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# Legend

Language, Automata: , \alpha : usually denotes a string in this course. , \beta : usually denotes a string in this course. , \delta : usually denotes a transition function in this course. , \sigma : usually denotes a symbol in an alphabet in this course. , \Delta : usually denotes a blank space in this course. , \Gamma : usually denotes a set of stack symbols in this course. , \Lambda : usually denotes an empty string in this course. , \Pi : usually denotes a partition in this course. , \Sigma : usually denotes an alphabet in this course. , \goto : usually denotes a (one step) transition in this course. Logic: , ~ : logical not , ^ : logical and , V : logical or , -> : logical imply , <-> : logical if and only if (equivalent) , => : logical tautologically imply , <=> : logical tautologically equivalent , \A : logical for all , \E : logical for some (there exists)

Sets: , \in : belongs to , \not\in : does not belong to , @ : empty set U, : universal set , \subset : proper subset , \not\subset : not a proper subset , \subseteq : subset , \not\subseteq : not a subset , \cup : set union Ai , \cup(i=1 to n) A_i : union of n sets , \cap : set intersection Ai , \cap(i=1 to n) A_i : intersection of n sets , \bar A : complement of set A (A) , P(A) : power set of set A , X : Cartesian product Ai , X(i=1 to n) A_i : cartesian product of n sets Relation: < a, b > : ordered pair < a1, a2, ..., an > : ordered n-tuple , <= : precedes (partial order) Functions: xi , Sum(i=1 to n) x_i : sum of n xi's O(f) , O(f) : of order smaller than or equal to f

o(f) , o(f) : of order smaller than f (f) , Omega : of order greater than or equal to f (f) , omega : of order greater than f (f) , Theta : of the same order as f f(x) , lim(x -> inf) f(x) : limit of f as x goes to infinity

**Introduction to Theoretical Computer Science
**

Today computers are used everywhere: banks, hospitals, schools, airline companies, gas stations, grocery stores, in our cars, in home appliances, PCs, etc., etc. Some are used to crunch numbers, some are used to process images, some are used to process other nonnumeric data and some are used to control operations of various devices. They can reason, they can prove many mathematical theorems, they can beat chess experts in their game, they can solve some very complex problems, they can understand our languages, they can answer our questions and of course they can crunch numbers much much faster than us. Let us for a moment call what computers do computation for convenience, though some of the things computers do such as controling appliances, answering our questions etc. don't fall into our traditional sense of computation. Then these computers seem to be able to compute an awfully lot of things if not everything. But are they capable of computing anything ? Are there things computers can not do ? If there are things computers can not do, what are they ? And why ? If there aren't things computers can not do, then how can we tell ? What do we exactly mean by computation ? Unfortunately there are many things computers can not do. Computers can not solve certain types of problems. For example no computer can tell in general whether or not a given computer program stops after a finite amount of time on a given input. They can not solve some other types of problems fast enough even though they can solve them in some finite amount of time. For example take the traveling salesman problem: a salesman is given a road map with distances between cities and wants to find a shortest round trip route that visits all the cities on the map exactly once. At the moment the so called traveling salesman problem requires an extremely large amount of time to solve. No one has been able to find a reasonably fast algorithm to solve it and the consensus is that it is not likely that anyone can find such an algorithm. I have just given you an example of the problems that computers could not solve. How do we know that that is the case ? Are there other problems like that ? How can we tell whther or not a given problem can be solved and solved fast enough ?

it can actually be solving a problem. it is generally believed (Church's thesis) that any "computation" humans do can be done by Turing machines and that "computation" is the computation performed by Turing machines. Thus they are a powerful tool to design and study those systems with. We are going to investigate limitations of computers and computations by studying the essence of compuers and computations rather than all the variations of computer and computation. There we learn how computers can be simulated by Turing machines and what it means that a Turing machine recognizes (decides) a language. It turns out that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. that is to study limitations of computers and computation. we go to Turing machines. . The other two are context-free languages and context-sensitive languages. After briefly studying context-free languges. we are also going to study regular languages in detail as well as finite automata. Finite automata are very similar to Turing machines but a few restrictions are imposed on them. Consequently they are less capable than Turing machines but then their operations are simpler. which are also heavily used in practice. Though it has not been proven. It is a very simple device but remarkably. So they provide a good introduction to our study of Turing machines. This essence is a device called Turing machine. We are going to learn their properties. we study a simpler type of computing device called finite automata. Since so many systems in practice can be described by regular languages.The main objective of this course is to answer those questions. ways to describe them and how to use them to model many of the real life systems. We call a set of strings (of symbols) a language. Finite automata process strings. Those four languages are together called formal languages. Thus when a finite automaton is processing strings. Then with Turing machines we investigate limitations of computers and computations. It was first conceived of by Alan Turing in early 20-th century. In addition finite automata can model a large number of systems used in practice. The languages Turing machines recognize are called Type 0 (or phrase structure) languages (regular languages are Type 3) and they are more complex than regular languages. These two type of languages belong to a hierarchy of four languages called Homsky hierarchy. We say finite automata recognize languages. Turing machines also recognize languages. The languages that are recognized by finite automata are called regular languages. Before proceeding to the study of Turing machines and their computations in this course. More specifically they answer the question whether or not a given string belongs to a language. every task modern computers perform can also be accomplished by Turing machines. Thus by studying Turing machines we can learn capabilities hence limitatgions of computers. which is the key to the unsolvability of problem by computers. In particular we are going to see a few problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers and how we can tell that they are unsolvable.

Increasing the processor speed does not help much for such problems. • • • • Logic Sets Relations Functions Logic Proposition and Logical Connectives "Proposition" can be defined as a declarative statement having a specific truth-value. If the computation time is 2n where n is the size of the problem. Example: The following statements are propositions as they have precise truth values.000 times 110 cities would already be too many. respectively. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved within a reasonable amount of time and there are problems that are known to require a finite but very large amount of time to solve. Let us start with review of mathematics. Their truth values are false and true. then with the increase in the processor speed of 1. The time needed to solve such a problem increases at least exponentially with the size of the problem as long as we use Turing machines (hence computers). The time complexity issues are investigated using Turing machines so that the results apply to all computers. then even if the processor speed increased 1. true or false. • • 2 is a odd number. We are going to see some of those which take a large amount of time.000 times it can handle only ten or so more larger problem sizes. .Our last topic is time complexities of various problems. 4 is a perfect square. "Connective": Two or more propositions can be combined together to make compound propositions with the help of logical connectives. For example for the traveling salesman problem if 100 cities were too many to solve fast enough. Unfortunately there is nothing we can do to speed them up. Basic Mathematical Objects Back to Table of Contents The following are the contents of this introductory chapter.

2 is an odd number OR 4 is a perfect square. . Disjunction This is logical "or" read as either true value of the individual propositions. For the first compound proposition to be true both the propositions have to be true as the connective is AND and as OR is the connective for the second one if either of the propositions is true the truth value of the compound proposition is true. Their truth vales are false and true respectively. The compound proposition truth-value is true iff all the constituent propositions hold true. • • 2 is an odd number AND 4 is a perfect square.Example: Above two propositions can be used to make a compound proposition using any of the logical connectives. Negation This is the logical "negation" and it is expressed by Truth table is given below as p for "not p". Truth table for two individual propositions p and q with conjunction is given below p T T F F q T F T F p^q T F F F b. It is represented as " ^ ". The following are the logical connectives used commonly: a. Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F pVq T T T F c. Conjunction The logical conjunction is understood in the same way as commonly used ôandö.

For example. "q is a necessity/consequence of p" and "q whenever p" are all differnt ways of saying "if p then q". E. E. Conditional This is used to define as "a proposition holds true if another proposition is true" i. "q is necessary for p". Tautology A compound proposition. "p is sufficient for q" . Contradiction This is the opposite of tautology.g. "if not q then not p" .: p V p g. which is false in every case.g. p q is read as "if p. which is true in every case. If p and q have the same truth-value in every case then they are said to be logically equivalent and it is represented as p <=> q. then q" Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F p T F T T q p -> q is also expressed in a number of different (but equivalent) ways in English. f. Biconditional A proposition (p q) ^ (q p) can be abbreviated using biconditional conjunction as p q and is read as "if p then q.p T F p F T d. "p only if q" .: p ^ p Logical implication and equivalence If the value of p -> q is true in every case. and if q then p". It is represented as p => q. e. Following are some of the useful identities and implications from propositional logic: Identities . then p is said to logically imply q.e.

DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----.1. (P 3. examples and proofs of these implications go to Implications Predicate and Predicate Logic The propositional logic is not powerful enough to represent all types of assertions that are used in computer science and mathematics. (P 2. For example. [(P Q) Q] P ----.contrapositive For explanations. "The sky is blue".DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. A predicate is a template involving a verb that describes a property of objects. [(P 2. Central to the predicate logic are the concepts of predicate and quantifier.exportation Q) ( Q P) ----. The phrase "is blue" is a predicate and it describes the property of being blue. .modus tollens Q) (R S)] [(P R) (Q S)] Q) (Q R)] (P R) For explanations. and "The cover of this book is blue" come from the template "is blue" by placing an appropriate noun/noun phrase in front of it. examples and proofs of these identities go to Identities Implications 1. [(P 3. The predicate logic is one of the extensions of propositional logic and it is fundamental to most other types of logic. the sentences "The car Tom is driving is blue". or a relationship among objects represented by the variables. (P 4. [(P 5. For more complex reasoning we need more powerful logic capable of expressing complicated propositions and reasoning. or to express certain types of relationship between propositions such as equivalence ( for more detail click here for example for example ). (P Q) ( P Q) ----.implication Q) R] [P (Q R)] ----.

the statemen t x > 1 to "for every object x in the universe. is the set of objects of interest. This new statement is true or false in the universe of discourse. B(x) reads as "x is blue". called atomic formula. a quantification is performed on formulas of predicate logic (called wff ). for example. which is expressed as " x x > 1"." Again. For example. . x > 1". For example any of "is_blue". It can be the set of real numbers. and hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. The propositions in the predicate logic are statements on objects of a universe. There are two types of quantifiers: universal quantifier and existential quantifier. it is true or false in the universe of discourse. the statement x > 1 to "for some object x in the universe. If we adopt B as the name for the predicate "is_blue". quantify the variable using a quantifier (see below). can be made a proposition by applying one of the following two operations to each of its variables: 1. x > 1 becomes 3 > 1 if 3 is assigned to x. Similarly the existential quantifier turns. The universe is thus the domain of the (individual) variables. where x represents an arbitrary object. also called universe . x > 1". for example. which is expressed as " x x > 1. A predicate with variables. The universal quantifier turns. In general. such as x > 1 or P(x). by using quantifiers on variables . "Blue" or "B" can be used to represent the predicate "is blue" among others. assign a value to the variable 2. hence a proposition. Universe of Discourse The universe of discourse. sentences that assert an object is blue can be represented as "B(x)".Predicates are often given a name. and it becomes a true statement. Hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified.

x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] For more discussions and examples on these rules and others. The universe is often left implicit in practice. see Reasoning(with predicate logic) and Quantifiers and Connectives in Discrete Structures course. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 4. [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] x [ P(x) Q(x) ] 3. Predicate logic is more powerful than propositional logic. Important Inference Rules of Predicate Logic: First there is the following rule concerning the negation of quantified statement which is very useful: x P(x) x P(x) Next there is the following set of rules on quantifiers and connvectives: 1. the set of all students in a classroom etc. implications and inference rules.the set of integers. In predicate logic. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 2. But it should be obvious from the context. Also for proof and proof techniques see Mathematical Reasoning. Sets . It allows one to reason about properties and relationships of individual objects. as well as those for propositional logic such as the equivalences. one can use some additional inference rules. the set of all cars on a parking lot. some of which are given below.

Example: B = {x | x is a positive integer less than or equal to 5} Some sets can also be defined recursively. All the elements belonging to the set are explicitly given.What is a set? Set is a group of elements. Example: A = {1.3. It is read as "the set of natural numbers that are less than or equal to 5".5} Alternate way is to give the properties that characterize the elements of the set.1. Set terminology Belongs To x B means that x is an element of set B. Note: If A is a subset of B and B is a subset of A then A=B. Universal Set The set U of all the elements we might ever consider in the discourse is called the universal set. but not equal to B represented as A B. Also. having a property that characterizes those elements.4. Using this notation we can specify the set {0. . Subset Let A and B be two sets. if every element of A is an element of B.3.2. How to specify a Set? One way is to enumerate the elements completely.4} call it Z by writing Z = {x | x N | x 5} where N represents the set of natural numbers. A is a subset of B. A is a subset of B is represented as A B. if A is a subset of.2.

2. Thus A' = { x | x U ^ x A } .8} B = {3.5} 2.A = {4.B B .4. Example: If A = {1.4.5} then A .2.8} then A B = {3. Set Operations The operations that can be performed on sets are: 1.3} B = {3. Union If A and B are two sets.4. Example: If A = {1. For A and B of the above example B . It is denoted by A B. Disjoint sets A and B are said to be disjoint if they contain no elements in common i.5. Intersection If A and B are two sets. then A' = { x | x U ^ x > 3}. Example: If U is the set of natural numbers and A = { 1. then the intersection of A and B is the set that consists of the elements in both A and B .. then the complement of A is the set consisting of all elements of the universal set that are not in A.3 } . where means " is not an element of ".5 } .8}.2.9 } are disjoint.3.4.8. then the difference of A from B is the set that consists of the elements of A that are not in B.2. It is denoted by A .2} Note that in general A .5} .e. A B= ø.3. Difference If A and B are two sets. where ø is the Empty set.B. It is denoted by A B. 3. Example: A = { 1. Example: If A = {1.2. It is denoted by A' or .3.2.4.A .5} then A B = {1. and B = { 6. then the union of A and B is the set that contains all the elements that are in A and B including the ones in both A and B.Complement If A is a set.3} and B = {3.B = {1.

The Commutative laws: A B=B A A B=B A The Associative laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Distributive laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Idempotent laws: A A=A A A=A The Absorptive laws: A (A B) = A A (A B) = A The De Morgan laws: (A B)' = A' B' (A B)' = A' B' Other laws involving Complements: ( A' )' = A A A A' = ø A' = U B) B) B) B) C C (A (A C) C) Other laws involving the empty set A A ø=A ø=ø Other laws involving the Universal Set: A U=U A U=A Venn Diagrams A common technique in working with Set Operations is to illustrate them by drawing Venn Diagrams. It is a very good tool to get a general idea. C represent arbitrary sets and ø is the empty set and U is the Universal Set. B. .Following is a list of some standard Set Identities A.

8.4 } can be represented as shown below using Venn Diagrams: Set A U represents the Universal set in which A is one of the Set.4 } and B = { 6. .2.2. For example sets A = { 1.Note. The idea of Venn Diagram is to draw a region representing the universe and within that to draw the regions representing the component sets we are starting with so that the resulting diagram describes their interrelationships.3. however. that Venn Diagrams must NOT be used for rigorous discussions. because they can represent only very limited situations and miss many other possibilities.

Set B The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A B .

A B .

The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A U B A A B B is the set consisting of all the different elements in A and B. .

2.6.8 } .4.5.4.4.2.2.3.3.8 } (A B)' = U .6.6. For example: U = { 1.(A B) = { 5.(A B)' is the yellow region in the Venn diagram given below. 7 } B = { 2.4 } A B = { 1.3.7.8 } A = { 1.

.B is the yellow shaded region and B .A . This can be generalized for the union of any finite number of sets as A1 An .. For example expressions we often use A holds. which we write as Ai This generalized union of sets can be rigorously defined as follows: Definition ( Ai) : .. A2 . intersection and Cartesian product of sets are associative. To denote either of these B C.A is the blue shaded region in the Venn Diagram shown below Generalized Set Operations Union.

This part of the definition specifies the "seeds" of the set from which the elements of the set are generated using the methods given in the inductive clause. The basis clause (or simply basis) of the definition establishes that certain objects are in the set. Based on these definitions. Inductive Clause: Ai = ( Ai) An+1 Ai and generalized Cartesian product Similarly the generalized intersection Ai can be defined.Basis Clause: For n = 1 . . The set of elements specified here is called basis of the set being defined. and = Recursive Definition Recursive Definition Subjects to be Learned • • • • • recursive/inductive definition basis clause basis inductive clause extremal clause A recursive definition of a set always consists of three distinct clauses: 1. De Morgan's law on set union and intersection can also be generalized as follows: Theorem (Generalized De Morgan) = . Ai = A1.

1 + 1 (= 2) is in N. the set of natural numbers N can be obtained as follows: First by (1). x + 2 is in .2. 0 is put into N. 0. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. The inductive clause always asserts that if objects are elements of the set. The inductive clause (or simply induction) of the definition establishes the ways in which elements of the set can be combined to produce new elements of the set. . Note that if we don't have (3). The basis for this set N is { 0 } . the object is not a member of the set. Example 2. and the new object is their child .5. and x is the child of x + 1.5. 1. Then by (2). 1 is the parent of 2. since 0 is in N. The Set of Nonnegative Even Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in .. can be included in N. The Set of Even Integers Basis Clause: . and 2 is the child of 1. The x + 1 in the Inductive Clause is the parent of x. The extremal clause asserts that unless an object can be shown to be a member of the set by applying the basis and inductive clauses a finite number of times. Following this definition. x + 1 is in . which is not what we want as the set of natural numbers. Then by (2) again. 3. 0 is the parent of 1. Example 3. The Set of Natural Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses.. Proceeding in this manner all the natural numbers are put into N. Examples of Recursive Definition of Set Example 1. and 1 is the child of 0. then they can be combined in certain specified ways to create other objects. 0 + 1 (= 1) is in N. 2.5. Let us call the objects used to create a new object the parents of the new object.

How to define function recursively: First the values of the function for the basis elements of the domain are specified. then Submit. Here ax means the concatenation of a with x. bbabaa. and x . Basis Clause: . of the domain is defined using its value at the parent(s) of the element x. The set of propositions (propositional forms) can also be defined recursively. To see how it is defined click here. Inductive Clause: For any element x in . . Test Your Understanding of Recursive Definition Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. try simplest elements in the set such as smallest numbers (0. Condition: The domain of the function you wish to define recursively must be a set defined recursively. Then see how other elements can be obtained from them. or 1). A few examples are given below. or shortest strings. Example 4. Recursive Definition of Function Some functions can also be defined recursively. x + 2. etc. There are two sets of questions. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Then the value of the function at an element. simplest expressions. The Set of Strings over the alphabet excepting empty string This is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's such as abbab. and . .2 are in . They are all on functions from integer to integer except the last one. Click Yes or No . and .Inductive Clause: For any element x in . say x. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Tips for recursively defining a set: For the "Basis Clause". and generalize that generation process for the "Inductive Clause".

Using this definition. Example 6: The function f(n) = 2n + 1 for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. So there is no chance of other elements to come into the function being defined. f(n+1) = (n+1) f(n). b} to the set of natural numbers that gives the length of a string can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: For symbols a and b of the alphabet. Induction Mathematical Induction . Hence 2 ! = 2 * 1 ! = 2 * 1 = 2 . This function L gives the number of a's and b's L(x) for a string x is also often denoted by | x |. See Example 5 for the extremal clause. L(xy) = L(x) + L(y) . 3! can be found as follows: Since 0 ! = 1. Note that here Extremal Clause is not necessary. L(a) = 1 and L(b) = 1. See Example 5 for the extremal clause. Example 8: The function L from the set S of strings over {a. Example 7: The function f(n) = 2n for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. where xy is the concatenation of strings x and y. because the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively and that has the extremal clause in it. 1 ! = 1 * 0 ! = 1 * 1 = 1 . See above for the extremal clause. Inductive Clause: For any string x and y of S. Hence 3 ! = 3 * 2 ! = 3 * 2 * 1 = 6 . f(n+1) = f(n) + 2 . f(n+1) = 2 f(n) .Example 5: The function f(n) = n! for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 0! = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n.

