TRANSLATION

GERMAN ASSOCIATION OF CEMENT WORKS (VDZ)
Tannenstrasse 2 4 Düsseldorf Germany

Execution and Evaluation of Kiln Performance Tests

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY COMMITTEE KILN PERFORMANCE TESTS TASK FORCE

May 1992

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. 2.
2.1 2.2

PRELIMINARY REMARKS ...........................................................................7 DESCRIPTION OF THE CLINKER BURNING PROCESS ...........................8
Reactions of the kiln feed............................................................................................................... 8 Burning process............................................................................................................................ 10

3.
3.1 3.2

EXECUTION OF KILN PERFORMANCE TESTS .......................................16
Mode of operation of the kiln system.......................................................................................... 16 Duration of the performance test................................................................................................ 16

3.3 Measuring methods ...................................................................................................................... 17 3.3.1 Solid substances.................................................................................................................... 17 3.3.1.1 Sampling .......................................................................................................................... 17 3.3.1.2 Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 18 3.3.1.3 Mass flows ....................................................................................................................... 25 3.3.2 Gases..................................................................................................................................... 27 3.3.2.1 Sampling .......................................................................................................................... 27 3.3.2.2 Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 28 3.3.2.3 Volume flows................................................................................................................... 28 3.3.3 Liquids.................................................................................................................................. 30 3.3.3.1 Heating oil ....................................................................................................................... 30 3.3.3.2 Water................................................................................................................................ 30 3.3.4 Temperatures ........................................................................................................................ 31 3.3.5 Pressures ............................................................................................................................... 32 3.3.6 Strokes and rotational speeds................................................................................................ 32 3.3.7 Electricity consumption ........................................................................................................ 33 3.3.8 Ambient conditions............................................................................................................... 33 3.3.9 Ensuring the precision of the measurements and analyses ................................................... 34

4.

EVALUATION OF KILN PERFORMANCE TESTS.....................................35

4.1 Balancing of the entire system..................................................................................................... 35 4.1.1 Solid substance mass flows .................................................................................................. 40 4.1.2 Gas volume flows ................................................................................................................. 42

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4.1.2.1 Dry gas............................................................................................................................. 42 4.1.2.1.1 Minimum air volume flow.......................................................................................... 42 4.1.2.1.2 Air proportionality factor............................................................................................ 45 4.1.2.1.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood ..................................................................................... 46 4.1.2.1.4 Secondary air .............................................................................................................. 47 4.1.2.1.5 Cooler intake air ......................................................................................................... 48 4.1.2.1.6 Raw gas ...................................................................................................................... 48 4.1.2.1.7 Gas downstream from the burning area ...................................................................... 50 4.1.2.1.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) ....................................................... 50 4.1.2.2 Water vapor...................................................................................................................... 51 4.1.2.2.1 Humidity in the air...................................................................................................... 51 4.1.2.2.2 Water from the kiln feed............................................................................................. 51 4.1.2.2.3 Water from the fuel..................................................................................................... 52 4.1.2.2.4 Injection water ............................................................................................................ 52 4.1.2.3 Moist gas.......................................................................................................................... 52 4.1.2.3.1 Air............................................................................................................................... 52 4.1.2.3.2 Raw gas ...................................................................................................................... 53 4.1.3 Liquid mass flows................................................................................................................. 53 4.1.4 Energy flows......................................................................................................................... 53 4.1.4.1 Energy input..................................................................................................................... 53 4.1.4.1.1 Fuel ............................................................................................................................. 53 4.1.4.1.2 Kiln feed ..................................................................................................................... 57 4.1.4.1.3 Air............................................................................................................................... 60 4.1.4.1.4 Injection water ............................................................................................................ 62 4.1.4.1.5 Mechanical performance ............................................................................................ 62 4.1.4.2 Energy output................................................................................................................... 62 4.1.4.2.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed .............................................................................. 62 4.1.4.2.1.1 C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF in the clinker ............................................................... 64 4.1.4.2.1.2 CaCO3 and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust ............................... 65 4.1.4.2.1.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust....................................................................... 66 4.1.4.2.1.4 Balance equations ................................................................................................ 66 4.1.4.2.2 Water evaporation....................................................................................................... 70 4.1.4.2.3 Waste gas losses ......................................................................................................... 70 4.1.4.2.4 Dust losses .................................................................................................................. 71 4.1.4.2.5 Incomplete combustion............................................................................................... 72 4.1.4.2.6 Clinker ........................................................................................................................ 72 4.1.4.2.7 Radiation and convection ........................................................................................... 74 4.1.4.2.8 Uncoupled heat ........................................................................................................... 78 4.1.4.3 Energy balance................................................................................................................. 79 4.2 Balancing of the partial systems.................................................................................................. 80 4.2.1 Clinker cooler ....................................................................................................................... 80 4.2.1.1 Solid substance mass flows.............................................................................................. 83 4.2.1.2 Gas volume flows ............................................................................................................ 84 4.2.1.3 Energy flows ........................................................................................................................... 84 4.2.1.3.1 Energy input ............................................................................................................... 84 4.2.1.3.1.1 Hot clinker ........................................................................................................... 84 4.2.1.3.1.2 Cooler intake air .................................................................................................. 85 4.2.1.3.1.3 Injection water ..................................................................................................... 85 4.2.1.3.1.4 Mechanical performance ..................................................................................... 85

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4.2.1.3.2 Energy output ............................................................................................................. 85 4.2.1.3.2.1 Clinker, clinker dust ............................................................................................ 85 4.2.1.3.2.2 Radiation and convection .................................................................................... 86 4.2.1.3.2.3 Uncoupled heat .................................................................................................... 86 4.2.1.3.2.4 Cooler vent air, secondary air, tertiary air ........................................................... 86 4.2.1.3.2.5 Water evaporation................................................................................................ 86 4.2.1.3.3 Energy balance ........................................................................................................... 86 4.2.1.4 Evaluation quantities........................................................................................................ 87 4.2.1.4.1 Pre-cooling zone ......................................................................................................... 87 4.2.1.4.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area .......................................................................... 89 4.2.1.4.3 Cooling area efficiency............................................................................................... 89 4.2.1.4.4 Cooler efficiency ........................................................................................................ 90 4.2.2 Calcinator (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater)..................................................... 90 4.2.2.1 Determination of the degree of precalcining.................................................................... 92 4.2.3 Preheater (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater) ...................................................... 93 4.2.3.1 Degree of separation of individual cyclone stages........................................................... 94

5. 6.
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7

EVALUATION OF THE SUBSTANCE CIRCULATION SYSTEMS ............98 EVALUATION OF THE CEMENT CLINKER ..............................................99
Degree of burning......................................................................................................................... 99 Particle-size distribution.............................................................................................................. 99 Grindability ................................................................................................................................ 100 Chemical composition ................................................................................................................ 100 Phase composition ...................................................................................................................... 103 Microscopic examination........................................................................................................... 103 Cement testing ............................................................................................................................ 104

7. 8. 9.
9.1 9.2

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSIONS ........................................................105 FORMULA SIGNS AND INDICES ............................................................106 LITERATURE REFERENCES...................................................................112
General literature references .................................................................................................... 112 Technical literature references.................................................................................................. 113

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10. EVALUATION EXAMPLE 1 (KILN SYSTEM WITH A CYCLONE PREHEATER, CALCINATOR AND TERTIARY AIR DUCT) ...........................118
10.1 Balancing the entire system .................................................................................................. 118 10.1.1 Solid substance mass flows ................................................................................................ 118 10.1.2 Gas volume flows ............................................................................................................... 119 10.1.2.1 Dry gas ...................................................................................................................... 119 10.1.2.1.1 Minimum air volume flow...................................................................................... 119 10.1.2.1.2 Air proportionality factors ...................................................................................... 120 10.1.2.1.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood ................................................................................. 120 10.1.2.1.4 Secondary air .......................................................................................................... 121 10.1.2.1.5 Cooler intake air ..................................................................................................... 121 10.1.2.1.6 Raw gas .................................................................................................................. 122 10.1.2.1.7 Gas downstream from the burning area .................................................................. 123 10.1.2.1.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) ................................................... 124 10.1.2.1.9 Infiltrated air (preheater)......................................................................................... 125 10.1.2.1.10 Infiltrated air (calcinator)...................................................................................... 125 10.1.2.2 Water vapor............................................................................................................... 125 10.1.2.2.1 Humidity in the air.................................................................................................. 125 10.1.2.2.2 Water from the kiln feed......................................................................................... 126 10.1.2.2.3 Water from the fuel................................................................................................. 127 10.1.2.2.4 Injection water ........................................................................................................ 127 10.1.2.3 Moist gas (examples) ................................................................................................ 128 10.1.3 Liquid mass flows............................................................................................................... 128 10.1.4 Energy flows....................................................................................................................... 128 10.1.4.1 Energy input.............................................................................................................. 128 10.1.4.1.1 Fuel ......................................................................................................................... 128 10.1.4.1.2 Kiln feed ................................................................................................................. 129 10.1.4.1.3 Air........................................................................................................................... 130 10.1.4.1.4 Injection water ........................................................................................................ 130 10.1.4.1.5 Mechanical performance ........................................................................................ 130 10.1.4.2 Energy output ............................................................................................................ 131 10.1.4.2.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed .......................................................................... 131 10.1.4.2.1.1 C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF in the clinker ........................................................... 131 10.1.4.2.1.2 CaCO3, and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust........................... 132 10.1.4.2.1.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust................................................................... 132 10.1.4.2.1.4 Balance equations ............................................................................................ 132 10.1.4.2.2 Water evaporation................................................................................................... 134 10.1.4.2.3 Waste gas losses ..................................................................................................... 134 10.1.4.2.4 Dust losses .............................................................................................................. 135 10.1.4.2.5 Incomplete combustion........................................................................................... 136 10.1.4.2.6 Clinker .................................................................................................................... 136 10.1.4.2.7 Radiation and convection: ...................................................................................... 137 10.1.4.2.8 Uncoupled heat ....................................................................................................... 137 10.1.4.3 Energy balance .......................................................................................................... 137 10.2 Balancing of the partial systems........................................................................................... 138 10.2.1 Clinker cooler ..................................................................................................................... 138 10.2.1.1 Solid substance mass flows ....................................................................................... 138

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10.2.1.2 Gas volume flows...................................................................................................... 138 10.2.1.3 Energy flows ............................................................................................................. 139 10.2.1.3.1 Energy input ........................................................................................................... 139 10.2.1.3.2 Energy output ......................................................................................................... 139 10.2.1.3.3 Energy balance ....................................................................................................... 141 10.2.1.4 Evaluation quantities................................................................................................. 142 10.2.1.4.1 Pre-cooling zone ..................................................................................................... 142 10.2.1.4.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area ...................................................................... 142 10.2.1.4.3 Cooling area efficiency........................................................................................... 143 10.2.2 Calcinator ........................................................................................................................... 143 10.2.3 Preheater ............................................................................................................................. 144 10.3 10.4 Estimation of error................................................................................................................ 145 Tables...................................................................................................................................... 146

only serves to assess the kiln operation. . specifically contains information for carrying out performance tests. For this reason. this specification. including significant remarks pertaining to measurement technology. This specification deals primarily with energy and mass balances. specific fuel-energy consumption). but also to create a reliable foundation for the optimization of individual system components. Information on pressure levels. kiln performance tests not only serve to gather data on the performance of the kiln system (clinker output.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 7 1. The practical feasibility of the evaluation is always the main priority in the formulation of the numerical value equations. of the operation and of the cement quality. Additional information in this context would be necessary in order to obtain a precise measurement. as well as for the reduction of the level of emissions. The important aspect here is the absolute value of the measured values. in contrast. The evaluation equations are employed in two practical examples in Sections 10 and 11. in addition to the evaluation. The units indicated in Section 8 apply to all numerical value equations. Preliminary remarks In cement plants. stroke numbers and rotational speeds as well as on the consumption of electricity.

1 Description of the clinker burning process Reactions of the kiln feed Portland cement clinker is made from a finely-ground raw material mixture consisting of limestone. some of them consecutively. silicon dioxide (SiO2). Figure 1 . 2. . marl. clay and sand. and some of them in parallel to each other (see Figure 1). The raw material mixture is heated up and burned in the rotary kiln to form clinker.Schematic representation of the clinker formation reaction. aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and iron oxide (Fe2O3). The oxidic main components are calcium oxide (CaO). a process in which several chemical reactions take place.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 8 2.

This is followed by the calcination (decarbonation. • upon cooling. Owing to solid-state reactions. it reaches a fraction of about 20% to 30% by weight. the alite and the belite remain virtually unchanged in their form and composition. After the complete decarbonation. dissociation) of the calcium carbonate into CaO and CO2. the formation of the dicalcium silicate (2CaO · SiO2. crystallization of the melt to form C3A and C4AF. the formation of belite (“C2S”) from SiO2 on CaO (“free lime”) is completed. quartz (SiO2). First of all. and forced above 1300°C [2372°F] due to melt formation. • starting at 1250°C [2282°F]. clay minerals (SiO2-Al2O3-H2O) and iron ore (Fe2O3). • once a maximum of 1200°C [2192°F] is reached. In this process. various calcium aluminate and calcium ferrite compounds are formed as transition phases which. the physically bound water is removed when the kiln feed is preheated. reaction of the belite with the remaining free lime to form alite (“C3S”). At a sintering temperature of around 1450°C [2642°F].May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 9 The clinker formation reactions can be depicted as a model broken down into the following temperature stages: • starting composition: calcite (CaCO3). Fe2O3 as well as of activated SiO2 and CaO. • between 700°C and 900°C [1292°F and 1652°F]. however. activation of the silicates through water expulsion and modification change. disintegrate again once the clinker melt starts to form at about 1280°C [2336°F]. calcination of the CaCO3 and concurrent binding of Al2O3. C2S) already starts at about 700°C [1292°F]. The melt plays a significant role in the finishing burn of the clinker. the kiln feed has lost about 35% of its dry weight. in short. which practically takes place between 800°C and 900°C [1472°F and 1652°F]. Moreover. while the chemically bound water is removed up to a temperature of about 700°C [1292°F]. since it pro- . • up to about 700°C [1292°F].

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 10 motes the formation of tricalcium silicate (3CaO · SiO2. As a result of the inclination and rotation.2 Burning process In Germany nowadays. the kiln feed coming from the preheater moves towards the main burner of the rotary kiln. 2. and the tricalcium aluminate crystallizes with the finest grain possible. in short. On the other hand. in short. cement clinker is produced in rotary kiln systems with kiln feed preheaters located upstream and clinker coolers located downstream (for other process techniques. Rotary kilns are fire-proof. in short. In this context. 6-9 and 11-15]). Rotary kilns with preheaters located upstream have a length that is 10 to 17 times longer than their diameters.5° to 4. the cooling rate should not be so high that the melt becomes glassy as it solidifies. brick-lined tubes. After completion of the sintering. C4AF) crystallize out.5 to 3 rpm. which is located at the lower end of the rotary kiln. Consequently. which are operated at 1. qualitative differences occur which depend on the composition of the kiln feed [48-53]. the cooling of the cement clinker has to be optimally harmonized with the required clinker properties. having diameters of up to 6 meters and inclined at an angle ranging from about 2. C3S) from solid dicalcium silicate and CaO. As the melt cools down. see [2-4. C3A) and aluminate ferrite (4CaO · Al2O3 · Fe2O3. essentially tricalcium aluminate (3CaO · Al2O3. burning tempera- . which is indispensable for the strength properties of the cement.0°. the cement clinker has to be cooled off so quickly that the tricalcium silicate does not disintegrate. In order to reach the sintering temperature of about 1350°C to 1500°C [2462°F to 2732°F] that is necessary for the formation of the clinker phase and in view of the unfavorable heat-conduction conditions in the kiln feed.

The cyclone preheater essentially consists of four to five cyclone stages arranged one above the other in a tower that is 50 to 100 meters high. . the clinker dissipates its energy to the cooling air that is flowing in a cross current or countercurrent. satellite coolers and rotary coolers are employed as clinker coolers in the cement industry. the clinker that drops out of the rotary kiln after the sintering operation is cooled in a crosscurrent. In the case of the rotary coolers or satellite coolers. it re-enters the gas stream prior to the next-lower cyclone stage. afterwards. After the coarse dust has been separated out. An intermediate gas fan blows the process gas of the rotary kiln from the top to the bottom through the layer of granules in the hot chamber. When it comes to kiln systems. With grate-type coolers. The process gases coming from the rotary kiln flow through the cyclone preheater from the bottom to the top. raw meal mixture is fed into the waste gases prior to entering the uppermost cyclone stage. which usually consist of 10 satellite tubes attached around the periphery of the rotary kiln. the gas is once again blown from the top to the bottom through the moist granules in the dry chamber. The dry. In order to be able to reach such high temperatures.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 11 tures ranging from 1800°C to 2000°C [3272°F to 3632°F] or even higher are needed. a distinction is made as to whether they are operated with a grate-type preheater or with a cyclone preheater. Grate-type coolers. the combustion air is preheated to about 600°C to 1000°C [1112°F to 1832°F] in a clinker cooler located downstream from the sintering process. and it is once again separated from the gas in the cyclones. depending on the clinker output. and it is then fed to the rotary kiln burner as so-called secondary air. Grate-type preheaters consist of a traveling grate on which the kiln feed that has been made into granules or briquettes travels through a closed tunnel that is divided into a hot chamber and a dry chamber.

