For the partial fulfillment of the award of
Bachelor of Business Administration (2008-2011)

Submitted To

Submitted by



This is to certify that


Student of BBA Vth

Semester of GICTS Group of College has completed his summer training of dated from 08/10/2010 to 08/11/2010 and this report is submitted by his for the completion of the training requirement under my guidance and supervision .


Prof. YOGESH ATRAY (Faculty Guide)


I ARUNESH KUMAR, student of BBA V Semester of GICTS , Gwalior, hereby declare that the project is my original piece of work and not the copy of any such work undertaken by someone else, all the information , facts and figures presented in the report are first hand in nature. They are actually based on my intense efforts conducted in JK TYRE.




The present work is dedicated to the persons who not only taught me, but continue inspire me in knowing the clandestine facts of workmanship. I bow in honor before these great teachers. The accomplishment of the present study became possible by the invaluable assistance and guidance of my professional guides to whom I may gratefully indebted. Firstly I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my faculty guide PROF.YOGESH ATRAY without whose invaluable guidance, moral support and encouragement my work would have ever assumed the present shape, research. I were indebted to my parents and friends for their moral support and possible efforts they made for me.




• History of the Organisation & Objective • Organisational Structure • Financial Performance • Marketing Strategy • Production & Operations • Marketing • Strength & Weakness of the Organisation. • Suggestion • Special Point • Names of the CEO/MD/Department Head Chapter -1 • Introduction Chapter –II • Objective of The Study Chapter –III • Result & Discussion Chapter – IV • Suggestion Chapter –V


• Conclusion


History of the organization & Objective

Introduction of JK TYRE


JK Tyre is a leading exporter of tyres from India and roughly accounts for about 26% of the total tyre exports from India (along with its associate Vikrant Tyres Limited) maruti zen steel radials, bias tires for passenger vehicles, ultima XP steel radials It is the first and only tyre manufacture in the world to receive the QS 9000 for multilocation operations : World's first tyre manufacture to receive the ISO 9000 for all its operations in one go. Also J.K Tyres is the first tyre company in India to receive ISO 14001 in recognisition of its environmental management systems. Today, JK Tyre's products compete with the best international players in the premium international bias market in more than 55 countries in 6 continents . The exports operate through a strong and dedicated distribution network, and our distributors are fully supported by the company's technical team in terms of continued product development to meet specific market needs. JK Tyre had obtained international accreditation for its products in the US , Europe , South America and the Middle East. J.K Tyre has been the recepient of various awards for exports for the last many years for its commitment to offer superior performance standards & path -breaking innovations. Recently , it was honored with ' The Special Export Award 2000-2001' from Capexil, making it its fourth consecutive award from India's premier industrial association . JK Tyre has also been recently recognised by Indian Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO) for being the largest tyre exporter to Latin America markets and is the proud recepient of first-ever FOCUS LAC Award for the year 1999-2000. J.K Tyres constant endeavor to deliver superior value to its customers and a sound marketing strategy forms the foundation of this spectacularly consistent performance on the international front.


While JK Tyre has maintained its consistency in its marketing and distribution strategies for the export markets, it has also actively pursued development of new superior products to adapt to specific requirements of the different markets . The credit goes to the India's biggest in-house R&D centre, HASETRI (Hari Shankar Singhania Elastomer and Tyre Research Institute) . This Centre for Rubber and Allied Technology was eatablished at Jaykaygram, ISO/IEC Guide 25 & EN 45001. Equipped with advanced testing facilities, it pursues excellence by evolving technologies for superior product performance to reduce waste and pre-empt consumer needs.



Excellence comes not from mere words or procedures. It comes from an urge to strive and deliver the best. A mindset that says, When it is good enough, improve it. It is a way of thinking that comes only from a power within." - H.S.Singhania JK Tyre & Industries Ltd. is the flagship company under the umbrella of JK Organisation

The advent of JK Organization on the industrial landscape of India almost synchronizes with the beginning of an era of industrial awareness - an endeavor for self reliance and the setting up of a dynamic Indian industry. This was way back in the middle of the 19th century. And the rest that followed is history JK Organization has been a forerunner in the economic and social advancement of India. It always aimed at creating job opportunities for a multitude of countrymen and to provide high quality products. It has striven to make India self reliant by pioneering the production of a number of industrial and consumer products, by adopting the latest technology as well as developing its own know-how. It has also undertaken industrial ventures in several other countries. JK Organisation is an association of industrial and commercial companies and charitable trusts. Its member companies, employing nearly 50,000 persons are engaged in the manufacture of a variety of products and in diverse fields of commerce.

Trusts are devoted to promoting industrial, technical and medical research, education, religious values and providing better living and recreational facilities. With the spirit of advancement • 1940 First in India to manufacture steel Bailing Hoops for jute and cotton and to make the social consciousness uppermost in mind, J.K. Organisation is committed to the cause of human

country self sufficient by meeting the entire demand-J.K. Iron & Steel Co. Ltd., Kanpur


11 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1941 First in India to produce Aluminium virgin Metal from Indian Bauxite 1942 First in India to manufacture Engineering files- J.K. Engineers'Files, Bombay in India 1949 First to manufacture a Hydraulically Operated Cane Crushing Mill for Khandsari 1950 First in world to set up a plant for production of Hydrosulphite of soda by Sodium 1959 First in India to produce Nylon-6 with its own polymerised raw materialJ.K

Aluminium Corporation of India Ltd., Jaykaynagar to set up a continuous process Rayon Plant Sugar Plant and completed 100 ton plant-J.K. Iron & Steel Co. Ltd., Kanpur Amalgam Process- J.K. Chemicals Ltd., Bombay Synthetics Ltd., Kota 1960 First to produce Sodium Sulphoxylate Formaldehyde (Rangolite C of Formosul) in 1968 First to manufacture TV Sets in India- J.K. Electronics, Kanpur. First to manufacture 1970 First to manufacture Acrylic Fibres- J.K. Synthetics Ltd. Kota 1971 First to develop differentially Dyeable Nylon- J.K. Synthetics Ltd., Kota 1974 First in India to license Synthetic Fibre Technology to third party as well as the first to 1978 First in India to produce steel belted Radial Tyres for passenger cars, trucks and India - J.K. Chemicals Ltd., Bombay Metallic Cops for Synthetic Filament yarn industries in India- Syntex tube works, Kanpur

manufacture Synthetic Fibre Machinery Fibretech Engineers & Manufacturers, Dadri buses- J.K. Tyre Plant, Kankroli 1980 First in world to make Steel Belted Radial Tyres for three wheelers- J.K. Tyre Plant, 1981 First in India to produce white cement through dry process- J.K. White cement Gotan 1985 First in India to produce Cathonic Dyeable Polyester Fibre- J.K. Synthetics Ltd.,Kota. Kankroli

