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A PROJECT REPORT
ON

“MARKETING STRATEGY ”
At

For the partial fulfillment of the award of


Bachelor of Business Administration

(2008-2011)

Submitted To Submitted by

JIWAJI UNIVERSITY ARUNESH KUMAR

BBA-V Sem.
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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that MR. ARUNESH KUMAR Student of BBA Vth


Semester of GICTS Group of College has completed his summer training of dated from
08/10/2010 to 08/11/2010 and this report is submitted by his for the completion of the
training requirement under my guidance and supervision .

Date: Prof. YOGESH ATRAY


(Faculty Guide)
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DECLARATION

I ARUNESH KUMAR, student of BBA V Semester of GICTS , Gwalior, hereby declare


that the project is my original piece of work and not the copy of any such work
undertaken by someone else, all the information , facts and figures presented in the
report are first hand in nature. They are actually based on my intense efforts conducted
in JK TYRE.

Date: ARUNESH KUMAR

BBA –V Sem
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The present work is dedicated to the persons who not only taught me, but continue
inspire me in knowing the clandestine facts of workmanship. I bow in honor before these
great teachers. The accomplishment of the present study became possible by the
invaluable assistance and guidance of my professional guides to whom I may gratefully
indebted. Firstly I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my faculty guide
PROF.YOGESH ATRAY without whose invaluable guidance, moral support and
encouragement my work would have ever assumed the present shape, research. I were
indebted to my parents and friends for their moral support and possible efforts they
made for me.

Date: ARUNESH KUMAR


BBA –V Sem
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INDEX

• History of the Organisation & Objective


• Organisational Structure
• Financial Performance
• Marketing Strategy
• Production & Operations
• Marketing
• Strength & Weakness of the Organisation.
• Suggestion
• Special Point
• Names of the CEO/MD/Department Head

Chapter -1

• Introduction

Chapter –II

• Objective of The Study

Chapter –III

• Result & Discussion

Chapter – IV

• Suggestion

Chapter –V
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• Conclusion

History of the organization & Objective

Introduction of JK
TYRE
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HISTORY & ORGANISATION

INTRODUCTION OF JK TYRE
JK Tyre is a leading exporter of tyres from India and roughly accounts for about
26% of the total tyre exports from India (along with its associate Vikrant Tyres
Limited) maruti zen steel radials, bias tires for passenger vehicles, ultima XP
steel radials

It is the first and only tyre manufacture in the world to receive the QS 9000 for
multilocation operations : World's first tyre manufacture to receive the ISO 9000
for all its operations in one go. Also J.K Tyres is the first tyre company in India to
receive ISO 14001 in recognisition of its environmental management systems.

Today, JK Tyre's products compete with the best international players in the
premium international bias market in more than 55 countries in 6 continents . The
exports operate through a strong and dedicated distribution network, and our
distributors are fully supported by the company's technical team in terms of
continued product development to meet specific market needs. JK Tyre had
obtained international accreditation for its products in the US , Europe , South
America and the Middle East.

J.K Tyre has been the recepient of various awards for exports for the last many
years for its commitment to offer superior performance standards & path
-breaking innovations. Recently , it was honored with ' The Special Export Award
2000-2001' from Capexil, making it its fourth consecutive award from India's
premier industrial association . JK Tyre has also been recently recognised by
Indian Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO) for being the largest tyre exporter to
Latin America markets and is the proud recepient of first-ever FOCUS LAC
Award for the year 1999-2000. J.K Tyres constant endeavor to deliver superior
value to its customers and a sound marketing strategy forms the foundation of
this spectacularly consistent performance on the international front.
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While JK Tyre has maintained its consistency in its marketing and distribution
strategies for the export markets, it has also actively pursued development of
new superior products to adapt to specific requirements of the different markets .
The credit goes to the India's biggest in-house R&D centre, HASETRI (Hari
Shankar Singhania Elastomer and Tyre Research Institute) . This Centre for
Rubber and Allied Technology was eatablished at Jaykaygram, ISO/IEC Guide
25 & EN 45001. Equipped with advanced testing facilities, it pursues excellence
by evolving technologies for superior product performance to reduce waste and
pre-empt consumer needs.
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HISTORY OF J.K. TYRE

Excellence comes not from mere words or procedures. It comes from an urge to strive and
deliver the best. A mindset that says, When it is good enough, improve it. It is a way of thinking
that comes only from a power within." - H.S.Singhania

JK Tyre & Industries Ltd. is the flagship company under the umbrella of JK Organisation

The advent of JK Organization on the industrial landscape of India almost synchronizes with
the beginning of an era of industrial awareness - an endeavor for self reliance and the setting up
of a dynamic Indian industry. This was way back in the middle of the 19th century. And the rest
that followed is history JK Organization has been a forerunner in the economic and social
advancement of India. It always aimed at creating job opportunities for a multitude of
countrymen and to provide high quality products. It has striven to make India self reliant by
pioneering the production of a number of industrial and consumer products, by adopting the
latest technology as well as developing its own know-how. It has also undertaken industrial
ventures in several other countries.

JK Organisation is an association of industrial and commercial companies and charitable trusts.


Its member companies, employing nearly 50,000 persons are engaged in the manufacture of a
variety of products and in diverse fields of commerce.

Trusts are devoted to promoting industrial, technical and medical research, education, religious
values and providing better living and recreational facilities. With the spirit of social
consciousness uppermost in mind, J.K. Organisation is committed to the cause of human
advancement

• 1940 First in India to manufacture steel Bailing Hoops for jute and cotton and to make the
country self sufficient by meeting the entire demand-J.K. Iron & Steel Co. Ltd., Kanpur

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• 1941 First in India to produce Aluminium virgin Metal from Indian Bauxite
Aluminium Corporation of India Ltd., Jaykaynagar
• 1942 First in India to manufacture Engineering files- J.K. Engineers'Files, Bombay in India
to set up a continuous process Rayon Plant
• 1949 First to manufacture a Hydraulically Operated Cane Crushing Mill for Khandsari
Sugar Plant and completed 100 ton plant-J.K. Iron & Steel Co. Ltd., Kanpur
• 1950 First in world to set up a plant for production of Hydrosulphite of soda by Sodium
Amalgam Process- J.K. Chemicals Ltd., Bombay
• 1959 First in India to produce Nylon-6 with its own polymerised raw material- J.K
Synthetics Ltd., Kota
• 1960 First to produce Sodium Sulphoxylate Formaldehyde (Rangolite C of Formosul) in
India - J.K. Chemicals Ltd., Bombay
• 1968 First to manufacture TV Sets in India- J.K. Electronics, Kanpur. First to manufacture
Metallic Cops for Synthetic Filament yarn industries in India- Syntex tube works, Kanpur
• 1970 First to manufacture Acrylic Fibres- J.K. Synthetics Ltd. Kota
• 1971 First to develop differentially Dyeable Nylon- J.K. Synthetics Ltd., Kota
• 1974 First in India to license Synthetic Fibre Technology to third party as well as the first to
manufacture Synthetic Fibre Machinery Fibretech Engineers & Manufacturers, Dadri
• 1978 First in India to produce steel belted Radial Tyres for passenger cars, trucks and
buses- J.K. Tyre Plant, Kankroli
• 1980 First in world to make Steel Belted Radial Tyres for three wheelers- J.K. Tyre Plant,
Kankroli
• 1981 First in India to produce white cement through dry process- J.K. White cement Gotan
• 1985 First in India to produce Cathonic Dyeable Polyester Fibre- J.K. Synthetics Ltd.,Kota.
First in India to produce Nylon Tyre Cord based on Spin Draw Technology- J.K. Synthetics
Ltd., Kota
• 1987 First in India to produce magnetic tapes with cobalt technology J.K. magnetics,
Surajpur
• 1989 more Tyre Plant (BTP) set-up with a capacity of 5.7 lacs tyres p.a.R & D cente set-up
at HASTERI

