TRANSLATION

GERMAN ASSOCIATION OF CEMENT WORKS (VDZ)
Tannenstrasse 2 4 Düsseldorf Germany

Execution and Evaluation of Kiln Performance Tests

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY COMMITTEE KILN PERFORMANCE TESTS TASK FORCE

May 1992

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May 1992

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. 2.
2.1 2.2

PRELIMINARY REMARKS ...........................................................................7 DESCRIPTION OF THE CLINKER BURNING PROCESS ...........................8
Reactions of the kiln feed............................................................................................................... 8 Burning process............................................................................................................................ 10

3.
3.1 3.2

EXECUTION OF KILN PERFORMANCE TESTS .......................................16
Mode of operation of the kiln system.......................................................................................... 16 Duration of the performance test................................................................................................ 16

3.3 Measuring methods ...................................................................................................................... 17 3.3.1 Solid substances.................................................................................................................... 17 3.3.1.1 Sampling .......................................................................................................................... 17 3.3.1.2 Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 18 3.3.1.3 Mass flows ....................................................................................................................... 25 3.3.2 Gases..................................................................................................................................... 27 3.3.2.1 Sampling .......................................................................................................................... 27 3.3.2.2 Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 28 3.3.2.3 Volume flows................................................................................................................... 28 3.3.3 Liquids.................................................................................................................................. 30 3.3.3.1 Heating oil ....................................................................................................................... 30 3.3.3.2 Water................................................................................................................................ 30 3.3.4 Temperatures ........................................................................................................................ 31 3.3.5 Pressures ............................................................................................................................... 32 3.3.6 Strokes and rotational speeds................................................................................................ 32 3.3.7 Electricity consumption ........................................................................................................ 33 3.3.8 Ambient conditions............................................................................................................... 33 3.3.9 Ensuring the precision of the measurements and analyses ................................................... 34

4.

EVALUATION OF KILN PERFORMANCE TESTS.....................................35

4.1 Balancing of the entire system..................................................................................................... 35 4.1.1 Solid substance mass flows .................................................................................................. 40 4.1.2 Gas volume flows ................................................................................................................. 42

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4.1.2.1 Dry gas............................................................................................................................. 42 4.1.2.1.1 Minimum air volume flow.......................................................................................... 42 4.1.2.1.2 Air proportionality factor............................................................................................ 45 4.1.2.1.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood ..................................................................................... 46 4.1.2.1.4 Secondary air .............................................................................................................. 47 4.1.2.1.5 Cooler intake air ......................................................................................................... 48 4.1.2.1.6 Raw gas ...................................................................................................................... 48 4.1.2.1.7 Gas downstream from the burning area ...................................................................... 50 4.1.2.1.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) ....................................................... 50 4.1.2.2 Water vapor...................................................................................................................... 51 4.1.2.2.1 Humidity in the air...................................................................................................... 51 4.1.2.2.2 Water from the kiln feed............................................................................................. 51 4.1.2.2.3 Water from the fuel..................................................................................................... 52 4.1.2.2.4 Injection water ............................................................................................................ 52 4.1.2.3 Moist gas.......................................................................................................................... 52 4.1.2.3.1 Air............................................................................................................................... 52 4.1.2.3.2 Raw gas ...................................................................................................................... 53 4.1.3 Liquid mass flows................................................................................................................. 53 4.1.4 Energy flows......................................................................................................................... 53 4.1.4.1 Energy input..................................................................................................................... 53 4.1.4.1.1 Fuel ............................................................................................................................. 53 4.1.4.1.2 Kiln feed ..................................................................................................................... 57 4.1.4.1.3 Air............................................................................................................................... 60 4.1.4.1.4 Injection water ............................................................................................................ 62 4.1.4.1.5 Mechanical performance ............................................................................................ 62 4.1.4.2 Energy output................................................................................................................... 62 4.1.4.2.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed .............................................................................. 62 4.1.4.2.1.1 C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF in the clinker ............................................................... 64 4.1.4.2.1.2 CaCO3 and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust ............................... 65 4.1.4.2.1.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust....................................................................... 66 4.1.4.2.1.4 Balance equations ................................................................................................ 66 4.1.4.2.2 Water evaporation....................................................................................................... 70 4.1.4.2.3 Waste gas losses ......................................................................................................... 70 4.1.4.2.4 Dust losses .................................................................................................................. 71 4.1.4.2.5 Incomplete combustion............................................................................................... 72 4.1.4.2.6 Clinker ........................................................................................................................ 72 4.1.4.2.7 Radiation and convection ........................................................................................... 74 4.1.4.2.8 Uncoupled heat ........................................................................................................... 78 4.1.4.3 Energy balance................................................................................................................. 79 4.2 Balancing of the partial systems.................................................................................................. 80 4.2.1 Clinker cooler ....................................................................................................................... 80 4.2.1.1 Solid substance mass flows.............................................................................................. 83 4.2.1.2 Gas volume flows ............................................................................................................ 84 4.2.1.3 Energy flows ........................................................................................................................... 84 4.2.1.3.1 Energy input ............................................................................................................... 84 4.2.1.3.1.1 Hot clinker ........................................................................................................... 84 4.2.1.3.1.2 Cooler intake air .................................................................................................. 85 4.2.1.3.1.3 Injection water ..................................................................................................... 85 4.2.1.3.1.4 Mechanical performance ..................................................................................... 85

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4.2.1.3.2 Energy output ............................................................................................................. 85 4.2.1.3.2.1 Clinker, clinker dust ............................................................................................ 85 4.2.1.3.2.2 Radiation and convection .................................................................................... 86 4.2.1.3.2.3 Uncoupled heat .................................................................................................... 86 4.2.1.3.2.4 Cooler vent air, secondary air, tertiary air ........................................................... 86 4.2.1.3.2.5 Water evaporation................................................................................................ 86 4.2.1.3.3 Energy balance ........................................................................................................... 86 4.2.1.4 Evaluation quantities........................................................................................................ 87 4.2.1.4.1 Pre-cooling zone ......................................................................................................... 87 4.2.1.4.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area .......................................................................... 89 4.2.1.4.3 Cooling area efficiency............................................................................................... 89 4.2.1.4.4 Cooler efficiency ........................................................................................................ 90 4.2.2 Calcinator (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater)..................................................... 90 4.2.2.1 Determination of the degree of precalcining.................................................................... 92 4.2.3 Preheater (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater) ...................................................... 93 4.2.3.1 Degree of separation of individual cyclone stages........................................................... 94

5. 6.
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7

EVALUATION OF THE SUBSTANCE CIRCULATION SYSTEMS ............98 EVALUATION OF THE CEMENT CLINKER ..............................................99
Degree of burning......................................................................................................................... 99 Particle-size distribution.............................................................................................................. 99 Grindability ................................................................................................................................ 100 Chemical composition ................................................................................................................ 100 Phase composition ...................................................................................................................... 103 Microscopic examination........................................................................................................... 103 Cement testing ............................................................................................................................ 104

7. 8. 9.
9.1 9.2

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSIONS ........................................................105 FORMULA SIGNS AND INDICES ............................................................106 LITERATURE REFERENCES...................................................................112
General literature references .................................................................................................... 112 Technical literature references.................................................................................................. 113

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10. EVALUATION EXAMPLE 1 (KILN SYSTEM WITH A CYCLONE PREHEATER, CALCINATOR AND TERTIARY AIR DUCT) ...........................118
10.1 Balancing the entire system .................................................................................................. 118 10.1.1 Solid substance mass flows ................................................................................................ 118 10.1.2 Gas volume flows ............................................................................................................... 119 10.1.2.1 Dry gas ...................................................................................................................... 119 10.1.2.1.1 Minimum air volume flow...................................................................................... 119 10.1.2.1.2 Air proportionality factors ...................................................................................... 120 10.1.2.1.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood ................................................................................. 120 10.1.2.1.4 Secondary air .......................................................................................................... 121 10.1.2.1.5 Cooler intake air ..................................................................................................... 121 10.1.2.1.6 Raw gas .................................................................................................................. 122 10.1.2.1.7 Gas downstream from the burning area .................................................................. 123 10.1.2.1.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) ................................................... 124 10.1.2.1.9 Infiltrated air (preheater)......................................................................................... 125 10.1.2.1.10 Infiltrated air (calcinator)...................................................................................... 125 10.1.2.2 Water vapor............................................................................................................... 125 10.1.2.2.1 Humidity in the air.................................................................................................. 125 10.1.2.2.2 Water from the kiln feed......................................................................................... 126 10.1.2.2.3 Water from the fuel................................................................................................. 127 10.1.2.2.4 Injection water ........................................................................................................ 127 10.1.2.3 Moist gas (examples) ................................................................................................ 128 10.1.3 Liquid mass flows............................................................................................................... 128 10.1.4 Energy flows....................................................................................................................... 128 10.1.4.1 Energy input.............................................................................................................. 128 10.1.4.1.1 Fuel ......................................................................................................................... 128 10.1.4.1.2 Kiln feed ................................................................................................................. 129 10.1.4.1.3 Air........................................................................................................................... 130 10.1.4.1.4 Injection water ........................................................................................................ 130 10.1.4.1.5 Mechanical performance ........................................................................................ 130 10.1.4.2 Energy output ............................................................................................................ 131 10.1.4.2.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed .......................................................................... 131 10.1.4.2.1.1 C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF in the clinker ........................................................... 131 10.1.4.2.1.2 CaCO3, and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust........................... 132 10.1.4.2.1.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust................................................................... 132 10.1.4.2.1.4 Balance equations ............................................................................................ 132 10.1.4.2.2 Water evaporation................................................................................................... 134 10.1.4.2.3 Waste gas losses ..................................................................................................... 134 10.1.4.2.4 Dust losses .............................................................................................................. 135 10.1.4.2.5 Incomplete combustion........................................................................................... 136 10.1.4.2.6 Clinker .................................................................................................................... 136 10.1.4.2.7 Radiation and convection: ...................................................................................... 137 10.1.4.2.8 Uncoupled heat ....................................................................................................... 137 10.1.4.3 Energy balance .......................................................................................................... 137 10.2 Balancing of the partial systems........................................................................................... 138 10.2.1 Clinker cooler ..................................................................................................................... 138 10.2.1.1 Solid substance mass flows ....................................................................................... 138

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10.2.1.2 Gas volume flows...................................................................................................... 138 10.2.1.3 Energy flows ............................................................................................................. 139 10.2.1.3.1 Energy input ........................................................................................................... 139 10.2.1.3.2 Energy output ......................................................................................................... 139 10.2.1.3.3 Energy balance ....................................................................................................... 141 10.2.1.4 Evaluation quantities................................................................................................. 142 10.2.1.4.1 Pre-cooling zone ..................................................................................................... 142 10.2.1.4.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area ...................................................................... 142 10.2.1.4.3 Cooling area efficiency........................................................................................... 143 10.2.2 Calcinator ........................................................................................................................... 143 10.2.3 Preheater ............................................................................................................................. 144 10.3 10.4 Estimation of error................................................................................................................ 145 Tables...................................................................................................................................... 146

including significant remarks pertaining to measurement technology.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 7 1. The units indicated in Section 8 apply to all numerical value equations. stroke numbers and rotational speeds as well as on the consumption of electricity. kiln performance tests not only serve to gather data on the performance of the kiln system (clinker output. Preliminary remarks In cement plants. this specification. Additional information in this context would be necessary in order to obtain a precise measurement. The evaluation equations are employed in two practical examples in Sections 10 and 11. The practical feasibility of the evaluation is always the main priority in the formulation of the numerical value equations. Information on pressure levels. specifically contains information for carrying out performance tests. of the operation and of the cement quality. as well as for the reduction of the level of emissions. in contrast. The important aspect here is the absolute value of the measured values. in addition to the evaluation. . specific fuel-energy consumption). This specification deals primarily with energy and mass balances. but also to create a reliable foundation for the optimization of individual system components. only serves to assess the kiln operation. For this reason.

aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and iron oxide (Fe2O3).1 Description of the clinker burning process Reactions of the kiln feed Portland cement clinker is made from a finely-ground raw material mixture consisting of limestone. and some of them in parallel to each other (see Figure 1). Figure 1 . some of them consecutively. The oxidic main components are calcium oxide (CaO).Schematic representation of the clinker formation reaction.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 8 2. a process in which several chemical reactions take place. marl. . clay and sand. 2. silicon dioxide (SiO2). The raw material mixture is heated up and burned in the rotary kiln to form clinker.

First of all. Moreover. it reaches a fraction of about 20% to 30% by weight. Fe2O3 as well as of activated SiO2 and CaO. calcination of the CaCO3 and concurrent binding of Al2O3. dissociation) of the calcium carbonate into CaO and CO2. activation of the silicates through water expulsion and modification change. since it pro- . disintegrate again once the clinker melt starts to form at about 1280°C [2336°F]. clay minerals (SiO2-Al2O3-H2O) and iron ore (Fe2O3). however. C2S) already starts at about 700°C [1292°F]. the physically bound water is removed when the kiln feed is preheated. At a sintering temperature of around 1450°C [2642°F]. while the chemically bound water is removed up to a temperature of about 700°C [1292°F]. the formation of belite (“C2S”) from SiO2 on CaO (“free lime”) is completed. in short. • once a maximum of 1200°C [2192°F] is reached. crystallization of the melt to form C3A and C4AF. the alite and the belite remain virtually unchanged in their form and composition. After the complete decarbonation. various calcium aluminate and calcium ferrite compounds are formed as transition phases which. and forced above 1300°C [2372°F] due to melt formation. • upon cooling. which practically takes place between 800°C and 900°C [1472°F and 1652°F]. the kiln feed has lost about 35% of its dry weight. Owing to solid-state reactions. reaction of the belite with the remaining free lime to form alite (“C3S”). • starting at 1250°C [2282°F]. In this process. The melt plays a significant role in the finishing burn of the clinker.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 9 The clinker formation reactions can be depicted as a model broken down into the following temperature stages: • starting composition: calcite (CaCO3). quartz (SiO2). • between 700°C and 900°C [1292°F and 1652°F]. • up to about 700°C [1292°F]. the formation of the dicalcium silicate (2CaO · SiO2. This is followed by the calcination (decarbonation.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 10 motes the formation of tricalcium silicate (3CaO · SiO2. In this context. in short. which are operated at 1. in short. which is located at the lower end of the rotary kiln. see [2-4.5 to 3 rpm. which is indispensable for the strength properties of the cement. Consequently. qualitative differences occur which depend on the composition of the kiln feed [48-53]. Rotary kilns are fire-proof. the cooling of the cement clinker has to be optimally harmonized with the required clinker properties. After completion of the sintering. the kiln feed coming from the preheater moves towards the main burner of the rotary kiln. On the other hand. cement clinker is produced in rotary kiln systems with kiln feed preheaters located upstream and clinker coolers located downstream (for other process techniques. brick-lined tubes. In order to reach the sintering temperature of about 1350°C to 1500°C [2462°F to 2732°F] that is necessary for the formation of the clinker phase and in view of the unfavorable heat-conduction conditions in the kiln feed.0°. C4AF) crystallize out. 6-9 and 11-15]). C3A) and aluminate ferrite (4CaO · Al2O3 · Fe2O3. and the tricalcium aluminate crystallizes with the finest grain possible. 2. As the melt cools down.2 Burning process In Germany nowadays. essentially tricalcium aluminate (3CaO · Al2O3. burning tempera- . in short. having diameters of up to 6 meters and inclined at an angle ranging from about 2. As a result of the inclination and rotation. the cooling rate should not be so high that the melt becomes glassy as it solidifies.5° to 4. Rotary kilns with preheaters located upstream have a length that is 10 to 17 times longer than their diameters. the cement clinker has to be cooled off so quickly that the tricalcium silicate does not disintegrate. C3S) from solid dicalcium silicate and CaO.

