying "if p then q".e. p q is read as "if p. "q is necessary for p". which is false in every case. If p and q have the same truth-value in every case then they are said to be logically equivalent and it is represented as p <=> q.

exportation Q) ( Q P) ----. For more complex reasoning we need more powerful logic capable of expressing complicated propositions and reasoning. [(P Q) Q] P ----. the sentences "The car Tom is driving is blue". (P 4. . "The sky is blue". The predicate logic is one of the extensions of propositional logic and it is fundamental to most other types of logic. [(P 5.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. For example. or to express certain types of relationship between propositions such as equivalence ( for more detail click here for example for example ). (P Q) ( P Q) ----. [(P 3. [(P 2. (P 3.implication Q) R] [P (Q R)] ----. or a relationship among objects represented by the variables.modus tollens Q) (R S)] [(P R) (Q S)] Q) (Q R)] (P R) For explanations.contrapositive For explanations. and "The cover of this book is blue" come from the template "is blue" by placing an appropriate noun/noun phrase in front of it. A predicate is a template involving a verb that describes a property of objects. examples and proofs of these implications go to Implications Predicate and Predicate Logic The propositional logic is not powerful enough to represent all types of assertions that are used in computer science and mathematics. Central to the predicate logic are the concepts of predicate and quantifier. The phrase "is blue" is a predicate and it describes the property of being blue.1.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. examples and proofs of these identities go to Identities Implications 1. (P 2.

for example. assign a value to the variable 2. such as x > 1 or P(x). If we adopt B as the name for the predicate "is_blue". Similarly the existential quantifier turns. where x represents an arbitrary object. quantify the variable using a quantifier (see below). also called universe . x > 1 becomes 3 > 1 if 3 is assigned to x. a quantification is performed on formulas of predicate logic (called wff ). which is expressed as " x x > 1". The universe is thus the domain of the (individual) variables. The universal quantifier turns. x > 1". the statement x > 1 to "for some object x in the universe. For example any of "is_blue". A predicate with variables. called atomic formula. This new statement is true or false in the universe of discourse." Again. for example.Predicates are often given a name. Universe of Discourse The universe of discourse. There are two types of quantifiers: universal quantifier and existential quantifier. B(x) reads as "x is blue". hence a proposition. x > 1". . which is expressed as " x x > 1. the statemen t x > 1 to "for every object x in the universe. The propositions in the predicate logic are statements on objects of a universe. by using quantifiers on variables . is the set of objects of interest. and it becomes a true statement. Hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. and hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. For example. "Blue" or "B" can be used to represent the predicate "is blue" among others. can be made a proposition by applying one of the following two operations to each of its variables: 1. it is true or false in the universe of discourse. In general. sentences that assert an object is blue can be represented as "B(x)". It can be the set of real numbers.

implications and inference rules. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 2. as well as those for propositional logic such as the equivalences.the set of integers. But it should be obvious from the context. Also for proof and proof techniques see Mathematical Reasoning. see Reasoning(with predicate logic) and Quantifiers and Connectives in Discrete Structures course. The universe is often left implicit in practice. Sets . x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] For more discussions and examples on these rules and others. Important Inference Rules of Predicate Logic: First there is the following rule concerning the negation of quantified statement which is very useful: x P(x) x P(x) Next there is the following set of rules on quantifiers and connvectives: 1. the set of all cars on a parking lot. [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] x [ P(x) Q(x) ] 3. In predicate logic. some of which are given below. the set of all students in a classroom etc. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 4. It allows one to reason about properties and relationships of individual objects. Predicate logic is more powerful than propositional logic. one can use some additional inference rules.

What is a set? Set is a group of elements. if A is a subset of. Subset Let A and B be two sets. if every element of A is an element of B. Universal Set The set U of all the elements we might ever consider in the discourse is called the universal set.4} call it Z by writing Z = {x | x N | x 5} where N represents the set of natural numbers. Example: B = {x | x is a positive integer less than or equal to 5} Some sets can also be defined recursively.4. Example: A = {1. Also.5} Alternate way is to give the properties that characterize the elements of the set. but not equal to B represented as A B.3. Note: If A is a subset of B and B is a subset of A then A=B. All the elements belonging to the set are explicitly given. A is a subset of B is represented as A B.1.2. It is read as "the set of natural numbers that are less than or equal to 5". Set terminology Belongs To x B means that x is an element of set B.2. Using this notation we can specify the set {0. having a property that characterizes those elements. . How to specify a Set? One way is to enumerate the elements completely. A is a subset of B.3.

Union If A and B are two sets. then the union of A and B is the set that contains all the elements that are in A and B including the ones in both A and B.4.B B .8} B = {3. Example: If A = {1. where ø is the Empty set.2. then the difference of A from B is the set that consists of the elements of A that are not in B.2. Example: If A = {1.2} Note that in general A .B.4. where means " is not an element of ".e.5} .5.8}. 3.4.5} then A . It is denoted by A . Set Operations The operations that can be performed on sets are: 1. Example: If U is the set of natural numbers and A = { 1.2.3. Example: A = { 1.A = {4.8.Complement If A is a set. A B= ø. For A and B of the above example B . Thus A' = { x | x U ^ x A } . then the intersection of A and B is the set that consists of the elements in both A and B ..4. Example: If A = {1.A .2. Difference If A and B are two sets. Intersection If A and B are two sets.8} then A B = {3. then A' = { x | x U ^ x > 3}.3} and B = {3. then the complement of A is the set consisting of all elements of the universal set that are not in A.3.2.5 } .3} B = {3.5} then A B = {1.3.5} 2. It is denoted by A B. It is denoted by A' or .2.4. and B = { 6.9 } are disjoint. Disjoint sets A and B are said to be disjoint if they contain no elements in common i.B = {1.3 } . It is denoted by A B.

C represent arbitrary sets and ø is the empty set and U is the Universal Set. The Commutative laws: A B=B A A B=B A The Associative laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Distributive laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Idempotent laws: A A=A A A=A The Absorptive laws: A (A B) = A A (A B) = A The De Morgan laws: (A B)' = A' B' (A B)' = A' B' Other laws involving Complements: ( A' )' = A A A A' = ø A' = U B) B) B) B) C C (A (A C) C) Other laws involving the empty set A A ø=A ø=ø Other laws involving the Universal Set: A U=U A U=A Venn Diagrams A common technique in working with Set Operations is to illustrate them by drawing Venn Diagrams. It is a very good tool to get a general idea. .Following is a list of some standard Set Identities A. B.

2. The idea of Venn Diagram is to draw a region representing the universe and within that to draw the regions representing the component sets we are starting with so that the resulting diagram describes their interrelationships.4 } and B = { 6.Note.3. because they can represent only very limited situations and miss many other possibilities. For example sets A = { 1. . however.4 } can be represented as shown below using Venn Diagrams: Set A U represents the Universal set in which A is one of the Set.8. that Venn Diagrams must NOT be used for rigorous discussions.2.

Set B The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A B .

A B .

The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A U B A A B B is the set consisting of all the different elements in A and B. .

3.6. 7 } B = { 2.7.4.2.8 } (A B)' = U .3.2.4.4 } A B = { 1.5.6.(A B) = { 5.6.8 } A = { 1.(A B)' is the yellow region in the Venn diagram given below. For example: U = { 1.3.4.8 } .2.

A2 . which we write as Ai This generalized union of sets can be rigorously defined as follows: Definition ( Ai) : . This can be generalized for the union of any finite number of sets as A1 An . To denote either of these B C.B is the yellow shaded region and B . intersection and Cartesian product of sets are associative.A is the blue shaded region in the Venn Diagram shown below Generalized Set Operations Union. For example expressions we often use A holds....A .

De Morgan's law on set union and intersection can also be generalized as follows: Theorem (Generalized De Morgan) = . This part of the definition specifies the "seeds" of the set from which the elements of the set are generated using the methods given in the inductive clause. . Inductive Clause: Ai = ( Ai) An+1 Ai and generalized Cartesian product Similarly the generalized intersection Ai can be defined. Based on these definitions. The basis clause (or simply basis) of the definition establishes that certain objects are in the set. Ai = A1. and = Recursive Definition Recursive Definition Subjects to be Learned • • • • • recursive/inductive definition basis clause basis inductive clause extremal clause A recursive definition of a set always consists of three distinct clauses: 1. The set of elements specified here is called basis of the set being defined.Basis Clause: For n = 1 .

Then by (2) again. can be included in N. The inductive clause (or simply induction) of the definition establishes the ways in which elements of the set can be combined to produce new elements of the set. 1. 2. 1 + 1 (= 2) is in N. then they can be combined in certain specified ways to create other objects. and 2 is the child of 1. 0 is the parent of 1. Let us call the objects used to create a new object the parents of the new object.5.. The extremal clause asserts that unless an object can be shown to be a member of the set by applying the basis and inductive clauses a finite number of times. x + 2 is in .2. and 1 is the child of 0.5. Examples of Recursive Definition of Set Example 1. 3.5. 0 is put into N. the object is not a member of the set. . Then by (2). 0. The inductive clause always asserts that if objects are elements of the set. The Set of Nonnegative Even Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . x + 1 is in . The x + 1 in the Inductive Clause is the parent of x. Following this definition. the set of natural numbers N can be obtained as follows: First by (1). Proceeding in this manner all the natural numbers are put into N. which is not what we want as the set of natural numbers. 1 is the parent of 2. since 0 is in N. The Set of Natural Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . The Set of Even Integers Basis Clause: . and the new object is their child .. The basis for this set N is { 0 } . Example 2. 0 + 1 (= 1) is in N. Note that if we don't have (3). and x is the child of x + 1. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Example 3.

try simplest elements in the set such as smallest numbers (0. Inductive Clause: For any element x in . and .Inductive Clause: For any element x in . How to define function recursively: First the values of the function for the basis elements of the domain are specified. There are two sets of questions. The set of propositions (propositional forms) can also be defined recursively. Example 4.2 are in . bbabaa. A few examples are given below. say x. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Test Your Understanding of Recursive Definition Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Recursive Definition of Function Some functions can also be defined recursively. and x . then Submit. of the domain is defined using its value at the parent(s) of the element x. Click Yes or No . simplest expressions. They are all on functions from integer to integer except the last one. The Set of Strings over the alphabet excepting empty string This is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's such as abbab. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. and . etc. Here ax means the concatenation of a with x. Then the value of the function at an element. Then see how other elements can be obtained from them. x + 2. . Basis Clause: . and generalize that generation process for the "Inductive Clause". To see how it is defined click here. . Tips for recursively defining a set: For the "Basis Clause". Condition: The domain of the function you wish to define recursively must be a set defined recursively. or shortest strings. or 1).

Hence 3 ! = 3 * 2 ! = 3 * 2 * 1 = 6 . Induction Mathematical Induction . Using this definition. See above for the extremal clause. Hence 2 ! = 2 * 1 ! = 2 * 1 = 2 . f(n+1) = 2 f(n) . f(n+1) = (n+1) f(n). Example 7: The function f(n) = 2n for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. So there is no chance of other elements to come into the function being defined.Example 5: The function f(n) = n! for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 0! = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. f(n+1) = f(n) + 2 . Inductive Clause: For any string x and y of S. See Example 5 for the extremal clause. b} to the set of natural numbers that gives the length of a string can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: For symbols a and b of the alphabet. This function L gives the number of a's and b's L(x) for a string x is also often denoted by | x |. 1 ! = 1 * 0 ! = 1 * 1 = 1 . 3! can be found as follows: Since 0 ! = 1. because the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively and that has the extremal clause in it. where xy is the concatenation of strings x and y. Note that here Extremal Clause is not necessary. L(xy) = L(x) + L(y) . Example 8: The function L from the set S of strings over {a. Example 6: The function f(n) = 2n + 1 for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. L(a) = 1 and L(b) = 1. See Example 5 for the extremal clause.

and its elements can be generated one by one starting with 0 by adding 1. This process is somewhat analogous to the knocking over a row of dominos with knocking over the first domino corresponding to the basis step. Then since 1 has the property. has the property in question (basis step). More generally mathematical statements involving a natural number n such as 1 + 2 + . The first principle of mathematical induction states that if the basis step and the inductive step are proven. and the process of generating an element from a known element in the set. the element next to it. Then it is proven that if an arbitrary natural number. it is often a good idea to restate P(k+1) in terms of . that is n + 1. has that property (inductive step). which is 2. When these two are proven. the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively. Taking advantage of this. any natural number can be shown to have the property. that is 0.. Thus the set of natural numbers can be described completely by specifying the basis element (0). For since 0 has the property by the basis step. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 can be proven by mathematical induction by the same token. the element next to it. has the same property by the inductive step. then the next element.Subjects to be Learned • • • • • first principle of mathematical induction basis step induction hypothesis induction second principle of mathematical induction Contents First Priciple of Mathematical Induction As we have seen in recursion .. As a first step for proof by induction. Proceeding likewise. To prove that a statement P(n) is true for all natural number natural number. has the property in question. which is 1. has the same property again by the inductive step. we proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P( ) is true. . then P(k+1) is true. where is a Induction: Prove that for any integer . then it follows that all the natural numbers have that property. then P(n) is true for all natural number . natural numbers can be proven to have certain properties as follows: First it is proven that the basis element. if P(k) is true (called induction hypothesis). denote it by n.

and in the inductive step P(n) is proved assuming P(k) holds for all k < n . + n + (n + 1) = (0 + 1 + . Factoring (n + 1) out.. Example 1: Let us prove the following equality using the second principle: For any natural number n . and RHS = 0 * (0 + 1) = 0 .P(k) so that P(k).. which is assumed to be true. Certain problems can be proven more easily by using the second principle than the first principle because P(k) for all k < n can be used rather than just P(n . we get (n + 1)(n + 2) / 2 . + n) + (n + 1) .. Hence LHS = RHS.. 1 + 3 + . 0 + 1 + . first try to express LHS for n+1 in terms of LHS for n.. 0 + 1 + . This form of induction does not require the basis step. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . . The reason that this principle holds is going to be explained later after a few examples of proof. Here k [ k < n P(k) ] is the induction hypothesis.. Here let us try LHS for n + 1 = 0 + 1 + . then LHS = 0. can be used. End of Proof. -------. Example: Prove that for any natural number n.1) to prove P(n). the last expression can be rewritten as n( n + 1 )/2 + (n + 1) . Thus LHS = RHS for n+1. Second Priciple of Mathematical Induction There is another form of induction over the natural numbers based on the second principle of induction to prove assertions of the form x P(x) .. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2.. Formally the second principle of induction states that if n [ k [ k < n P(k) ] P(n) ] .Induction Hypothesis To prove this for n+1. and somehow use the induction hypothesis. Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary natural number n.. Proof: Basis Step: If n = 0. which is equal to the RHS for n+1. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . Using the induction hypothesis.. then n P(n) can be concluded.

A binary relation from A into B is any subset of the Cartesian product A x B. it is either a prime number or not a prime number. tan slacks}.1 ) * ( n . k < n. Proof: Assume that for all positive integers k.. k can be written as the product of prime numbers.1 ) ) + ( 2n + 1 ) = n2 + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 by the induction hypothesis. Example1: nbsp.Proof: Assume that 1 + 3 + .. which is a prime number. n > k > 1. the individual may wish to restrict . More precisely. + ( n . However.. Hence n can also be written as the product of prime numbers. mint green shirt} and B = {gray slacks. then it is the product of 1.1 Hence by the second principle of induction positive integers. Since both p and q are smaller than n. Since n is an integer.. Then 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + .1 holds for all Example 3: Prove that any positive integer n > 1. Therefore the statement holds true. + k * k! = ( k + 1 )! .. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . If n is not a prime number. We are going to prove that n can be written as the product of prime numbers.. + ( 2k + 1 ) = ( k + 1 )2 holds for all k. = ( n + 1 )n! .. and itself. Let's assume that a person owns three shirts and two pairs of slacks. the individual can wear. k < n.1 Proof: Assume that 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . Hence by the second principle of induction 1 + 3 + . + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 holds for all natural numbers. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( 1 + 3 + . + ( 2n . If n is a prime number.1 for all k. let A = {blue shirt. Relations Definition Relation Let A and B be sets. Example 2: Prove that for all positive integer n... then it is a product of two positive integers. can be written as the product of prime numbers. by the induction hypothesis they can be written as the product of prime numbers (Note that this is not possible if the First Principle is being used).1 + n * n! by the induction hypothesis.. Then 1 + 3 + . Then certainly A x B is the set of all possible combinations (six) of shirts and slacks that nbsp..1 )! + n * n! = n! . say p and q. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! ..

written as RS. is the set of pairs of the form(a. In some cases R can be described by actually listing the pairs which are in R. (3. Consider the following relation on real numbers. y) | x <= y}. where (a. c) A x C. one such subset may be { (blue shirt. as in the previous example. tan slacks). tan slacks) }. R = { (x. or R(x) =y where y = x2 . b) Rand (b. 6) and define a relation R from A into A by (a. c) RS if and only if there exists b B such that (a. is the composition of P with itself and it is a relation which we know as grandparentgrandchild relation. Then P is a relation on A which we might call a parent-child relation.himself to combinations which are color coordinated. Relation on a Set A relation from a set A into itself is called a relation on A. 2). A typical element in R is an ordered pair (x. 5. gray slack). This may not be convenient if R is relatively large. (black shirt. c) S. PropertiesOf Relations . (2. 3). For example PP. Composition Let R be a relation from a set A into set B. 5). 3. 5. where P is the parent-child relation given above. 6)}. Other notations are used depending on the past practice. R = {(2. The composition of R and S. 3. Let A be a set of people and let P = {(a. This may not be all possible pairs in A x B but will certainly be a subset of A x B. y) | y is the square of x} and S = { (x.6). b) R if and only if a divides evenly into b. and S be a relation from set B into set C. 6}. 6). R could be more naturally expressed as R(x) = x2 . (5. (6. Example2: Let A = {2. b) | a A ^ b A ^ a is a child of b } . R and S of Example 2 above are relations on A = {2. or "related". (mint green shirt. y). (3. For example. So.

there is an element b in B such that <a. and 2. b> is in the relation. 1. symmetric and transitive. Let us write a Symmetric: R is symmetric if for every a and b in A. from a set A to a set B is a relation from A to B that satisfies 1. f is a function if it covers the domain (maps every element of the domain) and it is single valued. Equivalence: R is an equivalence relation on A if R is reflexive. The set A in the above definition is called the domain of the function and B its codomain.Assume R is a relation on set A. b) R . in other words. 3. Reflexive: R is reflexive if for every a A. Function Functions Subjects to be Reviewed • • • • • • • • • • • • function domain. then bRa. A x A. R R b to denote (a. then aRc. Thus. a R a. b and c in A. b> and <a. 2. denote it by f. . c> are in the relation. Transitive: R is transitive if for every a. if aRb and bRc. if aRb. if <a. codomain image image of set range sum of functions product of functions one-to-one function (injection) onto function (surjection) one-to-one onto function (bijection) inverse function composite function Definition (function): A function. 4. then b = c . for each element a in A.

