TRANSLATION

GERMAN ASSOCIATION OF CEMENT WORKS (VDZ)
Tannenstrasse 2 4 Düsseldorf Germany

Execution and Evaluation of Kiln Performance Tests

PROCESS TECHNOLOGY COMMITTEE KILN PERFORMANCE TESTS TASK FORCE

May 1992

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May 1992

Specification Vt 10

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. 2.
2.1 2.2

PRELIMINARY REMARKS ...........................................................................7 DESCRIPTION OF THE CLINKER BURNING PROCESS ...........................8
Reactions of the kiln feed............................................................................................................... 8 Burning process............................................................................................................................ 10

3.
3.1 3.2

EXECUTION OF KILN PERFORMANCE TESTS .......................................16
Mode of operation of the kiln system.......................................................................................... 16 Duration of the performance test................................................................................................ 16

3.3 Measuring methods ...................................................................................................................... 17 3.3.1 Solid substances.................................................................................................................... 17 3.3.1.1 Sampling .......................................................................................................................... 17 3.3.1.2 Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 18 3.3.1.3 Mass flows ....................................................................................................................... 25 3.3.2 Gases..................................................................................................................................... 27 3.3.2.1 Sampling .......................................................................................................................... 27 3.3.2.2 Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 28 3.3.2.3 Volume flows................................................................................................................... 28 3.3.3 Liquids.................................................................................................................................. 30 3.3.3.1 Heating oil ....................................................................................................................... 30 3.3.3.2 Water................................................................................................................................ 30 3.3.4 Temperatures ........................................................................................................................ 31 3.3.5 Pressures ............................................................................................................................... 32 3.3.6 Strokes and rotational speeds................................................................................................ 32 3.3.7 Electricity consumption ........................................................................................................ 33 3.3.8 Ambient conditions............................................................................................................... 33 3.3.9 Ensuring the precision of the measurements and analyses ................................................... 34

4.

EVALUATION OF KILN PERFORMANCE TESTS.....................................35

4.1 Balancing of the entire system..................................................................................................... 35 4.1.1 Solid substance mass flows .................................................................................................. 40 4.1.2 Gas volume flows ................................................................................................................. 42

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4.1.2.1 Dry gas............................................................................................................................. 42 4.1.2.1.1 Minimum air volume flow.......................................................................................... 42 4.1.2.1.2 Air proportionality factor............................................................................................ 45 4.1.2.1.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood ..................................................................................... 46 4.1.2.1.4 Secondary air .............................................................................................................. 47 4.1.2.1.5 Cooler intake air ......................................................................................................... 48 4.1.2.1.6 Raw gas ...................................................................................................................... 48 4.1.2.1.7 Gas downstream from the burning area ...................................................................... 50 4.1.2.1.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) ....................................................... 50 4.1.2.2 Water vapor...................................................................................................................... 51 4.1.2.2.1 Humidity in the air...................................................................................................... 51 4.1.2.2.2 Water from the kiln feed............................................................................................. 51 4.1.2.2.3 Water from the fuel..................................................................................................... 52 4.1.2.2.4 Injection water ............................................................................................................ 52 4.1.2.3 Moist gas.......................................................................................................................... 52 4.1.2.3.1 Air............................................................................................................................... 52 4.1.2.3.2 Raw gas ...................................................................................................................... 53 4.1.3 Liquid mass flows................................................................................................................. 53 4.1.4 Energy flows......................................................................................................................... 53 4.1.4.1 Energy input..................................................................................................................... 53 4.1.4.1.1 Fuel ............................................................................................................................. 53 4.1.4.1.2 Kiln feed ..................................................................................................................... 57 4.1.4.1.3 Air............................................................................................................................... 60 4.1.4.1.4 Injection water ............................................................................................................ 62 4.1.4.1.5 Mechanical performance ............................................................................................ 62 4.1.4.2 Energy output................................................................................................................... 62 4.1.4.2.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed .............................................................................. 62 4.1.4.2.1.1 C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF in the clinker ............................................................... 64 4.1.4.2.1.2 CaCO3 and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust ............................... 65 4.1.4.2.1.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust....................................................................... 66 4.1.4.2.1.4 Balance equations ................................................................................................ 66 4.1.4.2.2 Water evaporation....................................................................................................... 70 4.1.4.2.3 Waste gas losses ......................................................................................................... 70 4.1.4.2.4 Dust losses .................................................................................................................. 71 4.1.4.2.5 Incomplete combustion............................................................................................... 72 4.1.4.2.6 Clinker ........................................................................................................................ 72 4.1.4.2.7 Radiation and convection ........................................................................................... 74 4.1.4.2.8 Uncoupled heat ........................................................................................................... 78 4.1.4.3 Energy balance................................................................................................................. 79 4.2 Balancing of the partial systems.................................................................................................. 80 4.2.1 Clinker cooler ....................................................................................................................... 80 4.2.1.1 Solid substance mass flows.............................................................................................. 83 4.2.1.2 Gas volume flows ............................................................................................................ 84 4.2.1.3 Energy flows ........................................................................................................................... 84 4.2.1.3.1 Energy input ............................................................................................................... 84 4.2.1.3.1.1 Hot clinker ........................................................................................................... 84 4.2.1.3.1.2 Cooler intake air .................................................................................................. 85 4.2.1.3.1.3 Injection water ..................................................................................................... 85 4.2.1.3.1.4 Mechanical performance ..................................................................................... 85

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4.2.1.3.2 Energy output ............................................................................................................. 85 4.2.1.3.2.1 Clinker, clinker dust ............................................................................................ 85 4.2.1.3.2.2 Radiation and convection .................................................................................... 86 4.2.1.3.2.3 Uncoupled heat .................................................................................................... 86 4.2.1.3.2.4 Cooler vent air, secondary air, tertiary air ........................................................... 86 4.2.1.3.2.5 Water evaporation................................................................................................ 86 4.2.1.3.3 Energy balance ........................................................................................................... 86 4.2.1.4 Evaluation quantities........................................................................................................ 87 4.2.1.4.1 Pre-cooling zone ......................................................................................................... 87 4.2.1.4.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area .......................................................................... 89 4.2.1.4.3 Cooling area efficiency............................................................................................... 89 4.2.1.4.4 Cooler efficiency ........................................................................................................ 90 4.2.2 Calcinator (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater)..................................................... 90 4.2.2.1 Determination of the degree of precalcining.................................................................... 92 4.2.3 Preheater (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater) ...................................................... 93 4.2.3.1 Degree of separation of individual cyclone stages........................................................... 94

5. 6.
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7

EVALUATION OF THE SUBSTANCE CIRCULATION SYSTEMS ............98 EVALUATION OF THE CEMENT CLINKER ..............................................99
Degree of burning......................................................................................................................... 99 Particle-size distribution.............................................................................................................. 99 Grindability ................................................................................................................................ 100 Chemical composition ................................................................................................................ 100 Phase composition ...................................................................................................................... 103 Microscopic examination........................................................................................................... 103 Cement testing ............................................................................................................................ 104

7. 8. 9.
9.1 9.2

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSIONS ........................................................105 FORMULA SIGNS AND INDICES ............................................................106 LITERATURE REFERENCES...................................................................112
General literature references .................................................................................................... 112 Technical literature references.................................................................................................. 113

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10. EVALUATION EXAMPLE 1 (KILN SYSTEM WITH A CYCLONE PREHEATER, CALCINATOR AND TERTIARY AIR DUCT) ...........................118
10.1 Balancing the entire system .................................................................................................. 118 10.1.1 Solid substance mass flows ................................................................................................ 118 10.1.2 Gas volume flows ............................................................................................................... 119 10.1.2.1 Dry gas ...................................................................................................................... 119 10.1.2.1.1 Minimum air volume flow...................................................................................... 119 10.1.2.1.2 Air proportionality factors ...................................................................................... 120 10.1.2.1.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood ................................................................................. 120 10.1.2.1.4 Secondary air .......................................................................................................... 121 10.1.2.1.5 Cooler intake air ..................................................................................................... 121 10.1.2.1.6 Raw gas .................................................................................................................. 122 10.1.2.1.7 Gas downstream from the burning area .................................................................. 123 10.1.2.1.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) ................................................... 124 10.1.2.1.9 Infiltrated air (preheater)......................................................................................... 125 10.1.2.1.10 Infiltrated air (calcinator)...................................................................................... 125 10.1.2.2 Water vapor............................................................................................................... 125 10.1.2.2.1 Humidity in the air.................................................................................................. 125 10.1.2.2.2 Water from the kiln feed......................................................................................... 126 10.1.2.2.3 Water from the fuel................................................................................................. 127 10.1.2.2.4 Injection water ........................................................................................................ 127 10.1.2.3 Moist gas (examples) ................................................................................................ 128 10.1.3 Liquid mass flows............................................................................................................... 128 10.1.4 Energy flows....................................................................................................................... 128 10.1.4.1 Energy input.............................................................................................................. 128 10.1.4.1.1 Fuel ......................................................................................................................... 128 10.1.4.1.2 Kiln feed ................................................................................................................. 129 10.1.4.1.3 Air........................................................................................................................... 130 10.1.4.1.4 Injection water ........................................................................................................ 130 10.1.4.1.5 Mechanical performance ........................................................................................ 130 10.1.4.2 Energy output ............................................................................................................ 131 10.1.4.2.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed .......................................................................... 131 10.1.4.2.1.1 C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF in the clinker ........................................................... 131 10.1.4.2.1.2 CaCO3, and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust........................... 132 10.1.4.2.1.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust................................................................... 132 10.1.4.2.1.4 Balance equations ............................................................................................ 132 10.1.4.2.2 Water evaporation................................................................................................... 134 10.1.4.2.3 Waste gas losses ..................................................................................................... 134 10.1.4.2.4 Dust losses .............................................................................................................. 135 10.1.4.2.5 Incomplete combustion........................................................................................... 136 10.1.4.2.6 Clinker .................................................................................................................... 136 10.1.4.2.7 Radiation and convection: ...................................................................................... 137 10.1.4.2.8 Uncoupled heat ....................................................................................................... 137 10.1.4.3 Energy balance .......................................................................................................... 137 10.2 Balancing of the partial systems........................................................................................... 138 10.2.1 Clinker cooler ..................................................................................................................... 138 10.2.1.1 Solid substance mass flows ....................................................................................... 138

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10.2.1.2 Gas volume flows...................................................................................................... 138 10.2.1.3 Energy flows ............................................................................................................. 139 10.2.1.3.1 Energy input ........................................................................................................... 139 10.2.1.3.2 Energy output ......................................................................................................... 139 10.2.1.3.3 Energy balance ....................................................................................................... 141 10.2.1.4 Evaluation quantities................................................................................................. 142 10.2.1.4.1 Pre-cooling zone ..................................................................................................... 142 10.2.1.4.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area ...................................................................... 142 10.2.1.4.3 Cooling area efficiency........................................................................................... 143 10.2.2 Calcinator ........................................................................................................................... 143 10.2.3 Preheater ............................................................................................................................. 144 10.3 10.4 Estimation of error................................................................................................................ 145 Tables...................................................................................................................................... 146

as well as for the reduction of the level of emissions. . this specification. Information on pressure levels. The important aspect here is the absolute value of the measured values. in addition to the evaluation. of the operation and of the cement quality. only serves to assess the kiln operation. specifically contains information for carrying out performance tests. The evaluation equations are employed in two practical examples in Sections 10 and 11. including significant remarks pertaining to measurement technology. specific fuel-energy consumption). The practical feasibility of the evaluation is always the main priority in the formulation of the numerical value equations. The units indicated in Section 8 apply to all numerical value equations. Additional information in this context would be necessary in order to obtain a precise measurement. kiln performance tests not only serve to gather data on the performance of the kiln system (clinker output. stroke numbers and rotational speeds as well as on the consumption of electricity. For this reason. Preliminary remarks In cement plants. but also to create a reliable foundation for the optimization of individual system components. in contrast. This specification deals primarily with energy and mass balances.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 7 1.

The raw material mixture is heated up and burned in the rotary kiln to form clinker. . The oxidic main components are calcium oxide (CaO). and some of them in parallel to each other (see Figure 1).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 8 2. some of them consecutively. silicon dioxide (SiO2). aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and iron oxide (Fe2O3).1 Description of the clinker burning process Reactions of the kiln feed Portland cement clinker is made from a finely-ground raw material mixture consisting of limestone.Schematic representation of the clinker formation reaction. clay and sand. Figure 1 . a process in which several chemical reactions take place. marl. 2.

calcination of the CaCO3 and concurrent binding of Al2O3. quartz (SiO2). At a sintering temperature of around 1450°C [2642°F]. This is followed by the calcination (decarbonation. crystallization of the melt to form C3A and C4AF. which practically takes place between 800°C and 900°C [1472°F and 1652°F]. • up to about 700°C [1292°F]. various calcium aluminate and calcium ferrite compounds are formed as transition phases which. the kiln feed has lost about 35% of its dry weight. Fe2O3 as well as of activated SiO2 and CaO. Owing to solid-state reactions. clay minerals (SiO2-Al2O3-H2O) and iron ore (Fe2O3). • upon cooling. however. Moreover. while the chemically bound water is removed up to a temperature of about 700°C [1292°F]. First of all. in short. reaction of the belite with the remaining free lime to form alite (“C3S”). and forced above 1300°C [2372°F] due to melt formation. disintegrate again once the clinker melt starts to form at about 1280°C [2336°F].May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 9 The clinker formation reactions can be depicted as a model broken down into the following temperature stages: • starting composition: calcite (CaCO3). • between 700°C and 900°C [1292°F and 1652°F]. the alite and the belite remain virtually unchanged in their form and composition. the formation of belite (“C2S”) from SiO2 on CaO (“free lime”) is completed. activation of the silicates through water expulsion and modification change. The melt plays a significant role in the finishing burn of the clinker. • once a maximum of 1200°C [2192°F] is reached. it reaches a fraction of about 20% to 30% by weight. dissociation) of the calcium carbonate into CaO and CO2. • starting at 1250°C [2282°F]. since it pro- . the formation of the dicalcium silicate (2CaO · SiO2. In this process. C2S) already starts at about 700°C [1292°F]. the physically bound water is removed when the kiln feed is preheated. After the complete decarbonation.

0°. In this context.2 Burning process In Germany nowadays. C3A) and aluminate ferrite (4CaO · Al2O3 · Fe2O3. 2. cement clinker is produced in rotary kiln systems with kiln feed preheaters located upstream and clinker coolers located downstream (for other process techniques. essentially tricalcium aluminate (3CaO · Al2O3. As the melt cools down. Rotary kilns are fire-proof. brick-lined tubes.5° to 4. On the other hand. in short.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 10 motes the formation of tricalcium silicate (3CaO · SiO2. the cement clinker has to be cooled off so quickly that the tricalcium silicate does not disintegrate.5 to 3 rpm. burning tempera- . in short. As a result of the inclination and rotation. and the tricalcium aluminate crystallizes with the finest grain possible. which is indispensable for the strength properties of the cement. C4AF) crystallize out. Consequently. having diameters of up to 6 meters and inclined at an angle ranging from about 2. the kiln feed coming from the preheater moves towards the main burner of the rotary kiln. 6-9 and 11-15]). in short. After completion of the sintering. Rotary kilns with preheaters located upstream have a length that is 10 to 17 times longer than their diameters. In order to reach the sintering temperature of about 1350°C to 1500°C [2462°F to 2732°F] that is necessary for the formation of the clinker phase and in view of the unfavorable heat-conduction conditions in the kiln feed. the cooling rate should not be so high that the melt becomes glassy as it solidifies. C3S) from solid dicalcium silicate and CaO. see [2-4. the cooling of the cement clinker has to be optimally harmonized with the required clinker properties. qualitative differences occur which depend on the composition of the kiln feed [48-53]. which is located at the lower end of the rotary kiln. which are operated at 1.

raw meal mixture is fed into the waste gases prior to entering the uppermost cyclone stage. afterwards. Grate-type preheaters consist of a traveling grate on which the kiln feed that has been made into granules or briquettes travels through a closed tunnel that is divided into a hot chamber and a dry chamber. the combustion air is preheated to about 600°C to 1000°C [1112°F to 1832°F] in a clinker cooler located downstream from the sintering process. a distinction is made as to whether they are operated with a grate-type preheater or with a cyclone preheater. When it comes to kiln systems. the clinker dissipates its energy to the cooling air that is flowing in a cross current or countercurrent. the gas is once again blown from the top to the bottom through the moist granules in the dry chamber. and it is once again separated from the gas in the cyclones. The process gases coming from the rotary kiln flow through the cyclone preheater from the bottom to the top. The dry. . After the coarse dust has been separated out. In the case of the rotary coolers or satellite coolers. Grate-type coolers. With grate-type coolers. which usually consist of 10 satellite tubes attached around the periphery of the rotary kiln. and it is then fed to the rotary kiln burner as so-called secondary air. depending on the clinker output. The cyclone preheater essentially consists of four to five cyclone stages arranged one above the other in a tower that is 50 to 100 meters high. it re-enters the gas stream prior to the next-lower cyclone stage. satellite coolers and rotary coolers are employed as clinker coolers in the cement industry. the clinker that drops out of the rotary kiln after the sintering operation is cooled in a crosscurrent. In order to be able to reach such high temperatures.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 11 tures ranging from 1800°C to 2000°C [3272°F to 3632°F] or even higher are needed. An intermediate gas fan blows the process gas of the rotary kiln from the top to the bottom through the layer of granules in the hot chamber.

