Biology for IGCSE Reference 1.1 Characteristics and classification of living organisms, pp.

2-3 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link Section 1 Characteristics and classification of living organisms - Characteristics of living organisms ( 1 core) Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities List and describe the characteristics of living This section may be largely recall / revision for many students. organisms: However, the definitions used in the syllabus should be learnt as the • nutrition as taking in of nutrients which are correct wording is required to answer questions. A question and answer session is useful and can be illustrated by living organic substances and mineral ions, plants and animals to illustrate the living processes. containing raw materials or energy for growth and A fill in sheet will save time from copying definitions with words tissue repair, absorbing and assimilating them blanks to make it interactive. • excretion as removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism (chemical If living organisms are not available then pictures of animals, short reactions in cells including respiration) and substances videos etc. may be useful to start the discussions. Nutrition is important to compare plants – photosynthesis and human in excess of requirements nutrition – you can ask what was eaten at a previous meal and go • respiration as the chemical reactions that through the idea if digestion to egestion to separate from excretion. break down nutrient molecules in living cells Excretion – here it is important to distinguish from egestion. to release energy Respiration – discuss this process and how breathing is not the same. • sensitivity as the ability to detect or sense Sensitivity – ask for ideas of what changes plants and animals respond changes in the environment (stimuli) and to to and how. make responses Reproduction – asexual and sexual with a range of examples from • reproduction as the processes that make moulds to humans. more of the same kind of organism Growth – often difficult – stick to definition. • growth as a permanent increase in size and Movement – give examples. dry mass by an increase in cell number or The order in which the processes are covered can be varied. cell size or both One example is where the mnemonic MRS GREN might be used: • movement as an action by an organism or Movement, Respiration, Sensitivity, Growth, Reproduction, Excretion part of an organism causing a change of and Nutrition are covered in that order. position or place. .

1 Extension and Consolidation Prepare a table to compare these processes with examples for both the animal and plant kingdoms. For advanced students consideration might be given to other major groups of organisms. Cover the term ‘homeostasis’ which will be covered later in the syllabus in greater detail.

Learning Outcomes List the characteristics of living organisms. Describe the characteristics of living organisms.

Practical Work and Resources By observation of preferably living organisms or illustration and prepare a poster. This could involve group work as an ice-breaker. Paper cut outs of definitions and names of processes to be sorted.

Biology for IGCSE Reference 1.2 Classification, pp. 4-5; 1.3 Arthropods, pp. 6-7; 1.4 Vertebrates pp. 8-9; 1.5 Microorgaisms pp. 10-11; 1.6

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Flowering plants pp. 12-13; 1.7 use of keys, pp. 14-15 [This section will taken more than one teaching session] 2 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (core 1.2 ) Classification and diversity of living organisms ( core 2.1) (extension Microorganisms) Concept and use of a classificatory system ( core 2.2) Adaptations of organisms to their environment, to be illustrated by examples wherever possible (core 3) use of keys. Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Define and describe the binomial system of Describe the naming of organisms – common The microorganisms [extension] need to naming species as a system in which the name differs around the world whereas the covered in detail. Normally size is not scientific name of an organism is made up of Latin binomial name is universal. Give examples, emphasised but all of these organisms are, by two parts showing the genus and species. e.g. Homo sapiens. Give a range of local definition, minute and need to be viewed by examples. use of a microscope for cellular detail and even Classify the five main classes vertebrates Construct a hierarchical tree from kingdoms to then an electron micrograph is essential. using visible, external characteristic features species with examples. Explanation of measurement is useful; an only. Go through group by group the kingdoms. In turn awareness of magnification. List the main features used in the the invertebrates, phyla by phyla with specimens Three main shapes of bacteria and examples classification of the following groups: or illustrations if possible indicating the important both friendly – saprobionts, and the pathogenic viruses, bacteria and fungi, and their named examples are useful. adaptation to the environment, as appropriate external features and describing the lifestyles with special emphasis on arthropods, annelids, Fungi need to similarly be covered with main flowering plants (monocotyledons and nematodes and molluscs. features by group and examples. dicotyledons). Then the vertebrate groups with named examples Viruses including some plant, bacterial and Arthropods (insects, crustaceans, arachnids or outline diagrams to be labelled with the main animal examples of these total parasites. and myriapods), annelids, nematodes and external features. molluscs, using visible, external Similarly the flowering plants. characteristic features only. Use simple keys where possible for the major Use simple dichotomous keys based on groups to focus on the key features for easily identifiable features. identification. A series of leaves covers observation skills needed to devise a simple key. Learning Outcomes Define the term binomial system. Describe the external features of the invertebrate and vertebrate groups of animals. Describe how the animals are suited to their Practical Work and Resources Observation of living organisms: plants and animals. Opportunity for field work or visits to zoological gardens. If insufficient time then in the classroom consider use of videos, web sites, illustrated books. Microorganisms – edible examples used in food such as yoghurt bacteria, mycoprotein – links with later sections in the syllabus. Moulds on fruit or bread can be shown, but cover for health and

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environment. State the main features of bacteria, fungi and viruses and the adaptation of each group to their environment. Describe the main features of flowering plants and state the differences between dicotyledons and monocotyledons. Use of simple dichotomous keys to identify plants and animals and practice in making keys.

safety reasons if Penecillium sp. are involved because of penicillin allergies. Plants can be used for construction of simple keys. It maybe necessary to use hand lenses for detail of hairs etc.

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Page 5 of 70 . Introduction to study of cells based on the need Extension . cell membrane. vacuole as differences between plant and animal microscope in the plant cell and in the animal and chloroplast.5%] and all equipment is disposed of safely in plant and animal cells. illustrated by a leaf palisade cell to include cell for labels and for common structures as well Relate the structures seen under the light wall. Large outline drawings for labelling are useful to learn the names of cellular parts for palisade cells from leaf for plant cell and liver cells for animal cell. If students handle sterile cotton buds to wipe a few cells from the lining of the cheek Describe the differences in structure between onto a slide and stain with methylene blue [0. nucleus. cheek cells.com that animal cells.cellsalive.Biology for IGCSE Reference 2. the light microscope in the plant cell and in cell (palisade cell) and an animal cell (liver List the types of cell in a flowering plant and in the animal cell to their functions.plus some extension) Cell structure and organisation Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation State that living organisms are made of cells. students’ bodies. Draw large labelled diagrams side by side with the plant cell larger. pp. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Describe the structures of plant and animal If microscopes are available.1 Structure of cells. illustrated by cell membrane. cell).relate the structures seen under Identify and describe the structure of a plant for magnification as cells are small. Describe the differences in structure between Describe the basic structure of a plant cells as Completion of table format for the names typical animal and plant cells. Complete a table on the board to show both similarities and differences between the two types of cell. Otherwise illustrations are available in books. Describe the basic structure of an animal cell as cellular structures. Link to the functions of the subcell to their functions. cytoplasm.18-19 3 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link Section 11 Organisation and maintenance of the organism (50% of teaching time) Cell structure and organisation (1 core . This could be printed with suitable gaps for students to complete if time is short. may be useful. then it is useful to prepare fresh slides of onion epidermis and cells as seen under the light microscope. cytoplasm and nucleus. strong disinfectant this procedure should comply with health and safety regulations. Relate the structure and function in plant and If this equipment is not available there are a number of websites such as www. cells. as seen under a light microscope.

Use equation for calculation of actual size which could be larger or smaller than image and magnification. Compare with root hairs – easily seen en mass in germinated seedlings. Page 6 of 70 . Calculators can be used in examinations. These diagrams organs. nerve cells. plants and animals. 22-3 4 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (2 core) levels of organisation (3 core) size of specimens Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Relate the structure of the following to their functions: Each of the following different types of cell Extension . tissue. and organ system. organ and organ system with as many calculate magnification and size of biological specimens examples as possible from both flowering using millimetres. Calculate magnification and actual size. pp. organ. cells. 20-1. • organ as a structure made up of a group of • ciliated cells – in respiratory tract tissues working together to perform specific • root hair cells – absorption functions • xylem vessels – conduction and support • organ system as a group of organs with • muscle cells – contraction related functions.3 Levels of organisation pp.Biology for IGCSE Reference 2. • root hair cells – absorption the cell and relate to where this cell can be bone cells.g. Use of millimetres as unit of measurement. cress to illustrate flowering plants. • tissue as a group of cells with similar structures. This may be done • muscle cells – contraction separately but presented in a table with Large diagrams and poster work will • red blood cells – transport outline drawings for labelling as students tend help consolidate the cells. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Work with microscopes if available and websites to Relate structure of different cells to their function.other types of cells may • ciliated cells – in respiratory tract need to be shown so students can recognise be covered as students enquire. Large drawings and colour green chloroplasts in palisade Define terms tissue. e. • xylem vessels – conduction and support located and its function. 2. tissue and Define: to present small drawings. working together to • red blood cells – transport perform body functions Use definitions as given in the syllabus for Size: using examples covered in Sections 2 and 3.g. can be used later for measurements for size working together to perform a shared function and magnification calculations. illustrate the different cells. e.2 Different types of cell.

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importance of a water potential importance of the precise definition terms including gradient in the uptake of water by partially permeable membranes.3 Osmosis in plant and animal cells. Describe the importance of diffusion Water as the universal solvent for exchange by diffusion of gases and solutes and of water as a in biological systems. 3.Biology for IGCSE Reference 3. Osmosis – to represent a large animal cell – de-shell a birds egg [dissolve the shell using hydrochloric Define the term osmosis.g. Describe how osmosis can affect animal cells. Follow Extension – explain the movement of the change in mass / length or flexibility.2 Osmosis. estimating on a graph. to appreciate the point of explain the balance / isotonic concentration Describe the importance of osmosis balance. where the gas has been introduced under varying conditions of temperature. e. as a result of The concept of gases. random movement does not need a concept is clear it is a most useful term to their random movement. Using plant tissues – potato chips again in salt solution save the ‘stickiness’ of sugar solutions. direction of movement plants. pp. of molecules. use. . concentration (concentrated solution). 28-9. term water potential. pp. Submerge in a beaker of water and a second treated egg in strong Describe the effect of osmosis on saline. If its effects on plant and animal tissues. It is possible to time the colour change from the end of gases and solutes. and diffusion and osmosis does not need energy. where the water entering balances the water in the uptake of water by plants.1 Diffusion pp.1 core) Diffusion (4. Details of membrane may be included to solvent. wall which prevents the cell bursting on endomosis and tissues are not uniform at the beginning. It is important to allow time for data handling by one of Data handling of results from other through a partially permeable the approaches plasmolysis / flexibility [measure angle of investigations can be handled by students to membrane. gas importance of a water potential gradient in higher concentration to a region of exchange at the lungs. and Explain the difference between the plant cell with the cell leaving cells. This term their lower concentration down a nutrition or uptake and balance of water.describe and explain the of molecules from a region of their body where this plays an important role. requires detail and explanation but once the concentration gradient. Illustrate with sense of smell. 3. explain the importance of small molecules Define osmosis as the diffusion of Link to structure of cells – illustrate with the egg demo or and this can be linked to digestion and water molecules from a region of dried fruit and rehydrate. Diffusion – movement of alkaline ammonia from one end of 4 cm glass tube containing a ‘ribbon’ of red Describe the importance of diffusion litmus paper. 26-7. it is Extension . membrane.3 core ) Osmosis Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Define diffusion as the net movement Explain the idea of diffusion and link to processes in the Extension . solvent. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Define the term diffusion. Osmosis the special term for diffusion of water. Movement in and out of cells. Observe changes in mass and buoyancy. bending] / mass / length etc. Describe the importance of water as a Use of diffusion through water – drop a crystal of potassium permanganate in a large beaker of water. Page 8 of 70 leave plant cells by osmosis. acid but leaving the membrane intact]. Explain the possible to calculate percentage change. Block both ends with rubber bung.describe and explain the shrinking of cell contents on exosmosis. If microscopes are available – plasmolysis can be observed taking place by watching the changes to the Describe how water can enter and cells as they are flooded with concentrated saline. their higher concentration (dilute Allow practical time for students to investigate or to Use of models to consolidate the idea of size solution) to a region of their lower observe materials previously set up. Curvature of sections of flower stem or petioles can be water into and out of cells using the demonstrated with curling of the long sections in two directions. 30-2 5 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (4 core ) Movement in and out of cells (4. uptake of smaller soluble molecules. plant and animal tissues. 3. uptake of digested food for the uptake of water by plants.

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to release energy from glucose by structures a region of their higher concentration against [Chance to revisit these cells] for uptake of within the cell.g. pp. This needs to be theoretical as the equipment required is extensive. Describe the active transport of ions in plant roots. Poster work to compare with diffusion is substances are transported against a That this takes energy – use of an analogy – useful. uptake of digested food from the Explain the basic structure of membranes released during respiration. concentration gradient. Use of a video or interactive website can help to explain process but comparison to diffusion helps. for Link to respiration and the need for oxygen from a region of their lower concentration to example in plant root hairs.4 Active transport [all extension material]. Describe the active transport of glucose by epithelial cells in villi. alimentary canal into the body – involving the and the carrier proteins to help with this Discuss the importance of active transport as villi in the small intestine and into the blood for process. Page 10 of 70 . e. cells of villi. in or out of a cell through the cell membrane. Discuss the source of the energy needed from original definition in opening section to the course. a concentration gradient. concentration gradient is needed to permit. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Define the term active transport. 32-3 6 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (4. using energy fertilisers. structure even in simple terms. ion uptake by pushing a bicycle up a hill as opposed to freeroot hairs and uptake of glucose by epithelial wheeling down.2 extension ) Active transport Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Define active transport as movement of ions Need to explain that at times uptake against a All of this topic is extension.Biology for IGCSE Reference 3. an energy-consuming process by which circulation to all cells. Similarly it is useful to explain membrane an energy-consuming process. Explain the importance of active transport as Poster work to compare with diffusion is useful.

pp. breakdown and to build up different molecules Extension . The disappearance of the blue/black colour is visual. the shape so the activity decreases. Diluted hydrogen peroxide is needed for the and pH on enzyme activity.explain the effect of changes in Define enzymes as proteins that function as needed in metabolism for life. Catalase is present in a variety of plant or animal tissue sold for human consumption and the Extension . changed by the reaction. kinetic energy. Page 11 of 70 . Explain the movement and collision of molecules Investigate and describe the effect of changes increases with raising temperature in terms of Work through past questions and distinguish in temperature and pH on enzyme activity. Another demonstration is using photographic film which involves the use of a protease using the ‘lock and key’ model.explain the effects of temperature formation of oxygen bubbles can be counted. substrate. the film floats free. Collect data from investigation – explain optimum levels. and pH on enzyme activity.explain enzyme action in terms speeds up a chemical reaction and is not biological catalysts produced by cells to of the ‘lock and key’ model. examples from plants and animals.38-9 7 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (5 core and extension) Enzymes Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Define the term ‘catalyst’ as a substance that Explain the term ‘catalyst’ and link to enzymes as Extension . Activity of amylase [diastase] on the breakdown of starch is a fairly straightforward Define enzymes as proteins that act as demonstration to be carried out. Explain the structure of proteins and the effect of terms of molecular structural changes of Explain enzyme action in terms of the ‘lock temperature [use the analogy of egg albumen].1 Structure and action of enzymes pp. and key’ model [extension only].explain how the model works mixture. This can be carried out at room temperature and above chemical reactions. 4. enzyme [trypsin]. The film is gelatine based on the plastic backing. proteins. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Define the term catalyst as a substance that Use 3D models or cardboard cut outs of enzyme molecules and substrate molecules to show the speeds up a chemical reaction and is not breakdown or build up of substrate molecules. Care is biological catalysts to speed up the rate of required with the use of iodine solution. changed by the reaction. the use of Describe the effect of changes in temperature rennin on clotting milk [this can be sold commercially].2 Factors affecting enzyme action. temperature and pH on enzyme activity in biological catalysts. 4.Biology for IGCSE Reference 4 Enzymes. 36-7. and below this with the use of ice and warmed water to submerge the test-tube holding the Extension . enzyme denaturation [not killing enzymes]. Explain the effect of pH on the change in rate / formation of products / Explain the effect of changes in temperature protein molecular structure in terms of changing breakdown or build up of molecules with and pH on enzyme activity [extension only]. Use of a cut out ‘E’ for enzyme is helpful.

low temperature activity to remove stains from pieces of cloth of various composition.g. Describe the role of microorganisms and Pectinase [sold in powder form as pectolase for winemaking] added to apple pulp produces fermenters in the production of the antibiotic larger volumes of juice on filtering and the juice is clear compared with no enzyme present. Laboratory fermenters may be based on large conical flasks to demonstrate adaptations to control conditions and to explain the need to cool the contents. Link to malting and germination of barley fermenters to manufacture the antibiotic Biological washing powders need to explain and the source of diastase used in enzyme penicillin and enzymes for use in biological briefly that enzymes are obtained from experiments. and their uses in bean as visible. starch storing e. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Explain the role of enzymes in the Germinate some seeds or look at ones that can be purchased. to break this down into simple substance to be local area. Outline the use of microorganisms and used in respiration to release energy for growth. Lower and websites that may prove useful and the production of antibiotic penicillin. penicillin. Practical demonstration helps to posters of fermenters will help.3 Enzymes in industry [all extension]. cereals. seeds – fat storing. Compare different during germination.Biology for IGCSE Reference 4.40-1 8 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (5 all extension) Enzymes Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Describe the role of enzymes in the Recall the structure of a seed – such as pea or This section is all extension material. washing powders. Emphasise where the stored food Consolidation might involve visits to biological washing products and in the food for the developing seedling is stored and the need brewery or local industry if situated in the industry (including pectinase and fruit juice).g. Link to malting and germination of barley and the source of diastase used in enzyme Describe the role of enzymes in biological experiments. etc. breakdown of stored materials in seeds Follow growth in water and compare mass of seedling with soaked seeds. Large labelled delicate fabrics. explain pectinase activity. e. pp.g. germination of seeds. bean sprouts / cress. e. temperature means saving in energy and protects informative for students. washing powders and the role of pectinase in Biological washing powders can be used to quantitatively compare with non-biological ones for the production of fruit juices. microoganisms and processed to breakdown Fermenters and antibiotics – there are videos Describe the role of the fungus Penicillium in proteins and fats in the stains on clothing. Page 12 of 70 . sunflower. Describe the role of enzymes in malting.

