TRANSLATION

GERMAN ASSOCIATION OF CEMENT WORKS (VDZ)
Tannenstrasse 2 4 Düsseldorf Germany

Execution and Evaluation of Kiln Performance Tests

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY COMMITTEE KILN PERFORMANCE TESTS TASK FORCE

May 1992

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May 1992

Specification Vt 10

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. 2.
2.1 2.2

PRELIMINARY REMARKS ...........................................................................7 DESCRIPTION OF THE CLINKER BURNING PROCESS ...........................8
Reactions of the kiln feed............................................................................................................... 8 Burning process............................................................................................................................ 10

3.
3.1 3.2

EXECUTION OF KILN PERFORMANCE TESTS .......................................16
Mode of operation of the kiln system.......................................................................................... 16 Duration of the performance test................................................................................................ 16

3.3 Measuring methods ...................................................................................................................... 17 3.3.1 Solid substances.................................................................................................................... 17 3.3.1.1 Sampling .......................................................................................................................... 17 3.3.1.2 Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 18 3.3.1.3 Mass flows ....................................................................................................................... 25 3.3.2 Gases..................................................................................................................................... 27 3.3.2.1 Sampling .......................................................................................................................... 27 3.3.2.2 Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 28 3.3.2.3 Volume flows................................................................................................................... 28 3.3.3 Liquids.................................................................................................................................. 30 3.3.3.1 Heating oil ....................................................................................................................... 30 3.3.3.2 Water................................................................................................................................ 30 3.3.4 Temperatures ........................................................................................................................ 31 3.3.5 Pressures ............................................................................................................................... 32 3.3.6 Strokes and rotational speeds................................................................................................ 32 3.3.7 Electricity consumption ........................................................................................................ 33 3.3.8 Ambient conditions............................................................................................................... 33 3.3.9 Ensuring the precision of the measurements and analyses ................................................... 34

4.

EVALUATION OF KILN PERFORMANCE TESTS.....................................35

4.1 Balancing of the entire system..................................................................................................... 35 4.1.1 Solid substance mass flows .................................................................................................. 40 4.1.2 Gas volume flows ................................................................................................................. 42

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4.1.2.1 Dry gas............................................................................................................................. 42 4.1.2.1.1 Minimum air volume flow.......................................................................................... 42 4.1.2.1.2 Air proportionality factor............................................................................................ 45 4.1.2.1.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood ..................................................................................... 46 4.1.2.1.4 Secondary air .............................................................................................................. 47 4.1.2.1.5 Cooler intake air ......................................................................................................... 48 4.1.2.1.6 Raw gas ...................................................................................................................... 48 4.1.2.1.7 Gas downstream from the burning area ...................................................................... 50 4.1.2.1.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) ....................................................... 50 4.1.2.2 Water vapor...................................................................................................................... 51 4.1.2.2.1 Humidity in the air...................................................................................................... 51 4.1.2.2.2 Water from the kiln feed............................................................................................. 51 4.1.2.2.3 Water from the fuel..................................................................................................... 52 4.1.2.2.4 Injection water ............................................................................................................ 52 4.1.2.3 Moist gas.......................................................................................................................... 52 4.1.2.3.1 Air............................................................................................................................... 52 4.1.2.3.2 Raw gas ...................................................................................................................... 53 4.1.3 Liquid mass flows................................................................................................................. 53 4.1.4 Energy flows......................................................................................................................... 53 4.1.4.1 Energy input..................................................................................................................... 53 4.1.4.1.1 Fuel ............................................................................................................................. 53 4.1.4.1.2 Kiln feed ..................................................................................................................... 57 4.1.4.1.3 Air............................................................................................................................... 60 4.1.4.1.4 Injection water ............................................................................................................ 62 4.1.4.1.5 Mechanical performance ............................................................................................ 62 4.1.4.2 Energy output................................................................................................................... 62 4.1.4.2.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed .............................................................................. 62 4.1.4.2.1.1 C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF in the clinker ............................................................... 64 4.1.4.2.1.2 CaCO3 and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust ............................... 65 4.1.4.2.1.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust....................................................................... 66 4.1.4.2.1.4 Balance equations ................................................................................................ 66 4.1.4.2.2 Water evaporation....................................................................................................... 70 4.1.4.2.3 Waste gas losses ......................................................................................................... 70 4.1.4.2.4 Dust losses .................................................................................................................. 71 4.1.4.2.5 Incomplete combustion............................................................................................... 72 4.1.4.2.6 Clinker ........................................................................................................................ 72 4.1.4.2.7 Radiation and convection ........................................................................................... 74 4.1.4.2.8 Uncoupled heat ........................................................................................................... 78 4.1.4.3 Energy balance................................................................................................................. 79 4.2 Balancing of the partial systems.................................................................................................. 80 4.2.1 Clinker cooler ....................................................................................................................... 80 4.2.1.1 Solid substance mass flows.............................................................................................. 83 4.2.1.2 Gas volume flows ............................................................................................................ 84 4.2.1.3 Energy flows ........................................................................................................................... 84 4.2.1.3.1 Energy input ............................................................................................................... 84 4.2.1.3.1.1 Hot clinker ........................................................................................................... 84 4.2.1.3.1.2 Cooler intake air .................................................................................................. 85 4.2.1.3.1.3 Injection water ..................................................................................................... 85 4.2.1.3.1.4 Mechanical performance ..................................................................................... 85

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4.2.1.3.2 Energy output ............................................................................................................. 85 4.2.1.3.2.1 Clinker, clinker dust ............................................................................................ 85 4.2.1.3.2.2 Radiation and convection .................................................................................... 86 4.2.1.3.2.3 Uncoupled heat .................................................................................................... 86 4.2.1.3.2.4 Cooler vent air, secondary air, tertiary air ........................................................... 86 4.2.1.3.2.5 Water evaporation................................................................................................ 86 4.2.1.3.3 Energy balance ........................................................................................................... 86 4.2.1.4 Evaluation quantities........................................................................................................ 87 4.2.1.4.1 Pre-cooling zone ......................................................................................................... 87 4.2.1.4.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area .......................................................................... 89 4.2.1.4.3 Cooling area efficiency............................................................................................... 89 4.2.1.4.4 Cooler efficiency ........................................................................................................ 90 4.2.2 Calcinator (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater)..................................................... 90 4.2.2.1 Determination of the degree of precalcining.................................................................... 92 4.2.3 Preheater (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater) ...................................................... 93 4.2.3.1 Degree of separation of individual cyclone stages........................................................... 94

5. 6.
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7

EVALUATION OF THE SUBSTANCE CIRCULATION SYSTEMS ............98 EVALUATION OF THE CEMENT CLINKER ..............................................99
Degree of burning......................................................................................................................... 99 Particle-size distribution.............................................................................................................. 99 Grindability ................................................................................................................................ 100 Chemical composition ................................................................................................................ 100 Phase composition ...................................................................................................................... 103 Microscopic examination........................................................................................................... 103 Cement testing ............................................................................................................................ 104

7. 8. 9.
9.1 9.2

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSIONS ........................................................105 FORMULA SIGNS AND INDICES ............................................................106 LITERATURE REFERENCES...................................................................112
General literature references .................................................................................................... 112 Technical literature references.................................................................................................. 113

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10. EVALUATION EXAMPLE 1 (KILN SYSTEM WITH A CYCLONE PREHEATER, CALCINATOR AND TERTIARY AIR DUCT) ...........................118
10.1 Balancing the entire system .................................................................................................. 118 10.1.1 Solid substance mass flows ................................................................................................ 118 10.1.2 Gas volume flows ............................................................................................................... 119 10.1.2.1 Dry gas ...................................................................................................................... 119 10.1.2.1.1 Minimum air volume flow...................................................................................... 119 10.1.2.1.2 Air proportionality factors ...................................................................................... 120 10.1.2.1.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood ................................................................................. 120 10.1.2.1.4 Secondary air .......................................................................................................... 121 10.1.2.1.5 Cooler intake air ..................................................................................................... 121 10.1.2.1.6 Raw gas .................................................................................................................. 122 10.1.2.1.7 Gas downstream from the burning area .................................................................. 123 10.1.2.1.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) ................................................... 124 10.1.2.1.9 Infiltrated air (preheater)......................................................................................... 125 10.1.2.1.10 Infiltrated air (calcinator)...................................................................................... 125 10.1.2.2 Water vapor............................................................................................................... 125 10.1.2.2.1 Humidity in the air.................................................................................................. 125 10.1.2.2.2 Water from the kiln feed......................................................................................... 126 10.1.2.2.3 Water from the fuel................................................................................................. 127 10.1.2.2.4 Injection water ........................................................................................................ 127 10.1.2.3 Moist gas (examples) ................................................................................................ 128 10.1.3 Liquid mass flows............................................................................................................... 128 10.1.4 Energy flows....................................................................................................................... 128 10.1.4.1 Energy input.............................................................................................................. 128 10.1.4.1.1 Fuel ......................................................................................................................... 128 10.1.4.1.2 Kiln feed ................................................................................................................. 129 10.1.4.1.3 Air........................................................................................................................... 130 10.1.4.1.4 Injection water ........................................................................................................ 130 10.1.4.1.5 Mechanical performance ........................................................................................ 130 10.1.4.2 Energy output ............................................................................................................ 131 10.1.4.2.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed .......................................................................... 131 10.1.4.2.1.1 C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF in the clinker ........................................................... 131 10.1.4.2.1.2 CaCO3, and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust........................... 132 10.1.4.2.1.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust................................................................... 132 10.1.4.2.1.4 Balance equations ............................................................................................ 132 10.1.4.2.2 Water evaporation................................................................................................... 134 10.1.4.2.3 Waste gas losses ..................................................................................................... 134 10.1.4.2.4 Dust losses .............................................................................................................. 135 10.1.4.2.5 Incomplete combustion........................................................................................... 136 10.1.4.2.6 Clinker .................................................................................................................... 136 10.1.4.2.7 Radiation and convection: ...................................................................................... 137 10.1.4.2.8 Uncoupled heat ....................................................................................................... 137 10.1.4.3 Energy balance .......................................................................................................... 137 10.2 Balancing of the partial systems........................................................................................... 138 10.2.1 Clinker cooler ..................................................................................................................... 138 10.2.1.1 Solid substance mass flows ....................................................................................... 138

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10.2.1.2 Gas volume flows...................................................................................................... 138 10.2.1.3 Energy flows ............................................................................................................. 139 10.2.1.3.1 Energy input ........................................................................................................... 139 10.2.1.3.2 Energy output ......................................................................................................... 139 10.2.1.3.3 Energy balance ....................................................................................................... 141 10.2.1.4 Evaluation quantities................................................................................................. 142 10.2.1.4.1 Pre-cooling zone ..................................................................................................... 142 10.2.1.4.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area ...................................................................... 142 10.2.1.4.3 Cooling area efficiency........................................................................................... 143 10.2.2 Calcinator ........................................................................................................................... 143 10.2.3 Preheater ............................................................................................................................. 144 10.3 10.4 Estimation of error................................................................................................................ 145 Tables...................................................................................................................................... 146

only serves to assess the kiln operation. For this reason. including significant remarks pertaining to measurement technology. stroke numbers and rotational speeds as well as on the consumption of electricity.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 7 1. This specification deals primarily with energy and mass balances. but also to create a reliable foundation for the optimization of individual system components. as well as for the reduction of the level of emissions. kiln performance tests not only serve to gather data on the performance of the kiln system (clinker output. Additional information in this context would be necessary in order to obtain a precise measurement. The units indicated in Section 8 apply to all numerical value equations. . The evaluation equations are employed in two practical examples in Sections 10 and 11. Information on pressure levels. The important aspect here is the absolute value of the measured values. Preliminary remarks In cement plants. of the operation and of the cement quality. in addition to the evaluation. this specification. in contrast. specific fuel-energy consumption). The practical feasibility of the evaluation is always the main priority in the formulation of the numerical value equations. specifically contains information for carrying out performance tests.

aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and iron oxide (Fe2O3). some of them consecutively.1 Description of the clinker burning process Reactions of the kiln feed Portland cement clinker is made from a finely-ground raw material mixture consisting of limestone. .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 8 2. clay and sand. The raw material mixture is heated up and burned in the rotary kiln to form clinker. Figure 1 . marl. and some of them in parallel to each other (see Figure 1).Schematic representation of the clinker formation reaction. The oxidic main components are calcium oxide (CaO). 2. a process in which several chemical reactions take place. silicon dioxide (SiO2).

clay minerals (SiO2-Al2O3-H2O) and iron ore (Fe2O3). C2S) already starts at about 700°C [1292°F]. while the chemically bound water is removed up to a temperature of about 700°C [1292°F]. • up to about 700°C [1292°F]. First of all. however.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 9 The clinker formation reactions can be depicted as a model broken down into the following temperature stages: • starting composition: calcite (CaCO3). quartz (SiO2). the formation of the dicalcium silicate (2CaO · SiO2. At a sintering temperature of around 1450°C [2642°F]. After the complete decarbonation. since it pro- . This is followed by the calcination (decarbonation. Owing to solid-state reactions. which practically takes place between 800°C and 900°C [1472°F and 1652°F]. calcination of the CaCO3 and concurrent binding of Al2O3. it reaches a fraction of about 20% to 30% by weight. Moreover. activation of the silicates through water expulsion and modification change. dissociation) of the calcium carbonate into CaO and CO2. the kiln feed has lost about 35% of its dry weight. Fe2O3 as well as of activated SiO2 and CaO. • starting at 1250°C [2282°F]. crystallization of the melt to form C3A and C4AF. the physically bound water is removed when the kiln feed is preheated. the formation of belite (“C2S”) from SiO2 on CaO (“free lime”) is completed. • once a maximum of 1200°C [2192°F] is reached. the alite and the belite remain virtually unchanged in their form and composition. disintegrate again once the clinker melt starts to form at about 1280°C [2336°F]. • upon cooling. • between 700°C and 900°C [1292°F and 1652°F]. in short. and forced above 1300°C [2372°F] due to melt formation. In this process. various calcium aluminate and calcium ferrite compounds are formed as transition phases which. The melt plays a significant role in the finishing burn of the clinker. reaction of the belite with the remaining free lime to form alite (“C3S”).

burning tempera- . the cement clinker has to be cooled off so quickly that the tricalcium silicate does not disintegrate.5 to 3 rpm. On the other hand. which are operated at 1. 2. which is indispensable for the strength properties of the cement. in short. Consequently. qualitative differences occur which depend on the composition of the kiln feed [48-53]. C4AF) crystallize out. having diameters of up to 6 meters and inclined at an angle ranging from about 2. essentially tricalcium aluminate (3CaO · Al2O3. in short. Rotary kilns with preheaters located upstream have a length that is 10 to 17 times longer than their diameters. in short. the kiln feed coming from the preheater moves towards the main burner of the rotary kiln.2 Burning process In Germany nowadays. cement clinker is produced in rotary kiln systems with kiln feed preheaters located upstream and clinker coolers located downstream (for other process techniques.5° to 4. In order to reach the sintering temperature of about 1350°C to 1500°C [2462°F to 2732°F] that is necessary for the formation of the clinker phase and in view of the unfavorable heat-conduction conditions in the kiln feed. brick-lined tubes.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 10 motes the formation of tricalcium silicate (3CaO · SiO2. the cooling of the cement clinker has to be optimally harmonized with the required clinker properties.0°. and the tricalcium aluminate crystallizes with the finest grain possible. C3A) and aluminate ferrite (4CaO · Al2O3 · Fe2O3. 6-9 and 11-15]). the cooling rate should not be so high that the melt becomes glassy as it solidifies. As the melt cools down. In this context. After completion of the sintering. C3S) from solid dicalcium silicate and CaO. see [2-4. As a result of the inclination and rotation. which is located at the lower end of the rotary kiln. Rotary kilns are fire-proof.

depending on the clinker output. The cyclone preheater essentially consists of four to five cyclone stages arranged one above the other in a tower that is 50 to 100 meters high. the gas is once again blown from the top to the bottom through the moist granules in the dry chamber. . and it is then fed to the rotary kiln burner as so-called secondary air. An intermediate gas fan blows the process gas of the rotary kiln from the top to the bottom through the layer of granules in the hot chamber.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 11 tures ranging from 1800°C to 2000°C [3272°F to 3632°F] or even higher are needed. raw meal mixture is fed into the waste gases prior to entering the uppermost cyclone stage. When it comes to kiln systems. which usually consist of 10 satellite tubes attached around the periphery of the rotary kiln. satellite coolers and rotary coolers are employed as clinker coolers in the cement industry. afterwards. the combustion air is preheated to about 600°C to 1000°C [1112°F to 1832°F] in a clinker cooler located downstream from the sintering process. Grate-type preheaters consist of a traveling grate on which the kiln feed that has been made into granules or briquettes travels through a closed tunnel that is divided into a hot chamber and a dry chamber. With grate-type coolers. a distinction is made as to whether they are operated with a grate-type preheater or with a cyclone preheater. the clinker that drops out of the rotary kiln after the sintering operation is cooled in a crosscurrent. The process gases coming from the rotary kiln flow through the cyclone preheater from the bottom to the top. Grate-type coolers. and it is once again separated from the gas in the cyclones. In the case of the rotary coolers or satellite coolers. the clinker dissipates its energy to the cooling air that is flowing in a cross current or countercurrent. it re-enters the gas stream prior to the next-lower cyclone stage. In order to be able to reach such high temperatures. The dry. After the coarse dust has been separated out.