Subjects to be Learned • • • • • first principle of mathematical induction basis step induction hypothesis induction second principle of mathematical induction Contents First Priciple of Mathematical Induction As we have seen in recursion . which is 2. then the next element. where is a Induction: Prove that for any integer . Taking advantage of this. has that property (inductive step). the element next to it. then P(n) is true for all natural number . Thus the set of natural numbers can be described completely by specifying the basis element (0). . we proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P( ) is true. Proceeding likewise. Then it is proven that if an arbitrary natural number. natural numbers can be proven to have certain properties as follows: First it is proven that the basis element. that is 0. and the process of generating an element from a known element in the set. then P(k+1) is true. the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively. The first principle of mathematical induction states that if the basis step and the inductive step are proven. has the property in question. and its elements can be generated one by one starting with 0 by adding 1. then it follows that all the natural numbers have that property. the element next to it. denote it by n. which is 1. has the same property again by the inductive step. Then since 1 has the property. When these two are proven. As a first step for proof by induction.. it is often a good idea to restate P(k+1) in terms of . that is n + 1.. if P(k) is true (called induction hypothesis). + n = n( n + 1 )/2 can be proven by mathematical induction by the same token. has the same property by the inductive step. has the property in question (basis step). For since 0 has the property by the basis step. More generally mathematical statements involving a natural number n such as 1 + 2 + . This process is somewhat analogous to the knocking over a row of dominos with knocking over the first domino corresponding to the basis step. To prove that a statement P(n) is true for all natural number natural number. any natural number can be shown to have the property.

. can be used. . The reason that this principle holds is going to be explained later after a few examples of proof. and RHS = 0 * (0 + 1) = 0 . End of Proof. which is equal to the RHS for n+1.P(k) so that P(k). Factoring (n + 1) out.... Certain problems can be proven more easily by using the second principle than the first principle because P(k) for all k < n can be used rather than just P(n ... Example 1: Let us prove the following equality using the second principle: For any natural number n . + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . Example: Prove that for any natural number n. Proof: Basis Step: If n = 0. + n) + (n + 1) . then LHS = 0. Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary natural number n. 0 + 1 + . This form of induction does not require the basis step. Using the induction hypothesis. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . Second Priciple of Mathematical Induction There is another form of induction over the natural numbers based on the second principle of induction to prove assertions of the form x P(x) . the last expression can be rewritten as n( n + 1 )/2 + (n + 1) . Formally the second principle of induction states that if n [ k [ k < n P(k) ] P(n) ] .. and somehow use the induction hypothesis.. Here let us try LHS for n + 1 = 0 + 1 + . -------. we get (n + 1)(n + 2) / 2 .1) to prove P(n). first try to express LHS for n+1 in terms of LHS for n. 1 + 3 + . + n + (n + 1) = (0 + 1 + . and in the inductive step P(n) is proved assuming P(k) holds for all k < n . which is assumed to be true. Thus LHS = RHS for n+1. Here k [ k < n P(k) ] is the induction hypothesis.Induction Hypothesis To prove this for n+1. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2. Hence LHS = RHS. 0 + 1 + . then n P(n) can be concluded...

tan slacks}.1 holds for all Example 3: Prove that any positive integer n > 1. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . Then 1 + 3 + . Hence n can also be written as the product of prime numbers. and itself.. Example 2: Prove that for all positive integer n.. by the induction hypothesis they can be written as the product of prime numbers (Note that this is not possible if the First Principle is being used). + ( 2k + 1 ) = ( k + 1 )2 holds for all k. Since both p and q are smaller than n. Then certainly A x B is the set of all possible combinations (six) of shirts and slacks that nbsp. Since n is an integer. Relations Definition Relation Let A and B be sets. the individual can wear. A binary relation from A into B is any subset of the Cartesian product A x B.1 )! + n * n! = n! . k can be written as the product of prime numbers. say p and q. + ( 2n . the individual may wish to restrict .1 + n * n! by the induction hypothesis.1 Hence by the second principle of induction positive integers. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 holds for all natural numbers. If n is a prime number. If n is not a prime number. + ( n . then it is a product of two positive integers.. it is either a prime number or not a prime number.. We are going to prove that n can be written as the product of prime numbers.. k < n. More precisely. Hence by the second principle of induction 1 + 3 + .. mint green shirt} and B = {gray slacks. Let's assume that a person owns three shirts and two pairs of slacks. n > k > 1.1 ) ) + ( 2n + 1 ) = n2 + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 by the induction hypothesis.1 ) * ( n . i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . can be written as the product of prime numbers. which is a prime number.1 for all k... + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( 1 + 3 + . Then 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . Example1: nbsp. Therefore the statement holds true.Proof: Assume that 1 + 3 + .. let A = {blue shirt.. Proof: Assume that for all positive integers k. However.1 Proof: Assume that 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . = ( n + 1 )n! .. then it is the product of 1.. + k * k! = ( k + 1 )! . k < n.

(2. R = { (x. Then P is a relation on A which we might call a parent-child relation. For example. 3). 6). For example PP. 3. b) R if and only if a divides evenly into b. R = {(2. as in the previous example. A typical element in R is an ordered pair (x. (5. 6}. or "related". R and S of Example 2 above are relations on A = {2. c) S. So. y). gray slack). written as RS. (3. c) A x C. Other notations are used depending on the past practice. In some cases R can be described by actually listing the pairs which are in R. (black shirt. The composition of R and S. Example2: Let A = {2. Let A be a set of people and let P = {(a. 5). (3. 5. c) RS if and only if there exists b B such that (a. Relation on a Set A relation from a set A into itself is called a relation on A. tan slacks) }. y) | y is the square of x} and S = { (x. Composition Let R be a relation from a set A into set B. R could be more naturally expressed as R(x) = x2 . and S be a relation from set B into set C. or R(x) =y where y = x2 . 2).6). where P is the parent-child relation given above. This may not be convenient if R is relatively large. one such subset may be { (blue shirt. is the set of pairs of the form(a. (6. b) | a A ^ b A ^ a is a child of b } . y) | x <= y}. PropertiesOf Relations . is the composition of P with itself and it is a relation which we know as grandparentgrandchild relation. 6) and define a relation R from A into A by (a. b) Rand (b. 6)}. Consider the following relation on real numbers. 5. tan slacks).himself to combinations which are color coordinated. where (a. This may not be all possible pairs in A x B but will certainly be a subset of A x B. 3. (mint green shirt.

The set A in the above definition is called the domain of the function and B its codomain. codomain image image of set range sum of functions product of functions one-to-one function (injection) onto function (surjection) one-to-one onto function (bijection) inverse function composite function Definition (function): A function. in other words. Equivalence: R is an equivalence relation on A if R is reflexive. A x A. R R b to denote (a. b and c in A. then aRc. Reflexive: R is reflexive if for every a A. a R a. if aRb. Transitive: R is transitive if for every a. Function Functions Subjects to be Reviewed • • • • • • • • • • • • function domain. b> is in the relation. there is an element b in B such that <a.Assume R is a relation on set A. if aRb and bRc. . if <a. then bRa. for each element a in A. 3. 2. denote it by f. b) R . Let us write a Symmetric: R is symmetric if for every a and b in A. 1. 4. symmetric and transitive. Thus. from a set A to a set B is a relation from A to B that satisfies 1. and 2. b> and <a. f is a function if it covers the domain (maps every element of the domain) and it is single valued. then b = c . c> are in the relation.

Example: Let f(x) = 3x + 1 and g(x) = x2 . f is onto if and only if f( A ) = B . 9. b> is denoted as f(a) = b . and its range is the set of squares. and is denoted by f(S) . the image of. . . nothing in N can be mapped to 3 by this function.The relation given by f between a and b represented by the ordered pair <a.e. 4. if and only if whenever f(x) = f(y) . ( f*g )(x) = f(x)*g(x) . i. for example. Note that f(x) = x2 is not one-to-one if it is from the set of integers(negative as well as non-negative) to N . because. and b is called the image of a under f . The set of images of the elements of a set S under a function f is called the image of the set S under f.. Then the domain and codomain of this f are N. that is. Every bijection has a function called the inverse function. 1. where S is a subset of the domain A of f . because for example f(1) = f(-1) = 1 . The image of the domain under f is called the range of f . However. Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is an onto function. f(S) = { f(a) | a S }. { 0. say 3. Example: Let f be the function from the set of natural numbers N to N that maps each natural number x to x2 . where f(x)*g(x) is the product of two real numbers f(x) and g(x). Thus it is a bijection.. if it is onto and one-to-one. x = y . under this function is 9. f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to N is not onto. if and only if for every element y of B . ( f + g )(x) = f(x) + g(x) . Definition (onto): A function f from a set A to a set B is said to be onto(surjective) . Then ( f + g )(x) = x2 + 3x + 1 . 16. Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is one-to-one and onto. there is an element x in A such that f(x) = y .. Definition (sum and product): Let f and g be functions from a set A to the set of real numbers R. Example: The function f(x) = x2 from the set of natural numbers N to N is a one-to-one function.} . and for all x. Definition (bijection): A function is called a bijection . Then the sum and the product of f and g are defined as follows: For all x. that is. and ( f*g )(x) = 3x3 + x2 Definition (one-to-one): A function f is said to be one-to-one (injective) .

For example. Introduction to Language A language is. and let f be a function from B to a set C . In each figure below. in this course. natural languages etc. if for every element y of B. Definition (inverse): Let f be a bijection from a set A to a set B. Definition (composite function): Let g be a function from a set A to a set B . a set of strings of symbols. Then f( g(x) ) = ( x + 1 )2 . Programming langauges we use are a language in that sense. and arrows show < x. are all languages in that sense. Therefore one can also talk about composition of functions. denoted by fg . Then the composition of functions f and g . Example: The inverse function of f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of non-negative even numbers E is f -1(x) = 1/2 x from E to N . languages of mathematics. A function is a relation. g(y) = x .These concepts are illustrated in the figure below. is the function from A to C that satisfies fg(x) = f( g(x) ) for all x in A . the points on the left are in the domain and the ones on the right are in the codomain. . Others such as languages of logics. where f(x) = y . Example: Let f(x) = x2 . Note that such an x is unique for each y because f is a bijection. and g(x) = x + 1 . Then the function g is called the inverse function of f. the rightmost function in the above figure is a bijection and its inverse is obtained by reversing the direction of each arrow. f(x) > relation. It is also a bijection. and it is denoted by f -1 .

in general there are more than one NFAs and DFAs that reconize one language. Type 3 is a subset of type 2 which is a subset of type 1 and type 0 is the most general including the other three as a subset. context-free (or type 2) languages. Then after seeing yet another way of representing regular laguages. Definitions on Language Subjects to be Learned . In the following chapters we first learn about languages. context-sensitive (or type 1) languages and phrase structure (or type 0) languages. the simplest of the four formal languages. Also there are various kinds of computing devices called automata which process these types of languages Thus formal languages can also be characterized by the computing devices which process them. solving them can be seen as recognizing languages i. The four classes are regular (or type 3) languages.e. regular and context-free languages. together with regular expressions which are a method of representing regular languages. However. lexical analyzers and parser for compilers for programming languages. Our last topic on regular language is testing of languages for non-regularity. if the number of states of DFA is minimized. It can be rigorously shown that some problems can not be solved by computers in any finite amount of time and that some others are practically unsolvable because of the time it takes to solve them. In asddition two of the formal languages. are quite useful for modeling systems used in practice such as co9mputer network communication protocols. Using automata and formal languages we can study limitations of computer and computation.). On the other hand DFAs are suited for writing a simulator program because there is no nondeterminism such as going to two or more states from a state upon reading one input symbol. we are going to learn modeling of systems finite automata. then the resulting DFA is unique up to the state names for a given regular language. We are going to see an algorithm for converting NFAto NFA which recognizes the same language and another for NFA to DFA conversion. They are devices that recognize regular languages. Also for some important classes of problems. checking whether or not a string is in a language. nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) and nondeterministic finite automata with transitions (NFA. Then we investigate various kinds of finite automata: deterministic finite automata (DFA). regular grammars. NFA and NFAare conceptually simpler and easier to use when modeling a system because there are no restrictions on transitions for them unlike for DFA. These formal languages and automata capture the essense of various computing devices and computation in a very simple way. As we are going to learn next. Then we study regular languages.What we are going to study on languages in this course are four classes of languages called (Chomsky) formal languages and their properties. These formal languages are characterized by grammars which are essentially a set of rewrite rules for generating strings belonging to a language as we see later.

v is called a suffix of y. For example if u = aab and v = bbab. that is. We are going to use first few symbols of English alphabet such as a and b to denote symbols of an alphabet and those toward the end such as u and v for strings.• • • • alphabet string (word) language operations on languages: concatenation of strings. Then uv denotes the string obtained by concatenating u with v. Operations on languages Since languages are sets. 1} is an alphabet with two symbols. the set of all strings over (including the empty string) is denoted by . Thus {a. b} is another alphabet with two symbols and English alphabet is also an alphabet. 3. intersetion and difference of two languages over an alphabet are languages over . 1. operations on languages and some of their properties. The number of symbols in a string is called the length of the string. A language is a set of strings over an alphabet.1}). The empty string is denoted by (capital lambda). Kleene star Contents Here we are going to learn the concept of language in very abstract and general sense. this set has an object in it. Let u and v be strings. Basic concepts First. a and aabab are examples of string over alphabet {a. uv is the string obtained by appending the sequence of symbols of v to that of u. ab. all the set operations can be applied to languages. A string (also called a word) is a finite sequence of symbols of an alphabet. The empty string (also called null string) is the string with length 0. 2. A string x is a prefix of another string y if there is a string v such that y = xv. an alphabet is a finite set of symbols. Note that vu = bbabaab uv. That is. So it is not empty. 10 and 001 are examples of string over alphabet {0. {a. namely . The set { } is a language which has one string. Some special languages The empty set is a language which has no strings. 1}. It can be defined more formally by recursive definition. Thus a language over alphabet is a subset of . union. b} and 0. For any alphabet . intersection. For a string w its length is represented by |w|.b}) and {0. Note that u and v may be an empty string. Thus | | = 0. Though has no symbols. then uv = aabbbab. For example {0. it has no symbols. baa} is a language (over alphabert {a. b. Thus the union. 111} is a language (over alphabet {0. A string x is called a substring of another string y if there are strings u and v such that y = uxv. So a string is a substring of itself.

For a string u and a natural number k. Similarly for a language L. This * is called Kleene star. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = Lk L. Powers : For a symbol a and a natural number k. Let L1 and L2 be languages. baaa. ababb. Then the concatenation of L1 with L2 is denoted as L1L2 and it is defined as L1L2 = { uv | u L1 and v L2 }. Lk means the concatenation of k L's. bbaba. For example Lk can be defined recursively as follows. ak represents the concatenation of k a's. } The * in * is also the same Kleene star defined above. These powers can be formally defined recursively.. Hence Lk is the set of strings that can be obtained by concatenating k strings of L. uk denotes the concatenation of k u's. the extremal clause is not necessary.L and it is also a Another operation onlanguages is concatenation. b} {aaa. For example if L = { aba. then L* = { . * The following two types of languages are generalizations of them quite often in this course.. xw L*. L* is the set of strings obtained by concatenating zero or more strings of L as we are going to see in Theorem 1. That is L1L2 is the set of strings obtained by concatenating strings of L1 with those of L2. aaba} = {abaaa. baaba}. The complement of a language L over an alphabet language. babb. ababb. bbbb. ak and uk can be defined similarly. abb. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. . bb. abaaba. Here a0 = and u0 = . bb }. For example {ab. aba. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k.. Recursive definition of L+: Basis Clause: L L+ . Recursive definition of L*: Basis Clause: L* and we are going to see Inductive Clause: For any x L* and any w L. is . abaaba.

. Then there are nonempty strings w1. bb... wimi in L such that wi = wi1wi2. i. ababb.... wi2.wimi Hence x = w11 . Hence x is in L* . Since w1. Thus L+ is the set of strings obtained by concatenating one or more strings of L..w1m1w21.e.. bbaba. } Let us also define natural number k } .. Let us list one of them as a theorem and prove it..e. .. . .wk . wk are strings of L*. Other proofs are omitted... any nonempty string in L* or L+ can be expresssed as the concatenation of strings of L. by applying Theorem 2 to the language L* L* Conversely ( L* )* Let x be an arbitrary nonempty string of ( L* )*.w2m2. .. bbbb. Proof: Because we can see that L* (L*)*..wk for some k.. L* and L* have a number of interesting properties. then L+ = { aba. For example if L = { aba. (i. L0 L L2 .... abaaba. Theorem 5: L* = (L*)*. xw L+. ) as ={x|x Lk for some Then the following relationships hold on L* and L+.. Theorems 1 and 2 are proven in "General Induction" which you study in the next unit. w2. for each wi there are strings wi1.. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L+ unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. bb }..wmmk . where wi's are strings of L...wm1. w1w2. wk in L* such that x = w1w2. L* can be proven as follows: by Theorem 2. ....Inductive Clause: For any x L+ and any w L. Theorem 1: Ln Theorem 2: Theorem 3: Theorem 4: L+ = L L* = L*L Note: According to Theorems 2 and 3. w2.

If x is an empty string, then it is obviously in L* . Hence ( L* )* Since L* L* . L* , L* = ( L* )* .

(L*)* and ( L* )*

**Problem Solving as Language Recognition
**

Subjects to be Learned

• • •

problem instance problem as language problem solving as language recognition

Contents

In the previous section the concept of language was introduced and its properties have been briefly studied. You might be wondering why we study language. The main reason for studying language is that solving problems can be viewed as a language recognition problem as explained below, that is, the problem of checking whether or not a string belongs to a language. Thus instead of studying what kind of problems can be solved by what kind of computational devices and how, we can study languages and devices to recognize them which are simpler to deal with uncluttered with variations in actual devices, programming languages etc. Below an example is given to illustrate how solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Consider the following problem: Is the longest of the distances between two nodes(i.e. the diameter) of a given graph less than a given integer k ? Here the distance is the smallest number of edges (or hops) between the nodes. Some of the instances of this problem are as shown below:

Instance 1 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with one edge and two nodes is less than 1. Instance 2 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with four edges and four nodes is less than 2. Simiarlyt for Instance 3. These problem instances can be represented by a string as follows: Instance 1: 1,2;(1,2);1 Instance 2: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(3,4);2 Instance 3: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(2,3)(2,4)(3,4);3 Here the set of nodes, the set of edges and k are separated by ; in that order in the strings. The solutions to these instances are: Instance 1: No Instance 2: No Instance 3: Yes There are infinitely many 'Yes' instances and 'No' instances for this problem. The set of 'Yes' instances is a language and so is the set of 'No' instances as well as the set of all

instances and many others for this problem. We can thus see that solving the problem for a given instance is equivalent to checking whether or not the string representing the given instance belongs to the language of 'Yes' instances of the problem. That is, the problem solving is the same as the language recognition. A problem can be solved if and only if the language of its 'Yes' instances is recognizable or decidable by a Turing machine. It is not solvable if the language is merely accecptable but not recognizable, or even worse if it is not even acceptable.

(a.k.a Structural Induction)

Mathematical statements involving an element of a recursively defined set can be proven by induction. To prove by induction that a statement P(x) is true for all the elements x of a recursively defined set S, proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P(x) is true for all the elements x in the basis of S. Induction: Prove that for any element(s) x of S if P(x) is true, then P(y) is true for any element y obtained from x by the induction step of the recursive definition of S. Note 1 : In the Induction we try to prove that if a parent has the property then all of its children also have that property. In the process we need the relationship between the parent and the children. That relationship is found in the Inductive Clause of the recursive definition of the set in question. Note 2 : As a first step for general induction proof, it is often a good idea to express y in terms of x so that P(x) can be used. Example 1 (Theorem 1 in "Language") : Prove that Ln L* for any natural number n and any language L. Let us first review the definitions. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = LkL. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k, the extremal clause is not necessary. Recursive definition of L*:

--.Basis Clause: L* Inductive Clause: For any string x L* and any string w L.Induction L* . xw L*. Lk Next let us prove L* . L* . and L* . Hence . L* since y L. . L* by theInduction Hypothesis. By Example 1 above . L* . number k. Then by the definition of L*. Since Lk L* . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Note in the proof below that Basis and Inductive Steps mirror the Basis and Inductive Clauses of the definition of Ln . Basis Step: Since by the definitions L0 = { Inductive Step: Assume that Lk Hypothesis We are going to show that Lk+1 }. Lk . x Example 2 (Theorem 2 in "Language") Let us prove L* = Note that ={x|x Lk for some natural number k } . Proof: Let us first prove Suppose that x Lk for some natural L* . L* for an arbitrary natural numer k. Then there exist strings x and y that satisfy x L and w = xy by the definition of Lk+1. . Now let us prove that Ln L* by induction on Ln. L0 L* . x L* . Then by the definition of L* . xy Hence w Thus Lk+1 L* . y Let w be an arbitrary string in Lk+1 . Hence x .