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for list of nutrients which should be included • simple sugars to starch and glycogen Using paper models describe the in a daily diet. pp. Recall the definition from the first Investigate contents of different packaged List the chemical elements that make up: section on metabolism. and mineral salts. elements C. 5. less O. the same for fats but Check different web sites or other sources basic units. • amino acids to proteins structure of these three types of Check content of different foods in • fatty acids and glycerol to fats and oils. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Define the term nutrition. 48-9 9 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link) 6 Nutrition ( 6. proteins also include N.3 Sources of nutrients. List the foods observing the current labelling • carbohydrates • fats • proteins. C and D. pp. nutrient in turn and describe sources nutritional lists for vitamin content. 44-5. • proteins • vitamins (C and D only) State the components of a balanced • mineral salts (calcium and iron only) diet as outlined in syllabus. Page 14 of 70 . Describe the synthesis of large molecules from smaller carbohydrates. protein (biuret test) and fats (ethanol) using sources which will give positive colour Describe synthesis of large molecules from smaller ones. important. fats and solution). H and O for systems. • fats (ethanol). Introduce a range of food substance and allow students to carry out a range of tests Describe the deficiency symptoms due to lack of vitamins or use mixtures of different substances. Describe tests for: common in diet. and describe the importance pure substance to illustrate the of: positive colour changes including • carbohydrates • fats variation with lower concentrations. 5. proteins. caused by shortage of these substances in table form. for example iron and calcium. 46-7.Biology for IGCSE Reference 5. Demonstrate the food tests for starch (iodine solution). reducing sugars (Benedict’s List the elements present in carbohydrates. Carry out the main food tests on List the principal sources of. State how to carry out food tests. Describe • fibre (roughage) • water. diet. Point out that these Investigate deficiency symptoms for • starch (iodine solution) are formed by plants from Vitamins C and D and mineral iron and • reducing sugars (Benedict’s solution) photosynthesis and build up of calcium and find out how they are • protein (biuret test) larger molecules from simple one. changes. Suggest students list the types of food they have eaten over a short period to check State some good sources of the nutrients in a balanced if they have a balanced diet. where the main sources of the listed Describe the deficiency symptoms for: vitamins and minerals can be found • vitamins (C and D only) and the symptoms and diseases • mineral salts (calcium and iron only). i.1 Nutrients.1 core) Nutrients Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Define nutrition. pp.e.2 Chemical tests for nutrients.

during yoghurt production and the role of the Ask students to investigate the current Describe the uses. Show photomicrographs of the bacteria involved in production yoghurt production. List products available for students to check in local food suppliers or adverts. including colourings. number of hours. observe the labels.]. and stored in fridge at low temperature. Show some meat substitute mycoprotein [not soyaadditives.5 Food additives. Ask them to make a list Describe the hazards associated with food of types of food in local store using mycoprotein. with reference to yoghurt and their products are used. Ask students to collect food packaging and additives. based tofu] and enquire if any students have cooked or eaten this food. food industry. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Describe the role of bacteria in yoghurt Compare the pH of fresh milk and yoghurt.1 extension) nutrients Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Describe the use of microorganisms in the Make a list of foods in which microorganisms or All extension.4 Uses of microoganisms in industry. Make yoghurt if possible – takes about 6 hours using UHT milk and Describe the role of a fungus in production of sufficient starter [about 1 tablespoon of yoghurt keeping at approximately 400 C in a wide-necked mycoprotein (single-cell protein).Biology for IGCSE Reference 5. Describe what happens single-cell protein. benefits and health bacteria – illustrate by the drop in pH over a additives which are not allowed [differs for hazards associated with food additives. List the additives and explain briefly the labelling system which is current at the time.] Making a batch of yoghurt will help to illustrate ‘batch’ culture as opposed to continuous culture for mycoprotein. List the E numbers and explain the groups of additives listed to find out which types of food contain most additives. the bacteria can be viewed under high power if Describe the uses and benefits of food stained but the individual cells are small. thermos flask. If a microscope is available. pp. pp. 5. Explain the purpose of using additives – the positive reasons and the hazards – this can be centred around food labels to achieve greater understanding. 50-1. 52-3 10 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (6. [This can be set up before class different countries]. Page 15 of 70 .

material dioxide for photosynthesis. Page 16 of 70 . To show light is required – de-starch a leaf by keeping in the dark or covered with Describe how to test a leaf for starch. e. 60-1 11 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 6. 6. 6.2 core and extension) Plant nutrition ( 6.2 What is needed for photosynthesis pp. light and CO2 are required by extension as shown on the next Explain that chlorophyll traps light energy and converts it testing the leaves for presence of starch as sheet. Carry out investigations to show is investigated further in the Describe the intake of carbon dioxide and water by plants.g. To show oxygen is produced – use submerged waterweed and collect oxygen given off.2.Biology for IGCSE Reference 6 Plant nutrition.3 Products of photosynthesis pp. dioxide and light are needed for photosynthesis. equation [extension] for photosynthesis. For 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 oxygen in words. their subsequent storage. write the equation and use symbols The requirement for each raw Investigate the necessity for chlorophyll. core. the sources of the raw materials and how photosynthesis in symbols: State the equation for the production of simple sugars and these are involved in the process. Extension . label equation for carbohydrates from raw materials using energy from light.1 Photosynthesis. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Describe the process of photosynthesis. To show CO2 is required. 6. To show chlorophyll is required for photosynthesis – use variegated leaf and test State the word equation [core] and balanced chemical for starch using the normal method of testing. List the raw materials that are needed for photosynthesis. chlorophyll. NaOH and exposing to light then testing for starch. pp. into chemical energy for the formation of carbohydrates and indicated below. Collect oxygen given off by submerged waterweed and test gas collected with glowing splint. carbon absorber. using appropriate controls. 56 -7.1 core and extension) Photosynthesis Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Define photosynthesis as the fundamental process by which Use the definition given in the syllabus. foil for 24 hours and then test for starch. expose a trapped leaf in a flask containing a CO2 Describe the experiments that prove that chlorophyll. 58– 9. light and carbon and balance for extension.state the balanced plants manufacture On a diagram of a flowering plant.

pp. These mixtures can be purchased photosynthesis. Discuss the need to include a control set-up. of nitrogen fertilisers. This can be Explain the term limiting factor. optimum light and optimum glasshouses isbe made weekly.5 Glasshouse production. make sure the material coloured photographs.1 extension) Photosynthesis Recall the need for soluble sources of magnesium plains by rivers were traditionally used and Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activitiesroot hairs by Extension and are now controlled the need magnesium ion deficiency on plant growth. in plant nutrition. Set up and encourage students magnesium ions from biological Explain the application of nitrogen The link with commercial growth of crops using Describethe use of carbon dioxide to observe at regular intervals for deficiency symptoms over 6 weeks. Discuss the need for covering the roots with foil to prevent the growth of algae in the nutrient Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources solution – competition for nutrients. pp. suppliers or prepared in laboratories in advance. The set-up needs to Explain the use of carbon dioxide enrichment adjust the light source nearer the weed. 62–3. on light the (e.g.2. and nitrates for uptake by plant where flooding Consolidation Investigate and state the effect of varying Recall the structure transport. Measurements of length enrichment. [start no further than 20 cm distance between light and weed]. present in the environment in such short limiting factors and impresses the meaning of the doesn’t touch the light bulb as it will melt. This aids the understanding of celluloid filters. before the widespread use of fertilisers. Describe the effect of varying light intensity Using a freshly cut 5–10 cm length of waterweed weighted down under water and changing the and temperature on the rate of light conditions. pp.in submerged aquatic plants). Using the inverse square law – intensity = 1/ distance2 and temperature in greenhouse systems. 6. . investigations. • magnesium ions for chlorophyll synthesis. overuse. Page 17 of 70 Visit to local commercial glasshouses is ideal or. [The nitrogen cycle comes later in the course] and Link with later work in leguminous plants Describe the uses.Workmaybe carried out in small groups Learning Outcomes Practical This and Resources Explain the concept of nitrate ions and in with the temperature cereal seedlings Describe the need for limiting factors Follow the growth of and CO2 shared in nutrient solutions. light intensity.3 core and extension) Mineral requirements Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Core: Discuss the need to use nitrates as a source of Explain the effects of nitrate ion and Describe the importance of: nitrogen for plants and link with previous magnesium ion deficiency on plant growth. rely on fertilisers.7 Mineral requirements. Biology for IGCSE Reference 6. 68-9 14 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (6. effect of different colour of light on the rate and temperature on the rate of photosynthesis Deficiency symptoms will be apparent inintensity of photosynthesis by using filters between Carry out one investigation. supply that it restricts life processes. and explain the importance possible observe the light source and the weed. . and the dangers of magnesium in the synthesis of chlorophyll. Repeat procedure with the light at the same distance but vary the temperature between 10-250 C.4 Rate of photosynthesis. definition. and nodules with nitrogen fixing bacteria.2. It is useful to add a very small quantity of sodium hydrogen carbonate to concentration of the rate of photosynthesis. examples around the world where flood 12 Extension: Use 64 -5 [All extension] Cambridge IGCSE nitrate ion and Explain the effects ofSyllabus Link (6. inverted funnel] investigate the effect on oxygen production in a timed period. If using growth experiments – if notof controlling the Define the term limiting factor as something other factors.g. short film or diagrams and handle data available to compare yield or growth rates of crops. carbon dioxide concentration where chlorophyll pigment is located. • nitrate ions for protein synthesis knowledge of protein structure. achieved by counting bubbles or collecting the gas in an inverted test-tube by downward Describe the effect of carbon dioxide displacement of water. Link here how shortages can be observed from discuss the rotation system of growing crops the external appearance and chlorosis of leaves. e. if not. available data for yields. the water to make sure there is sufficient carbon dioxide present in the water.Biology for IGCSE Reference 6. controlling temperature [use a large beaker with the weed held down by an photosynthesis. and stem can long term and will temperatures in glasshouse systems. It is possible for students to investigate the diffusion and active of cells and the chloroplast and the expense of using fertilisers.

Biology for IGCSE Reference 6.6 Leaves, pp. 66-7 13 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (6.2.2 core) Leaf structure Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Show a collection of different leaves and discuss Microscope work if possible to observe the Identify and label the cuticle, cellular and similarities and differences. surface of different types of leaf, to observe tissue structure of a dicotyledonous leaf, Use large diagrams of sections through the leaves to the difference between dicotyledonous and as seen in cross-section under the light label and annotate to locate and learn names of monocotyledonous leaves. microscope, and describe the significance tissues and the main functions for the different parts. Compare leaves from different plants and of these features in terms of functions, to Recall the structure of palisade mesophyll cells as in modifications of leaves – divided leaves, include: earlier section and the distribution of stomata. heterophylly of waterweeds – submerged • distribution of chloroplasts – Use of two elongated balloons and strips of adhesive versus floating leaves; tendrils for climbing, photosynthesis tape applied to one side when inflated resemble the etc. • stomata and mesophyll cells – gas curvature to illustrate opening of guard cells. Compare the rates of CO2 uptake for exchange Emphasise these are the only epidermal cells to photosynthesis and release of CO2 from • vascular bundles (xylem and phloem) – contain chloroplasts. respiration – discuss compensation points. transport and support. Explain the xylem and phloem in the veins for support and transport. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Recall the variety of leaf shapes and colours and link to type of environment. Recap determination of Identify and label the parts of a leaf. surface area – large thin leaf blades – the effect of sun and shade on leaves. Describe the functions of these different Chance to practise use of keys or to devise a simple dichotomous key. leaf tissues, including the role of stomata If microscopes are available or projection of image – with the use of large labelled diagrams, in gas exchange. identify in a plan the different tissue and annotate the labels – including arrangement of ‘veins’. To view the surface of both surfaces and to take epidermal ‘peels’ using nail varnish – if not view photomicrographs. Count the number of stomata to give an idea of the number in a given area. Plunge a leaf using forceps into hot water and observe the gas bubbles escaping on expansion of gases.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 7 Animal nutrition; 7.1 A balanced diet, pp. 72-3; 7.2 Balancing energy needs, pp. 74-5; 7.3 Starvation, pp. 767 15 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link 6.3 Animal nutrition ( 6.3.1 core) Diet ( 6.3.1.1 core and extension) Food supply Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation State what is meant by the term balanced Recall nutrition from earlier sections. Look at Extension - discuss the problems of world diet and describe a balanced diet related to published data for energy needs through life. Link food supplies. age, sex and activity of an individual. with lifestyle and activity. Compare over and Extension - discuss the problems which Describe the effects of malnutrition in under nutrition in table and link to health contribute to famine (unequal distribution of relation to starvation, coronary heart disease, problems – deficiencies and over eating. food, drought and flooding and increasing constipation and obesity. Explain the effects of obesity and how this population). Food supply - discuss ways in which the use problem in increasing in some countries more of modern technology has resulted in than others and discuss reasons. Discuss new varieties of crop plants grown increased food production (to include Look at the history of food production – selective in local area – genetically engineered crops modern agricultural machinery, chemical breeding, green revolution and new higher and the advantages to save costs of fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides, artificial yielding varieties – might base this on a local pesticides, etc. selection). crop e.g. bread wheat or maize. Discuss the problems of world food supplies. Use world map to identify where certain crops are Discuss the problems which contribute to grown. Follow sources of available food where famine (unequal distribution of food, drought exported or imported. Link with modern methods. and flooding and increasing population). Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Define what is meant by balanced diet. Resource government health web sites or recommendations – 5 fresh items of fruit and/or Describe a balanced diet based on age, vegetables each day. Keep a record of what is eaten by students each day for a week. gender and activity. Look at food labels; explain the labelling system. Describe the effects of malnutrition to Measure calorie content of food items by simple calorimeter – measuring increase in temperature include obesity [health risks] and starvation. of a know volume of water. Compare with use of commercial calorimeter. Explain the role of roughage in the diet. Energy content = volume of water × rise on temperature × 4.2 / mass of food. Extension: discuss the problems of world World map to show over production and under production. Discuss effect of climate – drought food supplies and the problems that and flood. Use of modern ways of agriculture. contribute to famine.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 7.4 Digestion, pp.78-9 Learning Objectives Define ingestion as taking substances (e.g. food, drink) into the body through the mouth. Define digestion as the break-down of large, insoluble food molecules into small, water-soluble molecules using mechanical and chemical processes. Define egestion as passing out of food that has not been digested, through the anus. Identify the main regions of the alimentary canal and associated organs including mouth, salivary glands, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine: duodenum and ileum, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, large intestine: colon and rectum, anus. Describe the functions of the regions of the alimentary canal listed above, in relation to ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion of food. Learning Outcomes Define mechanical and chemical digestion. State the function of amylase, protease and lipase, listing the substrates and the end-products. Describe the events that take place during the chewing and swallowing of food including the role of saliva.

