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Language, Automata: , \alpha : usually denotes a string in this course. , \beta : usually denotes a string in this course. , \delta : usually denotes a transition function in this course. , \sigma : usually denotes a symbol in an alphabet in this course. , \Delta : usually denotes a blank space in this course. , \Gamma : usually denotes a set of stack symbols in this course. , \Lambda : usually denotes an empty string in this course. , \Pi : usually denotes a partition in this course. , \Sigma : usually denotes an alphabet in this course. , \goto : usually denotes a (one step) transition in this course. Logic: , ~ : logical not , ^ : logical and , V : logical or , -> : logical imply , <-> : logical if and only if (equivalent) , => : logical tautologically imply , <=> : logical tautologically equivalent , \A : logical for all , \E : logical for some (there exists)

Sets: , \in : belongs to , \not\in : does not belong to , @ : empty set U, : universal set , \subset : proper subset , \not\subset : not a proper subset , \subseteq : subset , \not\subseteq : not a subset , \cup : set union Ai , \cup(i=1 to n) A_i : union of n sets , \cap : set intersection Ai , \cap(i=1 to n) A_i : intersection of n sets , \bar A : complement of set A (A) , P(A) : power set of set A , X : Cartesian product Ai , X(i=1 to n) A_i : cartesian product of n sets Relation: < a, b > : ordered pair < a1, a2, ..., an > : ordered n-tuple , <= : precedes (partial order) Functions: xi , Sum(i=1 to n) x_i : sum of n xi's O(f) , O(f) : of order smaller than or equal to f

o(f) , o(f) : of order smaller than f (f) , Omega : of order greater than or equal to f (f) , omega : of order greater than f (f) , Theta : of the same order as f f(x) , lim(x -> inf) f(x) : limit of f as x goes to infinity

**Introduction to Theoretical Computer Science
**

Today computers are used everywhere: banks, hospitals, schools, airline companies, gas stations, grocery stores, in our cars, in home appliances, PCs, etc., etc. Some are used to crunch numbers, some are used to process images, some are used to process other nonnumeric data and some are used to control operations of various devices. They can reason, they can prove many mathematical theorems, they can beat chess experts in their game, they can solve some very complex problems, they can understand our languages, they can answer our questions and of course they can crunch numbers much much faster than us. Let us for a moment call what computers do computation for convenience, though some of the things computers do such as controling appliances, answering our questions etc. don't fall into our traditional sense of computation. Then these computers seem to be able to compute an awfully lot of things if not everything. But are they capable of computing anything ? Are there things computers can not do ? If there are things computers can not do, what are they ? And why ? If there aren't things computers can not do, then how can we tell ? What do we exactly mean by computation ? Unfortunately there are many things computers can not do. Computers can not solve certain types of problems. For example no computer can tell in general whether or not a given computer program stops after a finite amount of time on a given input. They can not solve some other types of problems fast enough even though they can solve them in some finite amount of time. For example take the traveling salesman problem: a salesman is given a road map with distances between cities and wants to find a shortest round trip route that visits all the cities on the map exactly once. At the moment the so called traveling salesman problem requires an extremely large amount of time to solve. No one has been able to find a reasonably fast algorithm to solve it and the consensus is that it is not likely that anyone can find such an algorithm. I have just given you an example of the problems that computers could not solve. How do we know that that is the case ? Are there other problems like that ? How can we tell whther or not a given problem can be solved and solved fast enough ?

The languages that are recognized by finite automata are called regular languages. Thus when a finite automaton is processing strings. In particular we are going to see a few problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers and how we can tell that they are unsolvable. which is the key to the unsolvability of problem by computers. Turing machines also recognize languages. Since so many systems in practice can be described by regular languages. we go to Turing machines. This essence is a device called Turing machine. we study a simpler type of computing device called finite automata. ways to describe them and how to use them to model many of the real life systems. It turns out that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. The languages Turing machines recognize are called Type 0 (or phrase structure) languages (regular languages are Type 3) and they are more complex than regular languages. it is generally believed (Church's thesis) that any "computation" humans do can be done by Turing machines and that "computation" is the computation performed by Turing machines. We call a set of strings (of symbols) a language. which are also heavily used in practice. every task modern computers perform can also be accomplished by Turing machines. Before proceeding to the study of Turing machines and their computations in this course. . Thus by studying Turing machines we can learn capabilities hence limitatgions of computers. we are also going to study regular languages in detail as well as finite automata. We say finite automata recognize languages. There we learn how computers can be simulated by Turing machines and what it means that a Turing machine recognizes (decides) a language. Consequently they are less capable than Turing machines but then their operations are simpler. It was first conceived of by Alan Turing in early 20-th century. After briefly studying context-free languges. it can actually be solving a problem. It is a very simple device but remarkably. So they provide a good introduction to our study of Turing machines. Though it has not been proven. Then with Turing machines we investigate limitations of computers and computations. Those four languages are together called formal languages. that is to study limitations of computers and computation. Finite automata are very similar to Turing machines but a few restrictions are imposed on them. We are going to learn their properties.The main objective of this course is to answer those questions. The other two are context-free languages and context-sensitive languages. These two type of languages belong to a hierarchy of four languages called Homsky hierarchy. We are going to investigate limitations of computers and computations by studying the essence of compuers and computations rather than all the variations of computer and computation. Thus they are a powerful tool to design and study those systems with. In addition finite automata can model a large number of systems used in practice. More specifically they answer the question whether or not a given string belongs to a language. Finite automata process strings.

For example for the traveling salesman problem if 100 cities were too many to solve fast enough. We are going to see some of those which take a large amount of time. true or false. Let us start with review of mathematics. Unfortunately there is nothing we can do to speed them up. . Example: The following statements are propositions as they have precise truth values. Their truth values are false and true. "Connective": Two or more propositions can be combined together to make compound propositions with the help of logical connectives. • • 2 is a odd number.000 times it can handle only ten or so more larger problem sizes. then with the increase in the processor speed of 1. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved within a reasonable amount of time and there are problems that are known to require a finite but very large amount of time to solve. respectively. then even if the processor speed increased 1. 4 is a perfect square.Our last topic is time complexities of various problems. Basic Mathematical Objects Back to Table of Contents The following are the contents of this introductory chapter. Increasing the processor speed does not help much for such problems. If the computation time is 2n where n is the size of the problem. • • • • Logic Sets Relations Functions Logic Proposition and Logical Connectives "Proposition" can be defined as a declarative statement having a specific truth-value. The time needed to solve such a problem increases at least exponentially with the size of the problem as long as we use Turing machines (hence computers). The time complexity issues are investigated using Turing machines so that the results apply to all computers.000 times 110 cities would already be too many.

Conjunction The logical conjunction is understood in the same way as commonly used ôandö. . Truth table for two individual propositions p and q with conjunction is given below p T T F F q T F T F p^q T F F F b. It is represented as " ^ ".Example: Above two propositions can be used to make a compound proposition using any of the logical connectives. The compound proposition truth-value is true iff all the constituent propositions hold true. For the first compound proposition to be true both the propositions have to be true as the connective is AND and as OR is the connective for the second one if either of the propositions is true the truth value of the compound proposition is true. The following are the logical connectives used commonly: a. 2 is an odd number OR 4 is a perfect square. Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F pVq T T T F c. Negation This is the logical "negation" and it is expressed by Truth table is given below as p for "not p". • • 2 is an odd number AND 4 is a perfect square. Their truth vales are false and true respectively. Disjunction This is logical "or" read as either true value of the individual propositions.

E. p q is read as "if p. If p and q have the same truth-value in every case then they are said to be logically equivalent and it is represented as p <=> q. Biconditional A proposition (p q) ^ (q p) can be abbreviated using biconditional conjunction as p q and is read as "if p then q.p T F p F T d. It is represented as p => q.g. "if not q then not p" . Following are some of the useful identities and implications from propositional logic: Identities . e. which is false in every case.: p V p g. For example. "q is a necessity/consequence of p" and "q whenever p" are all differnt ways of saying "if p then q". "q is necessary for p". then q" Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F p T F T T q p -> q is also expressed in a number of different (but equivalent) ways in English.g.e. "p is sufficient for q" .: p ^ p Logical implication and equivalence If the value of p -> q is true in every case. which is true in every case. and if q then p". "p only if q" . Tautology A compound proposition. Conditional This is used to define as "a proposition holds true if another proposition is true" i. Contradiction This is the opposite of tautology. f. E. then p is said to logically imply q.

[(P 3. [(P 2. The phrase "is blue" is a predicate and it describes the property of being blue. (P Q) ( P Q) ----. The predicate logic is one of the extensions of propositional logic and it is fundamental to most other types of logic. examples and proofs of these identities go to Identities Implications 1. .implication Q) R] [P (Q R)] ----. (P 4. (P 3. For example.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. "The sky is blue". Central to the predicate logic are the concepts of predicate and quantifier. examples and proofs of these implications go to Implications Predicate and Predicate Logic The propositional logic is not powerful enough to represent all types of assertions that are used in computer science and mathematics. [(P Q) Q] P ----. For more complex reasoning we need more powerful logic capable of expressing complicated propositions and reasoning. [(P 5.contrapositive For explanations.modus tollens Q) (R S)] [(P R) (Q S)] Q) (Q R)] (P R) For explanations. or a relationship among objects represented by the variables.exportation Q) ( Q P) ----. (P 2. or to express certain types of relationship between propositions such as equivalence ( for more detail click here for example for example ). the sentences "The car Tom is driving is blue". A predicate is a template involving a verb that describes a property of objects. and "The cover of this book is blue" come from the template "is blue" by placing an appropriate noun/noun phrase in front of it.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----.1.

x > 1". Universe of Discourse The universe of discourse. B(x) reads as "x is blue". The propositions in the predicate logic are statements on objects of a universe. a quantification is performed on formulas of predicate logic (called wff ). for example. For example. If we adopt B as the name for the predicate "is_blue". for example. the statemen t x > 1 to "for every object x in the universe. . There are two types of quantifiers: universal quantifier and existential quantifier. The universal quantifier turns. "Blue" or "B" can be used to represent the predicate "is blue" among others. the statement x > 1 to "for some object x in the universe.Predicates are often given a name. sentences that assert an object is blue can be represented as "B(x)". This new statement is true or false in the universe of discourse. and it becomes a true statement. called atomic formula. In general. quantify the variable using a quantifier (see below). For example any of "is_blue". Hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. can be made a proposition by applying one of the following two operations to each of its variables: 1. and hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. also called universe . It can be the set of real numbers. The universe is thus the domain of the (individual) variables. is the set of objects of interest. x > 1 becomes 3 > 1 if 3 is assigned to x. by using quantifiers on variables . such as x > 1 or P(x). A predicate with variables. x > 1". hence a proposition." Again. which is expressed as " x x > 1". Similarly the existential quantifier turns. it is true or false in the universe of discourse. which is expressed as " x x > 1. assign a value to the variable 2. where x represents an arbitrary object.

It allows one to reason about properties and relationships of individual objects.the set of integers. one can use some additional inference rules. the set of all cars on a parking lot. [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] x [ P(x) Q(x) ] 3. In predicate logic. some of which are given below. the set of all students in a classroom etc. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 4. as well as those for propositional logic such as the equivalences. implications and inference rules. But it should be obvious from the context. The universe is often left implicit in practice. Sets . Also for proof and proof techniques see Mathematical Reasoning. Important Inference Rules of Predicate Logic: First there is the following rule concerning the negation of quantified statement which is very useful: x P(x) x P(x) Next there is the following set of rules on quantifiers and connvectives: 1. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 2. Predicate logic is more powerful than propositional logic. see Reasoning(with predicate logic) and Quantifiers and Connectives in Discrete Structures course. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] For more discussions and examples on these rules and others.

3. A is a subset of B.What is a set? Set is a group of elements. Example: A = {1. Note: If A is a subset of B and B is a subset of A then A=B. Subset Let A and B be two sets.1. .2. How to specify a Set? One way is to enumerate the elements completely.3. Example: B = {x | x is a positive integer less than or equal to 5} Some sets can also be defined recursively. It is read as "the set of natural numbers that are less than or equal to 5". Using this notation we can specify the set {0. if A is a subset of. Universal Set The set U of all the elements we might ever consider in the discourse is called the universal set. Also. A is a subset of B is represented as A B. but not equal to B represented as A B. Set terminology Belongs To x B means that x is an element of set B.5} Alternate way is to give the properties that characterize the elements of the set. if every element of A is an element of B.4} call it Z by writing Z = {x | x N | x 5} where N represents the set of natural numbers. having a property that characterizes those elements. All the elements belonging to the set are explicitly given.4.2.

B B .3} B = {3.2.2. It is denoted by A B.5} 2.8} then A B = {3.9 } are disjoint. where means " is not an element of ". A B= ø.2} Note that in general A .3 } .A .8. Example: If A = {1.3. then the union of A and B is the set that contains all the elements that are in A and B including the ones in both A and B. Example: If A = {1.A = {4. Union If A and B are two sets. then the intersection of A and B is the set that consists of the elements in both A and B . It is denoted by A .2. then the difference of A from B is the set that consists of the elements of A that are not in B.4. Difference If A and B are two sets.3.Complement If A is a set.3} and B = {3. then A' = { x | x U ^ x > 3}.4. Set Operations The operations that can be performed on sets are: 1.B. Disjoint sets A and B are said to be disjoint if they contain no elements in common i.2. Example: A = { 1. 3. Example: If A = {1.2.8}.4.. It is denoted by A' or . Example: If U is the set of natural numbers and A = { 1.8} B = {3. where ø is the Empty set.e.3.5.5} then A . For A and B of the above example B .4.5} then A B = {1.B = {1.2.5 } .5} . Intersection If A and B are two sets. Thus A' = { x | x U ^ x A } .4. and B = { 6. then the complement of A is the set consisting of all elements of the universal set that are not in A. It is denoted by A B.

B. . It is a very good tool to get a general idea. The Commutative laws: A B=B A A B=B A The Associative laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Distributive laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Idempotent laws: A A=A A A=A The Absorptive laws: A (A B) = A A (A B) = A The De Morgan laws: (A B)' = A' B' (A B)' = A' B' Other laws involving Complements: ( A' )' = A A A A' = ø A' = U B) B) B) B) C C (A (A C) C) Other laws involving the empty set A A ø=A ø=ø Other laws involving the Universal Set: A U=U A U=A Venn Diagrams A common technique in working with Set Operations is to illustrate them by drawing Venn Diagrams.Following is a list of some standard Set Identities A. C represent arbitrary sets and ø is the empty set and U is the Universal Set.

For example sets A = { 1.4 } can be represented as shown below using Venn Diagrams: Set A U represents the Universal set in which A is one of the Set.8.3.2.2. The idea of Venn Diagram is to draw a region representing the universe and within that to draw the regions representing the component sets we are starting with so that the resulting diagram describes their interrelationships. .Note. however. because they can represent only very limited situations and miss many other possibilities.4 } and B = { 6. that Venn Diagrams must NOT be used for rigorous discussions.

Set B The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A B .

A B .

.The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A U B A A B B is the set consisting of all the different elements in A and B.

2.4 } A B = { 1.3.(A B) = { 5.5. 7 } B = { 2.3.2. For example: U = { 1.8 } A = { 1.4.8 } (A B)' = U .6.6.4.(A B)' is the yellow region in the Venn diagram given below.7.2.8 } .4.3.6.

For example expressions we often use A holds. A2 .A is the blue shaded region in the Venn Diagram shown below Generalized Set Operations Union.. which we write as Ai This generalized union of sets can be rigorously defined as follows: Definition ( Ai) : .B is the yellow shaded region and B . intersection and Cartesian product of sets are associative. This can be generalized for the union of any finite number of sets as A1 An . To denote either of these B C.A ...

The basis clause (or simply basis) of the definition establishes that certain objects are in the set. The set of elements specified here is called basis of the set being defined. Inductive Clause: Ai = ( Ai) An+1 Ai and generalized Cartesian product Similarly the generalized intersection Ai can be defined. and = Recursive Definition Recursive Definition Subjects to be Learned • • • • • recursive/inductive definition basis clause basis inductive clause extremal clause A recursive definition of a set always consists of three distinct clauses: 1. This part of the definition specifies the "seeds" of the set from which the elements of the set are generated using the methods given in the inductive clause. Based on these definitions. . Ai = A1.Basis Clause: For n = 1 . De Morgan's law on set union and intersection can also be generalized as follows: Theorem (Generalized De Morgan) = .

0 is the parent of 1. The Set of Even Integers Basis Clause: . and the new object is their child .5. the object is not a member of the set. which is not what we want as the set of natural numbers. 3. Following this definition. the set of natural numbers N can be obtained as follows: First by (1). The basis for this set N is { 0 } . 1 + 1 (= 2) is in N. can be included in N. The extremal clause asserts that unless an object can be shown to be a member of the set by applying the basis and inductive clauses a finite number of times. Let us call the objects used to create a new object the parents of the new object. Example 3. The Set of Nonnegative Even Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . 0 + 1 (= 1) is in N. Then by (2) again.5.5.. 0. 2. The inductive clause (or simply induction) of the definition establishes the ways in which elements of the set can be combined to produce new elements of the set. and 1 is the child of 0. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. The x + 1 in the Inductive Clause is the parent of x. . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. 1 is the parent of 2. and x is the child of x + 1. then they can be combined in certain specified ways to create other objects. since 0 is in N.2. and 2 is the child of 1. 0 is put into N. Then by (2). Examples of Recursive Definition of Set Example 1.. The Set of Natural Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . Note that if we don't have (3). Example 2. 1. x + 1 is in . Proceeding in this manner all the natural numbers are put into N. The inductive clause always asserts that if objects are elements of the set. x + 2 is in .

Inductive Clause: For any element x in . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. There are two sets of questions. Recursive Definition of Function Some functions can also be defined recursively. of the domain is defined using its value at the parent(s) of the element x. Tips for recursively defining a set: For the "Basis Clause". Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. The Set of Strings over the alphabet excepting empty string This is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's such as abbab. Inductive Clause: For any element x in . . or shortest strings. Then the value of the function at an element. try simplest elements in the set such as smallest numbers (0. Here ax means the concatenation of a with x. or 1). Example 4. and x . and . and generalize that generation process for the "Inductive Clause". and . then Submit. Basis Clause: . . Condition: The domain of the function you wish to define recursively must be a set defined recursively. Click Yes or No . x + 2. How to define function recursively: First the values of the function for the basis elements of the domain are specified. say x. The set of propositions (propositional forms) can also be defined recursively. etc. To see how it is defined click here.2 are in . Test Your Understanding of Recursive Definition Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. They are all on functions from integer to integer except the last one. simplest expressions. bbabaa. Then see how other elements can be obtained from them. A few examples are given below.

This function L gives the number of a's and b's L(x) for a string x is also often denoted by | x |. Induction Mathematical Induction . 1 ! = 1 * 0 ! = 1 * 1 = 1 . Using this definition. because the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively and that has the extremal clause in it.Example 5: The function f(n) = n! for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 0! = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. Inductive Clause: For any string x and y of S. 3! can be found as follows: Since 0 ! = 1. Hence 2 ! = 2 * 1 ! = 2 * 1 = 2 . L(xy) = L(x) + L(y) . See above for the extremal clause. f(n+1) = (n+1) f(n). So there is no chance of other elements to come into the function being defined. b} to the set of natural numbers that gives the length of a string can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: For symbols a and b of the alphabet. Example 7: The function f(n) = 2n for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. f(n+1) = 2 f(n) . Example 6: The function f(n) = 2n + 1 for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. f(n+1) = f(n) + 2 . Hence 3 ! = 3 * 2 ! = 3 * 2 * 1 = 6 . See Example 5 for the extremal clause. See Example 5 for the extremal clause. where xy is the concatenation of strings x and y. Example 8: The function L from the set S of strings over {a. L(a) = 1 and L(b) = 1. Note that here Extremal Clause is not necessary.

any natural number can be shown to have the property. where is a Induction: Prove that for any integer . . For since 0 has the property by the basis step. Then it is proven that if an arbitrary natural number. that is n + 1. which is 1. has the property in question (basis step). As a first step for proof by induction. natural numbers can be proven to have certain properties as follows: First it is proven that the basis element. has the same property again by the inductive step. Taking advantage of this. then P(n) is true for all natural number . the element next to it. then the next element. and the process of generating an element from a known element in the set. then it follows that all the natural numbers have that property. has that property (inductive step). we proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P( ) is true. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 can be proven by mathematical induction by the same token.. the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively. if P(k) is true (called induction hypothesis). the element next to it.Subjects to be Learned • • • • • first principle of mathematical induction basis step induction hypothesis induction second principle of mathematical induction Contents First Priciple of Mathematical Induction As we have seen in recursion . This process is somewhat analogous to the knocking over a row of dominos with knocking over the first domino corresponding to the basis step. To prove that a statement P(n) is true for all natural number natural number. More generally mathematical statements involving a natural number n such as 1 + 2 + . then P(k+1) is true. has the same property by the inductive step. The first principle of mathematical induction states that if the basis step and the inductive step are proven. and its elements can be generated one by one starting with 0 by adding 1. which is 2. Thus the set of natural numbers can be described completely by specifying the basis element (0). has the property in question. When these two are proven. it is often a good idea to restate P(k+1) in terms of .. denote it by n. that is 0. Then since 1 has the property. Proceeding likewise.