In order to be able to reach such high temperatures. which usually consist of 10 satellite tubes attached around the periphery of the rotary kiln. afterwards. the gas is once again blown from the top to the bottom through the moist granules in the dry chamber. and it is once again separated from the gas in the cyclones. a distinction is made as to whether they are operated with a grate-type preheater or with a cyclone preheater. the clinker dissipates its energy to the cooling air that is flowing in a cross current or countercurrent.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 11 tures ranging from 1800°C to 2000°C [3272°F to 3632°F] or even higher are needed. An intermediate gas fan blows the process gas of the rotary kiln from the top to the bottom through the layer of granules in the hot chamber. the combustion air is preheated to about 600°C to 1000°C [1112°F to 1832°F] in a clinker cooler located downstream from the sintering process. . raw meal mixture is fed into the waste gases prior to entering the uppermost cyclone stage. With grate-type coolers. it re-enters the gas stream prior to the next-lower cyclone stage. The cyclone preheater essentially consists of four to five cyclone stages arranged one above the other in a tower that is 50 to 100 meters high. After the coarse dust has been separated out. and it is then fed to the rotary kiln burner as so-called secondary air. Grate-type coolers. The dry. When it comes to kiln systems. Grate-type preheaters consist of a traveling grate on which the kiln feed that has been made into granules or briquettes travels through a closed tunnel that is divided into a hot chamber and a dry chamber. In the case of the rotary coolers or satellite coolers. The process gases coming from the rotary kiln flow through the cyclone preheater from the bottom to the top. depending on the clinker output. the clinker that drops out of the rotary kiln after the sintering operation is cooled in a crosscurrent. satellite coolers and rotary coolers are employed as clinker coolers in the cement industry.

the waste gases of the grate-type preheater have a temperature of about 90°C to 120°C [194°F to 248°F]. Upon leaving the cyclone preheater. Figure 2 .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 12 Both with cyclone preheater systems and with grate-type preheater systems. .Schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with cyclone preheaters and waste gas utilization. the waste gases have a temperature of around 290°C to 400°C [554°F to 752°F]. As a function of the process. depending on the number of stages and capacity flow ratio. Figure 3 schematically shows a rotary kiln system with a grate-type preheater. the process gas from the rotary kiln has a temperature of about 1000°C to 1200°C [1832°F to 2192°F]. The kiln feed entering the rotary kiln reaches temperatures of 820°C to 850°C [1508°F to 1562°F] at precalcining degrees of up to about 90%. Figure 2 shows a schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with a cyclone preheater and waste gas utilization.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 13 Figure 3 . This method is employed with old systems in particular. the combustion air is conveyed in a separate gas duct. In the case of new systems with cyclone preheaters. the so-called “tertiary air duct”. which leads from the clinker cooler past the rotary kiln.Schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with a grate-type preheater. the amount of energy supplied is such that 70% to 95% of the calcium carbonate of the kiln feed has already decarbonated by the time it enters the rotary kiln. The combustion air for the secondary burner can be conveyed through the rotary kiln. In this process. Since about 1970. together with the waste gas from the main burner. and from there to the secondary burner. the further development of kiln systems has led to the process involving precalcining. The principle involved in both techniques for conveying the combustion . which is designated as the calcinator. the fuel energy is divided up over two burners and. however. new systems with cyclone preheaters are provided with an enlarged combustion chamber between the rotary kiln inlet and the lowermost cyclone. that is to say. with the secondary burner located between the rotary kiln and the preheater. For this purpose.

up to 30% – in systems with a tertiary air duct.Precalcining process with and without tertiary air duct. In rotary kiln systems having a calcinator but without a tertiary air duct.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 14 air is shown in Figure 4. calcinator. Figure 4 . reciprocating grate-type cooler and tertiary air duct. consisting of a fourstage cyclone preheater. up to 60% – of the total fuel energy needed can be employed in the secondary burner. . A rotary kiln system with precalcining. is shown in Figure 5. rotary kiln.

calcinator and tertiary air duct.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 15 Figure 5 .Schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with a cyclone preheater. .

types of fuel. partial load). The essential operating data (for instance. Neither shortly before nor during the performance test should there be any changes in the composition of the kiln feed or of the fuel (for example. 3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 16 3. The latter has to be safeguarded by means of appropriate measures. the mass flow of the kiln feed. out. . should already have been established one week prior to the start of the performance test. the energy fraction of the secondary fuel. Possible criteria for interrupting the performance test should also be laid down in advance.2 Duration of the performance test A kiln performance test should last for at least 24 hours. 3. If the type of combined drying and grinding operation changes (in. composition of the kiln feed.1 Execution of kiln performance tests Mode of operation of the kiln system The considerations elaborated upon below apply exclusively to the stationary operation a kiln system. type of combined drying and grinding operation) should already have been determined during the planning phase of the performance test and. the performance test should preferably last 72 hours. preferably 48 or 72 hours. in cases of major changes vis-à-vis normal operations. by changing the mixed bed).

the sampling amount and the sampling frequency have to be adapted to the prevailing test conditions. The samples are taken from the belt (for instance.3 Measuring methods 3. when two partial streams having different concentrations of the component to be examined are combined.1 Sampling The objective of sampling is to obtain a random sample of each solid substance mass flow that is representative of the parent population being examined. which could give rise to insufficient blending by the time the sampling site is reached.5 Sampling frequency every hour every four hours every four hours every four hours every four hours 1) every four hours 1) every two hours every four hours . Thus.5 ≥ 0. for instance. It must be ensured that the sample is taken over the entire width of the material stream in order to take into account possible de-mixing phenomena. bucket elevator. the hot-meal pipe of a cyclone). apron conveyor). at the discharge end of the conveyors (for instance. every 12 hours.5 ≥ 0.3.1.1 Solid substances 3. Table 1 shows an example of a sampling plan.3. screw conveyor) or from the meal pipes (for example. Table 1 . then this non-homogeneity has to be taken into consideration by enlarging the scope of the sampling.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 17 3.5 ≥ 0.5 ≥ 0. conveyor belt.5 ≥ 0. Sampling amount in kg ≥1 ≥ 0.Sampling amount and sampling frequency in rotary kiln performance tests. that is to say.5 ≥ 0. The safety regulations that apply in such cases must be observed. Material clinker coal dust (main burner) coal dust (secondary burner) kiln feed raw gas dust tertiary air dust bypass dust Kiln feed in the preheater 1) With partial-stream suction.

further decarbonation of CaCO3 or a residual burn-out of carbon.2 Analysis Table 2 shows an example of an analysis plan. for example. As a matter principle. For practical reasons. 3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 18 A partially decarbonated kiln feed should be cooled off rapidly and air-tight so as to avoid.3. the average sample is subsequently formed on the basis of the pre-dried individual samples. . the samples can also be taken at time-staggered intervals. Samples of solid substances from flowing gases (raw gas dust. tertiary air dust) can also be taken by means of isokinetic suction of a partial stream. homogenized and combined to form a weighed average sample for the duration of the performance test. in the raw material) should be determined on larger individual samples. clinker). the individual and average samples should be stored air-tight in order to avoid a falsification of the H2O and CO2 contents. As a matter of principle. In this process. High levels of moisture (for instance. The individual samples are pre-comminuted (for example. This ensures that the best suited decomposition and analysis methods will be selected for each particular case. the laboratory should be informed about the source and presumed composition of the samples. care should be taken to ensure that the suction is representative.1.

ISO 351 DIN 51727. DIN 51400 DIN 51722 1) subtraction DIN 51872 DIN 51856 DIN 51855 Grinding for complete passage through the sieve. ISO 1928 DIN 51777.09 mm (for CaOfree 0. ISO 1988. Material Coal dust Analysis sampling. ISO 1171 DIN 51729 DIN 51720. ISO 579. ISO 3733 DIN EN 7 DIN 51721 1) DIN EN 41. ISO 1928 DIN 51718. ISO 331.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 19 Table 2 . ISO 1015 DIN 51719. 0. ISO 2309 DIN 51900. ISO 589. ISO 687. sample preparation calorific value H 2O ash ash composition volatile components C and H S Cl N O – Analysis method DIN 51701 (Part 3).Analysis and analysis method for rotary kiln performance tests. ISO 609. ISO 625 DIN 51724 (Part 1). tertiary air dust sample preparation loss on ignition . ISO 334. ISO 562 DIN 51721.063) 1000°C [1832°F] ± 25 K (10 min) or 950°C [1742°F] ± 25 K until weight constancy is achieved Oil sampling calorific value H 2O ash C and H S Cl N – Natural gas composition O S Clinker. ISO 333 subtraction DIN 51570 (Parts 1 to 3) DIN 51900. ISO 352. ISO 587 DIN 51722 (Part 1). ISO 348.

subsequent correction of the results c) fluxing agent tablet (1200°C [2192°F]. determination of SO3. 100% by weight of Li2B4O7 as the decomposition agent. subsequent correction of the results Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) c) thermal reaction in a moist O2 stream at 1000°C [1832°F] so as to form hydrogen chloride Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) introduction of the hydrogen chloride into an acetic silver nitrate solution and coulometric titration The weighed-in amount has to be adapted to the low Cl – content of the clinker (5 to 10 g) a) gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream. dilution of 1:5). K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. determination of SO3. Smith decomposition. flame photometry (emission.1% by weight of LiF + 8.9% by weight of SrO + 2% by weight of V2O5 as the decomposition agent. 90% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 10% by weight of LiF as the decomposition agent. analysis including SO3 and alkali b) fluxing agent tablet (1050°C [1922°F].L. the results can deviate from one method to another . absorption) a) method according to Franke b) method according to Schläpfer and Bukowski Depending on the boundary conditions. Na2O CaOfree a) fluxing agent tablet (≤ 1000°C [1832°F]. dilution of 1:10).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 20 X-ray fluorescent full analysis 2) Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Σ SO3 K2O. Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically J. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. 81% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 8. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. dilution of 1:5 to 1:20).

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 21 Kiln feed sample preparation CO2 Grinding for complete passage through the sieve. 100% by weight of Li2B4O7 as the decomposition agent. drying at 110°C [230°F]. cooling in a desiccator. weighing Thermal desorption in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] a) KF titration b) IR detection c) gravimetric Decarbonation with hydrochloric acid. determination of SO3. dilution of 1:5 to 1:20).09 mm Thermal degradation in the inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] or chemical degradation with acid a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection Weighing. dilution of 1:10). determination of SO3. subsequent correction of the results c) fluxing agent tablet (1200°C [2192°F].1% by weight of LiF + 8. analysis including SO3 and alkali b) fluxing agent tablet (1050°C [1922°F]. 0. 81% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 8. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. 90% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 10% by weight of LiF as the decomposition agent. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. dilution of 1:5). subsequent correction of the results H2O < 110°C [230°F] 4) Σ H 2O Corg X-ray fluorescent full analysis 2) Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) c) thermal reaction in a moist O2 stream at 1000°C [1832°F] so as to form hydrogen chloride .9% by weight of SrO + 2% by weight of V2O5 as the decomposition agent. thermal reaction of the carbon compounds in an oxygen stream a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection a) fluxing agent tablet (≤ 1000°C [1832°F].

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 22 Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) introduction of the hydrogen chloride into an acetic silver nitrate solution and coulometric titration The weighed-in amount has to be adapted to the low Cl – content of the clinker (5 to 10 g) Σ SO3 a) oxidation with bromine water. thermal reaction of the carbon compounds in an oxygen stream a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection . pick-up in a cooled (≤ 15°C [59°F]) ammoniacal ZnSO4 or CdCl2 solution. flame photometry (emission. Smith decomposition. Na2O J. gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream. iodometry Grinding for complete passage through the sieve. absorption) Dissolution with hydrochloric acid containing SnCl2 in the presence of Cr (metallic). Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically K2O. 0.L. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7.09 mm Thermal degradation in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] or chemical degradation with acid a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection S2– Raw gas dust 5) (cyclone preheater kiln) sample preparation CO2 Σ H 2O Thermal desorption in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] a) KF titration b) IR detection c) gravimetric Corg Decarbonation with hydrochloric acid.

Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically J. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods.9% by weight of SrO + 2% by weight of V2O5 as the decomposition agent. determination of SO3. gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. dilution of 1:5 to 1:20). 81% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 8. 100% by weight of Li2B4O7 as the decomposition agent.L. flame photometry (emission.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 23 X-ray fluorescent full analysis 2) a) fluxing agent tablet (≤ 1000°C [1832°F]. Smith decomposition. 90% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 10% by weight of LiF as the decomposition agent.1% by weight of LiF + 8. dilution of 1:5). determination of SO3. iodometry Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Σ SO3 K2O. analysis including SO3 and alkali b) fluxing agent tablet (1050°C [1922°F]. Na2O S2– . K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. pick-up in a cooled (≤ 15°C [59°F]) ammoniacal ZnSO4 or CdCl2 solution. absorption) Dissolution with hydrochloric acid containing SnCl2 in the presence of Cr (metallic). dilution of 1:10). subsequent correction of the results Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) c) thermal reaction in a moist O2 stream at 1000°C [1832°F] so as to form hydrogen chloride Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) introduction of the hydrogen chloride into an acetic silver nitrate solution and coulometric titration The weighed-in amount has to be adapted to the low Cl – content of the clinker (5 to 10 g) a) oxidation with bromine water. subsequent correction of the results c) fluxing agent tablet (1200°C [2192°F].

Smith decomposition. gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream.L. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. Na2O Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Σ SO3 S2– Dissolution with hydrochloric acid containing SnCl2 in the presence of Cr (metallic). Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically Σ H 2O Corg K2O. iodometry . 0. pick-up in a cooled (≤ 15°C [59°F]) ammoniacal ZnSO4 or CdCl2 solution. thermal reaction of the carbon compounds in an oxygen stream a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection J.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 24 Bypass dust 5) Kiln feed in the preheater5) Raw gas dust 5) (grate-type preheating kiln) sample preparation CO2 Grinding for complete passage through the sieve.09 mm Thermal degradation in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] or chemical degradation with acid a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection Thermal desorption in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] a) KF titration b) IR detection c) gravimetric Decarbonation with hydrochloric acid. flame photometry (emission. absorption) Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) coulometric titration d) gravimetric a) oxidation with bromine water.

. the solid materials might also contain fluoride. Prior to the test. for example. CaO.3. the examinations should be performed in the delivery state. This can lead to erroneously low results at low levels of Cl– in the raw material. In the case of sensitive samples that are hygroscopic or that react during the drying process. clinker contains FeO and MnO. Fe2O3. Al2O3. SO3. The duration of the clinker weighing can differ from the performance test duration. K2O. MgO. the laboratory should be informed to this effect. During the reducing burning process. even over shorter periods of time.) Nitric acid extraction does not always dissolve all of the halides out of the sample matrix. the trucks or railroad cars are weighed both empty and fully loaded (varying amounts of fuel in the tank. The maximum error is smaller with a duration of 48 hours. (Σ SO3. barium oxide and strontium oxide or S2–.3 Clinker: Mass flows The clinker is loaded onto trucks or railroad cars and weighed on calibrated scales (for example.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 25 1) 2) Since there are no specifications for mineral oils. the weighing procedure should be checked. If this is already known to be so. In addition to the above-mentioned compounds. < 105°C [221°F]. several measuring intervals are needed. For this purpose. but it should not be shorter than 24 hours. 3) 4) 5) 3. every 4 hours with different clinker production. Alternatively. Dust as well as the kiln feed in the preheater can also contain highly volatile compounds such as. dirt).1. shipping scales). In each case. An interim result should be determined every 4 to 6 hours in order to obtain information about the time course of the mass flow. Na2O should be checked by other analytical methods. Mn2O3. P2O5. The measured value from the performance test is then multiplied by the resulting correction values. the analysis method for fuels is employed. TiO2. for instance. K2O. (NH4)2SO4. Continuously operating clinker scales can be adjusted by the above-mentioned method. Na2O. SiO2.

Dust: Dust is preferably weighed on calibrated scales (for example. the dust mass flow is determined by means of an isokinetic partial stream suction (in this context. For this reason. Translator’s note: See Section 8 for the list of abbreviations used in the formulas. the fuel energy consumption is usually balanced by means of a comparison of the energy output with the energy input (see Section 4. Kiln feed: The kiln feed mass flow is calculated. Here. The following relationship applies: Fuels: Fuels are weighed on industrial scales which have been previously adjusted. the precision levels achieved in this manner are often not sufficient for evaluating the kiln system. also see the VDZ Specification titled “Dust quantity measurements in cement plants” [17]).1. If weighing is not possible. care should be taken to ensure that the cleaning of the filter is switched to continuous operation before the dust is discharged.1). a second clinker weighing procedure is not necessary if it is ensured that all of the dust mass flows remain constant. .3).4. However. It results from the component balance of the sum of the non-volatile substances (see Section 4.1. shipping scales).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 26 In the case of immediately consecutive kiln performance tests.

