Subject :- Environmental Management Submitted by Mr. Rohit R Chourey Roll no.


Bhayander ( East )

Date :- 12 / 02 / 2011 Place:- Mumbai

His profound knowledge. I would sincerely like to thank him for this invaluable support throughout project period.M.S. Trivedi for his careful supervision and guidance. I thank our Prof.M. .Y. I thank him for giving us the opportunity to work on this project.Acknowledgement It is appropriate for my acknowledgement to start with thanking for assigning us to the work in the projects section. I must admit that working with a novice must have been a very tiring task for professionals of such a high caliber and yet they were very helpful to us during the period of our project and were very patient with us whenever we made mistakes. S. Mr. critical suggestions and encouragement have been a source of immense help.

5. Aims & objectives of project Research Methodology 2 3. 6. 8. 1. 4.INDEX Serial no. Introduction Topics Page no. 4 5 6 7 8 10 13 14 Types of existing technologies Advance Technology Environmental effect Major Energy saving Methods EMC Webliography . 7.

its effect on environment and necessary steps to minimize its effect on atmosphere by using upgraded technology. . Tripathi has provided me with a very valuable information required for this project. N. Research Methodology Primary data :1) Reliance Thermal Power Plant :.  There was also very short time available for studying the whole subject . Secondary data :.  To study prevention measures for pollution.Aims & objectives of project  To study various causes of Thermal power station  To study effects of fly ash. . Limitations .which is very vast. They have provided me the information about the functioning of thermal power plant. Newspaper . Abhay Tembhurne and Mr.  To draw the attention of everyone towards one of the environmental issue.At Reliance Thermal Power Station of Dahanu Road Mumbai Mr.It was mainly collected from Internet.D.

The plant works within a strict environment and pollution control regime. It is a 500 MW (2 X 250 MW) coal based thermal power station situated approximately 120 kms from Mumbai on the western seacoast. The plant is first power company to be certified ISO 14001 for its environmental management system & ISO 9001for its quality management System.¶s single largest power generating facility. Current installed base of Oil Based Thermal Power is 1.S Station Incharge : Sh. M.85 MW which is 10.INTRODUCTION:- Capacity : 2x250MW (Total 500MW) Location : Dahanu Road.199. The company takes a holistic attitude towards its environmental concerns and works on the twin approaches of reducing environmental impact as well as enhancing the environment of the vicinity of the plant. The Dahanu power plant is a state of the art power generation facility. Thane Distt.9% of total installed capacity.374. Today Electricity along with food and water is the necessity of all human beings. Current installed base of Gas Based Thermal Power is 17. .5% of total installed capacity.3% of total installed base. Prabir K Majumdar Vice President ±REL Dahanu TPS is Reliance Energy Ltd.778. The power plant was commissioned in 1995 and has been constantly upgraded to maintain its technological edge.75 MW which is 0. The contribution of Various plants in Power generations in India are as follows y y y Current installed base of Coal Based Thermal Power is 89.38 MW which comes to 53. We cant imagine our life without electicity.

The major gas turbine power plants are combined cycle plants and few small capacity plants are on open cycle mode. The Talcher power plant of NTPC is the only power plant commissioned with two 500 MW units having once through boilers. as a short term measure to bridge the gap between demand & supply. All the Steam Power Plants except one at Talcher are conventional drum type and majority of them are two pass design. Few power plants are having single pass tower type design with drum. of India has permitted installation of additional 12000 MW of liquid fuel based power plants. The gas turbine power plants are having varying unit sizes and makes. Govt. Gas turbine power plants The present installed capacity of gas turbine power plants is about 9000 MW. mostly gas turbine plants. All the Steam Power Plants in the co untry are having sub-critical steam parameters. Indigenous manufacturers are capable of offering steam power plants up to 500 MW unit size and are quite competitive compared to the World leaking manufacturers. . which is 13 % of the total thermal power plant capacity.Existing technology The Thermal Power Stations in the country are mostly based on the following technologies: i) Steam Power Plants ii) Gas Turbine Power Plants Steam power plants The Steam Power Plants are mostly coal-based power plants having maximum unit size of 500 MW. Recently M/s ENRON has set up a combined cycle power plant at Dabhol in Maharashtra having gas turbines of latest FA advance class technology with unit size of 250 MW (ISO).