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• 1994 India's first T-Rated tyre launched banmore Tyre Plant (BTP) crossed 100 TPD
• 1995 Mercedes Benz Launched on JK steel radials first tyre manufacturer in the world to
get ISO 9001
• 1996 India's first dual contact high traction steel radial- aquasonic launched.
Introduced steel wheels
• 1998 First tyre manufacturer in the world to get QS 9000 awarded CAPEXIL's highest
export award for 1997-98
• 1999 Synergy with VTL in procurement, marketing and production flexibility
• 2000 Completion of state of the art modernisation of truck radials.JK Tyres ranked 16th
largest Tyre Company in the world.ISA - 14000 accredition for environment & safety
• 2001 JK introduced National Go-Karting Championships
• 2002 JK. Industries recieved FOCUS LAC export award for the year 1999-2000

Today JK Organization, an association of Industrial and commercial companies and charitable


trusts, continues to grow to greater heights under the stewardship of its President, Hari Shankar
Singhania

The Principal business of the JK Organization includes Tyre, Paper, Cement, Drugs &
Pharmaceuticals, Agri Genetics, Dairy and Food Products, Audio Magnetic Tapes, Sugar,
Cosmetics, Woolen Textiles, Steel, Engineering Files, International Trading, Hybrid Seeds,
Industrial Rubber Products, Material Handling System etc The group besides having a
consistent record of growth and diversification has created a reputation for quality for all its
products and most of its products enjoy a leadership status in their respective market segments
To cope up with the demand in the market most of the companies in JK Organization are
certified for International Quality Systems like ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and QS 9001 Identifying
with social issues and contributing to the society has been a philosophy, which has been carried
on from the founding fathers. Various institutions set up by th group throughout India in diverse
fields of social welfare stand testimony to this philosophy

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COMPANY PROFILE

JK Tyre & Industries Ltd is one of the leading automotive tyre manufacturers in
India. The company is engaged in manufacturing of automobile tyres, tubes and
flaps. They manufactures Radial and Bias 4-wheeler tyres for trucks, buses
passenger cars, LCVs, tractors etc. They sell their products under the brand
name 'JK Tyre'. They have four plants located in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh
and Karnataka. The company has 134 sales, service and stock points located
throughout the country. They have over 3,500 dealerships across India. The
company's customer base covers virtually the entire Original Equipment
Manufacturers in India together with Replacement Market for four wheeler
vehicles, Defence and State Transport Units. Besides India, they have a
worldwide customer base in over 45 countries across all six continents. JK Tyre
& Industries Ltd was incorporated in the year 1951 as a private limited under the
name JK Industries Pvt Ltd. Until March 31, 1970, the company was engaged in
the managing agency business. Thereafter the company decided to undertake
manufacturing activities and obtained a letter of intent in February 1972 for the
manufacture of automobile tyres and tubes. The company name was changed
into JK Industries LTD with effect from May 24, 1974 consequent upon
conversion of the company into a public limited company. In the year 1974, the
company entered into a technical collaboration with General Tire International
Co, USA, a subsidiary of General Tire & Rubber Co, USA for technical services
and sales agreement for the supply of technical know how engineering and
documentation for operational facilities. In the year 1989, the company
introduced several new patterns and sizes of tyres including a semi-lug Nylon
Truck tyre. In the year 1991, the company set up Banmore Tyre Plant with a
capacity of 5.7 lakh tyres per annum. They launched radial tyres for tractors. In
the year 1992, the company's international division expanded their activities by
opening their office in Moscow. In addition, they set up a Research and
Development center at HASETRI. In the year 1993, they introduced new radial
tyres namely, Brute and Ultima and in the next year, they launched 'Jet Track-39'
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to meet the need of the heavy load market. In June 1997, the company acquired
51% stake in Vikrant Tyres Ltd from Karnataka Government. They launched
India's first H-Rated tyre. During the year 1998-99, as per the Scheme of
Arrangement between the company and JK Drugs & Pharmaceuticals Ltd, the
pharmaceutical undertaking of the company was transferred to and vested in JK
Drugs & Pharmaceuticals Ltd with effect from appointed date July 1, 1996.
During the year 2002-03, as per the Scheme of Arrangement and Amalgamation
between the company, JK Agri, JK Sugar and Vikrant Tyres Ltd, the agri-genetics
undertaking of the company was transferred to JK Agri, the sugar undertaking
was transferred to JK Sugar and Vikrant Tyre Ltd was amalgamated with the
company. During the year 2004-05, the expansion of capacity of Truck/ Bus
Radials by 50% was completed. In addition, the expansion of the passenger
radial capacity was completed. In December 2006, as per the Scheme of
Arrangement and De-merger between the company and Netflier Technologies
Ltd (name since changed to Netflier Finco Ltd), the business of holding and
dealing in investments and some other assets and properties of the company
and liabilities and obligations thereof stood transferred to and vested in Netflier
Finco Ltd. In addition, Hansdeep Investment Ltd, Hidrive Finance Ltd,
Panchanan Investment Ltd and Radial Finance Ltd ceased to be the subsidiaries
of the company. During the year 2006-07, the company introduced a new tyre,
offering high mileage 'Jet One' and launched new Semi-Lug and Rib pattern
Truck Radial tyres. They also diversified into Special Application Tyres and
commenced their exports. In order to capture the brand 'JK Tyre' and their value
in the name of the company, they changed their name to JK Tyre & Industries Ltd
with effect from April 2, 2007. The company entered into an arrangement with
BEML for supply of OTR tyres on a long-term basis. In June 2008, the company
acquired the controlling interest in Empresas Tornel, S A de C V (Tornel), a
company incorporated under the laws of Mexico, by acquiring 100% of their
equity capital for a consideration of USD 28.75 million. Tornel has three tyre
manufacturing plants in Mexico with a combined capacity of 6.6 million tyres per
annum During the year 2008-09, the company doubled the capacity of Truck/Bus
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Radial plant to 8.00 lakh tyres from 3.67 lakh tyres per annum at an estimated
project cost of Rs 315 crore. This has further strengthened JK Tyre's
commanding position in the fast growing Truck/Bus segment. The company has
undertaken a project for substantial expansion of their OTR tyre capacity at a
capital outlay of Rs 120 crore, which is expected to be completed by 2010.
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Organisation Structure of - JK Tyre & Ind