The kiln feed entering the rotary kiln reaches temperatures of 820°C to 850°C [1508°F to 1562°F] at precalcining degrees of up to about 90%. the process gas from the rotary kiln has a temperature of about 1000°C to 1200°C [1832°F to 2192°F]. depending on the number of stages and capacity flow ratio. the waste gases of the grate-type preheater have a temperature of about 90°C to 120°C [194°F to 248°F]. Figure 2 . Figure 3 schematically shows a rotary kiln system with a grate-type preheater. .Schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with cyclone preheaters and waste gas utilization. Figure 2 shows a schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with a cyclone preheater and waste gas utilization. As a function of the process.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 12 Both with cyclone preheater systems and with grate-type preheater systems. the waste gases have a temperature of around 290°C to 400°C [554°F to 752°F]. Upon leaving the cyclone preheater.

new systems with cyclone preheaters are provided with an enlarged combustion chamber between the rotary kiln inlet and the lowermost cyclone.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 13 Figure 3 . The combustion air for the secondary burner can be conveyed through the rotary kiln. however. which leads from the clinker cooler past the rotary kiln. Since about 1970. with the secondary burner located between the rotary kiln and the preheater. the so-called “tertiary air duct”. In this process. the fuel energy is divided up over two burners and. In the case of new systems with cyclone preheaters. that is to say. the amount of energy supplied is such that 70% to 95% of the calcium carbonate of the kiln feed has already decarbonated by the time it enters the rotary kiln. For this purpose. the further development of kiln systems has led to the process involving precalcining. the combustion air is conveyed in a separate gas duct.Schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with a grate-type preheater. which is designated as the calcinator. The principle involved in both techniques for conveying the combustion . together with the waste gas from the main burner. and from there to the secondary burner. This method is employed with old systems in particular.

A rotary kiln system with precalcining. In rotary kiln systems having a calcinator but without a tertiary air duct. rotary kiln.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 14 air is shown in Figure 4.Precalcining process with and without tertiary air duct. is shown in Figure 5. calcinator. up to 60% – of the total fuel energy needed can be employed in the secondary burner. reciprocating grate-type cooler and tertiary air duct. . Figure 4 . consisting of a fourstage cyclone preheater. up to 30% – in systems with a tertiary air duct.

Schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with a cyclone preheater. .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 15 Figure 5 . calcinator and tertiary air duct.

in cases of major changes vis-à-vis normal operations.2 Duration of the performance test A kiln performance test should last for at least 24 hours. by changing the mixed bed). Neither shortly before nor during the performance test should there be any changes in the composition of the kiln feed or of the fuel (for example. The essential operating data (for instance. If the type of combined drying and grinding operation changes (in. the energy fraction of the secondary fuel.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 16 3. The latter has to be safeguarded by means of appropriate measures. should already have been established one week prior to the start of the performance test. . preferably 48 or 72 hours.1 Execution of kiln performance tests Mode of operation of the kiln system The considerations elaborated upon below apply exclusively to the stationary operation a kiln system. 3. partial load). type of combined drying and grinding operation) should already have been determined during the planning phase of the performance test and. out. Possible criteria for interrupting the performance test should also be laid down in advance. 3. composition of the kiln feed. types of fuel. the mass flow of the kiln feed. the performance test should preferably last 72 hours.

1 Sampling The objective of sampling is to obtain a random sample of each solid substance mass flow that is representative of the parent population being examined. It must be ensured that the sample is taken over the entire width of the material stream in order to take into account possible de-mixing phenomena. for instance. Table 1 .5 ≥ 0.3. Table 1 shows an example of a sampling plan.5 ≥ 0. The safety regulations that apply in such cases must be observed. screw conveyor) or from the meal pipes (for example.3.5 ≥ 0. every 12 hours. then this non-homogeneity has to be taken into consideration by enlarging the scope of the sampling. Sampling amount in kg ≥1 ≥ 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 17 3. conveyor belt.5 ≥ 0. the hot-meal pipe of a cyclone).5 ≥ 0. The samples are taken from the belt (for instance.1. Thus. apron conveyor). at the discharge end of the conveyors (for instance.Sampling amount and sampling frequency in rotary kiln performance tests.1 Solid substances 3.5 Sampling frequency every hour every four hours every four hours every four hours every four hours 1) every four hours 1) every two hours every four hours .5 ≥ 0. which could give rise to insufficient blending by the time the sampling site is reached. that is to say. when two partial streams having different concentrations of the component to be examined are combined. the sampling amount and the sampling frequency have to be adapted to the prevailing test conditions. bucket elevator.3 Measuring methods 3. Material clinker coal dust (main burner) coal dust (secondary burner) kiln feed raw gas dust tertiary air dust bypass dust Kiln feed in the preheater 1) With partial-stream suction.

Samples of solid substances from flowing gases (raw gas dust. clinker). High levels of moisture (for instance. homogenized and combined to form a weighed average sample for the duration of the performance test. tertiary air dust) can also be taken by means of isokinetic suction of a partial stream. . 3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 18 A partially decarbonated kiln feed should be cooled off rapidly and air-tight so as to avoid.2 Analysis Table 2 shows an example of an analysis plan. further decarbonation of CaCO3 or a residual burn-out of carbon.1. the individual and average samples should be stored air-tight in order to avoid a falsification of the H2O and CO2 contents. As a matter principle. the samples can also be taken at time-staggered intervals. care should be taken to ensure that the suction is representative. the average sample is subsequently formed on the basis of the pre-dried individual samples. the laboratory should be informed about the source and presumed composition of the samples.3. This ensures that the best suited decomposition and analysis methods will be selected for each particular case. For practical reasons. In this process. for example. in the raw material) should be determined on larger individual samples. As a matter of principle. The individual samples are pre-comminuted (for example.

0. ISO 1928 DIN 51777. ISO 625 DIN 51724 (Part 1). ISO 1928 DIN 51718. ISO 1015 DIN 51719. ISO 609. ISO 3733 DIN EN 7 DIN 51721 1) DIN EN 41. ISO 1171 DIN 51729 DIN 51720. ISO 579. DIN 51400 DIN 51722 1) subtraction DIN 51872 DIN 51856 DIN 51855 Grinding for complete passage through the sieve.063) 1000°C [1832°F] ± 25 K (10 min) or 950°C [1742°F] ± 25 K until weight constancy is achieved Oil sampling calorific value H 2O ash C and H S Cl N – Natural gas composition O S Clinker. ISO 587 DIN 51722 (Part 1). ISO 334.09 mm (for CaOfree 0. ISO 562 DIN 51721.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 19 Table 2 . sample preparation calorific value H 2O ash ash composition volatile components C and H S Cl N O – Analysis method DIN 51701 (Part 3). ISO 352. Material Coal dust Analysis sampling. ISO 1988. ISO 333 subtraction DIN 51570 (Parts 1 to 3) DIN 51900. ISO 348. ISO 351 DIN 51727. tertiary air dust sample preparation loss on ignition . ISO 589. ISO 2309 DIN 51900. ISO 331.Analysis and analysis method for rotary kiln performance tests. ISO 687.

analysis including SO3 and alkali b) fluxing agent tablet (1050°C [1922°F]. flame photometry (emission. dilution of 1:10). subsequent correction of the results Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) c) thermal reaction in a moist O2 stream at 1000°C [1832°F] so as to form hydrogen chloride Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) introduction of the hydrogen chloride into an acetic silver nitrate solution and coulometric titration The weighed-in amount has to be adapted to the low Cl – content of the clinker (5 to 10 g) a) gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream. 81% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 8. Na2O CaOfree a) fluxing agent tablet (≤ 1000°C [1832°F].9% by weight of SrO + 2% by weight of V2O5 as the decomposition agent. the results can deviate from one method to another . dilution of 1:5). determination of SO3. absorption) a) method according to Franke b) method according to Schläpfer and Bukowski Depending on the boundary conditions. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. 100% by weight of Li2B4O7 as the decomposition agent.1% by weight of LiF + 8.L.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 20 X-ray fluorescent full analysis 2) Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Σ SO3 K2O. subsequent correction of the results c) fluxing agent tablet (1200°C [2192°F]. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. Smith decomposition. dilution of 1:5 to 1:20). 90% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 10% by weight of LiF as the decomposition agent. determination of SO3. Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically J.

subsequent correction of the results c) fluxing agent tablet (1200°C [2192°F]. determination of SO3. subsequent correction of the results H2O < 110°C [230°F] 4) Σ H 2O Corg X-ray fluorescent full analysis 2) Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) c) thermal reaction in a moist O2 stream at 1000°C [1832°F] so as to form hydrogen chloride . thermal reaction of the carbon compounds in an oxygen stream a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection a) fluxing agent tablet (≤ 1000°C [1832°F]. 90% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 10% by weight of LiF as the decomposition agent. drying at 110°C [230°F]. dilution of 1:5). K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. dilution of 1:10). determination of SO3. analysis including SO3 and alkali b) fluxing agent tablet (1050°C [1922°F].May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 21 Kiln feed sample preparation CO2 Grinding for complete passage through the sieve. cooling in a desiccator. 0. dilution of 1:5 to 1:20). K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods.9% by weight of SrO + 2% by weight of V2O5 as the decomposition agent. 100% by weight of Li2B4O7 as the decomposition agent. 81% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 8.09 mm Thermal degradation in the inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] or chemical degradation with acid a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection Weighing. weighing Thermal desorption in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] a) KF titration b) IR detection c) gravimetric Decarbonation with hydrochloric acid.1% by weight of LiF + 8.

gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream.09 mm Thermal degradation in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] or chemical degradation with acid a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection S2– Raw gas dust 5) (cyclone preheater kiln) sample preparation CO2 Σ H 2O Thermal desorption in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] a) KF titration b) IR detection c) gravimetric Corg Decarbonation with hydrochloric acid. Na2O J. pick-up in a cooled (≤ 15°C [59°F]) ammoniacal ZnSO4 or CdCl2 solution. Smith decomposition. flame photometry (emission. Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically K2O. 0.L. iodometry Grinding for complete passage through the sieve. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. absorption) Dissolution with hydrochloric acid containing SnCl2 in the presence of Cr (metallic).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 22 Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) introduction of the hydrogen chloride into an acetic silver nitrate solution and coulometric titration The weighed-in amount has to be adapted to the low Cl – content of the clinker (5 to 10 g) Σ SO3 a) oxidation with bromine water. thermal reaction of the carbon compounds in an oxygen stream a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection .

dilution of 1:5 to 1:20).9% by weight of SrO + 2% by weight of V2O5 as the decomposition agent. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. absorption) Dissolution with hydrochloric acid containing SnCl2 in the presence of Cr (metallic). 90% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 10% by weight of LiF as the decomposition agent. dilution of 1:5). Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically J. flame photometry (emission. gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream.L. pick-up in a cooled (≤ 15°C [59°F]) ammoniacal ZnSO4 or CdCl2 solution.1% by weight of LiF + 8. 81% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 8. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. Na2O S2– . determination of SO3. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. 100% by weight of Li2B4O7 as the decomposition agent. subsequent correction of the results Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) c) thermal reaction in a moist O2 stream at 1000°C [1832°F] so as to form hydrogen chloride Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) introduction of the hydrogen chloride into an acetic silver nitrate solution and coulometric titration The weighed-in amount has to be adapted to the low Cl – content of the clinker (5 to 10 g) a) oxidation with bromine water. dilution of 1:10). analysis including SO3 and alkali b) fluxing agent tablet (1050°C [1922°F]. determination of SO3. subsequent correction of the results c) fluxing agent tablet (1200°C [2192°F]. Smith decomposition. iodometry Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Σ SO3 K2O.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 23 X-ray fluorescent full analysis 2) a) fluxing agent tablet (≤ 1000°C [1832°F].

thermal reaction of the carbon compounds in an oxygen stream a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection J.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 24 Bypass dust 5) Kiln feed in the preheater5) Raw gas dust 5) (grate-type preheating kiln) sample preparation CO2 Grinding for complete passage through the sieve. Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically Σ H 2O Corg K2O.L. absorption) Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) coulometric titration d) gravimetric a) oxidation with bromine water. iodometry .09 mm Thermal degradation in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] or chemical degradation with acid a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection Thermal desorption in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] a) KF titration b) IR detection c) gravimetric Decarbonation with hydrochloric acid. 0. gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream. pick-up in a cooled (≤ 15°C [59°F]) ammoniacal ZnSO4 or CdCl2 solution. Na2O Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Σ SO3 S2– Dissolution with hydrochloric acid containing SnCl2 in the presence of Cr (metallic). Smith decomposition. flame photometry (emission. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7.

. During the reducing burning process. Prior to the test. MgO. SiO2. P2O5. (Σ SO3. The maximum error is smaller with a duration of 48 hours. clinker contains FeO and MnO. 3) 4) 5) 3. < 105°C [221°F]. the laboratory should be informed to this effect. Fe2O3. for example. even over shorter periods of time. Mn2O3. the weighing procedure should be checked. Dust as well as the kiln feed in the preheater can also contain highly volatile compounds such as.1. In each case. In the case of sensitive samples that are hygroscopic or that react during the drying process. SO3. every 4 hours with different clinker production. (NH4)2SO4. Na2O. K2O.) Nitric acid extraction does not always dissolve all of the halides out of the sample matrix. If this is already known to be so. An interim result should be determined every 4 to 6 hours in order to obtain information about the time course of the mass flow. Na2O should be checked by other analytical methods. dirt). Al2O3. CaO. for instance. the analysis method for fuels is employed. In addition to the above-mentioned compounds. barium oxide and strontium oxide or S2–. the examinations should be performed in the delivery state. the trucks or railroad cars are weighed both empty and fully loaded (varying amounts of fuel in the tank.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 25 1) 2) Since there are no specifications for mineral oils. several measuring intervals are needed. the solid materials might also contain fluoride. The duration of the clinker weighing can differ from the performance test duration. K2O. Alternatively. shipping scales). The measured value from the performance test is then multiplied by the resulting correction values. Continuously operating clinker scales can be adjusted by the above-mentioned method. TiO2. but it should not be shorter than 24 hours.3. This can lead to erroneously low results at low levels of Cl– in the raw material.3 Clinker: Mass flows The clinker is loaded onto trucks or railroad cars and weighed on calibrated scales (for example. For this purpose.

1. For this reason.1). the dust mass flow is determined by means of an isokinetic partial stream suction (in this context. the fuel energy consumption is usually balanced by means of a comparison of the energy output with the energy input (see Section 4. care should be taken to ensure that the cleaning of the filter is switched to continuous operation before the dust is discharged. shipping scales). also see the VDZ Specification titled “Dust quantity measurements in cement plants” [17]). However. a second clinker weighing procedure is not necessary if it is ensured that all of the dust mass flows remain constant. It results from the component balance of the sum of the non-volatile substances (see Section 4. Kiln feed: The kiln feed mass flow is calculated.3). Here. . the precision levels achieved in this manner are often not sufficient for evaluating the kiln system. Translator’s note: See Section 8 for the list of abbreviations used in the formulas.4. The following relationship applies: Fuels: Fuels are weighed on industrial scales which have been previously adjusted. Dust: Dust is preferably weighed on calibrated scales (for example. If weighing is not possible.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 26 In the case of immediately consecutive kiln performance tests.

while information on volume flow measurement is to be found in the VDZ Specification titled “Quantity measurement of gases by means of velocity measurements” [16]). 3. in the case of double-string cyclone preheaters. the time intervals at which the probes need to . O2. Measuring site raw gas bypass gas (with cooling air) bypass gas (without cooling air) downstream from the burning area kiln inlet tertiary air cooler intake air cooler vent air burner air (main burner) burner air (secondary burner) conveying air (kiln feed) 1) Volume flow measurement pitot tube pitot tube – – – pitot tube – pitot tube pitot tube + rated values pitot tube + rated values rated values Gas analysis CO2. O2. there are also differences in the individual strings.3.2. Table 3 shows an example of a measurement plan.Volume flow measurement and gas analysis in rotary kiln performance tests.2 Gases For the gas analysis. Table 3 . in the bypass gas and in the gas downstream from the burning area. more information can be obtained from the VDZ Specification titled “Continuous gas analysis in cement plants” [20]). In the gas downstream from the burning area. O2.1 Sampling In the raw gas. O2. CO 1) CO2. CO 1) CO2.3. CO – – – – – – Discontinuous measurement is often sufficient. Moreover. CO CO2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 27 3. various gas compositions can occur over the cross section of the duct. O2. CO CO2.

it is not possible to specify a representative measuring site.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 28 be cleaned can be extended by placing the measuring gas sampling opening as far as possible from the meal inlet pipes. the process gas usually displays great differences in concentration.3 Volume flows The volume flows are primarily measured with a pitot tube. determinations of CO2.2 Analysis The gas analysis should be carried out continuously.3. O2 and CO are required. At the very least.5 m into the rotating part of the kiln in order to avoid falsifications of the measured results due to infiltrated air that gets into the inlet gasket or as a result of falling kiln feed material. the measuring gas should be sampled dry. Sampling sites in the upper third of the rotary kiln cross section are recommended. that is to say. The probe should be cooled. The probe in the gas downstream from the burning area should be cooled. So as to prevent falsifications of the concentration values due to the scrubbing out of individual gas components. 3. For this reason. The sampling opening should project about 0. 3. the pitot tube should be installed in the . Since the measuring site is also frequently exposed to falling material. both with respect to location and to time. the sampling probe should be built laterally into the refractory brickwork.3. without injection water or scrubbing water.2.2. cooler vent air). With volumes flows that fluctuate markedly (for instance. In the rotary kiln inlet.