Upon leaving the cyclone preheater. . Figure 3 schematically shows a rotary kiln system with a grate-type preheater. depending on the number of stages and capacity flow ratio.Schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with cyclone preheaters and waste gas utilization. Figure 2 . the waste gases have a temperature of around 290°C to 400°C [554°F to 752°F]. the waste gases of the grate-type preheater have a temperature of about 90°C to 120°C [194°F to 248°F]. Figure 2 shows a schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with a cyclone preheater and waste gas utilization. As a function of the process.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 12 Both with cyclone preheater systems and with grate-type preheater systems. The kiln feed entering the rotary kiln reaches temperatures of 820°C to 850°C [1508°F to 1562°F] at precalcining degrees of up to about 90%. the process gas from the rotary kiln has a temperature of about 1000°C to 1200°C [1832°F to 2192°F].

new systems with cyclone preheaters are provided with an enlarged combustion chamber between the rotary kiln inlet and the lowermost cyclone.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 13 Figure 3 . that is to say. with the secondary burner located between the rotary kiln and the preheater. the so-called “tertiary air duct”. and from there to the secondary burner. the further development of kiln systems has led to the process involving precalcining. the combustion air is conveyed in a separate gas duct. The principle involved in both techniques for conveying the combustion . This method is employed with old systems in particular. For this purpose. the amount of energy supplied is such that 70% to 95% of the calcium carbonate of the kiln feed has already decarbonated by the time it enters the rotary kiln. which is designated as the calcinator. the fuel energy is divided up over two burners and. which leads from the clinker cooler past the rotary kiln. together with the waste gas from the main burner. The combustion air for the secondary burner can be conveyed through the rotary kiln. however. In the case of new systems with cyclone preheaters. In this process.Schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with a grate-type preheater. Since about 1970.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 14 air is shown in Figure 4. reciprocating grate-type cooler and tertiary air duct. calcinator. Figure 4 . up to 60% – of the total fuel energy needed can be employed in the secondary burner.Precalcining process with and without tertiary air duct. up to 30% – in systems with a tertiary air duct. A rotary kiln system with precalcining. In rotary kiln systems having a calcinator but without a tertiary air duct. consisting of a fourstage cyclone preheater. . is shown in Figure 5. rotary kiln.

Schematic representation of a cement rotary kiln system with a cyclone preheater. calcinator and tertiary air duct.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 15 Figure 5 . .

the energy fraction of the secondary fuel. composition of the kiln feed. The latter has to be safeguarded by means of appropriate measures. preferably 48 or 72 hours. 3. The essential operating data (for instance. 3. the performance test should preferably last 72 hours.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 16 3. If the type of combined drying and grinding operation changes (in. in cases of major changes vis-à-vis normal operations. by changing the mixed bed). should already have been established one week prior to the start of the performance test. type of combined drying and grinding operation) should already have been determined during the planning phase of the performance test and. Possible criteria for interrupting the performance test should also be laid down in advance.2 Duration of the performance test A kiln performance test should last for at least 24 hours. . partial load). out. types of fuel.1 Execution of kiln performance tests Mode of operation of the kiln system The considerations elaborated upon below apply exclusively to the stationary operation a kiln system. Neither shortly before nor during the performance test should there be any changes in the composition of the kiln feed or of the fuel (for example. the mass flow of the kiln feed.

1 Solid substances 3. conveyor belt.3. The samples are taken from the belt (for instance. Thus. The safety regulations that apply in such cases must be observed. when two partial streams having different concentrations of the component to be examined are combined.1. at the discharge end of the conveyors (for instance. Sampling amount in kg ≥1 ≥ 0. for instance. It must be ensured that the sample is taken over the entire width of the material stream in order to take into account possible de-mixing phenomena.5 ≥ 0.3.1 Sampling The objective of sampling is to obtain a random sample of each solid substance mass flow that is representative of the parent population being examined.Sampling amount and sampling frequency in rotary kiln performance tests. the hot-meal pipe of a cyclone). that is to say. screw conveyor) or from the meal pipes (for example. Material clinker coal dust (main burner) coal dust (secondary burner) kiln feed raw gas dust tertiary air dust bypass dust Kiln feed in the preheater 1) With partial-stream suction.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 17 3.5 Sampling frequency every hour every four hours every four hours every four hours every four hours 1) every four hours 1) every two hours every four hours . Table 1 . the sampling amount and the sampling frequency have to be adapted to the prevailing test conditions.5 ≥ 0.3 Measuring methods 3.5 ≥ 0.5 ≥ 0. then this non-homogeneity has to be taken into consideration by enlarging the scope of the sampling. apron conveyor). which could give rise to insufficient blending by the time the sampling site is reached.5 ≥ 0. every 12 hours.5 ≥ 0. bucket elevator. Table 1 shows an example of a sampling plan.

clinker). As a matter of principle.1. the average sample is subsequently formed on the basis of the pre-dried individual samples. the individual and average samples should be stored air-tight in order to avoid a falsification of the H2O and CO2 contents.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 18 A partially decarbonated kiln feed should be cooled off rapidly and air-tight so as to avoid. For practical reasons. . Samples of solid substances from flowing gases (raw gas dust. in the raw material) should be determined on larger individual samples. 3. the samples can also be taken at time-staggered intervals.3.2 Analysis Table 2 shows an example of an analysis plan. further decarbonation of CaCO3 or a residual burn-out of carbon. The individual samples are pre-comminuted (for example. As a matter principle. In this process. High levels of moisture (for instance. the laboratory should be informed about the source and presumed composition of the samples. homogenized and combined to form a weighed average sample for the duration of the performance test. for example. care should be taken to ensure that the suction is representative. tertiary air dust) can also be taken by means of isokinetic suction of a partial stream. This ensures that the best suited decomposition and analysis methods will be selected for each particular case.

sample preparation calorific value H 2O ash ash composition volatile components C and H S Cl N O – Analysis method DIN 51701 (Part 3).09 mm (for CaOfree 0. Material Coal dust Analysis sampling. ISO 352. ISO 1928 DIN 51777. ISO 333 subtraction DIN 51570 (Parts 1 to 3) DIN 51900. ISO 348. ISO 1928 DIN 51718. ISO 3733 DIN EN 7 DIN 51721 1) DIN EN 41. ISO 625 DIN 51724 (Part 1). DIN 51400 DIN 51722 1) subtraction DIN 51872 DIN 51856 DIN 51855 Grinding for complete passage through the sieve. ISO 609. ISO 351 DIN 51727. ISO 1171 DIN 51729 DIN 51720. ISO 2309 DIN 51900. ISO 1988. ISO 1015 DIN 51719.063) 1000°C [1832°F] ± 25 K (10 min) or 950°C [1742°F] ± 25 K until weight constancy is achieved Oil sampling calorific value H 2O ash C and H S Cl N – Natural gas composition O S Clinker. ISO 687. ISO 562 DIN 51721. ISO 589.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 19 Table 2 .Analysis and analysis method for rotary kiln performance tests. ISO 331. ISO 587 DIN 51722 (Part 1). tertiary air dust sample preparation loss on ignition . 0. ISO 579. ISO 334.

flame photometry (emission. Na2O CaOfree a) fluxing agent tablet (≤ 1000°C [1832°F].L. subsequent correction of the results c) fluxing agent tablet (1200°C [2192°F]. 81% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 8. analysis including SO3 and alkali b) fluxing agent tablet (1050°C [1922°F].May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 20 X-ray fluorescent full analysis 2) Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Σ SO3 K2O. absorption) a) method according to Franke b) method according to Schläpfer and Bukowski Depending on the boundary conditions. subsequent correction of the results Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) c) thermal reaction in a moist O2 stream at 1000°C [1832°F] so as to form hydrogen chloride Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) introduction of the hydrogen chloride into an acetic silver nitrate solution and coulometric titration The weighed-in amount has to be adapted to the low Cl – content of the clinker (5 to 10 g) a) gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream. 100% by weight of Li2B4O7 as the decomposition agent. dilution of 1:10). 90% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 10% by weight of LiF as the decomposition agent. dilution of 1:5 to 1:20). dilution of 1:5). Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically J.9% by weight of SrO + 2% by weight of V2O5 as the decomposition agent. determination of SO3. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. the results can deviate from one method to another . K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods.1% by weight of LiF + 8. Smith decomposition. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. determination of SO3.

100% by weight of Li2B4O7 as the decomposition agent. dilution of 1:5).09 mm Thermal degradation in the inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] or chemical degradation with acid a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection Weighing. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. dilution of 1:10). K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods.9% by weight of SrO + 2% by weight of V2O5 as the decomposition agent. 90% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 10% by weight of LiF as the decomposition agent. subsequent correction of the results c) fluxing agent tablet (1200°C [2192°F]. weighing Thermal desorption in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] a) KF titration b) IR detection c) gravimetric Decarbonation with hydrochloric acid. subsequent correction of the results H2O < 110°C [230°F] 4) Σ H 2O Corg X-ray fluorescent full analysis 2) Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) c) thermal reaction in a moist O2 stream at 1000°C [1832°F] so as to form hydrogen chloride . determination of SO3.1% by weight of LiF + 8. dilution of 1:5 to 1:20).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 21 Kiln feed sample preparation CO2 Grinding for complete passage through the sieve. analysis including SO3 and alkali b) fluxing agent tablet (1050°C [1922°F]. determination of SO3. cooling in a desiccator. 81% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 8. 0. drying at 110°C [230°F]. thermal reaction of the carbon compounds in an oxygen stream a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection a) fluxing agent tablet (≤ 1000°C [1832°F].

absorption) Dissolution with hydrochloric acid containing SnCl2 in the presence of Cr (metallic).09 mm Thermal degradation in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] or chemical degradation with acid a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection S2– Raw gas dust 5) (cyclone preheater kiln) sample preparation CO2 Σ H 2O Thermal desorption in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] a) KF titration b) IR detection c) gravimetric Corg Decarbonation with hydrochloric acid. flame photometry (emission.L. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. Smith decomposition. iodometry Grinding for complete passage through the sieve. Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically K2O. 0. gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream. Na2O J.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 22 Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) introduction of the hydrogen chloride into an acetic silver nitrate solution and coulometric titration The weighed-in amount has to be adapted to the low Cl – content of the clinker (5 to 10 g) Σ SO3 a) oxidation with bromine water. thermal reaction of the carbon compounds in an oxygen stream a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection . pick-up in a cooled (≤ 15°C [59°F]) ammoniacal ZnSO4 or CdCl2 solution.

Na2O S2– . K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. dilution of 1:5 to 1:20). dilution of 1:10). subsequent correction of the results Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) c) thermal reaction in a moist O2 stream at 1000°C [1832°F] so as to form hydrogen chloride Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) introduction of the hydrogen chloride into an acetic silver nitrate solution and coulometric titration The weighed-in amount has to be adapted to the low Cl – content of the clinker (5 to 10 g) a) oxidation with bromine water. iodometry Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Σ SO3 K2O. gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream. 100% by weight of Li2B4O7 as the decomposition agent. 81% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 8. Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically J. K2O and Na2O with other analytical methods. subsequent correction of the results c) fluxing agent tablet (1200°C [2192°F].L. pick-up in a cooled (≤ 15°C [59°F]) ammoniacal ZnSO4 or CdCl2 solution.9% by weight of SrO + 2% by weight of V2O5 as the decomposition agent.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 23 X-ray fluorescent full analysis 2) a) fluxing agent tablet (≤ 1000°C [1832°F]. dilution of 1:5). analysis including SO3 and alkali b) fluxing agent tablet (1050°C [1922°F]. flame photometry (emission. absorption) Dissolution with hydrochloric acid containing SnCl2 in the presence of Cr (metallic). determination of SO3. Smith decomposition. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. determination of SO3.1% by weight of LiF + 8. 90% by weight of Li2B4O7 + 10% by weight of LiF as the decomposition agent.

flame photometry (emission. pick-up in a cooled (≤ 15°C [59°F]) ammoniacal ZnSO4 or CdCl2 solution. iodometry . 0. Na2O Cl – (including Br and I) 3) Σ SO3 S2– Dissolution with hydrochloric acid containing SnCl2 in the presence of Cr (metallic).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 24 Bypass dust 5) Kiln feed in the preheater5) Raw gas dust 5) (grate-type preheating kiln) sample preparation CO2 Grinding for complete passage through the sieve. absorption) Decomposition: a) nitric acid (1 part of concentrated nitric acid + 19 parts of water) b) acetic anhydride (7+6) Analysis: a) potentiometric titration with silver nitrate b) titration according to Volhardt c) coulometric titration d) gravimetric a) oxidation with bromine water.09 mm Thermal degradation in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] or chemical degradation with acid a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection Thermal desorption in an inert gas stream at 1000°C [1832°F] a) KF titration b) IR detection c) gravimetric Decarbonation with hydrochloric acid.L. hydrofluoric acid decomposition / perchloric acid decomposition (observe the safety regulations!) or melt decomposition (< 1000°C [1832°F]) with Li2B4O7. Smith decomposition. thermal reaction of the carbon compounds in an oxygen stream a) gravimetric b) coulometric c) IR detection J. gravimetric b) thermal reaction of the sulfur compounds with additives in the oxygen stream. Measurement of the SO2 by means of an IR detector or else iodometrically Σ H 2O Corg K2O.

TiO2. K2O. P2O5. The maximum error is smaller with a duration of 48 hours. even over shorter periods of time. CaO. SO3. In the case of sensitive samples that are hygroscopic or that react during the drying process.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 25 1) 2) Since there are no specifications for mineral oils. In each case. clinker contains FeO and MnO.1. the analysis method for fuels is employed. (NH4)2SO4. several measuring intervals are needed. the weighing procedure should be checked. This can lead to erroneously low results at low levels of Cl– in the raw material. MgO. Continuously operating clinker scales can be adjusted by the above-mentioned method.3 Clinker: Mass flows The clinker is loaded onto trucks or railroad cars and weighed on calibrated scales (for example.) Nitric acid extraction does not always dissolve all of the halides out of the sample matrix. Dust as well as the kiln feed in the preheater can also contain highly volatile compounds such as. Mn2O3. every 4 hours with different clinker production. The duration of the clinker weighing can differ from the performance test duration. the examinations should be performed in the delivery state. During the reducing burning process. Na2O. . the laboratory should be informed to this effect. (Σ SO3. Fe2O3. The measured value from the performance test is then multiplied by the resulting correction values. the solid materials might also contain fluoride. Alternatively. dirt). Na2O should be checked by other analytical methods. In addition to the above-mentioned compounds. but it should not be shorter than 24 hours. SiO2. barium oxide and strontium oxide or S2–. K2O. Al2O3. If this is already known to be so. for instance. An interim result should be determined every 4 to 6 hours in order to obtain information about the time course of the mass flow. < 105°C [221°F]. Prior to the test. 3) 4) 5) 3.3. for example. For this purpose. shipping scales). the trucks or railroad cars are weighed both empty and fully loaded (varying amounts of fuel in the tank.

care should be taken to ensure that the cleaning of the filter is switched to continuous operation before the dust is discharged.3). the dust mass flow is determined by means of an isokinetic partial stream suction (in this context. the fuel energy consumption is usually balanced by means of a comparison of the energy output with the energy input (see Section 4. Kiln feed: The kiln feed mass flow is calculated. shipping scales). Dust: Dust is preferably weighed on calibrated scales (for example. For this reason. If weighing is not possible. It results from the component balance of the sum of the non-volatile substances (see Section 4. also see the VDZ Specification titled “Dust quantity measurements in cement plants” [17]). a second clinker weighing procedure is not necessary if it is ensured that all of the dust mass flows remain constant.1.1. Here.4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 26 In the case of immediately consecutive kiln performance tests. . The following relationship applies: Fuels: Fuels are weighed on industrial scales which have been previously adjusted.1). Translator’s note: See Section 8 for the list of abbreviations used in the formulas. However. the precision levels achieved in this manner are often not sufficient for evaluating the kiln system.

various gas compositions can occur over the cross section of the duct. the time intervals at which the probes need to . O2. there are also differences in the individual strings. O2.3.1 Sampling In the raw gas.2. O2.3. O2. CO 1) CO2. Measuring site raw gas bypass gas (with cooling air) bypass gas (without cooling air) downstream from the burning area kiln inlet tertiary air cooler intake air cooler vent air burner air (main burner) burner air (secondary burner) conveying air (kiln feed) 1) Volume flow measurement pitot tube pitot tube – – – pitot tube – pitot tube pitot tube + rated values pitot tube + rated values rated values Gas analysis CO2. CO – – – – – – Discontinuous measurement is often sufficient. CO CO2. O2. CO 1) CO2. more information can be obtained from the VDZ Specification titled “Continuous gas analysis in cement plants” [20]). CO CO2. Moreover. in the bypass gas and in the gas downstream from the burning area.Volume flow measurement and gas analysis in rotary kiln performance tests. while information on volume flow measurement is to be found in the VDZ Specification titled “Quantity measurement of gases by means of velocity measurements” [16]). Table 3 shows an example of a measurement plan. 3. in the case of double-string cyclone preheaters.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 27 3.2 Gases For the gas analysis. In the gas downstream from the burning area. Table 3 .

