RICHMOND uPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANAl Y SIS
Lecture NQ 1 Pa~e No )
'/
"
.
I
INTRODUCTION The objective piping stress analysis .. s to assure safety against failure of the piping i system, prevent overloading of associated structural elements and terminal. equipment from both internal and external factors that would apply strain. or forces to the system. This to be undertaken. with. the.best economic considerations. The prime factors are internal pressure and thermal. strain. In order to deal with thermal strain some understanding of piping ileXlbUizy and the resolution of the.forces moments and stresses must be known. Before delving into the complexities of piping flexibility for thermal strain. it is worth considering other factors that could prejudice the integrity of a piping system. But the first consideration that must. be undertaken will be.the calculation for the wall thickness. of the pipework. There are three significant documents at the start of a project, the P & I D, the Line list and the Pipe Spec. The engineer responsible for the Pipe Spec must calculate and select suitable. wall thicknesses for the pipes listed on the other two documents. These thicknesses. will determine the weight of the pipe, its stiffness and are a key factor in. the determination of the stresses as will be shown later. Pressure stress 'me three principle factors are (a) Temperature of the fluid conveyed in the pipework. ( see line list) From this an allowable stress for the pipe material can be determined ( see piping code of practice)
(b) The pressure of the fluid conveyed in the pipework. (see line list)
(c) The size of the pipework (see line list and P & I D)
All piping wall thickness. calculations are based on the thin wall cylinder formulae which are an approximation of the.thick wall formulae.
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS.
Lecture No I
Pa~e No"
Derivation. of Hoop Stress from. first principles
Load=px d
Area.=Zxt Stress
= Load
=p.d/2t
/ Area
Derivation. of longitudinal Load = p x {1t. X (d2) Area = nx.d x.t Stress = Load = p.d/4t
j
/
Stress. from first principles
4}
Area
As can be seen above the hoop stress is twice that of the longitudinal stress for the same pressure and diameter. This has significant influence on design as can be seen later. Therefore the hoop stress is the maximum stress. Therefore wall thick..."1ess calculations will always be based on the Hoop stress formUlae for all the codes of practice that we are going to consider.
tON TI I
0 u/lo ... l
At this point. it can be seen that at the max. pressure the . pressure are only half the allowable stress. This deadweight bending to be up to half the allowable stress. Example; Pipe norndia= 350 (14"), actual.outsidedia, 356mm
stresses from factors like
temp. = 200°C (392°F), Material API 5L Grade B
pressure lObar approx. 1 n/rnrrr'
From Table AI we can. see that the allowable stress is 20.0 kpsi as this is an Ameriacan code we must divide by 0.145 to bring it to n/rnrrf = 138 n/rnrrr' Max stress
= p.d 12t
from which
t = p.d
12 x (Max stress)
RICHMOND UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSI.S
Lecrure NQ, I
Pa~eNQ 3
= 1 x356/2x
138
=
1.3 mm
Let us. consider a weld.joint factor (see table 302.3.4) For API 5L see a factor of 0.95 From which the min wall thickness will be 1.3 / 0.95 = 1.37 rrun
If we add in an allowance for corrosion, say 1.6 mm we get a min. thickness of 1.37 + 1.6 = 2.97 mm Should the manufacturing allowance be 12.5 % then the. min thickness will be 2.97/0.875 =3.39 mm It is probable that the.piping engineer will select a wall thickness of 9.5 mm for ready availability and general mechanical strength. We are aware that Temperature and Pressure are the significant factors governing the stresses created in. piping systems. There are others however which should be considered also and which will be a problem from time to time.