Name Designation

Hari Shankar Singhania Chairman / Chair Person

Bharat Hari Singhania Managing Director

Swaroop Chand Sethi Whole Time Director

Arvind Singh Mewar Director

Govind Ballabh Pandey Director

T K Mukhopadhyay Director

Name Designation

Raghupati Singhania Vice Chairman & Mng.Director

Vikrampati Singhania Deputy Managing Director

Arun K Bajoria President & Director

Bakul Jain Director

Om Prakash Khaitan Director


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Hence, JK Tyre's claim as No 1 tyre manufacturer in India is a perfectly valid and correct
statement. This also reflects ASCI's agreement to JK Tyre's viewpoint that figures, as
stated in the one's annual report, could actually be misleading and could include revenues
from non-tyre-related businesses also.
JK Tyre, pioneers of radial technology in India, is today India's largest manufacturer of
tyres in the four-wheel segment, including tyres for trucks and buses, LCVs, passenger
cars, jeeps, tractors, ADVs and OTRs. After 25 years of pioneering world-class
technologies in India, JK Tyre has recently launched the country's first eco-friendly
coloured tyres as well as steel-belted tractor rear radials.

b. Mission & Vision

Vision:

To be amongst the most admire companies in India committed to be excellence.

Mission:

a. Be a customer obsessed company


b. No.1 Tyre brand in India
c. Deliver enhanced value at all stakeholders
d. Most profitable Tyre Company in India
e. Enhance global presence through acquisition
f. Motivated and committed team development for high performance
organization

c. Marketing Strategy

Strategic thinking is key to the evolution of successful marketing strategies of JK tyre.


This involves the following analyses:
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i. Understanding markets: Strategic perspective of the market


requires skilful analysis of the trend and how they affect the market size and demand
for the firm’s product.
ii. Finding market niches: Price, service, convenience and
technology are some of the niches in Indian market.
iii. Product and service planning: Analysis of the customer’s
promotion of the brand, both of the firm and competitors, besides an analysis of the
situation in which the customer uses the product.
iv. Distribution: Structural changes in inventory management, mobile
distribution are some of the key factors that are going to affect the distribution
process in the Indian market.
v. Managing for result: With pressure on costs, prices, and margins,
marketers will have to make effective utilization of every rupee spent in marketing.

Market opportunity of JK:

Identification of market opportunity is critical before the management of affirm takes a


decision to launch or diversify in any product area. This involves analysis of the
following:
 Size of the market
 Marketing strategies and the extent and quality of services rendered by other firm in
the industry.
 Market programmed required to satisfy market wants
 Identification of key success factors in an industry and linking them to a firm’s
strengths and weakness
Market opportunity
a. Size of the market
b. How well the market is served
c. Prospective inches
d. Marketing mix required to succeed
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e. Core competencies required

Market Industry Competition


segment analysis analysis
analysis

Demand
Trade
Condition
analysis
s

Market opportunity
Size of the market
How well the market is served
Prospective inches
Marketing mix required to succeed
Core competencies required

Framework of market opportunity analysis

Size of the market:


Sizes of the market are....
I. Demand analysis: is the core aspect of market opportunity.
II. Segmentation analysis: is the process of dividing the market into homogeneous sub
units.
III. Industry analysis:
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Entry Barriers: High

The entry barriers are high for the tyre


industry. It is a highly capital intensive
industry. A plant with an annual capacity of
1.5 million cross-ply tyres costs between Rs.
4,000 and Rs. 5,000 million. A similiar plant
producing radial tyres costs Rs. 8,000
million.

Bargaining Power of the Bargaining Power of the


Buyers: High Suppliers: High

The OEMs have total control Inter Firm Rivalry: Low The tyre industry consumes
The tyre industry in India is fairly nearly 50% of the natural
over prices. In fact, the
concentrated, with the top eight rubber produced in the
OEMs faced with declining
companies accounting for more than country. The price of natural
profitability have also
80% of the total production of tyres rubber is controlled by Rubber
reduced the number of
component suppliers to make Control Board and the
the supply chain more domestic prices of natural
efficient. rubber have registered a
significant increase in recent
times.

Threat of Substitutes: Low but Increasing


During the FY2002, over 1,10,000 passenger
car tyres were imported. This constitutes over
2% of total radial passenger car tyre
production in the country. However, with the
reduction of peak custom duty, the import of
tyres is likely to increase.

Industry Analysis - Porter's Model


Competitor analysis: analysis of competition how well the market is served.
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Marketing mix:

A Marketing mix is the division of groups to make a particular product, by


pricing, product, branding, place, and quality. Although some
marketers[who?] have added other P's, such as personnel and packaging,
the fundamentals of marketing typically identifies the four P's of the
marketing mix as referring to:

1. Product
2. Price
3. Promotion
4. Place
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MARKETING STRATEGY

Marketing strategy is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its limited
resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable
competitive advantage. A marketing strategy should be centered around the key concept
that customer satisfaction is the main goal.

Key part of the general corporate strategy

Marketing strategy is a method of focusing an organization's energies


and resources on a course of action which can lead to increased sales
and dominance of a targeted market niche. A marketing strategy
combines product development, promotion, distribution, pricing,
relationship management and other elements; identifies the firm's
marketing goals, and explains how they will be achieved, ideally within
a stated timeframe. Marketing strategy determines the choice of target
market segments, positioning, marketing mix, and allocation of
resources. It is most effective when it is an integral component of
overall firm strategy, defining how the organization will successfully
engage customers, prospects, and competitors in the market arena.
Corporate strategies, corporate missions, and corporate goals. As the
customer constitutes the source of a company's revenue, marketing
strategy is closely linked with sales. A key component of marketing
strategy is often to keep marketing in line with a company's
overarching mission statement.[4]

Basic theory:

1. Target Audience
2. Proposition/Key Element
3. Implementation
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Tactics and actions

A marketing strategy can serve as the foundation of a marketing plan.


A marketing plan contains a set of specific actions required to
successfully implement a marketing strategy. For example: "Use a low
cost product to attract consumers. Once our organization, via our low
cost product, has established a relationship with consumers, our
organization will sell additional, higher-margin products and services
that enhance the consumer's interaction with the low-cost product or
service."

A strategy consists of a well thought out series of tactics to make a


marketing plan more effective. Marketing strategies serve as the
fundamental underpinning by marketing plans designed to fill market
needs and reach marketing objectives.[5] Plans and objectives are
generally tested for measurable results.

A marketing strategy often integrates an organization's marketing


goals, policies, and action sequences (tactics) into a cohesive whole.
Similarly, the various strands of the strategy , which might include
advertising, channel marketing, internet marketing, promotion and
public relations can be orchestrated. Many companies cascade a
strategy throughout an organization, by creating strategy tactics that
then become strategy goals for the next level or group. Each one
group is expected to take that strategy goal and develop a set of
tactics to achieve that goal. This is why it is important to make each
strategy goal measurable.