First in India to produce Nylon Tyre Cord based on Spin Draw Technology- J.K. Synthetics Ltd., Kota • • 1987 First in India to produce magnetic tapes with cobalt technology J.K. magnetics, 1989 more Tyre Plant (BTP) set-up with a capacity of 5.7 lacs tyres p.a.R & D cente set-up Surajpur at HASTERI


12 • • • • • • • • 1994 India's first T-Rated tyre launched banmore Tyre Plant (BTP) crossed 100 TPD 1995 Mercedes Benz Launched on JK steel radials first tyre manufacturer in the world to 1996 India's first dual contact high traction steel radial- aquasonic launched. 1998 First tyre manufacturer in the world to get QS 9000 awarded CAPEXIL's highest 1999 Synergy with VTL in procurement, marketing and production flexibility 2000 Completion of state of the art modernisation of truck radials.JK Tyres ranked 16th 2001 JK introduced National Go-Karting Championships 2002 JK. Industries recieved FOCUS LAC export award for the year 1999-2000

get ISO 9001 Introduced steel wheels export award for 1997-98

largest Tyre Company in the world.ISA - 14000 accredition for environment & safety

Today JK Organization, an association of Industrial and commercial companies and charitable trusts, continues to grow to greater heights under the stewardship of its President, Hari Shankar Singhania The Principal business of the JK Organization includes Tyre, Paper, Cement, Drugs & Pharmaceuticals, Agri Genetics, Dairy and Food Products, Audio Magnetic Tapes, Sugar, Cosmetics, Woolen Textiles, Steel, Engineering Files, International Trading, Hybrid Seeds, Industrial Rubber Products, Material Handling System etc The group besides having a consistent record of growth and diversification has created a reputation for quality for all its products and most of its products enjoy a leadership status in their respective market segments To cope up with the demand in the market most of the companies in JK Organization are certified for International Quality Systems like ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and QS 9001 Identifying with social issues and contributing to the society has been a philosophy, which has been carried on from the founding fathers. Various institutions set up by th group throughout India in diverse fields of social welfare stand testimony to this philosophy



JK Tyre & Industries Ltd is one of the leading automotive tyre manufacturers in India. The company is engaged in manufacturing of automobile tyres, tubes and flaps. They manufactures Radial and Bias 4-wheeler tyres for trucks, buses passenger cars, LCVs, tractors etc. They sell their products under the brand name 'JK Tyre'. They have four plants located in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka. The company has 134 sales, service and stock points located throughout the country. They have over 3,500 dealerships across India. The company's customer base covers virtually the entire Original Equipment Manufacturers in India together with Replacement Market for four wheeler vehicles, Defence and State Transport Units. Besides India, they have a worldwide customer base in over 45 countries across all six continents. JK Tyre & Industries Ltd was incorporated in the year 1951 as a private limited under the name JK Industries Pvt Ltd. Until March 31, 1970, the company was engaged in the managing agency business. Thereafter the company decided to undertake manufacturing activities and obtained a letter of intent in February 1972 for the manufacture of automobile tyres and tubes. The company name was changed into JK Industries LTD with effect from May 24, 1974 consequent upon conversion of the company into a public limited company. In the year 1974, the company entered into a technical collaboration with General Tire International Co, USA, a subsidiary of General Tire & Rubber Co, USA for technical services and sales agreement for the supply of technical know how engineering and documentation for operational facilities. In the year 1989, the company introduced several new patterns and sizes of tyres including a semi-lug Nylon Truck tyre. In the year 1991, the company set up Banmore Tyre Plant with a capacity of 5.7 lakh tyres per annum. They launched radial tyres for tractors. In the year 1992, the company's international division expanded their activities by opening their office in Moscow. In addition, they set up a Research and Development center at HASETRI. In the year 1993, they introduced new radial tyres namely, Brute and Ultima and in the next year, they launched 'Jet Track-39'

14 to meet the need of the heavy load market. In June 1997, the company acquired 51% stake in Vikrant Tyres Ltd from Karnataka Government. They launched India's first H-Rated tyre. During the year 1998-99, as per the Scheme of Arrangement between the company and JK Drugs & Pharmaceuticals Ltd, the pharmaceutical undertaking of the company was transferred to and vested in JK Drugs & Pharmaceuticals Ltd with effect from appointed date July 1, 1996. During the year 2002-03, as per the Scheme of Arrangement and Amalgamation between the company, JK Agri, JK Sugar and Vikrant Tyres Ltd, the agri-genetics undertaking of the company was transferred to JK Agri, the sugar undertaking was transferred to JK Sugar and Vikrant Tyre Ltd was amalgamated with the company. During the year 2004-05, the expansion of capacity of Truck/ Bus Radials by 50% was completed. In addition, the expansion of the passenger radial capacity was completed. In December 2006, as per the Scheme of Arrangement and De-merger between the company and Netflier Technologies Ltd (name since changed to Netflier Finco Ltd), the business of holding and dealing in investments and some other assets and properties of the company and liabilities and obligations thereof stood transferred to and vested in Netflier Finco Ltd. In addition, Hansdeep Investment Ltd, Hidrive Finance Ltd, Panchanan Investment Ltd and Radial Finance Ltd ceased to be the subsidiaries of the company. During the year 2006-07, the company introduced a new tyre, offering high mileage 'Jet One' and launched new Semi-Lug and Rib pattern Truck Radial tyres. They also diversified into Special Application Tyres and commenced their exports. In order to capture the brand 'JK Tyre' and their value in the name of the company, they changed their name to JK Tyre & Industries Ltd with effect from April 2, 2007. The company entered into an arrangement with BEML for supply of OTR tyres on a long-term basis. In June 2008, the company acquired the controlling interest in Empresas Tornel, S A de C V (Tornel), a company incorporated under the laws of Mexico, by acquiring 100% of their equity capital for a consideration of USD 28.75 million. Tornel has three tyre manufacturing plants in Mexico with a combined capacity of 6.6 million tyres per annum During the year 2008-09, the company doubled the capacity of Truck/Bus

15 Radial plant to 8.00 lakh tyres from 3.67 lakh tyres per annum at an estimated project cost of Rs 315 crore. This has further strengthened JK Tyre's commanding position in the fast growing Truck/Bus segment. The company has undertaken a project for substantial expansion of their OTR tyre capacity at a capital outlay of Rs 120 crore, which is expected to be completed by 2010.