16 Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Using a simple box diagram for processes involved Discuss other types of animal and label where ingestion, digestion, absorption, besides humans. assimilation and egestion occurs and annotate with Recall that plants make their own definitions. food and store materials which Label and annotate large diagram of alimentary canal we use as foods. and try to locate where these structures are located in Discuss staple foods and link to the body. balanced diet. Make a table to compare physical and chemical breakdown of food in the process of digestion and the significance of breaking down large complex food substances into simple, soluble substance which can be absorbed into the body and into the blood to circulate around the body. Cardboard cut outs of complex molecules can be cut into smaller pieces to symbolise this process or paper puzzles. Practical Work and Resources Use a length of visking tubing [or other material] to demonstrate the alimentary canal. Use mirror to view teeth and note types of teeth. Use a large diagram of mount and another of whole digestive system to label and annotate. Model of torso can be used if available.

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Biology for IGCSE Reference 7. [If no bile State the significance of chemical digestion moves. Explain chewing – and swallowing – there are floats and then add bile salts and shake to Outline the role of bile in emulsifying fats. Describe the role of longitudinal and circular fluorinated. Use different colours pencils for protease and a lipase. listing the substrate and the three types of enzyme. canine.6 The stomach and small intestine.80–1.] in the alimentary canal in producing small. classification. State the causes of tooth decay and describe the proper care of teeth. Mix some oil with water to show the oil muscles in peristalsis.5 Teeth. Link with diagrams showing longitudinal salts available. including fluoride and introduce extend breakdown of protein if not covered addition of fluoride to public water supplies. Possible to find if local supplies are previously. a complex food. pp. 7. Practical Work and Resources Use of mirror to observe students own teeth and chart to complete. clean teeth. secreted. Describe by labelling and annotating a large amylase. bolus of food. end-products. Describe the role of bile and where it is formed and acts on fats in the alimentary canal. molar and premolar out. to interactive sites and videos. and long sock to show how a bolus of food area exposed for enzyme activity. Learning Outcomes Describe the structure and functions of human teeth. and circular muscles in front of and behind a Look at teeth of other animals and recall soluble molecules that can be absorbed. protease and lipase enzymes are diagram of the alimentary canal where amylase. State where. Describe how fluoride reduces tooth decay the proper care of teeth. Modern tooth pastes have Enzyme activity – recall earlier section and and explain arguments for and against the many additives. Emphasis the first deciduous / baby teeth and adult for rest of life. pp.4 core) Chemical digestion Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Identify the types of human teeth and Identify types of teeth and label printed outline Research the age when teeth appear and fall describe their structure and functions. Explain the causes of tooth decay and addition of fluoride to public water supplies. Page 21 of 70 . that section. use detergent. Describe how fluoride reduces tooth decay formation of plaque. show the fat droplets break up into smaller increase the surface area for the action of Peristalsis can be demonstrated using a tennis ball droplets and link with increase in surface enzymes. protease and lipase enzymes act on ingested State the functions of a typical amylase. Explain the importance of thorough brushing to and explain arguments for and against the Describe the process of chewing.82-3 17 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 6. Identify the different types. Discuss when there teeth formed and appeared through the gums. Using models of diagrams label the different parts of teeth. State the causes of dental decay and describe as well as a longitudinal section. diagrams of incisor. in the alimentary canal.3.3.3 core and extension) Mechanical and physical digestion (6.

This can be used to demonstrate absorption. Students need to use own tooth brushes for hygiene reasons. Describe peristalsis. Drop on universal indicator and observe after 15-20 minutes [useful after lunch-time meal] bacteria will breakdown sugars and produce acids. Use disclosing tablet [available from health clinics. Page 22 of 70 . Describe the digestion of food in the stomach and the small intestine. including the role of bile in emulsifying fats.Extension . dentists or chemists] and show how plaque builds up. Rub sterile cotton buds around the base of teeth and dip into fine sugar. Use of model gut – Visking tubing and show chemical breakdown of starch + amylase [diastase].describe how fluoride reduces tooth decay and explain arguments for and against fluoridation of drinking water supplies.

explain the parts including the role of capillaries and lacteals. and venous blood can link this to the hepatic from the remainder of the amino acid. food molecules through the wall of the diagrams to label and annotate. breaking down toxins and alcohol need to be covered. Paper molecular models can be used to make posters. In table format explain of alcohol and other toxins. similarly the long thin nature.describe the structure of a villus. The increase in surface area can be explained using folded paper. colon in absorption of water (the small increasing the internal surface area of the Water soluble substance and into lymphatic intestine absorbs 5-10 dm3 per day.84–5 18 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (6. pp.Biology for IGCSE Reference 7. (6. Samples of surrounding water can be tested with iodine solution and Benedict’s Describe how the small intestine is adapted solution and heated as well the contents after a period of time to show diffusion through the gut for efficient absorption of food. intestine into the blood or lymph.3. Describe the role of fat as an energy storage Cover deamination and the formation of urea to substance. the small intestine.6 core and extension ) Assimilation. becoming part of the Large diagrams of villi and colouring the arterial form urea. Describe the role of the liver in the portal vein taking these absorbed substances to State that the liver is the site of breakdown metabolism of glucose (glucose → glycogen) the liver to be processed. points by Q & A taking each substance in turn. wall. molecules pass through into the capillary Identify the role of the small intestine and Describe the significance of villi in network. of the alimentary canal where absorption takes State the role of the hepatic portal vein in Identify the small intestine as the region for place and explain using paper models the way the transport of absorbed food to the liver.7 Absorption and assimilation. followed by release of energy cells.3-0.5 dm3 per day). Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Define absorption as movement of digested Using the definitions in the syllabus and large Extension . and amino acids (amino acids →proteins and what happens – the students to complete these destruction of excess amino acids).3. Describe the role of the liver in assimilation. Define assimilation as movement of digested The significance of large surface area with Define deamination as removal of the food molecules into the cells of the body folding of the villi is important to understand. Large diagrams to label and annotate. colon 0. e. link later with excretion. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Define the terms absorption and Model gut using Visking tubing containing a mixture of starch and sugar suspended in a test-tube assimilation. Nitrogen-containing part of amino acids to where they are used. the absorption of digested food.g. system – lacteal for fat soluble substance. of water.5 core and extension) Absorption. Page 23 of 70 . Some other roles of the liver.

Describe the structure of xylem in terms of dead plants are found and how these conditions Extension . stem and leaves. the hair development and explain cellular structure pathway of water through the above-ground and function. dye has reached.1 core) Transport in Plant (7. Submerge a freshly cut end of in transverse sections of roots. Identify root hair cells.88-9.relate the structure and functions tissue for support and transport from root to influence the survival of different plants. Observe germinating seedlings and root Investigate. pp.Biology for IGCSE Reference 8 Plant transport 8. growing tip. root cortex growing point and downwards to root and cells. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources State the functions of xylem and phloem. 8.g. of root hairs to their surface area and to water leaves and stem. Follow uptake of dye in stem or parts of a plant. mung beans or cress in shallow container using water not soil or damp Identify the positions of xylem and phloem paper to show development of root hairs and view with hand lens. stem and leaf. Look at different plants and relate to leaf roots. stem and leaf (root hair. unthickened. using a suitable stain. If a microscope is available – microscope and relate their structure to water observing root hairs shows the number of them clearly in the zone of the root just behind the uptake.1 Core and extension) Water uptake Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation State the functions of xylem and phloem Start with a drawing or a specimen of a whole Extension . 90-1 19 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link 7 Transportation ( 7. stems and leaves. e. pp. xylem. Discuss the different environments in which light microscope. Page 24 of 70 . of root hairs to their surface area and to tissues as seen in transverse sections of stem and leaves and link up to show the water and ion uptake. Describe the phloem in terms of living cells and State the pathway taken by water through two-way transport from leaves upwards to root. and ion uptake.1. State the pathway taken by water through Large outline diagrams or photomicrographs are useful to label and annotate to explain where the root. vascular tissue is located in root. dicotyledonous approximate areas of change in a herbaceous. celery to show uptake of coloured dye or ink and cut sections to show how far the leaves.woody dicotyledon – a weed species is area.2 Water uptake. as seen under the useful or a pot plant with soil removed.1 Transport system. non.g. herbaceous. Germinate seedlings e. mesophyll cells).relate the structure and functions identify the positions of xylem and phloem plant and then show transverse sections of root. If use thin stems of Impatiens the transparent nature of the stems permits the Identify root hairs as seen under the uptake of coloured dye to be observed without cutting sections. stems and a petiole. and state their functions. petiole and cut sections to show how far the dye travels – observe with hand lens. storage.

garden and desert. layer of ‘grease’ e. pathway for loss of water vapour through stomata and pond. to include Describe how wilting occurs. transpiration producing a tension (‘pull’) from plant leaves.92-3. just upper and another just lower surface with a thin water uptake. watered to show wilting. stem and leaf. discuss the distribution of stomata [lack of] and the factors described in the core. Describe how wilting occurs. Page 25 of 70 . Explain the concept of ‘transpiration pull’ with the from above.2 Water uptake pp. Explain how light. Describe how variations in temperature. air spaces and stomata description and data handling. stem cuticle. Cohesion demonstration gradient in the xylem. Use cactus as an example of a desert plant and how water loss can be reduced.1. Test surfaces of leaves [still attached to a plant]. Using leaves of the same microscope and relate their structure to species and similar size cover both surfaces. 8. air spaces and stomata.1 core and extension) Water Uptake (7. ‘sandwiched’ between Define the term transpiration. Using local examples of waterweed or on local examples (where appropriate) and root to three contrasting illustrations.4 Adaptations of plants to different environments.explain the mechanism of water at the surfaces of the mesophyll demonstrations both using the cobalt chloride paper test water uptake and movement in terms of cells followed by loss of water vapour and the loss in mass. pp. Explain use of potometer. 94-5 20 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (7. Extension . 8. with emphasis Discuss the adaptations of the leaf. pp.3 Transpiration. Describe the effects of variation of apart. glass slides and blue [dry] cobalt chloride paper and compare the colour change to pink. Handle Describe how water vapour loss is related cobalt chloride paper with forceps not fingers. stem and root to three on transpiration rate. Observe two similar plants. Large diagrams to label and annotate to show the contrasting environments.2 core and extension) Transpiration Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Define transpiration as evaporation of Cover the definition of transpiration with the practical Extension .discuss the adaptations of temperature. humidity and light intensity humidity and temperature affect water loss. in submerged leaves or only on the upper surface of floating leaves.Biology for IGCSE Reference 8. with water between two glass slides and trying to pull water molecules up the plant. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Identify root hairs as seen under the Washing line experiment is simple to set up and for students to participate.g.1. one of which is not root.90-1. Use of potometers if available is advised or at least a to cell surfaces. humidity and light intensity can affect transpiration rate. environments. through the stomata. the leaf. creating a water potential Describe how water vapour loss is related analogy to sucking up a straw. drawing cohesive to cell surfaces. Vaseline – have a control for comparison and follow loss in mass on exposure State the pathway taken by water through to the atmosphere – strung up on a piece of string.

within plants at different seasons.g. amino acids from where these are formed in the in phloem. e. even link with climate change. including systemic evidence – feeding by insects or use of systemic pesticides pesticides for the extension studies. materials moved.describe the translocation of applied chemicals. leaves [refer to this as ‘source’] to where these . within plants at different seasons. Practical Work and Resources Remind students where the source of syrups are. Flow diagrams to label and annotate to show utilisation in respiration or growth . Recap structure of phloem from earlier work on plant tissues. zones – no leaves on deciduous plants. effect in dry conditions.5 Translocation. including systemic pesticides.3 core and extension) Translocation Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Define translocation in terms of the To recap structure of phloem and link to movement of movement of sucrose and amino acids sugars. Test these for sugars – extension work – non.g. seasons e.describe translocation throughout the plant of applied chemicals. Page 26 of 70 .describe translocation where and outline the chemical changes to starch or throughout the plant of applied protein or changed to oils.Biology for IGCSE Reference 8.compare transpiration with translocation.compare the role of transpiration and translocation in the transport of materials from sources to sinks. pp.to regions of storage OR to regions of ‘sink’]. 96-7 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (7. Learning Outcomes Define the term translocation. cane syrup or maple syrup. Extension . Poster work to show two-directional flow. 21 Extension and Consolidation Extension .reducing sugar. Outline at least one line of chemicals.1.from regions of production substance are to be used or stored [refer to this as . throughout the plant. Extension . Extension . use in respiration to release energy or to be stored and Extension .compare the role of Use a table to compare transpiration and translocation transpiration and translocation in the with headings including tissues. Extension . winter in temperate sinks. Describe these or view website or descriptions of evidence using osmometers. and the commercial methods of collection. transport of materials from sources to pressures involved. such as systemic pesticides.

state and explain the effect of physical chart. Measure blood pressure using a the heart. valves and Structure of the heart can be covered by a large diagram give pressures in blood vessels associated blood vessels. the valves and pressures involved. Construct a flow birds.100-1. 9. videos or interactive websites. chambers. Refer to the special muscle which in different areas of body.Biology for IGCSE Reference 9 Transport in human. reptiles and valves.1 core) Heart Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Describe the circulatory system as a system of Using large diagrams. Describe coronary heart disease in terms of the blood – deoxygenated blood. Obtain an and the role of valves to permit only one-way animal’s heart from legal sources to demonstrate both external and internal structure – flow. Use paper cut-outs to sequence stages of cycle. Describe the function of the heart in terms of never tires to keep the heart beating throughout. pressure circulation to the lungs and a high was everywhere the consequences. cardiac cycle.102-3 22 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (7. Many diagrams muscular wall and septum. Investigate. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Describe the one-way flow of blood around the Large diagrams of blood vessels including the heart in the outline of the body. Observe in invertebrates. stress and smoking) and preventive measures. 3R’s link Right side of heart – tRicuspid valve. pp. to label and annotate. Explain the need for pressure to and in veins – to prevent backDescribe the double circulation in terms of a low reach the extremities of the body and if such pressure flow. blockage of coronary arteries and state the possible causes (diet. system in our body. State the sequence of events that take place during Page 27 of 70 . The need for one-way flow ask students individually to two circuits. Ask students to measure each others pulse rates when sitting still and after exercise. Colour in body. and a double circulation can be shown here – covering make flow chart of stages in Describe the structure of the heart including the the circulation from one site in the body and back again. Can be cut-out and used for revision later. 9. especially useful to show thickness of the atrial and ventricular walls and the closing of Describe the four chambers of the heart and locate valves. Extension.2 core) Transport in humans (7.explain opening and tubes with a pump and valves to ensure one-way Discuss the circulatory system and the need for such a closing of valves in the heart flow of blood. The supply to the If atria are intact in the heart or pressure circulation to the body tissues and relate delicate structure of the lungs is less than to the rest of through use of a model heart – these differences to the different functions of the the body – about one-fifth. Simple Discuss fetal heart activity on pulse rate.2. the major blood vessels and valves associated with Link this to the explanation of heart / cardiac cycle. monitor and relate to systole and diastole. Rotten development. the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood red and blue respectively.1 Circulation pp. amphibians.2 The heart. Label right and left Describe the heart as a pump for the flow of blood sides of body as though the structures were in the body – explain reversal. Describe Extension – look at hearts in muscular contraction and the working of the the events in one cardiac cycle emphasising the action of fish.

one heartbeat. Page 28 of 70 .