Marketing strategies are dynamic and interactive. They are partially


planned and partially unplanned. See strategy dynamics.
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Types of strategies

Marketing strategies may differ depending on the unique situation of


the individual business. However there are a number of ways of
categorizing some generic strategies. A brief description of the most
common categorizing schemes is presented below:

• Strategies based on market dominance - In this scheme, firms are classified based
on their market share or dominance of an industry. Typically there are four types
of market dominance strategies:
o Leader
o Challenger
o Follower
o Nicher
• Porter generic strategies - strategy on the dimensions of strategic scope and
strategic strength. Strategic scope refers to the market penetration while strategic
strength refers to the firm’s sustainable competitive advantage. The generic
strategy framework (porter 1984) comprises two alternatives each with two
alternative scopes. These are Differentiation and low-cost leadership each with a
dimension of Focus-broad or narrow.
o Product differentiation (broad)
o Cost leadership (broad)
o Market segmentation (narrow)
• Innovation strategies - This deals with the firm's rate of the new product
development and business model innovation. It asks whether the company is on
the cutting edge of technology and business innovation. There are three types:
o Pioneers
o Close followers
o Late followers
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• Growth strategies - In this scheme we ask the question, “How should the firm
grow?”. There are a number of different ways of answering that question, but the
most common gives four answers:
o Horizontal integration
o Vertical integration
o Diversification
o Intensification

A more detailed scheme uses the categories[6]:

• Prospector
• Analyzer
• Defender
• Reactor
• Marketing warfare strategies - This scheme draws parallels between marketing
strategies and military strategies.

Competitive advantage is a theory that seeks to address some of the


criticisms of comparative advantage. Michael Porter proposed the
theory in 1985. Competitive advantage theory suggests that states
and businesses should pursue policies that create high-quality goods to
sell at high prices in the market. Porter emphasizes productivity
growth as the focus of national strategies. Competitive advantage
rests on the notion that cheap labor is ubiquitous and natural
resources are not necessary for a good economy. The other theory,
comparative advantage, can lead countries to specialize in exporting
primary goods and raw materials that trap countries in low-wage
economies due to terms of trade. Competitive advantage attempts to
correct for this issue by stressing maximizing scale economies in
goodsservices that garner premium prices (Stutz and Warf 2009).
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Competitive advantage occurs when an organization acquires or


develops an attribute or combination of attributes that allows it to
outperform its competitors. These attributes can include access to
natural resources, such as high grade ores or inexpensive power, or
access to highly trained and skilled personnel human resources. New
technologies such as robotics and information technology either to be
included as a part of the product, or to assist making it.

Information technology has become such a prominent part of the


modern business world that it can also contribute to competitive
advantage by outperforming

Resource-based view perspective

competitors with regard to internet presence. From the very beginning,


i.e. Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, the central problem of information
transmittal, leading to the rise of middle-men in the marketplace, has
been a significant impediment in gaining competitive advantage. By
using the internet as the middle-man, the purveyor of information to
the final consumer, businesses can gain a competitive advantage
through creation of an effective website, which in the past required
extensive effort finding the right middle-man and cultivating the
relationship.

The term competitive advantage is the ability gained through


attributes and resources to perform at a higher level than others in the
same industry or market (Christensen and Fahey 1984, Kay 1994,
Porter 1980 cited by Chacarbaghi and Lynch 1999, p. 45). The study of
such advantage has attracted profound research interest due to
contemporary issues regarding superior performance levels of firms in
the present competitive market conditions. “A firm is said to have a
competitive advantage when it is implementing a value creating
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strategy not simultaneously being implemented by any current or


potential player” (Barney 1991 cited by Clulow et al.2003, p. 221).
Successfully implemented strategies will lift a firm to superior
performance by facilitating the firm with competitive advantage to
outperform current or potential players (Passemard and Calantone
2000, p. 18). To gain competitive advantage a business strategy of a
firm manipulates the various resources over which it has direct control
and these resources have the ability to generate competitive
advantage (Reed and Fillippi 1990 cited by Rijamampianina 2003,
p. 362). Superior performance outcomes and superiority in production
resources reflects competitive advantage (Day and Wesley 1988 cited
by Lau 2002, p. 125).

Above writings signify competitive advantage as the ability to stay


ahead of present or potential competition, thus superior performance
reached through competitive advantage will ensure market leadership.
Also it provides the understanding that resources held by a firm and
the business strategy will have a profound impact on generating
competitive advantage. Powell (2001, p. 132) views business strategy
as the tool that manipulates the resources and create competitive
advantage, hence, viable business strategy may not be adequate
unless it possess control over unique resources that has the ability to
create such a unique advantage. Summarizing the view points,
competitive advantage is a key determinant of superior performance
and it will ensure survival and prominent placing in the market.
Superior performance being the ultimate desired goal of a firm,
competitive advantage becomes the foundation highlighting the
significant importance to develop same.

The term "marketing mix" was coined in 1953 by Neil Borden in his
American Marketing Association presidential address. However, this
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was actually a reformulation of an earlier idea by his associate, James


Culliton, who in 1948 described the role of the marketing manager as a
"mixer of ingredients", who sometimes follows recipes prepared by
others, sometimes prepares his own recipe as he goes along,
sometimes adapts a recipe from immediately available ingredients,
and at other times invents new ingredients no one else has tried.[1] A
prominent marketer, E. Jerome McCarthy, proposed a Four P
classification in 1960, which has seen wide use. The Four P's concept is
explained in most marketing textbooks and classes.

Four P's

Elements of the marketing mix are often referred to as the "Four P's":

• Product - It is a tangible object or an intangible service that is mass produced or


manufactured on a large scale with a specific volume of units. Intangible products
are service based like the tourism industry & the hotel industry or codes-based
products like cellphone load and credits. Typical examples of a mass produced
tangible object are the motor car and the disposable razor. A less obvious but
ubiquitous mass produced service is a computer operating system. Packaging also
needs to be taken into consideration. Every product is subject to a life-cycle
including a growth phase followed by an eventual period of decline as the product
approaches market saturation. To retain its competitiveness in the market, product
differentiation is required and is one of the strategies to differentiate a product
from its competitors.

• Price – The price is the amount a customer pays for the product. The business
may increase or decrease the price of product if other stores have the same
product.
• Place – Place represents the location where a product can be purchased. It is often
referred to as the distribution channel. It can include any physical store as well as
virtual stores on the Internet.
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• Promotion represents all of the communications that a marketer may use in the
marketplace. Promotion has four distinct elements: advertising, public relations,
personal selling and sales promotion. A certain amount of crossover occurs when
promotion uses the four principal elements together, which is common in film
promotion. Advertising covers any communication that is paid for, from cinema
commercials, radio and Internet adverts through print media and billboards.
Public relations are where the communication is not directly paid for and includes
press releases, sponsorship deals, exhibitions, conferences, seminars or trade fairs
and events. Word of mouth is any apparently informal communication about the
product by ordinary individuals, satisfied customers or people specifically
engaged to create word of mouth momentum. Sales staff often plays an important
role in word of mouth and Public Relations (see Product above).