Organisation Structure of - JK Tyre & Ind
Name Hari Shankar Singhania Bharat Hari Singhania Swaroop Chand Sethi Arvind Singh Mewar Govind Ballabh Pandey T K Mukhopadhyay Name Raghupati Singhania Vikrampati Singhania Arun K Bajoria Bakul Jain Om Prakash Khaitan Designation Chairman / Chair Person Managing Director Whole Time Director Director Director Director Designation Vice Chairman & Mng.Director Deputy Managing Director President & Director Director Director

17 Hence, JK Tyre's claim as No 1 tyre manufacturer in India is a perfectly valid and correct statement. This also reflects ASCI's agreement to JK Tyre's viewpoint that figures, as stated in the one's annual report, could actually be misleading and could include revenues from non-tyre-related businesses also. JK Tyre, pioneers of radial technology in India, is today India's largest manufacturer of tyres in the four-wheel segment, including tyres for trucks and buses, LCVs, passenger cars, jeeps, tractors, ADVs and OTRs. After 25 years of pioneering world-class technologies in India, JK Tyre has recently launched the country's first eco-friendly coloured tyres as well as steel-belted tractor rear radials.


Mission & Vision

To be amongst the most admire companies in India committed to be excellence.

a. b. c. d. e. f.

Be a customer obsessed company No.1 Tyre brand in India Deliver enhanced value at all stakeholders Most profitable Tyre Company in India Enhance global presence through acquisition Motivated and committed team development for high performance

organization c. Marketing Strategy Strategic thinking is key to the evolution of successful marketing strategies of JK tyre. This involves the following analyses:

18 i. Understanding markets: Strategic perspective of the market requires skilful analysis of the trend and how they affect the market size and demand for the firm’s product. ii. iii. Finding market niches: Price, service, convenience and technology are some of the niches in Indian market. Product and service planning: Analysis of the customer’s promotion of the brand, both of the firm and competitors, besides an analysis of the situation in which the customer uses the product. iv. Distribution: Structural changes in inventory management, mobile distribution are some of the key factors that are going to affect the distribution process in the Indian market. v. Managing for result: With pressure on costs, prices, and margins, marketers will have to make effective utilization of every rupee spent in marketing.

Market opportunity of JK: Identification of market opportunity is critical before the management of affirm takes a decision to launch or diversify in any product area. This involves analysis of the following:   Size of the market Marketing strategies and the extent and quality of services rendered by other firm in the industry.   Market programmed required to satisfy market wants Identification of key success factors in an industry and linking them to a firm’s strengths and weakness Market opportunity a. Size of the market b. How well the market is served c. Prospective inches d. Marketing mix required to succeed

19 e. Core competencies required

Market segment analysis

Industry analysis

Competition analysis

Demand Condition s

Trade analysis

Market opportunity Size of the market How well the market is served Prospective inches Marketing mix required to succeed Core competencies required
Framework of market opportunity analysis

Size of the market: Sizes of the market are.... I. II. III. Demand analysis: is the core aspect of market opportunity. Segmentation analysis: is the process of dividing the market into homogeneous sub units. Industry analysis:

20 Entry Barriers: High
The entry barriers are high for the tyre industry. It is a highly capital intensive industry. A plant with an annual capacity of 1.5 million cross-ply tyres costs between Rs. 4,000 and Rs. 5,000 million. A similiar plant producing radial tyres costs Rs. 8,000 million.

Bargaining Power of the Buyers: High The OEMs have total control
over prices. In fact, the OEMs faced with declining profitability have also reduced the number of component suppliers to make the supply chain more efficient.

Bargaining Power of the Suppliers: High Inter Firm Rivalry: Low
The tyre industry in India is fairly concentrated, with the top eight companies accounting for more than 80% of the total production of tyres The tyre industry consumes nearly 50% of the natural rubber produced in the country. The price of natural rubber is controlled by Rubber Control Board and the domestic prices of natural rubber have registered a significant increase in recent times.

Threat of Substitutes: Low but Increasing During the FY2002, over 1,10,000 passenger
car tyres were imported. This constitutes over 2% of total radial passenger car tyre production in the country. However, with the reduction of peak custom duty, the import of tyres is likely to increase.

Industry Analysis - Porter's Model Competitor analysis: analysis of competition how well the market is served.

21 Marketing mix: A Marketing mix is the division of groups to make a particular product, by pricing, product, branding, place, and quality. Although some marketers[who?] have added other P's, such as personnel and packaging, the fundamentals of marketing typically identifies the four P's of the marketing mix as referring to: 1. Product 2. Price 3. Promotion 4. Place


Marketing strategy is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its limited resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. A marketing strategy should be centered around the key concept that customer satisfaction is the main goal.

Key part of the general corporate strategy
Marketing strategy is a method of focusing an organization's energies and resources on a course of action which can lead to increased sales and dominance of a targeted market niche. A marketing strategy combines product development, promotion, distribution, pricing, relationship management and other elements; identifies the firm's marketing goals, and explains how they will be achieved, ideally within a stated timeframe. Marketing strategy determines the choice of target market segments, positioning, marketing mix, and allocation of resources. It is most effective when it is an integral component of overall firm strategy, defining how the organization will successfully engage customers, prospects, and competitors in the market arena. Corporate strategies, corporate missions, and corporate goals. As the customer constitutes the source of a company's revenue, marketing strategy is closely linked with sales. A key component of marketing strategy is often to keep marketing in line with a company's overarching mission statement.[4] Basic theory: 1. Target Audience 2. Proposition/Key Element 3. Implementation


Tactics and actions
A marketing strategy can serve as the foundation of a marketing plan. A marketing plan contains a set of specific actions required to successfully implement a marketing strategy. For example: "Use a low cost product to attract consumers. Once our organization, via our low cost product, has established a relationship with consumers, our organization will sell additional, higher-margin products and services that enhance the consumer's interaction with the low-cost product or service." A strategy consists of a well thought out series of tactics to make a marketing plan more effective. Marketing strategies serve as the fundamental underpinning by marketing plans designed to fill market needs and reach marketing objectives.[5] Plans and objectives are generally tested for measurable results. A marketing strategy often integrates an organization's marketing goals, policies, and action sequences (tactics) into a cohesive whole. Similarly, the various strands of the strategy , which might include advertising, channel marketing, internet marketing, promotion and public relations can be orchestrated. Many companies cascade a strategy throughout an organization, by creating strategy tactics that then become strategy goals for the next level or group. Each one group is expected to take that strategy goal and develop a set of tactics to achieve that goal. This is why it is important to make each strategy goal measurable. Marketing strategies are dynamic and interactive. They are partially planned and partially unplanned. See strategy dynamics.