Figure 2 shows a schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with a cyclone preheater and waste gas utilization. the waste gases of the grate-type preheater have a temperature of about 90°C to 120°C [194°F to 248°F]. Upon leaving the cyclone preheater. The kiln feed entering the rotary kiln reaches temperatures of 820°C to 850°C [1508°F to 1562°F] at precalcining degrees of up to about 90%. . depending on the number of stages and capacity flow ratio.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 12 Both with cyclone preheater systems and with grate-type preheater systems. Figure 2 .Schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with cyclone preheaters and waste gas utilization. Figure 3 schematically shows a rotary kiln system with a grate-type preheater. As a function of the process. the waste gases have a temperature of around 290°C to 400°C [554°F to 752°F]. the process gas from the rotary kiln has a temperature of about 1000°C to 1200°C [1832°F to 2192°F].

Since about 1970. This method is employed with old systems in particular. The principle involved in both techniques for conveying the combustion . In the case of new systems with cyclone preheaters. which is designated as the calcinator. the amount of energy supplied is such that 70% to 95% of the calcium carbonate of the kiln feed has already decarbonated by the time it enters the rotary kiln.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 13 Figure 3 . the combustion air is conveyed in a separate gas duct. The combustion air for the secondary burner can be conveyed through the rotary kiln. the further development of kiln systems has led to the process involving precalcining. the fuel energy is divided up over two burners and. In this process. the so-called “tertiary air duct”. For this purpose. with the secondary burner located between the rotary kiln and the preheater. which leads from the clinker cooler past the rotary kiln. however. and from there to the secondary burner.Schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with a grate-type preheater. new systems with cyclone preheaters are provided with an enlarged combustion chamber between the rotary kiln inlet and the lowermost cyclone. together with the waste gas from the main burner. that is to say.

In rotary kiln systems having a calcinator but without a tertiary air duct. is shown in Figure 5. rotary kiln. A rotary kiln system with precalcining. Figure 4 . consisting of a fourstage cyclone preheater. up to 30% – in systems with a tertiary air duct.Precalcining process with and without tertiary air duct. calcinator. up to 60% – of the total fuel energy needed can be employed in the secondary burner.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 14 air is shown in Figure 4. reciprocating grate-type cooler and tertiary air duct. .

calcinator and tertiary air duct.Schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with a cyclone preheater.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 15 Figure 5 . .

preferably 48 or 72 hours. . type of combined drying and grinding operation) should already have been determined during the planning phase of the performance test and.2 Duration of the performance test A kiln performance test should last for at least 24 hours. The latter has to be safeguarded by means of appropriate measures. should already have been established one week prior to the start of the performance test. the performance test should preferably last 72 hours. by changing the mixed bed).1 Execution of kiln performance tests Mode of operation of the kiln system The considerations elaborated upon below apply exclusively to the stationary operation a kiln system. 3. partial load). the mass flow of the kiln feed. out. composition of the kiln feed. 3. Neither shortly before nor during the performance test should there be any changes in the composition of the kiln feed or of the fuel (for example. Possible criteria for interrupting the performance test should also be laid down in advance. If the type of combined drying and grinding operation changes (in. in cases of major changes vis-à-vis normal operations.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 16 3. types of fuel. The essential operating data (for instance. the energy fraction of the secondary fuel.

every 12 hours. Table 1 shows an example of a sampling plan. at the discharge end of the conveyors (for instance.5 Sampling frequency every hour every four hours every four hours every four hours every four hours 1) every four hours 1) every two hours every four hours .5 ≥ 0.3 Measuring methods 3. conveyor belt. then this non-homogeneity has to be taken into consideration by enlarging the scope of the sampling. The safety regulations that apply in such cases must be observed.Sampling amount and sampling frequency in rotary kiln performance tests. Material clinker coal dust (main burner) coal dust (secondary burner) kiln feed raw gas dust tertiary air dust bypass dust Kiln feed in the preheater 1) With partial-stream suction.1. which could give rise to insufficient blending by the time the sampling site is reached. Thus. when two partial streams having different concentrations of the component to be examined are combined. apron conveyor).1 Solid substances 3. The samples are taken from the belt (for instance.5 ≥ 0. Sampling amount in kg ≥1 ≥ 0.5 ≥ 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 17 3.5 ≥ 0. for instance.3. that is to say. It must be ensured that the sample is taken over the entire width of the material stream in order to take into account possible de-mixing phenomena.5 ≥ 0.1 Sampling The objective of sampling is to obtain a random sample of each solid substance mass flow that is representative of the parent population being examined. the hot-meal pipe of a cyclone). screw conveyor) or from the meal pipes (for example. Table 1 .5 ≥ 0. the sampling amount and the sampling frequency have to be adapted to the prevailing test conditions.3. bucket elevator.

2 Analysis Table 2 shows an example of an analysis plan. As a matter principle. the average sample is subsequently formed on the basis of the pre-dried individual samples. in the raw material) should be determined on larger individual samples. For practical reasons. This ensures that the best suited decomposition and analysis methods will be selected for each particular case. tertiary air dust) can also be taken by means of isokinetic suction of a partial stream. As a matter of principle. homogenized and combined to form a weighed average sample for the duration of the performance test. In this process.1.3. The individual samples are pre-comminuted (for example. 3. the samples can also be taken at time-staggered intervals. High levels of moisture (for instance. clinker). further decarbonation of CaCO3 or a residual burn-out of carbon. care should be taken to ensure that the suction is representative. the laboratory should be informed about the source and presumed composition of the samples. the individual and average samples should be stored air-tight in order to avoid a falsification of the H2O and CO2 contents. for example. .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 18 A partially decarbonated kiln feed should be cooled off rapidly and air-tight so as to avoid. Samples of solid substances from flowing gases (raw gas dust.

ISO 348. DIN 51400 DIN 51722 1) subtraction DIN 51872 DIN 51856 DIN 51855 Grinding for complete passage through the sieve. tertiary air dust sample preparation loss on ignition . ISO 625 DIN 51724 (Part 1). ISO 589. ISO 334. sample preparation calorific value H 2O ash ash composition volatile components C and H S Cl N O – Analysis method DIN 51701 (Part 3). ISO 333 subtraction DIN 51570 (Parts 1 to 3) DIN 51900. ISO 562 DIN 51721.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 19 Table 2 .09 mm (for CaOfree 0. ISO 1171 DIN 51729 DIN 51720.Analysis and analysis method for rotary kiln performance tests.063) 1000°C [1832°F] ± 25 K (10 min) or 950°C [1742°F] ± 25 K until weight constancy is achieved Oil sampling calorific value H 2O ash C and H S Cl N – Natural gas composition O S Clinker. ISO 351 DIN 51727. ISO 1928 DIN 51777. ISO 1015 DIN 51719. ISO 3733 DIN EN 7 DIN 51721 1) DIN EN 41. 0. ISO 609. ISO 331. ISO 1928 DIN 51718. ISO 687. ISO 587 DIN 51722 (Part 1). ISO 579. ISO 1988. ISO 352. Material Coal dust Analysis sampling. ISO 2309 DIN 51900.

1% by weight of LiF + 8. dilution of 1:10). determination of SO3. analysis including SO3 and alkali b) fluxing agent tablet (1050°C [1922°F]. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. 100% by weight of Li2B4O7 as the decomposition agent. 90% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 10% by weight of LiF as the decomposition agent. Na2O CaOfree a) fluxing agent tablet (≤ 1000°C [1832°F]. determination of SO3. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 20 X-ray fluorescent full analysis 2) Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Σ SO3 K2O. dilution of 1:5 to 1:20). the results can deviate from one method to another . Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically J. subsequent correction of the results Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) c) thermal reaction in a moist O2 stream at 1000°C [1832°F] so as to form hydrogen chloride Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) introduction of the hydrogen chloride into an acetic silver nitrate solution and coulometric titration The weighed-in amount has to be adapted to the low Cl – content of the clinker (5 to 10 g) a) gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream.L. absorption) a) method according to Franke b) method according to Schläpfer and Bukowski Depending on the boundary conditions. subsequent correction of the results c) fluxing agent tablet (1200°C [2192°F]. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods.9% by weight of SrO + 2% by weight of V2O5 as the decomposition agent. dilution of 1:5). 81% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 8. flame photometry (emission. Smith decomposition.

1% by weight of LiF + 8.09 mm Thermal degradation in the inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] or chemical degradation with acid a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection Weighing. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. subsequent correction of the results H2O < 110°C [230°F] 4) Σ H 2O Corg X-ray fluorescent full analysis 2) Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) c) thermal reaction in a moist O2 stream at 1000°C [1832°F] so as to form hydrogen chloride . dilution of 1:10). thermal reaction of the carbon compounds in an oxygen stream a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection a) fluxing agent tablet (≤ 1000°C [1832°F]. 81% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 8. analysis including SO3 and alkali b) fluxing agent tablet (1050°C [1922°F]. 0. determination of SO3. cooling in a desiccator. drying at 110°C [230°F]. dilution of 1:5 to 1:20). dilution of 1:5). 100% by weight of Li2B4O7 as the decomposition agent.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 21 Kiln feed sample preparation CO2 Grinding for complete passage through the sieve. weighing Thermal desorption in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] a) KF titration b) IR detection c) gravimetric Decarbonation with hydrochloric acid. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. determination of SO3. subsequent correction of the results c) fluxing agent tablet (1200°C [2192°F].9% by weight of SrO + 2% by weight of V2O5 as the decomposition agent. 90% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 10% by weight of LiF as the decomposition agent.

absorption) Dissolution with hydrochloric acid containing SnCl2 in the presence of Cr (metallic). Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically K2O. flame photometry (emission. 0. thermal reaction of the carbon compounds in an oxygen stream a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection . Smith decomposition. gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream.L.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 22 Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) introduction of the hydrogen chloride into an acetic silver nitrate solution and coulometric titration The weighed-in amount has to be adapted to the low Cl – content of the clinker (5 to 10 g) Σ SO3 a) oxidation with bromine water. Na2O J. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. iodometry Grinding for complete passage through the sieve.09 mm Thermal degradation in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] or chemical degradation with acid a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection S2– Raw gas dust 5) (cyclone preheater kiln) sample preparation CO2 Σ H 2O Thermal desorption in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] a) KF titration b) IR detection c) gravimetric Corg Decarbonation with hydrochloric acid. pick-up in a cooled (≤ 15°C [59°F]) ammoniacal ZnSO4 or CdCl2 solution.

subsequent correction of the results Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) c) thermal reaction in a moist O2 stream at 1000°C [1832°F] so as to form hydrogen chloride Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) introduction of the hydrogen chloride into an acetic silver nitrate solution and coulometric titration The weighed-in amount has to be adapted to the low Cl – content of the clinker (5 to 10 g) a) oxidation with bromine water. 100% by weight of Li2B4O7 as the decomposition agent. determination of SO3. iodometry Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Σ SO3 K2O. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7.9% by weight of SrO + 2% by weight of V2O5 as the decomposition agent. absorption) Dissolution with hydrochloric acid containing SnCl2 in the presence of Cr (metallic).1% by weight of LiF + 8. determination of SO3. gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream. 81% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 8.L. Smith decomposition. subsequent correction of the results c) fluxing agent tablet (1200°C [2192°F]. analysis including SO3 and alkali b) fluxing agent tablet (1050°C [1922°F]. Na2O S2– . 90% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 10% by weight of LiF as the decomposition agent. dilution of 1:5 to 1:20). pick-up in a cooled (≤ 15°C [59°F]) ammoniacal ZnSO4 or CdCl2 solution. Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically J.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 23 X-ray fluorescent full analysis 2) a) fluxing agent tablet (≤ 1000°C [1832°F]. dilution of 1:5). flame photometry (emission. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. dilution of 1:10).

flame photometry (emission. pick-up in a cooled (≤ 15°C [59°F]) ammoniacal ZnSO4 or CdCl2 solution. 0. thermal reaction of the carbon compounds in an oxygen stream a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection J. Smith decomposition. Na2O Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Σ SO3 S2– Dissolution with hydrochloric acid containing SnCl2 in the presence of Cr (metallic). hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. iodometry .L. absorption) Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) coulometric titration d) gravimetric a) oxidation with bromine water. Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically Σ H 2O Corg K2O.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 24 Bypass dust 5) Kiln feed in the preheater5) Raw gas dust 5) (grate-type preheating kiln) sample preparation CO2 Grinding for complete passage through the sieve. gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream.09 mm Thermal degradation in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] or chemical degradation with acid a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection Thermal desorption in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] a) KF titration b) IR detection c) gravimetric Decarbonation with hydrochloric acid.

Dust as well as the kiln feed in the preheater can also contain highly volatile compounds such as. the trucks or railroad cars are weighed both empty and fully loaded (varying amounts of fuel in the tank. Al2O3. even over shorter periods of time. SO3. (NH4)2SO4. the laboratory should be informed to this effect. the analysis method for fuels is employed. several measuring intervals are needed. Prior to the test. . (Σ SO3.1.) Nitric acid extraction does not always dissolve all of the halides out of the sample matrix. the weighing procedure should be checked. the examinations should be performed in the delivery state. < 105°C [221°F]. Na2O. shipping scales). In addition to the above-mentioned compounds. If this is already known to be so. P2O5. Mn2O3. MgO. For this purpose. Na2O should be checked by other analytical methods. dirt). An interim result should be determined every 4 to 6 hours in order to obtain information about the time course of the mass flow.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 25 1) 2) Since there are no specifications for mineral oils. 3) 4) 5) 3. CaO. for instance. This can lead to erroneously low results at low levels of Cl– in the raw material. Continuously operating clinker scales can be adjusted by the above-mentioned method. for example. barium oxide and strontium oxide or S2–. the solid materials might also contain fluoride. During the reducing burning process. K2O. but it should not be shorter than 24 hours. The duration of the clinker weighing can differ from the performance test duration. In the case of sensitive samples that are hygroscopic or that react during the drying process. SiO2. every 4 hours with different clinker production.3 Clinker: Mass flows The clinker is loaded onto trucks or railroad cars and weighed on calibrated scales (for example. TiO2. The measured value from the performance test is then multiplied by the resulting correction values. Fe2O3.3. Alternatively. The maximum error is smaller with a duration of 48 hours. K2O. clinker contains FeO and MnO. In each case.

4. The following relationship applies: Fuels: Fuels are weighed on industrial scales which have been previously adjusted. However. For this reason. . the fuel energy consumption is usually balanced by means of a comparison of the energy output with the energy input (see Section 4. It results from the component balance of the sum of the non-volatile substances (see Section 4. If weighing is not possible. shipping scales).1. Dust: Dust is preferably weighed on calibrated scales (for example.1). the precision levels achieved in this manner are often not sufficient for evaluating the kiln system.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 26 In the case of immediately consecutive kiln performance tests. care should be taken to ensure that the cleaning of the filter is switched to continuous operation before the dust is discharged.3). also see the VDZ Specification titled “Dust quantity measurements in cement plants” [17]). Here. the dust mass flow is determined by means of an isokinetic partial stream suction (in this context. a second clinker weighing procedure is not necessary if it is ensured that all of the dust mass flows remain constant. Translator’s note: See Section 8 for the list of abbreviations used in the formulas. Kiln feed: The kiln feed mass flow is calculated.

3.2 Gases For the gas analysis.2. CO CO2. Measuring site raw gas bypass gas (with cooling air) bypass gas (without cooling air) downstream from the burning area kiln inlet tertiary air cooler intake air cooler vent air burner air (main burner) burner air (secondary burner) conveying air (kiln feed) 1) Volume flow measurement pitot tube pitot tube – – – pitot tube – pitot tube pitot tube + rated values pitot tube + rated values rated values Gas analysis CO2. in the bypass gas and in the gas downstream from the burning area. 3. O2. O2. O2. In the gas downstream from the burning area.1 Sampling In the raw gas. there are also differences in the individual strings. CO 1) CO2.Volume flow measurement and gas analysis in rotary kiln performance tests. O2. O2. CO 1) CO2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 27 3. CO – – – – – – Discontinuous measurement is often sufficient.3. CO CO2. in the case of double-string cyclone preheaters. various gas compositions can occur over the cross section of the duct. the time intervals at which the probes need to . more information can be obtained from the VDZ Specification titled “Continuous gas analysis in cement plants” [20]). Table 3 . Table 3 shows an example of a measurement plan. while information on volume flow measurement is to be found in the VDZ Specification titled “Quantity measurement of gases by means of velocity measurements” [16]). Moreover.

The probe in the gas downstream from the burning area should be cooled. it is not possible to specify a representative measuring site.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 28 be cleaned can be extended by placing the measuring gas sampling opening as far as possible from the meal inlet pipes. The sampling opening should project about 0. The probe should be cooled. cooler vent air). With volumes flows that fluctuate markedly (for instance. O2 and CO are required. the process gas usually displays great differences in concentration.5 m into the rotating part of the kiln in order to avoid falsifications of the measured results due to infiltrated air that gets into the inlet gasket or as a result of falling kiln feed material. the measuring gas should be sampled dry. determinations of CO2.2 Analysis The gas analysis should be carried out continuously.3. the pitot tube should be installed in the . that is to say. So as to prevent falsifications of the concentration values due to the scrubbing out of individual gas components. 3.2. Since the measuring site is also frequently exposed to falling material. both with respect to location and to time. without injection water or scrubbing water. 3. In the rotary kiln inlet. For this reason. the sampling probe should be built laterally into the refractory brickwork.3 Volume flows The volume flows are primarily measured with a pitot tube. Sampling sites in the upper third of the rotary kiln cross section are recommended.3. At the very least.

only possible if clean gases of the kiln can be detected in their entirety. for example. this is often very imprecise). substantial pressure fluctuations or a high amount of dust [for instance. > 50 g/m³]. expensive but accurate).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 29 gas duct and the differential pressure as well as the appertaining temperature should be recorded continuously. c) air balance of the cooler (often the most precise way with continuous volume flow measurement of the cooler vent air after the dust removal). c) conversion of the clean gas volume flow to raw gas conditions using an O2 or CO2 balance or an H2O balance (additional gas analysis and measurement of the volume flow in the clean gas is necessary. b) calculation on the basis of a CO2 and an H2O balance of the kiln system (imprecise when secondary fuels are used) [30]. The bypass gas is measured with a pitot tube after admixing the cooling air. There are three methods for measuring the raw gas volume flow: a) direct measurement with a pitot tube (in the case of unfavorable measuring conditions. b) fan characteristic curves (only possible for fans with adjustable rotational speeds). There are three methods for measuring the volume flow of the cooler intake air: a) inlet nozzles (often very imprecise). The bypass gas volume flow prior to the admixture is derived from the gas analysis before and after the admixture of the cooling air. . deflection of the gas upstream from the measuring site.

2 Water The water mass flow of a cooling chute (cooling water) or into the clinker cooler (injection water) is measured with water meters that have to be installed in advance. The cross-sectional surface area is either measured or estimated.3. of the kiln feed is derived from the nominal data of the fan. Heating gas that has been measured volumetrically has to be converted to the standard conditions.3.1. The amount of oil that passes through the burner nozzle per unit of time is for the most part measured volumetrically by means of an oil meter. Moreover. In order to determine the actual volume flow that passes through. if applicable.3 Liquids 3. the result that is read off the meter has to be corrected by means of a calibration curve.3. .2. 3. it is necessary to take into account the density.3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 30 The volume flow of infiltrated air at the kiln hood is calculated on the basis of the open cross-sectional area and of the differential pressure at the kiln hood (see Section 4.3.1 Heating oil Heating oil can be sampled either by means of an automatic sampling system or else a sample is taken from the oil tank. The conveying air volume flow of the coal dust and. which changes as a function of the temperature. 3.3).

9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0. kiln feed) Measuring device compensation temperature in adiabatic vessel.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 31 3.9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.9) 2) Frequency every hour continuously twice per day once per day once per day fuels once per day raw gas bypass gas (with cooling air) gas downstream from the burning area tertiary air upstream from the preheater tertiary air downstream from the cooler cooler intake air cooler vent air burner air (main burner) burner air (secondary burner) conveying air (kiln feed) surface temperature .9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.rotary kiln surface temperature .cooler kiln hood calcinator preheater 1) continuously continuously continuously once per day continuously continuously 1) continuously once per day once per day – twice per day once per day 2) twice per day 3) once per day once per day once per day if available with grate-type coolers 3) with rotary coolers or satellite coolers . Measuring site cold clinker hot clinker kiln feed in the preheater (e.4 Temperatures Table 4 shows the example of a measuring plan.Temperature measurement in rotary kiln performance tests. hot meal) bypass dust raw meal (for instance.g. Pt 100 quotient pyrometer NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or surface temperature of the conveying line with partial-radiation pyrometer Pt 100 or surface temperature of the conveying line with partial-radiation pyrometer Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni NiCr Ni NiCr Ni NiCr Ni meteorological station Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni like kiln feed partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.3. Table 4 .9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.

• kiln.6 Strokes and rotational speeds In order to evaluate the kiln operation. • downstream from the waste gas fan.3. the strokes and rotational speeds of the following aggregates should be measured or recorded by the operating measuring pick-ups: • cooler. • bag house fan / ESP fan. 3. • bypass fan.3. . the following differential pressures should be measured or recorded by the operating measuring pick-ups: • cooler (chambers 1 through N). • upstream from the waste gas fan. • preheater (stages 1 through N). • cooler vent fan. • kiln outlet. • grate-type preheater.5 Pressures In order to evaluate the kiln operation. The above-mentioned differential pressures have to be measured with damped measuring pick-ups. • kiln inlet. • waste gas fan.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 32 3.

pressure and relative humidity of the ambient air are recorded by a meteorological station. If several consumers are connected to one meter. • kiln feed feeding system. the consumption of electricity should be considered as an input item of the energy balance. • fuel feeding system. Consequently. • burner air fan. A large proportion of the electricity is converted into heat in the kiln system. • cooler vent fan.7 Electricity consumption In order to evaluate the kiln operation. The following consumers should be taken into consideration: • cooler fans.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 33 3. 3. the meter readings of the main consumers should be recorded at intervals of.3. 8 hours. for example. . • waste gas fan. • cooler drives. • rotary kiln drive.3.8 Ambient conditions The temperature. • bypass fan. the energy distribution should be measured with prong-type instruments. when the balancing space is calculated.

Comparative measuring instruments or method for rotary kiln performance tests. In addition to regularly checking the status and settings during the performance test. Measuring instrument gas analyzer gas meters thermal elements resistance thermometer pyrometer pressure transducer humidity measuring device Comparative measuring instrument or method gas analyzer with another measuring principle wet-chemical analysis testing by the Board of Weights and Measures test thermometer and normal thermometer (for instance.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 34 3. The time schedule for replacing wearing parts and for the function tests with comparative measured values depends on the measuring instruments and should be laid down appropriately. together with the date.3. Status checks should be made every hour and setting checks should be carried out at least before and after the performance test. . it is also necessary to routinely replace wearing parts as preventive maintenance and to conduct function tests with comparative measured values (calibration). Checks and corrections should be documented and should be indicated on the measuring equipment used. miniscope or U-tube) sealed container with several aqueous saturated salt solutions The solid substance analyses have to be conducted by a laboratory that has sufficient experience with the execution of the analyses listed in Table 2. Table 5 . platinum resistance thermometer) black body radiator tungsten band lamp (only above 500°C [932°F]) liquid pressure gage (for instance. Table 5 provides an overview of possible comparative measuring methods.9 Ensuring the precision of the measurements and analyses The precision of a kiln examination depends on the systematic maintenance and upkeep of the measuring instruments.

rotary kiln (D) and cooler (K) with the mass and energy flows that exceed the balance limit as an example. tertiary air duct (T). as a result of which a separate presentation has not been provided. since there are interactions between both of these as a result of chemical reactions. 4. calcinator (C).C raw gas dust for the discharged tertiary air dust (only relevant in kiln systems with a tertiary air duct and high levels of dust in the tertiary air) *) Liquid or gaseous fuel can also be fed in.1 Evaluation of kiln performance tests Balancing of the entire system When the mass balance is drawn up. Figure 6 shows the balancing space of a kiln system with a cyclone preheater (V). The following mass and energy flows have been taken into account: Incoming solid substance mass flows: & mS1 & m B7 & m B3 for the kiln feed for the fuel (main burner) *) for the fuel (secondary burner) *) Outgoing solid substance mass flows: & mS10 & mSt5 & mSt1 & mSt12 for the clinker for the bypass dust & for H Fl. the gas and solid substance mass flows should be balanced together. . the changes are only gradual. With other kiln types.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 35 4.

C & VFl. D & VFl. . while the formula sign V designates the volume flow related to standard conditions after removal tr of the water-vapor fraction.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 36 Incoming gas volume flows **) & VL10 & VL7 & VL3 & VL1 for the cooler intake air for the burner air (main burner) for the burner air (secondary burner) for the conveying air (kiln feed) for the infiltrated air (kiln hood) for the infiltrated air (calcinator) for the infiltrated air (preheater) & VFl.10 for the cooler injection water Incoming energy flows: & H S1 & H B7 & H B3 for the kiln feed for the fuel (main burner) for the fuel (secondary burner) **) & The formula sign V below designates the volume flow related to standard conditions (0°C [32°F]. 1013 & hPA). V Outgoing gas volume flows: & VL11 & VG1 & VG5 for the cooler vent air for the raw gas for the bypass gas Incoming liquid mass flows: & m H 2 O.

V & ∆H R. H 2 O for the evaporation enthalpy of the cooler injection water & Q K. K for the uncoupled heat (cooler) . 10 Pmech Outgoing energy flows: & H S10 & H St5 & H St1 & H St12 & H L11 & H G1 & H G5 for the clinker for the bypass dust for the raw gas dust for the discharged tertiary air dust for the cooler vent air for the raw gas for the bypass gas for the reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed & ∆H R.C & H Fl.S & ∆H V.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 37 & H L10 & H L7 & H L3 & H L1 for the cooler intake air for the burner air (main burner) for the burner air (secondary burner) for the conveying air (kiln feed) for the infiltrated air (kiln hood) for the infiltrated air (calcinator) for the infiltrated air (preheater) for the reaction enthalpy of the fuels for the cooler injection water for the mechanical performance & H Fl. D & H Fl. B & H H 2 O.

D & Q W.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 38 & ∆H R.CO & Q W. V & Q W.T & Q W. K for the incomplete burning for radiation and convection losses (preheater) for radiation and convection losses (calcinator) for radiation and convection losses (rotary kiln) for radiation and convection losses (tertiary air duct) for radiation and convection losses (cooler + kiln hood) .C & Q W.

rotary kiln and cooler with incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows. tertiary air duct. calcinator. .Balancing spaces for preheater.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 39 Figure 6 .

some of the cooler vent air can be returned to the cooler as intake air via a fan once the dust has been removed and cooled (duothermal configuration). MgO) whose mass concentration in the individual substance flows is designated by xNF *). fuel (secondary burner). The following applies: *) The formula sign x below stands for the mass concentration of the solids at the balance limit (= delivery condition in the laboratory). Fe2O3. bypass dust. the cooling air volume flow is used completely as combustion air in the process. mass flow of the kiln feed. 4. CaO. whereas in contrast. SiO2. In the case of the latter. With grate-type coolers. Operands: In order to balance the mass flows. the waste gas is designated as “raw gas” and the dust as “raw gas dust”. it is only partially used as such with gratetype coolers. Al2O3. P2O5. This & was taken into consideration in the figure by the uncoupled heat flow Q K. K . TiO2. Mn2O3. discharged tertiary air dust. it still contains relatively large amounts of dust. a component balance is drawn up of the sum of the non-volatile substances (for example. Cooler vent air dust has not been taken into account.1. Therefore.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 40 With rotary and satellite coolers. When the waste gas leaves the preheater. excess cooling air is released as cooler vent air. raw gas dust.1 Solid substance mass flows Measured quantities: clinker. fuel (main burner). .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 41 The loss on ignition can also be used for a rough estimate. By using xG to designate the mass concentration of the substances that are released during calcination at about 1000°C [1832°F] until weight constancy is achieved. the following applies to the kiln feed mass flow that actually becomes clinker (including discharged tertiary air dust): The ratio of kiln feed to clinker necessary for the clinker burning process then results from Equation (4): . the following applies analogously: The kiln feed mass flow necessary for the clinker burning process then results from Equation (2): As an approximation.

infiltrated air. cooler vent air (if present). sulfide sulfur) of the kiln feed also have to be taken into account. in addition to the fuel mass & & flows m B7 and m B3 . conveying air (kiln feed).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 42 Analogously. bypass gas.2 Gas volume flows Measured quantities: fuel (main burner).1.2. raw gas.1. secondary air.2. burner air (secondary burner). .2. the following applies: 4. minimum air volume flow. For this reason.1. fuel (secondary burner).3).1. Operands: 4.3. the combustible components (organically bound carbon.1 Dry gas Minimum air volume flow In order to calculate the dry.1 4. cooler intake air (see Section 3. the burning of all combustible substances has to be taken into consideration. burner air (main burner).

S : Frequently. the carbon content of the raw gas dust as xC.S1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 43 By designating the carbon content of the kiln feed as xC. The minimum air volume flow & VL.St5 and x S. This value can be calculated on the basis of elementary analyses of the fuel according to Equation (11): . S effectively fed into the kiln system: & Analogously. x C. the following results & for the carbon mass flow mC. St1 and the carbon content of the bypass dust as xC. eff. St5.St5 are approximately zero. min to burn all of the combustible substances then amounts to the following: lmin is the minimum air demand of the fuel in question in its raw state. the following applies for mS.eff.

lmin can be calculated as an approximation using the lower calorific value of the fuel *). the numerical value equation is the following: For oil and coal. . The following applies: For lignitic coal and coal: For heating oil: Table 6 shows examples of elementary analyses and calorific value-related combustion gas quantities of lignitic coal and coal.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 44 Accordingly. Calorific value-related combustion gas quantities of secondary fuels can differ markedly from the indicated uppermost and lowermost values. *) The formula sign hu below stands for the lower calorific value of the coal at the balance limit threshold (= delivery condition in the laboratory).

0 2.76 calorific value (raw) in MJ/kg: Calorific value-related combustion gas quantity in kg/MJ: minimum air demand carbon dioxide water vapor moist flue gas 20.4 0.374 0. U = uppermost value 4.92 Coal dust U L 0.3 71.011 0.1 65.2.2 4.1 0.021 0.1 27.7 2.4 8.9 16.3 61.9 19.382 0.6 0.8 3.7 0.016 0.339 0.014 0.9 57.096 0.3 21.3 1.4 56.098 0.022 0.8 11.339 0.370 0.7 22.344 0.4 4.1 3.5 0.096 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 45 Table 6 .2 Air proportionality factor The following applies in general: .0 8.375 L = lowermost value.099 0.094 0.7 3.2 19.9 29.347 0.7 4.392 0.05 U 2.6 4.1.332 0.Elementary analyses of lignitic coal dust and coal dust with the combustion gas quantities calculated therefrom and related to the lower calorific value in the raw state.5 0.341 0.5 23.2 Lignitic coal dust M 11.8 4.5 59. Analyses (raw) in % by weight: L water ash C H O N S 8.22 0. M = mean value.6 21.024 0.3 2.6 7.7 0.1.101 0.4 0.35 M 1.80 14.2 1.0 25.373 0.

the gas velocity has to be multiplied by a dimensionless factor which lies between 0.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood The volume flow of infiltrated air at the kiln hood can be roughly calculated using the Bernoulli equation. neither is present. it has been set at 0. Consequently.1.75. In reality. as a rule related to dry measuring gas): The expression in the denominator of the lower fraction corresponds to N2.9. 4. The following applies theoretically: Equation (17) presupposes a frictionless flow and an incompressible medium. the equation yields an excessively high gas velocity.2. for actual practice.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 46 The air proportionality factor in the waste gas results as an approximation from the values of the gas analysis (in the case of Orsat analyses and measuring methods that work with extraction.6 and 0. the following applies: . Thus. Here. As a consequence.

the result is a calculation equation for the volume flow of infiltrated air: wherein ∆p = differential pressure at the kiln hood in Pa = density of the air in the cross section F in kg/m³ = density of the ambient air under standard conditions (s. tr can only be calculated very imprecisely. D.)/s As a simplification. tr = volume flow of infiltrated air in m³ (s.4 Secondary air The following applies for the volume flow of the secondary air (also see Figure 12): & Due to non-representative gas analyses in the kiln inlet. 4.c.1.N for dry air (the water present in the air is ignored here).N F & VFl.c.2. the density of the ambient air can be taken as the basis for ρ L. .1.) in kg/m³ = open cross-section area in m² ρL ρ L.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 47 & With v = V/F for the gas velocity and with the density ratio ρ L /ρ L. VL8.

5 Cooler intake air The following applies for the volume flow of the cooler intake air (also see Figure 12): 4.1.1. . eff.2.S stems from the decarbonation and the combustion of organic components of the kiln feed.1.6 Raw gas 1. Calculation on the basis of the CO2 balance The following applies for the CO2 balance: & VCO 2 .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 48 4.2. The following applies: wherein and & m C. S according to Equation (8).1.

& VCO 2 . The following applies: If the elementary analysis is not available. B stems from the combustion of the fuel.G5 results from the gas analysis and from the measurement of the gas volume flow in the bypass gas: With the result is the calculation equation for the raw gas volume flow: .01 · 10 – 5 m³ of CO2/kJ for lignitic coal 2 and µCO 2 = 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 49 & VCO 2 .87 · 10 – 5 m³ of CO2/kJ for coal. Equation (26) can be employed: wherein µCO = 5.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 50 2.1. CO2 balance: O2 balance: 4. 4. Due to non-representative gas analyses in the kiln inlet.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) & VG6.1. A gas analysis downstream from the burning area is needed for this purpose. tr can be calculated according to [30]. .2. the calculated values are often very imprecise.1.7 Gas downstream from the burning area & VG2. Calculation on the basis of the clean gas volume flow This calculation is only possible if the entire clean gas volume flow of the kiln system can be determined and if no auxiliary burner is operated in the combined drying and grinding mill.1. tr is calculated according to Equations (30) or (31) on the basis of the raw gas volume flow.2.