> 50 g/m³]. b) calculation on the basis of a CO2 and an H2O balance of the kiln system (imprecise when secondary fuels are used) [30]. this is often very imprecise). c) conversion of the clean gas volume flow to raw gas conditions using an O2 or CO2 balance or an H2O balance (additional gas analysis and measurement of the volume flow in the clean gas is necessary. The bypass gas volume flow prior to the admixture is derived from the gas analysis before and after the admixture of the cooling air. expensive but accurate). b) fan characteristic curves (only possible for fans with adjustable rotational speeds). only possible if clean gases of the kiln can be detected in their entirety. There are three methods for measuring the volume flow of the cooler intake air: a) inlet nozzles (often very imprecise). for example. There are three methods for measuring the raw gas volume flow: a) direct measurement with a pitot tube (in the case of unfavorable measuring conditions. deflection of the gas upstream from the measuring site. The bypass gas is measured with a pitot tube after admixing the cooling air.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 29 gas duct and the differential pressure as well as the appertaining temperature should be recorded continuously. substantial pressure fluctuations or a high amount of dust [for instance. . c) air balance of the cooler (often the most precise way with continuous volume flow measurement of the cooler vent air after the dust removal).

3. 3. which changes as a function of the temperature. 3. the result that is read off the meter has to be corrected by means of a calibration curve. Moreover. The cross-sectional surface area is either measured or estimated. it is necessary to take into account the density. if applicable.1.2 Water The water mass flow of a cooling chute (cooling water) or into the clinker cooler (injection water) is measured with water meters that have to be installed in advance.3 Liquids 3.3). In order to determine the actual volume flow that passes through.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 30 The volume flow of infiltrated air at the kiln hood is calculated on the basis of the open cross-sectional area and of the differential pressure at the kiln hood (see Section 4.3.3.3.1 Heating oil Heating oil can be sampled either by means of an automatic sampling system or else a sample is taken from the oil tank. The amount of oil that passes through the burner nozzle per unit of time is for the most part measured volumetrically by means of an oil meter. .2.3. The conveying air volume flow of the coal dust and. Heating gas that has been measured volumetrically has to be converted to the standard conditions. of the kiln feed is derived from the nominal data of the fan.

9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 31 3.cooler kiln hood calcinator preheater 1) continuously continuously continuously once per day continuously continuously 1) continuously once per day once per day – twice per day once per day 2) twice per day 3) once per day once per day once per day if available with grate-type coolers 3) with rotary coolers or satellite coolers .3. Table 4 . kiln feed) Measuring device compensation temperature in adiabatic vessel.9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.9) 2) Frequency every hour continuously twice per day once per day once per day fuels once per day raw gas bypass gas (with cooling air) gas downstream from the burning area tertiary air upstream from the preheater tertiary air downstream from the cooler cooler intake air cooler vent air burner air (main burner) burner air (secondary burner) conveying air (kiln feed) surface temperature .g. Pt 100 quotient pyrometer NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or surface temperature of the conveying line with partial-radiation pyrometer Pt 100 or surface temperature of the conveying line with partial-radiation pyrometer Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni NiCr Ni NiCr Ni NiCr Ni meteorological station Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni like kiln feed partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0. hot meal) bypass dust raw meal (for instance.rotary kiln surface temperature .9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0. Measuring site cold clinker hot clinker kiln feed in the preheater (e.9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.Temperature measurement in rotary kiln performance tests.4 Temperatures Table 4 shows the example of a measuring plan.

5 Pressures In order to evaluate the kiln operation.3. • kiln inlet. the strokes and rotational speeds of the following aggregates should be measured or recorded by the operating measuring pick-ups: • cooler. • downstream from the waste gas fan. • grate-type preheater. • bypass fan. • kiln.3. . 3. The above-mentioned differential pressures have to be measured with damped measuring pick-ups.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 32 3.6 Strokes and rotational speeds In order to evaluate the kiln operation. • upstream from the waste gas fan. • waste gas fan. • kiln outlet. • bag house fan / ESP fan. • preheater (stages 1 through N). the following differential pressures should be measured or recorded by the operating measuring pick-ups: • cooler (chambers 1 through N). • cooler vent fan.

• fuel feeding system. If several consumers are connected to one meter.7 Electricity consumption In order to evaluate the kiln operation. • cooler vent fan. pressure and relative humidity of the ambient air are recorded by a meteorological station.8 Ambient conditions The temperature. the meter readings of the main consumers should be recorded at intervals of. • waste gas fan. • bypass fan.3. • rotary kiln drive. . • kiln feed feeding system. for example. the energy distribution should be measured with prong-type instruments. Consequently.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 33 3. • burner air fan. when the balancing space is calculated. the consumption of electricity should be considered as an input item of the energy balance. 3. 8 hours. A large proportion of the electricity is converted into heat in the kiln system. • cooler drives.3. The following consumers should be taken into consideration: • cooler fans.

Checks and corrections should be documented and should be indicated on the measuring equipment used. Table 5 . Status checks should be made every hour and setting checks should be carried out at least before and after the performance test.9 Ensuring the precision of the measurements and analyses The precision of a kiln examination depends on the systematic maintenance and upkeep of the measuring instruments. In addition to regularly checking the status and settings during the performance test. together with the date. it is also necessary to routinely replace wearing parts as preventive maintenance and to conduct function tests with comparative measured values (calibration).3. Table 5 provides an overview of possible comparative measuring methods. platinum resistance thermometer) black body radiator tungsten band lamp (only above 500°C [932°F]) liquid pressure gage (for instance. Measuring instrument gas analyzer gas meters thermal elements resistance thermometer pyrometer pressure transducer humidity measuring device Comparative measuring instrument or method gas analyzer with another measuring principle wet-chemical analysis testing by the Board of Weights and Measures test thermometer and normal thermometer (for instance.Comparative measuring instruments or method for rotary kiln performance tests. The time schedule for replacing wearing parts and for the function tests with comparative measured values depends on the measuring instruments and should be laid down appropriately. miniscope or U-tube) sealed container with several aqueous saturated salt solutions The solid substance analyses have to be conducted by a laboratory that has sufficient experience with the execution of the analyses listed in Table 2. .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 34 3.

as a result of which a separate presentation has not been provided.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 35 4. The following mass and energy flows have been taken into account: Incoming solid substance mass flows: & mS1 & m B7 & m B3 for the kiln feed for the fuel (main burner) *) for the fuel (secondary burner) *) Outgoing solid substance mass flows: & mS10 & mSt5 & mSt1 & mSt12 for the clinker for the bypass dust & for H Fl. With other kiln types. Figure 6 shows the balancing space of a kiln system with a cyclone preheater (V). rotary kiln (D) and cooler (K) with the mass and energy flows that exceed the balance limit as an example.1 Evaluation of kiln performance tests Balancing of the entire system When the mass balance is drawn up. . tertiary air duct (T).C raw gas dust for the discharged tertiary air dust (only relevant in kiln systems with a tertiary air duct and high levels of dust in the tertiary air) *) Liquid or gaseous fuel can also be fed in. the gas and solid substance mass flows should be balanced together. 4. calcinator (C). since there are interactions between both of these as a result of chemical reactions. the changes are only gradual.

while the formula sign V designates the volume flow related to standard conditions after removal tr of the water-vapor fraction.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 36 Incoming gas volume flows **) & VL10 & VL7 & VL3 & VL1 for the cooler intake air for the burner air (main burner) for the burner air (secondary burner) for the conveying air (kiln feed) for the infiltrated air (kiln hood) for the infiltrated air (calcinator) for the infiltrated air (preheater) & VFl. . C & VFl. V Outgoing gas volume flows: & VL11 & VG1 & VG5 for the cooler vent air for the raw gas for the bypass gas Incoming liquid mass flows: & m H 2 O. D & VFl.10 for the cooler injection water Incoming energy flows: & H S1 & H B7 & H B3 for the kiln feed for the fuel (main burner) for the fuel (secondary burner) **) & The formula sign V below designates the volume flow related to standard conditions (0°C [32°F]. 1013 & hPA).

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 37 & H L10 & H L7 & H L3 & H L1 for the cooler intake air for the burner air (main burner) for the burner air (secondary burner) for the conveying air (kiln feed) for the infiltrated air (kiln hood) for the infiltrated air (calcinator) for the infiltrated air (preheater) for the reaction enthalpy of the fuels for the cooler injection water for the mechanical performance & H Fl.C & H Fl. 10 Pmech Outgoing energy flows: & H S10 & H St5 & H St1 & H St12 & H L11 & H G1 & H G5 for the clinker for the bypass dust for the raw gas dust for the discharged tertiary air dust for the cooler vent air for the raw gas for the bypass gas for the reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed & ∆H R. H 2 O for the evaporation enthalpy of the cooler injection water & Q K. K for the uncoupled heat (cooler) . D & H Fl. B & H H 2 O.S & ∆H V. V & ∆H R.

K for the incomplete burning for radiation and convection losses (preheater) for radiation and convection losses (calcinator) for radiation and convection losses (rotary kiln) for radiation and convection losses (tertiary air duct) for radiation and convection losses (cooler + kiln hood) .T & Q W. V & Q W.C & Q W.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 38 & ∆H R. D & Q W.CO & Q W.

rotary kiln and cooler with incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows. calcinator. .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 39 Figure 6 . tertiary air duct.Balancing spaces for preheater.

a component balance is drawn up of the sum of the non-volatile substances (for example. some of the cooler vent air can be returned to the cooler as intake air via a fan once the dust has been removed and cooled (duothermal configuration). The following applies: *) The formula sign x below stands for the mass concentration of the solids at the balance limit (= delivery condition in the laboratory). Cooler vent air dust has not been taken into account.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 40 With rotary and satellite coolers. Therefore. Fe2O3. it still contains relatively large amounts of dust. TiO2. . Mn2O3. raw gas dust. CaO. Operands: In order to balance the mass flows. discharged tertiary air dust. the cooling air volume flow is used completely as combustion air in the process. excess cooling air is released as cooler vent air. bypass dust. In the case of the latter. fuel (main burner). This & was taken into consideration in the figure by the uncoupled heat flow Q K. the waste gas is designated as “raw gas” and the dust as “raw gas dust”. 4. mass flow of the kiln feed. fuel (secondary burner). it is only partially used as such with gratetype coolers. SiO2. P2O5.1 Solid substance mass flows Measured quantities: clinker. Al2O3. When the waste gas leaves the preheater. MgO) whose mass concentration in the individual substance flows is designated by xNF *).1. K . whereas in contrast. With grate-type coolers.

the following applies analogously: The kiln feed mass flow necessary for the clinker burning process then results from Equation (2): As an approximation.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 41 The loss on ignition can also be used for a rough estimate. By using xG to designate the mass concentration of the substances that are released during calcination at about 1000°C [1832°F] until weight constancy is achieved. the following applies to the kiln feed mass flow that actually becomes clinker (including discharged tertiary air dust): The ratio of kiln feed to clinker necessary for the clinker burning process then results from Equation (4): .

the combustible components (organically bound carbon. burner air (main burner).2. raw gas.2. cooler intake air (see Section 3.3).1. . the burning of all combustible substances has to be taken into consideration.2.1. sulfide sulfur) of the kiln feed also have to be taken into account. in addition to the fuel mass & & flows m B7 and m B3 . cooler vent air (if present).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 42 Analogously. conveying air (kiln feed). burner air (secondary burner). Operands: 4. bypass gas.1.1.2 Gas volume flows Measured quantities: fuel (main burner). minimum air volume flow. infiltrated air. the following applies: 4. secondary air.1 Dry gas Minimum air volume flow In order to calculate the dry. fuel (secondary burner). For this reason.3.1 4.

eff. S effectively fed into the kiln system: & Analogously. St5. min to burn all of the combustible substances then amounts to the following: lmin is the minimum air demand of the fuel in question in its raw state. The minimum air volume flow & VL. This value can be calculated on the basis of elementary analyses of the fuel according to Equation (11): . the carbon content of the raw gas dust as xC. the following results & for the carbon mass flow mC.S1.St5 and x S. S : Frequently. St1 and the carbon content of the bypass dust as xC. x C.St5 are approximately zero. eff. the following applies for mS.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 43 By designating the carbon content of the kiln feed as xC.

the numerical value equation is the following: For oil and coal. Calorific value-related combustion gas quantities of secondary fuels can differ markedly from the indicated uppermost and lowermost values. *) The formula sign hu below stands for the lower calorific value of the coal at the balance limit threshold (= delivery condition in the laboratory). .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 44 Accordingly. lmin can be calculated as an approximation using the lower calorific value of the fuel *). The following applies: For lignitic coal and coal: For heating oil: Table 6 shows examples of elementary analyses and calorific value-related combustion gas quantities of lignitic coal and coal.

8 4.098 0.021 0.1 3.2 1.6 21.1 0.096 0.2 Lignitic coal dust M 11.2 19.3 21.1 65.101 0.5 0.4 4.92 Coal dust U L 0.8 11.9 16.011 0.2 4.0 2.7 3.6 0.6 7.4 56.9 29. Analyses (raw) in % by weight: L water ash C H O N S 8.094 0.6 4.8 3.0 25.339 0.1.332 0.7 2.5 0.096 0.22 0.4 0.014 0.3 2.2.3 61.022 0.2 Air proportionality factor The following applies in general: .099 0.7 22.3 71.4 0.05 U 2.9 57.024 0.80 14.344 0.7 0.347 0.1 27.374 0.3 1.76 calorific value (raw) in MJ/kg: Calorific value-related combustion gas quantity in kg/MJ: minimum air demand carbon dioxide water vapor moist flue gas 20.0 8.Elementary analyses of lignitic coal dust and coal dust with the combustion gas quantities calculated therefrom and related to the lower calorific value in the raw state.1.339 0.9 19. M = mean value.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 45 Table 6 .7 0. U = uppermost value 4.016 0.35 M 1.5 59.375 L = lowermost value.4 8.370 0.341 0.7 4.382 0.392 0.5 23.373 0.

In reality. the following applies: .9. it has been set at 0. Here. 4. As a consequence.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 46 The air proportionality factor in the waste gas results as an approximation from the values of the gas analysis (in the case of Orsat analyses and measuring methods that work with extraction. as a rule related to dry measuring gas): The expression in the denominator of the lower fraction corresponds to N2. the gas velocity has to be multiplied by a dimensionless factor which lies between 0.75.2.1. the equation yields an excessively high gas velocity. Thus. Consequently.1. neither is present.6 and 0.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood The volume flow of infiltrated air at the kiln hood can be roughly calculated using the Bernoulli equation. The following applies theoretically: Equation (17) presupposes a frictionless flow and an incompressible medium. for actual practice.

D.4 Secondary air The following applies for the volume flow of the secondary air (also see Figure 12): & Due to non-representative gas analyses in the kiln inlet.) in kg/m³ = open cross-section area in m² ρL ρ L.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 47 & With v = V/F for the gas velocity and with the density ratio ρ L /ρ L. the result is a calculation equation for the volume flow of infiltrated air: wherein ∆p = differential pressure at the kiln hood in Pa = density of the air in the cross section F in kg/m³ = density of the ambient air under standard conditions (s. . 4. tr = volume flow of infiltrated air in m³ (s.N F & VFl.1.)/s As a simplification.2.c. VL8. tr can only be calculated very imprecisely.N for dry air (the water present in the air is ignored here).c.1. the density of the ambient air can be taken as the basis for ρ L.

.1.S stems from the decarbonation and the combustion of organic components of the kiln feed. The following applies: wherein and & m C. Calculation on the basis of the CO2 balance The following applies for the CO2 balance: & VCO 2 .1.1. eff. S according to Equation (8).5 Cooler intake air The following applies for the volume flow of the cooler intake air (also see Figure 12): 4.6 Raw gas 1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 48 4.2.2.1.

01 · 10 – 5 m³ of CO2/kJ for lignitic coal 2 and µCO 2 = 4. B stems from the combustion of the fuel.87 · 10 – 5 m³ of CO2/kJ for coal.G5 results from the gas analysis and from the measurement of the gas volume flow in the bypass gas: With the result is the calculation equation for the raw gas volume flow: .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 49 & VCO 2 . & VCO 2 . The following applies: If the elementary analysis is not available. Equation (26) can be employed: wherein µCO = 5.