Any organization, before introducing its products or services into the


market; conducts a market survey. The sequence of all 'P's as above is
very much important in every stage of product life cycle Introduction,
Growth, Maturity and Decline.

Extended Marketing Mix (3 Ps)

More recently, three more Ps have been added to the marketing mix
namely People, Process and Physical Evidence. This marketing
mix is known as Extended Marketing Mix.

• People: All people involved with consumption of a service are important. For
example workers, management, consumers etc. It also defines the market
segmentation, mainly demographic segmentation. It addresses particular class of
people for whom the product or service is made available.
• Process: Procedure, mechanism and flow of activities by which services are used.
Also the 'Procedure' how the product will reach the end user.
• Physical Evidence: The marketing strategy should include effectively
communicating their satisfaction to potential customers.
30

Four Cs (1) in 7Cs compass model

A formal approach to this customer-focused marketing mix is known as


Four Cs (Commodity, Cost, Channel, Communication) in “7Cs compass
model.” Koichi Shimizu proposed a four Cs classification in 1973. [2] [3]

This system is basically the four Ps [4]


renamed and reworded to
provide a customer focus. The four Cs Model provides a
demand/customer centric version alternative to the well-known four Ps
supply side model (product, price, place, promotion) of marketing
management.The Four Cs model is more consumer-oriented and
attempts to better fit the movement from mass marketing to symbiotic
marketing.

1. Commodity:(Original meaning of Latin: Commodus=convenient)the product for


the consumers or citizens.a commodity can also be described as an raw material
such as; oil,metal ores and wheat, the price of these tend to change on a daily
basis, due to the demand and supply of these commodities.
2. Cost:(Original meaning of Latin: Constare= It makes sacrifices)producing cost,
selling cost, purchasing cost and social cost.
3. Channel:(Original meaning is a Canal)Flow of commodity : marketing channels.
4. Communication:(Original meaning of Latin:Communio=sharing of meaning)
marketing communication : It doesn't promote the sales.

(Framework of Cs compass model)

• (C1): Corporation and competitor : The core of 4Cs is corporation and


organization, while the core of 4Ps is customers who are the targets for attacks or
defenses.
• (C2) : Commodity, (C3) : Cost, (C4) : Channel, (C5) : Communication
• (C6) : Consumer (Needle of compass to Consumer)
31

The factors related to customers can be explained by the first


character of four directions marked on the compass model: N = Needs,
W = Wants, S = Security and E = Education (consumer education).

• (C7) : Circumstances (Needle of compass to Circumstances )

In addition to the customer, there are various uncontrollable external


environmental factors encircling the companies. Here it can also be
explained by the first character of the four directions marked on the
compass model --- N = National and International C, W=Weather, S =
Social and Cultural C, E = Economic (Circumstances).

Strategy evaluation

• Measuring the effectiveness of the organizational strategy, it's extremely


important to conduct a SWOT analysis to figure out the strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities and threats (both internal and external) of the entity in business.
This may require taking certain precautionary measures or even changing the
entire strategy.

In corporate strategy, Johnson, Scholes and Whittington present a


model in which strategic options are evaluated against three key
success criteria:[3]

• Suitability (would it work?)


• Feasibility (can it be made to work?)
• Acceptability (will they work it?)

Suitability

Suitability deals with the overall rationale of the strategy. The key
point to consider is whether the strategy would address the key
strategic issues underlined by the organisation's strategic position.
32

• Does it make economic sense?


• Would the organization obtain economies of scale or economies of scope?
• Would it be suitable in terms of environment and capabilities?

Tools that can be used to evaluate suitability include:

• Ranking strategic options


• Decision trees

Feasibility

Feasibility is concerned with whether the resources required to


implement the strategy are available, can be developed or obtained.
Resources include funding, people, time and information.

Tools that can be used to evaluate feasibility include:

• cash flow analysis and forecasting


• break-even analysis
• resource deployment analysis

Acceptability

Acceptability is concerned with the expectations of the identified


stakeholders (mainly shareholders, employees and customers) with the
expected performance outcomes, which can be return, risk and
stakeholder reactions.

• Return deals with the benefits expected by the stakeholders (financial and non-
financial). For example, shareholders would expect the increase of their wealth,
employees would expect improvement in their careers and customers would
expect better value for money.
• Risk deals with the probability and consequences of failure of a strategy
(financial and non-financial).
33

• Stakeholder reactions deals with anticipating the likely reaction of stakeholders.


Shareholders could oppose the issuing of new shares, employees and unions could
oppose outsourcing for fear of losing their jobs, customers could have concerns
over a merger with regards to quality and support.

Tools that can be used to evaluate acceptability include:

• what-if analysis
• stakeholder mapping

General approaches

In general terms, there are two main approaches, which are opposite
but complement each other in some ways, to strategic management:

• The Industrial Organizational Approach


o based on economic theory — deals with issues like competitive rivalry,
resource allocation, economies of scale
o assumptions — rationality, self discipline behaviour, profit maximization
• The Sociological Approach
o deals primarily with human interactions
o assumptions — bounded rationality, satisfying behaviour, profit sub-
optimality. An example of a company that currently operates this way is
Google. The stakeholder focused approach is an example of this modern
approach to strategy.

relationships between elements in a portfolio. B.C.G. Analysis, for


example, was developed by the Boston Consulting Group in the early
1970s. This was the theory that gave us the wonderful image of a CEO
sitting on a stool milking a cash cow. Shortly after that the G.E. multi
factoral model was developed by General Electric. Companies
continued to diversify until the 1980s when it was realized that in
34

many cases a portfolio of operating divisions was worth more as


separate completely independent companies.

Porter generic strategies

Porter has described a category scheme consisting of three general


types of strategies that are commonly used by businesses to achieve
and maintain competitive advantage. These three generic strategies
are defined along two dimensions: strategic scope and strategic
strength. Strategic scope is a demand-side dimension (Michael E.
Porter was originally an engineer, then an economist before he
specialized in strategy) and looks at the size and composition of the
market you intend to target. Strategic strength is a supply-side
dimension and looks at the strength or core competency of the firm. In
35

particular he identified two competencies that he felt were most


important: product differentiation and product cost (efficiency).

He originally ranked each of the three dimensions (level of


differentiation, relative product cost, and scope of target market) as
either low, medium, or high, and juxtaposed them in a three
dimensional matrix. That is, the category scheme was displayed as a 3
by 3 by 3 cube. But most of the 27 combinations were not viable.

Porter's Generic Strategies

In his 1980 classic Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analysing


Industries and Competitors, Porter simplifies the scheme by reducing it
down to the three best strategies. They are cost leadership,
differentiation, and market segmentation (or focus). Market
segmentation is narrow in scope while both cost leadership and
differentiation are relatively broad in market scope.

Empirical research on the profit impact of marketing strategy indicated


that firms with a high market share were often quite profitable, but so
36

were many firms with low market share. The least profitable firms were
those with moderate market share. This was sometimes referred to as
the hole in the middle problem. Porter’s explanation of this is that firms
with high market share were successful because they pursued a cost
leadership strategy and firms with low market share were successful
because they used market segmentation to focus on a small but
profitable market niche. Firms in the middle were less profitable
because they did not have a viable generic strategy.

