TRANSLATION

GERMAN ASSOCIATION OF CEMENT WORKS (VDZ)
Tannenstrasse 2 4 Düsseldorf Germany

Execution and Evaluation of Kiln Performance Tests

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY COMMITTEE KILN PERFORMANCE TESTS TASK FORCE

May 1992

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. 2.
2.1 2.2

PRELIMINARY REMARKS ...........................................................................7 DESCRIPTION OF THE CLINKER BURNING PROCESS ...........................8
Reactions of the kiln feed............................................................................................................... 8 Burning process............................................................................................................................ 10

3.
3.1 3.2

EXECUTION OF KILN PERFORMANCE TESTS .......................................16
Mode of operation of the kiln system.......................................................................................... 16 Duration of the performance test................................................................................................ 16

3.3 Measuring methods ...................................................................................................................... 17 3.3.1 Solid substances.................................................................................................................... 17 3.3.1.1 Sampling .......................................................................................................................... 17 3.3.1.2 Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 18 3.3.1.3 Mass flows ....................................................................................................................... 25 3.3.2 Gases..................................................................................................................................... 27 3.3.2.1 Sampling .......................................................................................................................... 27 3.3.2.2 Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 28 3.3.2.3 Volume flows................................................................................................................... 28 3.3.3 Liquids.................................................................................................................................. 30 3.3.3.1 Heating oil ....................................................................................................................... 30 3.3.3.2 Water................................................................................................................................ 30 3.3.4 Temperatures ........................................................................................................................ 31 3.3.5 Pressures ............................................................................................................................... 32 3.3.6 Strokes and rotational speeds................................................................................................ 32 3.3.7 Electricity consumption ........................................................................................................ 33 3.3.8 Ambient conditions............................................................................................................... 33 3.3.9 Ensuring the precision of the measurements and analyses ................................................... 34

4.

EVALUATION OF KILN PERFORMANCE TESTS.....................................35

4.1 Balancing of the entire system..................................................................................................... 35 4.1.1 Solid substance mass flows .................................................................................................. 40 4.1.2 Gas volume flows ................................................................................................................. 42

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4.1.2.1 Dry gas............................................................................................................................. 42 4.1.2.1.1 Minimum air volume flow.......................................................................................... 42 4.1.2.1.2 Air proportionality factor............................................................................................ 45 4.1.2.1.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood ..................................................................................... 46 4.1.2.1.4 Secondary air .............................................................................................................. 47 4.1.2.1.5 Cooler intake air ......................................................................................................... 48 4.1.2.1.6 Raw gas ...................................................................................................................... 48 4.1.2.1.7 Gas downstream from the burning area ...................................................................... 50 4.1.2.1.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) ....................................................... 50 4.1.2.2 Water vapor...................................................................................................................... 51 4.1.2.2.1 Humidity in the air...................................................................................................... 51 4.1.2.2.2 Water from the kiln feed............................................................................................. 51 4.1.2.2.3 Water from the fuel..................................................................................................... 52 4.1.2.2.4 Injection water ............................................................................................................ 52 4.1.2.3 Moist gas.......................................................................................................................... 52 4.1.2.3.1 Air............................................................................................................................... 52 4.1.2.3.2 Raw gas ...................................................................................................................... 53 4.1.3 Liquid mass flows................................................................................................................. 53 4.1.4 Energy flows......................................................................................................................... 53 4.1.4.1 Energy input..................................................................................................................... 53 4.1.4.1.1 Fuel ............................................................................................................................. 53 4.1.4.1.2 Kiln feed ..................................................................................................................... 57 4.1.4.1.3 Air............................................................................................................................... 60 4.1.4.1.4 Injection water ............................................................................................................ 62 4.1.4.1.5 Mechanical performance ............................................................................................ 62 4.1.4.2 Energy output................................................................................................................... 62 4.1.4.2.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed .............................................................................. 62 4.1.4.2.1.1 C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF in the clinker ............................................................... 64 4.1.4.2.1.2 CaCO3 and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust ............................... 65 4.1.4.2.1.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust....................................................................... 66 4.1.4.2.1.4 Balance equations ................................................................................................ 66 4.1.4.2.2 Water evaporation....................................................................................................... 70 4.1.4.2.3 Waste gas losses ......................................................................................................... 70 4.1.4.2.4 Dust losses .................................................................................................................. 71 4.1.4.2.5 Incomplete combustion............................................................................................... 72 4.1.4.2.6 Clinker ........................................................................................................................ 72 4.1.4.2.7 Radiation and convection ........................................................................................... 74 4.1.4.2.8 Uncoupled heat ........................................................................................................... 78 4.1.4.3 Energy balance................................................................................................................. 79 4.2 Balancing of the partial systems.................................................................................................. 80 4.2.1 Clinker cooler ....................................................................................................................... 80 4.2.1.1 Solid substance mass flows.............................................................................................. 83 4.2.1.2 Gas volume flows ............................................................................................................ 84 4.2.1.3 Energy flows ........................................................................................................................... 84 4.2.1.3.1 Energy input ............................................................................................................... 84 4.2.1.3.1.1 Hot clinker ........................................................................................................... 84 4.2.1.3.1.2 Cooler intake air .................................................................................................. 85 4.2.1.3.1.3 Injection water ..................................................................................................... 85 4.2.1.3.1.4 Mechanical performance ..................................................................................... 85

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4.2.1.3.2 Energy output ............................................................................................................. 85 4.2.1.3.2.1 Clinker, clinker dust ............................................................................................ 85 4.2.1.3.2.2 Radiation and convection .................................................................................... 86 4.2.1.3.2.3 Uncoupled heat .................................................................................................... 86 4.2.1.3.2.4 Cooler vent air, secondary air, tertiary air ........................................................... 86 4.2.1.3.2.5 Water evaporation................................................................................................ 86 4.2.1.3.3 Energy balance ........................................................................................................... 86 4.2.1.4 Evaluation quantities........................................................................................................ 87 4.2.1.4.1 Pre-cooling zone ......................................................................................................... 87 4.2.1.4.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area .......................................................................... 89 4.2.1.4.3 Cooling area efficiency............................................................................................... 89 4.2.1.4.4 Cooler efficiency ........................................................................................................ 90 4.2.2 Calcinator (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater)..................................................... 90 4.2.2.1 Determination of the degree of precalcining.................................................................... 92 4.2.3 Preheater (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater) ...................................................... 93 4.2.3.1 Degree of separation of individual cyclone stages........................................................... 94

5. 6.
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7

EVALUATION OF THE SUBSTANCE CIRCULATION SYSTEMS ............98 EVALUATION OF THE CEMENT CLINKER ..............................................99
Degree of burning......................................................................................................................... 99 Particle-size distribution.............................................................................................................. 99 Grindability ................................................................................................................................ 100 Chemical composition ................................................................................................................ 100 Phase composition ...................................................................................................................... 103 Microscopic examination........................................................................................................... 103 Cement testing ............................................................................................................................ 104

7. 8. 9.
9.1 9.2

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSIONS ........................................................105 FORMULA SIGNS AND INDICES ............................................................106 LITERATURE REFERENCES...................................................................112
General literature references .................................................................................................... 112 Technical literature references.................................................................................................. 113

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10. EVALUATION EXAMPLE 1 (KILN SYSTEM WITH A CYCLONE PREHEATER, CALCINATOR AND TERTIARY AIR DUCT) ...........................118
10.1 Balancing the entire system .................................................................................................. 118 10.1.1 Solid substance mass flows ................................................................................................ 118 10.1.2 Gas volume flows ............................................................................................................... 119 10.1.2.1 Dry gas ...................................................................................................................... 119 10.1.2.1.1 Minimum air volume flow...................................................................................... 119 10.1.2.1.2 Air proportionality factors ...................................................................................... 120 10.1.2.1.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood ................................................................................. 120 10.1.2.1.4 Secondary air .......................................................................................................... 121 10.1.2.1.5 Cooler intake air ..................................................................................................... 121 10.1.2.1.6 Raw gas .................................................................................................................. 122 10.1.2.1.7 Gas downstream from the burning area .................................................................. 123 10.1.2.1.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) ................................................... 124 10.1.2.1.9 Infiltrated air (preheater)......................................................................................... 125 10.1.2.1.10 Infiltrated air (calcinator)...................................................................................... 125 10.1.2.2 Water vapor............................................................................................................... 125 10.1.2.2.1 Humidity in the air.................................................................................................. 125 10.1.2.2.2 Water from the kiln feed......................................................................................... 126 10.1.2.2.3 Water from the fuel................................................................................................. 127 10.1.2.2.4 Injection water ........................................................................................................ 127 10.1.2.3 Moist gas (examples) ................................................................................................ 128 10.1.3 Liquid mass flows............................................................................................................... 128 10.1.4 Energy flows....................................................................................................................... 128 10.1.4.1 Energy input.............................................................................................................. 128 10.1.4.1.1 Fuel ......................................................................................................................... 128 10.1.4.1.2 Kiln feed ................................................................................................................. 129 10.1.4.1.3 Air........................................................................................................................... 130 10.1.4.1.4 Injection water ........................................................................................................ 130 10.1.4.1.5 Mechanical performance ........................................................................................ 130 10.1.4.2 Energy output ............................................................................................................ 131 10.1.4.2.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed .......................................................................... 131 10.1.4.2.1.1 C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF in the clinker ........................................................... 131 10.1.4.2.1.2 CaCO3, and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust........................... 132 10.1.4.2.1.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust................................................................... 132 10.1.4.2.1.4 Balance equations ............................................................................................ 132 10.1.4.2.2 Water evaporation................................................................................................... 134 10.1.4.2.3 Waste gas losses ..................................................................................................... 134 10.1.4.2.4 Dust losses .............................................................................................................. 135 10.1.4.2.5 Incomplete combustion........................................................................................... 136 10.1.4.2.6 Clinker .................................................................................................................... 136 10.1.4.2.7 Radiation and convection: ...................................................................................... 137 10.1.4.2.8 Uncoupled heat ....................................................................................................... 137 10.1.4.3 Energy balance .......................................................................................................... 137 10.2 Balancing of the partial systems........................................................................................... 138 10.2.1 Clinker cooler ..................................................................................................................... 138 10.2.1.1 Solid substance mass flows ....................................................................................... 138

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10.2.1.2 Gas volume flows...................................................................................................... 138 10.2.1.3 Energy flows ............................................................................................................. 139 10.2.1.3.1 Energy input ........................................................................................................... 139 10.2.1.3.2 Energy output ......................................................................................................... 139 10.2.1.3.3 Energy balance ....................................................................................................... 141 10.2.1.4 Evaluation quantities................................................................................................. 142 10.2.1.4.1 Pre-cooling zone ..................................................................................................... 142 10.2.1.4.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area ...................................................................... 142 10.2.1.4.3 Cooling area efficiency........................................................................................... 143 10.2.2 Calcinator ........................................................................................................................... 143 10.2.3 Preheater ............................................................................................................................. 144 10.3 10.4 Estimation of error................................................................................................................ 145 Tables...................................................................................................................................... 146

Additional information in this context would be necessary in order to obtain a precise measurement.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 7 1. Information on pressure levels. but also to create a reliable foundation for the optimization of individual system components. This specification deals primarily with energy and mass balances. as well as for the reduction of the level of emissions. The important aspect here is the absolute value of the measured values. The evaluation equations are employed in two practical examples in Sections 10 and 11. specific fuel-energy consumption). For this reason. this specification. . The practical feasibility of the evaluation is always the main priority in the formulation of the numerical value equations. in contrast. specifically contains information for carrying out performance tests. stroke numbers and rotational speeds as well as on the consumption of electricity. in addition to the evaluation. of the operation and of the cement quality. only serves to assess the kiln operation. The units indicated in Section 8 apply to all numerical value equations. kiln performance tests not only serve to gather data on the performance of the kiln system (clinker output. including significant remarks pertaining to measurement technology. Preliminary remarks In cement plants.

1 Description of the clinker burning process Reactions of the kiln feed Portland cement clinker is made from a finely-ground raw material mixture consisting of limestone. silicon dioxide (SiO2). The raw material mixture is heated up and burned in the rotary kiln to form clinker.Schematic representation of the clinker formation reaction. marl. aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and iron oxide (Fe2O3). 2. some of them consecutively. The oxidic main components are calcium oxide (CaO).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 8 2. and some of them in parallel to each other (see Figure 1). . Figure 1 . a process in which several chemical reactions take place. clay and sand.

• once a maximum of 1200°C [2192°F] is reached. • up to about 700°C [1292°F]. Owing to solid-state reactions. the formation of belite (“C2S”) from SiO2 on CaO (“free lime”) is completed. clay minerals (SiO2-Al2O3-H2O) and iron ore (Fe2O3). activation of the silicates through water expulsion and modification change. in short. Moreover. the physically bound water is removed when the kiln feed is preheated. • upon cooling. calcination of the CaCO3 and concurrent binding of Al2O3. dissociation) of the calcium carbonate into CaO and CO2. while the chemically bound water is removed up to a temperature of about 700°C [1292°F]. which practically takes place between 800°C and 900°C [1472°F and 1652°F]. The melt plays a significant role in the finishing burn of the clinker. the formation of the dicalcium silicate (2CaO · SiO2. quartz (SiO2). it reaches a fraction of about 20% to 30% by weight. various calcium aluminate and calcium ferrite compounds are formed as transition phases which. however. At a sintering temperature of around 1450°C [2642°F].May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 9 The clinker formation reactions can be depicted as a model broken down into the following temperature stages: • starting composition: calcite (CaCO3). the alite and the belite remain virtually unchanged in their form and composition. • starting at 1250°C [2282°F]. This is followed by the calcination (decarbonation. In this process. reaction of the belite with the remaining free lime to form alite (“C3S”). First of all. the kiln feed has lost about 35% of its dry weight. After the complete decarbonation. • between 700°C and 900°C [1292°F and 1652°F]. C2S) already starts at about 700°C [1292°F]. Fe2O3 as well as of activated SiO2 and CaO. crystallization of the melt to form C3A and C4AF. since it pro- . disintegrate again once the clinker melt starts to form at about 1280°C [2336°F]. and forced above 1300°C [2372°F] due to melt formation.

2. C3S) from solid dicalcium silicate and CaO. 6-9 and 11-15]). cement clinker is produced in rotary kiln systems with kiln feed preheaters located upstream and clinker coolers located downstream (for other process techniques. which is located at the lower end of the rotary kiln. which are operated at 1. which is indispensable for the strength properties of the cement. C4AF) crystallize out. the cooling of the cement clinker has to be optimally harmonized with the required clinker properties.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 10 motes the formation of tricalcium silicate (3CaO · SiO2. having diameters of up to 6 meters and inclined at an angle ranging from about 2. qualitative differences occur which depend on the composition of the kiln feed [48-53]. Rotary kilns are fire-proof. After completion of the sintering. essentially tricalcium aluminate (3CaO · Al2O3.2 Burning process In Germany nowadays. In order to reach the sintering temperature of about 1350°C to 1500°C [2462°F to 2732°F] that is necessary for the formation of the clinker phase and in view of the unfavorable heat-conduction conditions in the kiln feed. Consequently.5 to 3 rpm. see [2-4. As a result of the inclination and rotation.0°. in short. On the other hand. burning tempera- . As the melt cools down. In this context. the cement clinker has to be cooled off so quickly that the tricalcium silicate does not disintegrate. the kiln feed coming from the preheater moves towards the main burner of the rotary kiln. in short. C3A) and aluminate ferrite (4CaO · Al2O3 · Fe2O3. Rotary kilns with preheaters located upstream have a length that is 10 to 17 times longer than their diameters.5° to 4. in short. and the tricalcium aluminate crystallizes with the finest grain possible. brick-lined tubes. the cooling rate should not be so high that the melt becomes glassy as it solidifies.

