Legend

Language, Automata: , \alpha : usually denotes a string in this course. , \beta : usually denotes a string in this course. , \delta : usually denotes a transition function in this course. , \sigma : usually denotes a symbol in an alphabet in this course. , \Delta : usually denotes a blank space in this course. , \Gamma : usually denotes a set of stack symbols in this course. , \Lambda : usually denotes an empty string in this course. , \Pi : usually denotes a partition in this course. , \Sigma : usually denotes an alphabet in this course. , \goto : usually denotes a (one step) transition in this course. Logic: , ~ : logical not , ^ : logical and , V : logical or , -> : logical imply , <-> : logical if and only if (equivalent) , => : logical tautologically imply , <=> : logical tautologically equivalent , \A : logical for all , \E : logical for some (there exists)

Sets: , \in : belongs to , \not\in : does not belong to , @ : empty set U, : universal set , \subset : proper subset , \not\subset : not a proper subset , \subseteq : subset , \not\subseteq : not a subset , \cup : set union Ai , \cup(i=1 to n) A_i : union of n sets , \cap : set intersection Ai , \cap(i=1 to n) A_i : intersection of n sets , \bar A : complement of set A (A) , P(A) : power set of set A , X : Cartesian product Ai , X(i=1 to n) A_i : cartesian product of n sets Relation: < a, b > : ordered pair < a1, a2, ..., an > : ordered n-tuple , <= : precedes (partial order) Functions: xi , Sum(i=1 to n) x_i : sum of n xi's O(f) , O(f) : of order smaller than or equal to f

o(f) , o(f) : of order smaller than f (f) , Omega : of order greater than or equal to f (f) , omega : of order greater than f (f) , Theta : of the same order as f f(x) , lim(x -> inf) f(x) : limit of f as x goes to infinity

Introduction to Theoretical Computer Science
Today computers are used everywhere: banks, hospitals, schools, airline companies, gas stations, grocery stores, in our cars, in home appliances, PCs, etc., etc. Some are used to crunch numbers, some are used to process images, some are used to process other nonnumeric data and some are used to control operations of various devices. They can reason, they can prove many mathematical theorems, they can beat chess experts in their game, they can solve some very complex problems, they can understand our languages, they can answer our questions and of course they can crunch numbers much much faster than us. Let us for a moment call what computers do computation for convenience, though some of the things computers do such as controling appliances, answering our questions etc. don't fall into our traditional sense of computation. Then these computers seem to be able to compute an awfully lot of things if not everything. But are they capable of computing anything ? Are there things computers can not do ? If there are things computers can not do, what are they ? And why ? If there aren't things computers can not do, then how can we tell ? What do we exactly mean by computation ? Unfortunately there are many things computers can not do. Computers can not solve certain types of problems. For example no computer can tell in general whether or not a given computer program stops after a finite amount of time on a given input. They can not solve some other types of problems fast enough even though they can solve them in some finite amount of time. For example take the traveling salesman problem: a salesman is given a road map with distances between cities and wants to find a shortest round trip route that visits all the cities on the map exactly once. At the moment the so called traveling salesman problem requires an extremely large amount of time to solve. No one has been able to find a reasonably fast algorithm to solve it and the consensus is that it is not likely that anyone can find such an algorithm. I have just given you an example of the problems that computers could not solve. How do we know that that is the case ? Are there other problems like that ? How can we tell whther or not a given problem can be solved and solved fast enough ?

We say finite automata recognize languages. Finite automata process strings. Thus by studying Turing machines we can learn capabilities hence limitatgions of computers. Turing machines also recognize languages. we go to Turing machines. Finite automata are very similar to Turing machines but a few restrictions are imposed on them. So they provide a good introduction to our study of Turing machines. The languages that are recognized by finite automata are called regular languages. This essence is a device called Turing machine. which is the key to the unsolvability of problem by computers. it is generally believed (Church's thesis) that any "computation" humans do can be done by Turing machines and that "computation" is the computation performed by Turing machines. It was first conceived of by Alan Turing in early 20-th century. which are also heavily used in practice. . Thus when a finite automaton is processing strings. The other two are context-free languages and context-sensitive languages. we study a simpler type of computing device called finite automata. More specifically they answer the question whether or not a given string belongs to a language. that is to study limitations of computers and computation. These two type of languages belong to a hierarchy of four languages called Homsky hierarchy. It is a very simple device but remarkably. Then with Turing machines we investigate limitations of computers and computations. ways to describe them and how to use them to model many of the real life systems. Those four languages are together called formal languages. In particular we are going to see a few problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers and how we can tell that they are unsolvable. We are going to investigate limitations of computers and computations by studying the essence of compuers and computations rather than all the variations of computer and computation. it can actually be solving a problem. There we learn how computers can be simulated by Turing machines and what it means that a Turing machine recognizes (decides) a language. The languages Turing machines recognize are called Type 0 (or phrase structure) languages (regular languages are Type 3) and they are more complex than regular languages. We are going to learn their properties. we are also going to study regular languages in detail as well as finite automata. It turns out that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. In addition finite automata can model a large number of systems used in practice. Though it has not been proven. Before proceeding to the study of Turing machines and their computations in this course. Thus they are a powerful tool to design and study those systems with. We call a set of strings (of symbols) a language. Consequently they are less capable than Turing machines but then their operations are simpler. After briefly studying context-free languges. Since so many systems in practice can be described by regular languages. every task modern computers perform can also be accomplished by Turing machines.The main objective of this course is to answer those questions.

true or false. Basic Mathematical Objects Back to Table of Contents The following are the contents of this introductory chapter. . Increasing the processor speed does not help much for such problems. • • 2 is a odd number. 4 is a perfect square.Our last topic is time complexities of various problems. We are going to see some of those which take a large amount of time. Their truth values are false and true. • • • • Logic Sets Relations Functions Logic Proposition and Logical Connectives "Proposition" can be defined as a declarative statement having a specific truth-value. Unfortunately there is nothing we can do to speed them up. then with the increase in the processor speed of 1. The time complexity issues are investigated using Turing machines so that the results apply to all computers. "Connective": Two or more propositions can be combined together to make compound propositions with the help of logical connectives. The time needed to solve such a problem increases at least exponentially with the size of the problem as long as we use Turing machines (hence computers). If the computation time is 2n where n is the size of the problem.000 times it can handle only ten or so more larger problem sizes. Example: The following statements are propositions as they have precise truth values.000 times 110 cities would already be too many. Let us start with review of mathematics. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved within a reasonable amount of time and there are problems that are known to require a finite but very large amount of time to solve. then even if the processor speed increased 1. respectively. For example for the traveling salesman problem if 100 cities were too many to solve fast enough.

For the first compound proposition to be true both the propositions have to be true as the connective is AND and as OR is the connective for the second one if either of the propositions is true the truth value of the compound proposition is true. The compound proposition truth-value is true iff all the constituent propositions hold true. 2 is an odd number OR 4 is a perfect square. Conjunction The logical conjunction is understood in the same way as commonly used ôandö. Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F pVq T T T F c. • • 2 is an odd number AND 4 is a perfect square. Negation This is the logical "negation" and it is expressed by Truth table is given below as p for "not p". Their truth vales are false and true respectively. Disjunction This is logical "or" read as either true value of the individual propositions.Example: Above two propositions can be used to make a compound proposition using any of the logical connectives. The following are the logical connectives used commonly: a. It is represented as " ^ ". Truth table for two individual propositions p and q with conjunction is given below p T T F F q T F T F p^q T F F F b. .

and if q then p".: p ^ p Logical implication and equivalence If the value of p -> q is true in every case. then p is said to logically imply q. p q is read as "if p.g. "p is sufficient for q" .g.e. For example. If p and q have the same truth-value in every case then they are said to be logically equivalent and it is represented as p <=> q. "p only if q" . "q is necessary for p". then q" Truth table is given below p T T F F q T F T F p T F T T q p -> q is also expressed in a number of different (but equivalent) ways in English. Following are some of the useful identities and implications from propositional logic: Identities . Contradiction This is the opposite of tautology. e. E. "if not q then not p" . It is represented as p => q.p T F p F T d. which is false in every case. f. "q is a necessity/consequence of p" and "q whenever p" are all differnt ways of saying "if p then q".: p V p g. Tautology A compound proposition. which is true in every case. Biconditional A proposition (p q) ^ (q p) can be abbreviated using biconditional conjunction as p q and is read as "if p then q. E. Conditional This is used to define as "a proposition holds true if another proposition is true" i.

or a relationship among objects represented by the variables. [(P 2. The predicate logic is one of the extensions of propositional logic and it is fundamental to most other types of logic. [(P 3. (P 3. (P Q) ( P Q) ----. . and "The cover of this book is blue" come from the template "is blue" by placing an appropriate noun/noun phrase in front of it.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----.modus tollens Q) (R S)] [(P R) (Q S)] Q) (Q R)] (P R) For explanations. examples and proofs of these identities go to Identities Implications 1. "The sky is blue". or to express certain types of relationship between propositions such as equivalence ( for more detail click here for example for example ). For example. [(P 5. Central to the predicate logic are the concepts of predicate and quantifier. The phrase "is blue" is a predicate and it describes the property of being blue. [(P Q) Q] P ----.contrapositive For explanations. For more complex reasoning we need more powerful logic capable of expressing complicated propositions and reasoning.1. (P 4.DeMorgan's Law Q) ( P Q) ----. the sentences "The car Tom is driving is blue".exportation Q) ( Q P) ----. (P 2. A predicate is a template involving a verb that describes a property of objects. examples and proofs of these implications go to Implications Predicate and Predicate Logic The propositional logic is not powerful enough to represent all types of assertions that are used in computer science and mathematics.implication Q) R] [P (Q R)] ----.

x > 1"." Again. In general. where x represents an arbitrary object. assign a value to the variable 2. quantify the variable using a quantifier (see below). it is true or false in the universe of discourse. sentences that assert an object is blue can be represented as "B(x)". The universe is thus the domain of the (individual) variables.Predicates are often given a name. the statement x > 1 to "for some object x in the universe. for example. For example any of "is_blue". This new statement is true or false in the universe of discourse. x > 1". A predicate with variables. The universal quantifier turns. There are two types of quantifiers: universal quantifier and existential quantifier. Hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified. It can be the set of real numbers. Universe of Discourse The universe of discourse. which is expressed as " x x > 1". hence a proposition. a quantification is performed on formulas of predicate logic (called wff ). can be made a proposition by applying one of the following two operations to each of its variables: 1. . such as x > 1 or P(x). "Blue" or "B" can be used to represent the predicate "is blue" among others. x > 1 becomes 3 > 1 if 3 is assigned to x. If we adopt B as the name for the predicate "is_blue". by using quantifiers on variables . for example. The propositions in the predicate logic are statements on objects of a universe. For example. called atomic formula. B(x) reads as "x is blue". and it becomes a true statement. Similarly the existential quantifier turns. is the set of objects of interest. which is expressed as " x x > 1. also called universe . the statemen t x > 1 to "for every object x in the universe. and hence it is a proposition once the universe is specified.

some of which are given below. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 4. Also for proof and proof techniques see Mathematical Reasoning. But it should be obvious from the context. In predicate logic. one can use some additional inference rules. implications and inference rules. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] For more discussions and examples on these rules and others. x [ P(x) Q(x) ] [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] 2. the set of all cars on a parking lot. as well as those for propositional logic such as the equivalences. the set of all students in a classroom etc.the set of integers. Important Inference Rules of Predicate Logic: First there is the following rule concerning the negation of quantified statement which is very useful: x P(x) x P(x) Next there is the following set of rules on quantifiers and connvectives: 1. Sets . Predicate logic is more powerful than propositional logic. [ x P(x) x Q(x) ] x [ P(x) Q(x) ] 3. It allows one to reason about properties and relationships of individual objects. The universe is often left implicit in practice. see Reasoning(with predicate logic) and Quantifiers and Connectives in Discrete Structures course.

Also. Example: A = {1. Set terminology Belongs To x B means that x is an element of set B.4. Note: If A is a subset of B and B is a subset of A then A=B. . if A is a subset of. All the elements belonging to the set are explicitly given.3. if every element of A is an element of B.2. but not equal to B represented as A B.3. Subset Let A and B be two sets. How to specify a Set? One way is to enumerate the elements completely. A is a subset of B.2. Using this notation we can specify the set {0. A is a subset of B is represented as A B.4} call it Z by writing Z = {x | x N | x 5} where N represents the set of natural numbers.1.What is a set? Set is a group of elements. Universal Set The set U of all the elements we might ever consider in the discourse is called the universal set.5} Alternate way is to give the properties that characterize the elements of the set. Example: B = {x | x is a positive integer less than or equal to 5} Some sets can also be defined recursively. having a property that characterizes those elements. It is read as "the set of natural numbers that are less than or equal to 5".

8}. Example: A = { 1.5 } .3} and B = {3.3.5} then A .5. Example: If U is the set of natural numbers and A = { 1.2. Disjoint sets A and B are said to be disjoint if they contain no elements in common i.2.2. where ø is the Empty set. It is denoted by A .4.3.2. Difference If A and B are two sets. then the intersection of A and B is the set that consists of the elements in both A and B .9 } are disjoint.e. then the complement of A is the set consisting of all elements of the universal set that are not in A. It is denoted by A B. then the union of A and B is the set that contains all the elements that are in A and B including the ones in both A and B. A B= ø.A = {4. where means " is not an element of ".B. and B = { 6.Complement If A is a set. Thus A' = { x | x U ^ x A } . Example: If A = {1. Intersection If A and B are two sets. then the difference of A from B is the set that consists of the elements of A that are not in B. Set Operations The operations that can be performed on sets are: 1. 3.2} Note that in general A .8.4.A . Example: If A = {1.3} B = {3.B B . For A and B of the above example B . Union If A and B are two sets.5} then A B = {1.2.4. Example: If A = {1.5} 2.5} .3.8} then A B = {3. It is denoted by A' or .4. It is denoted by A B. then A' = { x | x U ^ x > 3}.2..B = {1.8} B = {3.4.3 } .

C represent arbitrary sets and ø is the empty set and U is the Universal Set. B. . It is a very good tool to get a general idea.Following is a list of some standard Set Identities A. The Commutative laws: A B=B A A B=B A The Associative laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Distributive laws: A (B C) = (A A (B C) = (A The Idempotent laws: A A=A A A=A The Absorptive laws: A (A B) = A A (A B) = A The De Morgan laws: (A B)' = A' B' (A B)' = A' B' Other laws involving Complements: ( A' )' = A A A A' = ø A' = U B) B) B) B) C C (A (A C) C) Other laws involving the empty set A A ø=A ø=ø Other laws involving the Universal Set: A U=U A U=A Venn Diagrams A common technique in working with Set Operations is to illustrate them by drawing Venn Diagrams.

3.4 } can be represented as shown below using Venn Diagrams: Set A U represents the Universal set in which A is one of the Set.Note.2. however. . The idea of Venn Diagram is to draw a region representing the universe and within that to draw the regions representing the component sets we are starting with so that the resulting diagram describes their interrelationships. For example sets A = { 1.8. that Venn Diagrams must NOT be used for rigorous discussions.2. because they can represent only very limited situations and miss many other possibilities.4 } and B = { 6.

Set B The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A B .

A B .

.The following Venn Diagram is used to illustrate A U B A A B B is the set consisting of all the different elements in A and B.

6.2.4.8 } A = { 1.6. For example: U = { 1.(A B) = { 5.6.2.3.3. 7 } B = { 2.4.2.8 } .8 } (A B)' = U .4 } A B = { 1.5.(A B)' is the yellow region in the Venn diagram given below.4.3.7.

A . This can be generalized for the union of any finite number of sets as A1 An .A is the blue shaded region in the Venn Diagram shown below Generalized Set Operations Union.. intersection and Cartesian product of sets are associative... For example expressions we often use A holds. To denote either of these B C. which we write as Ai This generalized union of sets can be rigorously defined as follows: Definition ( Ai) : .B is the yellow shaded region and B . A2 .

and = Recursive Definition Recursive Definition Subjects to be Learned • • • • • recursive/inductive definition basis clause basis inductive clause extremal clause A recursive definition of a set always consists of three distinct clauses: 1. Based on these definitions. Inductive Clause: Ai = ( Ai) An+1 Ai and generalized Cartesian product Similarly the generalized intersection Ai can be defined. The set of elements specified here is called basis of the set being defined. . The basis clause (or simply basis) of the definition establishes that certain objects are in the set. This part of the definition specifies the "seeds" of the set from which the elements of the set are generated using the methods given in the inductive clause.Basis Clause: For n = 1 . De Morgan's law on set union and intersection can also be generalized as follows: Theorem (Generalized De Morgan) = . Ai = A1.

Following this definition.5. The extremal clause asserts that unless an object can be shown to be a member of the set by applying the basis and inductive clauses a finite number of times. 1 + 1 (= 2) is in N. and 1 is the child of 0. 1 is the parent of 2. 0 is the parent of 1. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses.. the set of natural numbers N can be obtained as follows: First by (1).5. and 2 is the child of 1. Then by (2). x + 2 is in . which is not what we want as the set of natural numbers. Proceeding in this manner all the natural numbers are put into N. the object is not a member of the set..5. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. x + 1 is in . Let us call the objects used to create a new object the parents of the new object. The Set of Even Integers Basis Clause: . and x is the child of x + 1. The Set of Nonnegative Even Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . . The basis for this set N is { 0 } . can be included in N. The Set of Natural Numbers Basis Clause: Inductive Clause: For any element x in . 0 + 1 (= 1) is in N. Examples of Recursive Definition of Set Example 1. 0. 0 is put into N. The inductive clause always asserts that if objects are elements of the set. The x + 1 in the Inductive Clause is the parent of x. Note that if we don't have (3). then they can be combined in certain specified ways to create other objects. and the new object is their child . 3. 1. Example 3. The inductive clause (or simply induction) of the definition establishes the ways in which elements of the set can be combined to produce new elements of the set. Then by (2) again. since 0 is in N. 2. Example 2.2.

say x. then Submit. How to define function recursively: First the values of the function for the basis elements of the domain are specified.2 are in . Recursive Definition of Function Some functions can also be defined recursively. Here ax means the concatenation of a with x. simplest expressions. of the domain is defined using its value at the parent(s) of the element x. Basis Clause: . Then see how other elements can be obtained from them. and . The Set of Strings over the alphabet excepting empty string This is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's such as abbab. try simplest elements in the set such as smallest numbers (0. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the Basis and Inductive Clauses. Test Your Understanding of Recursive Definition Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. and . or shortest strings. Tips for recursively defining a set: For the "Basis Clause".Inductive Clause: For any element x in . Condition: The domain of the function you wish to define recursively must be a set defined recursively. The set of propositions (propositional forms) can also be defined recursively. Click Yes or No . There are two sets of questions. Example 4. To see how it is defined click here. etc. bbabaa. Then the value of the function at an element. They are all on functions from integer to integer except the last one. x + 2. Inductive Clause: For any element x in . or 1). . and x . . and generalize that generation process for the "Inductive Clause". A few examples are given below.

See Example 5 for the extremal clause. Example 6: The function f(n) = 2n + 1 for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. Example 7: The function f(n) = 2n for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. L(xy) = L(x) + L(y) . b} to the set of natural numbers that gives the length of a string can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: For symbols a and b of the alphabet. See above for the extremal clause. So there is no chance of other elements to come into the function being defined. L(a) = 1 and L(b) = 1. f(n+1) = f(n) + 2 .Example 5: The function f(n) = n! for natural numbers n can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: f(0) = 0! = 1 Inductive Clause: For all natural number n. Induction Mathematical Induction . Example 8: The function L from the set S of strings over {a. f(n+1) = 2 f(n) . Inductive Clause: For any string x and y of S. Hence 2 ! = 2 * 1 ! = 2 * 1 = 2 . This function L gives the number of a's and b's L(x) for a string x is also often denoted by | x |. Hence 3 ! = 3 * 2 ! = 3 * 2 * 1 = 6 . because the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively and that has the extremal clause in it. Using this definition. Note that here Extremal Clause is not necessary. 3! can be found as follows: Since 0 ! = 1. f(n+1) = (n+1) f(n). See Example 5 for the extremal clause. 1 ! = 1 * 0 ! = 1 * 1 = 1 . where xy is the concatenation of strings x and y.

the element next to it. . the element next to it. has the same property by the inductive step. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 can be proven by mathematical induction by the same token.Subjects to be Learned • • • • • first principle of mathematical induction basis step induction hypothesis induction second principle of mathematical induction Contents First Priciple of Mathematical Induction As we have seen in recursion . then the next element. that is 0. and its elements can be generated one by one starting with 0 by adding 1. This process is somewhat analogous to the knocking over a row of dominos with knocking over the first domino corresponding to the basis step. Then it is proven that if an arbitrary natural number. has the property in question. Taking advantage of this. that is n + 1. has the same property again by the inductive step. denote it by n. any natural number can be shown to have the property. has the property in question (basis step). For since 0 has the property by the basis step. To prove that a statement P(n) is true for all natural number natural number. As a first step for proof by induction. it is often a good idea to restate P(k+1) in terms of . then it follows that all the natural numbers have that property. The first principle of mathematical induction states that if the basis step and the inductive step are proven. More generally mathematical statements involving a natural number n such as 1 + 2 + . if P(k) is true (called induction hypothesis). which is 1. we proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P( ) is true. and the process of generating an element from a known element in the set. which is 2.. then P(n) is true for all natural number . then P(k+1) is true.. natural numbers can be proven to have certain properties as follows: First it is proven that the basis element. Then since 1 has the property. has that property (inductive step). Thus the set of natural numbers can be described completely by specifying the basis element (0). the set of natural numbers can be defined recursively. where is a Induction: Prove that for any integer . Proceeding likewise. When these two are proven.