Factoring (n + 1) out. and somehow use the induction hypothesis... Thus LHS = RHS for n+1. can be used. Formally the second principle of induction states that if n [ k [ k < n P(k) ] P(n) ] . Here let us try LHS for n + 1 = 0 + 1 + . -------. 0 + 1 + . Example: Prove that for any natural number n. Proof: Basis Step: If n = 0. + n + (n + 1) = (0 + 1 + . which is equal to the RHS for n+1. Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary natural number n. . then LHS = 0. and in the inductive step P(n) is proved assuming P(k) holds for all k < n ... we get (n + 1)(n + 2) / 2 . Here k [ k < n P(k) ] is the induction hypothesis. Hence LHS = RHS. 1 + 3 + . and RHS = 0 * (0 + 1) = 0 . This form of induction does not require the basis step.Induction Hypothesis To prove this for n+1.. first try to express LHS for n+1 in terms of LHS for n. Example 1: Let us prove the following equality using the second principle: For any natural number n .. The reason that this principle holds is going to be explained later after a few examples of proof.. Second Priciple of Mathematical Induction There is another form of induction over the natural numbers based on the second principle of induction to prove assertions of the form x P(x) . Using the induction hypothesis. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 ..1) to prove P(n)..P(k) so that P(k). End of Proof. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . Certain problems can be proven more easily by using the second principle than the first principle because P(k) for all k < n can be used rather than just P(n . then n P(n) can be concluded.. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2. the last expression can be rewritten as n( n + 1 )/2 + (n + 1) . 0 + 1 + . which is assumed to be true. + n) + (n + 1) .

. can be written as the product of prime numbers. which is a prime number. = ( n + 1 )n! ..1 ) * ( n .. Since both p and q are smaller than n. the individual can wear. Therefore the statement holds true..1 Hence by the second principle of induction positive integers. n > k > 1. + k * k! = ( k + 1 )! ..1 holds for all Example 3: Prove that any positive integer n > 1. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . Let's assume that a person owns three shirts and two pairs of slacks.. Since n is an integer... Hence by the second principle of induction 1 + 3 + . We are going to prove that n can be written as the product of prime numbers. the individual may wish to restrict . + ( n . then it is a product of two positive integers. If n is a prime number. A binary relation from A into B is any subset of the Cartesian product A x B. Then 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . + ( 2k + 1 ) = ( k + 1 )2 holds for all k.1 )! + n * n! = n! . Relations Definition Relation Let A and B be sets. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . let A = {blue shirt. it is either a prime number or not a prime number. Hence n can also be written as the product of prime numbers. say p and q. Example1: nbsp. + ( 2n . then it is the product of 1. mint green shirt} and B = {gray slacks. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 holds for all natural numbers. If n is not a prime number. and itself.Proof: Assume that 1 + 3 + . by the induction hypothesis they can be written as the product of prime numbers (Note that this is not possible if the First Principle is being used).. k < n. Proof: Assume that for all positive integers k.. k < n. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( 1 + 3 + .1 + n * n! by the induction hypothesis.1 Proof: Assume that 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + .1 for all k. Then 1 + 3 + .. Then certainly A x B is the set of all possible combinations (six) of shirts and slacks that nbsp. More precisely. k can be written as the product of prime numbers. However.. tan slacks}. Example 2: Prove that for all positive integer n.1 ) ) + ( 2n + 1 ) = n2 + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 by the induction hypothesis.

Then P is a relation on A which we might call a parent-child relation. (3. 3.himself to combinations which are color coordinated. or R(x) =y where y = x2 . 6) and define a relation R from A into A by (a. 3. Composition Let R be a relation from a set A into set B. where (a. 6}. 5. is the set of pairs of the form(a. This may not be all possible pairs in A x B but will certainly be a subset of A x B. b) | a A ^ b A ^ a is a child of b } . (6. Relation on a Set A relation from a set A into itself is called a relation on A. as in the previous example. written as RS. The composition of R and S. 5. (5. (3. A typical element in R is an ordered pair (x. tan slacks).6). R = { (x. 2). Let A be a set of people and let P = {(a. gray slack). Example2: Let A = {2. (black shirt. This may not be convenient if R is relatively large. c) RS if and only if there exists b B such that (a. b) Rand (b. PropertiesOf Relations . 6). For example PP. R could be more naturally expressed as R(x) = x2 . (mint green shirt. c) S. R = {(2. So. Other notations are used depending on the past practice. or "related". and S be a relation from set B into set C. (2. R and S of Example 2 above are relations on A = {2. In some cases R can be described by actually listing the pairs which are in R. is the composition of P with itself and it is a relation which we know as grandparentgrandchild relation. y) | x <= y}. where P is the parent-child relation given above. tan slacks) }. one such subset may be { (blue shirt. Consider the following relation on real numbers. c) A x C. 6)}. 3). 5). y) | y is the square of x} and S = { (x. b) R if and only if a divides evenly into b. y). For example.

Transitive: R is transitive if for every a. 1. from a set A to a set B is a relation from A to B that satisfies 1. if aRb. The set A in the above definition is called the domain of the function and B its codomain. Function Functions Subjects to be Reviewed • • • • • • • • • • • • function domain. if <a. codomain image image of set range sum of functions product of functions one-to-one function (injection) onto function (surjection) one-to-one onto function (bijection) inverse function composite function Definition (function): A function. c> are in the relation. then b = c . b> and <a. b> is in the relation. in other words.Assume R is a relation on set A. if aRb and bRc. and 2. there is an element b in B such that <a. b) R . for each element a in A. f is a function if it covers the domain (maps every element of the domain) and it is single valued. then aRc. 2. symmetric and transitive. Thus. . a R a. then bRa. Reflexive: R is reflexive if for every a A. Let us write a Symmetric: R is symmetric if for every a and b in A. R R b to denote (a. Equivalence: R is an equivalence relation on A if R is reflexive. A x A. b and c in A. 4. 3. denote it by f.

and is denoted by f(S) . The image of the domain under f is called the range of f . where S is a subset of the domain A of f . Then the sum and the product of f and g are defined as follows: For all x. f(S) = { f(a) | a S }. if and only if for every element y of B . { 0. because for example f(1) = f(-1) = 1 . Example: Let f be the function from the set of natural numbers N to N that maps each natural number x to x2 . the image of. if it is onto and one-to-one. and b is called the image of a under f . that is.The relation given by f between a and b represented by the ordered pair <a. nothing in N can be mapped to 3 by this function. f is onto if and only if f( A ) = B . Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is one-to-one and onto. 1. Then ( f + g )(x) = x2 + 3x + 1 .. for example. x = y . f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to N is not onto. Then the domain and codomain of this f are N. Definition (bijection): A function is called a bijection . and its range is the set of squares.e. Every bijection has a function called the inverse function. Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is an onto function. However. Definition (onto): A function f from a set A to a set B is said to be onto(surjective) ... . under this function is 9. Definition (sum and product): Let f and g be functions from a set A to the set of real numbers R. ( f*g )(x) = f(x)*g(x) . ( f + g )(x) = f(x) + g(x) . 16. Thus it is a bijection. say 3. that is. b> is denoted as f(a) = b . . because. and ( f*g )(x) = 3x3 + x2 Definition (one-to-one): A function f is said to be one-to-one (injective) . 4. Example: Let f(x) = 3x + 1 and g(x) = x2 . and for all x. Example: The function f(x) = x2 from the set of natural numbers N to N is a one-to-one function.} . there is an element x in A such that f(x) = y . i. Note that f(x) = x2 is not one-to-one if it is from the set of integers(negative as well as non-negative) to N . 9. The set of images of the elements of a set S under a function f is called the image of the set S under f. where f(x)*g(x) is the product of two real numbers f(x) and g(x). if and only if whenever f(x) = f(y) .

the rightmost function in the above figure is a bijection and its inverse is obtained by reversing the direction of each arrow. In each figure below. Example: The inverse function of f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of non-negative even numbers E is f -1(x) = 1/2 x from E to N . are all languages in that sense. It is also a bijection. Example: Let f(x) = x2 . where f(x) = y . natural languages etc. and arrows show < x. Therefore one can also talk about composition of functions. and it is denoted by f -1 . . denoted by fg . Then the function g is called the inverse function of f. A function is a relation. Others such as languages of logics. in this course. Then the composition of functions f and g . is the function from A to C that satisfies fg(x) = f( g(x) ) for all x in A . and let f be a function from B to a set C . Note that such an x is unique for each y because f is a bijection. Definition (inverse): Let f be a bijection from a set A to a set B. a set of strings of symbols. Then f( g(x) ) = ( x + 1 )2 . languages of mathematics. if for every element y of B. Introduction to Language A language is. the points on the left are in the domain and the ones on the right are in the codomain. For example. and g(x) = x + 1 . f(x) > relation.These concepts are illustrated in the figure below. Definition (composite function): Let g be a function from a set A to a set B . g(y) = x . Programming langauges we use are a language in that sense.

Also there are various kinds of computing devices called automata which process these types of languages Thus formal languages can also be characterized by the computing devices which process them. if the number of states of DFA is minimized. we are going to learn modeling of systems finite automata. These formal languages are characterized by grammars which are essentially a set of rewrite rules for generating strings belonging to a language as we see later. However.). Type 3 is a subset of type 2 which is a subset of type 1 and type 0 is the most general including the other three as a subset. nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) and nondeterministic finite automata with transitions (NFA. The four classes are regular (or type 3) languages. On the other hand DFAs are suited for writing a simulator program because there is no nondeterminism such as going to two or more states from a state upon reading one input symbol. Then we investigate various kinds of finite automata: deterministic finite automata (DFA). It can be rigorously shown that some problems can not be solved by computers in any finite amount of time and that some others are practically unsolvable because of the time it takes to solve them. As we are going to learn next. checking whether or not a string is in a language. are quite useful for modeling systems used in practice such as co9mputer network communication protocols. Then after seeing yet another way of representing regular laguages. NFA and NFAare conceptually simpler and easier to use when modeling a system because there are no restrictions on transitions for them unlike for DFA. They are devices that recognize regular languages. We are going to see an algorithm for converting NFAto NFA which recognizes the same language and another for NFA to DFA conversion. lexical analyzers and parser for compilers for programming languages. Also for some important classes of problems. context-sensitive (or type 1) languages and phrase structure (or type 0) languages. then the resulting DFA is unique up to the state names for a given regular language. These formal languages and automata capture the essense of various computing devices and computation in a very simple way. regular and context-free languages. context-free (or type 2) languages. together with regular expressions which are a method of representing regular languages. Our last topic on regular language is testing of languages for non-regularity. solving them can be seen as recognizing languages i. In asddition two of the formal languages. in general there are more than one NFAs and DFAs that reconize one language.e. Then we study regular languages. regular grammars. In the following chapters we first learn about languages. the simplest of the four formal languages.What we are going to study on languages in this course are four classes of languages called (Chomsky) formal languages and their properties. Definitions on Language Subjects to be Learned . Using automata and formal languages we can study limitations of computer and computation.

baa} is a language (over alphabert {a. 1} is an alphabet with two symbols. The number of symbols in a string is called the length of the string. a and aabab are examples of string over alphabet {a. For any alphabet . So a string is a substring of itself. Kleene star Contents Here we are going to learn the concept of language in very abstract and general sense. 10 and 001 are examples of string over alphabet {0. A string x is called a substring of another string y if there are strings u and v such that y = uxv. {a. Thus | | = 0. Let u and v be strings. Note that vu = bbabaab uv. Note that u and v may be an empty string. Thus a language over alphabet is a subset of . the set of all strings over (including the empty string) is denoted by . that is. uv is the string obtained by appending the sequence of symbols of v to that of u.1}). The empty string is denoted by (capital lambda). Though has no symbols. So it is not empty. Operations on languages Since languages are sets. That is. Thus the union. Then uv denotes the string obtained by concatenating u with v. A string x is a prefix of another string y if there is a string v such that y = xv. v is called a suffix of y. ab. A language is a set of strings over an alphabet. b. Thus {a. all the set operations can be applied to languages. For example {0. For example if u = aab and v = bbab. The set { } is a language which has one string. 1}. 111} is a language (over alphabet {0. it has no symbols. 1. namely .b}) and {0. operations on languages and some of their properties. We are going to use first few symbols of English alphabet such as a and b to denote symbols of an alphabet and those toward the end such as u and v for strings. A string (also called a word) is a finite sequence of symbols of an alphabet. The empty string (also called null string) is the string with length 0. intersection. this set has an object in it. an alphabet is a finite set of symbols. It can be defined more formally by recursive definition. intersetion and difference of two languages over an alphabet are languages over . Basic concepts First. 2. For a string w its length is represented by |w|. Some special languages The empty set is a language which has no strings.• • • • alphabet string (word) language operations on languages: concatenation of strings. then uv = aabbbab. 3. b} is another alphabet with two symbols and English alphabet is also an alphabet. union. b} and 0.

. } The * in * is also the same Kleene star defined above. aaba} = {abaaa. ak and uk can be defined similarly. bb.. L* is the set of strings obtained by concatenating zero or more strings of L as we are going to see in Theorem 1. This * is called Kleene star. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k. bb }. ababb. Then the concatenation of L1 with L2 is denoted as L1L2 and it is defined as L1L2 = { uv | u L1 and v L2 }. abaaba. aba. These powers can be formally defined recursively. For example {ab. baaa. abb. For example Lk can be defined recursively as follows. Here a0 = and u0 = . * The following two types of languages are generalizations of them quite often in this course. bbaba. Recursive definition of L+: Basis Clause: L L+ . Lk means the concatenation of k L's. b} {aaa. Similarly for a language L. bbbb. For a string u and a natural number k. baaba}. Powers : For a symbol a and a natural number k. Hence Lk is the set of strings that can be obtained by concatenating k strings of L. Recursive definition of L*: Basis Clause: L* and we are going to see Inductive Clause: For any x L* and any w L. uk denotes the concatenation of k u's. For example if L = { aba. the extremal clause is not necessary. Let L1 and L2 be languages.L and it is also a Another operation onlanguages is concatenation. The complement of a language L over an alphabet language.. is . babb. ababb.. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. ak represents the concatenation of k a's. That is L1L2 is the set of strings obtained by concatenating strings of L1 with those of L2. abaaba. then L* = { . xw L*. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = Lk L.

wimi Hence x = w11 . ... Theorem 5: L* = (L*)*. w2.. L* and L* have a number of interesting properties.. any nonempty string in L* or L+ can be expresssed as the concatenation of strings of L. Other proofs are omitted.. bbaba. for each wi there are strings wi1... abaaba. Since w1. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L+ unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. where wi's are strings of L. w1w2.e.Inductive Clause: For any x L+ and any w L.. ababb. bb. then L+ = { aba.w2m2. bb }. Then there are nonempty strings w1. Let us list one of them as a theorem and prove it..e.. Theorem 1: Ln Theorem 2: Theorem 3: Theorem 4: L+ = L L* = L*L Note: According to Theorems 2 and 3. wk in L* such that x = w1w2.wk for some k.. L0 L L2 . .wm1. (i. by applying Theorem 2 to the language L* L* Conversely ( L* )* Let x be an arbitrary nonempty string of ( L* )*.. L* can be proven as follows: by Theorem 2.. Hence x is in L* ...wmmk ... ) as ={x|x Lk for some Then the following relationships hold on L* and L+. w2.wk . i... bbbb.. . xw L+... . . Proof: Because we can see that L* (L*)*. wk are strings of L*. } Let us also define natural number k } .. . Thus L+ is the set of strings obtained by concatenating one or more strings of L. For example if L = { aba.w1m1w21. wimi in L such that wi = wi1wi2. wi2.. Theorems 1 and 2 are proven in "General Induction" which you study in the next unit...

If x is an empty string, then it is obviously in L* . Hence ( L* )* Since L* L* . L* , L* = ( L* )* .

(L*)* and ( L* )*

**Problem Solving as Language Recognition
**

Subjects to be Learned

• • •

problem instance problem as language problem solving as language recognition

Contents

In the previous section the concept of language was introduced and its properties have been briefly studied. You might be wondering why we study language. The main reason for studying language is that solving problems can be viewed as a language recognition problem as explained below, that is, the problem of checking whether or not a string belongs to a language. Thus instead of studying what kind of problems can be solved by what kind of computational devices and how, we can study languages and devices to recognize them which are simpler to deal with uncluttered with variations in actual devices, programming languages etc. Below an example is given to illustrate how solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Consider the following problem: Is the longest of the distances between two nodes(i.e. the diameter) of a given graph less than a given integer k ? Here the distance is the smallest number of edges (or hops) between the nodes. Some of the instances of this problem are as shown below:

Instance 1 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with one edge and two nodes is less than 1. Instance 2 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with four edges and four nodes is less than 2. Simiarlyt for Instance 3. These problem instances can be represented by a string as follows: Instance 1: 1,2;(1,2);1 Instance 2: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(3,4);2 Instance 3: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(2,3)(2,4)(3,4);3 Here the set of nodes, the set of edges and k are separated by ; in that order in the strings. The solutions to these instances are: Instance 1: No Instance 2: No Instance 3: Yes There are infinitely many 'Yes' instances and 'No' instances for this problem. The set of 'Yes' instances is a language and so is the set of 'No' instances as well as the set of all

instances and many others for this problem. We can thus see that solving the problem for a given instance is equivalent to checking whether or not the string representing the given instance belongs to the language of 'Yes' instances of the problem. That is, the problem solving is the same as the language recognition. A problem can be solved if and only if the language of its 'Yes' instances is recognizable or decidable by a Turing machine. It is not solvable if the language is merely accecptable but not recognizable, or even worse if it is not even acceptable.

(a.k.a Structural Induction)

Mathematical statements involving an element of a recursively defined set can be proven by induction. To prove by induction that a statement P(x) is true for all the elements x of a recursively defined set S, proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P(x) is true for all the elements x in the basis of S. Induction: Prove that for any element(s) x of S if P(x) is true, then P(y) is true for any element y obtained from x by the induction step of the recursive definition of S. Note 1 : In the Induction we try to prove that if a parent has the property then all of its children also have that property. In the process we need the relationship between the parent and the children. That relationship is found in the Inductive Clause of the recursive definition of the set in question. Note 2 : As a first step for general induction proof, it is often a good idea to express y in terms of x so that P(x) can be used. Example 1 (Theorem 1 in "Language") : Prove that Ln L* for any natural number n and any language L. Let us first review the definitions. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = LkL. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k, the extremal clause is not necessary. Recursive definition of L*:

number k. Then by the definition of L*. Since Lk L* . Lk Next let us prove L* . Proof: Let us first prove Suppose that x Lk for some natural L* . L* since y L.Basis Clause: L* Inductive Clause: For any string x L* and any string w L. --. xw L*. Now let us prove that Ln L* by induction on Ln. L0 L* . Lk .Induction L* . L* . Hence x . x L* . L* by theInduction Hypothesis. xy Hence w Thus Lk+1 L* . y Let w be an arbitrary string in Lk+1 . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Note in the proof below that Basis and Inductive Steps mirror the Basis and Inductive Clauses of the definition of Ln . By Example 1 above . . Then there exist strings x and y that satisfy x L and w = xy by the definition of Lk+1. L* for an arbitrary natural numer k. L* . Then by the definition of L* . . Basis Step: Since by the definitions L0 = { Inductive Step: Assume that Lk Hypothesis We are going to show that Lk+1 }. and L* . Hence . x Example 2 (Theorem 2 in "Language") Let us prove L* = Note that ={x|x Lk for some natural number k } .

REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. The function REV(x) on strings x over the alphabet is defined as follows. .e. by Example 1 above. Hence xy Lk+1 by the definition of Ln . Basis Clause: REV( )= . Hence by the definition of Inductive Step: Assume that for an arbitrary x in L*. holds. then its children xy. of L* has the property. Let us prove the inheritance. Hence xy End of Inductive Step and Proof Hence we have proven Example 3 . Basis Step: L0 since L0 = { }. REV(xa) = Inductive Clause: For any string aREV(x). then for some natural number k . x Lk . If x .Note that L* is defined recursively and that below we are trying to prove that the elements of L* have the property that they also belong to . xy holds.e. It produces the reversal of a given string x (i. Then we show that if any element. say x. . Note here that x is a parent and by applying an operation (i. Prove that for arbitrary strings x and y of . where y is an arbitrary elememt of L. also have the property. Note that each step mirror the recursive definition of . So we show that the property for x is inherited by its children xy. . So we first prove that * the element of the basis of L has the propertyy. and any symbol . x We are going to show that for an arbitrary element y L . by concatenating y) a child of x in is obtained. x spelled backward).

Basis Step: REV(x ) = REV( x ) = REV( )REV( x ) .Proof First let us note that * can be defined recursively as follows: . Inductive Clause: If Lr and Ls are regular languages. Definition of Set of Regular Languages : Basis Clause: . Regular language The set of regular languages over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. xa is also in . Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular language unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. But by induction hypothesis a REV(xy) = a REV(y)REV(x). REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. The proof of the equality in question is going to be proven for an arbitrary fixed x by induction on y. REV(xya) = REV((xy)a) = a REV(xy). End of Proof. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. then Lr Ls . Definitions of Regular Language and Regular Expression Subjects to be Learned • • regular language regular expression 1. The proof mirrors the recursive definition of . Inductive Clause: For arbitrary strings x of and a of ExtremalClause: As usual. which is what we needed. Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary string y of . Any language belonging to this set is a regular language over .Induction Hypothesis Then for an arbitrary symbol a of . * Basis Clause: where is an empty string. { } and {a} for any symbol a are regular languages. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages. -. Thus the statement to be proven is for an arbitrary fixed string x. . Since a REV(y) = REV(ya). REV(xya) = REV(ya)REV(x). and an arbitrary string y of . Omitted.

b}.For example. aa. where a is an element of . where Lr is the language corresponding to the regular expression r. respectively. . ( rs ) and ( r*) are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr Ls . aaa. b} is regular. The language corresponding to rk is Lrk. LrLs and Lr* . Basis Clause: . is written as rk. then ( r + s ) . is a regular language because {a. which is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's. respectively. Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular expression unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. a. (3) The concatenation of k r's . Note also that *. {a}* is a regular language which is the set of strings consisting of a's such as . Thus the regular expression ( a + ( b( c*) ) ) is written as a + bc*. ( r + s ) is used in stead of ( r + s ). Regular expression Regular expressions are used to denote regular languages. Also since {a} is regular. Conventions on regular expressions (1) When there is no danger of confusion. (4) We use ( r+) as a regular expression to represent Lr+ . which has precedence over union ( + ). Thus for example rr = r2 . bold face may not be used for regular expressions. Any element of that set is a regular expression. Then since {a} and {b} are regular languages. and a are regular expressions corresponding to languages . (2) The operation * has precedence over concatenation. aaaa etc. let = {a. 2. The set of regular expressions over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. where r is a regular expression. { } and {a}. So for example. b} ( = {a} {b} ) and {ab} ( = {a}{b} ) are regular languages. They can represent regular languages and operations on them succinctly. Inductive Clause: If r and s are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr and Ls . {a. For a recursive definition of Lrk click here.

in general. ba. That is. ab. corresponds to more than one regular expressions. . Note:A regular expression is not unique for a language. }.. Thus for example ( a + b )* = ( a*b* )* . b}. . bb}. it is not easy to see by inspection whether or not two regular expressions are equal. a*b* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by zero or more b's. that is the set of strings of length 2 over the alphabet {a. a*b+a* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by one or more b's followed by zero or more a's. because they both represent the language of all strings over the alphabet {a. abab. ( a + b )* corresponds to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. b}. b}.. In general ( a + b )k corresponds to the set of strings of length k over the alphabet {a. Definition of Equality of Regular Expressions Regular expressions are equal if and only if they correspond to the same language. that is. ababab. a regular language. For example ( a + b )* and ( a*b* )* correspond to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a.Examples of regular expression and regular languages corresponding to them • • • • ( a + b )2 corresponds to the language {aa. b}. b}. the set of strings of repeated ab's. ( ab )+ corresponds to the language {ab. In general.

which are strings in the language with length 1 or less. a*. Thus the answer is ba. 3: Let r1 and r2 be arbitrary regular expressions over some alphabet. However. Of the strings wiht length 2 aa. (b) A string corresponding to r1 consists of only a's or only b's or the empty string.Exercise Questions on Regular Language and Regular Expression Ex. they do not produce any strings that are not represented by (r1 + r2)*. that is. So we need to find strings of r2 which contain at least one a and at least one b. 1: Find the shortest string that is not in the language represented by the regular expression a*(ab)*b*. (a) Since (r1 + r2)* represents all strings consisting of strings of r1 and/or r2 . Thus (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* is reduced to (r1 + r2)*. bb and ab are in the language. (a) find a string corresponding to r2 but not to r1 and (b) find a string corresponding to both r1 and r2. However. ba is not in it. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*) . Ex. Solution: It can easily be seen that . 2: For the two regular expressions given below. a. Thus anything that comes after the first r1 in (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is represented by (r1 + r2)*. b. b and the strings consiting of only b's (from (a*b)*). r1r2 + r2r1 in the given regular expression is redundant. (a + b)*. Ex. a+. the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*) start with a string of r1 followed by any number of strings taken arbitrarily from r1 and/or r2. (a) (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ Solution: One general strategy to approach this type of question is to try to see whether or not they are equal to simple regular expressions that are familiar to us such as a. (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ means that all the strings represented by it must consist of one or more strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*). For example ab and ba are such strings. (a + b)+ etc. r1 = a* + b* r2 = ab* + ba* + b*a + (a*b)* Solution: (a) Any string consisting of only a's or only b's and the empty string are in r1. Find a simple (the shortest and with the smallest nesting of * and +) regular expression which is equal to each of the following regular expressions. The only strings corresponding to r2 which consist of only a's or b's are a.

Inductive Clause: If x L . Solution: A string in this language must have at least two a's. b } that contain exactly two a's. Ex. and conversely (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ represents the strings represented by (r1(r1 + r2)*).also represents the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*)+. Hence a string of L consists of zero or more aab's in front and zero or more bb's following them. 7: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the . 5: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L and a L. First of all and a are in L . strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or bb to any of the already generated strings. Thus (aab)*(bb)* is a regular expression for L. Ex. b*a b*a b* is a regular expression for this language. Then starting with or a. strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or appending bb to any of the already generated strings. behind the second a and between the two a's. Ex. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. then aabx L and xbb L . Ex. Since any string of b's can be placed in front of the first a. Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. 6: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. and since an arbitrasry string of b's can be represented by the regular expression b*. Then starting with . Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. First of all L . Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is reduced to (r1(r1 + r2)*). 4: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L over the alphabet { a . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. b } defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L Inductive Clause: If x L . Thus (aab + bb)*(a + ) is a regular expression for L. then aabx L and bbx L . Hence a string of L has zero or more of aab's and bb's in front possibly followed by a at the end.

it has at least one b. ab. Hence if a string does not end with ab then it ends with a or if it ends with b the last b must be preceded by a symbol b. then that a must be preceded by b because otherwise there are two occurences of aa. Ex. On the other hand if an a precedes the aa. then applying the same argument as for aa to a. 9: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of strings of even lengths over the alphabet of { a. Hence if a string of the language contains aa then it corresponds to the regular expression ( b + ab )*aa( b + ba )* . b }. Solution: A string in the language can start and end with a or b. If there is no aa but at least one a exists in a string of the language. and after the first b all the b's in the string appear in pairs. If there may not be any a in a string of the language. Ex. Any numbe of a's can appear any place in the string. a regular expression corresponding to the language is ( aa + ab + ba + bb )*. b } must end in a or b. ba. Solution: Since any string of even length can be expressed as the concatenation of strings of length 2 and since the strings of length 2 are aa. then it must be followed by b. ( a + b )*( a + bb ) is a regular expression for the language. If an a comes after that aa. Note that 0 is an even number. Solution: If there is one substring aa in a string of the language. Since it can have any string in front of the last a or bb. ( b + ab )*a( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. bb. Altogether ( b + ab )*( + a + aa )( b + ba )* is a regular expression for the language. 8: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. b } that do not end with ab. b } that contain an odd number of b's Ex. then that aa can be followed by any number of b. Solution: Any string in a language over { a . Thus simply put. 11: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the . Hence a string preceding the aa can be represented by ( b + ab )*. ( b + ab )*( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. it is the set of strings over the alphabet { a.alphabet { a. 10: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression a*b(a*ba*b)*a* . Hence any string that follows aa is represented by ( b + ba )*. b } that contain no more than one occurence of the string aa. Ex. Hence the string is in this language. then applying the same argument as for aa to .

that is. and ( a + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring bb. Since (( a + b )3)*( a + b ) represents the strings of length 3n + 1. concatenation and Kleene star. where n is a natural number. Note 1: Later we shall see that the complement of a regular language and the intersection of regular laguages are also regular.regular expression (( a + b )3)*( +a+b). concatenation and Kleene star operations. Solution: ( b + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring aa and which end in b. Hence (( a + b )3)* represents the strings of length a multiple of 3. Note 2: The union of infinitely many regular languages is not necessarily regular. The following theorem shows that any finite language is regular. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages and they are obviously over the alphabet . Lr Ls . { anbn | n is a natural number } which is the union of all the languages { akbk } . Properties of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • Closure of the set of regular languages under union. We say a language is finite if it consists of a finite number of strings. Then by the definition of the set of regular languages . Regularity of finite languages Theorem 1: The set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed under operations union. is not regular as we shall see later. the given regular expression represents the strings of length 3n and 3n + 1. Solution: (( a + b )3) represents the strings of length 3. Proof: Let Lr and Ls be regular languages over an alphabet . 12: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression ( b + ab )*( a + ab )*. Thus the set of regular languages is closed under those operations. where n is a natural number. For example while { akbk } is regular for any natural number k . Ex. a finite language is a set of n . Hence altogether it represents any string consisting of a substring with no aa followed by one b followed by a substring with no bb.

Then for any symbol a of . Claim 1: A language consisting of n strings is regular for any natural number n (that is. Basis Step: (corresponding to n = 0) is a regular language by the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. { a } is a regular language from the Basis Step. We then prove that a language consisting of a single string is regular. L { w } is a regular language by the definition of regular language. Inductive Step: Assume that a language L consisting of n strings is a regular language (induction hypothesis). Proof of Claim 2: Proof by induction on strings. . } and { a } are Inductive Step: Assume that { w } is a regular language for an arbitrary string w over . Proof of the Claim 1: Proof by induction on the number of strings. Hence { aw } is regular. Then { w } is a regular language. Basis Step: By the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. { regular languages for any arbitrary symbol a of . then we have proven the theorem. Proof: Let us first assume that a language consisting of a single string is regular and prove the theorem by induction. End of proof for Claim 2 Note that Claim 2 can also be proven by induction on the length of string. Hence by the Inductive Clause of the definition of regular language { a }{ w } is regular. Theorem 2: A finite language is regular. End of proof of Claim 1 Thus if we can show that { w } is a regular language for any string w. Then since { w } is a regular language as proven below. End of proof of Theorem 2.strings for some natural number n. Claim 2: Let w be a string over an alphabet . a finite language is regular) if { w } is regular for any string w.

When a customer comes and puts in the first coin. Pretend that you are the machine. Click "NICKEL" or "DIME" in the figure and see how it operates (see how arrows turn red). We are then going to study how finite automata can be used to simulate operations of systems we see in practice. We are going to learn languages which are not regular and ways to test languages for non-regularity. In fact Turing machines are as . You have received 10 cents and are waiting for more coins to come. say 15-cents state. circles represent states and arrows state transitions. A kind of systems finite automnata can model and a computer program to simulate their operations are discussed later. then you have now received 15 cents and you wait for the customer to select a soft drink. Their operations can be simulated by a very simple computer program. you must give the customer a can of soft drink. It is assumed that the machine terminates its operation when it receives 15 cents or more. If the customer puts in a nickel. Finite automata are computing devices that accept/recognize regular languages and are used to model operations of many systems we find in practice. Let us assume that only nickels and dimes are used for simplicity. So we might say you are in the 10-cents state. can not be recognized by finite automata. tell whether or not a given string belongs to the regular language). you are no longer in the waiting-for-customer state. Later we are going to learn an extension of finite automata called Turing machines. When the customer selects a soft drink. Unfortunately not all languages and systems are simple like regular languages or finite automata. they are much more powerful computing devices than finite automata.Introduction to Finite Automata In this chapter we are going to study a class of machines called finite automata. Though Turing machines are simple modification of finite automata. and equivalence and conversions between them. Let us consider the operation of a soft drink vending machine which charges 15 cents for a can. Ds on arrows represent a dime and Ns a nickel. We have learned that regular languages are represented by regular expressions and conversely. So you are in another state. say a dime. A vending machine looked at this way is an example of finite automaton. you are in the waiting-for-customer state. In the next few chapters first we are going to learn different kinds of finite automata. In this example you as a vending machine have gone through (transitions between) a number of states responding to the inputs from the customer (coins in this case). The states and the transitions between them of this vending machine can be represented with the diagram below. After that you stay in that state until another coin is put in to start the process anew or you may terminate the operation and start all over from the initial state.e. Then we are going to see that for every regular language a unique finite automaton can be constructed which can recognize the language (i. therefore. In the figure. Initially you are waiting for a customer to come and put some coins. There are languages which are not regular and which. that is.

2. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. however. .powerful as computers and it is generally believed. for example. Thus in the example of vending machine. "Waiting for a customer to put a coin in" can be considered the initial state of this automaton and the state in which the machine gives out a soda can can be considered the accepting state. The accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. . Definition of Deterministic Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • • • Finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of deterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. the transition function. We call the elements of Q a state. the states of the machine such as "waiting for a customer to put a coin in". are the elements of Q. The transition function is also called a next state function meaning that the automaton moves into the state (q. A > Notes on the definition 1. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of . Also let be a function from Q to Q . Otherwise it is not accepted. Then a deterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . "have received 5 cents" etc. if q is the initial state and a nickel is put in. q0 . 4. though not proven. Thus in the example of vending machine. that any computation human beings do (with or without computers) can be performed by Turing machines. then (q. Its elements can. 3. (q. a) must be specified. a) is equal to "have received 5 cents". Note that is a function. For example. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ceases to come. . The set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. in the Example 1 below.

then we need a DFA such as shown in the following examle to accept the same string a. are not accepted. aaa. The accepting states are indicated by double circles. Examples of finite automaton Example 1: Q = { 0.the string a is accepted by the finite automaton. = { a }. It is a little more complex DFA. a) ) A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. 1. DFAs are often represented by digraphs called (state) transition diagram. Transition functions can also be represented by tables as seen below. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 1 a 2 2 a 2 (q. ) = q . A deterministic finite automaton is also called simply a "finite automaton". b } in stead of { a }. A = { 1 }. If the alphabet of the Example 1 is changed to { a. The vertices (denoted by single circles) of a transition diagram represent the states of the DFA and the arcs labeled with an input symbol correspond to the transitions. 2 }. 5. An arc ( p . the following table. etc. Abbreviations such as FA and DFA are used to denote deterministic finite automaton. But any other strings such as aa. They are called transition table. . q ) from vertex p to vertex q with label represents the transition (p.

a) ) . the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 0 b 2 1 a 2 1 b 2 2 a 2 2 b 2 (q. the following table. A = { 1 }. A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. Example 3: Q = { 0.Example 2: Q = { 0. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 0 0 b 1 1 a 1 1 b 1 (q. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. A = { 0 }. 2 }. b } is the next example. in the following table. 1 }. 1. b }. = { a. = { a. A DFA that accepts all strings consisting of only symbol a over the alphabet { a. b }. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b.

10. 5. 20 }. Q = { 0. If we make it a DFA. the initial state q0 = 0. N }. its transition function is as shown in the following table. State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 N 5 0 D 10 5 N 10 5 D 15 10 N 15 10 D 20 15 N 5 15 D 10 20 N 5 20 D 10 (q. A = { 15. Example 4: For the example of vending machine of the previous section. = { D. a) ) . 20 }.A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. 15.

There is a finite control which determines the state of the automaton and also controls the movement of the head. The head moves to the right one square every time it reads a symbol.A finite automaton as a machine A finite automaton can also be thought of as the device shown below consisting of a tape and a control circuit which satisfy the following conditions: 1. 6. 5. The tape has a read only head. 2. 3. it stops and the automaton terminates its operation. . It never moves to the left. 4. The head is always at the leftmost square at the beginning of the operation. When it sees no symbol. The tape is divide into squares in each of which a symbol can be written prior to the start of the operation of the automaton. The tape has the left end and extends to the right without an end.

this DFA never leaves state 1. Initially it is in state 0. it goes into state 1 and the input string is not accepted by the DFA. Once it gets to state 1. Thus this automaton accepts any string of a's. Since the state 0 is also the accepting state. Hence when b appears anywhere in the input. are accepted but strings such as aaba. then no matter what symbol is read. As an example let us consider the DFA of Example 3 above. .Operation of finite automata Let us see how an automaton operates when it is given some inputs. aaaaaa etc. the DFA is in the accepting state. b etc. it stays in state 0 while it reads all the a's (without breaks) on the tape. For example strings aaa. it moves to state 1. If b is read while it is in state 0 (initially or after reading some a's). When zero or more a's are given as an input to it. are not accepted by this automaton. when all the a's on the tape are read.

*

of DFA and its Properties

Subjects to be Learned

• •

*

Language accepted by DFA

Contents

Here we are going to formally describe what is meant by applying a transition repeatedly, that is the concept of * For a state q and string w, *( q , w ) is the state the DFA goes into when it reads the string w starting at the state q. In general a DFA goes through a number of states from the state q responding to the symbols in the string w. Thus for a DFA < Q , , q0 , , A > , the function

* :Q -> Q is defined recursively as follows: *

Definition of

*

:

*

Basis Clause: For any state q of Q ,

(q,

) = q , where

*

denotes the empty string. and any symbol a ,

Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q, any string y * ( q , ya ) = ( *( q , y ) , a ) .

In the definition, the Basis Clause says that a DFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the state DFA reaches after reading string ya starting at state q is the state it reaches by reading symbol a after reading string y from state q. Example For example suppose that a DFA contains the transitions shown below.

Then

*

*

( q , DNR ) can be calculated as follows:

( q , DNR ) = ( *( q , DN ) , R ) by the Inductive Clause. = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , DN ). = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) since D = D . = ( ( ( *( q , ) , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , D ). = ( ( ( q , D ) , N ) , R ) , since ( q , ) = q . = ( ( q1 , N ) , R ) , since ( q , D ) = q1 as seen from the diagram. = ( q2 , R ) , since ( q1 , N ) = q2 as seen from the diagram. = q3 since ( q2 , R ) = q3 as seen from the diagram. Properties of

*

We can see the following two properties of

*

. for a DFA < Q , , q0 , ,A

**Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >,
**

*

(q,a)=

(q,a)

Proof : Since a = a , * ( q , a ) = *( q , a ) . By the definition of * , * ( q , a ) = ( *( q , ) , a ) But *( q , ) = q by the definition of Hence ( *( q , ) , a ) = ( q , a ) .

*

.

The next theorem states that the state reached from any state, say q , by reading a string, say w , is the same as the state reached by first reading a prefix of w, call it x, and then by reading the rest of the w, call it y. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 , , A > , for a DFA < Q , ,

*

( q , xy ) =

*

(

*

(q,x),y).

Proof : This is going to be proven by induction on string y. That is the statement to be proven is the following: * For an arbitrary fixed string x, ( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for any arbitrary string y. First let us review the recursive definition of *. Recursive definition of Basis Clause:

* *

:

.

* * Inductive Clause: If x and a , then xa . * Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.

Now the proof of the theorem. Basis Step: If y = , then *( q , xy ) = *( q , x ) = *( q , x ) . Also *( *( q , x ) , y ) = *( *( q , x ) , ) = *( q , x ) by the definition of * . Hence the theorem holds for y = . Inductive Step: Assume that *( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for an arbitrary string y. This is the induction hypothesis. We are going to prove that *( q , xya ) = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) for any arbitrary symbol a of . ( q , xya ) = ( *( q , xy ) , a ) by the definition of * = ( * ( *( q , x ) , y ) , a ) by the induction hypothesis. = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) by the definition of * . Thus the theorem has been proven.