3. For this reason. determinations of CO2. the pitot tube should be installed in the .2 Analysis The gas analysis should be carried out continuously. the measuring gas should be sampled dry.3. without injection water or scrubbing water. cooler vent air). With volumes flows that fluctuate markedly (for instance. both with respect to location and to time. 3. Since the measuring site is also frequently exposed to falling material.2. The probe should be cooled. it is not possible to specify a representative measuring site.2. The probe in the gas downstream from the burning area should be cooled.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 28 be cleaned can be extended by placing the measuring gas sampling opening as far as possible from the meal inlet pipes. Sampling sites in the upper third of the rotary kiln cross section are recommended.5 m into the rotating part of the kiln in order to avoid falsifications of the measured results due to infiltrated air that gets into the inlet gasket or as a result of falling kiln feed material.3 Volume flows The volume flows are primarily measured with a pitot tube. So as to prevent falsifications of the concentration values due to the scrubbing out of individual gas components. The sampling opening should project about 0. At the very least. the sampling probe should be built laterally into the refractory brickwork. In the rotary kiln inlet. 3. that is to say. the process gas usually displays great differences in concentration. O2 and CO are required.

c) air balance of the cooler (often the most precise way with continuous volume flow measurement of the cooler vent air after the dust removal). b) fan characteristic curves (only possible for fans with adjustable rotational speeds). There are three methods for measuring the raw gas volume flow: a) direct measurement with a pitot tube (in the case of unfavorable measuring conditions. deflection of the gas upstream from the measuring site. c) conversion of the clean gas volume flow to raw gas conditions using an O2 or CO2 balance or an H2O balance (additional gas analysis and measurement of the volume flow in the clean gas is necessary. There are three methods for measuring the volume flow of the cooler intake air: a) inlet nozzles (often very imprecise). > 50 g/m³]. expensive but accurate). for example. only possible if clean gases of the kiln can be detected in their entirety. The bypass gas volume flow prior to the admixture is derived from the gas analysis before and after the admixture of the cooling air. this is often very imprecise). The bypass gas is measured with a pitot tube after admixing the cooling air. . substantial pressure fluctuations or a high amount of dust [for instance.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 29 gas duct and the differential pressure as well as the appertaining temperature should be recorded continuously. b) calculation on the basis of a CO2 and an H2O balance of the kiln system (imprecise when secondary fuels are used) [30].

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 30 The volume flow of infiltrated air at the kiln hood is calculated on the basis of the open cross-sectional area and of the differential pressure at the kiln hood (see Section 4. if applicable. 3. it is necessary to take into account the density. Moreover. The amount of oil that passes through the burner nozzle per unit of time is for the most part measured volumetrically by means of an oil meter. 3. which changes as a function of the temperature.3. the result that is read off the meter has to be corrected by means of a calibration curve.3).3. Heating gas that has been measured volumetrically has to be converted to the standard conditions.3.2 Water The water mass flow of a cooling chute (cooling water) or into the clinker cooler (injection water) is measured with water meters that have to be installed in advance. The conveying air volume flow of the coal dust and.2.3. In order to determine the actual volume flow that passes through.1.3 Liquids 3. .3.1 Heating oil Heating oil can be sampled either by means of an automatic sampling system or else a sample is taken from the oil tank. of the kiln feed is derived from the nominal data of the fan. The cross-sectional surface area is either measured or estimated.

9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0. Table 4 .9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0. hot meal) bypass dust raw meal (for instance. Pt 100 quotient pyrometer NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or surface temperature of the conveying line with partial-radiation pyrometer Pt 100 or surface temperature of the conveying line with partial-radiation pyrometer Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni NiCr Ni NiCr Ni NiCr Ni meteorological station Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni Pt 100 or NiCr Ni like kiln feed partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.9) 2) Frequency every hour continuously twice per day once per day once per day fuels once per day raw gas bypass gas (with cooling air) gas downstream from the burning area tertiary air upstream from the preheater tertiary air downstream from the cooler cooler intake air cooler vent air burner air (main burner) burner air (secondary burner) conveying air (kiln feed) surface temperature .4 Temperatures Table 4 shows the example of a measuring plan.3.cooler kiln hood calcinator preheater 1) continuously continuously continuously once per day continuously continuously 1) continuously once per day once per day – twice per day once per day 2) twice per day 3) once per day once per day once per day if available with grate-type coolers 3) with rotary coolers or satellite coolers . Measuring site cold clinker hot clinker kiln feed in the preheater (e. kiln feed) Measuring device compensation temperature in adiabatic vessel.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 31 3.rotary kiln surface temperature .g.9) partial-radiation pyrometer (ε = 0.Temperature measurement in rotary kiln performance tests.

3. the following differential pressures should be measured or recorded by the operating measuring pick-ups: • cooler (chambers 1 through N). the strokes and rotational speeds of the following aggregates should be measured or recorded by the operating measuring pick-ups: • cooler. • preheater (stages 1 through N). • kiln inlet. • bypass fan. . • grate-type preheater. • waste gas fan.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 32 3. The above-mentioned differential pressures have to be measured with damped measuring pick-ups. • cooler vent fan. • downstream from the waste gas fan.3. • kiln. • kiln outlet.5 Pressures In order to evaluate the kiln operation.3. • upstream from the waste gas fan. • bag house fan / ESP fan.6 Strokes and rotational speeds In order to evaluate the kiln operation.

• burner air fan.8 Ambient conditions The temperature. Consequently.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 33 3. the consumption of electricity should be considered as an input item of the energy balance. • rotary kiln drive. A large proportion of the electricity is converted into heat in the kiln system. the energy distribution should be measured with prong-type instruments. • kiln feed feeding system. pressure and relative humidity of the ambient air are recorded by a meteorological station. the meter readings of the main consumers should be recorded at intervals of.3. • waste gas fan. when the balancing space is calculated. • fuel feeding system.7 Electricity consumption In order to evaluate the kiln operation. • cooler drives. for example. 8 hours. If several consumers are connected to one meter. • bypass fan. 3. The following consumers should be taken into consideration: • cooler fans.3. . • cooler vent fan.

Comparative measuring instruments or method for rotary kiln performance tests.9 Ensuring the precision of the measurements and analyses The precision of a kiln examination depends on the systematic maintenance and upkeep of the measuring instruments.3. platinum resistance thermometer) black body radiator tungsten band lamp (only above 500°C [932°F]) liquid pressure gage (for instance. Status checks should be made every hour and setting checks should be carried out at least before and after the performance test. .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 34 3. it is also necessary to routinely replace wearing parts as preventive maintenance and to conduct function tests with comparative measured values (calibration). Table 5 provides an overview of possible comparative measuring methods. Measuring instrument gas analyzer gas meters thermal elements resistance thermometer pyrometer pressure transducer humidity measuring device Comparative measuring instrument or method gas analyzer with another measuring principle wet-chemical analysis testing by the Board of Weights and Measures test thermometer and normal thermometer (for instance. miniscope or U-tube) sealed container with several aqueous saturated salt solutions The solid substance analyses have to be conducted by a laboratory that has sufficient experience with the execution of the analyses listed in Table 2. Checks and corrections should be documented and should be indicated on the measuring equipment used. The time schedule for replacing wearing parts and for the function tests with comparative measured values depends on the measuring instruments and should be laid down appropriately. together with the date. Table 5 . In addition to regularly checking the status and settings during the performance test.

the gas and solid substance mass flows should be balanced together.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 35 4.C raw gas dust for the discharged tertiary air dust (only relevant in kiln systems with a tertiary air duct and high levels of dust in the tertiary air) *) Liquid or gaseous fuel can also be fed in. as a result of which a separate presentation has not been provided. . the changes are only gradual. tertiary air duct (T).1 Evaluation of kiln performance tests Balancing of the entire system When the mass balance is drawn up. 4. With other kiln types. since there are interactions between both of these as a result of chemical reactions. rotary kiln (D) and cooler (K) with the mass and energy flows that exceed the balance limit as an example. Figure 6 shows the balancing space of a kiln system with a cyclone preheater (V). calcinator (C). The following mass and energy flows have been taken into account: Incoming solid substance mass flows: & mS1 & m B7 & m B3 for the kiln feed for the fuel (main burner) *) for the fuel (secondary burner) *) Outgoing solid substance mass flows: & mS10 & mSt5 & mSt1 & mSt12 for the clinker for the bypass dust & for H Fl.

10 for the cooler injection water Incoming energy flows: & H S1 & H B7 & H B3 for the kiln feed for the fuel (main burner) for the fuel (secondary burner) **) & The formula sign V below designates the volume flow related to standard conditions (0°C [32°F]. V Outgoing gas volume flows: & VL11 & VG1 & VG5 for the cooler vent air for the raw gas for the bypass gas Incoming liquid mass flows: & m H 2 O. 1013 & hPA). while the formula sign V designates the volume flow related to standard conditions after removal tr of the water-vapor fraction.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 36 Incoming gas volume flows **) & VL10 & VL7 & VL3 & VL1 for the cooler intake air for the burner air (main burner) for the burner air (secondary burner) for the conveying air (kiln feed) for the infiltrated air (kiln hood) for the infiltrated air (calcinator) for the infiltrated air (preheater) & VFl. D & VFl. . C & VFl.

B & H H 2 O. H 2 O for the evaporation enthalpy of the cooler injection water & Q K.S & ∆H V. K for the uncoupled heat (cooler) . 10 Pmech Outgoing energy flows: & H S10 & H St5 & H St1 & H St12 & H L11 & H G1 & H G5 for the clinker for the bypass dust for the raw gas dust for the discharged tertiary air dust for the cooler vent air for the raw gas for the bypass gas for the reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed & ∆H R.C & H Fl. D & H Fl.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 37 & H L10 & H L7 & H L3 & H L1 for the cooler intake air for the burner air (main burner) for the burner air (secondary burner) for the conveying air (kiln feed) for the infiltrated air (kiln hood) for the infiltrated air (calcinator) for the infiltrated air (preheater) for the reaction enthalpy of the fuels for the cooler injection water for the mechanical performance & H Fl. V & ∆H R.

C & Q W. V & Q W. K for the incomplete burning for radiation and convection losses (preheater) for radiation and convection losses (calcinator) for radiation and convection losses (rotary kiln) for radiation and convection losses (tertiary air duct) for radiation and convection losses (cooler + kiln hood) .T & Q W.CO & Q W. D & Q W.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 38 & ∆H R.

tertiary air duct.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 39 Figure 6 .Balancing spaces for preheater. rotary kiln and cooler with incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows. calcinator. .

Al2O3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 40 With rotary and satellite coolers. 4. The following applies: *) The formula sign x below stands for the mass concentration of the solids at the balance limit (= delivery condition in the laboratory). Therefore. whereas in contrast. With grate-type coolers. bypass dust. excess cooling air is released as cooler vent air. Operands: In order to balance the mass flows. discharged tertiary air dust. mass flow of the kiln feed. Cooler vent air dust has not been taken into account. it still contains relatively large amounts of dust. TiO2. In the case of the latter. K .1 Solid substance mass flows Measured quantities: clinker. a component balance is drawn up of the sum of the non-volatile substances (for example. This & was taken into consideration in the figure by the uncoupled heat flow Q K. the cooling air volume flow is used completely as combustion air in the process. Mn2O3. When the waste gas leaves the preheater. P2O5. Fe2O3. it is only partially used as such with gratetype coolers. . some of the cooler vent air can be returned to the cooler as intake air via a fan once the dust has been removed and cooled (duothermal configuration). MgO) whose mass concentration in the individual substance flows is designated by xNF *).1. CaO. the waste gas is designated as “raw gas” and the dust as “raw gas dust”. fuel (secondary burner). raw gas dust. SiO2. fuel (main burner).

the following applies to the kiln feed mass flow that actually becomes clinker (including discharged tertiary air dust): The ratio of kiln feed to clinker necessary for the clinker burning process then results from Equation (4): . By using xG to designate the mass concentration of the substances that are released during calcination at about 1000°C [1832°F] until weight constancy is achieved.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 41 The loss on ignition can also be used for a rough estimate. the following applies analogously: The kiln feed mass flow necessary for the clinker burning process then results from Equation (2): As an approximation.

fuel (secondary burner). cooler intake air (see Section 3.3.1.2 Gas volume flows Measured quantities: fuel (main burner). secondary air.1 4. burner air (main burner).2. sulfide sulfur) of the kiln feed also have to be taken into account.1 Dry gas Minimum air volume flow In order to calculate the dry.1.1. raw gas. For this reason. the following applies: 4.3). in addition to the fuel mass & & flows m B7 and m B3 . bypass gas. burner air (secondary burner). .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 42 Analogously. infiltrated air. conveying air (kiln feed). the combustible components (organically bound carbon.2. minimum air volume flow. cooler vent air (if present).1. Operands: 4.2. the burning of all combustible substances has to be taken into consideration.

St5.St5 and x S. the following results & for the carbon mass flow mC.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 43 By designating the carbon content of the kiln feed as xC.eff. St1 and the carbon content of the bypass dust as xC. the carbon content of the raw gas dust as xC. S effectively fed into the kiln system: & Analogously. x C.S1. This value can be calculated on the basis of elementary analyses of the fuel according to Equation (11): . eff. The minimum air volume flow & VL.St5 are approximately zero. the following applies for mS. min to burn all of the combustible substances then amounts to the following: lmin is the minimum air demand of the fuel in question in its raw state. S : Frequently.

the numerical value equation is the following: For oil and coal.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 44 Accordingly. The following applies: For lignitic coal and coal: For heating oil: Table 6 shows examples of elementary analyses and calorific value-related combustion gas quantities of lignitic coal and coal. Calorific value-related combustion gas quantities of secondary fuels can differ markedly from the indicated uppermost and lowermost values. *) The formula sign hu below stands for the lower calorific value of the coal at the balance limit threshold (= delivery condition in the laboratory). lmin can be calculated as an approximation using the lower calorific value of the fuel *). .

4 4.011 0.0 8.1.9 29.8 11.5 59.094 0.6 21.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 45 Table 6 .101 0.92 Coal dust U L 0.3 2.4 8.9 16.6 7.5 23.2 Lignitic coal dust M 11.6 4.2 1.4 56.2.8 3.1 0.5 0.016 0.7 4.7 2.7 0.373 0.7 22.1 3.021 0.9 19.6 0.014 0.332 0.370 0.0 2.024 0.3 71. Analyses (raw) in % by weight: L water ash C H O N S 8.1 65.35 M 1.375 L = lowermost value.374 0. M = mean value.344 0.1 27.392 0.098 0.4 0.3 61.7 0.3 21.0 25.096 0.7 3.2 19.099 0.339 0.347 0.76 calorific value (raw) in MJ/kg: Calorific value-related combustion gas quantity in kg/MJ: minimum air demand carbon dioxide water vapor moist flue gas 20.096 0.9 57.339 0.022 0.8 4.5 0.382 0.341 0.4 0.3 1.05 U 2.2 4.2 Air proportionality factor The following applies in general: .22 0.Elementary analyses of lignitic coal dust and coal dust with the combustion gas quantities calculated therefrom and related to the lower calorific value in the raw state.80 14.1. U = uppermost value 4.

Thus. the gas velocity has to be multiplied by a dimensionless factor which lies between 0.9.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood The volume flow of infiltrated air at the kiln hood can be roughly calculated using the Bernoulli equation. 4.1.75. as a rule related to dry measuring gas): The expression in the denominator of the lower fraction corresponds to N2. it has been set at 0. the following applies: .1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 46 The air proportionality factor in the waste gas results as an approximation from the values of the gas analysis (in the case of Orsat analyses and measuring methods that work with extraction. neither is present.6 and 0. Consequently. As a consequence. the equation yields an excessively high gas velocity. The following applies theoretically: Equation (17) presupposes a frictionless flow and an incompressible medium. In reality.2. Here. for actual practice.

D.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 47 & With v = V/F for the gas velocity and with the density ratio ρ L /ρ L.c.)/s As a simplification. . tr = volume flow of infiltrated air in m³ (s.) in kg/m³ = open cross-section area in m² ρL ρ L. tr can only be calculated very imprecisely.N for dry air (the water present in the air is ignored here).1. VL8.4 Secondary air The following applies for the volume flow of the secondary air (also see Figure 12): & Due to non-representative gas analyses in the kiln inlet.N F & VFl.1.c. the result is a calculation equation for the volume flow of infiltrated air: wherein ∆p = differential pressure at the kiln hood in Pa = density of the air in the cross section F in kg/m³ = density of the ambient air under standard conditions (s. 4. the density of the ambient air can be taken as the basis for ρ L.2.

Calculation on the basis of the CO2 balance The following applies for the CO2 balance: & VCO 2 .2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 48 4.5 Cooler intake air The following applies for the volume flow of the cooler intake air (also see Figure 12): 4.S stems from the decarbonation and the combustion of organic components of the kiln feed. The following applies: wherein and & m C. . eff.6 Raw gas 1.1.1. S according to Equation (8).1.2.1.

Equation (26) can be employed: wherein µCO = 5. & VCO 2 .G5 results from the gas analysis and from the measurement of the gas volume flow in the bypass gas: With the result is the calculation equation for the raw gas volume flow: .01 · 10 – 5 m³ of CO2/kJ for lignitic coal 2 and µCO 2 = 4. The following applies: If the elementary analysis is not available.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 49 & VCO 2 . B stems from the combustion of the fuel.87 · 10 – 5 m³ of CO2/kJ for coal.