The dry. depending on the clinker output. The cyclone preheater essentially consists of four to five cyclone stages arranged one above the other in a tower that is 50 to 100 meters high. afterwards. . In order to be able to reach such high temperatures. and it is once again separated from the gas in the cyclones. Grate-type coolers. An intermediate gas fan blows the process gas of the rotary kiln from the top to the bottom through the layer of granules in the hot chamber. raw meal mixture is fed into the waste gases prior to entering the uppermost cyclone stage. When it comes to kiln systems. Grate-type preheaters consist of a traveling grate on which the kiln feed that has been made into granules or briquettes travels through a closed tunnel that is divided into a hot chamber and a dry chamber. the clinker dissipates its energy to the cooling air that is flowing in a cross current or countercurrent. In the case of the rotary coolers or satellite coolers. the combustion air is preheated to about 600°C to 1000°C [1112°F to 1832°F] in a clinker cooler located downstream from the sintering process. The process gases coming from the rotary kiln flow through the cyclone preheater from the bottom to the top. the gas is once again blown from the top to the bottom through the moist granules in the dry chamber. it re-enters the gas stream prior to the next-lower cyclone stage. and it is then fed to the rotary kiln burner as so-called secondary air. a distinction is made as to whether they are operated with a grate-type preheater or with a cyclone preheater. which usually consist of 10 satellite tubes attached around the periphery of the rotary kiln. the clinker that drops out of the rotary kiln after the sintering operation is cooled in a crosscurrent.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 11 tures ranging from 1800°C to 2000°C [3272°F to 3632°F] or even higher are needed. With grate-type coolers. After the coarse dust has been separated out. satellite coolers and rotary coolers are employed as clinker coolers in the cement industry.

depending on the number of stages and capacity flow ratio. The kiln feed entering the rotary kiln reaches temperatures of 820°C to 850°C [1508°F to 1562°F] at precalcining degrees of up to about 90%. the waste gases of the grate-type preheater have a temperature of about 90°C to 120°C [194°F to 248°F].Schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with cyclone preheaters and waste gas utilization. the waste gases have a temperature of around 290°C to 400°C [554°F to 752°F]. Figure 2 . Upon leaving the cyclone preheater. . Figure 2 shows a schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with a cyclone preheater and waste gas utilization. As a function of the process.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 12 Both with cyclone preheater systems and with grate-type preheater systems. the process gas from the rotary kiln has a temperature of about 1000°C to 1200°C [1832°F to 2192°F]. Figure 3 schematically shows a rotary kiln system with a grate-type preheater.

the fuel energy is divided up over two burners and. In this process. which leads from the clinker cooler past the rotary kiln. In the case of new systems with cyclone preheaters. For this purpose. The principle involved in both techniques for conveying the combustion . the combustion air is conveyed in a separate gas duct. the so-called “tertiary air duct”.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 13 Figure 3 . together with the waste gas from the main burner. the amount of energy supplied is such that 70% to 95% of the calcium carbonate of the kiln feed has already decarbonated by the time it enters the rotary kiln. The combustion air for the secondary burner can be conveyed through the rotary kiln. Since about 1970. with the secondary burner located between the rotary kiln and the preheater. This method is employed with old systems in particular. and from there to the secondary burner. new systems with cyclone preheaters are provided with an enlarged combustion chamber between the rotary kiln inlet and the lowermost cyclone. the further development of kiln systems has led to the process involving precalcining.Schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with a grate-type preheater. which is designated as the calcinator. however. that is to say.

In rotary kiln systems having a calcinator but without a tertiary air duct. calcinator. is shown in Figure 5. reciprocating grate-type cooler and tertiary air duct. A rotary kiln system with precalcining. consisting of a fourstage cyclone preheater.Precalcining process with and without tertiary air duct. Figure 4 . rotary kiln. up to 30% – in systems with a tertiary air duct. .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 14 air is shown in Figure 4. up to 60% – of the total fuel energy needed can be employed in the secondary burner.

calcinator and tertiary air duct. .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 15 Figure 5 .Schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with a cyclone preheater.

2 Duration of the performance test A kiln performance test should last for at least 24 hours. type of combined drying and grinding operation) should already have been determined during the planning phase of the performance test and. Neither shortly before nor during the performance test should there be any changes in the composition of the kiln feed or of the fuel (for example. 3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 16 3. . If the type of combined drying and grinding operation changes (in. by changing the mixed bed). 3. out. the energy fraction of the secondary fuel. the performance test should preferably last 72 hours. Possible criteria for interrupting the performance test should also be laid down in advance. partial load). should already have been established one week prior to the start of the performance test. preferably 48 or 72 hours.1 Execution of kiln performance tests Mode of operation of the kiln system The considerations elaborated upon below apply exclusively to the stationary operation a kiln system. in cases of major changes vis-à-vis normal operations. the mass flow of the kiln feed. types of fuel. The latter has to be safeguarded by means of appropriate measures. The essential operating data (for instance. composition of the kiln feed.

Sampling amount and sampling frequency in rotary kiln performance tests.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 17 3. at the discharge end of the conveyors (for instance. which could give rise to insufficient blending by the time the sampling site is reached.3.5 ≥ 0. Sampling amount in kg ≥1 ≥ 0. Table 1 . screw conveyor) or from the meal pipes (for example.5 ≥ 0.5 Sampling frequency every hour every four hours every four hours every four hours every four hours 1) every four hours 1) every two hours every four hours .1 Sampling The objective of sampling is to obtain a random sample of each solid substance mass flow that is representative of the parent population being examined. every 12 hours.3 Measuring methods 3. The safety regulations that apply in such cases must be observed. apron conveyor). The samples are taken from the belt (for instance.5 ≥ 0. that is to say. bucket elevator. It must be ensured that the sample is taken over the entire width of the material stream in order to take into account possible de-mixing phenomena. when two partial streams having different concentrations of the component to be examined are combined. Thus. the hot-meal pipe of a cyclone). Table 1 shows an example of a sampling plan.5 ≥ 0. for instance.3. then this non-homogeneity has to be taken into consideration by enlarging the scope of the sampling.1. the sampling amount and the sampling frequency have to be adapted to the prevailing test conditions. Material clinker coal dust (main burner) coal dust (secondary burner) kiln feed raw gas dust tertiary air dust bypass dust Kiln feed in the preheater 1) With partial-stream suction.5 ≥ 0. conveyor belt.5 ≥ 0.1 Solid substances 3.

As a matter principle.2 Analysis Table 2 shows an example of an analysis plan. In this process. the average sample is subsequently formed on the basis of the pre-dried individual samples. clinker). . This ensures that the best suited decomposition and analysis methods will be selected for each particular case. care should be taken to ensure that the suction is representative. the individual and average samples should be stored air-tight in order to avoid a falsification of the H2O and CO2 contents. further decarbonation of CaCO3 or a residual burn-out of carbon. tertiary air dust) can also be taken by means of isokinetic suction of a partial stream.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 18 A partially decarbonated kiln feed should be cooled off rapidly and air-tight so as to avoid. the laboratory should be informed about the source and presumed composition of the samples. for example. Samples of solid substances from flowing gases (raw gas dust. the samples can also be taken at time-staggered intervals. High levels of moisture (for instance. The individual samples are pre-comminuted (for example. For practical reasons.3. As a matter of principle. 3.1. homogenized and combined to form a weighed average sample for the duration of the performance test. in the raw material) should be determined on larger individual samples.

ISO 579. ISO 331. ISO 687. ISO 625 DIN 51724 (Part 1). ISO 3733 DIN EN 7 DIN 51721 1) DIN EN 41. ISO 1015 DIN 51719. ISO 587 DIN 51722 (Part 1). ISO 351 DIN 51727. ISO 562 DIN 51721. DIN 51400 DIN 51722 1) subtraction DIN 51872 DIN 51856 DIN 51855 Grinding for complete passage through the sieve.09 mm (for CaOfree 0.Analysis and analysis method for rotary kiln performance tests. ISO 1988. ISO 1171 DIN 51729 DIN 51720. ISO 609. sample preparation calorific value H 2O ash ash composition volatile components C and H S Cl N O – Analysis method DIN 51701 (Part 3). ISO 2309 DIN 51900. ISO 333 subtraction DIN 51570 (Parts 1 to 3) DIN 51900. ISO 348. 0. ISO 352. Material Coal dust Analysis sampling.063) 1000°C [1832°F] ± 25 K (10 min) or 950°C [1742°F] ± 25 K until weight constancy is achieved Oil sampling calorific value H 2O ash C and H S Cl N – Natural gas composition O S Clinker. ISO 1928 DIN 51777. ISO 589. ISO 334.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 19 Table 2 . tertiary air dust sample preparation loss on ignition . ISO 1928 DIN 51718.

9% by weight of SrO + 2% by weight of V2O5 as the decomposition agent. subsequent correction of the results Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) c) thermal reaction in a moist O2 stream at 1000°C [1832°F] so as to form hydrogen chloride Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) introduction of the hydrogen chloride into an acetic silver nitrate solution and coulometric titration The weighed-in amount has to be adapted to the low Cl – content of the clinker (5 to 10 g) a) gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream. 100% by weight of Li2B4O7 as the decomposition agent. 81% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 8.L. subsequent correction of the results c) fluxing agent tablet (1200°C [2192°F].1% by weight of LiF + 8. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. 90% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 10% by weight of LiF as the decomposition agent.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 20 X-ray fluorescent full analysis 2) Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Σ SO3 K2O. the results can deviate from one method to another . hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. dilution of 1:5). Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically J. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. Smith decomposition. absorption) a) method according to Franke b) method according to Schläpfer and Bukowski Depending on the boundary conditions. analysis including SO3 and alkali b) fluxing agent tablet (1050°C [1922°F]. determination of SO3. determination of SO3. dilution of 1:5 to 1:20). dilution of 1:10). flame photometry (emission. Na2O CaOfree a) fluxing agent tablet (≤ 1000°C [1832°F].

9% by weight of SrO + 2% by weight of V2O5 as the decomposition agent.1% by weight of LiF + 8. weighing Thermal desorption in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] a) KF titration b) IR detection c) gravimetric Decarbonation with hydrochloric acid. dilution of 1:10).09 mm Thermal degradation in the inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] or chemical degradation with acid a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection Weighing. dilution of 1:5). analysis including SO3 and alkali b) fluxing agent tablet (1050°C [1922°F]. subsequent correction of the results c) fluxing agent tablet (1200°C [2192°F]. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. thermal reaction of the carbon compounds in an oxygen stream a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection a) fluxing agent tablet (≤ 1000°C [1832°F]. determination of SO3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 21 Kiln feed sample preparation CO2 Grinding for complete passage through the sieve. 90% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 10% by weight of LiF as the decomposition agent. subsequent correction of the results H2O < 110°C [230°F] 4) Σ H 2O Corg X-ray fluorescent full analysis 2) Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) c) thermal reaction in a moist O2 stream at 1000°C [1832°F] so as to form hydrogen chloride . 81% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 8. 100% by weight of Li2B4O7 as the decomposition agent. cooling in a desiccator. drying at 110°C [230°F]. determination of SO3. dilution of 1:5 to 1:20). K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. 0.

0. thermal reaction of the carbon compounds in an oxygen stream a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection . flame photometry (emission. iodometry Grinding for complete passage through the sieve.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 22 Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) introduction of the hydrogen chloride into an acetic silver nitrate solution and coulometric titration The weighed-in amount has to be adapted to the low Cl – content of the clinker (5 to 10 g) Σ SO3 a) oxidation with bromine water.09 mm Thermal degradation in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] or chemical degradation with acid a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection S2– Raw gas dust 5) (cyclone preheater kiln) sample preparation CO2 Σ H 2O Thermal desorption in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] a) KF titration b) IR detection c) gravimetric Corg Decarbonation with hydrochloric acid.L. Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically K2O. absorption) Dissolution with hydrochloric acid containing SnCl2 in the presence of Cr (metallic). pick-up in a cooled (≤ 15°C [59°F]) ammoniacal ZnSO4 or CdCl2 solution. gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. Smith decomposition. Na2O J.

pick-up in a cooled (≤ 15°C [59°F]) ammoniacal ZnSO4 or CdCl2 solution.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 23 X-ray fluorescent full analysis 2) a) fluxing agent tablet (≤ 1000°C [1832°F]. 81% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 8. dilution of 1:10). dilution of 1:5 to 1:20). subsequent correction of the results c) fluxing agent tablet (1200°C [2192°F]. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. absorption) Dissolution with hydrochloric acid containing SnCl2 in the presence of Cr (metallic). flame photometry (emission. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. dilution of 1:5). 90% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 10% by weight of LiF as the decomposition agent.1% by weight of LiF + 8. Na2O S2– . Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically J. gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream. 100% by weight of Li2B4O7 as the decomposition agent. iodometry Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Σ SO3 K2O.L. determination of SO3. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. Smith decomposition. subsequent correction of the results Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) c) thermal reaction in a moist O2 stream at 1000°C [1832°F] so as to form hydrogen chloride Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) introduction of the hydrogen chloride into an acetic silver nitrate solution and coulometric titration The weighed-in amount has to be adapted to the low Cl – content of the clinker (5 to 10 g) a) oxidation with bromine water. analysis including SO3 and alkali b) fluxing agent tablet (1050°C [1922°F].9% by weight of SrO + 2% by weight of V2O5 as the decomposition agent. determination of SO3.

pick-up in a cooled (≤ 15°C [59°F]) ammoniacal ZnSO4 or CdCl2 solution.09 mm Thermal degradation in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] or chemical degradation with acid a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection Thermal desorption in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] a) KF titration b) IR detection c) gravimetric Decarbonation with hydrochloric acid. iodometry . gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream. thermal reaction of the carbon compounds in an oxygen stream a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection J. Na2O Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Σ SO3 S2– Dissolution with hydrochloric acid containing SnCl2 in the presence of Cr (metallic).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 24 Bypass dust 5) Kiln feed in the preheater5) Raw gas dust 5) (grate-type preheating kiln) sample preparation CO2 Grinding for complete passage through the sieve. 0. flame photometry (emission. Smith decomposition. Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically Σ H 2O Corg K2O.L. absorption) Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) coulometric titration d) gravimetric a) oxidation with bromine water. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7.

The measured value from the performance test is then multiplied by the resulting correction values. TiO2. The duration of the clinker weighing can differ from the performance test duration. In the case of sensitive samples that are hygroscopic or that react during the drying process. barium oxide and strontium oxide or S2–.) Nitric acid extraction does not always dissolve all of the halides out of the sample matrix. The maximum error is smaller with a duration of 48 hours. During the reducing burning process.1. < 105°C [221°F]. 3) 4) 5) 3. (Σ SO3. K2O. but it should not be shorter than 24 hours. P2O5. In each case. for instance. the trucks or railroad cars are weighed both empty and fully loaded (varying amounts of fuel in the tank. If this is already known to be so. the solid materials might also contain fluoride. SO3. every 4 hours with different clinker production. CaO. Na2O should be checked by other analytical methods. An interim result should be determined every 4 to 6 hours in order to obtain information about the time course of the mass flow. Continuously operating clinker scales can be adjusted by the above-mentioned method.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 25 1) 2) Since there are no specifications for mineral oils. several measuring intervals are needed. dirt). (NH4)2SO4.3. Alternatively. Na2O. Dust as well as the kiln feed in the preheater can also contain highly volatile compounds such as. In addition to the above-mentioned compounds. the weighing procedure should be checked. This can lead to erroneously low results at low levels of Cl– in the raw material. the analysis method for fuels is employed. clinker contains FeO and MnO. Fe2O3. Mn2O3. SiO2. for example.3 Clinker: Mass flows The clinker is loaded onto trucks or railroad cars and weighed on calibrated scales (for example. Al2O3. shipping scales). For this purpose. the laboratory should be informed to this effect. K2O. even over shorter periods of time. the examinations should be performed in the delivery state. MgO. Prior to the test. .

1. care should be taken to ensure that the cleaning of the filter is switched to continuous operation before the dust is discharged. The following relationship applies: Fuels: Fuels are weighed on industrial scales which have been previously adjusted.1. However. Dust: Dust is preferably weighed on calibrated scales (for example.4. the fuel energy consumption is usually balanced by means of a comparison of the energy output with the energy input (see Section 4. Here. . If weighing is not possible. Translator’s note: See Section 8 for the list of abbreviations used in the formulas. the precision levels achieved in this manner are often not sufficient for evaluating the kiln system.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 26 In the case of immediately consecutive kiln performance tests. also see the VDZ Specification titled “Dust quantity measurements in cement plants” [17]). the dust mass flow is determined by means of an isokinetic partial stream suction (in this context. shipping scales).1). Kiln feed: The kiln feed mass flow is calculated. For this reason. It results from the component balance of the sum of the non-volatile substances (see Section 4. a second clinker weighing procedure is not necessary if it is ensured that all of the dust mass flows remain constant.3).

there are also differences in the individual strings. while information on volume flow measurement is to be found in the VDZ Specification titled “Quantity measurement of gases by means of velocity measurements” [16]). in the bypass gas and in the gas downstream from the burning area. the time intervals at which the probes need to . In the gas downstream from the burning area. CO 1) CO2.3. Table 3 . O2. 3.2. CO CO2. CO – – – – – – Discontinuous measurement is often sufficient. O2. Measuring site raw gas bypass gas (with cooling air) bypass gas (without cooling air) downstream from the burning area kiln inlet tertiary air cooler intake air cooler vent air burner air (main burner) burner air (secondary burner) conveying air (kiln feed) 1) Volume flow measurement pitot tube pitot tube – – – pitot tube – pitot tube pitot tube + rated values pitot tube + rated values rated values Gas analysis CO2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 27 3.1 Sampling In the raw gas.2 Gases For the gas analysis. O2. various gas compositions can occur over the cross section of the duct. CO 1) CO2. O2. Table 3 shows an example of a measurement plan. Moreover. CO CO2.Volume flow measurement and gas analysis in rotary kiln performance tests. in the case of double-string cyclone preheaters.3. more information can be obtained from the VDZ Specification titled “Continuous gas analysis in cement plants” [20]). O2.

cooler vent air).3. 3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 28 be cleaned can be extended by placing the measuring gas sampling opening as far as possible from the meal inlet pipes. determinations of CO2. without injection water or scrubbing water. the process gas usually displays great differences in concentration. the sampling probe should be built laterally into the refractory brickwork. The sampling opening should project about 0. that is to say. Sampling sites in the upper third of the rotary kiln cross section are recommended. it is not possible to specify a representative measuring site.5 m into the rotating part of the kiln in order to avoid falsifications of the measured results due to infiltrated air that gets into the inlet gasket or as a result of falling kiln feed material.3. Since the measuring site is also frequently exposed to falling material.3 Volume flows The volume flows are primarily measured with a pitot tube. the pitot tube should be installed in the . The probe should be cooled.2. 3. With volumes flows that fluctuate markedly (for instance. both with respect to location and to time.2 Analysis The gas analysis should be carried out continuously.2. The probe in the gas downstream from the burning area should be cooled. So as to prevent falsifications of the concentration values due to the scrubbing out of individual gas components. the measuring gas should be sampled dry. O2 and CO are required. For this reason. At the very least. In the rotary kiln inlet.

deflection of the gas upstream from the measuring site. There are three methods for measuring the raw gas volume flow: a) direct measurement with a pitot tube (in the case of unfavorable measuring conditions. The bypass gas volume flow prior to the admixture is derived from the gas analysis before and after the admixture of the cooling air. b) fan characteristic curves (only possible for fans with adjustable rotational speeds). c) conversion of the clean gas volume flow to raw gas conditions using an O2 or CO2 balance or an H2O balance (additional gas analysis and measurement of the volume flow in the clean gas is necessary.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 29 gas duct and the differential pressure as well as the appertaining temperature should be recorded continuously. c) air balance of the cooler (often the most precise way with continuous volume flow measurement of the cooler vent air after the dust removal). for example. The bypass gas is measured with a pitot tube after admixing the cooling air. only possible if clean gases of the kiln can be detected in their entirety. b) calculation on the basis of a CO2 and an H2O balance of the kiln system (imprecise when secondary fuels are used) [30]. expensive but accurate). this is often very imprecise). substantial pressure fluctuations or a high amount of dust [for instance. > 50 g/m³]. . There are three methods for measuring the volume flow of the cooler intake air: a) inlet nozzles (often very imprecise).