Shell and Texaco Systems). PFBC and PCFCB systems operating in a combined cycle mode (Rankine and Brayton) have the potential for overall plant efficiencies of the order of 40-45% compared to 33-37% efficiencies offered by power plants based on Conventional PC firing. Coal utilisation technology Clean coal utilisation technologies A number of technologies based on coal combustion/coal gasification/combination of coal combustion and coal gasification aimed at environmental acceptability and high efficiency have been under development for almost three decades. Fluidised Bed Combustor is a ³three-in-one device´ characterised by highly desirable features of multi-fuel capability. All the four members of this family.Advanced technologies: status in India and abroad Energy extraction from coal The two fundamental processes for extraction of energy from coal are (i) Direct Solid Combustion such as conventional Pulverised Coal (PC) Combustion or the emerging Fluidised Bed Combustion (FBC) and (ii) Indirect combustion through Coal Gasification followed by coal gas combustion. namely Atmospheric Fluidised Bed Combustor (AFBC).g. Slagging combustion technology has the special feature of burning high ash coal at very high temperatures in a primary chamber where molten ash slag can be removed before allowing almost ash -free hot gases to enter a secondary chamber to generate steam. AFBC and CFBC operating on a single (Rankine) cycle. pollution (SO2 and Nox) control. After laboratory scale studies. Entrained Bed Gasifier (e. Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustor (PFBC) and Pressurised Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustor (PCFBC) have the potential for clean power generation. Other advanced technology Supercritical Boiler Technology is commercialised in several countries with overall plant efficiencies of 43 ± 45% and with DENOX and DESOX systems. Each of these technologies is suited to a particular type of coal. Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustor (CFBC). and under specific operating conditions gives the desired quality of product coal gas. and energy conservation. Four of these are proven commercial technologies while the rest are in different stages of development and demonstration . . Additionally. this technology has been abandoned because of the inadequate flowing ability of Indian molten ash. There is negligible interest in India in the technology at present.

perceptions of objectionable effects of air pollutants were limited to those easily detected like odour. suspended particulates and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) now referred to as volatile organic compounds (VOC). lake. Further contamination or pollution could be added by the pollutants of thermal power plant waste as inorganic or organic compounds. In the later part Lead (Pb) was added to that list. These six criteria pollutants are sulphur di-oxide (SO2). Three of them namely O3. The coal based thermal power generation will continue to dominate its role in future also as other energy sources have not yet succeeded to take its place. it was the concern over long term/chronic effects that led to the identification of six criteria pollutants. The Thermal Power Stations using the coal having 40-45 % ash content are contributing to enormous problems of environmental degradation and thereby health hazards. SO2 and NOx are released which subsequently get oxidised to sulphate (SO4) and Nitrate (NO3). Ozone (O3). Nitrogen oxide (NO2). lakes streams and fores ecosystem has focussed the social concern widely. Indian Power Sector is caught between the pressure of adding new generating capacities to match the rapid growing demand of power to achieve economic and social development and the Environmental challenges arising from large scale Power generation. Impact of Acid rain on buildings/monuments. There is possibility of water being contaminated from the source itself. In the presence of water vapours in the atmosphere these are changed to Sulphuric Acid and Nitric Acid. caused by the introduction of organic or inorganic substances or a change in temperature of the water.ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT: India has right from the early days of development depended on coal as a major source of energy in the form of heat or producing power (Electricity) . Water pollution: Water pollution refers to any change in natural waters that may impair further use of the water. Environmental impact of thermal power stations: Air pollution Initially. . soiling of surfaces and smoke stacks. During Stack Emission. Later. In thermal power stations the source of water is either river. SO2 and NO2 are also known phytotoxicants (toxic to vegetation). human health. Carbon Mono-oxide (CO). agriculture. There is substantial evidence linking them to health effects at high concentrations.a more convenient form of energy. pond or sea where from water is usually taken.