Handle data on coronary heart disease and prepare posters on causes and preventative measures. Discuss the need for repeats. coronary heart disease and handle data. function of arteries. Discuss CHD and how it can affect humans of different Describe the transfer of materials between ages. pressures in these as the blood passes through. – carry out the designed exercise and time the recovery period when sitting. veins and and points to evaluate. pp. the blockage of coronary arteries and state surrounding group of similar cells. 9. etc. Discuss the causes and preventative measures – capillaries and tissue fluid.1 core) Heart. activity on pulse rate. Recap the definition Describe the transfer of materials the possible causes (diet. Extension . Stress the size of capillaries relative to the other blood vessels. Describe the structure and functions of Compare plasma and tissue fluid in composition. discuss Extension . Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Name the major blood vessels to and from Plan an investigation into the effect of physical activity on pulse rate. liver and kidney.3 Blood vessels pp. function are related in arteries. After planning is complete the heart. State the possible causes and preventative measures of coronary heart disease. capillaries.4 Coronary heart disease. back-up with posters. lungs. through – like a sieve. liver and kidney.2. Describe the nature of coronary heart disease. core and extension) Arteries. Use diagrams or photomicrographs and websites to show the structure of these blood vessels and State and explain the effect of physical label outline diagrams. Page 29 of 70 . Explain the barrier of the capillary wall and between capillaries and tissue fluid. (7.2.104-5. Plot the data. state and explain the effect of Describe the relative sizes of blood vessels and the Extension . and preventive measures.describe the structure and and evaluate the findings. controls. lungs. 106-7 23 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (7.explain how structure and pulse rate.explain how structure and physical activity on pulse rate. veins and capillaries.Biology for IGCSE Reference 9.2. veins and capillaries. Carry out the planning exercise on physical activity and prevent development of CHD. stress and smoking) of a tissue. veins Describe coronary heart disease in terms of A large diagram to label of a capillary network and capillaries. list what substances to be found in the blood which can Name the main blood vessels to and from the pass through this barrier and those which cannot pass Videos to demonstrate the causes of heart. Discuss the risks and list measures to arteries. function are related in arteries. veins and capillaries Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Investigate.

• white blood cells – phagocytosis and can work to prevent pathogens developing to cause Extension . Drawing these cells Describe the role of red blood cells and or using diagrams can be used as a magnification / actual size exercise for practice. lymphocytes and phagocytes so these cells can be identified and named. system in terms of antibody diagrams and photomicrographs. hormones. Use microscopes to observe blood smears or photomicrographs. tissue rejection and List the components of blood as red blood cells.2. and the production of transport to explain how the white blood cells – phagocytes lymphocytes.110–11 24 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 7. Bio viewers and strips of blood cells maybe useful if available. Explain the difference between and under the microscope. white blood cells. Describe how white blood cells such as Poster work will help to remember processes of blood clotting for extension work. Page 30 of 70 .6 Blood in defence. Extension: describe the process of blood clotting. 108 -9. • platelets – causing clotting (no details) This can lead onto the idea of immunity – active and • plasma – transport of blood cells.describe the process of antibody formation disease. Comic strip approach is useful to nutrients. pp. measurement / magnification exercise. 9.5 Blood. carbon dioxide. thrombocytes. phagocytosis. platelets and plasma. platelets. lymphocytes and phagocytes protect the body from disease. ions. Construct a table below a diagram of capillary and Extension . Draw the different cells and carry out the size production. State the role of lymphocytes in immunity. soluble antibodies. plasma.Biology for IGCSE Reference 9. pp.describe the function of State the functions of blood: show again the substances and components of the the lymphatic system in circulation • red blood cells – haemoglobin and oxygen blood which can pass through capillary walls – useful of body fluids.describe the immune the light microscope on prepared slides. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources State the main constituents of blood. urea and Blood clotting to be linked with the role of platelets / cover phagocytosis. clotting (fibrinogen to fibrin only). Flow chart for plasma proteins. blood clotting. and in describe each blood cells and its role in turn. haemoglobin in oxygen transport. Identify the different Identify red and white bloods cells in diagrams components – red and white blood cells.3 core and extension) Blood Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Identify red and white blood cells as seen under By observing blood smears or photomicrographs – Extension .

112-13 25 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (7. Describe the functions of the lymphatic system.describe the transfer of materials capillaries and tissue fluid.3 extension) part of Blood section Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Describe the transfer of materials between Recall the large diagram which was labelled of a Extension .2. Practical Work and Resources Poster work and watching video or use of bio viewers to observe lymphocytes in action and the flow chart leading to development of active immunity. Point out the similarity of suffices of lymphocyte and lymphatic system to aid learning. extension) part of Arteries.2.7 Lymph and tissue fluid. Page 31 of 70 . pp.describe the function of the system in circulation of body fluids. and the production of lymphocytes through this barrier and those which cannot pass Discussion of vaccination programs. Explain the Extension .Biology for IGCSE Reference 9. Learning Outcomes Describe the exchange of materials between capillaries and tissue fluid. Describe the function of the lymphatic cells. and the barrier of the capillary wall and list what lymphatic system in circulation of body production of lymphocytes. (7. substances and components of the blood can pass fluids. capillary network surrounding group of similar between capillaries and tissue fluid. Recap the definition of a tissue.2. through – like a sieve. Using diagrams of the lymphatic system – identify the link with the blood and the nodes in different parts of the body. veins and capillaries.

Biology for IGCSE Reference 10 Respiration 10. pp. 10.6 Anaerobic respiration.1 core and extension) Aerobic respiration (8. pp. 116-17.2 core and extension) Anaerobic respiration Page 32 of 70 .1 Respiration. 126–7 26 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (8 core) Respiration. ( 8.

Discuss use of yeast in brewing beer and fermentation of fruit juices to make wine – use flow charts to sequence the various stages. Define anaerobic respiration as the release of a relatively small amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in the absence of oxygen. Investigation on rising of bread dough is useful to compare different flours and additives. Use CO2 indicators to show it is given off in exhaled breath. Compare the amounts of energy released in anaerobic and anaerobic respiration. Demonstrate bread dough and if was strong wheat dough with water to remove the starch grains – you can separate the protein – gluten to show its elastic properties Research brewing of beer and wine making. when muscles cells during hard exercise suffer from shortage of oxygen and the consequences of this. Introduce the uses of yeast in industry and the structure [photomicrograph] and reproduction of these cells. using symbols. Learning Outcomes Define aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration. Use a living culture to show the gas given off and test it to show CO2. Investigation – to compare rising of bread dough in oiled measuring cylinders left in warm water bath – use of different types of flour and the addition of flour improvers. State the uses of energy in the body of humans: muscle contraction. State the word equation for anaerobic respiration in muscles during hard exercise and in yeast. The need for energy and how the body needs this energy for other processes including enzymes [good revision and discussion points]. Link with celiac disease. growth. Visit a local brewery or vineyard. Research bread making and visit a local bakery to observe stages involved. arrange in order for the equations. Useful lead into anaerobic respiration in muscles for extension. Extension . using words – extension – use symbols.state the balanced equation for anaerobic respiration in muscles (C6H 12O 6 → 2C3H6O3) and the microorganism yeast (C6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH + 2CO2). Describe the role of anaerobic respiration in yeast during brewing and bread making. Page 33 of 70 Suggested Teaching Activities Recall the definition of respiration at the beginning section.Learning Objectives Define respiration as the chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy. protein synthesis. Photomicrographs to illustrate the cellular structure of yeast and link with asexual reproduction – possible exercise for calculation of actual size of mature cells. Poster work for listing all the uses for the energy released for aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Show the gluten content of different types of flour. slowly bubbling through the indicator available. Using bubbles from yeast or exhalation show that the gas released is CO2 by testing with limewater [clear to cloudy] or red hydrogencarbonate indicator [red to yellow]. the passage of nerve impulses and the maintenance of a constant body temperature..describe the effect of lactic acid in muscles during exercise. . E xtension . Define aerobic respiration as the release of a relatively large amount of energy in cells by the breakdown of food substances in the presence of oxygen. using wordsdescribe the role of anaerobic respiration in yeast during brewing and bread making compare aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration in terms of relative amounts of energy released. Gives original data [can use published data otherwise] for opportunities to plan experiments. Practical Work and Resources Paper cards for words and symbols.state the equation for aerobic respiration using symbols (C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O) Extension . cell division. State the equation for aerobic respiration. Extension and Consolidation Extension . State the equation for anaerobic respiration in muscles during hard exercise (glucose → lactic acid) and the microorganism yeast (glucose → alcohol + carbon dioxide). active transport. why training is so important for athletes and other sport participants. Distinguish these tests from the use of CO2 absorbers such as soda lime or NaOH. Explain on the metabolic basis that all cells respire 24/7 and the need for oxygen in aerobic respiration – link to survival of humans.describe the effect of lactic acid in muscles during exercise (include oxygen debt in outline only).

Tidal surfaces.120-1. Many such diagrams can be found printed in List the features of gas exchange advanced textbooks or websites. 10. The trace can be used to explain the intake and exhale of a breath. while sitting still and after exercise.2 The gas exchange system. bronchi. Extension and Consolidation List the features of gas exchange Large diagrams to label and annotate are useful to identify Extension . from pathogens and dust particles. Explain of the lungs. trachea. alveoli and associated are found in the thin epithelial lining of the wall. demonstrated. volume and vital capacity can be measured using a ‘blow tube’ that has been calibrated or an inverted Describe gas exchange at the plastic container by downward displacement of water in a large sink. 10.118-19. the airways – mucus and cilia protecting the surfaces. Lung tissue is sold as ‘melts’ in commercial outlets and it is possible to obtain sets from in protecting the respiratory system certain sources. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Identify on diagrams and name the Large diagrams or use of a model torso to show the positions of the organs involved. Use lime water as a test for carbon composition of inhaled and exhaled air. protecting the gas exchange system from between inspired and expired air. Use of diagrams to explain the lining of cartilage rings C shaped to hold airway inspired and expired air.4 Breathing. If a skeleton or wall larynx. alveoli and list the features of this surface and how these pressure changes leading to the ventilation bronchioles. A wooden model of the ribs the functions of these structures. pp. if not a diagram and explanation is useful. open. the structures involved. Students can count their breaths alveolus. attached to a wooden sternum and spine will permit the movement of the ribs or students can use Compare the composition of themselves and feel these as they breathe in deeply and exhale. internal and external intercostal muscles and Identify on diagrams and name the Explain the location of the gas exchange surface at the the diaphragm in producing volume and larynx.Biology for IGCSE Reference 10. bronchi. the surfaces in animals. trachea. If available a spirometer can be inspired and expired air. pp. capillaries.3 core and extension) Gas exchange Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities.3 Gas exchange.122-3 27 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 8. pp. Practical work and data tables to show the difference in pathogens and particles. alveoli and rubber sheet attached for a diaphragm and glass tubes with balloons attached and supported by a rubber associated capillaries and describe bung at the neck can be used to demonstrate the action of the diaphragm. A large bell jar with a bronchioles. Using their own Use of photomicrographs to illustrate the dioxide to investigate the thorax follow movements of intercostal muscles during cellular basis of tissues in the bronchus – differences in composition between these processes. This can be linked to the pulse rate investigation earlier and the need Explain the role of mucus and cilia for more oxygen. Page 34 of 70 . the lung tissues do not contain muscle – indicate and show Explain the role of mucus and cilia in State the differences in composition the elastic nature of lung tissue.describe the role of the ribs. chart is available it can be used to demonstrate the protection of these organs in situ.

investigation earlier and the need for activity on rate and depth of breathing. breathing in terms of changes in the rate the ventilation of the lungs. before and after exercise. Page 35 of 70 . Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Describe how volume and pressure changes lead If available a spirometer can be used. inaccurate. Time how long the body takes to return to that rate at rest.Biology for IGCSE Reference 10. using limewater or hydrogencarbonate This can be linked to the pulse rate Investigate and describe the effects of physical indicator.describe how the effects of exercise The drop in pH with carbon dioxide can be shown with the use of hydrogencarbonate increase the carbon dioxide concentration and indicator – red to yellow. Increase in number of breaths needs a helper as it is difficult to Investigate and describe the effects of physical count your own as the natural tendency is to hold a breath longer – personal counts are exercise on the rate and depth of breathing. inspired and expired air. Use of ‘huff puff’ apparatus to compare the at which tissues respire and therefore of Use lime water as a test for carbon dioxide to carbon dioxide concentration of inspired and carbon dioxide concentration and pH in investigate the differences in composition between expired air. Discuss the means of connecting to the rib cage and diaphragm to increase or decrease rate and depth of breathing.explain the link between external intercostal muscles and the diaphragm in diagram and explanation is useful of a trace physical activity and rate and depth of producing volume and pressure changes leading to before and after exercise. the control of breathing is located. if not a diagram and explanation is useful of a trace to ventilation of the lungs.4 Breathing. pp. 10. Extension .122-123. tissues and in the blood.124-125 28 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (8. rate and depth of breathing. the internal and If available a spirometer can be used.3 core and extension) Gas exchange Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Describe the role of the ribs. Compare students who are active in sports with those who do not lower pH in the tissues and how this affects the participate. pp.explain the link between physical lowering of pH in the blood is detected and activity and rate and depth of breathing in terms of using large diagrams of the brain show the changes in the rate at which tissues respire – CO2 position of the medulla / brain stem area where and pH.5 Rate and depth of breathing. if not a Extension . Extension . Explain the sites in the body where increase or more oxygen.

Discuss the control of body conditions. together to keep warm in cold surface capillaries and the coordinating role of the position of body hair. on a diagram of the skin: hairs. (chemical reactions in cells including respiration) and substances in excess of requirements. and use in forensics. vasodilation and To include vasodilation and vasoconstriction of illustrate the effect of animals huddling vasoconstriction of arterioles supplying skin arterioles in the skin. Tabulate reaction to cold and hot environments Use test-tubes bound together to sweating. temperature receptors.Biology for IGCSE Reference 11 Homeostasis and excretion. need for control of internal environment in terms negative feedback Identify. Discuss the role of the liver as wet coverings and discuss with Define excretion as the removal from organisms of source of core temperature as well as forming reference to evaporation and latent toxic materials. coverings representing clothing or fur. urea and salts. the role of temperature receptors in the skin. Describe the maintenance of a constant body Carry out investigation using containers and Vary the investigation with range of temperature in humans in terms of insulation and huddling to show cooling and keeping warm. 11. that way. Loss of temperature in bodies can be followed using containers and following concentration. 11.explain the concept of control by constant internal environment.134– 5 29 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 9 core) Excretion in humans (10. . shivering.explain the concept of negative diagrams to label and annotate. discuss finger print and unique nature fatty tissue. cooling rate – large versus small containers to represent adult and baby sizes. Bioviewers or photomicrographs useful to show skin feedback. Page 36 of 70 . temperature. Use large diagrams of skin to label and annotate. blood vessels and fluids and metabolism. Describe how body temperature is kept constant. Use lids to prevent loss of heat diagram. Define the term excretion. different Identify the different structures in the skin on coverings.4 core and extension) Homeostasis Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Define homeostasis as the maintenance of a Introduce homeostasis definition and explain the E. Use large outline Extension . sweat of efficiency of enzyme activity.3 Excretion pp.130-1. heat of evaporation. Substances should include carbon dioxide.1 Controlling conditions in the body pp. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Define the term homeostasis. Show the extra cooling of brain. sweating v shivering. control of body Observe the surface of finger tips – glands. different shapes of containers of equal volume. the waste products of metabolism urea for excretion. Observe skin on palm of hands and back of hand for external features. Discuss surface area to volume ratios. Describe the control of blood glucose sections.

drugs and With each part of the kidney tubule it role can be water and salts hormones are broken down in the outlined around a large diagram – filtration [the . Refer back to most of the water and some salts back State that urea is formed in the liver previous diagrams of the brain to locate the testing into the blood.5 Kidney dialysis and transplant. then the ureter and blood vessels can be found. and control regions – location of these in the brain. medulla. bladder and urethra in the body.explain dialysis in terms of maintenance of liver. compared with dialysis.134-5. Discuss intake and output of of water. Model or large outline diagrams can be used if not Describe the structure of the urinary available. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Name the excretory organs and Use fresh kidneys purchased for consumption to demonstrate external features. can alter the end colours slightly. structure and functioning of a kidney tubule glucose and some salts (details of List the main components of urine and sources of including: kidney structure and nephron are not these in metabolism and breakdown of alcohol. . drugs and hormones.discuss the advantages and disadvantages of transplant. Page 37 of 70 .4 Kidney function. need for blood pressure to function and molecular glucose and protein concentration in blood and size of substances to pass into tubule] reabsorption diffusion of urea from blood to dialysis fluid of glucose and amino acids and some water.136-7.discuss the application of dialysis in kidney Discuss what happens when kidneys fail and what machines can be done – diet [low protein] dialysis and kidney . Using simulated urine preparations [coloured using very dilute tea plus glucose and / or the kidney including the kidney albumin] it is possible to test for sugars and protein under situations of kidney failure and uncontrolled tubule diabetes using simple food tests or clinistix and albustix obtainable from chemists.Biology for IGCSE Reference 11. kidney transplants. These can be used whilst watching video to label and annotate for study of microscopic system and the internal structure of tubules.138-9 30 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 9 core) Excretion in humans Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Describe the function of the kidney in Large diagrams of urinary system to label and Outline the structure of a kidney (cortex. • role of renal capsule in filtration from blood required). in filtration and reabsorption. fluids and the volume involved as well as control to • role of tubule in reabsorption of glucose. from tea.3 Excretion. pp. If purchased with suet excretory products. urea and salts State the relative positions of ureters. 11. leading to concentration of from excess amino acids. maintain homeostasis of water. pp. terms of the removal of urea and annotate and use of torso can help to locate the and the start of the ureter) and outline the excess water and the reabsorption of organs. 11. pp. Relate to own body to locate organs. Use controls for Describe the role of the kidney tubule colour comparison as tannins. glucose. urea in the urine as well as loss of excess State that alcohol.