2 Water The water mass flow of a cooling chute (cooling water) or into the clinker cooler (injection water) is measured with water meters that have to be installed in advance. the result that is read off the meter has to be corrected by means of a calibration curve. which changes as a function of the temperature. In order to determine the actual volume flow that passes through. 3.1. it is necessary to take into account the density. The amount of oil that passes through the burner nozzle per unit of time is for the most part measured volumetrically by means of an oil meter. if applicable. The cross-sectional surface area is either measured or estimated.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 30 The volume flow of infiltrated air at the kiln hood is calculated on the basis of the open cross-sectional area and of the differential pressure at the kiln hood (see Section 4. of the kiln feed is derived from the nominal data of the fan.3. Moreover. 3.3. Heating gas that has been measured volumetrically has to be converted to the standard conditions.2. .3.3.3). The conveying air volume flow of the coal dust and.3 Liquids 3.3.1 Heating oil Heating oil can be sampled either by means of an automatic sampling system or else a sample is taken from the oil tank.

Table 4 .4 Temperatures Table 4 shows the example of a measuring plan.9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.rotary kiln surface temperature . hot meal) bypass dust raw meal (for instance.Temperature measurement in rotary kiln performance tests.g.cooler kiln hood calcinator preheater 1) continuously continuously continuously once per day continuously continuously 1) continuously once per day once per day – twice per day once per day 2) twice per day 3) once per day once per day once per day if available with grate-type coolers 3) with rotary coolers or satellite coolers . Pt 100 quotient pyrometer NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or surface temperature of the conveying line with partial-radiation pyrometer Pt 100 or surface temperature of the conveying line with partial-radiation pyrometer Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni NiCr Ni NiCr Ni NiCr Ni meteorological station Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni like kiln feed partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0. kiln feed) Measuring device compensation temperature in adiabatic vessel.9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 31 3.3.9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0. Measuring site cold clinker hot clinker kiln feed in the preheater (e.9) 2) Frequency every hour continuously twice per day once per day once per day fuels once per day raw gas bypass gas (with cooling air) gas downstream from the burning area tertiary air upstream from the preheater tertiary air downstream from the cooler cooler intake air cooler vent air burner air (main burner) burner air (secondary burner) conveying air (kiln feed) surface temperature .

3.3. • grate-type preheater. • cooler vent fan. the strokes and rotational speeds of the following aggregates should be measured or recorded by the operating measuring pick-ups: • cooler. • kiln outlet.3. • kiln inlet. The above-mentioned differential pressures have to be measured with damped measuring pick-ups. • upstream from the waste gas fan. • bypass fan.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 32 3. • bag house fan / ESP fan.5 Pressures In order to evaluate the kiln operation. • waste gas fan. • preheater (stages 1 through N).6 Strokes and rotational speeds In order to evaluate the kiln operation. . • kiln. the following differential pressures should be measured or recorded by the operating measuring pick-ups: • cooler (chambers 1 through N). • downstream from the waste gas fan.

the consumption of electricity should be considered as an input item of the energy balance. 8 hours.3. the energy distribution should be measured with prong-type instruments. • kiln feed feeding system. pressure and relative humidity of the ambient air are recorded by a meteorological station. when the balancing space is calculated. • cooler drives. • waste gas fan. The following consumers should be taken into consideration: • cooler fans. • rotary kiln drive. Consequently. • fuel feeding system. A large proportion of the electricity is converted into heat in the kiln system. • burner air fan.3. the meter readings of the main consumers should be recorded at intervals of. • cooler vent fan. . for example.7 Electricity consumption In order to evaluate the kiln operation. • bypass fan.8 Ambient conditions The temperature. 3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 33 3. If several consumers are connected to one meter.

it is also necessary to routinely replace wearing parts as preventive maintenance and to conduct function tests with comparative measured values (calibration). Status checks should be made every hour and setting checks should be carried out at least before and after the performance test. . Measuring instrument gas analyzer gas meters thermal elements resistance thermometer pyrometer pressure transducer humidity measuring device Comparative measuring instrument or method gas analyzer with another measuring principle wet-chemical analysis testing by the Board of Weights and Measures test thermometer and normal thermometer (for instance.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 34 3. Checks and corrections should be documented and should be indicated on the measuring equipment used. In addition to regularly checking the status and settings during the performance test. Table 5 .3. The time schedule for replacing wearing parts and for the function tests with comparative measured values depends on the measuring instruments and should be laid down appropriately. Table 5 provides an overview of possible comparative measuring methods. together with the date. platinum resistance thermometer) black body radiator tungsten band lamp (only above 500°C [932°F]) liquid pressure gage (for instance. miniscope or U-tube) sealed container with several aqueous saturated salt solutions The solid substance analyses have to be conducted by a laboratory that has sufficient experience with the execution of the analyses listed in Table 2.9 Ensuring the precision of the measurements and analyses The precision of a kiln examination depends on the systematic maintenance and upkeep of the measuring instruments.Comparative measuring instruments or method for rotary kiln performance tests.

rotary kiln (D) and cooler (K) with the mass and energy flows that exceed the balance limit as an example.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 35 4.C raw gas dust for the discharged tertiary air dust (only relevant in kiln systems with a tertiary air duct and high levels of dust in the tertiary air) *) Liquid or gaseous fuel can also be fed in. With other kiln types. as a result of which a separate presentation has not been provided. The following mass and energy flows have been taken into account: Incoming solid substance mass flows: & mS1 & m B7 & m B3 for the kiln feed for the fuel (main burner) *) for the fuel (secondary burner) *) Outgoing solid substance mass flows: & mS10 & mSt5 & mSt1 & mSt12 for the clinker for the bypass dust & for H Fl. . the gas and solid substance mass flows should be balanced together. the changes are only gradual. 4. Figure 6 shows the balancing space of a kiln system with a cyclone preheater (V).1 Evaluation of kiln performance tests Balancing of the entire system When the mass balance is drawn up. tertiary air duct (T). calcinator (C). since there are interactions between both of these as a result of chemical reactions.

1013 & hPA). C & VFl. V Outgoing gas volume flows: & VL11 & VG1 & VG5 for the cooler vent air for the raw gas for the bypass gas Incoming liquid mass flows: & m H 2 O. . while the formula sign V designates the volume flow related to standard conditions after removal tr of the water-vapor fraction.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 36 Incoming gas volume flows **) & VL10 & VL7 & VL3 & VL1 for the cooler intake air for the burner air (main burner) for the burner air (secondary burner) for the conveying air (kiln feed) for the infiltrated air (kiln hood) for the infiltrated air (calcinator) for the infiltrated air (preheater) & VFl.10 for the cooler injection water Incoming energy flows: & H S1 & H B7 & H B3 for the kiln feed for the fuel (main burner) for the fuel (secondary burner) **) & The formula sign V below designates the volume flow related to standard conditions (0°C [32°F]. D & VFl.

V & ∆H R. 10 Pmech Outgoing energy flows: & H S10 & H St5 & H St1 & H St12 & H L11 & H G1 & H G5 for the clinker for the bypass dust for the raw gas dust for the discharged tertiary air dust for the cooler vent air for the raw gas for the bypass gas for the reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed & ∆H R. D & H Fl. B & H H 2 O.C & H Fl. H 2 O for the evaporation enthalpy of the cooler injection water & Q K.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 37 & H L10 & H L7 & H L3 & H L1 for the cooler intake air for the burner air (main burner) for the burner air (secondary burner) for the conveying air (kiln feed) for the infiltrated air (kiln hood) for the infiltrated air (calcinator) for the infiltrated air (preheater) for the reaction enthalpy of the fuels for the cooler injection water for the mechanical performance & H Fl. K for the uncoupled heat (cooler) .S & ∆H V.

T & Q W. D & Q W.C & Q W.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 38 & ∆H R. V & Q W. K for the incomplete burning for radiation and convection losses (preheater) for radiation and convection losses (calcinator) for radiation and convection losses (rotary kiln) for radiation and convection losses (tertiary air duct) for radiation and convection losses (cooler + kiln hood) .CO & Q W.

Balancing spaces for preheater. rotary kiln and cooler with incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows. . calcinator. tertiary air duct.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 39 Figure 6 .

In the case of the latter. . When the waste gas leaves the preheater. fuel (main burner). With grate-type coolers. whereas in contrast. Operands: In order to balance the mass flows.1 Solid substance mass flows Measured quantities: clinker. P2O5. K . discharged tertiary air dust. excess cooling air is released as cooler vent air. This & was taken into consideration in the figure by the uncoupled heat flow Q K. The following applies: *) The formula sign x below stands for the mass concentration of the solids at the balance limit (= delivery condition in the laboratory). Cooler vent air dust has not been taken into account. Therefore. it is only partially used as such with gratetype coolers. some of the cooler vent air can be returned to the cooler as intake air via a fan once the dust has been removed and cooled (duothermal configuration). bypass dust.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 40 With rotary and satellite coolers. a component balance is drawn up of the sum of the non-volatile substances (for example. Fe2O3. Al2O3. the waste gas is designated as “raw gas” and the dust as “raw gas dust”. MgO) whose mass concentration in the individual substance flows is designated by xNF *). CaO. mass flow of the kiln feed. fuel (secondary burner). 4.1. Mn2O3. the cooling air volume flow is used completely as combustion air in the process. SiO2. raw gas dust. it still contains relatively large amounts of dust. TiO2.

the following applies analogously: The kiln feed mass flow necessary for the clinker burning process then results from Equation (2): As an approximation. By using xG to designate the mass concentration of the substances that are released during calcination at about 1000°C [1832°F] until weight constancy is achieved. the following applies to the kiln feed mass flow that actually becomes clinker (including discharged tertiary air dust): The ratio of kiln feed to clinker necessary for the clinker burning process then results from Equation (4): .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 41 The loss on ignition can also be used for a rough estimate.

sulfide sulfur) of the kiln feed also have to be taken into account.3). cooler vent air (if present). Operands: 4. infiltrated air. the burning of all combustible substances has to be taken into consideration. in addition to the fuel mass & & flows m B7 and m B3 .1. secondary air.1 Dry gas Minimum air volume flow In order to calculate the dry. . fuel (secondary burner). the following applies: 4.1. burner air (main burner). minimum air volume flow.1.3. raw gas.2 Gas volume flows Measured quantities: fuel (main burner).1 4. cooler intake air (see Section 3. the combustible components (organically bound carbon.2. bypass gas.1.2. For this reason. burner air (secondary burner).2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 42 Analogously. conveying air (kiln feed).

x C.eff.S1. eff. the carbon content of the raw gas dust as xC. the following results & for the carbon mass flow mC. S effectively fed into the kiln system: & Analogously. The minimum air volume flow & VL.St5 are approximately zero. St5. the following applies for mS.St5 and x S. St1 and the carbon content of the bypass dust as xC. S : Frequently.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 43 By designating the carbon content of the kiln feed as xC. min to burn all of the combustible substances then amounts to the following: lmin is the minimum air demand of the fuel in question in its raw state. This value can be calculated on the basis of elementary analyses of the fuel according to Equation (11): .

The following applies: For lignitic coal and coal: For heating oil: Table 6 shows examples of elementary analyses and calorific value-related combustion gas quantities of lignitic coal and coal.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 44 Accordingly. . *) The formula sign hu below stands for the lower calorific value of the coal at the balance limit threshold (= delivery condition in the laboratory). lmin can be calculated as an approximation using the lower calorific value of the fuel *). the numerical value equation is the following: For oil and coal. Calorific value-related combustion gas quantities of secondary fuels can differ markedly from the indicated uppermost and lowermost values.

9 19.332 0.0 25.35 M 1.2.339 0.5 0.022 0.5 0.4 0.05 U 2.8 4.375 L = lowermost value.2 Air proportionality factor The following applies in general: .347 0.1 65.7 0.9 16.2 4.373 0.0 8.3 2.011 0.4 0.3 61.096 0.9 57.1.339 0.2 Lignitic coal dust M 11.374 0.382 0.1 27. M = mean value.5 23.7 3.096 0.370 0.344 0.6 4.4 4. Analyses (raw) in % by weight: L water ash C H O N S 8.76 calorific value (raw) in MJ/kg: Calorific value-related combustion gas quantity in kg/MJ: minimum air demand carbon dioxide water vapor moist flue gas 20.6 7.92 Coal dust U L 0.3 71.7 22.4 56.5 59.9 29.7 4.6 0.8 3.80 14.1.7 0.098 0.014 0.22 0.392 0.2 19.6 21.024 0.094 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 45 Table 6 .101 0.3 1.016 0.2 1.4 8.021 0.8 11.1 3.7 2.3 21. U = uppermost value 4.0 2.099 0.Elementary analyses of lignitic coal dust and coal dust with the combustion gas quantities calculated therefrom and related to the lower calorific value in the raw state.341 0.1 0.

3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood The volume flow of infiltrated air at the kiln hood can be roughly calculated using the Bernoulli equation. Consequently. neither is present. the gas velocity has to be multiplied by a dimensionless factor which lies between 0.2. Here.6 and 0. The following applies theoretically: Equation (17) presupposes a frictionless flow and an incompressible medium.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 46 The air proportionality factor in the waste gas results as an approximation from the values of the gas analysis (in the case of Orsat analyses and measuring methods that work with extraction. it has been set at 0. as a rule related to dry measuring gas): The expression in the denominator of the lower fraction corresponds to N2.1. the equation yields an excessively high gas velocity. for actual practice. In reality.75.9.1. 4. As a consequence. Thus. the following applies: .

VL8. D.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 47 & With v = V/F for the gas velocity and with the density ratio ρ L /ρ L. tr = volume flow of infiltrated air in m³ (s. the result is a calculation equation for the volume flow of infiltrated air: wherein ∆p = differential pressure at the kiln hood in Pa = density of the air in the cross section F in kg/m³ = density of the ambient air under standard conditions (s.4 Secondary air The following applies for the volume flow of the secondary air (also see Figure 12): & Due to non-representative gas analyses in the kiln inlet.)/s As a simplification. tr can only be calculated very imprecisely.1.N for dry air (the water present in the air is ignored here). 4. the density of the ambient air can be taken as the basis for ρ L.1.c.2.) in kg/m³ = open cross-section area in m² ρL ρ L.N F & VFl. .c.

5 Cooler intake air The following applies for the volume flow of the cooler intake air (also see Figure 12): 4.1.S stems from the decarbonation and the combustion of organic components of the kiln feed.1.1.2. .2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 48 4. S according to Equation (8). The following applies: wherein and & m C. eff. Calculation on the basis of the CO2 balance The following applies for the CO2 balance: & VCO 2 .6 Raw gas 1.1.

The following applies: If the elementary analysis is not available. Equation (26) can be employed: wherein µCO = 5.87 · 10 – 5 m³ of CO2/kJ for coal.01 · 10 – 5 m³ of CO2/kJ for lignitic coal 2 and µCO 2 = 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 49 & VCO 2 . & VCO 2 . B stems from the combustion of the fuel.G5 results from the gas analysis and from the measurement of the gas volume flow in the bypass gas: With the result is the calculation equation for the raw gas volume flow: .