Noise pollution Some areas inside the plant will have noisy equipments such as crushers. One of the serious effects of thermal power stations is land requirement for ash disposal and hazardous elements percolation to ground water through ash disposal in ash ponds. iii) Providing noise barriers for various areas. ii) Using noise absorbent materials. However it's effects due to stack emission etc. compressors. Various measures taken to reduce the noise generation and exposure of workers to high noise levels in the plant area will generally include: i) Silencers of fans. steam safety valves etc. . approximately 1 Acre per MW of installed thermal capacity is required for ash disposal. boiler. compressors. have to be studied for any adverse effects. fans. wild life sanctuaries and human life etc. milling plant. belt conveyors.Land degradation: The thermal power stations are generally located on the non-forest land and do not involve much Resettlement and Rehabilitation problems. Due to enormous quantity of ash content in India coal. 1000 sq. km of land should be required for ash disposal only. turbine etc. on flora and fauna. by the year 2014 -2015. v) Pro vision of green belt around the plant will further reduce noise levels. iv) Noise proof control rooms. According to the studies carried out by International consultants if this trend continues. pumps.

b. Use of HT VFD for PA & ID fan can be the solution.. In normal running APRDS Extraction is not used so same can be kept isolated. Hence cartridge replacement is necessary. BFP scoop operation in three element mode instead of DP mode: . The remaining 60-70% is lost during generation. g. Thermal power consist of various sub cycles / systems like air & flue gas cycle. Electrical auxiliary power & lighting system. Optimizing excess air ratio: . f.In three element mode throttling losses across FRS valve reduces leads to reduction in BFP power. Air preheater performance is one crucial factor in leakage contribution. c.Many thermal power plants have oversize fan causing huge difference between design & operating point leads to lower efficiency. It affects pump performance. Optimization of level set point in LP & HP heater: . There is large scope of energy saving which can be accomplished by use of HT VFD for CEP or impeller trimming . Hence fan efficiency can be improved by replacing correct size of fan.Major energy saving potential areas in Thermal Power Plant: Thermal power plant is designated sector as per EC act 2001. . causing short circuit of feed water Flow inside the pump. Replacement of BFP cartridge: . 1. feed water & condensate cycle .a.Heater drip level affects TTD & DCA of heater which finally affect feed water O/L temp. Use of Thermo vision monitoring can be adopted to identify leakages in flue gas path. It requires corrective action. 2. Compressed air system. Attending the air & flue gas leakages: Leakages in air & flue gas path increases fan loading.BFP Power consumption Increases due to passing of R/C valve. auxiliary cooling water (ACW) system. main steam. Isolation of steam line which is not in use: . d. For example deareator extraction can be charged from turbine Extraction/CRH or from APRDS. If APH leakage exceeds design value then it requires corrective action. HVAC system etc. Most thermal power plant uses 3040% of energy value of primary fuels. Air & flue gas cycle:. Steam. b. e. Attending passing recirculation valve of BFP: . c. Hence it requires setting of drip level set point correctly. Charging of APRDS from CRH line instead of MS line: -APRDS charging from cold reheat (CRH) is always more beneficial than from MS line charging. Installation of HT VFD for CEP: . fuel & ash cycle.It is not advisable to keep steam line unnecessary charge if steam is not utilized since there energy loss occurred due to radiation. If replacement is not possible. Equipment cooling water (ECW). There is tremendous scope of energy saving potential in each system/cycle which is given below.It reduces FD fan & ID fan loading.CEP capacity is underutilized and also there is pressure loss occurs across Deareator level control valve. Replacement of oversize FD and PA fan: . transmission and distribution of which major loss is in the form of heat.BFP draws more current If Cartridge is wore out. Feed water and condensate cycle:a.