Porter suggested combining multiple strategies is successful in only


one case. Combining a market segmentation strategy with a product
differentiation strategy was seen as an effective way of matching a
firm’s product strategy (supply side) to the characteristics of your
target market segments (demand side). But combinations like cost
leadership with product differentiation were seen as hard (but not
impossible) to implement due to the potential for conflict between cost
minimization and the additional cost of value-added differentiation.

Since that time, empirical research has indicated companies pursuing


both differentiation and low-cost strategies may be more successful
than companies pursuing only one strategy.

Some commentators have made a distinction between cost leadership,


that is, low cost strategies, and best cost strategies. They claim that a
low cost strategy is rarely able to provide a sustainable competitive
advantage. In most cases firms end up in price wars. Instead, they
claim a best cost strategy is preferred. This involves providing the best
value for a relatively low price.
37

Cost Leadership Strategy

This strategy involves the firm winning market share by appealing to


cost-conscious or price-sensitive customers. This is achieved by having
the lowest prices in the target market segment, or at least the lowest
price to value ratio (price compared to what customers receive). To
succeed at offering the lowest price while still achieving profitability
and a high return on investment, the firm must be able to operate at a
lower cost than its rivals. There are three main ways to achieve this.

The first approach is achieving a high asset turnover. In service


industries, this may mean for example a restaurant that turns tables
around very quickly, or an airline that turns around flights very fast. In
manufacturing, it will involve production of high volumes of output.
These approaches mean fixed costs are spread over a larger number of
units of the product or service, resulting in a lower unit cost, i.e. the
firm hopes to take advantage of economies of scale and experience
curve effects. For industrial firms, mass production becomes both a
strategy and an end in itself. Higher levels of output both require and
result in high market share, and create an entry barrier to potential
competitors, who may be unable to achieve the scale necessary to
match the firms low costs and prices.
38

The second dimension is achieving low direct and indirect operating


costs. This is achieved by offering high volumes of standardized
products, offering basic no-frills products and limiting customization
and personalization of service. Production costs are kept low by using
fewer components, using standard components, and limiting the
number of models produced to ensure larger production runs.
Overheads are kept low by paying low wages, locating premises in low
rent areas, establishing a cost-conscious culture, etc. Maintaining this
strategy requires a continuous search for cost reductions in all aspects
of the business. This will include outsourcing, controlling production
costs, increasing asset capacity utilization, and minimizing other costs
including distribution, R&D and advertising. The associated distribution
strategy is to obtain the most extensive distribution possible.
Promotional strategy often involves trying to make a virtue out of low
cost product features.

Focus or Strategic Scope

This dimension is not a separate strategy per se, but describes the
scope over which the company should compete based on cost
leadership or differentiation. The firm can choose to compete in the
39

mass market (like Wal-Mart) with a broad scope, or in a defined,


focused market segment with a narrow scope. In either case, the basis
of competition will still be either cost leadership or differentiation.

In adopting a narrow focus, the company ideally focuses on a few


target markets (also called a segmentation strategy or niche strategy).
These should be distinct groups with specialized needs. The choice of
offering low prices or differentiated products/services should depend
on the needs of the selected segment and the resources and
capabilities of the firm. It is hoped that by focusing your marketing
efforts on one or two narrow market segments and tailoring your
marketing mix to these specialized markets, you can better meet the
needs of that target market. The firm typically looks to gain a
competitive advantage through product innovation and/or brand
marketing rather than efficiency. It is most suitable for relatively small
firms but can be used by any company. A focused strategy should
target market segments that are less vulnerable to substitutes or
where a competition is weakest to earn above-average return on
investment.

Examples of firm using a focus strategy include Southwest Airlines,


which provides short-haul point-to-point flights in contrast to the hub-
and-spoke model of mainstream carriers, and Family Dollar.
40

PRODUCTION & OPERATION


Product
A tangible object or an intangible service that is mass produced or manufactured on a
large scale with a specific volume of units. Intangible products are often service based
like the tourism industry & the hotel industry. Typical examples of a mass produced
tangible object are the tyre. A less obvious but ubiquitous mass produced service is a
computer operating system.

Product range:

BIAS

SIZE TYPE

RIB 9.00-2014PR
JET RIB
9.00-2016PR
JET RIB
10.00-2016PR JET RIB
JET MILES
9.00-2014PR
TRACK TUF
SEMI 9.00-2016PR
LUG TRACK TUF
41

10.00-2016PR
TRACK TUF
NORMAL LOAD
8.25-2014PR JET TRACK
9.00-2014PR JET TRACK

9.00-2016PR JET TRACK


10.00-2016PR JET KING

11.00-2016PR JET KING

12.00-2016PR JET KING

LUG MODERATE
8.25-2014PR JET TRACK
9.00-2014PR JET TRACK
HEAVY 9.00-2016PR JET TRACK

SUPER HEAVY
10.00-2016PR JET CLASSIC

10.00-2016PR TRACK 39 & DX

10.00-2016PR TRACK 39 DX
RADIAL

SIZE TYPE

9.00-2016PR JET STEEL-JDH

LUG 10.00-2016PR JET STEEL-JDC

11.00-2016PR JET STEEL-JDC

09.00-2016PR JET WAY JUC

SEMI 10.00R2016PR JET WAY JUC


LUG
11.00R2016PR JET WAY JUC

9.00R2014/16PR JET WAY JUC

RIB 10.00R2016PR JET WAY JBR


42

11.00R2016PR JET WAY JUH


12.00R2018PR JET WAY JUH

Price

The price is the amount a customer pays for the product. It is determined by a number of
factors including market share, competition, material costs, product identity and the
customer's perceived value of the product. The business may increase or decrease the
price of product if other stores have the same product.

Place

Place represents the location where a product can be purchased. It is often referred to as
the distribution channel. It can include any physical store as well as virtual stores on the
Internet.

Promotion

Promotion represents all of the communications that a marketer may use in the
marketplace. Promotion has four distinct elements - advertising, public relations, word of
mouth and point of sale. A certain amount of crossover occurs when promotion uses the
four principal elements together, which is common in film promotion. Advertising covers
any communication that is paid for, from television and cinema commercials, radio and
Internet adverts through print media and billboards. One of the most notable means of
promotion today is the Promotional Product, as in useful items distributed to targeted
audiences with no obligation attached. Saes staff, word of mouth, Public relations etc are
other such means of promotion.

STRENGTH AND WEAKNESS OF THE ORGANISATION


43

STRENGTH

• Heavy range of products

• Brand awareness

• Best promotion by display.

• Advertisement.

• Effective margin for delaers.