1) to prove P(n). Formally the second principle of induction states that if n [ k [ k < n P(k) ] P(n) ] . which is assumed to be true. Second Priciple of Mathematical Induction There is another form of induction over the natural numbers based on the second principle of induction to prove assertions of the form x P(x) . the last expression can be rewritten as n( n + 1 )/2 + (n + 1) .. Example: Prove that for any natural number n. Here let us try LHS for n + 1 = 0 + 1 + ... Hence LHS = RHS... Factoring (n + 1) out. first try to express LHS for n+1 in terms of LHS for n.. Certain problems can be proven more easily by using the second principle than the first principle because P(k) for all k < n can be used rather than just P(n . + n + (n + 1) = (0 + 1 + . Example 1: Let us prove the following equality using the second principle: For any natural number n . Using the induction hypothesis. then n P(n) can be concluded. End of Proof. we get (n + 1)(n + 2) / 2 . 1 + 3 + . The reason that this principle holds is going to be explained later after a few examples of proof. Thus LHS = RHS for n+1. and somehow use the induction hypothesis. -------. can be used. and RHS = 0 * (0 + 1) = 0 .Induction Hypothesis To prove this for n+1. 0 + 1 + . Here k [ k < n P(k) ] is the induction hypothesis. This form of induction does not require the basis step. + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary natural number n.. Proof: Basis Step: If n = 0.. + n) + (n + 1) . + n = n( n + 1 )/2 . which is equal to the RHS for n+1.. 0 + 1 + . and in the inductive step P(n) is proved assuming P(k) holds for all k < n ..P(k) so that P(k). then LHS = 0. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2. .

1 ) * ( n .... the individual may wish to restrict ... let A = {blue shirt.Proof: Assume that 1 + 3 + . mint green shirt} and B = {gray slacks.. the individual can wear. Example1: nbsp. k < n. i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . + ( 2k + 1 ) = ( k + 1 )2 holds for all k. If n is a prime number. Since both p and q are smaller than n.. + ( 2n . by the induction hypothesis they can be written as the product of prime numbers (Note that this is not possible if the First Principle is being used). and itself. Hence by the second principle of induction 1 + 3 + . Relations Definition Relation Let A and B be sets.1 holds for all Example 3: Prove that any positive integer n > 1. Therefore the statement holds true. it is either a prime number or not a prime number.1 Proof: Assume that 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . i ( i! ) = ( n + 1 )! . k can be written as the product of prime numbers.. = ( n + 1 )n! . Since n is an integer. Then certainly A x B is the set of all possible combinations (six) of shirts and slacks that nbsp.1 + n * n! by the induction hypothesis. Example 2: Prove that for all positive integer n. say p and q. If n is not a prime number. Then 1 + 3 + . then it is a product of two positive integers. Then 1 * 1! + 2 * 2! + . k < n. + ( n . tan slacks}.1 )! + n * n! = n! . Proof: Assume that for all positive integers k. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 holds for all natural numbers. then it is the product of 1.. Hence n can also be written as the product of prime numbers. A binary relation from A into B is any subset of the Cartesian product A x B... which is a prime number.1 Hence by the second principle of induction positive integers. We are going to prove that n can be written as the product of prime numbers. can be written as the product of prime numbers.1 for all k.1 ) ) + ( 2n + 1 ) = n2 + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( n + 1 )2 by the induction hypothesis. n > k > 1. However. + ( 2n + 1 ) = ( 1 + 3 + . Let's assume that a person owns three shirts and two pairs of slacks.. + k * k! = ( k + 1 )! . More precisely.

b) | a A ^ b A ^ a is a child of b } . (mint green shirt. 5.6). 6)}. Consider the following relation on real numbers. So. gray slack). c) A x C. PropertiesOf Relations . Relation on a Set A relation from a set A into itself is called a relation on A. c) RS if and only if there exists b B such that (a. Then P is a relation on A which we might call a parent-child relation. 5. Let A be a set of people and let P = {(a. R = { (x. 5). is the composition of P with itself and it is a relation which we know as grandparentgrandchild relation. one such subset may be { (blue shirt. 6). For example. 6}. 2). The composition of R and S. y). where P is the parent-child relation given above. A typical element in R is an ordered pair (x. R = {(2. 3). (3. 3. R could be more naturally expressed as R(x) = x2 . Example2: Let A = {2. (2. or R(x) =y where y = x2 . tan slacks). For example PP. 6) and define a relation R from A into A by (a. In some cases R can be described by actually listing the pairs which are in R. (3. (5. y) | x <= y}. written as RS. R and S of Example 2 above are relations on A = {2. as in the previous example. 3. and S be a relation from set B into set C. or "related". b) R if and only if a divides evenly into b. is the set of pairs of the form(a. This may not be convenient if R is relatively large.himself to combinations which are color coordinated. c) S. Composition Let R be a relation from a set A into set B. (black shirt. tan slacks) }. Other notations are used depending on the past practice. y) | y is the square of x} and S = { (x. (6. where (a. b) Rand (b. This may not be all possible pairs in A x B but will certainly be a subset of A x B.

codomain image image of set range sum of functions product of functions one-to-one function (injection) onto function (surjection) one-to-one onto function (bijection) inverse function composite function Definition (function): A function. in other words. Reflexive: R is reflexive if for every a A. 4. Thus. c> are in the relation. Transitive: R is transitive if for every a.Assume R is a relation on set A. Let us write a Symmetric: R is symmetric if for every a and b in A. . 3. a R a. A x A. 1. b) R . then b = c . Equivalence: R is an equivalence relation on A if R is reflexive. from a set A to a set B is a relation from A to B that satisfies 1. then bRa. f is a function if it covers the domain (maps every element of the domain) and it is single valued. if <a. if aRb and bRc. if aRb. for each element a in A. 2. symmetric and transitive. b and c in A. then aRc. Function Functions Subjects to be Reviewed • • • • • • • • • • • • function domain. and 2. b> is in the relation. The set A in the above definition is called the domain of the function and B its codomain. there is an element b in B such that <a. denote it by f. b> and <a. R R b to denote (a.

16. where S is a subset of the domain A of f . f(S) = { f(a) | a S }. { 0. Example: The function f(x) = x2 from the set of natural numbers N to N is a one-to-one function. Then the domain and codomain of this f are N. Definition (bijection): A function is called a bijection . because for example f(1) = f(-1) = 1 . Every bijection has a function called the inverse function. where f(x)*g(x) is the product of two real numbers f(x) and g(x). Then the sum and the product of f and g are defined as follows: For all x. and its range is the set of squares. Definition (sum and product): Let f and g be functions from a set A to the set of real numbers R. i. Definition (onto): A function f from a set A to a set B is said to be onto(surjective) . 1. Then ( f + g )(x) = x2 + 3x + 1 . because.} . Note that f(x) = x2 is not one-to-one if it is from the set of integers(negative as well as non-negative) to N . The set of images of the elements of a set S under a function f is called the image of the set S under f. and b is called the image of a under f . ( f + g )(x) = f(x) + g(x) . if and only if whenever f(x) = f(y) .. ( f*g )(x) = f(x)*g(x) . if and only if for every element y of B . f is onto if and only if f( A ) = B . for example. under this function is 9. x = y . 9. Example: Let f be the function from the set of natural numbers N to N that maps each natural number x to x2 . say 3.. . .. b> is denoted as f(a) = b . that is. Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is an onto function. Thus it is a bijection. Example: The function f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of nonnegative even numbers E is one-to-one and onto. Example: Let f(x) = 3x + 1 and g(x) = x2 . nothing in N can be mapped to 3 by this function. the image of.The relation given by f between a and b represented by the ordered pair <a. that is. However. and is denoted by f(S) . and ( f*g )(x) = 3x3 + x2 Definition (one-to-one): A function f is said to be one-to-one (injective) . there is an element x in A such that f(x) = y . f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to N is not onto. The image of the domain under f is called the range of f .e. and for all x. 4. if it is onto and one-to-one.

Note that such an x is unique for each y because f is a bijection. and g(x) = x + 1 . Therefore one can also talk about composition of functions. and it is denoted by f -1 . Then the function g is called the inverse function of f. and arrows show < x. the rightmost function in the above figure is a bijection and its inverse is obtained by reversing the direction of each arrow. Example: Let f(x) = x2 . In each figure below. natural languages etc. Others such as languages of logics. f(x) > relation. where f(x) = y . and let f be a function from B to a set C . in this course. languages of mathematics. It is also a bijection. are all languages in that sense. denoted by fg . For example. Introduction to Language A language is. Then f( g(x) ) = ( x + 1 )2 .These concepts are illustrated in the figure below. Programming langauges we use are a language in that sense. Example: The inverse function of f(x) = 2x from the set of natural numbers N to the set of non-negative even numbers E is f -1(x) = 1/2 x from E to N . . Definition (composite function): Let g be a function from a set A to a set B . the points on the left are in the domain and the ones on the right are in the codomain. if for every element y of B. is the function from A to C that satisfies fg(x) = f( g(x) ) for all x in A . Definition (inverse): Let f be a bijection from a set A to a set B. A function is a relation. Then the composition of functions f and g . g(y) = x . a set of strings of symbols.

solving them can be seen as recognizing languages i. These formal languages are characterized by grammars which are essentially a set of rewrite rules for generating strings belonging to a language as we see later. Also there are various kinds of computing devices called automata which process these types of languages Thus formal languages can also be characterized by the computing devices which process them. context-sensitive (or type 1) languages and phrase structure (or type 0) languages. are quite useful for modeling systems used in practice such as co9mputer network communication protocols. regular and context-free languages. The four classes are regular (or type 3) languages. checking whether or not a string is in a language. together with regular expressions which are a method of representing regular languages. It can be rigorously shown that some problems can not be solved by computers in any finite amount of time and that some others are practically unsolvable because of the time it takes to solve them. As we are going to learn next. We are going to see an algorithm for converting NFAto NFA which recognizes the same language and another for NFA to DFA conversion. then the resulting DFA is unique up to the state names for a given regular language. Then after seeing yet another way of representing regular laguages. Using automata and formal languages we can study limitations of computer and computation. regular grammars. In asddition two of the formal languages. the simplest of the four formal languages. In the following chapters we first learn about languages. we are going to learn modeling of systems finite automata. Definitions on Language Subjects to be Learned . Type 3 is a subset of type 2 which is a subset of type 1 and type 0 is the most general including the other three as a subset. if the number of states of DFA is minimized. in general there are more than one NFAs and DFAs that reconize one language. lexical analyzers and parser for compilers for programming languages. Our last topic on regular language is testing of languages for non-regularity. However. Also for some important classes of problems. Then we investigate various kinds of finite automata: deterministic finite automata (DFA).What we are going to study on languages in this course are four classes of languages called (Chomsky) formal languages and their properties.). On the other hand DFAs are suited for writing a simulator program because there is no nondeterminism such as going to two or more states from a state upon reading one input symbol. context-free (or type 2) languages. NFA and NFAare conceptually simpler and easier to use when modeling a system because there are no restrictions on transitions for them unlike for DFA. nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) and nondeterministic finite automata with transitions (NFA. They are devices that recognize regular languages. These formal languages and automata capture the essense of various computing devices and computation in a very simple way. Then we study regular languages.e.

We are going to use first few symbols of English alphabet such as a and b to denote symbols of an alphabet and those toward the end such as u and v for strings. A string (also called a word) is a finite sequence of symbols of an alphabet. an alphabet is a finite set of symbols. For any alphabet . baa} is a language (over alphabert {a. union. For example if u = aab and v = bbab. A language is a set of strings over an alphabet. b} is another alphabet with two symbols and English alphabet is also an alphabet. intersection.b}) and {0. all the set operations can be applied to languages. Some special languages The empty set is a language which has no strings. 1}. intersetion and difference of two languages over an alphabet are languages over . 111} is a language (over alphabet {0. Then uv denotes the string obtained by concatenating u with v. The number of symbols in a string is called the length of the string. A string x is called a substring of another string y if there are strings u and v such that y = uxv. Thus {a. it has no symbols.• • • • alphabet string (word) language operations on languages: concatenation of strings. namely . That is. 1} is an alphabet with two symbols. the set of all strings over (including the empty string) is denoted by . uv is the string obtained by appending the sequence of symbols of v to that of u. The set { } is a language which has one string. 10 and 001 are examples of string over alphabet {0. For a string w its length is represented by |w|. b} and 0. Kleene star Contents Here we are going to learn the concept of language in very abstract and general sense. Note that u and v may be an empty string. this set has an object in it. The empty string is denoted by (capital lambda). a and aabab are examples of string over alphabet {a. v is called a suffix of y. that is. 3. Let u and v be strings. It can be defined more formally by recursive definition. {a. A string x is a prefix of another string y if there is a string v such that y = xv. The empty string (also called null string) is the string with length 0. For example {0. Thus the union. b. Though has no symbols. operations on languages and some of their properties. 1. 2. then uv = aabbbab. Basic concepts First. Note that vu = bbabaab uv. ab. Thus | | = 0. So it is not empty.1}). Thus a language over alphabet is a subset of . So a string is a substring of itself. Operations on languages Since languages are sets.

Recursive definition of L+: Basis Clause: L L+ . is . Lk means the concatenation of k L's. b} {aaa. abaaba. uk denotes the concatenation of k u's. bb. ababb. Recursive definition of L*: Basis Clause: L* and we are going to see Inductive Clause: For any x L* and any w L. Then the concatenation of L1 with L2 is denoted as L1L2 and it is defined as L1L2 = { uv | u L1 and v L2 }. That is L1L2 is the set of strings obtained by concatenating strings of L1 with those of L2. For example if L = { aba. abaaba. xw L*. baaa. ak represents the concatenation of k a's. . Similarly for a language L. For example Lk can be defined recursively as follows.. Here a0 = and u0 = .L and it is also a Another operation onlanguages is concatenation. These powers can be formally defined recursively. Let L1 and L2 be languages. For a string u and a natural number k. baaba}. ak and uk can be defined similarly. abb. For example {ab. then L* = { .. aaba} = {abaaa. aba. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. the extremal clause is not necessary. ababb. babb. * The following two types of languages are generalizations of them quite often in this course. bb }. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = Lk L. The complement of a language L over an alphabet language. Powers : For a symbol a and a natural number k. bbbb. bbaba.. Hence Lk is the set of strings that can be obtained by concatenating k strings of L. This * is called Kleene star. L* is the set of strings obtained by concatenating zero or more strings of L as we are going to see in Theorem 1. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k. } The * in * is also the same Kleene star defined above.

. .. .. Thus L+ is the set of strings obtained by concatenating one or more strings of L. bbaba. w1w2.. any nonempty string in L* or L+ can be expresssed as the concatenation of strings of L.wm1. w2. .Inductive Clause: For any x L+ and any w L.. . by applying Theorem 2 to the language L* L* Conversely ( L* )* Let x be an arbitrary nonempty string of ( L* )*. Other proofs are omitted. Hence x is in L* . L* and L* have a number of interesting properties.. xw L+. ) as ={x|x Lk for some Then the following relationships hold on L* and L+.e. bb. bb }... wk are strings of L*.. for each wi there are strings wi1. abaaba... Theorem 5: L* = (L*)*.wk for some k. where wi's are strings of L... ababb. .wimi Hence x = w11 . } Let us also define natural number k } .. bbbb. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L+ unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. Let us list one of them as a theorem and prove it. L0 L L2 . w2.w2m2.. Theorem 1: Ln Theorem 2: Theorem 3: Theorem 4: L+ = L L* = L*L Note: According to Theorems 2 and 3. then L+ = { aba. For example if L = { aba.w1m1w21.. wk in L* such that x = w1w2.e.. (i... Since w1. wi2.wmmk . i... wimi in L such that wi = wi1wi2.wk .. Proof: Because we can see that L* (L*)*..... Theorems 1 and 2 are proven in "General Induction" which you study in the next unit. . L* can be proven as follows: by Theorem 2. Then there are nonempty strings w1.

If x is an empty string, then it is obviously in L* . Hence ( L* )* Since L* L* . L* , L* = ( L* )* .

(L*)* and ( L* )*

Problem Solving as Language Recognition
Subjects to be Learned
• • •

problem instance problem as language problem solving as language recognition

Contents
In the previous section the concept of language was introduced and its properties have been briefly studied. You might be wondering why we study language. The main reason for studying language is that solving problems can be viewed as a language recognition problem as explained below, that is, the problem of checking whether or not a string belongs to a language. Thus instead of studying what kind of problems can be solved by what kind of computational devices and how, we can study languages and devices to recognize them which are simpler to deal with uncluttered with variations in actual devices, programming languages etc. Below an example is given to illustrate how solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language. Consider the following problem: Is the longest of the distances between two nodes(i.e. the diameter) of a given graph less than a given integer k ? Here the distance is the smallest number of edges (or hops) between the nodes. Some of the instances of this problem are as shown below:

Instance 1 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with one edge and two nodes is less than 1. Instance 2 asks whether or not the diameter of the given graph with four edges and four nodes is less than 2. Simiarlyt for Instance 3. These problem instances can be represented by a string as follows: Instance 1: 1,2;(1,2);1 Instance 2: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(3,4);2 Instance 3: 1,2,3,4;(1,2)(1,3)(1,4)(2,3)(2,4)(3,4);3 Here the set of nodes, the set of edges and k are separated by ; in that order in the strings. The solutions to these instances are: Instance 1: No Instance 2: No Instance 3: Yes There are infinitely many 'Yes' instances and 'No' instances for this problem. The set of 'Yes' instances is a language and so is the set of 'No' instances as well as the set of all

instances and many others for this problem. We can thus see that solving the problem for a given instance is equivalent to checking whether or not the string representing the given instance belongs to the language of 'Yes' instances of the problem. That is, the problem solving is the same as the language recognition. A problem can be solved if and only if the language of its 'Yes' instances is recognizable or decidable by a Turing machine. It is not solvable if the language is merely accecptable but not recognizable, or even worse if it is not even acceptable.

(a.k.a Structural Induction)
Mathematical statements involving an element of a recursively defined set can be proven by induction. To prove by induction that a statement P(x) is true for all the elements x of a recursively defined set S, proceed as follows: Basis Step: Prove that P(x) is true for all the elements x in the basis of S. Induction: Prove that for any element(s) x of S if P(x) is true, then P(y) is true for any element y obtained from x by the induction step of the recursive definition of S. Note 1 : In the Induction we try to prove that if a parent has the property then all of its children also have that property. In the process we need the relationship between the parent and the children. That relationship is found in the Inductive Clause of the recursive definition of the set in question. Note 2 : As a first step for general induction proof, it is often a good idea to express y in terms of x so that P(x) can be used. Example 1 (Theorem 1 in "Language") : Prove that Ln L* for any natural number n and any language L. Let us first review the definitions. Recursive definition of Lk: Basis Clause: L0 = { } Inductive Clause: L(k+1) = LkL. Since Lk is defined for natural numbers k, the extremal clause is not necessary. Recursive definition of L*:

L* for an arbitrary natural numer k. Basis Step: Since by the definitions L0 = { Inductive Step: Assume that Lk Hypothesis We are going to show that Lk+1 }. Then there exist strings x and y that satisfy x L and w = xy by the definition of Lk+1. xy Hence w Thus Lk+1 L* . y Let w be an arbitrary string in Lk+1 . Then by the definition of L*. Note in the proof below that Basis and Inductive Steps mirror the Basis and Inductive Clauses of the definition of Ln . x Example 2 (Theorem 2 in "Language") Let us prove L* = Note that ={x|x Lk for some natural number k } . Then by the definition of L* .Induction L* . Proof: Let us first prove Suppose that x Lk for some natural L* . . Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L* unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.Basis Clause: L* Inductive Clause: For any string x L* and any string w L. xw L*. Now let us prove that Ln L* by induction on Ln. Since Lk L* . number k. L0 L* . and L* . Lk . By Example 1 above . --. L* since y L. x L* . Hence . L* by theInduction Hypothesis. L* . Lk Next let us prove L* . . Hence x . L* .

x spelled backward). say x.e. . where y is an arbitrary elememt of L. . If x . and any symbol . So we show that the property for x is inherited by its children xy. . holds.Note that L* is defined recursively and that below we are trying to prove that the elements of L* have the property that they also belong to . by concatenating y) a child of x in is obtained. Then we show that if any element. x We are going to show that for an arbitrary element y L . So we first prove that * the element of the basis of L has the propertyy. Prove that for arbitrary strings x and y of . then for some natural number k . x Lk . xy holds. Note here that x is a parent and by applying an operation (i. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. Note that each step mirror the recursive definition of . by Example 1 above. Hence by the definition of Inductive Step: Assume that for an arbitrary x in L*. Basis Step: L0 since L0 = { }.e. of L* has the property. Hence xy Lk+1 by the definition of Ln . REV(xa) = Inductive Clause: For any string aREV(x). also have the property. Let us prove the inheritance. then its children xy. Hence xy End of Inductive Step and Proof Hence we have proven Example 3 . It produces the reversal of a given string x (i. The function REV(x) on strings x over the alphabet is defined as follows. Basis Clause: REV( )= .

xa is also in . Basis Step: REV(x ) = REV( x ) = REV( )REV( x ) . Inductive Clause: For arbitrary strings x of and a of ExtremalClause: As usual. Omitted. * Basis Clause: where is an empty string.Induction Hypothesis Then for an arbitrary symbol a of . Definition of Set of Regular Languages : Basis Clause: . -. REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. The proof mirrors the recursive definition of . Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular language unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. End of Proof. which is what we needed. REV(xya) = REV((xy)a) = a REV(xy). REV(xya) = REV(ya)REV(x). then Lr Ls . Inductive Clause: If Lr and Ls are regular languages. The proof of the equality in question is going to be proven for an arbitrary fixed x by induction on y. Any language belonging to this set is a regular language over . But by induction hypothesis a REV(xy) = a REV(y)REV(x). LrLs and Lr* are regular languages. and an arbitrary string y of . . Thus the statement to be proven is for an arbitrary fixed string x. Definitions of Regular Language and Regular Expression Subjects to be Learned • • regular language regular expression 1. { } and {a} for any symbol a are regular languages. Regular language The set of regular languages over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. Since a REV(y) = REV(ya).Proof First let us note that * can be defined recursively as follows: . REV(xy) = REV(y) REV(x) holds. Induction: Assume that for an arbitrary string y of .