Improving condenser performance by condenser tube cleaning & use of highly efficient debris filter: . Optimized ball loading in Ball tube mill: . Also highly advanced debris filter contribute condenser performance. b. Fuel & ash Cycle:a. Replacement of mercury vapor lamp by metal Halide lamp.grade coal. b. c. c.Dry deashing system consumes less power & also minimizes waste reduction. Overall performance can be improved by using Wash coal or blending of F-grade coal with Agrade coal instead of only using F. mill fineness. 4. Application of special coating on CW pump impeller: . Use of Dry ash Evacuation instead of WET deashing System: . Also Standby equipment¶s auxiliaries like Lube oil system kept running for reliability.running hrs.F-grade coal has high ash content. Optimize mill maintenance:-Mill corrective/preventive maintenance is to be optimized depending parameter like. 5. increasing pump performance.Tube cleaning by bullet shot method increases condenser performance. We can isolate Standby cooler from ECW system & switching of standby auxiliaries.Use of electronic chock instead of conventional use copper Chock.It is found that Operating voltage level is on higher side than required causing more losses. b. Isolating ECW supply of standby auxiliaries: . Hence ball loading is to be Optimized depending upon coal fineness report.Excessive ball loading increases mill power. Electrical & lighting system:a. ECW & ACW system:a. Optimizing Voltage level of distribution transformer: .Many times standby coolers are kept charged from ECW side. degree of reject pipe chocking etc. Avoiding idle running of conveyors & crusher in CHP d.It improves pump impeller profile condition. It is required to reduce the voltage level by tap changing.grade coal: . Replacement of Cartridge of Boiler Feed Pump Background . Use of Auto star/delta/star converter for under loaded motor Lighting: .3. doing trade off between return & reliability. condenser tube cleaning is necessary which is to be carried out in overhaul. Use of Wash Coal or Blending with A. Lighting has tremendous potential of saving. bottom ash unburnt particle. e. Use of CFL. Use of timer for area lighting is the methods can be used.

provide spray water to HPBP. It was observed that the BFP2B is taking much higher current than other BFPs.One of the major auxiliaries of DTPS is Boiler Feed Pump (9000 KW). One BFP caters to entire requirement of the process. Hence decision was taken to replace the cartridge of pump. Observation The Boiler Feed Pump at DTPS is of multistage (three stage) type. Desuper heater station. From performance curve of the pump also it was clear that it is consuming much higher power corresponding to the flow. The purpose of Boiler Feed Pump is to pump feed water to boiler drum. Technical & Financial analysis It was concluded that loss is taking place due to interstage leakage or recirculation. The second pump remains as an auto stand by equipment. . APRDS.

73*6. Inspection & Testing etc. Training .85*24=16304 KWH Power saved per year=5951290 KWH Saving of cost= 5951290*3. Evaluation & Implementation Application of energy conservation techniques in the entire gamut of activities of DTPS including purchase.Impact of Implementation After replacing the cat ridge the current drawn by current reduced by 70 Amp.O&M.6*70*.5=Rs20829515 Simple Pay Back Period: 0. Regular internal Energy Audits Documentation for energy management activity Regular energy audits through accredited energy audit firms Regular filling of energy returns to state level designated agency Enhancement of employees knowledge through internal training programme Energy conservation projects ± Identification. Establishing the efficiency test procedures & schedules for all equipments & systems MIS EMC achieve objective of ³Awareness drive´ through following initiatives. Display of posters and slogans in plant area On going sensitization campaign for all employees Create awareness among local school children about energy conservation Employees suggestion scheme Celebration of Energy Conservation week Competition of posters & slogans Film show Display of energy conservation projects Technical training sessions from internal & external faculty Energy conservation walk involving all employees . Power saved per day= 1.19 Years with 40 Lakh Rs. Investment EMC achieve objective of ³highest energy efficiency and at optimum cost ³through following steps.

com Power system engineering by A Chakravarty .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful