TRANSLATION

GERMAN ASSOCIATION OF CEMENT WORKS (VDZ)
Tannenstrasse 2 4 Düsseldorf Germany

Execution and Evaluation of Kiln Performance Tests

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY COMMITTEE KILN PERFORMANCE TESTS TASK FORCE

May 1992

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. 2.
2.1 2.2

PRELIMINARY REMARKS ...........................................................................7 DESCRIPTION OF THE CLINKER BURNING PROCESS ...........................8
Reactions of the kiln feed............................................................................................................... 8 Burning process............................................................................................................................ 10

3.
3.1 3.2

EXECUTION OF KILN PERFORMANCE TESTS .......................................16
Mode of operation of the kiln system.......................................................................................... 16 Duration of the performance test................................................................................................ 16

3.3 Measuring methods ...................................................................................................................... 17 3.3.1 Solid substances.................................................................................................................... 17 3.3.1.1 Sampling .......................................................................................................................... 17 3.3.1.2 Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 18 3.3.1.3 Mass flows ....................................................................................................................... 25 3.3.2 Gases..................................................................................................................................... 27 3.3.2.1 Sampling .......................................................................................................................... 27 3.3.2.2 Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 28 3.3.2.3 Volume flows................................................................................................................... 28 3.3.3 Liquids.................................................................................................................................. 30 3.3.3.1 Heating oil ....................................................................................................................... 30 3.3.3.2 Water................................................................................................................................ 30 3.3.4 Temperatures ........................................................................................................................ 31 3.3.5 Pressures ............................................................................................................................... 32 3.3.6 Strokes and rotational speeds................................................................................................ 32 3.3.7 Electricity consumption ........................................................................................................ 33 3.3.8 Ambient conditions............................................................................................................... 33 3.3.9 Ensuring the precision of the measurements and analyses ................................................... 34

4.

EVALUATION OF KILN PERFORMANCE TESTS.....................................35

4.1 Balancing of the entire system..................................................................................................... 35 4.1.1 Solid substance mass flows .................................................................................................. 40 4.1.2 Gas volume flows ................................................................................................................. 42

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4.1.2.1 Dry gas............................................................................................................................. 42 4.1.2.1.1 Minimum air volume flow.......................................................................................... 42 4.1.2.1.2 Air proportionality factor............................................................................................ 45 4.1.2.1.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood ..................................................................................... 46 4.1.2.1.4 Secondary air .............................................................................................................. 47 4.1.2.1.5 Cooler intake air ......................................................................................................... 48 4.1.2.1.6 Raw gas ...................................................................................................................... 48 4.1.2.1.7 Gas downstream from the burning area ...................................................................... 50 4.1.2.1.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) ....................................................... 50 4.1.2.2 Water vapor...................................................................................................................... 51 4.1.2.2.1 Humidity in the air...................................................................................................... 51 4.1.2.2.2 Water from the kiln feed............................................................................................. 51 4.1.2.2.3 Water from the fuel..................................................................................................... 52 4.1.2.2.4 Injection water ............................................................................................................ 52 4.1.2.3 Moist gas.......................................................................................................................... 52 4.1.2.3.1 Air............................................................................................................................... 52 4.1.2.3.2 Raw gas ...................................................................................................................... 53 4.1.3 Liquid mass flows................................................................................................................. 53 4.1.4 Energy flows......................................................................................................................... 53 4.1.4.1 Energy input..................................................................................................................... 53 4.1.4.1.1 Fuel ............................................................................................................................. 53 4.1.4.1.2 Kiln feed ..................................................................................................................... 57 4.1.4.1.3 Air............................................................................................................................... 60 4.1.4.1.4 Injection water ............................................................................................................ 62 4.1.4.1.5 Mechanical performance ............................................................................................ 62 4.1.4.2 Energy output................................................................................................................... 62 4.1.4.2.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed .............................................................................. 62 4.1.4.2.1.1 C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF in the clinker ............................................................... 64 4.1.4.2.1.2 CaCO3 and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust ............................... 65 4.1.4.2.1.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust....................................................................... 66 4.1.4.2.1.4 Balance equations ................................................................................................ 66 4.1.4.2.2 Water evaporation....................................................................................................... 70 4.1.4.2.3 Waste gas losses ......................................................................................................... 70 4.1.4.2.4 Dust losses .................................................................................................................. 71 4.1.4.2.5 Incomplete combustion............................................................................................... 72 4.1.4.2.6 Clinker ........................................................................................................................ 72 4.1.4.2.7 Radiation and convection ........................................................................................... 74 4.1.4.2.8 Uncoupled heat ........................................................................................................... 78 4.1.4.3 Energy balance................................................................................................................. 79 4.2 Balancing of the partial systems.................................................................................................. 80 4.2.1 Clinker cooler ....................................................................................................................... 80 4.2.1.1 Solid substance mass flows.............................................................................................. 83 4.2.1.2 Gas volume flows ............................................................................................................ 84 4.2.1.3 Energy flows ........................................................................................................................... 84 4.2.1.3.1 Energy input ............................................................................................................... 84 4.2.1.3.1.1 Hot clinker ........................................................................................................... 84 4.2.1.3.1.2 Cooler intake air .................................................................................................. 85 4.2.1.3.1.3 Injection water ..................................................................................................... 85 4.2.1.3.1.4 Mechanical performance ..................................................................................... 85

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4.2.1.3.2 Energy output ............................................................................................................. 85 4.2.1.3.2.1 Clinker, clinker dust ............................................................................................ 85 4.2.1.3.2.2 Radiation and convection .................................................................................... 86 4.2.1.3.2.3 Uncoupled heat .................................................................................................... 86 4.2.1.3.2.4 Cooler vent air, secondary air, tertiary air ........................................................... 86 4.2.1.3.2.5 Water evaporation................................................................................................ 86 4.2.1.3.3 Energy balance ........................................................................................................... 86 4.2.1.4 Evaluation quantities........................................................................................................ 87 4.2.1.4.1 Pre-cooling zone ......................................................................................................... 87 4.2.1.4.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area .......................................................................... 89 4.2.1.4.3 Cooling area efficiency............................................................................................... 89 4.2.1.4.4 Cooler efficiency ........................................................................................................ 90 4.2.2 Calcinator (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater)..................................................... 90 4.2.2.1 Determination of the degree of precalcining.................................................................... 92 4.2.3 Preheater (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater) ...................................................... 93 4.2.3.1 Degree of separation of individual cyclone stages........................................................... 94

5. 6.
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7

EVALUATION OF THE SUBSTANCE CIRCULATION SYSTEMS ............98 EVALUATION OF THE CEMENT CLINKER ..............................................99
Degree of burning......................................................................................................................... 99 Particle-size distribution.............................................................................................................. 99 Grindability ................................................................................................................................ 100 Chemical composition ................................................................................................................ 100 Phase composition ...................................................................................................................... 103 Microscopic examination........................................................................................................... 103 Cement testing ............................................................................................................................ 104

7. 8. 9.
9.1 9.2

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSIONS ........................................................105 FORMULA SIGNS AND INDICES ............................................................106 LITERATURE REFERENCES...................................................................112
General literature references .................................................................................................... 112 Technical literature references.................................................................................................. 113

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10. EVALUATION EXAMPLE 1 (KILN SYSTEM WITH A CYCLONE PREHEATER, CALCINATOR AND TERTIARY AIR DUCT) ...........................118
10.1 Balancing the entire system .................................................................................................. 118 10.1.1 Solid substance mass flows ................................................................................................ 118 10.1.2 Gas volume flows ............................................................................................................... 119 10.1.2.1 Dry gas ...................................................................................................................... 119 10.1.2.1.1 Minimum air volume flow...................................................................................... 119 10.1.2.1.2 Air proportionality factors ...................................................................................... 120 10.1.2.1.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood ................................................................................. 120 10.1.2.1.4 Secondary air .......................................................................................................... 121 10.1.2.1.5 Cooler intake air ..................................................................................................... 121 10.1.2.1.6 Raw gas .................................................................................................................. 122 10.1.2.1.7 Gas downstream from the burning area .................................................................. 123 10.1.2.1.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) ................................................... 124 10.1.2.1.9 Infiltrated air (preheater)......................................................................................... 125 10.1.2.1.10 Infiltrated air (calcinator)...................................................................................... 125 10.1.2.2 Water vapor............................................................................................................... 125 10.1.2.2.1 Humidity in the air.................................................................................................. 125 10.1.2.2.2 Water from the kiln feed......................................................................................... 126 10.1.2.2.3 Water from the fuel................................................................................................. 127 10.1.2.2.4 Injection water ........................................................................................................ 127 10.1.2.3 Moist gas (examples) ................................................................................................ 128 10.1.3 Liquid mass flows............................................................................................................... 128 10.1.4 Energy flows....................................................................................................................... 128 10.1.4.1 Energy input.............................................................................................................. 128 10.1.4.1.1 Fuel ......................................................................................................................... 128 10.1.4.1.2 Kiln feed ................................................................................................................. 129 10.1.4.1.3 Air........................................................................................................................... 130 10.1.4.1.4 Injection water ........................................................................................................ 130 10.1.4.1.5 Mechanical performance ........................................................................................ 130 10.1.4.2 Energy output ............................................................................................................ 131 10.1.4.2.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed .......................................................................... 131 10.1.4.2.1.1 C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF in the clinker ........................................................... 131 10.1.4.2.1.2 CaCO3, and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust........................... 132 10.1.4.2.1.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust................................................................... 132 10.1.4.2.1.4 Balance equations ............................................................................................ 132 10.1.4.2.2 Water evaporation................................................................................................... 134 10.1.4.2.3 Waste gas losses ..................................................................................................... 134 10.1.4.2.4 Dust losses .............................................................................................................. 135 10.1.4.2.5 Incomplete combustion........................................................................................... 136 10.1.4.2.6 Clinker .................................................................................................................... 136 10.1.4.2.7 Radiation and convection: ...................................................................................... 137 10.1.4.2.8 Uncoupled heat ....................................................................................................... 137 10.1.4.3 Energy balance .......................................................................................................... 137 10.2 Balancing of the partial systems........................................................................................... 138 10.2.1 Clinker cooler ..................................................................................................................... 138 10.2.1.1 Solid substance mass flows ....................................................................................... 138

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10.2.1.2 Gas volume flows...................................................................................................... 138 10.2.1.3 Energy flows ............................................................................................................. 139 10.2.1.3.1 Energy input ........................................................................................................... 139 10.2.1.3.2 Energy output ......................................................................................................... 139 10.2.1.3.3 Energy balance ....................................................................................................... 141 10.2.1.4 Evaluation quantities................................................................................................. 142 10.2.1.4.1 Pre-cooling zone ..................................................................................................... 142 10.2.1.4.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area ...................................................................... 142 10.2.1.4.3 Cooling area efficiency........................................................................................... 143 10.2.2 Calcinator ........................................................................................................................... 143 10.2.3 Preheater ............................................................................................................................. 144 10.3 10.4 Estimation of error................................................................................................................ 145 Tables...................................................................................................................................... 146

stroke numbers and rotational speeds as well as on the consumption of electricity. in addition to the evaluation. as well as for the reduction of the level of emissions. specifically contains information for carrying out performance tests. including significant remarks pertaining to measurement technology. only serves to assess the kiln operation. but also to create a reliable foundation for the optimization of individual system components. Preliminary remarks In cement plants. The evaluation equations are employed in two practical examples in Sections 10 and 11. of the operation and of the cement quality. specific fuel-energy consumption). This specification deals primarily with energy and mass balances. For this reason. . this specification. The practical feasibility of the evaluation is always the main priority in the formulation of the numerical value equations. in contrast. The units indicated in Section 8 apply to all numerical value equations. Additional information in this context would be necessary in order to obtain a precise measurement.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 7 1. kiln performance tests not only serve to gather data on the performance of the kiln system (clinker output. Information on pressure levels. The important aspect here is the absolute value of the measured values.

The raw material mixture is heated up and burned in the rotary kiln to form clinker. . 2. marl.Schematic representation of the clinker formation reaction. a process in which several chemical reactions take place.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 8 2. some of them consecutively. clay and sand.1 Description of the clinker burning process Reactions of the kiln feed Portland cement clinker is made from a finely-ground raw material mixture consisting of limestone. Figure 1 . and some of them in parallel to each other (see Figure 1). The oxidic main components are calcium oxide (CaO). silicon dioxide (SiO2). aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and iron oxide (Fe2O3).

Owing to solid-state reactions. • upon cooling. • once a maximum of 1200°C [2192°F] is reached. while the chemically bound water is removed up to a temperature of about 700°C [1292°F]. Moreover. the formation of the dicalcium silicate (2CaO · SiO2. since it pro- . the alite and the belite remain virtually unchanged in their form and composition. the physically bound water is removed when the kiln feed is preheated. After the complete decarbonation. First of all. Fe2O3 as well as of activated SiO2 and CaO. C2S) already starts at about 700°C [1292°F]. • up to about 700°C [1292°F]. in short. At a sintering temperature of around 1450°C [2642°F]. which practically takes place between 800°C and 900°C [1472°F and 1652°F]. calcination of the CaCO3 and concurrent binding of Al2O3. clay minerals (SiO2-Al2O3-H2O) and iron ore (Fe2O3). reaction of the belite with the remaining free lime to form alite (“C3S”). This is followed by the calcination (decarbonation.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 9 The clinker formation reactions can be depicted as a model broken down into the following temperature stages: • starting composition: calcite (CaCO3). disintegrate again once the clinker melt starts to form at about 1280°C [2336°F]. the kiln feed has lost about 35% of its dry weight. dissociation) of the calcium carbonate into CaO and CO2. however. In this process. activation of the silicates through water expulsion and modification change. the formation of belite (“C2S”) from SiO2 on CaO (“free lime”) is completed. The melt plays a significant role in the finishing burn of the clinker. it reaches a fraction of about 20% to 30% by weight. quartz (SiO2). • starting at 1250°C [2282°F]. crystallization of the melt to form C3A and C4AF. • between 700°C and 900°C [1292°F and 1652°F]. and forced above 1300°C [2372°F] due to melt formation. various calcium aluminate and calcium ferrite compounds are formed as transition phases which.

5° to 4. After completion of the sintering. essentially tricalcium aluminate (3CaO · Al2O3. cement clinker is produced in rotary kiln systems with kiln feed preheaters located upstream and clinker coolers located downstream (for other process techniques. 2. which is indispensable for the strength properties of the cement. see [2-4. In this context. burning tempera- . and the tricalcium aluminate crystallizes with the finest grain possible. which is located at the lower end of the rotary kiln. On the other hand.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 10 motes the formation of tricalcium silicate (3CaO · SiO2. 6-9 and 11-15]).5 to 3 rpm. C3A) and aluminate ferrite (4CaO · Al2O3 · Fe2O3. C3S) from solid dicalcium silicate and CaO. C4AF) crystallize out. Consequently. Rotary kilns are fire-proof. As a result of the inclination and rotation. in short. In order to reach the sintering temperature of about 1350°C to 1500°C [2462°F to 2732°F] that is necessary for the formation of the clinker phase and in view of the unfavorable heat-conduction conditions in the kiln feed. the kiln feed coming from the preheater moves towards the main burner of the rotary kiln. the cooling rate should not be so high that the melt becomes glassy as it solidifies. Rotary kilns with preheaters located upstream have a length that is 10 to 17 times longer than their diameters. the cement clinker has to be cooled off so quickly that the tricalcium silicate does not disintegrate. in short. qualitative differences occur which depend on the composition of the kiln feed [48-53].2 Burning process In Germany nowadays. having diameters of up to 6 meters and inclined at an angle ranging from about 2. brick-lined tubes. which are operated at 1. the cooling of the cement clinker has to be optimally harmonized with the required clinker properties.0°. in short. As the melt cools down.

which usually consist of 10 satellite tubes attached around the periphery of the rotary kiln. depending on the clinker output. Grate-type coolers. and it is once again separated from the gas in the cyclones. The dry. When it comes to kiln systems.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 11 tures ranging from 1800°C to 2000°C [3272°F to 3632°F] or even higher are needed. satellite coolers and rotary coolers are employed as clinker coolers in the cement industry. raw meal mixture is fed into the waste gases prior to entering the uppermost cyclone stage. afterwards. the clinker that drops out of the rotary kiln after the sintering operation is cooled in a crosscurrent. the clinker dissipates its energy to the cooling air that is flowing in a cross current or countercurrent. With grate-type coolers. it re-enters the gas stream prior to the next-lower cyclone stage. a distinction is made as to whether they are operated with a grate-type preheater or with a cyclone preheater. the combustion air is preheated to about 600°C to 1000°C [1112°F to 1832°F] in a clinker cooler located downstream from the sintering process. In the case of the rotary coolers or satellite coolers. and it is then fed to the rotary kiln burner as so-called secondary air. In order to be able to reach such high temperatures. After the coarse dust has been separated out. the gas is once again blown from the top to the bottom through the moist granules in the dry chamber. Grate-type preheaters consist of a traveling grate on which the kiln feed that has been made into granules or briquettes travels through a closed tunnel that is divided into a hot chamber and a dry chamber. An intermediate gas fan blows the process gas of the rotary kiln from the top to the bottom through the layer of granules in the hot chamber. . The cyclone preheater essentially consists of four to five cyclone stages arranged one above the other in a tower that is 50 to 100 meters high. The process gases coming from the rotary kiln flow through the cyclone preheater from the bottom to the top.

depending on the number of stages and capacity flow ratio. The kiln feed entering the rotary kiln reaches temperatures of 820°C to 850°C [1508°F to 1562°F] at precalcining degrees of up to about 90%. the process gas from the rotary kiln has a temperature of about 1000°C to 1200°C [1832°F to 2192°F].Schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with cyclone preheaters and waste gas utilization. Upon leaving the cyclone preheater. the waste gases of the grate-type preheater have a temperature of about 90°C to 120°C [194°F to 248°F]. Figure 3 schematically shows a rotary kiln system with a grate-type preheater. As a function of the process. Figure 2 shows a schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with a cyclone preheater and waste gas utilization.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 12 Both with cyclone preheater systems and with grate-type preheater systems. the waste gases have a temperature of around 290°C to 400°C [554°F to 752°F]. . Figure 2 .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 13 Figure 3 . with the secondary burner located between the rotary kiln and the preheater.Schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with a grate-type preheater. and from there to the secondary burner. the so-called “tertiary air duct”. that is to say. which is designated as the calcinator. The combustion air for the secondary burner can be conveyed through the rotary kiln. the amount of energy supplied is such that 70% to 95% of the calcium carbonate of the kiln feed has already decarbonated by the time it enters the rotary kiln. In the case of new systems with cyclone preheaters. the fuel energy is divided up over two burners and. For this purpose. Since about 1970. which leads from the clinker cooler past the rotary kiln. the further development of kiln systems has led to the process involving precalcining. the combustion air is conveyed in a separate gas duct. new systems with cyclone preheaters are provided with an enlarged combustion chamber between the rotary kiln inlet and the lowermost cyclone. In this process. The principle involved in both techniques for conveying the combustion . This method is employed with old systems in particular. together with the waste gas from the main burner. however.

is shown in Figure 5. up to 60% – of the total fuel energy needed can be employed in the secondary burner. A rotary kiln system with precalcining.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 14 air is shown in Figure 4. up to 30% – in systems with a tertiary air duct. rotary kiln. consisting of a fourstage cyclone preheater. calcinator. In rotary kiln systems having a calcinator but without a tertiary air duct. Figure 4 . reciprocating grate-type cooler and tertiary air duct. .Precalcining process with and without tertiary air duct.

Schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with a cyclone preheater. calcinator and tertiary air duct.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 15 Figure 5 . .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 16 3. partial load). types of fuel. out. type of combined drying and grinding operation) should already have been determined during the planning phase of the performance test and. the performance test should preferably last 72 hours. in cases of major changes vis-à-vis normal operations. 3. preferably 48 or 72 hours. Possible criteria for interrupting the performance test should also be laid down in advance. the energy fraction of the secondary fuel. Neither shortly before nor during the performance test should there be any changes in the composition of the kiln feed or of the fuel (for example. . If the type of combined drying and grinding operation changes (in. composition of the kiln feed. The latter has to be safeguarded by means of appropriate measures. should already have been established one week prior to the start of the performance test. by changing the mixed bed). The essential operating data (for instance.1 Execution of kiln performance tests Mode of operation of the kiln system The considerations elaborated upon below apply exclusively to the stationary operation a kiln system.2 Duration of the performance test A kiln performance test should last for at least 24 hours. the mass flow of the kiln feed. 3.

which could give rise to insufficient blending by the time the sampling site is reached. apron conveyor). at the discharge end of the conveyors (for instance. that is to say.3. The safety regulations that apply in such cases must be observed. Table 1 .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 17 3. Sampling amount in kg ≥1 ≥ 0.3 Measuring methods 3.5 ≥ 0. screw conveyor) or from the meal pipes (for example.5 ≥ 0. for instance. the hot-meal pipe of a cyclone). The samples are taken from the belt (for instance. the sampling amount and the sampling frequency have to be adapted to the prevailing test conditions. Table 1 shows an example of a sampling plan.1 Sampling The objective of sampling is to obtain a random sample of each solid substance mass flow that is representative of the parent population being examined. when two partial streams having different concentrations of the component to be examined are combined. every 12 hours.3. It must be ensured that the sample is taken over the entire width of the material stream in order to take into account possible de-mixing phenomena. then this non-homogeneity has to be taken into consideration by enlarging the scope of the sampling. Material clinker coal dust (main burner) coal dust (secondary burner) kiln feed raw gas dust tertiary air dust bypass dust Kiln feed in the preheater 1) With partial-stream suction.1 Solid substances 3.Sampling amount and sampling frequency in rotary kiln performance tests.1. bucket elevator.5 ≥ 0.5 ≥ 0. conveyor belt.5 ≥ 0. Thus.5 Sampling frequency every hour every four hours every four hours every four hours every four hours 1) every four hours 1) every two hours every four hours .5 ≥ 0.

In this process. for example. .2 Analysis Table 2 shows an example of an analysis plan. homogenized and combined to form a weighed average sample for the duration of the performance test. This ensures that the best suited decomposition and analysis methods will be selected for each particular case. the individual and average samples should be stored air-tight in order to avoid a falsification of the H2O and CO2 contents. As a matter of principle. further decarbonation of CaCO3 or a residual burn-out of carbon.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 18 A partially decarbonated kiln feed should be cooled off rapidly and air-tight so as to avoid. As a matter principle. tertiary air dust) can also be taken by means of isokinetic suction of a partial stream. the laboratory should be informed about the source and presumed composition of the samples.1. Samples of solid substances from flowing gases (raw gas dust. High levels of moisture (for instance. For practical reasons. in the raw material) should be determined on larger individual samples. the samples can also be taken at time-staggered intervals. care should be taken to ensure that the suction is representative. the average sample is subsequently formed on the basis of the pre-dried individual samples. The individual samples are pre-comminuted (for example. 3. clinker).3.

ISO 687. ISO 334. ISO 579. Material Coal dust Analysis sampling. ISO 333 subtraction DIN 51570 (Parts 1 to 3) DIN 51900. ISO 589. ISO 2309 DIN 51900. ISO 609.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 19 Table 2 . ISO 562 DIN 51721. sample preparation calorific value H 2O ash ash composition volatile components C and H S Cl N O – Analysis method DIN 51701 (Part 3). ISO 351 DIN 51727.063) 1000°C [1832°F] ± 25 K (10 min) or 950°C [1742°F] ± 25 K until weight constancy is achieved Oil sampling calorific value H 2O ash C and H S Cl N – Natural gas composition O S Clinker.09 mm (for CaOfree 0. ISO 331. ISO 1171 DIN 51729 DIN 51720. ISO 587 DIN 51722 (Part 1). tertiary air dust sample preparation loss on ignition . 0. ISO 1988. DIN 51400 DIN 51722 1) subtraction DIN 51872 DIN 51856 DIN 51855 Grinding for complete passage through the sieve. ISO 1015 DIN 51719. ISO 3733 DIN EN 7 DIN 51721 1) DIN EN 41. ISO 625 DIN 51724 (Part 1). ISO 1928 DIN 51718. ISO 352.Analysis and analysis method for rotary kiln performance tests. ISO 348. ISO 1928 DIN 51777.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 20 X-ray fluorescent full analysis 2) Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Σ SO3 K2O. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. the results can deviate from one method to another . Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically J.9% by weight of SrO + 2% by weight of V2O5 as the decomposition agent. subsequent correction of the results c) fluxing agent tablet (1200°C [2192°F]. 81% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 8. dilution of 1:5 to 1:20). flame photometry (emission. 90% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 10% by weight of LiF as the decomposition agent. dilution of 1:10).1% by weight of LiF + 8. Smith decomposition. subsequent correction of the results Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) c) thermal reaction in a moist O2 stream at 1000°C [1832°F] so as to form hydrogen chloride Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) introduction of the hydrogen chloride into an acetic silver nitrate solution and coulometric titration The weighed-in amount has to be adapted to the low Cl – content of the clinker (5 to 10 g) a) gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream. analysis including SO3 and alkali b) fluxing agent tablet (1050°C [1922°F]. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. determination of SO3. determination of SO3. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. Na2O CaOfree a) fluxing agent tablet (≤ 1000°C [1832°F].L. 100% by weight of Li2B4O7 as the decomposition agent. absorption) a) method according to Franke b) method according to Schläpfer and Bukowski Depending on the boundary conditions. dilution of 1:5).

subsequent correction of the results c) fluxing agent tablet (1200°C [2192°F]. weighing Thermal desorption in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] a) KF titration b) IR detection c) gravimetric Decarbonation with hydrochloric acid. thermal reaction of the carbon compounds in an oxygen stream a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection a) fluxing agent tablet (≤ 1000°C [1832°F].9% by weight of SrO + 2% by weight of V2O5 as the decomposition agent. 100% by weight of Li2B4O7 as the decomposition agent. dilution of 1:10). 0. dilution of 1:5 to 1:20).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 21 Kiln feed sample preparation CO2 Grinding for complete passage through the sieve. cooling in a desiccator.1% by weight of LiF + 8. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. analysis including SO3 and alkali b) fluxing agent tablet (1050°C [1922°F]. subsequent correction of the results H2O < 110°C [230°F] 4) Σ H 2O Corg X-ray fluorescent full analysis 2) Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) c) thermal reaction in a moist O2 stream at 1000°C [1832°F] so as to form hydrogen chloride . dilution of 1:5). K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods.09 mm Thermal degradation in the inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] or chemical degradation with acid a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection Weighing. drying at 110°C [230°F]. determination of SO3. 81% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 8. determination of SO3. 90% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 10% by weight of LiF as the decomposition agent.

L. flame photometry (emission.09 mm Thermal degradation in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] or chemical degradation with acid a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection S2– Raw gas dust 5) (cyclone preheater kiln) sample preparation CO2 Σ H 2O Thermal desorption in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] a) KF titration b) IR detection c) gravimetric Corg Decarbonation with hydrochloric acid. Smith decomposition.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 22 Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) introduction of the hydrogen chloride into an acetic silver nitrate solution and coulometric titration The weighed-in amount has to be adapted to the low Cl – content of the clinker (5 to 10 g) Σ SO3 a) oxidation with bromine water. thermal reaction of the carbon compounds in an oxygen stream a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection . Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically K2O. absorption) Dissolution with hydrochloric acid containing SnCl2 in the presence of Cr (metallic). iodometry Grinding for complete passage through the sieve. Na2O J. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. 0. gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream. pick-up in a cooled (≤ 15°C [59°F]) ammoniacal ZnSO4 or CdCl2 solution.

9% by weight of SrO + 2% by weight of V2O5 as the decomposition agent. dilution of 1:5 to 1:20). Smith decomposition. Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically J. determination of SO3. subsequent correction of the results c) fluxing agent tablet (1200°C [2192°F]. determination of SO3. dilution of 1:10). pick-up in a cooled (≤ 15°C [59°F]) ammoniacal ZnSO4 or CdCl2 solution. dilution of 1:5). flame photometry (emission. Na2O S2– . absorption) Dissolution with hydrochloric acid containing SnCl2 in the presence of Cr (metallic). K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. 100% by weight of Li2B4O7 as the decomposition agent.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 23 X-ray fluorescent full analysis 2) a) fluxing agent tablet (≤ 1000°C [1832°F].L. 81% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 8. iodometry Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Σ SO3 K2O. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. analysis including SO3 and alkali b) fluxing agent tablet (1050°C [1922°F]. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. 90% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 10% by weight of LiF as the decomposition agent. subsequent correction of the results Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) c) thermal reaction in a moist O2 stream at 1000°C [1832°F] so as to form hydrogen chloride Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) introduction of the hydrogen chloride into an acetic silver nitrate solution and coulometric titration The weighed-in amount has to be adapted to the low Cl – content of the clinker (5 to 10 g) a) oxidation with bromine water.1% by weight of LiF + 8. gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream.

gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream. flame photometry (emission. iodometry . hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. pick-up in a cooled (≤ 15°C [59°F]) ammoniacal ZnSO4 or CdCl2 solution. 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 24 Bypass dust 5) Kiln feed in the preheater5) Raw gas dust 5) (grate-type preheating kiln) sample preparation CO2 Grinding for complete passage through the sieve. Smith decomposition. absorption) Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) coulometric titration d) gravimetric a) oxidation with bromine water. Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically Σ H 2O Corg K2O.09 mm Thermal degradation in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] or chemical degradation with acid a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection Thermal desorption in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] a) KF titration b) IR detection c) gravimetric Decarbonation with hydrochloric acid. thermal reaction of the carbon compounds in an oxygen stream a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection J.L. Na2O Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Σ SO3 S2– Dissolution with hydrochloric acid containing SnCl2 in the presence of Cr (metallic).

The maximum error is smaller with a duration of 48 hours. the analysis method for fuels is employed. Continuously operating clinker scales can be adjusted by the above-mentioned method. for example. clinker contains FeO and MnO. An interim result should be determined every 4 to 6 hours in order to obtain information about the time course of the mass flow.) Nitric acid extraction does not always dissolve all of the halides out of the sample matrix. the laboratory should be informed to this effect. The duration of the clinker weighing can differ from the performance test duration. Al2O3. shipping scales). In each case. K2O. If this is already known to be so. (Σ SO3. P2O5. CaO. This can lead to erroneously low results at low levels of Cl– in the raw material. . the trucks or railroad cars are weighed both empty and fully loaded (varying amounts of fuel in the tank. During the reducing burning process.3 Clinker: Mass flows The clinker is loaded onto trucks or railroad cars and weighed on calibrated scales (for example. In addition to the above-mentioned compounds. MgO. every 4 hours with different clinker production. the solid materials might also contain fluoride. dirt). even over shorter periods of time. 3) 4) 5) 3. Fe2O3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 25 1) 2) Since there are no specifications for mineral oils. SiO2. Na2O. Na2O should be checked by other analytical methods. but it should not be shorter than 24 hours.3. SO3. Mn2O3. several measuring intervals are needed. The measured value from the performance test is then multiplied by the resulting correction values. In the case of sensitive samples that are hygroscopic or that react during the drying process. K2O. Prior to the test.1. TiO2. barium oxide and strontium oxide or S2–. < 105°C [221°F]. the examinations should be performed in the delivery state. For this purpose. Dust as well as the kiln feed in the preheater can also contain highly volatile compounds such as. Alternatively. for instance. the weighing procedure should be checked. (NH4)2SO4.

However.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 26 In the case of immediately consecutive kiln performance tests.4. care should be taken to ensure that the cleaning of the filter is switched to continuous operation before the dust is discharged. .1. the precision levels achieved in this manner are often not sufficient for evaluating the kiln system.1. If weighing is not possible. a second clinker weighing procedure is not necessary if it is ensured that all of the dust mass flows remain constant. Kiln feed: The kiln feed mass flow is calculated. the fuel energy consumption is usually balanced by means of a comparison of the energy output with the energy input (see Section 4. the dust mass flow is determined by means of an isokinetic partial stream suction (in this context. The following relationship applies: Fuels: Fuels are weighed on industrial scales which have been previously adjusted. shipping scales). also see the VDZ Specification titled “Dust quantity measurements in cement plants” [17]).3). Dust: Dust is preferably weighed on calibrated scales (for example.1). Translator’s note: See Section 8 for the list of abbreviations used in the formulas. Here. For this reason. It results from the component balance of the sum of the non-volatile substances (see Section 4.

in the bypass gas and in the gas downstream from the burning area. more information can be obtained from the VDZ Specification titled “Continuous gas analysis in cement plants” [20]). O2. O2.3. O2. Moreover. CO CO2. there are also differences in the individual strings. Measuring site raw gas bypass gas (with cooling air) bypass gas (without cooling air) downstream from the burning area kiln inlet tertiary air cooler intake air cooler vent air burner air (main burner) burner air (secondary burner) conveying air (kiln feed) 1) Volume flow measurement pitot tube pitot tube – – – pitot tube – pitot tube pitot tube + rated values pitot tube + rated values rated values Gas analysis CO2. O2. while information on volume flow measurement is to be found in the VDZ Specification titled “Quantity measurement of gases by means of velocity measurements” [16]).2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 27 3. various gas compositions can occur over the cross section of the duct. in the case of double-string cyclone preheaters. CO 1) CO2.3. CO CO2. In the gas downstream from the burning area. O2.1 Sampling In the raw gas.Volume flow measurement and gas analysis in rotary kiln performance tests. CO – – – – – – Discontinuous measurement is often sufficient. Table 3 shows an example of a measurement plan. 3.2 Gases For the gas analysis. the time intervals at which the probes need to . CO 1) CO2. Table 3 .

Sampling sites in the upper third of the rotary kiln cross section are recommended. The probe in the gas downstream from the burning area should be cooled. it is not possible to specify a representative measuring site. Since the measuring site is also frequently exposed to falling material. the pitot tube should be installed in the . 3. 3. the process gas usually displays great differences in concentration. the sampling probe should be built laterally into the refractory brickwork.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 28 be cleaned can be extended by placing the measuring gas sampling opening as far as possible from the meal inlet pipes.3. For this reason. In the rotary kiln inlet. that is to say.5 m into the rotating part of the kiln in order to avoid falsifications of the measured results due to infiltrated air that gets into the inlet gasket or as a result of falling kiln feed material. So as to prevent falsifications of the concentration values due to the scrubbing out of individual gas components.2.2 Analysis The gas analysis should be carried out continuously. The probe should be cooled. determinations of CO2. At the very least. both with respect to location and to time. O2 and CO are required.2. cooler vent air). The sampling opening should project about 0.3. With volumes flows that fluctuate markedly (for instance.3 Volume flows The volume flows are primarily measured with a pitot tube. without injection water or scrubbing water. the measuring gas should be sampled dry.

expensive but accurate). There are three methods for measuring the raw gas volume flow: a) direct measurement with a pitot tube (in the case of unfavorable measuring conditions. The bypass gas is measured with a pitot tube after admixing the cooling air. The bypass gas volume flow prior to the admixture is derived from the gas analysis before and after the admixture of the cooling air. only possible if clean gases of the kiln can be detected in their entirety. c) conversion of the clean gas volume flow to raw gas conditions using an O2 or CO2 balance or an H2O balance (additional gas analysis and measurement of the volume flow in the clean gas is necessary. for example. b) calculation on the basis of a CO2 and an H2O balance of the kiln system (imprecise when secondary fuels are used) [30]. There are three methods for measuring the volume flow of the cooler intake air: a) inlet nozzles (often very imprecise). this is often very imprecise). > 50 g/m³]. c) air balance of the cooler (often the most precise way with continuous volume flow measurement of the cooler vent air after the dust removal).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 29 gas duct and the differential pressure as well as the appertaining temperature should be recorded continuously. . deflection of the gas upstream from the measuring site. substantial pressure fluctuations or a high amount of dust [for instance. b) fan characteristic curves (only possible for fans with adjustable rotational speeds).

the result that is read off the meter has to be corrected by means of a calibration curve.2.2 Water The water mass flow of a cooling chute (cooling water) or into the clinker cooler (injection water) is measured with water meters that have to be installed in advance. The cross-sectional surface area is either measured or estimated.3. In order to determine the actual volume flow that passes through. Moreover. . which changes as a function of the temperature. it is necessary to take into account the density. The conveying air volume flow of the coal dust and.1 Heating oil Heating oil can be sampled either by means of an automatic sampling system or else a sample is taken from the oil tank.3). Heating gas that has been measured volumetrically has to be converted to the standard conditions.3. The amount of oil that passes through the burner nozzle per unit of time is for the most part measured volumetrically by means of an oil meter. if applicable.3.3 Liquids 3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 30 The volume flow of infiltrated air at the kiln hood is calculated on the basis of the open cross-sectional area and of the differential pressure at the kiln hood (see Section 4. 3. of the kiln feed is derived from the nominal data of the fan.3.3. 3.1.

Measuring site cold clinker hot clinker kiln feed in the preheater (e.9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0. hot meal) bypass dust raw meal (for instance.9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.9) 2) Frequency every hour continuously twice per day once per day once per day fuels once per day raw gas bypass gas (with cooling air) gas downstream from the burning area tertiary air upstream from the preheater tertiary air downstream from the cooler cooler intake air cooler vent air burner air (main burner) burner air (secondary burner) conveying air (kiln feed) surface temperature .Temperature measurement in rotary kiln performance tests.3.4 Temperatures Table 4 shows the example of a measuring plan. kiln feed) Measuring device compensation temperature in adiabatic vessel.g. Table 4 .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 31 3.cooler kiln hood calcinator preheater 1) continuously continuously continuously once per day continuously continuously 1) continuously once per day once per day – twice per day once per day 2) twice per day 3) once per day once per day once per day if available with grate-type coolers 3) with rotary coolers or satellite coolers .rotary kiln surface temperature . Pt 100 quotient pyrometer NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or surface temperature of the conveying line with partial-radiation pyrometer Pt 100 or surface temperature of the conveying line with partial-radiation pyrometer Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni NiCr Ni NiCr Ni NiCr Ni meteorological station Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni like kiln feed partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.

• preheater (stages 1 through N). • waste gas fan. • bag house fan / ESP fan. • bypass fan.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 32 3.5 Pressures In order to evaluate the kiln operation. • upstream from the waste gas fan. • kiln. .3. • kiln outlet. • cooler vent fan. 3. The above-mentioned differential pressures have to be measured with damped measuring pick-ups. • downstream from the waste gas fan.3. the strokes and rotational speeds of the following aggregates should be measured or recorded by the operating measuring pick-ups: • cooler. • grate-type preheater. the following differential pressures should be measured or recorded by the operating measuring pick-ups: • cooler (chambers 1 through N).6 Strokes and rotational speeds In order to evaluate the kiln operation. • kiln inlet.

pressure and relative humidity of the ambient air are recorded by a meteorological station.7 Electricity consumption In order to evaluate the kiln operation. • burner air fan. Consequently. • cooler vent fan.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 33 3. • waste gas fan. when the balancing space is calculated. • cooler drives. • fuel feeding system. • kiln feed feeding system. 8 hours. If several consumers are connected to one meter. 3. • rotary kiln drive. the meter readings of the main consumers should be recorded at intervals of. • bypass fan.3. for example. . A large proportion of the electricity is converted into heat in the kiln system. The following consumers should be taken into consideration: • cooler fans. the consumption of electricity should be considered as an input item of the energy balance. the energy distribution should be measured with prong-type instruments.8 Ambient conditions The temperature.3.

Table 5 provides an overview of possible comparative measuring methods. Table 5 . miniscope or U-tube) sealed container with several aqueous saturated salt solutions The solid substance analyses have to be conducted by a laboratory that has sufficient experience with the execution of the analyses listed in Table 2.Comparative measuring instruments or method for rotary kiln performance tests. together with the date.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 34 3. In addition to regularly checking the status and settings during the performance test. Status checks should be made every hour and setting checks should be carried out at least before and after the performance test.3. Measuring instrument gas analyzer gas meters thermal elements resistance thermometer pyrometer pressure transducer humidity measuring device Comparative measuring instrument or method gas analyzer with another measuring principle wet-chemical analysis testing by the Board of Weights and Measures test thermometer and normal thermometer (for instance. it is also necessary to routinely replace wearing parts as preventive maintenance and to conduct function tests with comparative measured values (calibration).9 Ensuring the precision of the measurements and analyses The precision of a kiln examination depends on the systematic maintenance and upkeep of the measuring instruments. The time schedule for replacing wearing parts and for the function tests with comparative measured values depends on the measuring instruments and should be laid down appropriately. . platinum resistance thermometer) black body radiator tungsten band lamp (only above 500°C [932°F]) liquid pressure gage (for instance. Checks and corrections should be documented and should be indicated on the measuring equipment used.

1 Evaluation of kiln performance tests Balancing of the entire system When the mass balance is drawn up. The following mass and energy flows have been taken into account: Incoming solid substance mass flows: & mS1 & m B7 & m B3 for the kiln feed for the fuel (main burner) *) for the fuel (secondary burner) *) Outgoing solid substance mass flows: & mS10 & mSt5 & mSt1 & mSt12 for the clinker for the bypass dust & for H Fl. calcinator (C). as a result of which a separate presentation has not been provided. With other kiln types.C raw gas dust for the discharged tertiary air dust (only relevant in kiln systems with a tertiary air duct and high levels of dust in the tertiary air) *) Liquid or gaseous fuel can also be fed in. rotary kiln (D) and cooler (K) with the mass and energy flows that exceed the balance limit as an example. the changes are only gradual. Figure 6 shows the balancing space of a kiln system with a cyclone preheater (V). . tertiary air duct (T). 4. the gas and solid substance mass flows should be balanced together.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 35 4. since there are interactions between both of these as a result of chemical reactions.

. 1013 & hPA).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 36 Incoming gas volume flows **) & VL10 & VL7 & VL3 & VL1 for the cooler intake air for the burner air (main burner) for the burner air (secondary burner) for the conveying air (kiln feed) for the infiltrated air (kiln hood) for the infiltrated air (calcinator) for the infiltrated air (preheater) & VFl. while the formula sign V designates the volume flow related to standard conditions after removal tr of the water-vapor fraction.10 for the cooler injection water Incoming energy flows: & H S1 & H B7 & H B3 for the kiln feed for the fuel (main burner) for the fuel (secondary burner) **) & The formula sign V below designates the volume flow related to standard conditions (0°C [32°F]. C & VFl. V Outgoing gas volume flows: & VL11 & VG1 & VG5 for the cooler vent air for the raw gas for the bypass gas Incoming liquid mass flows: & m H 2 O. D & VFl.

V & ∆H R. H 2 O for the evaporation enthalpy of the cooler injection water & Q K. K for the uncoupled heat (cooler) .S & ∆H V. 10 Pmech Outgoing energy flows: & H S10 & H St5 & H St1 & H St12 & H L11 & H G1 & H G5 for the clinker for the bypass dust for the raw gas dust for the discharged tertiary air dust for the cooler vent air for the raw gas for the bypass gas for the reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed & ∆H R.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 37 & H L10 & H L7 & H L3 & H L1 for the cooler intake air for the burner air (main burner) for the burner air (secondary burner) for the conveying air (kiln feed) for the infiltrated air (kiln hood) for the infiltrated air (calcinator) for the infiltrated air (preheater) for the reaction enthalpy of the fuels for the cooler injection water for the mechanical performance & H Fl.C & H Fl. B & H H 2 O. D & H Fl.

T & Q W. K for the incomplete burning for radiation and convection losses (preheater) for radiation and convection losses (calcinator) for radiation and convection losses (rotary kiln) for radiation and convection losses (tertiary air duct) for radiation and convection losses (cooler + kiln hood) .CO & Q W. V & Q W.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 38 & ∆H R.C & Q W. D & Q W.

. calcinator.Balancing spaces for preheater. rotary kiln and cooler with incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows. tertiary air duct.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 39 Figure 6 .

the cooling air volume flow is used completely as combustion air in the process. SiO2. discharged tertiary air dust. Fe2O3. it is only partially used as such with gratetype coolers. fuel (main burner).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 40 With rotary and satellite coolers. Cooler vent air dust has not been taken into account. excess cooling air is released as cooler vent air. Operands: In order to balance the mass flows. When the waste gas leaves the preheater. TiO2. 4. whereas in contrast. MgO) whose mass concentration in the individual substance flows is designated by xNF *). CaO. In the case of the latter. Therefore. bypass dust. some of the cooler vent air can be returned to the cooler as intake air via a fan once the dust has been removed and cooled (duothermal configuration). Mn2O3. fuel (secondary burner). K .1 Solid substance mass flows Measured quantities: clinker. The following applies: *) The formula sign x below stands for the mass concentration of the solids at the balance limit (= delivery condition in the laboratory). Al2O3. mass flow of the kiln feed.1. With grate-type coolers. raw gas dust. the waste gas is designated as “raw gas” and the dust as “raw gas dust”. it still contains relatively large amounts of dust. . P2O5. a component balance is drawn up of the sum of the non-volatile substances (for example. This & was taken into consideration in the figure by the uncoupled heat flow Q K.

the following applies to the kiln feed mass flow that actually becomes clinker (including discharged tertiary air dust): The ratio of kiln feed to clinker necessary for the clinker burning process then results from Equation (4): . the following applies analogously: The kiln feed mass flow necessary for the clinker burning process then results from Equation (2): As an approximation.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 41 The loss on ignition can also be used for a rough estimate. By using xG to designate the mass concentration of the substances that are released during calcination at about 1000°C [1832°F] until weight constancy is achieved.

1 Dry gas Minimum air volume flow In order to calculate the dry. in addition to the fuel mass & & flows m B7 and m B3 .1.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 42 Analogously.1. burner air (secondary burner).2 Gas volume flows Measured quantities: fuel (main burner).1. cooler vent air (if present). the following applies: 4. the burning of all combustible substances has to be taken into consideration.2. fuel (secondary burner). the combustible components (organically bound carbon. conveying air (kiln feed). burner air (main burner).1. infiltrated air. secondary air. cooler intake air (see Section 3.2. sulfide sulfur) of the kiln feed also have to be taken into account.3. bypass gas.3). . For this reason. Operands: 4.1 4. minimum air volume flow. raw gas.

the following applies for mS.St5 and x S. This value can be calculated on the basis of elementary analyses of the fuel according to Equation (11): . the carbon content of the raw gas dust as xC.S1.eff. S effectively fed into the kiln system: & Analogously. St5. the following results & for the carbon mass flow mC. x C. min to burn all of the combustible substances then amounts to the following: lmin is the minimum air demand of the fuel in question in its raw state. The minimum air volume flow & VL.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 43 By designating the carbon content of the kiln feed as xC. S : Frequently.St5 are approximately zero. St1 and the carbon content of the bypass dust as xC. eff.

*) The formula sign hu below stands for the lower calorific value of the coal at the balance limit threshold (= delivery condition in the laboratory). . lmin can be calculated as an approximation using the lower calorific value of the fuel *). Calorific value-related combustion gas quantities of secondary fuels can differ markedly from the indicated uppermost and lowermost values.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 44 Accordingly. The following applies: For lignitic coal and coal: For heating oil: Table 6 shows examples of elementary analyses and calorific value-related combustion gas quantities of lignitic coal and coal. the numerical value equation is the following: For oil and coal.

2 1.1 65.9 57.344 0.375 L = lowermost value.370 0.3 1.4 8.92 Coal dust U L 0.3 21.099 0.021 0.4 0.8 4.8 11.024 0. U = uppermost value 4.6 0.7 0.4 56.05 U 2.101 0.9 29.8 3.1 27.22 0.382 0.392 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 45 Table 6 .7 4.9 19.0 2.011 0.1 3.374 0.098 0.5 0.094 0.1 0.4 0.3 71.1.3 61.9 16.2 4.5 23.2 Lignitic coal dust M 11.76 calorific value (raw) in MJ/kg: Calorific value-related combustion gas quantity in kg/MJ: minimum air demand carbon dioxide water vapor moist flue gas 20.2 19.016 0.0 8.6 4.7 0.339 0. Analyses (raw) in % by weight: L water ash C H O N S 8.332 0.339 0.6 7.5 59.347 0.Elementary analyses of lignitic coal dust and coal dust with the combustion gas quantities calculated therefrom and related to the lower calorific value in the raw state.80 14.022 0.2 Air proportionality factor The following applies in general: .5 0.373 0.341 0.3 2.0 25.4 4.7 2.1.096 0.2.7 3.096 0. M = mean value.6 21.7 22.35 M 1.014 0.

the following applies: .6 and 0. 4. neither is present. Thus. Here. As a consequence.9. as a rule related to dry measuring gas): The expression in the denominator of the lower fraction corresponds to N2.75. The following applies theoretically: Equation (17) presupposes a frictionless flow and an incompressible medium.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 46 The air proportionality factor in the waste gas results as an approximation from the values of the gas analysis (in the case of Orsat analyses and measuring methods that work with extraction. In reality. the gas velocity has to be multiplied by a dimensionless factor which lies between 0. for actual practice. the equation yields an excessively high gas velocity.1. it has been set at 0.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood The volume flow of infiltrated air at the kiln hood can be roughly calculated using the Bernoulli equation. Consequently.1.

tr can only be calculated very imprecisely.1.2.)/s As a simplification.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 47 & With v = V/F for the gas velocity and with the density ratio ρ L /ρ L.1.c.N for dry air (the water present in the air is ignored here). tr = volume flow of infiltrated air in m³ (s.N F & VFl. D.4 Secondary air The following applies for the volume flow of the secondary air (also see Figure 12): & Due to non-representative gas analyses in the kiln inlet. . 4. the result is a calculation equation for the volume flow of infiltrated air: wherein ∆p = differential pressure at the kiln hood in Pa = density of the air in the cross section F in kg/m³ = density of the ambient air under standard conditions (s.c.) in kg/m³ = open cross-section area in m² ρL ρ L. the density of the ambient air can be taken as the basis for ρ L. VL8.

The following applies: wherein and & m C.2.S stems from the decarbonation and the combustion of organic components of the kiln feed.2. eff. S according to Equation (8).6 Raw gas 1.1.5 Cooler intake air The following applies for the volume flow of the cooler intake air (also see Figure 12): 4.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 48 4. Calculation on the basis of the CO2 balance The following applies for the CO2 balance: & VCO 2 . .1.1.

G5 results from the gas analysis and from the measurement of the gas volume flow in the bypass gas: With the result is the calculation equation for the raw gas volume flow: . Equation (26) can be employed: wherein µCO = 5.01 · 10 – 5 m³ of CO2/kJ for lignitic coal 2 and µCO 2 = 4. & VCO 2 .87 · 10 – 5 m³ of CO2/kJ for coal. B stems from the combustion of the fuel. The following applies: If the elementary analysis is not available.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 49 & VCO 2 .