4.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) & VG6.7 Gas downstream from the burning area & VG2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 50 2. Due to non-representative gas analyses in the kiln inlet.1. tr can be calculated according to [30].1.1. . Calculation on the basis of the clean gas volume flow This calculation is only possible if the entire clean gas volume flow of the kiln system can be determined and if no auxiliary burner is operated in the combined drying and grinding mill. tr is calculated according to Equations (30) or (31) on the basis of the raw gas volume flow.1. the calculated values are often very imprecise. CO2 balance: O2 balance: 4.2.2. A gas analysis downstream from the burning area is needed for this purpose.

2.2.1 Water vapor Humidity in the air The humidity in the air results from the relative humidity and from the saturation pressure of water-vapor at ambient temperature.2.2 Water from the kiln feed .1. The following applies: wherein xD = water content in kg of H2O/kg of dry air = relative humidity ϕ p and ps (ϑ L.U) = saturation pressure of the water vapor in Pa = ambient pressure in Pa Then.1.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 51 4.1.2. the following applies for the moisture volume flow of the air: 4.2 4.

3.1.2.1 Moist gas Air The following applies in general: Altogether.2. λ G1 should be calculated with the gas concentration values which would result after the mixing of raw gas and bypass gas.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 52 4.2.1.1.1.2.4 Injection water 4. is fed into the kiln system.2. .2.3 4.3 Water from the fuel 4.

G5 often equals y H 2 O.4 Energy flows Since standard reaction enthalpies and calorific values are related to 25°C [77°F]. a reference temperature of 25°C [77°F] was likewise selected for the calculation of the individual enthalpy flows. With grate-type coolers.4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 53 4.1.1 4.G6 .1.10 often equals zero.1. water.3 Liquid mass flows Measured quantities: fuel (main burner).4.2. fuel (secondary burner). 4.3. y H 2 O.1 Energy input Fuel Combustion: .1.1.2 Raw gas λ G1 should be calculated with the gas concentration values which would result after the & mixing of raw gas and bypass gas. VH 2 O. 4. 4.1.

Equation (43) also applies. Here. ϑ . The following applies in the case of oil (also see Figure 8): wherein ρ = density of the oil in kg/m³ at 15°C [59°F]. the following applies (also see Figure 7): wherein xF. as an approximation. *) The formula sign c or cp below stands for the mean specific thermal capacity c p 25°C [77° F] . The following then applies: wherein c H 2 O ≈ 4.B = sum of the volatile components in the coal. however.2 kJ/kg K for 0°C [32°F] < ϑ < 100°C [212°F]. the water content of the lignitic coal has to be taken into account. to dry lignitic coal.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 54 Sensible enthalpy flows: *) For dry coal.

.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 55 Figure 7 .Mean specific thermal capacity of dry coal (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).

.Mean specific thermal capacity of oil (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 56 Figure 8 .

246 3.985 2.4.817 2.1.582 2. s.402 2.2 Kiln feed Sensible enthalpy flows: .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 57 The specific thermal capacity of the heating gas is calculated on the basis of the mean specific thermal capacities of the individual gas components according to Table 7.137 2. Fuel gas component Specific thermal capacity cp in kJ/m³ (s. The following applies here: Table 7 .555 1.101 1.631 4.) K 25°C [77°F] 100°C [212°F] 1.700 2.531 hydrogen sulfide 1) Use C3H6 use for CmHn.1.172 5.519 2.Mean specific thermal capacity cp of the fuel gas components (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).918 5. = under standard conditions 4.579 4.717 5.156 4.113 1.579 200°C [392°F] 1.602 methane ethylene acetylene propadiene n-butane propylene 1) CH4 C2H4 C2H2 C3H4 C4H10 C3H6 H 2S 1.c.c.270 1.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 58 The following applies as an approximation for the commonly employed composition of the kiln feed: The specific thermal capacities of individual components of the kiln feed are shown in Figure 9. .

Mean specific thermal capacity of kiln feed components (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]). .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 59 Figure 9 .

3 Air Sensible enthalpy flows: wherein (For the calculation of cp. it is also possible to use the specific thermal capacity of dry air for the calculation.1. also see Figure 10). j according to Equations (85) through (87).4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 60 4.1. The following applies in this case: . As an approximation.

Mean specific thermal capacity of gas components (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 61 Figure 10 . .

the contents of CaCO3 and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust as well as the contents of CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust. with the standard reaction enthalpies needed in each case (for the additional reaction enthalpies.4. the following applies: 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 62 4.1. the mechanical performance of the electric drives has to be taken into consideration. the degradation reactions of the starting materials and the reactions for the formation of the clinker phases have to be taken into account.1. C3A. see [22.4. In simplified form. The data shown in the two right-hand columns are each related to the substance in the left-hand column.1. it is first necessary to calculate the contents of C3S.4.2 4. This is particularly true of the intake air fans and of the kiln drive. Table 8 is a compilation of the main reactions that take place during the clinker burning process. C4AF in the clinker.1.4 Injection water As a rule. the sensible enthalpy flow of the injection water can be ignored.2.4. . For this purpose.1 Energy output Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed For the calculation of the reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed. 4. 23 and 25 through 27]). The actual reaction enthalpies to be employed result from balance equations.1.5 Mechanical performance Within the balancing space.1. C2S.

Formation of the clinker phases 7. Formation of C4AF Formation of C3A Formation of β -C2S 4 CaO + α-Al2O3 + α-Fe2O3 3 CaO + α-Al2O3 2 CaO + β -SiO2 3 CaO + β -SiO2 K2O = SO2 + ½ O2 C3A C4AF – 67 + 74 – 700 – 495 – 4452 – 33 + 20 – 121 – 113 – 776 β-C2S C3S 10. Reaction enthalpy 1) at 298 K kJ/kg kJ/mole Reaction Reaction equation I. 8. 6. 5. . Formation of C3S 11. 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 63 Table 8 . Organic clay components (relative to C) MgCO3 dissociation CaCO3 dissociation Pyrite (FeS2) 2 FeS2 + 5½ O2 α-Fe2O3 + 4 SO2 II.Reactions of the kiln feed and reaction enthalpies (298 K) during the production of Portland cement clinker. 9. 1. Formation of K2SO4 1) α-K2SO4 Related to the substance in the left-hand column. Formation of oxides and degradation reactions Evaporation of H2O Decomposition of • kaolinite (relative to Al2O3) • montmorillonite (relative to Al2O3) • illite (relative to Al2O3) kaolinite α-Al2O3 + 2 · β-SiO2 + H2O (fl) montmorillonite α-Al2O3 + 4 · β-SiO2 + n · H2O (fl) illite α-Al2O3 + 4 · β-SiO2 + m · H2O (fl) C + O2 MgCO3 CaCO3 CO2 MgO + CO2 CaO + CO2 + 1519 + 744 + 884 – 32786 + 1396 + 1772 – 6902 + 155 + 76 + 90 – 394 +118 + 178 – 828 H2O (fl) H2O (g) + 2446 + 44 3. 2.

S10 > 0.1. S10 . C3A and C4AF (TM > 0.2. the value employed for the CaO bound in the clinker phases is the one that is obtained after the subtraction of the free CaO and of the CaO bound to SO3. C2S.1 C3S. S10 + 1.85 ⋅ x K 2 O. the clinker phases can be calculated according to Bogue [45 and 46].85 ⋅ x K 2 O.292 ⋅ x Na 2 O.4. The following applies: For x SO 3 .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 64 4. In this context. the following applies: The following results from this: . C2S.64). S10 ≤ 0. S10 . S10 + 1. the following applies: For x SO 3 . which consists primarily of C3S.1. C3A and C4AF in the clinker For normal Portland cement clinker or tertiary air dust.292 ⋅ x Na 2 O.

4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 65 4. the following applies in the case of 1.2.274 · x CO 2 ≤ x CaO : and in the case of 1.1. Assuming that the CO2 is primarily bound to the CaO.2 CaCO3 and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust The content of CaCO3 and MgCO3 of the kiln feed results from the content of CO2 and CaO.1.274 · x CO 2 > x CaO : and .

4 Balance equations The balance equations are based on the following assumptions and simplifications: 1) x H 2 O.1.St5 is made according to Equations (55) or (56).2. For purposes of calculating the C2S content. . The following then applies: The calculation of x CaOSO3 . St5 = 0 3) x MgCO3 . St5 = 0 2) xC.1. it is assumed that Al2O3 and Fe2O3 have completely reacted with CaO to form C4AF and C12A7. St5 = 0 5) The formation enthalpy of C4AF and of C12A7 in the bypass dust is negligibly small.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 66 4.1. St5 = 0 4) xS.1.4. 4.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust The content of CaCO3 results from the content of CO2 in the bypass dust. 6) The starting materials as shown in Table 8 are present. 7) The fuel ash is present in the form of oxides.2.4.

the following applies for the balance equations: 1) Evaporation of H2O: 2) Decomposition of clay: 100%-kaolinite: 100%-montmorillonite: 100%-illite: 3) Organic clay components: .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 67 According to Figure 6.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 68 4) MgCO3 dissociation: 5) CaCO3 dissociation: 6) Pyrite: 7) Formation of C4AF: 8) Formation of C3A: .

the actual SO3 contents (without sulfide sulfur) should be used. In order to calculate the reaction enthalpy of a special clinker. blast-burner slag or gypsum from flue gas desulfurization plants. for instance. TM < 0.64. or of a clinker from a burning process involving other substance flow configurations. . assumptions also have to be made pertaining to the devitrification enthalpies. or of a clinker from a kiln feed with calcareous fly ash. the balance equations need to be changed or supplemented. in the case of fly ash and blast-burner slag. Moreover.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 69 9) Formation of β-CsS: 10) Formation of C3S: 11) Formation of K2SO4: In Equation (79).

4.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 70 The following applies to the sum of the reaction enthalpies of the kiln feed: 4.1.3 Waste gas losses Raw gas: wherein The following approximation equations apply for the essential components of the waste gas (also see Figure 10): .2.4.1.2 Water evaporation Evaporation enthalpy for cooler injection water: 4.

2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 71 Bypass gas: Cooler vent air: 4.1.4 Dust losses Raw gas dust: (for cSt1.1.4. ϑ St1 = ϑ G1). . see Section 4.1.2.4.

2.4. ϑ St5 = ϑ G5).1.1.2. Discharged tertiary air dust: (for cSt12. see Section 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 72 Bypass gas dust: (for cSt5. Losses due to cooler vent air dust are usually negligibly small. yCO.1.4. ϑ St12 = ϑ L9).1.2. see Equation (95). 4.5 Incomplete combustion In cases of high energy losses due to incomplete combustion (for example. 4.6 Clinker .4.G1 > 0. an analyzer that operates continuously should be used for the calorific value of the gas for the balancing.01).

.Mean specific thermal capacity of Portland cement clinker (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 73 The following applies for the specific thermal capacity of the clinker (also see Figure 11): Figure 11 .

0 .U: wherein and αconv results from approximation equations.m of the tube element and of the ambient temperature ϑ L.4.3 a0 = 4.1. The following applies for wind velocities w ≤ 2 m/s: wherein a = 0.7 Radiation and convection Rotary kiln: First of all. the heat flow of individual tube elements is calculated on the basis of the mean circumferential temperature ϑ W.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 74 4.2.

25 4.0.243 .27 5.75 6.11 2.0.79 0.75 6.93 0.0.85 a3 = 0.0.73 0.92 0.05 1.00 b1* .227 .66 5.83 0.0.233 .75 7.0.97 0.05 5.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 75 a1 = 3.236 .25 4.0.076 Scope of validity: w ≤ 2 m/s 100°C [212°F] ≤ ϑ W.75 ≤ Da < 3.75 3.25 6.11 5.37 2.25 6.88 0.98 5.25 3.0.98 1.87 1.25 5.40 5.97 1.0.5 a2 = -0.238 .227 .25 b 2.18 2.219 .244 .75 5.m ≤ 500°C [932°F] 2 m ≤ Da ≤ 8 m 10°C [50°F] ≤ ϑ L.U ≤ 30°C [86°F] The following applies for wind velocities w > 2 m/s: wherein Diameter range in m 2.27 2.75 4.83 b0 4.75 4.93 1.75 5.220 .19 5.25 5.25 3.70 b1 0.48 5.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 76 Scope of validity: 2 m/s < w ≤ 10 m/s 100°C [212°F] ≤ ϑ W.9 σ = 5.m ≤ 500°C [932°F] 2.25 m 10°C [50°F] ≤ ϑ L.m = mean surface temperature in K TL.U ≤ 30°C [86°F] The following applies for αStr: wherein ε W = 0.U = ambient air temperature in K & The radiation and convection loss flow Q W. . D for the entire rotary kiln results from the addition of the radiation and convection loss flows of the individual tube elements: More details on the calculation of the radiation and convection loss flow can be found in literature references [28 and 31].67 · 10 – 8 W/(m² · K4) TW.75 m ≤ Da ≤ 7.

9 At higher wind velocities. Equation (104) yields a heat loss flow that is too low. The diameter of this surrounding cylinder can then be used to calculate the heat-transfer coefficient αtotal as an approximation according to Equations (98) through (101).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 77 Cooler: Equations (96) through (101) can be employed directly for the rotary cooler. Moreover. The following applies: The following applies as a good approximation for the grate-type cooler and the kiln hood: wherein αconv = 7 W/(m²·K) ε W = 0.6 should be used for the calculation of the heat flow. an empirical factor of 1. the satellite temperatures as well as the temperatures in the interstitial spaces. In such cases.m is calculated as an arithmetic mean value of all of the individual temperature meas- ured values calculated over the circumference. . the surface temperature should be measured only on the side facing away the wind. that is to say. For satellite coolers. The mean circumferential temperature ϑ W. it is recommended to employ the imaginary surface area of a cylinder surrounding the satellite cooler as the heat-transfer surface area.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 78 Preheater and calcinator: Equations (104) should be employed accordingly.2 kJ/kg K for 0°C [32°F] < ϑ < 100°C [212°F]. 4.8 Uncoupled heat The following applies as an approximation for the heat uncoupling via a cooling chute: wherein c H 2O ≈ 4.2.1. Tertiary air duct: Equations (96) through (102) should be employed accordingly.4. The following applies for the heat uncoupling through the cooling of the cooler circulation air: .

it should be calculated on the basis of the difference between the energy output and the other energy input values according to Equation (109).3 Energy balance The following applies for the sum of the energy input and energy output: and With kiln performance tests. the energy input and the energy output are compared to each other. so that a balance deficit remains which. Usually the input and the output do not offset each other completely.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 79 4. it is also designated as fuel energy consumption.4. however. . should not make up more than ± 3% of the total energy output.1. Since the reaction enthalpy flow of the fuel as energy input can often only be determined very imprecisely.

Balancing space of the cooler with the incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows. For this reason. the fact that considerable dust circulation can occur between the rotary kiln and the clinker cooler has to be taken into account. Figure 12 . . the hot clinker temperature can only be measured in a very imprecise manner. Moreover.1 Clinker cooler A complete mass and energy balance can only be drawn up for the clinker cooler within the limits set by its design.2.2 Balancing of the partial systems 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 80 4.

Thus. 10 for the cooler injection water . in contrast. The following mass and energy flows have been taken into consideration: Incoming solid substance mass flows: & mS8 for the hot clinker Outgoing solid substance mass flows: & mS10 & mSt8 & mSt9 for the clinker for the secondary air dust for the tertiary air dust Incoming gas volume flows: & VL10 for the cooler intake air Outgoing gas volume flows & VL8 & VL9 & VL11 for the secondary air for the tertiary air (cooler) for the cooler vent air Incoming liquid mass flows: & m H 2 O. has to be set as zero.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 81 Figure 12 shows the balancing space of a clinker cooler with the mass and energy flows that exceed the balance limit. In the case of rotary and satellite coolers. for example. the exhaust air volume flow. several exhaust air flows can be discharged from the cooler.

K for the hot clinker for the cooler intake air for the cooler injection water for the mechanical performance (cooler) Outgoing energy flows: & H S10 & H St8 & H St9 & H L8 & H L9 & H L11 for the clinker for the secondary air dust for the tertiary air dust for the secondary air for the tertiary air for the cooler vent air for radiation and convection losses (cooler + kiln hood) for the uncoupled heat (cooler) & Q W.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 82 Incoming energy flows: & H S8 & H L10 & H H 2 O. K & ∆H V. K & Q K. 10 Pmech. H 2 O for the evaporation enthalpy of the cooler injection water .

In the case of a pronounced dust circulation. this value can rise to more than 200 g/m³.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 83 4.2. the dust concentration in the secondary air should be estimated. The following applies for the hot clinker mass flow: . The secondary air dust mass flow then results from the dust mass flow measured in the tertiary air and from the fraction calculated on this basis for the secondary air volume flow: In other cases. hot clinker. Measured quantities: Operands: Only in the case of kiln systems with a tertiary air duct can the secondary air dust mass flow be calculated on the basis of the discharged and returned tertiary air dust assuming equal dust contents in the secondary air and in the tertiary air. secondary air dust.1.1 Solid substance mass flows clinker. the dust concentration is about 30 to 50 g/m³. With a “clear” kiln discharge. discharged and returned tertiary air dust.