Test sensitivity of finger tips to distinguish different textures without using sight – rough [sand paper]. pp. protection for certain activities and jobs and coordination) and the peripheral Using a model torso and skeleton or large diagrams distinguish the correct way of lifting heavy weights. 12. After holding two fingers in the warm /tepid water transfer one to cold and other to the warmer water to sense the different relative to the first.1 Nervous control in humans. Individual vertebrae show protection given to spinal cord. breathing. Remind different health conditions. left and both hands. Learning Outcomes Describe the structure of the nervous system. nervous system (brain and students of a young child learning to catch a ball to explain Understand the need for head and neck spinal cord as areas of learned reflexes. Extension . one cold water.distinguish between voluntary and involuntary actions. Use model of brain and look at skull protection if possible or view large diagrams. peristalsis and introduce reflex actions. Discuss the autonomic nervous system to recall the control of heartbeat. Test skin surface by touching with ‘straightened’ paperclip without sight and find the number of correct answers from 10 touches with one or two ends on different parts of hands and arms. Testing temperature of water with three containers. kidney action [water control]. one warmer water.Biology for IGCSE Reference 12 Coordination and response.1 core and extension ) Nervous control in humans Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Describe the human nervous Introduce the nervous system by listing all the processes Observe different types of brain scan for system in terms of the central involved in a physical activity such as catching a ball. Braille. Practical Work and Resources Introduce the nervous system by listing all the processes involved in a physical activity such as catching a ball try this with right. 142-3 31 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link 10 Coordination and response (10. Observe photomicrographs of TS spinal cord and locate white and grey matter and locate these on diagrams of the brain. Page 38 of 70 . nervous system which together between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous serve to coordinate and regulate system body functions. smooth [piece of silk]. etc. Practise a few times. Record the actual temperatures using a thermometer. one containing warm/ tepid water.

areas of coordination) and the peripheral nervous neurone.traffic light timed response in seconds. how the arm moves to pull the hand away from a Describe the action of antagonistic muscles to hot object.html .Biology for IGCSE Reference 12. Cover Extend the reaction time investigation Identify motor. to bend and include the biceps and triceps at the elbow joint. With the aid of a large diagram show State that muscles and glands can act as effectors. Bio viewers or photomicrographs to illustrate the size of nerve cells. Discuss what happens to the impulse at coordinating stimuli with responses. straighten the arm. 144-5. relay and sensory neurones from the involuntary response of touching a hot object to cover the practised responses. Compare with a length of insulated wire functions.2 Neurones and reflex arcs. pp. Describe a simple reflex arc in terms of sensory. regulate body functions.3 Reflexes and antagonistic muscles. Distinguish the steps in a reflex arc. Make a glossary of terms and names. the diagrams. labelling muscles. the synapse. There are reaction tests online http://getyourwebsitehere. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Describe and distinguish between the three types Use large diagrams to label and annotate for the three types of neurones and the insulation of neurone found in a reflex arc and their along the axon and dendron by the myelin sheath. 12.146-7 32 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (10.1 core) Nervous control in humans Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Describe the human nervous system in terms of the Use large diagrams to label and annotate to Distinguish between voluntary and central nervous system (brain and spinal cord as describe the structure of the three types of involuntary actions. to represent a nerve. The distance measured body. between a reflex arc and a reflex action. explain effect of age or influence of caffeine. and audible instruction only. and a reflex action as a response of effector muscle] and direction of means of automatically and rapidly integrating and impulse. Page 39 of 70 . and with the aid of the reflex arc diagram. receptor through to relay and motor neurones. pp. the process [stimulus.com/jswb/rttest01. Recall the TS of spinal cord and link up Use paper cut out puzzles to sequence system which together serve to coordinate and the neurones involved in a reflex arc. Explain the importance of reflex actions to the Carry out an investigation in reaction time by dropping the ruler. This exercise can be Describe the role of antagonistic muscles as extended by varying the right or left hands and with sight of the ruler or with a blindfolded effectors. Determine reaction time by dropping the ruler exercise. below the hand when the ruler is caught is recorded in millimetres.

Describe the structure and function of The sense organ studied in detail is the eye. the eye including the pupil reflex. in terms of function and For the sense of taste. horizontal line from the front to the back of the eye and explain this area of the retina has the largest Extension: distinguish between rods number of cones for colour vision. Use large Use of lenses to demonstrate the effects of the eye. stimuli: light. chemicals. 12. scent. Explain reflexes – blinking and iris to protect the eye accommodation. and short sightedness and accommodation. in receptor cells responding to specific tabulate with the organs involved. temperature and Opportunity to check colour vision of and chemicals. home [for safety reasons – do not taste in class]. Distinguish between rods and cones. pp. Mark the fovea by drawing a the eye including accommodation. This list may include terms of function and distribution.5 The eye. and cones. sweet. blue and green and link to colour blindness [more common in males]. touch. The three colours red.demonstrations that students pass round . Look into animals and their vision – link to colours the layers of the eye and especially the retina. pp. Describe the structure and function of There are videos available to show aspects of vision. these on focussing – explain pupil reflex. sight [ show diagrams of visual illusions]. smooth]. sound. light needed to stimulate these light sensitive cells. raw onion]. Compare and visual range in electromagnetic the distribution of rods and cones and the intensity of spectrum. Explain long Opportunity to extend study to different terms of function and distribution. students could map out areas on the tongue to taste salt.Biology for IGCSE Reference 12. temperature stimuli. Show Describe the structure and function of the light rays bending at the cornea and lens to focus onto the retina. Use a model eye to show major parts of the eye structure. touch. Page 40 of 70 . 150–1 33 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (10. touch [ rough. hearing. sour and bitter at distribution. sound. in from damage and recall reflex actions.these testing the receptor cells responding to particular sense of smell. chemicals [ detergent. students with test charts. temperature taste as well as light. including accommodation and diagrams to label and annotate to explain structure. 148-9. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Define sense organs as groups of It is useful to arrange a ‘circus’ of senses . [ piece of ice]. Large diagrams label and annotate.1 core) Nervous control in humans Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Define sense organs as groups of List the different senses which can be experienced and Distinguish between rods and cones.4 Sense organs.

glucose with Benedict’s solution and Clinistix.130-1 34 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 10. Test solutions containing endocrine system. body metabolism.2 core and extension) Hormones Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Define a hormone as a chemical Define what a hormone is and tabulate the hormones Discuss diabetes. Use a large diagram to label and annotate Discuss the use of hormones in food one or more specific target organs and is for these hormones and introduce the term endocrine Production. Explain how these are ductless glands and compare Use of video and web sites for State the role of the hormone adrenaline with digestive glands – salivary glands. Discuss situations where adrenaline is involved and Discuss the use of hormones in food stress the breakdown in the liver as this heightened level of production.6 Hormones. where these are produced in the body Discuss the use of steroids. activity cannot be maintained in the body. to the target organ factories to a local farm or dairy. If combined with site in chemical control of metabolic activity. substance. pp. Compare the nervous system with the Demonstrate the use of blood glucose testing kits used by diabetics. Large diagrams of human body to locate endocrine glands and label. by the blood. Explain the industrial uses. Recall the position of adrenal glands above the kidney in Compare nervous and hormonal control the abdomen and close proximity to blood vessels and the systems. adrenaline secretion increases. concentration and pulse rate. passage of hormones around the body in the blood from the visits to farms or laboratories or including increasing the blood glucose endocrine organ – site of production. pp. insulin and reproductive hormones. produced by a gland. heart.Biology for IGCSE Reference 12. which alters the activity of and their effects. organs. Extension . 11. which maybe one or a range of organs using some named Give examples of situations in which hormones – adrenalin. then destroyed by the liver.discuss the use of hormones Poster work to compare nervous system with the endocrine system in speed and duration of in food production. Use paper cut out cards to State the role of adrenaline in control of match glands and hormones with their effects.152-3. response.1 Controlling conditions in the body. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Define the term hormone. nature of response and how it occurs. Introduce plant hormones. carried students can name. Discuss the use of BST in milk production. Page 41 of 70 .

growth. growth. If possible use different growth boxes with coloured filters to experiment with light of different wavelengths. growth by auxins including Discuss the use of klinostat to negate the effect of geotropism and phototropism in terms gravity. and the effects of synthetic Introduce the research into synthetic hormones which plant hormones used as weed killers.Biology for IGCSE Reference 12. Explain these tropic responses with the idea of of auxins regulating differential auxins and natural h [plant hormone]. Distinguish between tropism and etiolation as plants Explain the chemical control of plant develop over longer periods of time. will encourage braod leaved plants to grow and have little effect on cereals – hence the use of these substances as weed killers. and others in complete darkness. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Define the terms phototropism and Grow cereal seedlings in gas jars or similar containers to keep the coleoptiles and roots straight during geotropism. Pin some germination beans [as these are lager to pin] onto the control of plant growth by hormones.] Controls ingrown in the full light weedkillers. Extension .3 core and extension ) Tropic responses Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Define and investigate geotropism Show young seedlings as the growth occurs – indicate . 154–5 35 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 10. Observe seedlings set up in box with only a small differential growth.explain the chemical positive phototropism of coleoptiles. pp. and the effects of which a plant grows towards or away hole for light to enter from one side. killers coming). Have control in light synthetic plant hormones used as weed from the direction from which light is and others in complete darkness.explain the effect of Grow seedlings such quick growing cress or cabbage seedlings in a pot or dish to show response of synthetic plant hormones used in shoots to light from one side [use a box with a small hole in one side. explain the chemical control of plant (as a response in which a plant grows positive geotropism – growth towards gravity of roots growth by auxins including geotropism and towards or away from gravity) and and negative geotropism but positive phototropism of phototropism in terms of auxins regulating phototropism (as a response in shoots. Turn container onto its side to show positive geotropism of roots and negative geotropism and Extension . rotating surface of a klinostat to negate the effect of gravity for comparison. Page 42 of 70 .7 Tropic responses.

Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Define the term homeostasis.describe the control of blood glucose levels within narrow limits. and by insulin and body temperature in humans in terms of changes when the temperature of the body decreases glucagon from the pancreas. 11. Describe the control of the glucose content Describe the maintenance of a constant Recall the structure of the skin and in a table compare of the blood by the liver.explain the concept of Demonstrate the use of blood glucose testing kits used by diabetics. Describe the control of the glucose hormones released from the endocrine organs – islets in content of the blood by the liver. blood glucose concentration. body size – obesity. Page 43 of 70 . 130-1 36 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (10. Handle secondary data on levels of blood glucose during the day. Test solutions containing glucose negative feedback. with Benedict’s solution and Clinistix. Extension . Construct flow diagrams of how the body responds to too much and too little glucose in the blood. This aids understanding of the speed of reaction and what happens if intake is delayed.1 Controlling conditions in the body. influences and discuss the needs of the body.4 core and extension) Homeostasis Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Core: Recall the term homeostasis as the control of the Explain the concept of control by negative Define homeostasis as the maintenance internal environment even though there maybe external feedback. Recap the effect of adrenaline which will also stimulate this process to raise blood glucose level. negative feedback. converting it to glycogen in the liver. digestion. Describe the receptors. pp. muscles and adipose tissue and glucagon for breakdown of glycogen and conversion to glucose to raise blood glucose levels back to a norm . use the idea that type 2 is not just related to Extension: Start a flowchart with the intake of food. Use this familiar example to explain Discuss the different types of diabetes and receptors in the skin.Biology for IGCSE Reference 11 Homeostasis and excretion. but has been found to Explain the concept of control by absorption and assimilation of glucose to show the have a genetical basis. Handle secondary data to illustrate the way the body controls Extension . control of blood glucose levels. and by the pancreas. insulation and the role of temperature and increases. Insulin to lower blood glucose by insulin and glucagon from the pancreas.negative feedback. of a constant internal environment. negative feedback.

Stress the sources. depressant. show the wall covering of bacteria Describe the effects of the abuse of heroin: a Antibiotic allergies need to be checked before and virus particles to aid the powerful depressant. chart which can be annotated. 158-9. Poster work. withdrawal symptoms and associated problems such as students will have received treatment for Distinguish between bacteriocide crime and infection.5 core and extension) Drugs Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Define a drug as any substance taken into the body that Introduce the term drug and construct a spider Explain why antibiotics kill modifies or affects chemical reactions in the body. Describe the effects of the components of tobacco smoke on the gas exchange system and the heart. Describe the effects of excessive consumption of alcohol: is useful to introduce topic. Page 44 of 70 . 13. pp. Use antibiotic disks or Mastrings on bacterial colonies growing on agar plates or Describe the use of antibiotics in the treatment of show image. components (tar. 164–5 37 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (10. Describe the effects of heroin the problems of addiction.2 Heroin. from babies onwards and the treatment including withdrawal problems. Smoking – video from health sites can be useful. nicotine.4 Smoking and health. bacterial infection.g. carbon monoxide. 13. bacterial infection. Describe the medicinal use of antibiotics for the treatment be covered with students’ welfare in mind and This will need large diagrams to of bacterial infection. are available. to water pump and collect tar on cotton wool in tube. severe using any practical demonstration. The same applies Differences between stimulants reduced self-control. problems of addiction. Alcohol – many sources of data in books and on the web. and depressants and effect on damage to liver and social implications. pp. This needs to bacteria but not viruses. Cover each in term covering dangers and nervous system. Many explanation. Use only recommended and permitted bacteria from reliable sources. effect on reaction times.160 – 1. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Define the term drug. 13.3 Alcohol. smoke Summarise with a table to cover main points. for other drugs on syllabus. pp. the Extension . Poster work on heroin or watch educational / health video. Short history of discovery and bacteriostatic effects. particles) on the gas exchange system. The addition in individuals viruses.Biology for IGCSE Reference 13 Drugs. Describe the effects of tobacco smoke and its major toxic legal aspects as well as health issues. 162– 3.explain why antibiotics kill bacteria but not legal issues and the link with sharing needles and HIV. Can use severe withdrawal. not to stimulate experimentation. 13.1 Drugs and how they work pp. e. HIV/AIDS. Images of blackened Describe the effects of drinking excessive quantities of lungs [maybe visit to museum] experiment in a fume cupboard of cigarette attached alcohol including the long-term effects. Care needed with religious aspects. problems such as crime and HIV dilute alcohol and show effects on heartbeat of Daphnia if microscope and camera infection.