U) = saturation pressure of the water vapor in Pa = ambient pressure in Pa Then. the following applies for the moisture volume flow of the air: 4.2.1 Water vapor Humidity in the air The humidity in the air results from the relative humidity and from the saturation pressure of water-vapor at ambient temperature.1.2.2 Water from the kiln feed .1.2.1.2 4.2. The following applies: wherein xD = water content in kg of H2O/kg of dry air = relative humidity ϕ p and ps (ϑ L.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 51 4.

3 4.1. .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 52 4.1.1.3 Water from the fuel 4.1 Moist gas Air The following applies in general: Altogether.3.2. λ G1 should be calculated with the gas concentration values which would result after the mixing of raw gas and bypass gas.2.2.2. is fed into the kiln system.4 Injection water 4.2.1.2.

3 Liquid mass flows Measured quantities: fuel (main burner). fuel (secondary burner).1 Energy input Fuel Combustion: .10 often equals zero. a reference temperature of 25°C [77°F] was likewise selected for the calculation of the individual enthalpy flows.1.4.2 Raw gas λ G1 should be calculated with the gas concentration values which would result after the & mixing of raw gas and bypass gas.1. VH 2 O.4. 4.4 Energy flows Since standard reaction enthalpies and calorific values are related to 25°C [77°F].1. With grate-type coolers.1.1 4.2. 4. y H 2 O.G5 often equals y H 2 O.3.1.G6 .1. 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 53 4. water.

The following then applies: wherein c H 2 O ≈ 4. *) The formula sign c or cp below stands for the mean specific thermal capacity c p 25°C [77° F] . Equation (43) also applies. the water content of the lignitic coal has to be taken into account.B = sum of the volatile components in the coal.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 54 Sensible enthalpy flows: *) For dry coal. ϑ . as an approximation. to dry lignitic coal.2 kJ/kg K for 0°C [32°F] < ϑ < 100°C [212°F]. however. The following applies in the case of oil (also see Figure 8): wherein ρ = density of the oil in kg/m³ at 15°C [59°F]. the following applies (also see Figure 7): wherein xF. Here.

Mean specific thermal capacity of dry coal (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 55 Figure 7 . .

Mean specific thermal capacity of oil (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 56 Figure 8 . .

519 2. The following applies here: Table 7 .531 hydrogen sulfide 1) Use C3H6 use for CmHn.270 1.631 4. s.402 2.246 3.1.579 4.985 2.113 1.) K 25°C [77°F] 100°C [212°F] 1.602 methane ethylene acetylene propadiene n-butane propylene 1) CH4 C2H4 C2H2 C3H4 C4H10 C3H6 H 2S 1.918 5.582 2. Fuel gas component Specific thermal capacity cp in kJ/m³ (s.4.c.817 2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 57 The specific thermal capacity of the heating gas is calculated on the basis of the mean specific thermal capacities of the individual gas components according to Table 7.Mean specific thermal capacity cp of the fuel gas components (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).101 1.2 Kiln feed Sensible enthalpy flows: .c.1.717 5.156 4.137 2.172 5.700 2. = under standard conditions 4.555 1.579 200°C [392°F] 1.

.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 58 The following applies as an approximation for the commonly employed composition of the kiln feed: The specific thermal capacities of individual components of the kiln feed are shown in Figure 9.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 59 Figure 9 . .Mean specific thermal capacity of kiln feed components (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).

The following applies in this case: .4. also see Figure 10). As an approximation. it is also possible to use the specific thermal capacity of dry air for the calculation.3 Air Sensible enthalpy flows: wherein (For the calculation of cp.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 60 4.1.1. j according to Equations (85) through (87).

.Mean specific thermal capacity of gas components (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 61 Figure 10 .

the degradation reactions of the starting materials and the reactions for the formation of the clinker phases have to be taken into account. C2S. the following applies: 4. it is first necessary to calculate the contents of C3S.1. the sensible enthalpy flow of the injection water can be ignored.1.4. C3A.4.5 Mechanical performance Within the balancing space. This is particularly true of the intake air fans and of the kiln drive. with the standard reaction enthalpies needed in each case (for the additional reaction enthalpies. 4.1. 23 and 25 through 27]). Table 8 is a compilation of the main reactions that take place during the clinker burning process. .1.2.4. the contents of CaCO3 and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust as well as the contents of CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust. For this purpose.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 62 4.1. The data shown in the two right-hand columns are each related to the substance in the left-hand column.4 Injection water As a rule. In simplified form.1. see [22.4. C4AF in the clinker. The actual reaction enthalpies to be employed result from balance equations.2 4. the mechanical performance of the electric drives has to be taken into consideration.1 Energy output Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed For the calculation of the reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed.

1. Formation of C4AF Formation of C3A Formation of β -C2S 4 CaO + α-Al2O3 + α-Fe2O3 3 CaO + α-Al2O3 2 CaO + β -SiO2 3 CaO + β -SiO2 K2O = SO2 + ½ O2 C3A C4AF – 67 + 74 – 700 – 495 – 4452 – 33 + 20 – 121 – 113 – 776 β-C2S C3S 10. 6. . Organic clay components (relative to C) MgCO3 dissociation CaCO3 dissociation Pyrite (FeS2) 2 FeS2 + 5½ O2 α-Fe2O3 + 4 SO2 II. Formation of oxides and degradation reactions Evaporation of H2O Decomposition of • kaolinite (relative to Al2O3) • montmorillonite (relative to Al2O3) • illite (relative to Al2O3) kaolinite α-Al2O3 + 2 · β-SiO2 + H2O (fl) montmorillonite α-Al2O3 + 4 · β-SiO2 + n · H2O (fl) illite α-Al2O3 + 4 · β-SiO2 + m · H2O (fl) C + O2 MgCO3 CaCO3 CO2 MgO + CO2 CaO + CO2 + 1519 + 744 + 884 – 32786 + 1396 + 1772 – 6902 + 155 + 76 + 90 – 394 +118 + 178 – 828 H2O (fl) H2O (g) + 2446 + 44 3.Reactions of the kiln feed and reaction enthalpies (298 K) during the production of Portland cement clinker. 9. 5. Reaction enthalpy 1) at 298 K kJ/kg kJ/mole Reaction Reaction equation I. Formation of C3S 11. Formation of the clinker phases 7. 2. Formation of K2SO4 1) α-K2SO4 Related to the substance in the left-hand column. 8. 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 63 Table 8 .

the value employed for the CaO bound in the clinker phases is the one that is obtained after the subtraction of the free CaO and of the CaO bound to SO3. S10 + 1.292 ⋅ x Na 2 O.292 ⋅ x Na 2 O.4. the clinker phases can be calculated according to Bogue [45 and 46]. C2S. C2S. the following applies: For x SO 3 .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 64 4. S10 + 1. S10 .1. In this context.1. which consists primarily of C3S. S10 ≤ 0. the following applies: The following results from this: .85 ⋅ x K 2 O. C3A and C4AF (TM > 0.85 ⋅ x K 2 O. S10 > 0.1 C3S.64).2. C3A and C4AF in the clinker For normal Portland cement clinker or tertiary air dust. S10 . The following applies: For x SO 3 .

1. the following applies in the case of 1.2 CaCO3 and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust The content of CaCO3 and MgCO3 of the kiln feed results from the content of CO2 and CaO.1.2.274 · x CO 2 > x CaO : and .274 · x CO 2 ≤ x CaO : and in the case of 1. Assuming that the CO2 is primarily bound to the CaO.4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 65 4.

7) The fuel ash is present in the form of oxides. 6) The starting materials as shown in Table 8 are present.1. St5 = 0 3) x MgCO3 . it is assumed that Al2O3 and Fe2O3 have completely reacted with CaO to form C4AF and C12A7. . St5 = 0 4) xS. St5 = 0 2) xC.1. 4.1.2. St5 = 0 5) The formation enthalpy of C4AF and of C12A7 in the bypass dust is negligibly small.2. The following then applies: The calculation of x CaOSO3 .4 Balance equations The balance equations are based on the following assumptions and simplifications: 1) x H 2 O.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust The content of CaCO3 results from the content of CO2 in the bypass dust.St5 is made according to Equations (55) or (56).1.4.4. For purposes of calculating the C2S content.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 66 4.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 67 According to Figure 6. the following applies for the balance equations: 1) Evaporation of H2O: 2) Decomposition of clay: 100%-kaolinite: 100%-montmorillonite: 100%-illite: 3) Organic clay components: .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 68 4) MgCO3 dissociation: 5) CaCO3 dissociation: 6) Pyrite: 7) Formation of C4AF: 8) Formation of C3A: .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 69 9) Formation of β-CsS: 10) Formation of C3S: 11) Formation of K2SO4: In Equation (79). the balance equations need to be changed or supplemented. Moreover. or of a clinker from a burning process involving other substance flow configurations. . TM < 0. in the case of fly ash and blast-burner slag. the actual SO3 contents (without sulfide sulfur) should be used. or of a clinker from a kiln feed with calcareous fly ash. for instance. assumptions also have to be made pertaining to the devitrification enthalpies.64. In order to calculate the reaction enthalpy of a special clinker. blast-burner slag or gypsum from flue gas desulfurization plants.

4.3 Waste gas losses Raw gas: wherein The following approximation equations apply for the essential components of the waste gas (also see Figure 10): .1.1.4.2.2 Water evaporation Evaporation enthalpy for cooler injection water: 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 70 The following applies to the sum of the reaction enthalpies of the kiln feed: 4.2.

1.4. see Section 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 71 Bypass gas: Cooler vent air: 4.4. ϑ St1 = ϑ G1).2.2.4 Dust losses Raw gas dust: (for cSt1.1. .1.

5 Incomplete combustion In cases of high energy losses due to incomplete combustion (for example. Losses due to cooler vent air dust are usually negligibly small.1.2. Discharged tertiary air dust: (for cSt12.4. ϑ St12 = ϑ L9). see Equation (95).2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 72 Bypass gas dust: (for cSt5.01). see Section 4. 4.1. yCO. ϑ St5 = ϑ G5).2. 4.1.4.6 Clinker . an analyzer that operates continuously should be used for the calorific value of the gas for the balancing.1.G1 > 0.4.

.Mean specific thermal capacity of Portland cement clinker (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 73 The following applies for the specific thermal capacity of the clinker (also see Figure 11): Figure 11 .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 74 4. the heat flow of individual tube elements is calculated on the basis of the mean circumferential temperature ϑ W.U: wherein and αconv results from approximation equations.3 a0 = 4.1. The following applies for wind velocities w ≤ 2 m/s: wherein a = 0.7 Radiation and convection Rotary kiln: First of all.2.4.0 .m of the tube element and of the ambient temperature ϑ L.

75 7.0.83 0.83 b0 4.220 .92 0.75 ≤ Da < 3.93 0.79 0.0.40 5.25 3.11 2.238 .75 3.25 5.75 4.076 Scope of validity: w ≤ 2 m/s 100°C [212°F] ≤ ϑ W.05 1.87 1.236 .37 2.93 1.5 a2 = -0.25 4.75 5.75 4.70 b1 0.25 4.48 5.19 5.88 0.75 6.243 .25 5.27 2.0.0.233 .85 a3 = 0.25 6.11 5.25 b 2.73 0.05 5.98 1.0.27 5.75 6.66 5.98 5.227 .97 1.25 6.0.0.00 b1* .0.25 3.227 .75 5.U ≤ 30°C [86°F] The following applies for wind velocities w > 2 m/s: wherein Diameter range in m 2.m ≤ 500°C [932°F] 2 m ≤ Da ≤ 8 m 10°C [50°F] ≤ ϑ L.219 .18 2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 75 a1 = 3.244 .0.97 0.

D for the entire rotary kiln results from the addition of the radiation and convection loss flows of the individual tube elements: More details on the calculation of the radiation and convection loss flow can be found in literature references [28 and 31].75 m ≤ Da ≤ 7.U = ambient air temperature in K & The radiation and convection loss flow Q W. .25 m 10°C [50°F] ≤ ϑ L.U ≤ 30°C [86°F] The following applies for αStr: wherein ε W = 0.m ≤ 500°C [932°F] 2.9 σ = 5.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 76 Scope of validity: 2 m/s < w ≤ 10 m/s 100°C [212°F] ≤ ϑ W.67 · 10 – 8 W/(m² · K4) TW.m = mean surface temperature in K TL.

6 should be used for the calculation of the heat flow. Equation (104) yields a heat loss flow that is too low. an empirical factor of 1. . Moreover. The mean circumferential temperature ϑ W. that is to say. the surface temperature should be measured only on the side facing away the wind. the satellite temperatures as well as the temperatures in the interstitial spaces. In such cases. The following applies: The following applies as a good approximation for the grate-type cooler and the kiln hood: wherein αconv = 7 W/(m²·K) ε W = 0. For satellite coolers.9 At higher wind velocities. it is recommended to employ the imaginary surface area of a cylinder surrounding the satellite cooler as the heat-transfer surface area.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 77 Cooler: Equations (96) through (101) can be employed directly for the rotary cooler.m is calculated as an arithmetic mean value of all of the individual temperature meas- ured values calculated over the circumference. The diameter of this surrounding cylinder can then be used to calculate the heat-transfer coefficient αtotal as an approximation according to Equations (98) through (101).

8 Uncoupled heat The following applies as an approximation for the heat uncoupling via a cooling chute: wherein c H 2O ≈ 4. The following applies for the heat uncoupling through the cooling of the cooler circulation air: .4.2. Tertiary air duct: Equations (96) through (102) should be employed accordingly.1.2 kJ/kg K for 0°C [32°F] < ϑ < 100°C [212°F].May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 78 Preheater and calcinator: Equations (104) should be employed accordingly. 4.

should not make up more than ± 3% of the total energy output. it should be calculated on the basis of the difference between the energy output and the other energy input values according to Equation (109). .1. Since the reaction enthalpy flow of the fuel as energy input can often only be determined very imprecisely. Usually the input and the output do not offset each other completely. it is also designated as fuel energy consumption. however.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 79 4. the energy input and the energy output are compared to each other.4. so that a balance deficit remains which.3 Energy balance The following applies for the sum of the energy input and energy output: and With kiln performance tests.

2 Balancing of the partial systems 4. For this reason. the fact that considerable dust circulation can occur between the rotary kiln and the clinker cooler has to be taken into account.1 Clinker cooler A complete mass and energy balance can only be drawn up for the clinker cooler within the limits set by its design.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 80 4. Figure 12 . Moreover.Balancing space of the cooler with the incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows.2. . the hot clinker temperature can only be measured in a very imprecise manner.

Thus. The following mass and energy flows have been taken into consideration: Incoming solid substance mass flows: & mS8 for the hot clinker Outgoing solid substance mass flows: & mS10 & mSt8 & mSt9 for the clinker for the secondary air dust for the tertiary air dust Incoming gas volume flows: & VL10 for the cooler intake air Outgoing gas volume flows & VL8 & VL9 & VL11 for the secondary air for the tertiary air (cooler) for the cooler vent air Incoming liquid mass flows: & m H 2 O. In the case of rotary and satellite coolers. several exhaust air flows can be discharged from the cooler. for example. has to be set as zero.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 81 Figure 12 shows the balancing space of a clinker cooler with the mass and energy flows that exceed the balance limit. 10 for the cooler injection water . in contrast. the exhaust air volume flow.

K & ∆H V.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 82 Incoming energy flows: & H S8 & H L10 & H H 2 O. K for the hot clinker for the cooler intake air for the cooler injection water for the mechanical performance (cooler) Outgoing energy flows: & H S10 & H St8 & H St9 & H L8 & H L9 & H L11 for the clinker for the secondary air dust for the tertiary air dust for the secondary air for the tertiary air for the cooler vent air for radiation and convection losses (cooler + kiln hood) for the uncoupled heat (cooler) & Q W. 10 Pmech. H 2 O for the evaporation enthalpy of the cooler injection water . K & Q K.

secondary air dust.1. the dust concentration in the secondary air should be estimated.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 83 4. the dust concentration is about 30 to 50 g/m³. The secondary air dust mass flow then results from the dust mass flow measured in the tertiary air and from the fraction calculated on this basis for the secondary air volume flow: In other cases. this value can rise to more than 200 g/m³. In the case of a pronounced dust circulation.1 Solid substance mass flows clinker. With a “clear” kiln discharge. discharged and returned tertiary air dust.2. The following applies for the hot clinker mass flow: . Measured quantities: Operands: Only in the case of kiln systems with a tertiary air duct can the secondary air dust mass flow be calculated on the basis of the discharged and returned tertiary air dust assuming equal dust contents in the secondary air and in the tertiary air. hot clinker.

