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Language, Automata: , \alpha : usually denotes a string in this course. , \beta : usually denotes a string in this course. , \delta : usually denotes a transition function in this course. , \sigma : usually denotes a symbol in an alphabet in this course. , \Delta : usually denotes a blank space in this course. , \Gamma : usually denotes a set of stack symbols in this course. , \Lambda : usually denotes an empty string in this course. , \Pi : usually denotes a partition in this course. , \Sigma : usually denotes an alphabet in this course. , \goto : usually denotes a (one step) transition in this course. Logic: , ~ : logical not , ^ : logical and , V : logical or , -> : logical imply , <-> : logical if and only if (equivalent) , => : logical tautologically imply , <=> : logical tautologically equivalent , \A : logical for all , \E : logical for some (there exists)

Sets: , \in : belongs to , \not\in : does not belong to , @ : empty set U, : universal set , \subset : proper subset , \not\subset : not a proper subset , \subseteq : subset , \not\subseteq : not a subset , \cup : set union Ai , \cup(i=1 to n) A_i : union of n sets , \cap : set intersection Ai , \cap(i=1 to n) A_i : intersection of n sets , \bar A : complement of set A (A) , P(A) : power set of set A , X : Cartesian product Ai , X(i=1 to n) A_i : cartesian product of n sets Relation: < a, b > : ordered pair < a1, a2, ..., an > : ordered n-tuple , <= : precedes (partial order) Functions: xi , Sum(i=1 to n) x_i : sum of n xi's O(f) , O(f) : of order smaller than or equal to f

o(f) , o(f) : of order smaller than f (f) , Omega : of order greater than or equal to f (f) , omega : of order greater than f (f) , Theta : of the same order as f f(x) , lim(x -> inf) f(x) : limit of f as x goes to infinity

**Introduction to Theoretical Computer Science
**

Today computers are used everywhere: banks, hospitals, schools, airline companies, gas stations, grocery stores, in our cars, in home appliances, PCs, etc., etc. Some are used to crunch numbers, some are used to process images, some are used to process other nonnumeric data and some are used to control operations of various devices. They can reason, they can prove many mathematical theorems, they can beat chess experts in their game, they can solve some very complex problems, they can understand our languages, they can answer our questions and of course they can crunch numbers much much faster than us. Let us for a moment call what computers do computation for convenience, though some of the things computers do such as controling appliances, answering our questions etc. don't fall into our traditional sense of computation. Then these computers seem to be able to compute an awfully lot of things if not everything. But are they capable of computing anything ? Are there things computers can not do ? If there are things computers can not do, what are they ? And why ? If there aren't things computers can not do, then how can we tell ? What do we exactly mean by computation ? Unfortunately there are many things computers can not do. Computers can not solve certain types of problems. For example no computer can tell in general whether or not a given computer program stops after a finite amount of time on a given input. They can not solve some other types of problems fast enough even though they can solve them in some finite amount of time. For example take the traveling salesman problem: a salesman is given a road map with distances between cities and wants to find a shortest round trip route that visits all the cities on the map exactly once. At the moment the so called traveling salesman problem requires an extremely large amount of time to solve. No one has been able to find a reasonably fast algorithm to solve it and the consensus is that it is not likely that anyone can find such an algorithm. I have just given you an example of the problems that computers could not solve. How do we know that that is the case ? Are there other problems like that ? How can we tell whther or not a given problem can be solved and solved fast enough ?

Those four languages are together called formal languages. we go to Turing machines. These two type of languages belong to a hierarchy of four languages called Homsky hierarchy. It is a very simple device but remarkably. We call a set of strings (of symbols) a language. There we learn how computers can be simulated by Turing machines and what it means that a Turing machine recognizes (decides) a language. Thus when a finite automaton is processing strings. Since so many systems in practice can be described by regular languages. Then with Turing machines we investigate limitations of computers and computations. which is the key to the unsolvability of problem by computers. Thus they are a powerful tool to design and study those systems with. we are also going to study regular languages in detail as well as finite automata. we study a simpler type of computing device called finite automata. We are going to learn their properties. It was first conceived of by Alan Turing in early 20-th century. We are going to investigate limitations of computers and computations by studying the essence of compuers and computations rather than all the variations of computer and computation. which are also heavily used in practice. Though it has not been proven. . it can actually be solving a problem. It turns out that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Finite automata process strings. This essence is a device called Turing machine. ways to describe them and how to use them to model many of the real life systems. The languages Turing machines recognize are called Type 0 (or phrase structure) languages (regular languages are Type 3) and they are more complex than regular languages. So they provide a good introduction to our study of Turing machines. Turing machines also recognize languages.The main objective of this course is to answer those questions. Finite automata are very similar to Turing machines but a few restrictions are imposed on them. it is generally believed (Church's thesis) that any "computation" humans do can be done by Turing machines and that "computation" is the computation performed by Turing machines. In addition finite automata can model a large number of systems used in practice. that is to study limitations of computers and computation. The other two are context-free languages and context-sensitive languages. Before proceeding to the study of Turing machines and their computations in this course. Thus by studying Turing machines we can learn capabilities hence limitatgions of computers. Consequently they are less capable than Turing machines but then their operations are simpler. After briefly studying context-free languges. We say finite automata recognize languages. every task modern computers perform can also be accomplished by Turing machines. The languages that are recognized by finite automata are called regular languages. More specifically they answer the question whether or not a given string belongs to a language. In particular we are going to see a few problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers and how we can tell that they are unsolvable.

Our last topic is time complexities of various problems. Let us start with review of mathematics. . • • 2 is a odd number. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved within a reasonable amount of time and there are problems that are known to require a finite but very large amount of time to solve. Their truth values are false and true. respectively. Increasing the processor speed does not help much for such problems. true or false.000 times 110 cities would already be too many. For example for the traveling salesman problem if 100 cities were too many to solve fast enough.000 times it can handle only ten or so more larger problem sizes. The time needed to solve such a problem increases at least exponentially with the size of the problem as long as we use Turing machines (hence computers). We are going to see some of those which take a large amount of time. 4 is a perfect square. then with the increase in the processor speed of 1. Example: The following statements are propositions as they have precise truth values. "Connective": Two or more propositions can be combined together to make compound propositions with the help of logical connectives. If the computation time is 2n where n is the size of the problem. then even if the processor speed increased 1. The time complexity issues are investigated using Turing machines so that the results apply to all computers. Basic Mathematical Objects Back to Table of Contents The following are the contents of this introductory chapter. Unfortunately there is nothing we can do to speed them up. • • • • Logic Sets Relations Functions Logic Proposition and Logical Connectives "Proposition" can be defined as a declarative statement having a specific truth-value.

The compound proposition truth-value is true iff all the constituent propositions hold true. For the first compound proposition to be true both the propositions have to be true as the connective is AND and as OR is the connective for the second one if either of the propositions is true the truth value of the compound proposition is true. • • 2 is an odd number AND 4 is a perfect square. Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F pVq T T T F c. Disjunction This is logical "or" read as either true value of the individual propositions. Negation This is the logical "negation" and it is expressed by Truth table is given below as p for "not p". Their truth vales are false and true respectively. 2 is an odd number OR 4 is a perfect square. Conjunction The logical conjunction is understood in the same way as commonly used ôandö.Example: Above two propositions can be used to make a compound proposition using any of the logical connectives. . Truth table for two individual propositions p and q with conjunction is given below p T T F F q T F T F p^q T F F F b. The following are the logical connectives used commonly: a. It is represented as " ^ ".

Contradiction This is the opposite of tautology. Conditional This is used to define as "a proposition holds true if another proposition is true" i. If p and q have the same truth-value in every case then they are said to be logically equivalent and it is represented as p <=> q. E.g.: p ^ p Logical implication and equivalence If the value of p -> q is true in every case. which is true in every case. "p only if q" . E.e.p T F p F T d. "q is necessary for p". then q" Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F p T F T T q p -> q is also expressed in a number of different (but equivalent) ways in English. which is false in every case.: p V p g. For example. Tautology A compound proposition. Biconditional A proposition (p q) ^ (q p) can be abbreviated using biconditional conjunction as p q and is read as "if p then q. then p is said to logically imply q. p q is read as "if p. f. "p is sufficient for q" . "q is a necessity/consequence of p" and "q whenever p" are all differnt ways of saying "if p then q".g. e. and if q then p". Following are some of the useful identities and implications from propositional logic: Identities . "if not q then not p" . It is represented as p => q.

1.modus tollens Q) (R S)] [(P R) (Q S)] Q) (Q R)] (P R) For explanations. . the sentences "The car Tom is driving is blue". (P 2.exportation Q) ( Q P) ----. [(P 2. or to express certain types of relationship between propositions such as equivalence ( for more detail click here for example for example ). (P Q) ( P Q) ----. (P 4. A predicate is a template involving a verb that describes a property of objects. The predicate logic is one of the extensions of propositional logic and it is fundamental to most other types of logic. [(P Q) Q] P ----. [(P 5.implication Q) R] [P (Q R)] ----.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. (P 3.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. and "The cover of this book is blue" come from the template "is blue" by placing an appropriate noun/noun phrase in front of it. examples and proofs of these identities go to Identities Implications 1.contrapositive For explanations. [(P 3. or a relationship among objects represented by the variables. Central to the predicate logic are the concepts of predicate and quantifier. For example. The phrase "is blue" is a predicate and it describes the property of being blue. "The sky is blue". examples and proofs of these implications go to Implications Predicate and Predicate Logic The propositional logic is not powerful enough to represent all types of assertions that are used in computer science and mathematics. For more complex reasoning we need more powerful logic capable of expressing complicated propositions and reasoning.

is the set of objects of interest. There are two types of quantifiers: universal quantifier and existential quantifier. hence a proposition. For example.Predicates are often given a name. and it becomes a true statement." Again. the statemen t x > 1 to "for every object x in the universe. which is expressed as " x x > 1". "Blue" or "B" can be used to represent the predicate "is blue" among others. for example. where x represents an arbitrary object. . also called universe . a quantification is performed on formulas of predicate logic (called wff ). assign a value to the variable 2. x > 1". for example. If we adopt B as the name for the predicate "is_blue". can be made a proposition by applying one of the following two operations to each of its variables: 1. Hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. It can be the set of real numbers. The universe is thus the domain of the (individual) variables. x > 1". such as x > 1 or P(x). x > 1 becomes 3 > 1 if 3 is assigned to x. The propositions in the predicate logic are statements on objects of a universe. which is expressed as " x x > 1. Universe of Discourse The universe of discourse. A predicate with variables. sentences that assert an object is blue can be represented as "B(x)". Similarly the existential quantifier turns. it is true or false in the universe of discourse. by using quantifiers on variables . called atomic formula. the statement x > 1 to "for some object x in the universe. B(x) reads as "x is blue". For example any of "is_blue". In general. The universal quantifier turns. and hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. This new statement is true or false in the universe of discourse. quantify the variable using a quantifier (see below).

the set of all cars on a parking lot.the set of integers. The universe is often left implicit in practice. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] For more discussions and examples on these rules and others. Predicate logic is more powerful than propositional logic. some of which are given below. [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] x [ P(x) Q(x) ] 3. Sets . see Reasoning(with predicate logic) and Quantifiers and Connectives in Discrete Structures course. But it should be obvious from the context. one can use some additional inference rules. the set of all students in a classroom etc. Also for proof and proof techniques see Mathematical Reasoning. In predicate logic. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 4. Important Inference Rules of Predicate Logic: First there is the following rule concerning the negation of quantified statement which is very useful: x P(x) x P(x) Next there is the following set of rules on quantifiers and connvectives: 1. It allows one to reason about properties and relationships of individual objects. as well as those for propositional logic such as the equivalences. implications and inference rules. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 2.

All the elements belonging to the set are explicitly given. if A is a subset of. Using this notation we can specify the set {0.2. Example: A = {1.4} call it Z by writing Z = {x | x N | x 5} where N represents the set of natural numbers.3. if every element of A is an element of B.5} Alternate way is to give the properties that characterize the elements of the set. having a property that characterizes those elements. Universal Set The set U of all the elements we might ever consider in the discourse is called the universal set.2. A is a subset of B.1. Subset Let A and B be two sets. . It is read as "the set of natural numbers that are less than or equal to 5". How to specify a Set? One way is to enumerate the elements completely.What is a set? Set is a group of elements. Also.3.4. A is a subset of B is represented as A B. Note: If A is a subset of B and B is a subset of A then A=B. Example: B = {x | x is a positive integer less than or equal to 5} Some sets can also be defined recursively. Set terminology Belongs To x B means that x is an element of set B. but not equal to B represented as A B.

A B= ø.B B .8} B = {3.4.8.3} B = {3.2.2.4. where ø is the Empty set.8} then A B = {3.3.9 } are disjoint. It is denoted by A .B. where means " is not an element of ". For A and B of the above example B .e.5} then A . then the complement of A is the set consisting of all elements of the universal set that are not in A. Example: If A = {1.4. Difference If A and B are two sets.4..5.2.5} 2. Intersection If A and B are two sets.5 } . Example: If U is the set of natural numbers and A = { 1. Set Operations The operations that can be performed on sets are: 1.A = {4.8}. then the difference of A from B is the set that consists of the elements of A that are not in B. Example: A = { 1. It is denoted by A B.4.3} and B = {3. then the union of A and B is the set that contains all the elements that are in A and B including the ones in both A and B. then the intersection of A and B is the set that consists of the elements in both A and B . Thus A' = { x | x U ^ x A } .2.Complement If A is a set.3 } .B = {1. Example: If A = {1.3. then A' = { x | x U ^ x > 3}. It is denoted by A B. Example: If A = {1.5} . Union If A and B are two sets.2} Note that in general A .2. It is denoted by A' or .A . and B = { 6.2. Disjoint sets A and B are said to be disjoint if they contain no elements in common i.3. 3.5} then A B = {1.

.Following is a list of some standard Set Identities A. The Commutative laws: A B=B A A B=B A The Associative laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Distributive laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Idempotent laws: A A=A A A=A The Absorptive laws: A (A B) = A A (A B) = A The De Morgan laws: (A B)' = A' B' (A B)' = A' B' Other laws involving Complements: ( A' )' = A A A A' = ø A' = U B) B) B) B) C C (A (A C) C) Other laws involving the empty set A A ø=A ø=ø Other laws involving the Universal Set: A U=U A U=A Venn Diagrams A common technique in working with Set Operations is to illustrate them by drawing Venn Diagrams. C represent arbitrary sets and ø is the empty set and U is the Universal Set. It is a very good tool to get a general idea. B.

The idea of Venn Diagram is to draw a region representing the universe and within that to draw the regions representing the component sets we are starting with so that the resulting diagram describes their interrelationships. .Note.3. however. because they can represent only very limited situations and miss many other possibilities.4 } and B = { 6. For example sets A = { 1.2.2. that Venn Diagrams must NOT be used for rigorous discussions.8.4 } can be represented as shown below using Venn Diagrams: Set A U represents the Universal set in which A is one of the Set.

Set B The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A B .

A B .

.The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A U B A A B B is the set consisting of all the different elements in A and B.

(A B) = { 5.8 } A = { 1.8 } (A B)' = U .4.5.3.6.4.8 } .6.6.7. For example: U = { 1. 7 } B = { 2.3.4 } A B = { 1.4.2.3.2.(A B)' is the yellow region in the Venn diagram given below.2.

This can be generalized for the union of any finite number of sets as A1 An .A . intersection and Cartesian product of sets are associative... A2 ..A is the blue shaded region in the Venn Diagram shown below Generalized Set Operations Union. To denote either of these B C. For example expressions we often use A holds.B is the yellow shaded region and B . which we write as Ai This generalized union of sets can be rigorously defined as follows: Definition ( Ai) : .

The set of elements specified here is called basis of the set being defined. and = Recursive Definition Recursive Definition Subjects to be Learned • • • • • recursive/inductive definition basis clause basis inductive clause extremal clause A recursive definition of a set always consists of three distinct clauses: 1. Based on these definitions. Ai = A1. Inductive Clause: Ai = ( Ai) An+1 Ai and generalized Cartesian product Similarly the generalized intersection Ai can be defined.Basis Clause: For n = 1 . De Morgan's law on set union and intersection can also be generalized as follows: Theorem (Generalized De Morgan) = . . The basis clause (or simply basis) of the definition establishes that certain objects are in the set. This part of the definition specifies the "seeds" of the set from which the elements of the set are generated using the methods given in the inductive clause.

The Set of Natural Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in .. The x + 1 in the Inductive Clause is the parent of x. x + 2 is in . and 1 is the child of 0. Example 2. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. 1. and 2 is the child of 1. 2. then they can be combined in certain specified ways to create other objects. and the new object is their child . the object is not a member of the set.2. 0 is put into N. Following this definition. 0 + 1 (= 1) is in N. since 0 is in N.5. 0. 1 + 1 (= 2) is in N. Note that if we don't have (3). Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Then by (2). which is not what we want as the set of natural numbers. Then by (2) again.5. The basis for this set N is { 0 } . The Set of Nonnegative Even Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . x + 1 is in . The inductive clause always asserts that if objects are elements of the set. Let us call the objects used to create a new object the parents of the new object. 1 is the parent of 2. . can be included in N. Proceeding in this manner all the natural numbers are put into N. The extremal clause asserts that unless an object can be shown to be a member of the set by applying the basis and inductive clauses a finite number of times. Example 3. Examples of Recursive Definition of Set Example 1. 0 is the parent of 1. 3. The inductive clause (or simply induction) of the definition establishes the ways in which elements of the set can be combined to produce new elements of the set.5.. the set of natural numbers N can be obtained as follows: First by (1). The Set of Even Integers Basis Clause: . and x is the child of x + 1.

They are all on functions from integer to integer except the last one. Recursive Definition of Function Some functions can also be defined recursively. Then the value of the function at an element. Inductive Clause: For any element x in . Click Yes or No .Inductive Clause: For any element x in . How to define function recursively: First the values of the function for the basis elements of the domain are specified. A few examples are given below. . Test Your Understanding of Recursive Definition Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. of the domain is defined using its value at the parent(s) of the element x. Example 4. There are two sets of questions. . Here ax means the concatenation of a with x. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. and generalize that generation process for the "Inductive Clause". bbabaa. Then see how other elements can be obtained from them.2 are in . then Submit. and . The Set of Strings over the alphabet excepting empty string This is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's such as abbab. try simplest elements in the set such as smallest numbers (0. Condition: The domain of the function you wish to define recursively must be a set defined recursively. To see how it is defined click here. Basis Clause: . or 1). say x. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. simplest expressions. and . and x . or shortest strings. The set of propositions (propositional forms) can also be defined recursively. etc. x + 2. Tips for recursively defining a set: For the "Basis Clause".

This function L gives the number of a's and b's L(x) for a string x is also often denoted by | x |. f(n+1) = f(n) + 2 . So there is no chance of other elements to come into the function being defined. Using this definition. See Example 5 for the extremal clause. Example 7: The function f(n) = 2n for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. f(n+1) = (n+1) f(n). Note that here Extremal Clause is not necessary. 3! can be found as follows: Since 0 ! = 1. because the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively and that has the extremal clause in it. L(a) = 1 and L(b) = 1. Hence 3 ! = 3 * 2 ! = 3 * 2 * 1 = 6 . where xy is the concatenation of strings x and y. 1 ! = 1 * 0 ! = 1 * 1 = 1 . Induction Mathematical Induction . See Example 5 for the extremal clause. Example 8: The function L from the set S of strings over {a.Example 5: The function f(n) = n! for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 0! = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. See above for the extremal clause. Hence 2 ! = 2 * 1 ! = 2 * 1 = 2 . Inductive Clause: For any string x and y of S. Example 6: The function f(n) = 2n + 1 for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. b} to the set of natural numbers that gives the length of a string can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: For symbols a and b of the alphabet. f(n+1) = 2 f(n) . L(xy) = L(x) + L(y) .

has the same property by the inductive step. then the next element. if P(k) is true (called induction hypothesis). has the property in question. has the same property again by the inductive step. Then it is proven that if an arbitrary natural number. has that property (inductive step). the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively. The first principle of mathematical induction states that if the basis step and the inductive step are proven. where is a Induction: Prove that for any integer . then P(n) is true for all natural number . Thus the set of natural numbers can be described completely by specifying the basis element (0). that is 0. More generally mathematical statements involving a natural number n such as 1 + 2 + . Proceeding likewise. As a first step for proof by induction. then it follows that all the natural numbers have that property.. To prove that a statement P(n) is true for all natural number natural number. which is 1. we proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P( ) is true. . the element next to it. and the process of generating an element from a known element in the set. then P(k+1) is true. and its elements can be generated one by one starting with 0 by adding 1. For since 0 has the property by the basis step. which is 2.. it is often a good idea to restate P(k+1) in terms of . the element next to it. Then since 1 has the property. This process is somewhat analogous to the knocking over a row of dominos with knocking over the first domino corresponding to the basis step. any natural number can be shown to have the property. natural numbers can be proven to have certain properties as follows: First it is proven that the basis element. When these two are proven. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 can be proven by mathematical induction by the same token. has the property in question (basis step). denote it by n. Taking advantage of this. that is n + 1.Subjects to be Learned • • • • • first principle of mathematical induction basis step induction hypothesis induction second principle of mathematical induction Contents First Priciple of Mathematical Induction As we have seen in recursion .

then LHS = 0. This form of induction does not require the basis step. and in the inductive step P(n) is proved assuming P(k) holds for all k < n . Certain problems can be proven more easily by using the second principle than the first principle because P(k) for all k < n can be used rather than just P(n . Formally the second principle of induction states that if n [ k [ k < n P(k) ] P(n) ] . which is equal to the RHS for n+1. we get (n + 1)(n + 2) / 2 . Using the induction hypothesis. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 .. Hence LHS = RHS. 1 + 3 + . -------. Here let us try LHS for n + 1 = 0 + 1 + .Induction Hypothesis To prove this for n+1. can be used. Factoring (n + 1) out. and RHS = 0 * (0 + 1) = 0 . and somehow use the induction hypothesis. End of Proof. Thus LHS = RHS for n+1.. first try to express LHS for n+1 in terms of LHS for n. the last expression can be rewritten as n( n + 1 )/2 + (n + 1) . Proof: Basis Step: If n = 0. . 0 + 1 + . Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary natural number n. The reason that this principle holds is going to be explained later after a few examples of proof. + n + (n + 1) = (0 + 1 + . + n) + (n + 1) .. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 .. which is assumed to be true.1) to prove P(n). then n P(n) can be concluded. Example: Prove that for any natural number n.. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2.P(k) so that P(k)... 0 + 1 + .. Example 1: Let us prove the following equality using the second principle: For any natural number n .. Second Priciple of Mathematical Induction There is another form of induction over the natural numbers based on the second principle of induction to prove assertions of the form x P(x) .. Here k [ k < n P(k) ] is the induction hypothesis.

let A = {blue shirt.1 for all k. Since both p and q are smaller than n. If n is not a prime number.Proof: Assume that 1 + 3 + .1 )! + n * n! = n! . i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! .. it is either a prime number or not a prime number. + ( 2n . the individual can wear. can be written as the product of prime numbers. = ( n + 1 )n! . Hence by the second principle of induction 1 + 3 + . and itself. Then 1 + 3 + . mint green shirt} and B = {gray slacks. then it is the product of 1.1 Proof: Assume that 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . by the induction hypothesis they can be written as the product of prime numbers (Note that this is not possible if the First Principle is being used). say p and q. Since n is an integer.. More precisely. Proof: Assume that for all positive integers k.. + ( n . k can be written as the product of prime numbers. the individual may wish to restrict .. If n is a prime number. A binary relation from A into B is any subset of the Cartesian product A x B. Therefore the statement holds true. Then certainly A x B is the set of all possible combinations (six) of shirts and slacks that nbsp. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( 1 + 3 + . tan slacks}. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 holds for all natural numbers.. which is a prime number. Hence n can also be written as the product of prime numbers.1 Hence by the second principle of induction positive integers.1 holds for all Example 3: Prove that any positive integer n > 1. + k * k! = ( k + 1 )! ... + ( 2k + 1 ) = ( k + 1 )2 holds for all k.. Then 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . k < n.. Example 2: Prove that for all positive integer n. Relations Definition Relation Let A and B be sets. Let's assume that a person owns three shirts and two pairs of slacks. n > k > 1.1 ) ) + ( 2n + 1 ) = n2 + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 by the induction hypothesis. Example1: nbsp...1 ) * ( n . then it is a product of two positive integers.. We are going to prove that n can be written as the product of prime numbers. However. k < n.1 + n * n! by the induction hypothesis.

2). is the set of pairs of the form(a. (mint green shirt. Example2: Let A = {2. PropertiesOf Relations . is the composition of P with itself and it is a relation which we know as grandparentgrandchild relation. or R(x) =y where y = x2 . A typical element in R is an ordered pair (x. as in the previous example. 5. y). 3. (black shirt. c) A x C. R = { (x. (2.6). 5.himself to combinations which are color coordinated. written as RS. Composition Let R be a relation from a set A into set B. where (a. This may not be all possible pairs in A x B but will certainly be a subset of A x B. Let A be a set of people and let P = {(a. Consider the following relation on real numbers. For example. 6). tan slacks) }. (3. In some cases R can be described by actually listing the pairs which are in R. and S be a relation from set B into set C. b) Rand (b. y) | x <= y}. b) R if and only if a divides evenly into b. (3. one such subset may be { (blue shirt. 6)}. R = {(2. So. 5). The composition of R and S. Then P is a relation on A which we might call a parent-child relation. where P is the parent-child relation given above. tan slacks). c) RS if and only if there exists b B such that (a. y) | y is the square of x} and S = { (x. (6. b) | a A ^ b A ^ a is a child of b } . This may not be convenient if R is relatively large. Relation on a Set A relation from a set A into itself is called a relation on A. gray slack). or "related". For example PP. 6) and define a relation R from A into A by (a. Other notations are used depending on the past practice. 6}. (5. 3. R could be more naturally expressed as R(x) = x2 . R and S of Example 2 above are relations on A = {2. c) S. 3).

A x A. f is a function if it covers the domain (maps every element of the domain) and it is single valued. b> is in the relation. b and c in A. R R b to denote (a. 4. symmetric and transitive. Let us write a Symmetric: R is symmetric if for every a and b in A. codomain image image of set range sum of functions product of functions one-to-one function (injection) onto function (surjection) one-to-one onto function (bijection) inverse function composite function Definition (function): A function. The set A in the above definition is called the domain of the function and B its codomain. if <a. if aRb and bRc. Reflexive: R is reflexive if for every a A.Assume R is a relation on set A. Function Functions Subjects to be Reviewed • • • • • • • • • • • • function domain. in other words. b) R . then bRa. if aRb. Thus. 3. 2. c> are in the relation. there is an element b in B such that <a. 1. for each element a in A. Equivalence: R is an equivalence relation on A if R is reflexive. from a set A to a set B is a relation from A to B that satisfies 1. Transitive: R is transitive if for every a. b> and <a. a R a. denote it by f. and 2. . then b = c . then aRc.

and ( f*g )(x) = 3x3 + x2 Definition (one-to-one): A function f is said to be one-to-one (injective) . Example: The function f(x) = x2 from the set of natural numbers N to N is a one-to-one function. The set of images of the elements of a set S under a function f is called the image of the set S under f. Then the domain and codomain of this f are N. and b is called the image of a under f . x = y . Then the sum and the product of f and g are defined as follows: For all x. f(S) = { f(a) | a S }. and for all x. Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is one-to-one and onto. Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is an onto function. 16. { 0.} .. because. say 3. Thus it is a bijection. f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to N is not onto.e. for example. Definition (sum and product): Let f and g be functions from a set A to the set of real numbers R. where S is a subset of the domain A of f . if it is onto and one-to-one. there is an element x in A such that f(x) = y . and is denoted by f(S) . and its range is the set of squares. that is. that is.. 9. The image of the domain under f is called the range of f .. Definition (bijection): A function is called a bijection . b> is denoted as f(a) = b . Example: Let f be the function from the set of natural numbers N to N that maps each natural number x to x2 . Definition (onto): A function f from a set A to a set B is said to be onto(surjective) . under this function is 9. if and only if whenever f(x) = f(y) . . if and only if for every element y of B . 4. ( f*g )(x) = f(x)*g(x) . Every bijection has a function called the inverse function. because for example f(1) = f(-1) = 1 . However. i. Then ( f + g )(x) = x2 + 3x + 1 . ( f + g )(x) = f(x) + g(x) . Example: Let f(x) = 3x + 1 and g(x) = x2 . nothing in N can be mapped to 3 by this function. where f(x)*g(x) is the product of two real numbers f(x) and g(x). f is onto if and only if f( A ) = B . the image of. 1. .The relation given by f between a and b represented by the ordered pair <a. Note that f(x) = x2 is not one-to-one if it is from the set of integers(negative as well as non-negative) to N .

and it is denoted by f -1 . and let f be a function from B to a set C . the points on the left are in the domain and the ones on the right are in the codomain. Then f( g(x) ) = ( x + 1 )2 . languages of mathematics. Introduction to Language A language is.These concepts are illustrated in the figure below. Example: Let f(x) = x2 . Definition (composite function): Let g be a function from a set A to a set B . Example: The inverse function of f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of non-negative even numbers E is f -1(x) = 1/2 x from E to N . where f(x) = y . Then the function g is called the inverse function of f. natural languages etc. denoted by fg . In each figure below. Definition (inverse): Let f be a bijection from a set A to a set B. Therefore one can also talk about composition of functions. a set of strings of symbols. the rightmost function in the above figure is a bijection and its inverse is obtained by reversing the direction of each arrow. and arrows show < x. is the function from A to C that satisfies fg(x) = f( g(x) ) for all x in A . are all languages in that sense. g(y) = x . and g(x) = x + 1 . . Then the composition of functions f and g . For example. Others such as languages of logics. It is also a bijection. Programming langauges we use are a language in that sense. Note that such an x is unique for each y because f is a bijection. in this course. if for every element y of B. A function is a relation. f(x) > relation.

if the number of states of DFA is minimized. context-free (or type 2) languages. context-sensitive (or type 1) languages and phrase structure (or type 0) languages. It can be rigorously shown that some problems can not be solved by computers in any finite amount of time and that some others are practically unsolvable because of the time it takes to solve them. nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) and nondeterministic finite automata with transitions (NFA. are quite useful for modeling systems used in practice such as co9mputer network communication protocols. Type 3 is a subset of type 2 which is a subset of type 1 and type 0 is the most general including the other three as a subset. On the other hand DFAs are suited for writing a simulator program because there is no nondeterminism such as going to two or more states from a state upon reading one input symbol. in general there are more than one NFAs and DFAs that reconize one language. the simplest of the four formal languages. These formal languages are characterized by grammars which are essentially a set of rewrite rules for generating strings belonging to a language as we see later. solving them can be seen as recognizing languages i. lexical analyzers and parser for compilers for programming languages. we are going to learn modeling of systems finite automata. The four classes are regular (or type 3) languages. Then we study regular languages. Definitions on Language Subjects to be Learned . Also for some important classes of problems. Also there are various kinds of computing devices called automata which process these types of languages Thus formal languages can also be characterized by the computing devices which process them. In asddition two of the formal languages. checking whether or not a string is in a language. Then we investigate various kinds of finite automata: deterministic finite automata (DFA). then the resulting DFA is unique up to the state names for a given regular language. They are devices that recognize regular languages. NFA and NFAare conceptually simpler and easier to use when modeling a system because there are no restrictions on transitions for them unlike for DFA. regular grammars. regular and context-free languages. Our last topic on regular language is testing of languages for non-regularity. In the following chapters we first learn about languages. However.e. together with regular expressions which are a method of representing regular languages.What we are going to study on languages in this course are four classes of languages called (Chomsky) formal languages and their properties. We are going to see an algorithm for converting NFAto NFA which recognizes the same language and another for NFA to DFA conversion. Then after seeing yet another way of representing regular laguages.). These formal languages and automata capture the essense of various computing devices and computation in a very simple way. As we are going to learn next. Using automata and formal languages we can study limitations of computer and computation.

So a string is a substring of itself. 3. {a. an alphabet is a finite set of symbols. 2. 1. For example if u = aab and v = bbab. We are going to use first few symbols of English alphabet such as a and b to denote symbols of an alphabet and those toward the end such as u and v for strings. Kleene star Contents Here we are going to learn the concept of language in very abstract and general sense. Thus | | = 0. the set of all strings over (including the empty string) is denoted by . For a string w its length is represented by |w|. That is. a and aabab are examples of string over alphabet {a. b} is another alphabet with two symbols and English alphabet is also an alphabet. Then uv denotes the string obtained by concatenating u with v. A language is a set of strings over an alphabet. operations on languages and some of their properties. intersetion and difference of two languages over an alphabet are languages over . baa} is a language (over alphabert {a.• • • • alphabet string (word) language operations on languages: concatenation of strings. all the set operations can be applied to languages. ab.b}) and {0. A string x is a prefix of another string y if there is a string v such that y = xv. 1} is an alphabet with two symbols. Thus {a. b} and 0. For any alphabet . then uv = aabbbab. that is. Though has no symbols. The number of symbols in a string is called the length of the string. Note that u and v may be an empty string. A string (also called a word) is a finite sequence of symbols of an alphabet. The empty string (also called null string) is the string with length 0. Operations on languages Since languages are sets. 1}. Some special languages The empty set is a language which has no strings. So it is not empty. union. intersection. The empty string is denoted by (capital lambda). Thus a language over alphabet is a subset of . Note that vu = bbabaab uv. Thus the union. b. The set { } is a language which has one string. It can be defined more formally by recursive definition. uv is the string obtained by appending the sequence of symbols of v to that of u. Let u and v be strings. 10 and 001 are examples of string over alphabet {0. A string x is called a substring of another string y if there are strings u and v such that y = uxv. it has no symbols. v is called a suffix of y. this set has an object in it. For example {0. Basic concepts First. namely .1}). 111} is a language (over alphabet {0.

abaaba. Then the concatenation of L1 with L2 is denoted as L1L2 and it is defined as L1L2 = { uv | u L1 and v L2 }. . * The following two types of languages are generalizations of them quite often in this course. uk denotes the concatenation of k u's. xw L*. That is L1L2 is the set of strings obtained by concatenating strings of L1 with those of L2. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = Lk L. Let L1 and L2 be languages. Recursive definition of L+: Basis Clause: L L+ . L* is the set of strings obtained by concatenating zero or more strings of L as we are going to see in Theorem 1. bb. babb. bbbb. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. then L* = { . Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k.. abb. ak and uk can be defined similarly.. is . bbaba. aba. For example if L = { aba. This * is called Kleene star. baaba}. Hence Lk is the set of strings that can be obtained by concatenating k strings of L. For example {ab.. } The * in * is also the same Kleene star defined above. ababb. b} {aaa. The complement of a language L over an alphabet language. baaa. For example Lk can be defined recursively as follows. These powers can be formally defined recursively. Recursive definition of L*: Basis Clause: L* and we are going to see Inductive Clause: For any x L* and any w L. bb }.L and it is also a Another operation onlanguages is concatenation. ababb. Similarly for a language L. Lk means the concatenation of k L's. the extremal clause is not necessary. Here a0 = and u0 = . abaaba. aaba} = {abaaa. ak represents the concatenation of k a's. For a string u and a natural number k. Powers : For a symbol a and a natural number k.

w2. For example if L = { aba.... bbaba. i. ... (i. wimi in L such that wi = wi1wi2.. w1w2. bb }.wmmk ...w1m1w21.... wk in L* such that x = w1w2. . Let us list one of them as a theorem and prove it. .. abaaba. bb. wk are strings of L*. ) as ={x|x Lk for some Then the following relationships hold on L* and L+.. Hence x is in L* . L* and L* have a number of interesting properties. } Let us also define natural number k } .... . Then there are nonempty strings w1.wk . Thus L+ is the set of strings obtained by concatenating one or more strings of L. any nonempty string in L* or L+ can be expresssed as the concatenation of strings of L.e.. Theorems 1 and 2 are proven in "General Induction" which you study in the next unit. L0 L L2 . Proof: Because we can see that L* (L*)*. .wk for some k. xw L+.. L* can be proven as follows: by Theorem 2. bbbb. Theorem 5: L* = (L*)*. by applying Theorem 2 to the language L* L* Conversely ( L* )* Let x be an arbitrary nonempty string of ( L* )*.. ababb. for each wi there are strings wi1. w2.wimi Hence x = w11 . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L+ unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Other proofs are omitted. wi2....w2m2. where wi's are strings of L. Theorem 1: Ln Theorem 2: Theorem 3: Theorem 4: L+ = L L* = L*L Note: According to Theorems 2 and 3..e.Inductive Clause: For any x L+ and any w L.. then L+ = { aba. ..wm1. Since w1..

If x is an empty string, then it is obviously in L* . Hence ( L* )* Since L* L* . L* , L* = ( L* )* .

(L*)* and ( L* )*

**Problem Solving as Language Recognition
**

Subjects to be Learned

• • •

problem instance problem as language problem solving as language recognition

Contents

In the previous section the concept of language was introduced and its properties have been briefly studied. You might be wondering why we study language. The main reason for studying language is that solving problems can be viewed as a language recognition problem as explained below, that is, the problem of checking whether or not a string belongs to a language. Thus instead of studying what kind of problems can be solved by what kind of computational devices and how, we can study languages and devices to recognize them which are simpler to deal with uncluttered with variations in actual devices, programming languages etc. Below an example is given to illustrate how solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Consider the following problem: Is the longest of the distances between two nodes(i.e. the diameter) of a given graph less than a given integer k ? Here the distance is the smallest number of edges (or hops) between the nodes. Some of the instances of this problem are as shown below:

Instance 1 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with one edge and two nodes is less than 1. Instance 2 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with four edges and four nodes is less than 2. Simiarlyt for Instance 3. These problem instances can be represented by a string as follows: Instance 1: 1,2;(1,2);1 Instance 2: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(3,4);2 Instance 3: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(2,3)(2,4)(3,4);3 Here the set of nodes, the set of edges and k are separated by ; in that order in the strings. The solutions to these instances are: Instance 1: No Instance 2: No Instance 3: Yes There are infinitely many 'Yes' instances and 'No' instances for this problem. The set of 'Yes' instances is a language and so is the set of 'No' instances as well as the set of all

instances and many others for this problem. We can thus see that solving the problem for a given instance is equivalent to checking whether or not the string representing the given instance belongs to the language of 'Yes' instances of the problem. That is, the problem solving is the same as the language recognition. A problem can be solved if and only if the language of its 'Yes' instances is recognizable or decidable by a Turing machine. It is not solvable if the language is merely accecptable but not recognizable, or even worse if it is not even acceptable.

(a.k.a Structural Induction)

Mathematical statements involving an element of a recursively defined set can be proven by induction. To prove by induction that a statement P(x) is true for all the elements x of a recursively defined set S, proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P(x) is true for all the elements x in the basis of S. Induction: Prove that for any element(s) x of S if P(x) is true, then P(y) is true for any element y obtained from x by the induction step of the recursive definition of S. Note 1 : In the Induction we try to prove that if a parent has the property then all of its children also have that property. In the process we need the relationship between the parent and the children. That relationship is found in the Inductive Clause of the recursive definition of the set in question. Note 2 : As a first step for general induction proof, it is often a good idea to express y in terms of x so that P(x) can be used. Example 1 (Theorem 1 in "Language") : Prove that Ln L* for any natural number n and any language L. Let us first review the definitions. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = LkL. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k, the extremal clause is not necessary. Recursive definition of L*:

Basis Clause: L* Inductive Clause: For any string x L* and any string w L. Hence x . and L* . Since Lk L* . Then there exist strings x and y that satisfy x L and w = xy by the definition of Lk+1. Now let us prove that Ln L* by induction on Ln. y Let w be an arbitrary string in Lk+1 . Lk . . Basis Step: Since by the definitions L0 = { Inductive Step: Assume that Lk Hypothesis We are going to show that Lk+1 }. Proof: Let us first prove Suppose that x Lk for some natural L* . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. xw L*. Then by the definition of L*. Hence . L0 L* . --. L* by theInduction Hypothesis. Lk Next let us prove L* . x L* . Then by the definition of L* . . xy Hence w Thus Lk+1 L* . number k.Induction L* . By Example 1 above . L* since y L. x Example 2 (Theorem 2 in "Language") Let us prove L* = Note that ={x|x Lk for some natural number k } . L* . L* for an arbitrary natural numer k. Note in the proof below that Basis and Inductive Steps mirror the Basis and Inductive Clauses of the definition of Ln . L* .