( rs ) and ( r*) are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr Ls . LrLs and Lr* . Regular expression Regular expressions are used to denote regular languages. is written as rk. . aaa. Basis Clause: . respectively. and a are regular expressions corresponding to languages . They can represent regular languages and operations on them succinctly. aaaa etc. Extremal Clause: Nothing is a regular expression unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. {a}* is a regular language which is the set of strings consisting of a's such as . For a recursive definition of Lrk click here. Note also that *. b} ( = {a} {b} ) and {ab} ( = {a}{b} ) are regular languages. { } and {a}. Thus the regular expression ( a + ( b( c*) ) ) is written as a + bc*. b} is regular. where a is an element of . Then since {a} and {b} are regular languages. Inductive Clause: If r and s are regular expressions corresponding to languages Lr and Ls . is a regular language because {a. (4) We use ( r+) as a regular expression to represent Lr+ . respectively. The language corresponding to rk is Lrk. which has precedence over union ( + ). ( r + s ) is used in stead of ( r + s ). (2) The operation * has precedence over concatenation. then ( r + s ) . Any element of that set is a regular expression. So for example. Conventions on regular expressions (1) When there is no danger of confusion. (3) The concatenation of k r's . aa. The set of regular expressions over an alphabet is defined recursively as below. a. where Lr is the language corresponding to the regular expression r. where r is a regular expression. which is the set of strings consisting of a's and b's. Also since {a} is regular. 2. Thus for example rr = r2 . bold face may not be used for regular expressions. b}. {a.For example. let = {a.

Examples of regular expression and regular languages corresponding to them • • • • ( a + b )2 corresponds to the language {aa. b}. ( ab )+ corresponds to the language {ab. ba. Definition of Equality of Regular Expressions Regular expressions are equal if and only if they correspond to the same language. corresponds to more than one regular expressions. the set of strings of repeated ab's. a regular language. a*b* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by zero or more b's. . Note:A regular expression is not unique for a language. bb}. b}. ababab. In general ( a + b )k corresponds to the set of strings of length k over the alphabet {a. b}. that is. b}. that is the set of strings of length 2 over the alphabet {a. For example ( a + b )* and ( a*b* )* correspond to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. in general.. In general. ( a + b )* corresponds to the set of all strings over the alphabet {a. . Thus for example ( a + b )* = ( a*b* )* . }. a*b+a* corresponds to the set of strings consisting of zero or more a's followed by one or more b's followed by zero or more a's.. That is. it is not easy to see by inspection whether or not two regular expressions are equal. abab. because they both represent the language of all strings over the alphabet {a. ab. b}.

(a) find a string corresponding to r2 but not to r1 and (b) find a string corresponding to both r1 and r2. which are strings in the language with length 1 or less. r1r2 + r2r1 in the given regular expression is redundant. (a + b)*. Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*) . the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*) start with a string of r1 followed by any number of strings taken arbitrarily from r1 and/or r2. 3: Let r1 and r2 be arbitrary regular expressions over some alphabet.Exercise Questions on Regular Language and Regular Expression Ex. b. they do not produce any strings that are not represented by (r1 + r2)*. (b) A string corresponding to r1 consists of only a's or only b's or the empty string. For example ab and ba are such strings. The only strings corresponding to r2 which consist of only a's or b's are a. Of the strings wiht length 2 aa. However. Ex. However. that is. b and the strings consiting of only b's (from (a*b)*). ba is not in it. r1 = a* + b* r2 = ab* + ba* + b*a + (a*b)* Solution: (a) Any string consisting of only a's or only b's and the empty string are in r1. Solution: It can easily be seen that . Thus the answer is ba. Thus (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* is reduced to (r1 + r2)*. (a) Since (r1 + r2)* represents all strings consisting of strings of r1 and/or r2 . So we need to find strings of r2 which contain at least one a and at least one b. Ex. bb and ab are in the language. (a + b)+ etc. 2: For the two regular expressions given below. a+. a*. 1: Find the shortest string that is not in the language represented by the regular expression a*(ab)*b*. a. (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ means that all the strings represented by it must consist of one or more strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*). Thus anything that comes after the first r1 in (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is represented by (r1 + r2)*. Find a simple (the shortest and with the smallest nesting of * and +) regular expression which is equal to each of the following regular expressions. (a) (r1 + r2 + r1r2 + r2r1)* (b) (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ Solution: One general strategy to approach this type of question is to try to see whether or not they are equal to simple regular expressions that are familiar to us such as a.

First of all L . Hence (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ is reduced to (r1(r1 + r2)*). Thus (aab + bb)*(a + ) is a regular expression for L. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. First of all and a are in L . behind the second a and between the two a's. Then starting with . then aabx L and xbb L . Inductive Clause: If x L . Hence a string of L has zero or more of aab's and bb's in front possibly followed by a at the end. Ex.also represents the strings of (r1(r1 + r2)*)+. then aabx L and bbx L . and conversely (r1(r1 + r2)*)+ represents the strings represented by (r1(r1 + r2)*). Ex. Then starting with or a. 4: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L over the alphabet { a . 7: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the . b } that contain exactly two a's. Ex. Thus (aab)*(bb)* is a regular expression for L. strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or bb to any of the already generated strings. 5: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language L defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L and a L. Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. Solution: Let us see what kind of strings are in L. strings of L are generated one by one by prepending aab or appending bb to any of the already generated strings. Ex. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L unless it can be obtained from the above two clauses. Since any string of b's can be placed in front of the first a. b*a b*a b* is a regular expression for this language. and since an arbitrasry string of b's can be represented by the regular expression b*. Solution: A string in this language must have at least two a's. b } defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: L Inductive Clause: If x L . Hence a string of L consists of zero or more aab's in front and zero or more bb's following them. 6: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a.

then applying the same argument as for aa to . Hence the string is in this language. If there may not be any a in a string of the language. Any numbe of a's can appear any place in the string. bb. it has at least one b. 11: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the . ( a + b )*( a + bb ) is a regular expression for the language. then that a must be preceded by b because otherwise there are two occurences of aa. Solution: A string in the language can start and end with a or b. b } that do not end with ab. b }. Hence if a string of the language contains aa then it corresponds to the regular expression ( b + ab )*aa( b + ba )* . 9: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of strings of even lengths over the alphabet of { a. ( b + ab )*( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. Ex. a regular expression corresponding to the language is ( aa + ab + ba + bb )*. Solution: Any string in a language over { a . 8: Find a regular expression corresponding to the language of all strings over the alphabet { a. Since it can have any string in front of the last a or bb. If an a comes after that aa. Thus simply put. Ex. If there is no aa but at least one a exists in a string of the language. ba. Hence if a string does not end with ab then it ends with a or if it ends with b the last b must be preceded by a symbol b. Hence a string preceding the aa can be represented by ( b + ab )*. b } that contain no more than one occurence of the string aa. then applying the same argument as for aa to a. it is the set of strings over the alphabet { a. Hence any string that follows aa is represented by ( b + ba )*. On the other hand if an a precedes the aa. Ex. Note that 0 is an even number. ( b + ab )*a( b + ba )* is obtained as a regular expression corresponding to such strings. then it must be followed by b. b } that contain an odd number of b's Ex. then that aa can be followed by any number of b. ab.alphabet { a. Solution: If there is one substring aa in a string of the language. 10: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression a*b(a*ba*b)*a* . b } must end in a or b. Solution: Since any string of even length can be expressed as the concatenation of strings of length 2 and since the strings of length 2 are aa. and after the first b all the b's in the string appear in pairs. Altogether ( b + ab )*( + a + aa )( b + ba )* is a regular expression for the language.

Solution: ( b + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring aa and which end in b. { anbn | n is a natural number } which is the union of all the languages { akbk } . Hence altogether it represents any string consisting of a substring with no aa followed by one b followed by a substring with no bb. Note 1: Later we shall see that the complement of a regular language and the intersection of regular laguages are also regular. concatenation and Kleene star operations. that is. For example while { akbk } is regular for any natural number k . Proof: Let Lr and Ls be regular languages over an alphabet . Properties of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • Closure of the set of regular languages under union. Note 2: The union of infinitely many regular languages is not necessarily regular. concatenation and Kleene star. Then by the definition of the set of regular languages . The following theorem shows that any finite language is regular. and ( a + ab )* represents strings which do not contain any substring bb. 12: Describe as simply as possible in English the language corresponding to the regular expression ( b + ab )*( a + ab )*. Regularity of finite languages Theorem 1: The set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed under operations union. Lr Ls . Ex. where n is a natural number. the given regular expression represents the strings of length 3n and 3n + 1. Hence (( a + b )3)* represents the strings of length a multiple of 3. We say a language is finite if it consists of a finite number of strings. is not regular as we shall see later. Since (( a + b )3)*( a + b ) represents the strings of length 3n + 1.regular expression (( a + b )3)*( +a+b). Solution: (( a + b )3) represents the strings of length 3. a finite language is a set of n . LrLs and Lr* are regular languages and they are obviously over the alphabet . Thus the set of regular languages is closed under those operations. where n is a natural number.

Hence { aw } is regular.strings for some natural number n. Then for any symbol a of . Basis Step: By the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. Hence by the Inductive Clause of the definition of regular language { a }{ w } is regular. End of proof of Claim 1 Thus if we can show that { w } is a regular language for any string w. We then prove that a language consisting of a single string is regular. Proof of Claim 2: Proof by induction on strings. a finite language is regular) if { w } is regular for any string w. { regular languages for any arbitrary symbol a of . End of proof for Claim 2 Note that Claim 2 can also be proven by induction on the length of string. Proof: Let us first assume that a language consisting of a single string is regular and prove the theorem by induction. Then { w } is a regular language. } and { a } are Inductive Step: Assume that { w } is a regular language for an arbitrary string w over . Then since { w } is a regular language as proven below. L { w } is a regular language by the definition of regular language. End of proof of Theorem 2. Inductive Step: Assume that a language L consisting of n strings is a regular language (induction hypothesis). Theorem 2: A finite language is regular. Claim 2: Let w be a string over an alphabet . then we have proven the theorem. Proof of the Claim 1: Proof by induction on the number of strings. . Claim 1: A language consisting of n strings is regular for any natural number n (that is. Basis Step: (corresponding to n = 0) is a regular language by the Basis Clause of the definition of regular language. { a } is a regular language from the Basis Step.

So you are in another state. Pretend that you are the machine. Ds on arrows represent a dime and Ns a nickel. We are then going to study how finite automata can be used to simulate operations of systems we see in practice. A vending machine looked at this way is an example of finite automaton. In the next few chapters first we are going to learn different kinds of finite automata. tell whether or not a given string belongs to the regular language). can not be recognized by finite automata. When a customer comes and puts in the first coin. You have received 10 cents and are waiting for more coins to come. Click "NICKEL" or "DIME" in the figure and see how it operates (see how arrows turn red). Then we are going to see that for every regular language a unique finite automaton can be constructed which can recognize the language (i. say a dime. It is assumed that the machine terminates its operation when it receives 15 cents or more. Let us consider the operation of a soft drink vending machine which charges 15 cents for a can.Introduction to Finite Automata In this chapter we are going to study a class of machines called finite automata. Though Turing machines are simple modification of finite automata. that is. We are going to learn languages which are not regular and ways to test languages for non-regularity. Finite automata are computing devices that accept/recognize regular languages and are used to model operations of many systems we find in practice. then you have now received 15 cents and you wait for the customer to select a soft drink. A kind of systems finite automnata can model and a computer program to simulate their operations are discussed later. and equivalence and conversions between them. say 15-cents state. When the customer selects a soft drink. Their operations can be simulated by a very simple computer program.e. Let us assume that only nickels and dimes are used for simplicity. In fact Turing machines are as . In this example you as a vending machine have gone through (transitions between) a number of states responding to the inputs from the customer (coins in this case). If the customer puts in a nickel. After that you stay in that state until another coin is put in to start the process anew or you may terminate the operation and start all over from the initial state. therefore. you are no longer in the waiting-for-customer state. they are much more powerful computing devices than finite automata. circles represent states and arrows state transitions. The states and the transitions between them of this vending machine can be represented with the diagram below. you must give the customer a can of soft drink. Initially you are waiting for a customer to come and put some coins. We have learned that regular languages are represented by regular expressions and conversely. Unfortunately not all languages and systems are simple like regular languages or finite automata. In the figure. There are languages which are not regular and which. So we might say you are in the 10-cents state. Later we are going to learn an extension of finite automata called Turing machines. you are in the waiting-for-customer state.

the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". then (q. that any computation human beings do (with or without computers) can be performed by Turing machines. the states of the machine such as "waiting for a customer to put a coin in". The set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. A > Notes on the definition 1. Note that is a function. Definition of Deterministic Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • • • Finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of deterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols. be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. Otherwise it is not accepted. Then a deterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . if q is the initial state and a nickel is put in. "Waiting for a customer to put a coin in" can be considered the initial state of this automaton and the state in which the machine gives out a soda can can be considered the accepting state. for example. a) is equal to "have received 5 cents".powerful as computers and it is generally believed. 3. For example. Thus in the example of vending machine. a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. are the elements of Q. Also let be a function from Q to Q . q0 . We call the elements of Q a state. 4. in the Example 1 below. 2. Thus in the example of vending machine. (q. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. The transition function is also called a next state function meaning that the automaton moves into the state (q. though not proven. . Its elements can. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. . If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ceases to come. a) must be specified. . "have received 5 cents" etc. however. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of . The accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. the transition function.

) = q . Transition functions can also be represented by tables as seen below. 1. q ) from vertex p to vertex q with label represents the transition (p. aaa. Examples of finite automaton Example 1: Q = { 0. 2 }. .the string a is accepted by the finite automaton. A deterministic finite automaton is also called simply a "finite automaton". A = { 1 }. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 1 a 2 2 a 2 (q. are not accepted. DFAs are often represented by digraphs called (state) transition diagram. The vertices (denoted by single circles) of a transition diagram represent the states of the DFA and the arcs labeled with an input symbol correspond to the transitions. If the alphabet of the Example 1 is changed to { a. the following table. then we need a DFA such as shown in the following examle to accept the same string a. b } in stead of { a }. 5. It is a little more complex DFA. The accepting states are indicated by double circles. But any other strings such as aa. = { a }. a) ) A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. An arc ( p . Abbreviations such as FA and DFA are used to denote deterministic finite automaton. etc. They are called transition table.

the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 0 0 b 1 1 a 1 1 b 1 (q. b } is the next example. 1. b }. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a 1 0 b 2 1 a 2 1 b 2 2 a 2 2 b 2 (q. Example 3: Q = { 0. in the following table. A = { 0 }. a) ) . = { a.Example 2: Q = { 0. A DFA that accepts all strings consisting of only symbol a over the alphabet { a. = { a. 1 }. 2 }. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. the following table. b }. A = { 1 }. A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below.

20 }. the initial state q0 = 0. 10. Example 4: For the example of vending machine of the previous section. If we make it a DFA. 15. Q = { 0. State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 N 5 0 D 10 5 N 10 5 D 15 10 N 15 10 D 20 15 N 5 15 D 10 20 N 5 20 D 10 (q. A = { 15. N }. 20 }.A state transition diagram for this DFA is given below. a) ) . its transition function is as shown in the following table. 5. = { D.

4. There is a finite control which determines the state of the automaton and also controls the movement of the head. 6.A finite automaton as a machine A finite automaton can also be thought of as the device shown below consisting of a tape and a control circuit which satisfy the following conditions: 1. The head is always at the leftmost square at the beginning of the operation. The tape has the left end and extends to the right without an end. 5. When it sees no symbol. . The head moves to the right one square every time it reads a symbol. The tape has a read only head. It never moves to the left. 2. it stops and the automaton terminates its operation. 3. The tape is divide into squares in each of which a symbol can be written prior to the start of the operation of the automaton.

. As an example let us consider the DFA of Example 3 above. it goes into state 1 and the input string is not accepted by the DFA. the DFA is in the accepting state.Operation of finite automata Let us see how an automaton operates when it is given some inputs. b etc. Thus this automaton accepts any string of a's. Since the state 0 is also the accepting state. are accepted but strings such as aaba. Hence when b appears anywhere in the input. are not accepted by this automaton. it stays in state 0 while it reads all the a's (without breaks) on the tape. If b is read while it is in state 0 (initially or after reading some a's). Initially it is in state 0. then no matter what symbol is read. For example strings aaa. when all the a's on the tape are read. When zero or more a's are given as an input to it. Once it gets to state 1. this DFA never leaves state 1. it moves to state 1. aaaaaa etc.

*

of DFA and its Properties

Subjects to be Learned
• •
*

Language accepted by DFA

Contents
Here we are going to formally describe what is meant by applying a transition repeatedly, that is the concept of * For a state q and string w, *( q , w ) is the state the DFA goes into when it reads the string w starting at the state q. In general a DFA goes through a number of states from the state q responding to the symbols in the string w. Thus for a DFA < Q , , q0 , , A > , the function
* :Q -> Q is defined recursively as follows: *

Definition of

*

:
*

Basis Clause: For any state q of Q ,

(q,

) = q , where
*

denotes the empty string. and any symbol a ,

Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q, any string y * ( q , ya ) = ( *( q , y ) , a ) .

In the definition, the Basis Clause says that a DFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the state DFA reaches after reading string ya starting at state q is the state it reaches by reading symbol a after reading string y from state q. Example For example suppose that a DFA contains the transitions shown below.

Then
*

*

( q , DNR ) can be calculated as follows:

( q , DNR ) = ( *( q , DN ) , R ) by the Inductive Clause. = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , DN ). = ( ( *( q , D ) , N ) , R ) since D = D . = ( ( ( *( q , ) , D ) , N ) , R ) by applying the Inductive Clause to *( q , D ). = ( ( ( q , D ) , N ) , R ) , since ( q , ) = q . = ( ( q1 , N ) , R ) , since ( q , D ) = q1 as seen from the diagram. = ( q2 , R ) , since ( q1 , N ) = q2 as seen from the diagram. = q3 since ( q2 , R ) = q3 as seen from the diagram. Properties of
*

We can see the following two properties of

*

. for a DFA < Q , , q0 , ,A

Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >,
*

(q,a)=

(q,a)

Proof : Since a = a , * ( q , a ) = *( q , a ) . By the definition of * , * ( q , a ) = ( *( q , ) , a ) But *( q , ) = q by the definition of Hence ( *( q , ) , a ) = ( q , a ) .

*

.

The next theorem states that the state reached from any state, say q , by reading a string, say w , is the same as the state reached by first reading a prefix of w, call it x, and then by reading the rest of the w, call it y. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 , , A > , for a DFA < Q , ,

*

( q , xy ) =

*

(

*

(q,x),y).

Proof : This is going to be proven by induction on string y. That is the statement to be proven is the following: * For an arbitrary fixed string x, ( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for any arbitrary string y. First let us review the recursive definition of *. Recursive definition of Basis Clause:
* *

:

.

* * Inductive Clause: If x and a , then xa . * Extremal Clause: Nothing is in unless it is obtained from the above two clauses.

Now the proof of the theorem. Basis Step: If y = , then *( q , xy ) = *( q , x ) = *( q , x ) . Also *( *( q , x ) , y ) = *( *( q , x ) , ) = *( q , x ) by the definition of * . Hence the theorem holds for y = . Inductive Step: Assume that *( q , xy ) = *( *( q , x ) , y ) holds for an arbitrary string y. This is the induction hypothesis. We are going to prove that *( q , xya ) = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) for any arbitrary symbol a of . ( q , xya ) = ( *( q , xy ) , a ) by the definition of * = ( * ( *( q , x ) , y ) , a ) by the induction hypothesis. = *( *( q , x ) , ya ) by the definition of * . Thus the theorem has been proven.
*

For the following DFA answer the questions given below.