Types of strategies
Marketing strategies may differ depending on the unique situation of the individual business. However there are a number of ways of categorizing some generic strategies. A brief description of the most common categorizing schemes is presented below:

Strategies based on market dominance - In this scheme, firms are classified based on their market share or dominance of an industry. Typically there are four types of market dominance strategies:
o o o o

Leader Challenger Follower Nicher

Porter generic strategies - strategy on the dimensions of strategic scope and strategic strength. Strategic scope refers to the market penetration while strategic strength refers to the firm’s sustainable competitive advantage. The generic strategy framework (porter 1984) comprises two alternatives each with two alternative scopes. These are Differentiation and low-cost leadership each with a dimension of Focus-broad or narrow.
o o o

Product differentiation (broad) Cost leadership (broad) Market segmentation (narrow)

Innovation strategies - This deals with the firm's rate of the new product development and business model innovation. It asks whether the company is on the cutting edge of technology and business innovation. There are three types:
o o o

Pioneers Close followers Late followers


Growth strategies - In this scheme we ask the question, “How should the firm grow?”. There are a number of different ways of answering that question, but the most common gives four answers:
o o o o

Horizontal integration Vertical integration Diversification Intensification

A more detailed scheme uses the categories[6]:
• • • • •

Prospector Analyzer Defender Reactor Marketing warfare strategies - This scheme draws parallels between marketing strategies and military strategies.

Competitive advantage is a theory that seeks to address some of the criticisms of comparative advantage. Michael Porter proposed the theory in 1985. Competitive advantage theory suggests that states and businesses should pursue policies that create high-quality goods to sell at high prices in the market. Porter emphasizes productivity growth as the focus of national strategies. Competitive advantage rests on the notion that cheap labor is ubiquitous and natural resources are not necessary for a good economy. The other theory, comparative advantage, can lead countries to specialize in exporting primary goods and raw materials that trap countries in low-wage economies due to terms of trade. Competitive advantage attempts to correct for this issue by stressing maximizing scale economies in goodsservices that garner premium prices (Stutz and Warf 2009).

26 Competitive advantage occurs when an organization acquires or develops an attribute or combination of attributes that allows it to outperform its competitors. These attributes can include access to natural resources, such as high grade ores or inexpensive power, or access to highly trained and skilled personnel human resources. New technologies such as robotics and information technology either to be included as a part of the product, or to assist making it. Information technology has become such a prominent part of the modern business world that it can also contribute to competitive advantage by outperforming

Resource-based view perspective
competitors with regard to internet presence. From the very beginning, i.e. Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, the central problem of information transmittal, leading to the rise of middle-men in the marketplace, has been a significant impediment in gaining competitive advantage. By using the internet as the middle-man, the purveyor of information to the final consumer, businesses can gain a competitive advantage through creation of an effective website, which in the past required extensive effort finding the right middle-man and cultivating the relationship. The term competitive advantage is the ability gained through attributes and resources to perform at a higher level than others in the same industry or market (Christensen and Fahey 1984, Kay 1994, Porter 1980 cited by Chacarbaghi and Lynch 1999, p. 45). The study of such advantage has attracted profound research interest due to contemporary issues regarding superior performance levels of firms in the present competitive market conditions. “A firm is said to have a competitive advantage when it is implementing a value creating

27 strategy not simultaneously being implemented by any current or potential player” (Barney 1991 cited by Clulow et al.2003, p. 221). Successfully implemented strategies will lift a firm to superior performance by facilitating the firm with competitive advantage to outperform current or potential players (Passemard and Calantone 2000, p. 18). To gain competitive advantage a business strategy of a firm manipulates the various resources over which it has direct control and these resources have the ability to generate competitive advantage (Reed and Fillippi 1990 cited by Rijamampianina 2003, p. 362). Superior performance outcomes and superiority in production resources reflects competitive advantage (Day and Wesley 1988 cited by Lau 2002, p. 125). Above writings signify competitive advantage as the ability to stay ahead of present or potential competition, thus superior performance reached through competitive advantage will ensure market leadership. Also it provides the understanding that resources held by a firm and the business strategy will have a profound impact on generating competitive advantage. Powell (2001, p. 132) views business strategy as the tool that manipulates the resources and create competitive advantage, hence, viable business strategy may not be adequate unless it possess control over unique resources that has the ability to create such a unique advantage. Summarizing the view points, competitive advantage is a key determinant of superior performance and it will ensure survival and prominent placing in the market. Superior performance being the ultimate desired goal of a firm, competitive advantage becomes the foundation highlighting the significant importance to develop same. The term "marketing mix" was coined in 1953 by Neil Borden in his American Marketing Association presidential address. However, this

28 was actually a reformulation of an earlier idea by his associate, James Culliton, who in 1948 described the role of the marketing manager as a "mixer of ingredients", who sometimes follows recipes prepared by others, sometimes prepares his own recipe as he goes along, sometimes adapts a recipe from immediately available ingredients, and at other times invents new ingredients no one else has tried.[1] A prominent marketer, E. Jerome McCarthy, proposed a Four P classification in 1960, which has seen wide use. The Four P's concept is explained in most marketing textbooks and classes.

Four P's
Elements of the marketing mix are often referred to as the "Four P's":

Product - It is a tangible object or an intangible service that is mass produced or manufactured on a large scale with a specific volume of units. Intangible products are service based like the tourism industry & the hotel industry or codes-based products like cellphone load and credits. Typical examples of a mass produced tangible object are the motor car and the disposable razor. A less obvious but ubiquitous mass produced service is a computer operating system. Packaging also needs to be taken into consideration. Every product is subject to a life-cycle including a growth phase followed by an eventual period of decline as the product approaches market saturation. To retain its competitiveness in the market, product differentiation is required and is one of the strategies to differentiate a product from its competitors.

Price – The price is the amount a customer pays for the product. The business may increase or decrease the price of product if other stores have the same product.

Place – Place represents the location where a product can be purchased. It is often referred to as the distribution channel. It can include any physical store as well as virtual stores on the Internet.