7 Gas downstream from the burning area & VG2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 50 2. Calculation on the basis of the clean gas volume flow This calculation is only possible if the entire clean gas volume flow of the kiln system can be determined and if no auxiliary burner is operated in the combined drying and grinding mill. tr is calculated according to Equations (30) or (31) on the basis of the raw gas volume flow.1. 4.1. A gas analysis downstream from the burning area is needed for this purpose.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) & VG6.2. the calculated values are often very imprecise. .1. tr can be calculated according to [30].1. Due to non-representative gas analyses in the kiln inlet. CO2 balance: O2 balance: 4.2.

1 Water vapor Humidity in the air The humidity in the air results from the relative humidity and from the saturation pressure of water-vapor at ambient temperature. the following applies for the moisture volume flow of the air: 4.2.1.2.1.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 51 4. The following applies: wherein xD = water content in kg of H2O/kg of dry air = relative humidity ϕ p and ps (ϑ L.2.2 Water from the kiln feed .2.U) = saturation pressure of the water vapor in Pa = ambient pressure in Pa Then.2.2 4.

3 Water from the fuel 4. . is fed into the kiln system.3.2.3 4. λ G1 should be calculated with the gas concentration values which would result after the mixing of raw gas and bypass gas.1.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 52 4.2.2.2.1.1.2.4 Injection water 4.1 Moist gas Air The following applies in general: Altogether.1.

1. fuel (secondary burner).1.1.10 often equals zero.1 4.3 Liquid mass flows Measured quantities: fuel (main burner).1 Energy input Fuel Combustion: . water. VH 2 O.2.3.1.G5 often equals y H 2 O.1.1.4. With grate-type coolers.4. 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 53 4.G6 .2 Raw gas λ G1 should be calculated with the gas concentration values which would result after the & mixing of raw gas and bypass gas. y H 2 O. a reference temperature of 25°C [77°F] was likewise selected for the calculation of the individual enthalpy flows.4 Energy flows Since standard reaction enthalpies and calorific values are related to 25°C [77°F]. 4. 4.

ϑ . the following applies (also see Figure 7): wherein xF. however. Here. The following applies in the case of oil (also see Figure 8): wherein ρ = density of the oil in kg/m³ at 15°C [59°F].B = sum of the volatile components in the coal. *) The formula sign c or cp below stands for the mean specific thermal capacity c p 25°C [77° F] .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 54 Sensible enthalpy flows: *) For dry coal. Equation (43) also applies. The following then applies: wherein c H 2 O ≈ 4. the water content of the lignitic coal has to be taken into account.2 kJ/kg K for 0°C [32°F] < ϑ < 100°C [212°F]. as an approximation. to dry lignitic coal.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 55 Figure 7 . .Mean specific thermal capacity of dry coal (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).

Mean specific thermal capacity of oil (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]). .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 56 Figure 8 .

101 1.582 2.156 4. s.2 Kiln feed Sensible enthalpy flows: .602 methane ethylene acetylene propadiene n-butane propylene 1) CH4 C2H4 C2H2 C3H4 C4H10 C3H6 H 2S 1.1.579 200°C [392°F] 1.4.402 2.717 5.631 4.531 hydrogen sulfide 1) Use C3H6 use for CmHn.700 2.270 1.519 2.579 4.) K 25°C [77°F] 100°C [212°F] 1.c.Mean specific thermal capacity cp of the fuel gas components (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).918 5.1. Fuel gas component Specific thermal capacity cp in kJ/m³ (s.817 2.113 1.137 2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 57 The specific thermal capacity of the heating gas is calculated on the basis of the mean specific thermal capacities of the individual gas components according to Table 7.985 2. The following applies here: Table 7 .246 3.c. = under standard conditions 4.172 5.555 1.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 58 The following applies as an approximation for the commonly employed composition of the kiln feed: The specific thermal capacities of individual components of the kiln feed are shown in Figure 9. .

.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 59 Figure 9 .Mean specific thermal capacity of kiln feed components (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).

j according to Equations (85) through (87).4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 60 4. it is also possible to use the specific thermal capacity of dry air for the calculation. The following applies in this case: . also see Figure 10).3 Air Sensible enthalpy flows: wherein (For the calculation of cp.1. As an approximation.1.

Mean specific thermal capacity of gas components (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]). .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 61 Figure 10 .

1.5 Mechanical performance Within the balancing space.4. see [22. 23 and 25 through 27]). the contents of CaCO3 and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust as well as the contents of CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust.4. C3A.1. Table 8 is a compilation of the main reactions that take place during the clinker burning process. This is particularly true of the intake air fans and of the kiln drive. In simplified form. The data shown in the two right-hand columns are each related to the substance in the left-hand column.2. with the standard reaction enthalpies needed in each case (for the additional reaction enthalpies.2 4. the sensible enthalpy flow of the injection water can be ignored. . The actual reaction enthalpies to be employed result from balance equations. the mechanical performance of the electric drives has to be taken into consideration.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 62 4.1.1 Energy output Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed For the calculation of the reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed.4 Injection water As a rule. it is first necessary to calculate the contents of C3S.4. C2S.4. the degradation reactions of the starting materials and the reactions for the formation of the clinker phases have to be taken into account.1.1. 4.1. For this purpose. the following applies: 4. C4AF in the clinker.

Organic clay components (relative to C) MgCO3 dissociation CaCO3 dissociation Pyrite (FeS2) 2 FeS2 + 5½ O2 α-Fe2O3 + 4 SO2 II. 9. 4. Formation of C3S 11. Formation of C4AF Formation of C3A Formation of β -C2S 4 CaO + α-Al2O3 + α-Fe2O3 3 CaO + α-Al2O3 2 CaO + β -SiO2 3 CaO + β -SiO2 K2O = SO2 + ½ O2 C3A C4AF – 67 + 74 – 700 – 495 – 4452 – 33 + 20 – 121 – 113 – 776 β-C2S C3S 10.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 63 Table 8 . 6. Formation of the clinker phases 7. 1. Formation of K2SO4 1) α-K2SO4 Related to the substance in the left-hand column. Formation of oxides and degradation reactions Evaporation of H2O Decomposition of • kaolinite (relative to Al2O3) • montmorillonite (relative to Al2O3) • illite (relative to Al2O3) kaolinite α-Al2O3 + 2 · β-SiO2 + H2O (fl) montmorillonite α-Al2O3 + 4 · β-SiO2 + n · H2O (fl) illite α-Al2O3 + 4 · β-SiO2 + m · H2O (fl) C + O2 MgCO3 CaCO3 CO2 MgO + CO2 CaO + CO2 + 1519 + 744 + 884 – 32786 + 1396 + 1772 – 6902 + 155 + 76 + 90 – 394 +118 + 178 – 828 H2O (fl) H2O (g) + 2446 + 44 3. 2. 8. Reaction enthalpy 1) at 298 K kJ/kg kJ/mole Reaction Reaction equation I. 5. .Reactions of the kiln feed and reaction enthalpies (298 K) during the production of Portland cement clinker.

S10 + 1. C2S. In this context. C2S.2. The following applies: For x SO 3 .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 64 4.292 ⋅ x Na 2 O. S10 . S10 > 0.292 ⋅ x Na 2 O.1. S10 ≤ 0. the following applies: The following results from this: . the value employed for the CaO bound in the clinker phases is the one that is obtained after the subtraction of the free CaO and of the CaO bound to SO3. which consists primarily of C3S. the following applies: For x SO 3 . S10 .64). S10 + 1. C3A and C4AF in the clinker For normal Portland cement clinker or tertiary air dust.4.85 ⋅ x K 2 O. the clinker phases can be calculated according to Bogue [45 and 46]. C3A and C4AF (TM > 0.85 ⋅ x K 2 O.1 C3S.1.

Assuming that the CO2 is primarily bound to the CaO.274 · x CO 2 ≤ x CaO : and in the case of 1.2.4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 65 4.1.1.274 · x CO 2 > x CaO : and .2 CaCO3 and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust The content of CaCO3 and MgCO3 of the kiln feed results from the content of CO2 and CaO. the following applies in the case of 1.

4. . 6) The starting materials as shown in Table 8 are present. St5 = 0 3) x MgCO3 .4 Balance equations The balance equations are based on the following assumptions and simplifications: 1) x H 2 O.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust The content of CaCO3 results from the content of CO2 in the bypass dust. St5 = 0 4) xS. 7) The fuel ash is present in the form of oxides.1. For purposes of calculating the C2S content.St5 is made according to Equations (55) or (56).2. 4.1.2. St5 = 0 2) xC. St5 = 0 5) The formation enthalpy of C4AF and of C12A7 in the bypass dust is negligibly small.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 66 4.4. it is assumed that Al2O3 and Fe2O3 have completely reacted with CaO to form C4AF and C12A7. The following then applies: The calculation of x CaOSO3 .1.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 67 According to Figure 6. the following applies for the balance equations: 1) Evaporation of H2O: 2) Decomposition of clay: 100%-kaolinite: 100%-montmorillonite: 100%-illite: 3) Organic clay components: .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 68 4) MgCO3 dissociation: 5) CaCO3 dissociation: 6) Pyrite: 7) Formation of C4AF: 8) Formation of C3A: .

64. Moreover. assumptions also have to be made pertaining to the devitrification enthalpies. in the case of fly ash and blast-burner slag. blast-burner slag or gypsum from flue gas desulfurization plants. . the balance equations need to be changed or supplemented. for instance.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 69 9) Formation of β-CsS: 10) Formation of C3S: 11) Formation of K2SO4: In Equation (79). In order to calculate the reaction enthalpy of a special clinker. or of a clinker from a kiln feed with calcareous fly ash. the actual SO3 contents (without sulfide sulfur) should be used. TM < 0. or of a clinker from a burning process involving other substance flow configurations.

4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 70 The following applies to the sum of the reaction enthalpies of the kiln feed: 4.2.1.4.3 Waste gas losses Raw gas: wherein The following approximation equations apply for the essential components of the waste gas (also see Figure 10): .2 Water evaporation Evaporation enthalpy for cooler injection water: 4.1.2.

2.2.1.1.4. ϑ St1 = ϑ G1).4 Dust losses Raw gas dust: (for cSt1. see Section 4.1.4. .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 71 Bypass gas: Cooler vent air: 4.

4. see Section 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 72 Bypass gas dust: (for cSt5.6 Clinker .4. yCO.4.1.2. an analyzer that operates continuously should be used for the calorific value of the gas for the balancing. ϑ St12 = ϑ L9).5 Incomplete combustion In cases of high energy losses due to incomplete combustion (for example.2.4. 4.1. Losses due to cooler vent air dust are usually negligibly small. see Equation (95).1. ϑ St5 = ϑ G5).G1 > 0.2. Discharged tertiary air dust: (for cSt12.01).1.

.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 73 The following applies for the specific thermal capacity of the clinker (also see Figure 11): Figure 11 .Mean specific thermal capacity of Portland cement clinker (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).

7 Radiation and convection Rotary kiln: First of all.2.0 . The following applies for wind velocities w ≤ 2 m/s: wherein a = 0.3 a0 = 4.m of the tube element and of the ambient temperature ϑ L.4.1. the heat flow of individual tube elements is calculated on the basis of the mean circumferential temperature ϑ W.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 74 4.U: wherein and αconv results from approximation equations.

75 3.11 2.75 5.25 6.11 5.25 6.27 2.U ≤ 30°C [86°F] The following applies for wind velocities w > 2 m/s: wherein Diameter range in m 2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 75 a1 = 3.75 5.97 0.0.48 5.220 .227 .73 0.25 5.00 b1* .75 6.5 a2 = -0.83 b0 4.0.40 5.25 3.0.92 0.19 5.0.25 b 2.75 4.25 3.75 4.244 .05 5.88 0.66 5.m ≤ 500°C [932°F] 2 m ≤ Da ≤ 8 m 10°C [50°F] ≤ ϑ L.219 .85 a3 = 0.83 0.27 5.238 .0.236 .75 7.0.25 5.97 1.70 b1 0.0.25 4.87 1.05 1.233 .98 5.98 1.75 ≤ Da < 3.75 6.227 .0.79 0.076 Scope of validity: w ≤ 2 m/s 100°C [212°F] ≤ ϑ W.37 2.93 1.25 4.93 0.0.18 2.243 .

67 · 10 – 8 W/(m² · K4) TW.75 m ≤ Da ≤ 7.m = mean surface temperature in K TL.25 m 10°C [50°F] ≤ ϑ L.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 76 Scope of validity: 2 m/s < w ≤ 10 m/s 100°C [212°F] ≤ ϑ W.m ≤ 500°C [932°F] 2. .9 σ = 5. D for the entire rotary kiln results from the addition of the radiation and convection loss flows of the individual tube elements: More details on the calculation of the radiation and convection loss flow can be found in literature references [28 and 31].U = ambient air temperature in K & The radiation and convection loss flow Q W.U ≤ 30°C [86°F] The following applies for αStr: wherein ε W = 0.

The following applies: The following applies as a good approximation for the grate-type cooler and the kiln hood: wherein αconv = 7 W/(m²·K) ε W = 0.6 should be used for the calculation of the heat flow. .m is calculated as an arithmetic mean value of all of the individual temperature meas- ured values calculated over the circumference. Equation (104) yields a heat loss flow that is too low. the surface temperature should be measured only on the side facing away the wind. that is to say.9 At higher wind velocities. it is recommended to employ the imaginary surface area of a cylinder surrounding the satellite cooler as the heat-transfer surface area. In such cases. Moreover. The diameter of this surrounding cylinder can then be used to calculate the heat-transfer coefficient αtotal as an approximation according to Equations (98) through (101). an empirical factor of 1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 77 Cooler: Equations (96) through (101) can be employed directly for the rotary cooler. For satellite coolers. The mean circumferential temperature ϑ W. the satellite temperatures as well as the temperatures in the interstitial spaces.

The following applies for the heat uncoupling through the cooling of the cooler circulation air: .2.1. Tertiary air duct: Equations (96) through (102) should be employed accordingly.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 78 Preheater and calcinator: Equations (104) should be employed accordingly.2 kJ/kg K for 0°C [32°F] < ϑ < 100°C [212°F].8 Uncoupled heat The following applies as an approximation for the heat uncoupling via a cooling chute: wherein c H 2O ≈ 4.4. 4.

. however.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 79 4. Since the reaction enthalpy flow of the fuel as energy input can often only be determined very imprecisely. it is also designated as fuel energy consumption. should not make up more than ± 3% of the total energy output. the energy input and the energy output are compared to each other.3 Energy balance The following applies for the sum of the energy input and energy output: and With kiln performance tests.1. it should be calculated on the basis of the difference between the energy output and the other energy input values according to Equation (109). Usually the input and the output do not offset each other completely.4. so that a balance deficit remains which.

1 Clinker cooler A complete mass and energy balance can only be drawn up for the clinker cooler within the limits set by its design.Balancing space of the cooler with the incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 80 4. the fact that considerable dust circulation can occur between the rotary kiln and the clinker cooler has to be taken into account. Moreover. For this reason.2.2 Balancing of the partial systems 4. the hot clinker temperature can only be measured in a very imprecise manner. . Figure 12 .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 81 Figure 12 shows the balancing space of a clinker cooler with the mass and energy flows that exceed the balance limit. for example. Thus. in contrast. has to be set as zero. the exhaust air volume flow. The following mass and energy flows have been taken into consideration: Incoming solid substance mass flows: & mS8 for the hot clinker Outgoing solid substance mass flows: & mS10 & mSt8 & mSt9 for the clinker for the secondary air dust for the tertiary air dust Incoming gas volume flows: & VL10 for the cooler intake air Outgoing gas volume flows & VL8 & VL9 & VL11 for the secondary air for the tertiary air (cooler) for the cooler vent air Incoming liquid mass flows: & m H 2 O. several exhaust air flows can be discharged from the cooler. In the case of rotary and satellite coolers. 10 for the cooler injection water .

K & Q K. 10 Pmech. H 2 O for the evaporation enthalpy of the cooler injection water . K & ∆H V.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 82 Incoming energy flows: & H S8 & H L10 & H H 2 O. K for the hot clinker for the cooler intake air for the cooler injection water for the mechanical performance (cooler) Outgoing energy flows: & H S10 & H St8 & H St9 & H L8 & H L9 & H L11 for the clinker for the secondary air dust for the tertiary air dust for the secondary air for the tertiary air for the cooler vent air for radiation and convection losses (cooler + kiln hood) for the uncoupled heat (cooler) & Q W.

With a “clear” kiln discharge.1. secondary air dust. this value can rise to more than 200 g/m³. In the case of a pronounced dust circulation. The secondary air dust mass flow then results from the dust mass flow measured in the tertiary air and from the fraction calculated on this basis for the secondary air volume flow: In other cases. the dust concentration is about 30 to 50 g/m³. hot clinker. The following applies for the hot clinker mass flow: .2. Measured quantities: Operands: Only in the case of kiln systems with a tertiary air duct can the secondary air dust mass flow be calculated on the basis of the discharged and returned tertiary air dust assuming equal dust contents in the secondary air and in the tertiary air.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 83 4.1 Solid substance mass flows clinker. the dust concentration in the secondary air should be estimated. discharged and returned tertiary air dust.