2. Measured quantities: Operands: The secondary air volume flow results from Equations (20) and (38).2. 4. cooler intake air.1. secondary air.1 Energy input 4.2 Gas volume flows cooler vent air (if present).3 Energy flows A reference temperature of 25°C [77°F] is selected for the calculation of the individual energy flows. The water vapor from the water injection should also be taken into account. and the cooler intake air volume flow results from Equations (21) and (38).1.2.1. 4.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 84 4.1.1 Hot clinker (cS8 according to Equation (95) or Figure 11).3.2.3. . tertiary air.

4.3.4.4.1.1.1 Clinker.2. Therefore.3.1.1.2. clinker dust See Section 4. the hot clinker energy flow is associated with a high level of uncertainty.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 85 Only the surface temperature of the hot clinker can be measured by means of instruments. 4.3.1.1.1.2.2. This error increases as the temperature drops and the particle size increases.2 Cooler intake air 4. Therefore.2.3.2.1.1.3.2 Energy output 4. the calculated hot clinker energy flow is fundamentally too low.1.4 Mechanical performance 4.3 Injection water See Section 4. 4. .6.1.

3.4.2.1.3.4 Cooler vent air.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 86 4.1.2.1.1.3. 4.3 Energy balance If a reliable measured value for the secondary air temperature is available.1.1.2. 4. the hot clinker & enthalpy flow H S8 can be calculated on the basis of the energy balance. this is the case whenever tertiary air is removed from the kiln hood (ϑ L9 = ϑ L8) or when the secondary air can be measured error-free (for example.2.2.2.4.2. 4. The following then applies: .7.1.1.4.8.3 Uncoupled heat See Section 4.2. secondary air.3.2.2. tertiary air See Section 4. 4.1.3.2 Radiation and convection See Section 4.2. As a rule.2.3. with sound-over-time measurement or a suction-type thermometer).4.5 Water evaporation See Section 4.2.2.

Figure 13 shows the principle of the balance limits of the burning area and of the cooling area and its subdivision into the pre-cooling zone and the cooler. which is where radiation and convection losses occur.1. it is necessary to take into account the fact that the first cooling of the clinker already takes place inside the rotary kiln.1. of the pre-cooling zone as well as of the cooler with the example of a kiln system with a rotary cooler.1.1 Pre-cooling zone For the evaluation of the clinker cooler.Balance limits of the burning area and cooling area.2.4). . in the so-called pre-cooling zone. 4.4 Evaluation quantities 4.4.2. Figure 13 .2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 87 The hot clinker enthalpy flow calculated according to this equation serves as the basis for the calculation of the cooler efficiency (see Section 4.4.

the position of the burner lance serves as the reference point for estimating this length (also see Figure 13). αtotal stands for the mean heat-transfer coefficient. . in m Da = outer diameter of the rotary kiln. It was selected because of the high degree of measuring uncertainty associated with the determination of the hot clinker temperature. pre − cool in the pre-cooling zone of the rotary kiln amounts to the following: Here. satellite and rotary coolers in the cement industry” [33]. in m Lburner = length of the burner in the rotating part of the kiln. in m The estimation according to Equation (116) diverges from that described in the VDZ Specification titled “Grate-type. & The radiation and convection loss Q W. which can be calculated according to Equations (98) through (101) with a superimposition of the radiation (rad) as well as free and forced convection (conv).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 88 In order to calculate the radiation and convection losses in the pre-cooling zone. it is necessary to know their length Lpre-cool. Since this length cannot be measured and no calculation method is known for this at the present time.: wherein Lpre-cool = length of the pre-cooling zone.

2. & The energy loss flow Eloss.2. which has to be replaced by fuel energy.4. it is advantageous to relate the energy loss flow of the cooling area to a theoretical enthalpy flow change on the part of the clinker and thus to define a cooling area efficiency: . In this equation.U) stands for the specific enthalpy at the ambient air temperature.1. cooling area is the sum of the heat and enthalpy flows that are released by the cooler into the atmosphere.3 Cooling area efficiency For comparisons.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area The energy consumption of a rotary kiln system depends to a decisive degree on the extent to which the enthalpy of the clinker in the cooling area can be recovered for the process. those enthalpy flows that would be released during the cooling procedure from the appertaining outlet temperature to the ambient air temperature should be seen as energy flows. 4.4. for the clinker and cooler vent air.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 89 4. The fraction that is not recovered constitutes the energy loss of the cooling area. h(ϑ L. In this context.

which should prevail at the site of transition from the burning area to the cooling area. the calcinator is often balanced together with the rotary kiln. 4. the waste gas acquires a chemically determined temperature that is very well-suited for determining this balance limit. .2.4. a sintering temperature of 1450°C [2642°F] was presupposed.3. Future improvements of the burning process or special compositions of the kiln feed could make it necessary to stipulate a sintering temperature that differs from this. at this site. The lowermost stage of the cyclone preheater counts as part of the calcinator. the equilibrium temperature of the calcium carbonate dissociation sets in at the lowermost stage. irrespective of the burning or pre-heating conditions. this does not apply for the “rotary kiln inlet” balance limit where the energy and mass flows can only be determined very imprecisely.2 Calcinator (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater) The balancing space of the calcinator starts at the rotary kiln inlet and ends downstream from the lowermost cyclone (Figure 14).1. since it is in these aggregates that the essential reactions of the kiln feed and of the fuel take place. In contrast. The cooling area efficiency makes it possible to thermally evaluate the cooling in the entire process. With degrees of precalcining below approximately 90%.1 apply when using the formulas. Thus.2.4 Cooler efficiency The efficiency values of the cooler are described in the VDZ Specification titled “Gratetype. satellite and rotary coolers in the cement industry” [33]. The limitations outlined in Section 4.1. 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 90 For the sake of harmonization. For this reason.1.2.

.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 91 Figure 14 .Balancing space of the calcinator with incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows.

VC that has escaped from the kiln feed in the preheater and in the calcinator to the & carbon dioxide mass flow mCO 2 . It is designated as the apparent degree of precalcining ϕ apparent. and by ignoring the dust in the rotary kiln inlet gas.1 Determination of the degree of precalcining The degree of precalcining can be used to evaluate the progress of the decarbonation of the kiln feed in the preheater and in the calcinator. More details on this can be found in literature reference [30]. the degree of precalcining refers to the degree of dissociation of the calcium carbonate contained in the kiln feed prior to its entry into the rotary kiln. As a simplification.0 that was originally bound in the kiln feed as carbonate: The degree of precalcining calculated according to Equation (120) can only be determined by using complete gas or solid substance balances. The actual degree of precalcining ϕ actual is defined according to Equation (120) as the ratio of the carbon dioxide mass flow & mCO 2 . & Provided that the raw gas dust mSt1 has the same chemical composition as the kiln feed & mS1 .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 92 4. In this context. the degree of precalcining can also be determined on the basis of the solid substance analyses.2.2. the apparent degree of precalcining ϕ apparent results from the CO2 concentrations x CO 2 and the concentrations of nonvolatile components xNF of the kiln feed (index S1) and of the kiln feed at the kiln inlet (index S6): .

however. the more highly decarbonated dust mSt4 and mSt6 influences the & composition of the kiln feed mass flow mS6 . the apparent degree of precalcining ϕ apparent calculated according to Equation (121) generally simulates a higher & & decarbonation of the kiln feed.3 Preheater (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater) Figure 15 shows the balancing space of the preheater.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 93 & & In reality. it consists of 3 to 5 preheating stages in which gas and the kiln feed are fed in a countercurrent with respect to each other. . As a rule. The degrees of separation of the individual cyclone stages are relevant for an evaluation of the preheater.2. the following relationship exists between the apparent and the actual degree of precalcining: 4. For this reason. If the dust mass flows mSt4 and mSt6 have been completely decarbonated.

2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 94 Figure 15 . 4.3. According to it.1 Degree of separation of individual cyclone stages Figure 16 shows the incoming and outgoing solid substance mass flows of a preheating stage.Balancing space of the preheater with incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows. the following applies for the degree of separation: .

The following applies as an approximation for the solid substance balance: The following applies for the energy balance: & In this context. & & Equations (124) and (125) yield the mass flows mS. i +1 : Equations (126) and (127) can be employed in the area of the preheater where hardly any solid/gas reactions (decarbonation) occur. i and mSt. As a rule. . it is assumed that there is temperature equilibrium between the gas and the kiln feed in the cyclone stage. i +1 result from the mass and energy balance of the ith stage. In this context. i and mSt. this is the case with the uppermost cyclone stages (ϑ < 600°C [1112°F]).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 95 & & The mass flows mS. i stands for the radiation and convection loss flow of the ith cyclone & stage and ∆H R. Q W. i stands for the reaction enthalpy flow of the raw material in stage i.

This generally applies to the lower stages & of the preheater. it is possible to determine the mass flows of the kiln feed and the dust between the individual cyclone stages: . & and if malk. then. If m NF. eff stands for the mass flow of alkali compounds that are effectively fed into the system by means of the kiln feed. If the alkali compounds in the kiln feed differ sufficiently. but also to the cyclone separator of the calcinator.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 96 Figure 16 . eff stands for the mass flow of non-volatile substances effectively fed into the kiln system. the mass flows can also be ascertained on the basis of component balances. provided that the dust and solid substance mass flows exiting from each individual stage have the same chemical composition.Incoming and outgoing solid substance mass flows of a preheating stage with a cyclone separator.

Equations (126) and (127) as well as (130) and (131) constitute very rough approximations. both concentration values should be pre-defined. . but not the absolute value. as a consequence of which only changes in these operands.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 97 From a technical standpoint. between two performance tests. N+1 and xalk. should be interpreted. for purposes of simplification. as a result of which. N+1 (N= cyclone separator of the calcinator) are very difficult to measure. xNF. for example.

Evaluation of the substance circulation systems Relevant substance circulation systems should be measured during a kiln performance test or else calculated on the basis of measured and analytical data. .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 98 5.

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6.

Evaluation of the cement clinker

As a rule, new systems are only examined once the clinker properties and thus also the cement properties have been achieving the desired quality requirements for quite some time. In contrast, kiln performance tests with old systems can also serve to optimize the quality of the cement and clinker.

6.1

Degree of burning

The degree of burning of the cement clinker is usually monitored on the basis of the bulk density (weight per unit volume) of a narrow particle range, for instance, 5 to 7 mm, whose values lie between 1.2 and 1.6 kg/dm³. The bulk density, however, is not only dependent on the degree of burning, but also on the chemical composition and on the porosity of the clinker. Moreover, the content of free CaO also provides information about the degree of burning.

6.2

Particle-size distribution

The coarse and fines fractions of the clinker (for example, < 2 mm and > 25 mm) provide information about the kiln operation and the clinker quality. They are ascertained by means of sieve analysis.

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6.3

Grindability

The grindability of the clinker provides information about the necessary work in the cement mill. It is primarily tested with the device according to Zeisel.

6.4

Chemical composition

The chemical composition yields the lime standard (KSt), the silica ratio (SM), the alumina/iron ratio (TM), the sulfatization degree (SG), the total alkali fraction (A) and the melt phase fraction (S). The lime standard indicates the content of CaO actually present in the raw material mixture or clinker as a percentage of the maximum CaO content that can be bound to SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 under industrial burning and cooling conditions. Several formulas, which do not differ markedly from each other, are commonly employed to calculate the lime standard. According to F.M. Lea and T.W. Parker, for example, the following applies [7]:

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The silica modulus is the ratio of silicon dioxide to the sum of aluminum oxide and iron oxide. The following applies:

Since the silicon dioxide is primarily bound in the solid phases tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate at the sintering temperature, but since aluminum oxide and iron oxide are present in the melt, the silica modulus refers to the solid-to-liquid ratio in the sintering zone of the cement kiln. Generally speaking, the silica modulus lies between SM = 1.8 and SM = 3.0, most frequently and most advantageously between SM = 2.3 and SM = 2.8. The alumina/iron ratio (TM) is the ratio of the aluminum oxide content to the iron oxide content. The following applies:

It provides information about the quantity ratio of calcium aluminate to calcium aluminate ferrite and consequently about the clinker melt. With clinker having a commonly employed composition, this value lies between 1.5 and 4.0. With an alumina/iron ratio of 0.638, the calculation indicates that all of the aluminum oxide contained in the clinker is bound as calcium aluminate ferrite having the assumed composition 4 CaO · Al2O3 · Fe2O3.

which are present as alkali sulfate: The total alkali fraction (A) results from the conversion of the fraction of potassium oxide into the equivalent sodium fraction according to the following equation: The following applies as an approximation for the melt phase (S): (for ϑ S = 1338°C [2440.38).38). . (for ϑ S = 1450°C [2642°F]).4°F] and TM > 1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 102 The sulfatization degree (SG) indicates the percentage of alkalis in the clinker.4°F] and TM < 1. (for ϑ S = 1338°C [2440. (for ϑ S = 1400°C [2552°F]).

6 Microscopic examination The microscopic examination of the clinker provides information about the type.5 Phase composition The phase composition of the clinker can be calculated on the basis of the values of the chemical analysis.02 at the maximum. provide information about the preparation of the raw material mixture and about the conditions during the burning and cooling of the clinker. For these reasons. at higher contents. constitution and distribution of the clinker compounds. However. the constitution and distribution of the clinker compounds and their coalescence. it is necessary to assume that the clinker phases have the composition indicated by their formulas and that the clinker melt is in a continuous state of thermodynamic equilibrium with the solid phases of the clinker.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 103 xMgO enters into the formulas with xMgO = 0. not only at the sintering temperature but also and especially when they crystallize during the cooling procedure. 6. according to equations (54) through (60). that is to say. xMgO = 0.02. for instance. the calculation only provides an approximation of the actual clinker composition [7]. the structure. . 6. Whereas the type of the compounds depends primarily on the chemical composition of the kiln feed.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 104 6. They are of decisive significance for the optimization of operations. .7 Cement testing The results of the quality tests with the ground-up cement types within the scope of our own as well as outside monitoring also provide essential information about the properties of the cement clinker.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 105 7. . Evaluation of the emissions Relevant emissions have to be measured and/or recorded during a kiln performance test.

4.2.) / kg of fuel mass flow in kg/s molecular weight in kg/mole stage number in the cyclone preheater.1. Formula signs and indices Roman letters a A b c cp D & E f F hu h & H & ∆H R & ∆H V KSt L lmin & m M N p factor (Section 4. chamber number in the grate-type cooler pressure in Pa .2.) K diameter in m energy flow in kJ/s ratio of kiln feed to clinker in kg/kg of clinker surface area in m² lower calorific value in kJ/kg specific enthalpy in kJ/s sensible enthalpy flow in kJ/s reaction enthalpy flow in kJ/s evaporation enthalpy flow in kJ/s lime standard in % length in m minimum air demand in m³ of air (s.7) mean specific thermal capacity of solids and liquids in kJ/kg K mean specific thermal capacity of gases in kJ/m³ under standard conditions (s.7) total alkali fraction in kg/kg factor (Section 4.c.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 106 8.4.c.

) / kJ degree of separation of a cyclone density in kg/m³ Stefan-Boltzmann constant ∆ εW η cooling area ϑ λ µ ξ ρ σ σ = 5.67 · 10 – 8 ϕ W m2 K 4 degree of precalcining. relative humidity .c.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 107 P & Q S SG SM T TM v & V w x y performance in kJ/s heat flow in kJ/s melt phase content sulfatization degree in % silica modulus absolute temperature in K alumina/iron ratio gas velocity in m/s volume flow under standard conditions (0°C [32°F] and 1013 hPa) in m³/s wind velocity in m/s mass concentration in kg/kg volume concentration in m³/m³ Greek letters α heat transition coefficient in W/m² · K difference emission ratio of the wall surface cooling area efficiency temperature in °C excess air coefficient combustion product per energy unit in m³ (s.

raw gas) 2 preheater / calcinator 3 calcinator (secondary burner) 4 calcinator (tertiary air duct) 5 calcinator (bypass) 6 calcinator / rotary kiln 7 rotary kiln (main burner) 8 rotary kiln / cooler 9 tertiary air duct / cooler 10 cooler (clinker.4) 0 through 12 balance limits 1 preheater (kiln feed.4.1. carbon rotary kiln. cooler intake air) 11 cooler (cooler vent air) 12 tertiary air duct (discharged tertiary air dust) a Alk out Out B burner C D eff in In outside alkali compounds balance output outlet fuel burner calcinator. vapor under standard conditions (0°C [32°F] and 1013 hPA) effective balance input inlet .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 108 Indices 0 initial state 0 through 11 reactions of the kiln feed (Section 4.2.1.

c. loss on ignition surrounding cylinder variable cooler.) (0°C [32°F] and 1013 hPA) sum of non-volatile substances at constant pressure reaction clean gas grate-type cooler saturation apparent solid. uncoupled clinker convection air mean value maximum mechanical minimum standard conditions (s. sulfide sulfur satellite cooler dust radiation (rad) actual theoretical .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 109 F Fl total G surr i K Kl con L m max mech min N NV p R clean gas grate s app S Sat St Str actual theor sum of the volatile substances infiltrated air total gas.

atomic water potassium oxide potassium sulfate magnesium carbonate .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 110 tr T U Um V loss pre-cool W dry tertiary air duct ambient circulation air preheater. evaporation enthalpy loss pre-cooling zone radiation and convection losses Chemical formula signs C3 A C12A7 C4AF C2 S C3 S Al2O3 C CaCO3 CaO Cl – CO CO2 Fe2O3 H H2 O K2 O K2SO4 MgCO3 tricalcium aluminate (3 CaCO · Al2O3) (12 CaO · 7Al2O3) aluminate ferrite (4 CaO · Al2O3 · Fe2O3) dicalcium silicate (2 CaO · SiO2) tricalcium silicate (3 CaO · SiO2) aluminum oxide carbon calcium carbonate calcium oxide chloride carbon monoxide carbon dioxide iron(III)-oxide hydrogen.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 111 MgO Mn2O3 N2 Na2O O O2 P 2 O5 S2– SiO2 SO3 TiO2 magnesium oxide manganese(III)-oxide nitrogen sodium oxide oxygen. atomic oxygen phosphorus pentoxide sulfide silicon dioxide sulfur(VI)-oxide (sulfate) titanium dioxide .