• Brand image of radial tyres

WEAKNESS
• Lack of co-ordination of the demand put forth by dealers and the supply of
appropriate tyres from the plant.
• The offerings given by the company are not enough for the business partners to
make the market operating rates competitive
• The supply of truck radial tyres is not in proportion to the
demand
• Mode of councelling is not co-operative.
• Monetory rewards are not given.
• Food quality for the employees are not good.
44

SPECIAL POINT

1933 First in India to manufacture Calico Prints- Juggilal Kamlapat Cotton


Spinning and Weaving Mills Co. Ltd., Kanpur.

1940 First in India to manufacture steel Bailing Hoops for jute and cotton
and to make the country self sufficient by meeting the entire demand-
J.K. Iron & Steel Co. Ltd., Kanpur.

1944 First in India to produce Aluminium virgin Metal from Indian Bauxite-
Aluminium Corporation of India Ltd., Jaykaynagar.

1949 First in India to manufacture Engineering files- J.K. Engineers ‘Files,


Bombay.

1959 First in India to set up a continuous process Rayon Plant.

1960 First to manufacture a Hydraulically Operated Cane Crushing Mill for


Khandsari Sugar Plant and completed 100 ton plant-J.K. Iron & Steel
Co. Ltd., Kanpur.

1961 First in world to set up a plant for production of Hydrosulphite of soda


by Sodium Amalgam Process- J.K. Chemicals Ltd., Bombay.

1965 First to produce Sodium Sulphoxylate Formaldehyde (Rangolite C of


Formosul) in India - J.K. Chemicals Ltd., Bombay

1968 First to manufacture TV Sets in India- J.K. Electronics, Kanpur. First to


manufacture Metallic Cops for Synthetic Filament yarn industries in
India- Syntex tube works, Kanpur.
45

1969 First to manufacture Acrylic Fibres- J.K. Synthetics Ltd. Kota

First to develop differentially Dyeable Nylon- J.K. Synthetics Ltd., Kota

1973 First in India to license Synthetic Fibre Technology to third party as


well as the first to manufacture Synthetic Fibre Machinery Fibretech
Engineers & Manufacturers, Dadri.

1976 First in India to produce steel belted Radial Tyres for passenger cars,
trucks and buses- J.K. Tyre Plant, Kankroli.

1980 First in world to make Steel Belted Radial Tyres for three wheelers-
J.K. Tyre Plant, Kankroli.

1984 First in India to produce white cement through dry process- J.K. White
cement. Gotan.

1985 First in India to produce Cathonic Dyeable Polyester Fibre- J.K.


Synthetics Ltd., Kota.

First in India to produce Nylon Tyre Cord based on Spin Draw


Technology- J.K. Synthetics Ltd., Kota.

1989 First in India to produce magnetic tapes with cobalt technology J.K.
magnetics, Surajpur.

1991 Banmore Tyre Plant (BTP) set-up with a capacity of 5.7 lacs tyres p.a.

1992 R & D center set-up at HASTERI.

1994 India's first T-Rated tyre launched


Banmore Tyre Plant (BTP) crossed 100 TPD.

1995 Mercedes Benz Launched on JK steel radials


46

First tyre manufacturer in the world to get ISO 9001

1996 India's first dual contact high traction steel radial- aquasonic launched.

Introduced steel wheels.

1997 Awarded the National Export Award for 96-97.

Vikrant Tyres (VTL) acquired.

India's first H rated tyre launched.

Only Tyre manufacturer to get 'E' Mark certification.

HASETRI became the first research institute in Asia to get ISO 9002.

1998 First tyre manufacturer in the world to get QS 9000.

Awarded CAPEXIL's highest export award for 1997-98.

1999 Synergy with VTL in procurement, marketing and production flexibility.

Completion of state of the art modernisation of truck radials.

JK Tyres ranked 16th largest Tyre Company in the world.

ISA - 14000 accredition for environment & safety.

2000 JK introduced National Go-Karting Championships.


47

INTRODUCTION

a. Introduction

In today’s world of intense competition and rapid dynamism, all the companies
worldwide are tuning their focuses on the customer. Suddenly, the customer had
succeeded in capturing all the attention of the companies towards him, so much so, that
the once famous maxim, “customer is the god” has become so true and relevant today.
There has been a “paradigm shift” in the thinking of these companies and none other then
the customer has brought this about.

Earlier there was a sellers market, since goods and services were in short supply and
the sellers use to call the shots. But, ever since the advent of the era of globalization,
there has been total transformation in the way the customers being perceived. Their focus
has shifted towards integrating the three elements people, service and marketing.

A customers can “make or break” a company. It is the responsibility of every


company to see that all its customers are equally satisfied with them, for one single
dissatisfied customer will tell at least nine others about the dissatisfaction and will spark
off a chain reaction and spell doom for that company. Research has thrown light on some
important aspects of customers’ retention it has been proved empirically that acquiring
new customers can cost five times more than the cost involved in satisfying and retaining
current customers.

In the past, the customers was taken for a ride, as there were not many players in the
fields, not much importance was attached to product safety, quality, service and product
appeal. The attitude of the manufacture was that of “caveat – emptor”. Thanks to the
government policies on liberalization, globalization and privatization (LPG), the market
scenario has changed today. Today, the customer has a host of defense mechanism like
the customers protection laws, regulation of the government, the powerful hands of the
organization, customers’ courts, switching to substitute or competitors that offer at
48

competitive prices, etc. The maxim,” caveat – emptor” has been replaced by “caveat
venditor”.
b. About Tyre industries in India

Background
The origin of the Indian Tyre Industry dates back to 1926 when Dunlop Rubber Limited
set up the first tyre company in West Bengal. MRF followed suit in 1946. Since then, the
Indian tyre industry has grown rapidly.

Transportation industry and tyre industry go hand in hand as the two are interdependent.
Transportation industry has experienced 10% growth rate year after year with an absolute
level of 870 billion ton freight. With an extensive road network of 3.2 million km, road
accounts for over 85% of all freight movement in India.
Key Issues of tyre industries
High tax usage

The high tax content on tyres can be gauged from the fact that the percentage of total tax
to the tax excluded price for various categories of tyres is - 44% for Truck Tyre; 41% for
Passenger Car Radial Tyre, 35% for Tractor Rear Tyre and 76% for Truck Tyre Tube.

Increase in raw material costs

Apart from being capital intensive, the tyre industry is highly raw material intensive. Any
change in the prices of raw materials affects the profitability of tyre companies. The raw
materials used in the manufacture of tyres are rubber and petroleum derivatives like
nylon tyre cord, carbon black, styrene butadiene rubber and poly butadiene rubber. The
most important raw material is rubber-natural and synthetic. Natural rubber (NR), with
29% weightage in the cost of raw materials used by tyre industry, is the highest cost item.
Annual consumption of NR by tyre industry is 3.50 lakh tonnes, valued at Rs. 14 billion.
Over 85% of NR consumed' by the industry is procured domestically. 15% is imported.
49

Objectives of the study

 To find out market share of JK Tyres.


 To understand the marketing strategy of JK Tyres.

 To focus on the Marketing mix of JK tyre

 To evaluate the limitations of JK tyre.

 To analyze the customer’s needs regarding the product and policies formulated by
the company.
 To find out the brand image of JK tyre

Need for the study

Management is like a coin having two sides. One is the theoretical part and second is the
practical part. In the theoretical part of management we learn in our classroom from the
lectures, seminars, group discussions that are arranged from time to time.