*

For the following DFA answer the questions given below.

* . if and only if L = { w | *( q0 . q0 . A language L is accepted by a DFA < Q . . q0 . w ) A . Example 1 : . .The following notations are used in the questions: : \delta * : \delta^* : \Lambda Language Accepted by DFA Subjects to be Learned • Language accepted by DFA A string w is accepted by a DFA < Q . That is a string is accepted by a DFA if and only if the DFA starting at the initial state ends in an accepting state after reading the string. That is. w ) A } . A > . A > . if and only if ( q0 . . the language accepted by a DFA is the set of strings accepted by the DFA.

1 and it can go through this cycle any number of times by reading substring ab repeatedly. It accepts nothing else because any non-empty symbol would take it to state 1. first from the initial state go to state 1 by reading one a. To find the language it accepts.This DFA accepts { } because it can go from the initial state to the accepting state (also the initial state) without reading any symbol of the alphabet i. This DFA has a cycle: 1 .e. Example 2 : This DFA does not accept any string because it has no accepting state.2 . .1 any number of times by reading substring ab any number of times to come back to state 1. and it stays there.2 . Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by a(ab)*aa . Thus the language it accepts is the empty set Example 3 : DFA with one cycle . This is represented by (ab)*. Then from state 1 go through the cycle 1 . which is not an accepting state. by reading an empty string . Then from state 1 go to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading aa.

1.0.2 . To find the language accepted by this DFA. Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by ( ab + bb )*.0 .1 .0 and it can move through these cycles any number of times in any order to reach the accepting state from the initial state such as 0 . first from state 0 go to state 1 by . Example 5 : DFA with two interleaved cycles This DFA has two cycles: 1 .2 .1 and 1 .2 .0 .2 .Example 4 : DFA with two independent cycles This DFA has two independent cycles: 0 .3 .0 and 0 .0 .2 .1 .

2 . At this point a substring a( baa + bba )* will have been read. respectively. So we are not going to go any further on this problem here.2 . first at state 0 read any number of b's. Then from state 1 go through the two cycles 1 .2 . At state 1 go through the cycle 1 . The language accepted at state 0 is b* . Thus the language accepted at state 1 is b*a(ba)* .1 any number of times in any order by reading substrings baa and bba. Thus altogether a( baa + bba )*bb will have been read when state 3 is reached from state 0.0 . To find the language accepted at state 1. Example 6 : This DFA has two accepting states: 0 and 1. Then go to state 1 by reading one a.reading a ( any other state which is common to these cycles such as state 2 can also be used instead of state 1 ). There is a systematic way of finding the language accepted by a DFA and we are going to learn it later. Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata .1 any number of times by reading substring ba repeatedly. At this point (b*a) will have been read.3 .1 and 1 . Thus the language that is accepted by this DFA is the union of the language accepted at state 0 and the one accepted at state 1. Then go from state 1 to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading bb.

Its elements can be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. the following table. Note that is a function. Examples of NFA Example 1: Q = { 0. . But it can be the empty set.e. Also let be a function from Q to 2Q . We call the elements of Q a state. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . in which case the NFA aborts its operation. A > Notes on the definition 1. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. a) must be specified. the transition function. Note that any DFA is also a NFA. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 1 a (q. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. As in the case of DFA the set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. 4. ceases to come. 5.Subjects to be Learned • • • Nondeterministic finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. q0 . . 2. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of (q. As in the case of DFA the accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". = { a }. Unlike DFAs an NFA moves into one of the states given by (q. The transition function is also called a next state function . Which one of the states in (q. 3. Otherwise it is not accepted. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. a) ) . A = { 1 }. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ends i. a) to select is determined nondeterministically. 1 }.

b }. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. in the following table. this is still an NFA that accepts { Example 2: Q = { 0. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below.A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. 1. 2 }. A = { 2 }. b } in stead of { a }. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. If the alphabet a}. is changed to { a. . = { a.2} 0 1 1 2 2 b a b a b {2} (q.

it moves to either state 1 or state 2.Operation of NFA Let us see how an automaton operates when some inputs are applied to it. If on the other hand it moves to state 1 after reading a. Let us now define the function strings and languages by NFA. then it goes to state 2 and remains there. Since the state 2 is the accepting state. When it reads the symbol a. * and then formalize the concepts of acceptance of . if the next input is b and if no more inputs are given. Initially it is in state 0. if it moves to state 2 and no more inputs are given. it does not accept any of them. We say that this automaton accepts the string a. then it stays in the accepting state. As an example let us consider the automaton of Example 2 above. If any other strings are given to this NFA. Thus the string ab is also accepted by this NFA.

. . w ) is the set of states that the NFA can reach when it reads the string w starting at the state q. any string y * and any symbol a ( q .Language Accepted by NFA Subjects to be Learned • • • for NFA Language accepted by NFA Properties of * * Definition of * For a state q and string w. *( q . q0 . where * denotes the empty . A > . the Basis Clause says that an NFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the set of states NFA can reach after reading string ya starting at state q is the set of states it can reach by reading symbol a after reading string y starting at state q.3} 0 b {2} 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b {1} {3} {3} (q. * (q. Thus for an NFA < Q . a) ) For example consider the NFA with the following transition table: . Example State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {0. ya ) = In the definition. the function * :Q -> 2Q is defined recursively as follows: * Definition of *: Basis Clause: For any state q of Q. ) = { q }.1. In general an NFA nondeterministically goes through a number of states from the state q as it reads the symbols in the string w. Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q. string.

The transition diagram for this NFA is as given below. b ) (1. Hence *( 0 . Suppose that the state 3 is an accepting state of this NFA. ( 0 . By the Basis Clause of the definition of *. ab ) is the union of the definition of * . ) again by the Inductive * Clause of the definition of . Then * * ( 0 . a ) by the Inductive Clause of * Now *( 0 . a ) = { 0 . a ) = ( 0 .2. 3 } .b)={2} {3} {1}={1. . Hence *( 0 . ab ) can be calculated as follows: ( p. a ) is the union of ( p. 3}. b ) for all p * ( 0 .b) (3. 1 . ) = { 0 } . *( 0 . a ) for all p ( 0 . ab ) = ( 0 .

a)= (q. for an NFA < Q . * (q. A > . if and only if it can reach an accepting state by reading x starting at the initial state. a. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 . * .A Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >. and for NFA has properties similar to that for DFA. .a) for an NFA < Q . A > is the set of strings that are accepted by the NFA. A > if and only if * ( q0 . Some of the strings accepted by the NFA given above are the language it accepts is a*( ab + a + ba )(bb)* . q0 .* We say that a string x is accepted by an NFA < Q. . . x ) A is not empty. q0. * ( q . q0. ab. The language accepted by an NFA < Q. abbbb etc. aaa. . that is. . xy ) = These theorems can be proven in a manner similar to those for Theorems 1 and 2 for DFA. . . . .

A> Notes on the definition 1. We are going to do that by showing that a finite automaton can be constructed from a given regular expression by combining simpler FAs using union. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states.makes the transition without reading any symbol in the input. . let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. Basically an NFA with -Transitions is an NFA but can respond to an empty string and move to the next state.) and see some examples. Also let { } to 2Q . . .Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata with Transitions Subjects to be Learned • • • - Nondeterministic finite automata with State transition diagram State transition table -Transitions Contents One of the objectives of this chapter is to show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between regular languages and finite automata. A transition on reading means that the NFA. Thus the tape head does not move when is read.. q0 . the transition function. 2. These operations on FAs can be described conveniently if -Transitions are used. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton with -Transitions is a 5-tuple < Q . for any NFA. concatenation and Kleene star operations. Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton with Let Q be a finite set and let -Transitions be a function from Q be a finite set of symbols.there is a NFA (hence DFA) which accepts the same language and vice versa. Note that any NFA is also a NFA. We call the elements of Q a state. Here we are going to formally define NFA with -Transitions (abbreviated as NFA. As we are going to see later.

2. 4 } 3 {5} 3 b {4} 4 a {5} (q. 5 }. Thus 4 is the only state you can go to from the initial state . A = . a) ) Here the transitions to are omitted from the table. b }. there are no transitions on reading b except from state 3. it can move to any of the states other than 0. following table. you can go to state 2. 4.Example of NFA- Q = { 0. When a symbol a is read at the initial state 0. for example. = { a. 2. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in the State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 0 {4} 1 {2} 2 { 3. 4 and 5 by reading a. then you come to state 4. for example. 3. 4 and 5 without reading any symbol on the tape. If you read string ab. 1. 3. For though you go to states 1. 3. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. For once you are in state 1.

by reading ab.

**Language Accepted by NFASubjects to be Learned
**

• • • •

**-closure for NFALanguage accepted by NFAProperties of *
**

*

Contents

To formally define * for NFA- , we start with the concept of -closure for a state which is the set of states reachable from the state without reading any symbol. Using that concept we define * and then strings and languqges accepted by NFA- . Definition of -closure

Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA- . Let us denote the -closure of a set S of states of Q by ( S ). Then ( S ) is defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: S (S)

Inductive Clause: For any state q of Q, if q ( S ) , then ( q , ) (S). Extremal Clause: Nothing is in ( S ) unless it is obtained by the above two clauses.

For the NFAFirst { 2 }

of the above figure, ( { 2 } ) , that is, 2 (2, )

( { 2 } ) is obtained as follows: ( { 2 } ) . Then since 2 ( { 2 } ) , by the

Inductive Clause, Since (2,

({2}). ({2}).

) = { 3 , 4 }, we now have { 2 , 3 , 4 }

Since 3 and 4 have been added to

({2}),

(3,

) = { 5 } and

(4,

)=

must

be included in ( { 2 } ) . Thus now { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } ({2}). Though 5 has become a memeber of the closure, since ( 5 , ) is empty, no new members are added to ( { 2 } ) . Since ( q , ) has been examined for all the states currently in ( { 2 } ) and no more elements are added to it, this process of generating the closure terminates and ( { 2 } ) = { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } is obtained. As we can see from the example, ( S ) is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S by traversing any number of arcs. That is, it is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S without reading any symbols in . Now with this -closure, we can define

*

recursively as follows:

As in the cases of DFA and NFA, * gives the result of applying the transition function repeatedly as dictated by the given string. Definition of

* *

is going to be defined recursively. Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA-

.

**Basis Clause: For any state q of Q,
**

*

(q,

)=

({q}).

*

Inductive Clause: For any state q, a string y in

and a symbol a in

,

*

( q , ya ) =

(

).

What the Inductive Clause means is that *( q , ya ) is obtained by first finding the states that can be reached from q by reading y ( *( q , y ) ), then from each of those states p by reading a (i.e. by finding ( p , a ) ), and then by reading 's ( i.e. by taking the closure of the ( p , a )'s ) . Example : For the NFAbelow: of the following figure,

*

( 0 , ab ) can be obtained as

First let us compute *( 0 , a ) . For that we need ( { 0 } ). Since it is the set of states reached by traversing the arcs from state 0, ( { 0 } ) = {0,3,4}. Next from each of the states in ( { 0 } ) we read symbol a and move to another state (i.e. apply ). They are ( 0 , a ) = { 1 } , ( 3 , a ) = ( 4 , a ) = { 5 }. Hence We then traverse the } ) = { 1 , 2 , 3 } and = { 1 , 5 } for q = 0 . arcs from { 1 , 5 } to get to the states in *( 0 , a ) . Since * ({5})={5}, (0,a)={1,2,3,5}.

({1

x ) contains at least one accepting state. a .< Q . A string x is accepted by an NFA. q0 . and ( 2 . b ) are empty sets. A > if and only if *( q0 . Then the 2 . .< Q . 4 } . A > is the set of strings accepted by the NFA. NFAs and NFAto NFA 1 Conversion of NFA- Let M1 = < Q1 . ( 3 . . q0 . NFAs and NFA.to (equivalent) NFA Conversion of NFA to (equivalent) DFA Equivalence of DFAs. Thus Since ( { 4 } ) = { 3 . ab ) = { 3 .s Subjects to be Learned • • • Conversion of NFA. A2 > that satisfies the following conditions recognizes L: .Then to find *( 0 .0 .0 . . q2. b ) = { 4 } . ab ) read b from each of the states in *( 0 . b ) . Now ( 1 . . Equivalence of DFAs. . . q1. .. For example the NFAof the figure given above accepts the language { . 4 } . a ) and then take the arcs from there. The language accepted by an NFA.that recognizes a language L. NFA M2 = < Q2. A1 > be an NFA. *( 0 . b ) and ( 5 . ab } .

Otherwise. Then for each state q of Q2 and each symbol a of find 2 ( q . . since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) . 2 ( q. a ) as follows: Find ( {q} ).0 through arcs in M1 .0.0 are the accepting states of M2 . The transition function 2 is obtained as follows: 2( 0 . Then collect all the states that can be reached from each state of ( {q} ) by traversing one arc labeled with the symbol a. . q2.0 } ) A1 = A1 otherwise . 3 ).0 . q2. then all the accepting states of M1 plus state q1.Q2 = Q1. 1 } . . Example 1: Let us convert the following NFAto NFA. Thus to obtain an NFA M2 = < Q2.0 through arcs in M1 . The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0. The closure of the set of those states is 2( q .a)= ( ) A2 = A1 { q1. A2 > which accepts the same language 1 . that is if an accepting state can be reached from the initial state q1. 2. 1. a ) = 1 * (q. A1 > does. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. 2 first copy the states of Q1 into Q2. as the given NFA. q1. Then from the transition function of the NFA- .M1 = < Q1 . a ) . a ): First ( { 0 } ) = { 0 .0 } if ( { q1.0 .0 = q1. The set of accepting states A2 is the same as A1 if no accepting states can be reached from the initial state q1. that is all the states that can be reached from q by traversing arcs.

2 (0.1} {0. They are given in the table ( { q } ) and 2 below together with State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b a b .2} {1.3} {3} {1. 2 ( 0 .2}. )(= ( {1.b)= 1 ( 1. b ) .3} {1. 2 }.2} )) ({q}) {0.2} {1. (q. and Hence 2( 0 .b)= Similarly 2 can be obtained for other states and symbols. b ) = . .3} {1. 1 } and 1 (0.2} {1. a ) = . a ) = 1 ( 1 .( 0 . 1 For . ({1.2})={1.2} {1.2} The NFA thus obtained is shown below.1} {1} {1} {2} {2} {1. since ( { 0 } ) = { 0 . a ) = { 1 .

The transition function 2 is obtained as for Example 1.2.2} {4} {4} {4} {1.2} 2 (q.4} {1.1} {0.3} .3} )) {1. 2. 4 ). ) and State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 a b a b a b a b a ({q}) {0.4} {1.3} {2. 2 is given in the table below together with ( { q } ) . 1. 3.4} {1. )(= ( {1.3} {1.2} {1.Example 2: Let us convert the following NFA- to NFA. 1 ( p . since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) .3} {3} {3} {1. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0.2.4} {1. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0.2.1} {1} {1} {2.

4 b {1. Proof of Equivalence of NFA- and NFA We are going to prove that the NFA obtained from NFAby the conversion algorithm accepts the same language as the NFA. .4} The NFA thus obtained is shown below.

it implies that NFAM1 and NFA M2 accept the same non-empty strings. (q. The case when w is an empty string is going to be proven separately. Thus we first prove that it is true for any arbitrary symbol. and NFA- When it is proven. a ) = 1*( q . Claim 1: For any non-empty string w and for any state q. then * 1 ( q . First we are going to prove that To review the definition of * 1 * .w).w)= 2 * ( q . wa ) holds for any arbitrary symbol a in First we show that using the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . a ) --. Recall that the set of strings is defined recursively (click here for a quick review). and the conversion of NFAto NFA click here. q1.w)= 2 * ( q . (q. .a).a)= 2 2 * (q .0 . Inductive Step: We need to show that if 1 * (q. wa ) = 2 * ( q . q2. = = 2 * 2 (q .a). . for NFA. then assuming it holds for any arbitrary string w we prove it for any of the children of w.0 . . Basis Step: We need to show that for any symbol a in 1 * (q. .a)= 2 * 2 (q. a)= by the definition of Since * 2 * for NFA (click here for a review) . Secondly 2 * (q. the induction hypothesis and the construction of NFA from NFA.(2) Hence from (1) and (2). 1 * (q. a ) . Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w.a). w ) for an arbitrary string w (Induction Hypothesis). = 1 * Then we show that ( q . .a)= 2 * (q.(1) because of the way NFA is constructed from NFA(click here for a review) .(1) .NFA- that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 .a).a)= 2 ( q . )={q}. wa ) = --.(2) . Hence (q. A1 > and 2 NFA obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. that is wa for any symbol a in the alphabet. We are going to prove it by showing that both of them are equal to Firstly 2( q . 1 . --.. 1 * (q. w ) for any non-empty string w. wa ) --. A2 > (q.w)= 2 * (q.

. wa ) . wa ) = 2 * ( q . This can be shown to be equal to . ( q . wa ) . 1 * Thus from (1) and (2) ( q . Hence we have proven (2). The right hand side of this equality is equal to ( the first and have been swapped to get this) . that is (1) has been proven. wa ) = Since 2 * (q. . for NFA- (p. wa ) .a)= Substituting this into the left hand side of (2) produces = .w)= 1 * ( q . Hence On the other hand = Hence 1 * = ( q . = 1*( q . To see an explanation for this click here. wa ) . By the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . = Since 2 (q. because = . wa ) = .basically using the definition of Then from (1) and (2) we can see that 1 * 1 * .a)= 1 * ( q . Let us first prove (1). w ) by the induction hypothesis. wa ) . wa ) = 2 * ( q . by the definition of 1 * . as proven below in Claim 3. that is By the definition of 1 * = 1 * 1 * ( q . . a ) by the way NFA is constructed from NFA= . Hence 2 * ( q . Let us next prove (2).

Then the -closure of X is defined recursively as Basis Clause: X (X). Inductive Clause: If q ( X ) . q20 Conversely if NFAis accepted by NFA. then ( q . ) (X). then ( { q10 } ) A1 . and the corresponding NFA accept the same language. As for the empty string . A2 . . Let X be the set of states of an NFA. then q20 this means that Thus NFA( { q10 } ) A1 A2 . if it is accepted by an NFA. For that let us restate the statement so that the induction becomes clearer. What Part 1 states is that all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in the set (S) (T). Extremal Clause: Nothng is in ( X ) unless it is obtained by the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Let us review the definition of the -closure of the set of states of an NFA. By the way NFA is constructed from . let us prove the following claim.. Hence is accepted by NFA. As a preparation for the proof of commutativity of union and -closure operations. in the Basis Step of our proof we prove the property for the elements of the basis of (S T ) and in the Inductive Step we prove that if an arbitrary element of (S T ) has that property. then its childen also have it. Since (S T ) is defined recursively. Claim 2: (S T)= (S) (T).End of Induction With this Claim 1 we can see that any non-empty string w is accepted by NFA if and only if it is accepted by the corresponding NFA. Part 1 : (S T) (S) (T) This is going to be proven by induction on (S T). Hence by the way A2 is constructed. We are going to prove this in two parts: (S T) (S) (S) (T) ( T ) and (S T). Hence is accepted by NFA.

( T ) . (q. Hence ) Similarly if q Hence if q is an arbitrary element of (S) (T). That would imply that Proof of (S) (S By induction on (S T): (S).S (S T). then ( q . then (q. then (q. (S) (T). Basis Step: We need to show that S Since S (S T ) . T ) with (T). then (q. T T). S and T are subsets of (S T) Inductive Step: We need to prove that if q is an arbitrary element of the property of being in (S) (S ( T ) . (T) Thus all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in (S T) which is to say that (S) (T). ) . T). Hence (T).Proof of Part 1: Basis Step: We need to prove that ( S Since S ( S ) and T T) (S) (S) (S (S) (S) (T). Since q If q ( S ) . ) Let q be an arbitrary element of T ) with the property of being in ( S ) by the definition of ( T ) . (S T ) with the property of being in (S) ( T ) . ) (S) (T).q ( S ) or q ( S ) . ) (S) (S) (T). ( T ) . if q is in . Inductive Step: We need to prove that for an arbitrary element q in ( S ) . End of Proof for Part 1 Part 2 : Proof of Part 2: We are going to prove (S) (S (S) T ) and (S) (T) (T) (T) (S (S (S T). and ( S T) (S T). (T). ) (S) (T).