2 Gas volume flows cooler vent air (if present).2.2.1. 4.1.2. .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 84 4.1 Energy input 4.1 Hot clinker (cS8 according to Equation (95) or Figure 11).3. 4.1. and the cooler intake air volume flow results from Equations (21) and (38). The water vapor from the water injection should also be taken into account.1. cooler intake air. secondary air.3.2.1. tertiary air. Measured quantities: Operands: The secondary air volume flow results from Equations (20) and (38).3 Energy flows A reference temperature of 25°C [77°F] is selected for the calculation of the individual energy flows.

Therefore. the hot clinker energy flow is associated with a high level of uncertainty.2.2 Energy output 4.1.2.3. clinker dust See Section 4.2 Cooler intake air 4.2.1.2. 4.4.1. This error increases as the temperature drops and the particle size increases. 4.4 Mechanical performance 4.3.1 Clinker.4. .6.3.1.2.1.1.3.1.1. the calculated hot clinker energy flow is fundamentally too low.1.1.2.3.2. Therefore.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 85 Only the surface temperature of the hot clinker can be measured by means of instruments.4.3 Injection water See Section 4.

4.3.2.2. this is the case whenever tertiary air is removed from the kiln hood (ϑ L9 = ϑ L8) or when the secondary air can be measured error-free (for example.2.3 Energy balance If a reliable measured value for the secondary air temperature is available.1.7. with sound-over-time measurement or a suction-type thermometer).3.2.3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 86 4. 4.3. 4. 4.1.4.2. tertiary air See Section 4.2. secondary air.8.2.1.4.2. The following then applies: .3 Uncoupled heat See Section 4.2.2.1.2.3. 4.2.1.2.1. the hot clinker & enthalpy flow H S8 can be calculated on the basis of the energy balance.4.1. As a rule.5 Water evaporation See Section 4.1.2 Radiation and convection See Section 4.4 Cooler vent air.2.3.1.

1.4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 87 The hot clinker enthalpy flow calculated according to this equation serves as the basis for the calculation of the cooler efficiency (see Section 4.2. . Figure 13 . Figure 13 shows the principle of the balance limits of the burning area and of the cooling area and its subdivision into the pre-cooling zone and the cooler.4.1 Pre-cooling zone For the evaluation of the clinker cooler.2.1. in the so-called pre-cooling zone.1. of the pre-cooling zone as well as of the cooler with the example of a kiln system with a rotary cooler. it is necessary to take into account the fact that the first cooling of the clinker already takes place inside the rotary kiln.2.4 Evaluation quantities 4. 4. which is where radiation and convection losses occur.4).Balance limits of the burning area and cooling area.

in m The estimation according to Equation (116) diverges from that described in the VDZ Specification titled “Grate-type.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 88 In order to calculate the radiation and convection losses in the pre-cooling zone.: wherein Lpre-cool = length of the pre-cooling zone. Since this length cannot be measured and no calculation method is known for this at the present time. . & The radiation and convection loss Q W. which can be calculated according to Equations (98) through (101) with a superimposition of the radiation (rad) as well as free and forced convection (conv). it is necessary to know their length Lpre-cool. αtotal stands for the mean heat-transfer coefficient. in m Da = outer diameter of the rotary kiln. satellite and rotary coolers in the cement industry” [33]. It was selected because of the high degree of measuring uncertainty associated with the determination of the hot clinker temperature. the position of the burner lance serves as the reference point for estimating this length (also see Figure 13). in m Lburner = length of the burner in the rotating part of the kiln. pre − cool in the pre-cooling zone of the rotary kiln amounts to the following: Here.

2.1. it is advantageous to relate the energy loss flow of the cooling area to a theoretical enthalpy flow change on the part of the clinker and thus to define a cooling area efficiency: . h(ϑ L. & The energy loss flow Eloss.4. In this equation. those enthalpy flows that would be released during the cooling procedure from the appertaining outlet temperature to the ambient air temperature should be seen as energy flows.4. cooling area is the sum of the heat and enthalpy flows that are released by the cooler into the atmosphere.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 89 4. 4.3 Cooling area efficiency For comparisons.U) stands for the specific enthalpy at the ambient air temperature. for the clinker and cooler vent air.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area The energy consumption of a rotary kiln system depends to a decisive degree on the extent to which the enthalpy of the clinker in the cooling area can be recovered for the process. In this context.1. The fraction that is not recovered constitutes the energy loss of the cooling area. which has to be replaced by fuel energy.

Future improvements of the burning process or special compositions of the kiln feed could make it necessary to stipulate a sintering temperature that differs from this.1. 4. The lowermost stage of the cyclone preheater counts as part of the calcinator. In contrast. this does not apply for the “rotary kiln inlet” balance limit where the energy and mass flows can only be determined very imprecisely. 4. The cooling area efficiency makes it possible to thermally evaluate the cooling in the entire process.2.2 Calcinator (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater) The balancing space of the calcinator starts at the rotary kiln inlet and ends downstream from the lowermost cyclone (Figure 14). With degrees of precalcining below approximately 90%. which should prevail at the site of transition from the burning area to the cooling area.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 90 For the sake of harmonization. irrespective of the burning or pre-heating conditions. satellite and rotary coolers in the cement industry” [33]. the equilibrium temperature of the calcium carbonate dissociation sets in at the lowermost stage.1 apply when using the formulas.2. since it is in these aggregates that the essential reactions of the kiln feed and of the fuel take place. the waste gas acquires a chemically determined temperature that is very well-suited for determining this balance limit.1.3.4.4 Cooler efficiency The efficiency values of the cooler are described in the VDZ Specification titled “Gratetype. . the calcinator is often balanced together with the rotary kiln. Thus. at this site.2. a sintering temperature of 1450°C [2642°F] was presupposed. The limitations outlined in Section 4. For this reason.

.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 91 Figure 14 .Balancing space of the calcinator with incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows.

VC that has escaped from the kiln feed in the preheater and in the calcinator to the & carbon dioxide mass flow mCO 2 . and by ignoring the dust in the rotary kiln inlet gas. the degree of precalcining refers to the degree of dissociation of the calcium carbonate contained in the kiln feed prior to its entry into the rotary kiln. The actual degree of precalcining ϕ actual is defined according to Equation (120) as the ratio of the carbon dioxide mass flow & mCO 2 . & Provided that the raw gas dust mSt1 has the same chemical composition as the kiln feed & mS1 . As a simplification.1 Determination of the degree of precalcining The degree of precalcining can be used to evaluate the progress of the decarbonation of the kiln feed in the preheater and in the calcinator. the degree of precalcining can also be determined on the basis of the solid substance analyses.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 92 4. More details on this can be found in literature reference [30]. It is designated as the apparent degree of precalcining ϕ apparent. the apparent degree of precalcining ϕ apparent results from the CO2 concentrations x CO 2 and the concentrations of nonvolatile components xNF of the kiln feed (index S1) and of the kiln feed at the kiln inlet (index S6): . In this context.0 that was originally bound in the kiln feed as carbonate: The degree of precalcining calculated according to Equation (120) can only be determined by using complete gas or solid substance balances.2.

the more highly decarbonated dust mSt4 and mSt6 influences the & composition of the kiln feed mass flow mS6 . it consists of 3 to 5 preheating stages in which gas and the kiln feed are fed in a countercurrent with respect to each other. the apparent degree of precalcining ϕ apparent calculated according to Equation (121) generally simulates a higher & & decarbonation of the kiln feed.2. The degrees of separation of the individual cyclone stages are relevant for an evaluation of the preheater. . If the dust mass flows mSt4 and mSt6 have been completely decarbonated. As a rule.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 93 & & In reality. For this reason.3 Preheater (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater) Figure 15 shows the balancing space of the preheater. the following relationship exists between the apparent and the actual degree of precalcining: 4. however.

4.1 Degree of separation of individual cyclone stages Figure 16 shows the incoming and outgoing solid substance mass flows of a preheating stage. According to it.3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 94 Figure 15 .Balancing space of the preheater with incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows. the following applies for the degree of separation: .2.

this is the case with the uppermost cyclone stages (ϑ < 600°C [1112°F]). In this context. i and mSt. i and mSt. i +1 : Equations (126) and (127) can be employed in the area of the preheater where hardly any solid/gas reactions (decarbonation) occur. As a rule. The following applies as an approximation for the solid substance balance: The following applies for the energy balance: & In this context. & & Equations (124) and (125) yield the mass flows mS. i +1 result from the mass and energy balance of the ith stage. . i stands for the reaction enthalpy flow of the raw material in stage i.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 95 & & The mass flows mS. i stands for the radiation and convection loss flow of the ith cyclone & stage and ∆H R. it is assumed that there is temperature equilibrium between the gas and the kiln feed in the cyclone stage. Q W.

This generally applies to the lower stages & of the preheater.Incoming and outgoing solid substance mass flows of a preheating stage with a cyclone separator. but also to the cyclone separator of the calcinator. then. provided that the dust and solid substance mass flows exiting from each individual stage have the same chemical composition. eff stands for the mass flow of non-volatile substances effectively fed into the kiln system. If the alkali compounds in the kiln feed differ sufficiently. & and if malk.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 96 Figure 16 . it is possible to determine the mass flows of the kiln feed and the dust between the individual cyclone stages: . eff stands for the mass flow of alkali compounds that are effectively fed into the system by means of the kiln feed. If m NF. the mass flows can also be ascertained on the basis of component balances.

between two performance tests. for example. . as a result of which. as a consequence of which only changes in these operands. N+1 (N= cyclone separator of the calcinator) are very difficult to measure. should be interpreted. xNF. N+1 and xalk. both concentration values should be pre-defined. for purposes of simplification. but not the absolute value.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 97 From a technical standpoint. Equations (126) and (127) as well as (130) and (131) constitute very rough approximations.

.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 98 5. Evaluation of the substance circulation systems Relevant substance circulation systems should be measured during a kiln performance test or else calculated on the basis of measured and analytical data.

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6.

Evaluation of the cement clinker

As a rule, new systems are only examined once the clinker properties and thus also the cement properties have been achieving the desired quality requirements for quite some time. In contrast, kiln performance tests with old systems can also serve to optimize the quality of the cement and clinker.

6.1

Degree of burning

The degree of burning of the cement clinker is usually monitored on the basis of the bulk density (weight per unit volume) of a narrow particle range, for instance, 5 to 7 mm, whose values lie between 1.2 and 1.6 kg/dm³. The bulk density, however, is not only dependent on the degree of burning, but also on the chemical composition and on the porosity of the clinker. Moreover, the content of free CaO also provides information about the degree of burning.

6.2

Particle-size distribution

The coarse and fines fractions of the clinker (for example, < 2 mm and > 25 mm) provide information about the kiln operation and the clinker quality. They are ascertained by means of sieve analysis.

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6.3

Grindability

The grindability of the clinker provides information about the necessary work in the cement mill. It is primarily tested with the device according to Zeisel.

6.4

Chemical composition

The chemical composition yields the lime standard (KSt), the silica ratio (SM), the alumina/iron ratio (TM), the sulfatization degree (SG), the total alkali fraction (A) and the melt phase fraction (S). The lime standard indicates the content of CaO actually present in the raw material mixture or clinker as a percentage of the maximum CaO content that can be bound to SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 under industrial burning and cooling conditions. Several formulas, which do not differ markedly from each other, are commonly employed to calculate the lime standard. According to F.M. Lea and T.W. Parker, for example, the following applies [7]:

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The silica modulus is the ratio of silicon dioxide to the sum of aluminum oxide and iron oxide. The following applies:

Since the silicon dioxide is primarily bound in the solid phases tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate at the sintering temperature, but since aluminum oxide and iron oxide are present in the melt, the silica modulus refers to the solid-to-liquid ratio in the sintering zone of the cement kiln. Generally speaking, the silica modulus lies between SM = 1.8 and SM = 3.0, most frequently and most advantageously between SM = 2.3 and SM = 2.8. The alumina/iron ratio (TM) is the ratio of the aluminum oxide content to the iron oxide content. The following applies:

It provides information about the quantity ratio of calcium aluminate to calcium aluminate ferrite and consequently about the clinker melt. With clinker having a commonly employed composition, this value lies between 1.5 and 4.0. With an alumina/iron ratio of 0.638, the calculation indicates that all of the aluminum oxide contained in the clinker is bound as calcium aluminate ferrite having the assumed composition 4 CaO · Al2O3 · Fe2O3.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 102 The sulfatization degree (SG) indicates the percentage of alkalis in the clinker. (for ϑ S = 1338°C [2440.38). . which are present as alkali sulfate: The total alkali fraction (A) results from the conversion of the fraction of potassium oxide into the equivalent sodium fraction according to the following equation: The following applies as an approximation for the melt phase (S): (for ϑ S = 1338°C [2440.4°F] and TM > 1. (for ϑ S = 1450°C [2642°F]). (for ϑ S = 1400°C [2552°F]).38).4°F] and TM < 1.

xMgO = 0. However. not only at the sintering temperature but also and especially when they crystallize during the cooling procedure. the constitution and distribution of the clinker compounds and their coalescence. 6.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 103 xMgO enters into the formulas with xMgO = 0.6 Microscopic examination The microscopic examination of the clinker provides information about the type. provide information about the preparation of the raw material mixture and about the conditions during the burning and cooling of the clinker. 6. that is to say. at higher contents.5 Phase composition The phase composition of the clinker can be calculated on the basis of the values of the chemical analysis.02. according to equations (54) through (60). Whereas the type of the compounds depends primarily on the chemical composition of the kiln feed. . constitution and distribution of the clinker compounds. it is necessary to assume that the clinker phases have the composition indicated by their formulas and that the clinker melt is in a continuous state of thermodynamic equilibrium with the solid phases of the clinker. for instance. For these reasons.02 at the maximum. the calculation only provides an approximation of the actual clinker composition [7]. the structure.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 104 6. .7 Cement testing The results of the quality tests with the ground-up cement types within the scope of our own as well as outside monitoring also provide essential information about the properties of the cement clinker. They are of decisive significance for the optimization of operations.

Evaluation of the emissions Relevant emissions have to be measured and/or recorded during a kiln performance test. .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 105 7.

7) mean specific thermal capacity of solids and liquids in kJ/kg K mean specific thermal capacity of gases in kJ/m³ under standard conditions (s.7) total alkali fraction in kg/kg factor (Section 4. Formula signs and indices Roman letters a A b c cp D & E f F hu h & H & ∆H R & ∆H V KSt L lmin & m M N p factor (Section 4.c.) K diameter in m energy flow in kJ/s ratio of kiln feed to clinker in kg/kg of clinker surface area in m² lower calorific value in kJ/kg specific enthalpy in kJ/s sensible enthalpy flow in kJ/s reaction enthalpy flow in kJ/s evaporation enthalpy flow in kJ/s lime standard in % length in m minimum air demand in m³ of air (s.1. chamber number in the grate-type cooler pressure in Pa .c.1.4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 106 8.2.) / kg of fuel mass flow in kg/s molecular weight in kg/mole stage number in the cyclone preheater.4.2.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 107 P & Q S SG SM T TM v & V w x y performance in kJ/s heat flow in kJ/s melt phase content sulfatization degree in % silica modulus absolute temperature in K alumina/iron ratio gas velocity in m/s volume flow under standard conditions (0°C [32°F] and 1013 hPa) in m³/s wind velocity in m/s mass concentration in kg/kg volume concentration in m³/m³ Greek letters α heat transition coefficient in W/m² · K difference emission ratio of the wall surface cooling area efficiency temperature in °C excess air coefficient combustion product per energy unit in m³ (s.c. relative humidity .67 · 10 – 8 ϕ W m2 K 4 degree of precalcining.) / kJ degree of separation of a cyclone density in kg/m³ Stefan-Boltzmann constant ∆ εW η cooling area ϑ λ µ ξ ρ σ σ = 5.

vapor under standard conditions (0°C [32°F] and 1013 hPA) effective balance input inlet .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 108 Indices 0 initial state 0 through 11 reactions of the kiln feed (Section 4.4. raw gas) 2 preheater / calcinator 3 calcinator (secondary burner) 4 calcinator (tertiary air duct) 5 calcinator (bypass) 6 calcinator / rotary kiln 7 rotary kiln (main burner) 8 rotary kiln / cooler 9 tertiary air duct / cooler 10 cooler (clinker.2. cooler intake air) 11 cooler (cooler vent air) 12 tertiary air duct (discharged tertiary air dust) a Alk out Out B burner C D eff in In outside alkali compounds balance output outlet fuel burner calcinator. carbon rotary kiln.1.1.4) 0 through 12 balance limits 1 preheater (kiln feed.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 109 F Fl total G surr i K Kl con L m max mech min N NV p R clean gas grate s app S Sat St Str actual theor sum of the volatile substances infiltrated air total gas. uncoupled clinker convection air mean value maximum mechanical minimum standard conditions (s.) (0°C [32°F] and 1013 hPA) sum of non-volatile substances at constant pressure reaction clean gas grate-type cooler saturation apparent solid. sulfide sulfur satellite cooler dust radiation (rad) actual theoretical . loss on ignition surrounding cylinder variable cooler.c.