1. secondary air. tertiary air.2. .2.1.3.3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 84 4. 4.2.1. The water vapor from the water injection should also be taken into account.1. and the cooler intake air volume flow results from Equations (21) and (38). Measured quantities: Operands: The secondary air volume flow results from Equations (20) and (38).2 Gas volume flows cooler vent air (if present).1.3 Energy flows A reference temperature of 25°C [77°F] is selected for the calculation of the individual energy flows. 4. cooler intake air.2.1 Energy input 4.1 Hot clinker (cS8 according to Equation (95) or Figure 11).

.1. the calculated hot clinker energy flow is fundamentally too low.2 Energy output 4.3.2.2 Cooler intake air 4.4. 4.1.1.1.3.3. 4.2.2.1.3 Injection water See Section 4.2. clinker dust See Section 4.1.1.6.4.4 Mechanical performance 4.1.2. the hot clinker energy flow is associated with a high level of uncertainty.4. Therefore.1. Therefore.1 Clinker. This error increases as the temperature drops and the particle size increases.1.2.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 85 Only the surface temperature of the hot clinker can be measured by means of instruments.2.3.3.

1. The following then applies: .1.4.1.3.3 Uncoupled heat See Section 4. secondary air.1.4.3. 4.2.1.3.1.2.2.2.2. 4.2.5 Water evaporation See Section 4.3.2. 4.2.2.2.2 Radiation and convection See Section 4. 4.8.4.3.4 Cooler vent air.2.2.1.1. this is the case whenever tertiary air is removed from the kiln hood (ϑ L9 = ϑ L8) or when the secondary air can be measured error-free (for example.3 Energy balance If a reliable measured value for the secondary air temperature is available.2.3.7. with sound-over-time measurement or a suction-type thermometer).2. the hot clinker & enthalpy flow H S8 can be calculated on the basis of the energy balance. tertiary air See Section 4.4.1. As a rule.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 86 4.

of the pre-cooling zone as well as of the cooler with the example of a kiln system with a rotary cooler.4).1 Pre-cooling zone For the evaluation of the clinker cooler. Figure 13 shows the principle of the balance limits of the burning area and of the cooling area and its subdivision into the pre-cooling zone and the cooler.2.4. in the so-called pre-cooling zone.1. it is necessary to take into account the fact that the first cooling of the clinker already takes place inside the rotary kiln.1.Balance limits of the burning area and cooling area. Figure 13 .4 Evaluation quantities 4.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 87 The hot clinker enthalpy flow calculated according to this equation serves as the basis for the calculation of the cooler efficiency (see Section 4.1. 4. . which is where radiation and convection losses occur.4.2.

in m Lburner = length of the burner in the rotating part of the kiln.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 88 In order to calculate the radiation and convection losses in the pre-cooling zone. in m The estimation according to Equation (116) diverges from that described in the VDZ Specification titled “Grate-type. satellite and rotary coolers in the cement industry” [33]. . it is necessary to know their length Lpre-cool. Since this length cannot be measured and no calculation method is known for this at the present time. in m Da = outer diameter of the rotary kiln.: wherein Lpre-cool = length of the pre-cooling zone. & The radiation and convection loss Q W. pre − cool in the pre-cooling zone of the rotary kiln amounts to the following: Here. αtotal stands for the mean heat-transfer coefficient. which can be calculated according to Equations (98) through (101) with a superimposition of the radiation (rad) as well as free and forced convection (conv). the position of the burner lance serves as the reference point for estimating this length (also see Figure 13). It was selected because of the high degree of measuring uncertainty associated with the determination of the hot clinker temperature.

In this context. those enthalpy flows that would be released during the cooling procedure from the appertaining outlet temperature to the ambient air temperature should be seen as energy flows. 4.4.1.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 89 4. cooling area is the sum of the heat and enthalpy flows that are released by the cooler into the atmosphere.4. & The energy loss flow Eloss.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area The energy consumption of a rotary kiln system depends to a decisive degree on the extent to which the enthalpy of the clinker in the cooling area can be recovered for the process. In this equation.U) stands for the specific enthalpy at the ambient air temperature.2. h(ϑ L. which has to be replaced by fuel energy. for the clinker and cooler vent air.2. The fraction that is not recovered constitutes the energy loss of the cooling area.3 Cooling area efficiency For comparisons. it is advantageous to relate the energy loss flow of the cooling area to a theoretical enthalpy flow change on the part of the clinker and thus to define a cooling area efficiency: .

1. . at this site.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 90 For the sake of harmonization. 4. Future improvements of the burning process or special compositions of the kiln feed could make it necessary to stipulate a sintering temperature that differs from this. satellite and rotary coolers in the cement industry” [33].1. which should prevail at the site of transition from the burning area to the cooling area.4 Cooler efficiency The efficiency values of the cooler are described in the VDZ Specification titled “Gratetype.3.2.4. this does not apply for the “rotary kiln inlet” balance limit where the energy and mass flows can only be determined very imprecisely. In contrast.2. Thus.1 apply when using the formulas. the equilibrium temperature of the calcium carbonate dissociation sets in at the lowermost stage.2 Calcinator (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater) The balancing space of the calcinator starts at the rotary kiln inlet and ends downstream from the lowermost cyclone (Figure 14). since it is in these aggregates that the essential reactions of the kiln feed and of the fuel take place. The limitations outlined in Section 4. irrespective of the burning or pre-heating conditions. The lowermost stage of the cyclone preheater counts as part of the calcinator. The cooling area efficiency makes it possible to thermally evaluate the cooling in the entire process. For this reason.1. 4. With degrees of precalcining below approximately 90%. a sintering temperature of 1450°C [2642°F] was presupposed.2. the waste gas acquires a chemically determined temperature that is very well-suited for determining this balance limit. the calcinator is often balanced together with the rotary kiln.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 91 Figure 14 .Balancing space of the calcinator with incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows. .

2. VC that has escaped from the kiln feed in the preheater and in the calcinator to the & carbon dioxide mass flow mCO 2 . The actual degree of precalcining ϕ actual is defined according to Equation (120) as the ratio of the carbon dioxide mass flow & mCO 2 .1 Determination of the degree of precalcining The degree of precalcining can be used to evaluate the progress of the decarbonation of the kiln feed in the preheater and in the calcinator. and by ignoring the dust in the rotary kiln inlet gas. In this context. the degree of precalcining can also be determined on the basis of the solid substance analyses. the degree of precalcining refers to the degree of dissociation of the calcium carbonate contained in the kiln feed prior to its entry into the rotary kiln.0 that was originally bound in the kiln feed as carbonate: The degree of precalcining calculated according to Equation (120) can only be determined by using complete gas or solid substance balances. It is designated as the apparent degree of precalcining ϕ apparent. More details on this can be found in literature reference [30].May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 92 4. As a simplification. the apparent degree of precalcining ϕ apparent results from the CO2 concentrations x CO 2 and the concentrations of nonvolatile components xNF of the kiln feed (index S1) and of the kiln feed at the kiln inlet (index S6): . & Provided that the raw gas dust mSt1 has the same chemical composition as the kiln feed & mS1 .2.

2. the following relationship exists between the apparent and the actual degree of precalcining: 4. however. For this reason. As a rule. it consists of 3 to 5 preheating stages in which gas and the kiln feed are fed in a countercurrent with respect to each other.3 Preheater (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater) Figure 15 shows the balancing space of the preheater. The degrees of separation of the individual cyclone stages are relevant for an evaluation of the preheater. If the dust mass flows mSt4 and mSt6 have been completely decarbonated. the apparent degree of precalcining ϕ apparent calculated according to Equation (121) generally simulates a higher & & decarbonation of the kiln feed. .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 93 & & In reality. the more highly decarbonated dust mSt4 and mSt6 influences the & composition of the kiln feed mass flow mS6 .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 94 Figure 15 . According to it.Balancing space of the preheater with incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows.2.3.1 Degree of separation of individual cyclone stages Figure 16 shows the incoming and outgoing solid substance mass flows of a preheating stage. the following applies for the degree of separation: . 4.

this is the case with the uppermost cyclone stages (ϑ < 600°C [1112°F]). it is assumed that there is temperature equilibrium between the gas and the kiln feed in the cyclone stage. i +1 : Equations (126) and (127) can be employed in the area of the preheater where hardly any solid/gas reactions (decarbonation) occur. i stands for the reaction enthalpy flow of the raw material in stage i. Q W. The following applies as an approximation for the solid substance balance: The following applies for the energy balance: & In this context. & & Equations (124) and (125) yield the mass flows mS. In this context. As a rule. i stands for the radiation and convection loss flow of the ith cyclone & stage and ∆H R. .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 95 & & The mass flows mS. i and mSt. i and mSt. i +1 result from the mass and energy balance of the ith stage.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 96 Figure 16 . This generally applies to the lower stages & of the preheater. but also to the cyclone separator of the calcinator. If m NF. provided that the dust and solid substance mass flows exiting from each individual stage have the same chemical composition. the mass flows can also be ascertained on the basis of component balances. & and if malk. it is possible to determine the mass flows of the kiln feed and the dust between the individual cyclone stages: . eff stands for the mass flow of non-volatile substances effectively fed into the kiln system. eff stands for the mass flow of alkali compounds that are effectively fed into the system by means of the kiln feed. If the alkali compounds in the kiln feed differ sufficiently. then.Incoming and outgoing solid substance mass flows of a preheating stage with a cyclone separator.

xNF. N+1 (N= cyclone separator of the calcinator) are very difficult to measure. for purposes of simplification.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 97 From a technical standpoint. both concentration values should be pre-defined. Equations (126) and (127) as well as (130) and (131) constitute very rough approximations. but not the absolute value. . as a result of which. as a consequence of which only changes in these operands. should be interpreted. N+1 and xalk. for example. between two performance tests.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 98 5. Evaluation of the substance circulation systems Relevant substance circulation systems should be measured during a kiln performance test or else calculated on the basis of measured and analytical data. .

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6.

Evaluation of the cement clinker

As a rule, new systems are only examined once the clinker properties and thus also the cement properties have been achieving the desired quality requirements for quite some time. In contrast, kiln performance tests with old systems can also serve to optimize the quality of the cement and clinker.

6.1

Degree of burning

The degree of burning of the cement clinker is usually monitored on the basis of the bulk density (weight per unit volume) of a narrow particle range, for instance, 5 to 7 mm, whose values lie between 1.2 and 1.6 kg/dm³. The bulk density, however, is not only dependent on the degree of burning, but also on the chemical composition and on the porosity of the clinker. Moreover, the content of free CaO also provides information about the degree of burning.

6.2

Particle-size distribution

The coarse and fines fractions of the clinker (for example, < 2 mm and > 25 mm) provide information about the kiln operation and the clinker quality. They are ascertained by means of sieve analysis.

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6.3

Grindability

The grindability of the clinker provides information about the necessary work in the cement mill. It is primarily tested with the device according to Zeisel.

6.4

Chemical composition

The chemical composition yields the lime standard (KSt), the silica ratio (SM), the alumina/iron ratio (TM), the sulfatization degree (SG), the total alkali fraction (A) and the melt phase fraction (S). The lime standard indicates the content of CaO actually present in the raw material mixture or clinker as a percentage of the maximum CaO content that can be bound to SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 under industrial burning and cooling conditions. Several formulas, which do not differ markedly from each other, are commonly employed to calculate the lime standard. According to F.M. Lea and T.W. Parker, for example, the following applies [7]:

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The silica modulus is the ratio of silicon dioxide to the sum of aluminum oxide and iron oxide. The following applies:

Since the silicon dioxide is primarily bound in the solid phases tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate at the sintering temperature, but since aluminum oxide and iron oxide are present in the melt, the silica modulus refers to the solid-to-liquid ratio in the sintering zone of the cement kiln. Generally speaking, the silica modulus lies between SM = 1.8 and SM = 3.0, most frequently and most advantageously between SM = 2.3 and SM = 2.8. The alumina/iron ratio (TM) is the ratio of the aluminum oxide content to the iron oxide content. The following applies:

It provides information about the quantity ratio of calcium aluminate to calcium aluminate ferrite and consequently about the clinker melt. With clinker having a commonly employed composition, this value lies between 1.5 and 4.0. With an alumina/iron ratio of 0.638, the calculation indicates that all of the aluminum oxide contained in the clinker is bound as calcium aluminate ferrite having the assumed composition 4 CaO · Al2O3 · Fe2O3.

4°F] and TM < 1.38). (for ϑ S = 1338°C [2440.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 102 The sulfatization degree (SG) indicates the percentage of alkalis in the clinker.38).4°F] and TM > 1. (for ϑ S = 1450°C [2642°F]). (for ϑ S = 1400°C [2552°F]). . which are present as alkali sulfate: The total alkali fraction (A) results from the conversion of the fraction of potassium oxide into the equivalent sodium fraction according to the following equation: The following applies as an approximation for the melt phase (S): (for ϑ S = 1338°C [2440.

02 at the maximum. for instance. However. the calculation only provides an approximation of the actual clinker composition [7]. constitution and distribution of the clinker compounds. provide information about the preparation of the raw material mixture and about the conditions during the burning and cooling of the clinker. the constitution and distribution of the clinker compounds and their coalescence.6 Microscopic examination The microscopic examination of the clinker provides information about the type. at higher contents.02. Whereas the type of the compounds depends primarily on the chemical composition of the kiln feed. that is to say.5 Phase composition The phase composition of the clinker can be calculated on the basis of the values of the chemical analysis. the structure. For these reasons. not only at the sintering temperature but also and especially when they crystallize during the cooling procedure.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 103 xMgO enters into the formulas with xMgO = 0. 6. . xMgO = 0. it is necessary to assume that the clinker phases have the composition indicated by their formulas and that the clinker melt is in a continuous state of thermodynamic equilibrium with the solid phases of the clinker. according to equations (54) through (60). 6.

. They are of decisive significance for the optimization of operations.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 104 6.7 Cement testing The results of the quality tests with the ground-up cement types within the scope of our own as well as outside monitoring also provide essential information about the properties of the cement clinker.

Evaluation of the emissions Relevant emissions have to be measured and/or recorded during a kiln performance test.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 105 7. .

7) mean specific thermal capacity of solids and liquids in kJ/kg K mean specific thermal capacity of gases in kJ/m³ under standard conditions (s.c.c. Formula signs and indices Roman letters a A b c cp D & E f F hu h & H & ∆H R & ∆H V KSt L lmin & m M N p factor (Section 4.) K diameter in m energy flow in kJ/s ratio of kiln feed to clinker in kg/kg of clinker surface area in m² lower calorific value in kJ/kg specific enthalpy in kJ/s sensible enthalpy flow in kJ/s reaction enthalpy flow in kJ/s evaporation enthalpy flow in kJ/s lime standard in % length in m minimum air demand in m³ of air (s.7) total alkali fraction in kg/kg factor (Section 4.1. chamber number in the grate-type cooler pressure in Pa .4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 106 8.2.1.) / kg of fuel mass flow in kg/s molecular weight in kg/mole stage number in the cyclone preheater.4.2.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 107 P & Q S SG SM T TM v & V w x y performance in kJ/s heat flow in kJ/s melt phase content sulfatization degree in % silica modulus absolute temperature in K alumina/iron ratio gas velocity in m/s volume flow under standard conditions (0°C [32°F] and 1013 hPa) in m³/s wind velocity in m/s mass concentration in kg/kg volume concentration in m³/m³ Greek letters α heat transition coefficient in W/m² · K difference emission ratio of the wall surface cooling area efficiency temperature in °C excess air coefficient combustion product per energy unit in m³ (s.67 · 10 – 8 ϕ W m2 K 4 degree of precalcining.c. relative humidity .) / kJ degree of separation of a cyclone density in kg/m³ Stefan-Boltzmann constant ∆ εW η cooling area ϑ λ µ ξ ρ σ σ = 5.