Definition (sum and product): Let f and g be functions from a set A to the set of real numbers R. and is denoted by f(S) . Example: Let f(x) = 3x + 1 and g(x) = x2 . and for all x. because. because for example f(1) = f(-1) = 1 . However. ( f*g )(x) = f(x)*g(x) . say 3. ( f + g )(x) = f(x) + g(x) . Note that f(x) = x2 is not one-to-one if it is from the set of integers(negative as well as non-negative) to N . i. nothing in N can be mapped to 3 by this function.. .e. Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is an onto function. b> is denoted as f(a) = b . Then ( f + g )(x) = x2 + 3x + 1 . where f(x)*g(x) is the product of two real numbers f(x) and g(x).The relation given by f between a and b represented by the ordered pair <a. Then the sum and the product of f and g are defined as follows: For all x. 16. if it is onto and one-to-one. { 0. Example: Let f be the function from the set of natural numbers N to N that maps each natural number x to x2 . that is. where S is a subset of the domain A of f . and b is called the image of a under f . and ( f*g )(x) = 3x3 + x2 Definition (one-to-one): A function f is said to be one-to-one (injective) . f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to N is not onto. . f is onto if and only if f( A ) = B . if and only if for every element y of B . Definition (bijection): A function is called a bijection .. the image of. Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is one-to-one and onto. 1. 9. under this function is 9. that is.} . The image of the domain under f is called the range of f . Definition (onto): A function f from a set A to a set B is said to be onto(surjective) . f(S) = { f(a) | a S }. 4. and its range is the set of squares. Example: The function f(x) = x2 from the set of natural numbers N to N is a one-to-one function. x = y . there is an element x in A such that f(x) = y . Every bijection has a function called the inverse function. Thus it is a bijection. if and only if whenever f(x) = f(y) .. The set of images of the elements of a set S under a function f is called the image of the set S under f. Then the domain and codomain of this f are N. for example.

and arrows show < x. It is also a bijection. Then the composition of functions f and g . Introduction to Language A language is. languages of mathematics. in this course. and it is denoted by f -1 . denoted by fg . if for every element y of B. where f(x) = y . the rightmost function in the above figure is a bijection and its inverse is obtained by reversing the direction of each arrow. and g(x) = x + 1 . a set of strings of symbols. In each figure below. Definition (inverse): Let f be a bijection from a set A to a set B. f(x) > relation. natural languages etc. the points on the left are in the domain and the ones on the right are in the codomain.These concepts are illustrated in the figure below. Others such as languages of logics. Then the function g is called the inverse function of f. Example: Let f(x) = x2 . and let f be a function from B to a set C . Programming langauges we use are a language in that sense. A function is a relation. Note that such an x is unique for each y because f is a bijection. are all languages in that sense. For example. Example: The inverse function of f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of non-negative even numbers E is f -1(x) = 1/2 x from E to N . is the function from A to C that satisfies fg(x) = f( g(x) ) for all x in A . . Therefore one can also talk about composition of functions. g(y) = x . Then f( g(x) ) = ( x + 1 )2 . Definition (composite function): Let g be a function from a set A to a set B .

lexical analyzers and parser for compilers for programming languages. nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) and nondeterministic finite automata with transitions (NFA. we are going to learn modeling of systems finite automata. Type 3 is a subset of type 2 which is a subset of type 1 and type 0 is the most general including the other three as a subset. These formal languages and automata capture the essense of various computing devices and computation in a very simple way.). Also there are various kinds of computing devices called automata which process these types of languages Thus formal languages can also be characterized by the computing devices which process them. checking whether or not a string is in a language. The four classes are regular (or type 3) languages. then the resulting DFA is unique up to the state names for a given regular language. in general there are more than one NFAs and DFAs that reconize one language. Definitions on Language Subjects to be Learned . solving them can be seen as recognizing languages i. Then we investigate various kinds of finite automata: deterministic finite automata (DFA). We are going to see an algorithm for converting NFAto NFA which recognizes the same language and another for NFA to DFA conversion. regular and context-free languages. In the following chapters we first learn about languages. context-sensitive (or type 1) languages and phrase structure (or type 0) languages. In asddition two of the formal languages. together with regular expressions which are a method of representing regular languages. Our last topic on regular language is testing of languages for non-regularity. context-free (or type 2) languages. Then after seeing yet another way of representing regular laguages. These formal languages are characterized by grammars which are essentially a set of rewrite rules for generating strings belonging to a language as we see later.What we are going to study on languages in this course are four classes of languages called (Chomsky) formal languages and their properties. However.e. Also for some important classes of problems. the simplest of the four formal languages. are quite useful for modeling systems used in practice such as co9mputer network communication protocols. They are devices that recognize regular languages. Then we study regular languages. It can be rigorously shown that some problems can not be solved by computers in any finite amount of time and that some others are practically unsolvable because of the time it takes to solve them. Using automata and formal languages we can study limitations of computer and computation. On the other hand DFAs are suited for writing a simulator program because there is no nondeterminism such as going to two or more states from a state upon reading one input symbol. As we are going to learn next. NFA and NFAare conceptually simpler and easier to use when modeling a system because there are no restrictions on transitions for them unlike for DFA. regular grammars. if the number of states of DFA is minimized.

b} and 0. A string x is a prefix of another string y if there is a string v such that y = xv. Note that vu = bbabaab uv. intersection. the set of all strings over (including the empty string) is denoted by . The empty string (also called null string) is the string with length 0. So it is not empty. 1}. For example if u = aab and v = bbab. 2.• • • • alphabet string (word) language operations on languages: concatenation of strings. Kleene star Contents Here we are going to learn the concept of language in very abstract and general sense. that is. Then uv denotes the string obtained by concatenating u with v. 1. The empty string is denoted by (capital lambda). Note that u and v may be an empty string. 10 and 001 are examples of string over alphabet {0. It can be defined more formally by recursive definition. Thus the union. A string (also called a word) is a finite sequence of symbols of an alphabet. Basic concepts First. Operations on languages Since languages are sets.1}). this set has an object in it. A language is a set of strings over an alphabet. Some special languages The empty set is a language which has no strings. baa} is a language (over alphabert {a. {a. The set { } is a language which has one string. Thus {a. b} is another alphabet with two symbols and English alphabet is also an alphabet. Though has no symbols. 3. A string x is called a substring of another string y if there are strings u and v such that y = uxv. For a string w its length is represented by |w|. Thus | | = 0. ab. union. Thus a language over alphabet is a subset of . b. uv is the string obtained by appending the sequence of symbols of v to that of u. v is called a suffix of y.b}) and {0. then uv = aabbbab. That is. a and aabab are examples of string over alphabet {a. So a string is a substring of itself. all the set operations can be applied to languages. 111} is a language (over alphabet {0. The number of symbols in a string is called the length of the string. Let u and v be strings. We are going to use first few symbols of English alphabet such as a and b to denote symbols of an alphabet and those toward the end such as u and v for strings. For any alphabet . an alphabet is a finite set of symbols. 1} is an alphabet with two symbols. it has no symbols. operations on languages and some of their properties. For example {0. namely . intersetion and difference of two languages over an alphabet are languages over .

. is .L and it is also a Another operation onlanguages is concatenation. xw L*. That is L1L2 is the set of strings obtained by concatenating strings of L1 with those of L2. baaa. bb. Then the concatenation of L1 with L2 is denoted as L1L2 and it is defined as L1L2 = { uv | u L1 and v L2 }. These powers can be formally defined recursively. * The following two types of languages are generalizations of them quite often in this course. For example {ab. Hence Lk is the set of strings that can be obtained by concatenating k strings of L. aaba} = {abaaa. Let L1 and L2 be languages. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. abb. b} {aaa. bbaba. aba. the extremal clause is not necessary. abaaba. For a string u and a natural number k. uk denotes the concatenation of k u's. baaba}. Recursive definition of L*: Basis Clause: L* and we are going to see Inductive Clause: For any x L* and any w L. then L* = { . Here a0 = and u0 = . Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = Lk L. This * is called Kleene star. abaaba. bbbb. bb }. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k... Powers : For a symbol a and a natural number k. ak represents the concatenation of k a's. ak and uk can be defined similarly. Lk means the concatenation of k L's. L* is the set of strings obtained by concatenating zero or more strings of L as we are going to see in Theorem 1. ababb. Similarly for a language L. The complement of a language L over an alphabet language. Recursive definition of L+: Basis Clause: L L+ . For example if L = { aba. . babb. ababb. } The * in * is also the same Kleene star defined above. For example Lk can be defined recursively as follows.

.. w2.Inductive Clause: For any x L+ and any w L. .e.. L* and L* have a number of interesting properties.. Theorem 5: L* = (L*)*. Hence x is in L* . then L+ = { aba.. . xw L+. Theorem 1: Ln Theorem 2: Theorem 3: Theorem 4: L+ = L L* = L*L Note: According to Theorems 2 and 3.. for each wi there are strings wi1. L0 L L2 .e...w1m1w21. Proof: Because we can see that L* (L*)*.wmmk . . bb. w2. abaaba..wm1. wk in L* such that x = w1w2.. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L+ unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.wk . ... Other proofs are omitted. any nonempty string in L* or L+ can be expresssed as the concatenation of strings of L. bbaba. Theorems 1 and 2 are proven in "General Induction" which you study in the next unit.. L* can be proven as follows: by Theorem 2. wk are strings of L*.wk for some k. i.... where wi's are strings of L.. . } Let us also define natural number k } .wimi Hence x = w11 . ) as ={x|x Lk for some Then the following relationships hold on L* and L+. wimi in L such that wi = wi1wi2..... wi2. Thus L+ is the set of strings obtained by concatenating one or more strings of L.. w1w2. (i.. . bb }. bbbb..w2m2. For example if L = { aba... by applying Theorem 2 to the language L* L* Conversely ( L* )* Let x be an arbitrary nonempty string of ( L* )*. Since w1. Let us list one of them as a theorem and prove it. ababb. Then there are nonempty strings w1.

If x is an empty string, then it is obviously in L* . Hence ( L* )* Since L* L* . L* , L* = ( L* )* .

(L*)* and ( L* )*

**Problem Solving as Language Recognition
**

Subjects to be Learned

• • •

problem instance problem as language problem solving as language recognition

Contents

In the previous section the concept of language was introduced and its properties have been briefly studied. You might be wondering why we study language. The main reason for studying language is that solving problems can be viewed as a language recognition problem as explained below, that is, the problem of checking whether or not a string belongs to a language. Thus instead of studying what kind of problems can be solved by what kind of computational devices and how, we can study languages and devices to recognize them which are simpler to deal with uncluttered with variations in actual devices, programming languages etc. Below an example is given to illustrate how solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Consider the following problem: Is the longest of the distances between two nodes(i.e. the diameter) of a given graph less than a given integer k ? Here the distance is the smallest number of edges (or hops) between the nodes. Some of the instances of this problem are as shown below:

Instance 1 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with one edge and two nodes is less than 1. Instance 2 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with four edges and four nodes is less than 2. Simiarlyt for Instance 3. These problem instances can be represented by a string as follows: Instance 1: 1,2;(1,2);1 Instance 2: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(3,4);2 Instance 3: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(2,3)(2,4)(3,4);3 Here the set of nodes, the set of edges and k are separated by ; in that order in the strings. The solutions to these instances are: Instance 1: No Instance 2: No Instance 3: Yes There are infinitely many 'Yes' instances and 'No' instances for this problem. The set of 'Yes' instances is a language and so is the set of 'No' instances as well as the set of all

instances and many others for this problem. We can thus see that solving the problem for a given instance is equivalent to checking whether or not the string representing the given instance belongs to the language of 'Yes' instances of the problem. That is, the problem solving is the same as the language recognition. A problem can be solved if and only if the language of its 'Yes' instances is recognizable or decidable by a Turing machine. It is not solvable if the language is merely accecptable but not recognizable, or even worse if it is not even acceptable.

(a.k.a Structural Induction)

Mathematical statements involving an element of a recursively defined set can be proven by induction. To prove by induction that a statement P(x) is true for all the elements x of a recursively defined set S, proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P(x) is true for all the elements x in the basis of S. Induction: Prove that for any element(s) x of S if P(x) is true, then P(y) is true for any element y obtained from x by the induction step of the recursive definition of S. Note 1 : In the Induction we try to prove that if a parent has the property then all of its children also have that property. In the process we need the relationship between the parent and the children. That relationship is found in the Inductive Clause of the recursive definition of the set in question. Note 2 : As a first step for general induction proof, it is often a good idea to express y in terms of x so that P(x) can be used. Example 1 (Theorem 1 in "Language") : Prove that Ln L* for any natural number n and any language L. Let us first review the definitions. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = LkL. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k, the extremal clause is not necessary. Recursive definition of L*:

Now let us prove that Ln L* by induction on Ln. number k. . Then by the definition of L* . L* for an arbitrary natural numer k. Then there exist strings x and y that satisfy x L and w = xy by the definition of Lk+1. and L* . L* . Lk . Proof: Let us first prove Suppose that x Lk for some natural L* . --. Note in the proof below that Basis and Inductive Steps mirror the Basis and Inductive Clauses of the definition of Ln . y Let w be an arbitrary string in Lk+1 . Hence . L* since y L.Induction L* . Hence x . . xy Hence w Thus Lk+1 L* . Since Lk L* . L* by theInduction Hypothesis. x L* . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Then by the definition of L*. Lk Next let us prove L* . x Example 2 (Theorem 2 in "Language") Let us prove L* = Note that ={x|x Lk for some natural number k } . By Example 1 above .Basis Clause: L* Inductive Clause: For any string x L* and any string w L. xw L*. L0 L* . Basis Step: Since by the definitions L0 = { Inductive Step: Assume that Lk Hypothesis We are going to show that Lk+1 }. L* .

If x . Note that each step mirror the recursive definition of . and any symbol . REV(xa) = Inductive Clause: For any string aREV(x). . So we show that the property for x is inherited by its children xy. Prove that for arbitrary strings x and y of . Note here that x is a parent and by applying an operation (i. x We are going to show that for an arbitrary element y L . where y is an arbitrary elememt of L. then for some natural number k . of L* has the property. x spelled backward). Let us prove the inheritance. Basis Step: L0 since L0 = { }. It produces the reversal of a given string x (i. by Example 1 above. also have the property. Hence by the definition of Inductive Step: Assume that for an arbitrary x in L*. holds.e. then its children xy. say x. Basis Clause: REV( )= . . REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. Hence xy End of Inductive Step and Proof Hence we have proven Example 3 . Hence xy Lk+1 by the definition of Ln . xy holds.e. So we first prove that * the element of the basis of L has the propertyy.Note that L* is defined recursively and that below we are trying to prove that the elements of L* have the property that they also belong to . The function REV(x) on strings x over the alphabet is defined as follows. x Lk . Then we show that if any element. by concatenating y) a child of x in is obtained. .

REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. Definitions of Regular Language and Regular Expression Subjects to be Learned • • regular language regular expression 1. and an arbitrary string y of . The proof mirrors the recursive definition of . { } and {a} for any symbol a are regular languages. The proof of the equality in question is going to be proven for an arbitrary fixed x by induction on y.Proof First let us note that * can be defined recursively as follows: . Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary string y of .Induction Hypothesis Then for an arbitrary symbol a of . Inductive Clause: For arbitrary strings x of and a of ExtremalClause: As usual. Inductive Clause: If Lr and Ls are regular languages. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. . But by induction hypothesis a REV(xy) = a REV(y)REV(x). REV(xya) = REV((xy)a) = a REV(xy). Definition of Set of Regular Languages : Basis Clause: . Basis Step: REV(x ) = REV( x ) = REV( )REV( x ) . Any language belonging to this set is a regular language over . REV(xya) = REV(ya)REV(x). -. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages. End of Proof. Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular language unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. xa is also in . Since a REV(y) = REV(ya). which is what we needed. Omitted. Regular language The set of regular languages over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. Thus the statement to be proven is for an arbitrary fixed string x. then Lr Ls . * Basis Clause: where is an empty string.

The language corresponding to rk is Lrk. which is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's. where r is a regular expression. LrLs and Lr* . ( r + s ) is used in stead of ( r + s ). which has precedence over union ( + ). where a is an element of . a. is written as rk. Thus the regular expression ( a + ( b( c*) ) ) is written as a + bc*. where Lr is the language corresponding to the regular expression r. For a recursive definition of Lrk click here. (3) The concatenation of k r's . Also since {a} is regular. {a}* is a regular language which is the set of strings consisting of a's such as . b} ( = {a} {b} ) and {ab} ( = {a}{b} ) are regular languages. Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular expression unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Inductive Clause: If r and s are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr and Ls . let = {a. Regular expression Regular expressions are used to denote regular languages. respectively. They can represent regular languages and operations on them succinctly. 2.For example. respectively. Thus for example rr = r2 . aaa. b}. b} is regular. . aaaa etc. Then since {a} and {b} are regular languages. is a regular language because {a. aa. Any element of that set is a regular expression. (4) We use ( r+) as a regular expression to represent Lr+ . ( rs ) and ( r*) are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr Ls . then ( r + s ) . bold face may not be used for regular expressions. So for example. (2) The operation * has precedence over concatenation. { } and {a}. Basis Clause: . The set of regular expressions over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. Conventions on regular expressions (1) When there is no danger of confusion. and a are regular expressions corresponding to languages . {a. Note also that *.

abab. b}. b}. In general. that is. In general ( a + b )k corresponds to the set of strings of length k over the alphabet {a. because they both represent the language of all strings over the alphabet {a. the set of strings of repeated ab's. a regular language. Definition of Equality of Regular Expressions Regular expressions are equal if and only if they correspond to the same language. ( a + b )* corresponds to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. b}. that is the set of strings of length 2 over the alphabet {a.. ababab. ( ab )+ corresponds to the language {ab. b}. ab. For example ( a + b )* and ( a*b* )* correspond to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. b}. ba. a*b* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by zero or more b's. a*b+a* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by one or more b's followed by zero or more a's. Note:A regular expression is not unique for a language. in general. That is. corresponds to more than one regular expressions. it is not easy to see by inspection whether or not two regular expressions are equal. .Examples of regular expression and regular languages corresponding to them • • • • ( a + b )2 corresponds to the language {aa. }. Thus for example ( a + b )* = ( a*b* )* .. . bb}.

(b) A string corresponding to r1 consists of only a's or only b's or the empty string. ba is not in it. Find a simple (the shortest and with the smallest nesting of * and +) regular expression which is equal to each of the following regular expressions. Thus (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* is reduced to (r1 + r2)*. bb and ab are in the language. a+. Ex. Solution: It can easily be seen that . r1 = a* + b* r2 = ab* + ba* + b*a + (a*b)* Solution: (a) Any string consisting of only a's or only b's and the empty string are in r1.Exercise Questions on Regular Language and Regular Expression Ex. (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ means that all the strings represented by it must consist of one or more strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*). However. which are strings in the language with length 1 or less. a*. 2: For the two regular expressions given below. Thus the answer is ba. The only strings corresponding to r2 which consist of only a's or b's are a. 3: Let r1 and r2 be arbitrary regular expressions over some alphabet. b and the strings consiting of only b's (from (a*b)*). a. the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*) start with a string of r1 followed by any number of strings taken arbitrarily from r1 and/or r2. b. they do not produce any strings that are not represented by (r1 + r2)*. (a + b)*. Thus anything that comes after the first r1 in (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is represented by (r1 + r2)*. (a + b)+ etc. However. Ex. (a) (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ Solution: One general strategy to approach this type of question is to try to see whether or not they are equal to simple regular expressions that are familiar to us such as a. For example ab and ba are such strings. Of the strings wiht length 2 aa. that is. 1: Find the shortest string that is not in the language represented by the regular expression a*(ab)*b*. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*) . So we need to find strings of r2 which contain at least one a and at least one b. r1r2 + r2r1 in the given regular expression is redundant. (a) Since (r1 + r2)* represents all strings consisting of strings of r1 and/or r2 . (a) find a string corresponding to r2 but not to r1 and (b) find a string corresponding to both r1 and r2.