Let us prove the inheritance. holds. Note here that x is a parent and by applying an operation (i.Note that L* is defined recursively and that below we are trying to prove that the elements of L* have the property that they also belong to . Hence by the definition of Inductive Step: Assume that for an arbitrary x in L*. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. Basis Clause: REV( )= . say x. Hence xy Lk+1 by the definition of Ln . So we first prove that * the element of the basis of L has the propertyy. Then we show that if any element. .e. REV(xa) = Inductive Clause: For any string aREV(x). xy holds. then its children xy. by concatenating y) a child of x in is obtained. of L* has the property. . The function REV(x) on strings x over the alphabet is defined as follows. also have the property. If x . So we show that the property for x is inherited by its children xy. and any symbol . then for some natural number k . x Lk . Basis Step: L0 since L0 = { }. Hence xy End of Inductive Step and Proof Hence we have proven Example 3 . x spelled backward). It produces the reversal of a given string x (i.e. . Prove that for arbitrary strings x and y of . x We are going to show that for an arbitrary element y L . by Example 1 above. Note that each step mirror the recursive definition of . where y is an arbitrary elememt of L.

{ } and {a} for any symbol a are regular languages. Omitted. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. and an arbitrary string y of . xa is also in . Since a REV(y) = REV(ya). REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular language unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. then Lr Ls . End of Proof. -.Induction Hypothesis Then for an arbitrary symbol a of . The proof mirrors the recursive definition of . Regular language The set of regular languages over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. But by induction hypothesis a REV(xy) = a REV(y)REV(x). Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary string y of . Definitions of Regular Language and Regular Expression Subjects to be Learned • • regular language regular expression 1. Basis Step: REV(x ) = REV( x ) = REV( )REV( x ) . REV(xya) = REV((xy)a) = a REV(xy). Thus the statement to be proven is for an arbitrary fixed string x. The proof of the equality in question is going to be proven for an arbitrary fixed x by induction on y. Definition of Set of Regular Languages : Basis Clause: . REV(xya) = REV(ya)REV(x). . which is what we needed. * Basis Clause: where is an empty string. Inductive Clause: If Lr and Ls are regular languages.Proof First let us note that * can be defined recursively as follows: . LrLs and Lr* are regular languages. Any language belonging to this set is a regular language over . Inductive Clause: For arbitrary strings x of and a of ExtremalClause: As usual.

b} is regular. They can represent regular languages and operations on them succinctly. and a are regular expressions corresponding to languages . Then since {a} and {b} are regular languages. a. ( rs ) and ( r*) are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr Ls . which is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's. bold face may not be used for regular expressions. respectively. . (4) We use ( r+) as a regular expression to represent Lr+ . Regular expression Regular expressions are used to denote regular languages. aa. is a regular language because {a. {a}* is a regular language which is the set of strings consisting of a's such as . Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular expression unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. aaa. where a is an element of . Conventions on regular expressions (1) When there is no danger of confusion. For a recursive definition of Lrk click here. Basis Clause: . Thus the regular expression ( a + ( b( c*) ) ) is written as a + bc*. is written as rk. b} ( = {a} {b} ) and {ab} ( = {a}{b} ) are regular languages. The language corresponding to rk is Lrk. b}. { } and {a}. where r is a regular expression. then ( r + s ) . Note also that *. let = {a. respectively. where Lr is the language corresponding to the regular expression r. Thus for example rr = r2 . So for example. {a. 2. (3) The concatenation of k r's . Also since {a} is regular. (2) The operation * has precedence over concatenation.For example. The set of regular expressions over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. ( r + s ) is used in stead of ( r + s ). LrLs and Lr* . which has precedence over union ( + ). aaaa etc. Any element of that set is a regular expression. Inductive Clause: If r and s are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr and Ls .

bb}. b}. that is. abab. Definition of Equality of Regular Expressions Regular expressions are equal if and only if they correspond to the same language. b}. That is. in general. . because they both represent the language of all strings over the alphabet {a. }. ( a + b )* corresponds to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. ababab.Examples of regular expression and regular languages corresponding to them • • • • ( a + b )2 corresponds to the language {aa. that is the set of strings of length 2 over the alphabet {a. a regular language. b}. a*b* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by zero or more b's. Note:A regular expression is not unique for a language.. Thus for example ( a + b )* = ( a*b* )* . ba. In general ( a + b )k corresponds to the set of strings of length k over the alphabet {a.. For example ( a + b )* and ( a*b* )* correspond to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. it is not easy to see by inspection whether or not two regular expressions are equal. In general. a*b+a* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by one or more b's followed by zero or more a's. ab. b}. the set of strings of repeated ab's. corresponds to more than one regular expressions. b}. . ( ab )+ corresponds to the language {ab.

2: For the two regular expressions given below. So we need to find strings of r2 which contain at least one a and at least one b. bb and ab are in the language. Thus anything that comes after the first r1 in (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is represented by (r1 + r2)*. Ex. the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*) start with a string of r1 followed by any number of strings taken arbitrarily from r1 and/or r2. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*) . Thus the answer is ba. 3: Let r1 and r2 be arbitrary regular expressions over some alphabet. Find a simple (the shortest and with the smallest nesting of * and +) regular expression which is equal to each of the following regular expressions. ba is not in it. Ex. However. b. Solution: It can easily be seen that . (a) Since (r1 + r2)* represents all strings consisting of strings of r1 and/or r2 . (a) (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ Solution: One general strategy to approach this type of question is to try to see whether or not they are equal to simple regular expressions that are familiar to us such as a. (b) A string corresponding to r1 consists of only a's or only b's or the empty string. r1r2 + r2r1 in the given regular expression is redundant. a*. However.Exercise Questions on Regular Language and Regular Expression Ex. a. Of the strings wiht length 2 aa. For example ab and ba are such strings. which are strings in the language with length 1 or less. b and the strings consiting of only b's (from (a*b)*). The only strings corresponding to r2 which consist of only a's or b's are a. (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ means that all the strings represented by it must consist of one or more strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*). they do not produce any strings that are not represented by (r1 + r2)*. (a + b)*. Thus (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* is reduced to (r1 + r2)*. r1 = a* + b* r2 = ab* + ba* + b*a + (a*b)* Solution: (a) Any string consisting of only a's or only b's and the empty string are in r1. that is. (a + b)+ etc. (a) find a string corresponding to r2 but not to r1 and (b) find a string corresponding to both r1 and r2. a+. 1: Find the shortest string that is not in the language represented by the regular expression a*(ab)*b*.

Ex. Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. 5: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L and a L. Solution: A string in this language must have at least two a's. Since any string of b's can be placed in front of the first a. Then starting with . Ex. and conversely (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ represents the strings represented by (r1(r1 + r2)*). then aabx L and xbb L . Ex. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is reduced to (r1(r1 + r2)*). Hence a string of L has zero or more of aab's and bb's in front possibly followed by a at the end. Hence a string of L consists of zero or more aab's in front and zero or more bb's following them. 7: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the . First of all and a are in L . strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or appending bb to any of the already generated strings. Then starting with or a. 6: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. b } defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L Inductive Clause: If x L . Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L.also represents the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*)+. Inductive Clause: If x L . b*a b*a b* is a regular expression for this language. b } that contain exactly two a's. Ex. and since an arbitrasry string of b's can be represented by the regular expression b*. First of all L . behind the second a and between the two a's. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. Thus (aab + bb)*(a + ) is a regular expression for L. 4: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L over the alphabet { a . Thus (aab)*(bb)* is a regular expression for L. then aabx L and bbx L . strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or bb to any of the already generated strings.

b } that contain an odd number of b's Ex. and after the first b all the b's in the string appear in pairs. a regular expression corresponding to the language is ( aa + ab + ba + bb )*. then that aa can be followed by any number of b. it is the set of strings over the alphabet { a. then applying the same argument as for aa to . 11: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the . Hence the string is in this language. ab. 10: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression a*b(a*ba*b)*a* . ba. ( a + b )*( a + bb ) is a regular expression for the language. ( b + ab )*a( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. Thus simply put. Solution: If there is one substring aa in a string of the language. Hence a string preceding the aa can be represented by ( b + ab )*. b } must end in a or b. Altogether ( b + ab )*( + a + aa )( b + ba )* is a regular expression for the language. If there may not be any a in a string of the language. If an a comes after that aa. Hence if a string does not end with ab then it ends with a or if it ends with b the last b must be preceded by a symbol b. Solution: Any string in a language over { a . Ex. b }. then applying the same argument as for aa to a. Hence if a string of the language contains aa then it corresponds to the regular expression ( b + ab )*aa( b + ba )* . On the other hand if an a precedes the aa. 9: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of strings of even lengths over the alphabet of { a. Ex. Solution: A string in the language can start and end with a or b. then it must be followed by b. b } that do not end with ab. Hence any string that follows aa is represented by ( b + ba )*. then that a must be preceded by b because otherwise there are two occurences of aa. If there is no aa but at least one a exists in a string of the language. 8: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. Note that 0 is an even number. it has at least one b. Ex. ( b + ab )*( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. Solution: Since any string of even length can be expressed as the concatenation of strings of length 2 and since the strings of length 2 are aa. Since it can have any string in front of the last a or bb.alphabet { a. Any numbe of a's can appear any place in the string. bb. b } that contain no more than one occurence of the string aa.

the given regular expression represents the strings of length 3n and 3n + 1. Thus the set of regular languages is closed under those operations. For example while { akbk } is regular for any natural number k . Properties of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • Closure of the set of regular languages under union. Solution: (( a + b )3) represents the strings of length 3. Regularity of finite languages Theorem 1: The set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed under operations union.regular expression (( a + b )3)*( +a+b). We say a language is finite if it consists of a finite number of strings. 12: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression ( b + ab )*( a + ab )*. Lr Ls . where n is a natural number. Then by the definition of the set of regular languages . concatenation and Kleene star operations. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages and they are obviously over the alphabet . Since (( a + b )3)*( a + b ) represents the strings of length 3n + 1. Ex. is not regular as we shall see later. concatenation and Kleene star. Hence (( a + b )3)* represents the strings of length a multiple of 3. a finite language is a set of n . and ( a + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring bb. where n is a natural number. The following theorem shows that any finite language is regular. Note 1: Later we shall see that the complement of a regular language and the intersection of regular laguages are also regular. that is. { anbn | n is a natural number } which is the union of all the languages { akbk } . Solution: ( b + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring aa and which end in b. Note 2: The union of infinitely many regular languages is not necessarily regular. Hence altogether it represents any string consisting of a substring with no aa followed by one b followed by a substring with no bb. Proof: Let Lr and Ls be regular languages over an alphabet .

Inductive Step: Assume that a language L consisting of n strings is a regular language (induction hypothesis). Claim 1: A language consisting of n strings is regular for any natural number n (that is. } and { a } are Inductive Step: Assume that { w } is a regular language for an arbitrary string w over . End of proof for Claim 2 Note that Claim 2 can also be proven by induction on the length of string. Hence by the Inductive Clause of the definition of regular language { a }{ w } is regular.strings for some natural number n. End of proof of Claim 1 Thus if we can show that { w } is a regular language for any string w. Hence { aw } is regular. Claim 2: Let w be a string over an alphabet . { a } is a regular language from the Basis Step. Proof of the Claim 1: Proof by induction on the number of strings. a finite language is regular) if { w } is regular for any string w. Basis Step: (corresponding to n = 0) is a regular language by the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. Then for any symbol a of . then we have proven the theorem. Basis Step: By the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. { regular languages for any arbitrary symbol a of . . Proof of Claim 2: Proof by induction on strings. Theorem 2: A finite language is regular. Then since { w } is a regular language as proven below. L { w } is a regular language by the definition of regular language. Proof: Let us first assume that a language consisting of a single string is regular and prove the theorem by induction. We then prove that a language consisting of a single string is regular. Then { w } is a regular language. End of proof of Theorem 2.

In this example you as a vending machine have gone through (transitions between) a number of states responding to the inputs from the customer (coins in this case). A kind of systems finite automnata can model and a computer program to simulate their operations are discussed later. We have learned that regular languages are represented by regular expressions and conversely. say a dime. In the figure. So we might say you are in the 10-cents state. Finite automata are computing devices that accept/recognize regular languages and are used to model operations of many systems we find in practice. Ds on arrows represent a dime and Ns a nickel. circles represent states and arrows state transitions. say 15-cents state. Let us assume that only nickels and dimes are used for simplicity. that is. Though Turing machines are simple modification of finite automata. you are no longer in the waiting-for-customer state. After that you stay in that state until another coin is put in to start the process anew or you may terminate the operation and start all over from the initial state. Later we are going to learn an extension of finite automata called Turing machines. Unfortunately not all languages and systems are simple like regular languages or finite automata. A vending machine looked at this way is an example of finite automaton. then you have now received 15 cents and you wait for the customer to select a soft drink. tell whether or not a given string belongs to the regular language). It is assumed that the machine terminates its operation when it receives 15 cents or more. In the next few chapters first we are going to learn different kinds of finite automata. You have received 10 cents and are waiting for more coins to come. The states and the transitions between them of this vending machine can be represented with the diagram below. If the customer puts in a nickel. Let us consider the operation of a soft drink vending machine which charges 15 cents for a can. Then we are going to see that for every regular language a unique finite automaton can be constructed which can recognize the language (i. and equivalence and conversions between them. We are then going to study how finite automata can be used to simulate operations of systems we see in practice. can not be recognized by finite automata. When the customer selects a soft drink.Introduction to Finite Automata In this chapter we are going to study a class of machines called finite automata. therefore. We are going to learn languages which are not regular and ways to test languages for non-regularity.e. Their operations can be simulated by a very simple computer program. you must give the customer a can of soft drink. So you are in another state. you are in the waiting-for-customer state. Pretend that you are the machine. they are much more powerful computing devices than finite automata. Initially you are waiting for a customer to come and put some coins. In fact Turing machines are as . When a customer comes and puts in the first coin. There are languages which are not regular and which. Click "NICKEL" or "DIME" in the figure and see how it operates (see how arrows turn red).

Also let be a function from Q to Q . the states of the machine such as "waiting for a customer to put a coin in". 4. . We call the elements of Q a state. are the elements of Q. 3. though not proven. the transition function. "Waiting for a customer to put a coin in" can be considered the initial state of this automaton and the state in which the machine gives out a soda can can be considered the accepting state. . the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". Note that is a function. in the Example 1 below. Thus in the example of vending machine. 2. Then a deterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . Thus in the example of vending machine. if q is the initial state and a nickel is put in. a) must be specified. be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. For example. q0 . The set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. for example. A > Notes on the definition 1. then (q. however. Its elements can. that any computation human beings do (with or without computers) can be performed by Turing machines. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ceases to come. Otherwise it is not accepted. . The accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. "have received 5 cents" etc. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of . a) is equal to "have received 5 cents". (q. Definition of Deterministic Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • • • Finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of deterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. The transition function is also called a next state function meaning that the automaton moves into the state (q.powerful as computers and it is generally believed.

The accepting states are indicated by double circles. The vertices (denoted by single circles) of a transition diagram represent the states of the DFA and the arcs labeled with an input symbol correspond to the transitions. etc. A deterministic finite automaton is also called simply a "finite automaton".the string a is accepted by the finite automaton. Examples of finite automaton Example 1: Q = { 0. They are called transition table. But any other strings such as aa. A = { 1 }. If the alphabet of the Example 1 is changed to { a. Abbreviations such as FA and DFA are used to denote deterministic finite automaton. 1. . aaa. b } in stead of { a }. = { a }. An arc ( p . ) = q . DFAs are often represented by digraphs called (state) transition diagram. then we need a DFA such as shown in the following examle to accept the same string a. 5. are not accepted. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 1 a 2 2 a 2 (q. It is a little more complex DFA. q ) from vertex p to vertex q with label represents the transition (p. the following table. Transition functions can also be represented by tables as seen below. a) ) A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. 2 }.

the following table. b }. A = { 1 }. A = { 0 }. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. = { a.Example 2: Q = { 0. in the following table. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 0 b 2 1 a 2 1 b 2 2 a 2 2 b 2 (q. b }. = { a. b } is the next example. Example 3: Q = { 0. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 0 0 b 1 1 a 1 1 b 1 (q. a) ) . 1 }. A DFA that accepts all strings consisting of only symbol a over the alphabet { a. 2 }. A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. 1.

= { D. If we make it a DFA. 20 }. 20 }. 5. A = { 15. a) ) .A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 N 5 0 D 10 5 N 10 5 D 15 10 N 15 10 D 20 15 N 5 15 D 10 20 N 5 20 D 10 (q. Q = { 0. its transition function is as shown in the following table. 15. Example 4: For the example of vending machine of the previous section. the initial state q0 = 0. N }. 10.

2. The tape is divide into squares in each of which a symbol can be written prior to the start of the operation of the automaton. it stops and the automaton terminates its operation. 5. The head moves to the right one square every time it reads a symbol. There is a finite control which determines the state of the automaton and also controls the movement of the head. The tape has a read only head. 6. When it sees no symbol.A finite automaton as a machine A finite automaton can also be thought of as the device shown below consisting of a tape and a control circuit which satisfy the following conditions: 1. It never moves to the left. The head is always at the leftmost square at the beginning of the operation. The tape has the left end and extends to the right without an end. 3. . 4.

. Thus this automaton accepts any string of a's. are accepted but strings such as aaba. Hence when b appears anywhere in the input. are not accepted by this automaton. As an example let us consider the DFA of Example 3 above. When zero or more a's are given as an input to it. it stays in state 0 while it reads all the a's (without breaks) on the tape. then no matter what symbol is read. it goes into state 1 and the input string is not accepted by the DFA. it moves to state 1. b etc. If b is read while it is in state 0 (initially or after reading some a's). this DFA never leaves state 1. Since the state 0 is also the accepting state.Operation of finite automata Let us see how an automaton operates when it is given some inputs. the DFA is in the accepting state. Initially it is in state 0. when all the a's on the tape are read. For example strings aaa. aaaaaa etc. Once it gets to state 1.

*

of DFA and its Properties

Subjects to be Learned

• •

*

Language accepted by DFA

Contents

Here we are going to formally describe what is meant by applying a transition repeatedly, that is the concept of * For a state q and string w, *( q , w ) is the state the DFA goes into when it reads the string w starting at the state q. In general a DFA goes through a number of states from the state q responding to the symbols in the string w. Thus for a DFA < Q , , q0 , , A > , the function

* :Q -> Q is defined recursively as follows: *

Definition of

*

:

*

Basis Clause: For any state q of Q ,

(q,

) = q , where

*

denotes the empty string. and any symbol a ,

Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q, any string y * ( q , ya ) = ( *( q , y ) , a ) .

In the definition, the Basis Clause says that a DFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the state DFA reaches after reading string ya starting at state q is the state it reaches by reading symbol a after reading string y from state q. Example For example suppose that a DFA contains the transitions shown below.

Then

*

*

( q , DNR ) can be calculated as follows:

( q , DNR ) = ( *( q , DN ) , R ) by the Inductive Clause. = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , DN ). = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) since D = D . = ( ( ( *( q , ) , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , D ). = ( ( ( q , D ) , N ) , R ) , since ( q , ) = q . = ( ( q1 , N ) , R ) , since ( q , D ) = q1 as seen from the diagram. = ( q2 , R ) , since ( q1 , N ) = q2 as seen from the diagram. = q3 since ( q2 , R ) = q3 as seen from the diagram. Properties of

*

We can see the following two properties of

*

. for a DFA < Q , , q0 , ,A

**Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >,
**

*

(q,a)=

(q,a)

Proof : Since a = a , * ( q , a ) = *( q , a ) . By the definition of * , * ( q , a ) = ( *( q , ) , a ) But *( q , ) = q by the definition of Hence ( *( q , ) , a ) = ( q , a ) .

*

.

The next theorem states that the state reached from any state, say q , by reading a string, say w , is the same as the state reached by first reading a prefix of w, call it x, and then by reading the rest of the w, call it y. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 , , A > , for a DFA < Q , ,

*

( q , xy ) =

*

(

*

(q,x),y).

Proof : This is going to be proven by induction on string y. That is the statement to be proven is the following: * For an arbitrary fixed string x, ( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for any arbitrary string y. First let us review the recursive definition of *. Recursive definition of Basis Clause:

* *

:

.

* * Inductive Clause: If x and a , then xa . * Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.

Now the proof of the theorem. Basis Step: If y = , then *( q , xy ) = *( q , x ) = *( q , x ) . Also *( *( q , x ) , y ) = *( *( q , x ) , ) = *( q , x ) by the definition of * . Hence the theorem holds for y = . Inductive Step: Assume that *( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for an arbitrary string y. This is the induction hypothesis. We are going to prove that *( q , xya ) = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) for any arbitrary symbol a of . ( q , xya ) = ( *( q , xy ) , a ) by the definition of * = ( * ( *( q , x ) , y ) , a ) by the induction hypothesis. = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) by the definition of * . Thus the theorem has been proven.