1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 50 2. Calculation on the basis of the clean gas volume flow This calculation is only possible if the entire clean gas volume flow of the kiln system can be determined and if no auxiliary burner is operated in the combined drying and grinding mill. CO2 balance: O2 balance: 4.1. . tr is calculated according to Equations (30) or (31) on the basis of the raw gas volume flow. A gas analysis downstream from the burning area is needed for this purpose.7 Gas downstream from the burning area & VG2.1. the calculated values are often very imprecise.2.1. 4.2.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) & VG6. tr can be calculated according to [30]. Due to non-representative gas analyses in the kiln inlet.

1 Water vapor Humidity in the air The humidity in the air results from the relative humidity and from the saturation pressure of water-vapor at ambient temperature.2.2.2.2. the following applies for the moisture volume flow of the air: 4.1.2 Water from the kiln feed .2 4.1.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 51 4.U) = saturation pressure of the water vapor in Pa = ambient pressure in Pa Then. The following applies: wherein xD = water content in kg of H2O/kg of dry air = relative humidity ϕ p and ps (ϑ L.2.

2.1.2.2.1.1 Moist gas Air The following applies in general: Altogether.2.3.2.1.3 Water from the fuel 4.4 Injection water 4. λ G1 should be calculated with the gas concentration values which would result after the mixing of raw gas and bypass gas. .2.3 4.1. is fed into the kiln system.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 52 4.

1 4. a reference temperature of 25°C [77°F] was likewise selected for the calculation of the individual enthalpy flows.3 Liquid mass flows Measured quantities: fuel (main burner).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 53 4.2. VH 2 O. 4. water.1.10 often equals zero.3.1.1 Energy input Fuel Combustion: .1.G6 .2 Raw gas λ G1 should be calculated with the gas concentration values which would result after the & mixing of raw gas and bypass gas. 4. With grate-type coolers. 4.1. fuel (secondary burner).4 Energy flows Since standard reaction enthalpies and calorific values are related to 25°C [77°F].1.4.4.G5 often equals y H 2 O.1. y H 2 O.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 54 Sensible enthalpy flows: *) For dry coal. the water content of the lignitic coal has to be taken into account.2 kJ/kg K for 0°C [32°F] < ϑ < 100°C [212°F]. the following applies (also see Figure 7): wherein xF. The following applies in the case of oil (also see Figure 8): wherein ρ = density of the oil in kg/m³ at 15°C [59°F]. Here. as an approximation.B = sum of the volatile components in the coal. however. The following then applies: wherein c H 2 O ≈ 4. *) The formula sign c or cp below stands for the mean specific thermal capacity c p 25°C [77° F] . ϑ . to dry lignitic coal. Equation (43) also applies.

Mean specific thermal capacity of dry coal (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]). .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 55 Figure 7 .

Mean specific thermal capacity of oil (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]). .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 56 Figure 8 .

156 4.700 2. Fuel gas component Specific thermal capacity cp in kJ/m³ (s.519 2.579 4.c.985 2. The following applies here: Table 7 .Mean specific thermal capacity cp of the fuel gas components (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).631 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 57 The specific thermal capacity of the heating gas is calculated on the basis of the mean specific thermal capacities of the individual gas components according to Table 7.602 methane ethylene acetylene propadiene n-butane propylene 1) CH4 C2H4 C2H2 C3H4 C4H10 C3H6 H 2S 1.246 3.531 hydrogen sulfide 1) Use C3H6 use for CmHn.2 Kiln feed Sensible enthalpy flows: . = under standard conditions 4.270 1.1.582 2.101 1.918 5.555 1.4.c.172 5.137 2. s.113 1.579 200°C [392°F] 1.717 5.402 2.1.817 2.) K 25°C [77°F] 100°C [212°F] 1.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 58 The following applies as an approximation for the commonly employed composition of the kiln feed: The specific thermal capacities of individual components of the kiln feed are shown in Figure 9. .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 59 Figure 9 .Mean specific thermal capacity of kiln feed components (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]). .

it is also possible to use the specific thermal capacity of dry air for the calculation.1.1. The following applies in this case: . As an approximation. j according to Equations (85) through (87).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 60 4. also see Figure 10).3 Air Sensible enthalpy flows: wherein (For the calculation of cp.4.

Mean specific thermal capacity of gas components (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]). .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 61 Figure 10 .

1. 4. C3A.4 Injection water As a rule.4. the following applies: 4.4. Table 8 is a compilation of the main reactions that take place during the clinker burning process.1 Energy output Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed For the calculation of the reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed. C2S. the sensible enthalpy flow of the injection water can be ignored. 23 and 25 through 27]).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 62 4. the degradation reactions of the starting materials and the reactions for the formation of the clinker phases have to be taken into account.4.5 Mechanical performance Within the balancing space.2 4. For this purpose. C4AF in the clinker. see [22.1. . the contents of CaCO3 and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust as well as the contents of CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust.1. The actual reaction enthalpies to be employed result from balance equations.2.1. The data shown in the two right-hand columns are each related to the substance in the left-hand column. In simplified form. it is first necessary to calculate the contents of C3S.1. the mechanical performance of the electric drives has to be taken into consideration. This is particularly true of the intake air fans and of the kiln drive. with the standard reaction enthalpies needed in each case (for the additional reaction enthalpies.4.1.

5. 9. Reaction enthalpy 1) at 298 K kJ/kg kJ/mole Reaction Reaction equation I. 2. Organic clay components (relative to C) MgCO3 dissociation CaCO3 dissociation Pyrite (FeS2) 2 FeS2 + 5½ O2 α-Fe2O3 + 4 SO2 II.Reactions of the kiln feed and reaction enthalpies (298 K) during the production of Portland cement clinker. Formation of K2SO4 1) α-K2SO4 Related to the substance in the left-hand column.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 63 Table 8 . . Formation of C4AF Formation of C3A Formation of β -C2S 4 CaO + α-Al2O3 + α-Fe2O3 3 CaO + α-Al2O3 2 CaO + β -SiO2 3 CaO + β -SiO2 K2O = SO2 + ½ O2 C3A C4AF – 67 + 74 – 700 – 495 – 4452 – 33 + 20 – 121 – 113 – 776 β-C2S C3S 10. Formation of C3S 11. 6. 4. 1. Formation of oxides and degradation reactions Evaporation of H2O Decomposition of • kaolinite (relative to Al2O3) • montmorillonite (relative to Al2O3) • illite (relative to Al2O3) kaolinite α-Al2O3 + 2 · β-SiO2 + H2O (fl) montmorillonite α-Al2O3 + 4 · β-SiO2 + n · H2O (fl) illite α-Al2O3 + 4 · β-SiO2 + m · H2O (fl) C + O2 MgCO3 CaCO3 CO2 MgO + CO2 CaO + CO2 + 1519 + 744 + 884 – 32786 + 1396 + 1772 – 6902 + 155 + 76 + 90 – 394 +118 + 178 – 828 H2O (fl) H2O (g) + 2446 + 44 3. Formation of the clinker phases 7. 8.

85 ⋅ x K 2 O.64).1 C3S. the clinker phases can be calculated according to Bogue [45 and 46]. C3A and C4AF (TM > 0. the following applies: The following results from this: . S10 . S10 + 1.85 ⋅ x K 2 O. the value employed for the CaO bound in the clinker phases is the one that is obtained after the subtraction of the free CaO and of the CaO bound to SO3. which consists primarily of C3S. C2S. C2S. S10 ≤ 0. S10 + 1.2. C3A and C4AF in the clinker For normal Portland cement clinker or tertiary air dust.1. S10 .1. S10 > 0. the following applies: For x SO 3 .292 ⋅ x Na 2 O.4.292 ⋅ x Na 2 O.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 64 4. The following applies: For x SO 3 . In this context.

Assuming that the CO2 is primarily bound to the CaO.274 · x CO 2 ≤ x CaO : and in the case of 1.4.274 · x CO 2 > x CaO : and .1.2.2 CaCO3 and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust The content of CaCO3 and MgCO3 of the kiln feed results from the content of CO2 and CaO.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 65 4. the following applies in the case of 1.

4 Balance equations The balance equations are based on the following assumptions and simplifications: 1) x H 2 O. St5 = 0 2) xC. For purposes of calculating the C2S content.1.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust The content of CaCO3 results from the content of CO2 in the bypass dust. St5 = 0 4) xS.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 66 4.1.2.1. 6) The starting materials as shown in Table 8 are present. The following then applies: The calculation of x CaOSO3 .St5 is made according to Equations (55) or (56). St5 = 0 5) The formation enthalpy of C4AF and of C12A7 in the bypass dust is negligibly small. . it is assumed that Al2O3 and Fe2O3 have completely reacted with CaO to form C4AF and C12A7.2.4.1.4. 4. St5 = 0 3) x MgCO3 . 7) The fuel ash is present in the form of oxides.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 67 According to Figure 6. the following applies for the balance equations: 1) Evaporation of H2O: 2) Decomposition of clay: 100%-kaolinite: 100%-montmorillonite: 100%-illite: 3) Organic clay components: .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 68 4) MgCO3 dissociation: 5) CaCO3 dissociation: 6) Pyrite: 7) Formation of C4AF: 8) Formation of C3A: .

assumptions also have to be made pertaining to the devitrification enthalpies.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 69 9) Formation of β-CsS: 10) Formation of C3S: 11) Formation of K2SO4: In Equation (79). for instance. Moreover. the actual SO3 contents (without sulfide sulfur) should be used. in the case of fly ash and blast-burner slag. or of a clinker from a kiln feed with calcareous fly ash. blast-burner slag or gypsum from flue gas desulfurization plants. . TM < 0.64. or of a clinker from a burning process involving other substance flow configurations. the balance equations need to be changed or supplemented. In order to calculate the reaction enthalpy of a special clinker.

2 Water evaporation Evaporation enthalpy for cooler injection water: 4.3 Waste gas losses Raw gas: wherein The following approximation equations apply for the essential components of the waste gas (also see Figure 10): .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 70 The following applies to the sum of the reaction enthalpies of the kiln feed: 4.1.4.2.2.1.4.

see Section 4.1.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 71 Bypass gas: Cooler vent air: 4.4 Dust losses Raw gas dust: (for cSt1. .2.4.4. ϑ St1 = ϑ G1).2.1.

1.4. see Section 4.G1 > 0.1.1. Discharged tertiary air dust: (for cSt12.4. 4.4.1. Losses due to cooler vent air dust are usually negligibly small.2. see Equation (95). ϑ St5 = ϑ G5). 4.5 Incomplete combustion In cases of high energy losses due to incomplete combustion (for example.01). yCO. ϑ St12 = ϑ L9).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 72 Bypass gas dust: (for cSt5.2.2. an analyzer that operates continuously should be used for the calorific value of the gas for the balancing.6 Clinker .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 73 The following applies for the specific thermal capacity of the clinker (also see Figure 11): Figure 11 . .Mean specific thermal capacity of Portland cement clinker (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).

The following applies for wind velocities w ≤ 2 m/s: wherein a = 0.0 . the heat flow of individual tube elements is calculated on the basis of the mean circumferential temperature ϑ W.7 Radiation and convection Rotary kiln: First of all.4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 74 4.3 a0 = 4.U: wherein and αconv results from approximation equations.m of the tube element and of the ambient temperature ϑ L.2.1.

11 5.0.75 4.75 5.227 .0.66 5.219 .88 0.97 1.98 5.m ≤ 500°C [932°F] 2 m ≤ Da ≤ 8 m 10°C [50°F] ≤ ϑ L.0.25 5.75 ≤ Da < 3.227 .25 6.220 .05 5.244 .40 5.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 75 a1 = 3.75 5.5 a2 = -0.076 Scope of validity: w ≤ 2 m/s 100°C [212°F] ≤ ϑ W.48 5.73 0.75 7.98 1.75 6.37 2.83 0.0.238 .0.233 .93 1.75 3.243 .70 b1 0.25 5.19 5.85 a3 = 0.0.U ≤ 30°C [86°F] The following applies for wind velocities w > 2 m/s: wherein Diameter range in m 2.25 4.97 0.79 0.83 b0 4.0.25 3.236 .75 6.27 2.25 6.27 5.93 0.05 1.0.25 4.00 b1* .75 4.87 1.11 2.25 b 2.92 0.0.18 2.25 3.

m = mean surface temperature in K TL. .25 m 10°C [50°F] ≤ ϑ L.75 m ≤ Da ≤ 7.U = ambient air temperature in K & The radiation and convection loss flow Q W.9 σ = 5. D for the entire rotary kiln results from the addition of the radiation and convection loss flows of the individual tube elements: More details on the calculation of the radiation and convection loss flow can be found in literature references [28 and 31].67 · 10 – 8 W/(m² · K4) TW.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 76 Scope of validity: 2 m/s < w ≤ 10 m/s 100°C [212°F] ≤ ϑ W.m ≤ 500°C [932°F] 2.U ≤ 30°C [86°F] The following applies for αStr: wherein ε W = 0.

The diameter of this surrounding cylinder can then be used to calculate the heat-transfer coefficient αtotal as an approximation according to Equations (98) through (101). For satellite coolers.m is calculated as an arithmetic mean value of all of the individual temperature meas- ured values calculated over the circumference. Equation (104) yields a heat loss flow that is too low.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 77 Cooler: Equations (96) through (101) can be employed directly for the rotary cooler. it is recommended to employ the imaginary surface area of a cylinder surrounding the satellite cooler as the heat-transfer surface area.9 At higher wind velocities. The mean circumferential temperature ϑ W. the satellite temperatures as well as the temperatures in the interstitial spaces. . an empirical factor of 1. The following applies: The following applies as a good approximation for the grate-type cooler and the kiln hood: wherein αconv = 7 W/(m²·K) ε W = 0. In such cases. that is to say. Moreover. the surface temperature should be measured only on the side facing away the wind.6 should be used for the calculation of the heat flow.

2 kJ/kg K for 0°C [32°F] < ϑ < 100°C [212°F].May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 78 Preheater and calcinator: Equations (104) should be employed accordingly. 4.8 Uncoupled heat The following applies as an approximation for the heat uncoupling via a cooling chute: wherein c H 2O ≈ 4. The following applies for the heat uncoupling through the cooling of the cooler circulation air: .1.2.4. Tertiary air duct: Equations (96) through (102) should be employed accordingly.

4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 79 4. so that a balance deficit remains which. Since the reaction enthalpy flow of the fuel as energy input can often only be determined very imprecisely.3 Energy balance The following applies for the sum of the energy input and energy output: and With kiln performance tests. however. . the energy input and the energy output are compared to each other. Usually the input and the output do not offset each other completely. it should be calculated on the basis of the difference between the energy output and the other energy input values according to Equation (109). should not make up more than ± 3% of the total energy output. it is also designated as fuel energy consumption.1.

1 Clinker cooler A complete mass and energy balance can only be drawn up for the clinker cooler within the limits set by its design. Moreover.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 80 4.2. . Figure 12 . For this reason. the fact that considerable dust circulation can occur between the rotary kiln and the clinker cooler has to be taken into account.2 Balancing of the partial systems 4. the hot clinker temperature can only be measured in a very imprecise manner.Balancing space of the cooler with the incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows.

several exhaust air flows can be discharged from the cooler. in contrast. Thus. the exhaust air volume flow. In the case of rotary and satellite coolers. 10 for the cooler injection water . has to be set as zero. The following mass and energy flows have been taken into consideration: Incoming solid substance mass flows: & mS8 for the hot clinker Outgoing solid substance mass flows: & mS10 & mSt8 & mSt9 for the clinker for the secondary air dust for the tertiary air dust Incoming gas volume flows: & VL10 for the cooler intake air Outgoing gas volume flows & VL8 & VL9 & VL11 for the secondary air for the tertiary air (cooler) for the cooler vent air Incoming liquid mass flows: & m H 2 O.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 81 Figure 12 shows the balancing space of a clinker cooler with the mass and energy flows that exceed the balance limit. for example.

K & Q K. K for the hot clinker for the cooler intake air for the cooler injection water for the mechanical performance (cooler) Outgoing energy flows: & H S10 & H St8 & H St9 & H L8 & H L9 & H L11 for the clinker for the secondary air dust for the tertiary air dust for the secondary air for the tertiary air for the cooler vent air for radiation and convection losses (cooler + kiln hood) for the uncoupled heat (cooler) & Q W. 10 Pmech. H 2 O for the evaporation enthalpy of the cooler injection water . K & ∆H V.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 82 Incoming energy flows: & H S8 & H L10 & H H 2 O.

secondary air dust. In the case of a pronounced dust circulation. the dust concentration in the secondary air should be estimated. this value can rise to more than 200 g/m³. Measured quantities: Operands: Only in the case of kiln systems with a tertiary air duct can the secondary air dust mass flow be calculated on the basis of the discharged and returned tertiary air dust assuming equal dust contents in the secondary air and in the tertiary air.1 Solid substance mass flows clinker. discharged and returned tertiary air dust. hot clinker. the dust concentration is about 30 to 50 g/m³. The following applies for the hot clinker mass flow: . The secondary air dust mass flow then results from the dust mass flow measured in the tertiary air and from the fraction calculated on this basis for the secondary air volume flow: In other cases.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 83 4.1. With a “clear” kiln discharge.