. x Lk . where y is an arbitrary elememt of L. Hence by the definition of Inductive Step: Assume that for an arbitrary x in L*. Note here that x is a parent and by applying an operation (i. . So we first prove that * the element of the basis of L has the propertyy. The function REV(x) on strings x over the alphabet is defined as follows. Note that each step mirror the recursive definition of . Basis Step: L0 since L0 = { }.e. by Example 1 above. It produces the reversal of a given string x (i. If x . then for some natural number k .Note that L* is defined recursively and that below we are trying to prove that the elements of L* have the property that they also belong to . of L* has the property. x spelled backward). also have the property. holds. Then we show that if any element. x We are going to show that for an arbitrary element y L . So we show that the property for x is inherited by its children xy. say x. then its children xy. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. Prove that for arbitrary strings x and y of . REV(xa) = Inductive Clause: For any string aREV(x). . Hence xy Lk+1 by the definition of Ln . by concatenating y) a child of x in is obtained. xy holds.e. Basis Clause: REV( )= . Hence xy End of Inductive Step and Proof Hence we have proven Example 3 . Let us prove the inheritance. and any symbol .

Thus the statement to be proven is for an arbitrary fixed string x. and an arbitrary string y of . Basis Step: REV(x ) = REV( x ) = REV( )REV( x ) . Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular language unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. * Basis Clause: where is an empty string. Definition of Set of Regular Languages : Basis Clause: .Proof First let us note that * can be defined recursively as follows: . Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary string y of . End of Proof. . But by induction hypothesis a REV(xy) = a REV(y)REV(x). REV(xya) = REV(ya)REV(x). REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. The proof mirrors the recursive definition of . Inductive Clause: For arbitrary strings x of and a of ExtremalClause: As usual. xa is also in . Omitted. Any language belonging to this set is a regular language over . Inductive Clause: If Lr and Ls are regular languages. Definitions of Regular Language and Regular Expression Subjects to be Learned • • regular language regular expression 1. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages. -. Since a REV(y) = REV(ya). The proof of the equality in question is going to be proven for an arbitrary fixed x by induction on y. { } and {a} for any symbol a are regular languages. then Lr Ls . REV(xya) = REV((xy)a) = a REV(xy). Regular language The set of regular languages over an alphabet is defined recursively as below.Induction Hypothesis Then for an arbitrary symbol a of . which is what we needed.

Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular expression unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. which has precedence over union ( + ). b} is regular. which is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's. The language corresponding to rk is Lrk. is a regular language because {a. (3) The concatenation of k r's . ( r + s ) is used in stead of ( r + s ). . {a}* is a regular language which is the set of strings consisting of a's such as . (4) We use ( r+) as a regular expression to represent Lr+ . and a are regular expressions corresponding to languages . b}. where a is an element of . Note also that *. LrLs and Lr* . respectively. Conventions on regular expressions (1) When there is no danger of confusion. ( rs ) and ( r*) are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr Ls . where r is a regular expression. For a recursive definition of Lrk click here. is written as rk. { } and {a}. respectively. The set of regular expressions over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. Also since {a} is regular. So for example. b} ( = {a} {b} ) and {ab} ( = {a}{b} ) are regular languages. Inductive Clause: If r and s are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr and Ls . aaaa etc. 2. Then since {a} and {b} are regular languages. let = {a. aa. {a. where Lr is the language corresponding to the regular expression r. Regular expression Regular expressions are used to denote regular languages. a. Thus for example rr = r2 . They can represent regular languages and operations on them succinctly. then ( r + s ) . Thus the regular expression ( a + ( b( c*) ) ) is written as a + bc*. aaa.For example. Any element of that set is a regular expression. Basis Clause: . (2) The operation * has precedence over concatenation. bold face may not be used for regular expressions.

( a + b )* corresponds to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. . a*b* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by zero or more b's.. ab. because they both represent the language of all strings over the alphabet {a. ( ab )+ corresponds to the language {ab. For example ( a + b )* and ( a*b* )* correspond to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. that is. Definition of Equality of Regular Expressions Regular expressions are equal if and only if they correspond to the same language. b}. ba. ababab. abab. bb}. Note:A regular expression is not unique for a language.Examples of regular expression and regular languages corresponding to them • • • • ( a + b )2 corresponds to the language {aa. b}. In general ( a + b )k corresponds to the set of strings of length k over the alphabet {a. corresponds to more than one regular expressions. in general. that is the set of strings of length 2 over the alphabet {a. the set of strings of repeated ab's. That is. In general. . b}.. a*b+a* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by one or more b's followed by zero or more a's. }. it is not easy to see by inspection whether or not two regular expressions are equal. b}. b}. a regular language. Thus for example ( a + b )* = ( a*b* )* .

r1r2 + r2r1 in the given regular expression is redundant. a*. Find a simple (the shortest and with the smallest nesting of * and +) regular expression which is equal to each of the following regular expressions. 2: For the two regular expressions given below. b. (b) A string corresponding to r1 consists of only a's or only b's or the empty string. Ex. 1: Find the shortest string that is not in the language represented by the regular expression a*(ab)*b*. Ex. that is. The only strings corresponding to r2 which consist of only a's or b's are a. Thus anything that comes after the first r1 in (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is represented by (r1 + r2)*. they do not produce any strings that are not represented by (r1 + r2)*. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*) . (a + b)+ etc. bb and ab are in the language. However. Of the strings wiht length 2 aa. However. Solution: It can easily be seen that . a. (a) Since (r1 + r2)* represents all strings consisting of strings of r1 and/or r2 . (a + b)*. So we need to find strings of r2 which contain at least one a and at least one b. the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*) start with a string of r1 followed by any number of strings taken arbitrarily from r1 and/or r2. (a) (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ Solution: One general strategy to approach this type of question is to try to see whether or not they are equal to simple regular expressions that are familiar to us such as a. which are strings in the language with length 1 or less. ba is not in it. a+. (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ means that all the strings represented by it must consist of one or more strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*). b and the strings consiting of only b's (from (a*b)*).Exercise Questions on Regular Language and Regular Expression Ex. For example ab and ba are such strings. (a) find a string corresponding to r2 but not to r1 and (b) find a string corresponding to both r1 and r2. r1 = a* + b* r2 = ab* + ba* + b*a + (a*b)* Solution: (a) Any string consisting of only a's or only b's and the empty string are in r1. Thus (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* is reduced to (r1 + r2)*. Thus the answer is ba. 3: Let r1 and r2 be arbitrary regular expressions over some alphabet.

First of all and a are in L . Hence a string of L has zero or more of aab's and bb's in front possibly followed by a at the end. and conversely (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ represents the strings represented by (r1(r1 + r2)*). Thus (aab)*(bb)* is a regular expression for L. First of all L . Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. 6: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. Then starting with or a. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. Then starting with . 4: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L over the alphabet { a . Hence a string of L consists of zero or more aab's in front and zero or more bb's following them. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is reduced to (r1(r1 + r2)*). 5: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L and a L. Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. b } defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L Inductive Clause: If x L . Inductive Clause: If x L . behind the second a and between the two a's. 7: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the . Ex. strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or appending bb to any of the already generated strings. b } that contain exactly two a's. strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or bb to any of the already generated strings.also represents the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*)+. then aabx L and xbb L . Thus (aab + bb)*(a + ) is a regular expression for L. Ex. b*a b*a b* is a regular expression for this language. Solution: A string in this language must have at least two a's. Ex. then aabx L and bbx L . Ex. and since an arbitrasry string of b's can be represented by the regular expression b*. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. Since any string of b's can be placed in front of the first a.

Since it can have any string in front of the last a or bb. Ex. Altogether ( b + ab )*( + a + aa )( b + ba )* is a regular expression for the language. 10: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression a*b(a*ba*b)*a* . Solution: If there is one substring aa in a string of the language. Solution: Any string in a language over { a . Ex. then that aa can be followed by any number of b. Hence the string is in this language. Any numbe of a's can appear any place in the string. 9: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of strings of even lengths over the alphabet of { a. ( a + b )*( a + bb ) is a regular expression for the language. ( b + ab )*( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. Hence if a string of the language contains aa then it corresponds to the regular expression ( b + ab )*aa( b + ba )* . ba. then it must be followed by b. then applying the same argument as for aa to a. ( b + ab )*a( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. bb. Note that 0 is an even number. b } must end in a or b. b } that do not end with ab. Ex. 11: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the . b }. ab. Hence if a string does not end with ab then it ends with a or if it ends with b the last b must be preceded by a symbol b. Thus simply put. then that a must be preceded by b because otherwise there are two occurences of aa. b } that contain no more than one occurence of the string aa.alphabet { a. If there is no aa but at least one a exists in a string of the language. If there may not be any a in a string of the language. it is the set of strings over the alphabet { a. If an a comes after that aa. Hence a string preceding the aa can be represented by ( b + ab )*. 8: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. On the other hand if an a precedes the aa. it has at least one b. b } that contain an odd number of b's Ex. Solution: Since any string of even length can be expressed as the concatenation of strings of length 2 and since the strings of length 2 are aa. Hence any string that follows aa is represented by ( b + ba )*. then applying the same argument as for aa to . a regular expression corresponding to the language is ( aa + ab + ba + bb )*. Solution: A string in the language can start and end with a or b. and after the first b all the b's in the string appear in pairs.

Proof: Let Lr and Ls be regular languages over an alphabet . 12: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression ( b + ab )*( a + ab )*. a finite language is a set of n . Solution: ( b + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring aa and which end in b. concatenation and Kleene star. the given regular expression represents the strings of length 3n and 3n + 1. Thus the set of regular languages is closed under those operations. LrLs and Lr* are regular languages and they are obviously over the alphabet . concatenation and Kleene star operations. The following theorem shows that any finite language is regular. For example while { akbk } is regular for any natural number k . that is. Note 1: Later we shall see that the complement of a regular language and the intersection of regular laguages are also regular. Properties of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • Closure of the set of regular languages under union. Ex. Lr Ls . Regularity of finite languages Theorem 1: The set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed under operations union. Solution: (( a + b )3) represents the strings of length 3. Hence altogether it represents any string consisting of a substring with no aa followed by one b followed by a substring with no bb. Hence (( a + b )3)* represents the strings of length a multiple of 3.regular expression (( a + b )3)*( +a+b). { anbn | n is a natural number } which is the union of all the languages { akbk } . Then by the definition of the set of regular languages . and ( a + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring bb. Since (( a + b )3)*( a + b ) represents the strings of length 3n + 1. Note 2: The union of infinitely many regular languages is not necessarily regular. where n is a natural number. where n is a natural number. is not regular as we shall see later. We say a language is finite if it consists of a finite number of strings.

Claim 2: Let w be a string over an alphabet . { a } is a regular language from the Basis Step. a finite language is regular) if { w } is regular for any string w. Basis Step: By the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. Hence by the Inductive Clause of the definition of regular language { a }{ w } is regular. then we have proven the theorem.strings for some natural number n. Then since { w } is a regular language as proven below. End of proof of Claim 1 Thus if we can show that { w } is a regular language for any string w. } and { a } are Inductive Step: Assume that { w } is a regular language for an arbitrary string w over . Inductive Step: Assume that a language L consisting of n strings is a regular language (induction hypothesis). Basis Step: (corresponding to n = 0) is a regular language by the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. End of proof of Theorem 2. . { regular languages for any arbitrary symbol a of . Claim 1: A language consisting of n strings is regular for any natural number n (that is. End of proof for Claim 2 Note that Claim 2 can also be proven by induction on the length of string. Then { w } is a regular language. Proof: Let us first assume that a language consisting of a single string is regular and prove the theorem by induction. L { w } is a regular language by the definition of regular language. Hence { aw } is regular. Proof of Claim 2: Proof by induction on strings. Then for any symbol a of . Theorem 2: A finite language is regular. We then prove that a language consisting of a single string is regular. Proof of the Claim 1: Proof by induction on the number of strings.

In this example you as a vending machine have gone through (transitions between) a number of states responding to the inputs from the customer (coins in this case). circles represent states and arrows state transitions. then you have now received 15 cents and you wait for the customer to select a soft drink. You have received 10 cents and are waiting for more coins to come. that is. Click "NICKEL" or "DIME" in the figure and see how it operates (see how arrows turn red). In the next few chapters first we are going to learn different kinds of finite automata. say a dime.e. There are languages which are not regular and which. We are going to learn languages which are not regular and ways to test languages for non-regularity. Then we are going to see that for every regular language a unique finite automaton can be constructed which can recognize the language (i. In the figure. A kind of systems finite automnata can model and a computer program to simulate their operations are discussed later. therefore. Though Turing machines are simple modification of finite automata. Ds on arrows represent a dime and Ns a nickel. We are then going to study how finite automata can be used to simulate operations of systems we see in practice. and equivalence and conversions between them. If the customer puts in a nickel. Let us consider the operation of a soft drink vending machine which charges 15 cents for a can. We have learned that regular languages are represented by regular expressions and conversely. can not be recognized by finite automata. In fact Turing machines are as . So we might say you are in the 10-cents state. they are much more powerful computing devices than finite automata. It is assumed that the machine terminates its operation when it receives 15 cents or more. you are no longer in the waiting-for-customer state. Later we are going to learn an extension of finite automata called Turing machines. When the customer selects a soft drink. Finite automata are computing devices that accept/recognize regular languages and are used to model operations of many systems we find in practice. Pretend that you are the machine. A vending machine looked at this way is an example of finite automaton. After that you stay in that state until another coin is put in to start the process anew or you may terminate the operation and start all over from the initial state. you must give the customer a can of soft drink. tell whether or not a given string belongs to the regular language). Let us assume that only nickels and dimes are used for simplicity. So you are in another state. Initially you are waiting for a customer to come and put some coins. Unfortunately not all languages and systems are simple like regular languages or finite automata. The states and the transitions between them of this vending machine can be represented with the diagram below. Their operations can be simulated by a very simple computer program. you are in the waiting-for-customer state. When a customer comes and puts in the first coin.Introduction to Finite Automata In this chapter we are going to study a class of machines called finite automata. say 15-cents state.

We call the elements of Q a state. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. Thus in the example of vending machine.powerful as computers and it is generally believed. though not proven. that any computation human beings do (with or without computers) can be performed by Turing machines. Note that is a function. . 4. "have received 5 cents" etc. Then a deterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . Also let be a function from Q to Q . be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. a) must be specified. 3. The accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. a) is equal to "have received 5 cents". in the Example 1 below. are the elements of Q. "Waiting for a customer to put a coin in" can be considered the initial state of this automaton and the state in which the machine gives out a soda can can be considered the accepting state. . the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". 2. the states of the machine such as "waiting for a customer to put a coin in". The set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. for example. Otherwise it is not accepted. Thus in the example of vending machine. then (q. Its elements can. the transition function. if q is the initial state and a nickel is put in. The transition function is also called a next state function meaning that the automaton moves into the state (q. For example. q0 . Definition of Deterministic Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • • • Finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of deterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. however. A > Notes on the definition 1. . (q. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of . If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ceases to come.

A deterministic finite automaton is also called simply a "finite automaton". the following table. = { a }. A = { 1 }. b } in stead of { a }. 1. But any other strings such as aa. The accepting states are indicated by double circles. ) = q . 2 }.the string a is accepted by the finite automaton. aaa. then we need a DFA such as shown in the following examle to accept the same string a. Abbreviations such as FA and DFA are used to denote deterministic finite automaton. DFAs are often represented by digraphs called (state) transition diagram. a) ) A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. The vertices (denoted by single circles) of a transition diagram represent the states of the DFA and the arcs labeled with an input symbol correspond to the transitions. Examples of finite automaton Example 1: Q = { 0. Transition functions can also be represented by tables as seen below. are not accepted. q ) from vertex p to vertex q with label represents the transition (p. An arc ( p . . If the alphabet of the Example 1 is changed to { a. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 1 a 2 2 a 2 (q. They are called transition table. 5. etc. It is a little more complex DFA.

1 }. = { a. a) ) . = { a. A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. Example 3: Q = { 0. in the following table. A DFA that accepts all strings consisting of only symbol a over the alphabet { a. b }. 2 }. 1. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 0 0 b 1 1 a 1 1 b 1 (q. the following table. b }. b } is the next example. A = { 0 }.Example 2: Q = { 0. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 0 b 2 1 a 2 1 b 2 2 a 2 2 b 2 (q. A = { 1 }.

A = { 15. N }. 15. 20 }. = { D. 5. its transition function is as shown in the following table. 20 }. Example 4: For the example of vending machine of the previous section. If we make it a DFA. Q = { 0. 10.A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. the initial state q0 = 0. a) ) . State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 N 5 0 D 10 5 N 10 5 D 15 10 N 15 10 D 20 15 N 5 15 D 10 20 N 5 20 D 10 (q.

The tape has a read only head. 3. The tape has the left end and extends to the right without an end. The tape is divide into squares in each of which a symbol can be written prior to the start of the operation of the automaton. 6. 4.A finite automaton as a machine A finite automaton can also be thought of as the device shown below consisting of a tape and a control circuit which satisfy the following conditions: 1. It never moves to the left. 2. The head moves to the right one square every time it reads a symbol. The head is always at the leftmost square at the beginning of the operation. There is a finite control which determines the state of the automaton and also controls the movement of the head. 5. . it stops and the automaton terminates its operation. When it sees no symbol.

when all the a's on the tape are read. Since the state 0 is also the accepting state. Thus this automaton accepts any string of a's. are accepted but strings such as aaba. b etc. aaaaaa etc. For example strings aaa. Hence when b appears anywhere in the input. If b is read while it is in state 0 (initially or after reading some a's). it moves to state 1. Initially it is in state 0. the DFA is in the accepting state. When zero or more a's are given as an input to it. it goes into state 1 and the input string is not accepted by the DFA. As an example let us consider the DFA of Example 3 above. it stays in state 0 while it reads all the a's (without breaks) on the tape. Once it gets to state 1. this DFA never leaves state 1.Operation of finite automata Let us see how an automaton operates when it is given some inputs. then no matter what symbol is read. . are not accepted by this automaton.

*

of DFA and its Properties

Subjects to be Learned

• •

*

Language accepted by DFA

Contents

Here we are going to formally describe what is meant by applying a transition repeatedly, that is the concept of * For a state q and string w, *( q , w ) is the state the DFA goes into when it reads the string w starting at the state q. In general a DFA goes through a number of states from the state q responding to the symbols in the string w. Thus for a DFA < Q , , q0 , , A > , the function

* :Q -> Q is defined recursively as follows: *

Definition of

*

:

*

Basis Clause: For any state q of Q ,

(q,

) = q , where

*

denotes the empty string. and any symbol a ,

Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q, any string y * ( q , ya ) = ( *( q , y ) , a ) .

In the definition, the Basis Clause says that a DFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the state DFA reaches after reading string ya starting at state q is the state it reaches by reading symbol a after reading string y from state q. Example For example suppose that a DFA contains the transitions shown below.

Then

*

*

( q , DNR ) can be calculated as follows:

( q , DNR ) = ( *( q , DN ) , R ) by the Inductive Clause. = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , DN ). = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) since D = D . = ( ( ( *( q , ) , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , D ). = ( ( ( q , D ) , N ) , R ) , since ( q , ) = q . = ( ( q1 , N ) , R ) , since ( q , D ) = q1 as seen from the diagram. = ( q2 , R ) , since ( q1 , N ) = q2 as seen from the diagram. = q3 since ( q2 , R ) = q3 as seen from the diagram. Properties of

*

We can see the following two properties of

*

. for a DFA < Q , , q0 , ,A

**Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >,
**

*

(q,a)=

(q,a)

Proof : Since a = a , * ( q , a ) = *( q , a ) . By the definition of * , * ( q , a ) = ( *( q , ) , a ) But *( q , ) = q by the definition of Hence ( *( q , ) , a ) = ( q , a ) .

*

.

The next theorem states that the state reached from any state, say q , by reading a string, say w , is the same as the state reached by first reading a prefix of w, call it x, and then by reading the rest of the w, call it y. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 , , A > , for a DFA < Q , ,

*

( q , xy ) =

*

(

*

(q,x),y).

Proof : This is going to be proven by induction on string y. That is the statement to be proven is the following: * For an arbitrary fixed string x, ( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for any arbitrary string y. First let us review the recursive definition of *. Recursive definition of Basis Clause:

* *

:

.

* * Inductive Clause: If x and a , then xa . * Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.