evaporation enthalpy loss pre-cooling zone radiation and convection losses Chemical formula signs C3 A C12A7 C4AF C2 S C3 S Al2O3 C CaCO3 CaO Cl – CO CO2 Fe2O3 H H2 O K2 O K2SO4 MgCO3 tricalcium aluminate (3 CaCO · Al2O3) (12 CaO · 7Al2O3) aluminate ferrite (4 CaO · Al2O3 · Fe2O3) dicalcium silicate (2 CaO · SiO2) tricalcium silicate (3 CaO · SiO2) aluminum oxide carbon calcium carbonate calcium oxide chloride carbon monoxide carbon dioxide iron(III)-oxide hydrogen.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 110 tr T U Um V loss pre-cool W dry tertiary air duct ambient circulation air preheater. atomic water potassium oxide potassium sulfate magnesium carbonate .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 111 MgO Mn2O3 N2 Na2O O O2 P 2 O5 S2– SiO2 SO3 TiO2 magnesium oxide manganese(III)-oxide nitrogen sodium oxide oxygen. atomic oxygen phosphorus pentoxide sulfide silicon dioxide sulfur(VI)-oxide (sulfate) titanium dioxide .

pp. Verlag Chemie GmbH. Locher. Berlin 1958. H. F: Zement-Herstellung und Eigenschaften. W. Bauverlag GmbH.. W: Zement.. Huckauf. H. Kühl. [10] Brandt. Band 24. Band 11. J. Wiesbaden 1982. FDBR-Fachbuchreihe. Berlin 1971. Das Wesen und die Herstellung der hydraulischen Bindemittel. VEB Verlag Technik. Stark.H. Berlin 1978. Berlin 1981.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 112 9. H. O. Duda. Berlin 1985. Weinheim 1983. Brennprozeß und Brennanlagen.: Cement-Data-Book. Brennprozeß und Brennanlagen. Ullmanns Enzyklopädie der technischen Chemie. 9. Wiesbaden 1985. Essen 1991.D. Keil. G. F. Vulkan-Verlag. und Stark.: Zement-Chemie. Band 1. Band 1. G.: Ratgeber für Zementingenieure. F: Brennstoffe und Verbrennungsrechnung. Seidel. Huckauf.: Zement-Chemie. Band 1. Bauverlag GmbH.: Bindebaustoff-Taschenbuch.: Technologie der Bindebaustoffe. J. Die physikalisch-chemischen Grundlagen der Zement-Chemie. Berlin 1956. H. VEB Verlag Für Bauwesen. Internationale Verfahrenstechniken der Zementindustrie. und Seidel.. 545-574. Band 3.. Band 3. VEB Verlag Technik. H. Labahn.: Thermodynamik. Springer-Verlag. VEB Verlag für Bauwesen.1 Literature references General literature references [1] [2] [3] [4] [5) [6] [7] [8] [9] Kühl. . Baehr. Springer-Verlag.

Sturm. J. Vol.. Düsseldorf 1962.a review.. [18] Hengstenberg. Sturm. J. 48. W.: Technologische Probleme beim Brennen des Zementklinkers. A. [12] Garrett.. Band 1. B. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. H. Zement-Kalk-Gips 39 (1986) Vol. Steuern und Regeln in der Chemischen Technik. Messung von Zustandsgrößen. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e.: Precalciners today . [19] Hengstenberg. Springer-Verlag. Stoffmengen und Hilfsgrößen. 43. 39-61. pp.: Einfluß des Ofensystems auf die Klinkereigenschaften. und Winkler. Th. Düsseldorf 1990.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 113 9. und Lang. Ursache und Lösung. Springer-Verlag. O. Steuern und Regeln in der Chemischen Technik..: Messen. H. Rock Products. [17] VDZ-Merkblatt “Staubmengenmessungen auf Zementwerken”. 612-614. Düsseldorf 1961..V. Execution of kiln performance tests [16] VDZ-Merkblatt “Mengenmessung von Gasen durch Geschwindigkeitsmessung”.1982. [13] Wolter. Vol..M. B.: Messen.V. O.V. [15] Rosemann. 10. S.1987. [20] VDZ-Merkblatt “Kontinuierliche Gasanalyse in Zementwerken”. Berlin 1980. .. Messung von Stoffeigenschaften und Konzentrationen. Band 11.. July (1985) pp. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. Berlin 1980. [14] Bonn.2 Technical literature references Description of the clinker burning process [11] Sprung.: Theoretische und betriebliche Untersuchungen zum Brennstoffenergieverbrauch von Zementofenanlagen mit Vorcalcinierung. und Winkler. Zement-KalkGips 38 (1985) Vol.: Brennverfahren. pp. 105-114. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. 3.

Düsseldorf 1983. H.O. O. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. O.O. [24] VDZ-Merkblatt “Berechnungsunterlagen für Ofenversuche”.: Thermochemical properties of inorganic substances. 1-12.. 2. Zement-Kalk-Gips 37 (1984) Vol.V.. Ludwig. Zement-KalkGips 38 (1985) Vol.E. [23] zur Strassen. 1986.. und Ludwig.. . VDI-Verlag GmbH. [27] Barin. H.: Beitrag zur Thermochemie von Zementrohstoffen.: Thermodynamik der Silikate. Knacke..O. TonindustrieZeitung 56 (1932) Nr. 1. Zement-KalkGips 10 (1957) Vol. pp. pp. I. [22] Schwiete. pp. 89-94. I. H. H. 6. [25] Petrosjan.. und Gardeik. und Kubaschewski. 144-149. 257-262. Berlin 1966. und Knacke.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 114 Evaluation of kiln performance tests [21] Schwiete. Zement-Kalk-Gips 9 (1956) Vol.E. 304-306. Supplement. Teil 2: Näherungsgleichungen und Anwendungen. Düsseldorf 1959.: Die spezifische Wärme des Portlandzementklinkers. 9.. [31] Gardeik. Berlin 1973. Berechnungsblätter für den Wärmeübergang. M. 465-473. O. pp. H.. [30] Rosemann. [29] VDI-Wärmeatlas. VEB Verlag für Bauwesen. und Ziegler. 3. 53-62. Teil 1: Grundlagen.: Der theoretische Wärmebedarf des Zementbrandes. und Steinbiß. Zement-Kalk-Gips 33 (1980) Vol.. pp. Springer-Verlag. H. E. A. pp. 8th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement. [28] Gardeik. Springer-Verlag.: Berechnung des Wandwärmeverlustes von Drehöfen und Mühlen. G. Berlin 1977. Proc.: Berechnung des Wandwärmeverlustes von Drehöfen und Mühlen.: Phase composition of calcined raw meal. [26] Barin. H.: Rechnergesteuerte Meßdatenerfassung und verarbeitung bei der Durchführung von Ofenversuchen. H. [32] Wolter. H.: Thermochemical properties of inorganic substances. Rio de Janeiro. 22. pp.

[37] Sprung.. Zement-Kalk-Gips.und Schwefelverdampfung in Zementofen in Gegenwart hoher Chloreinnahmen.V.O. [40] Locher. W: Methode zur Vorausberechnung von Schadstoffkreisläufen in Zementöfen.. pp. 456-459.: Kreislaufe in Drehofensystemen. Zement-Kalk-Gips 43 (1990) Vol. 565-570.: Einflüsse auf die Energieumsetzung in Calcinatoren bei der Vorcalcination von Zementrohmehl. 31. 9. Vol. 215-234. 338-343. D. R. und Kupper. W: Alkali. [43] Kreft. [42] Rosemann. pp.. [35] Goes. Düsseldorf. [44] Schütte. 8. S.. 9.und Rohrkühler in der Zementindustrie”.: Die Bedeutung von Kreislaufbetrachtungen für Produktqualität und Umweltverträglichkeit der Zementherstellung. W: Stoffkreisläufe und Emissionen beim Brennen von Zementklinker. R: Alkaliprobleme und Beseitigung bei wärmesparenden Trockenöfen. [36] Weber. D. Sonderausgabe Nr. Zement-Kalk-Gips 25 (1972) Vol. 335-344. Vol. 1989. [381 Ritzmann. pp.: Das Verhaften des Schwefels beim Brennen von Zementklinker Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. Zement-Kalk-Gips 17 (1964) Vol. und Opitz. 8. 4. 509-511. Bergakademie ClausthalZellerfeld 1959. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie.: Warmeübergang im Drehofen unter Berücksichtigung der Kreislaufvorgänge und der Phasenneubildung. C. Zement-Kalk-Gips 36 (1983) Vol. [41] Kreft. P. pp. 1964. F.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 115 [33] VDZ-Merkblatt “Rost-. H. Satelliten. und Gardeik. pp. 8. pp. 1-12. H. 9 (1960). pp. Evaluation of the substance circulation systems [34] Weber. Sprung. Zement-Kalk-Gips 35 (1982) Vol. Fortschritte der Mineralogie 60 (1982) Vol. 1. Zement-Kalk-Gips 38 (1985) Vol. [39] Locher. . F W. S. 2.: Reaktionen im Bereich der Ofengase. Zement-Kalk-Gips 24 (1971) Vol. 418-422.: Ober des Verhalten der Alkalien beim Zementbrennen. 12. pp. Dissertation. H. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. 1960.

Zement-Kalk-Gips 31 (1978) Vol. [50] Locher.: Einfluß der Klinkerkühlung auf Erstarren und Festigkeit von Zement. [49] Sylla. H. Reinhold Publishing Corporation.-M. R. H. pp.-M. Zement-Kalk-Gips 31 (1978) Vol. Richartz.W: Einfluß der Klinkerherstellung auf die Eigenschaften des Zements.H. pp. R.: Calculation of the compounds in portland cement. F. Zement-Kalk-Gips 35 (1982) Vol. S.W.H.-M. 265-272.: The chemistry of portland cement. ZementKalk-Gips 38 (1985) Vol. [46] Bogue. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie.1962. F. 269-277. pp. Vol. Zement-Kalk-Gips 28 (1975) Vol. 9. pp. 6.: Einflüsse der Verfahrenstechnik auf die Zementeigenschaften. 6. pp. [52] Locher. 357-362. 12. 7.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 116 Evaluation of the cement clinker [45] Bogue. 291-293. Zement-Kalk-Gips 28 (1975) Vol. F W: Berechnung der Klinkerphasen. 10. pp. pp. Teil III: Einfluß der Klinkerherstellung. F. 577-585. [48] Locher. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 1 (1929) pp. H.: Erstarren von Zement. and Sylla. Sprung. [53] Sprung. . [47] Locher.. New York 1955.. 7-29. 669-676. S. [51] Sylla. W. 29. W: Verfahrenstechnik und Zementeigenschaften. 192-197.: Einfluß der Ofenatmosphäre beim Brennen von Zementklinker.

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Evaluation of the emissions
[54] Kroboth, K., und Xeller, H.: Entwicklungen beim Umweltschutz in der Zementindustrie. Zement-Kalk-Gips 39 (1986) Vol. 1, pp. 1-14. [55] Sprung, S.: Spurenelemente - Anreicherungen und Minderungsmaßnahmen. Zement-Kalk-Gips 41 (1988) Vol. 5, pp. 251-257. [56] Locher, F W: Entwicklung des Umweltschutzes in der Zementindustrie. ZementKalk-Gips 42 (1989) Vol. 3, pp. 120-127. [57] Kroboth, K., und Kuhlmann, K.: Stand der Technik der Emissionsminderung in Europa. Zement-Kalk-Gips 43 (1990) Vol. 3, pp. 121-131. [58] Wischers, G., und Kuhlmann, K.: Ökobilanz von Zement und Beton. Zement-KalkGips 44 (1991) Vol. 11, pp. 545-553.

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10.

Evaluation example 1 (kiln system with a cyclone preheater, calcinator and tertiary air duct)
Balancing the entire system

10.1

10.1.1 Solid substance mass flows
& mS10

= 18.00 kg/s

x NF, S10 = 0.9760 x NF, St12 x NF, B7 = x NF, B3 = not applicable x ash, B7 ⋅ x NV, ash = 0.04 · 0.8007 x ash, B7 ⋅ x NF, ash = 0.04 · 0.8007

& mSt12 = 0 kg/s & m B7 & m B3 & mSt1 & mSt5

= 1.29 kg/s = 1.24 kg/s = 0.84 kg/s = 0 kg/s

x NF, St1 = 0.6454 x NF,St5 not applicable

x NF, S1 = 0.6316

Kiln feed mass flow (Equation 4): 18.00 ⋅ 0.976 − (1.29 + 1.24) ⋅ 0.04 ⋅ 0.8007 + 0.84 ⋅ 0.6454 = 28.55 kg/s. 0.6316

& mS1 =

Ratio of kiln feed to clinker necessary for burning clinker (Equation 6): 28.55 = 1.586 kg/kg. 18.00 + 0

fS1 =

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10.1.2 Gas volume flows

10.1.2.1 Dry gas

10.1.2.1.1 Minimum air volume flow

& mS1 = 28.55 kg/s & mSt1 = & m B7 = & m B3 = 0.84 kg/s 1.29 kg/s 1.24 kg/s

x C, S1 = 0.0015 x C, St1 = 0.0021 h u, B7 = 22684 kJ/kg h u, B3 = 22684 kJ/kg

x S, S1 = 0.0004 x S, St1 = 0.0008

The carbon mass flow (Equation 8) and the sulfide mass flow (Equation 9) effectively fed in with the kiln feed: & mC, eff, S = 28.55 · 0.0015 – 0.84 · 0.0021 = 0.0411 kg/s & mS, eff, S = 28.55 · 0.0004 – 0.84 · 0.0008 = 0.0107 kg/s

Minimum air demand of the fuels (Equation 13): lmin, B7 = lmin, B3 = 0.44 + 0.000245 · 22684 = 5.998 m³/kg Minimum air volume flow (Equation 10):

& VL, min, tr = (1.29 + 1.24) · 5.998 + 0.0411 · 8.88 + 0.0107 · 3.32 = 15.58 m³/s

3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood F ≈ 0.G1 = 0.0489 yO 2 .2108 yCO.0489 − 0.25 m² ∆p = 5 Pa p = 1010 hPa ϑ U = 5°C [41°F] ρ L.0006 1 − 3. tr.762 (1 − 0. from the burning area and from the rotary kiln (Equation 16): 1 = 1.0318) λG6 = 1 = 1.0005 1 − 3.0007 y CO.N = 1. tr.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 120 10.2 Air proportionality factors yCO 2 .0006 y CO.1. tr.2925 − 0.3290 − 0. tr.0302) 10.1.762 (1 − 0.0318 yO 2 .0489) λG1 = λG2 = 1 = 1.G6 = 0.3290 yCO 2 . tr.762 (1 − 0.0007 1 − 3.0005 yO 2 .2.1.0007 − 0. tr.5 ⋅ 0.G2 = 0.G2 = 0.5 ⋅ 0.2925 yCO 2 .0302 Air proportionality factors in the waste gas downstream from the preheater.29 kg/m³ .G2 = 0.1.2108 − 0.0005 − 0.G6 = 0.0318 − 0. tr.0006 − 0.2278 0.0302 − 0. tr.G1 = 0.G1 = 0.1745 0.G2 = 0.2.5 ⋅ 0. tr.3843 0.

1.29 10.73 + 23.1.73 m³/s & VL11.1. tr = 1.29 · 5.29 · 1010 273 ⋅ = 1.18 m³/s & VL9. tr = 6.18 m³/s 10.52 m³/s Secondary air volume flow (Equation 20): & VL8.08 m³/s .52 m³/s 1. tr = 23.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 121 Density of the ambient air: ρ L = 1. tr =7.998 m³/kg & VL7. B7 = 5.268 kg/m³ 1013 277 Infiltrated air volume flow (Equation 19): 0. tr = 1.2.52 = 7.1.18 + 6. tr ≈ ⋅ 5 ⋅ 1. tr = 0.5 Cooler intake air & VL8.998 – 1. D.17 = 37.4 Secondary air λ G6 = 1.29 kg/s lmin. D.75 ⋅ 0.2.17 m³/s Cooler intake air volume flow (Equation 21): & VL10.268 ⋅ 2 = 0.1745 · 1.1745 & m B7 = 1. tr = 7.39 – 0.25 & VFl.39 m³/s & VFl.

55 kg/s = 0.84 kg/s = 0 = 0. B = (1. tr = 60.1.376 kg/s CO2 from the kiln feed (Equation 23): 44.376 + 0.29 kg/s = 1.24 kg/s = 0 x CO 2 .84 m³/s VCO 2 .G1 = 0.01  1.G5 .S1 x CO 2 . Calculation on the basis of the CO2 balance: Carbon dioxide mass flow (Equation 24) effectively fed in with the kiln feed: & mCO 2 .97  CO2 from the fuel (Equation 26): & VCO2 .St1 x CO 2 . tr.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 122 10.01  1  & = 4.0007 yCO2 .88 m³/s .1262 yO2 . tr.24) · 5. pure gas = 0. y CO.3380 = 0. tr.S =  9.2.G5 not applicable yCO. tr.0489 yCO2 . B7 h u.84 · 0.29 + 1.2925 & Vpure gas.S = 28.0411 kg/s = 1.1. tr.3256 = 9.G1 = 0.1426 1.eff.6 Raw gas & mS1 & mSt1 & mSt5 & mC. pure gas = 0.55 · 0.S & m B7 & m B3 = 28.G1 = 0.St5 = 0.01 · 10 – 5 · 22684 = 2. tr. tr yCO 2 . tr.0411  12.42 m³/s yO2 .3256 not applicable h u.eff. B3 = 22684 kJ/kg (lignitic coal) = 22684 kJ/kg (lignitic coal) & VG5.3380 – 0.