1. .2. and the cooler intake air volume flow results from Equations (21) and (38).2. 4.2 Gas volume flows cooler vent air (if present).1.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 84 4. secondary air. 4. The water vapor from the water injection should also be taken into account.1 Energy input 4. Measured quantities: Operands: The secondary air volume flow results from Equations (20) and (38). cooler intake air.2.3 Energy flows A reference temperature of 25°C [77°F] is selected for the calculation of the individual energy flows.3.1.3. tertiary air.2.1 Hot clinker (cS8 according to Equation (95) or Figure 11).1.

Therefore.4 Mechanical performance 4. the hot clinker energy flow is associated with a high level of uncertainty. Therefore. clinker dust See Section 4.2.1. 4.2.2.4.1.1.6.1.1.1. 4.3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 85 Only the surface temperature of the hot clinker can be measured by means of instruments.2.4.3.4.2 Cooler intake air 4.3.1.1.1.1.2.2 Energy output 4.1 Clinker. This error increases as the temperature drops and the particle size increases. .2.3 Injection water See Section 4.2.3.3.1. the calculated hot clinker energy flow is fundamentally too low.

2.1.2.3.2.8.2. tertiary air See Section 4.3.1.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 86 4.1.2. 4.2.5 Water evaporation See Section 4.2.2. secondary air.2. The following then applies: .2 Radiation and convection See Section 4.1. 4.3.4 Cooler vent air.1.3.2.1.3.2. 4.7.1.1.3 Energy balance If a reliable measured value for the secondary air temperature is available. the hot clinker & enthalpy flow H S8 can be calculated on the basis of the energy balance. As a rule.4.4.3.2.3 Uncoupled heat See Section 4. this is the case whenever tertiary air is removed from the kiln hood (ϑ L9 = ϑ L8) or when the secondary air can be measured error-free (for example.1.4.4. 4.2. with sound-over-time measurement or a suction-type thermometer).

4). .4 Evaluation quantities 4. 4.2.Balance limits of the burning area and cooling area.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 87 The hot clinker enthalpy flow calculated according to this equation serves as the basis for the calculation of the cooler efficiency (see Section 4.1.1. in the so-called pre-cooling zone.2.1 Pre-cooling zone For the evaluation of the clinker cooler. it is necessary to take into account the fact that the first cooling of the clinker already takes place inside the rotary kiln.4.1. of the pre-cooling zone as well as of the cooler with the example of a kiln system with a rotary cooler. Figure 13 .2. which is where radiation and convection losses occur. Figure 13 shows the principle of the balance limits of the burning area and of the cooling area and its subdivision into the pre-cooling zone and the cooler.4.

in m Lburner = length of the burner in the rotating part of the kiln. in m The estimation according to Equation (116) diverges from that described in the VDZ Specification titled “Grate-type. Since this length cannot be measured and no calculation method is known for this at the present time. . It was selected because of the high degree of measuring uncertainty associated with the determination of the hot clinker temperature. which can be calculated according to Equations (98) through (101) with a superimposition of the radiation (rad) as well as free and forced convection (conv). αtotal stands for the mean heat-transfer coefficient.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 88 In order to calculate the radiation and convection losses in the pre-cooling zone. satellite and rotary coolers in the cement industry” [33]. in m Da = outer diameter of the rotary kiln. & The radiation and convection loss Q W. it is necessary to know their length Lpre-cool.: wherein Lpre-cool = length of the pre-cooling zone. pre − cool in the pre-cooling zone of the rotary kiln amounts to the following: Here. the position of the burner lance serves as the reference point for estimating this length (also see Figure 13).

it is advantageous to relate the energy loss flow of the cooling area to a theoretical enthalpy flow change on the part of the clinker and thus to define a cooling area efficiency: .2. which has to be replaced by fuel energy. cooling area is the sum of the heat and enthalpy flows that are released by the cooler into the atmosphere.2.3 Cooling area efficiency For comparisons.1. those enthalpy flows that would be released during the cooling procedure from the appertaining outlet temperature to the ambient air temperature should be seen as energy flows. The fraction that is not recovered constitutes the energy loss of the cooling area.U) stands for the specific enthalpy at the ambient air temperature. & The energy loss flow Eloss. In this equation. for the clinker and cooler vent air.4. In this context. 4.4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 89 4.1. h(ϑ L.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area The energy consumption of a rotary kiln system depends to a decisive degree on the extent to which the enthalpy of the clinker in the cooling area can be recovered for the process.

With degrees of precalcining below approximately 90%.2 Calcinator (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater) The balancing space of the calcinator starts at the rotary kiln inlet and ends downstream from the lowermost cyclone (Figure 14). irrespective of the burning or pre-heating conditions.4 Cooler efficiency The efficiency values of the cooler are described in the VDZ Specification titled “Gratetype. the calcinator is often balanced together with the rotary kiln. The lowermost stage of the cyclone preheater counts as part of the calcinator. this does not apply for the “rotary kiln inlet” balance limit where the energy and mass flows can only be determined very imprecisely.1.2. In contrast. For this reason. the equilibrium temperature of the calcium carbonate dissociation sets in at the lowermost stage.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 90 For the sake of harmonization. .2. 4.4.1.1.1 apply when using the formulas. the waste gas acquires a chemically determined temperature that is very well-suited for determining this balance limit. which should prevail at the site of transition from the burning area to the cooling area. 4. at this site.2. Future improvements of the burning process or special compositions of the kiln feed could make it necessary to stipulate a sintering temperature that differs from this. a sintering temperature of 1450°C [2642°F] was presupposed. satellite and rotary coolers in the cement industry” [33]. since it is in these aggregates that the essential reactions of the kiln feed and of the fuel take place. The limitations outlined in Section 4. The cooling area efficiency makes it possible to thermally evaluate the cooling in the entire process. Thus.3.

.Balancing space of the calcinator with incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 91 Figure 14 .

More details on this can be found in literature reference [30]. VC that has escaped from the kiln feed in the preheater and in the calcinator to the & carbon dioxide mass flow mCO 2 .1 Determination of the degree of precalcining The degree of precalcining can be used to evaluate the progress of the decarbonation of the kiln feed in the preheater and in the calcinator. the degree of precalcining can also be determined on the basis of the solid substance analyses. the apparent degree of precalcining ϕ apparent results from the CO2 concentrations x CO 2 and the concentrations of nonvolatile components xNF of the kiln feed (index S1) and of the kiln feed at the kiln inlet (index S6): .2. In this context.2. It is designated as the apparent degree of precalcining ϕ apparent. As a simplification. and by ignoring the dust in the rotary kiln inlet gas. The actual degree of precalcining ϕ actual is defined according to Equation (120) as the ratio of the carbon dioxide mass flow & mCO 2 . & Provided that the raw gas dust mSt1 has the same chemical composition as the kiln feed & mS1 . the degree of precalcining refers to the degree of dissociation of the calcium carbonate contained in the kiln feed prior to its entry into the rotary kiln.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 92 4.0 that was originally bound in the kiln feed as carbonate: The degree of precalcining calculated according to Equation (120) can only be determined by using complete gas or solid substance balances.

.2. the following relationship exists between the apparent and the actual degree of precalcining: 4. As a rule. however.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 93 & & In reality. The degrees of separation of the individual cyclone stages are relevant for an evaluation of the preheater.3 Preheater (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater) Figure 15 shows the balancing space of the preheater. the more highly decarbonated dust mSt4 and mSt6 influences the & composition of the kiln feed mass flow mS6 . If the dust mass flows mSt4 and mSt6 have been completely decarbonated. it consists of 3 to 5 preheating stages in which gas and the kiln feed are fed in a countercurrent with respect to each other. For this reason. the apparent degree of precalcining ϕ apparent calculated according to Equation (121) generally simulates a higher & & decarbonation of the kiln feed.

4.1 Degree of separation of individual cyclone stages Figure 16 shows the incoming and outgoing solid substance mass flows of a preheating stage.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 94 Figure 15 . According to it. the following applies for the degree of separation: .Balancing space of the preheater with incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows.3.

Q W. i stands for the radiation and convection loss flow of the ith cyclone & stage and ∆H R. As a rule.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 95 & & The mass flows mS. this is the case with the uppermost cyclone stages (ϑ < 600°C [1112°F]). In this context. i and mSt. i +1 result from the mass and energy balance of the ith stage. & & Equations (124) and (125) yield the mass flows mS. it is assumed that there is temperature equilibrium between the gas and the kiln feed in the cyclone stage. The following applies as an approximation for the solid substance balance: The following applies for the energy balance: & In this context. i +1 : Equations (126) and (127) can be employed in the area of the preheater where hardly any solid/gas reactions (decarbonation) occur. . i stands for the reaction enthalpy flow of the raw material in stage i. i and mSt.

This generally applies to the lower stages & of the preheater. the mass flows can also be ascertained on the basis of component balances. If the alkali compounds in the kiln feed differ sufficiently.Incoming and outgoing solid substance mass flows of a preheating stage with a cyclone separator.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 96 Figure 16 . provided that the dust and solid substance mass flows exiting from each individual stage have the same chemical composition. but also to the cyclone separator of the calcinator. & and if malk. eff stands for the mass flow of non-volatile substances effectively fed into the kiln system. it is possible to determine the mass flows of the kiln feed and the dust between the individual cyclone stages: . eff stands for the mass flow of alkali compounds that are effectively fed into the system by means of the kiln feed. then. If m NF.

but not the absolute value. should be interpreted. between two performance tests. .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 97 From a technical standpoint. xNF. Equations (126) and (127) as well as (130) and (131) constitute very rough approximations. for purposes of simplification. N+1 and xalk. as a consequence of which only changes in these operands. N+1 (N= cyclone separator of the calcinator) are very difficult to measure. both concentration values should be pre-defined. as a result of which. for example.

. Evaluation of the substance circulation systems Relevant substance circulation systems should be measured during a kiln performance test or else calculated on the basis of measured and analytical data.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 98 5.

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6.

Evaluation of the cement clinker

As a rule, new systems are only examined once the clinker properties and thus also the cement properties have been achieving the desired quality requirements for quite some time. In contrast, kiln performance tests with old systems can also serve to optimize the quality of the cement and clinker.

6.1

Degree of burning

The degree of burning of the cement clinker is usually monitored on the basis of the bulk density (weight per unit volume) of a narrow particle range, for instance, 5 to 7 mm, whose values lie between 1.2 and 1.6 kg/dm³. The bulk density, however, is not only dependent on the degree of burning, but also on the chemical composition and on the porosity of the clinker. Moreover, the content of free CaO also provides information about the degree of burning.

6.2

Particle-size distribution

The coarse and fines fractions of the clinker (for example, < 2 mm and > 25 mm) provide information about the kiln operation and the clinker quality. They are ascertained by means of sieve analysis.

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6.3

Grindability

The grindability of the clinker provides information about the necessary work in the cement mill. It is primarily tested with the device according to Zeisel.

6.4

Chemical composition

The chemical composition yields the lime standard (KSt), the silica ratio (SM), the alumina/iron ratio (TM), the sulfatization degree (SG), the total alkali fraction (A) and the melt phase fraction (S). The lime standard indicates the content of CaO actually present in the raw material mixture or clinker as a percentage of the maximum CaO content that can be bound to SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 under industrial burning and cooling conditions. Several formulas, which do not differ markedly from each other, are commonly employed to calculate the lime standard. According to F.M. Lea and T.W. Parker, for example, the following applies [7]:

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The silica modulus is the ratio of silicon dioxide to the sum of aluminum oxide and iron oxide. The following applies:

Since the silicon dioxide is primarily bound in the solid phases tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate at the sintering temperature, but since aluminum oxide and iron oxide are present in the melt, the silica modulus refers to the solid-to-liquid ratio in the sintering zone of the cement kiln. Generally speaking, the silica modulus lies between SM = 1.8 and SM = 3.0, most frequently and most advantageously between SM = 2.3 and SM = 2.8. The alumina/iron ratio (TM) is the ratio of the aluminum oxide content to the iron oxide content. The following applies:

It provides information about the quantity ratio of calcium aluminate to calcium aluminate ferrite and consequently about the clinker melt. With clinker having a commonly employed composition, this value lies between 1.5 and 4.0. With an alumina/iron ratio of 0.638, the calculation indicates that all of the aluminum oxide contained in the clinker is bound as calcium aluminate ferrite having the assumed composition 4 CaO · Al2O3 · Fe2O3.

(for ϑ S = 1450°C [2642°F]).4°F] and TM < 1.38). (for ϑ S = 1338°C [2440. (for ϑ S = 1400°C [2552°F]).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 102 The sulfatization degree (SG) indicates the percentage of alkalis in the clinker. . which are present as alkali sulfate: The total alkali fraction (A) results from the conversion of the fraction of potassium oxide into the equivalent sodium fraction according to the following equation: The following applies as an approximation for the melt phase (S): (for ϑ S = 1338°C [2440.38).4°F] and TM > 1.

However. at higher contents.02 at the maximum. it is necessary to assume that the clinker phases have the composition indicated by their formulas and that the clinker melt is in a continuous state of thermodynamic equilibrium with the solid phases of the clinker. the calculation only provides an approximation of the actual clinker composition [7]. for instance. provide information about the preparation of the raw material mixture and about the conditions during the burning and cooling of the clinker. For these reasons. Whereas the type of the compounds depends primarily on the chemical composition of the kiln feed. 6. . xMgO = 0. the structure. not only at the sintering temperature but also and especially when they crystallize during the cooling procedure. according to equations (54) through (60). constitution and distribution of the clinker compounds.02.5 Phase composition The phase composition of the clinker can be calculated on the basis of the values of the chemical analysis. the constitution and distribution of the clinker compounds and their coalescence. that is to say.6 Microscopic examination The microscopic examination of the clinker provides information about the type. 6.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 103 xMgO enters into the formulas with xMgO = 0.

7 Cement testing The results of the quality tests with the ground-up cement types within the scope of our own as well as outside monitoring also provide essential information about the properties of the cement clinker. .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 104 6. They are of decisive significance for the optimization of operations.

Evaluation of the emissions Relevant emissions have to be measured and/or recorded during a kiln performance test.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 105 7. .

1.c.2.) K diameter in m energy flow in kJ/s ratio of kiln feed to clinker in kg/kg of clinker surface area in m² lower calorific value in kJ/kg specific enthalpy in kJ/s sensible enthalpy flow in kJ/s reaction enthalpy flow in kJ/s evaporation enthalpy flow in kJ/s lime standard in % length in m minimum air demand in m³ of air (s.4. Formula signs and indices Roman letters a A b c cp D & E f F hu h & H & ∆H R & ∆H V KSt L lmin & m M N p factor (Section 4.7) mean specific thermal capacity of solids and liquids in kJ/kg K mean specific thermal capacity of gases in kJ/m³ under standard conditions (s.c.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 106 8.4.7) total alkali fraction in kg/kg factor (Section 4.2.1.) / kg of fuel mass flow in kg/s molecular weight in kg/mole stage number in the cyclone preheater. chamber number in the grate-type cooler pressure in Pa .

) / kJ degree of separation of a cyclone density in kg/m³ Stefan-Boltzmann constant ∆ εW η cooling area ϑ λ µ ξ ρ σ σ = 5.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 107 P & Q S SG SM T TM v & V w x y performance in kJ/s heat flow in kJ/s melt phase content sulfatization degree in % silica modulus absolute temperature in K alumina/iron ratio gas velocity in m/s volume flow under standard conditions (0°C [32°F] and 1013 hPa) in m³/s wind velocity in m/s mass concentration in kg/kg volume concentration in m³/m³ Greek letters α heat transition coefficient in W/m² · K difference emission ratio of the wall surface cooling area efficiency temperature in °C excess air coefficient combustion product per energy unit in m³ (s.67 · 10 – 8 ϕ W m2 K 4 degree of precalcining.c. relative humidity .

vapor under standard conditions (0°C [32°F] and 1013 hPA) effective balance input inlet .1. carbon rotary kiln.4.1.4) 0 through 12 balance limits 1 preheater (kiln feed.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 108 Indices 0 initial state 0 through 11 reactions of the kiln feed (Section 4. raw gas) 2 preheater / calcinator 3 calcinator (secondary burner) 4 calcinator (tertiary air duct) 5 calcinator (bypass) 6 calcinator / rotary kiln 7 rotary kiln (main burner) 8 rotary kiln / cooler 9 tertiary air duct / cooler 10 cooler (clinker.2. cooler intake air) 11 cooler (cooler vent air) 12 tertiary air duct (discharged tertiary air dust) a Alk out Out B burner C D eff in In outside alkali compounds balance output outlet fuel burner calcinator.