Das Wesen und die Herstellung der hydraulischen Bindemittel. Berlin 1956.: Thermodynamik. Duda. F. Band 11. H. J. Band 1. Huckauf. H. VEB Verlag Technik. Essen 1991. Bauverlag GmbH. Ullmanns Enzyklopädie der technischen Chemie. Vulkan-Verlag. Weinheim 1983.: Ratgeber für Zementingenieure. FDBR-Fachbuchreihe. 545-574.: Zement-Chemie. Bauverlag GmbH. Springer-Verlag. Locher. VEB Verlag Für Bauwesen. Berlin 1981. Berlin 1971. Band 3.. Verlag Chemie GmbH. Berlin 1958. . F: Zement-Herstellung und Eigenschaften. H. Berlin 1978. Wiesbaden 1985.H. Huckauf. G. Internationale Verfahrenstechniken der Zementindustrie. pp.1 Literature references General literature references [1] [2] [3] [4] [5) [6] [7] [8] [9] Kühl. Keil. G.. Band 1. Springer-Verlag.: Technologie der Bindebaustoffe. Kühl. 9. Baehr.D. [10] Brandt. Brennprozeß und Brennanlagen. Stark. W: Zement. Berlin 1985. J..May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 112 9. und Stark.: Zement-Chemie. H. Wiesbaden 1982.: Cement-Data-Book.: Bindebaustoff-Taschenbuch. Brennprozeß und Brennanlagen. H. Band 24. O. und Seidel. W. Labahn. Band 3. VEB Verlag für Bauwesen. Die physikalisch-chemischen Grundlagen der Zement-Chemie. VEB Verlag Technik. F: Brennstoffe und Verbrennungsrechnung.. Band 1. Seidel.

: Messen. Düsseldorf 1961. Stoffmengen und Hilfsgrößen. Springer-Verlag.1987.. 48.. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. Vol. Band 1. Band 11. W. July (1985) pp. [18] Hengstenberg. Steuern und Regeln in der Chemischen Technik.V. S. J. pp. und Winkler.. Execution of kiln performance tests [16] VDZ-Merkblatt “Mengenmessung von Gasen durch Geschwindigkeitsmessung”.V. 3. H. Messung von Zustandsgrößen. Düsseldorf 1990. Vol.: Messen. . Rock Products. Springer-Verlag.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 113 9. O. O. Zement-KalkGips 38 (1985) Vol.V. B. Steuern und Regeln in der Chemischen Technik. B. J.. [15] Rosemann.: Theoretische und betriebliche Untersuchungen zum Brennstoffenergieverbrauch von Zementofenanlagen mit Vorcalcinierung.: Precalciners today .M. Berlin 1980. Berlin 1980. Sturm. Messung von Stoffeigenschaften und Konzentrationen. und Winkler. pp. [12] Garrett. 105-114. 10. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie.. 43. A. und Lang. Düsseldorf 1962.. H.: Technologische Probleme beim Brennen des Zementklinkers. 612-614. Ursache und Lösung.: Brennverfahren.1982. [17] VDZ-Merkblatt “Staubmengenmessungen auf Zementwerken”. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e.2 Technical literature references Description of the clinker burning process [11] Sprung. [19] Hengstenberg. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. Th. [20] VDZ-Merkblatt “Kontinuierliche Gasanalyse in Zementwerken”. Zement-Kalk-Gips 39 (1986) Vol.a review. [13] Wolter. 39-61. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e.. Sturm. [14] Bonn.: Einfluß des Ofensystems auf die Klinkereigenschaften..

Knacke.: Phase composition of calcined raw meal. Supplement. A.. H. H. G.: Thermochemical properties of inorganic substances. und Knacke. I. [25] Petrosjan. H. Zement-Kalk-Gips 37 (1984) Vol. pp. Düsseldorf 1959. pp. [23] zur Strassen. Rio de Janeiro.E.. Proc. und Ludwig. [22] Schwiete. Zement-Kalk-Gips 9 (1956) Vol. und Ziegler. O. 6. pp. Düsseldorf 1983. . Zement-KalkGips 38 (1985) Vol..: Der theoretische Wärmebedarf des Zementbrandes..: Rechnergesteuerte Meßdatenerfassung und verarbeitung bei der Durchführung von Ofenversuchen.: Beitrag zur Thermochemie von Zementrohstoffen. 8th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement. [32] Wolter. 22. H. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. [27] Barin. [31] Gardeik. Berlin 1973. M. Ludwig. Teil 2: Näherungsgleichungen und Anwendungen.: Thermochemical properties of inorganic substances. Springer-Verlag. O.. I. Berlin 1977. 2. 3. [30] Rosemann. TonindustrieZeitung 56 (1932) Nr. H. [28] Gardeik.O. und Gardeik. 1-12. 89-94.: Die spezifische Wärme des Portlandzementklinkers.. Zement-Kalk-Gips 33 (1980) Vol. 144-149. 257-262. Berechnungsblätter für den Wärmeübergang. H. E. 9. Berlin 1966..E.: Thermodynamik der Silikate.V. Zement-KalkGips 10 (1957) Vol. 304-306..O. [26] Barin. pp.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 114 Evaluation of kiln performance tests [21] Schwiete.: Berechnung des Wandwärmeverlustes von Drehöfen und Mühlen. Springer-Verlag.O. pp. H. H. 465-473. und Steinbiß. 1986. pp. und Kubaschewski.. 1. pp.: Berechnung des Wandwärmeverlustes von Drehöfen und Mühlen. 53-62. VDI-Verlag GmbH. [24] VDZ-Merkblatt “Berechnungsunterlagen für Ofenversuche”. H. [29] VDI-Wärmeatlas. Teil 1: Grundlagen. VEB Verlag für Bauwesen. O.

pp. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e.V. W: Stoffkreisläufe und Emissionen beim Brennen von Zementklinker. R. [44] Schütte.. 335-344. H. [35] Goes.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 115 [33] VDZ-Merkblatt “Rost-. Fortschritte der Mineralogie 60 (1982) Vol. Vol. F W.und Schwefelverdampfung in Zementofen in Gegenwart hoher Chloreinnahmen. 1.: Kreislaufe in Drehofensystemen. pp.: Einflüsse auf die Energieumsetzung in Calcinatoren bei der Vorcalcination von Zementrohmehl. Zement-Kalk-Gips. 8. C. [39] Locher. pp. Zement-Kalk-Gips 38 (1985) Vol. W: Alkali. D. Zement-Kalk-Gips 35 (1982) Vol. [43] Kreft. und Opitz. S. H. Dissertation. F. pp. 8. H. P.. Zement-Kalk-Gips 24 (1971) Vol.. Zement-Kalk-Gips 36 (1983) Vol. 9. R: Alkaliprobleme und Beseitigung bei wärmesparenden Trockenöfen. Evaluation of the substance circulation systems [34] Weber. 9. 509-511. 31. 1960. 1-12. 12. Bergakademie ClausthalZellerfeld 1959. Zement-Kalk-Gips 17 (1964) Vol. 338-343. 9 (1960). [41] Kreft. pp. W: Methode zur Vorausberechnung von Schadstoffkreisläufen in Zementöfen. Satelliten.O. Zement-Kalk-Gips 25 (1972) Vol.: Die Bedeutung von Kreislaufbetrachtungen für Produktqualität und Umweltverträglichkeit der Zementherstellung. und Gardeik. 215-234. [40] Locher. Zement-Kalk-Gips 43 (1990) Vol. 1989.: Warmeübergang im Drehofen unter Berücksichtigung der Kreislaufvorgänge und der Phasenneubildung. pp. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. 2. 4. [37] Sprung. D. 1964. [42] Rosemann. Sonderausgabe Nr.und Rohrkühler in der Zementindustrie”. Vol. pp.: Das Verhaften des Schwefels beim Brennen von Zementklinker Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. 418-422. pp.: Ober des Verhalten der Alkalien beim Zementbrennen. S.: Reaktionen im Bereich der Ofengase. . 8. 565-570. 456-459. Sprung. Düsseldorf.. [381 Ritzmann. und Kupper. [36] Weber.

. 577-585. pp. F. W: Verfahrenstechnik und Zementeigenschaften. pp.: Einfluß der Ofenatmosphäre beim Brennen von Zementklinker. Teil III: Einfluß der Klinkerherstellung. [48] Locher. 7-29. pp. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 1 (1929) pp. [46] Bogue. [50] Locher. ZementKalk-Gips 38 (1985) Vol. 269-277.W. 12.. 669-676. Zement-Kalk-Gips 35 (1982) Vol. 291-293. pp. 29. F.-M. pp. Reinhold Publishing Corporation. [49] Sylla. [47] Locher.W: Einfluß der Klinkerherstellung auf die Eigenschaften des Zements. pp.: Einflüsse der Verfahrenstechnik auf die Zementeigenschaften.-M. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. 6. S.. Richartz. and Sylla. [52] Locher. Zement-Kalk-Gips 28 (1975) Vol. 357-362. S. R. Sprung. F. H.-M. New York 1955.: Einfluß der Klinkerkühlung auf Erstarren und Festigkeit von Zement.: Erstarren von Zement. pp. Zement-Kalk-Gips 31 (1978) Vol. [51] Sylla.H. 7.1962. R. 9.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 116 Evaluation of the cement clinker [45] Bogue. W. 265-272.: The chemistry of portland cement. 10.: Calculation of the compounds in portland cement.H. Zement-Kalk-Gips 28 (1975) Vol. H. [53] Sprung. H. Zement-Kalk-Gips 31 (1978) Vol. 6. Vol. F W: Berechnung der Klinkerphasen. 192-197.

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Evaluation of the emissions
[54] Kroboth, K., und Xeller, H.: Entwicklungen beim Umweltschutz in der Zementindustrie. Zement-Kalk-Gips 39 (1986) Vol. 1, pp. 1-14. [55] Sprung, S.: Spurenelemente - Anreicherungen und Minderungsmaßnahmen. Zement-Kalk-Gips 41 (1988) Vol. 5, pp. 251-257. [56] Locher, F W: Entwicklung des Umweltschutzes in der Zementindustrie. ZementKalk-Gips 42 (1989) Vol. 3, pp. 120-127. [57] Kroboth, K., und Kuhlmann, K.: Stand der Technik der Emissionsminderung in Europa. Zement-Kalk-Gips 43 (1990) Vol. 3, pp. 121-131. [58] Wischers, G., und Kuhlmann, K.: Ökobilanz von Zement und Beton. Zement-KalkGips 44 (1991) Vol. 11, pp. 545-553.

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10.

Evaluation example 1 (kiln system with a cyclone preheater, calcinator and tertiary air duct)
Balancing the entire system

10.1

10.1.1 Solid substance mass flows
& mS10

= 18.00 kg/s

x NF, S10 = 0.9760 x NF, St12 x NF, B7 = x NF, B3 = not applicable x ash, B7 ⋅ x NV, ash = 0.04 · 0.8007 x ash, B7 ⋅ x NF, ash = 0.04 · 0.8007

& mSt12 = 0 kg/s & m B7 & m B3 & mSt1 & mSt5

= 1.29 kg/s = 1.24 kg/s = 0.84 kg/s = 0 kg/s

x NF, St1 = 0.6454 x NF,St5 not applicable

x NF, S1 = 0.6316

Kiln feed mass flow (Equation 4): 18.00 ⋅ 0.976 − (1.29 + 1.24) ⋅ 0.04 ⋅ 0.8007 + 0.84 ⋅ 0.6454 = 28.55 kg/s. 0.6316

& mS1 =

Ratio of kiln feed to clinker necessary for burning clinker (Equation 6): 28.55 = 1.586 kg/kg. 18.00 + 0

fS1 =

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10.1.2 Gas volume flows

10.1.2.1 Dry gas

10.1.2.1.1 Minimum air volume flow

& mS1 = 28.55 kg/s & mSt1 = & m B7 = & m B3 = 0.84 kg/s 1.29 kg/s 1.24 kg/s

x C, S1 = 0.0015 x C, St1 = 0.0021 h u, B7 = 22684 kJ/kg h u, B3 = 22684 kJ/kg

x S, S1 = 0.0004 x S, St1 = 0.0008

The carbon mass flow (Equation 8) and the sulfide mass flow (Equation 9) effectively fed in with the kiln feed: & mC, eff, S = 28.55 · 0.0015 – 0.84 · 0.0021 = 0.0411 kg/s & mS, eff, S = 28.55 · 0.0004 – 0.84 · 0.0008 = 0.0107 kg/s

Minimum air demand of the fuels (Equation 13): lmin, B7 = lmin, B3 = 0.44 + 0.000245 · 22684 = 5.998 m³/kg Minimum air volume flow (Equation 10):

& VL, min, tr = (1.29 + 1.24) · 5.998 + 0.0411 · 8.88 + 0.0107 · 3.32 = 15.58 m³/s

G1 = 0.1745 0. tr.0007 − 0.2925 − 0.762 (1 − 0.G6 = 0.1. from the burning area and from the rotary kiln (Equation 16): 1 = 1. tr.2108 − 0.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood F ≈ 0.G2 = 0.3843 0.2 Air proportionality factors yCO 2 .0302 − 0.G2 = 0. tr.N = 1.1.0005 − 0.0489) λG1 = λG2 = 1 = 1.2278 0.2. tr.762 (1 − 0.5 ⋅ 0. tr.0007 y CO.G1 = 0.G2 = 0. tr.0006 − 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 120 10.0318 − 0.0005 yO 2 .762 (1 − 0.2.0302) 10.5 ⋅ 0.3290 − 0.3290 yCO 2 .0318 yO 2 .0302 Air proportionality factors in the waste gas downstream from the preheater.29 kg/m³ .1.1.0007 1 − 3.5 ⋅ 0.2925 yCO 2 .2108 yCO.G2 = 0.0489 yO 2 .0006 y CO.G1 = 0.0489 − 0.0006 1 − 3. tr. tr. tr.0005 1 − 3.25 m² ∆p = 5 Pa p = 1010 hPa ϑ U = 5°C [41°F] ρ L.G6 = 0.0318) λG6 = 1 = 1.

B7 = 5.5 Cooler intake air & VL8. tr =7.08 m³/s .268 ⋅ 2 = 0.1.29 10.29 · 5.29 kg/s lmin.2. tr = 1.39 – 0. tr = 6.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 121 Density of the ambient air: ρ L = 1.1.52 m³/s 1.1745 · 1.29 · 1010 273 ⋅ = 1. tr = 0.25 & VFl.18 m³/s & VL9. D.18 + 6.17 = 37.1.17 m³/s Cooler intake air volume flow (Equation 21): & VL10. tr = 23.4 Secondary air λ G6 = 1.1745 & m B7 = 1.73 + 23.52 m³/s Secondary air volume flow (Equation 20): & VL8.75 ⋅ 0.998 – 1.73 m³/s & VL11. tr = 1. D.998 m³/kg & VL7.2.39 m³/s & VFl. tr = 7.268 kg/m³ 1013 277 Infiltrated air volume flow (Equation 19): 0.18 m³/s 10.52 = 7. tr ≈ ⋅ 5 ⋅ 1.

29 kg/s = 1. B = (1.G1 = 0.29 + 1.1.84 m³/s VCO 2 .3380 – 0.S & m B7 & m B3 = 28.376 kg/s CO2 from the kiln feed (Equation 23): 44.St1 x CO 2 . tr. tr.St5 = 0.3256 not applicable h u.88 m³/s .S = 28. pure gas = 0.01  1  & = 4.97  CO2 from the fuel (Equation 26): & VCO2 . tr. pure gas = 0.G5 not applicable yCO.55 · 0.0007 yCO2 .0489 yCO2 . Calculation on the basis of the CO2 balance: Carbon dioxide mass flow (Equation 24) effectively fed in with the kiln feed: & mCO 2 . tr = 60.01  1.G1 = 0.0411 kg/s = 1.24) · 5.376 + 0.1262 yO2 .84 · 0. B7 h u.6 Raw gas & mS1 & mSt1 & mSt5 & mC. tr yCO 2 .55 kg/s = 0.3256 = 9. tr.eff.42 m³/s yO2 . B3 = 22684 kJ/kg (lignitic coal) = 22684 kJ/kg (lignitic coal) & VG5.1.24 kg/s = 0 x CO 2 . tr.S1 x CO 2 .1426 1.G5 .01 · 10 – 5 · 22684 = 2.2. tr.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 122 10. tr.G1 = 0.0411  12.84 kg/s = 0 = 0.eff.3380 = 0.S =  9. y CO.2925 & Vpure gas.