Now the proof of the theorem. Basis Step: If y = , then *( q , xy ) = *( q , x ) = *( q , x ) . Also *( *( q , x ) , y ) = *( *( q , x ) , ) = *( q , x ) by the definition of * . Hence the theorem holds for y = . Inductive Step: Assume that *( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for an arbitrary string y. This is the induction hypothesis. We are going to prove that *( q , xya ) = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) for any arbitrary symbol a of . ( q , xya ) = ( *( q , xy ) , a ) by the definition of * = ( * ( *( q , x ) , y ) , a ) by the induction hypothesis. = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) by the definition of * . Thus the theorem has been proven.

*

For the following DFA answer the questions given below.

. That is a string is accepted by a DFA if and only if the DFA starting at the initial state ends in an accepting state after reading the string. the language accepted by a DFA is the set of strings accepted by the DFA. w ) A } . w ) A . . if and only if L = { w | *( q0 .The following notations are used in the questions: : \delta * : \delta^* : \Lambda Language Accepted by DFA Subjects to be Learned • Language accepted by DFA A string w is accepted by a DFA < Q . A > . * . if and only if ( q0 . . q0 . q0 . That is. Example 1 : . A > . A language L is accepted by a DFA < Q .

Then from state 1 go to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading aa. Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by a(ab)*aa . This DFA has a cycle: 1 . Example 2 : This DFA does not accept any string because it has no accepting state.e.2 . Then from state 1 go through the cycle 1 .2 . . by reading an empty string . Thus the language it accepts is the empty set Example 3 : DFA with one cycle .1 and it can go through this cycle any number of times by reading substring ab repeatedly.1 any number of times by reading substring ab any number of times to come back to state 1. This is represented by (ab)*. which is not an accepting state. It accepts nothing else because any non-empty symbol would take it to state 1. To find the language it accepts.This DFA accepts { } because it can go from the initial state to the accepting state (also the initial state) without reading any symbol of the alphabet i. and it stays there. first from the initial state go to state 1 by reading one a.

1 .0 and 0 .0 .2 . first from state 0 go to state 1 by .2 .2 .1 .2 . To find the language accepted by this DFA.3 .2 .0. Example 5 : DFA with two interleaved cycles This DFA has two cycles: 1 .1.Example 4 : DFA with two independent cycles This DFA has two independent cycles: 0 .1 and 1 .0 and it can move through these cycles any number of times in any order to reach the accepting state from the initial state such as 0 . Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by ( ab + bb )*.0 .0 .

At state 1 go through the cycle 1 .1 any number of times by reading substring ba repeatedly. Then go from state 1 to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading bb.2 .2 .1 any number of times in any order by reading substrings baa and bba. Thus altogether a( baa + bba )*bb will have been read when state 3 is reached from state 0. Then go to state 1 by reading one a. The language accepted at state 0 is b* . respectively.3 .0 . So we are not going to go any further on this problem here. Thus the language accepted at state 1 is b*a(ba)* .reading a ( any other state which is common to these cycles such as state 2 can also be used instead of state 1 ). Thus the language that is accepted by this DFA is the union of the language accepted at state 0 and the one accepted at state 1. To find the language accepted at state 1. Then from state 1 go through the two cycles 1 . first at state 0 read any number of b's. At this point (b*a) will have been read. Example 6 : This DFA has two accepting states: 0 and 1. At this point a substring a( baa + bba )* will have been read.2 .1 and 1 . Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata . There is a systematic way of finding the language accepted by a DFA and we are going to learn it later.

a) ) . a) to select is determined nondeterministically. Note that is a function. As in the case of DFA the accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. But it can be the empty set. Examples of NFA Example 1: Q = { 0. q0 . 3. . the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". As in the case of DFA the set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. 4. 5. the transition function. a) must be specified. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ends i. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 1 a (q. Which one of the states in (q. 2. Note that any DFA is also a NFA. ceases to come. The transition function is also called a next state function . Its elements can be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of (q.e. Unlike DFAs an NFA moves into one of the states given by (q. Otherwise it is not accepted. A > Notes on the definition 1. the following table. = { a }. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. Also let be a function from Q to 2Q . . in which case the NFA aborts its operation.Subjects to be Learned • • • Nondeterministic finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. We call the elements of Q a state. A = { 1 }. 1 }. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q .

while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. this is still an NFA that accepts { Example 2: Q = { 0. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1. b } in stead of { a }. is changed to { a. A = { 2 }. = { a. 1. If the alphabet a}.2} 0 1 1 2 2 b a b a b {2} (q. b }. . 2 }. in the following table.A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below.

Thus the string ab is also accepted by this NFA. As an example let us consider the automaton of Example 2 above. We say that this automaton accepts the string a.Operation of NFA Let us see how an automaton operates when some inputs are applied to it. Let us now define the function strings and languages by NFA. then it goes to state 2 and remains there. it moves to either state 1 or state 2. When it reads the symbol a. if it moves to state 2 and no more inputs are given. then it stays in the accepting state. it does not accept any of them. Since the state 2 is the accepting state. if the next input is b and if no more inputs are given. If any other strings are given to this NFA. If on the other hand it moves to state 1 after reading a. Initially it is in state 0. * and then formalize the concepts of acceptance of .

ya ) = In the definition.Language Accepted by NFA Subjects to be Learned • • • for NFA Language accepted by NFA Properties of * * Definition of * For a state q and string w. the Basis Clause says that an NFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the set of states NFA can reach after reading string ya starting at state q is the set of states it can reach by reading symbol a after reading string y starting at state q.3} 0 b {2} 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b {1} {3} {3} (q. . where * denotes the empty . the function * :Q -> 2Q is defined recursively as follows: * Definition of *: Basis Clause: For any state q of Q. In general an NFA nondeterministically goes through a number of states from the state q as it reads the symbols in the string w. *( q . Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q. Thus for an NFA < Q .1. ) = { q }. a) ) For example consider the NFA with the following transition table: . A > . * (q. any string y * and any symbol a ( q . q0 . string. . Example State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {0. w ) is the set of states that the NFA can reach when it reads the string w starting at the state q.

Hence *( 0 . Then * * ( 0 .b) (3. ab ) can be calculated as follows: ( p. b ) (1. ) = { 0 } . ) again by the Inductive * Clause of the definition of . ( 0 . Hence *( 0 . . b ) for all p * ( 0 .b)={2} {3} {1}={1.The transition diagram for this NFA is as given below. ab ) is the union of the definition of * . *( 0 . Suppose that the state 3 is an accepting state of this NFA. a ) = ( 0 . 3 } . 3}.2. a ) by the Inductive Clause of * Now *( 0 . ab ) = ( 0 . 1 . a ) is the union of ( p. a ) for all p ( 0 . a ) = { 0 . By the Basis Clause of the definition of *.

. . . q0 .a)= (q. . .a) for an NFA < Q . A > . . The language accepted by an NFA < Q. Some of the strings accepted by the NFA given above are the language it accepts is a*( ab + a + ba )(bb)* . * . aaa. * ( q . q0. a. .A Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >. x ) A is not empty.* We say that a string x is accepted by an NFA < Q. q0. A > is the set of strings that are accepted by the NFA. xy ) = These theorems can be proven in a manner similar to those for Theorems 1 and 2 for DFA. . * (q. abbbb etc. and for NFA has properties similar to that for DFA. that is. . Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 . if and only if it can reach an accepting state by reading x starting at the initial state. ab. for an NFA < Q . A > if and only if * ( q0 .

) and see some examples. the transition function. We are going to do that by showing that a finite automaton can be constructed from a given regular expression by combining simpler FAs using union. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. . We call the elements of Q a state. Note that any NFA is also a NFA. These operations on FAs can be described conveniently if -Transitions are used.makes the transition without reading any symbol in the input. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton with -Transitions is a 5-tuple < Q .. Here we are going to formally define NFA with -Transitions (abbreviated as NFA. Also let { } to 2Q .Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata with Transitions Subjects to be Learned • • • - Nondeterministic finite automata with State transition diagram State transition table -Transitions Contents One of the objectives of this chapter is to show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between regular languages and finite automata. Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton with Let Q be a finite set and let -Transitions be a function from Q be a finite set of symbols. Basically an NFA with -Transitions is an NFA but can respond to an empty string and move to the next state. q0 . 2. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. . A transition on reading means that the NFA. concatenation and Kleene star operations.A> Notes on the definition 1. As we are going to see later. . for any NFA. Thus the tape head does not move when is read.there is a NFA (hence DFA) which accepts the same language and vice versa.

4 and 5 by reading a. it can move to any of the states other than 0. = { a. 3. A = . you can go to state 2. b }. 2. for example. 4 and 5 without reading any symbol on the tape. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. For once you are in state 1. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in the State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 0 {4} 1 {2} 2 { 3. following table. 5 }. 3. 4. Thus 4 is the only state you can go to from the initial state . 2. 3. If you read string ab. For though you go to states 1. then you come to state 4. for example. a) ) Here the transitions to are omitted from the table. 1. 4 } 3 {5} 3 b {4} 4 a {5} (q. there are no transitions on reading b except from state 3. When a symbol a is read at the initial state 0.Example of NFA- Q = { 0.

by reading ab.

**Language Accepted by NFASubjects to be Learned
**

• • • •

**-closure for NFALanguage accepted by NFAProperties of *
**

*

Contents

To formally define * for NFA- , we start with the concept of -closure for a state which is the set of states reachable from the state without reading any symbol. Using that concept we define * and then strings and languqges accepted by NFA- . Definition of -closure

Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA- . Let us denote the -closure of a set S of states of Q by ( S ). Then ( S ) is defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: S (S)

Inductive Clause: For any state q of Q, if q ( S ) , then ( q , ) (S). Extremal Clause: Nothing is in ( S ) unless it is obtained by the above two clauses.

For the NFAFirst { 2 }

of the above figure, ( { 2 } ) , that is, 2 (2, )

( { 2 } ) is obtained as follows: ( { 2 } ) . Then since 2 ( { 2 } ) , by the

Inductive Clause, Since (2,

({2}). ({2}).

) = { 3 , 4 }, we now have { 2 , 3 , 4 }

Since 3 and 4 have been added to

({2}),

(3,

) = { 5 } and

(4,

)=

must

be included in ( { 2 } ) . Thus now { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } ({2}). Though 5 has become a memeber of the closure, since ( 5 , ) is empty, no new members are added to ( { 2 } ) . Since ( q , ) has been examined for all the states currently in ( { 2 } ) and no more elements are added to it, this process of generating the closure terminates and ( { 2 } ) = { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } is obtained. As we can see from the example, ( S ) is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S by traversing any number of arcs. That is, it is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S without reading any symbols in . Now with this -closure, we can define

*

recursively as follows:

As in the cases of DFA and NFA, * gives the result of applying the transition function repeatedly as dictated by the given string. Definition of

* *

is going to be defined recursively. Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA-

.

**Basis Clause: For any state q of Q,
**

*

(q,

)=

({q}).

*

Inductive Clause: For any state q, a string y in

and a symbol a in

,

*

( q , ya ) =

(

).

What the Inductive Clause means is that *( q , ya ) is obtained by first finding the states that can be reached from q by reading y ( *( q , y ) ), then from each of those states p by reading a (i.e. by finding ( p , a ) ), and then by reading 's ( i.e. by taking the closure of the ( p , a )'s ) . Example : For the NFAbelow: of the following figure,

*

( 0 , ab ) can be obtained as

First let us compute *( 0 , a ) . For that we need ( { 0 } ). Since it is the set of states reached by traversing the arcs from state 0, ( { 0 } ) = {0,3,4}. Next from each of the states in ( { 0 } ) we read symbol a and move to another state (i.e. apply ). They are ( 0 , a ) = { 1 } , ( 3 , a ) = ( 4 , a ) = { 5 }. Hence We then traverse the } ) = { 1 , 2 , 3 } and = { 1 , 5 } for q = 0 . arcs from { 1 , 5 } to get to the states in *( 0 , a ) . Since * ({5})={5}, (0,a)={1,2,3,5}.

({1

NFAs and NFA. *( 0 . 4 } . . Equivalence of DFAs. a ) and then take the arcs from there.s Subjects to be Learned • • • Conversion of NFA. . a . q2. 4 } . . NFA M2 = < Q2. . ( 3 . Now ( 1 . b ) . A string x is accepted by an NFA.. b ) and ( 5 . . b ) = { 4 } . The language accepted by an NFA. . A > if and only if *( q0 .< Q . A1 > be an NFA.0 .< Q . A2 > that satisfies the following conditions recognizes L: . ab ) = { 3 . . q1. ab } . and ( 2 . q0 .0 .Then to find *( 0 .that recognizes a language L. b ) are empty sets. q0 .to (equivalent) NFA Conversion of NFA to (equivalent) DFA Equivalence of DFAs. For example the NFAof the figure given above accepts the language { . A > is the set of strings accepted by the NFA. NFAs and NFAto NFA 1 Conversion of NFA- Let M1 = < Q1 . Then the 2 . ab ) read b from each of the states in *( 0 . Thus Since ( { 4 } ) = { 3 . x ) contains at least one accepting state.

The transition function 2 is obtained as follows: 2( 0 . a ): First ( { 0 } ) = { 0 . 2 first copy the states of Q1 into Q2. Then collect all the states that can be reached from each state of ( {q} ) by traversing one arc labeled with the symbol a. q1.0 = q1. that is if an accepting state can be reached from the initial state q1. 3 ). . as the given NFA. A1 > does. that is all the states that can be reached from q by traversing arcs.0 .Q2 = Q1. Then from the transition function of the NFA- . a ) as follows: Find ( {q} ). q2. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0.0 } ) A1 = A1 otherwise . The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0.a)= ( ) A2 = A1 { q1. a ) . 1 } . 1.M1 = < Q1 . q2. Otherwise. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) . Thus to obtain an NFA M2 = < Q2. a ) = 1 * (q. 2. The set of accepting states A2 is the same as A1 if no accepting states can be reached from the initial state q1. A2 > which accepts the same language 1 .0 through arcs in M1 .0 are the accepting states of M2 . .0 } if ( { q1. Example 1: Let us convert the following NFAto NFA.0.0 through arcs in M1 . . then all the accepting states of M1 plus state q1. Then for each state q of Q2 and each symbol a of find 2 ( q . The closure of the set of those states is 2( q .0 . 2 ( q.

b ) .2} {1.1} {1} {1} {2} {2} {1. . 2 }. a ) = 1 ( 1 .3} {1.b)= 1 ( 1.2} {1. )(= ( {1.2})={1.2} {1. 2 (0. 2 ( 0 .( 0 .2} )) ({q}) {0. ({1.1} {0.3} {3} {1. and Hence 2( 0 . 1 For .b)= Similarly 2 can be obtained for other states and symbols. a ) = . They are given in the table ( { q } ) and 2 below together with State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b a b . a ) = { 1 .2} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. (q.2}. 1 } and 1 (0. since ( { 0 } ) = { 0 .3} {1. b ) = .2} {1.

2.2} {4} {4} {4} {1. 3. 1.2.1} {1} {1} {2. 2.4} {1. 2 is given in the table below together with ( { q } ) . The transition function 2 is obtained as for Example 1.3} {2. 4 ). 1 ( p . since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) .2} 2 (q.3} {3} {3} {1.4} {1. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0.3} {1. ) and State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 a b a b a b a b a ({q}) {0.3} )) {1.2.3} . )(= ( {1.4} {1.4} {1.2} {1.1} {0.Example 2: Let us convert the following NFA- to NFA. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0.

.4 b {1.4} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. Proof of Equivalence of NFA- and NFA We are going to prove that the NFA obtained from NFAby the conversion algorithm accepts the same language as the NFA.

then * 1 ( q . Thus we first prove that it is true for any arbitrary symbol.a)= 2 * (q. w ) for an arbitrary string w (Induction Hypothesis). then assuming it holds for any arbitrary string w we prove it for any of the children of w.(2) Hence from (1) and (2). the induction hypothesis and the construction of NFA from NFA.(1) because of the way NFA is constructed from NFA(click here for a review) . Basis Step: We need to show that for any symbol a in 1 * (q.w)= 2 * ( q . )={q}. .0 . wa ) = 2 * ( q . 1 . a)= by the definition of Since * 2 * for NFA (click here for a review) . for NFA..w).a). (q. --. q2. and the conversion of NFAto NFA click here. w ) for any non-empty string w. Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. 1 * (q. a ) = 1*( q . a ) .a). and NFA- When it is proven. We are going to prove it by showing that both of them are equal to Firstly 2( q . a ) --.0 .(1) . A2 > (q.w)= 2 * (q. wa ) = --.a). The case when w is an empty string is going to be proven separately. A1 > and 2 NFA obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2.(2) . = = 2 * 2 (q . it implies that NFAM1 and NFA M2 accept the same non-empty strings.a)= 2 2 * (q . . . First we are going to prove that To review the definition of * 1 * . 1 * (q.a)= 2 ( q .a)= 2 * 2 (q. Inductive Step: We need to show that if 1 * (q. . wa ) holds for any arbitrary symbol a in First we show that using the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . wa ) --. = 1 * Then we show that ( q . Claim 1: For any non-empty string w and for any state q. Secondly 2 * (q. Hence (q. that is wa for any symbol a in the alphabet. .w)= 2 * ( q . Recall that the set of strings is defined recursively (click here for a quick review). q1.a). (q.NFA- that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 .

Hence we have proven (2). wa ) . wa ) = 2 * ( q . = 1*( q . The right hand side of this equality is equal to ( the first and have been swapped to get this) . by the definition of 1 * . 1 * Thus from (1) and (2) ( q . . wa ) . wa ) = . because = .a)= Substituting this into the left hand side of (2) produces = . Let us first prove (1).a)= 1 * ( q . a ) by the way NFA is constructed from NFA= .basically using the definition of Then from (1) and (2) we can see that 1 * 1 * . that is By the definition of 1 * = 1 * 1 * ( q . ( q . . as proven below in Claim 3. wa ) = 2 * ( q . Hence On the other hand = Hence 1 * = ( q . wa ) . This can be shown to be equal to .w)= 1 * ( q . = Since 2 (q. . Hence 2 * ( q . that is (1) has been proven. wa ) . wa ) . wa ) = Since 2 * (q. To see an explanation for this click here. w ) by the induction hypothesis. Let us next prove (2). for NFA- (p. By the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q .

We are going to prove this in two parts: (S T) (S) (S) (T) ( T ) and (S T). and the corresponding NFA accept the same language. Claim 2: (S T)= (S) (T). Hence is accepted by NFA. if it is accepted by an NFA. then ( q . As for the empty string . Part 1 : (S T) (S) (T) This is going to be proven by induction on (S T). then its childen also have it. Inductive Clause: If q ( X ) . What Part 1 states is that all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in the set (S) (T). A2 . Hence by the way A2 is constructed..End of Induction With this Claim 1 we can see that any non-empty string w is accepted by NFA if and only if it is accepted by the corresponding NFA. By the way NFA is constructed from . For that let us restate the statement so that the induction becomes clearer. As a preparation for the proof of commutativity of union and -closure operations. Hence is accepted by NFA. Since (S T ) is defined recursively. q20 Conversely if NFAis accepted by NFA. then ( { q10 } ) A1 . Extremal Clause: Nothng is in ( X ) unless it is obtained by the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Let X be the set of states of an NFA. let us prove the following claim. then q20 this means that Thus NFA( { q10 } ) A1 A2 . Let us review the definition of the -closure of the set of states of an NFA. in the Basis Step of our proof we prove the property for the elements of the basis of (S T ) and in the Inductive Step we prove that if an arbitrary element of (S T ) has that property. ) (X). . Then the -closure of X is defined recursively as Basis Clause: X (X).

S (S T). Inductive Step: We need to prove that for an arbitrary element q in ( S ) . ( T ) . Hence (T). Basis Step: We need to show that S Since S (S T ) . End of Proof for Part 1 Part 2 : Proof of Part 2: We are going to prove (S) (S (S) T ) and (S) (T) (T) (T) (S (S (S T). if q is in . ) . ) Let q be an arbitrary element of T ) with the property of being in ( S ) by the definition of ( T ) . and ( S T) (S T). ) (S) (T). (q. Since q If q ( S ) . ) (S) (T). ( T ) . (S T ) with the property of being in (S) ( T ) . That would imply that Proof of (S) (S By induction on (S T): (S).Proof of Part 1: Basis Step: We need to prove that ( S Since S ( S ) and T T) (S) (S) (S (S) (S) (T). ) (S) (S) (T). T ) with (T). Hence ) Similarly if q Hence if q is an arbitrary element of (S) (T).q ( S ) or q ( S ) . then (q. (T) Thus all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in (S T) which is to say that (S) (T). then (q. T T). then (q. S and T are subsets of (S T) Inductive Step: We need to prove that if q is an arbitrary element of the property of being in (S) (S ( T ) . T). (T). (S) (T). then ( q .