First of all and a are in L . b } defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L Inductive Clause: If x L . 6: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. Thus (aab + bb)*(a + ) is a regular expression for L.also represents the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*)+. Ex. Hence a string of L has zero or more of aab's and bb's in front possibly followed by a at the end. behind the second a and between the two a's. then aabx L and xbb L . Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. then aabx L and bbx L . Then starting with or a. Then starting with . b } that contain exactly two a's. 4: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L over the alphabet { a . Hence a string of L consists of zero or more aab's in front and zero or more bb's following them. Ex. Ex. Inductive Clause: If x L . strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or appending bb to any of the already generated strings. Since any string of b's can be placed in front of the first a. Solution: A string in this language must have at least two a's. 5: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L and a L. First of all L . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or bb to any of the already generated strings. and since an arbitrasry string of b's can be represented by the regular expression b*. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is reduced to (r1(r1 + r2)*). 7: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the . and conversely (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ represents the strings represented by (r1(r1 + r2)*). Thus (aab)*(bb)* is a regular expression for L. b*a b*a b* is a regular expression for this language. Ex. Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L.

8: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. bb. b } must end in a or b. Hence a string preceding the aa can be represented by ( b + ab )*. and after the first b all the b's in the string appear in pairs. it is the set of strings over the alphabet { a. Any numbe of a's can appear any place in the string. b } that do not end with ab. then it must be followed by b. b }. then that a must be preceded by b because otherwise there are two occurences of aa. Thus simply put. Solution: If there is one substring aa in a string of the language. 11: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the . Since it can have any string in front of the last a or bb. Ex. Hence if a string of the language contains aa then it corresponds to the regular expression ( b + ab )*aa( b + ba )* . ( a + b )*( a + bb ) is a regular expression for the language. b } that contain no more than one occurence of the string aa. Solution: A string in the language can start and end with a or b. Solution: Since any string of even length can be expressed as the concatenation of strings of length 2 and since the strings of length 2 are aa. Hence any string that follows aa is represented by ( b + ba )*. If there is no aa but at least one a exists in a string of the language.alphabet { a. If an a comes after that aa. Solution: Any string in a language over { a . Hence the string is in this language. If there may not be any a in a string of the language. then applying the same argument as for aa to . ( b + ab )*a( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. Ex. then that aa can be followed by any number of b. On the other hand if an a precedes the aa. 10: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression a*b(a*ba*b)*a* . ( b + ab )*( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. Ex. a regular expression corresponding to the language is ( aa + ab + ba + bb )*. then applying the same argument as for aa to a. it has at least one b. 9: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of strings of even lengths over the alphabet of { a. Note that 0 is an even number. Altogether ( b + ab )*( + a + aa )( b + ba )* is a regular expression for the language. Hence if a string does not end with ab then it ends with a or if it ends with b the last b must be preceded by a symbol b. ab. b } that contain an odd number of b's Ex. ba.

concatenation and Kleene star. For example while { akbk } is regular for any natural number k . Note 1: Later we shall see that the complement of a regular language and the intersection of regular laguages are also regular. where n is a natural number. Lr Ls . is not regular as we shall see later. Note 2: The union of infinitely many regular languages is not necessarily regular. Hence (( a + b )3)* represents the strings of length a multiple of 3. We say a language is finite if it consists of a finite number of strings. Thus the set of regular languages is closed under those operations. the given regular expression represents the strings of length 3n and 3n + 1. Solution: ( b + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring aa and which end in b. where n is a natural number. a finite language is a set of n . Properties of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • Closure of the set of regular languages under union. Proof: Let Lr and Ls be regular languages over an alphabet . Solution: (( a + b )3) represents the strings of length 3. 12: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression ( b + ab )*( a + ab )*. { anbn | n is a natural number } which is the union of all the languages { akbk } . and ( a + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring bb. Hence altogether it represents any string consisting of a substring with no aa followed by one b followed by a substring with no bb. Ex. concatenation and Kleene star operations. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages and they are obviously over the alphabet . that is. The following theorem shows that any finite language is regular. Regularity of finite languages Theorem 1: The set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed under operations union.regular expression (( a + b )3)*( +a+b). Since (( a + b )3)*( a + b ) represents the strings of length 3n + 1. Then by the definition of the set of regular languages .

{ a } is a regular language from the Basis Step. then we have proven the theorem. a finite language is regular) if { w } is regular for any string w. Then for any symbol a of . { regular languages for any arbitrary symbol a of . Then since { w } is a regular language as proven below. Basis Step: By the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. Inductive Step: Assume that a language L consisting of n strings is a regular language (induction hypothesis). Hence by the Inductive Clause of the definition of regular language { a }{ w } is regular. Proof of Claim 2: Proof by induction on strings. } and { a } are Inductive Step: Assume that { w } is a regular language for an arbitrary string w over . Claim 1: A language consisting of n strings is regular for any natural number n (that is. Claim 2: Let w be a string over an alphabet . . Basis Step: (corresponding to n = 0) is a regular language by the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. L { w } is a regular language by the definition of regular language. Hence { aw } is regular. End of proof of Claim 1 Thus if we can show that { w } is a regular language for any string w. Proof of the Claim 1: Proof by induction on the number of strings. We then prove that a language consisting of a single string is regular. Proof: Let us first assume that a language consisting of a single string is regular and prove the theorem by induction. Then { w } is a regular language. End of proof for Claim 2 Note that Claim 2 can also be proven by induction on the length of string. Theorem 2: A finite language is regular.strings for some natural number n. End of proof of Theorem 2.

you are in the waiting-for-customer state. The states and the transitions between them of this vending machine can be represented with the diagram below.e. Then we are going to see that for every regular language a unique finite automaton can be constructed which can recognize the language (i. In fact Turing machines are as . you are no longer in the waiting-for-customer state. So we might say you are in the 10-cents state. then you have now received 15 cents and you wait for the customer to select a soft drink. Though Turing machines are simple modification of finite automata. Click "NICKEL" or "DIME" in the figure and see how it operates (see how arrows turn red). A kind of systems finite automnata can model and a computer program to simulate their operations are discussed later. In this example you as a vending machine have gone through (transitions between) a number of states responding to the inputs from the customer (coins in this case). It is assumed that the machine terminates its operation when it receives 15 cents or more. Ds on arrows represent a dime and Ns a nickel. If the customer puts in a nickel. they are much more powerful computing devices than finite automata. Pretend that you are the machine. We are going to learn languages which are not regular and ways to test languages for non-regularity. tell whether or not a given string belongs to the regular language). A vending machine looked at this way is an example of finite automaton. can not be recognized by finite automata. say 15-cents state. When a customer comes and puts in the first coin. say a dime. You have received 10 cents and are waiting for more coins to come. and equivalence and conversions between them. Unfortunately not all languages and systems are simple like regular languages or finite automata. Let us consider the operation of a soft drink vending machine which charges 15 cents for a can. Later we are going to learn an extension of finite automata called Turing machines. There are languages which are not regular and which. circles represent states and arrows state transitions. Their operations can be simulated by a very simple computer program. Initially you are waiting for a customer to come and put some coins. therefore. When the customer selects a soft drink. In the next few chapters first we are going to learn different kinds of finite automata. So you are in another state. In the figure. We have learned that regular languages are represented by regular expressions and conversely. you must give the customer a can of soft drink. Finite automata are computing devices that accept/recognize regular languages and are used to model operations of many systems we find in practice. We are then going to study how finite automata can be used to simulate operations of systems we see in practice. Let us assume that only nickels and dimes are used for simplicity.Introduction to Finite Automata In this chapter we are going to study a class of machines called finite automata. that is. After that you stay in that state until another coin is put in to start the process anew or you may terminate the operation and start all over from the initial state.

A > Notes on the definition 1. though not proven. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. For example. 3. are the elements of Q. Otherwise it is not accepted. "have received 5 cents" etc. q0 . The transition function is also called a next state function meaning that the automaton moves into the state (q. in the Example 1 below. Thus in the example of vending machine. The accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. (q. The set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. 4. Then a deterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . for example. Note that is a function. a) is equal to "have received 5 cents". . however. . the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". if q is the initial state and a nickel is put in. Also let be a function from Q to Q . that any computation human beings do (with or without computers) can be performed by Turing machines. . a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. We call the elements of Q a state.powerful as computers and it is generally believed. 2. the states of the machine such as "waiting for a customer to put a coin in". Its elements can. Thus in the example of vending machine. then (q. Definition of Deterministic Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • • • Finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of deterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. the transition function. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ceases to come. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of . be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. a) must be specified. "Waiting for a customer to put a coin in" can be considered the initial state of this automaton and the state in which the machine gives out a soda can can be considered the accepting state.

. etc. An arc ( p . the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 1 a 2 2 a 2 (q. 2 }. The vertices (denoted by single circles) of a transition diagram represent the states of the DFA and the arcs labeled with an input symbol correspond to the transitions.the string a is accepted by the finite automaton. are not accepted. Abbreviations such as FA and DFA are used to denote deterministic finite automaton. b } in stead of { a }. They are called transition table. Examples of finite automaton Example 1: Q = { 0. aaa. 1. ) = q . a) ) A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. The accepting states are indicated by double circles. = { a }. q ) from vertex p to vertex q with label represents the transition (p. 5. It is a little more complex DFA. Transition functions can also be represented by tables as seen below. then we need a DFA such as shown in the following examle to accept the same string a. A = { 1 }. A deterministic finite automaton is also called simply a "finite automaton". But any other strings such as aa. If the alphabet of the Example 1 is changed to { a. the following table. DFAs are often represented by digraphs called (state) transition diagram.

b }.Example 2: Q = { 0. b }. A = { 0 }. 1 }. 2 }. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. Example 3: Q = { 0. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 0 b 2 1 a 2 1 b 2 2 a 2 2 b 2 (q. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 0 0 b 1 1 a 1 1 b 1 (q. A = { 1 }. b } is the next example. in the following table. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. the following table. 1. a) ) . A DFA that accepts all strings consisting of only symbol a over the alphabet { a. = { a. A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. = { a.

the initial state q0 = 0. = { D. its transition function is as shown in the following table. Q = { 0. If we make it a DFA. 20 }.A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. 15. 20 }. 5. N }. State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 N 5 0 D 10 5 N 10 5 D 15 10 N 15 10 D 20 15 N 5 15 D 10 20 N 5 20 D 10 (q. A = { 15. 10. a) ) . Example 4: For the example of vending machine of the previous section.

The tape is divide into squares in each of which a symbol can be written prior to the start of the operation of the automaton. 4.A finite automaton as a machine A finite automaton can also be thought of as the device shown below consisting of a tape and a control circuit which satisfy the following conditions: 1. 2. 5. When it sees no symbol. . 3. The head moves to the right one square every time it reads a symbol. It never moves to the left. The head is always at the leftmost square at the beginning of the operation. 6. The tape has the left end and extends to the right without an end. There is a finite control which determines the state of the automaton and also controls the movement of the head. it stops and the automaton terminates its operation. The tape has a read only head.

For example strings aaa. Hence when b appears anywhere in the input. Thus this automaton accepts any string of a's. If b is read while it is in state 0 (initially or after reading some a's). the DFA is in the accepting state. then no matter what symbol is read. aaaaaa etc. As an example let us consider the DFA of Example 3 above. Initially it is in state 0. it moves to state 1. are not accepted by this automaton. When zero or more a's are given as an input to it. it stays in state 0 while it reads all the a's (without breaks) on the tape. this DFA never leaves state 1. Since the state 0 is also the accepting state. when all the a's on the tape are read. Once it gets to state 1. . are accepted but strings such as aaba. it goes into state 1 and the input string is not accepted by the DFA. b etc.Operation of finite automata Let us see how an automaton operates when it is given some inputs.

*

of DFA and its Properties

Subjects to be Learned

• •

*

Language accepted by DFA

Contents

Here we are going to formally describe what is meant by applying a transition repeatedly, that is the concept of * For a state q and string w, *( q , w ) is the state the DFA goes into when it reads the string w starting at the state q. In general a DFA goes through a number of states from the state q responding to the symbols in the string w. Thus for a DFA < Q , , q0 , , A > , the function

* :Q -> Q is defined recursively as follows: *

Definition of

*

:

*

Basis Clause: For any state q of Q ,

(q,

) = q , where

*

denotes the empty string. and any symbol a ,

Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q, any string y * ( q , ya ) = ( *( q , y ) , a ) .

In the definition, the Basis Clause says that a DFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the state DFA reaches after reading string ya starting at state q is the state it reaches by reading symbol a after reading string y from state q. Example For example suppose that a DFA contains the transitions shown below.

Then

*

*

( q , DNR ) can be calculated as follows:

( q , DNR ) = ( *( q , DN ) , R ) by the Inductive Clause. = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , DN ). = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) since D = D . = ( ( ( *( q , ) , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , D ). = ( ( ( q , D ) , N ) , R ) , since ( q , ) = q . = ( ( q1 , N ) , R ) , since ( q , D ) = q1 as seen from the diagram. = ( q2 , R ) , since ( q1 , N ) = q2 as seen from the diagram. = q3 since ( q2 , R ) = q3 as seen from the diagram. Properties of

*

We can see the following two properties of

*

. for a DFA < Q , , q0 , ,A

**Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >,
**

*

(q,a)=

(q,a)

Proof : Since a = a , * ( q , a ) = *( q , a ) . By the definition of * , * ( q , a ) = ( *( q , ) , a ) But *( q , ) = q by the definition of Hence ( *( q , ) , a ) = ( q , a ) .

*

.

The next theorem states that the state reached from any state, say q , by reading a string, say w , is the same as the state reached by first reading a prefix of w, call it x, and then by reading the rest of the w, call it y. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 , , A > , for a DFA < Q , ,

*

( q , xy ) =

*

(

*

(q,x),y).

Proof : This is going to be proven by induction on string y. That is the statement to be proven is the following: * For an arbitrary fixed string x, ( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for any arbitrary string y. First let us review the recursive definition of *. Recursive definition of Basis Clause:

* *

:

.

* * Inductive Clause: If x and a , then xa . * Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.

Now the proof of the theorem. Basis Step: If y = , then *( q , xy ) = *( q , x ) = *( q , x ) . Also *( *( q , x ) , y ) = *( *( q , x ) , ) = *( q , x ) by the definition of * . Hence the theorem holds for y = . Inductive Step: Assume that *( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for an arbitrary string y. This is the induction hypothesis. We are going to prove that *( q , xya ) = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) for any arbitrary symbol a of . ( q , xya ) = ( *( q , xy ) , a ) by the definition of * = ( * ( *( q , x ) , y ) , a ) by the induction hypothesis. = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) by the definition of * . Thus the theorem has been proven.

*

For the following DFA answer the questions given below.

. w ) A . if and only if L = { w | *( q0 .The following notations are used in the questions: : \delta * : \delta^* : \Lambda Language Accepted by DFA Subjects to be Learned • Language accepted by DFA A string w is accepted by a DFA < Q . . A > . * . q0 . That is. if and only if ( q0 . the language accepted by a DFA is the set of strings accepted by the DFA. . Example 1 : . A language L is accepted by a DFA < Q . q0 . That is a string is accepted by a DFA if and only if the DFA starting at the initial state ends in an accepting state after reading the string. w ) A } . A > .

This DFA accepts { } because it can go from the initial state to the accepting state (also the initial state) without reading any symbol of the alphabet i. by reading an empty string . This is represented by (ab)*. To find the language it accepts.1 and it can go through this cycle any number of times by reading substring ab repeatedly.e. Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by a(ab)*aa . Then from state 1 go to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading aa.2 . which is not an accepting state.1 any number of times by reading substring ab any number of times to come back to state 1. first from the initial state go to state 1 by reading one a. Then from state 1 go through the cycle 1 . Example 2 : This DFA does not accept any string because it has no accepting state. and it stays there. It accepts nothing else because any non-empty symbol would take it to state 1. Thus the language it accepts is the empty set Example 3 : DFA with one cycle . .2 . This DFA has a cycle: 1 .

2 .0 .1 .0 and it can move through these cycles any number of times in any order to reach the accepting state from the initial state such as 0 .0 .0 and 0 . first from state 0 go to state 1 by .2 .2 .Example 4 : DFA with two independent cycles This DFA has two independent cycles: 0 . Example 5 : DFA with two interleaved cycles This DFA has two cycles: 1 .1.0. To find the language accepted by this DFA.0 .2 .1 and 1 . Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by ( ab + bb )*.2 .1 .3 .

There is a systematic way of finding the language accepted by a DFA and we are going to learn it later. first at state 0 read any number of b's. So we are not going to go any further on this problem here. At state 1 go through the cycle 1 . Thus altogether a( baa + bba )*bb will have been read when state 3 is reached from state 0.0 .1 any number of times in any order by reading substrings baa and bba. Thus the language accepted at state 1 is b*a(ba)* . Then go from state 1 to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading bb. Example 6 : This DFA has two accepting states: 0 and 1. The language accepted at state 0 is b* .1 any number of times by reading substring ba repeatedly. To find the language accepted at state 1.2 . Thus the language that is accepted by this DFA is the union of the language accepted at state 0 and the one accepted at state 1. respectively.1 and 1 .2 .3 . Then from state 1 go through the two cycles 1 .reading a ( any other state which is common to these cycles such as state 2 can also be used instead of state 1 ).2 . At this point (b*a) will have been read. At this point a substring a( baa + bba )* will have been read. Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata . Then go to state 1 by reading one a.

the following table. = { a }. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 1 a (q. As in the case of DFA the set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. in which case the NFA aborts its operation. The transition function is also called a next state function . Then a nondeterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . Otherwise it is not accepted. But it can be the empty set.Subjects to be Learned • • • Nondeterministic finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. Its elements can be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. Also let be a function from Q to 2Q . a) ) . Note that any DFA is also a NFA. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. a) must be specified. We call the elements of Q a state. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of (q. q0 . As in the case of DFA the accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. Note that is a function. 1 }. Which one of the states in (q. 2. 5. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". Examples of NFA Example 1: Q = { 0. the transition function. . Unlike DFAs an NFA moves into one of the states given by (q. . If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ends i. A > Notes on the definition 1. A = { 1 }. 4. ceases to come. 3.e. a) to select is determined nondeterministically.

this is still an NFA that accepts { Example 2: Q = { 0. = { a. . 1. b }. b } in stead of { a }. in the following table. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1. 2 }.2} 0 1 1 2 2 b a b a b {2} (q.A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. A = { 2 }. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. is changed to { a. If the alphabet a}. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state.

When it reads the symbol a. Let us now define the function strings and languages by NFA.Operation of NFA Let us see how an automaton operates when some inputs are applied to it. it does not accept any of them. If on the other hand it moves to state 1 after reading a. if the next input is b and if no more inputs are given. * and then formalize the concepts of acceptance of . Thus the string ab is also accepted by this NFA. We say that this automaton accepts the string a. then it goes to state 2 and remains there. If any other strings are given to this NFA. if it moves to state 2 and no more inputs are given. Initially it is in state 0. As an example let us consider the automaton of Example 2 above. it moves to either state 1 or state 2. then it stays in the accepting state. Since the state 2 is the accepting state.