2925 + 0. Calculation on the basis of the clean gas volume flow: Raw gas volume flow (Equations 30 and 31): a) CO2 balance: 0.G2 = 0.7 Gas downstream from the burning area yCO2 .1.1426 & VG1.28 m³/s 0.28) = 25. tr = 0.2925 yCO2 .1.33 m³/s 0.68 m³/s Gas volume downstream from the burning area (Equations 30 and 31): a) CO2 balance: 0.5 (26. tr = 25.88 − 0 & VG1.G1 = 0.0489 yO2 .84 + 2. tr = 60.2925 b) O2 balance: 0.3290 . tr.07 + 25.42 = 25.68 m³/s 10.2925 & VG2.83 m³/s 0.21 − 0. tr = = 26.07 m³/s 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 123 Raw gas volume flow (Equation 29): 4.2.21 − 0.3290 yO2 . tr.1262 & VG1.0489 The following applies: & VG1.G1 = 0.0007 2.42 = 26. tr = 25.68 = 22. tr.G2 = 0. tr.0318 & VG1. tr = 60.

2925 − 0. tr = 0.5   0.2108 −  0. eff.1.68 1 − 0.21   = 0.22 m³/s 0.1.G6 = 0.0107 ⋅ 3.0411 ⋅ 8.G6 = 0.88 m³/kg = 3.0007 yO2 .B3 lmin.C lmin. S & mS.68 = 23.03 m³/s 10.G6 = 0.tr.0489   25. tr.0005 lmin. tr.2.G1 = 0.0489 yCO2 .68 m³/s yCO. tr.0107 kg/s yO2 .0302   1 − 0. tr 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 124 b) O2 balance: 0.32 − ⋅ 25.21   .0411 kg/s = 0.24 kg/s = 0. tr.0489 & VG2.S = 5.21 − 0.21 − 0.68 ⋅ 0. tr = 25.998 m³/kg = 8.2925 & VG1.2108 −  0.0007 −  0.G1 = 0. eff.0318 The following applies: & VG2.998 + 0.5 (22.2108 & m B3 & mC.24 ⋅ 5.21   0 . S = 1.G1 = 0.0302 Gas volume flow downstream from the rotary kiln [30]: & VG6. tr = 25.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) yCO2 .83 + 23.32 m 3/s − 0.0007  0.88 + 0.22) = 23.21   = 9. tr.79 1.32 m³/kg yO2 .0302   1 − 0.

32 m³/kg 0.1.10 Infiltrated air (calcinator) & m B3 & mC.1. eff. S & mS.tr = yO2 .0006) – 9.32 – 6.C lmin.0302 0.998 m³/kg 8.2. tr.32 · 0.C = (23.88 + 0.88 m³/kg 3.73 – 0. tr. S = 1.19 m³/s & VG2.0318 – 0.B3 = lmin.tr yO2 .24 · 5.S = = 5.tr & VG6. tr.0107 kg/s = 23.9 Infiltrated air (preheater) & VGl.U = 4°C [39. tr.998 + 0.5 · 0.21 0.24 kg/s = 0.0107 · 3.1.73 m³/s lmin.0006 Infiltrated air volume flow (calcinator) according to [30]: 1 & VFl. tr = 25.03 m³/s = 9.0302) + 1.1.2.60 m³/s 10.2 Water vapor 10.4 .2.0411 · 8.0411 kg/s = 0.1.G2 = yO2 .G6 = & VL3. eff.68 m³/s & VG2.2.2.G2 = 0.03 m³/s & VL1 = 1.03 · (0.1.0318 0.03 m³/s 10.32 m³/s = 6.tr & VL4.19 = 3.2°F] ϕ = 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 125 10. tr = 23.1 Humidity in the air p = 101000 Pa ϑ L.

1. St1 = 0.470 · 42 + 2.tr · 1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 126 Saturation pressure of the water vapor at ambient temperature (Equation 33): ps (ϑ L.58 · 1. S1 = 0. D = 0.87 · 4 + 1.1745 · 1.608 · 0. L = λG1 ⋅ VL.2 = 0. L = 1.2 0 .2.29 · 5.002 = 0.564 · 10 – 5 · 43 + 2. L = 1.07 m³/s b) downstream from the burning area & VH 2 O.002 = 0.2 Pa Water content of the dry air (Equation 32): xD = 0.5 + 43.2278 · 15.3843 · 15.608 · 0.06 m³/s c) downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) & VH 2 O.622 812.8 kg/m³ .0020 kg/kg 101000 − 812.0190 ρH 2O.2 Water from the kiln feed & mS1 & mSt1 = 28.998 · 1.608 · 0.2.55 kg/s = 0.58 · 1.608 · xD = 1.03 m³/s 10.U) = 611.84 kg/s x H2O.002 = 0.4 Humidity volume flows (Equation 34): a) downstream from the preheater & & VH 2 O.0204 x H2O. min.877 · 10 – 4 · 44 + 10 – 6 · 45 = 812.

3 Water from the fuel & mB7 & mB3 = = 1.087 x H.8 10.087 + 0.84 ⋅ 0.8  10.0204 − 0.2.2. B7 = 1. B7 = 0.087 + 0.1.087 x H2O.2. B7 x H.29 kg/s 1. 10 = 0 .0453 Moisture volume flows (Equation 36): a) Main burner 18  1  & = 0.24 kg/s x H2O.0453  2  0 .80 m³/s VH 2 O. B3 = 1. B3 = 0.77 m³/s VH 2 O.1.29  0.55 ⋅ 0.2. B3 = 0.24  0.019) ⋅ = 0.0453 = 0. S = (28.71 m³/s 0 .4 Injection water & m H 2 O.0453  2  0 .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 127 Moisture volume flow from the kiln feed (Equation 35): 1 & VH 2 O.8  b) Secondary burner 18  1  & = 0.

B7 = x F.80 + 0.71 + 0.68 + 0.3 Moist gas (examples) Raw gas volume flow (Equation 40): & VG1 = 25.1 Fuel & m B7 = 1.15 m³/s 10.4. B7 = x H 2 O.6°F] x H 2 O.1.2.03 + 0.06 + 0.24 kg/s h u.1.087) ϑB7 = 32°C [89. B3 = 0.1.087 .32 + 0.496 (1 − 0.4 Energy flows 10. B7 = 22684 kJ/kg h u.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 128 10.03 m³/s Volume flow downstream from the burning area: & VG2 = 23.80 = 10.6°F] ϑB3 = 32°C [89.1.77 = 28.07 + 0.80 + 0.1 Energy input 10.1.77 = 24.29 kg/s & m B3 = 1. B3 = 22684 kJ/kg x F.4.03 + 0. 10.66 m³/s Volume flow downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet): & VG6 = 9. B3 = 0.3 Liquid mass flows Does not apply.

8 + 7.344 kJ/kg K 1 − 0.844 kJ/kg K Enthalpy flow of the kiln feed (Equation 48): & H S1 = 28. tr ≈  0.55 · 0.2 kJ/kg K Mean specific thermal capacity for moist lignitic coal (Equation 44): cB7 = cB3 = (1 – 0.496   –3 – 10 3 c B.55 kg/s ϑS1 = 63°C [145.6 ·10 – 7 · 632 + 5.087 · 4.087   Mean specific thermal capacity for the water in the coal: c H 2O ≈ 4.2 = 1.29 + 1.592 kJ/kg K Reaction enthalpy flow of the fuel (Equation 41): & ∆H R.803 ⋅ 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 129 Mean specific thermal capacity for dry lignitic coal (Equation 43): 0.2 · 10 – 11 · 633 = 0. B = (1.24) · 1.24) · 22684 = 57391 kJ/s Sensible enthalpy flow of the fuel (Equation 42): & H B = (1.1.5 · 10 · 32 – 8 · 10 · 32 ) = 1.4.344 + 0.846 +  (1 + 1.1.592 · (32 – 25) = 28 kJ/s 10.087) · 1.29 + 1.844 · (63 – 25) = 916 kJ/s .2 Kiln feed & mS1 = 28.4°F] Mean specific thermal capacity of the kiln feed (Equation 49): cS1 ≈ 0.3 ·10 – 4 · 63 – 4.

U = 4°C [39.4.86 · 10 – 11 · 43 = 1. total = 44.4. tr = 23.002) = 44.L.75 · 10 – 5 · 4 + 8.4.tr = 15.4 Injection water Does not apply.3843 · 15.17) (1 + 1.3 Air λG1 = 1. 10.1.9 = 409 kJ/s Pmech.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 130 10.88 m³/s i Mean specific thermal capacity of the air fed in (Equation 52): cp.17 m³/s xD = 0. min.297 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the air fed in (Equation 50): & H L.297 + 5.58 + 23.3843 & VL. air-intake fan = 337 kJ/s Mechanical performance (Equation 53): Pmech = (337 + 117) · 0.5 Mechanical performance Pmech.1.2°F] Sum of the air volume flows fed in (Equation 39): & ∑ VLi = (1.1.297 · (4 – 25) = -1223 kJ/s 10.06 · 10 – 8 · 42 – 2.58 m³/s & VL11.tr = 1.1.1.88 · 1.1.608 · 0.002 kg/kg ϑ L. kiln drive = 117 kJ/s .

1 C3S.4.0083 + 1.754 · 0.718 · 0.65 · 0.0234 = 0.1.4.6498 Clinker phases (Equations 57 through 60): x C 3S.6498 – 7.S10 = 4.85 · 0.6641 – 0.0234 = 0.563 x C 2S.0143 – 0 = 0.1.1.2137 – 0. 10.692 · 0.2137 – 1.292 · 0.563 = 0.128 x C 4 AF. C2S. S10 = 0.043 · 0.0632 = 0. C3A and C4AF in the clinker SO3 bound to the CaO in the clinker (Equation 55 or 56): 0.1.0632 – 1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 131 10.4.071 .S10 = 2.2.0234 – 6.071 · 0.2 Energy output 10.0010 = 0.2.602 · 0.0083 > 0.0067 The following then results: x CaOSO .S10 = 3.S10 = 0 3 CaO bound in the clinker phases (Equation 54): x CaO* .868 · 0. each according to Table 10.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed Chemical analyses of the solid substance average samples.188 x C3A.43 · 0.S10 = 2.

274 · 0.2.7683 x MgCO3 .7404 x MgCO3 .274 · 0.3256 = 0.274 · 0.4148 < 0.916 · (0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 132 10.2.1.785 · 0.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust Does not apply.55 kg/s & mSt1 = 0.84) = 1386 kJ/s .4.4.785 · 0.4304 The following then results: x CaCO3 .2 CaCO3.3380 = 0.4235 The following then results: x CaCO3 .0003 b) raw gas dust (Equations 61 through 64): 1.4304 = 0.0204 · 28.4 Balance equations & mS1 = 28.S1 = 1.St1 = 0 10.S1 = 1.1.00 kg/s & mSt12 = 0 kg/s Reaction enthalpy flows (Equations 67 through 79): 1) Evaporation of H2O: & ∆H R1 = 2446 (0.3380 – 0. and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust a) kiln feed (Equations 61 through 64): 1.1.4.1.1.84 kg/s & mSt5 = 0 kg/s & mS10 = 18.55 – 0.3256 = 0.1.St1 = 2. 10.2.0190 · 0.4306 > 0.4304) = 0.

128 · 18.188 · 18.55 – 0.00 = 170 kJ/s 9) Formation of β-C2S: & ∆H R9 = -700 · 0.84) = 12 kJ/s 5) CaCO3 dissociation: & ∆H R5 = 1778 (0.55 – 0 · 0.55 – 0.84) = 37895 kJ/s 6) Pyrite: & ∆H R6 = -12914 (0.0402 · 28.071 · 18.0021 · 0.0499 · 0.0004 · 28.84) = -1346 kJ/s 4) MgCO3 dissociation: & ∆H R4 = 1396 (0.0003 · 28.55 – 0.7683 · 28.0015 · 28.84) = 978 kJ/s 3) Organic clay components: & ∆H R3 = -32786 (0.84) = -139 kJ/s 7) Formation of C4AF: & ∆H R7 = -67 · 0.00 = -2369 kJ/s .7404 · 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 133 2) Decomposition of clay: assumption: 100%-illite & ∆H R2 = 884 (0.0008 · 0.55 – 0.00 = -86 kJ/s 8) Formation of C3A: & ∆H R8 = 74 · 0.

25 m³/s ϑ G1 = 330°C [626°F] ϑ L11 = 278°C [532.4.0448 = 0.1.0448 = 1 – 0.2 Water evaporation Does not apply.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 134 10) Formation of C3S: & ∆H R10 = -495 · 0.0838) · 0. G1 = (1 – 0.S = 1386 + 978 – 1346 + 12 + 37895 – 139 – 86 + 170 – 2369 – 5016 – 903 = 30582 kJ/s 10. G1 = (1 – 0.2680 – 0.00 + 0.2925 = 0.0014 · 0.0067 · 18. 10.4.2680 yO 2 .1.3 Waste gas losses & VG1 = 28. G1 = 0.0838 yCO 2 .2. G1 y N 2 .0010 · 28.2.55) = -903 kJ/s Sum of the reaction enthalpy flow of the kiln feed (Equation 80): & ∆H R.03 m³/s & VL11 = 23.84 – 0.0489 = 0.0838 – 0.0838) · 0.00 = -5016 kJ/s 11) Formation of K2SO4: & ∆H R11 = -9690 (0.6034 .563 · 18.4°F] y H 2O.

916 · 10 – 4 · 330 – 9.6 · 10 – 7 · 3302 + 5.633 + 9.319 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the cooler vent air (Equation 89): & H L11 = 23.904 kJ/m³ K c p. N 2 = 1.320 kJ/m³ K c p.22 · 10 – 11 ·3303 = 1.86 · 10 – 11 · 2783 = 1.CO 2 = 1.497 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the raw gas (Equation 82): & H G1 = 28.25 · 1. H 2O = 1.904 + 0.0448 · 1.540 kJ/m³ K c p.8 + 7.631 · 10 – 4 · 330 – 4.497 (330 – 25) = 12798 kJ/s b) Cooler vent air Mean specific thermal capacity of the cooler vent air (Equation 52): cp.366 = 1.021 · 10 – 7 · 3302 – 7.84 kg/s ϑ St1 = 330°C [626°F] Mean specific thermal capacity of the raw gas dust (Equation 49): CSt1 ≈ 0.4 Dust losses & mSt1 = 0.35 · 10 – 11 ·3303 = 1.65 · 10 – 8 · 3302 – 3.993 kJ/kg K .75 · 10 – 5 · 278 + 8.489 + 9.1.301 + 3.4 · 10 – 9 · 3302 – 1.319 (278 – 25) = 7759 kJ/s 10.52 · 10 – 5 · 330 + 2.297 + 5.05 · 10 – 5 · 330 + 9.606 · 10 – 7 · 3302 + 8.268 + 1.06 · 10 – 8 · 2782 – 2.4.G1 = 0.O 2 = 1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 135 a) Raw gas Mean specific thermal capacity of the raw gas (Equations 83 through 87): c p.90 · 10 – 11 · 3303 = 1.6034 · 1.2 · 10 – 11 · 3303 = 0.03 · 1.32 + 0.2.01 · 10 – 11 ·3303 = 1.3 · 10 – 4 · 330 – 4.304 + 1.54 + 0. L11 ≈ 1.366 kJ/m³ K c p.0838 · 1.

124 · 10 – 10 · 1203 = 0.369 · 10 – 7 · 1202 + 2.68 · 0.0007 · 12645 = 227 kJ/s 10.00 · 0.1.4.2.2.6 Clinker & mS10 = 18.1.793 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the clinker (Equation 94): & H S10 = 18.729 + 5.793 (120 – 25) = 1355 kJ/s .00 kg/s ϑ S10 = 120°C [248°F] Mean specific thermal capacity of the raw gas dust (Equation 95): CS10 = 0.4. tr = 25.921 · 10 – 4 · 120 – 5.G1 = 0.68 m³/s y CO.CO = 25.0007 Reaction enthalpy flow (Equation 93): & ∆H R.993 (330 – 25) = 254 kJ/s 10.84 · 0.tr.5 Incomplete combustion & VG1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 136 Enthalpy flow of the raw gas dust (Equation 90): & H St1 = 0.

D = 4266 kJ/s & Q W. K = 252 kJ/s 10.T = 486 kJ/s & Q W.6% of the balance sum.4.2.C = 360 kJ/s & Q W. .7 Radiation and convection: For calculation examples.4. B = 59059 – 28 – 916 + 1223 – 409 = 58929 kJ/s Balance deficit: 58929 – 57391 = 1538 kJ/s This corresponds to 2.3 Energy balance Energy output (Equation 108): & E out = 30582 + 12798 + 7759 + 254 + 227 + 1355 + 720 + 360 + 4266 + 486 + 252 = 59059 kJ/s Reaction enthalpy flow of the fuel including the balance remainder (Equation 109): & ∆H R. see [31]: & Q W.8 Uncoupled heat Does not apply.4. V = 720 kJ/s & Q W.1.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 137 10. 10.1.1.

18 (1 + 1.73 Hot clinker mass flow (Equation 111): & mS8 = 18.73 m³/s Secondary air dust mass flow (Equation 110): & mSt8 = 0.608 · 0.2 Gas volume flows & VL8.2 Balancing of the partial systems 10.35 + 0.0020 kg/kg Secondary air volume flow (Equation 38): & VL8 = 7.2.002) = 7. tr = 37.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 138 10.20 m³/s Cooler intake air volume flow (Equation 38): & VL10 = 37.2.35 kg/s & VL8.72 kg/s 10.2.608 · 0.1 Solid substance mass flows & mS10 = 18.1.1.37 kg/s 6.35 ⋅ 7. tr = 7.00 kg/s & mSt9 = 0.18 m³/s & VL9.08 (1 + 1.00 + 0.002) = 37. tr = 6.1 Clinker cooler 10.37 = 18.18 m³/s & VL10. tr = 7.20 m³/s .18 = 0.08 m³/s xD = 0.

May 1992

Specification Vt 10

Page 139

10.2.1.3 Energy flows

10.2.1.3.1 Energy input

& VL10 = 37.20 m³/s

ϑ U = 4°C [39.2°F]

Pmech, intake air fan = 337 kJ/s

cp,L10 = 1.297 kJ/m³ K (for the calculation, see above) The enthalpy flow of the hot clinker results from the balance remainder from the energy balance. Enthalpy flow of the cooler intake air (Equation 113): & H L10 = 37.20 · 1.297 (4 – 25) = -1014 kJ/s The enthalpy flow of the injection water does not apply here. Mechanical performance (Equation 114): Pmech, K = 337 · 0.9 = 303 kJ/s

10.2.1.3.2 Energy output

& VL9 & VL8

& = VL4 = 6.75 m³/s = 7.20 m³/s

& & mSt9 = mSt4 = 0.35 kg/s & mSt8 = 0.37 kg/s

ϑ L4

= 853°C [1567.4°F]

& QW,T = 486 kJ/s

May 1992

Specification Vt 10

Page 140

Enthalpy flow of the clinker (for the calculation, see above): & H S10 = 1355 kJ/s Radiation and convection loss flow of the cooler including the kiln hood:

& Q W, K = 252 kJ/s

The uncoupled heat flow does not apply here. Enthalpy flow of the cooler vent air (for the calculation, see above): & H L11 = 7759 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the tertiary air at the calcinator (Equations 52 and 89): cp,L4 = 1.297 + 5.75 · 10 – 5 · 8.53 + 8.06 · 10 – 8 · 8532 – 2.86 · 10 – 11 · 8533 = 1.387 kJ/m³ K & H L4 = 6.75 · 1.387 · (853 – 25) = 7752 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the tertiary air dust at the calcinator (Equations 95 and 99): CSt4 = 0.729 + 5.921 · 10 – 4 · 8.53 – 5.369 · 10 – 7 · 8532 + 2.124 · 10 – 10 · 8533 = 0.975 kJ/kg K & H St4 = 0.35 · 0.975 · (853 – 25) = 283 kJ/s Energy balance for the tertiary air duct:

& & & & & H L9 + H St9 = H L4 + H St4 + Q W, T = 7752 + 283 + 486 = 8521 kJ/s

The iterative calculation then results in the following: ϑ L9 = ϑ St9 ≈ 901°C [1653.8°F]

May 1992

Specification Vt 10

Page 141

Enthalpy flow of the secondary air (Equations 52 and 89): Cp,L8 = 1.297 + 5.75 · 10 – 5 · 901 + 8.06 · 10 – 8 · 9012 – 2.86 · 10 – 11 · 9013 = 1.390 kJ/m³ K & H L8 = 7.2 · 1.39 (901 – 25) = 8767 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the secondary air dust (Equations 95 and 94): CSt8 = 0.729 + 5.921 · 10 – 4 · 901 – 5.369 · 10 – 7 · 9012 – 2.124 · 10 – 10 · 9013 = 0.982 kJ/kg K & H St8 = 0.37 · 0.982 (901 – 25) = 318 kJ/s The evaporation enthalpy flow of the water does not apply here.

10.2.1.3.3 Energy balance

Enthalpy flow of the hot clinker (Equation 115): & H S8 = 8767 + 318 + 8521 + 7759 + 1355 + 252 + 1014 – 303 = 27683 kJ/s Hot clinker temperature:

ϑS8 =

& H S8 + 25 & mS8 ⋅ cS8 & mS8 = 18.72 kg/s

cS8 (1389°C [2532.2°F]) = 1.084 kJ/kg K The following then results: ϑS8 =

27683 + 25 = 1389°C [2532.2°F] 18.72 ⋅ 1.084

pre − cool = 20. 99 and 101): 200  200   200  αconv = 0.2 + 4.2 m ϑ W.2.667 W/m² K Radiation and convection loss flow of the pre-cooling zone (Equation 117): & Q W.298 · (4 – 25) = -688 kJ/s .0 + 3.00 · 0.168 W/m² K 100  100   100  αrad = 0.4.499 = 20.2°F]) = 25.5 – 0.4 Evaluation quantities 10.67 · 10 – 8 2 3 4734 − 277 4 = 11.1 Pre-cooling zone LB = -0.3 · 3.2°F]) = 18.m ≈ 200°C [392°F] ϑ U = 4°C [39.731 · (4 – 25) = -276 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the cooler vent air at 4°C [39.2) (200 – 4) 1 = 122 kJ/s 1000 10.667 · π · 3.9 · 5.1.1.2 – 0.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area Enthalpy flow of the clinker at 4°C [39.1.25 · 1.2.2°F]: & H L11 (4°C [39.85   + 0.168 + 11.2.2°F] Heat-transition coefficients (Equations 98.2°F]: & H S10 (4°C [39.2 (3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 142 10.076   = 9.2 m Da = 3.4.499 W/m² K 473 − 277 αtotal = 9.

S1 = 0.9016 = 0.4.3 Cooling area efficiency Enthalpy flow of the clinker at 1450°C [2642°F]: & H S10 (1450°C [2642°F]) = 18.3380 xNF.3380 0.S6 = 0.0532 xCO2 .9016 (sum 1 to 8 in Table 10) xNF.2 Calcinator xCO2 .106 · (1450 – 25) = 28370 kJ/s Cooling area efficiency (Equation 119): η cooling area = 1 – 10452 = 0.00 · 1.1.635 28370 + 276 10.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 143 Energy loss of the cooling area (Equation 118): & Eloss.S6 = 0.0532 = 1 − 0.S1 = 0.6316 (sum 1 to 8 in Table 10) Apparent degree of precalcining of the kiln feed at the kiln inlet (Equation 121): 0.89 0.6316 ϕ apparent . cooling area = 1355 + 276 + 7759 + 688 + 252 + 122 = 10452 kJ/s 10.2.

3 Preheater Calculation of the mass flows and degrees of separation according to Equations (123). 7) The dust from the rotary kiln and from the tertiary air duct contains 10% alkalis and 90% non-volatile components. 3) The infiltrated air volume flow of the preheater is uniformly distributed over the four stages. (127). Assumptions made for the calculations: 1) The conveying air volume flow for the kiln feed enters into stage 1. 6) The cyclone of the calcinator is assigned the number 5.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 144 10. (126). . (130) and (131). 2) One-fourth of the moisture volume flow from the kiln feed is desorbed in each of the four uppermost stages. 4) The following aspects are taken into account for the reaction enthalpy flow in the preheater: • evaporation of H2O • degradation of clay • organic components • MgCO3 dissociation • pyrite 5) The sum of the reaction enthalpy flows in the preheater is uniformly distributed among the four stages.

the table provides information about the necessary measuring precision for the individual measured quantities during a performance test.595 1.619 – – & QW – 180 180 180 180 – – & ∆H R – 223 223 223 223 – – & mS 28.62 62.092 1.84 15.03 23.53 25.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 145 Results: energy balance i 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 alkali balance ϑ 63 330 480 638 744 – – cS 0.31 28.84 – 7.26 – – – & mSt – 0.993 1.43 6.67 49.69 0.98 0.19 21.87 0.09 – – cp.555 1. . Thus.02 25.844 0.050 1.497 1.87 ξ – 0.3 Estimation of error Table 16 provides an overview of how possible errors in the measured or input quantities (column 2) impact on the fuel energy consumption when it is calculated according to Equation (109) or according to Equation (41) and then related to the clinker mass flow (columns 3 and 4).80 0.67 48.55 – – & mS 28.14 34.55 43.110 – – & VG – 28.26 – & mSt – 0.97 25.35 – 10.G – 1.92 3.55 – 34.96 21.

calcinator and tertiary air duct).24 0.00 – – 2466 111.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 146 10.4 Tables (The operands are printed in boldface!) Table 9 .0 – 30 28.84 – 0.3 73.35 .Solid substance mass flows (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.55 1.29 1.4 107. Designation Clinker Discharged tertiary air dust Kiln feed a) meter status b) calculated lignitic coal (main burner) lignitic coal (secondary burner) Raw gas dust Bypass dust Returned tertiary air dust t/d 1555 – 2506 kg/s 18.

80 – – – 2 14.60 – 0.51 – 43.10 0.01 0.23 35.57 0.45 – 0.08 66. No.25 4.42 1.58 – 45.43 100.81 80.51 99.21 35.37 6.75 64.57 0.12 – – 1.72 0.16 0.36 0.23 – 27.31 34.31 – 33.04 0.05 0.65 3.77 0.06 64.13 – 33.30 – 33.61 – 0.96 – Raw gas dust 14.04 – – 0.26 99.15 – 61.44 – 0.57 0.49 – 0.14 – – 1.10 99.80 0.72 4.40 – – – 5 19.58 100.76 – – – 3 14.10 70.84 4.13 – – 1.42 – – 1.13 3.48 – – – 4 15.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 147 Table 10 .85 0.57 0.22 7.35 0.30 6.41 1.76 5.31 – 0.76 – 31.43 Fuel ash 8.59 – – 1.22 34.07 – – – – – Kiln feed downstream from the cyclone 1a 14.72 100.64 0.92 0.99 – – 1.04 0.30 1.Chemical analyses of the solid substance average samples in % by weight of the substance entailing loss on ignition (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.08 1.91 4.56 0.34 – 66.02 12.64 0.82 – – 2.32 – – – 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 SiO2 Al2O3 TiO2 P2O5 Fe2O3 Mn2O3 CaO MgO SiO3 S 2– Cl – K2O Na2O ignition loss sum 1-14 sum 1-8 C CO2 H2O (< 110°C) H2O (> 110°C) CaOfree .47 1.57 0.85 4.03 0.10 61.75 63.78 0.45 2.23 31.23 0.95 – – 1.50 – 43.67 – 0.15 0.32 – – 2. calcinator and tertiary air duct).00 99.51 – 43.15 33.63 0.80 – – – 1b 13.26 34.75 98.05 0.008 0.70 – 42.30 34.001 0.60 0.68 0.25 27.72 0.83 0.22 0.46 97.54 17.54 0.90 90.16 0.25 48.08 0.45 0.62 – 47. Components Kiln feed 13.70 0.10 0.12 4.27 62.64 99.45 – 0.15 0.85 100.07 1.03 0.51 – 42.16 – 5.32 0.14 0.02 – – 1.02 0.83 – Clinker 21.

-% wgt.-% wgt.27 0.70 4.27 0.60 Fuel (secondary burner) 22.74 49.53 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 148 Table 11 .684 8. Designation lower calorific value water ash carbon hydrogen sulfur nitrogen oxygen volatile components 1) 1) Unit kJ/kg wgt.20 4.684 8.56 21.74 49.-% wgt.53 0.00 60.20 4.Fuels (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.00 60.-% wgt.-% wgt.70 4.-% Fuel (main burner) 22. .-% wgt.-% wgt.56 21.60 Relative to the dry substance. calcinator and tertiary air duct).

6°F] .Temperatures (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.2°F] 901°C [1653.2°F] 1389°C [2532.4°F] 1024°C [1875. Designation Kiln feed Raw gas Kiln feed (cyclone 2) Kiln feed (cyclone 3) Kiln feed (cyclone 4) Kiln feed (cyclone 5) Tertiary air (calcinator) Kiln inlet gas Hot clinker Secondary air Cooler vent air Clinker Ambient air Fuel (main burner) Fuel (secondary burner) Temperature (°C [°F]) 63°C [145. calcinator and tertiary air duct).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 149 Table 12 .8°F] 278°C [532.2°F] 845°C [1553°F] 853°C [1567.2°F] 32°C [89.4°F] 120°C [248°F] 4°C [39.6°F] 32°C [89.4°F] 330°C [626°F] 480°C [896°F] 638°C [1180.4°F] 744°C [1371.

42 m³(s.)/h 67.52 Calculated.66 (10.89 3.03 (9.c.73 23.18) 6.62 29.19 1. s.18 3.8 8.61 0.)/h 244000 m³(s. = under standard conditions .6 8.03 24.c. but often very imprecise since gas analysis at the kiln inlet is not representative.68 23.03) 0.)/h 60.26 4.19 1.90 21.08 1.39 134000 5800 700 5000 37.52 3800 (10900) 1900 1.c.20 1.17 100900 88700 36500 (26000) 24300 83700 28.75 23.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 150 Table 13 .25 133600 5800 700 5000 37.39 air with 0.c.25 32.02 CO vol-% 0.04) 0.05 (3.76 CO2 12.05 (3.06 0.60 0.4 6.03 0.07 0.05 217500 10.)/h clean gas raw gas gas after burning area kiln inlet gas 1) secondary air 1) tertiary air cooler vent air cooler intake air conveying air (kiln feed) burner air (secondary burner) burner air (main burner) infiltrated air (preheater) infiltrated air (calcinator) infiltrated air (kiln hood) 1) 1) moist gas … – – – – … – – – – H2 O vol-% m³(s.15) (7.20) 6. calcinator and tertiary air duct).c.3 vol-% of H2O 3800 (10900) 1900 1.Gas volume flows and composition (kiln system with a cyclone preheater. related to dry gas m³(s.32) (7.0 92400 82900 (33600) (25900) 24200 83400 25. Designation Dry gas Moist gas Gas composition.08 O2 14.

calcinator and tertiary air duct).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 151 Table 14 .Energy balance of the kiln system (kiln system with a cyclone preheater. Designation Input Fuel main burner secondary burner sensible enthalpy balance remainder Kiln feed Air Mechanical performance Sum kJ/s kJ/kg Kl 29262 28129 28 1538 916 –1223 409 59059 1626 1563 1 85 51 –68 23 3281 Output Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed Water evaporation Waste gas losses raw gas cooler vent air Dust losses Incomplete combustion Clinker Radiation and convection Preheater Calcinator Rotary kiln Tertiary air duct cooler + kiln hood Heat uncoupling Sum Fuel energy consumption including the balance remainder 30582 — 12798 7759 254 227 1355 720 360 4266 486 252 — 59059 1699 — 711 431 14 13 75 40 20 237 27 14 — 3281 58929 3274 .

635 1538 –57 17 1498 75 14 431 473 487 18 – – 1498 Sum Output Clinker Radiation and convection Cooler vent air Tertiary air and tertiary air dust Secondary air Secondary air dust Heat uncoupling Water evaporation Sum Evaluation quantities Energy loss of the cooling area in kJ/kg Kl Cooling area efficiency (1450°C [2642°F]) .Energy balance of the cooler (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 152 Table 15 . Designation Input Hot clinker (balance remainder) Cooler intake air Mechanical performance kJ/s kJ/kg Kl 27683 –1014 303 26972 1355 252 7759 8521 8767 318 – – 26972 581 0. calcinator and tertiary air duct).

12 1. DE 19707 Phone: (302) 234-0237 Fax: (302) 234-0239 Toll-free: (800) 437-0237 e-mail: ledtrans@compuserve.42 2. Input quantity Relative error in the input parameter in % Relative error in the fuel energy consumption in % (Equation 109) Relative error in the fuel energy consumption in % (Equation 41) 2 10 3 Hu fuel Ash content of fuel Mass flow of fuel Mass flow of raw gas dust Mass flow of clinker Volume flow of dry raw gas Volume flow of dry cooler vent air Temperature of clinker Temperature of raw gas Temperature of kiln feed Temperature of cooler vent air Radiation and convection loss of preheater Radiation and convection loss of kiln SiO2 content in the clinker CO2 content in the kiln feed CO2 content in kiln feed and raw gas dust 2 10 10 50 3 10 10 5 2 10 2 50 10 –2 5 5 0 –0.09 0.51 –0.29 1.27 0.15 0.28 1.43 0.3 0.93 0.com .Influence of measuring errors on the calculated fuel energy consumption (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.74 0.22 –1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 153 Table 16 .24 Translation by: Duvekot Translators 2219 Brackenville Road Hockessin.08 0. calcinator and tertiary air duct).

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