*

For the following DFA answer the questions given below.

Example 1 : . . if and only if L = { w | *( q0 . the language accepted by a DFA is the set of strings accepted by the DFA. A > . if and only if ( q0 . . That is a string is accepted by a DFA if and only if the DFA starting at the initial state ends in an accepting state after reading the string. A language L is accepted by a DFA < Q .The following notations are used in the questions: : \delta * : \delta^* : \Lambda Language Accepted by DFA Subjects to be Learned • Language accepted by DFA A string w is accepted by a DFA < Q . w ) A } . That is. A > . . * . q0 . w ) A . q0 .

. which is not an accepting state. by reading an empty string . Then from state 1 go to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading aa. This DFA has a cycle: 1 . and it stays there.1 any number of times by reading substring ab any number of times to come back to state 1. Example 2 : This DFA does not accept any string because it has no accepting state. first from the initial state go to state 1 by reading one a.This DFA accepts { } because it can go from the initial state to the accepting state (also the initial state) without reading any symbol of the alphabet i. Then from state 1 go through the cycle 1 . To find the language it accepts. This is represented by (ab)*.1 and it can go through this cycle any number of times by reading substring ab repeatedly. Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by a(ab)*aa . It accepts nothing else because any non-empty symbol would take it to state 1.2 .2 .e. Thus the language it accepts is the empty set Example 3 : DFA with one cycle .

2 .0 and it can move through these cycles any number of times in any order to reach the accepting state from the initial state such as 0 .2 .Example 4 : DFA with two independent cycles This DFA has two independent cycles: 0 .1 and 1 .3 .2 .0 . To find the language accepted by this DFA.2 .1 .0 .1. Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by ( ab + bb )*.1 . Example 5 : DFA with two interleaved cycles This DFA has two cycles: 1 .2 .0. first from state 0 go to state 1 by .0 and 0 .0 .

The language accepted at state 0 is b* . Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata . So we are not going to go any further on this problem here. first at state 0 read any number of b's.3 . respectively. At state 1 go through the cycle 1 . At this point (b*a) will have been read.reading a ( any other state which is common to these cycles such as state 2 can also be used instead of state 1 ). At this point a substring a( baa + bba )* will have been read.1 and 1 . Thus the language accepted at state 1 is b*a(ba)* .1 any number of times by reading substring ba repeatedly. Thus the language that is accepted by this DFA is the union of the language accepted at state 0 and the one accepted at state 1. There is a systematic way of finding the language accepted by a DFA and we are going to learn it later.2 . To find the language accepted at state 1.2 . Then go from state 1 to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading bb. Thus altogether a( baa + bba )*bb will have been read when state 3 is reached from state 0.2 .1 any number of times in any order by reading substrings baa and bba. Then go to state 1 by reading one a. Example 6 : This DFA has two accepting states: 0 and 1.0 . Then from state 1 go through the two cycles 1 .

the following table. 2. . the transition function. A > Notes on the definition 1. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 1 a (q. a) ) . Note that any DFA is also a NFA. . A = { 1 }. The transition function is also called a next state function . a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. in which case the NFA aborts its operation. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ends i. Which one of the states in (q. q0 . As in the case of DFA the accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. a) must be specified. Note that is a function. 3. Its elements can be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. Also let be a function from Q to 2Q . the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". ceases to come.e. But it can be the empty set. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . = { a }. 4. Unlike DFAs an NFA moves into one of the states given by (q. 5. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. 1 }. a) to select is determined nondeterministically. Examples of NFA Example 1: Q = { 0. We call the elements of Q a state.Subjects to be Learned • • • Nondeterministic finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of (q. As in the case of DFA the set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. Otherwise it is not accepted.

A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. b } in stead of { a }. = { a. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. b }. 1. this is still an NFA that accepts { Example 2: Q = { 0. If the alphabet a}. .2} 0 1 1 2 2 b a b a b {2} (q. 2 }. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state.A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. in the following table. is changed to { a. A = { 2 }.

if the next input is b and if no more inputs are given. Since the state 2 is the accepting state. If any other strings are given to this NFA. then it stays in the accepting state. if it moves to state 2 and no more inputs are given. then it goes to state 2 and remains there. it moves to either state 1 or state 2. As an example let us consider the automaton of Example 2 above. Let us now define the function strings and languages by NFA. Thus the string ab is also accepted by this NFA.Operation of NFA Let us see how an automaton operates when some inputs are applied to it. When it reads the symbol a. Initially it is in state 0. * and then formalize the concepts of acceptance of . We say that this automaton accepts the string a. If on the other hand it moves to state 1 after reading a. it does not accept any of them.

A > . Example State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {0. where * denotes the empty . string. a) ) For example consider the NFA with the following transition table: . *( q . Thus for an NFA < Q . .Language Accepted by NFA Subjects to be Learned • • • for NFA Language accepted by NFA Properties of * * Definition of * For a state q and string w.3} 0 b {2} 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b {1} {3} {3} (q. the Basis Clause says that an NFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the set of states NFA can reach after reading string ya starting at state q is the set of states it can reach by reading symbol a after reading string y starting at state q. . w ) is the set of states that the NFA can reach when it reads the string w starting at the state q. any string y * and any symbol a ( q . q0 . the function * :Q -> 2Q is defined recursively as follows: * Definition of *: Basis Clause: For any state q of Q. In general an NFA nondeterministically goes through a number of states from the state q as it reads the symbols in the string w.1. Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q. * (q. ya ) = In the definition. ) = { q }.

Suppose that the state 3 is an accepting state of this NFA. a ) for all p ( 0 . ) = { 0 } .The transition diagram for this NFA is as given below.b) (3. *( 0 .2. a ) = ( 0 . a ) by the Inductive Clause of * Now *( 0 . ab ) = ( 0 . ) again by the Inductive * Clause of the definition of .b)={2} {3} {1}={1. By the Basis Clause of the definition of *. ab ) can be calculated as follows: ( p. Then * * ( 0 . ab ) is the union of the definition of * . ( 0 . 3}. 3 } . b ) for all p * ( 0 . Hence *( 0 . a ) = { 0 . 1 . b ) (1. Hence *( 0 . a ) is the union of ( p. .

for an NFA < Q . . . The language accepted by an NFA < Q. . * . A > is the set of strings that are accepted by the NFA.a)= (q. * ( q . . A > . q0. if and only if it can reach an accepting state by reading x starting at the initial state. xy ) = These theorems can be proven in a manner similar to those for Theorems 1 and 2 for DFA.a) for an NFA < Q . Some of the strings accepted by the NFA given above are the language it accepts is a*( ab + a + ba )(bb)* . and for NFA has properties similar to that for DFA. . Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 . abbbb etc. ab. aaa.* We say that a string x is accepted by an NFA < Q. . q0. . x ) A is not empty. A > if and only if * ( q0 . q0 . * (q. . that is.A Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >. . a.

.makes the transition without reading any symbol in the input. the transition function. 2. Note that any NFA is also a NFA. concatenation and Kleene star operations. q0 . Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton with Let Q be a finite set and let -Transitions be a function from Q be a finite set of symbols. . Then a nondeterministic finite automaton with -Transitions is a 5-tuple < Q . Basically an NFA with -Transitions is an NFA but can respond to an empty string and move to the next state. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. for any NFA. A transition on reading means that the NFA. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states.A> Notes on the definition 1. We are going to do that by showing that a finite automaton can be constructed from a given regular expression by combining simpler FAs using union. We call the elements of Q a state. Thus the tape head does not move when is read.Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata with Transitions Subjects to be Learned • • • - Nondeterministic finite automata with State transition diagram State transition table -Transitions Contents One of the objectives of this chapter is to show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between regular languages and finite automata. These operations on FAs can be described conveniently if -Transitions are used.) and see some examples. Here we are going to formally define NFA with -Transitions (abbreviated as NFA.there is a NFA (hence DFA) which accepts the same language and vice versa. As we are going to see later. Also let { } to 2Q .. .

4. 3. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. 4 and 5 by reading a. For once you are in state 1. 3. 4 } 3 {5} 3 b {4} 4 a {5} (q. 2. 3. = { a. for example. If you read string ab. Thus 4 is the only state you can go to from the initial state . the initial state is 0 and is as shown in the State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 0 {4} 1 {2} 2 { 3. 4 and 5 without reading any symbol on the tape. you can go to state 2. then you come to state 4. it can move to any of the states other than 0. 2. When a symbol a is read at the initial state 0. there are no transitions on reading b except from state 3. For though you go to states 1. for example. following table. a) ) Here the transitions to are omitted from the table. A = . 5 }.Example of NFA- Q = { 0. 1. b }.

by reading ab.

**Language Accepted by NFASubjects to be Learned
**

• • • •

**-closure for NFALanguage accepted by NFAProperties of *
**

*

Contents

To formally define * for NFA- , we start with the concept of -closure for a state which is the set of states reachable from the state without reading any symbol. Using that concept we define * and then strings and languqges accepted by NFA- . Definition of -closure

Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA- . Let us denote the -closure of a set S of states of Q by ( S ). Then ( S ) is defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: S (S)

Inductive Clause: For any state q of Q, if q ( S ) , then ( q , ) (S). Extremal Clause: Nothing is in ( S ) unless it is obtained by the above two clauses.

For the NFAFirst { 2 }

of the above figure, ( { 2 } ) , that is, 2 (2, )

( { 2 } ) is obtained as follows: ( { 2 } ) . Then since 2 ( { 2 } ) , by the

Inductive Clause, Since (2,

({2}). ({2}).

) = { 3 , 4 }, we now have { 2 , 3 , 4 }

Since 3 and 4 have been added to

({2}),

(3,

) = { 5 } and

(4,

)=

must

be included in ( { 2 } ) . Thus now { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } ({2}). Though 5 has become a memeber of the closure, since ( 5 , ) is empty, no new members are added to ( { 2 } ) . Since ( q , ) has been examined for all the states currently in ( { 2 } ) and no more elements are added to it, this process of generating the closure terminates and ( { 2 } ) = { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } is obtained. As we can see from the example, ( S ) is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S by traversing any number of arcs. That is, it is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S without reading any symbols in . Now with this -closure, we can define

*

recursively as follows:

As in the cases of DFA and NFA, * gives the result of applying the transition function repeatedly as dictated by the given string. Definition of

* *

is going to be defined recursively. Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA-

.

**Basis Clause: For any state q of Q,
**

*

(q,

)=

({q}).

*

Inductive Clause: For any state q, a string y in

and a symbol a in

,

*

( q , ya ) =

(

).

What the Inductive Clause means is that *( q , ya ) is obtained by first finding the states that can be reached from q by reading y ( *( q , y ) ), then from each of those states p by reading a (i.e. by finding ( p , a ) ), and then by reading 's ( i.e. by taking the closure of the ( p , a )'s ) . Example : For the NFAbelow: of the following figure,

*

( 0 , ab ) can be obtained as

First let us compute *( 0 , a ) . For that we need ( { 0 } ). Since it is the set of states reached by traversing the arcs from state 0, ( { 0 } ) = {0,3,4}. Next from each of the states in ( { 0 } ) we read symbol a and move to another state (i.e. apply ). They are ( 0 , a ) = { 1 } , ( 3 , a ) = ( 4 , a ) = { 5 }. Hence We then traverse the } ) = { 1 , 2 , 3 } and = { 1 , 5 } for q = 0 . arcs from { 1 , 5 } to get to the states in *( 0 , a ) . Since * ({5})={5}, (0,a)={1,2,3,5}.

({1

ab ) read b from each of the states in *( 0 . 4 } . x ) contains at least one accepting state. A > is the set of strings accepted by the NFA.0 . . q2. . . b ) are empty sets. b ) . For example the NFAof the figure given above accepts the language { .< Q . A2 > that satisfies the following conditions recognizes L: . q0 . Now ( 1 .to (equivalent) NFA Conversion of NFA to (equivalent) DFA Equivalence of DFAs. A1 > be an NFA. and ( 2 . q0 . Equivalence of DFAs. ab } . NFAs and NFAto NFA 1 Conversion of NFA- Let M1 = < Q1 . ( 3 .0 . NFAs and NFA. The language accepted by an NFA. q1. A > if and only if *( q0 . . b ) = { 4 } . Thus Since ( { 4 } ) = { 3 . Then the 2 . NFA M2 = < Q2. a ) and then take the arcs from there. . ab ) = { 3 .that recognizes a language L. A string x is accepted by an NFA.s Subjects to be Learned • • • Conversion of NFA.. .Then to find *( 0 . *( 0 . a . . 4 } . b ) and ( 5 .< Q .

a ): First ( { 0 } ) = { 0 . The closure of the set of those states is 2( q .0 through arcs in M1 . 3 ). A2 > which accepts the same language 1 . . that is all the states that can be reached from q by traversing arcs.0 = q1. 2 first copy the states of Q1 into Q2. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0.Q2 = Q1. Otherwise. The transition function 2 is obtained as follows: 2( 0 .0.0 } if ( { q1.0 through arcs in M1 .0 } ) A1 = A1 otherwise . a ) . a ) as follows: Find ( {q} ).0 . A1 > does.a)= ( ) A2 = A1 { q1. then all the accepting states of M1 plus state q1. . q1. Thus to obtain an NFA M2 = < Q2. The set of accepting states A2 is the same as A1 if no accepting states can be reached from the initial state q1. Then from the transition function of the NFA- . as the given NFA. 1 } .0 . Example 1: Let us convert the following NFAto NFA. a ) = 1 * (q. Then collect all the states that can be reached from each state of ( {q} ) by traversing one arc labeled with the symbol a. 2.M1 = < Q1 . 2 ( q. Then for each state q of Q2 and each symbol a of find 2 ( q . . q2. that is if an accepting state can be reached from the initial state q1. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0.0 are the accepting states of M2 . 1. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) . q2.

2} {1. since ( { 0 } ) = { 0 . 1 For .2} {1. 2 ( 0 . (q.1} {0.2})={1. b ) = .b)= Similarly 2 can be obtained for other states and symbols. .2} )) ({q}) {0.3} {1. They are given in the table ( { q } ) and 2 below together with State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b a b . ({1. b ) .3} {3} {1.2} {1.2}. and Hence 2( 0 . a ) = 1 ( 1 . a ) = .1} {1} {1} {2} {2} {1.2} {1.3} {1.( 0 . 2 (0. )(= ( {1.b)= 1 ( 1. 1 } and 1 (0. 2 }.2} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. a ) = { 1 .

1} {0.1} {1} {1} {2. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) .3} {2. 2.2} {1.3} {3} {3} {1.3} {1. The transition function 2 is obtained as for Example 1.3} )) {1. 4 ).2. ) and State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 a b a b a b a b a ({q}) {0. 2 is given in the table below together with ( { q } ) .3} .Example 2: Let us convert the following NFA- to NFA. 1 ( p .4} {1.2. 3.4} {1. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. )(= ( {1. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0.2} {4} {4} {4} {1.4} {1. 1.2} 2 (q.4} {1.2.

4} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. Proof of Equivalence of NFA- and NFA We are going to prove that the NFA obtained from NFAby the conversion algorithm accepts the same language as the NFA. .4 b {1.

a).a)= 2 ( q . the induction hypothesis and the construction of NFA from NFA.a). q2. )={q}.NFA- that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 . A1 > and 2 NFA obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. a ) --. w ) for any non-empty string w. wa ) --. wa ) = --.0 . . wa ) = 2 * ( q . = 1 * Then we show that ( q . The case when w is an empty string is going to be proven separately. Secondly 2 * (q. Claim 1: For any non-empty string w and for any state q.a)= 2 * (q. then assuming it holds for any arbitrary string w we prove it for any of the children of w. a ) .w). a ) = 1*( q .(1) because of the way NFA is constructed from NFA(click here for a review) .w)= 2 * (q.0 . 1 . and the conversion of NFAto NFA click here. that is wa for any symbol a in the alphabet. and NFA- When it is proven. . a)= by the definition of Since * 2 * for NFA (click here for a review) . .w)= 2 * ( q .(1) . w ) for an arbitrary string w (Induction Hypothesis).w)= 2 * ( q .a). q1. We are going to prove it by showing that both of them are equal to Firstly 2( q .a)= 2 * 2 (q.(2) Hence from (1) and (2). (q. .(2) . it implies that NFAM1 and NFA M2 accept the same non-empty strings. 1 * (q. Inductive Step: We need to show that if 1 * (q. then * 1 ( q . Basis Step: We need to show that for any symbol a in 1 * (q. A2 > (q.a). Hence (q. Recall that the set of strings is defined recursively (click here for a quick review). 1 * (q. . Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. --. for NFA. wa ) holds for any arbitrary symbol a in First we show that using the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . = = 2 * 2 (q . First we are going to prove that To review the definition of * 1 * .a)= 2 2 * (q . Thus we first prove that it is true for any arbitrary symbol. (q..

wa ) . for NFA- (p. wa ) . as proven below in Claim 3. wa ) . a ) by the way NFA is constructed from NFA= . that is (1) has been proven. . Hence On the other hand = Hence 1 * = ( q . ( q . wa ) = . wa ) = Since 2 * (q. The right hand side of this equality is equal to ( the first and have been swapped to get this) . .w)= 1 * ( q . wa ) . = Since 2 (q. Hence 2 * ( q . By the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . wa ) . w ) by the induction hypothesis.a)= 1 * ( q . wa ) = 2 * ( q . wa ) = 2 * ( q . = 1*( q . because = . To see an explanation for this click here. Hence we have proven (2).a)= Substituting this into the left hand side of (2) produces = . This can be shown to be equal to . . 1 * Thus from (1) and (2) ( q . that is By the definition of 1 * = 1 * 1 * ( q .basically using the definition of Then from (1) and (2) we can see that 1 * 1 * . Let us next prove (2). by the definition of 1 * . Let us first prove (1).

let us prove the following claim. As a preparation for the proof of commutativity of union and -closure operations. Since (S T ) is defined recursively. if it is accepted by an NFA. Hence is accepted by NFA.. Then the -closure of X is defined recursively as Basis Clause: X (X). then ( { q10 } ) A1 . By the way NFA is constructed from . Claim 2: (S T)= (S) (T). then q20 this means that Thus NFA( { q10 } ) A1 A2 . For that let us restate the statement so that the induction becomes clearer. in the Basis Step of our proof we prove the property for the elements of the basis of (S T ) and in the Inductive Step we prove that if an arbitrary element of (S T ) has that property. What Part 1 states is that all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in the set (S) (T). Extremal Clause: Nothng is in ( X ) unless it is obtained by the Basis and Inductive Clauses. then ( q . ) (X). Let us review the definition of the -closure of the set of states of an NFA. Part 1 : (S T) (S) (T) This is going to be proven by induction on (S T). We are going to prove this in two parts: (S T) (S) (S) (T) ( T ) and (S T). As for the empty string . Inductive Clause: If q ( X ) . and the corresponding NFA accept the same language. A2 . . then its childen also have it.End of Induction With this Claim 1 we can see that any non-empty string w is accepted by NFA if and only if it is accepted by the corresponding NFA. Hence is accepted by NFA. Hence by the way A2 is constructed. q20 Conversely if NFAis accepted by NFA. Let X be the set of states of an NFA.

Hence ) Similarly if q Hence if q is an arbitrary element of (S) (T). then (q. ) (S) (T). (S) (T).S (S T). Inductive Step: We need to prove that for an arbitrary element q in ( S ) . T ) with (T). then ( q . T T). (q. then (q. T). (T). (S T ) with the property of being in (S) ( T ) . then (q. ( T ) . ) (S) (T). Basis Step: We need to show that S Since S (S T ) . (T) Thus all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in (S T) which is to say that (S) (T). ) . and ( S T) (S T).q ( S ) or q ( S ) .Proof of Part 1: Basis Step: We need to prove that ( S Since S ( S ) and T T) (S) (S) (S (S) (S) (T). That would imply that Proof of (S) (S By induction on (S T): (S). ( T ) . if q is in . End of Proof for Part 1 Part 2 : Proof of Part 2: We are going to prove (S) (S (S) T ) and (S) (T) (T) (T) (S (S (S T). ) (S) (S) (T). Since q If q ( S ) . Hence (T). S and T are subsets of (S T) Inductive Step: We need to prove that if q is an arbitrary element of the property of being in (S) (S ( T ) . ) Let q be an arbitrary element of T ) with the property of being in ( S ) by the definition of ( T ) .