Language Accepted by NFA Subjects to be Learned • • • for NFA Language accepted by NFA Properties of * * Definition of * For a state q and string w. Example State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {0. q0 . a) ) For example consider the NFA with the following transition table: .1. . In general an NFA nondeterministically goes through a number of states from the state q as it reads the symbols in the string w. A > . any string y * and any symbol a ( q . Thus for an NFA < Q . Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q. the Basis Clause says that an NFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the set of states NFA can reach after reading string ya starting at state q is the set of states it can reach by reading symbol a after reading string y starting at state q. ya ) = In the definition. the function * :Q -> 2Q is defined recursively as follows: * Definition of *: Basis Clause: For any state q of Q. ) = { q }. .3} 0 b {2} 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b {1} {3} {3} (q. string. * (q. where * denotes the empty . *( q . w ) is the set of states that the NFA can reach when it reads the string w starting at the state q.

ab ) can be calculated as follows: ( p. Hence *( 0 . a ) is the union of ( p. a ) for all p ( 0 . b ) (1.b)={2} {3} {1}={1. ab ) is the union of the definition of * . a ) = { 0 . 1 . ) = { 0 } .2. By the Basis Clause of the definition of *.b) (3. . 3}. b ) for all p * ( 0 . ) again by the Inductive * Clause of the definition of . 3 } . a ) = ( 0 . *( 0 . Suppose that the state 3 is an accepting state of this NFA.The transition diagram for this NFA is as given below. ( 0 . Then * * ( 0 . a ) by the Inductive Clause of * Now *( 0 . ab ) = ( 0 . Hence *( 0 .

* . A > . and for NFA has properties similar to that for DFA. . . .A Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >. .a) for an NFA < Q . Some of the strings accepted by the NFA given above are the language it accepts is a*( ab + a + ba )(bb)* . .* We say that a string x is accepted by an NFA < Q. ab. The language accepted by an NFA < Q. q0 . if and only if it can reach an accepting state by reading x starting at the initial state. a. . . . for an NFA < Q . xy ) = These theorems can be proven in a manner similar to those for Theorems 1 and 2 for DFA. A > if and only if * ( q0 . q0. abbbb etc.a)= (q. * (q. aaa. that is. * ( q . A > is the set of strings that are accepted by the NFA. x ) A is not empty. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 . . q0.

Basically an NFA with -Transitions is an NFA but can respond to an empty string and move to the next state.Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata with Transitions Subjects to be Learned • • • - Nondeterministic finite automata with State transition diagram State transition table -Transitions Contents One of the objectives of this chapter is to show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between regular languages and finite automata. 2. We call the elements of Q a state.. These operations on FAs can be described conveniently if -Transitions are used. concatenation and Kleene star operations. .A> Notes on the definition 1. We are going to do that by showing that a finite automaton can be constructed from a given regular expression by combining simpler FAs using union. . q0 .) and see some examples. A transition on reading means that the NFA. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton with -Transitions is a 5-tuple < Q . Note that any NFA is also a NFA. As we are going to see later. Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton with Let Q be a finite set and let -Transitions be a function from Q be a finite set of symbols. .makes the transition without reading any symbol in the input. Thus the tape head does not move when is read. the transition function. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. Also let { } to 2Q . Here we are going to formally define NFA with -Transitions (abbreviated as NFA. for any NFA.there is a NFA (hence DFA) which accepts the same language and vice versa.

it can move to any of the states other than 0. 2. there are no transitions on reading b except from state 3. 3. following table. for example. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in the State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 0 {4} 1 {2} 2 { 3.Example of NFA- Q = { 0. 3. 4 and 5 by reading a. For though you go to states 1. When a symbol a is read at the initial state 0. for example. then you come to state 4. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. 4 and 5 without reading any symbol on the tape. For once you are in state 1. b }. a) ) Here the transitions to are omitted from the table. = { a. 3. 4. 5 }. Thus 4 is the only state you can go to from the initial state . 1. If you read string ab. you can go to state 2. 4 } 3 {5} 3 b {4} 4 a {5} (q. 2. A = .

by reading ab.

**Language Accepted by NFASubjects to be Learned
**

• • • •

**-closure for NFALanguage accepted by NFAProperties of *
**

*

Contents

To formally define * for NFA- , we start with the concept of -closure for a state which is the set of states reachable from the state without reading any symbol. Using that concept we define * and then strings and languqges accepted by NFA- . Definition of -closure

Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA- . Let us denote the -closure of a set S of states of Q by ( S ). Then ( S ) is defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: S (S)

Inductive Clause: For any state q of Q, if q ( S ) , then ( q , ) (S). Extremal Clause: Nothing is in ( S ) unless it is obtained by the above two clauses.

For the NFAFirst { 2 }

of the above figure, ( { 2 } ) , that is, 2 (2, )

( { 2 } ) is obtained as follows: ( { 2 } ) . Then since 2 ( { 2 } ) , by the

Inductive Clause, Since (2,

({2}). ({2}).

) = { 3 , 4 }, we now have { 2 , 3 , 4 }

Since 3 and 4 have been added to

({2}),

(3,

) = { 5 } and

(4,

)=

must

be included in ( { 2 } ) . Thus now { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } ({2}). Though 5 has become a memeber of the closure, since ( 5 , ) is empty, no new members are added to ( { 2 } ) . Since ( q , ) has been examined for all the states currently in ( { 2 } ) and no more elements are added to it, this process of generating the closure terminates and ( { 2 } ) = { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } is obtained. As we can see from the example, ( S ) is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S by traversing any number of arcs. That is, it is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S without reading any symbols in . Now with this -closure, we can define

*

recursively as follows:

As in the cases of DFA and NFA, * gives the result of applying the transition function repeatedly as dictated by the given string. Definition of

* *

is going to be defined recursively. Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA-

.

**Basis Clause: For any state q of Q,
**

*

(q,

)=

({q}).

*

Inductive Clause: For any state q, a string y in

and a symbol a in

,

*

( q , ya ) =

(

).

What the Inductive Clause means is that *( q , ya ) is obtained by first finding the states that can be reached from q by reading y ( *( q , y ) ), then from each of those states p by reading a (i.e. by finding ( p , a ) ), and then by reading 's ( i.e. by taking the closure of the ( p , a )'s ) . Example : For the NFAbelow: of the following figure,

*

( 0 , ab ) can be obtained as

First let us compute *( 0 , a ) . For that we need ( { 0 } ). Since it is the set of states reached by traversing the arcs from state 0, ( { 0 } ) = {0,3,4}. Next from each of the states in ( { 0 } ) we read symbol a and move to another state (i.e. apply ). They are ( 0 , a ) = { 1 } , ( 3 , a ) = ( 4 , a ) = { 5 }. Hence We then traverse the } ) = { 1 , 2 , 3 } and = { 1 , 5 } for q = 0 . arcs from { 1 , 5 } to get to the states in *( 0 , a ) . Since * ({5})={5}, (0,a)={1,2,3,5}.

({1

Thus Since ( { 4 } ) = { 3 . ab } . NFAs and NFA.that recognizes a language L. .Then to find *( 0 . q1. a ) and then take the arcs from there. Equivalence of DFAs. 4 } . Now ( 1 . *( 0 . b ) are empty sets. . A > if and only if *( q0 . ( 3 . The language accepted by an NFA. .< Q . ab ) read b from each of the states in *( 0 . q0 .< Q . For example the NFAof the figure given above accepts the language { . a . 4 } . x ) contains at least one accepting state. . Then the 2 . b ) and ( 5 .. A string x is accepted by an NFA.s Subjects to be Learned • • • Conversion of NFA. q2. A2 > that satisfies the following conditions recognizes L: . q0 .0 . A1 > be an NFA. b ) . and ( 2 . .to (equivalent) NFA Conversion of NFA to (equivalent) DFA Equivalence of DFAs. . NFA M2 = < Q2. b ) = { 4 } . . A > is the set of strings accepted by the NFA.0 . ab ) = { 3 . NFAs and NFAto NFA 1 Conversion of NFA- Let M1 = < Q1 .

that is all the states that can be reached from q by traversing arcs. a ) = 1 * (q.0 are the accepting states of M2 . 2. A1 > does. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) .0 = q1. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0. Otherwise. Thus to obtain an NFA M2 = < Q2.M1 = < Q1 . q1.0 } ) A1 = A1 otherwise . . The closure of the set of those states is 2( q . 2 first copy the states of Q1 into Q2.Q2 = Q1. 3 ). The set of accepting states A2 is the same as A1 if no accepting states can be reached from the initial state q1.0 through arcs in M1 .0 .a)= ( ) A2 = A1 { q1. 1 } .0 through arcs in M1 . a ) as follows: Find ( {q} ). a ): First ( { 0 } ) = { 0 . Then from the transition function of the NFA- .0 . Example 1: Let us convert the following NFAto NFA. q2. q2. 2 ( q. as the given NFA.0 } if ( { q1. A2 > which accepts the same language 1 . 1. Then for each state q of Q2 and each symbol a of find 2 ( q . . .0. then all the accepting states of M1 plus state q1. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. The transition function 2 is obtained as follows: 2( 0 . Then collect all the states that can be reached from each state of ( {q} ) by traversing one arc labeled with the symbol a. that is if an accepting state can be reached from the initial state q1. a ) .

b ) = .b)= 1 ( 1. and Hence 2( 0 .1} {1} {1} {2} {2} {1.( 0 .2})={1.1} {0. 2 (0.2} )) ({q}) {0. )(= ( {1. a ) = 1 ( 1 . a ) = { 1 .2} {1. b ) .2} {1. 2 }. . a ) = . (q.2} {1. 2 ( 0 .2} {1. 1 For .3} {3} {1. since ( { 0 } ) = { 0 .2}. They are given in the table ( { q } ) and 2 below together with State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b a b . ({1. 1 } and 1 (0.3} {1.3} {1.b)= Similarly 2 can be obtained for other states and symbols.2} The NFA thus obtained is shown below.

The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0.2} {1. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) . )(= ( {1.4} {1. 3.3} .2. 1.4} {1.3} {3} {3} {1.1} {0.1} {1} {1} {2. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0.4} {1.3} {1.3} )) {1. 4 ). The transition function 2 is obtained as for Example 1.Example 2: Let us convert the following NFA- to NFA.2.3} {2. 2 is given in the table below together with ( { q } ) .2} 2 (q.4} {1. ) and State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 a b a b a b a b a ({q}) {0.2} {4} {4} {4} {1. 2.2. 1 ( p .

.4 b {1.4} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. Proof of Equivalence of NFA- and NFA We are going to prove that the NFA obtained from NFAby the conversion algorithm accepts the same language as the NFA.

it implies that NFAM1 and NFA M2 accept the same non-empty strings.0 .a)= 2 * (q. Basis Step: We need to show that for any symbol a in 1 * (q. and the conversion of NFAto NFA click here. a)= by the definition of Since * 2 * for NFA (click here for a review) . Hence (q.a). w ) for an arbitrary string w (Induction Hypothesis). = = 2 * 2 (q . We are going to prove it by showing that both of them are equal to Firstly 2( q . that is wa for any symbol a in the alphabet.w)= 2 * (q. A2 > (q. (q. (q. Secondly 2 * (q. Thus we first prove that it is true for any arbitrary symbol. wa ) --.NFA- that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 .w). Claim 1: For any non-empty string w and for any state q. the induction hypothesis and the construction of NFA from NFA. )={q}.0 .a)= 2 ( q .(2) Hence from (1) and (2). Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. wa ) = 2 * ( q . 1 * (q. = 1 * Then we show that ( q .w)= 2 * ( q . . . w ) for any non-empty string w. A1 > and 2 NFA obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. The case when w is an empty string is going to be proven separately. wa ) = --.a).a)= 2 2 * (q .(2) . then * 1 ( q . wa ) holds for any arbitrary symbol a in First we show that using the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . a ) --. then assuming it holds for any arbitrary string w we prove it for any of the children of w. q1. Recall that the set of strings is defined recursively (click here for a quick review). --. . 1 * (q. and NFA- When it is proven. ..a)= 2 * 2 (q.(1) because of the way NFA is constructed from NFA(click here for a review) . .w)= 2 * ( q .a). First we are going to prove that To review the definition of * 1 * . Inductive Step: We need to show that if 1 * (q. q2.(1) . 1 . a ) = 1*( q .a). a ) . for NFA.

for NFA- (p. wa ) = 2 * ( q . Hence 2 * ( q . This can be shown to be equal to . a ) by the way NFA is constructed from NFA= . wa ) . The right hand side of this equality is equal to ( the first and have been swapped to get this) . w ) by the induction hypothesis. wa ) = Since 2 * (q. that is By the definition of 1 * = 1 * 1 * ( q . To see an explanation for this click here. . Hence we have proven (2). Let us next prove (2).basically using the definition of Then from (1) and (2) we can see that 1 * 1 * . wa ) = 2 * ( q . = Since 2 (q. = 1*( q . Hence On the other hand = Hence 1 * = ( q . by the definition of 1 * .a)= Substituting this into the left hand side of (2) produces = . . wa ) . that is (1) has been proven. wa ) . 1 * Thus from (1) and (2) ( q . because = . wa ) . By the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q .a)= 1 * ( q . Let us first prove (1). wa ) = . . as proven below in Claim 3. wa ) .w)= 1 * ( q . ( q .

Let X be the set of states of an NFA. As a preparation for the proof of commutativity of union and -closure operations. Hence is accepted by NFA. A2 .. . As for the empty string . if it is accepted by an NFA. Since (S T ) is defined recursively. then ( q . Extremal Clause: Nothng is in ( X ) unless it is obtained by the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Hence is accepted by NFA. q20 Conversely if NFAis accepted by NFA. Inductive Clause: If q ( X ) . and the corresponding NFA accept the same language. Hence by the way A2 is constructed. in the Basis Step of our proof we prove the property for the elements of the basis of (S T ) and in the Inductive Step we prove that if an arbitrary element of (S T ) has that property. Part 1 : (S T) (S) (T) This is going to be proven by induction on (S T). ) (X). then its childen also have it. Then the -closure of X is defined recursively as Basis Clause: X (X). Claim 2: (S T)= (S) (T).End of Induction With this Claim 1 we can see that any non-empty string w is accepted by NFA if and only if it is accepted by the corresponding NFA. then ( { q10 } ) A1 . then q20 this means that Thus NFA( { q10 } ) A1 A2 . let us prove the following claim. We are going to prove this in two parts: (S T) (S) (S) (T) ( T ) and (S T). By the way NFA is constructed from . For that let us restate the statement so that the induction becomes clearer. Let us review the definition of the -closure of the set of states of an NFA. What Part 1 states is that all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in the set (S) (T).

S and T are subsets of (S T) Inductive Step: We need to prove that if q is an arbitrary element of the property of being in (S) (S ( T ) . T T). ) (S) (T). then (q. (S T ) with the property of being in (S) ( T ) . T). then (q. End of Proof for Part 1 Part 2 : Proof of Part 2: We are going to prove (S) (S (S) T ) and (S) (T) (T) (T) (S (S (S T). (T) Thus all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in (S T) which is to say that (S) (T). ) Let q be an arbitrary element of T ) with the property of being in ( S ) by the definition of ( T ) . (T). Basis Step: We need to show that S Since S (S T ) . (S) (T).S (S T). if q is in . ) . Hence ) Similarly if q Hence if q is an arbitrary element of (S) (T). then ( q . T ) with (T).q ( S ) or q ( S ) . Inductive Step: We need to prove that for an arbitrary element q in ( S ) . and ( S T) (S T). ) (S) (S) (T). ( T ) . Hence (T). Since q If q ( S ) . then (q. ( T ) . (q. ) (S) (T).Proof of Part 1: Basis Step: We need to prove that ( S Since S ( S ) and T T) (S) (S) (S (S) (S) (T). That would imply that Proof of (S) (S By induction on (S T): (S).

--.(S Since q is in (S T ) and since (S T ) . - T ) is a -closure. ) (S closure T). ( Si ) = ( Si ) = ( S1 ) and ( S1 ) . Si is a set as well as Sn+1. Similarly Hence (S) (T) (T) (S T ) holds. End of Proof of Part 2 End of Proof of Claim 2 Claim 3: ( Si ) = ( Si ) . then (q. ( Si ) holds for n.Inducion Hypothesis ( Si ) = ( = = (( Si ) ( ( Si ) ) Si ) ( Sn+1 ) by the definition of union. since = ( Equivalence of NFA and DFA We are going to prove that the DFA obtained from NFA by the conversion algorithm . ) (S T). Proof : Proof by induction on n. End of Proof for Claim 3 Sn+1 ) by Claim 2 above. by the definition of (q. If n = 1. ( Sn+1 ) by the induction hypothesis. then Hence Inductive Step: Assume that ( ( Si ) = Si ) = ( Si ) holds for n = 1. Basis Step: n = 1. Si ) by the definition of union. Thus (S) (S T ) has been proven. (S T ) holds.

w ) for any string w.0 .0 . Inductive Step: Assume that Induction Hypothesis 1 * ( q1. --- For the string w and an arbitrry symbol a in 1 * . 2 1 .0 . ( q2. w ) = 2 * ( q2. it obviously implies that NFA M1 and DFA M2 accept the same strings. q1. q2.0 . = { q1. A1 > and DFA . w ) = 2*( q2. wa ) = = = = 2 ( 1 2 * * ( q1.Part 1 Subjects to be Learned • • • • Union of FAs Concatenation of FAs Kleene Star of FAs Acceptance of regular languages by FAs Contents . w ) = 2 * ( q2. Theorem: For any string w. Basis Step: For w = 2 * . w ) holds. A2 > First we are going to prove by induction on strings that 1*( q1.0 .0 . ) = q2. Kleene's Theorem --. ) by the definition of 1 * .0 .0 by the definition of 2* . a ) 2( * 2 ( q2.0 . w ) . NFA that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 . = * 1 ( q1.0 . Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w.0 . When it is proven.0 . w ) for an arbitrary string w.0 . wa ) * 1 Thus for any string w ( q1.0 . . .accepts the same language as the NFA. w ) .0 . 1 * ( q1. w ) . obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. w ) = 2 * ( q2.0 } by the construction of DFA M2 .0 . a ) ( q2.0 . ( q1.

Proof: This is going to be proven by (general) induction following the recursive definition of regular language. qk.0 .0 . Ac > and Mk = < Q2 . respectively. . . . . k . Since any regular language is obtained from { } and { a } for any symbol a in by using union.0 . q2. qu.0 is a state which is neither in Q1 nor in Q2 . respectively. 2 . which are given below. q1. u Mu = < Qu . A1 > and M2 = < Q2 . Basis Step: As shown below the languages . Suppose that L1 and L2 are accepted by FAs M1 = < Q1 . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by the FAs Mu = < Qu . concatenation and Kleene star operations. Qu = Q1 Q2 . Theorem 1 (Part 1 of Kleene's theorem): Any regular language is accepted by a finite automaton.0 } .Kleene's theorem. then L1 L2 . qu. where qu. qc. 1 . .0 . u L2 . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by FAs. that together with the Basis Step would prove the theorem. It states that any regular language is accepted by an FA and conversely that any language accepted by an FA is regular. . Inductive Step: We are going to show that for any languages L1 and L2 if they are accepted by FAs. Au > : { qu. Then L1 = < Qc . Mc . Ak > . Au > .0 .0 . . c .{ } and { a } for any symbol a in are accepted by an FA. A2 > . We assume that Q1 Q2 = without loss of generality since states can be renamed if necessary.