Promotion represents all of the communications that a marketer may use in the marketplace. Promotion has four distinct elements: advertising, public relations, personal selling and sales promotion. A certain amount of crossover occurs when promotion uses the four principal elements together, which is common in film promotion. Advertising covers any communication that is paid for, from cinema commercials, radio and Internet adverts through print media and billboards. Public relations are where the communication is not directly paid for and includes press releases, sponsorship deals, exhibitions, conferences, seminars or trade fairs and events. Word of mouth is any apparently informal communication about the product by ordinary individuals, satisfied customers or people specifically engaged to create word of mouth momentum. Sales staff often plays an important role in word of mouth and Public Relations (see Product above).

Any organization, before introducing its products or services into the market; conducts a market survey. The sequence of all 'P's as above is very much important in every stage of product life cycle Introduction, Growth, Maturity and Decline.

Extended Marketing Mix (3 Ps)
More recently, three more Ps have been added to the marketing mix namely People, Process and Physical Evidence. This marketing mix is known as Extended Marketing Mix.

People: All people involved with consumption of a service are important. For example workers, management, consumers etc. It also defines the market segmentation, mainly demographic segmentation. It addresses particular class of people for whom the product or service is made available.

Process: Procedure, mechanism and flow of activities by which services are used. Also the 'Procedure' how the product will reach the end user. Physical Evidence: The marketing strategy should include effectively

communicating their satisfaction to potential customers.


Four Cs (1) in 7Cs compass model
A formal approach to this customer-focused marketing mix is known as Four Cs (Commodity, Cost, Channel, Communication) in “7Cs compass model.” Koichi Shimizu proposed a four Cs classification in 1973. This system is basically the four Ps provide a customer focus. The
[4] [2] [3]

renamed and reworded to Cs Model provides a


demand/customer centric version alternative to the well-known four Ps supply side model (product, price, place, promotion) of marketing management.The Four Cs model is more consumer-oriented and attempts to better fit the movement from mass marketing to symbiotic marketing. 1. Commodity:(Original meaning of Latin: Commodus=convenient)the product for the consumers or citizens.a commodity can also be described as an raw material such as; oil,metal ores and wheat, the price of these tend to change on a daily basis, due to the demand and supply of these commodities. 2. Cost:(Original meaning of Latin: Constare= It makes sacrifices)producing cost, selling cost, purchasing cost and social cost. 3. Channel:(Original meaning is a Canal)Flow of commodity : marketing channels. 4. Communication:(Original meaning of Latin:Communio=sharing of meaning) marketing communication : It doesn't promote the sales. (Framework of Cs compass model)

(C1): Corporation and competitor : The core of 4Cs is corporation and organization, while the core of 4Ps is customers who are the targets for attacks or defenses.

• •

(C2) : Commodity, (C3) : Cost, (C4) : Channel, (C5) : Communication (C6) : Consumer (Needle of compass to Consumer)

31 The factors related to customers can be explained by the first character of four directions marked on the compass model: N = Needs, W = Wants, S = Security and E = Education (consumer education).

(C7) : Circumstances (Needle of compass to Circumstances )

In addition to the customer, there are various uncontrollable external environmental factors encircling the companies. Here it can also be explained by the first character of the four directions marked on the compass model --- N = National and International C, W=Weather, S = Social and Cultural C, E = Economic (Circumstances).

Strategy evaluation

Measuring the effectiveness of the organizational strategy, it's extremely important to conduct a SWOT analysis to figure out the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (both internal and external) of the entity in business. This may require taking certain precautionary measures or even changing the entire strategy.

In corporate strategy, Johnson, Scholes and Whittington present a model in which strategic options are evaluated against three key success criteria:[3]
• • •

Suitability (would it work?) Feasibility (can it be made to work?) Acceptability (will they work it?)

Suitability deals with the overall rationale of the strategy. The key point to consider is whether the strategy would address the key strategic issues underlined by the organisation's strategic position.

• • •

Does it make economic sense? Would the organization obtain economies of scale or economies of scope? Would it be suitable in terms of environment and capabilities?

Tools that can be used to evaluate suitability include:
• •

Ranking strategic options Decision trees

Feasibility is concerned with whether the resources required to implement the strategy are available, can be developed or obtained. Resources include funding, people, time and information. Tools that can be used to evaluate feasibility include:
• • •

cash flow analysis and forecasting break-even analysis resource deployment analysis

Acceptability is concerned with the expectations of the identified stakeholders (mainly shareholders, employees and customers) with the expected performance outcomes, which can be return, risk and stakeholder reactions.

Return deals with the benefits expected by the stakeholders (financial and nonfinancial). For example, shareholders would expect the increase of their wealth, employees would expect improvement in their careers and customers would expect better value for money.

Risk deals with the probability and consequences of failure of a strategy (financial and non-financial).


Stakeholder reactions deals with anticipating the likely reaction of stakeholders. Shareholders could oppose the issuing of new shares, employees and unions could oppose outsourcing for fear of losing their jobs, customers could have concerns over a merger with regards to quality and support.

Tools that can be used to evaluate acceptability include:
• •

what-if analysis stakeholder mapping

General approaches
In general terms, there are two main approaches, which are opposite but complement each other in some ways, to strategic management:

The Industrial Organizational Approach

based on economic theory — deals with issues like competitive rivalry, resource allocation, economies of scale assumptions — rationality, self discipline behaviour, profit maximization deals primarily with human interactions assumptions — bounded rationality, satisfying behaviour, profit suboptimality. An example of a company that currently operates this way is Google. The stakeholder focused approach is an example of this modern approach to strategy.

o •

The Sociological Approach
o o

relationships between elements in a portfolio. B.C.G. Analysis, for example, was developed by the Boston Consulting Group in the early 1970s. This was the theory that gave us the wonderful image of a CEO sitting on a stool milking a cash cow. Shortly after that the G.E. multi factoral model was developed by General Electric. Companies continued to diversify until the 1980s when it was realized that in

34 many cases a portfolio of operating divisions was worth more as separate completely independent companies.

Porter generic strategies
Porter has described a category scheme consisting of three general types of strategies that are commonly used by businesses to achieve and maintain competitive advantage. These three generic strategies are defined along two dimensions: strategic scope and strategic strength. Strategic scope is a demand-side dimension (Michael E. Porter was originally an engineer, then an economist before he specialized in strategy) and looks at the size and composition of the market you intend to target. Strategic strength is a supply-side dimension and looks at the strength or core competency of the firm. In

35 particular he identified two competencies that he felt were most important: product differentiation and product cost (efficiency). He originally ranked each of the three dimensions (level of

differentiation, relative product cost, and scope of target market) as either low, medium, or high, and juxtaposed them in a three dimensional matrix. That is, the category scheme was displayed as a 3 by 3 by 3 cube. But most of the 27 combinations were not viable.