1. . Calculation on the basis of the clean gas volume flow This calculation is only possible if the entire clean gas volume flow of the kiln system can be determined and if no auxiliary burner is operated in the combined drying and grinding mill.1.2. the calculated values are often very imprecise. tr can be calculated according to [30].8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) & VG6.1.7 Gas downstream from the burning area & VG2.2.1. Due to non-representative gas analyses in the kiln inlet. tr is calculated according to Equations (30) or (31) on the basis of the raw gas volume flow. 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 50 2. A gas analysis downstream from the burning area is needed for this purpose. CO2 balance: O2 balance: 4.

1.U) = saturation pressure of the water vapor in Pa = ambient pressure in Pa Then. the following applies for the moisture volume flow of the air: 4.2 4.2.1.1.1 Water vapor Humidity in the air The humidity in the air results from the relative humidity and from the saturation pressure of water-vapor at ambient temperature.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 51 4.2.2.2 Water from the kiln feed . The following applies: wherein xD = water content in kg of H2O/kg of dry air = relative humidity ϕ p and ps (ϑ L.2.2.

3 Water from the fuel 4.1. is fed into the kiln system.3 4.1.4 Injection water 4.3.1 Moist gas Air The following applies in general: Altogether.2.1.2.2.2. .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 52 4.2. λ G1 should be calculated with the gas concentration values which would result after the mixing of raw gas and bypass gas.2.1.

4.3 Liquid mass flows Measured quantities: fuel (main burner).1. y H 2 O. With grate-type coolers.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 53 4.4 Energy flows Since standard reaction enthalpies and calorific values are related to 25°C [77°F].3.1 4.G5 often equals y H 2 O. fuel (secondary burner). water. a reference temperature of 25°C [77°F] was likewise selected for the calculation of the individual enthalpy flows.2. 4.4.1.4.10 often equals zero.1.G6 . VH 2 O. 4.2 Raw gas λ G1 should be calculated with the gas concentration values which would result after the & mixing of raw gas and bypass gas.1 Energy input Fuel Combustion: .1.1.

the water content of the lignitic coal has to be taken into account. the following applies (also see Figure 7): wherein xF. ϑ . however. Here. The following applies in the case of oil (also see Figure 8): wherein ρ = density of the oil in kg/m³ at 15°C [59°F].May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 54 Sensible enthalpy flows: *) For dry coal.2 kJ/kg K for 0°C [32°F] < ϑ < 100°C [212°F]. as an approximation. Equation (43) also applies. The following then applies: wherein c H 2 O ≈ 4.B = sum of the volatile components in the coal. *) The formula sign c or cp below stands for the mean specific thermal capacity c p 25°C [77° F] . to dry lignitic coal.

.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 55 Figure 7 .Mean specific thermal capacity of dry coal (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).

.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 56 Figure 8 .Mean specific thermal capacity of oil (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).

519 2.Mean specific thermal capacity cp of the fuel gas components (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]). Fuel gas component Specific thermal capacity cp in kJ/m³ (s.1. = under standard conditions 4.582 2.555 1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 57 The specific thermal capacity of the heating gas is calculated on the basis of the mean specific thermal capacities of the individual gas components according to Table 7.137 2.113 1.4.156 4.c.918 5.2 Kiln feed Sensible enthalpy flows: .579 4.402 2.717 5.531 hydrogen sulfide 1) Use C3H6 use for CmHn.c.246 3.) K 25°C [77°F] 100°C [212°F] 1.172 5.817 2.579 200°C [392°F] 1.700 2.985 2.602 methane ethylene acetylene propadiene n-butane propylene 1) CH4 C2H4 C2H2 C3H4 C4H10 C3H6 H 2S 1.101 1.270 1. s. The following applies here: Table 7 .631 4.1.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 58 The following applies as an approximation for the commonly employed composition of the kiln feed: The specific thermal capacities of individual components of the kiln feed are shown in Figure 9. .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 59 Figure 9 .Mean specific thermal capacity of kiln feed components (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]). .

3 Air Sensible enthalpy flows: wherein (For the calculation of cp.4.1. also see Figure 10). As an approximation. The following applies in this case: . j according to Equations (85) through (87).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 60 4. it is also possible to use the specific thermal capacity of dry air for the calculation.1.

Mean specific thermal capacity of gas components (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 61 Figure 10 . .

The actual reaction enthalpies to be employed result from balance equations. This is particularly true of the intake air fans and of the kiln drive. with the standard reaction enthalpies needed in each case (for the additional reaction enthalpies. it is first necessary to calculate the contents of C3S.5 Mechanical performance Within the balancing space. C3A.1.4. For this purpose.1.4.2 4. The data shown in the two right-hand columns are each related to the substance in the left-hand column. the contents of CaCO3 and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust as well as the contents of CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust. 23 and 25 through 27]).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 62 4. see [22. . the degradation reactions of the starting materials and the reactions for the formation of the clinker phases have to be taken into account. the following applies: 4.4. C4AF in the clinker. the sensible enthalpy flow of the injection water can be ignored.2.4. C2S.1.1. the mechanical performance of the electric drives has to be taken into consideration. 4. Table 8 is a compilation of the main reactions that take place during the clinker burning process.1.1 Energy output Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed For the calculation of the reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed.4 Injection water As a rule.1. In simplified form.

1. Reaction enthalpy 1) at 298 K kJ/kg kJ/mole Reaction Reaction equation I. Formation of K2SO4 1) α-K2SO4 Related to the substance in the left-hand column. Formation of the clinker phases 7.Reactions of the kiln feed and reaction enthalpies (298 K) during the production of Portland cement clinker. Formation of C4AF Formation of C3A Formation of β -C2S 4 CaO + α-Al2O3 + α-Fe2O3 3 CaO + α-Al2O3 2 CaO + β -SiO2 3 CaO + β -SiO2 K2O = SO2 + ½ O2 C3A C4AF – 67 + 74 – 700 – 495 – 4452 – 33 + 20 – 121 – 113 – 776 β-C2S C3S 10. 8. 4. 2. 5. 9. 6. Organic clay components (relative to C) MgCO3 dissociation CaCO3 dissociation Pyrite (FeS2) 2 FeS2 + 5½ O2 α-Fe2O3 + 4 SO2 II. Formation of C3S 11. Formation of oxides and degradation reactions Evaporation of H2O Decomposition of • kaolinite (relative to Al2O3) • montmorillonite (relative to Al2O3) • illite (relative to Al2O3) kaolinite α-Al2O3 + 2 · β-SiO2 + H2O (fl) montmorillonite α-Al2O3 + 4 · β-SiO2 + n · H2O (fl) illite α-Al2O3 + 4 · β-SiO2 + m · H2O (fl) C + O2 MgCO3 CaCO3 CO2 MgO + CO2 CaO + CO2 + 1519 + 744 + 884 – 32786 + 1396 + 1772 – 6902 + 155 + 76 + 90 – 394 +118 + 178 – 828 H2O (fl) H2O (g) + 2446 + 44 3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 63 Table 8 . .

292 ⋅ x Na 2 O. the following applies: For x SO 3 .2. In this context.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 64 4.1. The following applies: For x SO 3 . C3A and C4AF (TM > 0. S10 ≤ 0.1 C3S.64). the clinker phases can be calculated according to Bogue [45 and 46]. S10 . C2S.85 ⋅ x K 2 O. which consists primarily of C3S. C2S. S10 > 0. C3A and C4AF in the clinker For normal Portland cement clinker or tertiary air dust. S10 + 1.292 ⋅ x Na 2 O. the following applies: The following results from this: .4.85 ⋅ x K 2 O. S10 . the value employed for the CaO bound in the clinker phases is the one that is obtained after the subtraction of the free CaO and of the CaO bound to SO3. S10 + 1.

1.2 CaCO3 and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust The content of CaCO3 and MgCO3 of the kiln feed results from the content of CO2 and CaO.274 · x CO 2 ≤ x CaO : and in the case of 1.2.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 65 4. Assuming that the CO2 is primarily bound to the CaO.4.274 · x CO 2 > x CaO : and . the following applies in the case of 1.

it is assumed that Al2O3 and Fe2O3 have completely reacted with CaO to form C4AF and C12A7.4.1. 6) The starting materials as shown in Table 8 are present. St5 = 0 2) xC.4 Balance equations The balance equations are based on the following assumptions and simplifications: 1) x H 2 O.1. The following then applies: The calculation of x CaOSO3 .1.1. 4. St5 = 0 3) x MgCO3 .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 66 4. For purposes of calculating the C2S content. . 7) The fuel ash is present in the form of oxides. St5 = 0 4) xS. St5 = 0 5) The formation enthalpy of C4AF and of C12A7 in the bypass dust is negligibly small.2.2.St5 is made according to Equations (55) or (56).4.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust The content of CaCO3 results from the content of CO2 in the bypass dust.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 67 According to Figure 6. the following applies for the balance equations: 1) Evaporation of H2O: 2) Decomposition of clay: 100%-kaolinite: 100%-montmorillonite: 100%-illite: 3) Organic clay components: .

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 68 4) MgCO3 dissociation: 5) CaCO3 dissociation: 6) Pyrite: 7) Formation of C4AF: 8) Formation of C3A: .

assumptions also have to be made pertaining to the devitrification enthalpies. the actual SO3 contents (without sulfide sulfur) should be used. . blast-burner slag or gypsum from flue gas desulfurization plants. the balance equations need to be changed or supplemented. for instance. In order to calculate the reaction enthalpy of a special clinker.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 69 9) Formation of β-CsS: 10) Formation of C3S: 11) Formation of K2SO4: In Equation (79). TM < 0.64. or of a clinker from a burning process involving other substance flow configurations. or of a clinker from a kiln feed with calcareous fly ash. Moreover. in the case of fly ash and blast-burner slag.

3 Waste gas losses Raw gas: wherein The following approximation equations apply for the essential components of the waste gas (also see Figure 10): .2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 70 The following applies to the sum of the reaction enthalpies of the kiln feed: 4.4.1.1.2 Water evaporation Evaporation enthalpy for cooler injection water: 4.2.4.

1. see Section 4. .1.4.4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 71 Bypass gas: Cooler vent air: 4.1.4 Dust losses Raw gas dust: (for cSt1. ϑ St1 = ϑ G1).2.2.

4. 4. Discharged tertiary air dust: (for cSt12.2.4.4. ϑ St5 = ϑ G5).4.5 Incomplete combustion In cases of high energy losses due to incomplete combustion (for example.01).1.2. yCO. Losses due to cooler vent air dust are usually negligibly small.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 72 Bypass gas dust: (for cSt5.1. an analyzer that operates continuously should be used for the calorific value of the gas for the balancing. see Section 4.6 Clinker . ϑ St12 = ϑ L9). see Equation (95).2.1.G1 > 0.

.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 73 The following applies for the specific thermal capacity of the clinker (also see Figure 11): Figure 11 .Mean specific thermal capacity of Portland cement clinker (reference temperature = 25°C [77°F]).

0 .1.7 Radiation and convection Rotary kiln: First of all.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 74 4.U: wherein and αconv results from approximation equations. The following applies for wind velocities w ≤ 2 m/s: wherein a = 0.m of the tube element and of the ambient temperature ϑ L.3 a0 = 4. the heat flow of individual tube elements is calculated on the basis of the mean circumferential temperature ϑ W.4.

83 b0 4.25 4.75 5.25 3.83 0.93 0.0.227 .75 4.076 Scope of validity: w ≤ 2 m/s 100°C [212°F] ≤ ϑ W.40 5.05 1.0.66 5.27 2.92 0.0.75 7.98 1.0.244 .5 a2 = -0.97 1.0.25 6.220 .27 5.11 2.219 .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 75 a1 = 3.79 0.0.75 6.236 .73 0.U ≤ 30°C [86°F] The following applies for wind velocities w > 2 m/s: wherein Diameter range in m 2.87 1.93 1.238 .19 5.m ≤ 500°C [932°F] 2 m ≤ Da ≤ 8 m 10°C [50°F] ≤ ϑ L.75 5.243 .25 b 2.97 0.25 3.70 b1 0.11 5.00 b1* .48 5.25 5.227 .18 2.75 4.85 a3 = 0.05 5.25 5.75 6.75 3.0.88 0.0.37 2.0.98 5.233 .25 4.75 ≤ Da < 3.25 6.

9 σ = 5.25 m 10°C [50°F] ≤ ϑ L.m = mean surface temperature in K TL.75 m ≤ Da ≤ 7.U ≤ 30°C [86°F] The following applies for αStr: wherein ε W = 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 76 Scope of validity: 2 m/s < w ≤ 10 m/s 100°C [212°F] ≤ ϑ W. D for the entire rotary kiln results from the addition of the radiation and convection loss flows of the individual tube elements: More details on the calculation of the radiation and convection loss flow can be found in literature references [28 and 31].U = ambient air temperature in K & The radiation and convection loss flow Q W. .m ≤ 500°C [932°F] 2.67 · 10 – 8 W/(m² · K4) TW.

For satellite coolers. the surface temperature should be measured only on the side facing away the wind. Moreover. The diameter of this surrounding cylinder can then be used to calculate the heat-transfer coefficient αtotal as an approximation according to Equations (98) through (101).6 should be used for the calculation of the heat flow. The following applies: The following applies as a good approximation for the grate-type cooler and the kiln hood: wherein αconv = 7 W/(m²·K) ε W = 0.9 At higher wind velocities.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 77 Cooler: Equations (96) through (101) can be employed directly for the rotary cooler. The mean circumferential temperature ϑ W. the satellite temperatures as well as the temperatures in the interstitial spaces. an empirical factor of 1.m is calculated as an arithmetic mean value of all of the individual temperature meas- ured values calculated over the circumference. it is recommended to employ the imaginary surface area of a cylinder surrounding the satellite cooler as the heat-transfer surface area. . Equation (104) yields a heat loss flow that is too low. In such cases. that is to say.

2 kJ/kg K for 0°C [32°F] < ϑ < 100°C [212°F].4.8 Uncoupled heat The following applies as an approximation for the heat uncoupling via a cooling chute: wherein c H 2O ≈ 4. Tertiary air duct: Equations (96) through (102) should be employed accordingly.2. 4. The following applies for the heat uncoupling through the cooling of the cooler circulation air: .1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 78 Preheater and calcinator: Equations (104) should be employed accordingly.

4.1. should not make up more than ± 3% of the total energy output. the energy input and the energy output are compared to each other. Since the reaction enthalpy flow of the fuel as energy input can often only be determined very imprecisely. Usually the input and the output do not offset each other completely. so that a balance deficit remains which.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 79 4. it is also designated as fuel energy consumption. however. .3 Energy balance The following applies for the sum of the energy input and energy output: and With kiln performance tests. it should be calculated on the basis of the difference between the energy output and the other energy input values according to Equation (109).

.Balancing space of the cooler with the incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 80 4.2 Balancing of the partial systems 4. Moreover. the fact that considerable dust circulation can occur between the rotary kiln and the clinker cooler has to be taken into account.1 Clinker cooler A complete mass and energy balance can only be drawn up for the clinker cooler within the limits set by its design. the hot clinker temperature can only be measured in a very imprecise manner. Figure 12 . For this reason.2.

has to be set as zero. Thus. for example. The following mass and energy flows have been taken into consideration: Incoming solid substance mass flows: & mS8 for the hot clinker Outgoing solid substance mass flows: & mS10 & mSt8 & mSt9 for the clinker for the secondary air dust for the tertiary air dust Incoming gas volume flows: & VL10 for the cooler intake air Outgoing gas volume flows & VL8 & VL9 & VL11 for the secondary air for the tertiary air (cooler) for the cooler vent air Incoming liquid mass flows: & m H 2 O. several exhaust air flows can be discharged from the cooler. In the case of rotary and satellite coolers.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 81 Figure 12 shows the balancing space of a clinker cooler with the mass and energy flows that exceed the balance limit. in contrast. the exhaust air volume flow. 10 for the cooler injection water .

K & Q K. K for the hot clinker for the cooler intake air for the cooler injection water for the mechanical performance (cooler) Outgoing energy flows: & H S10 & H St8 & H St9 & H L8 & H L9 & H L11 for the clinker for the secondary air dust for the tertiary air dust for the secondary air for the tertiary air for the cooler vent air for radiation and convection losses (cooler + kiln hood) for the uncoupled heat (cooler) & Q W. H 2 O for the evaporation enthalpy of the cooler injection water .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 82 Incoming energy flows: & H S8 & H L10 & H H 2 O. 10 Pmech. K & ∆H V.

discharged and returned tertiary air dust.1 Solid substance mass flows clinker. The following applies for the hot clinker mass flow: .2.1. With a “clear” kiln discharge. the dust concentration is about 30 to 50 g/m³. the dust concentration in the secondary air should be estimated. this value can rise to more than 200 g/m³. Measured quantities: Operands: Only in the case of kiln systems with a tertiary air duct can the secondary air dust mass flow be calculated on the basis of the discharged and returned tertiary air dust assuming equal dust contents in the secondary air and in the tertiary air. The secondary air dust mass flow then results from the dust mass flow measured in the tertiary air and from the fraction calculated on this basis for the secondary air volume flow: In other cases.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 83 4. secondary air dust. hot clinker. In the case of a pronounced dust circulation.