. w ) A } . the language accepted by a DFA is the set of strings accepted by the DFA. w ) A . That is a string is accepted by a DFA if and only if the DFA starting at the initial state ends in an accepting state after reading the string. A language L is accepted by a DFA < Q . if and only if ( q0 . * . q0 . That is. . if and only if L = { w | *( q0 .The following notations are used in the questions: : \delta * : \delta^* : \Lambda Language Accepted by DFA Subjects to be Learned • Language accepted by DFA A string w is accepted by a DFA < Q . . A > . A > . q0 . Example 1 : .

To find the language it accepts. by reading an empty string . which is not an accepting state.This DFA accepts { } because it can go from the initial state to the accepting state (also the initial state) without reading any symbol of the alphabet i. .1 any number of times by reading substring ab any number of times to come back to state 1.2 . This DFA has a cycle: 1 . Example 2 : This DFA does not accept any string because it has no accepting state.1 and it can go through this cycle any number of times by reading substring ab repeatedly. Then from state 1 go to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading aa.e.2 . Thus the language it accepts is the empty set Example 3 : DFA with one cycle . This is represented by (ab)*. first from the initial state go to state 1 by reading one a. Then from state 1 go through the cycle 1 . Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by a(ab)*aa . It accepts nothing else because any non-empty symbol would take it to state 1. and it stays there.

Example 4 : DFA with two independent cycles This DFA has two independent cycles: 0 .0 and 0 .1.2 .0 .1 .2 .0 . Example 5 : DFA with two interleaved cycles This DFA has two cycles: 1 . Thus a string that is accepted by this DFA can be represented by ( ab + bb )*.2 .0 and it can move through these cycles any number of times in any order to reach the accepting state from the initial state such as 0 .1 and 1 .0 .3 .1 . To find the language accepted by this DFA.2 .0.2 . first from state 0 go to state 1 by .

At this point a substring a( baa + bba )* will have been read. There is a systematic way of finding the language accepted by a DFA and we are going to learn it later. respectively.3 .1 any number of times by reading substring ba repeatedly.2 . So we are not going to go any further on this problem here. At this point (b*a) will have been read. Then go to state 1 by reading one a. Thus the language accepted at state 1 is b*a(ba)* . Then from state 1 go through the two cycles 1 . The language accepted at state 0 is b* .reading a ( any other state which is common to these cycles such as state 2 can also be used instead of state 1 ). Example 6 : This DFA has two accepting states: 0 and 1. Thus altogether a( baa + bba )*bb will have been read when state 3 is reached from state 0.2 . Then go from state 1 to state 2 and then to state 3 by reading bb. first at state 0 read any number of b's. Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata . Thus the language that is accepted by this DFA is the union of the language accepted at state 0 and the one accepted at state 1. To find the language accepted at state 1.1 and 1 .1 any number of times in any order by reading substrings baa and bba. At state 1 go through the cycle 1 .0 .2 .

a) if it receives the input symbol a while in state q. the transition function. a) to select is determined nondeterministically. A > Notes on the definition 1. 2. a) must be specified. = { a }. But it can be the empty set. Its elements can be interpreted as a state that the system (automaton) is in. Thus for each state q of Q and for each symbol a of (q. the following table. Note that any DFA is also a NFA.e. . q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. The transition function is also called a next state function . As in the case of DFA the set Q in the above definition is simply a set with a finite number of elements. Examples of NFA Example 1: Q = { 0. 3. Which one of the states in (q. As in the case of DFA the accepting states are used to distinguish sequences of inputs given to the finite automaton. q0 . . in which case the NFA aborts its operation. We call the elements of Q a state. the sequence of input symbols given to the finite automaton is "accepted". 4. ceases to come. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton is a 5-tuple < Q . A = { 1 }. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 1 a (q. If the finite automaton is in an accepting state when the input ends i. a) ) . Unlike DFAs an NFA moves into one of the states given by (q. Otherwise it is not accepted. Note that is a function. Also let be a function from Q to 2Q . 1 }. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. 5.Subjects to be Learned • • • Nondeterministic finite automata State transition diagram State transition table Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton Let Q be a finite set and let be a finite set of symbols.

b } in stead of { a }. a) ) Note that for each state there are two rows in the table for corresponding to the symbols a and b. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. = { a. the initial state is 0 and is as shown State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1.A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. 2 }. . A = { 2 }.2} 0 1 1 2 2 b a b a b {2} (q. in the following table. If the alphabet a}. this is still an NFA that accepts { Example 2: Q = { 0. is changed to { a. while in the Example 1 there is only one row for each state. 1. b }.

When it reads the symbol a. it does not accept any of them. if the next input is b and if no more inputs are given. If any other strings are given to this NFA. then it goes to state 2 and remains there. Let us now define the function strings and languages by NFA. if it moves to state 2 and no more inputs are given. We say that this automaton accepts the string a. If on the other hand it moves to state 1 after reading a. it moves to either state 1 or state 2. As an example let us consider the automaton of Example 2 above. Since the state 2 is the accepting state. then it stays in the accepting state. * and then formalize the concepts of acceptance of .Operation of NFA Let us see how an automaton operates when some inputs are applied to it. Thus the string ab is also accepted by this NFA. Initially it is in state 0.

In general an NFA nondeterministically goes through a number of states from the state q as it reads the symbols in the string w. ya ) = In the definition.Language Accepted by NFA Subjects to be Learned • • • for NFA Language accepted by NFA Properties of * * Definition of * For a state q and string w. string. A > . ) = { q }. w ) is the set of states that the NFA can reach when it reads the string w starting at the state q.3} 0 b {2} 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b {1} {3} {3} (q. q0 . the function * :Q -> 2Q is defined recursively as follows: * Definition of *: Basis Clause: For any state q of Q. any string y * and any symbol a ( q . . a) ) For example consider the NFA with the following transition table: . the Basis Clause says that an NFA stays in state q when it reads an empty string at state q and the Inductive Clause says that the set of states NFA can reach after reading string ya starting at state q is the set of states it can reach by reading symbol a after reading string y starting at state q.1. Thus for an NFA < Q . . Inducitve Clause: For any state q of Q. * (q. where * denotes the empty . Example State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {0. *( q .

b ) for all p * ( 0 .2. a ) = ( 0 . a ) = { 0 . Hence *( 0 . Then * * ( 0 . 3 } . ( 0 . Suppose that the state 3 is an accepting state of this NFA. By the Basis Clause of the definition of *. 3}. ) = { 0 } . 1 .b)={2} {3} {1}={1. a ) is the union of ( p. ) again by the Inductive * Clause of the definition of . a ) for all p ( 0 .The transition diagram for this NFA is as given below. . Hence *( 0 . b ) (1. ab ) is the union of the definition of * . *( 0 .b) (3. a ) by the Inductive Clause of * Now *( 0 . ab ) can be calculated as follows: ( p. ab ) = ( 0 .

abbbb etc. aaa. a. ab. . Some of the strings accepted by the NFA given above are the language it accepts is a*( ab + a + ba )(bb)* . * . and for NFA has properties similar to that for DFA. . q0 . xy ) = These theorems can be proven in a manner similar to those for Theorems 1 and 2 for DFA. A > . for an NFA < Q .a) for an NFA < Q . A > is the set of strings that are accepted by the NFA. . . q0. . that is. . * ( q . if and only if it can reach an accepting state by reading x starting at the initial state.* We say that a string x is accepted by an NFA < Q. The language accepted by an NFA < Q. q0. . A > if and only if * ( q0 . * (q. . .A Theorem 1: For any state q of Q and any symbol a of >.a)= (q. x ) A is not empty. Theorem 2: For any state q of Q and any strings x and y over q0 .

. the transition function. As we are going to see later. Here we are going to formally define NFA with -Transitions (abbreviated as NFA. Then a nondeterministic finite automaton with -Transitions is a 5-tuple < Q .makes the transition without reading any symbol in the input. for any NFA. concatenation and Kleene star operations. We call the elements of Q a state. A transition on reading means that the NFA.) and see some examples. Note that any NFA is also a NFA. We are going to do that by showing that a finite automaton can be constructed from a given regular expression by combining simpler FAs using union. Definition of nondeterministic finite automaton with Let Q be a finite set and let -Transitions be a function from Q be a finite set of symbols.A> Notes on the definition 1. Also let { } to 2Q . q0 . Thus the tape head does not move when is read. These operations on FAs can be described conveniently if -Transitions are used.Definition of Nondeterministic Finite Automata with Transitions Subjects to be Learned • • • - Nondeterministic finite automata with State transition diagram State transition table -Transitions Contents One of the objectives of this chapter is to show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between regular languages and finite automata. q0 the initial state and A the set of accepting states. let q0 be a state in Q and let A be a subset of Q. .there is a NFA (hence DFA) which accepts the same language and vice versa. . 2. . Basically an NFA with -Transitions is an NFA but can respond to an empty string and move to the next state.

If you read string ab. then you come to state 4. it can move to any of the states other than 0. A = .Example of NFA- Q = { 0. there are no transitions on reading b except from state 3. 4 and 5 without reading any symbol on the tape. For once you are in state 1. 4 } 3 {5} 3 b {4} 4 a {5} (q. 2. 4 and 5 by reading a. Thus 4 is the only state you can go to from the initial state . for example. 3. = { a. following table. A state transition diagram for this finite automaton is given below. b }. 2. for example. 1. 4. a) ) Here the transitions to are omitted from the table. When a symbol a is read at the initial state 0. 3. the initial state is 0 and is as shown in the State (q) Input (a) Next State ( 0 a {1} 0 {4} 1 {2} 2 { 3. For though you go to states 1. 3. 5 }. you can go to state 2.

by reading ab.

Language Accepted by NFASubjects to be Learned
• • • •

-closure for NFALanguage accepted by NFAProperties of *
*

Contents
To formally define * for NFA- , we start with the concept of -closure for a state which is the set of states reachable from the state without reading any symbol. Using that concept we define * and then strings and languqges accepted by NFA- . Definition of -closure

Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA- . Let us denote the -closure of a set S of states of Q by ( S ). Then ( S ) is defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: S (S)

Inductive Clause: For any state q of Q, if q ( S ) , then ( q , ) (S). Extremal Clause: Nothing is in ( S ) unless it is obtained by the above two clauses.

For the NFAFirst { 2 }

of the above figure, ( { 2 } ) , that is, 2 (2, )

( { 2 } ) is obtained as follows: ( { 2 } ) . Then since 2 ( { 2 } ) , by the

Inductive Clause, Since (2,

({2}). ({2}).

) = { 3 , 4 }, we now have { 2 , 3 , 4 }

Since 3 and 4 have been added to

({2}),

(3,

) = { 5 } and

(4,

)=

must

be included in ( { 2 } ) . Thus now { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } ({2}). Though 5 has become a memeber of the closure, since ( 5 , ) is empty, no new members are added to ( { 2 } ) . Since ( q , ) has been examined for all the states currently in ( { 2 } ) and no more elements are added to it, this process of generating the closure terminates and ( { 2 } ) = { 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 } is obtained. As we can see from the example, ( S ) is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S by traversing any number of arcs. That is, it is the set of states that can be reached from the states of S without reading any symbols in . Now with this -closure, we can define
*

recursively as follows:

As in the cases of DFA and NFA, * gives the result of applying the transition function repeatedly as dictated by the given string. Definition of
* *

is going to be defined recursively. Let < Q , , q0 , , A > be an NFA-

.

Basis Clause: For any state q of Q,
*

(q,

)=

({q}).
*

Inductive Clause: For any state q, a string y in

and a symbol a in

,

*

( q , ya ) =

(

).

What the Inductive Clause means is that *( q , ya ) is obtained by first finding the states that can be reached from q by reading y ( *( q , y ) ), then from each of those states p by reading a (i.e. by finding ( p , a ) ), and then by reading 's ( i.e. by taking the closure of the ( p , a )'s ) . Example : For the NFAbelow: of the following figure,
*

( 0 , ab ) can be obtained as

First let us compute *( 0 , a ) . For that we need ( { 0 } ). Since it is the set of states reached by traversing the arcs from state 0, ( { 0 } ) = {0,3,4}. Next from each of the states in ( { 0 } ) we read symbol a and move to another state (i.e. apply ). They are ( 0 , a ) = { 1 } , ( 3 , a ) = ( 4 , a ) = { 5 }. Hence We then traverse the } ) = { 1 , 2 , 3 } and = { 1 , 5 } for q = 0 . arcs from { 1 , 5 } to get to the states in *( 0 , a ) . Since * ({5})={5}, (0,a)={1,2,3,5}.

({1

A string x is accepted by an NFA.that recognizes a language L. q1.0 .to (equivalent) NFA Conversion of NFA to (equivalent) DFA Equivalence of DFAs. A > if and only if *( q0 . ab ) = { 3 . b ) are empty sets. . ab } . Equivalence of DFAs. a ) and then take the arcs from there. b ) = { 4 } . NFA M2 = < Q2. . .0 .. ( 3 . . Then the 2 . A2 > that satisfies the following conditions recognizes L: . q0 . q2. *( 0 . 4 } .< Q . Thus Since ( { 4 } ) = { 3 . . b ) . and ( 2 . A1 > be an NFA. A > is the set of strings accepted by the NFA. . q0 . .Then to find *( 0 .< Q . ab ) read b from each of the states in *( 0 . x ) contains at least one accepting state. b ) and ( 5 .s Subjects to be Learned • • • Conversion of NFA. For example the NFAof the figure given above accepts the language { . NFAs and NFAto NFA 1 Conversion of NFA- Let M1 = < Q1 . Now ( 1 . NFAs and NFA. a . 4 } . The language accepted by an NFA.

. The closure of the set of those states is 2( q . as the given NFA. A1 > does. 1. 2.a)= ( ) A2 = A1 { q1. that is all the states that can be reached from q by traversing arcs. 3 ). Then from the transition function of the NFA- . q2. Otherwise. a ) = 1 * (q. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) . then all the accepting states of M1 plus state q1. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0. a ) as follows: Find ( {q} ).0 through arcs in M1 . .M1 = < Q1 .0 through arcs in M1 . 2 ( q.0 are the accepting states of M2 .0. A2 > which accepts the same language 1 . a ): First ( { 0 } ) = { 0 .0 } if ( { q1. 1 } . Example 1: Let us convert the following NFAto NFA. . Then for each state q of Q2 and each symbol a of find 2 ( q . that is if an accepting state can be reached from the initial state q1. q1.Q2 = Q1.0 } ) A1 = A1 otherwise . The transition function 2 is obtained as follows: 2( 0 . The set of accepting states A2 is the same as A1 if no accepting states can be reached from the initial state q1.0 . Thus to obtain an NFA M2 = < Q2. Then collect all the states that can be reached from each state of ( {q} ) by traversing one arc labeled with the symbol a. a ) .0 . q2. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. 2 first copy the states of Q1 into Q2.0 = q1.

a ) = . )(= ( {1.2} {1.2} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. 2 (0.3} {1.( 0 . and Hence 2( 0 .3} {3} {1. (q. ({1.2} {1. 1 } and 1 (0. 2 }. .b)= Similarly 2 can be obtained for other states and symbols. since ( { 0 } ) = { 0 .1} {1} {1} {2} {2} {1.2} {1.2})={1. a ) = 1 ( 1 . They are given in the table ( { q } ) and 2 below together with State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 a b a b a b a b .2} )) ({q}) {0.b)= 1 ( 1. b ) = . 2 ( 0 .2}.2} {1.3} {1. a ) = { 1 . b ) .1} {0. 1 For .

3} {1. the initial state is 0 and the accepting states are 1 and 0. ) and State q Input 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 a b a b a b a b a ({q}) {0.Example 2: Let us convert the following NFA- to NFA. 2 is given in the table below together with ( { q } ) . 3. 1 ( p . 1.4} {1.4} {1.3} {2.2.4} {1.3} .2} {1.1} {1} {1} {2. 4 ).1} {0.3} )) {1. since 1 is in ( { 0 } ) .2} 2 (q.3} {3} {3} {1.4} {1.2. 2. The transition function 2 is obtained as for Example 1. The set of states Q2 of NFA is { 0. )(= ( {1.2} {4} {4} {4} {1.2.

.4 b {1.4} The NFA thus obtained is shown below. Proof of Equivalence of NFA- and NFA We are going to prove that the NFA obtained from NFAby the conversion algorithm accepts the same language as the NFA.

wa ) = --. then * 1 ( q . .0 .a)= 2 ( q .a)= 2 2 * (q . 1 * (q. for NFA. = 1 * Then we show that ( q .NFA- that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 . and the conversion of NFAto NFA click here. Recall that the set of strings is defined recursively (click here for a quick review). Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. wa ) --. Inductive Step: We need to show that if 1 * (q.0 . )={q}. that is wa for any symbol a in the alphabet. 1 . The case when w is an empty string is going to be proven separately. 1 * (q.a)= 2 * 2 (q. We are going to prove it by showing that both of them are equal to Firstly 2( q . a ) = 1*( q .(2) Hence from (1) and (2). A2 > (q. Basis Step: We need to show that for any symbol a in 1 * (q.a)= 2 * (q. w ) for any non-empty string w. Claim 1: For any non-empty string w and for any state q. First we are going to prove that To review the definition of * 1 * . q2. (q. .a).w)= 2 * (q. . it implies that NFAM1 and NFA M2 accept the same non-empty strings.a). a)= by the definition of Since * 2 * for NFA (click here for a review) .(2) . (q. . the induction hypothesis and the construction of NFA from NFA. w ) for an arbitrary string w (Induction Hypothesis). a ) --.w). Hence (q..(1) . a ) . wa ) holds for any arbitrary symbol a in First we show that using the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . then assuming it holds for any arbitrary string w we prove it for any of the children of w.w)= 2 * ( q . . Thus we first prove that it is true for any arbitrary symbol. = = 2 * 2 (q .w)= 2 * ( q . --. A1 > and 2 NFA obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2.a).a). wa ) = 2 * ( q . q1. and NFA- When it is proven. Secondly 2 * (q.(1) because of the way NFA is constructed from NFA(click here for a review) .

Let us first prove (1). . Hence On the other hand = Hence 1 * = ( q . 1 * Thus from (1) and (2) ( q . that is (1) has been proven. wa ) . because = . wa ) = 2 * ( q .a)= 1 * ( q . a ) by the way NFA is constructed from NFA= . for NFA- (p. wa ) . wa ) . = 1*( q . . This can be shown to be equal to . w ) by the induction hypothesis. as proven below in Claim 3. The right hand side of this equality is equal to ( the first and have been swapped to get this) . By the definition of 2 * 2 * ( q . wa ) = Since 2 * (q. Hence 2 * ( q . = Since 2 (q. . by the definition of 1 * . wa ) = 2 * ( q . wa ) . ( q .basically using the definition of Then from (1) and (2) we can see that 1 * 1 * . wa ) . To see an explanation for this click here.w)= 1 * ( q . wa ) = .a)= Substituting this into the left hand side of (2) produces = . Let us next prove (2). that is By the definition of 1 * = 1 * 1 * ( q . Hence we have proven (2).

Claim 2: (S T)= (S) (T). . Then the -closure of X is defined recursively as Basis Clause: X (X). then ( q . and the corresponding NFA accept the same language. ) (X). Inductive Clause: If q ( X ) . q20 Conversely if NFAis accepted by NFA. Let X be the set of states of an NFA. As for the empty string . What Part 1 states is that all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in the set (S) (T). in the Basis Step of our proof we prove the property for the elements of the basis of (S T ) and in the Inductive Step we prove that if an arbitrary element of (S T ) has that property. Since (S T ) is defined recursively. Hence is accepted by NFA. then its childen also have it.. We are going to prove this in two parts: (S T) (S) (S) (T) ( T ) and (S T). then q20 this means that Thus NFA( { q10 } ) A1 A2 . Part 1 : (S T) (S) (T) This is going to be proven by induction on (S T).End of Induction With this Claim 1 we can see that any non-empty string w is accepted by NFA if and only if it is accepted by the corresponding NFA. As a preparation for the proof of commutativity of union and -closure operations. if it is accepted by an NFA. Hence is accepted by NFA. A2 . By the way NFA is constructed from . For that let us restate the statement so that the induction becomes clearer. Hence by the way A2 is constructed. Let us review the definition of the -closure of the set of states of an NFA. Extremal Clause: Nothng is in ( X ) unless it is obtained by the Basis and Inductive Clauses. then ( { q10 } ) A1 . let us prove the following claim.

S and T are subsets of (S T) Inductive Step: We need to prove that if q is an arbitrary element of the property of being in (S) (S ( T ) . T T). Hence ) Similarly if q Hence if q is an arbitrary element of (S) (T). (T) Thus all the elements of (S T ) have the property of being in (S T) which is to say that (S) (T). ( T ) . and ( S T) (S T). ) . then ( q . ) (S) (S) (T). (q. then (q. Since q If q ( S ) . then (q. (T).q ( S ) or q ( S ) . That would imply that Proof of (S) (S By induction on (S T): (S). ( T ) . ) Let q be an arbitrary element of T ) with the property of being in ( S ) by the definition of ( T ) . (S T ) with the property of being in (S) ( T ) . then (q.S (S T). Hence (T). ) (S) (T). if q is in .Proof of Part 1: Basis Step: We need to prove that ( S Since S ( S ) and T T) (S) (S) (S (S) (S) (T). T). (S) (T). Basis Step: We need to show that S Since S (S T ) . T ) with (T). Inductive Step: We need to prove that for an arbitrary element q in ( S ) . ) (S) (T). End of Proof for Part 1 Part 2 : Proof of Part 2: We are going to prove (S) (S (S) T ) and (S) (T) (T) (T) (S (S (S T).