2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 108 Indices 0 initial state 0 through 11 reactions of the kiln feed (Section 4. cooler intake air) 11 cooler (cooler vent air) 12 tertiary air duct (discharged tertiary air dust) a Alk out Out B burner C D eff in In outside alkali compounds balance output outlet fuel burner calcinator.1. vapor under standard conditions (0°C [32°F] and 1013 hPA) effective balance input inlet .4. raw gas) 2 preheater / calcinator 3 calcinator (secondary burner) 4 calcinator (tertiary air duct) 5 calcinator (bypass) 6 calcinator / rotary kiln 7 rotary kiln (main burner) 8 rotary kiln / cooler 9 tertiary air duct / cooler 10 cooler (clinker. carbon rotary kiln.4) 0 through 12 balance limits 1 preheater (kiln feed.1.

sulfide sulfur satellite cooler dust radiation (rad) actual theoretical .) (0°C [32°F] and 1013 hPA) sum of non-volatile substances at constant pressure reaction clean gas grate-type cooler saturation apparent solid.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 109 F Fl total G surr i K Kl con L m max mech min N NV p R clean gas grate s app S Sat St Str actual theor sum of the volatile substances infiltrated air total gas. loss on ignition surrounding cylinder variable cooler. uncoupled clinker convection air mean value maximum mechanical minimum standard conditions (s.c.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 110 tr T U Um V loss pre-cool W dry tertiary air duct ambient circulation air preheater. atomic water potassium oxide potassium sulfate magnesium carbonate . evaporation enthalpy loss pre-cooling zone radiation and convection losses Chemical formula signs C3 A C12A7 C4AF C2 S C3 S Al2O3 C CaCO3 CaO Cl – CO CO2 Fe2O3 H H2 O K2 O K2SO4 MgCO3 tricalcium aluminate (3 CaCO · Al2O3) (12 CaO · 7Al2O3) aluminate ferrite (4 CaO · Al2O3 · Fe2O3) dicalcium silicate (2 CaO · SiO2) tricalcium silicate (3 CaO · SiO2) aluminum oxide carbon calcium carbonate calcium oxide chloride carbon monoxide carbon dioxide iron(III)-oxide hydrogen.

atomic oxygen phosphorus pentoxide sulfide silicon dioxide sulfur(VI)-oxide (sulfate) titanium dioxide .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 111 MgO Mn2O3 N2 Na2O O O2 P 2 O5 S2– SiO2 SO3 TiO2 magnesium oxide manganese(III)-oxide nitrogen sodium oxide oxygen.

und Stark. Keil. H. Bauverlag GmbH. Band 11.: Bindebaustoff-Taschenbuch. Seidel. O.: Thermodynamik.: Cement-Data-Book. G. Kühl.. Vulkan-Verlag. W: Zement. Band 1.D. VEB Verlag Technik.. Stark. Das Wesen und die Herstellung der hydraulischen Bindemittel. Band 3. H.1 Literature references General literature references [1] [2] [3] [4] [5) [6] [7] [8] [9] Kühl. 9.: Ratgeber für Zementingenieure. Brennprozeß und Brennanlagen. Essen 1991. . Berlin 1956.. FDBR-Fachbuchreihe. J. Berlin 1985.: Zement-Chemie. Band 1. Huckauf. Baehr. pp. Berlin 1981. F: Brennstoffe und Verbrennungsrechnung. Verlag Chemie GmbH. Brennprozeß und Brennanlagen.: Zement-Chemie. Duda. VEB Verlag Technik. Berlin 1958.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 112 9. Band 1. 545-574. Band 24. Die physikalisch-chemischen Grundlagen der Zement-Chemie. H. Labahn. W. H. Weinheim 1983. und Seidel. Berlin 1978. VEB Verlag Für Bauwesen.. Ullmanns Enzyklopädie der technischen Chemie. F. J. Wiesbaden 1985. Berlin 1971. Wiesbaden 1982. Band 3. F: Zement-Herstellung und Eigenschaften. G. H. Huckauf. [10] Brandt. Springer-Verlag. Locher.H.: Technologie der Bindebaustoffe. VEB Verlag für Bauwesen. Bauverlag GmbH. Springer-Verlag. Internationale Verfahrenstechniken der Zementindustrie.

105-114. Springer-Verlag. July (1985) pp. H. [20] VDZ-Merkblatt “Kontinuierliche Gasanalyse in Zementwerken”. Vol. 39-61.. Vol.2 Technical literature references Description of the clinker burning process [11] Sprung. [18] Hengstenberg. Steuern und Regeln in der Chemischen Technik..: Brennverfahren. B. Düsseldorf 1961.a review.: Messen. Band 11. Berlin 1980. Sturm. [17] VDZ-Merkblatt “Staubmengenmessungen auf Zementwerken”. Ursache und Lösung. H. Execution of kiln performance tests [16] VDZ-Merkblatt “Mengenmessung von Gasen durch Geschwindigkeitsmessung”. S. Rock Products. Berlin 1980.: Technologische Probleme beim Brennen des Zementklinkers.: Precalciners today . Steuern und Regeln in der Chemischen Technik.V. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e.. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie.V. 48.: Theoretische und betriebliche Untersuchungen zum Brennstoffenergieverbrauch von Zementofenanlagen mit Vorcalcinierung. Th. [13] Wolter. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. . und Winkler. J.: Messen. Springer-Verlag. J. Zement-Kalk-Gips 39 (1986) Vol.V. pp. 10. Zement-KalkGips 38 (1985) Vol. O. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e.. 612-614. A. B. Düsseldorf 1990. [19] Hengstenberg. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 113 9.. Düsseldorf 1962.. [12] Garrett. Messung von Stoffeigenschaften und Konzentrationen.1987. 43..1982. Stoffmengen und Hilfsgrößen. Sturm. und Winkler. Band 1. O. Messung von Zustandsgrößen.: Einfluß des Ofensystems auf die Klinkereigenschaften. pp.M. und Lang. W. [15] Rosemann. 3.. [14] Bonn.

9. H. 1. Springer-Verlag. 1986.E. [31] Gardeik. und Knacke. und Ziegler. Proc.O. H. [24] VDZ-Merkblatt “Berechnungsunterlagen für Ofenversuche”. 1-12. O. [30] Rosemann. pp. Berlin 1977. Berechnungsblätter für den Wärmeübergang.: Thermodynamik der Silikate. 144-149. pp.: Thermochemical properties of inorganic substances. Düsseldorf 1983. H. [28] Gardeik. Düsseldorf 1959. H. Ludwig. Zement-Kalk-Gips 37 (1984) Vol. 2. Berlin 1966. TonindustrieZeitung 56 (1932) Nr. und Kubaschewski. pp.. VEB Verlag für Bauwesen..: Berechnung des Wandwärmeverlustes von Drehöfen und Mühlen. H. und Ludwig.: Rechnergesteuerte Meßdatenerfassung und verarbeitung bei der Durchführung von Ofenversuchen.. O.V. E. A. 53-62. O.. Teil 2: Näherungsgleichungen und Anwendungen. Knacke. pp. 89-94. 3. Zement-Kalk-Gips 9 (1956) Vol.: Berechnung des Wandwärmeverlustes von Drehöfen und Mühlen. 6. [29] VDI-Wärmeatlas. 257-262.. [32] Wolter. pp. Springer-Verlag. 8th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement..May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 114 Evaluation of kiln performance tests [21] Schwiete. [27] Barin.. 304-306. Rio de Janeiro. H. G. VDI-Verlag GmbH.. 22. und Steinbiß. Berlin 1973.O.: Beitrag zur Thermochemie von Zementrohstoffen. [23] zur Strassen. pp. I. [22] Schwiete. pp. Teil 1: Grundlagen.: Die spezifische Wärme des Portlandzementklinkers. [25] Petrosjan. Supplement.O. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e.: Thermochemical properties of inorganic substances.: Der theoretische Wärmebedarf des Zementbrandes.. H. Zement-Kalk-Gips 33 (1980) Vol. M.: Phase composition of calcined raw meal.E. . H. und Gardeik. [26] Barin. I. Zement-KalkGips 38 (1985) Vol. 465-473. H. Zement-KalkGips 10 (1957) Vol.

. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. 8. Zement-Kalk-Gips 24 (1971) Vol. [44] Schütte. Zement-Kalk-Gips 43 (1990) Vol. Vol.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 115 [33] VDZ-Merkblatt “Rost-. P.: Die Bedeutung von Kreislaufbetrachtungen für Produktqualität und Umweltverträglichkeit der Zementherstellung.: Ober des Verhalten der Alkalien beim Zementbrennen. D. 338-343. [41] Kreft. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. W: Alkali. Zement-Kalk-Gips 35 (1982) Vol. [39] Locher. 4. und Gardeik. 9 (1960). und Kupper. 215-234. 1989. F. pp. Zement-Kalk-Gips. Düsseldorf. 12. 335-344. und Opitz. 8. Fortschritte der Mineralogie 60 (1982) Vol. H. Zement-Kalk-Gips 36 (1983) Vol. 9. [42] Rosemann. F W. Sprung. [43] Kreft.O. pp. D. Vol. pp. . 2. 456-459.V.: Das Verhaften des Schwefels beim Brennen von Zementklinker Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. 8. 1960. Dissertation.: Kreislaufe in Drehofensystemen.: Warmeübergang im Drehofen unter Berücksichtigung der Kreislaufvorgänge und der Phasenneubildung. Zement-Kalk-Gips 17 (1964) Vol. [37] Sprung. pp.und Schwefelverdampfung in Zementofen in Gegenwart hoher Chloreinnahmen. pp. pp. H. S. pp. Zement-Kalk-Gips 25 (1972) Vol. 418-422. Satelliten.. Sonderausgabe Nr. C. Evaluation of the substance circulation systems [34] Weber. 1-12. 31. Zement-Kalk-Gips 38 (1985) Vol. 9. W: Methode zur Vorausberechnung von Schadstoffkreisläufen in Zementöfen. 1. 1964. R: Alkaliprobleme und Beseitigung bei wärmesparenden Trockenöfen. 509-511.: Reaktionen im Bereich der Ofengase..und Rohrkühler in der Zementindustrie”..: Einflüsse auf die Energieumsetzung in Calcinatoren bei der Vorcalcination von Zementrohmehl. [40] Locher. Bergakademie ClausthalZellerfeld 1959. [36] Weber. H. [35] Goes. S. 565-570. R. pp. W: Stoffkreisläufe und Emissionen beim Brennen von Zementklinker. [381 Ritzmann.

[51] Sylla. 265-272. S. S. 192-197. 29. [53] Sprung.: Einflüsse der Verfahrenstechnik auf die Zementeigenschaften. 669-676. Teil III: Einfluß der Klinkerherstellung. W: Verfahrenstechnik und Zementeigenschaften. Zement-Kalk-Gips 28 (1975) Vol. 12. pp.-M. 7-29. R. [48] Locher. 6. [46] Bogue. 269-277.W: Einfluß der Klinkerherstellung auf die Eigenschaften des Zements.: Erstarren von Zement. Vol. F.-M. pp. F. H. 6. F W: Berechnung der Klinkerphasen. [47] Locher.: Einfluß der Klinkerkühlung auf Erstarren und Festigkeit von Zement. 291-293.H. Zement-Kalk-Gips 35 (1982) Vol. 7. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. pp. H. W.: Calculation of the compounds in portland cement.: The chemistry of portland cement.H. pp.-M.W. Reinhold Publishing Corporation.: Einfluß der Ofenatmosphäre beim Brennen von Zementklinker.. pp. R. . Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 1 (1929) pp. 10. 577-585.. Zement-Kalk-Gips 31 (1978) Vol. 9. New York 1955. [50] Locher. Richartz.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 116 Evaluation of the cement clinker [45] Bogue. and Sylla. Zement-Kalk-Gips 31 (1978) Vol. F. Zement-Kalk-Gips 28 (1975) Vol. pp. Sprung. ZementKalk-Gips 38 (1985) Vol.1962. [49] Sylla. pp. H. [52] Locher. 357-362.

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Evaluation of the emissions
[54] Kroboth, K., und Xeller, H.: Entwicklungen beim Umweltschutz in der Zementindustrie. Zement-Kalk-Gips 39 (1986) Vol. 1, pp. 1-14. [55] Sprung, S.: Spurenelemente - Anreicherungen und Minderungsmaßnahmen. Zement-Kalk-Gips 41 (1988) Vol. 5, pp. 251-257. [56] Locher, F W: Entwicklung des Umweltschutzes in der Zementindustrie. ZementKalk-Gips 42 (1989) Vol. 3, pp. 120-127. [57] Kroboth, K., und Kuhlmann, K.: Stand der Technik der Emissionsminderung in Europa. Zement-Kalk-Gips 43 (1990) Vol. 3, pp. 121-131. [58] Wischers, G., und Kuhlmann, K.: Ökobilanz von Zement und Beton. Zement-KalkGips 44 (1991) Vol. 11, pp. 545-553.

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10.

Evaluation example 1 (kiln system with a cyclone preheater, calcinator and tertiary air duct)
Balancing the entire system

10.1

10.1.1 Solid substance mass flows
& mS10

= 18.00 kg/s

x NF, S10 = 0.9760 x NF, St12 x NF, B7 = x NF, B3 = not applicable x ash, B7 ⋅ x NV, ash = 0.04 · 0.8007 x ash, B7 ⋅ x NF, ash = 0.04 · 0.8007

& mSt12 = 0 kg/s & m B7 & m B3 & mSt1 & mSt5

= 1.29 kg/s = 1.24 kg/s = 0.84 kg/s = 0 kg/s

x NF, St1 = 0.6454 x NF,St5 not applicable

x NF, S1 = 0.6316

Kiln feed mass flow (Equation 4): 18.00 ⋅ 0.976 − (1.29 + 1.24) ⋅ 0.04 ⋅ 0.8007 + 0.84 ⋅ 0.6454 = 28.55 kg/s. 0.6316

& mS1 =

Ratio of kiln feed to clinker necessary for burning clinker (Equation 6): 28.55 = 1.586 kg/kg. 18.00 + 0

fS1 =

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10.1.2 Gas volume flows

10.1.2.1 Dry gas

10.1.2.1.1 Minimum air volume flow

& mS1 = 28.55 kg/s & mSt1 = & m B7 = & m B3 = 0.84 kg/s 1.29 kg/s 1.24 kg/s

x C, S1 = 0.0015 x C, St1 = 0.0021 h u, B7 = 22684 kJ/kg h u, B3 = 22684 kJ/kg

x S, S1 = 0.0004 x S, St1 = 0.0008

The carbon mass flow (Equation 8) and the sulfide mass flow (Equation 9) effectively fed in with the kiln feed: & mC, eff, S = 28.55 · 0.0015 – 0.84 · 0.0021 = 0.0411 kg/s & mS, eff, S = 28.55 · 0.0004 – 0.84 · 0.0008 = 0.0107 kg/s

Minimum air demand of the fuels (Equation 13): lmin, B7 = lmin, B3 = 0.44 + 0.000245 · 22684 = 5.998 m³/kg Minimum air volume flow (Equation 10):

& VL, min, tr = (1.29 + 1.24) · 5.998 + 0.0411 · 8.88 + 0.0107 · 3.32 = 15.58 m³/s

5 ⋅ 0.762 (1 − 0.0489 − 0.0006 − 0.5 ⋅ 0.762 (1 − 0.G6 = 0.G1 = 0.25 m² ∆p = 5 Pa p = 1010 hPa ϑ U = 5°C [41°F] ρ L. tr.2108 yCO.2278 0. tr.0489) λG1 = λG2 = 1 = 1.29 kg/m³ .0302 Air proportionality factors in the waste gas downstream from the preheater.0005 yO 2 .G1 = 0. tr.0005 1 − 3.0007 − 0. from the burning area and from the rotary kiln (Equation 16): 1 = 1.0318 − 0.1.G2 = 0.0489 yO 2 .2108 − 0.G1 = 0.G2 = 0.1.2925 yCO 2 .3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood F ≈ 0.0007 1 − 3.0318 yO 2 .G2 = 0.1745 0.1.2. tr.2 Air proportionality factors yCO 2 .0005 − 0.3843 0.0006 1 − 3.3290 − 0.0006 y CO.G6 = 0. tr.762 (1 − 0.5 ⋅ 0. tr.G2 = 0. tr.0302) 10. tr.1.0007 y CO.2925 − 0. tr.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 120 10.N = 1.3290 yCO 2 .0302 − 0.0318) λG6 = 1 = 1.

tr ≈ ⋅ 5 ⋅ 1.52 m³/s 1.1745 · 1.268 kg/m³ 1013 277 Infiltrated air volume flow (Equation 19): 0. tr = 6. B7 = 5.73 m³/s & VL11. tr = 0.39 m³/s & VFl.52 m³/s Secondary air volume flow (Equation 20): & VL8.52 = 7.39 – 0.2.25 & VFl.18 + 6.18 m³/s & VL9.4 Secondary air λ G6 = 1. tr = 1.29 kg/s lmin.5 Cooler intake air & VL8.08 m³/s .1. tr = 1.18 m³/s 10.998 – 1. D. D. tr =7.17 = 37.998 m³/kg & VL7.1.2.1745 & m B7 = 1.75 ⋅ 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 121 Density of the ambient air: ρ L = 1.73 + 23. tr = 23.29 · 1010 273 ⋅ = 1.17 m³/s Cooler intake air volume flow (Equation 21): & VL10.29 10.1. tr = 7.1.29 · 5.268 ⋅ 2 = 0.

2925 & Vpure gas.St1 x CO 2 .1.376 kg/s CO2 from the kiln feed (Equation 23): 44. tr.1426 1.3256 = 9.24) · 5.S = 28.42 m³/s yO2 .84 m³/s VCO 2 .eff.0411  12.84 · 0. B7 h u. tr. pure gas = 0.G5 .55 kg/s = 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 122 10.24 kg/s = 0 x CO 2 . tr.St5 = 0.2. pure gas = 0.S & m B7 & m B3 = 28. B3 = 22684 kJ/kg (lignitic coal) = 22684 kJ/kg (lignitic coal) & VG5. tr.376 + 0. B = (1.S1 x CO 2 . tr.0411 kg/s = 1.3380 – 0.84 kg/s = 0 = 0.29 kg/s = 1.G1 = 0.01  1. tr = 60.0489 yCO2 . Calculation on the basis of the CO2 balance: Carbon dioxide mass flow (Equation 24) effectively fed in with the kiln feed: & mCO 2 .3256 not applicable h u.S =  9.6 Raw gas & mS1 & mSt1 & mSt5 & mC.29 + 1.eff. tr. tr yCO 2 .01  1  & = 4. tr.55 · 0.3380 = 0.1262 yO2 .97  CO2 from the fuel (Equation 26): & VCO2 .0007 yCO2 . y CO.G1 = 0.88 m³/s .01 · 10 – 5 · 22684 = 2.G5 not applicable yCO.1.G1 = 0.