These other influences for stress are Vacuum Wind load Wave Load RV forces Earthquake The factors listed above can be divided into two distinct forms as follows Self Limiting Stress Generated by Deflection (Generally thermal) Nozzle movement Settlement Self weight Contents weight Insulation weight
RICHMOND UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANAL YSIS
I ecrureNo ) Pa~e NQ.4
Sustained Stress
Generated by Load (Deadweight or Pressure)
The. allowable stresses for these two influences are based on different concepts, first however we should consider the assumptions used to determine the basic allowable stresses in.our materials. Allowable stresses, Allowable stresses as specified in the various codes are Generally given in terms of certain characteristic material. properties and are typically classified as.being either time independent or time dependant. Time independent allowables are related either to the initial yield stress or the tensile strength as measured in a simple tensile test, see fig .. 1. The yield stress is the elastic limit. that is stresses below this value are proportional. to strain and when the stresses are removed there is no permanent distortion of the tensile specimen.
c uts
crO.2 cry
fig. 1 Tensile test in a.ductile material The elastic limit is often difficult to determine, especially for ductile materials as shown in fig. 1, and.instead the socalled 0.2% proof stress may be used. The. tensile strength. is the highest stress. which the specimen can accommodate without failure. Care is often needed in defining a suitable stress value since at strain levels close to
RICHMOND upON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSrs
Lecture NQ I Pa::e No':;
I
failure the. specimen is either necking or suffering some other damage so that the simple definition of stress. as a load over area needs. to be modified. From the codes we can.see that ANSI B31.1 permits the smaller of 114of the tensile strength or 5/8 of the yield strength. However B31.3 uses the lower of 113 of the tensile strength or 213 of the yield strength. BS806 uses a.factor of 0.9 or 0.8 on the 0.2% proof stress. However both B8806 and ANSI b31.3 use time dependant allowables at the higher temperatures.
The time dependant allowable is usually related. to the. "creep rupture strength ...at high temperature ..At temperatures above 1/3 of the melting point most metals will exhibit creep in a standard. tensile test, if the load is kept constant the specimen will continue to deform with time as.shown. below.
€R
I
I I
I I
I I
Primary I
I
Secondary
I I Tertiary
I
t
TIme
Under constant load the rate of creep strain will decrease initially to a steady state and later will increase rapidly until the specimen ultimately fails due to creep rupture. These three phases of creep are usually termed primary, secondary and tertiary. The. important point here is that if creep is present the specimen will fail at most stress levels, but as the stress level decreases the time to rupture increase. Resul ts from many creep tests at the same temperature but at different initial stress levels can.be cross plotted as a creep rupture. curves giving time to rupture for a given initial stresst see fig below).
RlCHMOND UPON THAMES COLLEGE
£IPfNG STRESS ANALYSIS
L~tureNQ,1
Paee NQ 6
However such cross plots. invariably give rise to high degree of scatter and it is more appropriate. to define scatter bands. for a specified time and to use.the minimum and average stresses from this band.
110g aa
log t
Time to rupture
R
1..0~'O.'i_ ift 110.....
Sluu nz?tr=/dlil/ttr
hi_,ric trJ.I•. l#J.l#!p"'t~
The code we shall be using (B31.3) thus uses an allowable which is the smaller of time independent and the. time dependant allowable stress. The time dependant allowable stress is then the smallest of 67% of the average stress to cause creep rupture in 100,000 hours, 80% of the minimum. stress to cause rupture in 100,000 hours or 100% of the stress to give 0,01% creep rate per hour.
RICHMOND UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANAl YSIS
Lecture No, I
Pa~e No 7
The self limiting stresses in piping systems are essentially cyclic and. the initial hot stresses, if they are of sufficient magnitude, will decrease with time because of the plastic strains and will reappear as.a stress ofreversed direction when the pipe cools. This phenomenon forms the basic difference self limiting stresses and the sustained stresses from weight and pressure. Plastic strains can. decrease. the magnitude of thermal stresses.by a change in the shape of the pipe centre line..TIlls change in shape. has.no effect on sustained weight and pressure stresses. For this. reason sustained stresses are.limited to the design stress. at the highest operating temperature. This phenomenon is.called self springing of the pipe and is similar to the effect of cold springing the pipe. [he degree of self springing win depend on the magnitude of the initial hot stresses _ and the.temperature, so that while the hot stresses will gradually decrease with time, th e sum of the hot and cold stresses will stay the same. This sum we call the EXPANSION STRESS RANGE Because it is the sum. of hot and cold stresses no reduction can.be taken for any cold spring applied during erection. The concept of a constant expansion stress range leads us or. to the selection of an allowable expansion stress range. Since self springing occurs at the higher temperature then the.maximum stresses must occur in the cold condition. From this. we must calculate our stresses to the cold modulas of elasticity.