) (S closure T). ( Si ) holds for n.Inducion Hypothesis ( Si ) = ( = = (( Si ) ( ( Si ) ) Si ) ( Sn+1 ) by the definition of union. Similarly Hence (S) (T) (T) (S T ) holds. Proof : Proof by induction on n. Si is a set as well as Sn+1. End of Proof of Part 2 End of Proof of Claim 2 Claim 3: ( Si ) = ( Si ) . If n = 1. ) (S T). - T ) is a -closure. then Hence Inductive Step: Assume that ( ( Si ) = Si ) = ( Si ) holds for n = 1. End of Proof for Claim 3 Sn+1 ) by Claim 2 above. Thus (S) (S T ) has been proven. ( Sn+1 ) by the induction hypothesis. --. by the definition of (q. since = ( Equivalence of NFA and DFA We are going to prove that the DFA obtained from NFA by the conversion algorithm . ( Si ) = ( Si ) = ( S1 ) and ( S1 ) . Basis Step: n = 1.(S Since q is in (S T ) and since (S T ) . Si ) by the definition of union. then (q. (S T ) holds.

A2 > First we are going to prove by induction on strings that 1*( q1. Proof: This is going to be proven by induction on w. ( q2. . 1 * ( q1. w ) = 2 * ( q2. = { q1.0 . When it is proven. = * 1 ( q1.accepts the same language as the NFA. w ) = 2*( q2. a ) ( q2. Theorem: For any string w. Inductive Step: Assume that Induction Hypothesis 1 * ( q1. 2 1 .0 .0 . . w ) = 2 * ( q2. ) = q2. w ) . w ) . wa ) * 1 Thus for any string w ( q1.Part 1 Subjects to be Learned • • • • Union of FAs Concatenation of FAs Kleene Star of FAs Acceptance of regular languages by FAs Contents . --- For the string w and an arbitrry symbol a in 1 * .0 .0 } by the construction of DFA M2 .0 . Kleene's Theorem --.0 .0 . w ) holds. wa ) = = = = 2 ( 1 2 * * ( q1. w ) .0 .0 . obtained by the conversion is denoted by M2 = < Q2. Basis Step: For w = 2 * . q1. w ) = 2 * ( q2. ( q1. A1 > and DFA . w ) for an arbitrary string w. q2. a ) 2( * 2 ( q2.0 . NFA that recognizes a language L is denoted by M1 = < Q1 .0 by the definition of 2* .0 . w ) for any string w. ) by the definition of 1 * .0 .0 .0 .0 . it obviously implies that NFA M1 and DFA M2 accept the same strings.0 .

q2. Au > . . 2 . then L1 L2 . 1 . A2 > . . We assume that Q1 Q2 = without loss of generality since states can be renamed if necessary. . Then L1 = < Qc . . It states that any regular language is accepted by an FA and conversely that any language accepted by an FA is regular. concatenation and Kleene star operations. u L2 . qc.0 . Inductive Step: We are going to show that for any languages L1 and L2 if they are accepted by FAs.0 . which are given below. Proof: This is going to be proven by (general) induction following the recursive definition of regular language. c .{ } and { a } for any symbol a in are accepted by an FA. respectively. Au > : { qu. L1L2 and L1* are accepted by FAs.Kleene's theorem. qu. Basis Step: As shown below the languages . respectively. Qu = Q1 Q2 . k .0 .0 . Since any regular language is obtained from { } and { a } for any symbol a in by using union. qk.0 is a state which is neither in Q1 nor in Q2 .0 } . . Ak > . u Mu = < Qu . L1L2 and L1* are accepted by the FAs Mu = < Qu .0 . Mc . . q1. that together with the Basis Step would prove the theorem. Ac > and Mk = < Q2 .0 . . qu. where qu. A1 > and M2 = < Q2 . Suppose that L1 and L2 are accepted by FAs M1 = < Q1 . Theorem 1 (Part 1 of Kleene's theorem): Any regular language is accepted by a finite automaton.

q2.0 } ) | q A1 } Ac = A2 Mk = < Qk . q2. These NFA- s are illustrated below. qk. . . u ) = { q1. . { qk. that is u (qu.0 . . Ac > : Qc = Q1 Q2 qc.u = 1 2 { (qu.0 } ) | q A1 } Ak = { qk. Ak > : { qk.0 } = 1 { (qk.0 c = 1 2 { (q. where qk. .0 = q1.0 . { q1. a ) = for all a in . Note that (qu. qc. Qk = Q1 k . k .0. Au = A1 A2 Mc = < Qc . c .0.0 } .0 } . { q2.0.0.0 .0 is a state which is not in Q1 . .0 . { q1.0 } ) } .0 } ) } { (q.

End of Proof Examples of Mu . that these NFA. Mc and Mk: Example 1: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression (aa + b)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above.It can be proven. L1L2 and L1*. Mc and Mk .s . Mu. in fact accept L1 L2 . respectively. though we omit proofs. .

Example 2: An NFAthat accepts the language represented by the regular expression ((a + b)a*)* can be constructed as follows using the operations given above. .

Kleene's Theorem -.Part 2 .

L(p. q. 2.Subjects to be Learned • Languages accepted by FAs are regular Contents The converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem also holds true. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. L(p. k)*L(k+1. Next denote by L(p. It states that any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. let us study a method to compute the set of strings accepted by a finite automaton. q. k+1. first relabel its states with the integers 1 through n. k+1. q. Lemma 1: L(p. See the figure below for the illustration. k)*L(k+1. k) : The set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled wiht k or lower numbers. Then the following lemmas hold. k+1. q. all without passing through states labeled higher than k. Before proceeding to a proof outline for the converse. Given a finite automaton. Note that paths may go through arcs and vertices any number of times. k) : The set of strings going first from p to k+1. k+1. k)L(k+1. k) L(p. then from k+1 to k+1 any number of times. then from k+1 to q. k) . k) the set of strings representing paths from state p to state q that go through only states numbered no higher than k. q. What this lemma says is that the set of strings representing paths from p to q passing through states labeled with k+1 or lower numbers consists of the following two sets: 1. . q. k+1) = L(p. k)L(k+1.

0) is regular. Proof: L(p. we have the following converse of the part 1 of Kleene Theorem. Hence if p and q are different. q. q. >From Lemmas 1 and 2 by induction the following lemma holds. If p = q. Since the language accepted by a finite automaton is the union of L(q0. L(p. q. 0) is the set of strings representing paths from p to q without passing any states in between. then is in it as well as the strings representing any loops at p (they are all single symbols). 0) is regular. Since the number of symbols is finite and since any finite language is regular. Lemma 3: L(p. q.Lemma 2: L(p. Theorem 2 (Part 2 of Kleene's Theorem): Any language accepted by a finite automaton is regular. q. k) is regular for any states p and q and any natural number k. n) over all accepting states q. then it consists of single symbols representing arcs from p to q. where n is the number of states of the finite automaton. Example : Let us find the language accepted by the following finite automaton using the .

1.0) + r(1. 1.0) + r(3.2. 3.1. 3. 1.2. 3.0) = ba* .0)*r(1.2.2. 1)*r(2. 2.1. 1) + r(1. 2.2. 1) = r(2. since r(1.0) + r(1. 3. r(1.0)r(1. 3. 1. 2. .2.1. 1) = r(3.0) = ba+ .1. 3. 1.1. r(1. 2): r(3. 1) = r(3.0) = and r(2. 2.0)*r(1. r(1. 1.2. 3) = r(1. 2)r(3.1. 2. 2) = a+(b a+ + = a+(b a+ )*a . 2) = r(3. 2): r(1. 2)*r(3.1. 1) + r(3.0)*r(1.1. since r(1.1.0) = a .1. 1) = r(1. 2) = r(1. r(2.1. 3. 2) + r(1.0) = and r(3.0)*r(1. 1.0) + r(2.1. 2. 2) = r(1.0)r(1. 1.0)r(1. 1. 2.1. 3.lemmas. 3).1. 1) = r(1. 1) = a Hence r(1. 1)r(2. 1.0) + r(2.0) = a* . 3. 1) r(1. r(2. 1. q. 2) = a* + a+(b a+)*b a* .0)r(1. 2. 3. 1)*r(2.0)*r(1. q. Hence r(1. Let us denote by r(p.0) = a+ . )*a r(3.0) = b. 1)r(2. 2. 3. 1) = r(2. 1) + r(1.0)r(1. 1)r(2. 3.1.0) = b . 1) = r(2. k) the regular expression for the set of strings L(p.2.2. 1) r(1. 2) .0) = ba+ + . r(1. Then the language accepted by this NFA is r(1. k). since r(2. 1)*r(2. 3. 1) r(3. 1. By Lemma 1.0) = a + .1. 3. since r(3. 2): r(1.

q. Hence r(1.L . 1)r(2. * . .e. 1. 3) = a* + a+(b a+)*ba* + ( a+( ba+ )*a )( This can be further simplified to (a + ab + abb)*. . A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. 1) = r(3. Comlement and Intersection of Regular Language Subjects to be Learned • • • Complement of Regular Language Complement of DFA Intersection of Regular Languages Contents Complement Let M = < Q .1. q.0)r(1. Q .1.1.A > is a DFA that accepts * . 1. 1. In this example there is only one accepting state. n) must be found for each accepting state q. The detail is left as an exercise though it would be quite challenging.L. 1)*r(2. n)'s must be added together to get the regular expression for the language accepted by the automaton. 2) = ba* + ba+( ba+ + = ( ba+ )*ba* . i. 2) = r(3. can be obtained by swapping its accepting states with its non-accepting states. 2. Then a DFA that accepts the complement of L. 1. that is Mc = < Q .Hence r(3. then to (a + ab)*. 1. . 2): r(3.0)<SUP*< SUP>r(1. q0 . 2. and all the r(p.0) = ba* Hence r(3. . 1) r(3. q0 . 1. where p is the initial state and n is the number of states in the given finite automaton. 3. If there are more accepting states.0) + r(3. . 1.1. 2) = = + ( ba+)+a + ba+( ba+ + )*a r(3. )*ba* + ( ba+)+a )*( ba+ )*ba*. 1) + r(3. then r(p.

Remark 2: Since a language is regular if and only if it is accepted by some NFA. we must first convert it to DFA before swapping states to get its complement. b }. Remark 1: If we have NFA rather than DFA. . A DFA that accepts its complement is obtained from the above DFA by changing all single circles to double circles and vice versa as shown below.For example the following DFA accepts the language a+ over = { a . the complement of a regular language is also regular.

intersection. By Remark 2 above. then Submit. Therefore all the properties of sets are inherited by languages. Next -. if L1 and L2 are regular languages. difference.Intersection of Regular Languages Langauges are sets. Click True or Fals .Regular Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Regular Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Production and Grammar Regular Grammar Context-Free. Test Your Understanding of Complemnent and Intersection of FAs Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. L1 L2 is regular. then their complements are regular languages. Context-Sensitive and Phrase Structure Grammars . Since L1 L2 = by De Morgan's law. concatenation and Kleene star operations. Thus summing all this up we can say that the set of regular languages over an alphabet is closed with respect to union. In particular De Morgan's law also applies to languages.

and S -> aS . . = {a. add the transition ( X. which ia a nonterminal. These rules mean that S is rewritten as a or as aS. S -> bS.{ by a regular grammar. if L . where X and Y are nonterminals and a is a terminal. Then apply the first rule to aS to rewrite S as a. Then for every production X -> aY. and a set of rewrite rules (productions) P. aa. One can generate the strings of this language by the following procedure: Let S be a symbol to start the process with. } . If we are not interested in the intermediate steps. . that is by something called grammar. aS. For example. . a ) = Y and for every production X -> a add the transition ( X. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS.e. A production has in general the form -> . The following theorem holds for regular grammars. a set of terminals (the alphabet of the language). a start symbol S. a ) = Z.e. If there is no is derived from ambiguity about the grammar G that is referred to. i. regular. Add another state as the accepting state Z. Theorem 3: A language L is accepted by an FA i. . That gives us aa. To generate the string aa for example. start with S and apply the second rule to replace S with the right hand side of the rule. In general if a string a grammar G. We write S => aS to express that aS is obtained from S by applying a single production. to obtain aS. finite automata and construction from simple languages using simple operations. b}. A grammar is regular if and only if is a single nonterminal and is a single terminal or a single terminal followed by a single nonterminal. S corresponds to the initial state. we write =>*G is obtained from a string and say that by applying productions of . where is a string of terminals and nonterminals with at least one nonterminal in it and is a string of terminals and nonterminals. A grammar is a set of rewrite rules which are used to generarte strings by successively rewriting symbols. For example consider the language represented by a+. Rewrite S using one of the following two rules: S -> a . There is yet another way of characterizing them.Contents We have learned three ways of characterising regular languages: regular expressions. aaa. } can be generated This can be proven by constructing an FA for the given grammar as follows: For each nonterminal create a state. the fact that aa is obtained from S is written as S =>* aa . Thus the process of obtaining aa from S is written as S => aS => aa . that is a production is of the form X -> a or X -> aY. which is { a. S -> } is a regular grammar and it generates all the strings consisting of a's and b's including the empty string. then we simply write =>* Formally a grammar consists of a set of nonterminals (or variables) V.

X. . as its member. If L contains ( L -{ } ) { } is also regular. S -> bS. . P = { S -> aS. then since { } is regular . Theorem 4 : If L is regular i. b ) = { S. where Q = { S. A > a regular grammar < Q. { a.{ } is regular. Y } . . q0.For example = {a. . and for any a in and any nonterminal X. Y -> bS. X -> bS. P. b }. b}. a regular grammar corresponding to the NFA given below is < Q. q0 > is obtained as follows: for any a in . X -> a is in P if and only if (X. Z } . } is generated by a For example. An NFA that recognizes this language can be obtained by creating two states S and Z. then L . P. X -> aY. S -> aX. X -> aY is in P if and only if (X. and nonterminals X and Y. L = Conversely from any NFA < Q. Z } and ( S. where S is the initial state and Z is the accepting state of the NFA. The NFA thus obtained is shown below. Thus the following converse of Theorem 3 is obtained. a) = Y . S -> b } form a regular grammar which generates the language ( a + b )+.e. V = { S } and P = { S -> aS. a) = Y for some accepting state Y. S -> a }. S > . and adding transitions ( S. accepted by an NFA.{ regular grammar. a ) = { S. Thus L . S -> a.

X -> a. They are characterized by context-free grammars. ZX -> XZ. A grammar is a context-sensitive grammar if and only if its production is of the form 1 X 2 -> 1 2 . context-sensitive grammars and phrase structure grammars. S1 -> XYZS1. 1 . BY -> bb. cZ -> cc } with = { a. It is an example of context-sensitive language which is not context-free. S -> ab } with = { a. These grammars are distinguished by the kind of productions they have but they also form a hierarchy. that is the set of regular languages is a subset of the set of context-free languages which is in turn a subset of the set of context-sensitive languages and the set of context-sensitive languages is a subset of the set of phrase structure languages. For example P = { S -> XYZS1. 2 and are strings of terminals and nonterminals.In addition to regular languages there are three other types of languages in Chomsky hierarchy : context-free languages. S. Z. Context-sensitive grammars are also characterized by productions whose left hand side is not longer than the right hand side. S -> XYZ. S1 } is a context-sensitive grammar and it generates the language { anbncn | n is a positive integer } . aX -> aa. A grammar is a context-free grammar if and only if its production is of the form X -> . for every production -> . Y. For example P = { S -> aSb. c } and V = { X. possibly the empty string. . that is. As we shall see later this is an example of context-free language which is not regular. context-sensitive languages and phrase structure languages.| | | |. possibly empty except Thus the nonterminal X can be rewritten as only in the context of 1X 2 . bZ -> bc. S1 -> XYZ. where is a string of terminals and nonterminals. aY -> ab. ZY -> YZ. b. b } and V = { S } is a contex-free grammar and it generates the language { anbn | n is a positive integer } . where X is a nonterminal and . respectively. YX -> XY.

denote it by M1. new := new_partition( . Minimization Algorithm for DFA Construct a partition = { A. that is a production of a phrase structure grammar can take the form can be any string. Let M = < Q . . }. -> . there is no restriction on the form of production. Then the following algorithm produces the DFA. q0 .Minimization of DFA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Minimization of DFA One important result on finite automata. that has the smallest number of states amomg the DFAs that accept L. both theoretically and practically. is that for any regular language there is a unique DFA having the smallest number of states that accepts it.For a phrase structure grammar. where and Test Your Understanding of Regular Grammar Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. A > be a DFA that accepts a language L. then Submit. .A } of the set of states Q . Q . There are two sets of questions. Click True or Fals . Next -.

Let us also denote by p and q the sets of states of the original DFA M represented by p and q. S remains in the output partition. Let p and q be representatives i. . If S is not partitioned in this process. The subsets thus formed are sets of the output partition in place of S. if there are any. Note that the sets of final are either a subset of A or disjoint from A. respectively. then the minimum DFA M1 has a transition from p to q on symbol a. p and q make a transition to (states of) the same set of . end Minimum DFA M1 is constructed from • • final as follows: • • Select one state in each set of the partition final as the representative for the set. states of minimum DFA M1. Example 1 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. Remove from M1 the dead states and the states not reachable from the start state. A state is a dead state if it is not an accepting state and has no out-going transitions except to itself.while ( := new new ) ) . The accepting states of M1 are representatives that are in A. If a transition from s to t on symbol a exists in M. final function new_partition( ) for each set S of do partition S into subsets such that two states p and q of S are in the same subset of S if and only if for each input symbol.e. The start state of M1 is the representative which contains the start state of M. Any transitions to a dead state become undefined. new := new_partition( := . These representatives are states of minimum DFA M1. Let s be a state in p and t a state in q.

{ 3 } . Further. Since the rest are singletons. in the When new_partition is applied to this new . 5 }. Note here that state 4 is a dead state because the only transitionout of it is to itself. Since the rest of the states are singletons. 4 goes to 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . 2 . since 1 and 5 do the same transitions. in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 1 to 3 on a. and 3 goes to 1 on a in the original DFA. state 3 goes to state 4 and 1 and 4 are in different sets in . Since on b state 2 goes to state 1. states 2 and 3 are going to be separated from each other in new . since on b 2 goes to 1. { 2 } . all transitions between them are inherited for the minimized DFA. and to 2 on b in the original DFA. { 4 ] }. remains unchanged. { 3 } . new_partition is applied to .Initially = { { 1 . 4 } }. Select 1 as the representative for { 1 . Also since 2 goes to 1 on b. 5 } . This becomes the second iteration. 3 . in the minimized DFA transitions are added from 2 to 1 on b. state 3 goes to state 5 and 4 and 5 are in different sets in . { 2 } . { 4 ] }. states 3 and 4 are going to be separated from each other in new. Thus the set of states for the minimized DFA is { 1 . 5 } . On the other hand 1 and 5 make the same transitions. Also since on a sate 4 goes to sate 4. So they are not going to be split. { 2 . 5 } . For the transitions. Thus final = { { 1 . 3 }. since 1 goes to 3 on a. 2 and 4 are separated from each other in new. and from 3 to 1 on a. Thus the new partition is { { 1 . . they have the obvious representatives. and 1 to 2 on b.

Thus the minimized DFA is as given in the following figure: Example 2 : Let us try to minimize the number of states of the following DFA. .

Click True or Fals . { 1 . { 6 } } is obtained. { 4 } . then Submit.Application of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Application of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Reactive system . { 2 . 5 . { 1 . { 3 } . 4 . { 5 } . 4 } . Thus the number of states of the given DFA is already minimum and it can not be reduced any further. new = { { 1 } .Initially = { { 3 } . { 1 . { 6 } } is obtained. 2 . Next -. 6 } }. { 2 } . 5 } . { 2 } . Applyting new_partition again. Applyting new_partition to this . By applying new_partition to this . Test Your Understanding of Minimization of DFA Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. 4 . 6 } } is obtained. { 5 } . new = { { 3 } . new = { { 3 } .