Table 3 .2 Gases For the gas analysis. 3. O2. in the bypass gas and in the gas downstream from the burning area. CO 1) CO2. In the gas downstream from the burning area. CO CO2. CO CO2. the time intervals at which the probes need to .3. CO – – – – – – Discontinuous measurement is often sufficient. while information on volume flow measurement is to be found in the VDZ Specification titled “Quantity measurement of gases by means of velocity measurements” [16]).1 Sampling In the raw gas.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 27 3. Table 3 shows an example of a measurement plan. O2. various gas compositions can occur over the cross section of the duct.Volume flow measurement and gas analysis in rotary kiln performance tests. Measuring site raw gas bypass gas (with cooling air) bypass gas (without cooling air) downstream from the burning area kiln inlet tertiary air cooler intake air cooler vent air burner air (main burner) burner air (secondary burner) conveying air (kiln feed) 1) Volume flow measurement pitot tube pitot tube – – – pitot tube – pitot tube pitot tube + rated values pitot tube + rated values rated values Gas analysis CO2.3. in the case of double-string cyclone preheaters. there are also differences in the individual strings. Moreover. O2. O2. more information can be obtained from the VDZ Specification titled “Continuous gas analysis in cement plants” [20]). CO 1) CO2. O2.2.

it is not possible to specify a representative measuring site. the measuring gas should be sampled dry.3 Volume flows The volume flows are primarily measured with a pitot tube.2 Analysis The gas analysis should be carried out continuously.2. O2 and CO are required. determinations of CO2.5 m into the rotating part of the kiln in order to avoid falsifications of the measured results due to infiltrated air that gets into the inlet gasket or as a result of falling kiln feed material. the sampling probe should be built laterally into the refractory brickwork. 3.2. The sampling opening should project about 0. the pitot tube should be installed in the . At the very least. both with respect to location and to time. without injection water or scrubbing water. For this reason. In the rotary kiln inlet. Since the measuring site is also frequently exposed to falling material. that is to say. cooler vent air). 3.3. So as to prevent falsifications of the concentration values due to the scrubbing out of individual gas components. The probe should be cooled. Sampling sites in the upper third of the rotary kiln cross section are recommended. With volumes flows that fluctuate markedly (for instance. the process gas usually displays great differences in concentration. The probe in the gas downstream from the burning area should be cooled.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 28 be cleaned can be extended by placing the measuring gas sampling opening as far as possible from the meal inlet pipes.3.

deflection of the gas upstream from the measuring site. The bypass gas is measured with a pitot tube after admixing the cooling air. c) conversion of the clean gas volume flow to raw gas conditions using an O2 or CO2 balance or an H2O balance (additional gas analysis and measurement of the volume flow in the clean gas is necessary. expensive but accurate). b) calculation on the basis of a CO2 and an H2O balance of the kiln system (imprecise when secondary fuels are used) [30].May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 29 gas duct and the differential pressure as well as the appertaining temperature should be recorded continuously. c) air balance of the cooler (often the most precise way with continuous volume flow measurement of the cooler vent air after the dust removal). There are three methods for measuring the raw gas volume flow: a) direct measurement with a pitot tube (in the case of unfavorable measuring conditions. only possible if clean gases of the kiln can be detected in their entirety. substantial pressure fluctuations or a high amount of dust [for instance. this is often very imprecise). b) fan characteristic curves (only possible for fans with adjustable rotational speeds). There are three methods for measuring the volume flow of the cooler intake air: a) inlet nozzles (often very imprecise). The bypass gas volume flow prior to the admixture is derived from the gas analysis before and after the admixture of the cooling air. . > 50 g/m³]. for example.

1.1 Heating oil Heating oil can be sampled either by means of an automatic sampling system or else a sample is taken from the oil tank. The conveying air volume flow of the coal dust and.3).3. Moreover. Heating gas that has been measured volumetrically has to be converted to the standard conditions. 3.3 Liquids 3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 30 The volume flow of infiltrated air at the kiln hood is calculated on the basis of the open cross-sectional area and of the differential pressure at the kiln hood (see Section 4. 3. the result that is read off the meter has to be corrected by means of a calibration curve. The amount of oil that passes through the burner nozzle per unit of time is for the most part measured volumetrically by means of an oil meter. if applicable.3.2. which changes as a function of the temperature. it is necessary to take into account the density. of the kiln feed is derived from the nominal data of the fan.2 Water The water mass flow of a cooling chute (cooling water) or into the clinker cooler (injection water) is measured with water meters that have to be installed in advance.3.3.3. . The cross-sectional surface area is either measured or estimated. In order to determine the actual volume flow that passes through.

Measuring site cold clinker hot clinker kiln feed in the preheater (e. Table 4 .9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0. hot meal) bypass dust raw meal (for instance.9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.Temperature measurement in rotary kiln performance tests.cooler kiln hood calcinator preheater 1) continuously continuously continuously once per day continuously continuously 1) continuously once per day once per day – twice per day once per day 2) twice per day 3) once per day once per day once per day if available with grate-type coolers 3) with rotary coolers or satellite coolers .4 Temperatures Table 4 shows the example of a measuring plan.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 31 3. kiln feed) Measuring device compensation temperature in adiabatic vessel.rotary kiln surface temperature .g.9) 2) Frequency every hour continuously twice per day once per day once per day fuels once per day raw gas bypass gas (with cooling air) gas downstream from the burning area tertiary air upstream from the preheater tertiary air downstream from the cooler cooler intake air cooler vent air burner air (main burner) burner air (secondary burner) conveying air (kiln feed) surface temperature .3. Pt 100 quotient pyrometer NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or surface temperature of the conveying line with partial-radiation pyrometer Pt 100 or surface temperature of the conveying line with partial-radiation pyrometer Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni NiCr Ni NiCr Ni NiCr Ni meteorological station Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni like kiln feed partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.

• waste gas fan. the strokes and rotational speeds of the following aggregates should be measured or recorded by the operating measuring pick-ups: • cooler.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 32 3. • kiln. The above-mentioned differential pressures have to be measured with damped measuring pick-ups. 3.6 Strokes and rotational speeds In order to evaluate the kiln operation. • preheater (stages 1 through N). the following differential pressures should be measured or recorded by the operating measuring pick-ups: • cooler (chambers 1 through N). • kiln inlet.5 Pressures In order to evaluate the kiln operation. • bag house fan / ESP fan.3. • bypass fan.3. . • upstream from the waste gas fan. • cooler vent fan. • downstream from the waste gas fan. • kiln outlet. • grate-type preheater.

3. • bypass fan. the consumption of electricity should be considered as an input item of the energy balance. • cooler vent fan.3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 33 3. pressure and relative humidity of the ambient air are recorded by a meteorological station. . for example. The following consumers should be taken into consideration: • cooler fans. • waste gas fan. • kiln feed feeding system. Consequently. 8 hours. when the balancing space is calculated. If several consumers are connected to one meter.7 Electricity consumption In order to evaluate the kiln operation. • fuel feeding system.8 Ambient conditions The temperature. the meter readings of the main consumers should be recorded at intervals of. • rotary kiln drive. A large proportion of the electricity is converted into heat in the kiln system. • burner air fan. • cooler drives.3. the energy distribution should be measured with prong-type instruments.

In addition to regularly checking the status and settings during the performance test. Measuring instrument gas analyzer gas meters thermal elements resistance thermometer pyrometer pressure transducer humidity measuring device Comparative measuring instrument or method gas analyzer with another measuring principle wet-chemical analysis testing by the Board of Weights and Measures test thermometer and normal thermometer (for instance. platinum resistance thermometer) black body radiator tungsten band lamp (only above 500°C [932°F]) liquid pressure gage (for instance.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 34 3.9 Ensuring the precision of the measurements and analyses The precision of a kiln examination depends on the systematic maintenance and upkeep of the measuring instruments. The time schedule for replacing wearing parts and for the function tests with comparative measured values depends on the measuring instruments and should be laid down appropriately. Table 5 provides an overview of possible comparative measuring methods. Table 5 . Checks and corrections should be documented and should be indicated on the measuring equipment used. miniscope or U-tube) sealed container with several aqueous saturated salt solutions The solid substance analyses have to be conducted by a laboratory that has sufficient experience with the execution of the analyses listed in Table 2.3. . it is also necessary to routinely replace wearing parts as preventive maintenance and to conduct function tests with comparative measured values (calibration). together with the date. Status checks should be made every hour and setting checks should be carried out at least before and after the performance test.Comparative measuring instruments or method for rotary kiln performance tests.

. rotary kiln (D) and cooler (K) with the mass and energy flows that exceed the balance limit as an example.1 Evaluation of kiln performance tests Balancing of the entire system When the mass balance is drawn up. the changes are only gradual. calcinator (C).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 35 4. the gas and solid substance mass flows should be balanced together. since there are interactions between both of these as a result of chemical reactions. tertiary air duct (T). With other kiln types. The following mass and energy flows have been taken into account: Incoming solid substance mass flows: & mS1 & m B7 & m B3 for the kiln feed for the fuel (main burner) *) for the fuel (secondary burner) *) Outgoing solid substance mass flows: & mS10 & mSt5 & mSt1 & mSt12 for the clinker for the bypass dust & for H Fl. as a result of which a separate presentation has not been provided. 4.C raw gas dust for the discharged tertiary air dust (only relevant in kiln systems with a tertiary air duct and high levels of dust in the tertiary air) *) Liquid or gaseous fuel can also be fed in. Figure 6 shows the balancing space of a kiln system with a cyclone preheater (V).

D & VFl. C & VFl. V Outgoing gas volume flows: & VL11 & VG1 & VG5 for the cooler vent air for the raw gas for the bypass gas Incoming liquid mass flows: & m H 2 O.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 36 Incoming gas volume flows **) & VL10 & VL7 & VL3 & VL1 for the cooler intake air for the burner air (main burner) for the burner air (secondary burner) for the conveying air (kiln feed) for the infiltrated air (kiln hood) for the infiltrated air (calcinator) for the infiltrated air (preheater) & VFl. . 1013 & hPA).10 for the cooler injection water Incoming energy flows: & H S1 & H B7 & H B3 for the kiln feed for the fuel (main burner) for the fuel (secondary burner) **) & The formula sign V below designates the volume flow related to standard conditions (0°C [32°F]. while the formula sign V designates the volume flow related to standard conditions after removal tr of the water-vapor fraction.

D & H Fl. H 2 O for the evaporation enthalpy of the cooler injection water & Q K.S & ∆H V. K for the uncoupled heat (cooler) . 10 Pmech Outgoing energy flows: & H S10 & H St5 & H St1 & H St12 & H L11 & H G1 & H G5 for the clinker for the bypass dust for the raw gas dust for the discharged tertiary air dust for the cooler vent air for the raw gas for the bypass gas for the reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed & ∆H R. V & ∆H R. B & H H 2 O.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 37 & H L10 & H L7 & H L3 & H L1 for the cooler intake air for the burner air (main burner) for the burner air (secondary burner) for the conveying air (kiln feed) for the infiltrated air (kiln hood) for the infiltrated air (calcinator) for the infiltrated air (preheater) for the reaction enthalpy of the fuels for the cooler injection water for the mechanical performance & H Fl.C & H Fl.

T & Q W. K for the incomplete burning for radiation and convection losses (preheater) for radiation and convection losses (calcinator) for radiation and convection losses (rotary kiln) for radiation and convection losses (tertiary air duct) for radiation and convection losses (cooler + kiln hood) .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 38 & ∆H R. D & Q W.CO & Q W. V & Q W.C & Q W.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 39 Figure 6 . rotary kiln and cooler with incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows. calcinator.Balancing spaces for preheater. tertiary air duct. .

Cooler vent air dust has not been taken into account.1. fuel (main burner). bypass dust. CaO. raw gas dust. SiO2. fuel (secondary burner). Mn2O3. Operands: In order to balance the mass flows. In the case of the latter.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 40 With rotary and satellite coolers. excess cooling air is released as cooler vent air. the waste gas is designated as “raw gas” and the dust as “raw gas dust”. With grate-type coolers. K .1 Solid substance mass flows Measured quantities: clinker. Therefore. The following applies: *) The formula sign x below stands for the mass concentration of the solids at the balance limit (= delivery condition in the laboratory). a component balance is drawn up of the sum of the non-volatile substances (for example. whereas in contrast. This & was taken into consideration in the figure by the uncoupled heat flow Q K. it is only partially used as such with gratetype coolers. MgO) whose mass concentration in the individual substance flows is designated by xNF *). the cooling air volume flow is used completely as combustion air in the process. 4. Al2O3. TiO2. When the waste gas leaves the preheater. Fe2O3. P2O5. it still contains relatively large amounts of dust. mass flow of the kiln feed. discharged tertiary air dust. some of the cooler vent air can be returned to the cooler as intake air via a fan once the dust has been removed and cooled (duothermal configuration). .

By using xG to designate the mass concentration of the substances that are released during calcination at about 1000°C [1832°F] until weight constancy is achieved.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 41 The loss on ignition can also be used for a rough estimate. the following applies to the kiln feed mass flow that actually becomes clinker (including discharged tertiary air dust): The ratio of kiln feed to clinker necessary for the clinker burning process then results from Equation (4): . the following applies analogously: The kiln feed mass flow necessary for the clinker burning process then results from Equation (2): As an approximation.

secondary air.3).2.1. burner air (main burner).1. cooler vent air (if present). cooler intake air (see Section 3. conveying air (kiln feed).2. raw gas. the following applies: 4. fuel (secondary burner). For this reason. bypass gas.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 42 Analogously. the combustible components (organically bound carbon.1 4.1. infiltrated air. Operands: 4. sulfide sulfur) of the kiln feed also have to be taken into account.1. the burning of all combustible substances has to be taken into consideration.2.1 Dry gas Minimum air volume flow In order to calculate the dry. . in addition to the fuel mass & & flows m B7 and m B3 . burner air (secondary burner). minimum air volume flow.3.2 Gas volume flows Measured quantities: fuel (main burner).

the following results & for the carbon mass flow mC. St5.St5 and x S. x C. the carbon content of the raw gas dust as xC. the following applies for mS.S1. This value can be calculated on the basis of elementary analyses of the fuel according to Equation (11): . S : Frequently.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 43 By designating the carbon content of the kiln feed as xC. S effectively fed into the kiln system: & Analogously.eff.St5 are approximately zero. St1 and the carbon content of the bypass dust as xC. The minimum air volume flow & VL. eff. min to burn all of the combustible substances then amounts to the following: lmin is the minimum air demand of the fuel in question in its raw state.

lmin can be calculated as an approximation using the lower calorific value of the fuel *).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 44 Accordingly. . *) The formula sign hu below stands for the lower calorific value of the coal at the balance limit threshold (= delivery condition in the laboratory). Calorific value-related combustion gas quantities of secondary fuels can differ markedly from the indicated uppermost and lowermost values. the numerical value equation is the following: For oil and coal. The following applies: For lignitic coal and coal: For heating oil: Table 6 shows examples of elementary analyses and calorific value-related combustion gas quantities of lignitic coal and coal.

3 1.3 21.5 0.4 0.011 0.4 0.1 27.096 0.3 61.7 0.101 0.8 4.92 Coal dust U L 0.2 1. M = mean value.4 56.9 16.2 Air proportionality factor The following applies in general: .341 0.024 0.1 0.370 0.Elementary analyses of lignitic coal dust and coal dust with the combustion gas quantities calculated therefrom and related to the lower calorific value in the raw state.6 0.8 3.7 3.4 8.2.76 calorific value (raw) in MJ/kg: Calorific value-related combustion gas quantity in kg/MJ: minimum air demand carbon dioxide water vapor moist flue gas 20.332 0.382 0.6 7.374 0.22 0.6 4.016 0.392 0.7 22.339 0. Analyses (raw) in % by weight: L water ash C H O N S 8.35 M 1.1.2 Lignitic coal dust M 11.1 65.7 4.096 0.0 2.339 0.1 3.9 19.344 0.05 U 2.373 0.3 71.014 0.9 29.5 0.9 57.375 L = lowermost value.0 25.4 4.022 0.8 11.2 4.347 0.0 8.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 45 Table 6 .7 0.021 0.1.7 2.099 0.3 2. U = uppermost value 4.098 0.80 14.094 0.5 23.2 19.6 21.5 59.

neither is present. as a rule related to dry measuring gas): The expression in the denominator of the lower fraction corresponds to N2. the equation yields an excessively high gas velocity. In reality.1. the gas velocity has to be multiplied by a dimensionless factor which lies between 0.9.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 46 The air proportionality factor in the waste gas results as an approximation from the values of the gas analysis (in the case of Orsat analyses and measuring methods that work with extraction. Here. As a consequence. Thus.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood The volume flow of infiltrated air at the kiln hood can be roughly calculated using the Bernoulli equation. it has been set at 0.1.75.6 and 0. the following applies: . Consequently. for actual practice. The following applies theoretically: Equation (17) presupposes a frictionless flow and an incompressible medium. 4.

N F & VFl. the result is a calculation equation for the volume flow of infiltrated air: wherein ∆p = differential pressure at the kiln hood in Pa = density of the air in the cross section F in kg/m³ = density of the ambient air under standard conditions (s.2. tr = volume flow of infiltrated air in m³ (s.c.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 47 & With v = V/F for the gas velocity and with the density ratio ρ L /ρ L.c. D. . tr can only be calculated very imprecisely.1. 4.) in kg/m³ = open cross-section area in m² ρL ρ L.)/s As a simplification. the density of the ambient air can be taken as the basis for ρ L.N for dry air (the water present in the air is ignored here).1.4 Secondary air The following applies for the volume flow of the secondary air (also see Figure 12): & Due to non-representative gas analyses in the kiln inlet. VL8.

1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 48 4.1. The following applies: wherein and & m C.1.6 Raw gas 1.5 Cooler intake air The following applies for the volume flow of the cooler intake air (also see Figure 12): 4. Calculation on the basis of the CO2 balance The following applies for the CO2 balance: & VCO 2 . eff.2. .S stems from the decarbonation and the combustion of organic components of the kiln feed.2.1. S according to Equation (8).

87 · 10 – 5 m³ of CO2/kJ for coal.G5 results from the gas analysis and from the measurement of the gas volume flow in the bypass gas: With the result is the calculation equation for the raw gas volume flow: . B stems from the combustion of the fuel. Equation (26) can be employed: wherein µCO = 5.01 · 10 – 5 m³ of CO2/kJ for lignitic coal 2 and µCO 2 = 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 49 & VCO 2 . The following applies: If the elementary analysis is not available. & VCO 2 .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 50 2. A gas analysis downstream from the burning area is needed for this purpose. tr can be calculated according to [30].8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) & VG6.1. 4. tr is calculated according to Equations (30) or (31) on the basis of the raw gas volume flow. the calculated values are often very imprecise. Calculation on the basis of the clean gas volume flow This calculation is only possible if the entire clean gas volume flow of the kiln system can be determined and if no auxiliary burner is operated in the combined drying and grinding mill.2. CO2 balance: O2 balance: 4.1.1. Due to non-representative gas analyses in the kiln inlet. .1.2.7 Gas downstream from the burning area & VG2.