Basis Step: n = 1. Similarly Hence (S) (T) (T) (S T ) holds. then (q. ) (S closure T). If n = 1. --. ( Si ) = ( Si ) = ( S1 ) and ( S1 ) . Si is a set as well as Sn+1.Inducion Hypothesis ( Si ) = ( = = (( Si ) ( ( Si ) ) Si ) ( Sn+1 ) by the definition of union. (S T ) holds. Proof : Proof by induction on n. ( Sn+1 ) by the induction hypothesis. since = ( Equivalence of NFA and DFA We are going to prove that the DFA obtained from NFA by the conversion algorithm . End of Proof for Claim 3 Sn+1 ) by Claim 2 above. then Hence Inductive Step: Assume that ( ( Si ) = Si ) = ( Si ) holds for n = 1.(S Since q is in (S T ) and since (S T ) . - T ) is a -closure. Si ) by the definition of union. Thus (S) (S T ) has been proven. ( Si ) holds for n. End of Proof of Part 2 End of Proof of Claim 2 Claim 3: ( Si ) = ( Si ) . ) (S T). by the definition of (q.

accepts the same language as the NFA.0 . obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. = * 1 ( q1. w ) = 2 * ( q2.0 . ( q2. w ) . q1. A1 > and DFA . ( q1. wa ) = = = = 2 ( 1 2 * * ( q1.0 . NFA that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 . 2 1 .0 } by the construction of DFA M2 .0 . w ) holds. a ) 2( * 2 ( q2. = { q1. 1 * ( q1. w ) = 2*( q2. Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w.0 . Inductive Step: Assume that Induction Hypothesis 1 * ( q1.0 . w ) = 2 * ( q2. --- For the string w and an arbitrry symbol a in 1 * .0 . . A2 > First we are going to prove by induction on strings that 1*( q1.0 . w ) .0 . ) by the definition of 1 * . w ) .0 .0 by the definition of 2* .Part 1 Subjects to be Learned • • • • Union of FAs Concatenation of FAs Kleene Star of FAs Acceptance of regular languages by FAs Contents . When it is proven. ) = q2. Kleene's Theorem --. w ) for any string w.0 .0 . w ) = 2 * ( q2.0 . Basis Step: For w = 2 * . . q2.0 .0 . w ) for an arbitrary string w.0 . wa ) * 1 Thus for any string w ( q1. it obviously implies that NFA M1 and DFA M2 accept the same strings. a ) ( q2. Theorem: For any string w.

qk. q1. A2 > .0 . Theorem 1 (Part 1 of Kleene's theorem): Any regular language is accepted by a finite automaton.0 . q2. qu.0 .0 . qc.{ } and { a } for any symbol a in are accepted by an FA.0 is a state which is neither in Q1 nor in Q2 . A1 > and M2 = < Q2 . Au > . Suppose that L1 and L2 are accepted by FAs M1 = < Q1 .0 . that together with the Basis Step would prove the theorem. respectively. then L1 L2 . Au > : { qu. We assume that Q1 Q2 = without loss of generality since states can be renamed if necessary. Basis Step: As shown below the languages .0 } . k . . Qu = Q1 Q2 . . Inductive Step: We are going to show that for any languages L1 and L2 if they are accepted by FAs.Kleene's theorem. L1L2 and L1* are accepted by the FAs Mu = < Qu . c . which are given below. L1L2 and L1* are accepted by FAs.0 . where qu. 1 . . respectively. . Mc . Ac > and Mk = < Q2 . . 2 . It states that any regular language is accepted by an FA and conversely that any language accepted by an FA is regular. Then L1 = < Qc . . . u Mu = < Qu . qu. concatenation and Kleene star operations. u L2 . Since any regular language is obtained from { } and { a } for any symbol a in by using union. Proof: This is going to be proven by (general) induction following the recursive definition of regular language. Ak > .

0 = q1. . c . u ) = { q1. { q1.0 . where qk. Ak > : { qk. .0 c = 1 2 { (q. q2.0 is a state which is not in Q1 .0. .0. that is u (qu.0 .0 } ) | q A1 } Ac = A2 Mk = < Qk . Ac > : Qc = Q1 Q2 qc. These NFA- s are illustrated below. q2.0.u = 1 2 { (qu.0 } = 1 { (qk.0 } ) } { (q.0 . qk. { q1. { q2. .0 .0 } ) } .0 } . Au = A1 A2 Mc = < Qc .0 } . k .0 } ) | q A1 } Ak = { qk. Qk = Q1 k . a ) = for all a in . Note that (qu. .0. { qk. . qc.

respectively. in fact accept L1 L2 . that these NFA. Mc and Mk . L1L2 and L1*. End of Proof Examples of Mu . Mc and Mk: Example 1: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression (aa + b)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above. Mu. . though we omit proofs.It can be proven.s .

Example 2: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression ((a + b)a*)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above. .

Part 2 .Kleene's Theorem -.

q. . k) the set of strings representing paths from state p to state q that go through only states numbered no higher than k. k)*L(k+1. first relabel its states with the integers 1 through n. Before proceeding to a proof outline for the converse. Note that paths may go through arcs and vertices any number of times. 2. k)L(k+1. k) L(p. Given a finite automaton. What this lemma says is that the set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled with k+1 or lower numbers consists of the following two sets: 1. k) . k+1) = L(p. k+1. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. L(p. q. k+1. L(p. Then the following lemmas hold. k+1. then from k+1 to q. k) : The set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled wiht k or lower numbers. Lemma 1: L(p. See the figure below for the illustration. q. q. q. then from k+1 to k+1 any number of times. It states that any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. Next denote by L(p. k)L(k+1. k) : The set of strings going first from p to k+1. q. k+1.Subjects to be Learned • Languages accepted by FAs are regular Contents The converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem also holds true. all without passing through states labeled higher than k. k)*L(k+1. let us study a method to compute the set of strings accepted by a finite automaton.

then it consists of single symbols representing arcs from p to q. we have the following converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem. k) is regular for any states p and q and any natural number k. Theorem 2 (Part 2 of Kleene's Theorem): Any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. n) over all accepting states q. q. Proof: L(p. q. Example : Let us find the language accepted by the following finite automaton using the . where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. q. 0) is regular. If p = q. 0) is regular. 0) is the set of strings representing paths from p to q without passing any states in between. q. Since the language accepted by a finite automaton is the union of L(q0. Hence if p and q are different. Lemma 3: L(p. q.Lemma 2: L(p. L(p. then is in it as well as the strings representing any loops at p (they are all single symbols). >From Lemmas 1 and 2 by induction the following lemma holds. Since the number of symbols is finite and since any finite language is regular.

2. Then the language accepted by this NFA is r(1. 1.2.0)*r(1. 2) = r(3. 2)*r(3. Hence r(1.0) = and r(3.0)*r(1. 2): r(1. 1)*r(2.2. since r(1. 3. 1) r(1.0) = and r(2. 2): r(1.1. 1) + r(1.0) + r(2. 2)r(3.0) + r(3.0) = ba+ . 1.1.0) + r(2.1. 3. k).0) + r(1.1. 1) = r(2. 3.0) = ba* . 2) = r(1.0)*r(1. 1) = r(1. 2.1. 3.1. k) the regular expression for the set of strings L(p. 1)r(2.0) = a+ . 2.0) = ba+ + . 3. since r(1.1.0)*r(1. 3. 3. 1.0)r(1. 1) r(3. 1.1.0)r(1. 1) + r(3.0)*r(1. 1. 1. 3. 3) = r(1.2. 2) . 3. Let us denote by r(p. 1) = r(1.1.lemmas.0)r(1.0) + r(1. 3.2. 2): r(3.1. 1.0) = a* . 2) + r(1. r(2.0)r(1. 1. r(1. 1) r(1. r(1. 1. since r(3. 1) = r(3. r(1. 3. 1) = r(2.1. 3. q.0) = a + . 1) + r(1.1. r(1. 1) = r(3. 3.1. since r(2. .2.2.1. 1. q. 1) = r(2. 2) = a+(b a+ + = a+(b a+ )*a . 1)r(2. )*a r(3. 2. 1)r(2. 2) = r(1.0) = a .2.0) = b . 2. 1) = a Hence r(1. 2.1. 1.0)r(1. 1)*r(2. 2. By Lemma 1.0) = b.2. 2. 2) = a* + a+(b a+)*b a* . 2. 3. 3). r(2.2.1. 1)*r(2.1.

A > is a DFA that accepts * . . n)'s must be added together to get the regular expression for the language accepted by the automaton. that is Mc = < Q . Q . 1. n) must be found for each accepting state q. then r(p. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. The detail is left as an exercise though it would be quite challenging. 2): r(3. q. 1) r(3. q0 . 1)r(2. Then a DFA that accepts the complement of L.1. 1. 1)*r(2. In this example there is only one accepting state.Hence r(3.1. where p is the initial state and n is the number of states in the given finite automaton. then to (a + ab)*. 1) + r(3. q0 . * . If there are more accepting states.0)r(1. 2) = r(3. . 2. 1.0) + r(3. . 1. 1. Hence r(1. can be obtained by swapping its accepting states with its non-accepting states. Comlement and Intersection of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • • Complement of Regular Language Complement of DFA Intersection of Regular Languages Contents Complement Let M = < Q . .L.1.0) = ba* Hence r(3. 2) = = + ( ba+)+a + ba+( ba+ + )*a r(3. i. 3) = a* + a+(b a+)*ba* + ( a+( ba+ )*a )( This can be further simplified to (a + ab + abb)*.L . 2. . q. and all the r(p. 2) = ba* + ba+( ba+ + = ( ba+ )*ba* .e. 1.0)<SUP*< SUP>r(1. )*ba* + ( ba+)+a )*( ba+ )*ba*. 3. 1.1. 1) = r(3.

. b }. Remark 2: Since a language is regular if and only if it is accepted by some NFA.For example the following DFA accepts the language a+ over = { a . the complement of a regular language is also regular. Remark 1: If we have NFA rather than DFA. A DFA that accepts its complement is obtained from the above DFA by changing all single circles to double circles and vice versa as shown below. we must first convert it to DFA before swapping states to get its complement.

Regular Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Regular Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Production and Grammar Regular Grammar Context-Free. Since L1 L2 = by De Morgan's law. difference. By Remark 2 above. Next -. Context-Sensitive and Phrase Structure Grammars . intersection. In particular De Morgan's law also applies to languages. Thus summing all this up we can say that the set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed with respect to union. concatenation and Kleene star operations.Intersection of Regular Languages Langauges are sets. if L1 and L2 are regular languages. then Submit. Therefore all the properties of sets are inherited by languages. Click True or Fals . Test Your Understanding of Complemnent and Intersection of FAs Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. L1 L2 is regular. then their complements are regular languages.

.Contents We have learned three ways of characterising regular languages: regular expressions. finite automata and construction from simple languages using simple operations. a ) = Y and for every production X -> a add the transition ( X.e. aa. that is a production is of the form X -> a or X -> aY. Then apply the first rule to aS to rewrite S as a. = {a. These rules mean that S is rewritten as a or as aS. and S -> aS . . start with S and apply the second rule to replace S with the right hand side of the rule. For example.e. A grammar is regular if and only if is a single nonterminal and is a single terminal or a single terminal followed by a single nonterminal. we write =>*G is obtained from a string and say that by applying productions of . In general if a string a grammar G. aaa. regular. If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. For example consider the language represented by a+. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. The following theorem holds for regular grammars. which is { a.{ by a regular grammar. Theorem 3: A language L is accepted by an FA i. i. Rewrite S using one of the following two rules: S -> a . a set of terminals (the alphabet of the language). a ) = Z. To generate the string aa for example. a start symbol S. } . then we simply write =>* Formally a grammar consists of a set of nonterminals (or variables) V. Then for every production X -> aY. There is yet another way of characterizing them. S -> } is a regular grammar and it generates all the strings consisting of a's and b's including the empty string. . where X and Y are nonterminals and a is a terminal. } can be generated This can be proven by constructing an FA for the given grammar as follows: For each nonterminal create a state. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals with at least one nonterminal in it and is a string of terminals and nonterminals. . S -> bS. One can generate the strings of this language by the following procedure: Let S be a symbol to start the process with. that is by something called grammar. We write S => aS to express that aS is obtained from S by applying a single production. aS. Add another state as the accepting state Z. add the transition ( X. S corresponds to the initial state. the fact that aa is obtained from S is written as S =>* aa . to obtain aS. A grammar is a set of rewrite rules which are used to generarte strings by successively rewriting symbols. if L . If there is no is derived from ambiguity about the grammar G that is referred to. Thus the process of obtaining aa from S is written as S => aS => aa . and a set of rewrite rules (productions) P. A production has in general the form -> . b}. That gives us aa. which ia a nonterminal.

. b}. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. where S is the initial state and Z is the accepting state of the NFA. q0 > is obtained as follows: for any a in . a regular grammar corresponding to the NFA given below is < Q. P. . and nonterminals X and Y. S > . as its member. and adding transitions ( S. and for any a in and any nonterminal X. accepted by an NFA. S -> a. X -> a is in P if and only if (X. . . A > a regular grammar < Q. X -> aY is in P if and only if (X. where Q = { S. Z } . then since { } is regular .e. P. b ) = { S. S -> b } form a regular grammar which generates the language ( a + b )+. L = Conversely from any NFA < Q. X. X -> aY. An NFA that recognizes this language can be obtained by creating two states S and Z. S -> aX. If L contains ( L -{ } ) { } is also regular. a) = Y for some accepting state Y. a) = Y . Y } . P = { S -> aS. S -> a }. The NFA thus obtained is shown below.{ } is regular. q0. then L . b }. Z } and ( S. a ) = { S. Theorem 4 : If L is regular i.For example = {a. Thus L .{ regular grammar. } is generated by a For example. X -> bS. { a. Y -> bS. S -> bS. Thus the following converse of Theorem 3 is obtained.

As we shall see later this is an example of context-free language which is not regular. For example P = { S -> XYZS1. bZ -> bc. They are characterized by context-free grammars.| | | |. S -> ab } with = { a. 2 and are strings of terminals and nonterminals. b } and V = { S } is a contex-free grammar and it generates the language { anbn | n is a positive integer } . ZX -> XZ. where X is a nonterminal and . S1 -> XYZ. S1 } is a context-sensitive grammar and it generates the language { anbncn | n is a positive integer } . S. YX -> XY. A grammar is a context-sensitive grammar if and only if its production is of the form 1 X 2 -> 1 2 . that is. that is the set of regular languages is a subset of the set of context-free languages which is in turn a subset of the set of context-sensitive languages and the set of context-sensitive languages is a subset of the set of phrase structure languages. Y. possibly the empty string. context-sensitive languages and phrase structure languages. It is an example of context-sensitive language which is not context-free. aX -> aa. BY -> bb. ZY -> YZ. for every production -> . S -> XYZ. cZ -> cc } with = { a. For example P = { S -> aSb. A grammar is a context-free grammar if and only if its production is of the form X -> . b. c } and V = { X.In addition to regular languages there are three other types of languages in Chomsky hierarchy : context-free languages. These grammars are distinguished by the kind of productions they have but they also form a hierarchy. X -> a. possibly empty except Thus the nonterminal X can be rewritten as only in the context of 1X 2 . aY -> ab. S1 -> XYZS1. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals. context-sensitive grammars and phrase structure grammars. respectively. Z. . Context-sensitive grammars are also characterized by productions whose left hand side is not longer than the right hand side. 1 .

. Then the following algorithm produces the DFA. -> . Click True or Fals . Minimization Algorithm for DFA Construct a partition = { A. that has the smallest number of states amomg the DFAs that accept L. where and Test Your Understanding of Regular Grammar Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Next -. . Let M = < Q . There are two sets of questions. new := new_partition( .A } of the set of states Q .For a phrase structure grammar. both theoretically and practically. q0 . }. then Submit.Minimization of DFA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Minimization of DFA One important result on finite automata. that is a production of a phrase structure grammar can take the form can be any string. Q . A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. there is no restriction on the form of production. denote it by M1. is that for any regular language there is a unique DFA having the smallest number of states that accepts it.

. Example 1 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. If a transition from s to t on symbol a exists in M. if there are any. The accepting states of M1 are representatives that are in A. Remove from M1 the dead states and the states not reachable from the start state. Let s be a state in p and t a state in q. states of minimum DFA M1. new := new_partition( := . end Minimum DFA M1 is constructed from • • final as follows: • • Select one state in each set of the partition final as the representative for the set.e. The subsets thus formed are sets of the output partition in place of S. If S is not partitioned in this process. Any transitions to a dead state become undefined. respectively. then the minimum DFA M1 has a transition from p to q on symbol a. A state is a dead state if it is not an accepting state and has no out-going transitions except to itself.while ( := new new ) ) . The start state of M1 is the representative which contains the start state of M. Let us also denote by p and q the sets of states of the original DFA M represented by p and q. Let p and q be representatives i. Note that the sets of final are either a subset of A or disjoint from A. final function new_partition( ) for each set S of do partition S into subsets such that two states p and q of S are in the same subset of S if and only if for each input symbol. S remains in the output partition. These representatives are states of minimum DFA M1. p and q make a transition to (states of) the same set of .

{ 3 } . 5 }. 5 } . { 4 ] }. { 2 } . in the When new_partition is applied to this new . state 3 goes to state 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . 3 }. since 1 goes to 3 on a. and 1 to 2 on b. . Select 1 as the representative for { 1 . Since the rest of the states are singletons. state 3 goes to state 5 and 4 and 5 are in different sets in . Thus the new partition is { { 1 . Note here that state 4 is a dead state because the only transitionout of it is to itself.Initially = { { 1 . and to 2 on b in the original DFA. all transitions between them are inherited for the minimized DFA. since on b 2 goes to 1. So they are not going to be split. they have the obvious representatives. On the other hand 1 and 5 make the same transitions. 4 } }. 2 . and 3 goes to 1 on a in the original DFA. 2 and 4 are separated from each other in new. { 3 } . new_partition is applied to . { 2 } . states 2 and 3 are going to be separated from each other in new . since 1 and 5 do the same transitions. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 1 to 3 on a. For the transitions. Thus the set of states for the minimized DFA is { 1 . 3 . { 2 . Thus final = { { 1 . in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 2 to 1 on b. remains unchanged. Since on b state 2 goes to state 1. Since the rest are singletons. 5 } . 4 goes to 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . Further. and from 3 to 1 on a. states 3 and 4 are going to be separated from each other in new. Also since 2 goes to 1 on b. { 4 ] }. 5 } . Also since on a sate 4 goes to sate 4. This becomes the second iteration.

Thus the minimized DFA is as given in the following figure: Example 2 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. .

{ 6 } } is obtained. Next -. new = { { 3 } . { 2 . Thus the number of states of the given DFA is already minimum and it can not be reduced any further. { 6 } } is obtained. 2 . { 5 } . 4 . new = { { 3 } . 6 } } is obtained.Application of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Application of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Reactive system . { 2 } . then Submit. 4 } . 4 . Click True or Fals . 5 } . 6 } }. Applyting new_partition to this .Initially = { { 3 } . { 5 } . { 3 } . 5 . { 1 . new = { { 1 } . { 2 } . Applyting new_partition again. { 1 . { 1 . By applying new_partition to this . { 4 } . Test Your Understanding of Minimization of DFA Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.

first the states the system goes in or the modes of its operation are identified. These become the states of the finite automaton that models it. Then the transitions between the states triggered by events and conditions. It is generally agreed that finite automata are a natural medium to describe dynamic behaviors of reactive systems. are identified and they become arcs in the transition diagram of the finite automaton. For example consider the following very simplified version of login process to a computer from the computer point of view. computer network communication protocols. lexical analysers for compilers etc. Finite automata are formal and rigorous and computer programs can be easily written to simulate their behaviors. A reactive system is a system that changes its actions. A system such as an adder is called a transformational system. The inputs for a reactive system are never ready unlike for example when two numbers are added together by an adder (Here we are considering an adder at a higher level of abstraction than physical devices level ignoring for example the transient states of the electronic circuit that realizes an adder). a system must respond to each stimulus. In addition actions that may take place in those states can also be added to the model. To model a reactive system with finite automaton. Let us assume for simplicity that this computer accepts a single user at a time. An adder does not respond unless the input i. Many of those systems fall into the class of systems called reactive system. Many other systems operating in practice can also be modeled by finite automata such as control circuits of computers. even to a fragment of input such as each coin tossed in for a can of soda or every message received. external or internal to the system. on the other hand. It is an event driven or control driven system continuously having to react to external and/or internal stimuli. two numbers to be added are ready.• Modeling reactive systems with FA Contents We have seen an example of use of finite automata in describing the operation of a simplified version of vending machine.e. In the case of vending machine or communication protocol. . outputs and conditions/status in response to stimuli from within or outside it.