Si ) by the definition of union. --. End of Proof of Part 2 End of Proof of Claim 2 Claim 3: ( Si ) = ( Si ) . (S T ) holds. by the definition of (q. - T ) is a -closure. Basis Step: n = 1. Similarly Hence (S) (T) (T) (S T ) holds. ( Si ) holds for n. If n = 1.Inducion Hypothesis ( Si ) = ( = = (( Si ) ( ( Si ) ) Si ) ( Sn+1 ) by the definition of union. then (q. Proof : Proof by induction on n. ) (S T). Si is a set as well as Sn+1.(S Since q is in (S T ) and since (S T ) . since = ( Equivalence of NFA and DFA We are going to prove that the DFA obtained from NFA by the conversion algorithm . ) (S closure T). End of Proof for Claim 3 Sn+1 ) by Claim 2 above. then Hence Inductive Step: Assume that ( ( Si ) = Si ) = ( Si ) holds for n = 1. Thus (S) (S T ) has been proven. ( Si ) = ( Si ) = ( S1 ) and ( S1 ) . ( Sn+1 ) by the induction hypothesis.

= { q1. wa ) = = = = 2 ( 1 2 * * ( q1.0 . .Part 1 Subjects to be Learned • • • • Union of FAs Concatenation of FAs Kleene Star of FAs Acceptance of regular languages by FAs Contents . ) by the definition of 1 * . a ) ( q2. ) = q2. When it is proven.0 .0 . w ) = 2 * ( q2. .0 . w ) .0 . Kleene's Theorem --. w ) .0 } by the construction of DFA M2 . 2 1 .0 . Theorem: For any string w.0 . w ) = 2 * ( q2.0 .0 . = * 1 ( q1. w ) for any string w.0 . q1. 1 * ( q1. A2 > First we are going to prove by induction on strings that 1*( q1.accepts the same language as the NFA. w ) holds.0 . ( q1.0 . Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w.0 . --- For the string w and an arbitrry symbol a in 1 * . A1 > and DFA . w ) = 2*( q2.0 . Basis Step: For w = 2 * . wa ) * 1 Thus for any string w ( q1.0 .0 .0 by the definition of 2* . NFA that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 . w ) for an arbitrary string w. a ) 2( * 2 ( q2. w ) = 2 * ( q2. it obviously implies that NFA M1 and DFA M2 accept the same strings. q2. w ) . Inductive Step: Assume that Induction Hypothesis 1 * ( q1. ( q2. obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2.

Qu = Q1 Q2 .0 } .0 . Then L1 = < Qc . then L1 L2 . u Mu = < Qu .0 . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by the FAs Mu = < Qu . u L2 . Since any regular language is obtained from { } and { a } for any symbol a in by using union.0 is a state which is neither in Q1 nor in Q2 . . 1 . Proof: This is going to be proven by (general) induction following the recursive definition of regular language. Ac > and Mk = < Q2 . qu. that together with the Basis Step would prove the theorem. . q2. Au > : { qu. c . respectively. . .0 .Kleene's theorem. which are given below. . Suppose that L1 and L2 are accepted by FAs M1 = < Q1 .{ } and { a } for any symbol a in are accepted by an FA. qk. k . Au > . Basis Step: As shown below the languages . Ak > .0 . We assume that Q1 Q2 = without loss of generality since states can be renamed if necessary. qu. qc. Mc . q1. where qu. concatenation and Kleene star operations. A1 > and M2 = < Q2 . 2 . . It states that any regular language is accepted by an FA and conversely that any language accepted by an FA is regular.0 . respectively.0 . Inductive Step: We are going to show that for any languages L1 and L2 if they are accepted by FAs. L1L2 and L1* are accepted by FAs. Theorem 1 (Part 1 of Kleene's theorem): Any regular language is accepted by a finite automaton. A2 > . .

0. u ) = { q1.0 } ) | q A1 } Ak = { qk. .0 } ) } . qk. These NFA- s are illustrated below.0. q2.0 is a state which is not in Q1 . c . k . . { q1. Note that (qu.0 } . qc. where qk. . Ak > : { qk.0 } ) } { (q.0 = q1. Ac > : Qc = Q1 Q2 qc. .0. { q1. a ) = for all a in .0. { qk. q2. .0 . Qk = Q1 k .0 } = 1 { (qk. { q2. Au = A1 A2 Mc = < Qc .0 .0 .0 } .0 .u = 1 2 { (qu. that is u (qu.0 } ) | q A1 } Ac = A2 Mk = < Qk .0 c = 1 2 { (q. .

Mu. Mc and Mk . . though we omit proofs.s .It can be proven. End of Proof Examples of Mu . L1L2 and L1*. in fact accept L1 L2 . that these NFA. respectively. Mc and Mk: Example 1: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression (aa + b)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above.

.Example 2: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression ((a + b)a*)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above.

Kleene's Theorem -.Part 2 .

q. Lemma 1: L(p. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. Before proceeding to a proof outline for the converse. then from k+1 to k+1 any number of times. q. What this lemma says is that the set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled with k+1 or lower numbers consists of the following two sets: 1. k)*L(k+1. let us study a method to compute the set of strings accepted by a finite automaton. Given a finite automaton. Next denote by L(p. . k)L(k+1. k+1. It states that any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. q. k) the set of strings representing paths from state p to state q that go through only states numbered no higher than k. See the figure below for the illustration. q. q. L(p. Then the following lemmas hold. all without passing through states labeled higher than k. k) . k) : The set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled wiht k or lower numbers. k) : The set of strings going first from p to k+1. k+1) = L(p.Subjects to be Learned • Languages accepted by FAs are regular Contents The converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem also holds true. k+1. L(p. k)L(k+1. Note that paths may go through arcs and vertices any number of times. k) L(p. k)*L(k+1. k+1. q. 2. then from k+1 to q. k+1. first relabel its states with the integers 1 through n.

we have the following converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem. q. q. Since the number of symbols is finite and since any finite language is regular. Proof: L(p. 0) is the set of strings representing paths from p to q without passing any states in between. Hence if p and q are different.Lemma 2: L(p. 0) is regular. If p = q. Theorem 2 (Part 2 of Kleene's Theorem): Any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. Lemma 3: L(p. L(p. q. 0) is regular. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. Example : Let us find the language accepted by the following finite automaton using the . q. n) over all accepting states q. then it consists of single symbols representing arcs from p to q. Since the language accepted by a finite automaton is the union of L(q0. q. then is in it as well as the strings representing any loops at p (they are all single symbols). k) is regular for any states p and q and any natural number k. >From Lemmas 1 and 2 by induction the following lemma holds.

0)*r(1. 1)r(2. 3.2. 1) = r(3.1.0)*r(1. 2) .0) = a + . 1) + r(1.1.2.0) = and r(2. 2.1. 2): r(3. 1) = r(3. 3. 1. 2) = r(3. 1)r(2. 1)*r(2. 3. 1) r(3. q.1.0) = a* . Hence r(1. r(2. 1.2. 3.1.2. q.1. 1.2. 1. 1. 1) r(1. . 3.0)r(1. 1) = r(2.1. 1) + r(3. 3. 3. 1) r(1. 1) = r(1. 2.0) + r(3. 1) = r(2. 3. 2) = a* + a+(b a+)*b a* . 3.0) + r(2.1. 2) + r(1. 2. 1) = a Hence r(1. Let us denote by r(p.1. 1. k). 2.1. r(2. 3. 1) = r(1. 3) = r(1.1. 3.0)r(1. 2) = a+(b a+ + = a+(b a+ )*a . 3.0) = b. 3).0)r(1.1. 1)*r(2. 1)r(2.1. 2)*r(3. 2): r(1.0) = b . By Lemma 1. 2. Then the language accepted by this NFA is r(1. since r(2.1. 2. 2) = r(1. 2): r(1. 1. since r(1.0) = a+ .lemmas. 1)*r(2. r(1.0) = and r(3. 1.0)*r(1.2.0)r(1.2. since r(3. k) the regular expression for the set of strings L(p.0) + r(2.0)*r(1.0) = ba+ .0)r(1.1. 1) + r(1. 2.1.0) = ba+ + .0) + r(1.1. 3. 1.0) + r(1.0) = a . 2)r(3. 3. 2) = r(1. since r(1. 2. )*a r(3.0) = ba* . 1. 2. r(1. 1. r(1. 1) = r(2. r(1.2.0)*r(1.2.

. q0 .0)<SUP*< SUP>r(1.0) + r(3.0) = ba* Hence r(3. 2) = ba* + ba+( ba+ + = ( ba+ )*ba* . n)'s must be added together to get the regular expression for the language accepted by the automaton. q. n) must be found for each accepting state q. Hence r(1. . 1) r(3. 1)r(2. can be obtained by swapping its accepting states with its non-accepting states. that is Mc = < Q . 2): r(3. 1. Then a DFA that accepts the complement of L.Hence r(3. If there are more accepting states. q. 2.L. 1. 1)*r(2. . Comlement and Intersection of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • • Complement of Regular Language Complement of DFA Intersection of Regular Languages Contents Complement Let M = < Q . 1.L .1.1. i.e. 1. 3.0)r(1. Q . )*ba* + ( ba+)+a )*( ba+ )*ba*. where p is the initial state and n is the number of states in the given finite automaton. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. . The detail is left as an exercise though it would be quite challenging.1. In this example there is only one accepting state. 1) = r(3. then r(p. 2) = = + ( ba+)+a + ba+( ba+ + )*a r(3. 1) + r(3. 2. 1. .A > is a DFA that accepts * . 3) = a* + a+(b a+)*ba* + ( a+( ba+ )*a )( This can be further simplified to (a + ab + abb)*. then to (a + ab)*.1. 2) = r(3. * . q0 . and all the r(p. 1. 1.

b }. we must first convert it to DFA before swapping states to get its complement. the complement of a regular language is also regular. Remark 1: If we have NFA rather than DFA.For example the following DFA accepts the language a+ over = { a . Remark 2: Since a language is regular if and only if it is accepted by some NFA. A DFA that accepts its complement is obtained from the above DFA by changing all single circles to double circles and vice versa as shown below. .

then their complements are regular languages.Regular Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Regular Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Production and Grammar Regular Grammar Context-Free. Context-Sensitive and Phrase Structure Grammars . In particular De Morgan's law also applies to languages. difference. Next -. Test Your Understanding of Complemnent and Intersection of FAs Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. L1 L2 is regular. Click True or Fals . concatenation and Kleene star operations. then Submit. if L1 and L2 are regular languages. Since L1 L2 = by De Morgan's law.Intersection of Regular Languages Langauges are sets. Therefore all the properties of sets are inherited by languages. By Remark 2 above. Thus summing all this up we can say that the set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed with respect to union. intersection.

Rewrite S using one of the following two rules: S -> a . aa. to obtain aS. . i. A production has in general the form -> . regular. Add another state as the accepting state Z. start with S and apply the second rule to replace S with the right hand side of the rule. then we simply write =>* Formally a grammar consists of a set of nonterminals (or variables) V.e. For example. . finite automata and construction from simple languages using simple operations. For example consider the language represented by a+. a set of terminals (the alphabet of the language). and a set of rewrite rules (productions) P. . which ia a nonterminal. that is a production is of the form X -> a or X -> aY. Theorem 3: A language L is accepted by an FA i. S corresponds to the initial state. That gives us aa. we write =>*G is obtained from a string and say that by applying productions of . } . which is { a. a ) = Z. add the transition ( X. Then apply the first rule to aS to rewrite S as a. There is yet another way of characterizing them. In general if a string a grammar G. the fact that aa is obtained from S is written as S =>* aa . aaa. If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. S -> bS. We write S => aS to express that aS is obtained from S by applying a single production. = {a. Then for every production X -> aY. a start symbol S. S -> } is a regular grammar and it generates all the strings consisting of a's and b's including the empty string. The following theorem holds for regular grammars. A grammar is a set of rewrite rules which are used to generarte strings by successively rewriting symbols. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals with at least one nonterminal in it and is a string of terminals and nonterminals. b}.{ by a regular grammar. If there is no is derived from ambiguity about the grammar G that is referred to. that is by something called grammar. if L . A grammar is regular if and only if is a single nonterminal and is a single terminal or a single terminal followed by a single nonterminal. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. These rules mean that S is rewritten as a or as aS.e.Contents We have learned three ways of characterising regular languages: regular expressions. To generate the string aa for example. where X and Y are nonterminals and a is a terminal. and S -> aS . Thus the process of obtaining aa from S is written as S => aS => aa . aS. One can generate the strings of this language by the following procedure: Let S be a symbol to start the process with. a ) = Y and for every production X -> a add the transition ( X. } can be generated This can be proven by constructing an FA for the given grammar as follows: For each nonterminal create a state. .

P. then L . . q0 > is obtained as follows: for any a in .{ } is regular. . a) = Y . If L contains ( L -{ } ) { } is also regular. X -> aY is in P if and only if (X. An NFA that recognizes this language can be obtained by creating two states S and Z. and adding transitions ( S. Thus the following converse of Theorem 3 is obtained. a ) = { S. { a.e. Theorem 4 : If L is regular i. Z } . S -> bS. X -> bS. b ) = { S. and nonterminals X and Y. a regular grammar corresponding to the NFA given below is < Q. S -> a. b }. where Q = { S. as its member. Y } . A > a regular grammar < Q. and for any a in and any nonterminal X.{ regular grammar. L = Conversely from any NFA < Q. S -> a }. X -> a is in P if and only if (X. accepted by an NFA. The NFA thus obtained is shown below. P = { S -> aS. . X -> aY. S -> aX. S -> b } form a regular grammar which generates the language ( a + b )+. } is generated by a For example. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. P. Z } and ( S.For example = {a. a) = Y for some accepting state Y. where S is the initial state and Z is the accepting state of the NFA. q0. Y -> bS. S > . . Thus L . then since { } is regular . X. b}.

A grammar is a context-free grammar if and only if its production is of the form X -> . cZ -> cc } with = { a.In addition to regular languages there are three other types of languages in Chomsky hierarchy : context-free languages. respectively. For example P = { S -> aSb. S -> XYZ. Context-sensitive grammars are also characterized by productions whose left hand side is not longer than the right hand side. b } and V = { S } is a contex-free grammar and it generates the language { anbn | n is a positive integer } . S1 -> XYZS1. b. . ZY -> YZ. As we shall see later this is an example of context-free language which is not regular. possibly the empty string. X -> a. It is an example of context-sensitive language which is not context-free. context-sensitive languages and phrase structure languages. that is the set of regular languages is a subset of the set of context-free languages which is in turn a subset of the set of context-sensitive languages and the set of context-sensitive languages is a subset of the set of phrase structure languages. These grammars are distinguished by the kind of productions they have but they also form a hierarchy. BY -> bb. c } and V = { X. bZ -> bc. S. where X is a nonterminal and . ZX -> XZ. S1 } is a context-sensitive grammar and it generates the language { anbncn | n is a positive integer } . S1 -> XYZ. For example P = { S -> XYZS1. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals. Y. 1 . A grammar is a context-sensitive grammar if and only if its production is of the form 1 X 2 -> 1 2 . aY -> ab. possibly empty except Thus the nonterminal X can be rewritten as only in the context of 1X 2 . aX -> aa. 2 and are strings of terminals and nonterminals. Z. S -> ab } with = { a. for every production -> . that is. YX -> XY. context-sensitive grammars and phrase structure grammars. They are characterized by context-free grammars.| | | |.

.For a phrase structure grammar. that has the smallest number of states amomg the DFAs that accept L. Let M = < Q . }.Minimization of DFA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Minimization of DFA One important result on finite automata. where and Test Your Understanding of Regular Grammar Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. . -> . there is no restriction on the form of production. is that for any regular language there is a unique DFA having the smallest number of states that accepts it. There are two sets of questions. Next -. Q . denote it by M1. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. that is a production of a phrase structure grammar can take the form can be any string. then Submit. both theoretically and practically. Minimization Algorithm for DFA Construct a partition = { A.A } of the set of states Q . Click True or Fals . new := new_partition( . q0 . Then the following algorithm produces the DFA.

. The accepting states of M1 are representatives that are in A. If S is not partitioned in this process. These representatives are states of minimum DFA M1. respectively. end Minimum DFA M1 is constructed from • • final as follows: • • Select one state in each set of the partition final as the representative for the set.while ( := new new ) ) . p and q make a transition to (states of) the same set of . S remains in the output partition. A state is a dead state if it is not an accepting state and has no out-going transitions except to itself.e. If a transition from s to t on symbol a exists in M. The start state of M1 is the representative which contains the start state of M. Let s be a state in p and t a state in q. Let us also denote by p and q the sets of states of the original DFA M represented by p and q. Any transitions to a dead state become undefined. The subsets thus formed are sets of the output partition in place of S. Let p and q be representatives i. final function new_partition( ) for each set S of do partition S into subsets such that two states p and q of S are in the same subset of S if and only if for each input symbol. states of minimum DFA M1. then the minimum DFA M1 has a transition from p to q on symbol a. Note that the sets of final are either a subset of A or disjoint from A. if there are any. Example 1 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. Remove from M1 the dead states and the states not reachable from the start state. new := new_partition( := .

2 . 2 and 4 are separated from each other in new. For the transitions. This becomes the second iteration. 5 } . states 2 and 3 are going to be separated from each other in new . . 5 } . Also since on a sate 4 goes to sate 4. 5 }. Since the rest of the states are singletons. 4 goes to 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . Since on b state 2 goes to state 1. Thus the set of states for the minimized DFA is { 1 . remains unchanged. they have the obvious representatives. Select 1 as the representative for { 1 . all transitions between them are inherited for the minimized DFA. { 2 } . and to 2 on b in the original DFA. { 3 } . Thus the new partition is { { 1 . 3 }. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 1 to 3 on a. Also since 2 goes to 1 on b. states 3 and 4 are going to be separated from each other in new. 4 } }. and 1 to 2 on b. { 4 ] }. since 1 and 5 do the same transitions. { 2 . Further. new_partition is applied to . 5 } .Initially = { { 1 . Thus final = { { 1 . since 1 goes to 3 on a. { 2 } . and 3 goes to 1 on a in the original DFA. since on b 2 goes to 1. in the When new_partition is applied to this new . and from 3 to 1 on a. On the other hand 1 and 5 make the same transitions. So they are not going to be split. state 3 goes to state 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . { 4 ] }. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 2 to 1 on b. Since the rest are singletons. 3 . Note here that state 4 is a dead state because the only transitionout of it is to itself. { 3 } . state 3 goes to state 5 and 4 and 5 are in different sets in .

.Thus the minimized DFA is as given in the following figure: Example 2 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA.

4 . { 1 .Application of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Application of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Reactive system . 4 } . 5 . By applying new_partition to this . new = { { 1 } . { 2 } . 4 . { 6 } } is obtained. Test Your Understanding of Minimization of DFA Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Click True or Fals . { 4 } . 5 } . Next -. { 1 . 6 } } is obtained. { 5 } . { 6 } } is obtained. 6 } }. then Submit. { 3 } . { 5 } . new = { { 3 } . { 1 .Initially = { { 3 } . Applyting new_partition again. 2 . { 2 } . new = { { 3 } . { 2 . Applyting new_partition to this . Thus the number of states of the given DFA is already minimum and it can not be reduced any further.

computer network communication protocols. external or internal to the system. In addition actions that may take place in those states can also be added to the model. two numbers to be added are ready.e. .• Modeling reactive systems with FA Contents We have seen an example of use of finite automata in describing the operation of a simplified version of vending machine. In the case of vending machine or communication protocol. Then the transitions between the states triggered by events and conditions. To model a reactive system with finite automaton. first the states the system goes in or the modes of its operation are identified. It is an event driven or control driven system continuously having to react to external and/or internal stimuli. A system such as an adder is called a transformational system. Finite automata are formal and rigorous and computer programs can be easily written to simulate their behaviors. lexical analysers for compilers etc. An adder does not respond unless the input i. a system must respond to each stimulus. A reactive system is a system that changes its actions. outputs and conditions/status in response to stimuli from within or outside it. These become the states of the finite automaton that models it. are identified and they become arcs in the transition diagram of the finite automaton. Many other systems operating in practice can also be modeled by finite automata such as control circuits of computers. even to a fragment of input such as each coin tossed in for a can of soda or every message received. It is generally agreed that finite automata are a natural medium to describe dynamic behaviors of reactive systems. on the other hand. For example consider the following very simplified version of login process to a computer from the computer point of view. Many of those systems fall into the class of systems called reactive system. Let us assume for simplicity that this computer accepts a single user at a time. The inputs for a reactive system are never ready unlike for example when two numbers are added together by an adder (Here we are considering an adder at a higher level of abstraction than physical devices level ignoring for example the transient states of the electronic circuit that realizes an adder).