2 Water from the kiln feed .2.2.2 4.1 Water vapor Humidity in the air The humidity in the air results from the relative humidity and from the saturation pressure of water-vapor at ambient temperature.1. The following applies: wherein xD = water content in kg of H2O/kg of dry air = relative humidity ϕ p and ps (ϑ L.2.1.2. the following applies for the moisture volume flow of the air: 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 51 4.2.1.U) = saturation pressure of the water vapor in Pa = ambient pressure in Pa Then.

1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 52 4.2.3.3 4.1. .2. λ G1 should be calculated with the gas concentration values which would result after the mixing of raw gas and bypass gas.1 Moist gas Air The following applies in general: Altogether.4 Injection water 4. is fed into the kiln system.1.3 Water from the fuel 4.2.2.1.2.2.

1.2 Raw gas λ G1 should be calculated with the gas concentration values which would result after the & mixing of raw gas and bypass gas.4. fuel (secondary burner). 4.1 Energy input Fuel Combustion: .3 Liquid mass flows Measured quantities: fuel (main burner). a reference temperature of 25°C [77°F] was likewise selected for the calculation of the individual enthalpy flows.3.G5 often equals y H 2 O.2.10 often equals zero. 4. With grate-type coolers.1.G6 . y H 2 O.1.4 Energy flows Since standard reaction enthalpies and calorific values are related to 25°C [77°F].1. water.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 53 4. VH 2 O. 4.1.1 4.4.

the following applies (also see Figure 7): wherein xF. The following applies in the case of oil (also see Figure 8): wherein ρ = density of the oil in kg/m³ at 15°C [59°F].B = sum of the volatile components in the coal. ϑ . the water content of the lignitic coal has to be taken into account. however. Here. Equation (43) also applies. to dry lignitic coal.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 54 Sensible enthalpy flows: *) For dry coal.2 kJ/kg K for 0°C [32°F] < ϑ < 100°C [212°F]. The following then applies: wherein c H 2 O ≈ 4. *) The formula sign c or cp below stands for the mean specific thermal capacity c p 25°C [77° F] . as an approximation.

Mean specific thermal capacity of dry coal (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 55 Figure 7 . .

.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 56 Figure 8 .Mean specific thermal capacity of oil (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).

519 2.817 2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 57 The specific thermal capacity of the heating gas is calculated on the basis of the mean specific thermal capacities of the individual gas components according to Table 7.531 hydrogen sulfide 1) Use C3H6 use for CmHn.555 1.Mean specific thermal capacity cp of the fuel gas components (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).101 1. = under standard conditions 4. The following applies here: Table 7 .) K 25°C [77°F] 100°C [212°F] 1.1.113 1.985 2.918 5.246 3. s.579 200°C [392°F] 1.631 4.270 1.1.402 2.156 4.4.c.582 2.717 5.602 methane ethylene acetylene propadiene n-butane propylene 1) CH4 C2H4 C2H2 C3H4 C4H10 C3H6 H 2S 1.579 4.c. Fuel gas component Specific thermal capacity cp in kJ/m³ (s.2 Kiln feed Sensible enthalpy flows: .137 2.172 5.700 2.

.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 58 The following applies as an approximation for the commonly employed composition of the kiln feed: The specific thermal capacities of individual components of the kiln feed are shown in Figure 9.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 59 Figure 9 .Mean specific thermal capacity of kiln feed components (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]). .

it is also possible to use the specific thermal capacity of dry air for the calculation. also see Figure 10).4.1.3 Air Sensible enthalpy flows: wherein (For the calculation of cp. As an approximation. j according to Equations (85) through (87).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 60 4. The following applies in this case: .1.

.Mean specific thermal capacity of gas components (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 61 Figure 10 .

4 Injection water As a rule. .1.4.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 62 4.2 4.1 Energy output Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed For the calculation of the reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed. In simplified form.5 Mechanical performance Within the balancing space.4. C3A. 4.1. C2S. the degradation reactions of the starting materials and the reactions for the formation of the clinker phases have to be taken into account. This is particularly true of the intake air fans and of the kiln drive. the following applies: 4. Table 8 is a compilation of the main reactions that take place during the clinker burning process. The data shown in the two right-hand columns are each related to the substance in the left-hand column. The actual reaction enthalpies to be employed result from balance equations.4. with the standard reaction enthalpies needed in each case (for the additional reaction enthalpies. C4AF in the clinker. 23 and 25 through 27]).1. the sensible enthalpy flow of the injection water can be ignored.1. it is first necessary to calculate the contents of C3S.1. For this purpose.1. the mechanical performance of the electric drives has to be taken into consideration. the contents of CaCO3 and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust as well as the contents of CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust.4. see [22.

2. Formation of C4AF Formation of C3A Formation of β -C2S 4 CaO + α-Al2O3 + α-Fe2O3 3 CaO + α-Al2O3 2 CaO + β -SiO2 3 CaO + β -SiO2 K2O = SO2 + ½ O2 C3A C4AF – 67 + 74 – 700 – 495 – 4452 – 33 + 20 – 121 – 113 – 776 β-C2S C3S 10. Formation of C3S 11. Formation of oxides and degradation reactions Evaporation of H2O Decomposition of • kaolinite (relative to Al2O3) • montmorillonite (relative to Al2O3) • illite (relative to Al2O3) kaolinite α-Al2O3 + 2 · β-SiO2 + H2O (fl) montmorillonite α-Al2O3 + 4 · β-SiO2 + n · H2O (fl) illite α-Al2O3 + 4 · β-SiO2 + m · H2O (fl) C + O2 MgCO3 CaCO3 CO2 MgO + CO2 CaO + CO2 + 1519 + 744 + 884 – 32786 + 1396 + 1772 – 6902 + 155 + 76 + 90 – 394 +118 + 178 – 828 H2O (fl) H2O (g) + 2446 + 44 3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 63 Table 8 . . Formation of K2SO4 1) α-K2SO4 Related to the substance in the left-hand column. 1.Reactions of the kiln feed and reaction enthalpies (298 K) during the production of Portland cement clinker. 8. 5. Reaction enthalpy 1) at 298 K kJ/kg kJ/mole Reaction Reaction equation I. 6. Organic clay components (relative to C) MgCO3 dissociation CaCO3 dissociation Pyrite (FeS2) 2 FeS2 + 5½ O2 α-Fe2O3 + 4 SO2 II. 4. 9. Formation of the clinker phases 7.

C2S. which consists primarily of C3S. C3A and C4AF in the clinker For normal Portland cement clinker or tertiary air dust. the following applies: For x SO 3 .1. the following applies: The following results from this: . S10 . S10 + 1.85 ⋅ x K 2 O.4.1. the clinker phases can be calculated according to Bogue [45 and 46]. C2S.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 64 4. S10 > 0.292 ⋅ x Na 2 O. S10 + 1. C3A and C4AF (TM > 0.64). The following applies: For x SO 3 .2. S10 . the value employed for the CaO bound in the clinker phases is the one that is obtained after the subtraction of the free CaO and of the CaO bound to SO3. S10 ≤ 0.1 C3S.292 ⋅ x Na 2 O.85 ⋅ x K 2 O. In this context.

1.2 CaCO3 and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust The content of CaCO3 and MgCO3 of the kiln feed results from the content of CO2 and CaO. Assuming that the CO2 is primarily bound to the CaO. the following applies in the case of 1.4.274 · x CO 2 ≤ x CaO : and in the case of 1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 65 4.1.2.274 · x CO 2 > x CaO : and .

For purposes of calculating the C2S content.4.2. it is assumed that Al2O3 and Fe2O3 have completely reacted with CaO to form C4AF and C12A7. 7) The fuel ash is present in the form of oxides.1.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust The content of CaCO3 results from the content of CO2 in the bypass dust.4 Balance equations The balance equations are based on the following assumptions and simplifications: 1) x H 2 O.1. .1.2. 4. St5 = 0 2) xC. The following then applies: The calculation of x CaOSO3 . 6) The starting materials as shown in Table 8 are present.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 66 4.4. St5 = 0 3) x MgCO3 .St5 is made according to Equations (55) or (56).1. St5 = 0 4) xS. St5 = 0 5) The formation enthalpy of C4AF and of C12A7 in the bypass dust is negligibly small.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 67 According to Figure 6. the following applies for the balance equations: 1) Evaporation of H2O: 2) Decomposition of clay: 100%-kaolinite: 100%-montmorillonite: 100%-illite: 3) Organic clay components: .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 68 4) MgCO3 dissociation: 5) CaCO3 dissociation: 6) Pyrite: 7) Formation of C4AF: 8) Formation of C3A: .

the actual SO3 contents (without sulfide sulfur) should be used. or of a clinker from a kiln feed with calcareous fly ash. or of a clinker from a burning process involving other substance flow configurations. for instance. In order to calculate the reaction enthalpy of a special clinker.64. TM < 0. the balance equations need to be changed or supplemented. in the case of fly ash and blast-burner slag. . blast-burner slag or gypsum from flue gas desulfurization plants.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 69 9) Formation of β-CsS: 10) Formation of C3S: 11) Formation of K2SO4: In Equation (79). assumptions also have to be made pertaining to the devitrification enthalpies. Moreover.

1.4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 70 The following applies to the sum of the reaction enthalpies of the kiln feed: 4.4.2.2 Water evaporation Evaporation enthalpy for cooler injection water: 4.1.3 Waste gas losses Raw gas: wherein The following approximation equations apply for the essential components of the waste gas (also see Figure 10): .2.

4. .2.2.1.4 Dust losses Raw gas dust: (for cSt1.1.4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 71 Bypass gas: Cooler vent air: 4. see Section 4.1. ϑ St1 = ϑ G1).

4. yCO.1. see Section 4.G1 > 0. 4. ϑ St12 = ϑ L9). see Equation (95). an analyzer that operates continuously should be used for the calorific value of the gas for the balancing. Discharged tertiary air dust: (for cSt12.1.1.01).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 72 Bypass gas dust: (for cSt5.4.2.1. Losses due to cooler vent air dust are usually negligibly small. 4.2.2. ϑ St5 = ϑ G5).5 Incomplete combustion In cases of high energy losses due to incomplete combustion (for example.4.6 Clinker .

.Mean specific thermal capacity of Portland cement clinker (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 73 The following applies for the specific thermal capacity of the clinker (also see Figure 11): Figure 11 .

1. the heat flow of individual tube elements is calculated on the basis of the mean circumferential temperature ϑ W.0 .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 74 4.m of the tube element and of the ambient temperature ϑ L.4.7 Radiation and convection Rotary kiln: First of all.U: wherein and αconv results from approximation equations. The following applies for wind velocities w ≤ 2 m/s: wherein a = 0.3 a0 = 4.2.

27 2.0.0.0.25 3.m ≤ 500°C [932°F] 2 m ≤ Da ≤ 8 m 10°C [50°F] ≤ ϑ L.75 4.236 .40 5.0.25 6.0.75 3.27 5.75 5.05 5.227 .93 1.25 4.233 .98 5.25 b 2.75 5.25 3.97 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 75 a1 = 3.0.88 0.25 5.75 7.25 6.11 2.92 0.75 ≤ Da < 3.11 5.220 .0.97 1.48 5.243 .87 1.5 a2 = -0.25 4.66 5.83 b0 4.18 2.75 6.219 .244 .70 b1 0.238 .79 0.227 .37 2.73 0.75 4.U ≤ 30°C [86°F] The following applies for wind velocities w > 2 m/s: wherein Diameter range in m 2.93 0.98 1.05 1.85 a3 = 0.0.75 6.0.00 b1* .076 Scope of validity: w ≤ 2 m/s 100°C [212°F] ≤ ϑ W.25 5.19 5.83 0.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 76 Scope of validity: 2 m/s < w ≤ 10 m/s 100°C [212°F] ≤ ϑ W.25 m 10°C [50°F] ≤ ϑ L.U = ambient air temperature in K & The radiation and convection loss flow Q W. .75 m ≤ Da ≤ 7.67 · 10 – 8 W/(m² · K4) TW.m = mean surface temperature in K TL.m ≤ 500°C [932°F] 2.U ≤ 30°C [86°F] The following applies for αStr: wherein ε W = 0. D for the entire rotary kiln results from the addition of the radiation and convection loss flows of the individual tube elements: More details on the calculation of the radiation and convection loss flow can be found in literature references [28 and 31].9 σ = 5.

The mean circumferential temperature ϑ W.6 should be used for the calculation of the heat flow. For satellite coolers. The following applies: The following applies as a good approximation for the grate-type cooler and the kiln hood: wherein αconv = 7 W/(m²·K) ε W = 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 77 Cooler: Equations (96) through (101) can be employed directly for the rotary cooler. the satellite temperatures as well as the temperatures in the interstitial spaces. that is to say. it is recommended to employ the imaginary surface area of a cylinder surrounding the satellite cooler as the heat-transfer surface area. The diameter of this surrounding cylinder can then be used to calculate the heat-transfer coefficient αtotal as an approximation according to Equations (98) through (101). an empirical factor of 1. . the surface temperature should be measured only on the side facing away the wind. Equation (104) yields a heat loss flow that is too low.m is calculated as an arithmetic mean value of all of the individual temperature meas- ured values calculated over the circumference. Moreover.9 At higher wind velocities. In such cases.

4. Tertiary air duct: Equations (96) through (102) should be employed accordingly.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 78 Preheater and calcinator: Equations (104) should be employed accordingly.1.4.2.8 Uncoupled heat The following applies as an approximation for the heat uncoupling via a cooling chute: wherein c H 2O ≈ 4. The following applies for the heat uncoupling through the cooling of the cooler circulation air: .2 kJ/kg K for 0°C [32°F] < ϑ < 100°C [212°F].

. so that a balance deficit remains which. Since the reaction enthalpy flow of the fuel as energy input can often only be determined very imprecisely.1.3 Energy balance The following applies for the sum of the energy input and energy output: and With kiln performance tests. it should be calculated on the basis of the difference between the energy output and the other energy input values according to Equation (109). it is also designated as fuel energy consumption. Usually the input and the output do not offset each other completely. the energy input and the energy output are compared to each other. however. should not make up more than ± 3% of the total energy output.4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 79 4.

Figure 12 .Balancing space of the cooler with the incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows.1 Clinker cooler A complete mass and energy balance can only be drawn up for the clinker cooler within the limits set by its design. . Moreover.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 80 4. the hot clinker temperature can only be measured in a very imprecise manner. the fact that considerable dust circulation can occur between the rotary kiln and the clinker cooler has to be taken into account.2 Balancing of the partial systems 4. For this reason.

Thus. In the case of rotary and satellite coolers. in contrast.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 81 Figure 12 shows the balancing space of a clinker cooler with the mass and energy flows that exceed the balance limit. 10 for the cooler injection water . for example. several exhaust air flows can be discharged from the cooler. The following mass and energy flows have been taken into consideration: Incoming solid substance mass flows: & mS8 for the hot clinker Outgoing solid substance mass flows: & mS10 & mSt8 & mSt9 for the clinker for the secondary air dust for the tertiary air dust Incoming gas volume flows: & VL10 for the cooler intake air Outgoing gas volume flows & VL8 & VL9 & VL11 for the secondary air for the tertiary air (cooler) for the cooler vent air Incoming liquid mass flows: & m H 2 O. has to be set as zero. the exhaust air volume flow.

K & ∆H V. H 2 O for the evaporation enthalpy of the cooler injection water .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 82 Incoming energy flows: & H S8 & H L10 & H H 2 O. K for the hot clinker for the cooler intake air for the cooler injection water for the mechanical performance (cooler) Outgoing energy flows: & H S10 & H St8 & H St9 & H L8 & H L9 & H L11 for the clinker for the secondary air dust for the tertiary air dust for the secondary air for the tertiary air for the cooler vent air for radiation and convection losses (cooler + kiln hood) for the uncoupled heat (cooler) & Q W. K & Q K. 10 Pmech.