When a name is typed in. That is another state though it could further be broken down into a number of more states. But let us make it simple. then it informs the user of that and waits for the next try. If a negative ACK is received. When a RFNM starts coming. goes back to the initial state and waits for another login. Again what we have seen is a model for one level of abstraction. This is one state of the system. it goes to the initial state and starts all over again. which is another state. sending ACK. receiving RFNM. different states would be identified and transitions would have to be selected accrdingly. it checks whether or not the name is valid. When it is complete.Initially the computer waits for a user name to be typed in. Again it is a very simplified version. Upon completion of the RFNM. If the password typed in is incorrect. it goes into the state of receiving it (Our interpretation is that the computer is in a state of receiving an RFNM and it is taking the action of receiving the RFNM) . different states and transitions would have to be chosen. The next example is a protocol for a computer to follow in communicating with another computer. If the user name typed in is not valid. After sending the ACK. it resends the message. If a positive ACK is received. it starts sending the requested message to the other party. When a password is typed in and it is correct. Depending on how much detail we are interested in. it goes back to the initial state and waits for another RFNM to come. it sends "Acknowledgement" (ACK) to the other computer. it goes into another wait state waiting for an ACK to come from the other computer. it gets a signal. then it accepts the user and starts a session. then it asks for and then waits for the password. If the second password fails. sending message and waiting for ACK. If it is valid. which is another state. it goes back to the initial state. That is a fourth state. Again depending on the level of abstraction. When the session terminates. . Initially the computer is in wait state waiting for "Request for Next Message" (RFNM) to come from another computer. Thus a finite automaton that models this protocol has the following five states: initial state (wait for RFNM). We could make it go to a different state and count the number of login attempts for security purpose.

This system can be modeled by the following finite automaton: . followed by a possible decimal point. If a decimal point is received before a digit. denote it by D.d+ ). +213.1.e. On the other hand if a digit has been read before a decimal point.378. If the first symbol is a sign. regardless of whether a sign has been read or not. denote it by G. This system can also be described by a regular expression. that indicates a digit has been read before a decimal point. . then it must receive at least one digit after that. If a decimal point has been read (i. then it goes to state P indicating that a decimal point has been read. followed by zero or more digits. then it can continue receiving digits and stay in D. .Our third example is a system that recognizes numbers with or without a sign such as 5. Since these numbers are represented by strings consisting of a possible sign.e. One such system initially waits for the first symbol to come in.represent the positive and negative signs. D is another accepting state. Therefore from state P it goes to another state. If a decimal point is read while in D. it goes into a state. If the first digit is received before a decimal point. After one digit it can continue receiving digits.8 etc. that indicates that a decimal point has been read.+ ) ( d+. where s+ and s. then it goes into a state. that indicates that a sign has been received. i. it is in state D. 9 } ..d+ + d+ + . then it goes into a state. followed by one or more digits.2. This Q is an accepting state. denote it by P. . after reading a digit and stays there as long as digits are read. -15. denote it by Q. in state P). they can be represented by the following regular expression: ( s+ + s. respectively and d {0.

0 and TOKEN [index] input ) index := index + 1. It uses four arrays. One such simulation algorithm is given below. keeps the index of the first symbol in the TOKEN array for each state. Another array. while ( TOKEN [index] . we can use a general purpose program to simulate its operation. Those indices are used to access the contents of the other arrays. called TOKEN. input := read_input( ) . called NEXT_STATE. Algorithm FA Simulator state := INITIAL_STATE.Simulation of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Simulation of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Simulation of FA Contents Once a finite automaton is constructed. called STATEX.Next -. while ( state NO_of_STATES and not End of Input ) index := STATEX [state] . holds the next state for each input symbol for each state. One array. called ACTION. indicates the actions taken at each state and a fourth. A third array. stores for each state the input symbols that trigger transitions from the state.

empty transitions) are omitted. S corresponds to 1. B.45. end Here 0 in the TOKEN array is a marker between states. The numbers below NEXT_STATE array show the correspondence between the indices of the STATEX array and the states A. S is the initial state and B and H are accepting states. So no action is taken as a number is processed. Tab 4 Tab 5. first click the box under the red arrow. You must hit the "Tab" key to move to the next box. To see how this algorithm works. . At the moment it is empty. The ACTION array would contain pointers to actions to be taken corresponding to arcs traversed such as converting a digit in BCD form to the corresponding binary number. For example. In the DFA below all the transitions to the empty state (i. else error input := read_input( ) . state := NEXT_STATE [index]. C and H. to input 3. Then every time you click "SHOW" the number is processed digit by digit. Then type in a number you want the FA to recognize. first click the box pointed by the red arrow in the figure below.if ( TOKEN [index] 0) perform the action specified by ACTION [index]. Then type 3 Tab . The corresponding transitions are going to be shown by red arrows in the transition diagram.e.

.If you are also interested in how code is executed. So be patient. click here It is extremely slow.

a finite automaton must remember how many a's it has read when it starts reading b's. however. There are. Non-regularity test based on Myhill-Nerode's theorem Indistinguishability of strings: Strings x and y in * are indistinguishable with respect to a language L if and only if for every string z in *. Thus it must be in different states when it has read different number of a's and starts reading the first b. where n is a positive integer. But any finite automaton has only finite number of states. their properties and their usefulness for describing various systems. For example. The main idea behind these test methods is that finite automata have only finite amount of memory in the form of states and that they can not distinguish infinitely many strings. In this section we are going to study some of the methods for testing given languages for regularity and see some of the languages that are not regular. because aak and aaak are in the language an for any . either xz and yz are both in L or they are both not in L.Nerode Theorem for non-regularity test Pumping Lemma Contents We have learned regular languages. For example to recognize the language { anbn | n is a natural number} . Thus there is no way for a finite automaton to remember how many a's it has read for all possible strings anbn . languages that are not regular and therefore require devices other than finite automata to recognize them. This is the basis of two of the regularity test methods we are going to study below: Myhill-Nerode Theorem and Pumping Lemma. we can conclude that { anbn | n is a natural number} is not regular. a and aa are indistinguishable with respect to the language an over alphabet { a }.Next -. That is the main limitation of finite automata.Non-Regular Languages Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Regular Languages Non-Regular Languages Subjects to be Learned • • • Existence of non-regular languages Myhill . Since a regular language must be recognized by a finite automaton.

Hence L1 is nonregular. Hence L2 is nonregular. where k and m are positive integers and k m . It is stated without a proof. (x*y) . because ab is in the language anbn while aab is not in the language. a and aa are not indistinguishable (hence distinguishable). b } can be shown to be nonregular using Myhill-Nerode as follows: Consider the set of strings S1 = { an | n is a positive integer } . Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } over alphabet { a . whose strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L. S1 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. Example 2: L2 = { ww | w {a. that is. For example. Consider the set of strings S3 = { (k x | k is a positive integer } . Consider the set of strings S2 which is the same as S1 of Example 1 above.positive integer k. b } and it is infinite. operations + and * and left and right parentheses. Inductive Clause: If and are in L3 . ( ( x + y ) * x ) and (( (x*y) + x ) + (y*y) ) are algebraic expressions. S2 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. x . Then akbm is not in L1 while ambm is in L1 . Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L2 . the following theorem by Myhill and Nerod gives a criterion for (non)regularity of a language. We are going to show that its strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L1. It can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L2 as follows. Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. Using this concept of indistinguishability. then ( + ) and ( * ) are in L3 . the set of strings consisting of one or more right parentheses followed by identifier x. b }* } is nonregular. where k and m are positive integers and k m . L3 can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: x and y are in L3 . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L3 unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. with respect to the language anbn . Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S2. This set is infinite . However. Theorem : A language L over alphabet is nonregular if and only if there is an infinite subset of * . Then akbakb is in L2 while ambakb is not in L2 . S1 is over alphabet { a . Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L1 . Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S1. Select bm as a string to be appended to ak and am . Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set S1. Select bakb as a string to be appended to ak and am . Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set. For more on Myhill-Nerode theorem click here.

Hence L3 is not regular. In general if a string w (such as abbabbb in the example above) is accepted by an NFA with n states and if its length is longer than n.and it can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 as follows: Let (k x and (m x be arbitrary two strings of S3 . Hence S3 is pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 . For example the string abbabbb is accepted by the NFA and if one of its substrings bba is repeated any number of times in abbabbb. abbabbabbabbb etc. Then (k x + [ + x ) ]k is in L3 but (m x + [ + x ) ]k is not in L3 because the number of ('s is not equal to the number of )'s in the latter string. where k and m are positive integers and k m . The following theorem which is called Pumping Lemma is based on this observation. abbabbabbb etc. the resultant strings such as abbb (bba repeated 0 times). Those strings which are accepted by this NFA and whose length is greater than 5 have a substring which can be repeated any number of times without being rejected by the NFA. abbabbabbb. Pumping Lemma Let us consider the NFA given below. It . For example [ + x ) ]3 is +x) +x)+x) . then there must be a cycle in the NFA along some path from the initial state to some accepting state (such as the cycle 2-3-4-2 in the above example). This NFA accepts among others some strings of length greater than 5 such as abbabbb. are also accepted by the NFA. Select [ + x ) ]k as a string to be appended to (k and (m . Then the substring representing that cycle (bba in the example) can be repeated any number of times within the string w without being rejected by the NFA.

Then uv2w = an-pa2pbn = an+pbn . Hence L is not a regular 0. Suppose that L is regular and let n be the number of states of an FA that accepts L. the language is not necessarily regular. Example 4: As an example to illustrate how Pumping Lemma might be used to prove that a language is nonregular. It can only show that a language is nonregular. even if there is an integer n that satisfies the conditions of Pumping Lemma. Consider a string x = anbn for that n. |uv| n |v| > 0 . This violates the condition that for every m language. uvmw L. It is stated without a proof here. Also since |uv| Let us now consider the string uvmw for m = 2. Then there is an FA that accepts L. Since |v| > 0 .states that if a language is regular. v has at least one symbol. Since p > 0 . v = ap. n. Note that Pumping Lemma gives a necessity for regular languages and that it is not a sufficiency. and for every m 0. Pumping Lemma : Suppose that a language L is regular. Hence an+pbn can not be in the L. v. Thus Pumping Lemma can not be used to prove the regularity of a language. where k is a natural number. that is. Then for any string x in L with |x| n. v and w which satisfy the following relationships: x = uvw |uv| n |v| > 0 and for every integer m 0. uvmw Test Your Understanding of Non-regularity . n + p language L represented by akbk . n . Let n be the number of states of that FA. for some p > 0 . there are strings u. let us prove that the language L = akbk is nonregular. uvmw L. Then there must be strings u. then any long enough string of the language has a substring which can be repeated any number of times with the resultant strings still in the language. and w such that x = uvw.

that is. This means that if x and y are read by an DFA that recognizes L. Also it is a corollary to Myhill-Nerode theorem: Let { be the followijg relation on }={ : For strings and of . Then the theorem is is staed as follows: Theorem: A language L over alphabet is regular if and only if the set of equivalence classes of is finite. say x and y. Next -. the DFA reaches different states. Then there is a string z such that xz is in L and yz is not in L (or xz is not in L and yz is in L). if and only if }.Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. If there are three strings that are distinguished with respect . Proof of Theorem Necessity Suppose that a language L is regular and two strings. are distinguishable with respect to L.Context-Free Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Myhill-Nerode Theorem The non-regularity test for languages by Myhill-Nerode is based on the following theorem which is in the contrapositive form of the theorem used for nonregularity test. then Submit. if and only if they are indistinguishable with respect to . Click True or Fals .

then the language L is regular. ) as follows: ]} ]. then ]'s. be the number of distinct equivalence classes (i. Hence if there are infinitely many strings to be distinguished with respect to L.. For. then the DFA must have infinitely many states. Let us now show that this machine is in fact a DFA and it accepts the language First. if and in [ ]. DFA ( = {[ =[ = {[ ( . To prove this.. are in different classes for and are distinguishable with respect to L.. ]. Note that "indistinguishable with respect to L" is an equivalence relation over the set of strings (denote it by ) and [x]'s are equivalence classes. Hence if there is an infinite set of strings which are pairwise distinguishable with respect to a language. Let . the index) of and let . ..e... let [x] denote a class of strings that are indistinguishable from a string x with respect to L. is in exactly one equivalence class. then the language is not regular. . note that for every string [ ]. Then we construct a . making them belong to different [ Hence is a function. if the number of classes of strings that are pairwise indistinguishable with respect to a language L is finite.. .to L. namely ] and ]. Sufficiency Conversely. .. [ ]=[ } ]. where [ ] =[ ] for all . be representatives of those distinct equivalence classes. We will show that a DFA that accepts L can be constructed using these equivalence classes.. ]. . [ . which it can not because a DFA must have a finite number of states. then the DFA reaches three different states after reading those three strings.

this means that the DFA accepts Myhill-Nerode Theorem Let us here state Myhill-Nerode Theorem. . With these terminology. if then for every . ] by the induction hypothesis. =[ ]. First some terminology. Our proof is by structural induction on string Basis Step: = =[ ]. let us show that this DFA accepts string in [ ] is also in L. . Hence Hence we have shown that for every string ]. For that. Hence =[ = . if a string in [ in ] is in . where ]. by the definition of = . . Myhill-Nerode Theorem can now be stated as follows: The following three statements are equivalent: (1) A language is regular. Also an equivalence relation is said to be of finite index. . An equivalence relation on is said to be right invariant if for every . where . Since . . = [ ]. Then by the definition of . by the definition of = . if the set of its equivalence classes is finite. first note that if . where ] is the equivalence class that belongs to. Inductive Step: Assume Then for every But =[ Hence =[ ]. for DFA. then every We then show that for every string . =[ ]. ]. .Next.

b } and P1 = { S -> aSb . Most programming languages can be approximated by context-free grammar and compilers for them have been developed based on properties of context-free languages. S . S . Let us define context-free grammars and context-free languages here. P > is a context-free V is V. grammar (CFG) if V and . Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } is a context-free language. Definition (Context-Free Grammar) : A 4-tuple G = < V . where X the start symbol. are finite sets sharing no elements between them. The set of strings generated by a context-free grammar is called a context-free language and context-free languages can describe many practically important systems. S -> ab }. A language is a context-free language (CFL) if all of its strings are generated by a context-free grammar.(2) L is the union of some of the equivalence classes of a right invariant equivalent relation of finite index. S . Context-Free Languages Context-Free Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Context-Free Grammar Context-Free Languages Push Down Automata Contents Earlier in the discussion of grammars we saw context-free grammars. They are grammars whose productions have the form X -> . For the following context-free grammar G1 = < V1 . = { a . P1 > generates L1 : V1 = { S } . and P is a finite set of productions of the form X -> and (V )* . (3) is of finite index. . Proofs are omitted. . where X is a nonterminal and is a nonempty string of terminals and nonterminals.

For L1* . < if-statement > -> if ( < expression > ) < statement > . < expression > -> < algebraic-expression > . S -> aa . . . Then let Ps = P1 { Ss -> SsS1 . . < expression > -> < logicalexpression > . . S2 . . . Pc > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1L2 . Properties of Context-Free Language Theorem 1: Let L1 and L2 be context-free languages. first relabel symbols of V2 . . . b } and P2 = { S -> aSa . . + . * } and P3 = { S -> ( S + S ) . Pu > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1 L2 . < statement > -> < assignment > .Example 2: L2 = { wwr| w {a. Then for L1 L2 . S . ( . . . P2 > generates L2 : V2 = { S } . P1 > and G2 = < V2 . L1L2 . if necessary. P3 > generates L3 : V3 = { S } . Then it can be easily seen that Gu = < Vu . For the following context-free grammar G2 = < V2 . Similarly for L1L2 . Su -> S2 } . Then let Su be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . < forstatement > -> for ( < expression > . < statement > -> < for-statement > . Example 4: Portions of the syntaxes of programming languages can be described by context-free grammars. let Ss be a symbol which is not in V1 . S -> S*S . < expression > ) < statement > . Ss -> L2 . Next define Vu = V1 V2 { Su } and Pu = P1 P2 { Su -> S1 . } . Sc . where w is a nonempty string and wr denotes the reversal of string w. . w is spelled backward to obtain wr . S1 . For example { < statement > -> < if-statement > . first relabel symbols of V2 . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. S -> y }. . Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. respectively. P2 > be context-free grammars generating L1 and L2 . Then L1 context-free languages. concatenation and Kleene star of context-free grammars as follows: Let G1 = < V1 . For the following context-free grammar G3 = < V3 . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. and L1* are . b }+ } is a context-free language . S -> bSb . 3. S -> bb }. Su . operations + and * and left and right parentheses. y . that is. Next define Vc = V1 V2 { Sc } and Pc = P1 P2 { Sc -> S1S2 } . Then L3 is a context-free language. Outline of Proof This theorem can be verified by constructing context-free grammars for union. . < expression > . 3 = { x . S -> x . S . ) . Then let Sc be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . Then it can be easily seen that Gc = < Vc . if necessary. = { a . . .

context-free languages are also accepted by automata but not finite automata. Z0 . Let us define this new type of automaton formally. Any string of this language can be tested for the membership for the language by a finite automaton if there is a memory such as a pushdown stack that can store a's of a given input string. where Q = { q0 . When all the symbols of the input string are read. > . . Second. For example. reject the string. the contents of the stack can also be changed every time an input symbol is read. . but also by the symbol at the top of the stack. where Q is a finite set of states. This automaton behaves like a finite automaton except the following two points: First. q0 . A pushdown automaton ( or PDA for short ) is a 7-tuple M = < Q . Ps > is a context-free grammar that Like regular languages which are accepted by finite automata. A . generates the language L1* . respectively ). Example 1 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . accept the string. check the stack. Otherwise reject it. .} . As soon as the symbol b appears stop storing a's and start popping a's one by one every time a b is read. . If it is empty. a . A is the set of accepting states is the transition function and :Q ( ( } -> 2 Q * . q0 is the initial state. It can be seen that the grammar Gs = < Vs . and are finite sets ( the input and stack alphabet. . A . its next state is determined not only by the input symbol being read. If another a (or anything other than b) is read after the first b. push them into the stack. Let us consider a context-free language anbn . as a's are read by the finite automaton. ) means the following: The automaton moves from the current state of p to the next state q when it sees an input symbol a at the input and X at the top of the stack. Z0 . Z0 is the initial stack symbol and it is a member of . X ) = ( q . Pushdown Automata . and it replaces X with the string at the top of the stack. > . They need a little more complex automata called pushdown automata. Ss . Thus ( p . Thus its transition function specifies the new top of the stack contents as well as the next state. q0 .

y. we can also write ( q0 . A . aZ0 ) ( q1 . A configuration of a PDA M = < Q . abb . After reading the second a. abb . b . x is the unread portion of the input string and is the current stack contents. ( q0 . aabb . b . q2 } . it is ( q0 . following table: = { a . ) ( q1 . aaZ0 ).y. Z0 ) This pushdown automaton accepts the language anbn . aZ0 ). aa ) q0 q1 q1 b b a a Z0 ( q1 . To express that the PDA moves from configuration ( p . Z0 ). x . After reading the first a. where the input is read from left to right and the top of the stack corresponds to the leftmost symbol of . . x . aZ0 ) ( q0 . If ( q . y . To describe the operation of a PDA we are going to use a configuration of PDA. When the second b is read. aaZ0 ) ( q1 . where q is the state the PDA is currently in. b . Next it moves to the state q2 which is the accepting state. q0 . Let us now see how the PDA of Example 1 operates when it is given the string aabb . * (q. ) to configuration ( q . bb . = { a . bb . aZ 0 ) q0 a a ( q0 . Z0 ) * ( q2 . Z0 .q1 . x . we write ) is reached from ( p . Initially its configuration is ( q0 . ) by a sequence of zero or more moves. (p. another a is popped from the top of the stack and the PDA stays in state q1 . > is a triple ( q . y . Z0 ) . ). b } . Z0 ). it moves to state q1 and pops a from the top of the stack. Thus aabb is accepted by this PDA. . aabb . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . . ) ( q2 .x. Thus the configuration is ( q1 . . Z0 ) ( If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. ) in a single move (a single application of the transition function) we write (p. aZ0 ). . Z0 } . aabb . Z0 ). . its configuration is ( q0 . Z0 ) q2 . Then when the first b is read. ) ) (q. for example. ) . ). A = { q2 } and let be as given in the State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . This entire process can be expressed using the configurations as ( q0 . .x.