0 } . a ) = for all a in .0. .0. .0 } ) } . These NFA- s are illustrated below. q2.0. Ac > : Qc = Q1 Q2 qc. qk. k . Note that (qu. where qk. c . Ak > : { qk. .0.0 . .0 } . q2.0 } ) } { (q.0 } ) | q A1 } Ac = A2 Mk = < Qk .u = 1 2 { (qu.0 . qc.0 } = 1 { (qk. that is u (qu.0 is a state which is not in Q1 . . Au = A1 A2 Mc = < Qc .0 c = 1 2 { (q.0 = q1. { qk. { q1. .0 . u ) = { q1. Qk = Q1 k . { q1. { q2.0 } ) | q A1 } Ak = { qk.0 .

though we omit proofs. that these NFA. Mu. L1L2 and L1*. respectively. End of Proof Examples of Mu .It can be proven. Mc and Mk . in fact accept L1 L2 . Mc and Mk: Example 1: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression (aa + b)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above. .s .

.Example 2: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression ((a + b)a*)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above.

Kleene's Theorem -.Part 2 .

Lemma 1: L(p. k) L(p. L(p. L(p. k)L(k+1. k)*L(k+1. k) the set of strings representing paths from state p to state q that go through only states numbered no higher than k. Note that paths may go through arcs and vertices any number of times. k+1. What this lemma says is that the set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled with k+1 or lower numbers consists of the following two sets: 1. q. k+1) = L(p. Before proceeding to a proof outline for the converse. k+1. k)L(k+1. k) : The set of strings going first from p to k+1. q. k) : The set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled wiht k or lower numbers. first relabel its states with the integers 1 through n. q. k+1. q. Next denote by L(p. It states that any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. q. Then the following lemmas hold. then from k+1 to q. let us study a method to compute the set of strings accepted by a finite automaton. Given a finite automaton. then from k+1 to k+1 any number of times. all without passing through states labeled higher than k. q. k) . 2. k)*L(k+1. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. . See the figure below for the illustration.Subjects to be Learned • Languages accepted by FAs are regular Contents The converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem also holds true. k+1.

Since the number of symbols is finite and since any finite language is regular. n) over all accepting states q. q. Hence if p and q are different. q. Proof: L(p. 0) is regular. Example : Let us find the language accepted by the following finite automaton using the . then it consists of single symbols representing arcs from p to q. If p = q. q. 0) is the set of strings representing paths from p to q without passing any states in between. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. 0) is regular. we have the following converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem. >From Lemmas 1 and 2 by induction the following lemma holds. q. k) is regular for any states p and q and any natural number k.Lemma 2: L(p. Theorem 2 (Part 2 of Kleene's Theorem): Any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. q. then is in it as well as the strings representing any loops at p (they are all single symbols). Lemma 3: L(p. Since the language accepted by a finite automaton is the union of L(q0. L(p.

2.0) = and r(2.0) = a .1.2. r(1. 3.2. 1.2. 2) = a* + a+(b a+)*b a* . 1) = a Hence r(1.0) = ba* . 1. 1. since r(1. 1) + r(3. 1.1. 1)r(2. 1)*r(2.2. 2. 1.0)r(1. 1) = r(2.0) + r(1. 2) = r(1. k). 3. 2. 1) r(1.1.1. 1) r(3.0)*r(1.1. 1)r(2.0) + r(3. k) the regular expression for the set of strings L(p. 3.0) = and r(3. 2) = r(3.1. 3. 1) = r(1. 1) = r(2. since r(2. since r(1.0) = a + . 1) + r(1. 3. r(1. 2): r(3.0)*r(1. 2) + r(1.lemmas. 1.1. 3.0) + r(1. 2.0)r(1.2.0)r(1. 2): r(1. q.0)r(1. 1) = r(3.0) = a+ .0) = b .1. 1. 2) . 1) + r(1.0) = ba+ . 3). 1)*r(2. 3.1. 3. Let us denote by r(p. 2. 1) = r(1. .2. 1. 3. 2. 1)r(2. since r(3. 2)*r(3.0) = a* .1. 1) = r(3. r(1.1.0)r(1. 3. 2): r(1. 1) r(1.1. 2) = r(1.0)*r(1.1. r(1.2. 1)*r(2.2. Hence r(1.0) = ba+ + . 3.0)*r(1. Then the language accepted by this NFA is r(1. 2.0) = b. 1) = r(2. q. 3. r(2. 1. r(2. 3. 1. 1.0) + r(2.1. )*a r(3. 3) = r(1. 2.0) + r(2. 3.1. 2)r(3. 2.1.2.0)*r(1.1. By Lemma 1. 2) = a+(b a+ + = a+(b a+ )*a .

1. 1. that is Mc = < Q .1.e. . and all the r(p. n)'s must be added together to get the regular expression for the language accepted by the automaton. 3) = a* + a+(b a+)*ba* + ( a+( ba+ )*a )( This can be further simplified to (a + ab + abb)*. . q. 1. then r(p. then to (a + ab)*.L. If there are more accepting states. 2. .1. Comlement and Intersection of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • • Complement of Regular Language Complement of DFA Intersection of Regular Languages Contents Complement Let M = < Q .0)r(1. 2) = ba* + ba+( ba+ + = ( ba+ )*ba* . A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. 1) + r(3. 1)*r(2.A > is a DFA that accepts * . . The detail is left as an exercise though it would be quite challenging.Hence r(3.L . 2. q0 . 1) r(3. q. q0 . Then a DFA that accepts the complement of L. 1.0) = ba* Hence r(3. Q . can be obtained by swapping its accepting states with its non-accepting states. 2) = r(3. n) must be found for each accepting state q. 2): r(3. In this example there is only one accepting state. 1) = r(3. )*ba* + ( ba+)+a )*( ba+ )*ba*. 2) = = + ( ba+)+a + ba+( ba+ + )*a r(3. 1. 1)r(2. 3. . Hence r(1. 1. * . i.0)<SUP*< SUP>r(1. 1. where p is the initial state and n is the number of states in the given finite automaton. 1.1.0) + r(3.

Remark 2: Since a language is regular if and only if it is accepted by some NFA. we must first convert it to DFA before swapping states to get its complement.For example the following DFA accepts the language a+ over = { a . the complement of a regular language is also regular. Remark 1: If we have NFA rather than DFA. . b }. A DFA that accepts its complement is obtained from the above DFA by changing all single circles to double circles and vice versa as shown below.

if L1 and L2 are regular languages. Test Your Understanding of Complemnent and Intersection of FAs Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.Regular Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Regular Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Production and Grammar Regular Grammar Context-Free. Thus summing all this up we can say that the set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed with respect to union. intersection. then their complements are regular languages. Click True or Fals . In particular De Morgan's law also applies to languages. L1 L2 is regular. Therefore all the properties of sets are inherited by languages. Since L1 L2 = by De Morgan's law. then Submit. Next -. difference. Context-Sensitive and Phrase Structure Grammars . concatenation and Kleene star operations. By Remark 2 above.Intersection of Regular Languages Langauges are sets.

where X and Y are nonterminals and a is a terminal. To generate the string aa for example. S -> } is a regular grammar and it generates all the strings consisting of a's and b's including the empty string. and S -> aS . S -> bS. = {a.e.{ by a regular grammar. aaa. . finite automata and construction from simple languages using simple operations. A grammar is regular if and only if is a single nonterminal and is a single terminal or a single terminal followed by a single nonterminal. a start symbol S. a set of terminals (the alphabet of the language).Contents We have learned three ways of characterising regular languages: regular expressions.e. If there is no is derived from ambiguity about the grammar G that is referred to. A production has in general the form -> . } can be generated This can be proven by constructing an FA for the given grammar as follows: For each nonterminal create a state. For example consider the language represented by a+. a ) = Z. add the transition ( X. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. One can generate the strings of this language by the following procedure: Let S be a symbol to start the process with. which ia a nonterminal. which is { a. Theorem 3: A language L is accepted by an FA i. . start with S and apply the second rule to replace S with the right hand side of the rule. i. if L . We write S => aS to express that aS is obtained from S by applying a single production. we write =>*G is obtained from a string and say that by applying productions of . and a set of rewrite rules (productions) P. aS. that is by something called grammar. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals with at least one nonterminal in it and is a string of terminals and nonterminals. } . . There is yet another way of characterizing them. the fact that aa is obtained from S is written as S =>* aa . Then apply the first rule to aS to rewrite S as a. Rewrite S using one of the following two rules: S -> a . then we simply write =>* Formally a grammar consists of a set of nonterminals (or variables) V. to obtain aS. Thus the process of obtaining aa from S is written as S => aS => aa . In general if a string a grammar G. b}. Then for every production X -> aY. regular. That gives us aa. aa. . These rules mean that S is rewritten as a or as aS. The following theorem holds for regular grammars. a ) = Y and for every production X -> a add the transition ( X. For example. A grammar is a set of rewrite rules which are used to generarte strings by successively rewriting symbols. that is a production is of the form X -> a or X -> aY. S corresponds to the initial state. Add another state as the accepting state Z. If we are not interested in the intermediate steps.

b}. P. then since { } is regular . b }. where Q = { S. S > . S -> bS. Thus L . a) = Y for some accepting state Y. and adding transitions ( S. b ) = { S. a) = Y . S -> a. S -> aX. accepted by an NFA. } is generated by a For example. and nonterminals X and Y. X -> aY is in P if and only if (X. A > a regular grammar < Q. then L . and for any a in and any nonterminal X. L = Conversely from any NFA < Q. Thus the following converse of Theorem 3 is obtained. An NFA that recognizes this language can be obtained by creating two states S and Z. Z } . X -> a is in P if and only if (X.{ } is regular. q0 > is obtained as follows: for any a in . Y } . . Y -> bS. The NFA thus obtained is shown below. Z } and ( S. . X -> aY. S -> b } form a regular grammar which generates the language ( a + b )+.For example = {a.{ regular grammar. . P.e. X. where S is the initial state and Z is the accepting state of the NFA. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. as its member. S -> a }. Theorem 4 : If L is regular i. a ) = { S. . a regular grammar corresponding to the NFA given below is < Q. q0. { a. If L contains ( L -{ } ) { } is also regular. P = { S -> aS. X -> bS.

c } and V = { X. cZ -> cc } with = { a. S1 -> XYZ. S -> XYZ. For example P = { S -> XYZS1. respectively. They are characterized by context-free grammars. Y. As we shall see later this is an example of context-free language which is not regular. b. ZX -> XZ. S1 } is a context-sensitive grammar and it generates the language { anbncn | n is a positive integer } . possibly empty except Thus the nonterminal X can be rewritten as only in the context of 1X 2 .| | | |. Z. possibly the empty string. Context-sensitive grammars are also characterized by productions whose left hand side is not longer than the right hand side. S1 -> XYZS1. 1 . where is a string of terminals and nonterminals. for every production -> . X -> a. context-sensitive grammars and phrase structure grammars. It is an example of context-sensitive language which is not context-free. A grammar is a context-sensitive grammar if and only if its production is of the form 1 X 2 -> 1 2 . b } and V = { S } is a contex-free grammar and it generates the language { anbn | n is a positive integer } .In addition to regular languages there are three other types of languages in Chomsky hierarchy : context-free languages. that is the set of regular languages is a subset of the set of context-free languages which is in turn a subset of the set of context-sensitive languages and the set of context-sensitive languages is a subset of the set of phrase structure languages. S. For example P = { S -> aSb. YX -> XY. where X is a nonterminal and . BY -> bb. context-sensitive languages and phrase structure languages. . A grammar is a context-free grammar if and only if its production is of the form X -> . that is. bZ -> bc. ZY -> YZ. aY -> ab. 2 and are strings of terminals and nonterminals. aX -> aa. These grammars are distinguished by the kind of productions they have but they also form a hierarchy. S -> ab } with = { a.

denote it by M1.A } of the set of states Q . There are two sets of questions. Minimization Algorithm for DFA Construct a partition = { A. that is a production of a phrase structure grammar can take the form can be any string. Then the following algorithm produces the DFA. -> . where and Test Your Understanding of Regular Grammar Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. that has the smallest number of states amomg the DFAs that accept L. Next -. . }. both theoretically and practically. there is no restriction on the form of production. . then Submit. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L.Minimization of DFA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Minimization of DFA One important result on finite automata. q0 . Let M = < Q . Click True or Fals . Q . is that for any regular language there is a unique DFA having the smallest number of states that accepts it.For a phrase structure grammar. new := new_partition( .

e. respectively. then the minimum DFA M1 has a transition from p to q on symbol a. end Minimum DFA M1 is constructed from • • final as follows: • • Select one state in each set of the partition final as the representative for the set. if there are any. These representatives are states of minimum DFA M1. The subsets thus formed are sets of the output partition in place of S.while ( := new new ) ) . If S is not partitioned in this process. Let s be a state in p and t a state in q. final function new_partition( ) for each set S of do partition S into subsets such that two states p and q of S are in the same subset of S if and only if for each input symbol. Remove from M1 the dead states and the states not reachable from the start state. Let us also denote by p and q the sets of states of the original DFA M represented by p and q. The start state of M1 is the representative which contains the start state of M. The accepting states of M1 are representatives that are in A. A state is a dead state if it is not an accepting state and has no out-going transitions except to itself. Any transitions to a dead state become undefined. . p and q make a transition to (states of) the same set of . Example 1 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. new := new_partition( := . If a transition from s to t on symbol a exists in M. Let p and q be representatives i. states of minimum DFA M1. Note that the sets of final are either a subset of A or disjoint from A. S remains in the output partition.

2 and 4 are separated from each other in new. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 2 to 1 on b. Also since on a sate 4 goes to sate 4. 4 goes to 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . 5 } . Further. they have the obvious representatives. 2 . Since the rest are singletons. On the other hand 1 and 5 make the same transitions. 5 }. { 2 } . new_partition is applied to . So they are not going to be split. states 2 and 3 are going to be separated from each other in new . { 3 } . 4 } }. 3 }. Since the rest of the states are singletons.Initially = { { 1 . { 4 ] }. { 4 ] }. all transitions between them are inherited for the minimized DFA. For the transitions. in the When new_partition is applied to this new . since 1 and 5 do the same transitions. This becomes the second iteration. and from 3 to 1 on a. { 2 . { 3 } . Since on b state 2 goes to state 1. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 1 to 3 on a. Select 1 as the representative for { 1 . 5 } . 5 } . Thus the set of states for the minimized DFA is { 1 . Thus the new partition is { { 1 . { 2 } . states 3 and 4 are going to be separated from each other in new. Also since 2 goes to 1 on b. and to 2 on b in the original DFA. since on b 2 goes to 1. state 3 goes to state 5 and 4 and 5 are in different sets in . and 3 goes to 1 on a in the original DFA. and 1 to 2 on b. remains unchanged. . Note here that state 4 is a dead state because the only transitionout of it is to itself. Thus final = { { 1 . since 1 goes to 3 on a. state 3 goes to state 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . 3 .

Thus the minimized DFA is as given in the following figure: Example 2 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. .

Test Your Understanding of Minimization of DFA Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. { 1 . { 2 } . { 2 . Applyting new_partition to this . { 5 } . 4 . then Submit. new = { { 3 } .Application of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Application of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Reactive system .Initially = { { 3 } . Next -. Applyting new_partition again. { 6 } } is obtained. 4 } . { 6 } } is obtained. { 3 } . { 4 } . { 2 } . 4 . By applying new_partition to this . { 1 . 6 } }. new = { { 1 } . new = { { 3 } . 2 . { 5 } . 5 } . Thus the number of states of the given DFA is already minimum and it can not be reduced any further. 5 . { 1 . 6 } } is obtained. Click True or Fals .

Then the transitions between the states triggered by events and conditions. An adder does not respond unless the input i. For example consider the following very simplified version of login process to a computer from the computer point of view.• Modeling reactive systems with FA Contents We have seen an example of use of finite automata in describing the operation of a simplified version of vending machine. In addition actions that may take place in those states can also be added to the model. Let us assume for simplicity that this computer accepts a single user at a time. In the case of vending machine or communication protocol. computer network communication protocols. Many other systems operating in practice can also be modeled by finite automata such as control circuits of computers. It is an event driven or control driven system continuously having to react to external and/or internal stimuli. outputs and conditions/status in response to stimuli from within or outside it. external or internal to the system. . are identified and they become arcs in the transition diagram of the finite automaton. two numbers to be added are ready.e. Many of those systems fall into the class of systems called reactive system. The inputs for a reactive system are never ready unlike for example when two numbers are added together by an adder (Here we are considering an adder at a higher level of abstraction than physical devices level ignoring for example the transient states of the electronic circuit that realizes an adder). Finite automata are formal and rigorous and computer programs can be easily written to simulate their behaviors. lexical analysers for compilers etc. even to a fragment of input such as each coin tossed in for a can of soda or every message received. on the other hand. a system must respond to each stimulus. first the states the system goes in or the modes of its operation are identified. These become the states of the finite automaton that models it. A system such as an adder is called a transformational system. A reactive system is a system that changes its actions. To model a reactive system with finite automaton. It is generally agreed that finite automata are a natural medium to describe dynamic behaviors of reactive systems.

That is a fourth state. it goes into the state of receiving it (Our interpretation is that the computer is in a state of receiving an RFNM and it is taking the action of receiving the RFNM) . it checks whether or not the name is valid. If a positive ACK is received. then it informs the user of that and waits for the next try. Depending on how much detail we are interested in. If the user name typed in is not valid. sending message and waiting for ACK. . Initially the computer is in wait state waiting for "Request for Next Message" (RFNM) to come from another computer. it resends the message. different states and transitions would have to be chosen. which is another state. it gets a signal. then it asks for and then waits for the password. When the session terminates. After sending the ACK. That is another state though it could further be broken down into a number of more states. This is one state of the system. it goes back to the initial state and waits for another RFNM to come. Again what we have seen is a model for one level of abstraction. Thus a finite automaton that models this protocol has the following five states: initial state (wait for RFNM). different states would be identified and transitions would have to be selected accrdingly. If the second password fails. sending ACK. it starts sending the requested message to the other party. Upon completion of the RFNM. which is another state.Initially the computer waits for a user name to be typed in. it goes back to the initial state. When a name is typed in. When a RFNM starts coming. Again depending on the level of abstraction. it sends "Acknowledgement" (ACK) to the other computer. it goes into another wait state waiting for an ACK to come from the other computer. then it accepts the user and starts a session. We could make it go to a different state and count the number of login attempts for security purpose. receiving RFNM. goes back to the initial state and waits for another login. The next example is a protocol for a computer to follow in communicating with another computer. it goes to the initial state and starts all over again. When it is complete. Again it is a very simplified version. If the password typed in is incorrect. If a negative ACK is received. When a password is typed in and it is correct. But let us make it simple. If it is valid.

denote it by D. then it can continue receiving digits and stay in D. after reading a digit and stays there as long as digits are read.8 etc. then it must receive at least one digit after that. Since these numbers are represented by strings consisting of a possible sign. that indicates that a decimal point has been read. then it goes into a state. 9 } . If the first digit is received before a decimal point.. i.+ ) ( d+. it is in state D. On the other hand if a digit has been read before a decimal point.d+ ). that indicates a digit has been read before a decimal point. If a decimal point has been read (i. followed by one or more digits. that indicates that a sign has been received. where s+ and s. they can be represented by the following regular expression: ( s+ + s. This system can also be described by a regular expression.e. If a decimal point is read while in D.d+ + d+ + .378. +213. denote it by Q. denote it by G. then it goes to state P indicating that a decimal point has been read. . Therefore from state P it goes to another state. This system can be modeled by the following finite automaton: .e. it goes into a state. in state P). followed by a possible decimal point. then it goes into a state. -15. denote it by P.represent the positive and negative signs. . After one digit it can continue receiving digits. .2. respectively and d {0. One such system initially waits for the first symbol to come in. This Q is an accepting state. If a decimal point is received before a digit.Our third example is a system that recognizes numbers with or without a sign such as 5. D is another accepting state. regardless of whether a sign has been read or not.1. followed by zero or more digits. If the first symbol is a sign.

indicates the actions taken at each state and a fourth. One such simulation algorithm is given below. holds the next state for each input symbol for each state. while ( TOKEN [index] .Next -. input := read_input( ) . stores for each state the input symbols that trigger transitions from the state. called TOKEN. called ACTION. Algorithm FA Simulator state := INITIAL_STATE. called STATEX. called NEXT_STATE. while ( state NO_of_STATES and not End of Input ) index := STATEX [state] . we can use a general purpose program to simulate its operation. Those indices are used to access the contents of the other arrays. keeps the index of the first symbol in the TOKEN array for each state. 0 and TOKEN [index] input ) index := index + 1.Simulation of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Simulation of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Simulation of FA Contents Once a finite automaton is constructed. It uses four arrays. Another array. One array. A third array.

first click the box under the red arrow. The corresponding transitions are going to be shown by red arrows in the transition diagram. The ACTION array would contain pointers to actions to be taken corresponding to arcs traversed such as converting a digit in BCD form to the corresponding binary number. end Here 0 in the TOKEN array is a marker between states. state := NEXT_STATE [index]. empty transitions) are omitted.if ( TOKEN [index] 0) perform the action specified by ACTION [index]. first click the box pointed by the red arrow in the figure below. B. C and H. Then type 3 Tab . S is the initial state and B and H are accepting states. At the moment it is empty. So no action is taken as a number is processed. Then every time you click "SHOW" the number is processed digit by digit. else error input := read_input( ) . In the DFA below all the transitions to the empty state (i. To see how this algorithm works. S corresponds to 1.45. You must hit the "Tab" key to move to the next box. Tab 4 Tab 5.e. Then type in a number you want the FA to recognize. . to input 3. For example. The numbers below NEXT_STATE array show the correspondence between the indices of the STATEX array and the states A.