In the case of a pronounced dust circulation.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 83 4. discharged and returned tertiary air dust. hot clinker. the dust concentration is about 30 to 50 g/m³. Measured quantities: Operands: Only in the case of kiln systems with a tertiary air duct can the secondary air dust mass flow be calculated on the basis of the discharged and returned tertiary air dust assuming equal dust contents in the secondary air and in the tertiary air. this value can rise to more than 200 g/m³. With a “clear” kiln discharge.1. the dust concentration in the secondary air should be estimated. The secondary air dust mass flow then results from the dust mass flow measured in the tertiary air and from the fraction calculated on this basis for the secondary air volume flow: In other cases.2. The following applies for the hot clinker mass flow: . secondary air dust.1 Solid substance mass flows clinker.

and the cooler intake air volume flow results from Equations (21) and (38).1.3.2 Gas volume flows cooler vent air (if present).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 84 4.2.2.3 Energy flows A reference temperature of 25°C [77°F] is selected for the calculation of the individual energy flows.1. Measured quantities: Operands: The secondary air volume flow results from Equations (20) and (38).1. secondary air.1 Energy input 4. tertiary air.2. .1. cooler intake air. The water vapor from the water injection should also be taken into account.1 Hot clinker (cS8 according to Equation (95) or Figure 11).3. 4. 4.1.2.

clinker dust See Section 4. 4.4.1. Therefore.2.1.4 Mechanical performance 4.1. 4. the calculated hot clinker energy flow is fundamentally too low. This error increases as the temperature drops and the particle size increases.1.4.1.1.3. the hot clinker energy flow is associated with a high level of uncertainty.3.3.3 Injection water See Section 4.1.3.2.2.1.1.2 Energy output 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 85 Only the surface temperature of the hot clinker can be measured by means of instruments.2.1 Clinker. .6.4.2.1.2.2 Cooler intake air 4.3. Therefore.1.2.

3. secondary air.4.2.1.2. The following then applies: . the hot clinker & enthalpy flow H S8 can be calculated on the basis of the energy balance.2.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 86 4.2.2. 4.8.3.4.4.1.3 Uncoupled heat See Section 4.1.4 Cooler vent air.1.1.3.2.3 Energy balance If a reliable measured value for the secondary air temperature is available.1. As a rule. tertiary air See Section 4.1. this is the case whenever tertiary air is removed from the kiln hood (ϑ L9 = ϑ L8) or when the secondary air can be measured error-free (for example. 4.2.7.3.2.2.2. 4.3. 4.2.1.4.3.2.2.1. with sound-over-time measurement or a suction-type thermometer).5 Water evaporation See Section 4.2 Radiation and convection See Section 4.

it is necessary to take into account the fact that the first cooling of the clinker already takes place inside the rotary kiln. of the pre-cooling zone as well as of the cooler with the example of a kiln system with a rotary cooler.1.2.4 Evaluation quantities 4.4.4.1 Pre-cooling zone For the evaluation of the clinker cooler.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 87 The hot clinker enthalpy flow calculated according to this equation serves as the basis for the calculation of the cooler efficiency (see Section 4.4). Figure 13 shows the principle of the balance limits of the burning area and of the cooling area and its subdivision into the pre-cooling zone and the cooler. .Balance limits of the burning area and cooling area. Figure 13 .2.1.2. which is where radiation and convection losses occur. 4. in the so-called pre-cooling zone.1.

in m The estimation according to Equation (116) diverges from that described in the VDZ Specification titled “Grate-type. the position of the burner lance serves as the reference point for estimating this length (also see Figure 13). αtotal stands for the mean heat-transfer coefficient. satellite and rotary coolers in the cement industry” [33]. It was selected because of the high degree of measuring uncertainty associated with the determination of the hot clinker temperature. .: wherein Lpre-cool = length of the pre-cooling zone. which can be calculated according to Equations (98) through (101) with a superimposition of the radiation (rad) as well as free and forced convection (conv). in m Lburner = length of the burner in the rotating part of the kiln. in m Da = outer diameter of the rotary kiln. it is necessary to know their length Lpre-cool. Since this length cannot be measured and no calculation method is known for this at the present time. & The radiation and convection loss Q W. pre − cool in the pre-cooling zone of the rotary kiln amounts to the following: Here.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 88 In order to calculate the radiation and convection losses in the pre-cooling zone.

4. cooling area is the sum of the heat and enthalpy flows that are released by the cooler into the atmosphere. which has to be replaced by fuel energy. it is advantageous to relate the energy loss flow of the cooling area to a theoretical enthalpy flow change on the part of the clinker and thus to define a cooling area efficiency: .2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area The energy consumption of a rotary kiln system depends to a decisive degree on the extent to which the enthalpy of the clinker in the cooling area can be recovered for the process.2. In this context.U) stands for the specific enthalpy at the ambient air temperature.4. for the clinker and cooler vent air.3 Cooling area efficiency For comparisons.1. In this equation. those enthalpy flows that would be released during the cooling procedure from the appertaining outlet temperature to the ambient air temperature should be seen as energy flows.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 89 4. h(ϑ L. & The energy loss flow Eloss. 4. The fraction that is not recovered constitutes the energy loss of the cooling area.1.

the waste gas acquires a chemically determined temperature that is very well-suited for determining this balance limit. . In contrast.1. 4. The limitations outlined in Section 4.1. this does not apply for the “rotary kiln inlet” balance limit where the energy and mass flows can only be determined very imprecisely. Future improvements of the burning process or special compositions of the kiln feed could make it necessary to stipulate a sintering temperature that differs from this. the equilibrium temperature of the calcium carbonate dissociation sets in at the lowermost stage. since it is in these aggregates that the essential reactions of the kiln feed and of the fuel take place. 4.2. irrespective of the burning or pre-heating conditions.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 90 For the sake of harmonization.2. satellite and rotary coolers in the cement industry” [33].4. at this site.1. Thus. The cooling area efficiency makes it possible to thermally evaluate the cooling in the entire process.3. the calcinator is often balanced together with the rotary kiln. a sintering temperature of 1450°C [2642°F] was presupposed. which should prevail at the site of transition from the burning area to the cooling area. For this reason. With degrees of precalcining below approximately 90%.1 apply when using the formulas.2.4 Cooler efficiency The efficiency values of the cooler are described in the VDZ Specification titled “Gratetype. The lowermost stage of the cyclone preheater counts as part of the calcinator.2 Calcinator (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater) The balancing space of the calcinator starts at the rotary kiln inlet and ends downstream from the lowermost cyclone (Figure 14).

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 91 Figure 14 .Balancing space of the calcinator with incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows. .

More details on this can be found in literature reference [30].1 Determination of the degree of precalcining The degree of precalcining can be used to evaluate the progress of the decarbonation of the kiln feed in the preheater and in the calcinator. the degree of precalcining can also be determined on the basis of the solid substance analyses. The actual degree of precalcining ϕ actual is defined according to Equation (120) as the ratio of the carbon dioxide mass flow & mCO 2 . As a simplification. the apparent degree of precalcining ϕ apparent results from the CO2 concentrations x CO 2 and the concentrations of nonvolatile components xNF of the kiln feed (index S1) and of the kiln feed at the kiln inlet (index S6): .0 that was originally bound in the kiln feed as carbonate: The degree of precalcining calculated according to Equation (120) can only be determined by using complete gas or solid substance balances. the degree of precalcining refers to the degree of dissociation of the calcium carbonate contained in the kiln feed prior to its entry into the rotary kiln. VC that has escaped from the kiln feed in the preheater and in the calcinator to the & carbon dioxide mass flow mCO 2 .2. & Provided that the raw gas dust mSt1 has the same chemical composition as the kiln feed & mS1 .2. In this context.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 92 4. and by ignoring the dust in the rotary kiln inlet gas. It is designated as the apparent degree of precalcining ϕ apparent.

the following relationship exists between the apparent and the actual degree of precalcining: 4.3 Preheater (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater) Figure 15 shows the balancing space of the preheater. For this reason. If the dust mass flows mSt4 and mSt6 have been completely decarbonated.2. the apparent degree of precalcining ϕ apparent calculated according to Equation (121) generally simulates a higher & & decarbonation of the kiln feed. however. the more highly decarbonated dust mSt4 and mSt6 influences the & composition of the kiln feed mass flow mS6 . . The degrees of separation of the individual cyclone stages are relevant for an evaluation of the preheater. it consists of 3 to 5 preheating stages in which gas and the kiln feed are fed in a countercurrent with respect to each other.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 93 & & In reality. As a rule.

the following applies for the degree of separation: . According to it.Balancing space of the preheater with incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 94 Figure 15 .3. 4.1 Degree of separation of individual cyclone stages Figure 16 shows the incoming and outgoing solid substance mass flows of a preheating stage.

i and mSt. it is assumed that there is temperature equilibrium between the gas and the kiln feed in the cyclone stage. Q W. The following applies as an approximation for the solid substance balance: The following applies for the energy balance: & In this context. i +1 : Equations (126) and (127) can be employed in the area of the preheater where hardly any solid/gas reactions (decarbonation) occur. i and mSt. i stands for the reaction enthalpy flow of the raw material in stage i. As a rule. i +1 result from the mass and energy balance of the ith stage. & & Equations (124) and (125) yield the mass flows mS. i stands for the radiation and convection loss flow of the ith cyclone & stage and ∆H R. this is the case with the uppermost cyclone stages (ϑ < 600°C [1112°F]). In this context.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 95 & & The mass flows mS. .

provided that the dust and solid substance mass flows exiting from each individual stage have the same chemical composition. If m NF. but also to the cyclone separator of the calcinator. eff stands for the mass flow of alkali compounds that are effectively fed into the system by means of the kiln feed. This generally applies to the lower stages & of the preheater. If the alkali compounds in the kiln feed differ sufficiently.Incoming and outgoing solid substance mass flows of a preheating stage with a cyclone separator. it is possible to determine the mass flows of the kiln feed and the dust between the individual cyclone stages: . eff stands for the mass flow of non-volatile substances effectively fed into the kiln system. & and if malk.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 96 Figure 16 . the mass flows can also be ascertained on the basis of component balances. then.

but not the absolute value. as a consequence of which only changes in these operands. N+1 (N= cyclone separator of the calcinator) are very difficult to measure. for purposes of simplification. . Equations (126) and (127) as well as (130) and (131) constitute very rough approximations. both concentration values should be pre-defined. as a result of which.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 97 From a technical standpoint. for example. N+1 and xalk. xNF. between two performance tests. should be interpreted.

Evaluation of the substance circulation systems Relevant substance circulation systems should be measured during a kiln performance test or else calculated on the basis of measured and analytical data.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 98 5. .

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6.

Evaluation of the cement clinker

As a rule, new systems are only examined once the clinker properties and thus also the cement properties have been achieving the desired quality requirements for quite some time. In contrast, kiln performance tests with old systems can also serve to optimize the quality of the cement and clinker.

6.1

Degree of burning

The degree of burning of the cement clinker is usually monitored on the basis of the bulk density (weight per unit volume) of a narrow particle range, for instance, 5 to 7 mm, whose values lie between 1.2 and 1.6 kg/dm³. The bulk density, however, is not only dependent on the degree of burning, but also on the chemical composition and on the porosity of the clinker. Moreover, the content of free CaO also provides information about the degree of burning.

6.2

Particle-size distribution

The coarse and fines fractions of the clinker (for example, < 2 mm and > 25 mm) provide information about the kiln operation and the clinker quality. They are ascertained by means of sieve analysis.

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6.3

Grindability

The grindability of the clinker provides information about the necessary work in the cement mill. It is primarily tested with the device according to Zeisel.

6.4

Chemical composition

The chemical composition yields the lime standard (KSt), the silica ratio (SM), the alumina/iron ratio (TM), the sulfatization degree (SG), the total alkali fraction (A) and the melt phase fraction (S). The lime standard indicates the content of CaO actually present in the raw material mixture or clinker as a percentage of the maximum CaO content that can be bound to SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 under industrial burning and cooling conditions. Several formulas, which do not differ markedly from each other, are commonly employed to calculate the lime standard. According to F.M. Lea and T.W. Parker, for example, the following applies [7]:

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The silica modulus is the ratio of silicon dioxide to the sum of aluminum oxide and iron oxide. The following applies:

Since the silicon dioxide is primarily bound in the solid phases tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate at the sintering temperature, but since aluminum oxide and iron oxide are present in the melt, the silica modulus refers to the solid-to-liquid ratio in the sintering zone of the cement kiln. Generally speaking, the silica modulus lies between SM = 1.8 and SM = 3.0, most frequently and most advantageously between SM = 2.3 and SM = 2.8. The alumina/iron ratio (TM) is the ratio of the aluminum oxide content to the iron oxide content. The following applies:

It provides information about the quantity ratio of calcium aluminate to calcium aluminate ferrite and consequently about the clinker melt. With clinker having a commonly employed composition, this value lies between 1.5 and 4.0. With an alumina/iron ratio of 0.638, the calculation indicates that all of the aluminum oxide contained in the clinker is bound as calcium aluminate ferrite having the assumed composition 4 CaO · Al2O3 · Fe2O3.

38).4°F] and TM > 1. (for ϑ S = 1400°C [2552°F]). .4°F] and TM < 1. which are present as alkali sulfate: The total alkali fraction (A) results from the conversion of the fraction of potassium oxide into the equivalent sodium fraction according to the following equation: The following applies as an approximation for the melt phase (S): (for ϑ S = 1338°C [2440. (for ϑ S = 1338°C [2440.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 102 The sulfatization degree (SG) indicates the percentage of alkalis in the clinker.38). (for ϑ S = 1450°C [2642°F]).

for instance. xMgO = 0.02. according to equations (54) through (60). constitution and distribution of the clinker compounds. not only at the sintering temperature but also and especially when they crystallize during the cooling procedure. Whereas the type of the compounds depends primarily on the chemical composition of the kiln feed. the calculation only provides an approximation of the actual clinker composition [7]. For these reasons.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 103 xMgO enters into the formulas with xMgO = 0. at higher contents. However. that is to say. 6. . 6. provide information about the preparation of the raw material mixture and about the conditions during the burning and cooling of the clinker.6 Microscopic examination The microscopic examination of the clinker provides information about the type. the structure. the constitution and distribution of the clinker compounds and their coalescence.02 at the maximum.5 Phase composition The phase composition of the clinker can be calculated on the basis of the values of the chemical analysis. it is necessary to assume that the clinker phases have the composition indicated by their formulas and that the clinker melt is in a continuous state of thermodynamic equilibrium with the solid phases of the clinker.

.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 104 6. They are of decisive significance for the optimization of operations.7 Cement testing The results of the quality tests with the ground-up cement types within the scope of our own as well as outside monitoring also provide essential information about the properties of the cement clinker.

.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 105 7. Evaluation of the emissions Relevant emissions have to be measured and/or recorded during a kiln performance test.

) K diameter in m energy flow in kJ/s ratio of kiln feed to clinker in kg/kg of clinker surface area in m² lower calorific value in kJ/kg specific enthalpy in kJ/s sensible enthalpy flow in kJ/s reaction enthalpy flow in kJ/s evaporation enthalpy flow in kJ/s lime standard in % length in m minimum air demand in m³ of air (s.7) total alkali fraction in kg/kg factor (Section 4.4.7) mean specific thermal capacity of solids and liquids in kJ/kg K mean specific thermal capacity of gases in kJ/m³ under standard conditions (s.) / kg of fuel mass flow in kg/s molecular weight in kg/mole stage number in the cyclone preheater.c.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 106 8.2.1.4.1.c. Formula signs and indices Roman letters a A b c cp D & E f F hu h & H & ∆H R & ∆H V KSt L lmin & m M N p factor (Section 4.2. chamber number in the grate-type cooler pressure in Pa .

) / kJ degree of separation of a cyclone density in kg/m³ Stefan-Boltzmann constant ∆ εW η cooling area ϑ λ µ ξ ρ σ σ = 5.67 · 10 – 8 ϕ W m2 K 4 degree of precalcining. relative humidity .c.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 107 P & Q S SG SM T TM v & V w x y performance in kJ/s heat flow in kJ/s melt phase content sulfatization degree in % silica modulus absolute temperature in K alumina/iron ratio gas velocity in m/s volume flow under standard conditions (0°C [32°F] and 1013 hPa) in m³/s wind velocity in m/s mass concentration in kg/kg volume concentration in m³/m³ Greek letters α heat transition coefficient in W/m² · K difference emission ratio of the wall surface cooling area efficiency temperature in °C excess air coefficient combustion product per energy unit in m³ (s.

4.2.1. cooler intake air) 11 cooler (cooler vent air) 12 tertiary air duct (discharged tertiary air dust) a Alk out Out B burner C D eff in In outside alkali compounds balance output outlet fuel burner calcinator.4) 0 through 12 balance limits 1 preheater (kiln feed. carbon rotary kiln.1. raw gas) 2 preheater / calcinator 3 calcinator (secondary burner) 4 calcinator (tertiary air duct) 5 calcinator (bypass) 6 calcinator / rotary kiln 7 rotary kiln (main burner) 8 rotary kiln / cooler 9 tertiary air duct / cooler 10 cooler (clinker. vapor under standard conditions (0°C [32°F] and 1013 hPA) effective balance input inlet .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 108 Indices 0 initial state 0 through 11 reactions of the kiln feed (Section 4.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 109 F Fl total G surr i K Kl con L m max mech min N NV p R clean gas grate s app S Sat St Str actual theor sum of the volatile substances infiltrated air total gas. loss on ignition surrounding cylinder variable cooler.) (0°C [32°F] and 1013 hPA) sum of non-volatile substances at constant pressure reaction clean gas grate-type cooler saturation apparent solid. uncoupled clinker convection air mean value maximum mechanical minimum standard conditions (s. sulfide sulfur satellite cooler dust radiation (rad) actual theoretical .c.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 110 tr T U Um V loss pre-cool W dry tertiary air duct ambient circulation air preheater. evaporation enthalpy loss pre-cooling zone radiation and convection losses Chemical formula signs C3 A C12A7 C4AF C2 S C3 S Al2O3 C CaCO3 CaO Cl – CO CO2 Fe2O3 H H2 O K2 O K2SO4 MgCO3 tricalcium aluminate (3 CaCO · Al2O3) (12 CaO · 7Al2O3) aluminate ferrite (4 CaO · Al2O3 · Fe2O3) dicalcium silicate (2 CaO · SiO2) tricalcium silicate (3 CaO · SiO2) aluminum oxide carbon calcium carbonate calcium oxide chloride carbon monoxide carbon dioxide iron(III)-oxide hydrogen. atomic water potassium oxide potassium sulfate magnesium carbonate .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 111 MgO Mn2O3 N2 Na2O O O2 P 2 O5 S2– SiO2 SO3 TiO2 magnesium oxide manganese(III)-oxide nitrogen sodium oxide oxygen. atomic oxygen phosphorus pentoxide sulfide silicon dioxide sulfur(VI)-oxide (sulfate) titanium dioxide .