68 m³/s Gas volume downstream from the burning area (Equations 30 and 31): a) CO2 balance: 0.28 m³/s 0.G1 = 0. tr.83 m³/s 0. tr = 25.68 = 22.7 Gas downstream from the burning area yCO2 .2925 + 0.3290 yO2 .1426 & VG1. tr = 60.42 = 26. tr = 25.G1 = 0.2925 b) O2 balance: 0.0489 The following applies: & VG1.21 − 0.1262 & VG1. tr = 0. Calculation on the basis of the clean gas volume flow: Raw gas volume flow (Equations 30 and 31): a) CO2 balance: 0.33 m³/s 0.68 m³/s 10.0007 2. tr = = 26. tr.88 − 0 & VG1.1.G2 = 0.84 + 2.0489 yO2 .42 = 25.2.G2 = 0.07 + 25.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 123 Raw gas volume flow (Equation 29): 4.21 − 0.28) = 25.3290 .1.2925 yCO2 . tr.07 m³/s 0.0318 & VG1.5 (26. tr. tr = 60.2925 & VG2.

21   = 0.G1 = 0.22) = 23.24 kg/s = 0. tr.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) yCO2 .1.24 ⋅ 5.998 m³/kg = 8.88 + 0.G1 = 0. tr.0007 yO2 .03 m³/s 10.2.0107 kg/s yO2 .68 m³/s yCO.C lmin.0489   25.S = 5.5 (22.0302   1 − 0.83 + 23.32 − ⋅ 25.B3 lmin. tr.0318 The following applies: & VG2.2108 & m B3 & mC.22 m³/s 0.0302 Gas volume flow downstream from the rotary kiln [30]: & VG6. S & mS.5   0.1.0007 −  0.0107 ⋅ 3.32 m³/kg yO2 . tr = 25.0489 yCO2 .0489 & VG2.21   .68 = 23.0411 ⋅ 8.68 1 − 0. tr = 0.21 − 0.2925 − 0.2108 −  0.0302   1 − 0.G6 = 0.79 1.G6 = 0.2925 & VG1. tr = 25. tr 0.68 ⋅ 0.0411 kg/s = 0.21   0 . tr.88 m³/kg = 3.21 − 0.0007  0. tr.32 m 3/s − 0.2108 −  0. S = 1.0005 lmin.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 124 b) O2 balance: 0.tr.G1 = 0. eff.21   = 9. eff.G6 = 0.998 + 0.

G6 = & VL3.0302) + 1.32 – 6.19 = 3.0107 · 3.2.60 m³/s 10.21 0.tr = yO2 .S = = 5.2.998 + 0. S & mS.73 m³/s lmin.4 .68 m³/s & VG2.U = 4°C [39.1 Humidity in the air p = 101000 Pa ϑ L.1.1.0318 0.0411 · 8.88 + 0.tr & VG6. eff.5 · 0.1.B3 = lmin.03 m³/s = 9.2°F] ϕ = 0.32 m³/s = 6.0006 Infiltrated air volume flow (calcinator) according to [30]: 1 & VFl. tr.2.03 · (0.03 m³/s 10.tr & VL4. tr = 25. S = 1. eff.tr yO2 .0318 – 0.1.G2 = yO2 .24 · 5.24 kg/s = 0.73 – 0.2 Water vapor 10.1.03 m³/s & VL1 = 1. tr = 23.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 125 10.9 Infiltrated air (preheater) & VGl. tr.10 Infiltrated air (calcinator) & m B3 & mC.0107 kg/s = 23.G2 = 0.32 · 0. tr.998 m³/kg 8.2. tr.0302 0.2.88 m³/kg 3.19 m³/s & VG2.0411 kg/s = 0.32 m³/kg 0.1.C = (23.C lmin.0006) – 9.

St1 = 0.608 · 0.002 = 0.2 Water from the kiln feed & mS1 & mSt1 = 28. min.1745 · 1. L = 1.87 · 4 + 1.03 m³/s 10.622 812.4 Humidity volume flows (Equation 34): a) downstream from the preheater & & VH 2 O.608 · xD = 1.470 · 42 + 2.06 m³/s c) downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) & VH 2 O.58 · 1.5 + 43.002 = 0. D = 0.608 · 0.1.877 · 10 – 4 · 44 + 10 – 6 · 45 = 812. L = λG1 ⋅ VL.2 = 0.2 Pa Water content of the dry air (Equation 32): xD = 0.07 m³/s b) downstream from the burning area & VH 2 O.U) = 611.2278 · 15.998 · 1. S1 = 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 126 Saturation pressure of the water vapor at ambient temperature (Equation 33): ps (ϑ L.2.0020 kg/kg 101000 − 812.2.29 · 5.002 = 0.tr · 1.84 kg/s x H2O.2 0 .0190 ρH 2O.608 · 0.55 kg/s = 0.3843 · 15. L = 1.8 kg/m³ .0204 x H2O.564 · 10 – 5 · 43 + 2.58 · 1.

087 x H. 10 = 0 .0453 Moisture volume flows (Equation 36): a) Main burner 18  1  & = 0.84 ⋅ 0. B7 x H.24  0.3 Water from the fuel & mB7 & mB3 = = 1.087 + 0.71 m³/s 0 .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 127 Moisture volume flow from the kiln feed (Equation 35): 1 & VH 2 O.29  0.2.2.0453  2  0 .2.1.087 x H2O.77 m³/s VH 2 O.80 m³/s VH 2 O.0453 = 0.8  b) Secondary burner 18  1  & = 0. B7 = 1. B3 = 0.8  10.019) ⋅ = 0.29 kg/s 1.0453  2  0 .0204 − 0.24 kg/s x H2O.4 Injection water & m H 2 O.1. B7 = 0. B3 = 1.8 10.087 + 0.55 ⋅ 0.2. S = (28. B3 = 0.

1 Energy input 10. B7 = x H 2 O.4 Energy flows 10.6°F] ϑB3 = 32°C [89.4.1.24 kg/s h u. B7 = 22684 kJ/kg h u.087) ϑB7 = 32°C [89.71 + 0.29 kg/s & m B3 = 1.80 + 0.03 m³/s Volume flow downstream from the burning area: & VG2 = 23.06 + 0.68 + 0.32 + 0.1.15 m³/s 10.1.6°F] x H 2 O.087 .03 + 0. B3 = 0.77 = 28. B7 = x F.07 + 0. B3 = 22684 kJ/kg x F.77 = 24.1.3 Moist gas (examples) Raw gas volume flow (Equation 40): & VG1 = 25.80 = 10.3 Liquid mass flows Does not apply.2.496 (1 − 0.1.80 + 0.66 m³/s Volume flow downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet): & VG6 = 9.1 Fuel & m B7 = 1.4. 10.1. B3 = 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 128 10.03 + 0.

2 · 10 – 11 · 633 = 0. tr ≈  0.3 ·10 – 4 · 63 – 4.087 · 4.6 ·10 – 7 · 632 + 5.55 · 0.592 kJ/kg K Reaction enthalpy flow of the fuel (Equation 41): & ∆H R.2 Kiln feed & mS1 = 28.1.846 +  (1 + 1.344 + 0.8 + 7.087) · 1.4.24) · 1.344 kJ/kg K 1 − 0.087   Mean specific thermal capacity for the water in the coal: c H 2O ≈ 4.803 ⋅ 0.29 + 1.592 · (32 – 25) = 28 kJ/s 10. B = (1.1.24) · 22684 = 57391 kJ/s Sensible enthalpy flow of the fuel (Equation 42): & H B = (1.2 = 1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 129 Mean specific thermal capacity for dry lignitic coal (Equation 43): 0.844 · (63 – 25) = 916 kJ/s .2 kJ/kg K Mean specific thermal capacity for moist lignitic coal (Equation 44): cB7 = cB3 = (1 – 0.5 · 10 · 32 – 8 · 10 · 32 ) = 1.496   –3 – 10 3 c B.4°F] Mean specific thermal capacity of the kiln feed (Equation 49): cS1 ≈ 0.29 + 1.55 kg/s ϑS1 = 63°C [145.844 kJ/kg K Enthalpy flow of the kiln feed (Equation 48): & H S1 = 28.

total = 44.U = 4°C [39.3843 · 15.86 · 10 – 11 · 43 = 1.tr = 15.297 · (4 – 25) = -1223 kJ/s 10.1.58 m³/s & VL11.58 + 23.9 = 409 kJ/s Pmech.5 Mechanical performance Pmech.75 · 10 – 5 · 4 + 8.3 Air λG1 = 1.88 m³/s i Mean specific thermal capacity of the air fed in (Equation 52): cp.297 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the air fed in (Equation 50): & H L.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 130 10.1.L.88 · 1.tr = 1.4 Injection water Does not apply.2°F] Sum of the air volume flows fed in (Equation 39): & ∑ VLi = (1.4.17 m³/s xD = 0.17) (1 + 1. 10. air-intake fan = 337 kJ/s Mechanical performance (Equation 53): Pmech = (337 + 117) · 0.297 + 5. kiln drive = 117 kJ/s .002) = 44.1.002 kg/kg ϑ L.1. min.1.608 · 0.4. tr = 23.3843 & VL.4.1.06 · 10 – 8 · 42 – 2.

1.2.0632 – 1.4.071 .754 · 0.6498 – 7.071 · 0.2137 – 0.1.S10 = 2.2 Energy output 10.S10 = 2.S10 = 3.563 x C 2S.1 C3S.692 · 0.0234 = 0.043 · 0. C2S.0083 > 0.6641 – 0.868 · 0.S10 = 0 3 CaO bound in the clinker phases (Equation 54): x CaO* .1.0010 = 0.43 · 0.292 · 0.S10 = 4. 10.0067 The following then results: x CaOSO .563 = 0.65 · 0.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed Chemical analyses of the solid substance average samples. C3A and C4AF in the clinker SO3 bound to the CaO in the clinker (Equation 55 or 56): 0.128 x C 4 AF.0632 = 0.4. each according to Table 10.188 x C3A.0143 – 0 = 0.718 · 0.4.1.85 · 0.0234 = 0.0083 + 1.0234 – 6.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 131 10.2.602 · 0. S10 = 0.6498 Clinker phases (Equations 57 through 60): x C 3S.2137 – 1.

916 · (0.2.4.4306 > 0.S1 = 1.4.2.St1 = 0 10.0003 b) raw gas dust (Equations 61 through 64): 1.84 kg/s & mSt5 = 0 kg/s & mS10 = 18.84) = 1386 kJ/s .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 132 10.0204 · 28.3380 = 0.55 kg/s & mSt1 = 0.7404 x MgCO3 .274 · 0.3256 = 0.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust Does not apply.0190 · 0.274 · 0.St1 = 2.1.00 kg/s & mSt12 = 0 kg/s Reaction enthalpy flows (Equations 67 through 79): 1) Evaporation of H2O: & ∆H R1 = 2446 (0.4304) = 0.785 · 0.1.4304 The following then results: x CaCO3 .4. and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust a) kiln feed (Equations 61 through 64): 1.55 – 0.4 Balance equations & mS1 = 28.3256 = 0.2 CaCO3.1.274 · 0.1.2. 10.1.785 · 0.4304 = 0.3380 – 0.4235 The following then results: x CaCO3 .1.4148 < 0.S1 = 1.7683 x MgCO3 .

55 – 0 · 0.188 · 18.84) = 12 kJ/s 5) CaCO3 dissociation: & ∆H R5 = 1778 (0.071 · 18.128 · 18.00 = 170 kJ/s 9) Formation of β-C2S: & ∆H R9 = -700 · 0.84) = -1346 kJ/s 4) MgCO3 dissociation: & ∆H R4 = 1396 (0.7683 · 28.0003 · 28.0499 · 0.00 = -2369 kJ/s .0004 · 28.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 133 2) Decomposition of clay: assumption: 100%-illite & ∆H R2 = 884 (0.00 = -86 kJ/s 8) Formation of C3A: & ∆H R8 = 74 · 0.0402 · 28.55 – 0.84) = 37895 kJ/s 6) Pyrite: & ∆H R6 = -12914 (0.7404 · 0.84) = -139 kJ/s 7) Formation of C4AF: & ∆H R7 = -67 · 0.0021 · 0.55 – 0.55 – 0.84) = 978 kJ/s 3) Organic clay components: & ∆H R3 = -32786 (0.0015 · 28.55 – 0.0008 · 0.

2.0838) · 0.0838) · 0.1.2680 – 0.2925 = 0.3 Waste gas losses & VG1 = 28. G1 y N 2 .4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 134 10) Formation of C3S: & ∆H R10 = -495 · 0. G1 = (1 – 0.0838 – 0. 10.25 m³/s ϑ G1 = 330°C [626°F] ϑ L11 = 278°C [532.0067 · 18.0838 yCO 2 .0014 · 0.0448 = 0.2680 yO 2 . G1 = (1 – 0.0010 · 28.563 · 18.4°F] y H 2O. G1 = 0.0489 = 0.1.4.6034 .55) = -903 kJ/s Sum of the reaction enthalpy flow of the kiln feed (Equation 80): & ∆H R.00 + 0.2 Water evaporation Does not apply.00 = -5016 kJ/s 11) Formation of K2SO4: & ∆H R11 = -9690 (0.S = 1386 + 978 – 1346 + 12 + 37895 – 139 – 86 + 170 – 2369 – 5016 – 903 = 30582 kJ/s 10.03 m³/s & VL11 = 23.84 – 0.0448 = 1 – 0.2.

319 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the cooler vent air (Equation 89): & H L11 = 23.2 · 10 – 11 · 3303 = 0.497 (330 – 25) = 12798 kJ/s b) Cooler vent air Mean specific thermal capacity of the cooler vent air (Equation 52): cp.4.25 · 1.90 · 10 – 11 · 3303 = 1. N 2 = 1.304 + 1.01 · 10 – 11 ·3303 = 1.52 · 10 – 5 · 330 + 2.22 · 10 – 11 ·3303 = 1.G1 = 0.2.904 kJ/m³ K c p.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 135 a) Raw gas Mean specific thermal capacity of the raw gas (Equations 83 through 87): c p.489 + 9.O 2 = 1.54 + 0.021 · 10 – 7 · 3302 – 7.03 · 1.6034 · 1.916 · 10 – 4 · 330 – 9.993 kJ/kg K .1.32 + 0.297 + 5.606 · 10 – 7 · 3302 + 8.6 · 10 – 7 · 3302 + 5.631 · 10 – 4 · 330 – 4. L11 ≈ 1.366 = 1.35 · 10 – 11 ·3303 = 1.0838 · 1.540 kJ/m³ K c p.0448 · 1.268 + 1.86 · 10 – 11 · 2783 = 1.4 · 10 – 9 · 3302 – 1.CO 2 = 1.8 + 7.4 Dust losses & mSt1 = 0.904 + 0.75 · 10 – 5 · 278 + 8.633 + 9.05 · 10 – 5 · 330 + 9.301 + 3.3 · 10 – 4 · 330 – 4.65 · 10 – 8 · 3302 – 3.320 kJ/m³ K c p. H 2O = 1.06 · 10 – 8 · 2782 – 2.84 kg/s ϑ St1 = 330°C [626°F] Mean specific thermal capacity of the raw gas dust (Equation 49): CSt1 ≈ 0.319 (278 – 25) = 7759 kJ/s 10.497 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the raw gas (Equation 82): & H G1 = 28.366 kJ/m³ K c p.

1.00 kg/s ϑ S10 = 120°C [248°F] Mean specific thermal capacity of the raw gas dust (Equation 95): CS10 = 0.CO = 25.124 · 10 – 10 · 1203 = 0.993 (330 – 25) = 254 kJ/s 10.0007 Reaction enthalpy flow (Equation 93): & ∆H R.6 Clinker & mS10 = 18.793 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the clinker (Equation 94): & H S10 = 18.68 m³/s y CO.2. tr = 25.tr.0007 · 12645 = 227 kJ/s 10.68 · 0.793 (120 – 25) = 1355 kJ/s .921 · 10 – 4 · 120 – 5.4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 136 Enthalpy flow of the raw gas dust (Equation 90): & H St1 = 0.2.G1 = 0.4.84 · 0.00 · 0.1.5 Incomplete combustion & VG1.369 · 10 – 7 · 1202 + 2.729 + 5.

7 Radiation and convection: For calculation examples.4. 10. B = 59059 – 28 – 916 + 1223 – 409 = 58929 kJ/s Balance deficit: 58929 – 57391 = 1538 kJ/s This corresponds to 2.4. D = 4266 kJ/s & Q W.3 Energy balance Energy output (Equation 108): & E out = 30582 + 12798 + 7759 + 254 + 227 + 1355 + 720 + 360 + 4266 + 486 + 252 = 59059 kJ/s Reaction enthalpy flow of the fuel including the balance remainder (Equation 109): & ∆H R.2.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 137 10.8 Uncoupled heat Does not apply. V = 720 kJ/s & Q W.1. K = 252 kJ/s 10.1.2.6% of the balance sum.4. see [31]: & Q W.T = 486 kJ/s & Q W. .C = 360 kJ/s & Q W.