It is an event driven or control driven system continuously having to react to external and/or internal stimuli. are identified and they become arcs in the transition diagram of the finite automaton. In the case of vending machine or communication protocol. Finite automata are formal and rigorous and computer programs can be easily written to simulate their behaviors. lexical analysers for compilers etc. Let us assume for simplicity that this computer accepts a single user at a time.• Modeling reactive systems with FA Contents We have seen an example of use of finite automata in describing the operation of a simplified version of vending machine.e. first the states the system goes in or the modes of its operation are identified. a system must respond to each stimulus. It is generally agreed that finite automata are a natural medium to describe dynamic behaviors of reactive systems. Many other systems operating in practice can also be modeled by finite automata such as control circuits of computers. To model a reactive system with finite automaton. The inputs for a reactive system are never ready unlike for example when two numbers are added together by an adder (Here we are considering an adder at a higher level of abstraction than physical devices level ignoring for example the transient states of the electronic circuit that realizes an adder). two numbers to be added are ready. external or internal to the system. An adder does not respond unless the input i. Many of those systems fall into the class of systems called reactive system. These become the states of the finite automaton that models it. In addition actions that may take place in those states can also be added to the model. Then the transitions between the states triggered by events and conditions. even to a fragment of input such as each coin tossed in for a can of soda or every message received. on the other hand. computer network communication protocols. A system such as an adder is called a transformational system. outputs and conditions/status in response to stimuli from within or outside it. A reactive system is a system that changes its actions. . For example consider the following very simplified version of login process to a computer from the computer point of view.

it checks whether or not the name is valid. We could make it go to a different state and count the number of login attempts for security purpose. different states would be identified and transitions would have to be selected accrdingly. Again depending on the level of abstraction. When a password is typed in and it is correct. If a positive ACK is received. Again it is a very simplified version. If it is valid. When it is complete. sending ACK. Again what we have seen is a model for one level of abstraction. After sending the ACK. it starts sending the requested message to the other party. If the second password fails. When the session terminates. Thus a finite automaton that models this protocol has the following five states: initial state (wait for RFNM). then it asks for and then waits for the password. it goes back to the initial state and waits for another RFNM to come. Initially the computer is in wait state waiting for "Request for Next Message" (RFNM) to come from another computer. This is one state of the system. If a negative ACK is received. But let us make it simple. When a name is typed in. goes back to the initial state and waits for another login. it gets a signal. then it accepts the user and starts a session. then it informs the user of that and waits for the next try. Upon completion of the RFNM. it goes back to the initial state. . it resends the message. different states and transitions would have to be chosen. That is a fourth state.Initially the computer waits for a user name to be typed in. which is another state. When a RFNM starts coming. which is another state. The next example is a protocol for a computer to follow in communicating with another computer. If the user name typed in is not valid. it sends "Acknowledgement" (ACK) to the other computer. it goes to the initial state and starts all over again. Depending on how much detail we are interested in. That is another state though it could further be broken down into a number of more states. sending message and waiting for ACK. receiving RFNM. If the password typed in is incorrect. it goes into another wait state waiting for an ACK to come from the other computer. it goes into the state of receiving it (Our interpretation is that the computer is in a state of receiving an RFNM and it is taking the action of receiving the RFNM) .

If the first digit is received before a decimal point. 9 } .2. then it goes into a state.+ ) ( d+.represent the positive and negative signs. that indicates that a sign has been received. where s+ and s.1. -15. On the other hand if a digit has been read before a decimal point. . After one digit it can continue receiving digits. they can be represented by the following regular expression: ( s+ + s.d+ + d+ + . followed by zero or more digits. it goes into a state. denote it by Q.8 etc. then it goes into a state. followed by a possible decimal point. that indicates a digit has been read before a decimal point. then it can continue receiving digits and stay in D. respectively and d {0. If a decimal point has been read (i.. +213. denote it by P. i.Our third example is a system that recognizes numbers with or without a sign such as 5. Therefore from state P it goes to another state. If the first symbol is a sign. regardless of whether a sign has been read or not.378. in state P). then it must receive at least one digit after that.e.e. If a decimal point is read while in D. One such system initially waits for the first symbol to come in. then it goes to state P indicating that a decimal point has been read.d+ ). This system can also be described by a regular expression. followed by one or more digits. If a decimal point is received before a digit. Since these numbers are represented by strings consisting of a possible sign. D is another accepting state. after reading a digit and stays there as long as digits are read. . that indicates that a decimal point has been read. denote it by G. This system can be modeled by the following finite automaton: . . denote it by D. it is in state D. This Q is an accepting state.

holds the next state for each input symbol for each state. called NEXT_STATE. called ACTION. indicates the actions taken at each state and a fourth. Those indices are used to access the contents of the other arrays.Simulation of FA Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Finite Automata Simulation of Finite Automata Subjects to be Learned • Simulation of FA Contents Once a finite automaton is constructed. called STATEX. while ( TOKEN [index] . Algorithm FA Simulator state := INITIAL_STATE. 0 and TOKEN [index] input ) index := index + 1. Another array. input := read_input( ) . while ( state NO_of_STATES and not End of Input ) index := STATEX [state] . stores for each state the input symbols that trigger transitions from the state. One such simulation algorithm is given below. we can use a general purpose program to simulate its operation. It uses four arrays. keeps the index of the first symbol in the TOKEN array for each state. A third array.Next -. One array. called TOKEN.

to input 3. Then every time you click "SHOW" the number is processed digit by digit. Then type 3 Tab . state := NEXT_STATE [index]. B. To see how this algorithm works. So no action is taken as a number is processed. empty transitions) are omitted. first click the box under the red arrow. In the DFA below all the transitions to the empty state (i.e. You must hit the "Tab" key to move to the next box.45. . S corresponds to 1. Tab 4 Tab 5. else error input := read_input( ) . C and H. The corresponding transitions are going to be shown by red arrows in the transition diagram. Then type in a number you want the FA to recognize. The ACTION array would contain pointers to actions to be taken corresponding to arcs traversed such as converting a digit in BCD form to the corresponding binary number. end Here 0 in the TOKEN array is a marker between states. The numbers below NEXT_STATE array show the correspondence between the indices of the STATEX array and the states A.if ( TOKEN [index] 0) perform the action specified by ACTION [index]. At the moment it is empty. For example. S is the initial state and B and H are accepting states. first click the box pointed by the red arrow in the figure below.

So be patient.If you are also interested in how code is executed. click here It is extremely slow. .

This is the basis of two of the regularity test methods we are going to study below: Myhill-Nerode Theorem and Pumping Lemma. we can conclude that { anbn | n is a natural number} is not regular.Nerode Theorem for non-regularity test Pumping Lemma Contents We have learned regular languages. For example. But any finite automaton has only finite number of states.Non-Regular Languages Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Regular Languages Non-Regular Languages Subjects to be Learned • • • Existence of non-regular languages Myhill . Thus there is no way for a finite automaton to remember how many a's it has read for all possible strings anbn . That is the main limitation of finite automata. There are. Non-regularity test based on Myhill-Nerode's theorem Indistinguishability of strings: Strings x and y in * are indistinguishable with respect to a language L if and only if for every string z in *. In this section we are going to study some of the methods for testing given languages for regularity and see some of the languages that are not regular. For example to recognize the language { anbn | n is a natural number} . either xz and yz are both in L or they are both not in L. Since a regular language must be recognized by a finite automaton. The main idea behind these test methods is that finite automata have only finite amount of memory in the form of states and that they can not distinguish infinitely many strings. a and aa are indistinguishable with respect to the language an over alphabet { a }. their properties and their usefulness for describing various systems. languages that are not regular and therefore require devices other than finite automata to recognize them. where n is a positive integer.Next -. a finite automaton must remember how many a's it has read when it starts reading b's. because aak and aaak are in the language an for any . Thus it must be in different states when it has read different number of a's and starts reading the first b. however.

Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set. then ( + ) and ( * ) are in L3 . the following theorem by Myhill and Nerod gives a criterion for (non)regularity of a language. ( ( x + y ) * x ) and (( (x*y) + x ) + (y*y) ) are algebraic expressions. Example 2: L2 = { ww | w {a. b } and it is infinite. where k and m are positive integers and k m . Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } over alphabet { a . a and aa are not indistinguishable (hence distinguishable). Hence L2 is nonregular. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S1. L3 can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: x and y are in L3 . However. with respect to the language anbn . (x*y) . b } can be shown to be nonregular using Myhill-Nerode as follows: Consider the set of strings S1 = { an | n is a positive integer } . because ab is in the language anbn while aab is not in the language. Consider the set of strings S3 = { (k x | k is a positive integer } . operations + and * and left and right parentheses. We are going to show that its strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L1. Inductive Clause: If and are in L3 . whose strings are pairwise distinguishable with respect to L. S1 is over alphabet { a . Let ak and am be arbitrary two different members of the set S1. For example. Then akbm is not in L1 while ambm is in L1 . Select bakb as a string to be appended to ak and am . Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L1 . b }* } is nonregular. Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. Using this concept of indistinguishability. x . Then akbakb is in L2 while ambakb is not in L2 . Consider the set of strings S2 which is the same as S1 of Example 1 above. that is. It can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L2 as follows. Select bm as a string to be appended to ak and am . This set is infinite . the set of strings consisting of one or more right parentheses followed by identifier x. For more on Myhill-Nerode theorem click here. Hence ak and am are distinguishable with respect to L2 . Hence L1 is nonregular. Since ak and am are arbitrary strings of S2. It is stated without a proof.positive integer k. Extremal Clause: Nothing is in L3 unless it is obtained from the above two clauses. S1 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. Theorem : A language L over alphabet is nonregular if and only if there is an infinite subset of * . S2 satisfies the conditions of Myhill-Nerode theorem. where k and m are positive integers and k m .

This NFA accepts among others some strings of length greater than 5 such as abbabbb. then there must be a cycle in the NFA along some path from the initial state to some accepting state (such as the cycle 2-3-4-2 in the above example). where k and m are positive integers and k m . Select [ + x ) ]k as a string to be appended to (k and (m . Then the substring representing that cycle (bba in the example) can be repeated any number of times within the string w without being rejected by the NFA. Hence L3 is not regular. It . The following theorem which is called Pumping Lemma is based on this observation. abbabbabbb etc. Hence S3 is pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 . For example the string abbabbb is accepted by the NFA and if one of its substrings bba is repeated any number of times in abbabbb. For example [ + x ) ]3 is +x) +x)+x) . abbabbabbabbb etc. Those strings which are accepted by this NFA and whose length is greater than 5 have a substring which can be repeated any number of times without being rejected by the NFA. Pumping Lemma Let us consider the NFA given below. are also accepted by the NFA. In general if a string w (such as abbabbb in the example above) is accepted by an NFA with n states and if its length is longer than n. Then (k x + [ + x ) ]k is in L3 but (m x + [ + x ) ]k is not in L3 because the number of ('s is not equal to the number of )'s in the latter string. the resultant strings such as abbb (bba repeated 0 times). abbabbabbb.and it can be shown to be pairwise distinguishable with respect to L3 as follows: Let (k x and (m x be arbitrary two strings of S3 .

uvmw L. Then there must be strings u. Let n be the number of states of that FA. It can only show that a language is nonregular. Pumping Lemma : Suppose that a language L is regular. v has at least one symbol. Hence an+pbn can not be in the L. let us prove that the language L = akbk is nonregular. Hence L is not a regular 0. v. n . where k is a natural number. |uv| n |v| > 0 . even if there is an integer n that satisfies the conditions of Pumping Lemma. Then for any string x in L with |x| n. that is.states that if a language is regular. n. v and w which satisfy the following relationships: x = uvw |uv| n |v| > 0 and for every integer m 0. It is stated without a proof here. Since p > 0 . This violates the condition that for every m language. then any long enough string of the language has a substring which can be repeated any number of times with the resultant strings still in the language. there are strings u. v = ap. uvmw L. Example 4: As an example to illustrate how Pumping Lemma might be used to prove that a language is nonregular. Also since |uv| Let us now consider the string uvmw for m = 2. the language is not necessarily regular. Suppose that L is regular and let n be the number of states of an FA that accepts L. Since |v| > 0 . Consider a string x = anbn for that n. Note that Pumping Lemma gives a necessity for regular languages and that it is not a sufficiency. for some p > 0 . n + p language L represented by akbk . Thus Pumping Lemma can not be used to prove the regularity of a language. and w such that x = uvw. Then uv2w = an-pa2pbn = an+pbn . Then there is an FA that accepts L. uvmw Test Your Understanding of Non-regularity . and for every m 0.

Next -. then Submit. the DFA reaches different states. Proof of Theorem Necessity Suppose that a language L is regular and two strings. Click True or Fals . that is. say x and y.Context-Free Grammar Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Myhill-Nerode Theorem The non-regularity test for languages by Myhill-Nerode is based on the following theorem which is in the contrapositive form of the theorem used for nonregularity test. If there are three strings that are distinguished with respect . Then the theorem is is staed as follows: Theorem: A language L over alphabet is regular if and only if the set of equivalence classes of is finite. This means that if x and y are read by an DFA that recognizes L. are distinguishable with respect to L. Then there is a string z such that xz is in L and yz is not in L (or xz is not in L and yz is in L). Also it is a corollary to Myhill-Nerode theorem: Let { be the followijg relation on }={ : For strings and of .Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. if and only if }. if and only if they are indistinguishable with respect to .

be representatives of those distinct equivalence classes.to L.e. ]. if the number of classes of strings that are pairwise indistinguishable with respect to a language L is finite. Let us now show that this machine is in fact a DFA and it accepts the language First. let [x] denote a class of strings that are indistinguishable from a string x with respect to L.. the index) of and let . note that for every string [ ]. then ]'s.. Hence if there is an infinite set of strings which are pairwise distinguishable with respect to a language. Then we construct a . where [ ] =[ ] for all . then the language L is regular.. be the number of distinct equivalence classes (i. then the DFA reaches three different states after reading those three strings. are in different classes for and are distinguishable with respect to L.. . Note that "indistinguishable with respect to L" is an equivalence relation over the set of strings (denote it by ) and [x]'s are equivalence classes... To prove this. We will show that a DFA that accepts L can be constructed using these equivalence classes. making them belong to different [ Hence is a function.. ) as follows: ]} ]. [ . . then the DFA must have infinitely many states. Sufficiency Conversely. if and in [ ]. . Let .. is in exactly one equivalence class. For. namely ] and ]. DFA ( = {[ =[ = {[ ( . [ ]=[ } ]. . ]. Hence if there are infinitely many strings to be distinguished with respect to L. which it can not because a DFA must have a finite number of states. .. then the language is not regular.

. . for DFA. Hence =[ = . if a string in [ in ] is in . let us show that this DFA accepts string in [ ] is also in L. Hence Hence we have shown that for every string ]. ]. Our proof is by structural induction on string Basis Step: = =[ ]. Myhill-Nerode Theorem can now be stated as follows: The following three statements are equivalent: (1) A language is regular. if then for every . ] by the induction hypothesis. An equivalence relation on is said to be right invariant if for every . this means that the DFA accepts Myhill-Nerode Theorem Let us here state Myhill-Nerode Theorem.Next. . . then every We then show that for every string . if the set of its equivalence classes is finite. by the definition of = . Since . = [ ]. Then by the definition of . by the definition of = . . First some terminology. . where ] is the equivalence class that belongs to. where . Also an equivalence relation is said to be of finite index. With these terminology. =[ ]. where ]. =[ ]. For that. first note that if . Inductive Step: Assume Then for every But =[ Hence =[ ].

S -> ab }. and P is a finite set of productions of the form X -> and (V )* . where X is a nonterminal and is a nonempty string of terminals and nonterminals. where X the start symbol. Most programming languages can be approximated by context-free grammar and compilers for them have been developed based on properties of context-free languages. S . . Context-Free Languages Context-Free Grammar Subjects to be Learned • • • Context-Free Grammar Context-Free Languages Push Down Automata Contents Earlier in the discussion of grammars we saw context-free grammars. A language is a context-free language (CFL) if all of its strings are generated by a context-free grammar. For the following context-free grammar G1 = < V1 . b } and P1 = { S -> aSb .(2) L is the union of some of the equivalence classes of a right invariant equivalent relation of finite index. S . Definition (Context-Free Grammar) : A 4-tuple G = < V . Example 1: L1 = { anbn | n is a positive integer } is a context-free language. P > is a context-free V is V. S . Let us define context-free grammars and context-free languages here. grammar (CFG) if V and . = { a . They are grammars whose productions have the form X -> . Proofs are omitted. P1 > generates L1 : V1 = { S } . The set of strings generated by a context-free grammar is called a context-free language and context-free languages can describe many practically important systems. (3) is of finite index. are finite sets sharing no elements between them. .

Example 2: L2 = { wwr| w {a. P2 > generates L2 : V2 = { S } . L1L2 . < statement > -> < assignment > . Properties of Context-Free Language Theorem 1: Let L1 and L2 be context-free languages. 3. < expression > -> < algebraic-expression > . concatenation and Kleene star of context-free grammars as follows: Let G1 = < V1 . that is. Outline of Proof This theorem can be verified by constructing context-free grammars for union. . * } and P3 = { S -> ( S + S ) . . S -> y }. S1 . For example { < statement > -> < if-statement > . Example 3: Let L3 be the set of algebraic expressions involving identifiers x and y. first relabel symbols of V2 . if necessary. let Ss be a symbol which is not in V1 . where w is a nonempty string and wr denotes the reversal of string w. 3 = { x . . . = { a . ( . S -> bSb . . Then it can be easily seen that Gc = < Vc . . first relabel symbols of V2 . b } and P2 = { S -> aSa . . P3 > generates L3 : V3 = { S } . . . . P1 > and G2 = < V2 . S -> S*S . Next define Vu = V1 V2 { Su } and Pu = P1 P2 { Su -> S1 . Then let Ps = P1 { Ss -> SsS1 . S -> bb }. Ss -> L2 . } . . y . . . b }+ } is a context-free language . S . Pc > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1L2 . w is spelled backward to obtain wr . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. Su . Then L3 is a context-free language. S . < expression > . P2 > be context-free grammars generating L1 and L2 . operations + and * and left and right parentheses. . respectively. . so that V1 and V2 don't share any symbols. S -> aa . Su -> S2 } . For the following context-free grammar G3 = < V3 . Similarly for L1L2 . if necessary. For the following context-free grammar G2 = < V2 . Then L1 context-free languages. For L1* . and L1* are . . Then for L1 L2 . Pu > is a context-free grammar that generates the language L1 L2 . < expression > ) < statement > . ) . Next define Vc = V1 V2 { Sc } and Pc = P1 P2 { Sc -> S1S2 } . < expression > -> < logicalexpression > . S -> x . Then let Su be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . Then let Sc be a symbol which is not in V1 V2 . < statement > -> < for-statement > . S2 . < if-statement > -> if ( < expression > ) < statement > . Sc . Then it can be easily seen that Gu = < Vu . Example 4: Portions of the syntaxes of programming languages can be described by context-free grammars. + . < forstatement > -> for ( < expression > .

accept the string. A . Z0 is the initial stack symbol and it is a member of . where Q is a finite set of states. . Otherwise reject it. A is the set of accepting states is the transition function and :Q ( ( } -> 2 Q * . Let us consider a context-free language anbn . When all the symbols of the input string are read. Any string of this language can be tested for the membership for the language by a finite automaton if there is a memory such as a pushdown stack that can store a's of a given input string. its next state is determined not only by the input symbol being read. If another a (or anything other than b) is read after the first b. and are finite sets ( the input and stack alphabet. where Q = { q0 . . and it replaces X with the string at the top of the stack. A . Thus its transition function specifies the new top of the stack contents as well as the next state.} . > . They need a little more complex automata called pushdown automata. as a's are read by the finite automaton. respectively ). q0 is the initial state. q0 . . It can be seen that the grammar Gs = < Vs . check the stack. Second. reject the string. push them into the stack. Ps > is a context-free grammar that Like regular languages which are accepted by finite automata. This automaton behaves like a finite automaton except the following two points: First. q0 . Ss . For example. . Let us define this new type of automaton formally. Thus ( p . the contents of the stack can also be changed every time an input symbol is read. A pushdown automaton ( or PDA for short ) is a 7-tuple M = < Q . Z0 . ) means the following: The automaton moves from the current state of p to the next state q when it sees an input symbol a at the input and X at the top of the stack. but also by the symbol at the top of the stack. a . generates the language L1* . context-free languages are also accepted by automata but not finite automata. Example 1 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . If it is empty. . > . X ) = ( q . As soon as the symbol b appears stop storing a's and start popping a's one by one every time a b is read. Z0 . Pushdown Automata .

Z0 ).y. it is ( q0 . following table: = { a . ) by a sequence of zero or more moves. ) to configuration ( q . bb . This entire process can be expressed using the configurations as ( q0 . we can also write ( q0 . x . b . Thus the configuration is ( q1 . Z0 ) q2 . x . ). Let us now see how the PDA of Example 1 operates when it is given the string aabb . To express that the PDA moves from configuration ( p . ) . abb . x is the unread portion of the input string and is the current stack contents. aZ0 ). for example. y . ) ) (q. aaZ0 ). Thus the configuration is ( q1 . aaZ0 ) ( q1 . Next it moves to the state q2 which is the accepting state.y. where q is the state the PDA is currently in. q2 } . Then when the first b is read. q0 . . ( q0 . aZ 0 ) q0 a a ( q0 . aZ0 ). Z0 ) . Z0 ). another a is popped from the top of the stack and the PDA stays in state q1 . Z0 ) * ( q2 . After reading the first a. where the input is read from left to right and the top of the stack corresponds to the leftmost symbol of . To describe the operation of a PDA we are going to use a configuration of PDA. . . Initially its configuration is ( q0 . x . aabb . Thus aabb is accepted by this PDA. aZ0 ) ( q0 . (p. b } . b . A . Z0 .x. y . Z0 ) ( If we are not interested in the intermediate steps.x.q1 . its configuration is ( q0 . When the second b is read. * (q. ) ( q2 . b . > is a triple ( q . . . Z0 } . it moves to state q1 and pops a from the top of the stack. Z0 ) This pushdown automaton accepts the language anbn . . aZ0 ) ( q1 . we write ) is reached from ( p . = { a . abb . bb . A = { q2 } and let be as given in the State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . A configuration of a PDA M = < Q . aabb . . ) ( q1 . ). aa ) q0 q1 q1 b b a a Z0 ( q1 . aabb . If ( q . Z0 ). ) in a single move (a single application of the transition function) we write (p. After reading the second a.