Porter's Generic Strategies In his 1980 classic Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analysing Industries and Competitors, Porter simplifies the scheme by reducing it down to the three best strategies. They are cost leadership, differentiation, and market segmentation (or focus). Market segmentation is narrow in scope while both cost leadership and differentiation are relatively broad in market scope. Empirical research on the profit impact of marketing strategy indicated that firms with a high market share were often quite profitable, but so

36 were many firms with low market share. The least profitable firms were those with moderate market share. This was sometimes referred to as the hole in the middle problem. Porter’s explanation of this is that firms with high market share were successful because they pursued a cost leadership strategy and firms with low market share were successful because they used market segmentation to focus on a small but profitable market niche. Firms in the middle were less profitable because they did not have a viable generic strategy. Porter suggested combining multiple strategies is successful in only one case. Combining a market segmentation strategy with a product differentiation strategy was seen as an effective way of matching a firm’s product strategy (supply side) to the characteristics of your target market segments (demand side). But combinations like cost leadership with product differentiation were seen as hard (but not impossible) to implement due to the potential for conflict between cost minimization and the additional cost of value-added differentiation. Since that time, empirical research has indicated companies pursuing both differentiation and low-cost strategies may be more successful than companies pursuing only one strategy. Some commentators have made a distinction between cost leadership, that is, low cost strategies, and best cost strategies. They claim that a low cost strategy is rarely able to provide a sustainable competitive advantage. In most cases firms end up in price wars. Instead, they claim a best cost strategy is preferred. This involves providing the best value for a relatively low price.


Cost Leadership Strategy
This strategy involves the firm winning market share by appealing to cost-conscious or price-sensitive customers. This is achieved by having the lowest prices in the target market segment, or at least the lowest price to value ratio (price compared to what customers receive). To succeed at offering the lowest price while still achieving profitability and a high return on investment, the firm must be able to operate at a lower cost than its rivals. There are three main ways to achieve this. The first approach is achieving a high asset turnover. In service industries, this may mean for example a restaurant that turns tables around very quickly, or an airline that turns around flights very fast. In manufacturing, it will involve production of high volumes of output. These approaches mean fixed costs are spread over a larger number of units of the product or service, resulting in a lower unit cost, i.e. the firm hopes to take advantage of economies of scale and experience curve effects. For industrial firms, mass production becomes both a strategy and an end in itself. Higher levels of output both require and result in high market share, and create an entry barrier to potential competitors, who may be unable to achieve the scale necessary to match the firms low costs and prices.


The second dimension is achieving low direct and indirect operating costs. This is achieved by offering high volumes of standardized products, offering basic no-frills products and limiting customization and personalization of service. Production costs are kept low by using fewer components, using standard components, and limiting the number of models produced to ensure larger production runs. Overheads are kept low by paying low wages, locating premises in low rent areas, establishing a cost-conscious culture, etc. Maintaining this strategy requires a continuous search for cost reductions in all aspects of the business. This will include outsourcing, controlling production costs, increasing asset capacity utilization, and minimizing other costs including distribution, R&D and advertising. The associated distribution strategy is to obtain the most extensive distribution possible. Promotional strategy often involves trying to make a virtue out of low cost product features.

Focus or Strategic Scope
This dimension is not a separate strategy per se, but describes the scope over which the company should compete based on cost leadership or differentiation. The firm can choose to compete in the

39 mass market (like Wal-Mart) with a broad scope, or in a defined, focused market segment with a narrow scope. In either case, the basis of competition will still be either cost leadership or differentiation. In adopting a narrow focus, the company ideally focuses on a few target markets (also called a segmentation strategy or niche strategy). These should be distinct groups with specialized needs. The choice of offering low prices or differentiated products/services should depend on the needs of the selected segment and the resources and capabilities of the firm. It is hoped that by focusing your marketing efforts on one or two narrow market segments and tailoring your marketing mix to these specialized markets, you can better meet the needs of that target market. The firm typically looks to gain a competitive advantage through product innovation and/or brand marketing rather than efficiency. It is most suitable for relatively small firms but can be used by any company. A focused strategy should target market segments that are less vulnerable to substitutes or where a competition is weakest to earn above-average return on investment. Examples of firm using a focus strategy include Southwest Airlines, which provides short-haul point-to-point flights in contrast to the huband-spoke model of mainstream carriers, and Family Dollar.


Product A tangible object or an intangible service that is mass produced or manufactured on a large scale with a specific volume of units. Intangible products are often service based like the tourism industry & the hotel industry. Typical examples of a mass produced tangible object are the tyre. A less obvious but ubiquitous mass produced service is a computer operating system.

Product range: BIAS


9.00-2014PR JET RIB 9.00-2016PR 10.00-2016PR 9.00-2014PR TRACK TUF JET RIB JET RIB JET MILES


9.00-2016PR TRACK TUF

41 10.00-2016PR TRACK TUF

9.00-2014PR 9.00-2016PR 10.00-2016PR 11.00-2016PR 12.00-2016PR




9.00-2014PR HEAVY 9.00-2016PR SUPER HEAVY 10.00-2016PR



9.00-2016PR LUG 10.00-2016PR 11.00-2016PR 09.00-2016PR SEMI LUG 10.00R2016PR 11.00R2016PR 9.00R2014/16PR RIB 10.00R2016PR


42 11.00R2016PR 12.00R2018PR Price The price is the amount a customer pays for the product. It is determined by a number of factors including market share, competition, material costs, product identity and the customer's perceived value of the product. The business may increase or decrease the price of product if other stores have the same product. Place Place represents the location where a product can be purchased. It is often referred to as the distribution channel. It can include any physical store as well as virtual stores on the Internet. Promotion Promotion represents all of the communications that a marketer may use in the marketplace. Promotion has four distinct elements - advertising, public relations, word of mouth and point of sale. A certain amount of crossover occurs when promotion uses the four principal elements together, which is common in film promotion. Advertising covers any communication that is paid for, from television and cinema commercials, radio and Internet adverts through print media and billboards. One of the most notable means of promotion today is the Promotional Product, as in useful items distributed to targeted audiences with no obligation attached. Saes staff, word of mouth, Public relations etc are other such means of promotion. JET WAY JUH JET WAY JUH



• • • • • •
Heavy range of products Brand awareness Best promotion by display. Advertisement. Effective margin for delaers. Brand image of radial tyres

• • • • • • Lack of co-ordination of the demand put forth by dealers and the supply of appropriate tyres from the plant. The offerings given by the company are not enough for the business partners to make the market operating rates competitive The supply of truck radial tyres is not in proportion to the demand Mode of councelling is not co-operative. Monetory rewards are not given. Food quality for the employees are not good.