So be patient. . click here It is extremely slow.If you are also interested in how code is executed.

however. For example to recognize the language { anbn | n is a natural number} . either xz and yz are both in L or they are both not in L. Non-regularity test based on Myhill-Nerode's theorem Indistinguishability of strings: Strings x and y in * are indistinguishable with respect to a language L if and only if for every string z in *. languages that are not regular and therefore require devices other than finite automata to recognize them. This is the basis of two of the regularity test methods we are going to study below: Myhill-Nerode Theorem and Pumping Lemma. Thus there is no way for a finite automaton to remember how many a's it has read for all possible strings anbn . because aak and aaak are in the language an for any . Thus it must be in different states when it has read different number of a's and starts reading the first b. The main idea behind these test methods is that finite automata have only finite amount of memory in the form of states and that they can not distinguish infinitely many strings. For example. a and aa are indistinguishable with respect to the language an over alphabet { a }. But any finite automaton has only finite number of states.Nerode Theorem for non-regularity test Pumping Lemma Contents We have learned regular languages. we can conclude that { anbn | n is a natural number} is not regular.Next -. Since a regular language must be recognized by a finite automaton. where n is a positive integer. their properties and their usefulness for describing various systems. In this section we are going to study some of the methods for testing given languages for regularity and see some of the languages that are not regular. There are. That is the main limitation of finite automata.Non-Regular Languages Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Regular Languages Non-Regular Languages Subjects to be Learned • • • Existence of non-regular languages Myhill . a finite automaton must remember how many a's it has read when it starts reading b's.

Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L3 unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S2. then ( + ) and ( * ) are in L3 . It can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L2 as follows. Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } over alphabet { a . Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L2 . For more on Myhill-Nerode theorem click here. For example. Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. Inductive Clause: If and are in L3 . with respect to the language anbn .positive integer k. Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L1 . b } and it is infinite. Example 2: L2 = { ww | w {a. We are going to show that its strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L1. Consider the set of strings S2 which is the same as S1 of Example 1 above. a and aa are not indistinguishable (hence distinguishable). This set is infinite . x . Select bakb as a string to be appended to ak and am . where k and m are positive integers and k m . because ab is in the language anbn while aab is not in the language. operations + and * and left and right parentheses. Hence L1 is nonregular. b } can be shown to be nonregular using Myhill-Nerode as follows: Consider the set of strings S1 = { an | n is a positive integer } . the set of strings consisting of one or more right parentheses followed by identifier x. where k and m are positive integers and k m . Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set. S1 is over alphabet { a . Hence L2 is nonregular. Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set S1. Theorem : A language L over alphabet is nonregular if and only if there is an infinite subset of * . b }* } is nonregular. Then akbm is not in L1 while ambm is in L1 . that is. Using this concept of indistinguishability. ( ( x + y ) * x ) and (( (x*y) + x ) + (y*y) ) are algebraic expressions. the following theorem by Myhill and Nerod gives a criterion for (non)regularity of a language. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S1. However. Consider the set of strings S3 = { (k x | k is a positive integer } . S2 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. S1 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. Select bm as a string to be appended to ak and am . It is stated without a proof. (x*y) . Then akbakb is in L2 while ambakb is not in L2 . L3 can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: x and y are in L3 . whose strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L.

abbabbabbabbb etc. Hence S3 is pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 . Hence L3 is not regular. the resultant strings such as abbb (bba repeated 0 times). For example [ + x ) ]3 is +x) +x)+x) . Then (k x + [ + x ) ]k is in L3 but (m x + [ + x ) ]k is not in L3 because the number of ('s is not equal to the number of )'s in the latter string. abbabbabbb. abbabbabbb etc. Those strings which are accepted by this NFA and whose length is greater than 5 have a substring which can be repeated any number of times without being rejected by the NFA. then there must be a cycle in the NFA along some path from the initial state to some accepting state (such as the cycle 2-3-4-2 in the above example). where k and m are positive integers and k m .and it can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 as follows: Let (k x and (m x be arbitrary two strings of S3 . This NFA accepts among others some strings of length greater than 5 such as abbabbb. For example the string abbabbb is accepted by the NFA and if one of its substrings bba is repeated any number of times in abbabbb. Select [ + x ) ]k as a string to be appended to (k and (m . are also accepted by the NFA. Pumping Lemma Let us consider the NFA given below. The following theorem which is called Pumping Lemma is based on this observation. In general if a string w (such as abbabbb in the example above) is accepted by an NFA with n states and if its length is longer than n. Then the substring representing that cycle (bba in the example) can be repeated any number of times within the string w without being rejected by the NFA. It .

n. Consider a string x = anbn for that n. Then there is an FA that accepts L. Hence L is not a regular 0. uvmw Test Your Understanding of Non-regularity . |uv| n |v| > 0 . and w such that x = uvw. for some p > 0 . Then there must be strings u. Also since |uv| Let us now consider the string uvmw for m = 2. Thus Pumping Lemma can not be used to prove the regularity of a language. uvmw L. and for every m 0. v. Let n be the number of states of that FA. Then for any string x in L with |x| n. Suppose that L is regular and let n be the number of states of an FA that accepts L. let us prove that the language L = akbk is nonregular. n . where k is a natural number. It is stated without a proof here. It can only show that a language is nonregular. v has at least one symbol. Since |v| > 0 . Then uv2w = an-pa2pbn = an+pbn . that is.states that if a language is regular. Hence an+pbn can not be in the L. Pumping Lemma : Suppose that a language L is regular. This violates the condition that for every m language. Note that Pumping Lemma gives a necessity for regular languages and that it is not a sufficiency. n + p language L represented by akbk . then any long enough string of the language has a substring which can be repeated any number of times with the resultant strings still in the language. Example 4: As an example to illustrate how Pumping Lemma might be used to prove that a language is nonregular. even if there is an integer n that satisfies the conditions of Pumping Lemma. there are strings u. the language is not necessarily regular. Since p > 0 . uvmw L. v = ap. v and w which satisfy the following relationships: x = uvw |uv| n |v| > 0 and for every integer m 0.

Click True or Fals . If there are three strings that are distinguished with respect . Then there is a string z such that xz is in L and yz is not in L (or xz is not in L and yz is in L). Next -. then Submit. Also it is a corollary to Myhill-Nerode theorem: Let { be the followijg relation on }={ : For strings and of . Proof of Theorem Necessity Suppose that a language L is regular and two strings. that is.Context-Free Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Myhill-Nerode Theorem The non-regularity test for languages by Myhill-Nerode is based on the following theorem which is in the contrapositive form of the theorem used for nonregularity test.Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. are distinguishable with respect to L. the DFA reaches different states. say x and y. This means that if x and y are read by an DFA that recognizes L. if and only if }. Then the theorem is is staed as follows: Theorem: A language L over alphabet is regular if and only if the set of equivalence classes of is finite. if and only if they are indistinguishable with respect to .

e. . ]. . then the DFA must have infinitely many states.. the index) of and let . are in different classes for and are distinguishable with respect to L. [ . then ]'s.. [ ]=[ } ]. if the number of classes of strings that are pairwise indistinguishable with respect to a language L is finite. then the DFA reaches three different states after reading those three strings. Hence if there are infinitely many strings to be distinguished with respect to L.. ) as follows: ]} ]. where [ ] =[ ] for all . Sufficiency Conversely. . namely ] and ]. Let . Hence if there is an infinite set of strings which are pairwise distinguishable with respect to a language. We will show that a DFA that accepts L can be constructed using these equivalence classes. To prove this.. Let us now show that this machine is in fact a DFA and it accepts the language First. . Note that "indistinguishable with respect to L" is an equivalence relation over the set of strings (denote it by ) and [x]'s are equivalence classes.. which it can not because a DFA must have a finite number of states. be the number of distinct equivalence classes (i. Then we construct a . then the language L is regular. be representatives of those distinct equivalence classes.to L. is in exactly one equivalence class. note that for every string [ ]. let [x] denote a class of strings that are indistinguishable from a string x with respect to L. then the language is not regular. .. DFA ( = {[ =[ = {[ ( .... ]. making them belong to different [ Hence is a function. For. if and in [ ].

. . = [ ]. . by the definition of = . Also an equivalence relation is said to be of finite index. where ] is the equivalence class that belongs to. if then for every . Our proof is by structural induction on string Basis Step: = =[ ]. . . where . then every We then show that for every string . Since . this means that the DFA accepts Myhill-Nerode Theorem Let us here state Myhill-Nerode Theorem. first note that if . by the definition of = . Then by the definition of . Myhill-Nerode Theorem can now be stated as follows: The following three statements are equivalent: (1) A language is regular. Inductive Step: Assume Then for every But =[ Hence =[ ]. Hence Hence we have shown that for every string ]. for DFA. First some terminology. An equivalence relation on is said to be right invariant if for every . ]. =[ ].Next. . With these terminology. ] by the induction hypothesis. if a string in [ in ] is in . where ]. For that. Hence =[ = . let us show that this DFA accepts string in [ ] is also in L. if the set of its equivalence classes is finite. =[ ].

b } and P1 = { S -> aSb . S . Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } is a context-free language. . Definition (Context-Free Grammar) : A 4-tuple G = < V .(2) L is the union of some of the equivalence classes of a right invariant equivalent relation of finite index. where X is a nonterminal and is a nonempty string of terminals and nonterminals. Context-Free Languages Context-Free Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Context-Free Grammar Context-Free Languages Push Down Automata Contents Earlier in the discussion of grammars we saw context-free grammars. P > is a context-free V is V. grammar (CFG) if V and . S . The set of strings generated by a context-free grammar is called a context-free language and context-free languages can describe many practically important systems. S -> ab }. are finite sets sharing no elements between them. P1 > generates L1 : V1 = { S } . S . Let us define context-free grammars and context-free languages here. A language is a context-free language (CFL) if all of its strings are generated by a context-free grammar. = { a . Proofs are omitted. and P is a finite set of productions of the form X -> and (V )* . where X the start symbol. They are grammars whose productions have the form X -> . For the following context-free grammar G1 = < V1 . . (3) is of finite index. Most programming languages can be approximated by context-free grammar and compilers for them have been developed based on properties of context-free languages.

Next define Vc = V1 V2 { Sc } and Pc = P1 P2 { Sc -> S1S2 } . Then let Su be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . . < if-statement > -> if ( < expression > ) < statement > . S -> S*S . if necessary. For example { < statement > -> < if-statement > . y . where w is a nonempty string and wr denotes the reversal of string w. . + . L1L2 . . w is spelled backward to obtain wr . 3 = { x . let Ss be a symbol which is not in V1 . 3. S -> bb }. Then it can be easily seen that Gu = < Vu . < statement > -> < for-statement > . = { a . Then let Sc be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . operations + and * and left and right parentheses. For L1* . Then let Ps = P1 { Ss -> SsS1 . ) . < expression > . Pu > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1 L2 . < expression > ) < statement > . that is. S -> y }. < forstatement > -> for ( < expression > . < statement > -> < assignment > . Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. . S -> x . . S . * } and P3 = { S -> ( S + S ) . Pc > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1L2 . ( . P1 > and G2 = < V2 . P2 > generates L2 : V2 = { S } . For the following context-free grammar G2 = < V2 . Properties of Context-Free Language Theorem 1: Let L1 and L2 be context-free languages. . first relabel symbols of V2 . concatenation and Kleene star of context-free grammars as follows: Let G1 = < V1 . S1 . Sc . S . S2 . Example 4: Portions of the syntaxes of programming languages can be described by context-free grammars. . . Su . Then for L1 L2 . . For the following context-free grammar G3 = < V3 . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. . Su -> S2 } . Ss -> L2 . Outline of Proof This theorem can be verified by constructing context-free grammars for union. b }+ } is a context-free language . Similarly for L1L2 . P3 > generates L3 : V3 = { S } . and L1* are . P2 > be context-free grammars generating L1 and L2 . respectively. . S -> bSb . < expression > -> < logicalexpression > . Then L3 is a context-free language. Next define Vu = V1 V2 { Su } and Pu = P1 P2 { Su -> S1 . . if necessary. first relabel symbols of V2 . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. S -> aa . . b } and P2 = { S -> aSa . } . < expression > -> < algebraic-expression > . . Then L1 context-free languages. . . Then it can be easily seen that Gc = < Vc .Example 2: L2 = { wwr| w {a.

context-free languages are also accepted by automata but not finite automata. a . If another a (or anything other than b) is read after the first b. . When all the symbols of the input string are read. A . q0 . A pushdown automaton ( or PDA for short ) is a 7-tuple M = < Q . ) means the following: The automaton moves from the current state of p to the next state q when it sees an input symbol a at the input and X at the top of the stack. A . but also by the symbol at the top of the stack. q0 is the initial state. Ps > is a context-free grammar that Like regular languages which are accepted by finite automata. push them into the stack. Any string of this language can be tested for the membership for the language by a finite automaton if there is a memory such as a pushdown stack that can store a's of a given input string. Thus ( p . as a's are read by the finite automaton.} . . . and are finite sets ( the input and stack alphabet. q0 . Z0 . Second. Ss . . Let us consider a context-free language anbn . They need a little more complex automata called pushdown automata. This automaton behaves like a finite automaton except the following two points: First. where Q = { q0 . Let us define this new type of automaton formally. Z0 . where Q is a finite set of states. Z0 is the initial stack symbol and it is a member of . As soon as the symbol b appears stop storing a's and start popping a's one by one every time a b is read. Otherwise reject it. Pushdown Automata . its next state is determined not only by the input symbol being read. For example. Example 1 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . accept the string. the contents of the stack can also be changed every time an input symbol is read. check the stack. If it is empty. and it replaces X with the string at the top of the stack. Thus its transition function specifies the new top of the stack contents as well as the next state. A is the set of accepting states is the transition function and :Q ( ( } -> 2 Q * . generates the language L1* . > . It can be seen that the grammar Gs = < Vs . respectively ). > . X ) = ( q . reject the string. .

Then when the first b is read. . b . Z0 } . Z0 ). ) in a single move (a single application of the transition function) we write (p. When the second b is read. abb . A = { q2 } and let be as given in the State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . x is the unread portion of the input string and is the current stack contents. following table: = { a . . * (q. it is ( q0 . . . After reading the second a. After reading the first a. q0 . aZ0 ). Z0 ) This pushdown automaton accepts the language anbn . Z0 ) * ( q2 . > is a triple ( q . another a is popped from the top of the stack and the PDA stays in state q1 . it moves to state q1 and pops a from the top of the stack. for example. Z0 . x . where the input is read from left to right and the top of the stack corresponds to the leftmost symbol of .x. aabb . Z0 ) ( If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. ) ) (q. ) ( q2 . Next it moves to the state q2 which is the accepting state. . Z0 ) q2 . aZ0 ) ( q0 . its configuration is ( q0 . b } . Z0 ). A configuration of a PDA M = < Q . q2 } . aZ0 ). (p. Thus the configuration is ( q1 . x . y . y . ).y. ) . ( q0 . Z0 ) . bb . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . Thus aabb is accepted by this PDA. aaZ0 ) ( q1 . b . ). abb . To describe the operation of a PDA we are going to use a configuration of PDA. . ) by a sequence of zero or more moves.q1 . ) to configuration ( q . To express that the PDA moves from configuration ( p . . aa ) q0 q1 q1 b b a a Z0 ( q1 . Initially its configuration is ( q0 . aZ 0 ) q0 a a ( q0 . If ( q . we write ) is reached from ( p . aZ0 ) ( q1 . A . ) ( q1 . Z0 ). aaZ0 ).y. aabb . aabb . Let us now see how the PDA of Example 1 operates when it is given the string aabb . This entire process can be expressed using the configurations as ( q0 . bb .x. where q is the state the PDA is currently in. b . we can also write ( q0 . = { a . x .

For example the transition diagram of the PDA of Example 1 is as shown below. . x. Example 2 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q .a. b ( q1 . For PDAs. If ( q . A = { q2 } and let be as given in the following table: State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . then an arc from state p to state q is added to the diagram and it is labeled with ( a . Like FAs. b . where Q = { q0 . Z0 } . PDAs can also be represented by transition diagrams. * (q. ) ( q2 . . q0 . arcs are labeled differently than FAs. and an accepting state q. a . b . bZ 0 ) q0 q0 q0 q1 q1 q1 a b c a b a b Z0 ( q0 .k. = { a . Z 0 ) In this table represents either a or b. Z0) . aZ 0 ) q0 b Z0 ( q0 . A . ( q1 . X / ) indicating that X at the top of the stack is replaced by upon reading a from the input. q2 } . for some in *. Z0 . . ) ) ) ) ( q1 . = { a . c } . X ) = ( p . ). acceptance by final state) if (q0.A string x is accepted by a PDA (a. ) . however. > . q1 . a ( q0 .