X / ) indicating that X at the top of the stack is replaced by upon reading a from the input. Z0 . then an arc from state p to state q is added to the diagram and it is labeled with ( a . arcs are labeled differently than FAs. * (q. Example 2 : Let us consider the pushdown automaton < Q . > . Like FAs. aZ 0 ) q0 b Z0 ( q0 . PDAs can also be represented by transition diagrams. and an accepting state q. Z0) . = { a . b ( q1 . ) ( q2 .k. A = { q2 } and let be as given in the following table: State Input Top of Stack Move q0 a Z0 ( q0 . . for some in *. c } . acceptance by final state) if (q0. For example the transition diagram of the PDA of Example 1 is as shown below. Z0 } . q1 . q0 . however. Z 0 ) In this table represents either a or b. b . ) . X ) = ( p . For PDAs. A . ). where Q = { q0 . If ( q . ) ) ) ) ( q1 . bZ 0 ) q0 q0 q0 q1 q1 q1 a b c a b a b Z0 ( q0 . x.A string x is accepted by a PDA (a.a. . . b . ( q1 . a . q2 } . a ( q0 . = { a .

This PDA pushes all the a's and b's in the input into stack until c is encountered. baZ0 ) ( q1 . bcbba . aZ0 ) ( q0 . Otherwise it rejects the input string. Z0 ) ( q0 .This pushdown automaton accepts the language { wcwr | w { a . it pops the stack. which is the set of palindromes with c in the middle. When c is detected. Z 0 ) . 1 Further topics on CFL • PDA and Context-Free Language There is a procedure to construct a PDA that accepts the language generated by a given context-free grammar and conversely. That means that a language is . ( q0 . abbcbba . When there are no more unread input symbols and Z0 is at the top of the stack. aZ0 ) ( q1 . it ignores c and from that point on if the top of the stack matches the input symbol. ( q0 . it goes through the following configurations and accepts it. Z 0 ) ( q2 . it accepts the input string. The transition diagram of the PDA of Example 2 is as shown below. b }* } . ba . cbba . bba . baZ0 ) ( q1 . bbaZ0 ) . . . For example for the input abbcbba. In the figure and 2 represent a or b. bbcbba . a . bbaZ0 ) ( q1 .

e. Similar things happen when English sentences are processed by computers (or people as well for that matter). "bites" is the verb and "a man" is the object of the verb. They can describe much of programming languages and basic structures of natural languages.context-free if and only if there is a PDA that accepts it. a computer like non-English speaking people must be told how to interpret sentences such as the first noun phrase (" A dog") is usually the subject of a sentence. Parsing is the process of interpreting given input strings according to predetermined rules i. y and z which satisfy u = vwxyz |wy| > 0 |wxy| n 0 . Thus they are widely used for compilers for high level programming languages and natural language processing systems. Contect-free grammars are powerful grammars. there are strings v. we are not going to study parsing here. it could also be interpreted as ( x + y )z meaning that first compute x + y. However. Those procedures are omitted here. native English speakers know that it is the dog that bites and not the other way round. productions of grammars. ???? references on Parsing ???? . Though we are accustomed to interpreting this as x + (yz) i. Interested readers are referred to the textbook and other sources. Then there is a positive integer n such that for any string u in L with |u| n .e. However. it does not know which interpretation to use unless it is explicitly instructed to follow one or the other. then multiply the result by z. By parsing sentences we identify the parts of the sentences and determine the strutures of the sentences so that their meanings can be understood correctly. then add the result to x. The parsing for context-free languages and regular languages have been extensively studied. a verb phrase usually follow the noun phrase and the first word in the verb phrase is the verb and it is followed by noun phrases reprtesenting object(s) of the verb. x. compute yz first. vwmxymz L for every integer m • Parsing and Parsers for CFL Consider the algebraic expression x + yz. For example in the sentence "A man bites a dog". "A dog" is the subject. • Pumping Lemma for Context-Free Language Let L be a CFL. w. Thus if a computer is given the string x + yz.

Next -. Click True or Fals . then Submit. and the machines that can process them: Turing machines. however. In this chapter we are going to study the most general of the languages in Chomsky hierarchy.Test Your Understanding of Contect-Free Language Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. They are. Turing machines were conceived of by the English mathematician Alan . These languages can describe many practically important systems and so they are heavily used in practice. of limited capability and there are many languages that they can not process.Turing Machines Back to Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • • • Definition of Turing Machine Configuration Operation of Turing Machine Contents Introduction We have studied two types of languages from the Chomsky hierarchy: regular languages and context-free languages. the phrase structure languages (also called Type 0 languages).

like finite automata. Definition Conceptually a Turing machine. One of its states is the halt state and when the Turing machine goes into the halt state. a Turing machine starts at the initial state. However. At any state it reads the symbol under the head. consists of a finite control and a tape. it stops its operation. Given a string of symbols on the tape. At any time it is in one of the finite number of states. It then moves the head to left or right or does not move it and goes to the next state which may be the same as the current state. Later Alonzo Church conjectured that any computation done by humans or computers can be carried out by some Turing machine. . Computers we use today are as powerful as Turing machines except that computers have finite memory while Turing machines have infinite memory. This conjecture is known as Church's thesis and today it is generally accepted as true. right or stay at the same square after a read or write. The tape has the left end but it extends infinitely to the right. We are going to study Turing machines here and through that limitations of computers and computation as we know today. It is also divided into squares and a symbol can be written in each square. its head is a read-write head and it can move left.Turing as a model of human "computation". either erases it or replaces it with a symbol (possibly the same symbol). unlike finite automata.

D ) indicating that the state is changed from q to r. where Q1 = { q0. . State (q) Input (X) Move ( q0 q1 q2 q3 q3 a b a (q. . X) ) ( q1 . b } and is as given by the table below. q0.L. . is a finite set of symbols and it is the input alphabet. . which is assumed not to contain the symbol h.Formally a Turing machine is a 5-tuple T = < Q. is the transition function but its value may not be defined for certain points. Here denotes the blank and R. D ) . . The symbol h is used to denote the halt state. q3 } . A transition diagram can also be drawn for a Turing machine. q1. L or S . R ) ( q3 . q0 is the initial state. = { a . S}. The states are represented by vertices and for a transition ( q. > accepts the language aba* . Example 1 : The following Turing machine < Q1 . respectively. a .S) A transition diagram of this Turing machine is given below. R ) ( q3 . the symbol X currently being read is changed to Y and the tape head is moved as directed by D. an arc from q to r is drawn with label ( X/Y . L and S denote move the head right. where D represents R. R ) (h. a . b . left and do not move it. . > . It is assumed that the tape has at the left end and the head is initially at the left end of the tape. It is a mapping from Q ( { } ) to ( Q { h } ) ( { }) {R. X ) = ( r. q0 . Y. R ) ( q2 . where Q is a finite set of states. is a finite set of symbols containing as its subset and it is the set of tape symbols. . b } . q2. = { a .

zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in one move. . Note that the Turing machine does not stop if a string is not in the language. In this case we also say that the Turing machine halts on input x. aababb ) shows that the Turing machine is currently in state q. and ( p . xay ) * ( q . q0 . the taper contents are the string aababb and the head is reading the last a of the string. A configuration for a Turing machine is an ordered pair of the current state and the tape contents with the symbol currently under the head marked with underscore. A Turing machine T is said to decide a language L if and only if T writes "yes" and halts if a string is in L and T writes "no" and halts if a string is not in L. The set of strings accepted by a Turing machine is the language accepted by the Turing machine. aba ) ( q1 . For example the Turing machine of Example 1 above goes through the following sequence of configurations to accept the string aba: ( q0 . yaz ) for some symbol a { } and some strings y and z in ( * { } ) . xay ) ( q . ( q0 . > if x ) * ( h. For example ( q . aba ) (h. . aba ) . We write ( p .Turing Machine that accepts aba* To describe the operation of Turing machine we use configuration. A string x is said to be accepted by a Turing machine* T = < Q . zbw ) if the Turing machine goes from the first configuration to the second in zero or more moves. aba ) ( q2 . aba ) ( q3 . If the Turing machine needs to be explicitly indicated T or T* is used.

.The first of the following figures shows a Turing machine that accepts but does not decide the language { a }. where = { a }. the second is a Turing machine that accepts { a } but goes into a loop if a string is not in the language (hence it accepts but doe not decide { a }) and the third decides { a }.

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This Turing machine is denoted by TE. It is assumed that initially the tape has at the left end. . to the right of Example 3 : The following Turing machine erases the string on the tape and moves the head to the left end.Example 2 : The following Turing machine moves the head to the first the current position. It is denoted by TR .

Strings not Accepted by Turing Machines When a string is not accepted by a Turing machine. the operation of the Turing machine is aborted. In cases (2) and (3). (2) no transition is specified for the current configuration and (3) the head is at the left end and it is instructed to move left. that is when a Turing machine does not halt on a string. one of the following three things happens: (1) The Turing machine goes into an infinite loop. . but it goes into an infinite loop for any strings that are not in the language. For example the following Turing machine accepts the language a+.

As far as the material discussed in this class note. a string is accepted by a Turing machine if given the string. there is no difference between these two definitions of "accept". the Turing machine eventually goes into the accept halt state. T does not halt on x. * Note on "Turing-acceptable": Some books define "acceptance by Turing machine" slightly differently. A language is a phrase structure (type 0) langauage if and only if it is Turing-acceptable in either sense and it has no effects on decidablility. That is. there are two halt states: "accept halt" and "reject halt". . Then we say T computes f or f is computable if for every x ( q0 . reject a string and halt. or loop. in the Turing machines those books define. * and for every x that is not in S.Turing machine accepting a+ Computabler Function Let S * and let f be a function f : S -> S. x) * ( h. A Turing machine thus may accept a string and halt. With this definition. f(x) ) * .

Combination of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Combination of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Combination of Turing Machines Contents Combination of Turing Machines We have seen the definition of Turing machine and a few simple examples. Let us start with some basic Turing machines.Test Your Understanding of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. One can construct many more Turing machines that perform various functions. then Submit. any "computation" done by human beings or machines can be done by some Turing machine. There are two sets of questions. In fact Turing machines that simulate computers and Turing machines that perform computations done by any algorithm can be constructed. Click True or Fals . Here we are going to study how complex Turing machines can be constructed using simple Turing machines and how computers can be simulated by Turing machines. We have already seen TR . It moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) . Next -. Furthermore according to the Church's thesis.

Then if T1 halts and if the symbol currently under the head is . Example 4: The following machine shifts the tape contents to the left one position. T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that first executes T1. respectively. Similarly by TL we denote a Turing machine that moves the head to the first symbol (which may be ) to the left of the current position. To combine Turing machines we use the following conventions: Let T1 and T2 represent arbitrary Turing machines. T1T2 and T1 -> T2 denote the Turing machine that behaves initially like T1 and when T1 halts T2 takes over inheriting the head position and the tape contents of T1 . Also by TR and TL we denote Turing machines that move the head to right and left one position. Using these basic machines and the convention. The halt state of T1 becomes the initial state of T2 . Below is assumed to be at the left end of the tape initially. then T2 is started as in the case of T1T2 . let us construct a little more complex Turing machines.to the right of the current position. Then by T we denote a Turing machine that writes symbol at the current position and does not move the head (stays). Otherwise it crashes. . takes the head to the right end of the string and halts.

After adding two numbers placed on the tape it moves the head to the left end and halts. m I's and n I's with a blank between them are placed on the tape. it goes through the following -> aab -> a -> a -> abb -> ab -> ab -> ab Example 5: The left-shift machine of Example 4 can be used to construct an adder for natural numbers. x) * b b (h. For example the number 3 is represented by three consecutive I's on the tape and 5 by five I's. After the addition the configuration becomes ( h . In general to represent a natural number k. natural numbers are represented on a Turing machine using symbol I.For example with the initial tape contents of sequence of tape contents and ends with ab ab -> ab : ab . Example 6: The following Turing machine copies the tape contents at the left end to their right separated by a blank . To add two numbers m and n. . k consecutive I's are put on the tape. So the initial configuration for adding 2 and 3 is ( q0 . IIIII ) . First. that is ( q0 . An adder can be constructed for example as TR -> TSL TL . II III ) . x x).

The following notations are used in the questions: . it is not difficult to construct a Turing machine that performs subtraction using the same representation of numbers as for the addition.Today's computers are very complex machines and their instruction sets contain complicated operations. Since any complex computer instructions can be realized using those basic instructions. branching. then Submit. However. Click True or Fals . there is a Turing machine that performs addition. one can say that computers can be simulated by Turing machines. Thus by combining appropriate Turing machines a computer with a minimal instruction set can be constructed. and store and load operations can be taken care of by a Turing machine that copies tape contents. all of those instructions can be realized using combinations of a small number of basic instructions. A bare minimum instruction set would contain addition. Furthermore if the subtraction operation is necessary. the branch operation is already in Turing machines because next configurations are determined based on the current state and tape symbol being looked at. Test Your Understanding of Combination of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. All the other operations can be realized by using those basic operations. In fact many of the earlier computers had a much smaller instruction set but still could do everything today's computers can do albeit much more slowly. On the other hand as we have seen above. store and load operations.

ones with two dimensional tapes.T_a : Ta T_R : TR ->^b : ->b Next -. that is. one read-write head and one two dimensional tape. the efficiency of computation. may vary. ones having one tape but with multiple heads. nondeterministic Turing machines etc. the former can be simulated by the latter. For any Turing machine of this type there is a Turing machine with a one dimensional tape that is equally powerful. The tape has the top end and the left end but extends indefinitely to the right and down. what one type can compute any other can also compute. It turns out that computationally all these Turing machines are equally powerful. To simulate a two dimensional tape with a one dimensional tape.Types of Turing Machines Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Types of Turing Machines Subjects to be Learned • Variation of Turing Machine Contents There are a number of other types of Turing machines in addition to the one we have seen such as Turing machines with multiple tapes. Turing Machines with Two Dimensional Tapes This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control. that is. However. how fast they can compute. That is. It is divided into rows of small squares. first we map the squares of the two dimensional tape to those of the one dimensional tape diagonally as shown in .

then from h move the head of the one dimensional tape further right to the k-th square from h. then move the head of the one dimensional tape to right until it hits h or v counting the number of squares it has visited after i. For example... move 3 positions to the right. If v was hit first.. v 15 17 25 . Let us simulate this head move with a one dimensional tape. ... . then for the one dimensional tape.> . .. ... the head moves from position 8 to right.. ... .. .. ... That is the square corresponding to the square below i in the two dimensional tape.. . If the head moves down to position 13.... .. which is the third square from 8. . . then (k+1)-th square to the right from v is the new head position.. .. .the following tables: Two Dimensional Tape v v h 1 h 3 h 4 h 10 h 11 h 21 ..< . One Dimensional Tape v 1 v 2 3 h 4 5 6 v 7 8 9 10 h 11 .. down.. . v 6 8 13 19 23 .. respectively. Thus this time the third square is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 9 on the two dimensional tape. .... .. which is the second square from i = 5.. ....... that is i = 8. . Let k be the number of squares visited by the head of the one dimensional tape. If h was hit first..... . .. v 2 5 9 12 20 22 . If the head moves down from i. . If i = 5 and the head moves down on the other hand. . .. Here the numbers indicate the correspondence of squares in the two tapes: square i of the two dimensional tape is mapped to square i of the one dimensional tape. suppose that the head position is at 8 for the two dimensional tape in the above table.. Then it meets h first. . left or right.. ....... . .. That is the head position of the one dimensional tape corresponding to 13 on the two dimensional tape... Let i be the head position of the two dimensional tape... .. The head of a two dimensional tape moves one square up. .. . Thus from h.. .. h and v are symbols which are not in the tape alphabet and they are used to mark the left and the top end of the tape...... . v 7 14 18 24 . v 16 26 . then on the one dimensional tape the head moves to the right and it hits v first.

. In each state only one of the heads is allowed to read and write. Since Turing machines with a two dimensional tape obviously can simulate Turing machines with a one dimensional tape. >. Nondeterministic Turing Machines . Thus some Turing machines with a one dimensional tape can simulate every move of a Turing machine with one two dimensional tape. S } n . . Turing Machines with Infinite Tape : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape which extends infinitely in both directions. . H2 . q0. The transition function is a partial function : Q { H1 . . where H1 . {h}) ( { } {R.S It can be easily seen that this type of Turing machines are as powerful as one tape Turing machines. Turing Machines with Multiple Heads : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and one tape but more than one read-write heads...Similarly formulas can be found for the head position on the one dimensional tape corresponding to move up.. Hence they are at least as powerful as Turing machines with a two dimensional tape. one can say that one tape Turing machines are as powerful as n-tape Turing machines. A configuration for this kind of Turing machine must show the current state the machine is in and the state of each tape. It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q . Hn } ( { } ) -> ( Q }. > . It can be proven that any language accepted by an n-tape Turing machine can be accepted by a one tape Turing machine and that any function computed by an n-tape Turing machine can be computed by a one tape Turing machine. Details are omitted. Since the converses are obviously true. it can be said that they are equally powerful. Its transition function is a partial function :Q ( { } )n -> ( Q { h } ) ( { } )n { R . . right or left on the two dimensional tape. H2 . It is denoted by a 5-tuple < Q .L. q0. Turing Machines with Multiple Tapes : This is a kind of Turing machines that have one finite control and more than one tapes each with its own read-write head. It turns out that this type of Turing machines are only as powerful as one tape Turing machines whose tape has a left end.. L . . Hn denote the tape heads.

They form level 1. Here an action means the combination of writing a symbol on the tape. Note that the number of children for a vertex in this tree is finite because the number of states is finite and there are a finite number of tape symbols. The root of the tree is the initial configuration and it is the only vertex of level 0. Proof : Let TN denote a nondeterministic Turing machine. All possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN once form the children of the initial configuration.A nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine which. TN starts at the initial configuration and goes through a sequence of configurations until it reaches a halt configuration . It must find the midpoint by for example pairing off symbols from either end of x.L. As in the case of NFA. Formally a nondeterministic Turing machine is a Turing machine whose transition function takes values that are subsets of ( Q {h}) ( { } {R. can take any action selecting from a set of specified actions rather than taking one definite predetermined action. it is understood that a nondeterministic Turing machine at any configuration selects one combination of next state.S}. The set of all possible computations that TN can perform for a given string x can be represented by a rooted tree as follows. . Then it would compare the first half of x with the second half by comparing the i-th symbol of the first half with the i-th symbol of the second half for i = 1. like nondeterministic finite automata. on the other hand. . In general for each vertex of level i all possible configurations that are reachable by applying the transition function of TN are its children. Theorem Any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by some deterministic Turing machine. a nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts this language L would first guess the midpoint of x. The children of all the vertices of level i form level i+1. that is the place where the second half of x starts. at any state it is in and for the tape symbol it is reading.. Even in the same situation it may take different actions at different times. For example consider the following nondeterministic Turing machine that accepts a+ . Given a string x . b }* } . Given a string x. . moving the tape head and going to a next state. tape symbol and head movement out of the set of triples without following any specific predetermined rule. It can be shown that a nondeterministic Turing machine is only as powerful as a deterministic Turing machine. goes into an infinite loop or aborts. For example let us consider the language L = { ww : w { a . A deterministic Turing machine. 2. At any point in the process TN is in some configuration and has a finite set of configurations to choose from for its next configuration.. can not guess the midpoint of the string x.

and ( q1 . The tree for this case would be as follows: .Turing machine accepting a+ Given the string aa. aa ) . it would proceed as follows to accept it: ( q0 . aa ) ( q1 . aa ) and ( q2 . aa ) ( q1 . it has two candidates for the next configuration: ( q1 . aa ) and ( q2 . At the second and third configurations in the above sequence. aa ) for the third. aa ) ( q2 . aa ) ( h . aa ) for the second.

then Submit. Test Your Understanding of Different Types of Turing Machines Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. T2 applies the transition function of T1 to each configuration at that level and computes its children. call it T2. Thus any language accepted by a nondeterministic Turing machine is also accepted by a deterministic Turing machine. However. In fact the Church's thesis conjectures that any so called computation done by humans or computers can be performed by a basic deterministic Turing machine. though a deterministic Turing machine might take much more time than a nondeterministic Turing machine to accept a string. At each level of the tree. it has been shown that none of them exceed the capability of basic deterministic Turing machine as far as accepting languages is concerned. is to traverse this tree breadth-first way from the root until the halt state is reached. It can be easily seen that T2 accepts a string if and only if T1 accepts it. Click True or Fals . Many other variations of Turing machine are possible. Next -. call it T1.One way to simulate a nondeterministic Turing machine. with a deterministic one. These children are the configurations of the next level and they are stored on the tape (if necessary a second tape may be used).Unsolvable Problems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines Unsolvable Problems . then T2 accepts the string and halts. If there is the halting state among these children.