If a negative ACK is received. different states would be identified and transitions would have to be selected accrdingly. If it is valid. When a RFNM starts coming. This is one state of the system.Initially the computer waits for a user name to be typed in. then it accepts the user and starts a session. it checks whether or not the name is valid. it starts sending the requested message to the other party. which is another state. If the second password fails. If the user name typed in is not valid. sending message and waiting for ACK. it gets a signal. different states and transitions would have to be chosen. The next example is a protocol for a computer to follow in communicating with another computer. receiving RFNM. goes back to the initial state and waits for another login. If a positive ACK is received. But let us make it simple. which is another state. it goes back to the initial state and waits for another RFNM to come. . If the password typed in is incorrect. it sends "Acknowledgement" (ACK) to the other computer. Initially the computer is in wait state waiting for "Request for Next Message" (RFNM) to come from another computer. Again depending on the level of abstraction. We could make it go to a different state and count the number of login attempts for security purpose. it goes into the state of receiving it (Our interpretation is that the computer is in a state of receiving an RFNM and it is taking the action of receiving the RFNM) . then it asks for and then waits for the password. Again it is a very simplified version. When it is complete. it goes into another wait state waiting for an ACK to come from the other computer. Upon completion of the RFNM. That is a fourth state. it resends the message. sending ACK. Again what we have seen is a model for one level of abstraction. After sending the ACK. then it informs the user of that and waits for the next try. Thus a finite automaton that models this protocol has the following five states: initial state (wait for RFNM). When a password is typed in and it is correct. Depending on how much detail we are interested in. it goes back to the initial state. When the session terminates. That is another state though it could further be broken down into a number of more states. it goes to the initial state and starts all over again. When a name is typed in.

d+ + d+ + .e. On the other hand if a digit has been read before a decimal point. +213.8 etc. After one digit it can continue receiving digits.. it goes into a state. Therefore from state P it goes to another state. i. This system can also be described by a regular expression. This system can be modeled by the following finite automaton: . One such system initially waits for the first symbol to come in.378. that indicates a digit has been read before a decimal point. denote it by P. where s+ and s. This Q is an accepting state. If a decimal point is received before a digit. denote it by D. then it goes to state P indicating that a decimal point has been read. If the first digit is received before a decimal point. Since these numbers are represented by strings consisting of a possible sign.represent the positive and negative signs. they can be represented by the following regular expression: ( s+ + s.Our third example is a system that recognizes numbers with or without a sign such as 5. 9 } .+ ) ( d+. in state P). . . If a decimal point has been read (i. then it must receive at least one digit after that. denote it by G.1. followed by a possible decimal point. If the first symbol is a sign. then it goes into a state. respectively and d {0. . it is in state D.d+ ). -15. If a decimal point is read while in D. that indicates that a sign has been received. followed by zero or more digits.e. regardless of whether a sign has been read or not. denote it by Q. then it goes into a state.2. then it can continue receiving digits and stay in D. followed by one or more digits. that indicates that a decimal point has been read. D is another accepting state. after reading a digit and stays there as long as digits are read.

input := read_input( ) . 0 and TOKEN [index] input ) index := index + 1.Simulation of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Simulation of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Simulation of FA Contents Once a finite automaton is constructed. called TOKEN. Another array. holds the next state for each input symbol for each state. we can use a general purpose program to simulate its operation. called NEXT_STATE. It uses four arrays. called STATEX. A third array. One array. while ( state NO_of_STATES and not End of Input ) index := STATEX [state] .Next -. stores for each state the input symbols that trigger transitions from the state. One such simulation algorithm is given below. Algorithm FA Simulator state := INITIAL_STATE. Those indices are used to access the contents of the other arrays. keeps the index of the first symbol in the TOKEN array for each state. called ACTION. while ( TOKEN [index] . indicates the actions taken at each state and a fourth.

to input 3. B. end Here 0 in the TOKEN array is a marker between states. To see how this algorithm works. Then every time you click "SHOW" the number is processed digit by digit. Then type 3 Tab . S is the initial state and B and H are accepting states. C and H. The corresponding transitions are going to be shown by red arrows in the transition diagram. You must hit the "Tab" key to move to the next box. The ACTION array would contain pointers to actions to be taken corresponding to arcs traversed such as converting a digit in BCD form to the corresponding binary number.e. else error input := read_input( ) . Tab 4 Tab 5. The numbers below NEXT_STATE array show the correspondence between the indices of the STATEX array and the states A. For example. In the DFA below all the transitions to the empty state (i. state := NEXT_STATE [index]. first click the box under the red arrow. Then type in a number you want the FA to recognize.45. S corresponds to 1. . empty transitions) are omitted. At the moment it is empty.if ( TOKEN [index] 0) perform the action specified by ACTION [index]. So no action is taken as a number is processed. first click the box pointed by the red arrow in the figure below.

click here It is extremely slow. .If you are also interested in how code is executed. So be patient.

This is the basis of two of the regularity test methods we are going to study below: Myhill-Nerode Theorem and Pumping Lemma. we can conclude that { anbn | n is a natural number} is not regular. Since a regular language must be recognized by a finite automaton. their properties and their usefulness for describing various systems. Non-regularity test based on Myhill-Nerode's theorem Indistinguishability of strings: Strings x and y in * are indistinguishable with respect to a language L if and only if for every string z in *. either xz and yz are both in L or they are both not in L. a and aa are indistinguishable with respect to the language an over alphabet { a }. But any finite automaton has only finite number of states. For example. There are. In this section we are going to study some of the methods for testing given languages for regularity and see some of the languages that are not regular. Thus there is no way for a finite automaton to remember how many a's it has read for all possible strings anbn . Thus it must be in different states when it has read different number of a's and starts reading the first b.Non-Regular Languages Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Regular Languages Non-Regular Languages Subjects to be Learned • • • Existence of non-regular languages Myhill . however. For example to recognize the language { anbn | n is a natural number} .Next -. languages that are not regular and therefore require devices other than finite automata to recognize them. where n is a positive integer. because aak and aaak are in the language an for any .Nerode Theorem for non-regularity test Pumping Lemma Contents We have learned regular languages. The main idea behind these test methods is that finite automata have only finite amount of memory in the form of states and that they can not distinguish infinitely many strings. That is the main limitation of finite automata. a finite automaton must remember how many a's it has read when it starts reading b's.

S1 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. It can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L2 as follows. where k and m are positive integers and k m . (x*y) . Select bm as a string to be appended to ak and am . Example 2: L2 = { ww | w {a. operations + and * and left and right parentheses. whose strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S2. Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. L3 can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: x and y are in L3 . Select bakb as a string to be appended to ak and am . that is. b } and it is infinite. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S1. Inductive Clause: If and are in L3 . Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L2 . Then akbakb is in L2 while ambakb is not in L2 . S2 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. Hence L1 is nonregular. Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L1 . Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set. For example. because ab is in the language anbn while aab is not in the language. Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set S1. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L3 unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. b }* } is nonregular. b } can be shown to be nonregular using Myhill-Nerode as follows: Consider the set of strings S1 = { an | n is a positive integer } . ( ( x + y ) * x ) and (( (x*y) + x ) + (y*y) ) are algebraic expressions. a and aa are not indistinguishable (hence distinguishable). the following theorem by Myhill and Nerod gives a criterion for (non)regularity of a language. Consider the set of strings S2 which is the same as S1 of Example 1 above. It is stated without a proof. Consider the set of strings S3 = { (k x | k is a positive integer } . Then akbm is not in L1 while ambm is in L1 . the set of strings consisting of one or more right parentheses followed by identifier x. This set is infinite . where k and m are positive integers and k m . Theorem : A language L over alphabet is nonregular if and only if there is an infinite subset of * .positive integer k. then ( + ) and ( * ) are in L3 . However. For more on Myhill-Nerode theorem click here. with respect to the language anbn . We are going to show that its strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L1. Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } over alphabet { a . Hence L2 is nonregular. x . Using this concept of indistinguishability. S1 is over alphabet { a .

abbabbabbb. abbabbabbb etc. The following theorem which is called Pumping Lemma is based on this observation. the resultant strings such as abbb (bba repeated 0 times). are also accepted by the NFA. Hence S3 is pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 . Those strings which are accepted by this NFA and whose length is greater than 5 have a substring which can be repeated any number of times without being rejected by the NFA. For example [ + x ) ]3 is +x) +x)+x) .and it can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 as follows: Let (k x and (m x be arbitrary two strings of S3 . then there must be a cycle in the NFA along some path from the initial state to some accepting state (such as the cycle 2-3-4-2 in the above example). abbabbabbabbb etc. It . where k and m are positive integers and k m . Hence L3 is not regular. In general if a string w (such as abbabbb in the example above) is accepted by an NFA with n states and if its length is longer than n. Then (k x + [ + x ) ]k is in L3 but (m x + [ + x ) ]k is not in L3 because the number of ('s is not equal to the number of )'s in the latter string. Select [ + x ) ]k as a string to be appended to (k and (m . Then the substring representing that cycle (bba in the example) can be repeated any number of times within the string w without being rejected by the NFA. This NFA accepts among others some strings of length greater than 5 such as abbabbb. For example the string abbabbb is accepted by the NFA and if one of its substrings bba is repeated any number of times in abbabbb. Pumping Lemma Let us consider the NFA given below.

Also since |uv| Let us now consider the string uvmw for m = 2. and w such that x = uvw. Then for any string x in L with |x| n. It can only show that a language is nonregular. n + p language L represented by akbk . let us prove that the language L = akbk is nonregular. uvmw L. that is. |uv| n |v| > 0 . v = ap. v and w which satisfy the following relationships: x = uvw |uv| n |v| > 0 and for every integer m 0. Pumping Lemma : Suppose that a language L is regular. Then uv2w = an-pa2pbn = an+pbn . where k is a natural number. Since |v| > 0 . Consider a string x = anbn for that n. Let n be the number of states of that FA. n. Then there is an FA that accepts L. then any long enough string of the language has a substring which can be repeated any number of times with the resultant strings still in the language. Suppose that L is regular and let n be the number of states of an FA that accepts L. Note that Pumping Lemma gives a necessity for regular languages and that it is not a sufficiency. n . Then there must be strings u.states that if a language is regular. v. Hence L is not a regular 0. and for every m 0. Thus Pumping Lemma can not be used to prove the regularity of a language. uvmw Test Your Understanding of Non-regularity . for some p > 0 . It is stated without a proof here. Hence an+pbn can not be in the L. Since p > 0 . v has at least one symbol. uvmw L. Example 4: As an example to illustrate how Pumping Lemma might be used to prove that a language is nonregular. This violates the condition that for every m language. there are strings u. the language is not necessarily regular. even if there is an integer n that satisfies the conditions of Pumping Lemma.

that is. are distinguishable with respect to L. if and only if }. Click True or Fals . This means that if x and y are read by an DFA that recognizes L. If there are three strings that are distinguished with respect . Also it is a corollary to Myhill-Nerode theorem: Let { be the followijg relation on }={ : For strings and of . Then there is a string z such that xz is in L and yz is not in L (or xz is not in L and yz is in L). say x and y. if and only if they are indistinguishable with respect to . Then the theorem is is staed as follows: Theorem: A language L over alphabet is regular if and only if the set of equivalence classes of is finite. Next -.Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. the DFA reaches different states. then Submit.Context-Free Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Myhill-Nerode Theorem The non-regularity test for languages by Myhill-Nerode is based on the following theorem which is in the contrapositive form of the theorem used for nonregularity test. Proof of Theorem Necessity Suppose that a language L is regular and two strings.

]. To prove this.. which it can not because a DFA must have a finite number of states. . ]. .. For.e. [ . be the number of distinct equivalence classes (i.. ) as follows: ]} ]. then the DFA must have infinitely many states. be representatives of those distinct equivalence classes.. the index) of and let . making them belong to different [ Hence is a function. DFA ( = {[ =[ = {[ ( . Hence if there are infinitely many strings to be distinguished with respect to L. if and in [ ]. Let . We will show that a DFA that accepts L can be constructed using these equivalence classes... . let [x] denote a class of strings that are indistinguishable from a string x with respect to L. then the language is not regular. . note that for every string [ ]. Hence if there is an infinite set of strings which are pairwise distinguishable with respect to a language. Sufficiency Conversely. then the DFA reaches three different states after reading those three strings. Then we construct a . Note that "indistinguishable with respect to L" is an equivalence relation over the set of strings (denote it by ) and [x]'s are equivalence classes. namely ] and ].. . are in different classes for and are distinguishable with respect to L. is in exactly one equivalence class. then the language L is regular. [ ]=[ } ]..to L. where [ ] =[ ] for all . Let us now show that this machine is in fact a DFA and it accepts the language First. if the number of classes of strings that are pairwise indistinguishable with respect to a language L is finite.. then ]'s.

=[ ]. Since . First some terminology. . . by the definition of = . first note that if . = [ ]. where ]. Also an equivalence relation is said to be of finite index. where ] is the equivalence class that belongs to. for DFA.Next. by the definition of = . ]. where . if a string in [ in ] is in . . . . if then for every . For that. Then by the definition of . Hence =[ = . Myhill-Nerode Theorem can now be stated as follows: The following three statements are equivalent: (1) A language is regular. With these terminology. Hence Hence we have shown that for every string ]. An equivalence relation on is said to be right invariant if for every . this means that the DFA accepts Myhill-Nerode Theorem Let us here state Myhill-Nerode Theorem. . =[ ]. let us show that this DFA accepts string in [ ] is also in L. Our proof is by structural induction on string Basis Step: = =[ ]. ] by the induction hypothesis. then every We then show that for every string . if the set of its equivalence classes is finite. Inductive Step: Assume Then for every But =[ Hence =[ ].

S -> ab }. Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } is a context-free language. grammar (CFG) if V and . . S . where X is a nonterminal and is a nonempty string of terminals and nonterminals. For the following context-free grammar G1 = < V1 . Most programming languages can be approximated by context-free grammar and compilers for them have been developed based on properties of context-free languages. . P > is a context-free V is V. Context-Free Languages Context-Free Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Context-Free Grammar Context-Free Languages Push Down Automata Contents Earlier in the discussion of grammars we saw context-free grammars. S . b } and P1 = { S -> aSb . Proofs are omitted. Let us define context-free grammars and context-free languages here. Definition (Context-Free Grammar) : A 4-tuple G = < V . and P is a finite set of productions of the form X -> and (V )* . A language is a context-free language (CFL) if all of its strings are generated by a context-free grammar. They are grammars whose productions have the form X -> . S . = { a .(2) L is the union of some of the equivalence classes of a right invariant equivalent relation of finite index. The set of strings generated by a context-free grammar is called a context-free language and context-free languages can describe many practically important systems. (3) is of finite index. P1 > generates L1 : V1 = { S } . where X the start symbol. are finite sets sharing no elements between them.

Properties of Context-Free Language Theorem 1: Let L1 and L2 be context-free languages. Similarly for L1L2 . Ss -> L2 . Example 4: Portions of the syntaxes of programming languages can be described by context-free grammars. + . S . = { a . Then L1 context-free languages. Pu > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1 L2 . S -> bSb . b }+ } is a context-free language . . ) . operations + and * and left and right parentheses. S -> aa . respectively. let Ss be a symbol which is not in V1 . . Then let Ps = P1 { Ss -> SsS1 . S -> S*S . . b } and P2 = { S -> aSa . ( . P1 > and G2 = < V2 . . < forstatement > -> for ( < expression > . 3. Next define Vc = V1 V2 { Sc } and Pc = P1 P2 { Sc -> S1S2 } . . . first relabel symbols of V2 . . Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. S . and L1* are . Outline of Proof This theorem can be verified by constructing context-free grammars for union. Then let Su be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . Next define Vu = V1 V2 { Su } and Pu = P1 P2 { Su -> S1 . . Then it can be easily seen that Gu = < Vu . . 3 = { x . S2 . Sc . For the following context-free grammar G2 = < V2 . . P2 > generates L2 : V2 = { S } . . if necessary. < expression > -> < logicalexpression > . < statement > -> < for-statement > . Then for L1 L2 . S1 . . . Su . < expression > ) < statement > . concatenation and Kleene star of context-free grammars as follows: Let G1 = < V1 . first relabel symbols of V2 . } . < if-statement > -> if ( < expression > ) < statement > . w is spelled backward to obtain wr . < statement > -> < assignment > . y . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. where w is a nonempty string and wr denotes the reversal of string w. * } and P3 = { S -> ( S + S ) . Su -> S2 } . Then L3 is a context-free language. that is. . S -> bb }. For example { < statement > -> < if-statement > . P2 > be context-free grammars generating L1 and L2 . S -> y }. < expression > -> < algebraic-expression > . P3 > generates L3 : V3 = { S } .Example 2: L2 = { wwr| w {a. if necessary. Then it can be easily seen that Gc = < Vc . . < expression > . Pc > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1L2 . For L1* . S -> x . For the following context-free grammar G3 = < V3 . . Then let Sc be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . L1L2 . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols.

Z0 . push them into the stack. respectively ). Ss . A . where Q is a finite set of states. . A pushdown automaton ( or PDA for short ) is a 7-tuple M = < Q . check the stack. where Q = { q0 . Z0 is the initial stack symbol and it is a member of . accept the string. A . > . the contents of the stack can also be changed every time an input symbol is read. As soon as the symbol b appears stop storing a's and start popping a's one by one every time a b is read. and it replaces X with the string at the top of the stack. Any string of this language can be tested for the membership for the language by a finite automaton if there is a memory such as a pushdown stack that can store a's of a given input string. > . but also by the symbol at the top of the stack. ) means the following: The automaton moves from the current state of p to the next state q when it sees an input symbol a at the input and X at the top of the stack. as a's are read by the finite automaton. . When all the symbols of the input string are read.} . They need a little more complex automata called pushdown automata. Let us consider a context-free language anbn . For example. Otherwise reject it. q0 is the initial state. its next state is determined not only by the input symbol being read. Thus ( p . Second. q0 . Z0 . If another a (or anything other than b) is read after the first b. context-free languages are also accepted by automata but not finite automata. . Pushdown Automata . generates the language L1* . Let us define this new type of automaton formally. reject the string. X ) = ( q . Thus its transition function specifies the new top of the stack contents as well as the next state. A is the set of accepting states is the transition function and :Q ( ( } -> 2 Q * . . Ps > is a context-free grammar that Like regular languages which are accepted by finite automata. Example 1 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . and are finite sets ( the input and stack alphabet. This automaton behaves like a finite automaton except the following two points: First. It can be seen that the grammar Gs = < Vs . a . If it is empty. . q0 .

Initially its configuration is ( q0 . ( q0 . ). it is ( q0 . q2 } . A .y. Z0 ). x . Z0 . aZ0 ). aZ0 ) ( q0 . . . aabb . aaZ0 ). b } . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . To describe the operation of a PDA we are going to use a configuration of PDA. Z0 ).q1 . its configuration is ( q0 . To express that the PDA moves from configuration ( p . where q is the state the PDA is currently in. This entire process can be expressed using the configurations as ( q0 . Z0 ) This pushdown automaton accepts the language anbn . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . aZ0 ). following table: = { a . aa ) q0 q1 q1 b b a a Z0 ( q1 . b . abb . b .y. b .x. ) ) (q. q0 . Z0 ) ( If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. > is a triple ( q . When the second b is read. Thus aabb is accepted by this PDA. ) in a single move (a single application of the transition function) we write (p. y . Let us now see how the PDA of Example 1 operates when it is given the string aabb . If ( q . A configuration of a PDA M = < Q . bb . ). another a is popped from the top of the stack and the PDA stays in state q1 . ) to configuration ( q . ) ( q2 . we can also write ( q0 . aabb . aZ 0 ) q0 a a ( q0 . bb . Z0 ). Z0 ) . A = { q2 } and let be as given in the State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 .x. x . ) ( q1 . we write ) is reached from ( p . it moves to state q1 and pops a from the top of the stack. Z0 ) q2 . x is the unread portion of the input string and is the current stack contents. ) . where the input is read from left to right and the top of the stack corresponds to the leftmost symbol of . After reading the first a. abb . y . * (q. aabb . x . Next it moves to the state q2 which is the accepting state. . . ) by a sequence of zero or more moves. for example. Then when the first b is read. aaZ0 ) ( q1 . After reading the second a. = { a . (p. aZ0 ) ( q1 . . . Z0 } . Z0 ) * ( q2 . .

aZ 0 ) q0 b Z0 ( q0 . X ) = ( p . ). where Q = { q0 . arcs are labeled differently than FAs. q2 } . x. and an accepting state q. A = { q2 } and let be as given in the following table: State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . Z0 . q0 . ) ( q2 . for some in *. . For example the transition diagram of the PDA of Example 1 is as shown below. = { a .A string x is accepted by a PDA (a. Z0) . Z0 } .k. Z 0 ) In this table represents either a or b. Example 2 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . ) ) ) ) ( q1 . c } . A . b . then an arc from state p to state q is added to the diagram and it is labeled with ( a . . * (q. a . X / ) indicating that X at the top of the stack is replaced by upon reading a from the input. bZ 0 ) q0 q0 q0 q1 q1 q1 a b c a b a b Z0 ( q0 . For PDAs. acceptance by final state) if (q0. ) . If ( q . .a. Like FAs. = { a . b ( q1 . a ( q0 . b . q1 . however. > . PDAs can also be represented by transition diagrams. ( q1 .