Seidel. Verlag Chemie GmbH. VEB Verlag für Bauwesen. G. Bauverlag GmbH.. und Seidel. [10] Brandt. Springer-Verlag. W. Kühl. Band 3.: Cement-Data-Book. Berlin 1958. Labahn.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 112 9. Berlin 1985. VEB Verlag Für Bauwesen. Brennprozeß und Brennanlagen. Duda. Band 1. . VEB Verlag Technik. O.: Zement-Chemie. J. Internationale Verfahrenstechniken der Zementindustrie. F. Berlin 1971. H. Bauverlag GmbH. G. 545-574.: Ratgeber für Zementingenieure. und Stark.. Berlin 1978. Die physikalisch-chemischen Grundlagen der Zement-Chemie. Essen 1991. Band 11. H. Springer-Verlag. Huckauf.H. Band 1. Berlin 1981. Ullmanns Enzyklopädie der technischen Chemie. Huckauf. H. Band 1. Baehr.D. Wiesbaden 1985. VEB Verlag Technik. Keil. Wiesbaden 1982.: Bindebaustoff-Taschenbuch. F: Zement-Herstellung und Eigenschaften. Band 24. Weinheim 1983. Vulkan-Verlag. J. Stark.1 Literature references General literature references [1] [2] [3] [4] [5) [6] [7] [8] [9] Kühl. H. W: Zement. pp. Berlin 1956. Das Wesen und die Herstellung der hydraulischen Bindemittel. H. F: Brennstoffe und Verbrennungsrechnung.. Brennprozeß und Brennanlagen. 9. FDBR-Fachbuchreihe..: Technologie der Bindebaustoffe.: Thermodynamik.: Zement-Chemie. Locher. Band 3.

Stoffmengen und Hilfsgrößen. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie.: Messen. Düsseldorf 1961.. Zement-Kalk-Gips 39 (1986) Vol. H..: Brennverfahren.: Precalciners today . B. O.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 113 9.V. Steuern und Regeln in der Chemischen Technik. Vol. [15] Rosemann. [13] Wolter. Sturm. Execution of kiln performance tests [16] VDZ-Merkblatt “Mengenmessung von Gasen durch Geschwindigkeitsmessung”.1982.1987. [20] VDZ-Merkblatt “Kontinuierliche Gasanalyse in Zementwerken”. 39-61. S.2 Technical literature references Description of the clinker burning process [11] Sprung.. July (1985) pp. H.. B. [18] Hengstenberg. Düsseldorf 1962. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. A. Vol. W.: Technologische Probleme beim Brennen des Zementklinkers. [12] Garrett. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. J. Springer-Verlag. 612-614. 48. O.: Theoretische und betriebliche Untersuchungen zum Brennstoffenergieverbrauch von Zementofenanlagen mit Vorcalcinierung. und Winkler..a review. Ursache und Lösung. 10. Zement-KalkGips 38 (1985) Vol. 105-114. pp. Rock Products.: Einfluß des Ofensystems auf die Klinkereigenschaften. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. 43. Th. Düsseldorf 1990.: Messen. J.V. und Winkler. 3. Springer-Verlag. Messung von Stoffeigenschaften und Konzentrationen.. [19] Hengstenberg. Berlin 1980.. Steuern und Regeln in der Chemischen Technik.M. [17] VDZ-Merkblatt “Staubmengenmessungen auf Zementwerken”. und Lang. Band 1. Band 11. [14] Bonn.V.. . Messung von Zustandsgrößen. Sturm. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. Berlin 1980. pp.

Supplement. [27] Barin.: Beitrag zur Thermochemie von Zementrohstoffen.: Thermochemical properties of inorganic substances. und Kubaschewski. Zement-Kalk-Gips 37 (1984) Vol. I. und Ziegler. 1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 114 Evaluation of kiln performance tests [21] Schwiete.: Rechnergesteuerte Meßdatenerfassung und verarbeitung bei der Durchführung von Ofenversuchen. 465-473. Düsseldorf 1983. Düsseldorf 1959. 89-94.: Phase composition of calcined raw meal. 144-149. Knacke. und Ludwig. [23] zur Strassen. VEB Verlag für Bauwesen. pp. H. M.E. pp. [30] Rosemann. Zement-KalkGips 38 (1985) Vol. [25] Petrosjan. 9. Berlin 1977. H. und Steinbiß. 1986. O. 6. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e.: Berechnung des Wandwärmeverlustes von Drehöfen und Mühlen. [26] Barin. 53-62. Berechnungsblätter für den Wärmeübergang. I. TonindustrieZeitung 56 (1932) Nr. H. [29] VDI-Wärmeatlas. [31] Gardeik.. 304-306. Teil 2: Näherungsgleichungen und Anwendungen..O... Springer-Verlag. G. [24] VDZ-Merkblatt “Berechnungsunterlagen für Ofenversuche”. [32] Wolter... A. und Knacke.O. pp.: Thermodynamik der Silikate. Springer-Verlag. Rio de Janeiro. pp. Ludwig. O. pp. Zement-Kalk-Gips 33 (1980) Vol.: Thermochemical properties of inorganic substances. O. H. und Gardeik. H. Berlin 1973. H. 8th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement. H..: Berechnung des Wandwärmeverlustes von Drehöfen und Mühlen. pp.: Der theoretische Wärmebedarf des Zementbrandes. H. H. 3. [28] Gardeik. pp. . 2. [22] Schwiete. Zement-KalkGips 10 (1957) Vol. 257-262.. Teil 1: Grundlagen. 1-12. VDI-Verlag GmbH. E. Proc. Zement-Kalk-Gips 9 (1956) Vol.V. Berlin 1966.: Die spezifische Wärme des Portlandzementklinkers..E.O. 22.

D. pp. 8. Dissertation. R. 8. Fortschritte der Mineralogie 60 (1982) Vol.: Warmeübergang im Drehofen unter Berücksichtigung der Kreislaufvorgänge und der Phasenneubildung. H. Satelliten. Zement-Kalk-Gips 25 (1972) Vol.O. Zement-Kalk-Gips 38 (1985) Vol. Vol. Vol. [41] Kreft. D. Zement-Kalk-Gips 24 (1971) Vol. Zement-Kalk-Gips 35 (1982) Vol. Evaluation of the substance circulation systems [34] Weber. [44] Schütte. . [40] Locher.. Zement-Kalk-Gips 43 (1990) Vol. R: Alkaliprobleme und Beseitigung bei wärmesparenden Trockenöfen.: Einflüsse auf die Energieumsetzung in Calcinatoren bei der Vorcalcination von Zementrohmehl.. F W. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. Sprung. und Kupper. Düsseldorf. [36] Weber. H. 509-511. W: Alkali. [381 Ritzmann. pp. 9. Zement-Kalk-Gips. 215-234. 4. pp.. [37] Sprung. 1960.: Die Bedeutung von Kreislaufbetrachtungen für Produktqualität und Umweltverträglichkeit der Zementherstellung. Zement-Kalk-Gips 17 (1964) Vol. 9. Sonderausgabe Nr. 418-422. Zement-Kalk-Gips 36 (1983) Vol. 1. 2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 115 [33] VDZ-Merkblatt “Rost-.. und Gardeik. 565-570. [42] Rosemann. H. 456-459. C. und Opitz. 1964.V.: Ober des Verhalten der Alkalien beim Zementbrennen. W: Stoffkreisläufe und Emissionen beim Brennen von Zementklinker. 8. pp.: Kreislaufe in Drehofensystemen. S. 9 (1960). 338-343. 1-12. pp.und Schwefelverdampfung in Zementofen in Gegenwart hoher Chloreinnahmen.und Rohrkühler in der Zementindustrie”. 31. 335-344. Bergakademie ClausthalZellerfeld 1959.: Reaktionen im Bereich der Ofengase. 1989. [43] Kreft. [35] Goes. pp. pp. S. 12. P. [39] Locher. pp. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. F. W: Methode zur Vorausberechnung von Schadstoffkreisläufen in Zementöfen.: Das Verhaften des Schwefels beim Brennen von Zementklinker Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie.

H. S. [50] Locher. H. F. ZementKalk-Gips 38 (1985) Vol.. Vol. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. Zement-Kalk-Gips 28 (1975) Vol. Reinhold Publishing Corporation.: Calculation of the compounds in portland cement.H. [52] Locher. 269-277. 6. S. pp. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 1 (1929) pp. Sprung. 12. R. pp. 669-676. Zement-Kalk-Gips 31 (1978) Vol. W: Verfahrenstechnik und Zementeigenschaften. [48] Locher. 29. Teil III: Einfluß der Klinkerherstellung. [51] Sylla. 577-585. [47] Locher. Richartz.-M. H. [49] Sylla.-M. pp.: Einfluß der Ofenatmosphäre beim Brennen von Zementklinker. pp. pp.W: Einfluß der Klinkerherstellung auf die Eigenschaften des Zements. pp.: Erstarren von Zement. R. . Zement-Kalk-Gips 35 (1982) Vol..: Einfluß der Klinkerkühlung auf Erstarren und Festigkeit von Zement. F.-M. 291-293. F. F W: Berechnung der Klinkerphasen.W.: The chemistry of portland cement.: Einflüsse der Verfahrenstechnik auf die Zementeigenschaften. Zement-Kalk-Gips 31 (1978) Vol.1962. 265-272. [46] Bogue. 7-29. 9. New York 1955. [53] Sprung. H. 357-362. 192-197. pp. W. 7. Zement-Kalk-Gips 28 (1975) Vol. 10. 6. and Sylla.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 116 Evaluation of the cement clinker [45] Bogue.

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Evaluation of the emissions
[54] Kroboth, K., und Xeller, H.: Entwicklungen beim Umweltschutz in der Zementindustrie. Zement-Kalk-Gips 39 (1986) Vol. 1, pp. 1-14. [55] Sprung, S.: Spurenelemente - Anreicherungen und Minderungsmaßnahmen. Zement-Kalk-Gips 41 (1988) Vol. 5, pp. 251-257. [56] Locher, F W: Entwicklung des Umweltschutzes in der Zementindustrie. ZementKalk-Gips 42 (1989) Vol. 3, pp. 120-127. [57] Kroboth, K., und Kuhlmann, K.: Stand der Technik der Emissionsminderung in Europa. Zement-Kalk-Gips 43 (1990) Vol. 3, pp. 121-131. [58] Wischers, G., und Kuhlmann, K.: Ökobilanz von Zement und Beton. Zement-KalkGips 44 (1991) Vol. 11, pp. 545-553.

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10.

Evaluation example 1 (kiln system with a cyclone preheater, calcinator and tertiary air duct)
Balancing the entire system

10.1

10.1.1 Solid substance mass flows
& mS10

= 18.00 kg/s

x NF, S10 = 0.9760 x NF, St12 x NF, B7 = x NF, B3 = not applicable x ash, B7 ⋅ x NV, ash = 0.04 · 0.8007 x ash, B7 ⋅ x NF, ash = 0.04 · 0.8007

& mSt12 = 0 kg/s & m B7 & m B3 & mSt1 & mSt5

= 1.29 kg/s = 1.24 kg/s = 0.84 kg/s = 0 kg/s

x NF, St1 = 0.6454 x NF,St5 not applicable

x NF, S1 = 0.6316

Kiln feed mass flow (Equation 4): 18.00 ⋅ 0.976 − (1.29 + 1.24) ⋅ 0.04 ⋅ 0.8007 + 0.84 ⋅ 0.6454 = 28.55 kg/s. 0.6316

& mS1 =

Ratio of kiln feed to clinker necessary for burning clinker (Equation 6): 28.55 = 1.586 kg/kg. 18.00 + 0

fS1 =

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10.1.2 Gas volume flows

10.1.2.1 Dry gas

10.1.2.1.1 Minimum air volume flow

& mS1 = 28.55 kg/s & mSt1 = & m B7 = & m B3 = 0.84 kg/s 1.29 kg/s 1.24 kg/s

x C, S1 = 0.0015 x C, St1 = 0.0021 h u, B7 = 22684 kJ/kg h u, B3 = 22684 kJ/kg

x S, S1 = 0.0004 x S, St1 = 0.0008

The carbon mass flow (Equation 8) and the sulfide mass flow (Equation 9) effectively fed in with the kiln feed: & mC, eff, S = 28.55 · 0.0015 – 0.84 · 0.0021 = 0.0411 kg/s & mS, eff, S = 28.55 · 0.0004 – 0.84 · 0.0008 = 0.0107 kg/s

Minimum air demand of the fuels (Equation 13): lmin, B7 = lmin, B3 = 0.44 + 0.000245 · 22684 = 5.998 m³/kg Minimum air volume flow (Equation 10):

& VL, min, tr = (1.29 + 1.24) · 5.998 + 0.0411 · 8.88 + 0.0107 · 3.32 = 15.58 m³/s

2 Air proportionality factors yCO 2 .25 m² ∆p = 5 Pa p = 1010 hPa ϑ U = 5°C [41°F] ρ L.3290 yCO 2 .5 ⋅ 0.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood F ≈ 0.1745 0.2. tr.762 (1 − 0.0489 yO 2 .0007 y CO.762 (1 − 0.1.N = 1.762 (1 − 0.0318 yO 2 . tr.3843 0.5 ⋅ 0.0318) λG6 = 1 = 1. tr.0489 − 0. tr.5 ⋅ 0.G2 = 0. tr.0006 − 0.G2 = 0.0005 1 − 3.0489) λG1 = λG2 = 1 = 1.1. from the burning area and from the rotary kiln (Equation 16): 1 = 1.G6 = 0. tr.0318 − 0.2108 − 0.G1 = 0.3290 − 0.2108 yCO.0006 y CO.G2 = 0.G1 = 0.0005 yO 2 .2278 0. tr.0302) 10.0007 1 − 3.29 kg/m³ .2925 yCO 2 .G1 = 0.1.G6 = 0.1. tr.0007 − 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 120 10.2.G2 = 0.0302 Air proportionality factors in the waste gas downstream from the preheater.0302 − 0.0006 1 − 3.2925 − 0. tr.0005 − 0.

1745 · 1.29 10.1.25 & VFl.52 = 7.39 m³/s & VFl. B7 = 5.52 m³/s 1.998 m³/kg & VL7.29 · 1010 273 ⋅ = 1.08 m³/s .1.29 · 5. tr = 1.5 Cooler intake air & VL8.52 m³/s Secondary air volume flow (Equation 20): & VL8.998 – 1.39 – 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 121 Density of the ambient air: ρ L = 1.73 m³/s & VL11.2. D.17 m³/s Cooler intake air volume flow (Equation 21): & VL10.18 m³/s 10.268 ⋅ 2 = 0. tr = 7.18 + 6. tr = 6. tr = 23.1.2. tr ≈ ⋅ 5 ⋅ 1.1.75 ⋅ 0.4 Secondary air λ G6 = 1. tr =7.268 kg/m³ 1013 277 Infiltrated air volume flow (Equation 19): 0.73 + 23. tr = 0.29 kg/s lmin.18 m³/s & VL9.17 = 37. D.1745 & m B7 = 1. tr = 1.

tr = 60.1262 yO2 . tr.1426 1.97  CO2 from the fuel (Equation 26): & VCO2 .376 + 0.24 kg/s = 0 x CO 2 .84 · 0.3256 = 9.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 122 10. tr.6 Raw gas & mS1 & mSt1 & mSt5 & mC.01 · 10 – 5 · 22684 = 2. y CO. tr.S = 28.84 m³/s VCO 2 . B7 h u. pure gas = 0.G1 = 0.G1 = 0.eff.2.42 m³/s yO2 . B3 = 22684 kJ/kg (lignitic coal) = 22684 kJ/kg (lignitic coal) & VG5.55 · 0.3256 not applicable h u. tr. tr.G5 .S =  9.S & m B7 & m B3 = 28.29 kg/s = 1. B = (1.eff.0411  12. tr yCO 2 .St5 = 0.3380 – 0.G5 not applicable yCO.01  1  & = 4.84 kg/s = 0 = 0.3380 = 0. pure gas = 0.1. tr.88 m³/s .01  1.55 kg/s = 0.0411 kg/s = 1.2925 & Vpure gas.0007 yCO2 . tr.G1 = 0.376 kg/s CO2 from the kiln feed (Equation 23): 44.S1 x CO 2 .St1 x CO 2 .0489 yCO2 . Calculation on the basis of the CO2 balance: Carbon dioxide mass flow (Equation 24) effectively fed in with the kiln feed: & mCO 2 .29 + 1.1.24) · 5.