) (0°C [32°F] and 1013 hPA) sum of non-volatile substances at constant pressure reaction clean gas grate-type cooler saturation apparent solid.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 109 F Fl total G surr i K Kl con L m max mech min N NV p R clean gas grate s app S Sat St Str actual theor sum of the volatile substances infiltrated air total gas. loss on ignition surrounding cylinder variable cooler. uncoupled clinker convection air mean value maximum mechanical minimum standard conditions (s. sulfide sulfur satellite cooler dust radiation (rad) actual theoretical .c.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 110 tr T U Um V loss pre-cool W dry tertiary air duct ambient circulation air preheater. evaporation enthalpy loss pre-cooling zone radiation and convection losses Chemical formula signs C3 A C12A7 C4AF C2 S C3 S Al2O3 C CaCO3 CaO Cl – CO CO2 Fe2O3 H H2 O K2 O K2SO4 MgCO3 tricalcium aluminate (3 CaCO · Al2O3) (12 CaO · 7Al2O3) aluminate ferrite (4 CaO · Al2O3 · Fe2O3) dicalcium silicate (2 CaO · SiO2) tricalcium silicate (3 CaO · SiO2) aluminum oxide carbon calcium carbonate calcium oxide chloride carbon monoxide carbon dioxide iron(III)-oxide hydrogen. atomic water potassium oxide potassium sulfate magnesium carbonate .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 111 MgO Mn2O3 N2 Na2O O O2 P 2 O5 S2– SiO2 SO3 TiO2 magnesium oxide manganese(III)-oxide nitrogen sodium oxide oxygen. atomic oxygen phosphorus pentoxide sulfide silicon dioxide sulfur(VI)-oxide (sulfate) titanium dioxide .

D. O. Berlin 1971. Keil. Berlin 1985. Das Wesen und die Herstellung der hydraulischen Bindemittel. Ullmanns Enzyklopädie der technischen Chemie. Locher. Springer-Verlag.1 Literature references General literature references [1] [2] [3] [4] [5) [6] [7] [8] [9] Kühl. H. Internationale Verfahrenstechniken der Zementindustrie. Huckauf.: Cement-Data-Book.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 112 9. Kühl.: Ratgeber für Zementingenieure. W: Zement. Vulkan-Verlag. Band 3. FDBR-Fachbuchreihe. Duda. [10] Brandt.: Zement-Chemie. H.. 9. VEB Verlag Technik. Band 24.: Bindebaustoff-Taschenbuch.. Band 1. W. F: Zement-Herstellung und Eigenschaften. . Baehr. H. J. Essen 1991. Bauverlag GmbH.H. VEB Verlag Technik. und Seidel. Stark. Bauverlag GmbH.: Technologie der Bindebaustoffe. F. Seidel.. pp. Berlin 1981.: Thermodynamik. Berlin 1958. 545-574. Brennprozeß und Brennanlagen. G. J. Band 1. Berlin 1956. Huckauf. H. VEB Verlag für Bauwesen. VEB Verlag Für Bauwesen. Band 3. Labahn. Die physikalisch-chemischen Grundlagen der Zement-Chemie. G. Berlin 1978. Verlag Chemie GmbH. Springer-Verlag. und Stark. Brennprozeß und Brennanlagen. Wiesbaden 1985. F: Brennstoffe und Verbrennungsrechnung. Band 11.. Wiesbaden 1982. H. Band 1.: Zement-Chemie. Weinheim 1983.

612-614. Ursache und Lösung. und Winkler.: Einfluß des Ofensystems auf die Klinkereigenschaften. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. A. O. und Lang. Messung von Zustandsgrößen.. 10. pp. Springer-Verlag. [17] VDZ-Merkblatt “Staubmengenmessungen auf Zementwerken”. Stoffmengen und Hilfsgrößen.V.2 Technical literature references Description of the clinker burning process [11] Sprung.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 113 9. [18] Hengstenberg. S. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. 3. Sturm. Düsseldorf 1962.M. Berlin 1980. Band 1. Steuern und Regeln in der Chemischen Technik. Rock Products. Berlin 1980. [14] Bonn.. W.. H.V. Vol. B.: Technologische Probleme beim Brennen des Zementklinkers.: Theoretische und betriebliche Untersuchungen zum Brennstoffenergieverbrauch von Zementofenanlagen mit Vorcalcinierung. [13] Wolter. 39-61. 48. J. 43. Düsseldorf 1990. Springer-Verlag. Vol. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie.: Brennverfahren. . Execution of kiln performance tests [16] VDZ-Merkblatt “Mengenmessung von Gasen durch Geschwindigkeitsmessung”. Düsseldorf 1961. pp.a review. July (1985) pp.. Messung von Stoffeigenschaften und Konzentrationen.. Sturm. [15] Rosemann.1987. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. 105-114.V. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. Th.: Messen. H. Zement-Kalk-Gips 39 (1986) Vol. Steuern und Regeln in der Chemischen Technik.: Precalciners today . [12] Garrett. und Winkler. J. B... Zement-KalkGips 38 (1985) Vol.. [20] VDZ-Merkblatt “Kontinuierliche Gasanalyse in Zementwerken”.1982. [19] Hengstenberg. Band 11.: Messen. O.

O. pp. 8th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement.O. 144-149.: Berechnung des Wandwärmeverlustes von Drehöfen und Mühlen. Supplement. pp. [30] Rosemann. VDI-Verlag GmbH. 257-262. Springer-Verlag. 1-12. Zement-Kalk-Gips 37 (1984) Vol. Berlin 1973. Rio de Janeiro. H.. und Knacke. pp. [27] Barin. Zement-Kalk-Gips 9 (1956) Vol. M. . [25] Petrosjan.. 3. [26] Barin. und Kubaschewski. H. 6. Berlin 1977.: Die spezifische Wärme des Portlandzementklinkers. H. H. 89-94.E. pp..: Phase composition of calcined raw meal. [24] VDZ-Merkblatt “Berechnungsunterlagen für Ofenversuche”.. H. 53-62. 9. pp. Düsseldorf 1959.: Rechnergesteuerte Meßdatenerfassung und verarbeitung bei der Durchführung von Ofenversuchen.. Ludwig. 22. Proc.. O. Teil 2: Näherungsgleichungen und Anwendungen. [28] Gardeik. O. 465-473. I. Berlin 1966. Zement-Kalk-Gips 33 (1980) Vol. und Gardeik. H. [22] Schwiete.O. I. [23] zur Strassen. Düsseldorf 1983. 1986. Zement-KalkGips 10 (1957) Vol.: Thermochemical properties of inorganic substances. Teil 1: Grundlagen. Knacke.: Thermochemical properties of inorganic substances. Zement-KalkGips 38 (1985) Vol.E. Springer-Verlag.: Berechnung des Wandwärmeverlustes von Drehöfen und Mühlen.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 114 Evaluation of kiln performance tests [21] Schwiete.. H. 2. TonindustrieZeitung 56 (1932) Nr.. 304-306. [29] VDI-Wärmeatlas. H. A.V. und Steinbiß. und Ludwig. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. 1.: Der theoretische Wärmebedarf des Zementbrandes..: Beitrag zur Thermochemie von Zementrohstoffen. E. G. O.: Thermodynamik der Silikate. pp. [31] Gardeik. [32] Wolter. H. pp. VEB Verlag für Bauwesen. Berechnungsblätter für den Wärmeübergang. und Ziegler.

9. 2. [37] Sprung. 215-234. Zement-Kalk-Gips 38 (1985) Vol. pp. Zement-Kalk-Gips 36 (1983) Vol. Dissertation. 565-570. [35] Goes. 9. und Opitz. [381 Ritzmann. [39] Locher. W: Stoffkreisläufe und Emissionen beim Brennen von Zementklinker.: Einflüsse auf die Energieumsetzung in Calcinatoren bei der Vorcalcination von Zementrohmehl. 509-511. Zement-Kalk-Gips 17 (1964) Vol.V.und Rohrkühler in der Zementindustrie”. und Gardeik. F W. F. Sonderausgabe Nr. 1960. 1989.: Warmeübergang im Drehofen unter Berücksichtigung der Kreislaufvorgänge und der Phasenneubildung.. Vol. Zement-Kalk-Gips 43 (1990) Vol. 338-343. [44] Schütte. 12. Düsseldorf.: Reaktionen im Bereich der Ofengase. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. 9 (1960). Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. pp. Evaluation of the substance circulation systems [34] Weber. pp. 4.: Das Verhaften des Schwefels beim Brennen von Zementklinker Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. H. [41] Kreft.O. 31. 1-12. pp. Vol. W: Methode zur Vorausberechnung von Schadstoffkreisläufen in Zementöfen. 335-344. Zement-Kalk-Gips. D. 1. Sprung. Bergakademie ClausthalZellerfeld 1959. H. R: Alkaliprobleme und Beseitigung bei wärmesparenden Trockenöfen. und Kupper. [36] Weber. [43] Kreft. H.: Kreislaufe in Drehofensystemen. pp.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 115 [33] VDZ-Merkblatt “Rost-. P. S. 8. S. pp. D.. [42] Rosemann..und Schwefelverdampfung in Zementofen in Gegenwart hoher Chloreinnahmen.: Die Bedeutung von Kreislaufbetrachtungen für Produktqualität und Umweltverträglichkeit der Zementherstellung. W: Alkali.. Zement-Kalk-Gips 24 (1971) Vol. pp. pp. C. Fortschritte der Mineralogie 60 (1982) Vol. 456-459. 8. . Zement-Kalk-Gips 25 (1972) Vol. 8. R. [40] Locher.: Ober des Verhalten der Alkalien beim Zementbrennen. 418-422. Zement-Kalk-Gips 35 (1982) Vol. 1964. Satelliten.

R.: The chemistry of portland cement. 12. 6. F. 10.: Calculation of the compounds in portland cement. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 1 (1929) pp.W. W: Verfahrenstechnik und Zementeigenschaften. [50] Locher.H. [48] Locher. Zement-Kalk-Gips 31 (1978) Vol. pp. F W: Berechnung der Klinkerphasen. 357-362. 577-585. Zement-Kalk-Gips 31 (1978) Vol.H. [51] Sylla. F. 29. pp. pp. 265-272. Reinhold Publishing Corporation. Zement-Kalk-Gips 28 (1975) Vol. Vol. S. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. R. S. 6.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 116 Evaluation of the cement clinker [45] Bogue.: Erstarren von Zement.: Einflüsse der Verfahrenstechnik auf die Zementeigenschaften. 669-676.: Einfluß der Klinkerkühlung auf Erstarren und Festigkeit von Zement.: Einfluß der Ofenatmosphäre beim Brennen von Zementklinker. [52] Locher. 9.-M. [49] Sylla. and Sylla. Zement-Kalk-Gips 35 (1982) Vol. Zement-Kalk-Gips 28 (1975) Vol. Teil III: Einfluß der Klinkerherstellung. Richartz. . 7. 192-197. Sprung. 7-29.. ZementKalk-Gips 38 (1985) Vol.-M. pp.W: Einfluß der Klinkerherstellung auf die Eigenschaften des Zements. H. pp. [53] Sprung. pp.-M. H. F. 291-293. [47] Locher. [46] Bogue. New York 1955. H. pp. 269-277..1962. W.

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Evaluation of the emissions
[54] Kroboth, K., und Xeller, H.: Entwicklungen beim Umweltschutz in der Zementindustrie. Zement-Kalk-Gips 39 (1986) Vol. 1, pp. 1-14. [55] Sprung, S.: Spurenelemente - Anreicherungen und Minderungsmaßnahmen. Zement-Kalk-Gips 41 (1988) Vol. 5, pp. 251-257. [56] Locher, F W: Entwicklung des Umweltschutzes in der Zementindustrie. ZementKalk-Gips 42 (1989) Vol. 3, pp. 120-127. [57] Kroboth, K., und Kuhlmann, K.: Stand der Technik der Emissionsminderung in Europa. Zement-Kalk-Gips 43 (1990) Vol. 3, pp. 121-131. [58] Wischers, G., und Kuhlmann, K.: Ökobilanz von Zement und Beton. Zement-KalkGips 44 (1991) Vol. 11, pp. 545-553.

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10.

Evaluation example 1 (kiln system with a cyclone preheater, calcinator and tertiary air duct)
Balancing the entire system

10.1

10.1.1 Solid substance mass flows
& mS10

= 18.00 kg/s

x NF, S10 = 0.9760 x NF, St12 x NF, B7 = x NF, B3 = not applicable x ash, B7 ⋅ x NV, ash = 0.04 · 0.8007 x ash, B7 ⋅ x NF, ash = 0.04 · 0.8007

& mSt12 = 0 kg/s & m B7 & m B3 & mSt1 & mSt5

= 1.29 kg/s = 1.24 kg/s = 0.84 kg/s = 0 kg/s

x NF, St1 = 0.6454 x NF,St5 not applicable

x NF, S1 = 0.6316

Kiln feed mass flow (Equation 4): 18.00 ⋅ 0.976 − (1.29 + 1.24) ⋅ 0.04 ⋅ 0.8007 + 0.84 ⋅ 0.6454 = 28.55 kg/s. 0.6316

& mS1 =

Ratio of kiln feed to clinker necessary for burning clinker (Equation 6): 28.55 = 1.586 kg/kg. 18.00 + 0

fS1 =

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10.1.2 Gas volume flows

10.1.2.1 Dry gas

10.1.2.1.1 Minimum air volume flow

& mS1 = 28.55 kg/s & mSt1 = & m B7 = & m B3 = 0.84 kg/s 1.29 kg/s 1.24 kg/s

x C, S1 = 0.0015 x C, St1 = 0.0021 h u, B7 = 22684 kJ/kg h u, B3 = 22684 kJ/kg

x S, S1 = 0.0004 x S, St1 = 0.0008

The carbon mass flow (Equation 8) and the sulfide mass flow (Equation 9) effectively fed in with the kiln feed: & mC, eff, S = 28.55 · 0.0015 – 0.84 · 0.0021 = 0.0411 kg/s & mS, eff, S = 28.55 · 0.0004 – 0.84 · 0.0008 = 0.0107 kg/s

Minimum air demand of the fuels (Equation 13): lmin, B7 = lmin, B3 = 0.44 + 0.000245 · 22684 = 5.998 m³/kg Minimum air volume flow (Equation 10):

& VL, min, tr = (1.29 + 1.24) · 5.998 + 0.0411 · 8.88 + 0.0107 · 3.32 = 15.58 m³/s

1.0489 yO 2 .0489) λG1 = λG2 = 1 = 1.G1 = 0.G1 = 0. from the burning area and from the rotary kiln (Equation 16): 1 = 1.762 (1 − 0.0318) λG6 = 1 = 1.0007 y CO.2108 yCO.1.0006 − 0.5 ⋅ 0.2 Air proportionality factors yCO 2 . tr.3290 − 0.762 (1 − 0.5 ⋅ 0.2108 − 0.0489 − 0.2.2925 − 0.0318 yO 2 .1.0007 − 0.G2 = 0. tr.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 120 10.G6 = 0.3843 0.2278 0.0006 1 − 3.G1 = 0. tr. tr.25 m² ∆p = 5 Pa p = 1010 hPa ϑ U = 5°C [41°F] ρ L.0302 − 0.G2 = 0.0005 1 − 3.0005 yO 2 .0006 y CO.29 kg/m³ .5 ⋅ 0.0005 − 0.0302 Air proportionality factors in the waste gas downstream from the preheater.1745 0. tr.G2 = 0.1.0302) 10.G2 = 0. tr.G6 = 0.0007 1 − 3.3290 yCO 2 .3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood F ≈ 0.2925 yCO 2 .762 (1 − 0. tr.2. tr.0318 − 0.N = 1. tr.

998 – 1.25 & VFl.1.29 · 5.08 m³/s .18 m³/s & VL9.75 ⋅ 0. tr = 23. B7 = 5.39 m³/s & VFl.52 m³/s Secondary air volume flow (Equation 20): & VL8. tr = 1. D.18 m³/s 10.5 Cooler intake air & VL8. D.268 ⋅ 2 = 0. tr ≈ ⋅ 5 ⋅ 1. tr = 0.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 121 Density of the ambient air: ρ L = 1.29 · 1010 273 ⋅ = 1.1745 & m B7 = 1.73 + 23.1.268 kg/m³ 1013 277 Infiltrated air volume flow (Equation 19): 0.4 Secondary air λ G6 = 1.1745 · 1.1.73 m³/s & VL11. tr = 1.18 + 6. tr = 6.52 m³/s 1. tr =7.29 10.29 kg/s lmin.17 = 37.998 m³/kg & VL7.39 – 0.52 = 7. tr = 7.2.2.17 m³/s Cooler intake air volume flow (Equation 21): & VL10.