For example the transition diagram of the PDA of Example 1 is as shown below. q0 . b . b . > . ) . * (q. ). A = { q2 } and let be as given in the following table: State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . a . . for some in *. = { a . bZ 0 ) q0 q0 q0 q1 q1 q1 a b c a b a b Z0 ( q0 . b ( q1 . . = { a . ( q1 . For PDAs. ) ( q2 . X ) = ( p . A . Like FAs.a. where Q = { q0 . . If ( q . c } . x. then an arc from state p to state q is added to the diagram and it is labeled with ( a . ) ) ) ) ( q1 . Z0 } . PDAs can also be represented by transition diagrams. however. a ( q0 . Z0 . Z0) .A string x is accepted by a PDA (a. aZ 0 ) q0 b Z0 ( q0 . q2 } . arcs are labeled differently than FAs. Example 2 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . q1 . and an accepting state q. X / ) indicating that X at the top of the stack is replaced by upon reading a from the input. acceptance by final state) if (q0.k. Z 0 ) In this table represents either a or b.

it goes through the following configurations and accepts it. it ignores c and from that point on if the top of the stack matches the input symbol. ( q0 . . it accepts the input string. 1 Further topics on CFL • PDA and Context-Free Language There is a procedure to construct a PDA that accepts the language generated by a given context-free grammar and conversely. Z 0 ) ( q2 . bba . ba . cbba . aZ0 ) ( q1 . which is the set of palindromes with c in the middle. Z0 ) ( q0 . In the figure and 2 represent a or b. bbcbba . ( q0 . a . For example for the input abbcbba. bbaZ0 ) . This PDA pushes all the a's and b's in the input into stack until c is encountered. baZ0 ) ( q1 . When there are no more unread input symbols and Z0 is at the top of the stack. it pops the stack. The transition diagram of the PDA of Example 2 is as shown below. Z 0 ) . baZ0 ) ( q1 . . bcbba .This pushdown automaton accepts the language { wcwr | w { a . That means that a language is . Otherwise it rejects the input string. When c is detected. abbcbba . aZ0 ) ( q0 . b }* } . bbaZ0 ) ( q1 .

then add the result to x. compute yz first. However. native English speakers know that it is the dog that bites and not the other way round. we are not going to study parsing here. Then there is a positive integer n such that for any string u in L with |u| n . a verb phrase usually follow the noun phrase and the first word in the verb phrase is the verb and it is followed by noun phrases reprtesenting object(s) of the verb. a computer like non-English speaking people must be told how to interpret sentences such as the first noun phrase (" A dog") is usually the subject of a sentence. w. Similar things happen when English sentences are processed by computers (or people as well for that matter). Interested readers are referred to the textbook and other sources. They can describe much of programming languages and basic structures of natural languages. then multiply the result by z. Those procedures are omitted here.e. it does not know which interpretation to use unless it is explicitly instructed to follow one or the other. it could also be interpreted as ( x + y )z meaning that first compute x + y. Thus if a computer is given the string x + yz. Parsing is the process of interpreting given input strings according to predetermined rules i.context-free if and only if there is a PDA that accepts it. there are strings v. By parsing sentences we identify the parts of the sentences and determine the strutures of the sentences so that their meanings can be understood correctly. vwmxymz L for every integer m • Parsing and Parsers for CFL Consider the algebraic expression x + yz. Thus they are widely used for compilers for high level programming languages and natural language processing systems. • Pumping Lemma for Context-Free Language Let L be a CFL. For example in the sentence "A man bites a dog". "bites" is the verb and "a man" is the object of the verb. ???? references on Parsing ???? . Though we are accustomed to interpreting this as x + (yz) i. Contect-free grammars are powerful grammars. The parsing for context-free languages and regular languages have been extensively studied.e. "A dog" is the subject. productions of grammars. However. x. y and z which satisfy u = vwxyz |wy| > 0 |wxy| n 0 .

of limited capability and there are many languages that they can not process. They are. Turing machines were conceived of by the English mathematician Alan . Next -. then Submit. however. the phrase structure languages (also called Type 0 languages). In this chapter we are going to study the most general of the languages in Chomsky hierarchy.Test Your Understanding of Contect-Free Language Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.Turing Machines Back to Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • • • Definition of Turing Machine Configuration Operation of Turing Machine Contents Introduction We have studied two types of languages from the Chomsky hierarchy: regular languages and context-free languages. and the machines that can process them: Turing machines. These languages can describe many practically important systems and so they are heavily used in practice. Click True or Fals .

like finite automata. However. . It then moves the head to left or right or does not move it and goes to the next state which may be the same as the current state. Definition Conceptually a Turing machine. One of its states is the halt state and when the Turing machine goes into the halt state. This conjecture is known as Church's thesis and today it is generally accepted as true. It is also divided into squares and a symbol can be written in each square. At any state it reads the symbol under the head.Turing as a model of human "computation". unlike finite automata. a Turing machine starts at the initial state. either erases it or replaces it with a symbol (possibly the same symbol). it stops its operation. Given a string of symbols on the tape. The tape has the left end but it extends infinitely to the right. Computers we use today are as powerful as Turing machines except that computers have finite memory while Turing machines have infinite memory. Later Alonzo Church conjectured that any computation done by humans or computers can be carried out by some Turing machine. We are going to study Turing machines here and through that limitations of computers and computation as we know today. its head is a read-write head and it can move left. right or stay at the same square after a read or write. At any time it is in one of the finite number of states. consists of a finite control and a tape.

is a finite set of symbols and it is the input alphabet. where D represents R. . q0. The states are represented by vertices and for a transition ( q. a . . > accepts the language aba* . where Q1 = { q0. left and do not move it. A transition diagram can also be drawn for a Turing machine. is a finite set of symbols containing as its subset and it is the set of tape symbols. Example 1 : The following Turing machine < Q1 . q0 . L and S denote move the head right. S}. X ) = ( r. a . is the transition function but its value may not be defined for certain points. respectively. where Q is a finite set of states. = { a . It is assumed that the tape has at the left end and the head is initially at the left end of the tape. Here denotes the blank and R. Y. = { a . b } . D ) . q3 } . q1. . State (q) Input (X) Move ( q0 q1 q2 q3 q3 a b a (q. L or S .Formally a Turing machine is a 5-tuple T = < Q. q0 is the initial state.L. R ) ( q3 . b . . . D ) indicating that the state is changed from q to r. R ) ( q2 . . R ) (h. It is a mapping from Q ( { } ) to ( Q { h } ) ( { }) {R. X) ) ( q1 . The symbol h is used to denote the halt state. . the symbol X currently being read is changed to Y and the tape head is moved as directed by D. R ) ( q3 . an arc from q to r is drawn with label ( X/Y . > . q2. which is assumed not to contain the symbol h. b } and is as given by the table below.S) A transition diagram of this Turing machine is given below.

For example the Turing machine of Example 1 above goes through the following sequence of configurations to accept the string aba: ( q0 . and ( p . For example ( q . aababb ) shows that the Turing machine is currently in state q. ( q0 . . xay ) * ( q . In this case we also say that the Turing machine halts on input x. If the Turing machine needs to be explicitly indicated T or T* is used. xay ) ( q . zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in zero or more moves. aba ) ( q3 . > if x ) * ( h. aba ) . A Turing machine T is said to decide a language L if and only if T writes "yes" and halts if a string is in L and T writes "no" and halts if a string is not in L. zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in one move. The set of strings accepted by a Turing machine is the language accepted by the Turing machine. yaz ) for some symbol a { } and some strings y and z in ( * { } ) .Turing Machine that accepts aba* To describe the operation of Turing machine we use configuration. . aba ) ( q2 . A configuration for a Turing machine is an ordered pair of the current state and the tape contents with the symbol currently under the head marked with underscore. A string x is said to be accepted by a Turing machine* T = < Q . aba ) (h. the taper contents are the string aababb and the head is reading the last a of the string. Note that the Turing machine does not stop if a string is not in the language. We write ( p . aba ) ( q1 . q0 .

the second is a Turing machine that accepts { a } but goes into a loop if a string is not in the language (hence it accepts but doe not decide { a }) and the third decides { a }. where = { a }.The first of the following figures shows a Turing machine that accepts but does not decide the language { a }. .

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. It is assumed that initially the tape has at the left end. This Turing machine is denoted by TE.Example 2 : The following Turing machine moves the head to the first the current position. to the right of Example 3 : The following Turing machine erases the string on the tape and moves the head to the left end. It is denoted by TR .

For example the following Turing machine accepts the language a+.Strings not Accepted by Turing Machines When a string is not accepted by a Turing machine. but it goes into an infinite loop for any strings that are not in the language. . (2) no transition is specified for the current configuration and (3) the head is at the left end and it is instructed to move left. In cases (2) and (3). that is when a Turing machine does not halt on a string. the operation of the Turing machine is aborted. one of the following three things happens: (1) The Turing machine goes into an infinite loop.

Turing machine accepting a+ Computabler Function Let S * and let f be a function f : S -> S. As far as the material discussed in this class note. f(x) ) * . * and for every x that is not in S. * Note on "Turing-acceptable": Some books define "acceptance by Turing machine" slightly differently. T does not halt on x. or loop. With this definition. That is. x) * ( h. there are two halt states: "accept halt" and "reject halt". reject a string and halt. in the Turing machines those books define. A Turing machine thus may accept a string and halt. there is no difference between these two definitions of "accept". . the Turing machine eventually goes into the accept halt state. Then we say T computes f or f is computable if for every x ( q0 . a string is accepted by a Turing machine if given the string. A language is a phrase structure (type 0) langauage if and only if it is Turing-acceptable in either sense and it has no effects on decidablility.

Click True or Fals . One can construct many more Turing machines that perform various functions. It moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) . Next -.Combination of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Combination of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Combination of Turing Machines Contents Combination of Turing Machines We have seen the definition of Turing machine and a few simple examples. Furthermore according to the Church's thesis. We have already seen TR . then Submit. In fact Turing machines that simulate computers and Turing machines that perform computations done by any algorithm can be constructed. any "computation" done by human beings or machines can be done by some Turing machine. Let us start with some basic Turing machines. Here we are going to study how complex Turing machines can be constructed using simple Turing machines and how computers can be simulated by Turing machines.Test Your Understanding of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. There are two sets of questions.

Also by TR and TL we denote Turing machines that move the head to right and left one position. Example 4: The following machine shifts the tape contents to the left one position. To combine Turing machines we use the following conventions: Let T1 and T2 represent arbitrary Turing machines. takes the head to the right end of the string and halts. The halt state of T1 becomes the initial state of T2 . T1T2 and T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that behaves initially like T1 and when T1 halts T2 takes over inheriting the head position and the tape contents of T1 . T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that first executes T1. let us construct a little more complex Turing machines. respectively. Using these basic machines and the convention. Similarly by TL we denote a Turing machine that moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) to the left of the current position. then T2 is started as in the case of T1T2 . Then if T1 halts and if the symbol currently under the head is . Below is assumed to be at the left end of the tape initially.to the right of the current position. Then by T we denote a Turing machine that writes symbol at the current position and does not move the head (stays). . Otherwise it crashes.

IIIII ) . To add two numbers m and n. After the addition the configuration becomes ( h . . First. x x). II III ) . So the initial configuration for adding 2 and 3 is ( q0 . Example 6: The following Turing machine copies the tape contents at the left end to their right separated by a blank . m I's and n I's with a blank between them are placed on the tape. After adding two numbers placed on the tape it moves the head to the left end and halts. For example the number 3 is represented by three consecutive I's on the tape and 5 by five I's. An adder can be constructed for example as TR -> TSL TL . it goes through the following -> aab -> a -> a -> abb -> ab -> ab -> ab Example 5: The left-shift machine of Example 4 can be used to construct an adder for natural numbers. In general to represent a natural number k.For example with the initial tape contents of sequence of tape contents and ends with ab ab -> ab : ab . x) * b b (h. natural numbers are represented on a Turing machine using symbol I. k consecutive I's are put on the tape. that is ( q0 .

the branch operation is already in Turing machines because next configurations are determined based on the current state and tape symbol being looked at. and store and load operations can be taken care of by a Turing machine that copies tape contents. one can say that computers can be simulated by Turing machines. it is not difficult to construct a Turing machine that performs subtraction using the same representation of numbers as for the addition. On the other hand as we have seen above. Thus by combining appropriate Turing machines a computer with a minimal instruction set can be constructed. then Submit. Since any complex computer instructions can be realized using those basic instructions. store and load operations. All the other operations can be realized by using those basic operations. branching. Furthermore if the subtraction operation is necessary. However. In fact many of the earlier computers had a much smaller instruction set but still could do everything today's computers can do albeit much more slowly. there is a Turing machine that performs addition. Test Your Understanding of Combination of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.Today's computers are very complex machines and their instruction sets contain complicated operations. Click True or Fals . A bare minimum instruction set would contain addition. all of those instructions can be realized using combinations of a small number of basic instructions. The following notations are used in the questions: .

one read-write head and one two dimensional tape. It turns out that computationally all these Turing machines are equally powerful. For any Turing machine of this type there is a Turing machine with a one dimensional tape that is equally powerful. ones with two dimensional tapes. Turing Machines with Two Dimensional Tapes This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control. However. That is. ones having one tape but with multiple heads. the former can be simulated by the latter. what one type can compute any other can also compute. that is. nondeterministic Turing machines etc. It is divided into rows of small squares. The tape has the top end and the left end but extends indefinitely to the right and down. may vary. first we map the squares of the two dimensional tape to those of the one dimensional tape diagonally as shown in .Types of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Types of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Variation of Turing Machine Contents There are a number of other types of Turing machines in addition to the one we have seen such as Turing machines with multiple tapes. how fast they can compute. To simulate a two dimensional tape with a one dimensional tape. the efficiency of computation. that is.T_a : Ta T_R : TR ->^b : ->b Next -.

. . h and v are symbols which are not in the tape alphabet and they are used to mark the left and the top end of the tape. .. then for the one dimensional tape. .. the head moves from position 8 to right. .. . One Dimensional Tape v 1 v 2 3 h 4 5 6 v 7 8 9 10 h 11 . If v was hit first... .... respectively.. suppose that the head position is at 8 for the two dimensional tape in the above table.. . . . If the head moves down to position 13... That is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 13 on the two dimensional tape.. Let us simulate this head move with a one dimensional tape. Then it meets h first.. then from h move the head of the one dimensional tape further right to the k-th square from h.. .. .... . . ... .....> . v 6 8 13 19 23 . . move 3 positions to the right... That is the square corresponding to the square below i in the two dimensional tape. If h was hit first.. which is the second square from i = 5... Let i be the head position of the two dimensional tape.... then (k+1)-th square to the right from v is the new head position.. . .. . . then move the head of the one dimensional tape to right until it hits h or v counting the number of squares it has visited after i.... . v 16 26 . If the head moves down from i.< ... For example..... v 7 14 18 24 . down... Here the numbers indicate the correspondence of squares in the two tapes: square i of the two dimensional tape is mapped to square i of the one dimensional tape. then on the one dimensional tape the head moves to the right and it hits v first.. If i = 5 and the head moves down on the other hand. .. .the following tables: Two Dimensional Tape v v h 1 h 3 h 4 h 10 h 11 h 21 . .. .. .... v 2 5 9 12 20 22 . ... . left or right. which is the third square from 8... . Thus from h.. Let k be the number of squares visited by the head of the one dimensional tape... . The head of a two dimensional tape moves one square up.. .. v 15 17 25 ... Thus this time the third square is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 9 on the two dimensional tape. . that is i = 8..

A configuration for this kind of Turing machine must show the current state the machine is in and the state of each tape. . Since the converses are obviously true. . The transition function is a partial function : Q { H1 . q0.. > . . >. . ..L. Hn denote the tape heads. it can be said that they are equally powerful. . Nondeterministic Turing Machines . where H1 .. right or left on the two dimensional tape. It can be proven that any language accepted by an n-tape Turing machine can be accepted by a one tape Turing machine and that any function computed by an n-tape Turing machine can be computed by a one tape Turing machine. Hn } ( { } ) -> ( Q }.Similarly formulas can be found for the head position on the one dimensional tape corresponding to move up.S It can be easily seen that this type of Turing machines are as powerful as one tape Turing machines. Since Turing machines with a two dimensional tape obviously can simulate Turing machines with a one dimensional tape. H2 .. Its transition function is a partial function :Q ( { } )n -> ( Q { h } ) ( { } )n { R . H2 . one can say that one tape Turing machines are as powerful as n-tape Turing machines. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . Thus some Turing machines with a one dimensional tape can simulate every move of a Turing machine with one two dimensional tape. Details are omitted. S } n . q0. Turing Machines with Infinite Tape : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape which extends infinitely in both directions. {h}) ( { } {R. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . Hence they are at least as powerful as Turing machines with a two dimensional tape. Turing Machines with Multiple Tapes : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and more than one tapes each with its own read-write head. It turns out that this type of Turing machines are only as powerful as one tape Turing machines whose tape has a left end. In each state only one of the heads is allowed to read and write. Turing Machines with Multiple Heads : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape but more than one read-write heads. L .

. For example consider the following nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts a+ . on the other hand.S}. Theorem Any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by some deterministic Turing machine. They form level 1. Even in the same situation it may take different actions at different times. The set of all possible computations that TN can perform for a given string x can be represented by a rooted tree as follows. Given a string x . can not guess the midpoint of the string x. As in the case of NFA.. that is the place where the second half of x starts. . Note that the number of children for a vertex in this tree is finite because the number of states is finite and there are a finite number of tape symbols. tape symbol and head movement out of the set of triples without following any specific predetermined rule. The root of the tree is the initial configuration and it is the only vertex of level 0. TN starts at the initial configuration and goes through a sequence of configurations until it reaches a halt configuration . Here an action means the combination of writing a symbol on the tape. For example let us consider the language L = { ww : w { a . Proof : Let TN denote a nondeterministic Turing machine. Formally a nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine whose transition function takes values that are subsets of ( Q {h}) ( { } {R.A nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine which. . goes into an infinite loop or aborts. moving the tape head and going to a next state.L. b }* } . It can be shown that a nondeterministic Turing machine is only as powerful as a deterministic Turing machine. Then it would compare the first half of x with the second half by comparing the i-th symbol of the first half with the i-th symbol of the second half for i = 1. At any point in the process TN is in some configuration and has a finite set of configurations to choose from for its next configuration. can take any action selecting from a set of specified actions rather than taking one definite predetermined action. It must find the midpoint by for example pairing off symbols from either end of x. it is understood that a nondeterministic Turing machine at any configuration selects one combination of next state. at any state it is in and for the tape symbol it is reading. Given a string x. a nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts this language L would first guess the midpoint of x. In general for each vertex of level i all possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN are its children. All possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN once form the children of the initial configuration. 2. The children of all the vertices of level i form level i+1. . like nondeterministic finite automata. A deterministic Turing machine.

At the second and third configurations in the above sequence. aa ) for the third. aa ) and ( q2 . The tree for this case would be as follows: . it would proceed as follows to accept it: ( q0 . aa ) ( q2 . aa ) ( h .Turing machine accepting a+ Given the string aa. aa ) . aa ) for the second. aa ) ( q1 . and ( q1 . aa ) and ( q2 . it has two candidates for the next configuration: ( q1 . aa ) ( q1 .

Click True or Fals . In fact the Church's thesis conjectures that any so called computation done by humans or computers can be performed by a basic deterministic Turing machine. These children are the configurations of the next level and they are stored on the tape (if necessary a second tape may be used). T2 applies the transition function of T1 to each configuration at that level and computes its children. it has been shown that none of them exceed the capability of basic deterministic Turing machine as far as accepting languages is concerned. then Submit. It can be easily seen that T2 accepts a string if and only if T1 accepts it. then T2 accepts the string and halts. However. call it T1. Next -. If there is the halting state among these children. with a deterministic one. At each level of the tree. Test Your Understanding of Different Types of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Many other variations of Turing machine are possible. Thus any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by a deterministic Turing machine. call it T2.One way to simulate a nondeterministic Turing machine.Unsolvable Problems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Unsolvable Problems . is to traverse this tree breadth-first way from the root until the halt state is reached. though a deterministic Turing machine might take much more time than a nondeterministic Turing machine to accept a string.