bulbs and rhizomes. Can use ‘blue vein’ cheeses to show fungal growing and spores if microscopes are available – Extension – describe the advantages and if not show images in books or web sites. reproduction. Discuss cloning and show plant clones. Discuss the advantages and resulting in the production of genetically Discuss the differences between sexual and asexual disadvantages to a species of asexual identical offspring from one parent. asexual and perennating aspects include the potato. reproduction. e. Pin moulds or Examples of cloning can be discussed reproduction. pp.discuss the Describe asexual reproduction in bacteria. Reproduction in plants. 14. Observe plant specimens. Describe asexual reproduction in bacteria. potatoes. Extension .discuss the advantages and other examples.g.168-9 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link Reproduction (1. spore formation in fungi and tuber formation in Observe growing moulds on food. The research into animal diploid zygote and the production of discuss the advantages but also disadvantages of this cloning – Dolly the sheep.1 Asexual and sexual reproduction. Illustrate asexual reproduction by describing Discuss the advantages and spore production in fungi and tuber formation examples mentioned in the syllabus bacteria. similarity in table form.2 core and extension) Sexual reproduction Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Define asexual reproduction as the process Recall definitions of growth and reproduction.discuss the advantages and gametes – genetically dissimilar can be added to the to develop in the health fields disadvantages to a species of sexual same table for comparison purposes. runners still attached to parent plant. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Define asexual and sexual reproduction. disadvantages of asexual and sexual Poster to cover aspects from genetics – identical genome. tubers and rhizomes. especially if specimens are available disadvantages to a species of asexual such as runners. fungi disadvantages to a species of sexual in potatoes. etc.1 core and extension) Asexual reproduction (1. Discuss aspects of specific strains of crop and garden involving the fusion of haploid nuclei to form a cloning with genetically identical offspring and plants. bulbs. Page 45 of 70 .g. and tuber [stem] in potato. . others on infected fruit will show the asexual fungal – the importance in maintaining Define sexual reproduction as the process spores but not mushrooms. e. oranges but be careful with spores – keep covered. The haploid nuclei in and the research which is going head Extension .g. strawberry runners. e. It is helpful to include reproduction. reproduction and record definitions. including organ transplant.Biology for IGCSE Reference Section 111 Development of the organism and the continuity of life [ 25% of teaching time) 38 14. reproduction. Stem cells genetically dissimilar offspring.

pp. Use hand lens or microscopes to observe details including pollen grains to discuss structure of anthers and dispersal of pollen grain. Extension and Consolidation . 174-5 39 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 1. stamens. Appreciate the size and individuality of pollen grains between species to distinguish between those of flowers which are insect-pollinated. Compare with wind-pollinated flowers trees or grasses mainly. Learning Outcomes Describe the structure of an insect-pollinated flower. dicotyledonous flower. and examine the pollen grains under a light microscope or in photomicrographs. the sepals. In table format list the functions of each different part in turn. locally available. Compare the different structural adaptations of insect-pollinated and wind-pollinated flowers. Use a hand lens to identify and describe the anthers and stigmas of one.discuss the implications to a species of selfpollination and crosspollination Practical Work and Resources Observe a range of flowers growing in the local area starting with those that have a large flower to those which have many small flowers making up an inflorescence using examples that students can easily separate and remove floral parts to count numbers not those complex flowers with fused floral parts. Label and record details of colour. Poster work for range of flowers or display would aid the variety to be shown or a visit to local nature reserve or garden. Use large diagrams to prepare posters. Use diagrams to show the tube growth and its development to fertilisation. and examine the pollen grains under a light microscope or in photomicrographs. petals. named. scent etc that will fade and dry out. 170-1. ovaries and stigmas of one. locally available. Name the agents of pollination. Compare the adaptations of different types of pollen grain. Define pollination. Suggested Teaching Activities Using a specimen of a large dicotyledonous insect-pollinated flower for each student – observe the number and whorls of floral parts and as detached stick down on paper and cover with transparent adhesive tape. . Observe the development of pollen tubes. State the functions of the sepals. Opportunity to recap size and magnification. carpels. using a hand lens if necessary.distinguish between self-pollination and crosspollination and discuss their significance. pp. Define the term pollination and name the agents of pollination. Examine anthers and pollen grains.Biology for IGCSE Reference14. Compare the two types of flower and the need for the adaptations for the two types of pollination. State the functions of sepals.4 Fertilisation and seed production. 14. Candidates should expect to apply their understanding of the flowers they have studied to unfamiliar flowers. anthers. anthers. markings [honey guides] . wind-pollinated flower. stigmas and ovaries. petals.distinguish between selfpollination and cross-pollination . Describe the growth of the pollen tube and its entry into the ovule followed by fertilisation (production of endosperm and details of development are not required).172-3. Maize has large visible flowers on separate parts of the plant. stigmas and ovaries.3 Pollination pp. Compare the different structural adaptations of insect-pollinated and wind-pollinated flowers. germinating pollen grains of slides if microscopes are available. petals. anthers. Introduce the ideas of self-pollination and cross-pollination discussing the implications to a species. Define pollination as the transfer of pollen grains from the male part of the plant (anther of stamen) to the female part of the plant (stigma). named.1 core and extension ) Sexual reproduction in plants Learning Objectives Identify and draw. Extension .2 Flower structure.2. Describe the structure of a wind-pollinated flower. Page 46 of 70 . Compare with wind pollinated plants – maize is an example of separate male and female flowers on the same plant. 14. insect-pollinated.

g. Investigate the environmental conditions needed for germination with apparatus lacking in one of oxygen. pp.1 core) Sexual reproduction in plants ( 2. Page 47 of 70 . Describe examples of dispersal by wind and animals. 14. Observe large soaked dicotyledonous seeds such as beans [broad beans] to recognise the testa [by squeezing the seed the micropyle releases liquid] the scar of attachment. 40 Extension and Consolidation Germinate variety of seeds. Describe. 178-9 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (1. e. Define growth in terms of a permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in cell number or cell size or both. Wind dispersed fruits – measure range of distance – discuss effectiveness of dispersal. warmth. Describe the germination of seeds.2. Suggested Teaching Activities Recap the idea of pollen tube extending and fusion of the nuclei to form diploid zygote. Describe happens when a seed is formed. plumule and cotyledons) and testa. testa and role of mitosis) and fruit (produced from the ovary wall). pp. Outline the formation of a seed (limited to embryo. State the environmental conditions that affect the germination of seeds. By investigating soaked seeds of the largest type available – removing tests and observing the embryo and dissecting it – with the aid of large labelled diagrams helps to explain the arrangement of the various parts. Use large diagrams to draw the pathway the tube passing through into the ovary. Table format for names of structures and what develops is a short convenient form to present this data.6 Growth and development.4 Fertilisation and seed formation. State that seed and fruit dispersal by wind and by animals provides a means of colonising new areas. Collect variety of fruits and discus means of dispersal. Practical Work and Resources Follow investigation in pollen tubes observing extension using suitable growth media – to be found in many advanced books. using named examples. protected by the fruit. Set projects to find variety of different fruits for display and label types of dispersal. Describe the structure of a seed.176-7. Investigate and describe the structure of a non-endospermic seed in terms of the embryo (radicle. explain the fusion to form the diploid zygote. core) Growth and development Learning Objectives Describe the growth of the pollen tube and its entry into the ovule followed by fertilisation (production of endosperm and details of development are not required). Investigate and state the environmental conditions that affect germination of seeds: requirement for water and oxygen.Biology for IGCSE Reference 14. Remove the testa to observe the embryo and the two cotyledons [pull apart] plumule and radicle. Repeat with other seeds of the same type to follow the early stages of development later stages of germination. samara types. 174-5. State that seed and fruit dispersal. Define development in terms of increase in complexity. suitable temperature. 14.5 Fruits and seeds pp. Look at variety of fruits and discuss dispersal – list the main types seen. Measure the growth in seedlings by drying samples of different ages and recording dry weight changes. Test how effective the shapes are when falling from different heights. Use large diagrams to trace the pathway and identify the ovary and what develops after this stage. Follow stages of germination and conditions required for successful germination. or water. cotyledons. Define the terms growth and development. by wind and by animals provides a means of colonising new areas. Learning Outcomes Describe the events that lead to fertilisation. seed and fruit dispersal by wind and by animals.

To be covered sensitively – sex education should have already been covered in earlier years. numbers and differences – in size. mobility.compare male and female Present in table format to show similarities and gametes in terms of size. excretory and digestive systems. illustrate the differences between gametes.1 The male reproductive system. Label other penis. urethra and reproductive structure is covered. the use of specific terms and the functions. Identify on diagrams the parts of the female reproductive system and state their functions Describe sexual intercourse in humans. uterus – stress the need for accurate spelling. Can discuss development during stages in uterus. reproductive systems.2. 15. prostate gland. Page 48 of 70 . the ovaries.Biology for IGCSE Reference 15 Sexual reproduction in humans. numbers and mobility. numbers produced and mobility. the testes. and state the Photomicrographs or diagrams with a scale to life and reproductive years. E – Compare male and female gametes. functions of these parts. Learning Outcomes Identify on diagrams the parts of the male reproductive system and state their functions. Identify on diagrams of the female Use ‘fill in the gap’ type questions to help with reproductive system. cervix and vagina. Practical Work and Resources Use large diagrams to label and annotate.184-5 41 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (1.2 core and extension) Sexual reproduction in humans Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Identify on diagrams of the male Use diagrams showing frontal and side views of Compare male and female gametes in terms reproductive system. of these parts. sperm ducts. Extension . 15. oviducts. pp. pp. 182-3. and state the functions associated body structures linked with the Remember the ‘u’ words urethra. scrotum. Label and annotate as each of size. ureter.2 The female reproductive system.

It is possible to link the changes in the uterus wall lining with the thickening prior to ovulation and also to show the timescale for the changes in the ovary before and after ovulation.2 core and extension ) Sexual reproduction in humans Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Describe the menstrual cycle in terms of Stress the female fetus has ovaries and pre-eggs laid Explain the role of hormones in controlling changes in the uterus and ovaries. pp. Page 49 of 70 . yellow] and the release of progesterone. 15. pp. graphs in the same time frame is a useful guide – the Outline early development of the zygote thickening of uterus lining. LH.192-3.3 Fertilisation and implantation.6 The menstrual cycle.186-7 42 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (1. progesterone and status on formation of zygote and the events that oestrogen). Learning Outcomes Describe the menstrual cycle in terms of changes in the uterus and ovaries. Outline sexual intercourse and describe puberty and the fact that this is getting earlier in life progesterone and oestrogen). The nature of the hormones. the stimulus. Describe fertilisation in humans. Extension – explain the role of hormones in controlling the menstrual cycle. fusion of gamete nuclei to restore diploid (including FSH. Outline Extension . Four line female gamete (egg). mobility of sperm and where fertilisation in controlling the menstrual cycle takes place. down before birth. The menstrual cycles start at the menstrual cycle (including FSH.2. of cells that becomes implanted in the the development of the corpus luteum [colour in wall of the uterus.explain the role of hormones intercourse. Practical Work and Resources Construct either linear or cyclic charts to illustrate sequence of events involved in the menstrual cycle on 28 day [lunar month] basis. Explain the cycle with nuclei of male gamete (sperm) and the suitable diagrams on the basis of 28 days. the hormones for build up simply in terms of the formation of a ball the lining and develop the egg. day of release and effect(s) can be tabulated. source. fertilisation in terms of the joining of the with better living conditions. Describe the early development of the zygote to form a ball of cells that is implanted into the uterus wall. follow during the next 7 days leading to implantation of embryo. LH. then mark ovulation.Biology for IGCSE Reference 15.

and the amniotic fluid.describe the advantages and Extension . with bottle-feeding using formula milk. Page 50 of 70 . Extension . Use of work sheet to follow monthly development of fetus. Extension – breast and bottle feeding – advantages and disadvantages. amniotic sac and amniotic fluid. Describe the ante-natal care of pregnant women. needed.4 pregnancy pp.discuss differences between modified cows milk disadvantages of breast-feeding compared and breast milk and advantages and disadvantages of both.describe the protection of the developing fetus in using formula milk. 188-19. Use work sheets Describe the functions of the placenta and with to scale drawings or others with scales to realise the growth and increase in size of the umbilical cord.Biology for IGCSE Reference 15. Large diagrams / posters to show structure and role of placenta – listing the Extension – state the functions of the amnion materials that will cross and those which will not. milk for bottle fed babies and women including special dietary needs and List the ante-natal checks done for pregnant women and compare with cows milk to maintaining good health. 15. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Describe the development of the fetus. will not pass and what materials are needed for development.5 Ante-natal care and birth. Go Outline the processes involved in labour and leave out of diet. the uterus with reference to the amniotic fluid contained in Comparison of different formula Describe the ante-natal care of pregnant the amniotic sac. developing fetus. Use models or images of the monthly stages of gestation to make diagrams. Describe the processes involved in labour and birth. briefly the reasons for dietary needs – needs and materials to illustrate the modification. Outline the three stages of labour and birth. 190-1 43 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 1.indicate the functions of the Extension . amniotic sac and amniotic fluid umbilical cord in relation to exchange of Discuss the role of the placenta listing by reference to size describe the advantages and dissolved nutrients. compared with bottle-feeding Extension .2. through the sterile techniques birth.2 core and extension) sexual reproduction in humans Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Outline the development of the fetus. pp. Indicate the functions of the Describe the function of the placenta and including size. gases and excretory the materials that will cross the membrane and those which disadvantages of breast-feeding products (no structural details are required).

Poster work. mechanical and surgical. similarly the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy.3 core and extension) Sex hormones (1. Extension.describe the sites of production and effects of testosterone and production of Outline artificial insemination and the use of the roles of oestrogen and progesterone in the sperm. secondary sex characteristics. 15. rhythm method) tabulate the details of the four main • chemical (contraceptive pill. diaphragm.describe artificial insemination and the use of fertility drugs and discuss their social implications. 196-7 44 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 1. IUD) Discuss methods used to overcome fertility • surgical (vasectomy. 194-5. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Describe the roles of testosterone and oestrogen in Large diagrams. pp. Link progesterone and menstrual hormones in fertility drugs. Describe the following methods of birth control: natural. Outline the following methods of birth control: Discuss methods of birth control and • natural (abstinence. developing secondary sexual characteristics at puberty.4 core and extension) Methods of birth control Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Describe the roles of testosterone and oestrogen in Recall the menstrual cycle – link with the Describe the sites of production and the the development and regulation of secondary female hormone oestrogen and the roles of oestrogen and progesterone in the sexual characteristics at puberty. problems and discuss social problems and Extension .7 Sex hormones. chemical. and discuss their social implications. cycle – recall the four line graphs.8 Methods of birth control. and discuss their menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. spermicide) approaches. • mechanical (condom. tables. use of hormones in fertility drugs.Biology for IGCSE Reference 15. Extension . femidom. pp. social implications. Page 51 of 70 . female sterilisation).outline artificial insemination and the expense.

Describe the symptoms. signs. Describe the symptoms. Link with the immune system from the previous studies on blood. Learning Outcomes 45 Extension and Consolidation Outline how HIV affects the immune system in a person with HIV/AIDS. Discuss the birth of babies to affected mothers and ways to prevent this transfer. Spider diagrams of ways to prevent body prevented from spreading. system. can help.Biology for IGCSE Reference 15. Etension – describe how HIV affects the immune Websites such as WHO have data on occurrence.9 Sexually transmitted diseases. Extension . signs. Remind students prompt treatment spreading. Practical Work and Resources Poster work and large diagrams to label and annotate of life cycle of \HIV. Explain latency Describe the methods of transmission of HIV and the treatments to extend this. Explain the nature of the virus. Review some aspects of and the ways in which HIV/AIDS can be spread and how some ways can be prevented. discussion points are helpful. Discuss data from reliable sources such as WHO observe trends in different countries around the world.outline how HIV affects the immune Spider charts and tables to summarise system in a person with HIV/AIDS. immunodeficiency virus (HIV).5 core and extension ) Sexually transmitted diseases Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities. fluids transferring the virus. effects and These topics have to be treated sensitively but treatment of gonorrhoea. pp. and the ways in Explain what the pathogens are and how they which HIV/AIDS can be prevented from are spread. spread and current research and treatment.198-9 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 1. are important in personal development of Describe the methods of transmission of human students. effects and treatment of gonorrhoea. Page 52 of 70 .