4.1.2. and the cooler intake air volume flow results from Equations (21) and (38).1 Energy input 4.2.2 Gas volume flows cooler vent air (if present).1.3 Energy flows A reference temperature of 25°C [77°F] is selected for the calculation of the individual energy flows.1.1 Hot clinker (cS8 according to Equation (95) or Figure 11). secondary air.1.2. Measured quantities: Operands: The secondary air volume flow results from Equations (20) and (38). 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 84 4.3. . cooler intake air. The water vapor from the water injection should also be taken into account.2. tertiary air.3.1.

2. This error increases as the temperature drops and the particle size increases.2.3. 4.2. . 4.1 Clinker.1.3.1.1.6. the calculated hot clinker energy flow is fundamentally too low.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 85 Only the surface temperature of the hot clinker can be measured by means of instruments.1. the hot clinker energy flow is associated with a high level of uncertainty.3.2 Cooler intake air 4.3.1.4 Mechanical performance 4.1. Therefore.1.1.2. clinker dust See Section 4.2.3 Injection water See Section 4.2.1.4. Therefore.1.1.3.4.2 Energy output 4.4.

secondary air.2.2.1.1.3.1.8.2.2.5 Water evaporation See Section 4. with sound-over-time measurement or a suction-type thermometer).2.1.4. As a rule.1.2.3 Uncoupled heat See Section 4.2.7.1. tertiary air See Section 4. 4. this is the case whenever tertiary air is removed from the kiln hood (ϑ L9 = ϑ L8) or when the secondary air can be measured error-free (for example.3.2. 4.2.3.4.3.3. 4.4.1. The following then applies: .2.1.2. the hot clinker & enthalpy flow H S8 can be calculated on the basis of the energy balance. 4.2.4.4 Cooler vent air.3.2 Radiation and convection See Section 4.2.2.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 86 4.3 Energy balance If a reliable measured value for the secondary air temperature is available.

4.4. . Figure 13 shows the principle of the balance limits of the burning area and of the cooling area and its subdivision into the pre-cooling zone and the cooler. 4. which is where radiation and convection losses occur.1 Pre-cooling zone For the evaluation of the clinker cooler.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 87 The hot clinker enthalpy flow calculated according to this equation serves as the basis for the calculation of the cooler efficiency (see Section 4.1. of the pre-cooling zone as well as of the cooler with the example of a kiln system with a rotary cooler.2.4 Evaluation quantities 4. it is necessary to take into account the fact that the first cooling of the clinker already takes place inside the rotary kiln. in the so-called pre-cooling zone.Balance limits of the burning area and cooling area.2.1.4).1. Figure 13 .

it is necessary to know their length Lpre-cool. which can be calculated according to Equations (98) through (101) with a superimposition of the radiation (rad) as well as free and forced convection (conv).May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 88 In order to calculate the radiation and convection losses in the pre-cooling zone. It was selected because of the high degree of measuring uncertainty associated with the determination of the hot clinker temperature. satellite and rotary coolers in the cement industry” [33]. pre − cool in the pre-cooling zone of the rotary kiln amounts to the following: Here. the position of the burner lance serves as the reference point for estimating this length (also see Figure 13). in m Da = outer diameter of the rotary kiln. in m Lburner = length of the burner in the rotating part of the kiln. & The radiation and convection loss Q W. . Since this length cannot be measured and no calculation method is known for this at the present time. in m The estimation according to Equation (116) diverges from that described in the VDZ Specification titled “Grate-type.: wherein Lpre-cool = length of the pre-cooling zone. αtotal stands for the mean heat-transfer coefficient.

those enthalpy flows that would be released during the cooling procedure from the appertaining outlet temperature to the ambient air temperature should be seen as energy flows.1.4. cooling area is the sum of the heat and enthalpy flows that are released by the cooler into the atmosphere. In this equation. it is advantageous to relate the energy loss flow of the cooling area to a theoretical enthalpy flow change on the part of the clinker and thus to define a cooling area efficiency: .2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area The energy consumption of a rotary kiln system depends to a decisive degree on the extent to which the enthalpy of the clinker in the cooling area can be recovered for the process. The fraction that is not recovered constitutes the energy loss of the cooling area. which has to be replaced by fuel energy.2. for the clinker and cooler vent air.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 89 4. In this context.1.4.2.U) stands for the specific enthalpy at the ambient air temperature. h(ϑ L. & The energy loss flow Eloss.3 Cooling area efficiency For comparisons. 4.

the calcinator is often balanced together with the rotary kiln. this does not apply for the “rotary kiln inlet” balance limit where the energy and mass flows can only be determined very imprecisely. a sintering temperature of 1450°C [2642°F] was presupposed.4. The limitations outlined in Section 4.3. .1 apply when using the formulas. Future improvements of the burning process or special compositions of the kiln feed could make it necessary to stipulate a sintering temperature that differs from this. The lowermost stage of the cyclone preheater counts as part of the calcinator.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 90 For the sake of harmonization.2.1.2 Calcinator (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater) The balancing space of the calcinator starts at the rotary kiln inlet and ends downstream from the lowermost cyclone (Figure 14). the waste gas acquires a chemically determined temperature that is very well-suited for determining this balance limit. since it is in these aggregates that the essential reactions of the kiln feed and of the fuel take place. For this reason. irrespective of the burning or pre-heating conditions. satellite and rotary coolers in the cement industry” [33].1. 4. the equilibrium temperature of the calcium carbonate dissociation sets in at the lowermost stage.4 Cooler efficiency The efficiency values of the cooler are described in the VDZ Specification titled “Gratetype. The cooling area efficiency makes it possible to thermally evaluate the cooling in the entire process. In contrast. at this site.2.2. Thus. 4.1. With degrees of precalcining below approximately 90%. which should prevail at the site of transition from the burning area to the cooling area.

Balancing space of the calcinator with incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 91 Figure 14 . .

& Provided that the raw gas dust mSt1 has the same chemical composition as the kiln feed & mS1 . the apparent degree of precalcining ϕ apparent results from the CO2 concentrations x CO 2 and the concentrations of nonvolatile components xNF of the kiln feed (index S1) and of the kiln feed at the kiln inlet (index S6): . It is designated as the apparent degree of precalcining ϕ apparent. As a simplification. The actual degree of precalcining ϕ actual is defined according to Equation (120) as the ratio of the carbon dioxide mass flow & mCO 2 . VC that has escaped from the kiln feed in the preheater and in the calcinator to the & carbon dioxide mass flow mCO 2 . and by ignoring the dust in the rotary kiln inlet gas.0 that was originally bound in the kiln feed as carbonate: The degree of precalcining calculated according to Equation (120) can only be determined by using complete gas or solid substance balances. More details on this can be found in literature reference [30].May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 92 4. the degree of precalcining can also be determined on the basis of the solid substance analyses. the degree of precalcining refers to the degree of dissociation of the calcium carbonate contained in the kiln feed prior to its entry into the rotary kiln.2.1 Determination of the degree of precalcining The degree of precalcining can be used to evaluate the progress of the decarbonation of the kiln feed in the preheater and in the calcinator.2. In this context.

the following relationship exists between the apparent and the actual degree of precalcining: 4. For this reason. it consists of 3 to 5 preheating stages in which gas and the kiln feed are fed in a countercurrent with respect to each other. the apparent degree of precalcining ϕ apparent calculated according to Equation (121) generally simulates a higher & & decarbonation of the kiln feed.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 93 & & In reality. The degrees of separation of the individual cyclone stages are relevant for an evaluation of the preheater. however. If the dust mass flows mSt4 and mSt6 have been completely decarbonated. . the more highly decarbonated dust mSt4 and mSt6 influences the & composition of the kiln feed mass flow mS6 .3 Preheater (only for kiln system with cyclone preheater) Figure 15 shows the balancing space of the preheater. As a rule.2.

Balancing space of the preheater with incoming and outgoing mass and energy flows.3.1 Degree of separation of individual cyclone stages Figure 16 shows the incoming and outgoing solid substance mass flows of a preheating stage. According to it.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 94 Figure 15 . the following applies for the degree of separation: . 4.

& & Equations (124) and (125) yield the mass flows mS. i and mSt. it is assumed that there is temperature equilibrium between the gas and the kiln feed in the cyclone stage. As a rule.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 95 & & The mass flows mS. The following applies as an approximation for the solid substance balance: The following applies for the energy balance: & In this context. i stands for the reaction enthalpy flow of the raw material in stage i. In this context. i +1 result from the mass and energy balance of the ith stage. Q W. . i +1 : Equations (126) and (127) can be employed in the area of the preheater where hardly any solid/gas reactions (decarbonation) occur. i and mSt. this is the case with the uppermost cyclone stages (ϑ < 600°C [1112°F]). i stands for the radiation and convection loss flow of the ith cyclone & stage and ∆H R.

If the alkali compounds in the kiln feed differ sufficiently. This generally applies to the lower stages & of the preheater. the mass flows can also be ascertained on the basis of component balances. eff stands for the mass flow of non-volatile substances effectively fed into the kiln system. If m NF. it is possible to determine the mass flows of the kiln feed and the dust between the individual cyclone stages: . then.Incoming and outgoing solid substance mass flows of a preheating stage with a cyclone separator. but also to the cyclone separator of the calcinator. & and if malk.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 96 Figure 16 . provided that the dust and solid substance mass flows exiting from each individual stage have the same chemical composition. eff stands for the mass flow of alkali compounds that are effectively fed into the system by means of the kiln feed.

N+1 (N= cyclone separator of the calcinator) are very difficult to measure. between two performance tests. for purposes of simplification. for example.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 97 From a technical standpoint. Equations (126) and (127) as well as (130) and (131) constitute very rough approximations. both concentration values should be pre-defined. as a result of which. . N+1 and xalk. xNF. should be interpreted. but not the absolute value. as a consequence of which only changes in these operands.

.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 98 5. Evaluation of the substance circulation systems Relevant substance circulation systems should be measured during a kiln performance test or else calculated on the basis of measured and analytical data.

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6.

Evaluation of the cement clinker

As a rule, new systems are only examined once the clinker properties and thus also the cement properties have been achieving the desired quality requirements for quite some time. In contrast, kiln performance tests with old systems can also serve to optimize the quality of the cement and clinker.

6.1

Degree of burning

The degree of burning of the cement clinker is usually monitored on the basis of the bulk density (weight per unit volume) of a narrow particle range, for instance, 5 to 7 mm, whose values lie between 1.2 and 1.6 kg/dm³. The bulk density, however, is not only dependent on the degree of burning, but also on the chemical composition and on the porosity of the clinker. Moreover, the content of free CaO also provides information about the degree of burning.

6.2

Particle-size distribution

The coarse and fines fractions of the clinker (for example, < 2 mm and > 25 mm) provide information about the kiln operation and the clinker quality. They are ascertained by means of sieve analysis.

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6.3

Grindability

The grindability of the clinker provides information about the necessary work in the cement mill. It is primarily tested with the device according to Zeisel.

6.4

Chemical composition

The chemical composition yields the lime standard (KSt), the silica ratio (SM), the alumina/iron ratio (TM), the sulfatization degree (SG), the total alkali fraction (A) and the melt phase fraction (S). The lime standard indicates the content of CaO actually present in the raw material mixture or clinker as a percentage of the maximum CaO content that can be bound to SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 under industrial burning and cooling conditions. Several formulas, which do not differ markedly from each other, are commonly employed to calculate the lime standard. According to F.M. Lea and T.W. Parker, for example, the following applies [7]:

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The silica modulus is the ratio of silicon dioxide to the sum of aluminum oxide and iron oxide. The following applies:

Since the silicon dioxide is primarily bound in the solid phases tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate at the sintering temperature, but since aluminum oxide and iron oxide are present in the melt, the silica modulus refers to the solid-to-liquid ratio in the sintering zone of the cement kiln. Generally speaking, the silica modulus lies between SM = 1.8 and SM = 3.0, most frequently and most advantageously between SM = 2.3 and SM = 2.8. The alumina/iron ratio (TM) is the ratio of the aluminum oxide content to the iron oxide content. The following applies:

It provides information about the quantity ratio of calcium aluminate to calcium aluminate ferrite and consequently about the clinker melt. With clinker having a commonly employed composition, this value lies between 1.5 and 4.0. With an alumina/iron ratio of 0.638, the calculation indicates that all of the aluminum oxide contained in the clinker is bound as calcium aluminate ferrite having the assumed composition 4 CaO · Al2O3 · Fe2O3.

(for ϑ S = 1338°C [2440.38).4°F] and TM > 1. (for ϑ S = 1450°C [2642°F]). .38).4°F] and TM < 1. which are present as alkali sulfate: The total alkali fraction (A) results from the conversion of the fraction of potassium oxide into the equivalent sodium fraction according to the following equation: The following applies as an approximation for the melt phase (S): (for ϑ S = 1338°C [2440.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 102 The sulfatization degree (SG) indicates the percentage of alkalis in the clinker. (for ϑ S = 1400°C [2552°F]).

. the structure. Whereas the type of the compounds depends primarily on the chemical composition of the kiln feed.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 103 xMgO enters into the formulas with xMgO = 0. For these reasons. the calculation only provides an approximation of the actual clinker composition [7]. it is necessary to assume that the clinker phases have the composition indicated by their formulas and that the clinker melt is in a continuous state of thermodynamic equilibrium with the solid phases of the clinker.02. according to equations (54) through (60). provide information about the preparation of the raw material mixture and about the conditions during the burning and cooling of the clinker. for instance. that is to say. not only at the sintering temperature but also and especially when they crystallize during the cooling procedure. xMgO = 0.02 at the maximum.6 Microscopic examination The microscopic examination of the clinker provides information about the type. constitution and distribution of the clinker compounds. 6. 6.5 Phase composition The phase composition of the clinker can be calculated on the basis of the values of the chemical analysis. However. at higher contents. the constitution and distribution of the clinker compounds and their coalescence.

.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 104 6. They are of decisive significance for the optimization of operations.7 Cement testing The results of the quality tests with the ground-up cement types within the scope of our own as well as outside monitoring also provide essential information about the properties of the cement clinker.

Evaluation of the emissions Relevant emissions have to be measured and/or recorded during a kiln performance test.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 105 7. .

Formula signs and indices Roman letters a A b c cp D & E f F hu h & H & ∆H R & ∆H V KSt L lmin & m M N p factor (Section 4.4.7) mean specific thermal capacity of solids and liquids in kJ/kg K mean specific thermal capacity of gases in kJ/m³ under standard conditions (s.2.c.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 106 8.4.7) total alkali fraction in kg/kg factor (Section 4.) K diameter in m energy flow in kJ/s ratio of kiln feed to clinker in kg/kg of clinker surface area in m² lower calorific value in kJ/kg specific enthalpy in kJ/s sensible enthalpy flow in kJ/s reaction enthalpy flow in kJ/s evaporation enthalpy flow in kJ/s lime standard in % length in m minimum air demand in m³ of air (s.) / kg of fuel mass flow in kg/s molecular weight in kg/mole stage number in the cyclone preheater.c.1.1. chamber number in the grate-type cooler pressure in Pa .2.

67 · 10 – 8 ϕ W m2 K 4 degree of precalcining.) / kJ degree of separation of a cyclone density in kg/m³ Stefan-Boltzmann constant ∆ εW η cooling area ϑ λ µ ξ ρ σ σ = 5.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 107 P & Q S SG SM T TM v & V w x y performance in kJ/s heat flow in kJ/s melt phase content sulfatization degree in % silica modulus absolute temperature in K alumina/iron ratio gas velocity in m/s volume flow under standard conditions (0°C [32°F] and 1013 hPa) in m³/s wind velocity in m/s mass concentration in kg/kg volume concentration in m³/m³ Greek letters α heat transition coefficient in W/m² · K difference emission ratio of the wall surface cooling area efficiency temperature in °C excess air coefficient combustion product per energy unit in m³ (s. relative humidity .c.

4.1. carbon rotary kiln.1. raw gas) 2 preheater / calcinator 3 calcinator (secondary burner) 4 calcinator (tertiary air duct) 5 calcinator (bypass) 6 calcinator / rotary kiln 7 rotary kiln (main burner) 8 rotary kiln / cooler 9 tertiary air duct / cooler 10 cooler (clinker. cooler intake air) 11 cooler (cooler vent air) 12 tertiary air duct (discharged tertiary air dust) a Alk out Out B burner C D eff in In outside alkali compounds balance output outlet fuel burner calcinator.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 108 Indices 0 initial state 0 through 11 reactions of the kiln feed (Section 4.2. vapor under standard conditions (0°C [32°F] and 1013 hPA) effective balance input inlet .4) 0 through 12 balance limits 1 preheater (kiln feed.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 109 F Fl total G surr i K Kl con L m max mech min N NV p R clean gas grate s app S Sat St Str actual theor sum of the volatile substances infiltrated air total gas. loss on ignition surrounding cylinder variable cooler.) (0°C [32°F] and 1013 hPA) sum of non-volatile substances at constant pressure reaction clean gas grate-type cooler saturation apparent solid. sulfide sulfur satellite cooler dust radiation (rad) actual theoretical . uncoupled clinker convection air mean value maximum mechanical minimum standard conditions (s.c.

atomic water potassium oxide potassium sulfate magnesium carbonate . evaporation enthalpy loss pre-cooling zone radiation and convection losses Chemical formula signs C3 A C12A7 C4AF C2 S C3 S Al2O3 C CaCO3 CaO Cl – CO CO2 Fe2O3 H H2 O K2 O K2SO4 MgCO3 tricalcium aluminate (3 CaCO · Al2O3) (12 CaO · 7Al2O3) aluminate ferrite (4 CaO · Al2O3 · Fe2O3) dicalcium silicate (2 CaO · SiO2) tricalcium silicate (3 CaO · SiO2) aluminum oxide carbon calcium carbonate calcium oxide chloride carbon monoxide carbon dioxide iron(III)-oxide hydrogen.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 110 tr T U Um V loss pre-cool W dry tertiary air duct ambient circulation air preheater.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 111 MgO Mn2O3 N2 Na2O O O2 P 2 O5 S2– SiO2 SO3 TiO2 magnesium oxide manganese(III)-oxide nitrogen sodium oxide oxygen. atomic oxygen phosphorus pentoxide sulfide silicon dioxide sulfur(VI)-oxide (sulfate) titanium dioxide .