1. tr.21 − 0.G1 = 0.7 Gas downstream from the burning area yCO2 . tr = 60.2925 yCO2 . tr. tr.33 m³/s 0.0007 2.84 + 2.1426 & VG1.88 − 0 & VG1. tr.42 = 26.0489 The following applies: & VG1. tr = = 26.83 m³/s 0.2925 b) O2 balance: 0.28) = 25.21 − 0. Calculation on the basis of the clean gas volume flow: Raw gas volume flow (Equations 30 and 31): a) CO2 balance: 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 123 Raw gas volume flow (Equation 29): 4.G2 = 0.2925 & VG2.2. tr = 25.G1 = 0.07 m³/s 0.0489 yO2 .1262 & VG1. tr = 0.68 m³/s Gas volume downstream from the burning area (Equations 30 and 31): a) CO2 balance: 0.42 = 25.3290 .G2 = 0.68 = 22. tr = 25. tr = 60.5 (26.0318 & VG1.2925 + 0.07 + 25.3290 yO2 .1.28 m³/s 0.68 m³/s 10.

tr.0107 kg/s yO2 .8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) yCO2 .5 (22.03 m³/s 10.0005 lmin.68 ⋅ 0.0411 kg/s = 0.21   = 0.2108 & m B3 & mC.0489 & VG2.21 − 0. tr. tr = 0.83 + 23.22 m³/s 0.24 kg/s = 0. tr = 25. tr 0.tr.0007 yO2 .22) = 23.2925 − 0.1.1.0007 −  0.B3 lmin. eff.68 m³/s yCO.2108 −  0.S = 5. tr = 25. eff.0302   1 − 0.5   0.0302 Gas volume flow downstream from the rotary kiln [30]: & VG6.G1 = 0.0489 yCO2 .C lmin.2925 & VG1.32 m 3/s − 0.21   0 .24 ⋅ 5.0302   1 − 0.0489   25. tr.0107 ⋅ 3.21   .G6 = 0.88 + 0.0318 The following applies: & VG2. tr.0411 ⋅ 8.21 − 0. tr.79 1.0007  0. S = 1.32 m³/kg yO2 .68 = 23.21   = 9.998 + 0.32 − ⋅ 25.G1 = 0.G6 = 0.88 m³/kg = 3. S & mS.G6 = 0.2.2108 −  0.G1 = 0.68 1 − 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 124 b) O2 balance: 0.998 m³/kg = 8.

tr & VL4.2 Water vapor 10.G2 = yO2 .tr = yO2 .C lmin.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 125 10.998 + 0.1.32 · 0. tr = 23.tr yO2 .0411 kg/s = 0.88 m³/kg 3.C = (23.19 m³/s & VG2. eff.73 – 0.1 Humidity in the air p = 101000 Pa ϑ L.68 m³/s & VG2.73 m³/s lmin.2.tr & VG6. S = 1. tr.88 + 0.G2 = 0.1.998 m³/kg 8.B3 = lmin. tr = 25.0006) – 9. tr.0302 0.0318 – 0. eff.0006 Infiltrated air volume flow (calcinator) according to [30]: 1 & VFl.2.S = = 5.2.10 Infiltrated air (calcinator) & m B3 & mC.32 m³/s = 6.4 .0107 kg/s = 23.1.0302) + 1. tr.2°F] ϕ = 0.03 m³/s = 9.32 m³/kg 0.1.03 · (0.03 m³/s 10.19 = 3.2.32 – 6.G6 = & VL3.0411 · 8.5 · 0.0107 · 3. S & mS.9 Infiltrated air (preheater) & VGl.03 m³/s & VL1 = 1.60 m³/s 10.0318 0.U = 4°C [39.24 kg/s = 0.21 0.1. tr.24 · 5.2.

07 m³/s b) downstream from the burning area & VH 2 O.03 m³/s 10.0190 ρH 2O.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 126 Saturation pressure of the water vapor at ambient temperature (Equation 33): ps (ϑ L.002 = 0.84 kg/s x H2O.0204 x H2O.58 · 1. L = λG1 ⋅ VL.608 · 0.608 · 0. L = 1.06 m³/s c) downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) & VH 2 O.2.1745 · 1.55 kg/s = 0. D = 0.564 · 10 – 5 · 43 + 2.002 = 0.622 812.2 0 .5 + 43.2278 · 15. min.tr · 1.998 · 1.58 · 1.2 = 0.2 Pa Water content of the dry air (Equation 32): xD = 0.4 Humidity volume flows (Equation 34): a) downstream from the preheater & & VH 2 O.2.470 · 42 + 2.002 = 0.3843 · 15.608 · xD = 1.8 kg/m³ .608 · 0.877 · 10 – 4 · 44 + 10 – 6 · 45 = 812.1.U) = 611. L = 1.29 · 5.87 · 4 + 1. St1 = 0. S1 = 0.2 Water from the kiln feed & mS1 & mSt1 = 28.0020 kg/kg 101000 − 812.

84 ⋅ 0.80 m³/s VH 2 O. B7 x H.4 Injection water & m H 2 O. 10 = 0 .2.55 ⋅ 0.087 + 0.29  0.71 m³/s 0 . B3 = 0.8  10.77 m³/s VH 2 O.087 x H2O.8  b) Secondary burner 18  1  & = 0. S = (28.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 127 Moisture volume flow from the kiln feed (Equation 35): 1 & VH 2 O.24 kg/s x H2O.0204 − 0.2.2.29 kg/s 1.3 Water from the fuel & mB7 & mB3 = = 1.0453 Moisture volume flows (Equation 36): a) Main burner 18  1  & = 0.0453 = 0.24  0. B7 = 1.2.0453  2  0 .0453  2  0 .1.087 + 0.8 10.1. B7 = 0.087 x H.019) ⋅ = 0. B3 = 0. B3 = 1.

1 Fuel & m B7 = 1.03 + 0.80 = 10.80 + 0.66 m³/s Volume flow downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet): & VG6 = 9.24 kg/s h u.1.03 + 0. B7 = 22684 kJ/kg h u.6°F] x H 2 O. 10.07 + 0.06 + 0. B7 = x F.77 = 24.68 + 0.1.03 m³/s Volume flow downstream from the burning area: & VG2 = 23. B3 = 22684 kJ/kg x F.1.4.496 (1 − 0.15 m³/s 10.1.77 = 28.2. B3 = 0.3 Moist gas (examples) Raw gas volume flow (Equation 40): & VG1 = 25.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 128 10.087 .4. B7 = x H 2 O.29 kg/s & m B3 = 1.087) ϑB7 = 32°C [89.32 + 0. B3 = 0.3 Liquid mass flows Does not apply.1 Energy input 10.71 + 0.80 + 0.4 Energy flows 10.1.6°F] ϑB3 = 32°C [89.

3 ·10 – 4 · 63 – 4.344 + 0. tr ≈  0.592 kJ/kg K Reaction enthalpy flow of the fuel (Equation 41): & ∆H R.4°F] Mean specific thermal capacity of the kiln feed (Equation 49): cS1 ≈ 0.29 + 1.087 · 4.1.8 + 7.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 129 Mean specific thermal capacity for dry lignitic coal (Equation 43): 0.2 kJ/kg K Mean specific thermal capacity for moist lignitic coal (Equation 44): cB7 = cB3 = (1 – 0.4.803 ⋅ 0.5 · 10 · 32 – 8 · 10 · 32 ) = 1.55 kg/s ϑS1 = 63°C [145.24) · 22684 = 57391 kJ/s Sensible enthalpy flow of the fuel (Equation 42): & H B = (1.344 kJ/kg K 1 − 0. B = (1.1.846 +  (1 + 1.2 · 10 – 11 · 633 = 0.2 = 1.2 Kiln feed & mS1 = 28.087) · 1.087   Mean specific thermal capacity for the water in the coal: c H 2O ≈ 4.24) · 1.29 + 1.592 · (32 – 25) = 28 kJ/s 10.55 · 0.844 · (63 – 25) = 916 kJ/s .496   –3 – 10 3 c B.6 ·10 – 7 · 632 + 5.844 kJ/kg K Enthalpy flow of the kiln feed (Equation 48): & H S1 = 28.

tr = 1.297 + 5.5 Mechanical performance Pmech.L.002 kg/kg ϑ L.1.86 · 10 – 11 · 43 = 1.3843 · 15.U = 4°C [39.3843 & VL.17) (1 + 1.75 · 10 – 5 · 4 + 8.4.4 Injection water Does not apply. tr = 23.1.4.608 · 0.1.002) = 44.297 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the air fed in (Equation 50): & H L. kiln drive = 117 kJ/s .2°F] Sum of the air volume flows fed in (Equation 39): & ∑ VLi = (1.58 + 23.1.88 m³/s i Mean specific thermal capacity of the air fed in (Equation 52): cp.17 m³/s xD = 0.4. air-intake fan = 337 kJ/s Mechanical performance (Equation 53): Pmech = (337 + 117) · 0. min.58 m³/s & VL11.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 130 10.06 · 10 – 8 · 42 – 2.297 · (4 – 25) = -1223 kJ/s 10.tr = 15. 10.9 = 409 kJ/s Pmech.1.1.3 Air λG1 = 1.88 · 1. total = 44.

6498 – 7.043 · 0.0083 > 0.2.2.S10 = 0 3 CaO bound in the clinker phases (Equation 54): x CaO* .S10 = 3.6498 Clinker phases (Equations 57 through 60): x C 3S.0067 The following then results: x CaOSO . C3A and C4AF in the clinker SO3 bound to the CaO in the clinker (Equation 55 or 56): 0.718 · 0.1.6641 – 0.071 .188 x C3A.868 · 0.754 · 0.0234 = 0.0234 = 0.65 · 0.2137 – 1.0632 – 1.292 · 0.4.0010 = 0.0143 – 0 = 0.2137 – 0.0234 – 6.4.692 · 0.43 · 0.0632 = 0.0083 + 1.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed Chemical analyses of the solid substance average samples.602 · 0. C2S.563 = 0.1 C3S.1.S10 = 2.2 Energy output 10.S10 = 4.071 · 0. each according to Table 10.85 · 0. S10 = 0. 10.563 x C 2S.1.S10 = 2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 131 10.1.4.128 x C 4 AF.

4306 > 0.4304 = 0.St1 = 0 10.4.4148 < 0.00 kg/s & mSt12 = 0 kg/s Reaction enthalpy flows (Equations 67 through 79): 1) Evaporation of H2O: & ∆H R1 = 2446 (0.3380 – 0.S1 = 1.1.S1 = 1.4 Balance equations & mS1 = 28.1.3256 = 0.55 kg/s & mSt1 = 0.785 · 0.1.1.3380 = 0.4235 The following then results: x CaCO3 .0190 · 0.2 CaCO3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 132 10.4304 The following then results: x CaCO3 . and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust a) kiln feed (Equations 61 through 64): 1.1.84 kg/s & mSt5 = 0 kg/s & mS10 = 18.4.2.7683 x MgCO3 .274 · 0.1. 10.916 · (0.4304) = 0.St1 = 2.785 · 0.274 · 0.2.0204 · 28.3256 = 0.2.4.7404 x MgCO3 .55 – 0.84) = 1386 kJ/s .274 · 0.0003 b) raw gas dust (Equations 61 through 64): 1.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust Does not apply.

84) = 12 kJ/s 5) CaCO3 dissociation: & ∆H R5 = 1778 (0.0008 · 0.84) = -1346 kJ/s 4) MgCO3 dissociation: & ∆H R4 = 1396 (0.55 – 0 · 0.00 = 170 kJ/s 9) Formation of β-C2S: & ∆H R9 = -700 · 0.00 = -2369 kJ/s .7404 · 0.0004 · 28.0003 · 28.55 – 0.84) = 978 kJ/s 3) Organic clay components: & ∆H R3 = -32786 (0.55 – 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 133 2) Decomposition of clay: assumption: 100%-illite & ∆H R2 = 884 (0.0015 · 28.00 = -86 kJ/s 8) Formation of C3A: & ∆H R8 = 74 · 0.071 · 18.188 · 18.55 – 0.84) = -139 kJ/s 7) Formation of C4AF: & ∆H R7 = -67 · 0.7683 · 28.55 – 0.0021 · 0.0499 · 0.0402 · 28.84) = 37895 kJ/s 6) Pyrite: & ∆H R6 = -12914 (0.128 · 18.

G1 = 0.0014 · 0. G1 = (1 – 0.25 m³/s ϑ G1 = 330°C [626°F] ϑ L11 = 278°C [532.563 · 18.0448 = 1 – 0.0838) · 0.4.2 Water evaporation Does not apply.0838) · 0.2. 10.0489 = 0.0838 yCO 2 .0448 = 0.2680 yO 2 .55) = -903 kJ/s Sum of the reaction enthalpy flow of the kiln feed (Equation 80): & ∆H R.S = 1386 + 978 – 1346 + 12 + 37895 – 139 – 86 + 170 – 2369 – 5016 – 903 = 30582 kJ/s 10.03 m³/s & VL11 = 23.2. G1 y N 2 .2680 – 0.84 – 0.2925 = 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 134 10) Formation of C3S: & ∆H R10 = -495 · 0.00 = -5016 kJ/s 11) Formation of K2SO4: & ∆H R11 = -9690 (0.4°F] y H 2O.0067 · 18.0010 · 28.1.3 Waste gas losses & VG1 = 28. G1 = (1 – 0.0838 – 0.6034 .1.4.00 + 0.

32 + 0.489 + 9.2 · 10 – 11 · 3303 = 0.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 135 a) Raw gas Mean specific thermal capacity of the raw gas (Equations 83 through 87): c p.65 · 10 – 8 · 3302 – 3.633 + 9.1.06 · 10 – 8 · 2782 – 2.366 = 1.916 · 10 – 4 · 330 – 9.497 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the raw gas (Equation 82): & H G1 = 28.35 · 10 – 11 ·3303 = 1.540 kJ/m³ K c p.84 kg/s ϑ St1 = 330°C [626°F] Mean specific thermal capacity of the raw gas dust (Equation 49): CSt1 ≈ 0.6 · 10 – 7 · 3302 + 5.904 kJ/m³ K c p.05 · 10 – 5 · 330 + 9.54 + 0.268 + 1.301 + 3.021 · 10 – 7 · 3302 – 7.319 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the cooler vent air (Equation 89): & H L11 = 23.993 kJ/kg K .304 + 1.01 · 10 – 11 ·3303 = 1.320 kJ/m³ K c p.6034 · 1.52 · 10 – 5 · 330 + 2.25 · 1.8 + 7.4.86 · 10 – 11 · 2783 = 1. L11 ≈ 1.0838 · 1.O 2 = 1.297 + 5.03 · 1.90 · 10 – 11 · 3303 = 1.319 (278 – 25) = 7759 kJ/s 10.606 · 10 – 7 · 3302 + 8.497 (330 – 25) = 12798 kJ/s b) Cooler vent air Mean specific thermal capacity of the cooler vent air (Equation 52): cp.631 · 10 – 4 · 330 – 4.G1 = 0. N 2 = 1.0448 · 1.904 + 0.4 · 10 – 9 · 3302 – 1.4 Dust losses & mSt1 = 0.CO 2 = 1.22 · 10 – 11 ·3303 = 1. H 2O = 1.75 · 10 – 5 · 278 + 8.366 kJ/m³ K c p.3 · 10 – 4 · 330 – 4.

2. tr = 25.124 · 10 – 10 · 1203 = 0.68 m³/s y CO.793 (120 – 25) = 1355 kJ/s .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 136 Enthalpy flow of the raw gas dust (Equation 90): & H St1 = 0.00 · 0.369 · 10 – 7 · 1202 + 2.1.5 Incomplete combustion & VG1.68 · 0.4.tr.00 kg/s ϑ S10 = 120°C [248°F] Mean specific thermal capacity of the raw gas dust (Equation 95): CS10 = 0.CO = 25.1.2.921 · 10 – 4 · 120 – 5.84 · 0.6 Clinker & mS10 = 18.4.0007 Reaction enthalpy flow (Equation 93): & ∆H R.793 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the clinker (Equation 94): & H S10 = 18.729 + 5.993 (330 – 25) = 254 kJ/s 10.0007 · 12645 = 227 kJ/s 10.G1 = 0.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 137 10.1.6% of the balance sum.1.2.4.3 Energy balance Energy output (Equation 108): & E out = 30582 + 12798 + 7759 + 254 + 227 + 1355 + 720 + 360 + 4266 + 486 + 252 = 59059 kJ/s Reaction enthalpy flow of the fuel including the balance remainder (Equation 109): & ∆H R. D = 4266 kJ/s & Q W. V = 720 kJ/s & Q W.C = 360 kJ/s & Q W. .8 Uncoupled heat Does not apply.7 Radiation and convection: For calculation examples.4.2.1. B = 59059 – 28 – 916 + 1223 – 409 = 58929 kJ/s Balance deficit: 58929 – 57391 = 1538 kJ/s This corresponds to 2. see [31]: & Q W.4. K = 252 kJ/s 10. 10.T = 486 kJ/s & Q W.