(S T ) holds. then Hence Inductive Step: Assume that ( ( Si ) = Si ) = ( Si ) holds for n = 1.(S Since q is in (S T ) and since (S T ) . --. ) (S closure T). Similarly Hence (S) (T) (T) (S T ) holds. by the definition of (q. ( Si ) holds for n. Thus (S) (S T ) has been proven. then (q. ) (S T). End of Proof of Part 2 End of Proof of Claim 2 Claim 3: ( Si ) = ( Si ) . If n = 1. Basis Step: n = 1. - T ) is a -closure. ( Si ) = ( Si ) = ( S1 ) and ( S1 ) . End of Proof for Claim 3 Sn+1 ) by Claim 2 above. Proof : Proof by induction on n. Si is a set as well as Sn+1. since = ( Equivalence of NFA and DFA We are going to prove that the DFA obtained from NFA by the conversion algorithm .Inducion Hypothesis ( Si ) = ( = = (( Si ) ( ( Si ) ) Si ) ( Sn+1 ) by the definition of union. Si ) by the definition of union. ( Sn+1 ) by the induction hypothesis.

0 . q1. w ) = 2 * ( q2.0 . A1 > and DFA .0 by the definition of 2* .0 . NFA that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 .0 . ) = q2. A2 > First we are going to prove by induction on strings that 1*( q1. a ) 2( * 2 ( q2. 1 * ( q1.0 .0 } by the construction of DFA M2 .0 .0 . ( q1.accepts the same language as the NFA. When it is proven. q2. Basis Step: For w = 2 * . Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w.0 .0 . Kleene's Theorem --.0 . 2 1 . w ) for an arbitrary string w.0 . ) by the definition of 1 * . wa ) = = = = 2 ( 1 2 * * ( q1. .0 . it obviously implies that NFA M1 and DFA M2 accept the same strings. w ) = 2 * ( q2.0 . w ) . w ) for any string w. Theorem: For any string w. a ) ( q2. wa ) * 1 Thus for any string w ( q1. obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. = * 1 ( q1. w ) = 2 * ( q2. w ) = 2*( q2.0 .0 . Inductive Step: Assume that Induction Hypothesis 1 * ( q1. . ( q2.Part 1 Subjects to be Learned • • • • Union of FAs Concatenation of FAs Kleene Star of FAs Acceptance of regular languages by FAs Contents . w ) holds. = { q1.0 . w ) . --- For the string w and an arbitrry symbol a in 1 * . w ) .

0 . respectively. Proof: This is going to be proven by (general) induction following the recursive definition of regular language. We assume that Q1 Q2 = without loss of generality since states can be renamed if necessary.0 . . Inductive Step: We are going to show that for any languages L1 and L2 if they are accepted by FAs. . q1.0 . then L1 L2 . . qc. Ak > .0 . Mc .0 . q2. 2 . A1 > and M2 = < Q2 . concatenation and Kleene star operations. qu. qk. u Mu = < Qu . Au > : { qu. A2 > . c . . qu. L1L2 and L1* are accepted by FAs.Kleene's theorem. Suppose that L1 and L2 are accepted by FAs M1 = < Q1 . Au > . which are given below. . Qu = Q1 Q2 . Basis Step: As shown below the languages . Since any regular language is obtained from { } and { a } for any symbol a in by using union. Then L1 = < Qc . 1 . Theorem 1 (Part 1 of Kleene's theorem): Any regular language is accepted by a finite automaton. respectively.{ } and { a } for any symbol a in are accepted by an FA. that together with the Basis Step would prove the theorem.0 is a state which is neither in Q1 nor in Q2 . Ac > and Mk = < Q2 . k . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by the FAs Mu = < Qu . where qu. .0 . u L2 .0 } . . It states that any regular language is accepted by an FA and conversely that any language accepted by an FA is regular.

0 } = 1 { (qk. qk. . . .0.0 . { q2.0 } ) | q A1 } Ac = A2 Mk = < Qk .0 c = 1 2 { (q. qc.0 . { q1. { q1.0 .0. . q2. that is u (qu. .0.0. . Ac > : Qc = Q1 Q2 qc. Qk = Q1 k . c . Note that (qu.0 = q1.0 } ) } . { qk.0 } . u ) = { q1. where qk.0 . a ) = for all a in .0 } . Ak > : { qk.u = 1 2 { (qu.0 } ) | q A1 } Ak = { qk. q2.0 } ) } { (q. k . These NFA- s are illustrated below.0 is a state which is not in Q1 . Au = A1 A2 Mc = < Qc .

s . End of Proof Examples of Mu . though we omit proofs. Mc and Mk . Mu. that these NFA. .It can be proven. L1L2 and L1*. Mc and Mk: Example 1: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression (aa + b)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above. in fact accept L1 L2 . respectively.

.Example 2: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression ((a + b)a*)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above.

Kleene's Theorem -.Part 2 .

k+1. Lemma 1: L(p. k) the set of strings representing paths from state p to state q that go through only states numbered no higher than k. q. Then the following lemmas hold. Given a finite automaton. k) : The set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled wiht k or lower numbers. then from k+1 to k+1 any number of times. let us study a method to compute the set of strings accepted by a finite automaton. q. q. all without passing through states labeled higher than k. Next denote by L(p. . Before proceeding to a proof outline for the converse. k)*L(k+1. k+1. k)*L(k+1. 2. then from k+1 to q. k) . L(p. q. It states that any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. L(p. k) L(p. q. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. k+1. Note that paths may go through arcs and vertices any number of times. k)L(k+1. k+1. first relabel its states with the integers 1 through n. k+1) = L(p. k)L(k+1.Subjects to be Learned • Languages accepted by FAs are regular Contents The converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem also holds true. q. See the figure below for the illustration. k) : The set of strings going first from p to k+1. What this lemma says is that the set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled with k+1 or lower numbers consists of the following two sets: 1.

Hence if p and q are different. Since the language accepted by a finite automaton is the union of L(q0. q. >From Lemmas 1 and 2 by induction the following lemma holds. 0) is regular. 0) is regular. q. Theorem 2 (Part 2 of Kleene's Theorem): Any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. Since the number of symbols is finite and since any finite language is regular. q. then is in it as well as the strings representing any loops at p (they are all single symbols). q. Example : Let us find the language accepted by the following finite automaton using the . we have the following converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem. then it consists of single symbols representing arcs from p to q. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. L(p. Lemma 3: L(p. If p = q. n) over all accepting states q.Lemma 2: L(p. 0) is the set of strings representing paths from p to q without passing any states in between. Proof: L(p. k) is regular for any states p and q and any natural number k. q.

2) = r(1.0) + r(1. q.0)*r(1. 2): r(1.0)r(1.0) + r(1. 1. 1. 2) = a* + a+(b a+)*b a* . Then the language accepted by this NFA is r(1. 2)r(3. 3.2. 2): r(3. 1)*r(2.0) = a .0)*r(1.1.2.2. 2. 2.0)r(1. 1) = a Hence r(1.1. since r(1. 1. 3) = r(1. 3. 1)r(2. 2.1.2. Let us denote by r(p. 2. 2) . . since r(1. 1) + r(1. 1. 3.2.0) = ba* . 1) r(1.1. 1. 1)r(2. 1) r(3. 1) + r(1. 2.0)*r(1.1. 3. )*a r(3. 1.0) = ba+ . By Lemma 1. r(1. Hence r(1.1.0) = a+ . 3. 1) + r(3. 1) = r(2. 2. k) the regular expression for the set of strings L(p. 3.0) = b . 2) + r(1. 1)*r(2. 3.0) = b. r(2.0) + r(2. r(2.1. 2) = r(1. q. 3. 1) = r(1.0) = and r(2. 1) = r(3. 1) = r(1. 1) r(1.1. r(1.0) = ba+ + . 3. 2)*r(3. 1) = r(2.1. 2) = a+(b a+ + = a+(b a+ )*a . 1. 1) = r(2.1. 3. r(1. 1. 1)*r(2. 1)r(2.0) = a + . 2): r(1.0)r(1. 1.0)*r(1.1.0)*r(1.0) = and r(3.1.0)r(1.1.1.0)r(1.0) + r(3. 2.0) = a* . 3). 1) = r(3. 1.1.lemmas. k).1. 1. 3. 2. r(1.2. since r(2. 3.2.1. since r(3. 3.0) + r(2. 2.2.2. 2) = r(3. 3.

2. 2. 2) = = + ( ba+)+a + ba+( ba+ + )*a r(3. q0 . . 3) = a* + a+(b a+)*ba* + ( a+( ba+ )*a )( This can be further simplified to (a + ab + abb)*. 2) = ba* + ba+( ba+ + = ( ba+ )*ba* . 1. n) must be found for each accepting state q. . 1.0)<SUP*< SUP>r(1.A > is a DFA that accepts * . n)'s must be added together to get the regular expression for the language accepted by the automaton.1.Hence r(3. 1) = r(3.e. 1. 2) = r(3. i.L . 1)*r(2. q. then to (a + ab)*. If there are more accepting states. q. . 1) r(3. 1. 1) + r(3.1. 3. .1. Hence r(1. can be obtained by swapping its accepting states with its non-accepting states. and all the r(p.L. 1. Then a DFA that accepts the complement of L.1. 1. * . then r(p. The detail is left as an exercise though it would be quite challenging.0)r(1. that is Mc = < Q . where p is the initial state and n is the number of states in the given finite automaton. 2): r(3. )*ba* + ( ba+)+a )*( ba+ )*ba*. 1. In this example there is only one accepting state. Comlement and Intersection of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • • Complement of Regular Language Complement of DFA Intersection of Regular Languages Contents Complement Let M = < Q .0) = ba* Hence r(3. 1)r(2.0) + r(3. . A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. q0 . Q .

we must first convert it to DFA before swapping states to get its complement. the complement of a regular language is also regular. Remark 1: If we have NFA rather than DFA. Remark 2: Since a language is regular if and only if it is accepted by some NFA. b }. A DFA that accepts its complement is obtained from the above DFA by changing all single circles to double circles and vice versa as shown below. .For example the following DFA accepts the language a+ over = { a .

Click True or Fals . In particular De Morgan's law also applies to languages. Context-Sensitive and Phrase Structure Grammars . By Remark 2 above. Test Your Understanding of Complemnent and Intersection of FAs Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. L1 L2 is regular. difference. then their complements are regular languages. then Submit. Since L1 L2 = by De Morgan's law. concatenation and Kleene star operations.Regular Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Regular Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Production and Grammar Regular Grammar Context-Free. Next -. intersection. Therefore all the properties of sets are inherited by languages.Intersection of Regular Languages Langauges are sets. if L1 and L2 are regular languages. Thus summing all this up we can say that the set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed with respect to union.

the fact that aa is obtained from S is written as S =>* aa .e. For example consider the language represented by a+. S corresponds to the initial state. If there is no is derived from ambiguity about the grammar G that is referred to. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS.e. . b}. A grammar is regular if and only if is a single nonterminal and is a single terminal or a single terminal followed by a single nonterminal. i. regular. The following theorem holds for regular grammars. These rules mean that S is rewritten as a or as aS. and S -> aS . . Thus the process of obtaining aa from S is written as S => aS => aa . where is a string of terminals and nonterminals with at least one nonterminal in it and is a string of terminals and nonterminals. One can generate the strings of this language by the following procedure: Let S be a symbol to start the process with. Then apply the first rule to aS to rewrite S as a. aa. which ia a nonterminal. } can be generated This can be proven by constructing an FA for the given grammar as follows: For each nonterminal create a state. For example. . A production has in general the form -> . then we simply write =>* Formally a grammar consists of a set of nonterminals (or variables) V. That gives us aa. If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. where X and Y are nonterminals and a is a terminal. finite automata and construction from simple languages using simple operations. S -> } is a regular grammar and it generates all the strings consisting of a's and b's including the empty string. We write S => aS to express that aS is obtained from S by applying a single production. we write =>*G is obtained from a string and say that by applying productions of . a ) = Y and for every production X -> a add the transition ( X. a ) = Z. if L . start with S and apply the second rule to replace S with the right hand side of the rule. Theorem 3: A language L is accepted by an FA i. aaa. and a set of rewrite rules (productions) P. aS.{ by a regular grammar. Add another state as the accepting state Z. add the transition ( X. a start symbol S. a set of terminals (the alphabet of the language). that is by something called grammar. } . To generate the string aa for example. Then for every production X -> aY. A grammar is a set of rewrite rules which are used to generarte strings by successively rewriting symbols.Contents We have learned three ways of characterising regular languages: regular expressions. that is a production is of the form X -> a or X -> aY. which is { a. . = {a. In general if a string a grammar G. S -> bS. to obtain aS. Rewrite S using one of the following two rules: S -> a . There is yet another way of characterizing them.

a) = Y . X -> aY. and adding transitions ( S. . b ) = { S. If L contains ( L -{ } ) { } is also regular. { a. S -> a }. Thus L . P = { S -> aS. b }. Thus the following converse of Theorem 3 is obtained. a) = Y for some accepting state Y. S -> b } form a regular grammar which generates the language ( a + b )+. L = Conversely from any NFA < Q.e. X. and for any a in and any nonterminal X. Z } and ( S. . where S is the initial state and Z is the accepting state of the NFA. . V = { S } and P = { S -> aS.{ regular grammar. A > a regular grammar < Q. P. An NFA that recognizes this language can be obtained by creating two states S and Z. S -> aX. then since { } is regular . q0 > is obtained as follows: for any a in . Theorem 4 : If L is regular i. S -> a. The NFA thus obtained is shown below. . X -> a is in P if and only if (X. then L . X -> bS. as its member. q0. Y } . Y -> bS.{ } is regular.For example = {a. X -> aY is in P if and only if (X. } is generated by a For example. and nonterminals X and Y. a regular grammar corresponding to the NFA given below is < Q. accepted by an NFA. a ) = { S. S > . where Q = { S. S -> bS. P. b}. Z } .

They are characterized by context-free grammars. S. respectively. c } and V = { X. context-sensitive grammars and phrase structure grammars. A grammar is a context-sensitive grammar if and only if its production is of the form 1 X 2 -> 1 2 . where is a string of terminals and nonterminals. As we shall see later this is an example of context-free language which is not regular. aX -> aa. It is an example of context-sensitive language which is not context-free. Z. possibly empty except Thus the nonterminal X can be rewritten as only in the context of 1X 2 . that is. ZX -> XZ. for every production -> . S -> XYZ. X -> a. S -> ab } with = { a. A grammar is a context-free grammar if and only if its production is of the form X -> . bZ -> bc.In addition to regular languages there are three other types of languages in Chomsky hierarchy : context-free languages. possibly the empty string.| | | |. Context-sensitive grammars are also characterized by productions whose left hand side is not longer than the right hand side. b. For example P = { S -> aSb. 1 . ZY -> YZ. aY -> ab. context-sensitive languages and phrase structure languages. For example P = { S -> XYZS1. 2 and are strings of terminals and nonterminals. b } and V = { S } is a contex-free grammar and it generates the language { anbn | n is a positive integer } . Y. YX -> XY. where X is a nonterminal and . cZ -> cc } with = { a. . S1 -> XYZ. that is the set of regular languages is a subset of the set of context-free languages which is in turn a subset of the set of context-sensitive languages and the set of context-sensitive languages is a subset of the set of phrase structure languages. BY -> bb. S1 -> XYZS1. These grammars are distinguished by the kind of productions they have but they also form a hierarchy. S1 } is a context-sensitive grammar and it generates the language { anbncn | n is a positive integer } .

q0 . . that has the smallest number of states amomg the DFAs that accept L. there is no restriction on the form of production. new := new_partition( . where and Test Your Understanding of Regular Grammar Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. denote it by M1. Click True or Fals . that is a production of a phrase structure grammar can take the form can be any string.A } of the set of states Q . Let M = < Q . There are two sets of questions. -> . then Submit.For a phrase structure grammar. is that for any regular language there is a unique DFA having the smallest number of states that accepts it.Minimization of DFA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Minimization of DFA One important result on finite automata. Next -. Q . Then the following algorithm produces the DFA. both theoretically and practically. . }. Minimization Algorithm for DFA Construct a partition = { A. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L.

respectively. states of minimum DFA M1. Let p and q be representatives i. The subsets thus formed are sets of the output partition in place of S. If S is not partitioned in this process. Example 1 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. Let us also denote by p and q the sets of states of the original DFA M represented by p and q.e. If a transition from s to t on symbol a exists in M. then the minimum DFA M1 has a transition from p to q on symbol a. Let s be a state in p and t a state in q. A state is a dead state if it is not an accepting state and has no out-going transitions except to itself. Any transitions to a dead state become undefined. if there are any. end Minimum DFA M1 is constructed from • • final as follows: • • Select one state in each set of the partition final as the representative for the set.while ( := new new ) ) . The start state of M1 is the representative which contains the start state of M. These representatives are states of minimum DFA M1. Note that the sets of final are either a subset of A or disjoint from A. final function new_partition( ) for each set S of do partition S into subsets such that two states p and q of S are in the same subset of S if and only if for each input symbol. new := new_partition( := . The accepting states of M1 are representatives that are in A. Remove from M1 the dead states and the states not reachable from the start state. p and q make a transition to (states of) the same set of . . S remains in the output partition.

{ 3 } . they have the obvious representatives. and 3 goes to 1 on a in the original DFA. states 2 and 3 are going to be separated from each other in new .Initially = { { 1 . Note here that state 4 is a dead state because the only transitionout of it is to itself. states 3 and 4 are going to be separated from each other in new. Also since on a sate 4 goes to sate 4. new_partition is applied to . Since the rest are singletons. For the transitions. and from 3 to 1 on a. Further. Also since 2 goes to 1 on b. Select 1 as the representative for { 1 . 5 } . and to 2 on b in the original DFA. { 3 } . remains unchanged. all transitions between them are inherited for the minimized DFA. Thus the set of states for the minimized DFA is { 1 . { 4 ] }. since 1 goes to 3 on a. This becomes the second iteration. So they are not going to be split. { 2 . 2 . { 2 } . Since on b state 2 goes to state 1. 4 } }. Thus the new partition is { { 1 . in the When new_partition is applied to this new . 4 goes to 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . 5 }. 5 } . { 4 ] }. On the other hand 1 and 5 make the same transitions. Thus final = { { 1 . 3 . since on b 2 goes to 1. state 3 goes to state 5 and 4 and 5 are in different sets in . and 1 to 2 on b. 5 } . state 3 goes to state 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . { 2 } . 3 }. . in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 1 to 3 on a. since 1 and 5 do the same transitions. 2 and 4 are separated from each other in new. Since the rest of the states are singletons. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 2 to 1 on b.

Thus the minimized DFA is as given in the following figure: Example 2 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. .

{ 1 .Initially = { { 3 } . Next -. { 1 . { 3 } .Application of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Application of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Reactive system . 4 . 2 . Thus the number of states of the given DFA is already minimum and it can not be reduced any further. { 6 } } is obtained. Applyting new_partition again. { 4 } . { 5 } . Test Your Understanding of Minimization of DFA Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Applyting new_partition to this . 4 . { 2 } . 6 } } is obtained. 6 } }. { 6 } } is obtained. new = { { 1 } . 5 } . new = { { 3 } . 4 } . { 1 . Click True or Fals . { 2 . new = { { 3 } . By applying new_partition to this . { 2 } . 5 . { 5 } . then Submit.

a system must respond to each stimulus. Finite automata are formal and rigorous and computer programs can be easily written to simulate their behaviors. It is generally agreed that finite automata are a natural medium to describe dynamic behaviors of reactive systems. A system such as an adder is called a transformational system. To model a reactive system with finite automaton. For example consider the following very simplified version of login process to a computer from the computer point of view. first the states the system goes in or the modes of its operation are identified.e. outputs and conditions/status in response to stimuli from within or outside it. In addition actions that may take place in those states can also be added to the model. two numbers to be added are ready. An adder does not respond unless the input i. Many of those systems fall into the class of systems called reactive system. computer network communication protocols. . A reactive system is a system that changes its actions. These become the states of the finite automaton that models it. Let us assume for simplicity that this computer accepts a single user at a time.• Modeling reactive systems with FA Contents We have seen an example of use of finite automata in describing the operation of a simplified version of vending machine. Then the transitions between the states triggered by events and conditions. The inputs for a reactive system are never ready unlike for example when two numbers are added together by an adder (Here we are considering an adder at a higher level of abstraction than physical devices level ignoring for example the transient states of the electronic circuit that realizes an adder). are identified and they become arcs in the transition diagram of the finite automaton. In the case of vending machine or communication protocol. even to a fragment of input such as each coin tossed in for a can of soda or every message received. lexical analysers for compilers etc. on the other hand. It is an event driven or control driven system continuously having to react to external and/or internal stimuli. external or internal to the system. Many other systems operating in practice can also be modeled by finite automata such as control circuits of computers.