1. B = (1. tr. tr.1. tr. tr.3380 – 0. tr.3256 not applicable h u.G1 = 0.6 Raw gas & mS1 & mSt1 & mSt5 & mC.376 kg/s CO2 from the kiln feed (Equation 23): 44.0411 kg/s = 1.24) · 5.S & m B7 & m B3 = 28.01  1.3380 = 0.G5 not applicable yCO.0411  12.eff.1262 yO2 .St5 = 0.24 kg/s = 0 x CO 2 .29 kg/s = 1.G1 = 0. pure gas = 0. tr.2.1426 1.2925 & Vpure gas.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 122 10.376 + 0.3256 = 9.S = 28.84 m³/s VCO 2 .01  1  & = 4. y CO.01 · 10 – 5 · 22684 = 2.G1 = 0.29 + 1.0007 yCO2 .S =  9.0489 yCO2 . Calculation on the basis of the CO2 balance: Carbon dioxide mass flow (Equation 24) effectively fed in with the kiln feed: & mCO 2 . B7 h u.84 · 0.55 kg/s = 0.St1 x CO 2 .S1 x CO 2 .97  CO2 from the fuel (Equation 26): & VCO2 .55 · 0.42 m³/s yO2 . tr. B3 = 22684 kJ/kg (lignitic coal) = 22684 kJ/kg (lignitic coal) & VG5.88 m³/s .eff. pure gas = 0.G5 . tr = 60. tr yCO 2 .84 kg/s = 0 = 0.

tr = 0.07 m³/s 0. tr = = 26.0318 & VG1.G1 = 0.2925 b) O2 balance: 0.28 m³/s 0.1.28) = 25.7 Gas downstream from the burning area yCO2 .G2 = 0. tr. tr.2925 & VG2. tr. tr = 25.1.1262 & VG1.0007 2.G2 = 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 123 Raw gas volume flow (Equation 29): 4.42 = 26.84 + 2.68 m³/s 10. tr = 25.68 = 22.0489 The following applies: & VG1. tr = 60. tr = 60.21 − 0.1426 & VG1.5 (26.68 m³/s Gas volume downstream from the burning area (Equations 30 and 31): a) CO2 balance: 0.42 = 25.2.21 − 0.83 m³/s 0.88 − 0 & VG1.33 m³/s 0.2925 + 0. Calculation on the basis of the clean gas volume flow: Raw gas volume flow (Equations 30 and 31): a) CO2 balance: 0.3290 .G1 = 0.0489 yO2 .2925 yCO2 .3290 yO2 .07 + 25. tr.

S = 5.79 1.G1 = 0.68 1 − 0.24 kg/s = 0.24 ⋅ 5.0318 The following applies: & VG2.2108 −  0.68 ⋅ 0.0489 yCO2 .2925 & VG1.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) yCO2 .0007  0.1.32 m 3/s − 0.G6 = 0. tr 0. S = 1.32 − ⋅ 25.B3 lmin.G1 = 0. tr = 25.2108 & m B3 & mC.21   .tr.G6 = 0.32 m³/kg yO2 .2925 − 0.0107 ⋅ 3.0411 ⋅ 8.0007 yO2 .1.0107 kg/s yO2 .0302   1 − 0.0302 Gas volume flow downstream from the rotary kiln [30]: & VG6. tr.5 (22. tr.2108 −  0.68 m³/s yCO.G1 = 0. tr. tr = 25. eff.68 = 23.83 + 23.21 − 0.0489 & VG2.21 − 0. tr = 0.5   0.21   0 .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 124 b) O2 balance: 0.88 m³/kg = 3. S & mS.21   = 0.88 + 0. eff.0302   1 − 0.C lmin. tr.0007 −  0.2.998 + 0.0489   25.21   = 9.22) = 23. tr.G6 = 0.0005 lmin.0411 kg/s = 0.03 m³/s 10.22 m³/s 0.998 m³/kg = 8.

1.88 m³/kg 3. tr.C = (23.1 Humidity in the air p = 101000 Pa ϑ L.2.1.24 kg/s = 0. eff.0302 0.tr & VL4.32 m³/kg 0.998 m³/kg 8. tr = 23.2 Water vapor 10.0411 kg/s = 0.G2 = yO2 .21 0.U = 4°C [39.2. tr.32 m³/s = 6.73 m³/s lmin.1.0318 0. eff.0302) + 1.5 · 0.19 = 3.998 + 0.0006) – 9.9 Infiltrated air (preheater) & VGl.2°F] ϕ = 0.2. tr.60 m³/s 10. S = 1. S & mS.1.2.1.03 m³/s = 9.24 · 5.tr & VG6.03 m³/s & VL1 = 1.1.0318 – 0.0006 Infiltrated air volume flow (calcinator) according to [30]: 1 & VFl. tr.32 · 0.C lmin.03 · (0.4 .S = = 5.73 – 0.G2 = 0.G6 = & VL3.19 m³/s & VG2.68 m³/s & VG2.tr = yO2 .10 Infiltrated air (calcinator) & m B3 & mC.32 – 6.03 m³/s 10.0411 · 8.B3 = lmin.88 + 0.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 125 10.0107 · 3.tr yO2 .0107 kg/s = 23. tr = 25.

tr · 1.29 · 5.877 · 10 – 4 · 44 + 10 – 6 · 45 = 812. D = 0.0020 kg/kg 101000 − 812.3843 · 15.002 = 0.07 m³/s b) downstream from the burning area & VH 2 O.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 126 Saturation pressure of the water vapor at ambient temperature (Equation 33): ps (ϑ L.622 812.002 = 0.2. St1 = 0.608 · 0.0204 x H2O.2 = 0.84 kg/s x H2O.87 · 4 + 1.002 = 0.2 Water from the kiln feed & mS1 & mSt1 = 28.470 · 42 + 2. min.2 0 . S1 = 0.5 + 43.06 m³/s c) downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) & VH 2 O.998 · 1.1745 · 1.03 m³/s 10. L = λG1 ⋅ VL.8 kg/m³ .564 · 10 – 5 · 43 + 2.608 · 0.U) = 611.58 · 1. L = 1.1.4 Humidity volume flows (Equation 34): a) downstream from the preheater & & VH 2 O.58 · 1.0190 ρH 2O.608 · 0.2.55 kg/s = 0.2278 · 15. L = 1.608 · xD = 1.2 Pa Water content of the dry air (Equation 32): xD = 0.

2. S = (28.4 Injection water & m H 2 O.8  10.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 127 Moisture volume flow from the kiln feed (Equation 35): 1 & VH 2 O.55 ⋅ 0.8  b) Secondary burner 18  1  & = 0.0453 Moisture volume flows (Equation 36): a) Main burner 18  1  & = 0.087 + 0. B3 = 0.71 m³/s 0 . B3 = 0.29 kg/s 1.8 10.087 x H.2.2.80 m³/s VH 2 O.84 ⋅ 0.0453 = 0.087 x H2O.019) ⋅ = 0.24 kg/s x H2O.29  0.2.3 Water from the fuel & mB7 & mB3 = = 1. B3 = 1.77 m³/s VH 2 O.0204 − 0. B7 x H.24  0. B7 = 1.0453  2  0 . 10 = 0 .0453  2  0 .1. B7 = 0.1.087 + 0.

B3 = 0.6°F] x H 2 O. 10.80 + 0.07 + 0.3 Moist gas (examples) Raw gas volume flow (Equation 40): & VG1 = 25.4.3 Liquid mass flows Does not apply.1.80 + 0.03 + 0.6°F] ϑB3 = 32°C [89.4.77 = 28.80 = 10.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 128 10. B3 = 0.32 + 0.06 + 0.1.1.03 m³/s Volume flow downstream from the burning area: & VG2 = 23.29 kg/s & m B3 = 1.1.68 + 0.24 kg/s h u.71 + 0.496 (1 − 0.1 Fuel & m B7 = 1. B7 = 22684 kJ/kg h u.77 = 24. B3 = 22684 kJ/kg x F. B7 = x F.1. B7 = x H 2 O.1.087) ϑB7 = 32°C [89.66 m³/s Volume flow downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet): & VG6 = 9.03 + 0.4 Energy flows 10.087 .1 Energy input 10.15 m³/s 10.2.

496   –3 – 10 3 c B.5 · 10 · 32 – 8 · 10 · 32 ) = 1.4.344 + 0.344 kJ/kg K 1 − 0.24) · 22684 = 57391 kJ/s Sensible enthalpy flow of the fuel (Equation 42): & H B = (1.803 ⋅ 0.592 · (32 – 25) = 28 kJ/s 10. B = (1.2 = 1.3 ·10 – 4 · 63 – 4.6 ·10 – 7 · 632 + 5.8 + 7.55 kg/s ϑS1 = 63°C [145.844 kJ/kg K Enthalpy flow of the kiln feed (Equation 48): & H S1 = 28. tr ≈  0.29 + 1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 129 Mean specific thermal capacity for dry lignitic coal (Equation 43): 0.592 kJ/kg K Reaction enthalpy flow of the fuel (Equation 41): & ∆H R.087   Mean specific thermal capacity for the water in the coal: c H 2O ≈ 4.1.55 · 0.24) · 1.844 · (63 – 25) = 916 kJ/s .2 · 10 – 11 · 633 = 0.2 kJ/kg K Mean specific thermal capacity for moist lignitic coal (Equation 44): cB7 = cB3 = (1 – 0.2 Kiln feed & mS1 = 28.846 +  (1 + 1.087 · 4.1.087) · 1.29 + 1.4°F] Mean specific thermal capacity of the kiln feed (Equation 49): cS1 ≈ 0.

297 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the air fed in (Equation 50): & H L.4 Injection water Does not apply.06 · 10 – 8 · 42 – 2.tr = 15.4. air-intake fan = 337 kJ/s Mechanical performance (Equation 53): Pmech = (337 + 117) · 0.002) = 44.58 + 23. tr = 23.1.002 kg/kg ϑ L.tr = 1.5 Mechanical performance Pmech.297 · (4 – 25) = -1223 kJ/s 10.3 Air λG1 = 1.75 · 10 – 5 · 4 + 8.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 130 10.1.3843 & VL.2°F] Sum of the air volume flows fed in (Equation 39): & ∑ VLi = (1.4.58 m³/s & VL11. 10.3843 · 15.1.U = 4°C [39.1.17 m³/s xD = 0.4.88 · 1.1.88 m³/s i Mean specific thermal capacity of the air fed in (Equation 52): cp. min.86 · 10 – 11 · 43 = 1.1.L.297 + 5.17) (1 + 1. kiln drive = 117 kJ/s .9 = 409 kJ/s Pmech. total = 44.608 · 0.

0234 = 0.1.0083 > 0. C2S.2 Energy output 10.2137 – 1.S10 = 2.0234 – 6.0632 = 0.1.6498 Clinker phases (Equations 57 through 60): x C 3S.85 · 0.S10 = 4.0234 = 0.071 .868 · 0.65 · 0.071 · 0.S10 = 2.188 x C3A.0143 – 0 = 0.602 · 0.0010 = 0.4. 10.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed Chemical analyses of the solid substance average samples.S10 = 3.6641 – 0.0067 The following then results: x CaOSO .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 131 10.718 · 0. each according to Table 10.S10 = 0 3 CaO bound in the clinker phases (Equation 54): x CaO* .128 x C 4 AF.563 x C 2S.043 · 0.1.2137 – 0.692 · 0. S10 = 0.43 · 0. C3A and C4AF in the clinker SO3 bound to the CaO in the clinker (Equation 55 or 56): 0.1 C3S.4.0083 + 1.292 · 0.4.0632 – 1.2.1.2.6498 – 7.563 = 0.754 · 0.

S1 = 1.274 · 0. 10.84 kg/s & mSt5 = 0 kg/s & mS10 = 18.S1 = 1.4304 = 0.785 · 0.4148 < 0.7404 x MgCO3 .3380 = 0.1.274 · 0.4 Balance equations & mS1 = 28.St1 = 0 10.1.4.274 · 0.2.7683 x MgCO3 .3256 = 0.4.00 kg/s & mSt12 = 0 kg/s Reaction enthalpy flows (Equations 67 through 79): 1) Evaporation of H2O: & ∆H R1 = 2446 (0.3380 – 0.785 · 0.4.St1 = 2.3256 = 0.0190 · 0.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust Does not apply.916 · (0. and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust a) kiln feed (Equations 61 through 64): 1.1.2.55 – 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 132 10.1.1.0204 · 28.4306 > 0.55 kg/s & mSt1 = 0.1.4304 The following then results: x CaCO3 .4235 The following then results: x CaCO3 .0003 b) raw gas dust (Equations 61 through 64): 1.4304) = 0.2 CaCO3.84) = 1386 kJ/s .2.

84) = 978 kJ/s 3) Organic clay components: & ∆H R3 = -32786 (0.0008 · 0.0015 · 28.00 = -2369 kJ/s .0402 · 28.55 – 0.0004 · 28.00 = 170 kJ/s 9) Formation of β-C2S: & ∆H R9 = -700 · 0.7683 · 28.55 – 0.55 – 0.55 – 0 · 0.188 · 18.84) = 37895 kJ/s 6) Pyrite: & ∆H R6 = -12914 (0.0499 · 0.0021 · 0.128 · 18.071 · 18.84) = -1346 kJ/s 4) MgCO3 dissociation: & ∆H R4 = 1396 (0.0003 · 28.84) = -139 kJ/s 7) Formation of C4AF: & ∆H R7 = -67 · 0.55 – 0.00 = -86 kJ/s 8) Formation of C3A: & ∆H R8 = 74 · 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 133 2) Decomposition of clay: assumption: 100%-illite & ∆H R2 = 884 (0.84) = 12 kJ/s 5) CaCO3 dissociation: & ∆H R5 = 1778 (0.7404 · 0.

25 m³/s ϑ G1 = 330°C [626°F] ϑ L11 = 278°C [532.00 = -5016 kJ/s 11) Formation of K2SO4: & ∆H R11 = -9690 (0. 10.0838 yCO 2 .03 m³/s & VL11 = 23.2 Water evaporation Does not apply.84 – 0.0067 · 18.1.00 + 0.0448 = 1 – 0. G1 = 0.0010 · 28. G1 = (1 – 0.563 · 18.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 134 10) Formation of C3S: & ∆H R10 = -495 · 0.1.2680 yO 2 .2.S = 1386 + 978 – 1346 + 12 + 37895 – 139 – 86 + 170 – 2369 – 5016 – 903 = 30582 kJ/s 10.0838) · 0.4°F] y H 2O.2680 – 0.4. G1 y N 2 .0014 · 0.2.55) = -903 kJ/s Sum of the reaction enthalpy flow of the kiln feed (Equation 80): & ∆H R.0489 = 0.0838) · 0.3 Waste gas losses & VG1 = 28.0448 = 0.6034 .4.0838 – 0.2925 = 0. G1 = (1 – 0.

25 · 1.366 = 1.489 + 9.540 kJ/m³ K c p.1.2 · 10 – 11 · 3303 = 0.993 kJ/kg K .54 + 0.297 + 5.301 + 3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 135 a) Raw gas Mean specific thermal capacity of the raw gas (Equations 83 through 87): c p.0838 · 1.06 · 10 – 8 · 2782 – 2.22 · 10 – 11 ·3303 = 1. L11 ≈ 1.90 · 10 – 11 · 3303 = 1.497 (330 – 25) = 12798 kJ/s b) Cooler vent air Mean specific thermal capacity of the cooler vent air (Equation 52): cp.CO 2 = 1.268 + 1.904 + 0.52 · 10 – 5 · 330 + 2.05 · 10 – 5 · 330 + 9. N 2 = 1.O 2 = 1.G1 = 0.320 kJ/m³ K c p.633 + 9.2.35 · 10 – 11 ·3303 = 1.497 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the raw gas (Equation 82): & H G1 = 28.0448 · 1.75 · 10 – 5 · 278 + 8.6 · 10 – 7 · 3302 + 5.631 · 10 – 4 · 330 – 4.03 · 1.904 kJ/m³ K c p.65 · 10 – 8 · 3302 – 3.6034 · 1.32 + 0.01 · 10 – 11 ·3303 = 1.606 · 10 – 7 · 3302 + 8.319 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the cooler vent air (Equation 89): & H L11 = 23.4.916 · 10 – 4 · 330 – 9.86 · 10 – 11 · 2783 = 1.319 (278 – 25) = 7759 kJ/s 10.366 kJ/m³ K c p.8 + 7. H 2O = 1.84 kg/s ϑ St1 = 330°C [626°F] Mean specific thermal capacity of the raw gas dust (Equation 49): CSt1 ≈ 0.021 · 10 – 7 · 3302 – 7.304 + 1.3 · 10 – 4 · 330 – 4.4 · 10 – 9 · 3302 – 1.4 Dust losses & mSt1 = 0.

5 Incomplete combustion & VG1.793 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the clinker (Equation 94): & H S10 = 18.1.00 · 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 136 Enthalpy flow of the raw gas dust (Equation 90): & H St1 = 0.921 · 10 – 4 · 120 – 5.84 · 0.0007 Reaction enthalpy flow (Equation 93): & ∆H R.CO = 25.2.793 (120 – 25) = 1355 kJ/s . tr = 25.2.369 · 10 – 7 · 1202 + 2.68 m³/s y CO.68 · 0.4.0007 · 12645 = 227 kJ/s 10.tr.6 Clinker & mS10 = 18.993 (330 – 25) = 254 kJ/s 10.4.729 + 5.124 · 10 – 10 · 1203 = 0.1.00 kg/s ϑ S10 = 120°C [248°F] Mean specific thermal capacity of the raw gas dust (Equation 95): CS10 = 0.G1 = 0.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 137 10. V = 720 kJ/s & Q W.4. D = 4266 kJ/s & Q W.2.1.8 Uncoupled heat Does not apply. . 10.7 Radiation and convection: For calculation examples.3 Energy balance Energy output (Equation 108): & E out = 30582 + 12798 + 7759 + 254 + 227 + 1355 + 720 + 360 + 4266 + 486 + 252 = 59059 kJ/s Reaction enthalpy flow of the fuel including the balance remainder (Equation 109): & ∆H R. see [31]: & Q W. K = 252 kJ/s 10.6% of the balance sum.4.T = 486 kJ/s & Q W.4.1.C = 360 kJ/s & Q W.1.2. B = 59059 – 28 – 916 + 1223 – 409 = 58929 kJ/s Balance deficit: 58929 – 57391 = 1538 kJ/s This corresponds to 2.

tr = 7.2.1 Solid substance mass flows & mS10 = 18.1 Clinker cooler 10. tr = 37.00 + 0.1.2.35 ⋅ 7.18 m³/s & VL10.18 m³/s & VL9.2.00 kg/s & mSt9 = 0.18 = 0.35 + 0. tr = 6.18 (1 + 1.73 Hot clinker mass flow (Equation 111): & mS8 = 18.0020 kg/kg Secondary air volume flow (Equation 38): & VL8 = 7. tr = 7.2 Balancing of the partial systems 10.72 kg/s 10.08 m³/s xD = 0.608 · 0.37 = 18.002) = 7.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 138 10.73 m³/s Secondary air dust mass flow (Equation 110): & mSt8 = 0.2 Gas volume flows & VL8.608 · 0.1.002) = 37.35 kg/s & VL8.37 kg/s 6.20 m³/s Cooler intake air volume flow (Equation 38): & VL10 = 37.08 (1 + 1.20 m³/s .