Z 0 ) . 1 Further topics on CFL • PDA and Context-Free Language There is a procedure to construct a PDA that accepts the language generated by a given context-free grammar and conversely. bcbba . bba . ( q0 . it goes through the following configurations and accepts it. This PDA pushes all the a's and b's in the input into stack until c is encountered. bbaZ0 ) . cbba . For example for the input abbcbba. abbcbba . bbcbba . it pops the stack. When there are no more unread input symbols and Z0 is at the top of the stack. . . aZ0 ) ( q0 . aZ0 ) ( q1 . ba . which is the set of palindromes with c in the middle. baZ0 ) ( q1 . The transition diagram of the PDA of Example 2 is as shown below. When c is detected. Z0 ) ( q0 . it ignores c and from that point on if the top of the stack matches the input symbol. ( q0 .This pushdown automaton accepts the language { wcwr | w { a . bbaZ0 ) ( q1 . Otherwise it rejects the input string. That means that a language is . it accepts the input string. baZ0 ) ( q1 . Z 0 ) ( q2 . b }* } . a . In the figure and 2 represent a or b.

compute yz first. "A dog" is the subject. For example in the sentence "A man bites a dog". productions of grammars. Those procedures are omitted here. then multiply the result by z.e. The parsing for context-free languages and regular languages have been extensively studied. y and z which satisfy u = vwxyz |wy| > 0 |wxy| n 0 . w. a computer like non-English speaking people must be told how to interpret sentences such as the first noun phrase (" A dog") is usually the subject of a sentence. Then there is a positive integer n such that for any string u in L with |u| n . a verb phrase usually follow the noun phrase and the first word in the verb phrase is the verb and it is followed by noun phrases reprtesenting object(s) of the verb. Interested readers are referred to the textbook and other sources. ???? references on Parsing ???? . Parsing is the process of interpreting given input strings according to predetermined rules i. Though we are accustomed to interpreting this as x + (yz) i. They can describe much of programming languages and basic structures of natural languages. "bites" is the verb and "a man" is the object of the verb. we are not going to study parsing here.e. x. it could also be interpreted as ( x + y )z meaning that first compute x + y. • Pumping Lemma for Context-Free Language Let L be a CFL. However. vwmxymz L for every integer m • Parsing and Parsers for CFL Consider the algebraic expression x + yz. However. Similar things happen when English sentences are processed by computers (or people as well for that matter). then add the result to x. there are strings v. By parsing sentences we identify the parts of the sentences and determine the strutures of the sentences so that their meanings can be understood correctly. native English speakers know that it is the dog that bites and not the other way round. Thus if a computer is given the string x + yz. Contect-free grammars are powerful grammars. Thus they are widely used for compilers for high level programming languages and natural language processing systems.context-free if and only if there is a PDA that accepts it. it does not know which interpretation to use unless it is explicitly instructed to follow one or the other.

Next -. the phrase structure languages (also called Type 0 languages). Click True or Fals . of limited capability and there are many languages that they can not process. and the machines that can process them: Turing machines. In this chapter we are going to study the most general of the languages in Chomsky hierarchy. These languages can describe many practically important systems and so they are heavily used in practice. Turing machines were conceived of by the English mathematician Alan .Test Your Understanding of Contect-Free Language Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. however. They are.Turing Machines Back to Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • • • Definition of Turing Machine Configuration Operation of Turing Machine Contents Introduction We have studied two types of languages from the Chomsky hierarchy: regular languages and context-free languages. then Submit.

It then moves the head to left or right or does not move it and goes to the next state which may be the same as the current state. it stops its operation. One of its states is the halt state and when the Turing machine goes into the halt state. a Turing machine starts at the initial state. Given a string of symbols on the tape. The tape has the left end but it extends infinitely to the right. right or stay at the same square after a read or write. At any state it reads the symbol under the head. It is also divided into squares and a symbol can be written in each square. either erases it or replaces it with a symbol (possibly the same symbol). . Definition Conceptually a Turing machine. We are going to study Turing machines here and through that limitations of computers and computation as we know today. Later Alonzo Church conjectured that any computation done by humans or computers can be carried out by some Turing machine. consists of a finite control and a tape. This conjecture is known as Church's thesis and today it is generally accepted as true. However. like finite automata. unlike finite automata. its head is a read-write head and it can move left.Turing as a model of human "computation". Computers we use today are as powerful as Turing machines except that computers have finite memory while Turing machines have infinite memory. At any time it is in one of the finite number of states.

S) A transition diagram of this Turing machine is given below. a . which is assumed not to contain the symbol h. q1. b . S}. q3 } . . where D represents R. where Q1 = { q0. It is a mapping from Q ( { } ) to ( Q { h } ) ( { }) {R. = { a . . Example 1 : The following Turing machine < Q1 . . R ) ( q3 . = { a . L or S . q0 . . It is assumed that the tape has at the left end and the head is initially at the left end of the tape. A transition diagram can also be drawn for a Turing machine. State (q) Input (X) Move ( q0 q1 q2 q3 q3 a b a (q. a . D ) indicating that the state is changed from q to r.Formally a Turing machine is a 5-tuple T = < Q. b } . X) ) ( q1 .L. D ) . The symbol h is used to denote the halt state. L and S denote move the head right. left and do not move it. > accepts the language aba* . R ) (h. X ) = ( r. b } and is as given by the table below. q2. R ) ( q3 . is a finite set of symbols and it is the input alphabet. The states are represented by vertices and for a transition ( q. q0. Here denotes the blank and R. R ) ( q2 . is a finite set of symbols containing as its subset and it is the set of tape symbols. Y. . is the transition function but its value may not be defined for certain points. > . where Q is a finite set of states. q0 is the initial state. . the symbol X currently being read is changed to Y and the tape head is moved as directed by D. respectively. . an arc from q to r is drawn with label ( X/Y .

aba ) ( q3 . Note that the Turing machine does not stop if a string is not in the language. zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in one move. aba ) . q0 . A string x is said to be accepted by a Turing machine* T = < Q . For example the Turing machine of Example 1 above goes through the following sequence of configurations to accept the string aba: ( q0 . the taper contents are the string aababb and the head is reading the last a of the string. We write ( p . In this case we also say that the Turing machine halts on input x. . .Turing Machine that accepts aba* To describe the operation of Turing machine we use configuration. If the Turing machine needs to be explicitly indicated T or T* is used. ( q0 . For example ( q . zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in zero or more moves. yaz ) for some symbol a { } and some strings y and z in ( * { } ) . aba ) (h. > if x ) * ( h. A configuration for a Turing machine is an ordered pair of the current state and the tape contents with the symbol currently under the head marked with underscore. aababb ) shows that the Turing machine is currently in state q. and ( p . aba ) ( q2 . xay ) * ( q . aba ) ( q1 . A Turing machine T is said to decide a language L if and only if T writes "yes" and halts if a string is in L and T writes "no" and halts if a string is not in L. The set of strings accepted by a Turing machine is the language accepted by the Turing machine. xay ) ( q .

the second is a Turing machine that accepts { a } but goes into a loop if a string is not in the language (hence it accepts but doe not decide { a }) and the third decides { a }. .The first of the following figures shows a Turing machine that accepts but does not decide the language { a }. where = { a }.

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This Turing machine is denoted by TE. to the right of Example 3 : The following Turing machine erases the string on the tape and moves the head to the left end. . It is assumed that initially the tape has at the left end.Example 2 : The following Turing machine moves the head to the first the current position. It is denoted by TR .

. but it goes into an infinite loop for any strings that are not in the language. (2) no transition is specified for the current configuration and (3) the head is at the left end and it is instructed to move left. one of the following three things happens: (1) The Turing machine goes into an infinite loop. For example the following Turing machine accepts the language a+. the operation of the Turing machine is aborted. that is when a Turing machine does not halt on a string. In cases (2) and (3).Strings not Accepted by Turing Machines When a string is not accepted by a Turing machine.

A Turing machine thus may accept a string and halt. Then we say T computes f or f is computable if for every x ( q0 . . the Turing machine eventually goes into the accept halt state. reject a string and halt. That is.Turing machine accepting a+ Computabler Function Let S * and let f be a function f : S -> S. * Note on "Turing-acceptable": Some books define "acceptance by Turing machine" slightly differently. x) * ( h. a string is accepted by a Turing machine if given the string. or loop. there are two halt states: "accept halt" and "reject halt". * and for every x that is not in S. With this definition. T does not halt on x. As far as the material discussed in this class note. there is no difference between these two definitions of "accept". f(x) ) * . A language is a phrase structure (type 0) langauage if and only if it is Turing-acceptable in either sense and it has no effects on decidablility. in the Turing machines those books define.

Click True or Fals . Let us start with some basic Turing machines.Combination of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Combination of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Combination of Turing Machines Contents Combination of Turing Machines We have seen the definition of Turing machine and a few simple examples. In fact Turing machines that simulate computers and Turing machines that perform computations done by any algorithm can be constructed. We have already seen TR . any "computation" done by human beings or machines can be done by some Turing machine. then Submit. There are two sets of questions. It moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) . Next -. Furthermore according to the Church's thesis.Test Your Understanding of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Here we are going to study how complex Turing machines can be constructed using simple Turing machines and how computers can be simulated by Turing machines. One can construct many more Turing machines that perform various functions.

Example 4: The following machine shifts the tape contents to the left one position. Using these basic machines and the convention. . Also by TR and TL we denote Turing machines that move the head to right and left one position. takes the head to the right end of the string and halts. To combine Turing machines we use the following conventions: Let T1 and T2 represent arbitrary Turing machines. Similarly by TL we denote a Turing machine that moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) to the left of the current position. then T2 is started as in the case of T1T2 . Then by T we denote a Turing machine that writes symbol at the current position and does not move the head (stays). T1T2 and T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that behaves initially like T1 and when T1 halts T2 takes over inheriting the head position and the tape contents of T1 . respectively. T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that first executes T1. Otherwise it crashes.to the right of the current position. The halt state of T1 becomes the initial state of T2 . Below is assumed to be at the left end of the tape initially. let us construct a little more complex Turing machines. Then if T1 halts and if the symbol currently under the head is .

An adder can be constructed for example as TR -> TSL TL . After the addition the configuration becomes ( h . To add two numbers m and n. So the initial configuration for adding 2 and 3 is ( q0 . For example the number 3 is represented by three consecutive I's on the tape and 5 by five I's. that is ( q0 . IIIII ) . x x). x) * b b (h. Example 6: The following Turing machine copies the tape contents at the left end to their right separated by a blank . k consecutive I's are put on the tape.For example with the initial tape contents of sequence of tape contents and ends with ab ab -> ab : ab . m I's and n I's with a blank between them are placed on the tape. it goes through the following -> aab -> a -> a -> abb -> ab -> ab -> ab Example 5: The left-shift machine of Example 4 can be used to construct an adder for natural numbers. natural numbers are represented on a Turing machine using symbol I. After adding two numbers placed on the tape it moves the head to the left end and halts. In general to represent a natural number k. . II III ) . First.

Click True or Fals . Thus by combining appropriate Turing machines a computer with a minimal instruction set can be constructed. Since any complex computer instructions can be realized using those basic instructions. branching. and store and load operations can be taken care of by a Turing machine that copies tape contents. one can say that computers can be simulated by Turing machines. However. there is a Turing machine that performs addition. Test Your Understanding of Combination of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. store and load operations. The following notations are used in the questions: . the branch operation is already in Turing machines because next configurations are determined based on the current state and tape symbol being looked at. Furthermore if the subtraction operation is necessary. In fact many of the earlier computers had a much smaller instruction set but still could do everything today's computers can do albeit much more slowly. A bare minimum instruction set would contain addition. it is not difficult to construct a Turing machine that performs subtraction using the same representation of numbers as for the addition. then Submit. On the other hand as we have seen above. All the other operations can be realized by using those basic operations.Today's computers are very complex machines and their instruction sets contain complicated operations. all of those instructions can be realized using combinations of a small number of basic instructions.

the efficiency of computation.T_a : Ta T_R : TR ->^b : ->b Next -. The tape has the top end and the left end but extends indefinitely to the right and down. It turns out that computationally all these Turing machines are equally powerful. That is. ones having one tape but with multiple heads. nondeterministic Turing machines etc. However. that is. how fast they can compute. first we map the squares of the two dimensional tape to those of the one dimensional tape diagonally as shown in . what one type can compute any other can also compute. To simulate a two dimensional tape with a one dimensional tape. It is divided into rows of small squares. For any Turing machine of this type there is a Turing machine with a one dimensional tape that is equally powerful. the former can be simulated by the latter. that is. one read-write head and one two dimensional tape. ones with two dimensional tapes.Types of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Types of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Variation of Turing Machine Contents There are a number of other types of Turing machines in addition to the one we have seen such as Turing machines with multiple tapes. Turing Machines with Two Dimensional Tapes This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control. may vary.

.< . Then it meets h first. If v was hit first.the following tables: Two Dimensional Tape v v h 1 h 3 h 4 h 10 h 11 h 21 . Let us simulate this head move with a one dimensional tape.. . then (k+1)-th square to the right from v is the new head position.. .. ... If the head moves down from i. then from h move the head of the one dimensional tape further right to the k-th square from h.. down. . v 15 17 25 . . then move the head of the one dimensional tape to right until it hits h or v counting the number of squares it has visited after i. If i = 5 and the head moves down on the other hand. Thus from h.. The head of a two dimensional tape moves one square up...> . ... . then on the one dimensional tape the head moves to the right and it hits v first. If the head moves down to position 13. which is the third square from 8. . .. left or right.. Let i be the head position of the two dimensional tape. Let k be the number of squares visited by the head of the one dimensional tape. suppose that the head position is at 8 for the two dimensional tape in the above table... If h was hit first.. Here the numbers indicate the correspondence of squares in the two tapes: square i of the two dimensional tape is mapped to square i of the one dimensional tape. .. h and v are symbols which are not in the tape alphabet and they are used to mark the left and the top end of the tape... ..... . That is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 13 on the two dimensional tape. . . v 2 5 9 12 20 22 . .. .. v 7 14 18 24 . .. which is the second square from i = 5... v 6 8 13 19 23 ......... then for the one dimensional tape........ .. .. the head moves from position 8 to right... . ...... .. One Dimensional Tape v 1 v 2 3 h 4 5 6 v 7 8 9 10 h 11 . . That is the square corresponding to the square below i in the two dimensional tape. . v 16 26 . . For example... Thus this time the third square is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 9 on the two dimensional tape. . . . move 3 positions to the right... .... respectively. . . .. that is i = 8.....

right or left on the two dimensional tape. Details are omitted. it can be said that they are equally powerful. H2 .Similarly formulas can be found for the head position on the one dimensional tape corresponding to move up... Its transition function is a partial function :Q ( { } )n -> ( Q { h } ) ( { } )n { R . It turns out that this type of Turing machines are only as powerful as one tape Turing machines whose tape has a left end. {h}) ( { } {R. In each state only one of the heads is allowed to read and write.L. L . Hn denote the tape heads. Hence they are at least as powerful as Turing machines with a two dimensional tape. q0. The transition function is a partial function : Q { H1 . q0. . . A configuration for this kind of Turing machine must show the current state the machine is in and the state of each tape.. . where H1 . S } n . It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q .. >. one can say that one tape Turing machines are as powerful as n-tape Turing machines. Since the converses are obviously true. . It can be proven that any language accepted by an n-tape Turing machine can be accepted by a one tape Turing machine and that any function computed by an n-tape Turing machine can be computed by a one tape Turing machine.S It can be easily seen that this type of Turing machines are as powerful as one tape Turing machines. H2 . Turing Machines with Infinite Tape : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape which extends infinitely in both directions. Turing Machines with Multiple Heads : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape but more than one read-write heads. Since Turing machines with a two dimensional tape obviously can simulate Turing machines with a one dimensional tape. Hn } ( { } ) -> ( Q }. . . > . Thus some Turing machines with a one dimensional tape can simulate every move of a Turing machine with one two dimensional tape. Nondeterministic Turing Machines . It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . Turing Machines with Multiple Tapes : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and more than one tapes each with its own read-write head.

For example consider the following nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts a+ . At any point in the process TN is in some configuration and has a finite set of configurations to choose from for its next configuration.L. that is the place where the second half of x starts. Note that the number of children for a vertex in this tree is finite because the number of states is finite and there are a finite number of tape symbols. on the other hand. TN starts at the initial configuration and goes through a sequence of configurations until it reaches a halt configuration . can take any action selecting from a set of specified actions rather than taking one definite predetermined action. b }* } . In general for each vertex of level i all possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN are its children. Given a string x. For example let us consider the language L = { ww : w { a .S}. at any state it is in and for the tape symbol it is reading. They form level 1. . A deterministic Turing machine. moving the tape head and going to a next state. Proof : Let TN denote a nondeterministic Turing machine. . Theorem Any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by some deterministic Turing machine. tape symbol and head movement out of the set of triples without following any specific predetermined rule. As in the case of NFA. Here an action means the combination of writing a symbol on the tape.. Even in the same situation it may take different actions at different times. it is understood that a nondeterministic Turing machine at any configuration selects one combination of next state.. It must find the midpoint by for example pairing off symbols from either end of x.A nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine which. can not guess the midpoint of the string x. like nondeterministic finite automata. Then it would compare the first half of x with the second half by comparing the i-th symbol of the first half with the i-th symbol of the second half for i = 1. It can be shown that a nondeterministic Turing machine is only as powerful as a deterministic Turing machine. The root of the tree is the initial configuration and it is the only vertex of level 0. . 2. goes into an infinite loop or aborts. Formally a nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine whose transition function takes values that are subsets of ( Q {h}) ( { } {R. All possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN once form the children of the initial configuration. The children of all the vertices of level i form level i+1. Given a string x . a nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts this language L would first guess the midpoint of x. The set of all possible computations that TN can perform for a given string x can be represented by a rooted tree as follows.

it has two candidates for the next configuration: ( q1 . aa ) for the third. aa ) ( q1 . aa ) ( q1 . aa ) for the second.Turing machine accepting a+ Given the string aa. aa ) . aa ) and ( q2 . and ( q1 . aa ) ( h . At the second and third configurations in the above sequence. The tree for this case would be as follows: . aa ) and ( q2 . it would proceed as follows to accept it: ( q0 . aa ) ( q2 .

Many other variations of Turing machine are possible. though a deterministic Turing machine might take much more time than a nondeterministic Turing machine to accept a string. In fact the Church's thesis conjectures that any so called computation done by humans or computers can be performed by a basic deterministic Turing machine. These children are the configurations of the next level and they are stored on the tape (if necessary a second tape may be used). Next -. is to traverse this tree breadth-first way from the root until the halt state is reached. call it T1.Unsolvable Problems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Unsolvable Problems . with a deterministic one. If there is the halting state among these children. Thus any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by a deterministic Turing machine. then Submit.One way to simulate a nondeterministic Turing machine. T2 applies the transition function of T1 to each configuration at that level and computes its children. then T2 accepts the string and halts. At each level of the tree. call it T2. it has been shown that none of them exceed the capability of basic deterministic Turing machine as far as accepting languages is concerned. Click True or Fals . It can be easily seen that T2 accepts a string if and only if T1 accepts it. Test Your Understanding of Different Types of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. However.

First recall that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language (see Problem Solving as Language Recognition). Suppose that a language is acceptable but not decidable. hence unsolvable. L. Minsky): This is going to be proven by "proof by contradiction". b } . At any point in time. Below we are going to see some well known unsolvable problems and see why we can say they are unsolvable. and then T halts. Suppose that the halting problem is decidable. . that is computationally they are equally powerful. It asks the following question: Given an arbitrary Turing machine M over alphabet = { a . Since we can not wait forever for an answer. if the Turing machine is running. the question is unanswerable that is the problem is unsolvable. Thus if a language is not decidable. T writes "yes" if M halts on w and "no" if M does not halt on w. and an arbitrary string w over . Theorem 1 : The halting problem is undecidable. and that any of their variations do not exceed the computational power of deterministic Turing machines. the question of whether or not a string is in the language may not be answered in any finite amount of time. there is no way of telling whether it is in an infinite loop or along the way to a solution and it needs more time. Here "unsolvability" is in the following sense. So we are going to look at the unsolvability in terms of language recognition. Then there is a Turing machine T that solves the halting problem. Halting Problem One of well known unsolvable problems is the halting problem.Subjects to be Learned • • • Halting Problem Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents We have learned that deterministic Turing machines are capable of doing any computation that computers can do. Then given a string a Turing machine that accept the language starts the computation. Proof (by M. It is also conjectured that any "computation" human beings perform can be done by Turing machines (Church's thesis). given a description of a Turing machine M (over the alphabet ) and a string w. That is. does M halt when it is given w as an input ? It can be shown that the halting problem is not decidable. In this chapter we are going to learn that there are problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers.