. different states would be identified and transitions would have to be selected accrdingly. If the user name typed in is not valid. sending message and waiting for ACK. it gets a signal. When a password is typed in and it is correct. When it is complete. it checks whether or not the name is valid. The next example is a protocol for a computer to follow in communicating with another computer. which is another state. When a name is typed in. it resends the message. If it is valid. If a negative ACK is received. sending ACK. it goes back to the initial state and waits for another RFNM to come. Again what we have seen is a model for one level of abstraction.Initially the computer waits for a user name to be typed in. If the second password fails. then it asks for and then waits for the password. then it accepts the user and starts a session. it goes back to the initial state. then it informs the user of that and waits for the next try. This is one state of the system. Depending on how much detail we are interested in. If the password typed in is incorrect. Upon completion of the RFNM. Again depending on the level of abstraction. Again it is a very simplified version. If a positive ACK is received. That is a fourth state. But let us make it simple. Initially the computer is in wait state waiting for "Request for Next Message" (RFNM) to come from another computer. different states and transitions would have to be chosen. receiving RFNM. it starts sending the requested message to the other party. Thus a finite automaton that models this protocol has the following five states: initial state (wait for RFNM). it sends "Acknowledgement" (ACK) to the other computer. When a RFNM starts coming. it goes into another wait state waiting for an ACK to come from the other computer. That is another state though it could further be broken down into a number of more states. it goes into the state of receiving it (Our interpretation is that the computer is in a state of receiving an RFNM and it is taking the action of receiving the RFNM) . We could make it go to a different state and count the number of login attempts for security purpose. When the session terminates. goes back to the initial state and waits for another login. which is another state. After sending the ACK. it goes to the initial state and starts all over again.

respectively and d {0. After one digit it can continue receiving digits.+ ) ( d+. in state P). D is another accepting state. then it can continue receiving digits and stay in D. followed by a possible decimal point. then it must receive at least one digit after that. This system can also be described by a regular expression.1. then it goes to state P indicating that a decimal point has been read. denote it by Q. This system can be modeled by the following finite automaton: . it is in state D.2. that indicates a digit has been read before a decimal point.. denote it by P. . If a decimal point is received before a digit. denote it by G. it goes into a state. that indicates that a decimal point has been read.Our third example is a system that recognizes numbers with or without a sign such as 5. after reading a digit and stays there as long as digits are read. denote it by D. Since these numbers are represented by strings consisting of a possible sign. This Q is an accepting state.d+ ). 9 } . +213. then it goes into a state. regardless of whether a sign has been read or not. followed by zero or more digits. If a decimal point is read while in D. If the first symbol is a sign. -15.e.378. where s+ and s. If the first digit is received before a decimal point. i.e. they can be represented by the following regular expression: ( s+ + s. Therefore from state P it goes to another state. If a decimal point has been read (i.represent the positive and negative signs. One such system initially waits for the first symbol to come in. . . then it goes into a state.8 etc. followed by one or more digits. that indicates that a sign has been received. On the other hand if a digit has been read before a decimal point.d+ + d+ + .

keeps the index of the first symbol in the TOKEN array for each state. we can use a general purpose program to simulate its operation. One such simulation algorithm is given below. It uses four arrays. Algorithm FA Simulator state := INITIAL_STATE. Another array. called NEXT_STATE. called STATEX. holds the next state for each input symbol for each state. One array.Next -. while ( state NO_of_STATES and not End of Input ) index := STATEX [state] . while ( TOKEN [index] .Simulation of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Simulation of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Simulation of FA Contents Once a finite automaton is constructed. called ACTION. indicates the actions taken at each state and a fourth. input := read_input( ) . 0 and TOKEN [index] input ) index := index + 1. called TOKEN. Those indices are used to access the contents of the other arrays. stores for each state the input symbols that trigger transitions from the state. A third array.

Then type in a number you want the FA to recognize. empty transitions) are omitted. For example. Tab 4 Tab 5. Then type 3 Tab . In the DFA below all the transitions to the empty state (i. The numbers below NEXT_STATE array show the correspondence between the indices of the STATEX array and the states A.if ( TOKEN [index] 0) perform the action specified by ACTION [index]. state := NEXT_STATE [index].e. You must hit the "Tab" key to move to the next box. else error input := read_input( ) . The corresponding transitions are going to be shown by red arrows in the transition diagram. So no action is taken as a number is processed. to input 3. Then every time you click "SHOW" the number is processed digit by digit. C and H. . To see how this algorithm works.45. first click the box pointed by the red arrow in the figure below. S is the initial state and B and H are accepting states. B. first click the box under the red arrow. At the moment it is empty. S corresponds to 1. The ACTION array would contain pointers to actions to be taken corresponding to arcs traversed such as converting a digit in BCD form to the corresponding binary number. end Here 0 in the TOKEN array is a marker between states.

. So be patient. click here It is extremely slow.If you are also interested in how code is executed.

For example. There are. For example to recognize the language { anbn | n is a natural number} . The main idea behind these test methods is that finite automata have only finite amount of memory in the form of states and that they can not distinguish infinitely many strings. Since a regular language must be recognized by a finite automaton. their properties and their usefulness for describing various systems.Nerode Theorem for non-regularity test Pumping Lemma Contents We have learned regular languages. we can conclude that { anbn | n is a natural number} is not regular. Non-regularity test based on Myhill-Nerode's theorem Indistinguishability of strings: Strings x and y in * are indistinguishable with respect to a language L if and only if for every string z in *. however. a and aa are indistinguishable with respect to the language an over alphabet { a }. Thus there is no way for a finite automaton to remember how many a's it has read for all possible strings anbn . Thus it must be in different states when it has read different number of a's and starts reading the first b. either xz and yz are both in L or they are both not in L.Non-Regular Languages Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Regular Languages Non-Regular Languages Subjects to be Learned • • • Existence of non-regular languages Myhill . where n is a positive integer. because aak and aaak are in the language an for any . a finite automaton must remember how many a's it has read when it starts reading b's.Next -. This is the basis of two of the regularity test methods we are going to study below: Myhill-Nerode Theorem and Pumping Lemma. languages that are not regular and therefore require devices other than finite automata to recognize them. In this section we are going to study some of the methods for testing given languages for regularity and see some of the languages that are not regular. That is the main limitation of finite automata. But any finite automaton has only finite number of states.

Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L3 unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.positive integer k. the set of strings consisting of one or more right parentheses followed by identifier x. because ab is in the language anbn while aab is not in the language. whose strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L. ( ( x + y ) * x ) and (( (x*y) + x ) + (y*y) ) are algebraic expressions. operations + and * and left and right parentheses. Inductive Clause: If and are in L3 . Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set S1. b } and it is infinite. x . Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } over alphabet { a . where k and m are positive integers and k m . Then akbm is not in L1 while ambm is in L1 . a and aa are not indistinguishable (hence distinguishable). Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. where k and m are positive integers and k m . that is. Consider the set of strings S3 = { (k x | k is a positive integer } . b }* } is nonregular. Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L1 . b } can be shown to be nonregular using Myhill-Nerode as follows: Consider the set of strings S1 = { an | n is a positive integer } . This set is infinite . S1 is over alphabet { a . We are going to show that its strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L1. (x*y) . the following theorem by Myhill and Nerod gives a criterion for (non)regularity of a language. Then akbakb is in L2 while ambakb is not in L2 . Select bakb as a string to be appended to ak and am . then ( + ) and ( * ) are in L3 . Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S2. However. Hence L1 is nonregular. It is stated without a proof. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S1. L3 can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: x and y are in L3 . Hence L2 is nonregular. Using this concept of indistinguishability. It can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L2 as follows. For example. For more on Myhill-Nerode theorem click here. Example 2: L2 = { ww | w {a. Consider the set of strings S2 which is the same as S1 of Example 1 above. with respect to the language anbn . Theorem : A language L over alphabet is nonregular if and only if there is an infinite subset of * . S2 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L2 . Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set. S1 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. Select bm as a string to be appended to ak and am .

For example [ + x ) ]3 is +x) +x)+x) . the resultant strings such as abbb (bba repeated 0 times). then there must be a cycle in the NFA along some path from the initial state to some accepting state (such as the cycle 2-3-4-2 in the above example). abbabbabbabbb etc. The following theorem which is called Pumping Lemma is based on this observation. In general if a string w (such as abbabbb in the example above) is accepted by an NFA with n states and if its length is longer than n. It . For example the string abbabbb is accepted by the NFA and if one of its substrings bba is repeated any number of times in abbabbb. abbabbabbb. This NFA accepts among others some strings of length greater than 5 such as abbabbb.and it can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 as follows: Let (k x and (m x be arbitrary two strings of S3 . Those strings which are accepted by this NFA and whose length is greater than 5 have a substring which can be repeated any number of times without being rejected by the NFA. Then the substring representing that cycle (bba in the example) can be repeated any number of times within the string w without being rejected by the NFA. where k and m are positive integers and k m . Hence S3 is pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 . Pumping Lemma Let us consider the NFA given below. are also accepted by the NFA. abbabbabbb etc. Hence L3 is not regular. Then (k x + [ + x ) ]k is in L3 but (m x + [ + x ) ]k is not in L3 because the number of ('s is not equal to the number of )'s in the latter string. Select [ + x ) ]k as a string to be appended to (k and (m .

Consider a string x = anbn for that n. there are strings u. uvmw L. Then uv2w = an-pa2pbn = an+pbn . Also since |uv| Let us now consider the string uvmw for m = 2. that is. v. Since p > 0 . v and w which satisfy the following relationships: x = uvw |uv| n |v| > 0 and for every integer m 0. for some p > 0 . Suppose that L is regular and let n be the number of states of an FA that accepts L. It can only show that a language is nonregular. n + p language L represented by akbk . Hence an+pbn can not be in the L. It is stated without a proof here. Then there is an FA that accepts L. v has at least one symbol. uvmw L. This violates the condition that for every m language. Then there must be strings u. v = ap. uvmw Test Your Understanding of Non-regularity . Thus Pumping Lemma can not be used to prove the regularity of a language. Since |v| > 0 . Then for any string x in L with |x| n. even if there is an integer n that satisfies the conditions of Pumping Lemma. Note that Pumping Lemma gives a necessity for regular languages and that it is not a sufficiency. where k is a natural number.states that if a language is regular. let us prove that the language L = akbk is nonregular. Let n be the number of states of that FA. the language is not necessarily regular. Hence L is not a regular 0. and w such that x = uvw. |uv| n |v| > 0 . and for every m 0. Pumping Lemma : Suppose that a language L is regular. Example 4: As an example to illustrate how Pumping Lemma might be used to prove that a language is nonregular. n . n. then any long enough string of the language has a substring which can be repeated any number of times with the resultant strings still in the language.

If there are three strings that are distinguished with respect . Then there is a string z such that xz is in L and yz is not in L (or xz is not in L and yz is in L). are distinguishable with respect to L. if and only if they are indistinguishable with respect to . Also it is a corollary to Myhill-Nerode theorem: Let { be the followijg relation on }={ : For strings and of .Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.Context-Free Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Myhill-Nerode Theorem The non-regularity test for languages by Myhill-Nerode is based on the following theorem which is in the contrapositive form of the theorem used for nonregularity test. Proof of Theorem Necessity Suppose that a language L is regular and two strings. that is. the DFA reaches different states. Next -. then Submit. This means that if x and y are read by an DFA that recognizes L. say x and y. if and only if }. Click True or Fals . Then the theorem is is staed as follows: Theorem: A language L over alphabet is regular if and only if the set of equivalence classes of is finite.

. ]. where [ ] =[ ] for all . the index) of and let . namely ] and ].... We will show that a DFA that accepts L can be constructed using these equivalence classes. be representatives of those distinct equivalence classes. [ ]=[ } ]. then the language L is regular. then the DFA reaches three different states after reading those three strings. For. making them belong to different [ Hence is a function. be the number of distinct equivalence classes (i. then the DFA must have infinitely many states. DFA ( = {[ =[ = {[ ( . Then we construct a . Let . is in exactly one equivalence class.. Let us now show that this machine is in fact a DFA and it accepts the language First.e. Sufficiency Conversely... ) as follows: ]} ].to L. . are in different classes for and are distinguishable with respect to L. which it can not because a DFA must have a finite number of states. . note that for every string [ ]. .. Hence if there is an infinite set of strings which are pairwise distinguishable with respect to a language. Note that "indistinguishable with respect to L" is an equivalence relation over the set of strings (denote it by ) and [x]'s are equivalence classes. let [x] denote a class of strings that are indistinguishable from a string x with respect to L.. then ]'s.. Hence if there are infinitely many strings to be distinguished with respect to L. [ . . if and in [ ]. To prove this. ]. then the language is not regular. if the number of classes of strings that are pairwise indistinguishable with respect to a language L is finite.

Also an equivalence relation is said to be of finite index. Hence Hence we have shown that for every string ]. if the set of its equivalence classes is finite. this means that the DFA accepts Myhill-Nerode Theorem Let us here state Myhill-Nerode Theorem. where . . Then by the definition of .Next. An equivalence relation on is said to be right invariant if for every . by the definition of = . For that. . . first note that if . ]. . if then for every . if a string in [ in ] is in . Since . Our proof is by structural induction on string Basis Step: = =[ ]. Hence =[ = . =[ ]. ] by the induction hypothesis. for DFA. let us show that this DFA accepts string in [ ] is also in L. where ]. With these terminology. where ] is the equivalence class that belongs to. Myhill-Nerode Theorem can now be stated as follows: The following three statements are equivalent: (1) A language is regular. . = [ ]. Inductive Step: Assume Then for every But =[ Hence =[ ]. then every We then show that for every string . by the definition of = . . =[ ]. First some terminology.

Definition (Context-Free Grammar) : A 4-tuple G = < V . For the following context-free grammar G1 = < V1 . S . b } and P1 = { S -> aSb . They are grammars whose productions have the form X -> . . Proofs are omitted. The set of strings generated by a context-free grammar is called a context-free language and context-free languages can describe many practically important systems. P1 > generates L1 : V1 = { S } . P > is a context-free V is V. S -> ab }. where X the start symbol. and P is a finite set of productions of the form X -> and (V )* . (3) is of finite index. are finite sets sharing no elements between them.(2) L is the union of some of the equivalence classes of a right invariant equivalent relation of finite index. grammar (CFG) if V and . Context-Free Languages Context-Free Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Context-Free Grammar Context-Free Languages Push Down Automata Contents Earlier in the discussion of grammars we saw context-free grammars. A language is a context-free language (CFL) if all of its strings are generated by a context-free grammar. = { a . Most programming languages can be approximated by context-free grammar and compilers for them have been developed based on properties of context-free languages. S . where X is a nonterminal and is a nonempty string of terminals and nonterminals. S . Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } is a context-free language. Let us define context-free grammars and context-free languages here. .

Then L3 is a context-free language. = { a .Example 2: L2 = { wwr| w {a. w is spelled backward to obtain wr . For the following context-free grammar G2 = < V2 . S1 . . b }+ } is a context-free language . Properties of Context-Free Language Theorem 1: Let L1 and L2 be context-free languages. if necessary. Similarly for L1L2 . that is. first relabel symbols of V2 . where w is a nonempty string and wr denotes the reversal of string w. S2 . P1 > and G2 = < V2 . Then for L1 L2 . * } and P3 = { S -> ( S + S ) . ( . For the following context-free grammar G3 = < V3 . . . . . and L1* are . . For example { < statement > -> < if-statement > . P2 > be context-free grammars generating L1 and L2 . < expression > ) < statement > . S -> bb }. so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. + . < expression > . Pu > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1 L2 . first relabel symbols of V2 . } . For L1* . . Sc . . S -> bSb . 3. . Example 4: Portions of the syntaxes of programming languages can be described by context-free grammars. L1L2 . Next define Vc = V1 V2 { Sc } and Pc = P1 P2 { Sc -> S1S2 } . . . < if-statement > -> if ( < expression > ) < statement > . Then it can be easily seen that Gu = < Vu . . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. y . 3 = { x . let Ss be a symbol which is not in V1 . if necessary. Outline of Proof This theorem can be verified by constructing context-free grammars for union. . S -> S*S . S . Then let Ps = P1 { Ss -> SsS1 . Then L1 context-free languages. . S -> aa . Then it can be easily seen that Gc = < Vc . S . Then let Sc be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . concatenation and Kleene star of context-free grammars as follows: Let G1 = < V1 . S -> y }. operations + and * and left and right parentheses. Pc > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1L2 . Next define Vu = V1 V2 { Su } and Pu = P1 P2 { Su -> S1 . Ss -> L2 . S -> x . . P3 > generates L3 : V3 = { S } . < statement > -> < for-statement > . Su . < statement > -> < assignment > . Su -> S2 } . ) . P2 > generates L2 : V2 = { S } . respectively. Then let Su be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . < expression > -> < logicalexpression > . . < forstatement > -> for ( < expression > . b } and P2 = { S -> aSa . < expression > -> < algebraic-expression > .

A . Second. where Q = { q0 . Z0 is the initial stack symbol and it is a member of . q0 . accept the string. Ps > is a context-free grammar that Like regular languages which are accepted by finite automata. its next state is determined not only by the input symbol being read. Example 1 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . . Pushdown Automata . Z0 . ) means the following: The automaton moves from the current state of p to the next state q when it sees an input symbol a at the input and X at the top of the stack. respectively ). reject the string. the contents of the stack can also be changed every time an input symbol is read. It can be seen that the grammar Gs = < Vs . For example. check the stack. q0 . Any string of this language can be tested for the membership for the language by a finite automaton if there is a memory such as a pushdown stack that can store a's of a given input string. If it is empty. X ) = ( q . generates the language L1* . Let us define this new type of automaton formally. .} . A is the set of accepting states is the transition function and :Q ( ( } -> 2 Q * . and it replaces X with the string at the top of the stack. . Ss . Otherwise reject it. a . push them into the stack. but also by the symbol at the top of the stack. If another a (or anything other than b) is read after the first b. where Q is a finite set of states. A . Z0 . > . Thus ( p . This automaton behaves like a finite automaton except the following two points: First. When all the symbols of the input string are read. > . . Let us consider a context-free language anbn . As soon as the symbol b appears stop storing a's and start popping a's one by one every time a b is read. context-free languages are also accepted by automata but not finite automata. A pushdown automaton ( or PDA for short ) is a 7-tuple M = < Q . as a's are read by the finite automaton. Thus its transition function specifies the new top of the stack contents as well as the next state. They need a little more complex automata called pushdown automata. . and are finite sets ( the input and stack alphabet. q0 is the initial state.

) ( q1 . aaZ0 ). Thus the configuration is ( q1 . b .q1 . aZ 0 ) q0 a a ( q0 . b } . aabb . bb . Then when the first b is read. > is a triple ( q . for example. x . (p. Initially its configuration is ( q0 . bb . Let us now see how the PDA of Example 1 operates when it is given the string aabb .x. . Next it moves to the state q2 which is the accepting state. aZ0 ) ( q0 . ) to configuration ( q . we write ) is reached from ( p . aZ0 ).y. A configuration of a PDA M = < Q . ) by a sequence of zero or more moves. This entire process can be expressed using the configurations as ( q0 . q2 } . x . Z0 ). aabb . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . If ( q . aaZ0 ) ( q1 . ). . Z0 ) * ( q2 . we can also write ( q0 . Z0 } . where q is the state the PDA is currently in. .x. abb . y . Z0 ) q2 . Z0 . aZ0 ). following table: = { a . x is the unread portion of the input string and is the current stack contents. ) . b . its configuration is ( q0 . another a is popped from the top of the stack and the PDA stays in state q1 . ( q0 . After reading the second a. ) ( q2 . Z0 ). A = { q2 } and let be as given in the State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . x . ). aabb . y . Z0 ) This pushdown automaton accepts the language anbn .y. * (q. it is ( q0 . To express that the PDA moves from configuration ( p . aZ0 ) ( q1 . abb . . ) in a single move (a single application of the transition function) we write (p. A . After reading the first a. b . . . Z0 ). . Z0 ) ( If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. To describe the operation of a PDA we are going to use a configuration of PDA. where the input is read from left to right and the top of the stack corresponds to the leftmost symbol of . ) ) (q. aa ) q0 q1 q1 b b a a Z0 ( q1 . Thus aabb is accepted by this PDA. = { a . it moves to state q1 and pops a from the top of the stack. Z0 ) . When the second b is read. q0 .