88 − 0 & VG1. tr = 25.0489 yO2 .0007 2. tr = = 26.07 m³/s 0. tr = 60.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 123 Raw gas volume flow (Equation 29): 4.68 m³/s 10. tr = 0.42 = 26.3290 yO2 .2.42 = 25. tr.2925 b) O2 balance: 0. Calculation on the basis of the clean gas volume flow: Raw gas volume flow (Equations 30 and 31): a) CO2 balance: 0. tr.68 = 22.1.21 − 0.07 + 25. tr.G2 = 0.68 m³/s Gas volume downstream from the burning area (Equations 30 and 31): a) CO2 balance: 0.G2 = 0.28 m³/s 0. tr. tr = 25.1426 & VG1.5 (26.2925 + 0. tr = 60.2925 yCO2 .0318 & VG1.21 − 0.7 Gas downstream from the burning area yCO2 .1.28) = 25.1262 & VG1.3290 .33 m³/s 0.84 + 2.G1 = 0.2925 & VG2.83 m³/s 0.G1 = 0.0489 The following applies: & VG1.

24 kg/s = 0.G6 = 0.0007  0.5 (22.32 m³/kg yO2 .68 = 23. tr.22 m³/s 0.0107 kg/s yO2 .0107 ⋅ 3.32 − ⋅ 25.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) yCO2 .G6 = 0.79 1.32 m 3/s − 0. tr.G6 = 0.21   0 .G1 = 0.C lmin.1.2925 − 0. tr.0005 lmin.83 + 23.88 m³/kg = 3.21   = 9. tr. S & mS.0411 ⋅ 8.2.998 m³/kg = 8.0007 yO2 .0302   1 − 0.0007 −  0.0302   1 − 0.5   0.68 m³/s yCO.21   .2925 & VG1.21 − 0.G1 = 0.68 ⋅ 0.88 + 0.2108 & m B3 & mC.998 + 0. tr = 25.68 1 − 0.S = 5. tr = 0.0489 & VG2.24 ⋅ 5.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 124 b) O2 balance: 0.G1 = 0.tr.0302 Gas volume flow downstream from the rotary kiln [30]: & VG6. tr.21   = 0.21 − 0.03 m³/s 10.2108 −  0.0411 kg/s = 0.2108 −  0.1. eff.0489   25. eff.22) = 23.0318 The following applies: & VG2. tr 0.B3 lmin. S = 1. tr = 25.0489 yCO2 .

0006 Infiltrated air volume flow (calcinator) according to [30]: 1 & VFl.03 m³/s 10. eff.tr & VL4.0411 · 8.2.5 · 0.73 – 0.24 kg/s = 0.1.03 · (0. tr.1 Humidity in the air p = 101000 Pa ϑ L.24 · 5.1.G2 = 0.998 + 0. tr = 25.G6 = & VL3.0411 kg/s = 0. S & mS.C lmin.0107 · 3.2 Water vapor 10.998 m³/kg 8.32 m³/s = 6.10 Infiltrated air (calcinator) & m B3 & mC.2°F] ϕ = 0.32 m³/kg 0.1. tr = 23.1.21 0.0006) – 9.60 m³/s 10.88 + 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 125 10.2.2.32 · 0.03 m³/s & VL1 = 1.32 – 6. tr.2. eff. tr.68 m³/s & VG2. S = 1.S = = 5.0302) + 1.tr = yO2 .4 .1.tr yO2 .B3 = lmin.G2 = yO2 .03 m³/s = 9.19 = 3.C = (23.2.U = 4°C [39.0318 0.0318 – 0.0302 0.tr & VG6.73 m³/s lmin.19 m³/s & VG2.88 m³/kg 3. tr.1.0107 kg/s = 23.9 Infiltrated air (preheater) & VGl.

2 Water from the kiln feed & mS1 & mSt1 = 28.0204 x H2O.2 = 0.564 · 10 – 5 · 43 + 2. L = λG1 ⋅ VL.87 · 4 + 1.58 · 1. L = 1.998 · 1.03 m³/s 10.2.622 812.1.608 · 0.877 · 10 – 4 · 44 + 10 – 6 · 45 = 812.608 · 0.55 kg/s = 0.2 Pa Water content of the dry air (Equation 32): xD = 0.470 · 42 + 2.0190 ρH 2O.2. D = 0. St1 = 0.U) = 611. min.002 = 0.tr · 1.84 kg/s x H2O.3843 · 15.29 · 5.8 kg/m³ .06 m³/s c) downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) & VH 2 O.608 · xD = 1.58 · 1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 126 Saturation pressure of the water vapor at ambient temperature (Equation 33): ps (ϑ L.2278 · 15.0020 kg/kg 101000 − 812.5 + 43.608 · 0. L = 1.002 = 0.2 0 .07 m³/s b) downstream from the burning area & VH 2 O. S1 = 0.4 Humidity volume flows (Equation 34): a) downstream from the preheater & & VH 2 O.002 = 0.1745 · 1.

2.2.087 x H2O.2.8  b) Secondary burner 18  1  & = 0. B3 = 0.77 m³/s VH 2 O.0453 Moisture volume flows (Equation 36): a) Main burner 18  1  & = 0.1. B3 = 0.3 Water from the fuel & mB7 & mB3 = = 1. B7 = 0.087 + 0.24 kg/s x H2O.80 m³/s VH 2 O.019) ⋅ = 0.2.84 ⋅ 0. S = (28.0204 − 0.087 x H.0453  2  0 . B7 x H.4 Injection water & m H 2 O.8 10.1.087 + 0. B3 = 1.8  10.71 m³/s 0 .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 127 Moisture volume flow from the kiln feed (Equation 35): 1 & VH 2 O. B7 = 1.0453  2  0 .29  0.24  0.0453 = 0.29 kg/s 1. 10 = 0 .55 ⋅ 0.

29 kg/s & m B3 = 1.1.1.3 Liquid mass flows Does not apply.4 Energy flows 10.6°F] ϑB3 = 32°C [89.4.80 + 0. B7 = x F.15 m³/s 10.1.1.3 Moist gas (examples) Raw gas volume flow (Equation 40): & VG1 = 25.32 + 0.4.03 + 0.71 + 0.66 m³/s Volume flow downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet): & VG6 = 9.80 + 0.77 = 24.07 + 0.6°F] x H 2 O.24 kg/s h u.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 128 10. B3 = 0. B3 = 0.087) ϑB7 = 32°C [89.77 = 28.1 Fuel & m B7 = 1. B7 = 22684 kJ/kg h u.68 + 0.03 + 0. B3 = 22684 kJ/kg x F.1 Energy input 10.2. 10. B7 = x H 2 O.087 .1.03 m³/s Volume flow downstream from the burning area: & VG2 = 23.06 + 0.1.80 = 10.496 (1 − 0.

844 · (63 – 25) = 916 kJ/s .29 + 1.2 = 1.5 · 10 · 32 – 8 · 10 · 32 ) = 1.496   –3 – 10 3 c B.24) · 1.1.087   Mean specific thermal capacity for the water in the coal: c H 2O ≈ 4.846 +  (1 + 1.344 kJ/kg K 1 − 0.29 + 1.4°F] Mean specific thermal capacity of the kiln feed (Equation 49): cS1 ≈ 0.2 Kiln feed & mS1 = 28.55 kg/s ϑS1 = 63°C [145.8 + 7.087 · 4.2 · 10 – 11 · 633 = 0.2 kJ/kg K Mean specific thermal capacity for moist lignitic coal (Equation 44): cB7 = cB3 = (1 – 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 129 Mean specific thermal capacity for dry lignitic coal (Equation 43): 0.087) · 1.1.3 ·10 – 4 · 63 – 4.6 ·10 – 7 · 632 + 5.844 kJ/kg K Enthalpy flow of the kiln feed (Equation 48): & H S1 = 28.592 kJ/kg K Reaction enthalpy flow of the fuel (Equation 41): & ∆H R.344 + 0.803 ⋅ 0. B = (1.4.55 · 0.592 · (32 – 25) = 28 kJ/s 10.24) · 22684 = 57391 kJ/s Sensible enthalpy flow of the fuel (Equation 42): & H B = (1. tr ≈  0.

5 Mechanical performance Pmech.002) = 44.297 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the air fed in (Equation 50): & H L.1.4.06 · 10 – 8 · 42 – 2.88 m³/s i Mean specific thermal capacity of the air fed in (Equation 52): cp.tr = 1.75 · 10 – 5 · 4 + 8.1.002 kg/kg ϑ L.297 · (4 – 25) = -1223 kJ/s 10.4.86 · 10 – 11 · 43 = 1.3 Air λG1 = 1.2°F] Sum of the air volume flows fed in (Equation 39): & ∑ VLi = (1.3843 · 15.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 130 10.1. kiln drive = 117 kJ/s .L.88 · 1.U = 4°C [39.58 m³/s & VL11.608 · 0.297 + 5.17 m³/s xD = 0. tr = 23.17) (1 + 1.58 + 23. min. 10.1.4.9 = 409 kJ/s Pmech.3843 & VL. total = 44.4 Injection water Does not apply.1. air-intake fan = 337 kJ/s Mechanical performance (Equation 53): Pmech = (337 + 117) · 0.1.tr = 15.

85 · 0.S10 = 2. S10 = 0.0632 – 1.0083 + 1.0632 = 0.071 · 0.S10 = 0 3 CaO bound in the clinker phases (Equation 54): x CaO* .S10 = 3.043 · 0.692 · 0.0067 The following then results: x CaOSO .43 · 0.0010 = 0.S10 = 2.2 Energy output 10. each according to Table 10.0234 = 0.292 · 0. C2S.128 x C 4 AF.1.1.2137 – 1.65 · 0.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed Chemical analyses of the solid substance average samples.2.6641 – 0.1.0234 – 6.4.S10 = 4.563 = 0.6498 Clinker phases (Equations 57 through 60): x C 3S.602 · 0. C3A and C4AF in the clinker SO3 bound to the CaO in the clinker (Equation 55 or 56): 0. 10.4.188 x C3A.6498 – 7.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 131 10.0143 – 0 = 0.718 · 0.2137 – 0.071 .1.1 C3S.563 x C 2S.0234 = 0.2.754 · 0.868 · 0.4.0083 > 0.

2.4235 The following then results: x CaCO3 .1.4306 > 0.1.785 · 0.274 · 0.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust Does not apply.S1 = 1. 10.S1 = 1.1.1.1.3256 = 0.3380 = 0.4304) = 0.7404 x MgCO3 .785 · 0.84) = 1386 kJ/s .St1 = 2.55 – 0.916 · (0.4148 < 0.55 kg/s & mSt1 = 0.0003 b) raw gas dust (Equations 61 through 64): 1.0190 · 0.274 · 0.4.St1 = 0 10.00 kg/s & mSt12 = 0 kg/s Reaction enthalpy flows (Equations 67 through 79): 1) Evaporation of H2O: & ∆H R1 = 2446 (0.3256 = 0.4.274 · 0.1.84 kg/s & mSt5 = 0 kg/s & mS10 = 18.4304 The following then results: x CaCO3 .4.3380 – 0.7683 x MgCO3 .0204 · 28.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 132 10. and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust a) kiln feed (Equations 61 through 64): 1.4304 = 0.2.4 Balance equations & mS1 = 28.2.2 CaCO3.

0003 · 28.55 – 0.0021 · 0.55 – 0 · 0.55 – 0.84) = -1346 kJ/s 4) MgCO3 dissociation: & ∆H R4 = 1396 (0.0004 · 28.84) = 978 kJ/s 3) Organic clay components: & ∆H R3 = -32786 (0.128 · 18.0499 · 0.071 · 18.00 = 170 kJ/s 9) Formation of β-C2S: & ∆H R9 = -700 · 0.7404 · 0.7683 · 28.84) = -139 kJ/s 7) Formation of C4AF: & ∆H R7 = -67 · 0.188 · 18.0008 · 0.55 – 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 133 2) Decomposition of clay: assumption: 100%-illite & ∆H R2 = 884 (0.84) = 12 kJ/s 5) CaCO3 dissociation: & ∆H R5 = 1778 (0.0402 · 28.00 = -86 kJ/s 8) Formation of C3A: & ∆H R8 = 74 · 0.55 – 0.00 = -2369 kJ/s .84) = 37895 kJ/s 6) Pyrite: & ∆H R6 = -12914 (0.0015 · 28.

0067 · 18.4.S = 1386 + 978 – 1346 + 12 + 37895 – 139 – 86 + 170 – 2369 – 5016 – 903 = 30582 kJ/s 10.0448 = 1 – 0.0010 · 28.00 + 0.0838) · 0. G1 = 0.0838) · 0.2680 yO 2 .0838 yCO 2 .2925 = 0. G1 y N 2 .03 m³/s & VL11 = 23.2 Water evaporation Does not apply. G1 = (1 – 0.84 – 0.4.2680 – 0.55) = -903 kJ/s Sum of the reaction enthalpy flow of the kiln feed (Equation 80): & ∆H R. 10.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 134 10) Formation of C3S: & ∆H R10 = -495 · 0.3 Waste gas losses & VG1 = 28.00 = -5016 kJ/s 11) Formation of K2SO4: & ∆H R11 = -9690 (0.25 m³/s ϑ G1 = 330°C [626°F] ϑ L11 = 278°C [532.2.6034 .1. G1 = (1 – 0.0489 = 0.1.563 · 18.4°F] y H 2O.0838 – 0.2.0014 · 0.0448 = 0.

65 · 10 – 8 · 3302 – 3.4 Dust losses & mSt1 = 0.01 · 10 – 11 ·3303 = 1.497 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the raw gas (Equation 82): & H G1 = 28.297 + 5.84 kg/s ϑ St1 = 330°C [626°F] Mean specific thermal capacity of the raw gas dust (Equation 49): CSt1 ≈ 0.8 + 7.2.0448 · 1.22 · 10 – 11 ·3303 = 1.54 + 0.6 · 10 – 7 · 3302 + 5.25 · 1.3 · 10 – 4 · 330 – 4.904 + 0.6034 · 1.86 · 10 – 11 · 2783 = 1.633 + 9.75 · 10 – 5 · 278 + 8.05 · 10 – 5 · 330 + 9.4.540 kJ/m³ K c p.021 · 10 – 7 · 3302 – 7.631 · 10 – 4 · 330 – 4.304 + 1.1.O 2 = 1.4 · 10 – 9 · 3302 – 1.32 + 0.2 · 10 – 11 · 3303 = 0.993 kJ/kg K .366 = 1.319 (278 – 25) = 7759 kJ/s 10.904 kJ/m³ K c p.03 · 1.268 + 1.497 (330 – 25) = 12798 kJ/s b) Cooler vent air Mean specific thermal capacity of the cooler vent air (Equation 52): cp.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 135 a) Raw gas Mean specific thermal capacity of the raw gas (Equations 83 through 87): c p.90 · 10 – 11 · 3303 = 1.606 · 10 – 7 · 3302 + 8. N 2 = 1.52 · 10 – 5 · 330 + 2.301 + 3.06 · 10 – 8 · 2782 – 2.319 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the cooler vent air (Equation 89): & H L11 = 23. L11 ≈ 1.G1 = 0. H 2O = 1.320 kJ/m³ K c p.35 · 10 – 11 ·3303 = 1.CO 2 = 1.0838 · 1.916 · 10 – 4 · 330 – 9.366 kJ/m³ K c p.489 + 9.

4.369 · 10 – 7 · 1202 + 2.1.G1 = 0.68 m³/s y CO.921 · 10 – 4 · 120 – 5.5 Incomplete combustion & VG1.2.1.4.2. tr = 25.729 + 5.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 136 Enthalpy flow of the raw gas dust (Equation 90): & H St1 = 0.793 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the clinker (Equation 94): & H S10 = 18.68 · 0.124 · 10 – 10 · 1203 = 0.6 Clinker & mS10 = 18.0007 · 12645 = 227 kJ/s 10.993 (330 – 25) = 254 kJ/s 10.00 kg/s ϑ S10 = 120°C [248°F] Mean specific thermal capacity of the raw gas dust (Equation 95): CS10 = 0.CO = 25.tr.84 · 0.0007 Reaction enthalpy flow (Equation 93): & ∆H R.00 · 0.793 (120 – 25) = 1355 kJ/s .

4. D = 4266 kJ/s & Q W.1.2.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 137 10.1. V = 720 kJ/s & Q W.1. see [31]: & Q W.7 Radiation and convection: For calculation examples.T = 486 kJ/s & Q W.8 Uncoupled heat Does not apply.4. .6% of the balance sum.C = 360 kJ/s & Q W. 10.3 Energy balance Energy output (Equation 108): & E out = 30582 + 12798 + 7759 + 254 + 227 + 1355 + 720 + 360 + 4266 + 486 + 252 = 59059 kJ/s Reaction enthalpy flow of the fuel including the balance remainder (Equation 109): & ∆H R. B = 59059 – 28 – 916 + 1223 – 409 = 58929 kJ/s Balance deficit: 58929 – 57391 = 1538 kJ/s This corresponds to 2.4. K = 252 kJ/s 10.