. then Tm goes into an infinite loop (Tm halts if the original T rejects a string and halts). Next using Tm we are going to construct another Turing machine Tc as follows: Tc takes as input a description of a Turing machine M. where * is a symbol that separates the two copies of d(M) and then supplies d(M)*d(M) to the Turing machine Tm . denoted by d(M). copies it to obtain the string d(M)*d(M).We are now going to construct the following new Turing machine Tc. First we construct a Turing machine Tm by modifying T so that if T accepts a string and halts.

Thus the question of whether or not a program halts for a given input is nothing but the halting problem. Program correctness and Halting Problem Note that for any computer program a Turing machine can be constructed that performs the task of the program. Thus Tc goes into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and it halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). it makes a copy.Let us now see what Tc does when a string describing Tc itself is given to it. This contradiction has been deduced from our assumption that there is a Turing machine that solves the halting problem. Hence that assumption must be wrong. This is a contradiction. The way T was modified the modified T is going to go into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). When Tc gets the input d(Tc) . Thus the modified T is given a description of Turing machine Tc and the string d(Tc). Hence there is no Turing machine that solves the halting problem. Thus one implication of the halting problem is that there can be no computer programs (Turing machines) that check whether or not any arbitrary computer program stops for a given input. . constructs the string d(Tc)*d(Tc) and gives it to the modified T.

Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Click True or Fals .More Unsolvable Preoblems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines More Unsolvable Problems Subjects to be Learned • • Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents The next unsolvable problem is in a sense more difficult than the halting problem. Next -. Language NonSelfAccepting Let us first define two languages NSA1 and NSA2 as follows: . It is presented as a language and it can be shown that there are no Turing machines that accept the language. then Submit.

Suppose there is a Turing machine. Hence it is in SelfAccepting . Hence a is in NSA2 . Neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. w0 is in neither NSA1 nor NSA2 . However. then w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. by the definitions of NSA1 and NSA2. This is again a contradiction. Then this w is a description of a Turing machine but it must be longer than one symbol. Also T0 does not accept w0 . (2) If T0 does not accept w0 . Let us define the language NonSelfAccepting as NonSelfAccepting = NSA1 Then we can prove the following theorem: NSA2 . Hence either T0 accepts w0 or rejects it. Problem Accepts( ) The problem Accepts( ) asks whetehr or not a given Turing machine T accepts . that is w0 is a description of the Turing machine T0 . But w0 = d( T0 ) because that is how we selected w0 . Let w0 = d( T0 ). NSA2 is the set of strings that do not describe any Turing machine.NSA1 = { w | w w} { a. then w0 NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. Knowing the unsolvability of the halting problem some other problems can be shown to be unsolvable. Hence it is not accepted by T. w = d(T) for a Turing machine T and T does not accept NSA2 = { w | w { a. Since NonSelfAccepting is a language. This means that there can not be any Turing machine that accepts the language NonSelfAccepting. Then there is no Turing machine that can be described by the string a. Thus there can not be Turing machine T0 that accepts the language SelfAccepting . w0 is in NSA1 . Hence w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting . which is absurd. call it T0. that accepts NonSelfAccepting. b }*. This is a contradiction. let w = a. w d(T) for any Turing machine T } . Hence T0 can not accept w0 . Hence by the definition of NSA1 . Proof: This is going to be proven by contradiction. NSA1 is the set of strings that describe a Turing machine but that are not accepted by the Turing machine they describe. For NSA2. Thus neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. Hence w is in NSA1 . Theorem 2 There are no Turing machines that accept the language NonSelfAccepting. We are going to see that T0 neither accepts w0 nor rejects it. either w0 is in NonSelfAccepting or it isn't. Certainly more symbols than a single a are needed to describe even the simplest Turing machine. (1) If T0 accepts w0. It . b }*. For let T be a Turing machine that accepts { a } and let w = d(T). where d(T) is a description of the Turing machine T.

Since the halting problem is unsolvable. where machine Tw is a Turing machine that writes w. a Turing machine. This T halts on if and only if T' halts on w. the halting problem can be solved. call it M.can be shown to be unsolvable. that solves Accepts( ) can be constructed as . M solves the halting problem. Using a similar idea the following problem can also be shown to be unsolvable. M writes the string d( T ) on the tape and let A take over. That is. where Terase is a Turing machine that erases the input on the tape and halts. Using this T. Thus if Accepts( ) is solvable. Then consider the Turing machine T = TeraseT' . Let a Turing machine T' and a string w be an instance of the halting problem. Let A be a Turing machine that solves Accepts( ). Suppose that Accepts( ) is solvable. call it M. We are going to show that Accepts( ) can be solved using the solution to it. Problem AcceptsEverything The problem AcceptsEverything asks whether or not a given Turing machine T halts on every string over a given alphabet . Then M halts on d(T') and w if and only if T' halts on w. Consider a Turing machine T = TwT'. This T halts on every string over if and only if T1 halts on . a Turing machine. that solves the halting problem can be constructed as follows: Given a description d(T') of a Turing machine T' and a string w as inputs. Then there is a Turing machine that solves it. which is an instance of the halting problem. We are going to show that the halting problem becomes solvable using this A. this means that Accepts( ) is unsolvable. Let A be a Turing machine that solves AcceptsEverything. Suppose that AcceptsEverything is solvable. Let T' be an instance of Accepts( ). Using this T.

shown below. Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) = ? finite ? infinite ? context-free ? Is L( G1 ) = L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) = * ? Is the complement of L( G1 ) context-free ? . Equivalence This problem asks whether or not two Turing machines accept the same language. Then the following problems are all unsolvable. it means that AcceptsEverything is unsolvable. AcceptsNothing This problem asks whether or not a Turing machine accepts nothing. By similar arguments the following problems can be shown to be unsolvable. It can be shown to be unsolvable using AcceptsEverything. Since Accepts( ) is unsolvable. It can be shown to be unsolvable using Accepts( ) . Other Unsolvable Problems Let G1 and G2 be context-free grammars and let L(G) denote the language generated by grammar G.

A problem is solvable if some Turing . then Submit. Next -.Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Click True or Fals . No one can write computer programs that solve those problems and halt after a finite amount of time.Time Complexity of Problem Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Complexity Time Complexity Subjects to be Learned • • • • • Time Complexity of Problems Decision Tree Class NP Polynomial Time Transformation NP-Complete Problems Contents In the previous sections we have learned that some problems are unsolvable by Turing machines hence by computers.

a heap sort needs O(n lg n) time. variables taking positive integers as their values. Before proceeding to predicate logic let us consider the following logic called propositional dynamic logic (PDL for short). Even if it takes a million years to solve a problem. Presburger arithmetic is a logic that allows statements involving positive integers. it is still solvable. They take much more time to execute than polynomial time algorithms. Then there are problems that require double exponential ( e. after(A. O(f(x)) (big-oh) and other related subjects click here. The problems that can not be solved with any polynomial time algorithm are called intractable problems . In this section we are going to study solvable problems and learn a hierarchy of solvable problems based on the computation time required to solve them. For more detailed review of this. ~Q )" and "if P then after( if P then Q else ~Q. For example "after( if P then Q else ~Q. This is the problem of asking whether or not a given formula can take the value true for some values of its variables. the addition operation +. The satisfiability problem becomes even harder when logic becomes more complex. second order logic. 22n ) time algorithms. For example the satisfiability problem for Presburger arithmetic is double-exponential (2-fold exponentail). in practice if it takes a million years. that is it requires at least O( aan ) time to solve in the worst case. But (P ^ ~P ) is always false. S) says that S is true after executing A. It is estimated by counting the largest possible number of key operations to be performed in terms of the input size. X [ if ~( X = 1 ). One can ask the same question for formulas of first order predicate logic. etc. Similarly ( P V Q ) is also satisfiable. where P and Q are propositions. For example. as well as all the connectives such as and. or etc. as we are going to see below. So it is certainly satisfiable. etc.machine can solve it in finite time. . and there are problems that require algorithms with the worst case time worse than k-exponential time for any natural number k. where P is a propositional variable. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved by algorithms with the worst case time which is a polynomial in the problem size (polynomial time algorithms). They are both satisfiable. There are also problems that must be solved at best by exponential time algorithms in the worst case. However. are propositions of PDL.g. They are all polynomial time algorithms. where k is a natural number. For example. then Y Z [ X = Y + Z ] ] is a proposition of Presburger arithmetic. In logic there is a well known problem of "satisfiability". a quick sort needs O(n2) time. So it is not satisfiable. Q )" . problems that need k-exponential time algorithms. For many problems a day or even an hour would be too long. the equality symbol = and quantifiers and . Let us see some of those intractable problems. For example the formula ( P V ~P ) is always true. For example a binary search takes O(lg n) time. The measure for computation time we use is the worst case time. where A is an algorithm and S is a statement. This is a propositional logic with an extra construct (proposition) after(A. the satisfiability problem for the propositional dynamic logic is proven to take exponential time to solve in the worst case. The satisfiability problem for PDL is known to take at least exponential time to solve in the worst case. it is as good (or bad) as unsolvable. S).

"Is it possible to schedule committee meetings without conflicts into a given number of time slots ? " . there are problems that are solved by answering with yes or no. " Is it possible to assign colors to vertices of a given graph using a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned ? " etc. in addition. the consensus is that they ca not be solved with polynomial time algorithms. the logic is called WS1S (Weak Second-order theory of 1 Successor). At the moment. For the satisfiability problem of WS1S. For example. Some of these decision problems are NP-complete problems. These problems are called decision problems. Consider the problem of coloring vertices of a graph with a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned. Such a problem (having no K-fold exponential time algorithms) is called nonelementary. Below we are going to characterize this class of problems. Let us here review nondeterministic Turing machines.In Presburger arithmetic (minus addition operation). First. sets of integers and the predicate "belongs to" (an element X belongs to a set S) are allowed. Let us try to solve the following instances of this graph coloring problem: Given the following graph. This problem is called "Graph Coloring" problem or more precisely "Vertex Color" problem. however. "Is a string w in the language a*b ? ". This problem belongs to a peculiar class of problems called NP-Complete problems. if. there are no K-fold exponential time algorithms to solve it for any number K. Now let us go back to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. For the problems of this class there are no known polynomial time algorithms for solving them nor are they known to be unsolvable with polynomial time algorithms. is it possible to color its vertices with three or less colors ? .

For the graphs of (a) and (b), you could find a solution very easily by inspection. You could see a right coloring as soon as you saw the graphs. However, you can most likely not tell how you arrived at your solutions. You probably don't have any algorithms you could use to solve them. You could somehow see the solutions. This is basically the idea of nondeterministic (Turing) machine. There is no fixed procedure which you can use repeatedly to solve instance after instance of this problem. But you can somehow solve them. Let us move on to a slightly more complex example of (c). For this graph to find a right coloring you could start with vertex 1 and assign color a. Then move on to vertex 2 and assign color b(it has to be something other than a ). Then go to vertex 3 and assign a third color, say c. Then at vertex 4 select color b and for vertex 5 use color a. In this process we make a decision as to what color to use for each vertex and when a decision is made for all the vertices we have a solution to the problem. This process applies to any decision problem. That is to solve a decision problem a number of smaller decisions are made one after another and as a result a solution to the problem is obtained. This process can be represented by a tree called decision tree. For example, for the graph coloring problem let us first decide on the order of vertices we color in, say 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for the graph of (c) above. Then the root of its decision tree corresponds to the vertex we assign a color to first (vertex 1 in this example). Then for each possible color for the first vertex, a child is created for the first vertex of the tree. So the second level of the

decision tree corresponds to the second vertex to be colored. Then in general, for each possible color for each vertex of level i of the decision tree, a child is created. Those children form level i+1 of the decision tree. The decision tree for the graph of (c) is given below. Since any color can be assigned to vertex 1 without loss of generality, it has just one child in the actual decision tree. Also since in this case the i-th and (i+1)-th vertices are connected by an edge for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, they can not have the same color. So each vertex after vertex 1 has two colors to choose from. So they each have two children in the decision tree.

Thus during the process of solving the problem a decision is made at each level and when all levels are covered, the problem is solved. A path from the root to a leaf corresponds to a coloring of the vertices of the given graph. A decision tree, however, does not tell us how to make decisions. Also a decision tree does not tell how to order the vertices for coloring, that is which vertex to color first, second etc. A deterministic machine (or algorithm) has a specific fixed set of rules for making a decision at each level of the decision tree. Although it knows what to do at every stage of problem solving, the decisions it makes are not necessarily the right ones. When it makes wrong decisions, it must retract earlier decisions and try different paths, which is called backtracking. For the graph coloring problem a deterministic algorithm might first order the vertices of the graph in decreasing order of their degree and also order colors. Then, following the

order of the vertices, assign to each vertex the highest order color available for the vertex. Since that kind of algorithm is not guaranteed to use the minimum number of colors, it may produce a wrong answer unless there is some provision for backtracking. A nondeterministic (Turing) machine, on the other hand, is a fictitious machine and somehow knows which branch (child) to select at each step. It always makes a right selection. A decision problem is said to belong to class NP if each vertex in its decision tree has a finite number of children and if it can be solved by a nondeterministic (Turing) machine in polynomial time. The graph coloring problem is in class NP, so are the satisfiability problem for propositional logic and most of the scheduling problems just to name a few. Also there are other characterizations of class NP. Interested readers click here. At this moment it is not known whether or not problems in class NP can be solved with a polynomial time algorithm in the worst case. The consensus is that there is no polynomial time algorithm to solve them. It would take at least exponential time. Among the problems in class NP, there are problems which all problems of class NP can be transformed to in polynomial time. Those problems are called NP-complete problems. If a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of the NP-complete problems, all the problems in NP can be solved in polynomial time. Below we are going to study NPcomplete problems. We start our discussion with the concept of polynomial time transformation (reduction). Basically we say a decision problem Q1 is polynomially reducible to a decision problem Q2 if and only if there is a transformation that transforms any arbitrary instance of Q1 into an instance of Q2 in polynomial time such that the answer to Q1 is yes if and only if the answer to Q2 is yes. A little more formally we define this in terms of languages. Note that a decision problem can be viewed as a language of its instances and that solving it can be considered as recognizing the language as we have seen earlier. Let L1 and L2 be languages over alphabets 1 and 2, respectively. We say that L1 is polynomial-time reducible to L2 if and only if there is a function f from 1* to 2* such that for any string x in polynomial time.

1 *

,x

L1 if and only if f(x)

L2 and f can be computed

For example let us consider the following two problems: graph coloring and scheduling of committee meetings. The graph coloring problem is as given above. In the scheduling of committee meetings problem, committees with their members and a positive integer k are given. The problem is whether or not the meetings of the committees can be scheduled in k or less time slots so that everyone can attend one's meetings. Note that some people may be in more than one committee. Let us try to show that this scheduling problem is polynomial time reducible to the graph coloring problem.

Suppose also that k = 3. For example suppose that we are given the committees 1. 2. Then the committees can be grouped into p groups so that the committees in the same group can meet at the same time. d }. Corresponding to this grouping assign colors to the vertices of the graph so that the vertices in the same group are given the same color and those in . Let us consider the following transformation: For each committee add a vertex to the graph. 3 and 4 with the memberships { a. connect with an edge the vertices corresponding to the committees. b }. { b. and 1 and 4 share members. Then since committees 1 and 2 share a. 3 and 4. respectively. c. c }. Proceeding similarly the following graph is obtained corresponding to the committee memberships.What we need to do is given an instance of the scheduling problem construct an instance of the graph coloring problem. where p k. Suppose that the meetings can be scheduled in p time slots. 2. an edge is inserted between vertices 1 and 2. {a. The corresponding graph for the graph coloring problem can be constructed as follows: Corresponding to the committees 1. edges are added between 1 and 3. Then the meetings can be scheduled in k or less time slots if and only if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. and 1 and 4. that is construct a graph and give the number of colors to be used to color its vertices so that the meetings can be scheduled if and only if graph can be colored. 3 and 4 to the graph. add vertices 1. 2. d } and { a. Similarly since committees 1 and 3. and if and only if two committee have some members in common. Thus the scheduling problem asks whether or not the meetings of the given committees can be scheduled in 3 time slots without any conflicts.

Subsequently the satisfiability problem was found to be polynomial time reducible to many other problems. and vertices connected with an edge have different colors. Partition Problem Given a set of integers. Some of them are listed below. Bin Packing Problem Given a set of objects. It was first proven by S.e. We are now ready to discuss NP-completeness. For all the problems in class NP can be reduced to P through the known NP-complete problem in polynomial time. It is also easily seen that the transformation. . Committee Meeting Schedule Problem In fact most scheduling problems are NPcomplete. all the problems can be solved with polynomial time algorithms. 6. Formally a problem is NP-hard if every problem in class NP can be polynomial time reducible to it. then that means that the corresponding committees share some members and that they are scheduled to meet in different time slots. A problem is NP-complete if it is in class NP and NP-hard. For if any two vertices are connected with an edge. Graph Color Problem 3. which in this case can be taken as the number of committees. Traveling Salesman Problem Given cities and traveling times between cities. NP-complete Problems 1. can be done in time polynomial in the size of the problem. 5. Subgraph Isomorphism Problem Given two graphs. This coloring uses p colors which does not exceed k. Today hundreds of problems are known to be NP-complete. find out whether or not the objects can be put into the bins.different groups are given different colors. find out whether or not one is a subgraph of the other. group them into two groups so that the sum of the numbers of one group is equal to that of the other group. their sizes and a number of bins of the same size. fast algorithms exist to solve it. If a problem is NP-complete. This group of problems are called NP-complete problems. that is the construction of graph for a given set of committees. Satisfiability Problem for Propositional Logic 2. As a consequence if a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of those problems. a traveling salesman wants to know a shortest route to visit all cities exactly once and come back to where he/she started. 4. then the consensus today is that it is most likely that no polynomial time algorithms i. Conversely if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. It can be easily seen that if a problem P at hand is NP-hard and if a problem known to be NP-complete can be polynomial time reducible to P. then P is also NP-complete. Cook that the problems of class NP can be polynomial time reducible to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. 7. Thus these two vertices must get different colors. then it can be easily seen that the committees can meet in k or less time slots.

and C appears exactly once in T ? For example.x). and C = {x. (2. 3-Dimensional Matching Given three sets A. let A = {1. Set Cover Problem Given a set S.(1.b. B = {a.8. B and C of the same size.b. find out whether or not there are k or less subsets in the collection whose union is S. and a subset S of the Cartesian product A X B X C. Note that {(1. 9.a.2}.x). .(2.b. (2. called a matching.x)} is not a matching.a.x)} is a desired set satisfying all the requirements. (2.y)}. their values and an integer V.b}.b. and S = {(1. of S such that every element of A.x).y). Then T = {(1. Knapsack Problem Given a knapsack of size S. Is there a subset T.a. their sizes. B. a set of objects.b. a collection of subsets of S and an integer k.y).y}. is it possible to select objects so that the sum of their sizes does not exceed S and the sum of their values is V or larger ? 10.

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