Outline the history of the discovery of DNA by Watson and Crick gene and DNA.define the terms: karyotype and 23 pairs of chromosomes. with inheritance. 3. gene may be copied and passed on to the Define the gene as a length of DNA as in the syllabus. genes and DNA. Build paper models of DNA for posters to show DNA. Page 53 of 70 . made up of a chromosome in terms used in the syllabus. • diploid nucleus as a nucleus containing two sets 23 pairs of chromosomes in diploid body cells and 23 of chromosomes (e.g. fusion on sperm and egg) fertilisation in terms of chromosome number in humans. next generation Define the term allele which is a shortened version of • allele as any of two or more alternative forms allelomorphic pair – to explain the term. Give examples e. in body cells).1 Chromosomes .g. chromosomes in gametes – egg and sperm.Biology for IGCSE Reference 16 Inheritance.. and explain the gender difference and size difference. Define inheritance. Recall the human Human karyotype – start 3.1 core) Chromosomes Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Define inheritance as the transmission of genetic Recall the structure of a cell and focus on the nucleus and link Consolidation information from generation to generation. A Watson and Crick et al needs to be mentioned. Recall the life cycle of gamete formation. rotating models of DNA. pp. Indicate the sex chromosomes and the genes located on these maps for future work on inheritance of certain conditions such as colour blindness. et al. 16. Describe the inheritance of sex in humans Recall the human karyotype and locate the sex chromosomes (XX and XY chromosomes). Observe images of the karyotype of human chromosomes and discuss the formation of gametes – halving the chromosome number to restore on fertilisation. and pair up. single set of unpaired chromosomes (e.g.202-3 46 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (3 core) Inheritance. Many interactive websites to show State the meaning of the terms chromosome. a diploid set of human string of genes A short outline of the structure of DNA shown by making chromosomes and cut out • gene as a length of DNA that is the unit of paper models.1 Chromosomes. of a gene gene for height and alleles for tall and dwarf – introduce the • haploid nucleus as a nucleus containing a work of Mendel. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Define inheritance. Define a with a photomicrograph of • chromosome as a thread of DNA. The history of the discovery of the structure – individual chromosomes heredity and codes for a specific protein.

2 core) Mitosis ( 3. replication occurs and then separation of the chromatids to become chromosomes. mending of broken bones.g. Use these in poster work for in growth. Define meiosis and state its importance in Using two sets of different coloured straws and poster work to show meiosis – label in the formation the formation of gametes and in of gametes. multiplication of chromatids.2 Mitosis and meiosis. replacement of worn bacteria as well as for growth and repair of damaged cells using suitable with inheritance. out cells and asexual reproduction. reproduction. animals. Page 54 of 70 . Video on meiosis or interactive website to illustrate this type of division in sexual producing genetic variation. development and asexual mitosis. separation of these to give rise to two identical kingdom can be used State the role of mitosis in growth. examples e. Use a pie Consolidation rise to genetically identical cells in which chart cycle to explain mitosis and the duration of the interphase between Examples to show the chromosome number is maintained nuclear divisions. between mitosis and the double division of meiosis. 204-5 47 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (3.Biology for IGCSE Reference 16. Poster work to explain amongst the plant (details of stages are not required). to link Mendel’s work of damaged tissues. Cut the straws and rejoin so the transferred sections appear in different colours to illustrate the variation in chromosomes that will be present in the gametes. Video on mitosis or interactive website. pp.3 core) Meiosis Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Define mitosis as nuclear division giving Recall the basis of asexual reproduction and body cells in humans. repair ‘daughter’ cells so all offspring is alike. reproduction and the continuity of chromosome number. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Define mitosis and state its importance Use plastic drinking straws stuck in twos to represent the chromatids. Define meiosis as reduction division in Recall the basis of sexual reproduction and formation of gametes in plants which the chromosome number is halved and animals and link with meiosis [reduction division]. The exchange of parts State that meiosis results in genetic of chromosomes and unique combinations of the different colours helps in variation so the cells produced are not all the explanation of genetic variation in formation and recombination of genetically identical. Poster work with State that gametes are the result of two sets of different coloured straws may help to explain the difference meiosis. Explain the continuity of genetic material in terms of mitosis and meiosis by the exact duplication of chromosomes DNA replication during this interphase. Label the stages in the life cycle where DNA reproduction. Use a flow diagram from diploid to haploid (details of stages to explain the haploid and diploid stages in the life cycle involving sexual are not required). gametes on fertilisation to form the diploid zygote. Recap cloning in plants.

Germination • homozygous as having two identical alleles of a upper and lower case letters of the same letter of the can sometimes be slow – up particular gene (e.4 core ) Monohybrid inheritance Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Define the terms: Recall the terms gene and allele and define terms: Consolidation • genotype as genetic makeup of an organism in homozygous.g. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Describe the inheritance of sex chromosomes.and hetero – zygous dominant offspring with back of a particular gene (e. breeding Students can work similar crosses on other characteristics • dominant as an allele that is expressed if it is e. 208-9 48 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (3.g. 206-7. test and back crosses using seed colour. Link to life cycle of germinate to show organism due to both its genotype and its flowering plant to recap events leading to fertilisation. pure-breeding Explain the ratio of 3:1 crosses. etc. Two identical alphabet for dominant [upper case] and recessive allele to three weeks.g. gametes. homozygous individuals that breed together will be [lower case]. in textbooks. 16. crosses involving 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 ratio. flower colour [dominant red or white flowers with no present (e. Page 55 of 70 . Distinguish between • heterozygous as having two different alleles homo. height of plant.4 Monohybrid inheritance pp. not pure cross or test cross and the 1:1 ratio.g. Tt or Gg).g. Explain the use of Punnett squares. t or g). Poster and board work to explain inheritance of one characteristic.Biology for IGCSE Reference 16.g. Tt or GG) phenotype and genotype using the inheritance of one seeds of genetic crosses to • phenotype as the physical or other features of an characteristic e. T or G) intermediates] wrinkled v smooth seeds [use of • recessive as an allele that is only expressed photographs of maize cobs to count the seeds – to be found when there is no dominant allele present (e. tobacco. TT or gg).g.g. Use Distinguish between gene and allele. heterozygous. Use the terminology of inheritance. offspring – unusual ratio may result e. Calculate and predict the results of monohybrid Use animal examples and explain limited number of crosses involving 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 ratio.g. fur colour. height of plants. past exam questions or websites].g. environment (e. inheritance of seed colour.g.3 Genes and chromosomes. Use of coloured drinking straws to show homozygous and heterozygous states. It is possible to purchase terms of the alleles present (e. tall plant or green seed) Circle the genotypes of gametes and explain the use of e. Calculate and predict the results of monohybrid Explain examples of monohybrid crosses. Punnett squares to follow inheritance. Link to life cycle of plants. dominant and recessive. include the explanation of noting genotypes of Define monohybrid inheritance. e. pp.

AB pink intermediate colour for offspring to explain 1:2:1 ratio.4 core and extension) Monohybrid inheritance (part) Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Extension . 208-9.Biology for IGCSE Reference 16. IB .homozygous.4 Monohybrid inheritance.explain Introduce the idea of codominance – if compare with red and This is all extension material. codominance by reference to the white flower colour in terms of ‘paint box’ it can help to inheritance of ABO blood explain intermediates where both alleles exist and give rise to Other examples of codominance can be used groups. B. Explain blood groups to distinguish between phenotype A. Practical Work and Resources Testing of blood as a body fluid is not permitted now. Learning Outcomes Extension – explain the term codominance. for students to visualise. AB. Most students will not know own blood group. superscripts [ I stands for isohaematoglutinogen] to explain homozygous IA IA . phenotypes.210-11 49 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (3. Io in combination to show homozygous or heterozygous condition. B. to illustrate this type of inheritance such as and O blood groups and Then introduce the concept of blood groups which are difficult fur colour in cattle – roan or other genotypes IA.5 Codominance pp. Explain genotypes have I followed by intermediate characteristics. use crosses involving pedigree tree diagrams to explain inheritance within families and across different generations. 16. O and genotype and the use of I prior to superscript using A. pp. Page 56 of 70 . IB and I0. Use board work to explain inheritance of blood groups. A. Describe the inheritance of blood groups AB and O. B or o in terms of codominance and recessive – IA .. Include ideas of paternity and adoption to explain unrelated crosses. IA Io heterozygous for phenotype A etc.

height in humans. Define mutation as a change in a gene or chromosome. its incidence in relation to that of malaria. Page 57 of 70 . tongue-rolling versus non tongueExtension.1 Variation. Introduce the idea of mutation on one base level as that of malaria. e. Describe Down’s syndrome as an example of mutation. 17.2 Mutations..g. Use examples in plants such size of seeds. distinct phenotypes with no intermediates e. data. A. etc. AB and O extension work. Blood State that discontinuous variation is caused by genes groups will need to be explained in core only students – Describe sickle cell alone and results in a limited number of distinct the phenotypes as the interpretation of genotypes in is anaemia. Describe sickle cell inheritance with use of published data to support link with malaria and survival. 17. B. and explain Plasmodium being unable to live on red blood cells.describe sickle cell anaemia. range of measurement and discuss the use of tally charts and histograms to process Identify and explain examples of variation. collected within the group and published data. studies for extension studies but just groups for the core. Recall karyotype studies for Down’s syndrome and charts of radiation and chemicals for explaining mutation. and explain its phenotypes with no intermediates e. – some reference will need to be made to the pathogenic Extensiuon . fruits or vegetables or different Define the term mutation. incidence in relation to blood groups in humans. If possible control certain factors such as age or gender. Describe the possible effects of radiation and certain In discussion of discontinuous variation – use examples of a limited number of chemicals on the rate of mutation.g. Outline the effects of ionising radiation and chemicals For extension work on explanation of survival to malaria on the rate of mutation. resulting in a range of phenotypes and using suitable examples analyse data which can be between two extremes.Biology for IGCSE Reference 17 Variation and selection.describe sickle cell anaemia as an example of rolling. such as bread wheat. pp. 216-17 50 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (3. colour of the same species or number of beans that can be picked up in one handful. shown in sickle cell. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources State the difference between continuous and Measure height. hand span or other examples of continuous variation to illustrate the discontinuous variation.5 and extension core ) Variation Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and State that continuous variation is influenced by genes Define the terms continuous and discontinuous variation Consolidation and environment.g. as chromosome as shown in Down’s Describe mutation as a source of variation. handle secondary data on blood groups and link with codominance mutation. pp. as shown by syndrome and as sets of chromosomes as in some plants Down’s syndrome. 214-15.

assess the importance of by.3 Natural selection. development of strains of antibiotic Describe the development of strains of For extension work – discuss the bacterial resistance resistant bacteria as an example of antibiotic resistant bacteria as an example of to use of antibiotics e. Extension: and development or seeds in plants.Biology for IGCSE Reference 17. markings on Extension – state that competition leads to snail shells.g. plants. birds or weed natural selection as environment. and reproduction competition and ‘survival of the fittest’. adaptation and Extension . to see variation between each other. Observe the growth of tree seedlings in woodland – note density – discuss what happens as these grow older. evolution identified on the different islands. Use videos or data for bacteria and use MRSA as an example of problems in hospitals to explain resistance to antibiotics. leads to differential survival of. Page 58 of 70 . List the problems those organisms best fitted to the Describe variation and state that competition of reaching maturity and introduce the terms environment. zebras to show variation in patterns of stripes. MRSA.describe the a possible mechanism for evolution. a possible mechanism for evolution Assess the importance of natural selection as Discuss the Galapagos finches. 218-19 51 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (3. numbers of offspring in fish with external fertilisation survival of. of animals with markings e. those organisms best fitted to the examples such as sockeye salmon. Link to the production of large competition leads to differential organisms. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Describe how the best adapted individuals Observe several plants of the same species to illustrate variation. mimicry of insects to blend in with background. pp. Look at individuals in the group differential survival. Using Extension . Plant different densities of seeds in pots and follow growth and development. natural selection natural selection. and reproduction by. Similarly observe pictures survive to pass on their genes to their offspring.g.6 core and extension) Selection Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Define natural selection as the greater chance of Introduce the work of Charles Darwin and recall Describe variation and state that passing on of genes by the best adapted studies on variation.

explain why. transferring the gene for human insulin into bacteria. Add examples to cover bread wheat and milk outline how human insulin genes with increased economic importance. maize and animals . website and large using genetic engineering. Extension – describe how bacteria can be genetically engineered to produce human insulin. Page 59 of 70 . Practical Work and Resources Choose some examples of animals and plants where humans have selected for economic purposes – e.Biology for IGCSE Reference 17. 220-1 52 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (3. by isolating the gene involved and transferring from one Extension .g. genetic engineering. Videos.explain why. Make diagrams of stages involved in genetic engineering and relate to insulin production including the use of fermenters to grow the bacteria – as a link to savings on land use. including examples made by students. wheat.7 core and extension) Genetic Engineering Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Describe the role of artificial selection in the Introduce artificial selection by listing examples contributed Extension . pp. and production of varieties of animals and plants by students.4 Artificial selection and genetic engineering. from one species and putting it into another Define genetic engineering and recall the changes to genome species. Poster work to show features selected for. and outline how unrelated species into another. production in cattle to recall previous work and stress the were put into bacteria using Define genetic engineering as taking a gene economic links and advantages. diagrams to label and annotate explain the stages involved in locating. human insulin genes were put into bacteria Extension material – using videos. diagram or interactive web sites for genetic engineering especially the development of human insulin. Learning Outcomes Describe the role of artificial selection on producing varieties of animals and plants with increased economic importance. (3.sheep. horses.6 core and extension) Selection. Recall the use of fermenters to grow bacteria in bulk and link to advantages of this insulin production to that from animal sources. dogs. Discuss advantages over insulin from animal sources. Describe examples of artificial selection Define the term genetic engineering.

flow through part of an ecosystem Not all of an organism plant • producer as an organism that makes its own organic nutrients. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Describe a food chain and each feeding stage in it.g. leptosporosis. Describe energy losses between trophic levels. usually using show the flow of energy through the stages. (2 core and extension) Food chains and food webs – emphasis on examples occurring locally. It is possible to collect plants e. mahogany tree → caterpillar → students construct simple land based food chain the organism uses song bird → hawk) and aquatic based food chains. numbers or energy. Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and State that the Sun is the principal source of energy input to biological Recall plant nutrition and Consolidation systems. • carnivore as an animal that gets its energy by eating other animals Construct diagrams of different food • decomposer as an organism that gets its energy from dead or waste organic chains linking with practical matter observations e.g. Using local examples request Explain each stage of the to the next beginning with a producer (e. Emphasise the direction of the arrow to show energy flow. Opportunity to go into local natural area to identify feeding Distinguish between a food chain and a food web. nettle plant and the • ecosystem as a unit containing all of the organisms and their environment. Page 60 of 70 .g. 1% efficient. photosynthesis.g. this on land and in water. some energy for growth. Aquatic ecosystems can be sampled. Explain trophic levels and or animal is consumed or energy from sunlight. Explain the term producer and its photosynthesis. interacting together. relationships of the organisms and if not possible – show videos of feeding in a different ecosystem. nettles and bring into class room to work there using pooters to catch insects that move and to collect others on the plants. • herbivore as an animal that gets its energy by eating plants feeding. in a given area e. to • food web as a network of interconnected food chains showing the energy Explain the importance of arrows to keep warm to move etc. organisms found on the leaves. Define the terms: importance at the beginning of food • food chain as a chart showing the flow of energy (food) from one organism chains.1 Food chains and food webs pp. 224-5 53 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link Section IV – relationships of organisms with one another and with their environment (20% of teaching time) (1.g. decomposing log or a lake A food web is an inter-linking of food • trophic level as the position of an organism in a food chain.Biology for IGCSE Reference 18 Energy and nutrient transfer. Discuss methods of collecting the consumers. core) Energy flow. through photosynthesis • consumer as an organism that gets its energy by feeding on other organisms primary consumer as second level of digested to be absorbed. 18. Be careful with water born diseases e. Explain the use of light in Describe the non-cyclical nature of energy flow. food web or chains and use diagrams to illustrate pyramid of biomass.