Z 0 ) In this table represents either a or b. and an accepting state q. Z0) . If ( q . b ( q1 .a. X ) = ( p . . = { a . = { a . PDAs can also be represented by transition diagrams. * (q. A = { q2 } and let be as given in the following table: State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . x. ) ( q2 . For PDAs. then an arc from state p to state q is added to the diagram and it is labeled with ( a . b . c } . acceptance by final state) if (q0.A string x is accepted by a PDA (a. Z0 } . Z0 . q1 . q0 .k. arcs are labeled differently than FAs. > . ) ) ) ) ( q1 . bZ 0 ) q0 q0 q0 q1 q1 q1 a b c a b a b Z0 ( q0 . Like FAs. where Q = { q0 . For example the transition diagram of the PDA of Example 1 is as shown below. ( q1 . X / ) indicating that X at the top of the stack is replaced by upon reading a from the input. Example 2 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . ) . a ( q0 . b . aZ 0 ) q0 b Z0 ( q0 . q2 } . for some in *. A . a . . . however. ).

it goes through the following configurations and accepts it. This PDA pushes all the a's and b's in the input into stack until c is encountered. When there are no more unread input symbols and Z0 is at the top of the stack. baZ0 ) ( q1 . That means that a language is . 1 Further topics on CFL • PDA and Context-Free Language There is a procedure to construct a PDA that accepts the language generated by a given context-free grammar and conversely.This pushdown automaton accepts the language { wcwr | w { a . it ignores c and from that point on if the top of the stack matches the input symbol. cbba . b }* } . it pops the stack. For example for the input abbcbba. aZ0 ) ( q1 . abbcbba . ba . which is the set of palindromes with c in the middle. Otherwise it rejects the input string. baZ0 ) ( q1 . ( q0 . bcbba . Z 0 ) . The transition diagram of the PDA of Example 2 is as shown below. aZ0 ) ( q0 . Z 0 ) ( q2 . it accepts the input string. . . a . In the figure and 2 represent a or b. bbaZ0 ) ( q1 . bbaZ0 ) . When c is detected. Z0 ) ( q0 . ( q0 . bba . bbcbba .

e. • Pumping Lemma for Context-Free Language Let L be a CFL. it does not know which interpretation to use unless it is explicitly instructed to follow one or the other. it could also be interpreted as ( x + y )z meaning that first compute x + y. Then there is a positive integer n such that for any string u in L with |u| n . Those procedures are omitted here. ???? references on Parsing ???? . They can describe much of programming languages and basic structures of natural languages. "bites" is the verb and "a man" is the object of the verb. Thus if a computer is given the string x + yz. Contect-free grammars are powerful grammars. we are not going to study parsing here. Thus they are widely used for compilers for high level programming languages and natural language processing systems. y and z which satisfy u = vwxyz |wy| > 0 |wxy| n 0 . Parsing is the process of interpreting given input strings according to predetermined rules i.context-free if and only if there is a PDA that accepts it. a computer like non-English speaking people must be told how to interpret sentences such as the first noun phrase (" A dog") is usually the subject of a sentence. then multiply the result by z. native English speakers know that it is the dog that bites and not the other way round. Interested readers are referred to the textbook and other sources. Similar things happen when English sentences are processed by computers (or people as well for that matter).e. compute yz first. Though we are accustomed to interpreting this as x + (yz) i. The parsing for context-free languages and regular languages have been extensively studied. x. then add the result to x. However. "A dog" is the subject. By parsing sentences we identify the parts of the sentences and determine the strutures of the sentences so that their meanings can be understood correctly. For example in the sentence "A man bites a dog". However. w. a verb phrase usually follow the noun phrase and the first word in the verb phrase is the verb and it is followed by noun phrases reprtesenting object(s) of the verb. vwmxymz L for every integer m • Parsing and Parsers for CFL Consider the algebraic expression x + yz. productions of grammars. there are strings v.

They are. Next -. however. and the machines that can process them: Turing machines. Turing machines were conceived of by the English mathematician Alan . These languages can describe many practically important systems and so they are heavily used in practice.Turing Machines Back to Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • • • Definition of Turing Machine Configuration Operation of Turing Machine Contents Introduction We have studied two types of languages from the Chomsky hierarchy: regular languages and context-free languages. then Submit. of limited capability and there are many languages that they can not process. Click True or Fals . In this chapter we are going to study the most general of the languages in Chomsky hierarchy.Test Your Understanding of Contect-Free Language Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. the phrase structure languages (also called Type 0 languages).

like finite automata.Turing as a model of human "computation". At any time it is in one of the finite number of states. The tape has the left end but it extends infinitely to the right. It is also divided into squares and a symbol can be written in each square. Given a string of symbols on the tape. right or stay at the same square after a read or write. However. At any state it reads the symbol under the head. This conjecture is known as Church's thesis and today it is generally accepted as true. We are going to study Turing machines here and through that limitations of computers and computation as we know today. it stops its operation. Later Alonzo Church conjectured that any computation done by humans or computers can be carried out by some Turing machine. One of its states is the halt state and when the Turing machine goes into the halt state. its head is a read-write head and it can move left. a Turing machine starts at the initial state. . either erases it or replaces it with a symbol (possibly the same symbol). unlike finite automata. It then moves the head to left or right or does not move it and goes to the next state which may be the same as the current state. Computers we use today are as powerful as Turing machines except that computers have finite memory while Turing machines have infinite memory. consists of a finite control and a tape. Definition Conceptually a Turing machine.

. L and S denote move the head right. a .S) A transition diagram of this Turing machine is given below. left and do not move it. a . q0 is the initial state. the symbol X currently being read is changed to Y and the tape head is moved as directed by D. = { a . b } . b . The symbol h is used to denote the halt state. R ) ( q3 . It is a mapping from Q ( { } ) to ( Q { h } ) ( { }) {R. It is assumed that the tape has at the left end and the head is initially at the left end of the tape. which is assumed not to contain the symbol h. Here denotes the blank and R. an arc from q to r is drawn with label ( X/Y . is the transition function but its value may not be defined for certain points. . The states are represented by vertices and for a transition ( q. > . . L or S . Y. q3 } . q2. State (q) Input (X) Move ( q0 q1 q2 q3 q3 a b a (q. . is a finite set of symbols and it is the input alphabet. A transition diagram can also be drawn for a Turing machine. = { a . D ) . where D represents R. b } and is as given by the table below. . q1. X) ) ( q1 . D ) indicating that the state is changed from q to r. X ) = ( r. is a finite set of symbols containing as its subset and it is the set of tape symbols.L. where Q1 = { q0. . R ) ( q2 . R ) (h. Example 1 : The following Turing machine < Q1 . q0. S}. > accepts the language aba* . where Q is a finite set of states. . R ) ( q3 . q0 . respectively.Formally a Turing machine is a 5-tuple T = < Q.

q0 . > if x ) * ( h. If the Turing machine needs to be explicitly indicated T or T* is used. aba ) ( q1 .Turing Machine that accepts aba* To describe the operation of Turing machine we use configuration. . and ( p . The set of strings accepted by a Turing machine is the language accepted by the Turing machine. aba ) ( q2 . zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in zero or more moves. We write ( p . . A string x is said to be accepted by a Turing machine* T = < Q . xay ) * ( q . zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in one move. For example ( q . A Turing machine T is said to decide a language L if and only if T writes "yes" and halts if a string is in L and T writes "no" and halts if a string is not in L. aababb ) shows that the Turing machine is currently in state q. A configuration for a Turing machine is an ordered pair of the current state and the tape contents with the symbol currently under the head marked with underscore. In this case we also say that the Turing machine halts on input x. aba ) (h. aba ) . For example the Turing machine of Example 1 above goes through the following sequence of configurations to accept the string aba: ( q0 . ( q0 . the taper contents are the string aababb and the head is reading the last a of the string. aba ) ( q3 . xay ) ( q . yaz ) for some symbol a { } and some strings y and z in ( * { } ) . Note that the Turing machine does not stop if a string is not in the language.

. where = { a }.The first of the following figures shows a Turing machine that accepts but does not decide the language { a }. the second is a Turing machine that accepts { a } but goes into a loop if a string is not in the language (hence it accepts but doe not decide { a }) and the third decides { a }.

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It is denoted by TR .Example 2 : The following Turing machine moves the head to the first the current position. to the right of Example 3 : The following Turing machine erases the string on the tape and moves the head to the left end. This Turing machine is denoted by TE. It is assumed that initially the tape has at the left end. .

but it goes into an infinite loop for any strings that are not in the language.Strings not Accepted by Turing Machines When a string is not accepted by a Turing machine. . In cases (2) and (3). For example the following Turing machine accepts the language a+. one of the following three things happens: (1) The Turing machine goes into an infinite loop. the operation of the Turing machine is aborted. that is when a Turing machine does not halt on a string. (2) no transition is specified for the current configuration and (3) the head is at the left end and it is instructed to move left.

Then we say T computes f or f is computable if for every x ( q0 . A Turing machine thus may accept a string and halt. x) * ( h.Turing machine accepting a+ Computabler Function Let S * and let f be a function f : S -> S. A language is a phrase structure (type 0) langauage if and only if it is Turing-acceptable in either sense and it has no effects on decidablility. * and for every x that is not in S. That is. a string is accepted by a Turing machine if given the string. . or loop. in the Turing machines those books define. there is no difference between these two definitions of "accept". As far as the material discussed in this class note. T does not halt on x. reject a string and halt. With this definition. the Turing machine eventually goes into the accept halt state. f(x) ) * . there are two halt states: "accept halt" and "reject halt". * Note on "Turing-acceptable": Some books define "acceptance by Turing machine" slightly differently.

Next -.Test Your Understanding of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Furthermore according to the Church's thesis. We have already seen TR . In fact Turing machines that simulate computers and Turing machines that perform computations done by any algorithm can be constructed. Click True or Fals . It moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) . then Submit. One can construct many more Turing machines that perform various functions. Here we are going to study how complex Turing machines can be constructed using simple Turing machines and how computers can be simulated by Turing machines.Combination of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Combination of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Combination of Turing Machines Contents Combination of Turing Machines We have seen the definition of Turing machine and a few simple examples. There are two sets of questions. any "computation" done by human beings or machines can be done by some Turing machine. Let us start with some basic Turing machines.

respectively.to the right of the current position. then T2 is started as in the case of T1T2 . Also by TR and TL we denote Turing machines that move the head to right and left one position. Example 4: The following machine shifts the tape contents to the left one position. Below is assumed to be at the left end of the tape initially. Then if T1 halts and if the symbol currently under the head is . T1T2 and T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that behaves initially like T1 and when T1 halts T2 takes over inheriting the head position and the tape contents of T1 . Using these basic machines and the convention. let us construct a little more complex Turing machines. takes the head to the right end of the string and halts. Otherwise it crashes. The halt state of T1 becomes the initial state of T2 . To combine Turing machines we use the following conventions: Let T1 and T2 represent arbitrary Turing machines. Then by T we denote a Turing machine that writes symbol at the current position and does not move the head (stays). T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that first executes T1. . Similarly by TL we denote a Turing machine that moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) to the left of the current position.

II III ) . that is ( q0 . After the addition the configuration becomes ( h . An adder can be constructed for example as TR -> TSL TL . IIIII ) . First. it goes through the following -> aab -> a -> a -> abb -> ab -> ab -> ab Example 5: The left-shift machine of Example 4 can be used to construct an adder for natural numbers. . To add two numbers m and n. x) * b b (h. After adding two numbers placed on the tape it moves the head to the left end and halts. Example 6: The following Turing machine copies the tape contents at the left end to their right separated by a blank .For example with the initial tape contents of sequence of tape contents and ends with ab ab -> ab : ab . For example the number 3 is represented by three consecutive I's on the tape and 5 by five I's. x x). natural numbers are represented on a Turing machine using symbol I. In general to represent a natural number k. k consecutive I's are put on the tape. So the initial configuration for adding 2 and 3 is ( q0 . m I's and n I's with a blank between them are placed on the tape.

the branch operation is already in Turing machines because next configurations are determined based on the current state and tape symbol being looked at. and store and load operations can be taken care of by a Turing machine that copies tape contents. In fact many of the earlier computers had a much smaller instruction set but still could do everything today's computers can do albeit much more slowly. Furthermore if the subtraction operation is necessary. all of those instructions can be realized using combinations of a small number of basic instructions. Thus by combining appropriate Turing machines a computer with a minimal instruction set can be constructed. Click True or Fals . A bare minimum instruction set would contain addition.Today's computers are very complex machines and their instruction sets contain complicated operations. Test Your Understanding of Combination of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. one can say that computers can be simulated by Turing machines. then Submit. Since any complex computer instructions can be realized using those basic instructions. The following notations are used in the questions: . On the other hand as we have seen above. branching. there is a Turing machine that performs addition. All the other operations can be realized by using those basic operations. However. store and load operations. it is not difficult to construct a Turing machine that performs subtraction using the same representation of numbers as for the addition.

the efficiency of computation. nondeterministic Turing machines etc. The tape has the top end and the left end but extends indefinitely to the right and down. ones with two dimensional tapes. that is.Types of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Types of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Variation of Turing Machine Contents There are a number of other types of Turing machines in addition to the one we have seen such as Turing machines with multiple tapes. It turns out that computationally all these Turing machines are equally powerful. one read-write head and one two dimensional tape. what one type can compute any other can also compute. To simulate a two dimensional tape with a one dimensional tape. It is divided into rows of small squares. that is. That is. Turing Machines with Two Dimensional Tapes This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control. For any Turing machine of this type there is a Turing machine with a one dimensional tape that is equally powerful. the former can be simulated by the latter.T_a : Ta T_R : TR ->^b : ->b Next -. first we map the squares of the two dimensional tape to those of the one dimensional tape diagonally as shown in . how fast they can compute. However. may vary. ones having one tape but with multiple heads.

.... .. . . then on the one dimensional tape the head moves to the right and it hits v first. . . then move the head of the one dimensional tape to right until it hits h or v counting the number of squares it has visited after i.. ....the following tables: Two Dimensional Tape v v h 1 h 3 h 4 h 10 h 11 h 21 ... . .. move 3 positions to the right.. Let us simulate this head move with a one dimensional tape. .. Then it meets h first. If v was hit first.. Here the numbers indicate the correspondence of squares in the two tapes: square i of the two dimensional tape is mapped to square i of the one dimensional tape. Thus from h....... down. the head moves from position 8 to right. ..... then (k+1)-th square to the right from v is the new head position.. ... that is i = 8.. . ..... . .. left or right. which is the second square from i = 5. For example.. . then from h move the head of the one dimensional tape further right to the k-th square from h. . v 6 8 13 19 23 . which is the third square from 8. . . then for the one dimensional tape... . The head of a two dimensional tape moves one square up. v 16 26 . Thus this time the third square is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 9 on the two dimensional tape.. . . . Let k be the number of squares visited by the head of the one dimensional tape.. That is the square corresponding to the square below i in the two dimensional tape. .. ..... . suppose that the head position is at 8 for the two dimensional tape in the above table.. . .... One Dimensional Tape v 1 v 2 3 h 4 5 6 v 7 8 9 10 h 11 ..... .. . v 15 17 25 .. If i = 5 and the head moves down on the other hand. .< .. .. Let i be the head position of the two dimensional tape.. v 7 14 18 24 .. h and v are symbols which are not in the tape alphabet and they are used to mark the left and the top end of the tape.. respectively.... That is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 13 on the two dimensional tape.> . If the head moves down to position 13. If the head moves down from i. v 2 5 9 12 20 22 ..... If h was hit first.

L . Thus some Turing machines with a one dimensional tape can simulate every move of a Turing machine with one two dimensional tape. S } n . where H1 .Similarly formulas can be found for the head position on the one dimensional tape corresponding to move up. . It turns out that this type of Turing machines are only as powerful as one tape Turing machines whose tape has a left end. right or left on the two dimensional tape. > .L. Since Turing machines with a two dimensional tape obviously can simulate Turing machines with a one dimensional tape.S It can be easily seen that this type of Turing machines are as powerful as one tape Turing machines. . It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . A configuration for this kind of Turing machine must show the current state the machine is in and the state of each tape. one can say that one tape Turing machines are as powerful as n-tape Turing machines.. q0. Its transition function is a partial function :Q ( { } )n -> ( Q { h } ) ( { } )n { R . Hn denote the tape heads. it can be said that they are equally powerful.. {h}) ( { } {R. H2 . It can be proven that any language accepted by an n-tape Turing machine can be accepted by a one tape Turing machine and that any function computed by an n-tape Turing machine can be computed by a one tape Turing machine. Nondeterministic Turing Machines . . q0. Hence they are at least as powerful as Turing machines with a two dimensional tape. . Details are omitted.. Turing Machines with Multiple Heads : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape but more than one read-write heads. Since the converses are obviously true. H2 . In each state only one of the heads is allowed to read and write. . . The transition function is a partial function : Q { H1 . Turing Machines with Infinite Tape : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape which extends infinitely in both directions. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q .. Turing Machines with Multiple Tapes : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and more than one tapes each with its own read-write head. Hn } ( { } ) -> ( Q }. >.

moving the tape head and going to a next state. They form level 1. At any point in the process TN is in some configuration and has a finite set of configurations to choose from for its next configuration. Even in the same situation it may take different actions at different times. As in the case of NFA. it is understood that a nondeterministic Turing machine at any configuration selects one combination of next state. All possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN once form the children of the initial configuration. It must find the midpoint by for example pairing off symbols from either end of x. . tape symbol and head movement out of the set of triples without following any specific predetermined rule. Note that the number of children for a vertex in this tree is finite because the number of states is finite and there are a finite number of tape symbols. like nondeterministic finite automata. The children of all the vertices of level i form level i+1.. In general for each vertex of level i all possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN are its children. at any state it is in and for the tape symbol it is reading.A nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine which. Theorem Any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by some deterministic Turing machine.L.S}. 2. It can be shown that a nondeterministic Turing machine is only as powerful as a deterministic Turing machine. . Here an action means the combination of writing a symbol on the tape.. TN starts at the initial configuration and goes through a sequence of configurations until it reaches a halt configuration . Given a string x . on the other hand. The root of the tree is the initial configuration and it is the only vertex of level 0. . b }* } . Given a string x. goes into an infinite loop or aborts. Then it would compare the first half of x with the second half by comparing the i-th symbol of the first half with the i-th symbol of the second half for i = 1. Formally a nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine whose transition function takes values that are subsets of ( Q {h}) ( { } {R. For example consider the following nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts a+ . can not guess the midpoint of the string x. For example let us consider the language L = { ww : w { a . that is the place where the second half of x starts. The set of all possible computations that TN can perform for a given string x can be represented by a rooted tree as follows. Proof : Let TN denote a nondeterministic Turing machine. can take any action selecting from a set of specified actions rather than taking one definite predetermined action. A deterministic Turing machine. a nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts this language L would first guess the midpoint of x.

aa ) . it would proceed as follows to accept it: ( q0 . aa ) and ( q2 . aa ) for the third. aa ) ( q1 .Turing machine accepting a+ Given the string aa. and ( q1 . aa ) for the second. The tree for this case would be as follows: . At the second and third configurations in the above sequence. it has two candidates for the next configuration: ( q1 . aa ) ( h . aa ) ( q2 . aa ) and ( q2 . aa ) ( q1 .

though a deterministic Turing machine might take much more time than a nondeterministic Turing machine to accept a string. T2 applies the transition function of T1 to each configuration at that level and computes its children. is to traverse this tree breadth-first way from the root until the halt state is reached. At each level of the tree. call it T2. it has been shown that none of them exceed the capability of basic deterministic Turing machine as far as accepting languages is concerned. If there is the halting state among these children. Test Your Understanding of Different Types of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Click True or Fals .Unsolvable Problems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Unsolvable Problems . Next -. It can be easily seen that T2 accepts a string if and only if T1 accepts it. These children are the configurations of the next level and they are stored on the tape (if necessary a second tape may be used).One way to simulate a nondeterministic Turing machine. However. Many other variations of Turing machine are possible. call it T1. with a deterministic one. then T2 accepts the string and halts. Thus any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by a deterministic Turing machine. then Submit. In fact the Church's thesis conjectures that any so called computation done by humans or computers can be performed by a basic deterministic Turing machine.

that is computationally they are equally powerful. It is also conjectured that any "computation" human beings perform can be done by Turing machines (Church's thesis). if the Turing machine is running. Proof (by M. Theorem 1 : The halting problem is undecidable. First recall that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language (see Problem Solving as Language Recognition). Below we are going to see some well known unsolvable problems and see why we can say they are unsolvable. Suppose that the halting problem is decidable. and an arbitrary string w over . hence unsolvable. there is no way of telling whether it is in an infinite loop or along the way to a solution and it needs more time. It asks the following question: Given an arbitrary Turing machine M over alphabet = { a . . Halting Problem One of well known unsolvable problems is the halting problem. and that any of their variations do not exceed the computational power of deterministic Turing machines. Then there is a Turing machine T that solves the halting problem. L. Since we can not wait forever for an answer. given a description of a Turing machine M (over the alphabet ) and a string w. and then T halts. does M halt when it is given w as an input ? It can be shown that the halting problem is not decidable. That is. Suppose that a language is acceptable but not decidable. So we are going to look at the unsolvability in terms of language recognition. In this chapter we are going to learn that there are problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers.Subjects to be Learned • • • Halting Problem Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents We have learned that deterministic Turing machines are capable of doing any computation that computers can do. T writes "yes" if M halts on w and "no" if M does not halt on w. Then given a string a Turing machine that accept the language starts the computation. the question of whether or not a string is in the language may not be answered in any finite amount of time. Thus if a language is not decidable. Minsky): This is going to be proven by "proof by contradiction". b } . Here "unsolvability" is in the following sense. At any point in time. the question is unanswerable that is the problem is unsolvable.

then Tm goes into an infinite loop (Tm halts if the original T rejects a string and halts). Next using Tm we are going to construct another Turing machine Tc as follows: Tc takes as input a description of a Turing machine M.We are now going to construct the following new Turing machine Tc. copies it to obtain the string d(M)*d(M). First we construct a Turing machine Tm by modifying T so that if T accepts a string and halts. denoted by d(M). where * is a symbol that separates the two copies of d(M) and then supplies d(M)*d(M) to the Turing machine Tm . .