1 Further topics on CFL • PDA and Context-Free Language There is a procedure to construct a PDA that accepts the language generated by a given context-free grammar and conversely. b }* } . This PDA pushes all the a's and b's in the input into stack until c is encountered. which is the set of palindromes with c in the middle. bcbba . aZ0 ) ( q0 . Z 0 ) . baZ0 ) ( q1 . cbba . For example for the input abbcbba. aZ0 ) ( q1 .This pushdown automaton accepts the language { wcwr | w { a . Z0 ) ( q0 . it pops the stack. it goes through the following configurations and accepts it. . baZ0 ) ( q1 . ba . a . In the figure and 2 represent a or b. . Z 0 ) ( q2 . That means that a language is . ( q0 . bbcbba . it accepts the input string. it ignores c and from that point on if the top of the stack matches the input symbol. bbaZ0 ) . The transition diagram of the PDA of Example 2 is as shown below. When there are no more unread input symbols and Z0 is at the top of the stack. abbcbba . When c is detected. ( q0 . bbaZ0 ) ( q1 . bba . Otherwise it rejects the input string.

a verb phrase usually follow the noun phrase and the first word in the verb phrase is the verb and it is followed by noun phrases reprtesenting object(s) of the verb. a computer like non-English speaking people must be told how to interpret sentences such as the first noun phrase (" A dog") is usually the subject of a sentence. productions of grammars. compute yz first. y and z which satisfy u = vwxyz |wy| > 0 |wxy| n 0 . However. native English speakers know that it is the dog that bites and not the other way round. Contect-free grammars are powerful grammars.context-free if and only if there is a PDA that accepts it. Though we are accustomed to interpreting this as x + (yz) i. Then there is a positive integer n such that for any string u in L with |u| n . then multiply the result by z. Similar things happen when English sentences are processed by computers (or people as well for that matter).e. Parsing is the process of interpreting given input strings according to predetermined rules i.e. vwmxymz L for every integer m • Parsing and Parsers for CFL Consider the algebraic expression x + yz. it could also be interpreted as ( x + y )z meaning that first compute x + y. Those procedures are omitted here. However. x. The parsing for context-free languages and regular languages have been extensively studied. Thus they are widely used for compilers for high level programming languages and natural language processing systems. Interested readers are referred to the textbook and other sources. then add the result to x. ???? references on Parsing ???? . "A dog" is the subject. there are strings v. Thus if a computer is given the string x + yz. w. • Pumping Lemma for Context-Free Language Let L be a CFL. we are not going to study parsing here. For example in the sentence "A man bites a dog". "bites" is the verb and "a man" is the object of the verb. it does not know which interpretation to use unless it is explicitly instructed to follow one or the other. They can describe much of programming languages and basic structures of natural languages. By parsing sentences we identify the parts of the sentences and determine the strutures of the sentences so that their meanings can be understood correctly.

These languages can describe many practically important systems and so they are heavily used in practice.Turing Machines Back to Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • • • Definition of Turing Machine Configuration Operation of Turing Machine Contents Introduction We have studied two types of languages from the Chomsky hierarchy: regular languages and context-free languages. Click True or Fals . then Submit. the phrase structure languages (also called Type 0 languages). of limited capability and there are many languages that they can not process. In this chapter we are going to study the most general of the languages in Chomsky hierarchy. They are. Turing machines were conceived of by the English mathematician Alan .Test Your Understanding of Contect-Free Language Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. and the machines that can process them: Turing machines. Next -. however.

consists of a finite control and a tape. . Computers we use today are as powerful as Turing machines except that computers have finite memory while Turing machines have infinite memory. It then moves the head to left or right or does not move it and goes to the next state which may be the same as the current state. Given a string of symbols on the tape. it stops its operation. like finite automata. This conjecture is known as Church's thesis and today it is generally accepted as true. The tape has the left end but it extends infinitely to the right. a Turing machine starts at the initial state. its head is a read-write head and it can move left. unlike finite automata. either erases it or replaces it with a symbol (possibly the same symbol). At any state it reads the symbol under the head. At any time it is in one of the finite number of states. One of its states is the halt state and when the Turing machine goes into the halt state.Turing as a model of human "computation". right or stay at the same square after a read or write. However. It is also divided into squares and a symbol can be written in each square. We are going to study Turing machines here and through that limitations of computers and computation as we know today. Later Alonzo Church conjectured that any computation done by humans or computers can be carried out by some Turing machine. Definition Conceptually a Turing machine.

is a finite set of symbols containing as its subset and it is the set of tape symbols. . R ) (h. X ) = ( r. = { a . .L. Example 1 : The following Turing machine < Q1 . where Q1 = { q0. is a finite set of symbols and it is the input alphabet. The states are represented by vertices and for a transition ( q. R ) ( q3 . a . where D represents R. a . q3 } . q1. Here denotes the blank and R. = { a . . > accepts the language aba* . . b . q0 is the initial state. respectively. q2. . . X) ) ( q1 . D ) indicating that the state is changed from q to r. R ) ( q3 . an arc from q to r is drawn with label ( X/Y . . where Q is a finite set of states. q0 . which is assumed not to contain the symbol h. L or S . left and do not move it. the symbol X currently being read is changed to Y and the tape head is moved as directed by D. The symbol h is used to denote the halt state. A transition diagram can also be drawn for a Turing machine. R ) ( q2 . It is a mapping from Q ( { } ) to ( Q { h } ) ( { }) {R. q0. Y.Formally a Turing machine is a 5-tuple T = < Q. L and S denote move the head right.S) A transition diagram of this Turing machine is given below. is the transition function but its value may not be defined for certain points. > . b } . It is assumed that the tape has at the left end and the head is initially at the left end of the tape. D ) . State (q) Input (X) Move ( q0 q1 q2 q3 q3 a b a (q. S}. b } and is as given by the table below.

For example the Turing machine of Example 1 above goes through the following sequence of configurations to accept the string aba: ( q0 . zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in zero or more moves.Turing Machine that accepts aba* To describe the operation of Turing machine we use configuration. The set of strings accepted by a Turing machine is the language accepted by the Turing machine. xay ) ( q . ( q0 . and ( p . xay ) * ( q . We write ( p . . > if x ) * ( h. . A string x is said to be accepted by a Turing machine* T = < Q . A Turing machine T is said to decide a language L if and only if T writes "yes" and halts if a string is in L and T writes "no" and halts if a string is not in L. zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in one move. aba ) (h. Note that the Turing machine does not stop if a string is not in the language. q0 . If the Turing machine needs to be explicitly indicated T or T* is used. aba ) ( q1 . yaz ) for some symbol a { } and some strings y and z in ( * { } ) . aba ) ( q3 . aba ) ( q2 . the taper contents are the string aababb and the head is reading the last a of the string. aababb ) shows that the Turing machine is currently in state q. For example ( q . In this case we also say that the Turing machine halts on input x. aba ) . A configuration for a Turing machine is an ordered pair of the current state and the tape contents with the symbol currently under the head marked with underscore.

The first of the following figures shows a Turing machine that accepts but does not decide the language { a }. the second is a Turing machine that accepts { a } but goes into a loop if a string is not in the language (hence it accepts but doe not decide { a }) and the third decides { a }. . where = { a }.

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. It is denoted by TR . This Turing machine is denoted by TE.Example 2 : The following Turing machine moves the head to the first the current position. to the right of Example 3 : The following Turing machine erases the string on the tape and moves the head to the left end. It is assumed that initially the tape has at the left end.

but it goes into an infinite loop for any strings that are not in the language. one of the following three things happens: (1) The Turing machine goes into an infinite loop.Strings not Accepted by Turing Machines When a string is not accepted by a Turing machine. the operation of the Turing machine is aborted. In cases (2) and (3). that is when a Turing machine does not halt on a string. For example the following Turing machine accepts the language a+. (2) no transition is specified for the current configuration and (3) the head is at the left end and it is instructed to move left. .

f(x) ) * . . * Note on "Turing-acceptable": Some books define "acceptance by Turing machine" slightly differently. or loop. reject a string and halt. * and for every x that is not in S. in the Turing machines those books define.Turing machine accepting a+ Computabler Function Let S * and let f be a function f : S -> S. A Turing machine thus may accept a string and halt. the Turing machine eventually goes into the accept halt state. As far as the material discussed in this class note. there are two halt states: "accept halt" and "reject halt". That is. x) * ( h. Then we say T computes f or f is computable if for every x ( q0 . A language is a phrase structure (type 0) langauage if and only if it is Turing-acceptable in either sense and it has no effects on decidablility. a string is accepted by a Turing machine if given the string. there is no difference between these two definitions of "accept". T does not halt on x. With this definition.

Furthermore according to the Church's thesis. Next -. It moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) . then Submit. We have already seen TR . Click True or Fals . There are two sets of questions. Let us start with some basic Turing machines. One can construct many more Turing machines that perform various functions. any "computation" done by human beings or machines can be done by some Turing machine. In fact Turing machines that simulate computers and Turing machines that perform computations done by any algorithm can be constructed.Combination of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Combination of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Combination of Turing Machines Contents Combination of Turing Machines We have seen the definition of Turing machine and a few simple examples.Test Your Understanding of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Here we are going to study how complex Turing machines can be constructed using simple Turing machines and how computers can be simulated by Turing machines.

Below is assumed to be at the left end of the tape initially. then T2 is started as in the case of T1T2 . Then by T we denote a Turing machine that writes symbol at the current position and does not move the head (stays). Otherwise it crashes. Similarly by TL we denote a Turing machine that moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) to the left of the current position. T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that first executes T1. Also by TR and TL we denote Turing machines that move the head to right and left one position. Using these basic machines and the convention. The halt state of T1 becomes the initial state of T2 . To combine Turing machines we use the following conventions: Let T1 and T2 represent arbitrary Turing machines. Then if T1 halts and if the symbol currently under the head is . takes the head to the right end of the string and halts. . let us construct a little more complex Turing machines. T1T2 and T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that behaves initially like T1 and when T1 halts T2 takes over inheriting the head position and the tape contents of T1 .to the right of the current position. respectively. Example 4: The following machine shifts the tape contents to the left one position.

After adding two numbers placed on the tape it moves the head to the left end and halts. An adder can be constructed for example as TR -> TSL TL . In general to represent a natural number k. m I's and n I's with a blank between them are placed on the tape. natural numbers are represented on a Turing machine using symbol I. To add two numbers m and n. . So the initial configuration for adding 2 and 3 is ( q0 . II III ) . it goes through the following -> aab -> a -> a -> abb -> ab -> ab -> ab Example 5: The left-shift machine of Example 4 can be used to construct an adder for natural numbers. First. that is ( q0 . For example the number 3 is represented by three consecutive I's on the tape and 5 by five I's. Example 6: The following Turing machine copies the tape contents at the left end to their right separated by a blank .For example with the initial tape contents of sequence of tape contents and ends with ab ab -> ab : ab . After the addition the configuration becomes ( h . IIIII ) . k consecutive I's are put on the tape. x x). x) * b b (h.

Furthermore if the subtraction operation is necessary. there is a Turing machine that performs addition. Thus by combining appropriate Turing machines a computer with a minimal instruction set can be constructed. All the other operations can be realized by using those basic operations. it is not difficult to construct a Turing machine that performs subtraction using the same representation of numbers as for the addition. Since any complex computer instructions can be realized using those basic instructions. In fact many of the earlier computers had a much smaller instruction set but still could do everything today's computers can do albeit much more slowly. The following notations are used in the questions: . the branch operation is already in Turing machines because next configurations are determined based on the current state and tape symbol being looked at. However. On the other hand as we have seen above. Test Your Understanding of Combination of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. and store and load operations can be taken care of by a Turing machine that copies tape contents.Today's computers are very complex machines and their instruction sets contain complicated operations. all of those instructions can be realized using combinations of a small number of basic instructions. Click True or Fals . store and load operations. then Submit. branching. A bare minimum instruction set would contain addition. one can say that computers can be simulated by Turing machines.

that is. That is.Types of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Types of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Variation of Turing Machine Contents There are a number of other types of Turing machines in addition to the one we have seen such as Turing machines with multiple tapes. To simulate a two dimensional tape with a one dimensional tape. It turns out that computationally all these Turing machines are equally powerful. ones having one tape but with multiple heads. nondeterministic Turing machines etc. However. that is. The tape has the top end and the left end but extends indefinitely to the right and down. the former can be simulated by the latter. ones with two dimensional tapes. Turing Machines with Two Dimensional Tapes This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control. may vary. first we map the squares of the two dimensional tape to those of the one dimensional tape diagonally as shown in . For any Turing machine of this type there is a Turing machine with a one dimensional tape that is equally powerful. what one type can compute any other can also compute. how fast they can compute. the efficiency of computation.T_a : Ta T_R : TR ->^b : ->b Next -. It is divided into rows of small squares. one read-write head and one two dimensional tape.

. .. v 16 26 . then move the head of the one dimensional tape to right until it hits h or v counting the number of squares it has visited after i.. .....the following tables: Two Dimensional Tape v v h 1 h 3 h 4 h 10 h 11 h 21 . If v was hit first. . down. Let i be the head position of the two dimensional tape... . If the head moves down from i.. v 6 8 13 19 23 . . .. . One Dimensional Tape v 1 v 2 3 h 4 5 6 v 7 8 9 10 h 11 ...... Thus from h. . move 3 positions to the right. . Let us simulate this head move with a one dimensional tape. .... then from h move the head of the one dimensional tape further right to the k-th square from h. . .. Here the numbers indicate the correspondence of squares in the two tapes: square i of the two dimensional tape is mapped to square i of the one dimensional tape..... .. ... For example.> . v 7 14 18 24 . Then it meets h first. then for the one dimensional tape... ... . h and v are symbols which are not in the tape alphabet and they are used to mark the left and the top end of the tape... ...< .. . ... The head of a two dimensional tape moves one square up.. the head moves from position 8 to right. left or right. If h was hit first.. that is i = 8.. v 15 17 25 . suppose that the head position is at 8 for the two dimensional tape in the above table... ... which is the second square from i = 5... If the head moves down to position 13.. That is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 13 on the two dimensional tape.. . Let k be the number of squares visited by the head of the one dimensional tape.. If i = 5 and the head moves down on the other hand. respectively. . ... . which is the third square from 8.. That is the square corresponding to the square below i in the two dimensional tape. ... .. Thus this time the third square is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 9 on the two dimensional tape... .. . .. v 2 5 9 12 20 22 . . . .. then on the one dimensional tape the head moves to the right and it hits v first.... . then (k+1)-th square to the right from v is the new head position..

Its transition function is a partial function :Q ( { } )n -> ( Q { h } ) ( { } )n { R . H2 . Turing Machines with Infinite Tape : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape which extends infinitely in both directions. q0. . it can be said that they are equally powerful. . >. A configuration for this kind of Turing machine must show the current state the machine is in and the state of each tape. S } n .L. It turns out that this type of Turing machines are only as powerful as one tape Turing machines whose tape has a left end. where H1 . Since the converses are obviously true.. Nondeterministic Turing Machines . q0. Since Turing machines with a two dimensional tape obviously can simulate Turing machines with a one dimensional tape.S It can be easily seen that this type of Turing machines are as powerful as one tape Turing machines. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q .. The transition function is a partial function : Q { H1 . H2 . Thus some Turing machines with a one dimensional tape can simulate every move of a Turing machine with one two dimensional tape. {h}) ( { } {R. Hn denote the tape heads.. . Turing Machines with Multiple Heads : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape but more than one read-write heads. L . one can say that one tape Turing machines are as powerful as n-tape Turing machines. In each state only one of the heads is allowed to read and write. . Hn } ( { } ) -> ( Q }. . It can be proven that any language accepted by an n-tape Turing machine can be accepted by a one tape Turing machine and that any function computed by an n-tape Turing machine can be computed by a one tape Turing machine.. > . Hence they are at least as powerful as Turing machines with a two dimensional tape. right or left on the two dimensional tape.Similarly formulas can be found for the head position on the one dimensional tape corresponding to move up. Details are omitted. Turing Machines with Multiple Tapes : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and more than one tapes each with its own read-write head. . It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q .

. In general for each vertex of level i all possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN are its children. TN starts at the initial configuration and goes through a sequence of configurations until it reaches a halt configuration . Given a string x. Here an action means the combination of writing a symbol on the tape. The root of the tree is the initial configuration and it is the only vertex of level 0. Note that the number of children for a vertex in this tree is finite because the number of states is finite and there are a finite number of tape symbols.L. At any point in the process TN is in some configuration and has a finite set of configurations to choose from for its next configuration. . A deterministic Turing machine.A nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine which. Given a string x . The children of all the vertices of level i form level i+1. moving the tape head and going to a next state. like nondeterministic finite automata. It can be shown that a nondeterministic Turing machine is only as powerful as a deterministic Turing machine. As in the case of NFA. For example consider the following nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts a+ . All possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN once form the children of the initial configuration. . Formally a nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine whose transition function takes values that are subsets of ( Q {h}) ( { } {R. on the other hand. Proof : Let TN denote a nondeterministic Turing machine. b }* } . For example let us consider the language L = { ww : w { a .S}. tape symbol and head movement out of the set of triples without following any specific predetermined rule. . goes into an infinite loop or aborts. at any state it is in and for the tape symbol it is reading. The set of all possible computations that TN can perform for a given string x can be represented by a rooted tree as follows. Even in the same situation it may take different actions at different times. can take any action selecting from a set of specified actions rather than taking one definite predetermined action. can not guess the midpoint of the string x. It must find the midpoint by for example pairing off symbols from either end of x. that is the place where the second half of x starts. 2. Theorem Any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by some deterministic Turing machine. it is understood that a nondeterministic Turing machine at any configuration selects one combination of next state. a nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts this language L would first guess the midpoint of x. They form level 1.. Then it would compare the first half of x with the second half by comparing the i-th symbol of the first half with the i-th symbol of the second half for i = 1.

aa ) ( q1 . aa ) . aa ) for the second. and ( q1 . aa ) ( h .Turing machine accepting a+ Given the string aa. aa ) and ( q2 . aa ) ( q2 . it would proceed as follows to accept it: ( q0 . it has two candidates for the next configuration: ( q1 . aa ) ( q1 . The tree for this case would be as follows: . At the second and third configurations in the above sequence. aa ) for the third. aa ) and ( q2 .

is to traverse this tree breadth-first way from the root until the halt state is reached. If there is the halting state among these children. call it T2. At each level of the tree. T2 applies the transition function of T1 to each configuration at that level and computes its children. These children are the configurations of the next level and they are stored on the tape (if necessary a second tape may be used). it has been shown that none of them exceed the capability of basic deterministic Turing machine as far as accepting languages is concerned. Next -. However. then Submit.One way to simulate a nondeterministic Turing machine. though a deterministic Turing machine might take much more time than a nondeterministic Turing machine to accept a string. with a deterministic one. It can be easily seen that T2 accepts a string if and only if T1 accepts it. then T2 accepts the string and halts. Many other variations of Turing machine are possible.Unsolvable Problems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Unsolvable Problems . In fact the Church's thesis conjectures that any so called computation done by humans or computers can be performed by a basic deterministic Turing machine. Click True or Fals . Test Your Understanding of Different Types of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Thus any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by a deterministic Turing machine. call it T1.

the question is unanswerable that is the problem is unsolvable. Below we are going to see some well known unsolvable problems and see why we can say they are unsolvable. Here "unsolvability" is in the following sense. It is also conjectured that any "computation" human beings perform can be done by Turing machines (Church's thesis). Halting Problem One of well known unsolvable problems is the halting problem. In this chapter we are going to learn that there are problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers. . Suppose that the halting problem is decidable. Proof (by M. and then T halts. hence unsolvable. and an arbitrary string w over . the question of whether or not a string is in the language may not be answered in any finite amount of time. First recall that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language (see Problem Solving as Language Recognition). T writes "yes" if M halts on w and "no" if M does not halt on w. b } .Subjects to be Learned • • • Halting Problem Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents We have learned that deterministic Turing machines are capable of doing any computation that computers can do. So we are going to look at the unsolvability in terms of language recognition. That is. Minsky): This is going to be proven by "proof by contradiction". does M halt when it is given w as an input ? It can be shown that the halting problem is not decidable. Then given a string a Turing machine that accept the language starts the computation. and that any of their variations do not exceed the computational power of deterministic Turing machines. given a description of a Turing machine M (over the alphabet ) and a string w. if the Turing machine is running. Theorem 1 : The halting problem is undecidable. Suppose that a language is acceptable but not decidable. that is computationally they are equally powerful. Since we can not wait forever for an answer. Thus if a language is not decidable. Then there is a Turing machine T that solves the halting problem. At any point in time. L. It asks the following question: Given an arbitrary Turing machine M over alphabet = { a . there is no way of telling whether it is in an infinite loop or along the way to a solution and it needs more time.