37 = 18.18 = 0. tr = 7.2.2 Gas volume flows & VL8.20 m³/s .00 + 0.73 m³/s Secondary air dust mass flow (Equation 110): & mSt8 = 0.002) = 37.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 138 10.08 (1 + 1.37 kg/s 6.72 kg/s 10.08 m³/s xD = 0.608 · 0.1.1 Clinker cooler 10.00 kg/s & mSt9 = 0.35 ⋅ 7.20 m³/s Cooler intake air volume flow (Equation 38): & VL10 = 37. tr = 6.73 Hot clinker mass flow (Equation 111): & mS8 = 18.18 m³/s & VL9.608 · 0.2 Balancing of the partial systems 10.18 m³/s & VL10.1 Solid substance mass flows & mS10 = 18.2.002) = 7.35 kg/s & VL8.18 (1 + 1.0020 kg/kg Secondary air volume flow (Equation 38): & VL8 = 7.2. tr = 7.35 + 0.1. tr = 37.

May 1992

Specification Vt 10

Page 139

10.2.1.3 Energy flows

10.2.1.3.1 Energy input

& VL10 = 37.20 m³/s

ϑ U = 4°C [39.2°F]

Pmech, intake air fan = 337 kJ/s

cp,L10 = 1.297 kJ/m³ K (for the calculation, see above) The enthalpy flow of the hot clinker results from the balance remainder from the energy balance. Enthalpy flow of the cooler intake air (Equation 113): & H L10 = 37.20 · 1.297 (4 – 25) = -1014 kJ/s The enthalpy flow of the injection water does not apply here. Mechanical performance (Equation 114): Pmech, K = 337 · 0.9 = 303 kJ/s

10.2.1.3.2 Energy output

& VL9 & VL8

& = VL4 = 6.75 m³/s = 7.20 m³/s

& & mSt9 = mSt4 = 0.35 kg/s & mSt8 = 0.37 kg/s

ϑ L4

= 853°C [1567.4°F]

& QW,T = 486 kJ/s

May 1992

Specification Vt 10

Page 140

Enthalpy flow of the clinker (for the calculation, see above): & H S10 = 1355 kJ/s Radiation and convection loss flow of the cooler including the kiln hood:

& Q W, K = 252 kJ/s

The uncoupled heat flow does not apply here. Enthalpy flow of the cooler vent air (for the calculation, see above): & H L11 = 7759 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the tertiary air at the calcinator (Equations 52 and 89): cp,L4 = 1.297 + 5.75 · 10 – 5 · 8.53 + 8.06 · 10 – 8 · 8532 – 2.86 · 10 – 11 · 8533 = 1.387 kJ/m³ K & H L4 = 6.75 · 1.387 · (853 – 25) = 7752 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the tertiary air dust at the calcinator (Equations 95 and 99): CSt4 = 0.729 + 5.921 · 10 – 4 · 8.53 – 5.369 · 10 – 7 · 8532 + 2.124 · 10 – 10 · 8533 = 0.975 kJ/kg K & H St4 = 0.35 · 0.975 · (853 – 25) = 283 kJ/s Energy balance for the tertiary air duct:

& & & & & H L9 + H St9 = H L4 + H St4 + Q W, T = 7752 + 283 + 486 = 8521 kJ/s

The iterative calculation then results in the following: ϑ L9 = ϑ St9 ≈ 901°C [1653.8°F]

May 1992

Specification Vt 10

Page 141

Enthalpy flow of the secondary air (Equations 52 and 89): Cp,L8 = 1.297 + 5.75 · 10 – 5 · 901 + 8.06 · 10 – 8 · 9012 – 2.86 · 10 – 11 · 9013 = 1.390 kJ/m³ K & H L8 = 7.2 · 1.39 (901 – 25) = 8767 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the secondary air dust (Equations 95 and 94): CSt8 = 0.729 + 5.921 · 10 – 4 · 901 – 5.369 · 10 – 7 · 9012 – 2.124 · 10 – 10 · 9013 = 0.982 kJ/kg K & H St8 = 0.37 · 0.982 (901 – 25) = 318 kJ/s The evaporation enthalpy flow of the water does not apply here.

10.2.1.3.3 Energy balance

Enthalpy flow of the hot clinker (Equation 115): & H S8 = 8767 + 318 + 8521 + 7759 + 1355 + 252 + 1014 – 303 = 27683 kJ/s Hot clinker temperature:

ϑS8 =

& H S8 + 25 & mS8 ⋅ cS8 & mS8 = 18.72 kg/s

cS8 (1389°C [2532.2°F]) = 1.084 kJ/kg K The following then results: ϑS8 =

27683 + 25 = 1389°C [2532.2°F] 18.72 ⋅ 1.084

168 W/m² K 100  100   100  αrad = 0.499 = 20.2 – 0.2°F]: & H S10 (4°C [39.2 m ϑ W.4.2) (200 – 4) 1 = 122 kJ/s 1000 10.2 (3.168 + 11.2 m Da = 3.85   + 0.2 + 4. pre − cool = 20.2°F]) = 25.2°F]: & H L11 (4°C [39.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area Enthalpy flow of the clinker at 4°C [39.4 Evaluation quantities 10.4.0 + 3.076   = 9.m ≈ 200°C [392°F] ϑ U = 4°C [39.00 · 0.2.5 – 0.67 · 10 – 8 2 3 4734 − 277 4 = 11.667 W/m² K Radiation and convection loss flow of the pre-cooling zone (Equation 117): & Q W.298 · (4 – 25) = -688 kJ/s .2.3 · 3.2.1.499 W/m² K 473 − 277 αtotal = 9.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 142 10.2°F]) = 18. 99 and 101): 200  200   200  αconv = 0.731 · (4 – 25) = -276 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the cooler vent air at 4°C [39.1.9 · 5.2°F] Heat-transition coefficients (Equations 98.1 Pre-cooling zone LB = -0.667 · π · 3.25 · 1.1.

3380 0.4.00 · 1.3380 xNF.0532 = 1 − 0.89 0.S1 = 0.106 · (1450 – 25) = 28370 kJ/s Cooling area efficiency (Equation 119): η cooling area = 1 – 10452 = 0.9016 = 0.6316 ϕ apparent .2.S6 = 0.6316 (sum 1 to 8 in Table 10) Apparent degree of precalcining of the kiln feed at the kiln inlet (Equation 121): 0.9016 (sum 1 to 8 in Table 10) xNF.2.2 Calcinator xCO2 .S6 = 0. cooling area = 1355 + 276 + 7759 + 688 + 252 + 122 = 10452 kJ/s 10.S1 = 0.0532 xCO2 .635 28370 + 276 10.3 Cooling area efficiency Enthalpy flow of the clinker at 1450°C [2642°F]: & H S10 (1450°C [2642°F]) = 18.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 143 Energy loss of the cooling area (Equation 118): & Eloss.

(127). Assumptions made for the calculations: 1) The conveying air volume flow for the kiln feed enters into stage 1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 144 10. (126). . (130) and (131). 2) One-fourth of the moisture volume flow from the kiln feed is desorbed in each of the four uppermost stages. 3) The infiltrated air volume flow of the preheater is uniformly distributed over the four stages.3 Preheater Calculation of the mass flows and degrees of separation according to Equations (123). 6) The cyclone of the calcinator is assigned the number 5. 7) The dust from the rotary kiln and from the tertiary air duct contains 10% alkalis and 90% non-volatile components.2. 4) The following aspects are taken into account for the reaction enthalpy flow in the preheater: • evaporation of H2O • degradation of clay • organic components • MgCO3 dissociation • pyrite 5) The sum of the reaction enthalpy flows in the preheater is uniformly distributed among the four stages.

80 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 145 Results: energy balance i 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 alkali balance ϑ 63 330 480 638 744 – – cS 0.92 3.84 – 7.092 1.844 0.993 1.14 34.03 23.G – 1.96 21.31 28.19 21.595 1.67 49.555 1.35 – 10.62 62.110 – – & VG – 28.84 15.98 0.87 0. .97 25. Thus.26 – & mSt – 0.050 1.87 ξ – 0.43 6.69 0.02 25.619 – – & QW – 180 180 180 180 – – & ∆H R – 223 223 223 223 – – & mS 28.67 48.09 – – cp.26 – – – & mSt – 0.55 43.55 – 34. the table provides information about the necessary measuring precision for the individual measured quantities during a performance test.53 25.497 1.55 – – & mS 28.3 Estimation of error Table 16 provides an overview of how possible errors in the measured or input quantities (column 2) impact on the fuel energy consumption when it is calculated according to Equation (109) or according to Equation (41) and then related to the clinker mass flow (columns 3 and 4).

4 Tables (The operands are printed in boldface!) Table 9 .55 1.00 – – 2466 111.35 . calcinator and tertiary air duct).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 146 10.84 – 0.24 0.4 107.Solid substance mass flows (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.0 – 30 28. Designation Clinker Discharged tertiary air dust Kiln feed a) meter status b) calculated lignitic coal (main burner) lignitic coal (secondary burner) Raw gas dust Bypass dust Returned tertiary air dust t/d 1555 – 2506 kg/s 18.3 73.29 1.

85 4.72 0.30 6.32 – – – 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 SiO2 Al2O3 TiO2 P2O5 Fe2O3 Mn2O3 CaO MgO SiO3 S 2– Cl – K2O Na2O ignition loss sum 1-14 sum 1-8 C CO2 H2O (< 110°C) H2O (> 110°C) CaOfree .02 12.001 0.04 – – 0.08 0.25 4.67 – 0.34 – 66.51 – 43.72 0.25 27.13 – – 1.23 – 27.21 35.14 – – 1.03 0.26 99.62 – 47.46 97.63 0.14 0.72 100.03 0.59 – – 1.75 64.85 100.42 1.15 – 61.83 0.57 0.70 0.12 4.60 0.44 – 0. Components Kiln feed 13.30 1.23 31.47 1.43 Fuel ash 8.56 0.84 4.68 0.65 3.10 99.76 – 31.70 – 42.27 62.07 1.32 – – 2.81 80.57 0.45 0.16 0.80 – – – 1b 13.54 17.61 – 0.30 34.45 – 0.15 0. No.49 – 0.95 – – 1.22 34.51 99.58 100.02 0.57 0.60 – 0.04 0.57 0.26 34.96 – Raw gas dust 14.05 0.22 0.72 4.76 – – – 3 14.99 – – 1.57 0.13 3.13 – 33.23 0.80 0.10 70.37 6.15 33.82 – – 2.83 – Clinker 21.77 0.15 0.07 – – – – – Kiln feed downstream from the cyclone 1a 14.31 34.42 – – 1.64 0.64 0.51 – 42.00 99.54 0.78 0.45 – 0.05 0.06 64.48 – – – 4 15.50 – 43.08 66.04 0.10 61.22 7.12 – – 1.008 0.64 99.25 48.90 90.10 0.85 0.Chemical analyses of the solid substance average samples in % by weight of the substance entailing loss on ignition (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.01 0.23 35.10 0. calcinator and tertiary air duct).36 0.51 – 43.31 – 33.92 0.16 – 5.31 – 0.32 0.76 5.08 1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 147 Table 10 .80 – – – 2 14.02 – – 1.45 2.75 98.30 – 33.41 1.43 100.75 63.40 – – – 5 19.58 – 45.91 4.35 0.16 0.

684 8.-% wgt.27 0.74 49.56 21.Fuels (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.53 0.27 0. Designation lower calorific value water ash carbon hydrogen sulfur nitrogen oxygen volatile components 1) 1) Unit kJ/kg wgt.-% Fuel (main burner) 22.-% wgt. calcinator and tertiary air duct).70 4.-% wgt.20 4.74 49.53 0.56 21.00 60.-% wgt. .684 8.-% wgt.70 4.60 Relative to the dry substance.-% wgt.00 60.-% wgt.60 Fuel (secondary burner) 22.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 148 Table 11 .20 4.

2°F] 32°C [89.4°F] 1024°C [1875.4°F] 330°C [626°F] 480°C [896°F] 638°C [1180.6°F] 32°C [89.2°F] 901°C [1653.4°F] 744°C [1371.6°F] .Temperatures (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 149 Table 12 . Designation Kiln feed Raw gas Kiln feed (cyclone 2) Kiln feed (cyclone 3) Kiln feed (cyclone 4) Kiln feed (cyclone 5) Tertiary air (calcinator) Kiln inlet gas Hot clinker Secondary air Cooler vent air Clinker Ambient air Fuel (main burner) Fuel (secondary burner) Temperature (°C [°F]) 63°C [145.8°F] 278°C [532. calcinator and tertiary air duct).2°F] 1389°C [2532.4°F] 120°C [248°F] 4°C [39.2°F] 845°C [1553°F] 853°C [1567.

c.05 (3.)/h 67.02 CO vol-% 0.39 air with 0.25 32.06 0.39 134000 5800 700 5000 37.42 m³(s.89 3.4 6.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 150 Table 13 .)/h clean gas raw gas gas after burning area kiln inlet gas 1) secondary air 1) tertiary air cooler vent air cooler intake air conveying air (kiln feed) burner air (secondary burner) burner air (main burner) infiltrated air (preheater) infiltrated air (calcinator) infiltrated air (kiln hood) 1) 1) moist gas … – – – – … – – – – H2 O vol-% m³(s.20) 6.76 CO2 12.62 29.3 vol-% of H2O 3800 (10900) 1900 1.07 0.)/h 244000 m³(s.68 23.c.52 Calculated.66 (10.c.26 4.15) (7.05 (3.75 23. Designation Dry gas Moist gas Gas composition.03) 0.25 133600 5800 700 5000 37.03 24.)/h 60. related to dry gas m³(s.c.17 100900 88700 36500 (26000) 24300 83700 28.Gas volume flows and composition (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.8 8.0 92400 82900 (33600) (25900) 24200 83400 25.52 3800 (10900) 1900 1.18 3.05 217500 10.18) 6. calcinator and tertiary air duct).03 (9. but often very imprecise since gas analysis at the kiln inlet is not representative.60 0. = under standard conditions .04) 0.90 21.03 0.19 1.19 1.61 0.6 8.73 23. s.08 O2 14.32) (7.08 1.c.20 1.

Designation Input Fuel main burner secondary burner sensible enthalpy balance remainder Kiln feed Air Mechanical performance Sum kJ/s kJ/kg Kl 29262 28129 28 1538 916 –1223 409 59059 1626 1563 1 85 51 –68 23 3281 Output Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed Water evaporation Waste gas losses raw gas cooler vent air Dust losses Incomplete combustion Clinker Radiation and convection Preheater Calcinator Rotary kiln Tertiary air duct cooler + kiln hood Heat uncoupling Sum Fuel energy consumption including the balance remainder 30582 — 12798 7759 254 227 1355 720 360 4266 486 252 — 59059 1699 — 711 431 14 13 75 40 20 237 27 14 — 3281 58929 3274 . calcinator and tertiary air duct).Energy balance of the kiln system (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 151 Table 14 .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 152 Table 15 .635 1538 –57 17 1498 75 14 431 473 487 18 – – 1498 Sum Output Clinker Radiation and convection Cooler vent air Tertiary air and tertiary air dust Secondary air Secondary air dust Heat uncoupling Water evaporation Sum Evaluation quantities Energy loss of the cooling area in kJ/kg Kl Cooling area efficiency (1450°C [2642°F]) . calcinator and tertiary air duct). Designation Input Hot clinker (balance remainder) Cooler intake air Mechanical performance kJ/s kJ/kg Kl 27683 –1014 303 26972 1355 252 7759 8521 8767 318 – – 26972 581 0.Energy balance of the cooler (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.

15 0.29 1. calcinator and tertiary air duct). DE 19707 Phone: (302) 234-0237 Fax: (302) 234-0239 Toll-free: (800) 437-0237 e-mail: ledtrans@compuserve.08 0.22 –1.93 0.12 1.com .Influence of measuring errors on the calculated fuel energy consumption (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.24 Translation by: Duvekot Translators 2219 Brackenville Road Hockessin.74 0.51 –0.09 0.3 0.43 0.28 1.42 2. Input quantity Relative error in the input parameter in % Relative error in the fuel energy consumption in % (Equation 109) Relative error in the fuel energy consumption in % (Equation 41) 2 10 3 Hu fuel Ash content of fuel Mass flow of fuel Mass flow of raw gas dust Mass flow of clinker Volume flow of dry raw gas Volume flow of dry cooler vent air Temperature of clinker Temperature of raw gas Temperature of kiln feed Temperature of cooler vent air Radiation and convection loss of preheater Radiation and convection loss of kiln SiO2 content in the clinker CO2 content in the kiln feed CO2 content in kiln feed and raw gas dust 2 10 10 50 3 10 10 5 2 10 2 50 10 –2 5 5 0 –0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 153 Table 16 .27 0.

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