00 + 0.35 ⋅ 7.20 m³/s Cooler intake air volume flow (Equation 38): & VL10 = 37.18 m³/s & VL9.18 m³/s & VL10. tr = 37.35 + 0. tr = 7.20 m³/s .1 Solid substance mass flows & mS10 = 18.08 m³/s xD = 0.1.73 Hot clinker mass flow (Equation 111): & mS8 = 18.00 kg/s & mSt9 = 0. tr = 7.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 138 10.002) = 7.608 · 0.2.73 m³/s Secondary air dust mass flow (Equation 110): & mSt8 = 0.37 kg/s 6.2 Gas volume flows & VL8.002) = 37.18 (1 + 1.0020 kg/kg Secondary air volume flow (Equation 38): & VL8 = 7.2 Balancing of the partial systems 10.2.72 kg/s 10.08 (1 + 1. tr = 6.2.18 = 0.608 · 0.1 Clinker cooler 10.37 = 18.35 kg/s & VL8.1.

May 1992

Specification Vt 10

Page 139

10.2.1.3 Energy flows

10.2.1.3.1 Energy input

& VL10 = 37.20 m³/s

ϑ U = 4°C [39.2°F]

Pmech, intake air fan = 337 kJ/s

cp,L10 = 1.297 kJ/m³ K (for the calculation, see above) The enthalpy flow of the hot clinker results from the balance remainder from the energy balance. Enthalpy flow of the cooler intake air (Equation 113): & H L10 = 37.20 · 1.297 (4 – 25) = -1014 kJ/s The enthalpy flow of the injection water does not apply here. Mechanical performance (Equation 114): Pmech, K = 337 · 0.9 = 303 kJ/s

10.2.1.3.2 Energy output

& VL9 & VL8

& = VL4 = 6.75 m³/s = 7.20 m³/s

& & mSt9 = mSt4 = 0.35 kg/s & mSt8 = 0.37 kg/s

ϑ L4

= 853°C [1567.4°F]

& QW,T = 486 kJ/s

May 1992

Specification Vt 10

Page 140

Enthalpy flow of the clinker (for the calculation, see above): & H S10 = 1355 kJ/s Radiation and convection loss flow of the cooler including the kiln hood:

& Q W, K = 252 kJ/s

The uncoupled heat flow does not apply here. Enthalpy flow of the cooler vent air (for the calculation, see above): & H L11 = 7759 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the tertiary air at the calcinator (Equations 52 and 89): cp,L4 = 1.297 + 5.75 · 10 – 5 · 8.53 + 8.06 · 10 – 8 · 8532 – 2.86 · 10 – 11 · 8533 = 1.387 kJ/m³ K & H L4 = 6.75 · 1.387 · (853 – 25) = 7752 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the tertiary air dust at the calcinator (Equations 95 and 99): CSt4 = 0.729 + 5.921 · 10 – 4 · 8.53 – 5.369 · 10 – 7 · 8532 + 2.124 · 10 – 10 · 8533 = 0.975 kJ/kg K & H St4 = 0.35 · 0.975 · (853 – 25) = 283 kJ/s Energy balance for the tertiary air duct:

& & & & & H L9 + H St9 = H L4 + H St4 + Q W, T = 7752 + 283 + 486 = 8521 kJ/s

The iterative calculation then results in the following: ϑ L9 = ϑ St9 ≈ 901°C [1653.8°F]

May 1992

Specification Vt 10

Page 141

Enthalpy flow of the secondary air (Equations 52 and 89): Cp,L8 = 1.297 + 5.75 · 10 – 5 · 901 + 8.06 · 10 – 8 · 9012 – 2.86 · 10 – 11 · 9013 = 1.390 kJ/m³ K & H L8 = 7.2 · 1.39 (901 – 25) = 8767 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the secondary air dust (Equations 95 and 94): CSt8 = 0.729 + 5.921 · 10 – 4 · 901 – 5.369 · 10 – 7 · 9012 – 2.124 · 10 – 10 · 9013 = 0.982 kJ/kg K & H St8 = 0.37 · 0.982 (901 – 25) = 318 kJ/s The evaporation enthalpy flow of the water does not apply here.

10.2.1.3.3 Energy balance

Enthalpy flow of the hot clinker (Equation 115): & H S8 = 8767 + 318 + 8521 + 7759 + 1355 + 252 + 1014 – 303 = 27683 kJ/s Hot clinker temperature:

ϑS8 =

& H S8 + 25 & mS8 ⋅ cS8 & mS8 = 18.72 kg/s

cS8 (1389°C [2532.2°F]) = 1.084 kJ/kg K The following then results: ϑS8 =

27683 + 25 = 1389°C [2532.2°F] 18.72 ⋅ 1.084

168 W/m² K 100  100   100  αrad = 0.1.9 · 5.2 (3.2°F]) = 18.2 + 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 142 10.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area Enthalpy flow of the clinker at 4°C [39.2.2°F]: & H S10 (4°C [39.4.2 m ϑ W.25 · 1.4 Evaluation quantities 10.5 – 0.499 W/m² K 473 − 277 αtotal = 9.3 · 3.2) (200 – 4) 1 = 122 kJ/s 1000 10.731 · (4 – 25) = -276 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the cooler vent air at 4°C [39.667 · π · 3.1.2°F]: & H L11 (4°C [39.85   + 0.2°F] Heat-transition coefficients (Equations 98.2°F]) = 25. pre − cool = 20.67 · 10 – 8 2 3 4734 − 277 4 = 11.1 Pre-cooling zone LB = -0.2.499 = 20.2 m Da = 3.2.1.298 · (4 – 25) = -688 kJ/s . 99 and 101): 200  200   200  αconv = 0.168 + 11.0 + 3.2 – 0.667 W/m² K Radiation and convection loss flow of the pre-cooling zone (Equation 117): & Q W.076   = 9.m ≈ 200°C [392°F] ϑ U = 4°C [39.4.00 · 0.

S6 = 0.89 0.2.3380 xNF.3 Cooling area efficiency Enthalpy flow of the clinker at 1450°C [2642°F]: & H S10 (1450°C [2642°F]) = 18.6316 (sum 1 to 8 in Table 10) Apparent degree of precalcining of the kiln feed at the kiln inlet (Equation 121): 0.9016 (sum 1 to 8 in Table 10) xNF.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 143 Energy loss of the cooling area (Equation 118): & Eloss.0532 xCO2 .3380 0.S6 = 0.635 28370 + 276 10.2 Calcinator xCO2 . cooling area = 1355 + 276 + 7759 + 688 + 252 + 122 = 10452 kJ/s 10.6316 ϕ apparent .9016 = 0.0532 = 1 − 0.4.00 · 1.1.S1 = 0.2.S1 = 0.106 · (1450 – 25) = 28370 kJ/s Cooling area efficiency (Equation 119): η cooling area = 1 – 10452 = 0.

2. (126). (130) and (131). 6) The cyclone of the calcinator is assigned the number 5. 4) The following aspects are taken into account for the reaction enthalpy flow in the preheater: • evaporation of H2O • degradation of clay • organic components • MgCO3 dissociation • pyrite 5) The sum of the reaction enthalpy flows in the preheater is uniformly distributed among the four stages. Assumptions made for the calculations: 1) The conveying air volume flow for the kiln feed enters into stage 1. .3 Preheater Calculation of the mass flows and degrees of separation according to Equations (123). 3) The infiltrated air volume flow of the preheater is uniformly distributed over the four stages. (127).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 144 10. 7) The dust from the rotary kiln and from the tertiary air duct contains 10% alkalis and 90% non-volatile components. 2) One-fourth of the moisture volume flow from the kiln feed is desorbed in each of the four uppermost stages.

497 1.92 3.35 – 10.03 23.3 Estimation of error Table 16 provides an overview of how possible errors in the measured or input quantities (column 2) impact on the fuel energy consumption when it is calculated according to Equation (109) or according to Equation (41) and then related to the clinker mass flow (columns 3 and 4).55 43.G – 1.050 1.67 49.14 34.80 0.31 28.595 1.87 ξ – 0. .84 – 7.53 25.09 – – cp.26 – & mSt – 0.96 21.62 62.619 – – & QW – 180 180 180 180 – – & ∆H R – 223 223 223 223 – – & mS 28.26 – – – & mSt – 0.993 1.43 6.67 48.19 21. the table provides information about the necessary measuring precision for the individual measured quantities during a performance test.69 0.092 1.98 0.02 25.110 – – & VG – 28.55 – – & mS 28.555 1.55 – 34.844 0.84 15.87 0.97 25. Thus.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 145 Results: energy balance i 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 alkali balance ϑ 63 330 480 638 744 – – cS 0.

35 .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 146 10.29 1.84 – 0.4 Tables (The operands are printed in boldface!) Table 9 . Designation Clinker Discharged tertiary air dust Kiln feed a) meter status b) calculated lignitic coal (main burner) lignitic coal (secondary burner) Raw gas dust Bypass dust Returned tertiary air dust t/d 1555 – 2506 kg/s 18. calcinator and tertiary air duct).4 107.Solid substance mass flows (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.55 1.24 0.00 – – 2466 111.3 73.0 – 30 28.

16 0.56 0.07 – – – – – Kiln feed downstream from the cyclone 1a 14.26 34.72 4.46 97.80 – – – 1b 13.07 1.25 4.57 0.64 0.16 – 5.99 – – 1.49 – 0.83 0.54 0.57 0.15 – 61.65 3.64 99.76 – – – 3 14.58 100.81 80.96 – Raw gas dust 14.27 62.02 12.45 – 0.30 34.57 0.57 0.42 1.85 4. No.84 4.95 – – 1.72 0.40 – – – 5 19.80 – – – 2 14.22 7.51 99.23 – 27.31 – 0.47 1.75 98.04 – – 0.42 – – 1.43 Fuel ash 8.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 147 Table 10 .10 0.008 0.62 – 47.31 – 33.85 0.90 90.13 – – 1.44 – 0.61 – 0.83 – Clinker 21.51 – 43.43 100.32 – – 2.45 – 0.02 – – 1.78 0.15 0.04 0.70 – 42.45 0.22 0.64 0.70 0.60 – 0.59 – – 1.45 2.35 0.80 0.76 5.58 – 45.10 0.23 35.05 0.34 – 66.00 99.41 1.48 – – – 4 15.77 0.54 17.75 63.51 – 43.82 – – 2.23 0.37 6.57 0.14 0.25 27.04 0.13 – 33. Components Kiln feed 13.60 0.23 31.10 70.06 64.51 – 42.12 – – 1.32 0.85 100.08 1.22 34.10 99.02 0.14 – – 1.30 1.13 3.15 0.72 100.32 – – – 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 SiO2 Al2O3 TiO2 P2O5 Fe2O3 Mn2O3 CaO MgO SiO3 S 2– Cl – K2O Na2O ignition loss sum 1-14 sum 1-8 C CO2 H2O (< 110°C) H2O (> 110°C) CaOfree .08 0.63 0.16 0.31 34.001 0.72 0.03 0.76 – 31.30 6.15 33.92 0.91 4.03 0.26 99.67 – 0.12 4.36 0.68 0.30 – 33.50 – 43.10 61.08 66. calcinator and tertiary air duct).75 64.Chemical analyses of the solid substance average samples in % by weight of the substance entailing loss on ignition (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.21 35.25 48.01 0.05 0.

53 0.56 21.-% wgt.74 49.-% wgt.684 8.684 8.-% Fuel (main burner) 22.-% wgt. .20 4.-% wgt.-% wgt.70 4.60 Fuel (secondary burner) 22.74 49.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 148 Table 11 .27 0.-% wgt. Designation lower calorific value water ash carbon hydrogen sulfur nitrogen oxygen volatile components 1) 1) Unit kJ/kg wgt.70 4.60 Relative to the dry substance.20 4.27 0. calcinator and tertiary air duct).00 60.53 0.-% wgt.00 60.Fuels (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.56 21.

4°F] 120°C [248°F] 4°C [39.2°F] 901°C [1653.2°F] 845°C [1553°F] 853°C [1567.8°F] 278°C [532.6°F] 32°C [89.4°F] 744°C [1371. Designation Kiln feed Raw gas Kiln feed (cyclone 2) Kiln feed (cyclone 3) Kiln feed (cyclone 4) Kiln feed (cyclone 5) Tertiary air (calcinator) Kiln inlet gas Hot clinker Secondary air Cooler vent air Clinker Ambient air Fuel (main burner) Fuel (secondary burner) Temperature (°C [°F]) 63°C [145.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 149 Table 12 .Temperatures (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.2°F] 32°C [89.4°F] 1024°C [1875.4°F] 330°C [626°F] 480°C [896°F] 638°C [1180.2°F] 1389°C [2532.6°F] . calcinator and tertiary air duct).

02 CO vol-% 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 150 Table 13 .15) (7.Gas volume flows and composition (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.03 24.25 133600 5800 700 5000 37.c.62 29.8 8.03 (9.c.07 0.)/h 60. related to dry gas m³(s.03 0.25 32.89 3.)/h clean gas raw gas gas after burning area kiln inlet gas 1) secondary air 1) tertiary air cooler vent air cooler intake air conveying air (kiln feed) burner air (secondary burner) burner air (main burner) infiltrated air (preheater) infiltrated air (calcinator) infiltrated air (kiln hood) 1) 1) moist gas … – – – – … – – – – H2 O vol-% m³(s.76 CO2 12. = under standard conditions .)/h 244000 m³(s.06 0.52 Calculated. Designation Dry gas Moist gas Gas composition.05 (3.17 100900 88700 36500 (26000) 24300 83700 28.18) 6.73 23.19 1.18 3.05 217500 10.0 92400 82900 (33600) (25900) 24200 83400 25. s.c.08 O2 14.75 23.)/h 67.08 1.26 4.6 8.05 (3.42 m³(s.60 0.04) 0.90 21.19 1.66 (10.52 3800 (10900) 1900 1.3 vol-% of H2O 3800 (10900) 1900 1.39 134000 5800 700 5000 37.39 air with 0. calcinator and tertiary air duct).20) 6.68 23.61 0.c.20 1.c.03) 0.4 6.32) (7. but often very imprecise since gas analysis at the kiln inlet is not representative.

calcinator and tertiary air duct).Energy balance of the kiln system (kiln system with a cyclone preheater. Designation Input Fuel main burner secondary burner sensible enthalpy balance remainder Kiln feed Air Mechanical performance Sum kJ/s kJ/kg Kl 29262 28129 28 1538 916 –1223 409 59059 1626 1563 1 85 51 –68 23 3281 Output Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed Water evaporation Waste gas losses raw gas cooler vent air Dust losses Incomplete combustion Clinker Radiation and convection Preheater Calcinator Rotary kiln Tertiary air duct cooler + kiln hood Heat uncoupling Sum Fuel energy consumption including the balance remainder 30582 — 12798 7759 254 227 1355 720 360 4266 486 252 — 59059 1699 — 711 431 14 13 75 40 20 237 27 14 — 3281 58929 3274 .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 151 Table 14 .

635 1538 –57 17 1498 75 14 431 473 487 18 – – 1498 Sum Output Clinker Radiation and convection Cooler vent air Tertiary air and tertiary air dust Secondary air Secondary air dust Heat uncoupling Water evaporation Sum Evaluation quantities Energy loss of the cooling area in kJ/kg Kl Cooling area efficiency (1450°C [2642°F]) .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 152 Table 15 .Energy balance of the cooler (kiln system with a cyclone preheater. calcinator and tertiary air duct). Designation Input Hot clinker (balance remainder) Cooler intake air Mechanical performance kJ/s kJ/kg Kl 27683 –1014 303 26972 1355 252 7759 8521 8767 318 – – 26972 581 0.

com .15 0.09 0.42 2.Influence of measuring errors on the calculated fuel energy consumption (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.3 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 153 Table 16 .08 0.93 0.24 Translation by: Duvekot Translators 2219 Brackenville Road Hockessin.51 –0.12 1.22 –1.74 0.27 0. DE 19707 Phone: (302) 234-0237 Fax: (302) 234-0239 Toll-free: (800) 437-0237 e-mail: ledtrans@compuserve.28 1.29 1.43 0. Input quantity Relative error in the input parameter in % Relative error in the fuel energy consumption in % (Equation 109) Relative error in the fuel energy consumption in % (Equation 41) 2 10 3 Hu fuel Ash content of fuel Mass flow of fuel Mass flow of raw gas dust Mass flow of clinker Volume flow of dry raw gas Volume flow of dry cooler vent air Temperature of clinker Temperature of raw gas Temperature of kiln feed Temperature of cooler vent air Radiation and convection loss of preheater Radiation and convection loss of kiln SiO2 content in the clinker CO2 content in the kiln feed CO2 content in kiln feed and raw gas dust 2 10 10 50 3 10 10 5 2 10 2 50 10 –2 5 5 0 –0. calcinator and tertiary air duct).

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