608 · 0.18 m³/s & VL10.2.002) = 37.08 (1 + 1.2 Gas volume flows & VL8.37 = 18.608 · 0.73 m³/s Secondary air dust mass flow (Equation 110): & mSt8 = 0.08 m³/s xD = 0.18 (1 + 1. tr = 7.72 kg/s 10.1.73 Hot clinker mass flow (Equation 111): & mS8 = 18.37 kg/s 6.18 = 0.18 m³/s & VL9.35 kg/s & VL8. tr = 6.35 ⋅ 7.35 + 0.1.1 Clinker cooler 10.002) = 7.20 m³/s . tr = 37.0020 kg/kg Secondary air volume flow (Equation 38): & VL8 = 7.2.20 m³/s Cooler intake air volume flow (Equation 38): & VL10 = 37.2 Balancing of the partial systems 10.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 138 10.1 Solid substance mass flows & mS10 = 18.00 kg/s & mSt9 = 0.2. tr = 7.00 + 0.

May 1992

Specification Vt 10

Page 139

10.2.1.3 Energy flows

10.2.1.3.1 Energy input

& VL10 = 37.20 m³/s

ϑ U = 4°C [39.2°F]

Pmech, intake air fan = 337 kJ/s

cp,L10 = 1.297 kJ/m³ K (for the calculation, see above) The enthalpy flow of the hot clinker results from the balance remainder from the energy balance. Enthalpy flow of the cooler intake air (Equation 113): & H L10 = 37.20 · 1.297 (4 – 25) = -1014 kJ/s The enthalpy flow of the injection water does not apply here. Mechanical performance (Equation 114): Pmech, K = 337 · 0.9 = 303 kJ/s

10.2.1.3.2 Energy output

& VL9 & VL8

& = VL4 = 6.75 m³/s = 7.20 m³/s

& & mSt9 = mSt4 = 0.35 kg/s & mSt8 = 0.37 kg/s

ϑ L4

= 853°C [1567.4°F]

& QW,T = 486 kJ/s

May 1992

Specification Vt 10

Page 140

Enthalpy flow of the clinker (for the calculation, see above): & H S10 = 1355 kJ/s Radiation and convection loss flow of the cooler including the kiln hood:

& Q W, K = 252 kJ/s

The uncoupled heat flow does not apply here. Enthalpy flow of the cooler vent air (for the calculation, see above): & H L11 = 7759 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the tertiary air at the calcinator (Equations 52 and 89): cp,L4 = 1.297 + 5.75 · 10 – 5 · 8.53 + 8.06 · 10 – 8 · 8532 – 2.86 · 10 – 11 · 8533 = 1.387 kJ/m³ K & H L4 = 6.75 · 1.387 · (853 – 25) = 7752 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the tertiary air dust at the calcinator (Equations 95 and 99): CSt4 = 0.729 + 5.921 · 10 – 4 · 8.53 – 5.369 · 10 – 7 · 8532 + 2.124 · 10 – 10 · 8533 = 0.975 kJ/kg K & H St4 = 0.35 · 0.975 · (853 – 25) = 283 kJ/s Energy balance for the tertiary air duct:

& & & & & H L9 + H St9 = H L4 + H St4 + Q W, T = 7752 + 283 + 486 = 8521 kJ/s

The iterative calculation then results in the following: ϑ L9 = ϑ St9 ≈ 901°C [1653.8°F]

May 1992

Specification Vt 10

Page 141

Enthalpy flow of the secondary air (Equations 52 and 89): Cp,L8 = 1.297 + 5.75 · 10 – 5 · 901 + 8.06 · 10 – 8 · 9012 – 2.86 · 10 – 11 · 9013 = 1.390 kJ/m³ K & H L8 = 7.2 · 1.39 (901 – 25) = 8767 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the secondary air dust (Equations 95 and 94): CSt8 = 0.729 + 5.921 · 10 – 4 · 901 – 5.369 · 10 – 7 · 9012 – 2.124 · 10 – 10 · 9013 = 0.982 kJ/kg K & H St8 = 0.37 · 0.982 (901 – 25) = 318 kJ/s The evaporation enthalpy flow of the water does not apply here.

10.2.1.3.3 Energy balance

Enthalpy flow of the hot clinker (Equation 115): & H S8 = 8767 + 318 + 8521 + 7759 + 1355 + 252 + 1014 – 303 = 27683 kJ/s Hot clinker temperature:

ϑS8 =

& H S8 + 25 & mS8 ⋅ cS8 & mS8 = 18.72 kg/s

cS8 (1389°C [2532.2°F]) = 1.084 kJ/kg K The following then results: ϑS8 =

27683 + 25 = 1389°C [2532.2°F] 18.72 ⋅ 1.084

2°F]: & H L11 (4°C [39.168 W/m² K 100  100   100  αrad = 0.2°F] Heat-transition coefficients (Equations 98. pre − cool = 20.2 m ϑ W. 99 and 101): 200  200   200  αconv = 0.731 · (4 – 25) = -276 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the cooler vent air at 4°C [39.2) (200 – 4) 1 = 122 kJ/s 1000 10.m ≈ 200°C [392°F] ϑ U = 4°C [39.4.5 – 0.67 · 10 – 8 2 3 4734 − 277 4 = 11.4 Evaluation quantities 10.298 · (4 – 25) = -688 kJ/s .168 + 11.00 · 0.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area Enthalpy flow of the clinker at 4°C [39.667 · π · 3.499 W/m² K 473 − 277 αtotal = 9.2°F]) = 18.4.2 + 4.3 · 3.1.25 · 1.1.2 – 0.2.1.076   = 9.0 + 3.2.85   + 0.499 = 20.2.2°F]) = 25.1 Pre-cooling zone LB = -0.9 · 5.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 142 10.667 W/m² K Radiation and convection loss flow of the pre-cooling zone (Equation 117): & Q W.2 (3.2°F]: & H S10 (4°C [39.2 m Da = 3.

S1 = 0.3380 0.S1 = 0.2. cooling area = 1355 + 276 + 7759 + 688 + 252 + 122 = 10452 kJ/s 10.S6 = 0.0532 = 1 − 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 143 Energy loss of the cooling area (Equation 118): & Eloss.3 Cooling area efficiency Enthalpy flow of the clinker at 1450°C [2642°F]: & H S10 (1450°C [2642°F]) = 18.3380 xNF.89 0.1.0532 xCO2 .106 · (1450 – 25) = 28370 kJ/s Cooling area efficiency (Equation 119): η cooling area = 1 – 10452 = 0.6316 (sum 1 to 8 in Table 10) Apparent degree of precalcining of the kiln feed at the kiln inlet (Equation 121): 0.4.6316 ϕ apparent .9016 (sum 1 to 8 in Table 10) xNF.2 Calcinator xCO2 .00 · 1.S6 = 0.9016 = 0.635 28370 + 276 10.2.

(130) and (131). .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 144 10.3 Preheater Calculation of the mass flows and degrees of separation according to Equations (123). 6) The cyclone of the calcinator is assigned the number 5.2. 2) One-fourth of the moisture volume flow from the kiln feed is desorbed in each of the four uppermost stages. 4) The following aspects are taken into account for the reaction enthalpy flow in the preheater: • evaporation of H2O • degradation of clay • organic components • MgCO3 dissociation • pyrite 5) The sum of the reaction enthalpy flows in the preheater is uniformly distributed among the four stages. Assumptions made for the calculations: 1) The conveying air volume flow for the kiln feed enters into stage 1. 7) The dust from the rotary kiln and from the tertiary air duct contains 10% alkalis and 90% non-volatile components. (126). (127). 3) The infiltrated air volume flow of the preheater is uniformly distributed over the four stages.

55 – – & mS 28.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 145 Results: energy balance i 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 alkali balance ϑ 63 330 480 638 744 – – cS 0.80 0. .555 1.092 1.53 25.050 1.35 – 10.14 34.67 49.55 – 34.19 21.55 43.97 25.92 3.84 15.98 0.96 21.31 28.43 6.110 – – & VG – 28. Thus.87 ξ – 0.67 48.26 – – – & mSt – 0.09 – – cp.87 0.595 1.619 – – & QW – 180 180 180 180 – – & ∆H R – 223 223 223 223 – – & mS 28.497 1.G – 1.3 Estimation of error Table 16 provides an overview of how possible errors in the measured or input quantities (column 2) impact on the fuel energy consumption when it is calculated according to Equation (109) or according to Equation (41) and then related to the clinker mass flow (columns 3 and 4). the table provides information about the necessary measuring precision for the individual measured quantities during a performance test.03 23.26 – & mSt – 0.69 0.62 62.844 0.84 – 7.02 25.993 1.

Solid substance mass flows (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.55 1.35 .4 107.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 146 10. Designation Clinker Discharged tertiary air dust Kiln feed a) meter status b) calculated lignitic coal (main burner) lignitic coal (secondary burner) Raw gas dust Bypass dust Returned tertiary air dust t/d 1555 – 2506 kg/s 18.00 – – 2466 111.29 1.24 0.0 – 30 28.4 Tables (The operands are printed in boldface!) Table 9 . calcinator and tertiary air duct).84 – 0.3 73.

21 35.15 33.75 98.47 1.51 – 43.22 0.31 – 0.Chemical analyses of the solid substance average samples in % by weight of the substance entailing loss on ignition (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.49 – 0.23 35.83 – Clinker 21.15 – 61.05 0.78 0.59 – – 1.01 0.07 1.27 62.15 0.04 – – 0.56 0.10 0.14 0.00 99.58 – 45.76 – – – 3 14.72 0.16 0.64 99.08 0.25 48.31 34.63 0.51 – 42.13 – – 1.50 – 43.25 4.64 0.51 – 43.42 1.02 – – 1.16 – 5.04 0.99 – – 1.95 – – 1.61 – 0.15 0.23 31.34 – 66.85 0.54 0.60 0.36 0.23 0.58 100.81 80.07 – – – – – Kiln feed downstream from the cyclone 1a 14.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 147 Table 10 .12 – – 1.43 100.68 0.84 4.25 27.03 0.75 64. calcinator and tertiary air duct).03 0.57 0.91 4.70 0.57 0.80 – – – 1b 13.02 12.05 0.54 17.08 1.42 – – 1.45 0.10 61. Components Kiln feed 13.008 0.10 70.77 0.22 7.26 34.83 0.45 – 0.51 99.37 6.12 4.76 – 31.45 – 0.001 0.72 4.96 – Raw gas dust 14.10 0.32 – – 2.64 0.32 0.46 97.30 34.32 – – – 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 SiO2 Al2O3 TiO2 P2O5 Fe2O3 Mn2O3 CaO MgO SiO3 S 2– Cl – K2O Na2O ignition loss sum 1-14 sum 1-8 C CO2 H2O (< 110°C) H2O (> 110°C) CaOfree .43 Fuel ash 8.22 34.48 – – – 4 15.30 1.30 6.10 99.31 – 33.90 90.70 – 42.72 0.85 100.30 – 33.80 – – – 2 14.60 – 0.08 66.57 0.45 2.57 0.04 0.75 63.44 – 0.14 – – 1.82 – – 2.35 0.72 100.06 64.16 0.41 1.85 4.67 – 0.26 99.13 – 33.92 0. No.13 3.62 – 47.76 5.23 – 27.65 3.57 0.40 – – – 5 19.02 0.80 0.

70 4.56 21. calcinator and tertiary air duct).-% Fuel (main burner) 22. Designation lower calorific value water ash carbon hydrogen sulfur nitrogen oxygen volatile components 1) 1) Unit kJ/kg wgt.20 4. .684 8.60 Fuel (secondary burner) 22.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 148 Table 11 .27 0.-% wgt.-% wgt.Fuels (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.-% wgt.53 0.20 4.74 49.53 0.27 0.-% wgt.684 8.60 Relative to the dry substance.-% wgt.-% wgt.56 21.00 60.00 60.74 49.-% wgt.70 4.

6°F] . calcinator and tertiary air duct).4°F] 1024°C [1875.4°F] 120°C [248°F] 4°C [39.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 149 Table 12 .2°F] 1389°C [2532.6°F] 32°C [89.2°F] 32°C [89. Designation Kiln feed Raw gas Kiln feed (cyclone 2) Kiln feed (cyclone 3) Kiln feed (cyclone 4) Kiln feed (cyclone 5) Tertiary air (calcinator) Kiln inlet gas Hot clinker Secondary air Cooler vent air Clinker Ambient air Fuel (main burner) Fuel (secondary burner) Temperature (°C [°F]) 63°C [145.8°F] 278°C [532.Temperatures (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.2°F] 901°C [1653.4°F] 330°C [626°F] 480°C [896°F] 638°C [1180.4°F] 744°C [1371.2°F] 845°C [1553°F] 853°C [1567.

19 1.c.25 32.c. s.39 134000 5800 700 5000 37.15) (7.89 3.06 0.52 3800 (10900) 1900 1.17 100900 88700 36500 (26000) 24300 83700 28.32) (7. but often very imprecise since gas analysis at the kiln inlet is not representative.c.05 217500 10.25 133600 5800 700 5000 37.4 6.8 8.60 0.03 (9.26 4.90 21.73 23.18) 6.19 1. = under standard conditions .76 CO2 12.62 29.75 23.20 1.20) 6.68 23.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 150 Table 13 .08 O2 14.39 air with 0.02 CO vol-% 0. Designation Dry gas Moist gas Gas composition.03 24.42 m³(s.c.18 3.08 1.)/h clean gas raw gas gas after burning area kiln inlet gas 1) secondary air 1) tertiary air cooler vent air cooler intake air conveying air (kiln feed) burner air (secondary burner) burner air (main burner) infiltrated air (preheater) infiltrated air (calcinator) infiltrated air (kiln hood) 1) 1) moist gas … – – – – … – – – – H2 O vol-% m³(s. calcinator and tertiary air duct).6 8.0 92400 82900 (33600) (25900) 24200 83400 25.61 0.c.3 vol-% of H2O 3800 (10900) 1900 1.03 0.07 0. related to dry gas m³(s.52 Calculated.05 (3.03) 0.05 (3.04) 0.)/h 60.66 (10.)/h 67.)/h 244000 m³(s.Gas volume flows and composition (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 151 Table 14 . calcinator and tertiary air duct). Designation Input Fuel main burner secondary burner sensible enthalpy balance remainder Kiln feed Air Mechanical performance Sum kJ/s kJ/kg Kl 29262 28129 28 1538 916 –1223 409 59059 1626 1563 1 85 51 –68 23 3281 Output Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed Water evaporation Waste gas losses raw gas cooler vent air Dust losses Incomplete combustion Clinker Radiation and convection Preheater Calcinator Rotary kiln Tertiary air duct cooler + kiln hood Heat uncoupling Sum Fuel energy consumption including the balance remainder 30582 — 12798 7759 254 227 1355 720 360 4266 486 252 — 59059 1699 — 711 431 14 13 75 40 20 237 27 14 — 3281 58929 3274 .Energy balance of the kiln system (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.

635 1538 –57 17 1498 75 14 431 473 487 18 – – 1498 Sum Output Clinker Radiation and convection Cooler vent air Tertiary air and tertiary air dust Secondary air Secondary air dust Heat uncoupling Water evaporation Sum Evaluation quantities Energy loss of the cooling area in kJ/kg Kl Cooling area efficiency (1450°C [2642°F]) .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 152 Table 15 .Energy balance of the cooler (kiln system with a cyclone preheater. Designation Input Hot clinker (balance remainder) Cooler intake air Mechanical performance kJ/s kJ/kg Kl 27683 –1014 303 26972 1355 252 7759 8521 8767 318 – – 26972 581 0. calcinator and tertiary air duct).

24 Translation by: Duvekot Translators 2219 Brackenville Road Hockessin.Influence of measuring errors on the calculated fuel energy consumption (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.com .09 0.28 1.43 0.29 1. DE 19707 Phone: (302) 234-0237 Fax: (302) 234-0239 Toll-free: (800) 437-0237 e-mail: ledtrans@compuserve. calcinator and tertiary air duct).3 0.08 0.74 0.51 –0.93 0.15 0.27 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 153 Table 16 .12 1.22 –1.42 2. Input quantity Relative error in the input parameter in % Relative error in the fuel energy consumption in % (Equation 109) Relative error in the fuel energy consumption in % (Equation 41) 2 10 3 Hu fuel Ash content of fuel Mass flow of fuel Mass flow of raw gas dust Mass flow of clinker Volume flow of dry raw gas Volume flow of dry cooler vent air Temperature of clinker Temperature of raw gas Temperature of kiln feed Temperature of cooler vent air Radiation and convection loss of preheater Radiation and convection loss of kiln SiO2 content in the clinker CO2 content in the kiln feed CO2 content in kiln feed and raw gas dust 2 10 10 50 3 10 10 5 2 10 2 50 10 –2 5 5 0 –0.

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