To know the practical aspect of management a practical training is provided to the


students. The main idea behind practical training is to bring the management students
face to face with the actual environment of practical management so that he/ she will be
able to apply theory to practical situation before finally moving into the professional
world to show the efficiency and capability.

The project study focused on “JK tyre” as a product and the subject is to understand the
mind set of different customers about the product. Being a student of marketing
management, the inquisitiveness to peep on practical side of consumer perception
promoted in study.

In this study efforts have been made to prepare the report as realistic as possible.
50

RESULTS & DISCUSSION

6 wheelers
Table showing market share in RIB tyres

NAME OF COMPANY NO. OF TYRES PERCENTAGE SHARE


APOLLO 40 17%
BIRLA 15 7%
BRIDGESTONE 1 0%
CEAT 57 25%
CHINA 5 2%
JK 100 43%
MRF 14 6%
OTHERS 0 0%

Fig-3.1(a)

Interpretation: From the above table it is shown that in Rib tyre segment JK is the
market leader with 43%, followed by CEAT with 25% market share, APOLLO with 17%,
BIRLA with 7%, MRF with 6%, CHINESE with 2% and BRIDGESTONE & others with
0% of market share.
51

Exhibit-3.2
Table showing Market share in LUG tyre

NAME OF COMPANY NO. OF TYRES PERCENTAGE SHARE


APOLLO 73 16%
BIRLA 57 12%
BRIDGESTONE 0 0%
CEAT 157 34%
CHINA 25 5%
JK 111 24%
MRF 43 9%
OTHERS 2 0%

Interpretation: From the above table it is shown that in lug tyre segment CEAT is the
market leader with 34% followed by JK with 24%, APOLLO with 16%, BIRLA with
12%,MRF with 9%, CHINESE with 5%,and others with 0%
52

Exhibit-3.3
Table showing Total market share(6 WHEELERS)

Table-3.3

NAME OF COMPANY NO. OF TYRES PERCENTAGE SHARE


APOLLO 109 16%
BIRLA 72 11%
BRIDGESTONE 1 0%
CEAT 214 31%
CHINA 30 4%
JK 211 30%
MRF 57 8%
OTHERS 2 0%

From the above table it is shown that in tyre segment(6 wheelers) CEAT is the market
leader with 31% followed by JK 30% ,APOLLO with 16% BIRLA with 11%, MRF with
8%, CHINA with 4% and others are 0%.
53

Exhibit-3.4
Table showing Total market share(10 WHEELERS)

Table-3.4

NAME OF COMPANY NO. OF TYRES PERCENTAGE SHARE


APOLLO 151 10%
BIRLA 134 9%
BRIDGESTONE 6 0%
CEAT 186 13%
CHINA 375 26%
JK 473 32%
MRF 124 9%
OTHERS 11 1%
From the above table it is shown that in tyre segment(10 wheelers) JK is the market
leader with 32% followed by CHINA 26% ,Ceat with 13% APOLLO with 10%, Birla with
9%, MRF with 9% and others are 1%.

From the above table it is shown that in tyre segment(10 wheelers) JK is the market
leader with 32% followed by CHINA 26% ,Ceat with 13% APOLLO with 10%, Birla with
9%, MRF with 9% and others are 1%.
54

Exhibit-3.5
Table showing market share in RIB tyre(10 WHEELERS)

Table-3.5

NAME OF COMPANY NO. OF TYRES PERCENTAGE SHARE


APOLLO 52 18%
BIRLA 36 12%
BRIDGESTONE 0 0%
CEAT 42 14%
CHINA 13 5%
JK 111 38%
MRF 31 11%
OTHERS 7 2%

From the above table it is shown that in RIB tyre segment(10 wheelers) JK is the market
leader with 32% followed by APOLLO 18% ,Ceat with 14% APOLLO with 18%, MRF
with 11%, CHINA with 5% and others are 2%.
55

Exhibit-3.6
Table showing market share in LUG tyre(10 WHEELERS)

Table-3.5

NAME OF COMPANY NO. OF TYRES PERCENTAGE SHARE


APOLLO 99 9%
BIRLA 98 8%
BRIDGESTONE 6 1%
CEAT 144 12%
CHINA 362 31%
JK 362 31%
MRF 93 8%
OTHERS 4 0%

From the above table it is shown that in LUG tyre segment(10 wheelers) JK & CHINESE
ARE the market leaders with 31% each followed by CEAT 12% ,APOLLO with 9%
BIRLA & MRF with 8% each, and others are 0%.
56

DISCUSSION
The project surfers from the following limitations due to the inherent and restrictive
nature of the study undertaken:

• Due to constraints of time, money and other resources applicable to this


study.
• This study is confined to only a few specified areas of and is not
comprehensive study of the customers of JK tyre all over GWALIOR
• This study is restricted only to sample space chosen for the study.
• The areas covered under the surveys are: Transport Nagar, Purani
Chhavni, Hanuman Parking, Kansana’s Premises.

• The sample size of 100 respondents was too small for generalization.
• The survey was restricted only to GWALIOR.
• The duration of the study is only 45 days, due to the reason the study
may not give full fledged information to the Media Planning Group.
• Some of the respondents were reluctant to give the right information.
57

SUGGESTIONS

1) Belonging towards the organization must be generated in the habitual

absentees, through individual counseling .The mode of counseling should

be co-operative in which both counselor & counselee, arrives at solution

through mutual co-operation.

2) Training Programme for workers.

3) Better leave encashment programme should be implemented.

4) Reward for employees having less absenteeism.

5) Employees having leave under a particular limit should be awarded

monitory rewards.

6) In order to create competition amongst the employee, employee having

less leave should be awarded “Best employee of the month”,” Best

Employee of the Year”.

Strong action should be taken against the.


58

CONCLUSION

Every organization needs to look after recruitment and selection in the initial period and
thereafter as and when additional manpower is required due to expansion and
development of business activity.

Right for the right job is the basic principle in recruitment and selection. Ever person
organization should give attention to the selection of its manpower, especially its
managers. The operative manpower is equally important and and essential for the orderly
working fan enterprise. Every business organization/unit need manpower for carrying
different business activities smoothly and efficiential.Human resource management in a
organization will not be possible if unsuitable persons are selected and employment in a
business unit.

In recruitment, information is collected from interested. For this different source


such as newspaper advertisement, employment exchanges, internal promotion, etc.are
used.
In the recruitment, a pool of eligible and interested candidates is created for
selection of most suitable candidates. Recruitment represents the first contact that
company makes with potential employees
Selection is basically picking an applicant from (a pool of applicants) who has the
appropriate qualification and competency to do the job. The difference between
recruitment and selection: Recruitment is identifying n encouraging prospective
employees to apply for a job.
Selection is selecting the right candidate from the pool of applicants.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Marketing management, Rajan Saxsena
Marketing management, Philip Kittler
www.indiacar.net
www.jktyre.com
www.businessstandard.com