J. F: Zement-Herstellung und Eigenschaften. Weinheim 1983. Essen 1991. Stark. H. Springer-Verlag. Internationale Verfahrenstechniken der Zementindustrie. H.: Thermodynamik. [10] Brandt. F: Brennstoffe und Verbrennungsrechnung. Baehr.D. pp. Berlin 1971. Wiesbaden 1985. Berlin 1958. Brennprozeß und Brennanlagen. F.1 Literature references General literature references [1] [2] [3] [4] [5) [6] [7] [8] [9] Kühl. Bauverlag GmbH. Berlin 1956...: Zement-Chemie. Brennprozeß und Brennanlagen.: Technologie der Bindebaustoffe. Band 3. 9. Seidel. VEB Verlag Technik. Das Wesen und die Herstellung der hydraulischen Bindemittel. Band 3. VEB Verlag Für Bauwesen. Berlin 1981. und Stark. J. W: Zement.: Zement-Chemie. Band 1. Duda. .May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 112 9. Huckauf. Locher. Wiesbaden 1982. Huckauf. und Seidel.H. Springer-Verlag. FDBR-Fachbuchreihe. Berlin 1985.: Cement-Data-Book. W.: Bindebaustoff-Taschenbuch. H. H. VEB Verlag Technik. Die physikalisch-chemischen Grundlagen der Zement-Chemie. VEB Verlag für Bauwesen. Keil.. Bauverlag GmbH. H. Ullmanns Enzyklopädie der technischen Chemie. Band 1.. Verlag Chemie GmbH.: Ratgeber für Zementingenieure. G. Band 1. O. Vulkan-Verlag. 545-574. Labahn. G. Band 24. Band 11. Kühl. Berlin 1978.

B. Vol. Düsseldorf 1961. Berlin 1980. . [19] Hengstenberg. B..: Theoretische und betriebliche Untersuchungen zum Brennstoffenergieverbrauch von Zementofenanlagen mit Vorcalcinierung. Düsseldorf 1962. H.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 113 9. 43. Messung von Zustandsgrößen. H. J.. Band 1.1982. 612-614. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie.. [13] Wolter. [12] Garrett.M.a review. pp. Sturm.2 Technical literature references Description of the clinker burning process [11] Sprung. Execution of kiln performance tests [16] VDZ-Merkblatt “Mengenmessung von Gasen durch Geschwindigkeitsmessung”. Stoffmengen und Hilfsgrößen. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie.: Brennverfahren. A.. J. Springer-Verlag.. 10.: Technologische Probleme beim Brennen des Zementklinkers. Düsseldorf 1990. Messung von Stoffeigenschaften und Konzentrationen. O. Vol. S. Sturm. 3. [15] Rosemann. 48. pp. und Winkler.V. Berlin 1980. und Winkler.V.. und Lang..: Messen. 105-114. Steuern und Regeln in der Chemischen Technik. Th.: Messen.V. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. [14] Bonn. [20] VDZ-Merkblatt “Kontinuierliche Gasanalyse in Zementwerken”.: Precalciners today . 39-61. Springer-Verlag. Zement-KalkGips 38 (1985) Vol. Rock Products. [18] Hengstenberg. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. July (1985) pp. Steuern und Regeln in der Chemischen Technik.1987. Band 11. W. Ursache und Lösung. O.. Zement-Kalk-Gips 39 (1986) Vol.: Einfluß des Ofensystems auf die Klinkereigenschaften. [17] VDZ-Merkblatt “Staubmengenmessungen auf Zementwerken”.

und Knacke. Düsseldorf 1983. Zement-Kalk-Gips 37 (1984) Vol. O. VDI-Verlag GmbH. [32] Wolter. [26] Barin. H. und Ziegler. Zement-Kalk-Gips 9 (1956) Vol.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 114 Evaluation of kiln performance tests [21] Schwiete. und Steinbiß.. H. 8th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement. [30] Rosemann. [25] Petrosjan. 9.: Rechnergesteuerte Meßdatenerfassung und verarbeitung bei der Durchführung von Ofenversuchen.V. und Gardeik. und Kubaschewski. Rio de Janeiro.: Beitrag zur Thermochemie von Zementrohstoffen.: Berechnung des Wandwärmeverlustes von Drehöfen und Mühlen. Supplement. M.. pp... Teil 1: Grundlagen. 304-306. Berlin 1977. TonindustrieZeitung 56 (1932) Nr. 1986. 89-94. 3. Berlin 1966. E.: Phase composition of calcined raw meal. [23] zur Strassen. und Ludwig.: Berechnung des Wandwärmeverlustes von Drehöfen und Mühlen. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. O. [27] Barin. H.: Der theoretische Wärmebedarf des Zementbrandes. A. H.: Thermochemical properties of inorganic substances. Zement-Kalk-Gips 33 (1980) Vol. 53-62. pp. Zement-KalkGips 10 (1957) Vol. Ludwig. I. Teil 2: Näherungsgleichungen und Anwendungen.: Thermochemical properties of inorganic substances. [22] Schwiete. pp. 22. Springer-Verlag... 1. 1-12. 465-473. Düsseldorf 1959. Proc. H. Berlin 1973. I. [31] Gardeik. H. pp. 144-149. 2.E.O. Springer-Verlag.. H. pp. Zement-KalkGips 38 (1985) Vol..E. pp. H. 257-262.O. H. VEB Verlag für Bauwesen. pp.: Thermodynamik der Silikate. 6. G. O. . Knacke. [24] VDZ-Merkblatt “Berechnungsunterlagen für Ofenversuche”.. Berechnungsblätter für den Wärmeübergang. [28] Gardeik.O.: Die spezifische Wärme des Portlandzementklinkers. [29] VDI-Wärmeatlas.

pp. Zement-Kalk-Gips 25 (1972) Vol. Verein Deutscher Zementwerke e. Satelliten. Zement-Kalk-Gips 24 (1971) Vol. W: Methode zur Vorausberechnung von Schadstoffkreisläufen in Zementöfen. [44] Schütte. 509-511. [35] Goes. R: Alkaliprobleme und Beseitigung bei wärmesparenden Trockenöfen. S. 9. Dissertation. 9. Zement-Kalk-Gips 36 (1983) Vol. Sprung. [37] Sprung. W: Alkali. 2. 335-344. pp. 12. 565-570. [381 Ritzmann. Bergakademie ClausthalZellerfeld 1959. P. 8. [43] Kreft. Zement-Kalk-Gips. Zement-Kalk-Gips 17 (1964) Vol.: Reaktionen im Bereich der Ofengase. [36] Weber. . 8.: Die Bedeutung von Kreislaufbetrachtungen für Produktqualität und Umweltverträglichkeit der Zementherstellung. 1960. D. 9 (1960). H.. 338-343. 456-459. Evaluation of the substance circulation systems [34] Weber. Zement-Kalk-Gips 38 (1985) Vol. 1989. D.: Ober des Verhalten der Alkalien beim Zementbrennen.: Das Verhaften des Schwefels beim Brennen von Zementklinker Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. 8.O. W: Stoffkreisläufe und Emissionen beim Brennen von Zementklinker. 1964. H. F W.und Rohrkühler in der Zementindustrie”. Vol. C. 4. Zement-Kalk-Gips 43 (1990) Vol. pp. pp.: Kreislaufe in Drehofensystemen. Sonderausgabe Nr.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 115 [33] VDZ-Merkblatt “Rost-.: Einflüsse auf die Energieumsetzung in Calcinatoren bei der Vorcalcination von Zementrohmehl. pp. Zement-Kalk-Gips 35 (1982) Vol. [40] Locher. [42] Rosemann. Düsseldorf. 1. und Kupper. [39] Locher. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie. Fortschritte der Mineralogie 60 (1982) Vol. H. 418-422. 215-234. pp.: Warmeübergang im Drehofen unter Berücksichtigung der Kreislaufvorgänge und der Phasenneubildung. und Opitz. [41] Kreft.. F. pp.V. 31. R.und Schwefelverdampfung in Zementofen in Gegenwart hoher Chloreinnahmen. 1-12. S. Vol. und Gardeik... pp.

pp. 357-362.. 12. W. Reinhold Publishing Corporation. pp. [52] Locher. pp. pp. and Sylla.W: Einfluß der Klinkerherstellung auf die Eigenschaften des Zements.H. [49] Sylla. 577-585. 10. F. 7. Zement-Kalk-Gips 35 (1982) Vol. 192-197.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 116 Evaluation of the cement clinker [45] Bogue. 291-293. Schriftenreihe der Zementindustrie.: Calculation of the compounds in portland cement. Zement-Kalk-Gips 28 (1975) Vol. F. R. [53] Sprung. F W: Berechnung der Klinkerphasen. H. Richartz. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 1 (1929) pp.: Einfluß der Klinkerkühlung auf Erstarren und Festigkeit von Zement. H.H. H. R.: The chemistry of portland cement. 7-29.1962.-M. ZementKalk-Gips 38 (1985) Vol. 265-272. [51] Sylla. Teil III: Einfluß der Klinkerherstellung. S. [50] Locher.: Einfluß der Ofenatmosphäre beim Brennen von Zementklinker. Zement-Kalk-Gips 31 (1978) Vol. Zement-Kalk-Gips 28 (1975) Vol. New York 1955. F. pp. 669-676.-M.-M.W. 9. [48] Locher. 29. 6. [46] Bogue. 6. [47] Locher. Sprung. Vol. pp. W: Verfahrenstechnik und Zementeigenschaften.. Zement-Kalk-Gips 31 (1978) Vol. S. pp.: Erstarren von Zement.: Einflüsse der Verfahrenstechnik auf die Zementeigenschaften. 269-277. .

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Evaluation of the emissions
[54] Kroboth, K., und Xeller, H.: Entwicklungen beim Umweltschutz in der Zementindustrie. Zement-Kalk-Gips 39 (1986) Vol. 1, pp. 1-14. [55] Sprung, S.: Spurenelemente - Anreicherungen und Minderungsmaßnahmen. Zement-Kalk-Gips 41 (1988) Vol. 5, pp. 251-257. [56] Locher, F W: Entwicklung des Umweltschutzes in der Zementindustrie. ZementKalk-Gips 42 (1989) Vol. 3, pp. 120-127. [57] Kroboth, K., und Kuhlmann, K.: Stand der Technik der Emissionsminderung in Europa. Zement-Kalk-Gips 43 (1990) Vol. 3, pp. 121-131. [58] Wischers, G., und Kuhlmann, K.: Ökobilanz von Zement und Beton. Zement-KalkGips 44 (1991) Vol. 11, pp. 545-553.

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10.

Evaluation example 1 (kiln system with a cyclone preheater, calcinator and tertiary air duct)
Balancing the entire system

10.1

10.1.1 Solid substance mass flows
& mS10

= 18.00 kg/s

x NF, S10 = 0.9760 x NF, St12 x NF, B7 = x NF, B3 = not applicable x ash, B7 ⋅ x NV, ash = 0.04 · 0.8007 x ash, B7 ⋅ x NF, ash = 0.04 · 0.8007

& mSt12 = 0 kg/s & m B7 & m B3 & mSt1 & mSt5

= 1.29 kg/s = 1.24 kg/s = 0.84 kg/s = 0 kg/s

x NF, St1 = 0.6454 x NF,St5 not applicable

x NF, S1 = 0.6316

Kiln feed mass flow (Equation 4): 18.00 ⋅ 0.976 − (1.29 + 1.24) ⋅ 0.04 ⋅ 0.8007 + 0.84 ⋅ 0.6454 = 28.55 kg/s. 0.6316

& mS1 =

Ratio of kiln feed to clinker necessary for burning clinker (Equation 6): 28.55 = 1.586 kg/kg. 18.00 + 0

fS1 =

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10.1.2 Gas volume flows

10.1.2.1 Dry gas

10.1.2.1.1 Minimum air volume flow

& mS1 = 28.55 kg/s & mSt1 = & m B7 = & m B3 = 0.84 kg/s 1.29 kg/s 1.24 kg/s

x C, S1 = 0.0015 x C, St1 = 0.0021 h u, B7 = 22684 kJ/kg h u, B3 = 22684 kJ/kg

x S, S1 = 0.0004 x S, St1 = 0.0008

The carbon mass flow (Equation 8) and the sulfide mass flow (Equation 9) effectively fed in with the kiln feed: & mC, eff, S = 28.55 · 0.0015 – 0.84 · 0.0021 = 0.0411 kg/s & mS, eff, S = 28.55 · 0.0004 – 0.84 · 0.0008 = 0.0107 kg/s

Minimum air demand of the fuels (Equation 13): lmin, B7 = lmin, B3 = 0.44 + 0.000245 · 22684 = 5.998 m³/kg Minimum air volume flow (Equation 10):

& VL, min, tr = (1.29 + 1.24) · 5.998 + 0.0411 · 8.88 + 0.0107 · 3.32 = 15.58 m³/s

G2 = 0.G6 = 0.G2 = 0.2925 yCO 2 .2.2 Air proportionality factors yCO 2 .0318) λG6 = 1 = 1.1.2.0006 − 0.0005 − 0. tr.N = 1.0006 y CO. tr. tr.3 Infiltrated air at the kiln hood F ≈ 0.0006 1 − 3.0007 − 0.0302 − 0.0302 Air proportionality factors in the waste gas downstream from the preheater.0489) λG1 = λG2 = 1 = 1.G2 = 0.1. tr.2108 yCO.0489 − 0.3843 0.29 kg/m³ . from the burning area and from the rotary kiln (Equation 16): 1 = 1.5 ⋅ 0.G6 = 0. tr.0007 y CO.G1 = 0.G2 = 0.0005 1 − 3.G1 = 0.0318 − 0.5 ⋅ 0.762 (1 − 0.0007 1 − 3. tr. tr.0489 yO 2 .3290 − 0.25 m² ∆p = 5 Pa p = 1010 hPa ϑ U = 5°C [41°F] ρ L.2108 − 0.G1 = 0.5 ⋅ 0. tr.1745 0.0302) 10.0318 yO 2 . tr.762 (1 − 0.0005 yO 2 .762 (1 − 0.3290 yCO 2 .1.1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 120 10.2925 − 0.2278 0.

29 kg/s lmin. tr = 0.18 + 6.1745 & m B7 = 1.2.75 ⋅ 0.998 – 1.18 m³/s & VL9.268 ⋅ 2 = 0.1.2. D.25 & VFl.29 · 1010 273 ⋅ = 1.5 Cooler intake air & VL8. tr = 1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 121 Density of the ambient air: ρ L = 1.4 Secondary air λ G6 = 1. tr = 7.268 kg/m³ 1013 277 Infiltrated air volume flow (Equation 19): 0. tr = 6. tr =7. tr = 1.08 m³/s . D.52 m³/s Secondary air volume flow (Equation 20): & VL8.39 m³/s & VFl.52 = 7. tr ≈ ⋅ 5 ⋅ 1.1.73 m³/s & VL11. tr = 23.39 – 0. B7 = 5.18 m³/s 10.29 10.52 m³/s 1.17 = 37.73 + 23.1.1.1745 · 1.29 · 5.17 m³/s Cooler intake air volume flow (Equation 21): & VL10.998 m³/kg & VL7.

G1 = 0.24) · 5.S1 x CO 2 .St5 = 0.01  1  & = 4. B3 = 22684 kJ/kg (lignitic coal) = 22684 kJ/kg (lignitic coal) & VG5.2.G1 = 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 122 10. pure gas = 0.55 kg/s = 0.42 m³/s yO2 .55 · 0.1.2925 & Vpure gas.24 kg/s = 0 x CO 2 . y CO. tr.0489 yCO2 . tr.1426 1.29 + 1.S & m B7 & m B3 = 28.0411 kg/s = 1.St1 x CO 2 .6 Raw gas & mS1 & mSt1 & mSt5 & mC. tr.3380 = 0. Calculation on the basis of the CO2 balance: Carbon dioxide mass flow (Equation 24) effectively fed in with the kiln feed: & mCO 2 .G5 .01  1.29 kg/s = 1.01 · 10 – 5 · 22684 = 2.1262 yO2 . tr. pure gas = 0.84 m³/s VCO 2 . B7 h u.97  CO2 from the fuel (Equation 26): & VCO2 .eff.3380 – 0.S = 28.1.0007 yCO2 . tr. tr = 60.0411  12.84 kg/s = 0 = 0.376 kg/s CO2 from the kiln feed (Equation 23): 44.S =  9. tr. B = (1. tr yCO 2 .88 m³/s .376 + 0.84 · 0.G5 not applicable yCO.3256 not applicable h u.eff.3256 = 9.G1 = 0. tr.