Thus the question of whether or not a program halts for a given input is nothing but the halting problem. it makes a copy. This is a contradiction. This contradiction has been deduced from our assumption that there is a Turing machine that solves the halting problem. Hence that assumption must be wrong. Thus one implication of the halting problem is that there can be no computer programs (Turing machines) that check whether or not any arbitrary computer program stops for a given input. The way T was modified the modified T is going to go into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc).Let us now see what Tc does when a string describing Tc itself is given to it. Thus the modified T is given a description of Turing machine Tc and the string d(Tc). When Tc gets the input d(Tc) . Program correctness and Halting Problem Note that for any computer program a Turing machine can be constructed that performs the task of the program. . constructs the string d(Tc)*d(Tc) and gives it to the modified T. Thus Tc goes into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and it halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). Hence there is no Turing machine that solves the halting problem.

It is presented as a language and it can be shown that there are no Turing machines that accept the language. Language NonSelfAccepting Let us first define two languages NSA1 and NSA2 as follows: .Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Click True or Fals . Next -. then Submit.More Unsolvable Preoblems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines More Unsolvable Problems Subjects to be Learned • • Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents The next unsolvable problem is in a sense more difficult than the halting problem.

NSA2 is the set of strings that do not describe any Turing machine. b }*. where d(T) is a description of the Turing machine T. w = d(T) for a Turing machine T and T does not accept NSA2 = { w | w { a. by the definitions of NSA1 and NSA2. Proof: This is going to be proven by contradiction. call it T0. This is again a contradiction. that is w0 is a description of the Turing machine T0 . We are going to see that T0 neither accepts w0 nor rejects it. Hence a is in NSA2 . NSA1 is the set of strings that describe a Turing machine but that are not accepted by the Turing machine they describe. Suppose there is a Turing machine. This means that there can not be any Turing machine that accepts the language NonSelfAccepting. For let T be a Turing machine that accepts { a } and let w = d(T). w0 is in neither NSA1 nor NSA2 . Problem Accepts( ) The problem Accepts( ) asks whetehr or not a given Turing machine T accepts . (1) If T0 accepts w0. But w0 = d( T0 ) because that is how we selected w0 . Since NonSelfAccepting is a language. w0 is in NSA1 . let w = a. b }*. Then there is no Turing machine that can be described by the string a. It . Hence it is in SelfAccepting . Knowing the unsolvability of the halting problem some other problems can be shown to be unsolvable. Hence w is in NSA1 . that accepts NonSelfAccepting. Thus there can not be Turing machine T0 that accepts the language SelfAccepting . then w0 NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. Thus neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. Hence it is not accepted by T. either w0 is in NonSelfAccepting or it isn't. Theorem 2 There are no Turing machines that accept the language NonSelfAccepting. Let w0 = d( T0 ). Then this w is a description of a Turing machine but it must be longer than one symbol. Let us define the language NonSelfAccepting as NonSelfAccepting = NSA1 Then we can prove the following theorem: NSA2 .NSA1 = { w | w w} { a. Neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. Also T0 does not accept w0 . (2) If T0 does not accept w0 . Certainly more symbols than a single a are needed to describe even the simplest Turing machine. This is a contradiction. which is absurd. Hence w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting . Hence either T0 accepts w0 or rejects it. then w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. w d(T) for any Turing machine T } . For NSA2. Hence by the definition of NSA1 . Hence T0 can not accept w0 . However.

We are going to show that Accepts( ) can be solved using the solution to it. Consider a Turing machine T = TwT'. call it M. Thus if Accepts( ) is solvable. Then consider the Turing machine T = TeraseT' . Using a similar idea the following problem can also be shown to be unsolvable. We are going to show that the halting problem becomes solvable using this A. Let A be a Turing machine that solves AcceptsEverything. call it M. Problem AcceptsEverything The problem AcceptsEverything asks whether or not a given Turing machine T halts on every string over a given alphabet . Since the halting problem is unsolvable. Suppose that AcceptsEverything is solvable. a Turing machine. that solves the halting problem can be constructed as follows: Given a description d(T') of a Turing machine T' and a string w as inputs. M solves the halting problem.can be shown to be unsolvable. Then there is a Turing machine that solves it. Then M halts on d(T') and w if and only if T' halts on w. which is an instance of the halting problem. Using this T. Let a Turing machine T' and a string w be an instance of the halting problem. where Terase is a Turing machine that erases the input on the tape and halts. Suppose that Accepts( ) is solvable. the halting problem can be solved. this means that Accepts( ) is unsolvable. Using this T. Let A be a Turing machine that solves Accepts( ). where machine Tw is a Turing machine that writes w. That is. Let T' be an instance of Accepts( ). a Turing machine. that solves Accepts( ) can be constructed as . This T halts on if and only if T' halts on w. This T halts on every string over if and only if T1 halts on . M writes the string d( T ) on the tape and let A take over.

Then the following problems are all unsolvable. it means that AcceptsEverything is unsolvable. Since Accepts( ) is unsolvable. Other Unsolvable Problems Let G1 and G2 be context-free grammars and let L(G) denote the language generated by grammar G. Equivalence This problem asks whether or not two Turing machines accept the same language. It can be shown to be unsolvable using Accepts( ) . It can be shown to be unsolvable using AcceptsEverything. AcceptsNothing This problem asks whether or not a Turing machine accepts nothing. By similar arguments the following problems can be shown to be unsolvable.shown below. Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) = ? finite ? infinite ? context-free ? Is L( G1 ) = L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) = * ? Is the complement of L( G1 ) context-free ? .

Time Complexity of Problem Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Complexity Time Complexity Subjects to be Learned • • • • • Time Complexity of Problems Decision Tree Class NP Polynomial Time Transformation NP-Complete Problems Contents In the previous sections we have learned that some problems are unsolvable by Turing machines hence by computers. No one can write computer programs that solve those problems and halt after a finite amount of time. A problem is solvable if some Turing . Next -. Click True or Fals .Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. then Submit.

X [ if ~( X = 1 ). a heap sort needs O(n lg n) time. However. and there are problems that require algorithms with the worst case time worse than k-exponential time for any natural number k. So it is not satisfiable. For example a binary search takes O(lg n) time. where k is a natural number. the equality symbol = and quantifiers and . it is still solvable. problems that need k-exponential time algorithms. One can ask the same question for formulas of first order predicate logic. For example the formula ( P V ~P ) is always true. the satisfiability problem for the propositional dynamic logic is proven to take exponential time to solve in the worst case. This is a propositional logic with an extra construct (proposition) after(A. where P is a propositional variable. For many problems a day or even an hour would be too long. in practice if it takes a million years. Similarly ( P V Q ) is also satisfiable. They are both satisfiable. S). Even if it takes a million years to solve a problem. For example the satisfiability problem for Presburger arithmetic is double-exponential (2-fold exponentail). are propositions of PDL. For example. In this section we are going to study solvable problems and learn a hierarchy of solvable problems based on the computation time required to solve them. . or etc. So it is certainly satisfiable. Presburger arithmetic is a logic that allows statements involving positive integers. The measure for computation time we use is the worst case time. Then there are problems that require double exponential ( e. The satisfiability problem becomes even harder when logic becomes more complex. For more detailed review of this. For example. the addition operation +. as well as all the connectives such as and. etc. The problems that can not be solved with any polynomial time algorithm are called intractable problems . where A is an algorithm and S is a statement. second order logic. But (P ^ ~P ) is always false. Q )" . Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved by algorithms with the worst case time which is a polynomial in the problem size (polynomial time algorithms). Let us see some of those intractable problems. 22n ) time algorithms. a quick sort needs O(n2) time. then Y Z [ X = Y + Z ] ] is a proposition of Presburger arithmetic. ~Q )" and "if P then after( if P then Q else ~Q. This is the problem of asking whether or not a given formula can take the value true for some values of its variables. etc.machine can solve it in finite time. it is as good (or bad) as unsolvable. For example "after( if P then Q else ~Q. S) says that S is true after executing A. as we are going to see below. O(f(x)) (big-oh) and other related subjects click here. It is estimated by counting the largest possible number of key operations to be performed in terms of the input size. after(A. where P and Q are propositions. In logic there is a well known problem of "satisfiability". that is it requires at least O( aan ) time to solve in the worst case. variables taking positive integers as their values. The satisfiability problem for PDL is known to take at least exponential time to solve in the worst case. They are all polynomial time algorithms. They take much more time to execute than polynomial time algorithms.g. Before proceeding to predicate logic let us consider the following logic called propositional dynamic logic (PDL for short). There are also problems that must be solved at best by exponential time algorithms in the worst case.

First. At the moment. in addition. sets of integers and the predicate "belongs to" (an element X belongs to a set S) are allowed. " Is it possible to assign colors to vertices of a given graph using a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned ? " etc. is it possible to color its vertices with three or less colors ? . the logic is called WS1S (Weak Second-order theory of 1 Successor). if. This problem belongs to a peculiar class of problems called NP-Complete problems. For the satisfiability problem of WS1S.In Presburger arithmetic (minus addition operation). Consider the problem of coloring vertices of a graph with a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned. Such a problem (having no K-fold exponential time algorithms) is called nonelementary. For example. Let us try to solve the following instances of this graph coloring problem: Given the following graph. This problem is called "Graph Coloring" problem or more precisely "Vertex Color" problem. For the problems of this class there are no known polynomial time algorithms for solving them nor are they known to be unsolvable with polynomial time algorithms. the consensus is that they ca not be solved with polynomial time algorithms. there are problems that are solved by answering with yes or no. These problems are called decision problems. "Is a string w in the language a*b ? ". there are no K-fold exponential time algorithms to solve it for any number K. Now let us go back to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. Let us here review nondeterministic Turing machines. Some of these decision problems are NP-complete problems. "Is it possible to schedule committee meetings without conflicts into a given number of time slots ? " . Below we are going to characterize this class of problems. however.

For the graphs of (a) and (b), you could find a solution very easily by inspection. You could see a right coloring as soon as you saw the graphs. However, you can most likely not tell how you arrived at your solutions. You probably don't have any algorithms you could use to solve them. You could somehow see the solutions. This is basically the idea of nondeterministic (Turing) machine. There is no fixed procedure which you can use repeatedly to solve instance after instance of this problem. But you can somehow solve them. Let us move on to a slightly more complex example of (c). For this graph to find a right coloring you could start with vertex 1 and assign color a. Then move on to vertex 2 and assign color b(it has to be something other than a ). Then go to vertex 3 and assign a third color, say c. Then at vertex 4 select color b and for vertex 5 use color a. In this process we make a decision as to what color to use for each vertex and when a decision is made for all the vertices we have a solution to the problem. This process applies to any decision problem. That is to solve a decision problem a number of smaller decisions are made one after another and as a result a solution to the problem is obtained. This process can be represented by a tree called decision tree. For example, for the graph coloring problem let us first decide on the order of vertices we color in, say 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for the graph of (c) above. Then the root of its decision tree corresponds to the vertex we assign a color to first (vertex 1 in this example). Then for each possible color for the first vertex, a child is created for the first vertex of the tree. So the second level of the

decision tree corresponds to the second vertex to be colored. Then in general, for each possible color for each vertex of level i of the decision tree, a child is created. Those children form level i+1 of the decision tree. The decision tree for the graph of (c) is given below. Since any color can be assigned to vertex 1 without loss of generality, it has just one child in the actual decision tree. Also since in this case the i-th and (i+1)-th vertices are connected by an edge for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, they can not have the same color. So each vertex after vertex 1 has two colors to choose from. So they each have two children in the decision tree.

Thus during the process of solving the problem a decision is made at each level and when all levels are covered, the problem is solved. A path from the root to a leaf corresponds to a coloring of the vertices of the given graph. A decision tree, however, does not tell us how to make decisions. Also a decision tree does not tell how to order the vertices for coloring, that is which vertex to color first, second etc. A deterministic machine (or algorithm) has a specific fixed set of rules for making a decision at each level of the decision tree. Although it knows what to do at every stage of problem solving, the decisions it makes are not necessarily the right ones. When it makes wrong decisions, it must retract earlier decisions and try different paths, which is called backtracking. For the graph coloring problem a deterministic algorithm might first order the vertices of the graph in decreasing order of their degree and also order colors. Then, following the

order of the vertices, assign to each vertex the highest order color available for the vertex. Since that kind of algorithm is not guaranteed to use the minimum number of colors, it may produce a wrong answer unless there is some provision for backtracking. A nondeterministic (Turing) machine, on the other hand, is a fictitious machine and somehow knows which branch (child) to select at each step. It always makes a right selection. A decision problem is said to belong to class NP if each vertex in its decision tree has a finite number of children and if it can be solved by a nondeterministic (Turing) machine in polynomial time. The graph coloring problem is in class NP, so are the satisfiability problem for propositional logic and most of the scheduling problems just to name a few. Also there are other characterizations of class NP. Interested readers click here. At this moment it is not known whether or not problems in class NP can be solved with a polynomial time algorithm in the worst case. The consensus is that there is no polynomial time algorithm to solve them. It would take at least exponential time. Among the problems in class NP, there are problems which all problems of class NP can be transformed to in polynomial time. Those problems are called NP-complete problems. If a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of the NP-complete problems, all the problems in NP can be solved in polynomial time. Below we are going to study NPcomplete problems. We start our discussion with the concept of polynomial time transformation (reduction). Basically we say a decision problem Q1 is polynomially reducible to a decision problem Q2 if and only if there is a transformation that transforms any arbitrary instance of Q1 into an instance of Q2 in polynomial time such that the answer to Q1 is yes if and only if the answer to Q2 is yes. A little more formally we define this in terms of languages. Note that a decision problem can be viewed as a language of its instances and that solving it can be considered as recognizing the language as we have seen earlier. Let L1 and L2 be languages over alphabets 1 and 2, respectively. We say that L1 is polynomial-time reducible to L2 if and only if there is a function f from 1* to 2* such that for any string x in polynomial time.

1 *

,x

L1 if and only if f(x)

L2 and f can be computed

For example let us consider the following two problems: graph coloring and scheduling of committee meetings. The graph coloring problem is as given above. In the scheduling of committee meetings problem, committees with their members and a positive integer k are given. The problem is whether or not the meetings of the committees can be scheduled in k or less time slots so that everyone can attend one's meetings. Note that some people may be in more than one committee. Let us try to show that this scheduling problem is polynomial time reducible to the graph coloring problem.

d }. 2. respectively. 3 and 4. Similarly since committees 1 and 3. Suppose also that k = 3. add vertices 1. Suppose that the meetings can be scheduled in p time slots. {a. { b. c }. Then the committees can be grouped into p groups so that the committees in the same group can meet at the same time. Then the meetings can be scheduled in k or less time slots if and only if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. Then since committees 1 and 2 share a. and 1 and 4.What we need to do is given an instance of the scheduling problem construct an instance of the graph coloring problem. 2. 3 and 4 to the graph. and 1 and 4 share members. Corresponding to this grouping assign colors to the vertices of the graph so that the vertices in the same group are given the same color and those in . For example suppose that we are given the committees 1. Let us consider the following transformation: For each committee add a vertex to the graph. edges are added between 1 and 3. The corresponding graph for the graph coloring problem can be constructed as follows: Corresponding to the committees 1. 3 and 4 with the memberships { a. c. b }. 2. and if and only if two committee have some members in common. Thus the scheduling problem asks whether or not the meetings of the given committees can be scheduled in 3 time slots without any conflicts. where p k. d } and { a. Proceeding similarly the following graph is obtained corresponding to the committee memberships. that is construct a graph and give the number of colors to be used to color its vertices so that the meetings can be scheduled if and only if graph can be colored. connect with an edge the vertices corresponding to the committees. an edge is inserted between vertices 1 and 2.

Cook that the problems of class NP can be polynomial time reducible to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. It is also easily seen that the transformation. NP-complete Problems 1. It was first proven by S. For all the problems in class NP can be reduced to P through the known NP-complete problem in polynomial time. If a problem is NP-complete. Partition Problem Given a set of integers. can be done in time polynomial in the size of the problem. 4. This group of problems are called NP-complete problems. Committee Meeting Schedule Problem In fact most scheduling problems are NPcomplete. 7. . Thus these two vertices must get different colors. then the consensus today is that it is most likely that no polynomial time algorithms i. their sizes and a number of bins of the same size. Subsequently the satisfiability problem was found to be polynomial time reducible to many other problems. then P is also NP-complete. Some of them are listed below. then that means that the corresponding committees share some members and that they are scheduled to meet in different time slots. This coloring uses p colors which does not exceed k. find out whether or not the objects can be put into the bins. all the problems can be solved with polynomial time algorithms. For if any two vertices are connected with an edge. 6. Formally a problem is NP-hard if every problem in class NP can be polynomial time reducible to it. 5. Conversely if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. Subgraph Isomorphism Problem Given two graphs. Bin Packing Problem Given a set of objects. Today hundreds of problems are known to be NP-complete. fast algorithms exist to solve it. a traveling salesman wants to know a shortest route to visit all cities exactly once and come back to where he/she started. It can be easily seen that if a problem P at hand is NP-hard and if a problem known to be NP-complete can be polynomial time reducible to P. which in this case can be taken as the number of committees. A problem is NP-complete if it is in class NP and NP-hard. Graph Color Problem 3. group them into two groups so that the sum of the numbers of one group is equal to that of the other group.different groups are given different colors. then it can be easily seen that the committees can meet in k or less time slots. and vertices connected with an edge have different colors. find out whether or not one is a subgraph of the other.e. that is the construction of graph for a given set of committees. As a consequence if a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of those problems. We are now ready to discuss NP-completeness. Satisfiability Problem for Propositional Logic 2. Traveling Salesman Problem Given cities and traveling times between cities.

Set Cover Problem Given a set S.x).x). let A = {1.y}. Then T = {(1. and S = {(1.a. and C appears exactly once in T ? For example.a.b. B and C of the same size. Is there a subset T. . (2.y).b. is it possible to select objects so that the sum of their sizes does not exceed S and the sum of their values is V or larger ? 10. 3-Dimensional Matching Given three sets A.y)}.(1. (2. a set of objects. called a matching. find out whether or not there are k or less subsets in the collection whose union is S. Note that {(1. 9.8. and a subset S of the Cartesian product A X B X C.2}.b. of S such that every element of A. their sizes.x)} is not a matching.x). and C = {x. Knapsack Problem Given a knapsack of size S.b.x)} is a desired set satisfying all the requirements. B.(2.y). B = {a. their values and an integer V.b}. (2.b.a. a collection of subsets of S and an integer k.

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