Below we are going to see some well known unsolvable problems and see why we can say they are unsolvable. Then there is a Turing machine T that solves the halting problem. Minsky): This is going to be proven by "proof by contradiction". that is computationally they are equally powerful. Theorem 1 : The halting problem is undecidable. given a description of a Turing machine M (over the alphabet ) and a string w. That is. and an arbitrary string w over . b } . It asks the following question: Given an arbitrary Turing machine M over alphabet = { a . the question of whether or not a string is in the language may not be answered in any finite amount of time. Proof (by M. the question is unanswerable that is the problem is unsolvable. So we are going to look at the unsolvability in terms of language recognition. It is also conjectured that any "computation" human beings perform can be done by Turing machines (Church's thesis). and that any of their variations do not exceed the computational power of deterministic Turing machines. Here "unsolvability" is in the following sense. does M halt when it is given w as an input ? It can be shown that the halting problem is not decidable. there is no way of telling whether it is in an infinite loop or along the way to a solution and it needs more time. Since we can not wait forever for an answer. First recall that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language (see Problem Solving as Language Recognition).Subjects to be Learned • • • Halting Problem Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents We have learned that deterministic Turing machines are capable of doing any computation that computers can do. Suppose that a language is acceptable but not decidable. Then given a string a Turing machine that accept the language starts the computation. hence unsolvable. Halting Problem One of well known unsolvable problems is the halting problem. . if the Turing machine is running. T writes "yes" if M halts on w and "no" if M does not halt on w. In this chapter we are going to learn that there are problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers. At any point in time. Thus if a language is not decidable. Suppose that the halting problem is decidable. and then T halts. L.

then Tm goes into an infinite loop (Tm halts if the original T rejects a string and halts). copies it to obtain the string d(M)*d(M).We are now going to construct the following new Turing machine Tc. First we construct a Turing machine Tm by modifying T so that if T accepts a string and halts. . denoted by d(M). where * is a symbol that separates the two copies of d(M) and then supplies d(M)*d(M) to the Turing machine Tm . Next using Tm we are going to construct another Turing machine Tc as follows: Tc takes as input a description of a Turing machine M.

Thus Tc goes into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and it halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). This contradiction has been deduced from our assumption that there is a Turing machine that solves the halting problem. Program correctness and Halting Problem Note that for any computer program a Turing machine can be constructed that performs the task of the program. . Hence there is no Turing machine that solves the halting problem. This is a contradiction. When Tc gets the input d(Tc) . it makes a copy. Thus the modified T is given a description of Turing machine Tc and the string d(Tc). The way T was modified the modified T is going to go into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc).Let us now see what Tc does when a string describing Tc itself is given to it. Hence that assumption must be wrong. Thus one implication of the halting problem is that there can be no computer programs (Turing machines) that check whether or not any arbitrary computer program stops for a given input. constructs the string d(Tc)*d(Tc) and gives it to the modified T. Thus the question of whether or not a program halts for a given input is nothing but the halting problem.

Language NonSelfAccepting Let us first define two languages NSA1 and NSA2 as follows: . Click True or Fals . then Submit.Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. It is presented as a language and it can be shown that there are no Turing machines that accept the language.More Unsolvable Preoblems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines More Unsolvable Problems Subjects to be Learned • • Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents The next unsolvable problem is in a sense more difficult than the halting problem. Next -.

Hence a is in NSA2 . Proof: This is going to be proven by contradiction. Suppose there is a Turing machine. Then this w is a description of a Turing machine but it must be longer than one symbol. that accepts NonSelfAccepting. NSA1 is the set of strings that describe a Turing machine but that are not accepted by the Turing machine they describe. then w0 NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. w = d(T) for a Turing machine T and T does not accept NSA2 = { w | w { a. b }*. Knowing the unsolvability of the halting problem some other problems can be shown to be unsolvable. This is a contradiction. then w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. Thus neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. We are going to see that T0 neither accepts w0 nor rejects it. This means that there can not be any Turing machine that accepts the language NonSelfAccepting. It . Hence T0 can not accept w0 . b }*. Hence it is not accepted by T.NSA1 = { w | w w} { a. Theorem 2 There are no Turing machines that accept the language NonSelfAccepting. either w0 is in NonSelfAccepting or it isn't. call it T0. For let T be a Turing machine that accepts { a } and let w = d(T). Problem Accepts( ) The problem Accepts( ) asks whetehr or not a given Turing machine T accepts . (1) If T0 accepts w0. Hence w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting . where d(T) is a description of the Turing machine T. Then there is no Turing machine that can be described by the string a. NSA2 is the set of strings that do not describe any Turing machine. Since NonSelfAccepting is a language. w0 is in neither NSA1 nor NSA2 . For NSA2. Hence it is in SelfAccepting . Hence either T0 accepts w0 or rejects it. However. which is absurd. Certainly more symbols than a single a are needed to describe even the simplest Turing machine. Hence w is in NSA1 . Neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. by the definitions of NSA1 and NSA2. that is w0 is a description of the Turing machine T0 . let w = a. w d(T) for any Turing machine T } . Also T0 does not accept w0 . Let w0 = d( T0 ). Thus there can not be Turing machine T0 that accepts the language SelfAccepting . This is again a contradiction. (2) If T0 does not accept w0 . But w0 = d( T0 ) because that is how we selected w0 . Let us define the language NonSelfAccepting as NonSelfAccepting = NSA1 Then we can prove the following theorem: NSA2 . Hence by the definition of NSA1 . w0 is in NSA1 .

We are going to show that the halting problem becomes solvable using this A. This T halts on every string over if and only if T1 halts on . M solves the halting problem. Suppose that Accepts( ) is solvable. We are going to show that Accepts( ) can be solved using the solution to it. a Turing machine. Suppose that AcceptsEverything is solvable. Then there is a Turing machine that solves it. where Terase is a Turing machine that erases the input on the tape and halts. the halting problem can be solved. Consider a Turing machine T = TwT'. M writes the string d( T ) on the tape and let A take over.can be shown to be unsolvable. that solves the halting problem can be constructed as follows: Given a description d(T') of a Turing machine T' and a string w as inputs. this means that Accepts( ) is unsolvable. call it M. That is. where machine Tw is a Turing machine that writes w. a Turing machine. This T halts on if and only if T' halts on w. that solves Accepts( ) can be constructed as . Then M halts on d(T') and w if and only if T' halts on w. call it M. which is an instance of the halting problem. Using this T. Since the halting problem is unsolvable. Let A be a Turing machine that solves Accepts( ). Let A be a Turing machine that solves AcceptsEverything. Then consider the Turing machine T = TeraseT' . Problem AcceptsEverything The problem AcceptsEverything asks whether or not a given Turing machine T halts on every string over a given alphabet . Let T' be an instance of Accepts( ). Using this T. Thus if Accepts( ) is solvable. Using a similar idea the following problem can also be shown to be unsolvable. Let a Turing machine T' and a string w be an instance of the halting problem.

AcceptsNothing This problem asks whether or not a Turing machine accepts nothing. It can be shown to be unsolvable using AcceptsEverything. Equivalence This problem asks whether or not two Turing machines accept the same language. By similar arguments the following problems can be shown to be unsolvable. Other Unsolvable Problems Let G1 and G2 be context-free grammars and let L(G) denote the language generated by grammar G.shown below. Then the following problems are all unsolvable. Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) = ? finite ? infinite ? context-free ? Is L( G1 ) = L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) = * ? Is the complement of L( G1 ) context-free ? . Since Accepts( ) is unsolvable. it means that AcceptsEverything is unsolvable. It can be shown to be unsolvable using Accepts( ) .

No one can write computer programs that solve those problems and halt after a finite amount of time.Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. A problem is solvable if some Turing .Time Complexity of Problem Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Complexity Time Complexity Subjects to be Learned • • • • • Time Complexity of Problems Decision Tree Class NP Polynomial Time Transformation NP-Complete Problems Contents In the previous sections we have learned that some problems are unsolvable by Turing machines hence by computers. Next -. Click True or Fals . then Submit.

Presburger arithmetic is a logic that allows statements involving positive integers. as we are going to see below. variables taking positive integers as their values. where A is an algorithm and S is a statement. The problems that can not be solved with any polynomial time algorithm are called intractable problems . For more detailed review of this. But (P ^ ~P ) is always false. It is estimated by counting the largest possible number of key operations to be performed in terms of the input size. For many problems a day or even an hour would be too long. second order logic. For example. In logic there is a well known problem of "satisfiability". the addition operation +. This is a propositional logic with an extra construct (proposition) after(A. a heap sort needs O(n lg n) time. So it is certainly satisfiable. as well as all the connectives such as and. In this section we are going to study solvable problems and learn a hierarchy of solvable problems based on the computation time required to solve them. For example the satisfiability problem for Presburger arithmetic is double-exponential (2-fold exponentail). are propositions of PDL. that is it requires at least O( aan ) time to solve in the worst case. Even if it takes a million years to solve a problem.machine can solve it in finite time. The measure for computation time we use is the worst case time. in practice if it takes a million years. the equality symbol = and quantifiers and . problems that need k-exponential time algorithms. . They are all polynomial time algorithms. X [ if ~( X = 1 ). Before proceeding to predicate logic let us consider the following logic called propositional dynamic logic (PDL for short). ~Q )" and "if P then after( if P then Q else ~Q. The satisfiability problem becomes even harder when logic becomes more complex. So it is not satisfiable. the satisfiability problem for the propositional dynamic logic is proven to take exponential time to solve in the worst case. etc. where P is a propositional variable. Then there are problems that require double exponential ( e. Q )" . 22n ) time algorithms. a quick sort needs O(n2) time. For example "after( if P then Q else ~Q. Let us see some of those intractable problems. after(A. One can ask the same question for formulas of first order predicate logic. where P and Q are propositions. The satisfiability problem for PDL is known to take at least exponential time to solve in the worst case. For example a binary search takes O(lg n) time. it is as good (or bad) as unsolvable. There are also problems that must be solved at best by exponential time algorithms in the worst case. For example the formula ( P V ~P ) is always true. For example. They take much more time to execute than polynomial time algorithms. This is the problem of asking whether or not a given formula can take the value true for some values of its variables.g. then Y Z [ X = Y + Z ] ] is a proposition of Presburger arithmetic. However. They are both satisfiable. or etc. S) says that S is true after executing A. and there are problems that require algorithms with the worst case time worse than k-exponential time for any natural number k. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved by algorithms with the worst case time which is a polynomial in the problem size (polynomial time algorithms). O(f(x)) (big-oh) and other related subjects click here. where k is a natural number. S). Similarly ( P V Q ) is also satisfiable. it is still solvable. etc.

For the satisfiability problem of WS1S. Let us try to solve the following instances of this graph coloring problem: Given the following graph. the consensus is that they ca not be solved with polynomial time algorithms. if. Some of these decision problems are NP-complete problems. there are no K-fold exponential time algorithms to solve it for any number K.In Presburger arithmetic (minus addition operation). Now let us go back to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. in addition. First. For the problems of this class there are no known polynomial time algorithms for solving them nor are they known to be unsolvable with polynomial time algorithms. is it possible to color its vertices with three or less colors ? . This problem belongs to a peculiar class of problems called NP-Complete problems. At the moment. This problem is called "Graph Coloring" problem or more precisely "Vertex Color" problem. there are problems that are solved by answering with yes or no. For example. " Is it possible to assign colors to vertices of a given graph using a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned ? " etc. Let us here review nondeterministic Turing machines. Consider the problem of coloring vertices of a graph with a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned. the logic is called WS1S (Weak Second-order theory of 1 Successor). "Is it possible to schedule committee meetings without conflicts into a given number of time slots ? " . Such a problem (having no K-fold exponential time algorithms) is called nonelementary. however. Below we are going to characterize this class of problems. "Is a string w in the language a*b ? ". These problems are called decision problems. sets of integers and the predicate "belongs to" (an element X belongs to a set S) are allowed.

For the graphs of (a) and (b), you could find a solution very easily by inspection. You could see a right coloring as soon as you saw the graphs. However, you can most likely not tell how you arrived at your solutions. You probably don't have any algorithms you could use to solve them. You could somehow see the solutions. This is basically the idea of nondeterministic (Turing) machine. There is no fixed procedure which you can use repeatedly to solve instance after instance of this problem. But you can somehow solve them. Let us move on to a slightly more complex example of (c). For this graph to find a right coloring you could start with vertex 1 and assign color a. Then move on to vertex 2 and assign color b(it has to be something other than a ). Then go to vertex 3 and assign a third color, say c. Then at vertex 4 select color b and for vertex 5 use color a. In this process we make a decision as to what color to use for each vertex and when a decision is made for all the vertices we have a solution to the problem. This process applies to any decision problem. That is to solve a decision problem a number of smaller decisions are made one after another and as a result a solution to the problem is obtained. This process can be represented by a tree called decision tree. For example, for the graph coloring problem let us first decide on the order of vertices we color in, say 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for the graph of (c) above. Then the root of its decision tree corresponds to the vertex we assign a color to first (vertex 1 in this example). Then for each possible color for the first vertex, a child is created for the first vertex of the tree. So the second level of the

decision tree corresponds to the second vertex to be colored. Then in general, for each possible color for each vertex of level i of the decision tree, a child is created. Those children form level i+1 of the decision tree. The decision tree for the graph of (c) is given below. Since any color can be assigned to vertex 1 without loss of generality, it has just one child in the actual decision tree. Also since in this case the i-th and (i+1)-th vertices are connected by an edge for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, they can not have the same color. So each vertex after vertex 1 has two colors to choose from. So they each have two children in the decision tree.

Thus during the process of solving the problem a decision is made at each level and when all levels are covered, the problem is solved. A path from the root to a leaf corresponds to a coloring of the vertices of the given graph. A decision tree, however, does not tell us how to make decisions. Also a decision tree does not tell how to order the vertices for coloring, that is which vertex to color first, second etc. A deterministic machine (or algorithm) has a specific fixed set of rules for making a decision at each level of the decision tree. Although it knows what to do at every stage of problem solving, the decisions it makes are not necessarily the right ones. When it makes wrong decisions, it must retract earlier decisions and try different paths, which is called backtracking. For the graph coloring problem a deterministic algorithm might first order the vertices of the graph in decreasing order of their degree and also order colors. Then, following the

order of the vertices, assign to each vertex the highest order color available for the vertex. Since that kind of algorithm is not guaranteed to use the minimum number of colors, it may produce a wrong answer unless there is some provision for backtracking. A nondeterministic (Turing) machine, on the other hand, is a fictitious machine and somehow knows which branch (child) to select at each step. It always makes a right selection. A decision problem is said to belong to class NP if each vertex in its decision tree has a finite number of children and if it can be solved by a nondeterministic (Turing) machine in polynomial time. The graph coloring problem is in class NP, so are the satisfiability problem for propositional logic and most of the scheduling problems just to name a few. Also there are other characterizations of class NP. Interested readers click here. At this moment it is not known whether or not problems in class NP can be solved with a polynomial time algorithm in the worst case. The consensus is that there is no polynomial time algorithm to solve them. It would take at least exponential time. Among the problems in class NP, there are problems which all problems of class NP can be transformed to in polynomial time. Those problems are called NP-complete problems. If a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of the NP-complete problems, all the problems in NP can be solved in polynomial time. Below we are going to study NPcomplete problems. We start our discussion with the concept of polynomial time transformation (reduction). Basically we say a decision problem Q1 is polynomially reducible to a decision problem Q2 if and only if there is a transformation that transforms any arbitrary instance of Q1 into an instance of Q2 in polynomial time such that the answer to Q1 is yes if and only if the answer to Q2 is yes. A little more formally we define this in terms of languages. Note that a decision problem can be viewed as a language of its instances and that solving it can be considered as recognizing the language as we have seen earlier. Let L1 and L2 be languages over alphabets 1 and 2, respectively. We say that L1 is polynomial-time reducible to L2 if and only if there is a function f from 1* to 2* such that for any string x in polynomial time.

1 *

,x

L1 if and only if f(x)

L2 and f can be computed

For example let us consider the following two problems: graph coloring and scheduling of committee meetings. The graph coloring problem is as given above. In the scheduling of committee meetings problem, committees with their members and a positive integer k are given. The problem is whether or not the meetings of the committees can be scheduled in k or less time slots so that everyone can attend one's meetings. Note that some people may be in more than one committee. Let us try to show that this scheduling problem is polynomial time reducible to the graph coloring problem.

Thus the scheduling problem asks whether or not the meetings of the given committees can be scheduled in 3 time slots without any conflicts. Then since committees 1 and 2 share a. c. d }. 3 and 4 with the memberships { a. where p k. b }. {a. 2. 2. respectively. 3 and 4 to the graph. 2. Corresponding to this grouping assign colors to the vertices of the graph so that the vertices in the same group are given the same color and those in . that is construct a graph and give the number of colors to be used to color its vertices so that the meetings can be scheduled if and only if graph can be colored. d } and { a. and 1 and 4 share members. add vertices 1. Suppose that the meetings can be scheduled in p time slots. The corresponding graph for the graph coloring problem can be constructed as follows: Corresponding to the committees 1. Let us consider the following transformation: For each committee add a vertex to the graph. Similarly since committees 1 and 3.What we need to do is given an instance of the scheduling problem construct an instance of the graph coloring problem. connect with an edge the vertices corresponding to the committees. Then the committees can be grouped into p groups so that the committees in the same group can meet at the same time. and if and only if two committee have some members in common. and 1 and 4. an edge is inserted between vertices 1 and 2. edges are added between 1 and 3. For example suppose that we are given the committees 1. { b. Proceeding similarly the following graph is obtained corresponding to the committee memberships. 3 and 4. c }. Suppose also that k = 3. Then the meetings can be scheduled in k or less time slots if and only if the graph can be colored with k or less colors.

A problem is NP-complete if it is in class NP and NP-hard. then it can be easily seen that the committees can meet in k or less time slots. Bin Packing Problem Given a set of objects. This coloring uses p colors which does not exceed k. Subsequently the satisfiability problem was found to be polynomial time reducible to many other problems. 6. that is the construction of graph for a given set of committees. Committee Meeting Schedule Problem In fact most scheduling problems are NPcomplete. As a consequence if a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of those problems. We are now ready to discuss NP-completeness. Traveling Salesman Problem Given cities and traveling times between cities. then the consensus today is that it is most likely that no polynomial time algorithms i. and vertices connected with an edge have different colors. Subgraph Isomorphism Problem Given two graphs. Thus these two vertices must get different colors. Conversely if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. a traveling salesman wants to know a shortest route to visit all cities exactly once and come back to where he/she started. their sizes and a number of bins of the same size. NP-complete Problems 1. It can be easily seen that if a problem P at hand is NP-hard and if a problem known to be NP-complete can be polynomial time reducible to P. This group of problems are called NP-complete problems. group them into two groups so that the sum of the numbers of one group is equal to that of the other group. If a problem is NP-complete. then that means that the corresponding committees share some members and that they are scheduled to meet in different time slots. Satisfiability Problem for Propositional Logic 2. Some of them are listed below. Partition Problem Given a set of integers. all the problems can be solved with polynomial time algorithms. It is also easily seen that the transformation. find out whether or not the objects can be put into the bins.different groups are given different colors. find out whether or not one is a subgraph of the other. fast algorithms exist to solve it. . can be done in time polynomial in the size of the problem. For all the problems in class NP can be reduced to P through the known NP-complete problem in polynomial time. 7. For if any two vertices are connected with an edge. 5. 4. Today hundreds of problems are known to be NP-complete. which in this case can be taken as the number of committees. Graph Color Problem 3. Formally a problem is NP-hard if every problem in class NP can be polynomial time reducible to it. It was first proven by S. then P is also NP-complete. Cook that the problems of class NP can be polynomial time reducible to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic.e.

let A = {1.b.x).b.y}. 9. 3-Dimensional Matching Given three sets A. Set Cover Problem Given a set S. and S = {(1. their sizes. B.b.8. Then T = {(1.x).a.b.a.y).y)}. and C = {x.(2. (2. and a subset S of the Cartesian product A X B X C. B and C of the same size. . is it possible to select objects so that the sum of their sizes does not exceed S and the sum of their values is V or larger ? 10.x). Note that {(1. their values and an integer V. called a matching. Knapsack Problem Given a knapsack of size S. Is there a subset T. a collection of subsets of S and an integer k. and C appears exactly once in T ? For example.x)} is not a matching.b}.x)} is a desired set satisfying all the requirements.y).b. (2.2}. of S such that every element of A. find out whether or not there are k or less subsets in the collection whose union is S.a.(1. B = {a. (2. a set of objects.