68 m³/s Gas volume downstream from the burning area (Equations 30 and 31): a) CO2 balance: 0. tr = 25.42 = 25. tr = 25.83 m³/s 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 123 Raw gas volume flow (Equation 29): 4.1.G2 = 0.G1 = 0. tr.88 − 0 & VG1.3290 yO2 .1262 & VG1.0489 yO2 .G1 = 0.1. tr.G2 = 0. tr = 60.2925 + 0.7 Gas downstream from the burning area yCO2 .68 m³/s 10.3290 .28) = 25.2.5 (26.21 − 0.0489 The following applies: & VG1.21 − 0.07 + 25. tr. Calculation on the basis of the clean gas volume flow: Raw gas volume flow (Equations 30 and 31): a) CO2 balance: 0.2925 yCO2 .2925 & VG2.07 m³/s 0. tr = 60.0318 & VG1.68 = 22.84 + 2.1426 & VG1.0007 2.42 = 26.2925 b) O2 balance: 0. tr = 0. tr = = 26. tr.28 m³/s 0.33 m³/s 0.

tr.24 ⋅ 5.21   = 0. tr.0411 kg/s = 0.21   . tr = 0.88 + 0.0107 ⋅ 3.22 m³/s 0.C lmin.G6 = 0.G6 = 0.998 m³/kg = 8. S = 1.68 ⋅ 0. eff.0007 −  0.0007  0.21 − 0.1.79 1.24 kg/s = 0.0411 ⋅ 8.21 − 0.tr. S & mS.68 = 23.68 m³/s yCO.83 + 23.G1 = 0.8 Gas downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) yCO2 .0302   1 − 0.2.2925 & VG1.68 1 − 0. tr.0489 & VG2.0302   1 − 0.88 m³/kg = 3.G1 = 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 124 b) O2 balance: 0.21   0 . tr = 25.S = 5. tr.0318 The following applies: & VG2.32 m 3/s − 0.0007 yO2 .32 − ⋅ 25.22) = 23.5 (22.1.0489   25.G6 = 0. tr. tr = 25.32 m³/kg yO2 . tr 0.0005 lmin.2925 − 0.5   0.B3 lmin.21   = 9.2108 & m B3 & mC.2108 −  0.0489 yCO2 .G1 = 0.2108 −  0. eff.0302 Gas volume flow downstream from the rotary kiln [30]: & VG6.0107 kg/s yO2 .03 m³/s 10.998 + 0.

2.03 m³/s = 9.0006) – 9.0302) + 1.0318 0.0411 kg/s = 0.03 · (0.1.1. tr.32 m³/s = 6.U = 4°C [39.0302 0. S = 1.2 Water vapor 10.32 – 6.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 125 10.5 · 0.24 kg/s = 0. tr.2.C = (23. eff.2°F] ϕ = 0.G2 = yO2 .03 m³/s 10.68 m³/s & VG2.0411 · 8.1.0107 kg/s = 23.B3 = lmin. tr.0318 – 0. tr.88 m³/kg 3.S = = 5.2.21 0.03 m³/s & VL1 = 1.tr & VG6.998 m³/kg 8. tr = 25.88 + 0.0006 Infiltrated air volume flow (calcinator) according to [30]: 1 & VFl.2.C lmin.G2 = 0.73 m³/s lmin.32 · 0. tr = 23.4 .998 + 0.1.32 m³/kg 0.73 – 0.tr yO2 .1. S & mS.24 · 5.10 Infiltrated air (calcinator) & m B3 & mC.19 = 3.2.9 Infiltrated air (preheater) & VGl.G6 = & VL3. eff.60 m³/s 10.1 Humidity in the air p = 101000 Pa ϑ L.0107 · 3.tr = yO2 .1.19 m³/s & VG2.tr & VL4.

2.608 · 0. L = 1.002 = 0.877 · 10 – 4 · 44 + 10 – 6 · 45 = 812.0020 kg/kg 101000 − 812.2 Water from the kiln feed & mS1 & mSt1 = 28.29 · 5.998 · 1.564 · 10 – 5 · 43 + 2.5 + 43.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 126 Saturation pressure of the water vapor at ambient temperature (Equation 33): ps (ϑ L.84 kg/s x H2O.07 m³/s b) downstream from the burning area & VH 2 O.06 m³/s c) downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet) & VH 2 O.4 Humidity volume flows (Equation 34): a) downstream from the preheater & & VH 2 O.0190 ρH 2O.608 · xD = 1. S1 = 0.2278 · 15.608 · 0. St1 = 0.03 m³/s 10.470 · 42 + 2.87 · 4 + 1.1745 · 1.608 · 0.8 kg/m³ .0204 x H2O. L = λG1 ⋅ VL.2 Pa Water content of the dry air (Equation 32): xD = 0.tr · 1.1. D = 0.002 = 0.002 = 0.2 = 0.3843 · 15.2 0 .U) = 611.55 kg/s = 0.622 812. min.2.58 · 1. L = 1.58 · 1.

B7 x H.0453 Moisture volume flows (Equation 36): a) Main burner 18  1  & = 0.55 ⋅ 0.80 m³/s VH 2 O. B7 = 1.0453 = 0.24  0.4 Injection water & m H 2 O. B3 = 0.77 m³/s VH 2 O.087 + 0.019) ⋅ = 0.84 ⋅ 0.2.0204 − 0.2.087 + 0.087 x H. B3 = 1.71 m³/s 0 .2.1.8  10. B3 = 0.8 10. B7 = 0.0453  2  0 .8  b) Secondary burner 18  1  & = 0.1.29 kg/s 1.087 x H2O.3 Water from the fuel & mB7 & mB3 = = 1. 10 = 0 . S = (28.24 kg/s x H2O.29  0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 127 Moisture volume flow from the kiln feed (Equation 35): 1 & VH 2 O.0453  2  0 .2.

1.80 + 0. B7 = x F.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 128 10.6°F] x H 2 O. B7 = x H 2 O.4 Energy flows 10.1 Energy input 10.24 kg/s h u.80 + 0.71 + 0.1.03 + 0.4.496 (1 − 0.03 m³/s Volume flow downstream from the burning area: & VG2 = 23.3 Moist gas (examples) Raw gas volume flow (Equation 40): & VG1 = 25.07 + 0.77 = 24. B3 = 0.03 + 0.80 = 10.4.1 Fuel & m B7 = 1.66 m³/s Volume flow downstream from the rotary kiln (kiln inlet): & VG6 = 9.29 kg/s & m B3 = 1.1.06 + 0. B3 = 22684 kJ/kg x F.1.1. B3 = 0.77 = 28. 10.087 .68 + 0.15 m³/s 10.6°F] ϑB3 = 32°C [89.32 + 0. B7 = 22684 kJ/kg h u.087) ϑB7 = 32°C [89.1.3 Liquid mass flows Does not apply.

5 · 10 · 32 – 8 · 10 · 32 ) = 1.29 + 1.2 kJ/kg K Mean specific thermal capacity for moist lignitic coal (Equation 44): cB7 = cB3 = (1 – 0.592 kJ/kg K Reaction enthalpy flow of the fuel (Equation 41): & ∆H R.496   –3 – 10 3 c B.6 ·10 – 7 · 632 + 5.846 +  (1 + 1.087 · 4.1.087) · 1. tr ≈  0.55 kg/s ϑS1 = 63°C [145.2 Kiln feed & mS1 = 28.29 + 1.844 · (63 – 25) = 916 kJ/s .1.55 · 0.592 · (32 – 25) = 28 kJ/s 10.4°F] Mean specific thermal capacity of the kiln feed (Equation 49): cS1 ≈ 0.844 kJ/kg K Enthalpy flow of the kiln feed (Equation 48): & H S1 = 28.8 + 7.24) · 1.24) · 22684 = 57391 kJ/s Sensible enthalpy flow of the fuel (Equation 42): & H B = (1.4.087   Mean specific thermal capacity for the water in the coal: c H 2O ≈ 4.3 ·10 – 4 · 63 – 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 129 Mean specific thermal capacity for dry lignitic coal (Equation 43): 0.2 = 1.344 + 0.2 · 10 – 11 · 633 = 0.344 kJ/kg K 1 − 0.803 ⋅ 0. B = (1.

3 Air λG1 = 1.17) (1 + 1.297 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the air fed in (Equation 50): & H L.1. air-intake fan = 337 kJ/s Mechanical performance (Equation 53): Pmech = (337 + 117) · 0.4.3843 · 15.88 · 1.002) = 44.tr = 15.86 · 10 – 11 · 43 = 1.3843 & VL.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 130 10.9 = 409 kJ/s Pmech.5 Mechanical performance Pmech. kiln drive = 117 kJ/s .4 Injection water Does not apply. total = 44.17 m³/s xD = 0.002 kg/kg ϑ L.297 · (4 – 25) = -1223 kJ/s 10.58 m³/s & VL11.1. min.297 + 5.U = 4°C [39.1.tr = 1.06 · 10 – 8 · 42 – 2.608 · 0.1.58 + 23.1.4.2°F] Sum of the air volume flows fed in (Equation 39): & ∑ VLi = (1.75 · 10 – 5 · 4 + 8.88 m³/s i Mean specific thermal capacity of the air fed in (Equation 52): cp.4.L. tr = 23. 10.1.

1.2137 – 0.85 · 0.718 · 0.S10 = 2.43 · 0. C2S.071 .692 · 0.1.0143 – 0 = 0.1.0067 The following then results: x CaOSO . C3A and C4AF in the clinker SO3 bound to the CaO in the clinker (Equation 55 or 56): 0.0083 + 1.0234 = 0.0083 > 0.563 x C 2S.4.6498 – 7.4.2.S10 = 0 3 CaO bound in the clinker phases (Equation 54): x CaO* .071 · 0.65 · 0.S10 = 2.1 Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed Chemical analyses of the solid substance average samples.0632 – 1.0010 = 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 131 10.754 · 0.0234 = 0.6498 Clinker phases (Equations 57 through 60): x C 3S.1 C3S.6641 – 0.4.2 Energy output 10.128 x C 4 AF. S10 = 0.563 = 0.S10 = 3. 10.2137 – 1. each according to Table 10.188 x C3A.043 · 0.2.292 · 0.S10 = 4.1.602 · 0.0632 = 0.868 · 0.0234 – 6.

S1 = 1.4304 The following then results: x CaCO3 .4148 < 0.4.274 · 0.274 · 0.3380 = 0.2.1.0190 · 0.3256 = 0.55 kg/s & mSt1 = 0.55 – 0.785 · 0.4 Balance equations & mS1 = 28.1.S1 = 1.84) = 1386 kJ/s .4.274 · 0.916 · (0.1.2 CaCO3.St1 = 0 10.St1 = 2.4304 = 0.7404 x MgCO3 .785 · 0.00 kg/s & mSt12 = 0 kg/s Reaction enthalpy flows (Equations 67 through 79): 1) Evaporation of H2O: & ∆H R1 = 2446 (0.3380 – 0.1.4304) = 0. 10.4235 The following then results: x CaCO3 .7683 x MgCO3 .1.4.0003 b) raw gas dust (Equations 61 through 64): 1.84 kg/s & mSt5 = 0 kg/s & mS10 = 18.3256 = 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 132 10.2.3 CaCO3 and C2S in the bypass dust Does not apply.4306 > 0.0204 · 28.2.1. and MgCO3 in the kiln feed and in the raw gas dust a) kiln feed (Equations 61 through 64): 1.

84) = 37895 kJ/s 6) Pyrite: & ∆H R6 = -12914 (0.0499 · 0.55 – 0.7683 · 28.0015 · 28.7404 · 0.84) = 12 kJ/s 5) CaCO3 dissociation: & ∆H R5 = 1778 (0.0402 · 28.00 = -2369 kJ/s .00 = -86 kJ/s 8) Formation of C3A: & ∆H R8 = 74 · 0.0003 · 28.84) = 978 kJ/s 3) Organic clay components: & ∆H R3 = -32786 (0.84) = -1346 kJ/s 4) MgCO3 dissociation: & ∆H R4 = 1396 (0.0004 · 28.128 · 18.00 = 170 kJ/s 9) Formation of β-C2S: & ∆H R9 = -700 · 0.55 – 0.55 – 0.0008 · 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 133 2) Decomposition of clay: assumption: 100%-illite & ∆H R2 = 884 (0.071 · 18.188 · 18.55 – 0 · 0.55 – 0.0021 · 0.84) = -139 kJ/s 7) Formation of C4AF: & ∆H R7 = -67 · 0.

G1 = 0.0489 = 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 134 10) Formation of C3S: & ∆H R10 = -495 · 0.0448 = 1 – 0.4.03 m³/s & VL11 = 23.00 + 0.4°F] y H 2O.25 m³/s ϑ G1 = 330°C [626°F] ϑ L11 = 278°C [532.2 Water evaporation Does not apply.2.55) = -903 kJ/s Sum of the reaction enthalpy flow of the kiln feed (Equation 80): & ∆H R.2680 yO 2 . G1 = (1 – 0. G1 y N 2 .0838) · 0.0448 = 0.2925 = 0.1. G1 = (1 – 0.6034 .0838 – 0. 10.0014 · 0.0067 · 18.S = 1386 + 978 – 1346 + 12 + 37895 – 139 – 86 + 170 – 2369 – 5016 – 903 = 30582 kJ/s 10.3 Waste gas losses & VG1 = 28.2.4.1.0838 yCO 2 .0838) · 0.563 · 18.0010 · 28.00 = -5016 kJ/s 11) Formation of K2SO4: & ∆H R11 = -9690 (0.2680 – 0.84 – 0.

489 + 9.606 · 10 – 7 · 3302 + 8.35 · 10 – 11 ·3303 = 1.86 · 10 – 11 · 2783 = 1.366 = 1.916 · 10 – 4 · 330 – 9.1.301 + 3.6034 · 1.32 + 0.319 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the cooler vent air (Equation 89): & H L11 = 23.904 + 0.021 · 10 – 7 · 3302 – 7.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 135 a) Raw gas Mean specific thermal capacity of the raw gas (Equations 83 through 87): c p.297 + 5.993 kJ/kg K .2 · 10 – 11 · 3303 = 0.01 · 10 – 11 ·3303 = 1.90 · 10 – 11 · 3303 = 1.319 (278 – 25) = 7759 kJ/s 10.75 · 10 – 5 · 278 + 8.497 (330 – 25) = 12798 kJ/s b) Cooler vent air Mean specific thermal capacity of the cooler vent air (Equation 52): cp.8 + 7.631 · 10 – 4 · 330 – 4. L11 ≈ 1.54 + 0.G1 = 0.84 kg/s ϑ St1 = 330°C [626°F] Mean specific thermal capacity of the raw gas dust (Equation 49): CSt1 ≈ 0.O 2 = 1.0448 · 1.366 kJ/m³ K c p.06 · 10 – 8 · 2782 – 2.320 kJ/m³ K c p.6 · 10 – 7 · 3302 + 5.25 · 1.05 · 10 – 5 · 330 + 9.268 + 1.904 kJ/m³ K c p.2.304 + 1.52 · 10 – 5 · 330 + 2.540 kJ/m³ K c p.3 · 10 – 4 · 330 – 4.22 · 10 – 11 ·3303 = 1. H 2O = 1.4.4 · 10 – 9 · 3302 – 1.0838 · 1.03 · 1.65 · 10 – 8 · 3302 – 3.497 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the raw gas (Equation 82): & H G1 = 28. N 2 = 1.CO 2 = 1.4 Dust losses & mSt1 = 0.633 + 9.

4.5 Incomplete combustion & VG1.68 m³/s y CO.00 kg/s ϑ S10 = 120°C [248°F] Mean specific thermal capacity of the raw gas dust (Equation 95): CS10 = 0.84 · 0.1.729 + 5.124 · 10 – 10 · 1203 = 0.793 kJ/m³ K Enthalpy flow of the clinker (Equation 94): & H S10 = 18.793 (120 – 25) = 1355 kJ/s .4.G1 = 0. tr = 25.921 · 10 – 4 · 120 – 5.00 · 0.993 (330 – 25) = 254 kJ/s 10.6 Clinker & mS10 = 18.tr.68 · 0.0007 · 12645 = 227 kJ/s 10.1.2.0007 Reaction enthalpy flow (Equation 93): & ∆H R.369 · 10 – 7 · 1202 + 2.2.CO = 25.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 136 Enthalpy flow of the raw gas dust (Equation 90): & H St1 = 0.

B = 59059 – 28 – 916 + 1223 – 409 = 58929 kJ/s Balance deficit: 58929 – 57391 = 1538 kJ/s This corresponds to 2. D = 4266 kJ/s & Q W. .1.6% of the balance sum.2.4.C = 360 kJ/s & Q W. see [31]: & Q W.2.1.4. V = 720 kJ/s & Q W.1.3 Energy balance Energy output (Equation 108): & E out = 30582 + 12798 + 7759 + 254 + 227 + 1355 + 720 + 360 + 4266 + 486 + 252 = 59059 kJ/s Reaction enthalpy flow of the fuel including the balance remainder (Equation 109): & ∆H R.8 Uncoupled heat Does not apply.T = 486 kJ/s & Q W. K = 252 kJ/s 10. 10.4.7 Radiation and convection: For calculation examples.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 137 10.