First in India to manufacture Calico Prints- Juggilal Kamlapat Cotton Spinning and Weaving Mills Co. Ltd., Kanpur. First in India to manufacture steel Bailing Hoops for jute and cotton and to make the country self sufficient by meeting the entire demandJ.K. Iron & Steel Co. Ltd., Kanpur. First in India to produce Aluminium virgin Metal from Indian BauxiteAluminium Corporation of India Ltd., Jaykaynagar.




First in India to manufacture Engineering files- J.K. Engineers ‘Files, Bombay.


First in India to set up a continuous process Rayon Plant.


First to manufacture a Hydraulically Operated Cane Crushing Mill for Khandsari Sugar Plant and completed 100 ton plant-J.K. Iron & Steel Co. Ltd., Kanpur.


First in world to set up a plant for production of Hydrosulphite of soda by Sodium Amalgam Process- J.K. Chemicals Ltd., Bombay.


First to produce Sodium Sulphoxylate Formaldehyde (Rangolite C of Formosul) in India - J.K. Chemicals Ltd., Bombay


First to manufacture TV Sets in India- J.K. Electronics, Kanpur. First to manufacture Metallic Cops for Synthetic Filament yarn industries in India- Syntex tube works, Kanpur.

45 1969 First to manufacture Acrylic Fibres- J.K. Synthetics Ltd. Kota First to develop differentially Dyeable Nylon- J.K. Synthetics Ltd., Kota


First in India to license Synthetic Fibre Technology to third party as well as the first to manufacture Synthetic Fibre Machinery Fibretech Engineers & Manufacturers, Dadri.


First in India to produce steel belted Radial Tyres for passenger cars, trucks and buses- J.K. Tyre Plant, Kankroli.


First in world to make Steel Belted Radial Tyres for three wheelersJ.K. Tyre Plant, Kankroli.


First in India to produce white cement through dry process- J.K. White cement. Gotan.


First in India to produce Cathonic Dyeable Polyester Fibre- J.K. Synthetics Ltd., Kota. First in India to produce Nylon Tyre Cord based on Spin Draw Technology- J.K. Synthetics Ltd., Kota.


First in India to produce magnetic tapes with cobalt technology J.K. magnetics, Surajpur.


Banmore Tyre Plant (BTP) set-up with a capacity of 5.7 lacs tyres p.a.


R & D center set-up at HASTERI.


India's first T-Rated tyre launched Banmore Tyre Plant (BTP) crossed 100 TPD.


Mercedes Benz Launched on JK steel radials


First tyre manufacturer in the world to get ISO 9001


India's first dual contact high traction steel radial- aquasonic launched. Introduced steel wheels.


Awarded the National Export Award for 96-97. Vikrant Tyres (VTL) acquired. India's first H rated tyre launched. Only Tyre manufacturer to get 'E' Mark certification. HASETRI became the first research institute in Asia to get ISO 9002.


First tyre manufacturer in the world to get QS 9000. Awarded CAPEXIL's highest export award for 1997-98.


Synergy with VTL in procurement, marketing and production flexibility. Completion of state of the art modernisation of truck radials. JK Tyres ranked 16th largest Tyre Company in the world. ISA - 14000 accredition for environment & safety.


JK introduced National Go-Karting Championships.


a. Introduction In today’s world of intense competition and rapid dynamism, all the companies worldwide are tuning their focuses on the customer. Suddenly, the customer had succeeded in capturing all the attention of the companies towards him, so much so, that the once famous maxim, “customer is the god” has become so true and relevant today. There has been a “paradigm shift” in the thinking of these companies and none other then the customer has brought this about. Earlier there was a sellers market, since goods and services were in short supply and the sellers use to call the shots. But, ever since the advent of the era of globalization, there has been total transformation in the way the customers being perceived. Their focus has shifted towards integrating the three elements people, service and marketing. A customers can “make or break” a company. It is the responsibility of every company to see that all its customers are equally satisfied with them, for one single dissatisfied customer will tell at least nine others about the dissatisfaction and will spark off a chain reaction and spell doom for that company. Research has thrown light on some important aspects of customers’ retention it has been proved empirically that acquiring new customers can cost five times more than the cost involved in satisfying and retaining current customers. In the past, the customers was taken for a ride, as there were not many players in the fields, not much importance was attached to product safety, quality, service and product appeal. The attitude of the manufacture was that of “caveat – emptor”. Thanks to the government policies on liberalization, globalization and privatization (LPG), the market scenario has changed today. Today, the customer has a host of defense mechanism like the customers protection laws, regulation of the government, the powerful hands of the organization, customers’ courts, switching to substitute or competitors that offer at

48 competitive prices, etc. The maxim,” caveat – emptor” has been replaced by “caveat venditor”. b. About Tyre industries in India

The origin of the Indian Tyre Industry dates back to 1926 when Dunlop Rubber Limited set up the first tyre company in West Bengal. MRF followed suit in 1946. Since then, the Indian tyre industry has grown rapidly. Transportation industry and tyre industry go hand in hand as the two are interdependent. Transportation industry has experienced 10% growth rate year after year with an absolute level of 870 billion ton freight. With an extensive road network of 3.2 million km, road accounts for over 85% of all freight movement in India.

Key Issues of tyre industries
High tax usage The high tax content on tyres can be gauged from the fact that the percentage of total tax to the tax excluded price for various categories of tyres is - 44% for Truck Tyre; 41% for Passenger Car Radial Tyre, 35% for Tractor Rear Tyre and 76% for Truck Tyre Tube.

Increase in raw material costs
Apart from being capital intensive, the tyre industry is highly raw material intensive. Any change in the prices of raw materials affects the profitability of tyre companies. The raw materials used in the manufacture of tyres are rubber and petroleum derivatives like nylon tyre cord, carbon black, styrene butadiene rubber and poly butadiene rubber. The most important raw material is rubber-natural and synthetic. Natural rubber (NR), with 29% weightage in the cost of raw materials used by tyre industry, is the highest cost item. Annual consumption of NR by tyre industry is 3.50 lakh tonnes, valued at Rs. 14 billion. Over 85% of NR consumed' by the industry is procured domestically. 15% is imported.