May 1992

Specification Vt 10

Page 139

10.2.1.3 Energy flows

10.2.1.3.1 Energy input

& VL10 = 37.20 m³/s

ϑ U = 4°C [39.2°F]

Pmech, intake air fan = 337 kJ/s

cp,L10 = 1.297 kJ/m³ K (for the calculation, see above) The enthalpy flow of the hot clinker results from the balance remainder from the energy balance. Enthalpy flow of the cooler intake air (Equation 113): & H L10 = 37.20 · 1.297 (4 – 25) = -1014 kJ/s The enthalpy flow of the injection water does not apply here. Mechanical performance (Equation 114): Pmech, K = 337 · 0.9 = 303 kJ/s

10.2.1.3.2 Energy output

& VL9 & VL8

& = VL4 = 6.75 m³/s = 7.20 m³/s

& & mSt9 = mSt4 = 0.35 kg/s & mSt8 = 0.37 kg/s

ϑ L4

= 853°C [1567.4°F]

& QW,T = 486 kJ/s

May 1992

Specification Vt 10

Page 140

Enthalpy flow of the clinker (for the calculation, see above): & H S10 = 1355 kJ/s Radiation and convection loss flow of the cooler including the kiln hood:

& Q W, K = 252 kJ/s

The uncoupled heat flow does not apply here. Enthalpy flow of the cooler vent air (for the calculation, see above): & H L11 = 7759 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the tertiary air at the calcinator (Equations 52 and 89): cp,L4 = 1.297 + 5.75 · 10 – 5 · 8.53 + 8.06 · 10 – 8 · 8532 – 2.86 · 10 – 11 · 8533 = 1.387 kJ/m³ K & H L4 = 6.75 · 1.387 · (853 – 25) = 7752 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the tertiary air dust at the calcinator (Equations 95 and 99): CSt4 = 0.729 + 5.921 · 10 – 4 · 8.53 – 5.369 · 10 – 7 · 8532 + 2.124 · 10 – 10 · 8533 = 0.975 kJ/kg K & H St4 = 0.35 · 0.975 · (853 – 25) = 283 kJ/s Energy balance for the tertiary air duct:

& & & & & H L9 + H St9 = H L4 + H St4 + Q W, T = 7752 + 283 + 486 = 8521 kJ/s

The iterative calculation then results in the following: ϑ L9 = ϑ St9 ≈ 901°C [1653.8°F]

May 1992

Specification Vt 10

Page 141

Enthalpy flow of the secondary air (Equations 52 and 89): Cp,L8 = 1.297 + 5.75 · 10 – 5 · 901 + 8.06 · 10 – 8 · 9012 – 2.86 · 10 – 11 · 9013 = 1.390 kJ/m³ K & H L8 = 7.2 · 1.39 (901 – 25) = 8767 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the secondary air dust (Equations 95 and 94): CSt8 = 0.729 + 5.921 · 10 – 4 · 901 – 5.369 · 10 – 7 · 9012 – 2.124 · 10 – 10 · 9013 = 0.982 kJ/kg K & H St8 = 0.37 · 0.982 (901 – 25) = 318 kJ/s The evaporation enthalpy flow of the water does not apply here.

10.2.1.3.3 Energy balance

Enthalpy flow of the hot clinker (Equation 115): & H S8 = 8767 + 318 + 8521 + 7759 + 1355 + 252 + 1014 – 303 = 27683 kJ/s Hot clinker temperature:

ϑS8 =

& H S8 + 25 & mS8 ⋅ cS8 & mS8 = 18.72 kg/s

cS8 (1389°C [2532.2°F]) = 1.084 kJ/kg K The following then results: ϑS8 =

27683 + 25 = 1389°C [2532.2°F] 18.72 ⋅ 1.084

5 – 0.3 · 3.2°F] Heat-transition coefficients (Equations 98.85   + 0.1 Pre-cooling zone LB = -0.4.168 + 11. 99 and 101): 200  200   200  αconv = 0.2 + 4.2°F]: & H S10 (4°C [39.2°F]: & H L11 (4°C [39.00 · 0.168 W/m² K 100  100   100  αrad = 0.1.2°F]) = 18.076   = 9.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 142 10.0 + 3.667 · π · 3.731 · (4 – 25) = -276 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the cooler vent air at 4°C [39. pre − cool = 20.298 · (4 – 25) = -688 kJ/s .25 · 1.499 W/m² K 473 − 277 αtotal = 9.2°F]) = 25.667 W/m² K Radiation and convection loss flow of the pre-cooling zone (Equation 117): & Q W.9 · 5.2 m ϑ W.2 m Da = 3.4.67 · 10 – 8 2 3 4734 − 277 4 = 11.2 – 0.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area Enthalpy flow of the clinker at 4°C [39.1.2.4 Evaluation quantities 10.2.m ≈ 200°C [392°F] ϑ U = 4°C [39.1.2 (3.2.499 = 20.2) (200 – 4) 1 = 122 kJ/s 1000 10.

89 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 143 Energy loss of the cooling area (Equation 118): & Eloss.3380 xNF.S6 = 0. cooling area = 1355 + 276 + 7759 + 688 + 252 + 122 = 10452 kJ/s 10.S1 = 0.S1 = 0.6316 (sum 1 to 8 in Table 10) Apparent degree of precalcining of the kiln feed at the kiln inlet (Equation 121): 0.2.6316 ϕ apparent .3 Cooling area efficiency Enthalpy flow of the clinker at 1450°C [2642°F]: & H S10 (1450°C [2642°F]) = 18.2.00 · 1.9016 = 0.9016 (sum 1 to 8 in Table 10) xNF.3380 0.2 Calcinator xCO2 .0532 xCO2 .106 · (1450 – 25) = 28370 kJ/s Cooling area efficiency (Equation 119): η cooling area = 1 – 10452 = 0.4.S6 = 0.635 28370 + 276 10.0532 = 1 − 0.1.

3) The infiltrated air volume flow of the preheater is uniformly distributed over the four stages.2.3 Preheater Calculation of the mass flows and degrees of separation according to Equations (123). 7) The dust from the rotary kiln and from the tertiary air duct contains 10% alkalis and 90% non-volatile components.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 144 10. (130) and (131). 2) One-fourth of the moisture volume flow from the kiln feed is desorbed in each of the four uppermost stages. 4) The following aspects are taken into account for the reaction enthalpy flow in the preheater: • evaporation of H2O • degradation of clay • organic components • MgCO3 dissociation • pyrite 5) The sum of the reaction enthalpy flows in the preheater is uniformly distributed among the four stages. Assumptions made for the calculations: 1) The conveying air volume flow for the kiln feed enters into stage 1. (127). 6) The cyclone of the calcinator is assigned the number 5. . (126).

80 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 145 Results: energy balance i 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 alkali balance ϑ 63 330 480 638 744 – – cS 0.84 15.92 3.19 21.14 34.993 1.84 – 7.844 0.55 43. Thus.98 0.110 – – & VG – 28.62 62.67 49.595 1.619 – – & QW – 180 180 180 180 – – & ∆H R – 223 223 223 223 – – & mS 28.092 1.55 – 34.87 ξ – 0.050 1.53 25.97 25.26 – & mSt – 0.96 21.497 1.31 28.3 Estimation of error Table 16 provides an overview of how possible errors in the measured or input quantities (column 2) impact on the fuel energy consumption when it is calculated according to Equation (109) or according to Equation (41) and then related to the clinker mass flow (columns 3 and 4).69 0.03 23. the table provides information about the necessary measuring precision for the individual measured quantities during a performance test.87 0.G – 1.555 1.35 – 10. .55 – – & mS 28.67 48.43 6.09 – – cp.02 25.26 – – – & mSt – 0.

00 – – 2466 111.4 107. Designation Clinker Discharged tertiary air dust Kiln feed a) meter status b) calculated lignitic coal (main burner) lignitic coal (secondary burner) Raw gas dust Bypass dust Returned tertiary air dust t/d 1555 – 2506 kg/s 18.3 73.0 – 30 28.35 .29 1.55 1. calcinator and tertiary air duct).24 0.Solid substance mass flows (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.84 – 0.4 Tables (The operands are printed in boldface!) Table 9 .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 146 10.

57 0.76 5.45 – 0.22 0.72 0.47 1.07 – – – – – Kiln feed downstream from the cyclone 1a 14.90 90.32 0.15 0.10 70.45 – 0.Chemical analyses of the solid substance average samples in % by weight of the substance entailing loss on ignition (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.85 0.58 – 45.31 34.23 – 27.30 6. No.10 99.96 – Raw gas dust 14.54 17.60 0.72 100.03 0.34 – 66.21 35.85 4.84 4.65 3.05 0.32 – – 2.70 – 42.26 99.00 99.68 0.78 0.15 33.04 – – 0.42 – – 1.49 – 0.51 – 43.15 – 61.62 – 47.10 61.08 0.82 – – 2.44 – 0.01 0.83 – Clinker 21.25 27.36 0.80 – – – 1b 13.25 48.57 0.35 0.04 0.02 0.30 34.64 0.46 97.81 80.08 1.64 0.41 1.92 0.99 – – 1.45 2.14 0.22 34.30 1.45 0.51 99.67 – 0.10 0.37 6.10 0.23 35.03 0.001 0.51 – 42.64 99.59 – – 1.16 0.75 64.16 0.15 0.75 98.13 3.77 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 147 Table 10 .40 – – – 5 19.23 31.61 – 0.25 4.16 – 5.57 0.31 – 0.57 0.76 – 31.51 – 43.13 – – 1.30 – 33.72 4.43 100.54 0.85 100.70 0.05 0.23 0.80 0.02 12.14 – – 1.31 – 33.008 0.12 4.32 – – – 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 SiO2 Al2O3 TiO2 P2O5 Fe2O3 Mn2O3 CaO MgO SiO3 S 2– Cl – K2O Na2O ignition loss sum 1-14 sum 1-8 C CO2 H2O (< 110°C) H2O (> 110°C) CaOfree .50 – 43.60 – 0.76 – – – 3 14.43 Fuel ash 8.27 62.95 – – 1.12 – – 1.58 100.07 1. calcinator and tertiary air duct).04 0.57 0.91 4.80 – – – 2 14.83 0.75 63.63 0.06 64.08 66.26 34.13 – 33.56 0.42 1.22 7.72 0.48 – – – 4 15. Components Kiln feed 13.02 – – 1.

70 4.20 4. calcinator and tertiary air duct).-% wgt.00 60.-% Fuel (main burner) 22.-% wgt.60 Fuel (secondary burner) 22.Fuels (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.684 8.-% wgt.74 49.53 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 148 Table 11 .74 49.70 4.56 21.20 4. Designation lower calorific value water ash carbon hydrogen sulfur nitrogen oxygen volatile components 1) 1) Unit kJ/kg wgt.-% wgt.27 0.-% wgt.27 0. .-% wgt.-% wgt.60 Relative to the dry substance.53 0.684 8.56 21.00 60.

2°F] 845°C [1553°F] 853°C [1567.8°F] 278°C [532.6°F] 32°C [89.2°F] 32°C [89.4°F] 744°C [1371. calcinator and tertiary air duct).2°F] 1389°C [2532.6°F] .4°F] 1024°C [1875.2°F] 901°C [1653. Designation Kiln feed Raw gas Kiln feed (cyclone 2) Kiln feed (cyclone 3) Kiln feed (cyclone 4) Kiln feed (cyclone 5) Tertiary air (calcinator) Kiln inlet gas Hot clinker Secondary air Cooler vent air Clinker Ambient air Fuel (main burner) Fuel (secondary burner) Temperature (°C [°F]) 63°C [145.4°F] 330°C [626°F] 480°C [896°F] 638°C [1180.Temperatures (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.4°F] 120°C [248°F] 4°C [39.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 149 Table 12 .

0 92400 82900 (33600) (25900) 24200 83400 25. calcinator and tertiary air duct).75 23.18) 6.19 1.25 32.06 0. but often very imprecise since gas analysis at the kiln inlet is not representative.c.68 23.8 8.32) (7.c.66 (10.03 (9.18 3. Designation Dry gas Moist gas Gas composition.52 3800 (10900) 1900 1.89 3. = under standard conditions .03 0.20 1.03 24.)/h 60.3 vol-% of H2O 3800 (10900) 1900 1.4 6.61 0.26 4.39 134000 5800 700 5000 37.90 21.03) 0.19 1.73 23.05 (3.c.08 1.c.07 0.05 (3.20) 6.)/h 67.)/h 244000 m³(s.25 133600 5800 700 5000 37.05 217500 10.08 O2 14.76 CO2 12.)/h clean gas raw gas gas after burning area kiln inlet gas 1) secondary air 1) tertiary air cooler vent air cooler intake air conveying air (kiln feed) burner air (secondary burner) burner air (main burner) infiltrated air (preheater) infiltrated air (calcinator) infiltrated air (kiln hood) 1) 1) moist gas … – – – – … – – – – H2 O vol-% m³(s.02 CO vol-% 0.04) 0.c.Gas volume flows and composition (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.15) (7.62 29. related to dry gas m³(s.60 0.17 100900 88700 36500 (26000) 24300 83700 28.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 150 Table 13 .6 8.52 Calculated.42 m³(s. s.39 air with 0.

Designation Input Fuel main burner secondary burner sensible enthalpy balance remainder Kiln feed Air Mechanical performance Sum kJ/s kJ/kg Kl 29262 28129 28 1538 916 –1223 409 59059 1626 1563 1 85 51 –68 23 3281 Output Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed Water evaporation Waste gas losses raw gas cooler vent air Dust losses Incomplete combustion Clinker Radiation and convection Preheater Calcinator Rotary kiln Tertiary air duct cooler + kiln hood Heat uncoupling Sum Fuel energy consumption including the balance remainder 30582 — 12798 7759 254 227 1355 720 360 4266 486 252 — 59059 1699 — 711 431 14 13 75 40 20 237 27 14 — 3281 58929 3274 .Energy balance of the kiln system (kiln system with a cyclone preheater. calcinator and tertiary air duct).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 151 Table 14 .

Designation Input Hot clinker (balance remainder) Cooler intake air Mechanical performance kJ/s kJ/kg Kl 27683 –1014 303 26972 1355 252 7759 8521 8767 318 – – 26972 581 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 152 Table 15 .635 1538 –57 17 1498 75 14 431 473 487 18 – – 1498 Sum Output Clinker Radiation and convection Cooler vent air Tertiary air and tertiary air dust Secondary air Secondary air dust Heat uncoupling Water evaporation Sum Evaluation quantities Energy loss of the cooling area in kJ/kg Kl Cooling area efficiency (1450°C [2642°F]) .Energy balance of the cooler (kiln system with a cyclone preheater. calcinator and tertiary air duct).

43 0.12 1. calcinator and tertiary air duct).42 2.51 –0.08 0.09 0.Influence of measuring errors on the calculated fuel energy consumption (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.93 0.74 0.com .22 –1. DE 19707 Phone: (302) 234-0237 Fax: (302) 234-0239 Toll-free: (800) 437-0237 e-mail: ledtrans@compuserve.29 1.28 1.15 0.3 0. Input quantity Relative error in the input parameter in % Relative error in the fuel energy consumption in % (Equation 109) Relative error in the fuel energy consumption in % (Equation 41) 2 10 3 Hu fuel Ash content of fuel Mass flow of fuel Mass flow of raw gas dust Mass flow of clinker Volume flow of dry raw gas Volume flow of dry cooler vent air Temperature of clinker Temperature of raw gas Temperature of kiln feed Temperature of cooler vent air Radiation and convection loss of preheater Radiation and convection loss of kiln SiO2 content in the clinker CO2 content in the kiln feed CO2 content in kiln feed and raw gas dust 2 10 10 50 3 10 10 5 2 10 2 50 10 –2 5 5 0 –0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 153 Table 16 .27 0.24 Translation by: Duvekot Translators 2219 Brackenville Road Hockessin.

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