37 = 18.2.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 138 10.1 Solid substance mass flows & mS10 = 18.20 m³/s Cooler intake air volume flow (Equation 38): & VL10 = 37.72 kg/s 10.1.1. tr = 7.2 Gas volume flows & VL8.18 (1 + 1.2 Balancing of the partial systems 10.00 kg/s & mSt9 = 0.35 + 0.37 kg/s 6.1 Clinker cooler 10. tr = 6.35 kg/s & VL8.18 = 0.0020 kg/kg Secondary air volume flow (Equation 38): & VL8 = 7. tr = 7.18 m³/s & VL10.08 (1 + 1.002) = 37.2. tr = 37.73 m³/s Secondary air dust mass flow (Equation 110): & mSt8 = 0.73 Hot clinker mass flow (Equation 111): & mS8 = 18.20 m³/s .2.18 m³/s & VL9.00 + 0.608 · 0.35 ⋅ 7.002) = 7.08 m³/s xD = 0.608 · 0.

May 1992

Specification Vt 10

Page 139

10.2.1.3 Energy flows

10.2.1.3.1 Energy input

& VL10 = 37.20 m³/s

ϑ U = 4°C [39.2°F]

Pmech, intake air fan = 337 kJ/s

cp,L10 = 1.297 kJ/m³ K (for the calculation, see above) The enthalpy flow of the hot clinker results from the balance remainder from the energy balance. Enthalpy flow of the cooler intake air (Equation 113): & H L10 = 37.20 · 1.297 (4 – 25) = -1014 kJ/s The enthalpy flow of the injection water does not apply here. Mechanical performance (Equation 114): Pmech, K = 337 · 0.9 = 303 kJ/s

10.2.1.3.2 Energy output

& VL9 & VL8

& = VL4 = 6.75 m³/s = 7.20 m³/s

& & mSt9 = mSt4 = 0.35 kg/s & mSt8 = 0.37 kg/s

ϑ L4

= 853°C [1567.4°F]

& QW,T = 486 kJ/s

May 1992

Specification Vt 10

Page 140

Enthalpy flow of the clinker (for the calculation, see above): & H S10 = 1355 kJ/s Radiation and convection loss flow of the cooler including the kiln hood:

& Q W, K = 252 kJ/s

The uncoupled heat flow does not apply here. Enthalpy flow of the cooler vent air (for the calculation, see above): & H L11 = 7759 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the tertiary air at the calcinator (Equations 52 and 89): cp,L4 = 1.297 + 5.75 · 10 – 5 · 8.53 + 8.06 · 10 – 8 · 8532 – 2.86 · 10 – 11 · 8533 = 1.387 kJ/m³ K & H L4 = 6.75 · 1.387 · (853 – 25) = 7752 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the tertiary air dust at the calcinator (Equations 95 and 99): CSt4 = 0.729 + 5.921 · 10 – 4 · 8.53 – 5.369 · 10 – 7 · 8532 + 2.124 · 10 – 10 · 8533 = 0.975 kJ/kg K & H St4 = 0.35 · 0.975 · (853 – 25) = 283 kJ/s Energy balance for the tertiary air duct:

& & & & & H L9 + H St9 = H L4 + H St4 + Q W, T = 7752 + 283 + 486 = 8521 kJ/s

The iterative calculation then results in the following: ϑ L9 = ϑ St9 ≈ 901°C [1653.8°F]

May 1992

Specification Vt 10

Page 141

Enthalpy flow of the secondary air (Equations 52 and 89): Cp,L8 = 1.297 + 5.75 · 10 – 5 · 901 + 8.06 · 10 – 8 · 9012 – 2.86 · 10 – 11 · 9013 = 1.390 kJ/m³ K & H L8 = 7.2 · 1.39 (901 – 25) = 8767 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the secondary air dust (Equations 95 and 94): CSt8 = 0.729 + 5.921 · 10 – 4 · 901 – 5.369 · 10 – 7 · 9012 – 2.124 · 10 – 10 · 9013 = 0.982 kJ/kg K & H St8 = 0.37 · 0.982 (901 – 25) = 318 kJ/s The evaporation enthalpy flow of the water does not apply here.

10.2.1.3.3 Energy balance

Enthalpy flow of the hot clinker (Equation 115): & H S8 = 8767 + 318 + 8521 + 7759 + 1355 + 252 + 1014 – 303 = 27683 kJ/s Hot clinker temperature:

ϑS8 =

& H S8 + 25 & mS8 ⋅ cS8 & mS8 = 18.72 kg/s

cS8 (1389°C [2532.2°F]) = 1.084 kJ/kg K The following then results: ϑS8 =

27683 + 25 = 1389°C [2532.2°F] 18.72 ⋅ 1.084

2°F]) = 25.5 – 0.731 · (4 – 25) = -276 kJ/s Enthalpy flow of the cooler vent air at 4°C [39.2°F]: & H S10 (4°C [39.00 · 0.168 W/m² K 100  100   100  αrad = 0.4 Evaluation quantities 10.076   = 9.4.499 = 20. 99 and 101): 200  200   200  αconv = 0.2°F]) = 18.85   + 0.9 · 5.3 · 3.2 + 4.2) (200 – 4) 1 = 122 kJ/s 1000 10.25 · 1.298 · (4 – 25) = -688 kJ/s .499 W/m² K 473 − 277 αtotal = 9.2 (3. pre − cool = 20.67 · 10 – 8 2 3 4734 − 277 4 = 11.2 – 0.2°F] Heat-transition coefficients (Equations 98.1.2.1 Pre-cooling zone LB = -0.2.2°F]: & H L11 (4°C [39.2 Energy loss flow of the cooling area Enthalpy flow of the clinker at 4°C [39.2.0 + 3.m ≈ 200°C [392°F] ϑ U = 4°C [39.2 m Da = 3.667 · π · 3.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 142 10.1.168 + 11.4.2 m ϑ W.667 W/m² K Radiation and convection loss flow of the pre-cooling zone (Equation 117): & Q W.1.

6316 ϕ apparent .6316 (sum 1 to 8 in Table 10) Apparent degree of precalcining of the kiln feed at the kiln inlet (Equation 121): 0.635 28370 + 276 10.0532 xCO2 .S6 = 0.9016 (sum 1 to 8 in Table 10) xNF.1.3 Cooling area efficiency Enthalpy flow of the clinker at 1450°C [2642°F]: & H S10 (1450°C [2642°F]) = 18.89 0.3380 0.S1 = 0.0532 = 1 − 0. cooling area = 1355 + 276 + 7759 + 688 + 252 + 122 = 10452 kJ/s 10.00 · 1.3380 xNF.2 Calcinator xCO2 .2.9016 = 0.4.S6 = 0.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 143 Energy loss of the cooling area (Equation 118): & Eloss.S1 = 0.2.106 · (1450 – 25) = 28370 kJ/s Cooling area efficiency (Equation 119): η cooling area = 1 – 10452 = 0.

(127). 3) The infiltrated air volume flow of the preheater is uniformly distributed over the four stages.3 Preheater Calculation of the mass flows and degrees of separation according to Equations (123). 6) The cyclone of the calcinator is assigned the number 5. (126). 7) The dust from the rotary kiln and from the tertiary air duct contains 10% alkalis and 90% non-volatile components.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 144 10. . (130) and (131). Assumptions made for the calculations: 1) The conveying air volume flow for the kiln feed enters into stage 1. 2) One-fourth of the moisture volume flow from the kiln feed is desorbed in each of the four uppermost stages. 4) The following aspects are taken into account for the reaction enthalpy flow in the preheater: • evaporation of H2O • degradation of clay • organic components • MgCO3 dissociation • pyrite 5) The sum of the reaction enthalpy flows in the preheater is uniformly distributed among the four stages.2.

96 21.3 Estimation of error Table 16 provides an overview of how possible errors in the measured or input quantities (column 2) impact on the fuel energy consumption when it is calculated according to Equation (109) or according to Equation (41) and then related to the clinker mass flow (columns 3 and 4).844 0.02 25.497 1.97 25.87 0.050 1.55 – 34.92 3.619 – – & QW – 180 180 180 180 – – & ∆H R – 223 223 223 223 – – & mS 28.14 34.67 48.62 62.26 – – – & mSt – 0.67 49.55 – – & mS 28.80 0.993 1.09 – – cp.555 1.110 – – & VG – 28.98 0.03 23.87 ξ – 0.43 6. the table provides information about the necessary measuring precision for the individual measured quantities during a performance test.19 21.84 – 7.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 145 Results: energy balance i 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 alkali balance ϑ 63 330 480 638 744 – – cS 0.092 1.31 28.G – 1. Thus.84 15.53 25.35 – 10.69 0. .595 1.55 43.26 – & mSt – 0.

35 .4 Tables (The operands are printed in boldface!) Table 9 .4 107.3 73. Designation Clinker Discharged tertiary air dust Kiln feed a) meter status b) calculated lignitic coal (main burner) lignitic coal (secondary burner) Raw gas dust Bypass dust Returned tertiary air dust t/d 1555 – 2506 kg/s 18.00 – – 2466 111.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 146 10.24 0.84 – 0.Solid substance mass flows (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.0 – 30 28. calcinator and tertiary air duct).29 1.55 1.

75 64.72 4.56 0.08 0.65 3.14 – – 1.43 Fuel ash 8.03 0.31 – 33.41 1.04 0.45 2.23 31.91 4.80 0.02 0.54 0.Chemical analyses of the solid substance average samples in % by weight of the substance entailing loss on ignition (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.48 – – – 4 15.05 0.21 35.22 34.57 0.85 100.62 – 47.58 100.16 – 5.03 0.96 – Raw gas dust 14.22 7.16 0.04 0.13 3.37 6.04 – – 0.08 66.001 0.30 1.45 0.23 35.07 – – – – – Kiln feed downstream from the cyclone 1a 14.02 12.43 100.80 – – – 1b 13.90 90.36 0.06 64.72 0.15 – 61.81 80.31 34.57 0.75 63.61 – 0.10 99.34 – 66.70 – 42.64 0.08 1.64 99.92 0.26 99.80 – – – 2 14.60 0.40 – – – 5 19.32 0.72 100.67 – 0.26 34.25 27.82 – – 2.99 – – 1.78 0. calcinator and tertiary air duct).42 1.14 0.85 0.01 0.15 0.46 97. Components Kiln feed 13.57 0.57 0.05 0.45 – 0.70 0.30 6.44 – 0.64 0.15 33.72 0.76 5.13 – – 1.77 0.16 0.60 – 0.75 98.31 – 0.25 4.35 0.76 – 31.27 62.59 – – 1.008 0.10 61.54 17.63 0.50 – 43.83 – Clinker 21.23 0.42 – – 1.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 147 Table 10 .13 – 33.95 – – 1.57 0.10 70.10 0.85 4.83 0.25 48.51 99.32 – – 2.76 – – – 3 14.02 – – 1.00 99.51 – 43.49 – 0.47 1.45 – 0.30 – 33.12 – – 1. No.30 34.10 0.51 – 43.51 – 42.58 – 45.22 0.12 4.84 4.32 – – – 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 SiO2 Al2O3 TiO2 P2O5 Fe2O3 Mn2O3 CaO MgO SiO3 S 2– Cl – K2O Na2O ignition loss sum 1-14 sum 1-8 C CO2 H2O (< 110°C) H2O (> 110°C) CaOfree .23 – 27.07 1.15 0.68 0.

27 0.-% wgt. calcinator and tertiary air duct).-% wgt.-% wgt.00 60.60 Fuel (secondary burner) 22.74 49.-% wgt.-% wgt. Designation lower calorific value water ash carbon hydrogen sulfur nitrogen oxygen volatile components 1) 1) Unit kJ/kg wgt.684 8.20 4.70 4.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 148 Table 11 .56 21.70 4.53 0.-% wgt.74 49.-% Fuel (main burner) 22.60 Relative to the dry substance. .00 60.27 0.-% wgt.20 4.53 0.684 8.56 21.Fuels (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.

2°F] 1389°C [2532.4°F] 330°C [626°F] 480°C [896°F] 638°C [1180. calcinator and tertiary air duct).6°F] 32°C [89.4°F] 744°C [1371.Temperatures (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.8°F] 278°C [532.2°F] 845°C [1553°F] 853°C [1567.4°F] 120°C [248°F] 4°C [39.2°F] 32°C [89.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 149 Table 12 .6°F] .4°F] 1024°C [1875. Designation Kiln feed Raw gas Kiln feed (cyclone 2) Kiln feed (cyclone 3) Kiln feed (cyclone 4) Kiln feed (cyclone 5) Tertiary air (calcinator) Kiln inlet gas Hot clinker Secondary air Cooler vent air Clinker Ambient air Fuel (main burner) Fuel (secondary burner) Temperature (°C [°F]) 63°C [145.2°F] 901°C [1653.

08 1.c.20) 6.03 0.19 1. = under standard conditions .26 4.c.02 CO vol-% 0.15) (7.c.39 air with 0.18 3.4 6.)/h clean gas raw gas gas after burning area kiln inlet gas 1) secondary air 1) tertiary air cooler vent air cooler intake air conveying air (kiln feed) burner air (secondary burner) burner air (main burner) infiltrated air (preheater) infiltrated air (calcinator) infiltrated air (kiln hood) 1) 1) moist gas … – – – – … – – – – H2 O vol-% m³(s.0 92400 82900 (33600) (25900) 24200 83400 25.03 24. but often very imprecise since gas analysis at the kiln inlet is not representative.)/h 60.Gas volume flows and composition (kiln system with a cyclone preheater.61 0.17 100900 88700 36500 (26000) 24300 83700 28.18) 6.20 1.c.04) 0.68 23.3 vol-% of H2O 3800 (10900) 1900 1.c.6 8.90 21.8 8. Designation Dry gas Moist gas Gas composition.75 23.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 150 Table 13 . related to dry gas m³(s.60 0.19 1.03 (9.05 (3.05 (3.25 133600 5800 700 5000 37.73 23.08 O2 14.76 CO2 12.66 (10.07 0. s.32) (7.62 29.06 0.42 m³(s.)/h 67.89 3. calcinator and tertiary air duct).52 3800 (10900) 1900 1.05 217500 10.03) 0.39 134000 5800 700 5000 37.)/h 244000 m³(s.52 Calculated.25 32.

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 151 Table 14 .Energy balance of the kiln system (kiln system with a cyclone preheater. Designation Input Fuel main burner secondary burner sensible enthalpy balance remainder Kiln feed Air Mechanical performance Sum kJ/s kJ/kg Kl 29262 28129 28 1538 916 –1223 409 59059 1626 1563 1 85 51 –68 23 3281 Output Reaction enthalpy of the kiln feed Water evaporation Waste gas losses raw gas cooler vent air Dust losses Incomplete combustion Clinker Radiation and convection Preheater Calcinator Rotary kiln Tertiary air duct cooler + kiln hood Heat uncoupling Sum Fuel energy consumption including the balance remainder 30582 — 12798 7759 254 227 1355 720 360 4266 486 252 — 59059 1699 — 711 431 14 13 75 40 20 237 27 14 — 3281 58929 3274 . calcinator and tertiary air duct).

May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 152 Table 15 .Energy balance of the cooler (kiln system with a cyclone preheater. Designation Input Hot clinker (balance remainder) Cooler intake air Mechanical performance kJ/s kJ/kg Kl 27683 –1014 303 26972 1355 252 7759 8521 8767 318 – – 26972 581 0. calcinator and tertiary air duct).635 1538 –57 17 1498 75 14 431 473 487 18 – – 1498 Sum Output Clinker Radiation and convection Cooler vent air Tertiary air and tertiary air dust Secondary air Secondary air dust Heat uncoupling Water evaporation Sum Evaluation quantities Energy loss of the cooling area in kJ/kg Kl Cooling area efficiency (1450°C [2642°F]) .

27 0.09 0.Influence of measuring errors on the calculated fuel energy consumption (kiln system with a cyclone preheater. Input quantity Relative error in the input parameter in % Relative error in the fuel energy consumption in % (Equation 109) Relative error in the fuel energy consumption in % (Equation 41) 2 10 3 Hu fuel Ash content of fuel Mass flow of fuel Mass flow of raw gas dust Mass flow of clinker Volume flow of dry raw gas Volume flow of dry cooler vent air Temperature of clinker Temperature of raw gas Temperature of kiln feed Temperature of cooler vent air Radiation and convection loss of preheater Radiation and convection loss of kiln SiO2 content in the clinker CO2 content in the kiln feed CO2 content in kiln feed and raw gas dust 2 10 10 50 3 10 10 5 2 10 2 50 10 –2 5 5 0 –0.42 2.22 –1.12 1.15 0.3 0.08 0.24 Translation by: Duvekot Translators 2219 Brackenville Road Hockessin.29 1.43 0.51 –0.74 0.com .28 1.93 0. DE 19707 Phone: (302) 234-0237 Fax: (302) 234-0239 Toll-free: (800) 437-0237 e-mail: ledtrans@compuserve.May 1992 Specification Vt 10 Page 153 Table 16 . calcinator and tertiary air duct).

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