Objectives of the study
  To find out market share of JK Tyres. To understand the marketing strategy of JK Tyres.

 To focus on the Marketing mix of JK tyre
  To evaluate the limitations of JK tyre. To analyze the customer’s needs regarding the product and policies formulated by the company.  To find out the brand image of JK tyre

Need for the study
Management is like a coin having two sides. One is the theoretical part and second is the practical part. In the theoretical part of management we learn in our classroom from the lectures, seminars, group discussions that are arranged from time to time. To know the practical aspect of management a practical training is provided to the students. The main idea behind practical training is to bring the management students face to face with the actual environment of practical management so that he/ she will be able to apply theory to practical situation before finally moving into the professional world to show the efficiency and capability. The project study focused on “JK tyre” as a product and the subject is to understand the mind set of different customers about the product. Being a student of marketing management, the inquisitiveness to peep on practical side of consumer perception promoted in study. In this study efforts have been made to prepare the report as realistic as possible.



6 wheelers Table showing market share in RIB tyres


Interpretation: From the above table it is shown that in Rib tyre segment JK is the market leader with 43%, followed by CEAT with 25% market share, APOLLO with 17%, BIRLA with 7%, MRF with 6%, CHINESE with 2% and BRIDGESTONE & others with 0% of market share.



Table showing Market share in LUG tyre NAME OF COMPANY APOLLO BIRLA BRIDGESTONE CEAT CHINA JK MRF OTHERS NO. OF TYRES 73 57 0 157 25 111 43 2 PERCENTAGE SHARE 16% 12% 0% 34% 5% 24% 9% 0%

Interpretation: From the above table it is shown that in lug tyre segment CEAT is the market leader with 34% followed by JK with 24%, APOLLO with 16%, BIRLA with 12%,MRF with 9%, CHINESE with 5%,and others with 0%



Table showing Total market share(6 WHEELERS) Table-3.3 NAME OF COMPANY APOLLO BIRLA BRIDGESTONE CEAT CHINA JK MRF OTHERS NO. OF TYRES 109 72 1 214 30 211 57 2 PERCENTAGE SHARE 16% 11% 0% 31% 4% 30% 8% 0%

From the above table it is shown that in tyre segment(6 wheelers) CEAT is the market leader with 31% followed by JK 30% ,APOLLO with 16% BIRLA with 11%, MRF with 8%, CHINA with 4% and others are 0%.



Table showing Total market share(10 WHEELERS) Table-3.4 NAME OF COMPANY NO. OF TYRES PERCENTAGE SHARE APOLLO 151 10% BIRLA 134 9% BRIDGESTONE 6 0% CEAT 186 13% CHINA 375 26% JK 473 32% MRF 124 9% OTHERS 11 1% From the above table it is shown that in tyre segment(10 wheelers) JK is the market leader with 32% followed by CHINA 26% ,Ceat with 13% APOLLO with 10%, Birla with 9%, MRF with 9% and others are 1%.

From the above table it is shown that in tyre segment(10 wheelers) JK is the market leader with 32% followed by CHINA 26% ,Ceat with 13% APOLLO with 10%, Birla with 9%, MRF with 9% and others are 1%.



Table showing market share in RIB tyre(10 WHEELERS) Table-3.5 NAME OF COMPANY APOLLO BIRLA BRIDGESTONE CEAT CHINA JK MRF OTHERS NO. OF TYRES 52 36 0 42 13 111 31 7 PERCENTAGE SHARE 18% 12% 0% 14% 5% 38% 11% 2%

From the above table it is shown that in RIB tyre segment(10 wheelers) JK is the market leader with 32% followed by APOLLO 18% ,Ceat with 14% APOLLO with 18%, MRF with 11%, CHINA with 5% and others are 2%.



Table showing market share in LUG tyre(10 WHEELERS) Table-3.5 NAME OF COMPANY APOLLO BIRLA BRIDGESTONE CEAT CHINA JK MRF OTHERS NO. OF TYRES 99 98 6 144 362 362 93 4 PERCENTAGE SHARE 9% 8% 1% 12% 31% 31% 8% 0%

From the above table it is shown that in LUG tyre segment(10 wheelers) JK & CHINESE ARE the market leaders with 31% each followed by CEAT 12% ,APOLLO with 9% BIRLA & MRF with 8% each, and others are 0%.


The project surfers from the following limitations due to the inherent and restrictive nature of the study undertaken: • • • • Due to constraints of time, money and other resources applicable to this study. This study is confined to only a few specified areas of and is not comprehensive study of the customers of JK tyre all over GWALIOR This study is restricted only to sample space chosen for the study. The areas covered under the surveys are: Transport Nagar, Purani Chhavni, Hanuman Parking, Kansana’s Premises. • • • • The sample size of 100 respondents was too small for generalization. The survey was restricted only to GWALIOR. The duration of the study is only 45 days, due to the reason the study may not give full fledged information to the Media Planning Group. Some of the respondents were reluctant to give the right information.


1) Belonging towards the organization must be generated in the habitual absentees, through individual counseling .The mode of counseling should be co-operative in which both counselor & counselee, arrives at solution through mutual co-operation. 2) 3) 4) 5) Training Programme for workers. Better leave encashment programme should be implemented. Reward for employees having less absenteeism. Employees having leave under a particular limit should be awarded monitory rewards. 6) In order to create competition amongst the employee, employee having less leave should be awarded “Best employee of the month”,” Best Employee of the Year”. Strong action should be taken against the.


Every organization needs to look after recruitment and selection in the initial period and thereafter as and when additional manpower is required due to expansion and development of business activity. Right for the right job is the basic principle in recruitment and selection. Ever person organization should give attention to the selection of its manpower, especially its managers. The operative manpower is equally important and and essential for the orderly working fan enterprise. Every business organization/unit need manpower for carrying different business activities smoothly and efficiential.Human resource management in a organization will not be possible if unsuitable persons are selected and employment in a business unit.

In recruitment, information is collected from interested. For this different source such as newspaper advertisement, employment exchanges, internal promotion, etc.are used. In the recruitment, a pool of eligible and interested candidates is created for selection of most suitable candidates. Recruitment represents the first contact that company makes with potential employees Selection is basically picking an applicant from (a pool of applicants) who has the appropriate qualification and competency to do the job. The difference between recruitment and selection: Recruitment is identifying n encouraging prospective employees to apply for a job. Selection is selecting the right candidate from the pool of applicants.


Marketing management, Rajan Saxsena Marketing management, Philip Kittler www.indiacar.net www.jktyre.com www.businessstandard.com

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