First we construct a Turing machine Tm by modifying T so that if T accepts a string and halts. Next using Tm we are going to construct another Turing machine Tc as follows: Tc takes as input a description of a Turing machine M.We are now going to construct the following new Turing machine Tc. then Tm goes into an infinite loop (Tm halts if the original T rejects a string and halts). denoted by d(M). . where * is a symbol that separates the two copies of d(M) and then supplies d(M)*d(M) to the Turing machine Tm . copies it to obtain the string d(M)*d(M).

When Tc gets the input d(Tc) . constructs the string d(Tc)*d(Tc) and gives it to the modified T. Program correctness and Halting Problem Note that for any computer program a Turing machine can be constructed that performs the task of the program. This contradiction has been deduced from our assumption that there is a Turing machine that solves the halting problem. it makes a copy. This is a contradiction. Hence there is no Turing machine that solves the halting problem. The way T was modified the modified T is going to go into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc).Let us now see what Tc does when a string describing Tc itself is given to it. Thus the question of whether or not a program halts for a given input is nothing but the halting problem. Thus one implication of the halting problem is that there can be no computer programs (Turing machines) that check whether or not any arbitrary computer program stops for a given input. Thus Tc goes into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and it halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). . Thus the modified T is given a description of Turing machine Tc and the string d(Tc). Hence that assumption must be wrong.

Next -.More Unsolvable Preoblems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines More Unsolvable Problems Subjects to be Learned • • Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents The next unsolvable problem is in a sense more difficult than the halting problem. It is presented as a language and it can be shown that there are no Turing machines that accept the language. then Submit. Language NonSelfAccepting Let us first define two languages NSA1 and NSA2 as follows: . Click True or Fals .Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.

Neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. which is absurd. This means that there can not be any Turing machine that accepts the language NonSelfAccepting. For NSA2. But w0 = d( T0 ) because that is how we selected w0 . w0 is in neither NSA1 nor NSA2 . Thus there can not be Turing machine T0 that accepts the language SelfAccepting . This is again a contradiction. that is w0 is a description of the Turing machine T0 . where d(T) is a description of the Turing machine T. We are going to see that T0 neither accepts w0 nor rejects it. w = d(T) for a Turing machine T and T does not accept NSA2 = { w | w { a. then w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. Let w0 = d( T0 ). (2) If T0 does not accept w0 . For let T be a Turing machine that accepts { a } and let w = d(T). call it T0. Then there is no Turing machine that can be described by the string a. that accepts NonSelfAccepting.NSA1 = { w | w w} { a. either w0 is in NonSelfAccepting or it isn't. Problem Accepts( ) The problem Accepts( ) asks whetehr or not a given Turing machine T accepts . (1) If T0 accepts w0. Hence T0 can not accept w0 . NSA2 is the set of strings that do not describe any Turing machine. Hence either T0 accepts w0 or rejects it. Proof: This is going to be proven by contradiction. b }*. by the definitions of NSA1 and NSA2. Hence w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting . Also T0 does not accept w0 . w d(T) for any Turing machine T } . Knowing the unsolvability of the halting problem some other problems can be shown to be unsolvable. However. then w0 NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. let w = a. Then this w is a description of a Turing machine but it must be longer than one symbol. b }*. Suppose there is a Turing machine. Since NonSelfAccepting is a language. w0 is in NSA1 . Certainly more symbols than a single a are needed to describe even the simplest Turing machine. Hence a is in NSA2 . Hence w is in NSA1 . Theorem 2 There are no Turing machines that accept the language NonSelfAccepting. Thus neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. Let us define the language NonSelfAccepting as NonSelfAccepting = NSA1 Then we can prove the following theorem: NSA2 . It . Hence it is not accepted by T. Hence it is in SelfAccepting . NSA1 is the set of strings that describe a Turing machine but that are not accepted by the Turing machine they describe. This is a contradiction. Hence by the definition of NSA1 .

M writes the string d( T ) on the tape and let A take over. Since the halting problem is unsolvable. Problem AcceptsEverything The problem AcceptsEverything asks whether or not a given Turing machine T halts on every string over a given alphabet . that solves the halting problem can be constructed as follows: Given a description d(T') of a Turing machine T' and a string w as inputs. call it M. Let a Turing machine T' and a string w be an instance of the halting problem. Let A be a Turing machine that solves Accepts( ). Let A be a Turing machine that solves AcceptsEverything. This T halts on if and only if T' halts on w. Using this T. call it M. a Turing machine. Then consider the Turing machine T = TeraseT' . where Terase is a Turing machine that erases the input on the tape and halts. Suppose that AcceptsEverything is solvable. Let T' be an instance of Accepts( ). Consider a Turing machine T = TwT'.can be shown to be unsolvable. Suppose that Accepts( ) is solvable. a Turing machine. M solves the halting problem. This T halts on every string over if and only if T1 halts on . Then there is a Turing machine that solves it. where machine Tw is a Turing machine that writes w. this means that Accepts( ) is unsolvable. Then M halts on d(T') and w if and only if T' halts on w. Thus if Accepts( ) is solvable. That is. Using a similar idea the following problem can also be shown to be unsolvable. Using this T. We are going to show that the halting problem becomes solvable using this A. that solves Accepts( ) can be constructed as . the halting problem can be solved. which is an instance of the halting problem. We are going to show that Accepts( ) can be solved using the solution to it.

it means that AcceptsEverything is unsolvable. Equivalence This problem asks whether or not two Turing machines accept the same language. Since Accepts( ) is unsolvable. Then the following problems are all unsolvable. By similar arguments the following problems can be shown to be unsolvable. It can be shown to be unsolvable using AcceptsEverything. Other Unsolvable Problems Let G1 and G2 be context-free grammars and let L(G) denote the language generated by grammar G. It can be shown to be unsolvable using Accepts( ) .shown below. AcceptsNothing This problem asks whether or not a Turing machine accepts nothing. Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) = ? finite ? infinite ? context-free ? Is L( G1 ) = L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) = * ? Is the complement of L( G1 ) context-free ? .

then Submit.Time Complexity of Problem Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Complexity Time Complexity Subjects to be Learned • • • • • Time Complexity of Problems Decision Tree Class NP Polynomial Time Transformation NP-Complete Problems Contents In the previous sections we have learned that some problems are unsolvable by Turing machines hence by computers. Click True or Fals . A problem is solvable if some Turing .Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Next -. No one can write computer programs that solve those problems and halt after a finite amount of time.

a heap sort needs O(n lg n) time.g.machine can solve it in finite time. a quick sort needs O(n2) time. For example the satisfiability problem for Presburger arithmetic is double-exponential (2-fold exponentail). then Y Z [ X = Y + Z ] ] is a proposition of Presburger arithmetic. In this section we are going to study solvable problems and learn a hierarchy of solvable problems based on the computation time required to solve them. Then there are problems that require double exponential ( e. X [ if ~( X = 1 ). For more detailed review of this. where P and Q are propositions. etc. For many problems a day or even an hour would be too long. One can ask the same question for formulas of first order predicate logic. second order logic. For example a binary search takes O(lg n) time. and there are problems that require algorithms with the worst case time worse than k-exponential time for any natural number k. Even if it takes a million years to solve a problem. where A is an algorithm and S is a statement. are propositions of PDL. They take much more time to execute than polynomial time algorithms. as well as all the connectives such as and. as we are going to see below. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved by algorithms with the worst case time which is a polynomial in the problem size (polynomial time algorithms). after(A. This is the problem of asking whether or not a given formula can take the value true for some values of its variables. it is still solvable. where P is a propositional variable. S). that is it requires at least O( aan ) time to solve in the worst case. etc. the equality symbol = and quantifiers and . Before proceeding to predicate logic let us consider the following logic called propositional dynamic logic (PDL for short). The satisfiability problem becomes even harder when logic becomes more complex. In logic there is a well known problem of "satisfiability". But (P ^ ~P ) is always false. It is estimated by counting the largest possible number of key operations to be performed in terms of the input size. For example. So it is certainly satisfiable. However. it is as good (or bad) as unsolvable. the addition operation +. where k is a natural number. Presburger arithmetic is a logic that allows statements involving positive integers. They are all polynomial time algorithms. So it is not satisfiable. or etc. Let us see some of those intractable problems. The satisfiability problem for PDL is known to take at least exponential time to solve in the worst case. . problems that need k-exponential time algorithms. For example. the satisfiability problem for the propositional dynamic logic is proven to take exponential time to solve in the worst case. There are also problems that must be solved at best by exponential time algorithms in the worst case. ~Q )" and "if P then after( if P then Q else ~Q. O(f(x)) (big-oh) and other related subjects click here. S) says that S is true after executing A. Similarly ( P V Q ) is also satisfiable. The measure for computation time we use is the worst case time. 22n ) time algorithms. variables taking positive integers as their values. For example the formula ( P V ~P ) is always true. This is a propositional logic with an extra construct (proposition) after(A. They are both satisfiable. For example "after( if P then Q else ~Q. in practice if it takes a million years. The problems that can not be solved with any polynomial time algorithm are called intractable problems . Q )" .

This problem is called "Graph Coloring" problem or more precisely "Vertex Color" problem. For the satisfiability problem of WS1S. First. Consider the problem of coloring vertices of a graph with a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned. "Is it possible to schedule committee meetings without conflicts into a given number of time slots ? " . if. These problems are called decision problems. Such a problem (having no K-fold exponential time algorithms) is called nonelementary. however. the logic is called WS1S (Weak Second-order theory of 1 Successor). the consensus is that they ca not be solved with polynomial time algorithms. " Is it possible to assign colors to vertices of a given graph using a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned ? " etc. At the moment. Now let us go back to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. Below we are going to characterize this class of problems. Let us here review nondeterministic Turing machines. For example.In Presburger arithmetic (minus addition operation). Some of these decision problems are NP-complete problems. For the problems of this class there are no known polynomial time algorithms for solving them nor are they known to be unsolvable with polynomial time algorithms. This problem belongs to a peculiar class of problems called NP-Complete problems. sets of integers and the predicate "belongs to" (an element X belongs to a set S) are allowed. in addition. there are no K-fold exponential time algorithms to solve it for any number K. is it possible to color its vertices with three or less colors ? . "Is a string w in the language a*b ? ". Let us try to solve the following instances of this graph coloring problem: Given the following graph. there are problems that are solved by answering with yes or no.

For the graphs of (a) and (b), you could find a solution very easily by inspection. You could see a right coloring as soon as you saw the graphs. However, you can most likely not tell how you arrived at your solutions. You probably don't have any algorithms you could use to solve them. You could somehow see the solutions. This is basically the idea of nondeterministic (Turing) machine. There is no fixed procedure which you can use repeatedly to solve instance after instance of this problem. But you can somehow solve them. Let us move on to a slightly more complex example of (c). For this graph to find a right coloring you could start with vertex 1 and assign color a. Then move on to vertex 2 and assign color b(it has to be something other than a ). Then go to vertex 3 and assign a third color, say c. Then at vertex 4 select color b and for vertex 5 use color a. In this process we make a decision as to what color to use for each vertex and when a decision is made for all the vertices we have a solution to the problem. This process applies to any decision problem. That is to solve a decision problem a number of smaller decisions are made one after another and as a result a solution to the problem is obtained. This process can be represented by a tree called decision tree. For example, for the graph coloring problem let us first decide on the order of vertices we color in, say 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for the graph of (c) above. Then the root of its decision tree corresponds to the vertex we assign a color to first (vertex 1 in this example). Then for each possible color for the first vertex, a child is created for the first vertex of the tree. So the second level of the

decision tree corresponds to the second vertex to be colored. Then in general, for each possible color for each vertex of level i of the decision tree, a child is created. Those children form level i+1 of the decision tree. The decision tree for the graph of (c) is given below. Since any color can be assigned to vertex 1 without loss of generality, it has just one child in the actual decision tree. Also since in this case the i-th and (i+1)-th vertices are connected by an edge for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, they can not have the same color. So each vertex after vertex 1 has two colors to choose from. So they each have two children in the decision tree.

Thus during the process of solving the problem a decision is made at each level and when all levels are covered, the problem is solved. A path from the root to a leaf corresponds to a coloring of the vertices of the given graph. A decision tree, however, does not tell us how to make decisions. Also a decision tree does not tell how to order the vertices for coloring, that is which vertex to color first, second etc. A deterministic machine (or algorithm) has a specific fixed set of rules for making a decision at each level of the decision tree. Although it knows what to do at every stage of problem solving, the decisions it makes are not necessarily the right ones. When it makes wrong decisions, it must retract earlier decisions and try different paths, which is called backtracking. For the graph coloring problem a deterministic algorithm might first order the vertices of the graph in decreasing order of their degree and also order colors. Then, following the

order of the vertices, assign to each vertex the highest order color available for the vertex. Since that kind of algorithm is not guaranteed to use the minimum number of colors, it may produce a wrong answer unless there is some provision for backtracking. A nondeterministic (Turing) machine, on the other hand, is a fictitious machine and somehow knows which branch (child) to select at each step. It always makes a right selection. A decision problem is said to belong to class NP if each vertex in its decision tree has a finite number of children and if it can be solved by a nondeterministic (Turing) machine in polynomial time. The graph coloring problem is in class NP, so are the satisfiability problem for propositional logic and most of the scheduling problems just to name a few. Also there are other characterizations of class NP. Interested readers click here. At this moment it is not known whether or not problems in class NP can be solved with a polynomial time algorithm in the worst case. The consensus is that there is no polynomial time algorithm to solve them. It would take at least exponential time. Among the problems in class NP, there are problems which all problems of class NP can be transformed to in polynomial time. Those problems are called NP-complete problems. If a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of the NP-complete problems, all the problems in NP can be solved in polynomial time. Below we are going to study NPcomplete problems. We start our discussion with the concept of polynomial time transformation (reduction). Basically we say a decision problem Q1 is polynomially reducible to a decision problem Q2 if and only if there is a transformation that transforms any arbitrary instance of Q1 into an instance of Q2 in polynomial time such that the answer to Q1 is yes if and only if the answer to Q2 is yes. A little more formally we define this in terms of languages. Note that a decision problem can be viewed as a language of its instances and that solving it can be considered as recognizing the language as we have seen earlier. Let L1 and L2 be languages over alphabets 1 and 2, respectively. We say that L1 is polynomial-time reducible to L2 if and only if there is a function f from 1* to 2* such that for any string x in polynomial time.

1 *

,x

L1 if and only if f(x)

L2 and f can be computed

For example let us consider the following two problems: graph coloring and scheduling of committee meetings. The graph coloring problem is as given above. In the scheduling of committee meetings problem, committees with their members and a positive integer k are given. The problem is whether or not the meetings of the committees can be scheduled in k or less time slots so that everyone can attend one's meetings. Note that some people may be in more than one committee. Let us try to show that this scheduling problem is polynomial time reducible to the graph coloring problem.

d }. Thus the scheduling problem asks whether or not the meetings of the given committees can be scheduled in 3 time slots without any conflicts. The corresponding graph for the graph coloring problem can be constructed as follows: Corresponding to the committees 1. and if and only if two committee have some members in common. Then the committees can be grouped into p groups so that the committees in the same group can meet at the same time. For example suppose that we are given the committees 1. that is construct a graph and give the number of colors to be used to color its vertices so that the meetings can be scheduled if and only if graph can be colored. d } and { a. and 1 and 4 share members.What we need to do is given an instance of the scheduling problem construct an instance of the graph coloring problem. Suppose also that k = 3. 2. c. b }. Let us consider the following transformation: For each committee add a vertex to the graph. where p k. and 1 and 4. 3 and 4. Similarly since committees 1 and 3. Corresponding to this grouping assign colors to the vertices of the graph so that the vertices in the same group are given the same color and those in . c }. 3 and 4 with the memberships { a. connect with an edge the vertices corresponding to the committees. {a. 2. add vertices 1. edges are added between 1 and 3. 2. 3 and 4 to the graph. { b. Suppose that the meetings can be scheduled in p time slots. Proceeding similarly the following graph is obtained corresponding to the committee memberships. Then since committees 1 and 2 share a. Then the meetings can be scheduled in k or less time slots if and only if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. respectively. an edge is inserted between vertices 1 and 2.

For if any two vertices are connected with an edge. fast algorithms exist to solve it. all the problems can be solved with polynomial time algorithms. 7. Conversely if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. It was first proven by S. then P is also NP-complete. A problem is NP-complete if it is in class NP and NP-hard. It is also easily seen that the transformation. a traveling salesman wants to know a shortest route to visit all cities exactly once and come back to where he/she started. group them into two groups so that the sum of the numbers of one group is equal to that of the other group. As a consequence if a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of those problems. Cook that the problems of class NP can be polynomial time reducible to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. We are now ready to discuss NP-completeness. Thus these two vertices must get different colors. It can be easily seen that if a problem P at hand is NP-hard and if a problem known to be NP-complete can be polynomial time reducible to P. that is the construction of graph for a given set of committees. Some of them are listed below. then that means that the corresponding committees share some members and that they are scheduled to meet in different time slots. Formally a problem is NP-hard if every problem in class NP can be polynomial time reducible to it. their sizes and a number of bins of the same size. find out whether or not the objects can be put into the bins. which in this case can be taken as the number of committees. Graph Color Problem 3. 5. NP-complete Problems 1. Bin Packing Problem Given a set of objects. . This group of problems are called NP-complete problems.e. Committee Meeting Schedule Problem In fact most scheduling problems are NPcomplete. For all the problems in class NP can be reduced to P through the known NP-complete problem in polynomial time. Subgraph Isomorphism Problem Given two graphs.different groups are given different colors. Partition Problem Given a set of integers. 4. This coloring uses p colors which does not exceed k. can be done in time polynomial in the size of the problem. Satisfiability Problem for Propositional Logic 2. If a problem is NP-complete. then the consensus today is that it is most likely that no polynomial time algorithms i. 6. Today hundreds of problems are known to be NP-complete. find out whether or not one is a subgraph of the other. and vertices connected with an edge have different colors. then it can be easily seen that the committees can meet in k or less time slots. Traveling Salesman Problem Given cities and traveling times between cities. Subsequently the satisfiability problem was found to be polynomial time reducible to many other problems.

their sizes.(1. . let A = {1. their values and an integer V. and C = {x. Is there a subset T.y). called a matching.a. B. and a subset S of the Cartesian product A X B X C.b. Set Cover Problem Given a set S.b.x).b.8. Knapsack Problem Given a knapsack of size S.y}.(2.b. B and C of the same size. (2. (2. a collection of subsets of S and an integer k. Note that {(1.x)} is a desired set satisfying all the requirements. Then T = {(1. of S such that every element of A.x).y). a set of objects.y)}.x). find out whether or not there are k or less subsets in the collection whose union is S. B = {a.a. 9.b. is it possible to select objects so that the sum of their sizes does not exceed S and the sum of their values is V or larger ? 10. (2.x)} is not a matching.b}. and S = {(1.2}. 3-Dimensional Matching Given three sets A. and C appears exactly once in T ? For example.a.

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