explain why there is an increased From practical work on numbers. in efficiency in supplying green plants as numbers some with the complexity of large producers feeding crop plants to animals. human food and that there is a relative . webs. human food and that there is a relative such as trees and small parasites as top consumers – inefficiency. between trophic levels in terms of consumers – usually have fewer than five trophic Draw. Explain the advantages in levels. Pyramids of numbers and biomass.explain why food chains with human nutrition instead of feeding plant crops to efficiency in supplying green plants as usually have fewer than five trophic levels animals to eat the meat. describe and interpret pyramids of digestion and absorption. Explain fresh mass and dry mass and how to dry organisms. Add the detritivore feeding crop plants to animals. Page 61 of 70 . Discuss energy transfer of feeding. 226-7. in terms of energy loss. Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Describe energy losses between trophic Recap food chains and explain the use of energy Extension . construct pyramids of inefficiency.compare these pyramids. compared to feeding crop plants to animals. energy efficiency if producers are consumed and link .Biology for IGCSE Reference 18. Extension .explain why food chains levels. in terms of energy loss.2. Use data for biomass – measure fresh mass and dry mass of in supplying green plants as human food producer if possible to explain how to determine dry mass. Calculating biomass corrects these pyramids. deflect to one side the detritivores. pp.explain the increased efficiency Use secondary data if not available. in creating imbalanced pyramids. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Draw. pp. Use leaf litter to search for detritivores and explain the food chains and feeding within these. feeding relationships and food numbers and pyramids of biomass.. Explain energy losses between trophic Then progress to numbers of organisms and pyramids to illustrate the arrangement. describe and interpret pyramids of Visit a field centre and catch organisms to explain food chains. 228-9 54 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (2. [Eltonian pyramids] Extension . core) Food chains (in part).explan why there is an increased Extension . 18. Draw diagrams to show the benefits for humans if live on producers as vegetarians in terms of energy efficiency and the energy loss in feeding crop plants to animals. biomass and numbers.3 Shortening the food chain. It is possible to levels in food chains. blocks deflected to one side.

nitrogen to the soil or the atmosphere (names of Recap the need for nitrogen in living organisms. nitrogen • nitrification and denitrification and the return of fixation and link to nodules on roots of legumes. Include limestone and if possible show fossils embedded in the rock. by plants and their use in making proteins that Use large diagram to label of the water cycle and list the duration of the different stages to enter the food chain. concentrations in the their conversion to protein Recap the need of water to support living processes. Include calcareous sedimentary rock such as Discuss the effects of the of: limestone [observe fossils to explain origin] and coal. Link masses in giga tonnes to illustrate the decomposition. oceans and rivers. Use large diagrams to label for pollution later). nodules on legumes. core and extension) Nutrient Cycles.Biology for IGCSE Reference 18. impress the volumes involved. Explain the difference between renewable and non-renewable resources of carbon. forests on the oxygen and and by nitrogen fixation in roots Explain with diagram the water cycle and annotate the carbon dioxide • the absorption of these substances by plants and processes. 230-1. denitrification.describe the absorption of nitrate ions Link the effects of deforestation on carbon dioxide levels. Look for pink colouration for active stages.4 Nutrient cycles pp. cycle on global basis. oil combustion of fossil • the role of microorganisms in providing usable and gas as fossil fuels.5 The nitrogen cycle pp. Describe the different stages of the water cycle. Describe the duration of each stage and volume.describe the nitrogen cycle in terms annotate. Resources pp. Page 62 of 70 . Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Describe the role of bacteria and fungi in Use large diagram to show the carbon cycle. 18. Explain the decay of these especially rainforests.nitrogen cycle. Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Describe the carbon and the water cycles Explain the carbon cycle – use large diagrams to label and Consolidation Extension . atmosphere ( link with air • followed by passage through food chains. 232 -3. A visit to a museum can sometimes link this with sedimentary rocks and coal as a fossil Exension – describe the roles of microorganisms in fuel. death. Extension studies n nitrogen cycle – show examples of root Outline the effects of humans on ecosystems. Videos or websites can support these studies. the nitrogen cycle. Use photomicrographs of section Explain the difference between renewable and through nodules to explain relationship. to add nitrogen-containing compounds to the soil. individual bacteria are not required). Recall forests and photosynthesis to fuels and the cutting down of nitrogen-containing substances by decomposition lower CO2 content of the atmosphere. Extension . 240-1 55 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (3. decay the different stages: nitrification. non-renewable resources. Extension .

and stationary phases. and diagrams of human population growth. and factors that currently discussed at international Describe the increase in human population size and its conferences – The Hague.Biology for IGCSE Reference 19 Human influences on the ecosystem. Discuss the term population and give examples. and describe their importance. 19. In diagram list the factors affecting State the factors affecting the growth of a population. Records of human populations – increase and decrease. pp. Refer to social implications where appropriate. importance of each factor. Recall use of fermenters curve of population growth Identify the lag. data. Page 63 of 70 . Use spider charts to list the factors exponential (log) phase and for a population of an organism (limited to food supply. growth. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Define the term population. stationary and death and describe population growth of microorganisms making reference. Population pyramids to Describe and explain the increase and the social show changes in gender and age of developed and developing countries. If time permits these could be recorded by increase in colony Extension – explain the different phases of growth in a size on moulds or turbidity in yeast cultures. population size. for different countries. Use the data on human populations and discuss factors leading to Identify the different phases of growth in a population growth of populations. pp. examples from different ecosystems including that lead to the lag phase. implications of the human population. 19. affecting population size and describe the stationary phase in the sigmoid predation and disease).explain the factors that lead to the lag phase.g. Extension . living in the same area at the same time.2 Human populations. Interpret graphs Videos or websites on environmental issues e. Relate to microorganisms and use graphs to explain lag. 236 -7 . Bali conference etc. 238-9 56 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (4 core and extension ) Population size Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Define population as a group of organisms of one Introduce the term population with the use of varied Extension .explain the factors species. resources.1 Populations. to the role of population growing in an environment with limited illustrate growth curve and the factors limiting limiting factors. social implications. log growth curve. to the role of limiting factors. Discuss human population growth and the use of exponential (log) phase and stationary phase in the diagrams – population pyramids and interpret these sigmoid curve of population growth making reference. exponential (log). where phases in the sigmoid population growth curve for a in a limited volume of nutrient – handle data to appropriate. State the factors affecting the rate of population growth human. Interpret graphs and diagrams of human population growth. Use poster work to follow population population growth curve. Bali etc.

discuss the Extension . Investigate the effects of sulfur dioxide to bleach plants e.244-5. bryophytes – mosses – Describe the dangers of nuclear fall-out. Introduce pollution due to pesticides and herbicides. effect and the environment. Extension . control measures. Extension .discuss the • air pollution by greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and Sulfur dioxide – direct effects and its contribution to effects of nonmethane) contributing to global warming acid rain. incidence. Page 64 of 70 . effect and Consolidation • air pollution by sulfur dioxide control measures – in a table form.explain how -recall from earlier . cause global warming. Extension – describe the effects of non-biodegradable Use world maps to locate nuclear power stations. be taken to reduce its increases in greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and Identify different types of plastics and their disposal. methane) are thought to atmosphere. increases in greenhouse of fossil fuels and the cutting down of forests on the Explain the use of nuclear energy the disasters and gases (carbon dioxide and oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in the effects of nuclear fall-out.describe the contribution of greenhouse gases CO2 and methane to global warming.discuss the effects of non-biodegradable Methane – longevity as greenhouse gas as well as its causes and effects on the plastics in the environment .Biology for IGCSE Reference 19. • pollution due to nuclear fall-out. 246-7 57 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( core and extension) 5. Locate disasters and extent of plastics. Use posters to show different types of air pollution. CO2 and methane. Extension.explain how rain and greenhouse effect.g.4 Pollution pp. biodegradable plastics in • pollution due to pesticides and herbicides Carbon dioxide levels – discuss sources. 19. acid and the measures that might might be taken to reduce its incidence . 242-3. on the environment of acid rain. environment of acid rain. 19.discuss the causes and effects source [s] including enteric methane. Extension – explain how greenhouse gases cause global warming. damage – Chernobyl. Describe the causes and effects of acid rain State measures that can be taken to reduce acid rain. methane) are thought to cause global warming. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources State the sources and effects of air pollutants such as SOs . Extension .2 Pollution Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Describe the undesirable effects of pollution to include: Important to identify source of pollutant.5 The greenhouse effect pp.6 Acid rain pp. and the measures that Distinguish carefully the terms global warming.discuss the effects of the combustion The entry of these into water will be covered next. must use a fume cupboard [this gas effective at low concentrations].

Describe how pesticides can accumulate along food chains. If blue colour is loss this is due to changes in oxygen level because the presence of large numbers of microoganisms in the sample – i. Discuss the effects on water pollution and link to solubility and exchange of aluminium ions. 242-3. 58 Extension and Consolidation Extension .discuss the causes and effects on the environment of acid rain. (5. and the measures that might be taken to reduce its incidence. Show the effect of dilute acids on rocks and the solvent properties of acids.e. Sample pond water – test using methylene blue method. Acid raindrop projects – look at websites.g. Measure the pH of collected rain water. 19. . Describe the pollution of rivers and lakes due to sewage and the over-use of fertilisers. Water pollution pp. DDT along food chains and in fatty tissues in top carnivores. Tubes must be covered with foil to exclude the light and keep at 200 C for 5 days to compare with the remaining blue colour using sterile or freshly distilled water. Describe the undesirable effects of pollution Explain by using a flow diagram the effects of to include: eutrophication when the levels of nutrients in river • water pollution by sewage and chemical water is increased by the run-off of fertilisers to sewage waste / slurry spills. the drop in pH.g. Learning Outcomes State the sources and effects of some water pollutants – recall acid rain.Biology for IGCSE Reference 19.4 Pollution pp. Practical Work and Resources Visit sewage treatment plant to view the stages of treatment.1 core) Agriculture ( part). – mercury etc from mines and the build up of pesticides e.7. bioaccumulation. sterility etc. Discuss chemical leakage from factories • pollution due to pesticides and herbicides. of fertilisers (to include eutrophication of Discuss the effects of acid rain and measures to reduce lakes and rivers). Use data on acid water and the effects on fish and other aquatic organisms. 248-9 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 5. Describe water pollution by sewage and chemicals.2 core) Pollution ( part) Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Describe the undesirable effects of overuse Poster of causes of water pollution. Explain the pH scale and how to measure pH. more polluted water. Construct a diagrammatic flow diagram. shells of bird’s eggs. Link to reproduction problems e. Describe the effects of herbicides and pesticides on the environment. Page 65 of 70 .

Use the red data lists on UCN website. Opportunity for individual research into endangered species. Describe how endangered species are protected.Biology for IGCSE Reference 19.8 Conservation. Learning Outcomes Describe the need to conserve species and their habitats. one species of animal to open the discussion. 250-1 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link ( 5. Need to protect the habitat but also need a management plan – extending over a long time period. Poster work to show ideas of monitoring and management. Discuss the ideas to preserve embryos and seeds in collections. pp. Discuss the World Wildlife Fund and research projects around the world to preserve plants and animals.3 core and extension ) Conservation Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Describe the need for conservation of: Describe one endangered species of plant and • species and their habitats. Page 66 of 70 . Explain carefully the difference between preservation and conservation of plants and animals. 59 Extension and Consolidation Search the literature available in local area as these species and habitats will be visited or known to students and will receive visits or gain attention. Practical Work and Resources This is an opportunity for a visit to a zoological collection or botanical garden and perhaps a talk on conservation of endangered species. Look at sources of information on CITES lists.

Page 67 of 70 . 240-1 . Explain with large diagrams water treatment in metal versus recycling costs.3 Resources. Construct a Describe the need to conserve water and non. fuels and saving water. human use). investigate safe to return to the environment or for renewable resources can be recycled procedures in local area. renewable resources. Some countries differ widely in the approach to this from can make water safe to return to the incineration plants to composting.Biology for IGCSE Reference 19.3 core and extension). Conservation.explain how limited and nonrenewable materials including fossil fuels). paper . glass.diagrammatic flow diagram to make water safe to return to rivers or fit for human use. 252-3 60 Cambridge IGCSE Syllabus Link (5. metal [including Extension – describe how sewage treatment aluminium] and organic refuse. pp. pp. Try to Extension – describe how limited resources make paper from plant material – there are many recipes on websites and information on and non-renewable resources can be processing.Recap resources such as coal. oil and gas as fossil Extension . glass and paper etc. Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching Activities Extension and Consolidation Natural resources (limited to water and non. Observe recycled paper under the microscope if available and discuss the composition. recycled. (including recycling of paper and treatment Diagrams to show stages in sewage treatment to Research local schemes for recycling.explain how limited and nonmetals. different countries – filtration. fast aeration plants to desalination. comparing costs of mining bauxite to pure human use). Sewage treatment and recycling. Learning Outcomes Practical Work and Resources Visit sewage treatment plant / water treatment plant to view the stages of treatment. Research local community recycling schemes for plastics. environment or fit for human use. renewable resources can be recycled Explain the idea of recycling of different (including recycling of paper and treatment materials from organic matter and composting to of sewage to make the water that it contains Extension . of sewage to make the water that it contains release of treated effluent into rivers or solids – Research the recycling of aluminium safe to return to the environment or for treated and dried as fertilisers.

2 Leaf structure 6.1 Nutrients 6.3 Mechanical and physical digestion 6.Concept Map.3.6 Assimilation 7 Transportation 7.1 Photosynthesis 6. Classification and diversity of living organisms 2.3.1.3.3 Animal nutrition 6.1.2 Active transport 4.2.4 Chemical digestion 6.3 Osmosis 5 Enzymes 6 Nutrition 6.1 Concept and use of a classificatory system 2. 4.2.3.3.2 Plant nutrition 6.1 Diet 6.1 Food supply 6.1 Transport in plants 7. SECTION 1 CHARACTERISTICS AND CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING ORGANISMS (5% teaching time) 1.5 Absorption 6.3 Mineral nutrition 6.1 Water uptake Page 68 of 70 .3. Characteristics of living organisms 2.2 Adaptations of organisms to their environment 3 Simple keys SECTION 11 ORGANISATION AND MAITENANCE OF THE ORGANISM (50% teaching time) 1 Cell structure and organisation 2 Levels of organisation 3 Size of specimens 4 Movement into and out of cells.2 Human alimentary canal 6.2.3.1 Diffusion 4.

5 Variation 3.1 Nervous control in humans 10.2 Hormones 10.4 Monohybrid inheritance 3.2 Arteries.7.2.4 Methods of birth control 1.1 Sexual reproduction in plants 1.3 Translocation 7.3 Tropic responses 10.1 Asexual reproduction 1.4 Homeostasis 10. veins and capillaries 7.2 Sexual reproduction in humans 1.2.2.1.2 Sexual reproduction 1.2 Mitosis 3.6 Selection Page 69 of 70 .3 Sex hormones 1.2.3 Meiosis 3.1 Heart 7.2 Transpiration 7.5 Drugs SECTION 111 DEVELOPMENT OF THE ORGANISM AND THE CONTINUITY OF LIFE ( 25% teaching time) 1 Reproduction 1.5 Sexually transmittable diseases 2 Growth and development 3 Inheritance 3.1 Chromosomes 3.3 Gas exchange 9 Excretion in humans 10 Coordination and response 10.2.3 Blood 8 Respiration 8.1.2 Anaerobic respiration 8.1 Aerobic respiration 8.2 Transport in human 7.

2 Pollution 5.1 Agriculture 5.3 Conservation.3. Page 70 of 70 .7 Genetic engineering SECTION IV RELATIONSHIPS OR ORGANISMS WITH ONE ANOTHER AND WITH THEIR ENVIRONMENT (20% of teaching time) 1 Energy flow 2 Food chains and food webs 3 Nutrient cycles 4 Population size 5 Human influences on the ecosystem 5.

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