In this chapter we are going to learn that there are problems that can not be solved by Turing machines hence by computers. It is also conjectured that any "computation" human beings perform can be done by Turing machines (Church's thesis). Here "unsolvability" is in the following sense. Then given a string a Turing machine that accept the language starts the computation. hence unsolvable. Thus if a language is not decidable. That is. does M halt when it is given w as an input ? It can be shown that the halting problem is not decidable. L. there is no way of telling whether it is in an infinite loop or along the way to a solution and it needs more time. Since we can not wait forever for an answer. Below we are going to see some well known unsolvable problems and see why we can say they are unsolvable. the question is unanswerable that is the problem is unsolvable. given a description of a Turing machine M (over the alphabet ) and a string w. Suppose that the halting problem is decidable. the question of whether or not a string is in the language may not be answered in any finite amount of time. that is computationally they are equally powerful. Minsky): This is going to be proven by "proof by contradiction". and then T halts. It asks the following question: Given an arbitrary Turing machine M over alphabet = { a . . First recall that solving a problem can be viewed as recognizing a language (see Problem Solving as Language Recognition). Proof (by M. Then there is a Turing machine T that solves the halting problem. Suppose that a language is acceptable but not decidable. and that any of their variations do not exceed the computational power of deterministic Turing machines. Halting Problem One of well known unsolvable problems is the halting problem. b } . So we are going to look at the unsolvability in terms of language recognition. and an arbitrary string w over .Subjects to be Learned • • • Halting Problem Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents We have learned that deterministic Turing machines are capable of doing any computation that computers can do. At any point in time. T writes "yes" if M halts on w and "no" if M does not halt on w. Theorem 1 : The halting problem is undecidable. if the Turing machine is running.

then Tm goes into an infinite loop (Tm halts if the original T rejects a string and halts). denoted by d(M). . Next using Tm we are going to construct another Turing machine Tc as follows: Tc takes as input a description of a Turing machine M. First we construct a Turing machine Tm by modifying T so that if T accepts a string and halts. copies it to obtain the string d(M)*d(M).We are now going to construct the following new Turing machine Tc. where * is a symbol that separates the two copies of d(M) and then supplies d(M)*d(M) to the Turing machine Tm .

. Thus Tc goes into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and it halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). constructs the string d(Tc)*d(Tc) and gives it to the modified T. Hence that assumption must be wrong. When Tc gets the input d(Tc) .Let us now see what Tc does when a string describing Tc itself is given to it. The way T was modified the modified T is going to go into an infinite loop if Tc halts on d(Tc) and halts if Tc does not halt on d(Tc). Hence there is no Turing machine that solves the halting problem. Thus one implication of the halting problem is that there can be no computer programs (Turing machines) that check whether or not any arbitrary computer program stops for a given input. Thus the question of whether or not a program halts for a given input is nothing but the halting problem. it makes a copy. This is a contradiction. Thus the modified T is given a description of Turing machine Tc and the string d(Tc). Program correctness and Halting Problem Note that for any computer program a Turing machine can be constructed that performs the task of the program. This contradiction has been deduced from our assumption that there is a Turing machine that solves the halting problem.

Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not. Click True or Fals . It is presented as a language and it can be shown that there are no Turing machines that accept the language. Language NonSelfAccepting Let us first define two languages NSA1 and NSA2 as follows: .More Unsolvable Preoblems Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Turing Machines More Unsolvable Problems Subjects to be Learned • • Languages not Accepted by Turing Machines Other Unsolvable Problems Contents The next unsolvable problem is in a sense more difficult than the halting problem. Next -. then Submit.

either w0 is in NonSelfAccepting or it isn't. Hence a is in NSA2 . This is again a contradiction. then w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. Suppose there is a Turing machine. call it T0. Since NonSelfAccepting is a language. Thus there can not be Turing machine T0 that accepts the language SelfAccepting . Hence T0 can not accept w0 . We are going to see that T0 neither accepts w0 nor rejects it. Then this w is a description of a Turing machine but it must be longer than one symbol. b }*. Thus neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. w = d(T) for a Turing machine T and T does not accept NSA2 = { w | w { a. For NSA2. (2) If T0 does not accept w0 . then w0 NonSelfAccepting because T0 accepts NonSelfAccepting. Hence w is in NSA1 . But w0 = d( T0 ) because that is how we selected w0 . that is w0 is a description of the Turing machine T0 . NSA1 is the set of strings that describe a Turing machine but that are not accepted by the Turing machine they describe. Problem Accepts( ) The problem Accepts( ) asks whetehr or not a given Turing machine T accepts . NSA2 is the set of strings that do not describe any Turing machine. which is absurd. that accepts NonSelfAccepting. Also T0 does not accept w0 . (1) If T0 accepts w0. w0 is in neither NSA1 nor NSA2 .NSA1 = { w | w w} { a. Proof: This is going to be proven by contradiction. Hence by the definition of NSA1 . For let T be a Turing machine that accepts { a } and let w = d(T). Knowing the unsolvability of the halting problem some other problems can be shown to be unsolvable. This is a contradiction. w0 is in NSA1 . where d(T) is a description of the Turing machine T. Let w0 = d( T0 ). Theorem 2 There are no Turing machines that accept the language NonSelfAccepting. Let us define the language NonSelfAccepting as NonSelfAccepting = NSA1 Then we can prove the following theorem: NSA2 . Neither NSA1 nor NSA2 is empty. let w = a. Hence it is in SelfAccepting . b }*. However. Hence w0 is not in NonSelfAccepting . It . by the definitions of NSA1 and NSA2. This means that there can not be any Turing machine that accepts the language NonSelfAccepting. w d(T) for any Turing machine T } . Hence either T0 accepts w0 or rejects it. Certainly more symbols than a single a are needed to describe even the simplest Turing machine. Then there is no Turing machine that can be described by the string a. Hence it is not accepted by T.

Suppose that AcceptsEverything is solvable. call it M. which is an instance of the halting problem.can be shown to be unsolvable. Using a similar idea the following problem can also be shown to be unsolvable. Then there is a Turing machine that solves it. M solves the halting problem. where Terase is a Turing machine that erases the input on the tape and halts. That is. Let T' be an instance of Accepts( ). Thus if Accepts( ) is solvable. call it M. Consider a Turing machine T = TwT'. This T halts on every string over if and only if T1 halts on . Then consider the Turing machine T = TeraseT' . Let a Turing machine T' and a string w be an instance of the halting problem. a Turing machine. a Turing machine. Suppose that Accepts( ) is solvable. Using this T. that solves the halting problem can be constructed as follows: Given a description d(T') of a Turing machine T' and a string w as inputs. this means that Accepts( ) is unsolvable. where machine Tw is a Turing machine that writes w. Let A be a Turing machine that solves AcceptsEverything. M writes the string d( T ) on the tape and let A take over. the halting problem can be solved. Let A be a Turing machine that solves Accepts( ). Problem AcceptsEverything The problem AcceptsEverything asks whether or not a given Turing machine T halts on every string over a given alphabet . Using this T. that solves Accepts( ) can be constructed as . We are going to show that the halting problem becomes solvable using this A. Since the halting problem is unsolvable. We are going to show that Accepts( ) can be solved using the solution to it. This T halts on if and only if T' halts on w. Then M halts on d(T') and w if and only if T' halts on w.

By similar arguments the following problems can be shown to be unsolvable. Since Accepts( ) is unsolvable. Other Unsolvable Problems Let G1 and G2 be context-free grammars and let L(G) denote the language generated by grammar G.shown below. it means that AcceptsEverything is unsolvable. Then the following problems are all unsolvable. Equivalence This problem asks whether or not two Turing machines accept the same language. Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) L( G2 ) = ? finite ? infinite ? context-free ? Is L( G1 ) = L( G2 ) ? Is L( G1 ) = * ? Is the complement of L( G1 ) context-free ? . It can be shown to be unsolvable using AcceptsEverything. It can be shown to be unsolvable using Accepts( ) . AcceptsNothing This problem asks whether or not a Turing machine accepts nothing.

Next -.Time Complexity of Problem Back to Study Schedule Back to Table of Contents Complexity Time Complexity Subjects to be Learned • • • • • Time Complexity of Problems Decision Tree Class NP Polynomial Time Transformation NP-Complete Problems Contents In the previous sections we have learned that some problems are unsolvable by Turing machines hence by computers. then Submit. Click True or Fals . A problem is solvable if some Turing . No one can write computer programs that solve those problems and halt after a finite amount of time.Test Your Understanding of Unsolvable Problems Indicate which of the following statements are correct and which are not.

g. variables taking positive integers as their values. or etc. This is a propositional logic with an extra construct (proposition) after(A. then Y Z [ X = Y + Z ] ] is a proposition of Presburger arithmetic. it is still solvable. that is it requires at least O( aan ) time to solve in the worst case. etc. the satisfiability problem for the propositional dynamic logic is proven to take exponential time to solve in the worst case. The measure for computation time we use is the worst case time. For example. S). For more detailed review of this. Similarly ( P V Q ) is also satisfiable. as we are going to see below. Then there are problems that require double exponential ( e. where k is a natural number. The satisfiability problem becomes even harder when logic becomes more complex.machine can solve it in finite time. as well as all the connectives such as and. They are all polynomial time algorithms. X [ if ~( X = 1 ). They take much more time to execute than polynomial time algorithms. So it is certainly satisfiable. after(A. Before proceeding to predicate logic let us consider the following logic called propositional dynamic logic (PDL for short). problems that need k-exponential time algorithms. where P is a propositional variable. One can ask the same question for formulas of first order predicate logic. There are also problems that must be solved at best by exponential time algorithms in the worst case. The problems that can not be solved with any polynomial time algorithm are called intractable problems . ~Q )" and "if P then after( if P then Q else ~Q. are propositions of PDL. This is the problem of asking whether or not a given formula can take the value true for some values of its variables. In this section we are going to study solvable problems and learn a hierarchy of solvable problems based on the computation time required to solve them. For example. the equality symbol = and quantifiers and . S) says that S is true after executing A. Among the solvable problems there are problems that can be solved by algorithms with the worst case time which is a polynomial in the problem size (polynomial time algorithms). The satisfiability problem for PDL is known to take at least exponential time to solve in the worst case. where A is an algorithm and S is a statement. It is estimated by counting the largest possible number of key operations to be performed in terms of the input size. a heap sort needs O(n lg n) time. For example the formula ( P V ~P ) is always true. For many problems a day or even an hour would be too long. the addition operation +. For example the satisfiability problem for Presburger arithmetic is double-exponential (2-fold exponentail). second order logic. Presburger arithmetic is a logic that allows statements involving positive integers. In logic there is a well known problem of "satisfiability". 22n ) time algorithms. in practice if it takes a million years. . a quick sort needs O(n2) time. and there are problems that require algorithms with the worst case time worse than k-exponential time for any natural number k. For example a binary search takes O(lg n) time. However. O(f(x)) (big-oh) and other related subjects click here. Even if it takes a million years to solve a problem. For example "after( if P then Q else ~Q. But (P ^ ~P ) is always false. Let us see some of those intractable problems. etc. it is as good (or bad) as unsolvable. Q )" . They are both satisfiable. where P and Q are propositions. So it is not satisfiable.

Some of these decision problems are NP-complete problems. This problem is called "Graph Coloring" problem or more precisely "Vertex Color" problem. Let us try to solve the following instances of this graph coloring problem: Given the following graph. the consensus is that they ca not be solved with polynomial time algorithms. Let us here review nondeterministic Turing machines. These problems are called decision problems. Below we are going to characterize this class of problems. in addition. For example. For the problems of this class there are no known polynomial time algorithms for solving them nor are they known to be unsolvable with polynomial time algorithms. "Is a string w in the language a*b ? ". Such a problem (having no K-fold exponential time algorithms) is called nonelementary. This problem belongs to a peculiar class of problems called NP-Complete problems. Now let us go back to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. "Is it possible to schedule committee meetings without conflicts into a given number of time slots ? " . First. there are problems that are solved by answering with yes or no. the logic is called WS1S (Weak Second-order theory of 1 Successor). sets of integers and the predicate "belongs to" (an element X belongs to a set S) are allowed. is it possible to color its vertices with three or less colors ? . however.In Presburger arithmetic (minus addition operation). if. At the moment. there are no K-fold exponential time algorithms to solve it for any number K. " Is it possible to assign colors to vertices of a given graph using a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned ? " etc. For the satisfiability problem of WS1S. Consider the problem of coloring vertices of a graph with a given number of colors or less so that no two vertices connected directly by an edge have the same color assigned.

For the graphs of (a) and (b), you could find a solution very easily by inspection. You could see a right coloring as soon as you saw the graphs. However, you can most likely not tell how you arrived at your solutions. You probably don't have any algorithms you could use to solve them. You could somehow see the solutions. This is basically the idea of nondeterministic (Turing) machine. There is no fixed procedure which you can use repeatedly to solve instance after instance of this problem. But you can somehow solve them. Let us move on to a slightly more complex example of (c). For this graph to find a right coloring you could start with vertex 1 and assign color a. Then move on to vertex 2 and assign color b(it has to be something other than a ). Then go to vertex 3 and assign a third color, say c. Then at vertex 4 select color b and for vertex 5 use color a. In this process we make a decision as to what color to use for each vertex and when a decision is made for all the vertices we have a solution to the problem. This process applies to any decision problem. That is to solve a decision problem a number of smaller decisions are made one after another and as a result a solution to the problem is obtained. This process can be represented by a tree called decision tree. For example, for the graph coloring problem let us first decide on the order of vertices we color in, say 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 for the graph of (c) above. Then the root of its decision tree corresponds to the vertex we assign a color to first (vertex 1 in this example). Then for each possible color for the first vertex, a child is created for the first vertex of the tree. So the second level of the

decision tree corresponds to the second vertex to be colored. Then in general, for each possible color for each vertex of level i of the decision tree, a child is created. Those children form level i+1 of the decision tree. The decision tree for the graph of (c) is given below. Since any color can be assigned to vertex 1 without loss of generality, it has just one child in the actual decision tree. Also since in this case the i-th and (i+1)-th vertices are connected by an edge for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, they can not have the same color. So each vertex after vertex 1 has two colors to choose from. So they each have two children in the decision tree.

Thus during the process of solving the problem a decision is made at each level and when all levels are covered, the problem is solved. A path from the root to a leaf corresponds to a coloring of the vertices of the given graph. A decision tree, however, does not tell us how to make decisions. Also a decision tree does not tell how to order the vertices for coloring, that is which vertex to color first, second etc. A deterministic machine (or algorithm) has a specific fixed set of rules for making a decision at each level of the decision tree. Although it knows what to do at every stage of problem solving, the decisions it makes are not necessarily the right ones. When it makes wrong decisions, it must retract earlier decisions and try different paths, which is called backtracking. For the graph coloring problem a deterministic algorithm might first order the vertices of the graph in decreasing order of their degree and also order colors. Then, following the

order of the vertices, assign to each vertex the highest order color available for the vertex. Since that kind of algorithm is not guaranteed to use the minimum number of colors, it may produce a wrong answer unless there is some provision for backtracking. A nondeterministic (Turing) machine, on the other hand, is a fictitious machine and somehow knows which branch (child) to select at each step. It always makes a right selection. A decision problem is said to belong to class NP if each vertex in its decision tree has a finite number of children and if it can be solved by a nondeterministic (Turing) machine in polynomial time. The graph coloring problem is in class NP, so are the satisfiability problem for propositional logic and most of the scheduling problems just to name a few. Also there are other characterizations of class NP. Interested readers click here. At this moment it is not known whether or not problems in class NP can be solved with a polynomial time algorithm in the worst case. The consensus is that there is no polynomial time algorithm to solve them. It would take at least exponential time. Among the problems in class NP, there are problems which all problems of class NP can be transformed to in polynomial time. Those problems are called NP-complete problems. If a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of the NP-complete problems, all the problems in NP can be solved in polynomial time. Below we are going to study NPcomplete problems. We start our discussion with the concept of polynomial time transformation (reduction). Basically we say a decision problem Q1 is polynomially reducible to a decision problem Q2 if and only if there is a transformation that transforms any arbitrary instance of Q1 into an instance of Q2 in polynomial time such that the answer to Q1 is yes if and only if the answer to Q2 is yes. A little more formally we define this in terms of languages. Note that a decision problem can be viewed as a language of its instances and that solving it can be considered as recognizing the language as we have seen earlier. Let L1 and L2 be languages over alphabets 1 and 2, respectively. We say that L1 is polynomial-time reducible to L2 if and only if there is a function f from 1* to 2* such that for any string x in polynomial time.
1 *

,x

L1 if and only if f(x)

L2 and f can be computed

For example let us consider the following two problems: graph coloring and scheduling of committee meetings. The graph coloring problem is as given above. In the scheduling of committee meetings problem, committees with their members and a positive integer k are given. The problem is whether or not the meetings of the committees can be scheduled in k or less time slots so that everyone can attend one's meetings. Note that some people may be in more than one committee. Let us try to show that this scheduling problem is polynomial time reducible to the graph coloring problem.

Suppose also that k = 3. Let us consider the following transformation: For each committee add a vertex to the graph. and 1 and 4 share members. and 1 and 4. an edge is inserted between vertices 1 and 2. Proceeding similarly the following graph is obtained corresponding to the committee memberships. that is construct a graph and give the number of colors to be used to color its vertices so that the meetings can be scheduled if and only if graph can be colored. {a. Corresponding to this grouping assign colors to the vertices of the graph so that the vertices in the same group are given the same color and those in . 3 and 4 to the graph. 2. Similarly since committees 1 and 3. Thus the scheduling problem asks whether or not the meetings of the given committees can be scheduled in 3 time slots without any conflicts. where p k. d }. c }. For example suppose that we are given the committees 1. 3 and 4 with the memberships { a. { b.What we need to do is given an instance of the scheduling problem construct an instance of the graph coloring problem. The corresponding graph for the graph coloring problem can be constructed as follows: Corresponding to the committees 1. Then the committees can be grouped into p groups so that the committees in the same group can meet at the same time. Then the meetings can be scheduled in k or less time slots if and only if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. d } and { a. c. 3 and 4. connect with an edge the vertices corresponding to the committees. Then since committees 1 and 2 share a. 2. b }. respectively. 2. edges are added between 1 and 3. add vertices 1. Suppose that the meetings can be scheduled in p time slots. and if and only if two committee have some members in common.

Traveling Salesman Problem Given cities and traveling times between cities. As a consequence if a polynomial time algorithm is found for any one of those problems. then the consensus today is that it is most likely that no polynomial time algorithms i. Satisfiability Problem for Propositional Logic 2. It can be easily seen that if a problem P at hand is NP-hard and if a problem known to be NP-complete can be polynomial time reducible to P. fast algorithms exist to solve it. find out whether or not the objects can be put into the bins. can be done in time polynomial in the size of the problem. then it can be easily seen that the committees can meet in k or less time slots. Bin Packing Problem Given a set of objects. find out whether or not one is a subgraph of the other. Some of them are listed below. A problem is NP-complete if it is in class NP and NP-hard. Thus these two vertices must get different colors. This coloring uses p colors which does not exceed k.different groups are given different colors. group them into two groups so that the sum of the numbers of one group is equal to that of the other group. Subgraph Isomorphism Problem Given two graphs.e. NP-complete Problems 1. If a problem is NP-complete. For all the problems in class NP can be reduced to P through the known NP-complete problem in polynomial time. Partition Problem Given a set of integers. Committee Meeting Schedule Problem In fact most scheduling problems are NPcomplete. and vertices connected with an edge have different colors. It was first proven by S. a traveling salesman wants to know a shortest route to visit all cities exactly once and come back to where he/she started. then P is also NP-complete. which in this case can be taken as the number of committees. that is the construction of graph for a given set of committees. For if any two vertices are connected with an edge. Formally a problem is NP-hard if every problem in class NP can be polynomial time reducible to it. 6. all the problems can be solved with polynomial time algorithms. Cook that the problems of class NP can be polynomial time reducible to the satisfiability problem of propositional logic. It is also easily seen that the transformation. 7. 4. Graph Color Problem 3. Subsequently the satisfiability problem was found to be polynomial time reducible to many other problems. 5. then that means that the corresponding committees share some members and that they are scheduled to meet in different time slots. . This group of problems are called NP-complete problems. Conversely if the graph can be colored with k or less colors. Today hundreds of problems are known to be NP-complete. We are now ready to discuss NP-completeness. their sizes and a number of bins of the same size.

a. (2.2}. and S = {(1. (2. B = {a. 3-Dimensional Matching Given three sets A. let A = {1.y).a.y)}.b. Set Cover Problem Given a set S.y). of S such that every element of A.b.b}.y}.x)} is a desired set satisfying all the requirements. and C appears exactly once in T ? For example. their values and an integer V. a collection of subsets of S and an integer k. called a matching. . find out whether or not there are k or less subsets in the collection whose union is S.b.8.a. Is there a subset T.b.x).x). B.x)} is not a matching. B and C of the same size.b. Then T = {(1.(2. their sizes.(1. 9. and a subset S of the Cartesian product A X B X C. a set of objects.x). Note that {(1. (2. Knapsack Problem Given a knapsack of size S. is it possible to select objects so that the sum of their sizes does not exceed S and the sum of their values is V or larger ? 10. and C = {x.

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