Resultant stress range ..For materials below the. creep range the allowable stresses are 62.5% of the yield stress, so that a conservative estimate of where the of the bending stress at which plastic flow starts at an elevated temperature is 1.6Sh and by the same reasoning 1.6Sc will be the stress at which flow would take place at the minimum temperature. Hence the sum of these stresses represents the maximum stress range to which a system could be subjected to without flow occurring in either the hot or cold condition. therefore Smax = 1.6(Sc+Sh) But .ANSI B31.3, tne code to which most of us work, limits the.stress range to 78% of the yield stress which gives a total stress range of Sa = 1.25(Sc+Sh)
/
RICHMOND UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS
Lecture No.! pa~e No8
From. this total stress. range O.5Sh is deducted for the pressure stress and O.5Sh is deducted for the deadweight stresses, giving us.an allowable stress range of Sa = 1.25Sc + 0.25Sh There are reductions for excessive cyclic conditions and credits. allowed for unused sustained allowables, all.of this we win come to.later; Primarily it is thermal strain to.which the stress engineer will For this his function will be to :(a) To. evaluate the conditions. which will ultimately govem the amo:unt of flexibility
(b)
To. determinejust how much flexibility is reqd.
Under (a) there are.two main considerations, (1) The maximum stress range for the material considering temperature and cyclic conditions. (2) Permitted reactions on connected equipment. It is invariable that where. machinery is concerned the allowable reactions will almost always override the max stress range allowable,
Under (b) The. stress analyst can.adopt one of the following (1) Accept the layout based an past experience (2) Undertake a simple approximate method of stress evaluation (3) Perform a comprehensive analysis using accepted software, All the above must be undertaken within the limits laid dawn by the code of practice specified at the start of the contract,
RICHMOND uPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS
Lecrure No.1 Pa~eNo 9
Codes of Practice ANSI B31.3  Petroleum Refinery Piping TIlls.is the most widely used Code in use today and has almost certainly been the basis for many other codes now in operation and will be.the code that will form the basis. of these lectures. It has several associated codes which are as follows ANSI B31.1 ANSI B31.4 ANSI B31.8 Power Piping Code (power Stations etc) Oil Transportation Gas Transportation (Oil Pipelines) (Gas.Pipelines)
~s.
~~v"
/1&::0<=>:\.£
GAO
~(2~'Cb_)
06=:>= ,........ :)
~\o....::> ('10M GJT
"Dt'" Z
r1oo;.;;.~'S
RICHM:OND UPON THAMES COLLEGEPIPIl'lG STRESS ANALYSIS
APPENDIX
ASME B31.J.1993 Editioa
TABLE 3023.4
Table 302.3.4
lONGITUDINAL WELD JOINT QUAlITY FACTOR
Type of Joint
1
£;
Factor Examination As required by listed spe;:incation Ej
0;&0
Typcof Seam Straight
Furnace. butt weld. continuous weld
[Note (Il]
2
Electric resistance. weld
Straight spiral
or
As required. by listed specification
o.as
[Note Ill]
3
 Electric fusion weld Straight. or spiral
(al Single butt weld
As required by listed specification or thls.~COde Additionally spot radiographed per para.. 341.5.1 Additionally 100'lG radiographed. per para •. 344.5.1 and Table J.41.3.2A
0.80
(without filler metal)
0.90
(with filler metaf)
1.00
(bl Double butt weld
Straight or spiral [except as. provided in 4(b) below]
As required. by listed specification or this Code Additionally spot radiographed per para. 341.5.1 Additionally 100'lG radiographed per para, 344.5.1 and Table. J.41.J.2A
0~85
(without filler metal)
0.90
(with filler metall
1.00
4
Per specific. spe;:ifications ASTM A 211 As permitted in the specification Submef1]ed arc weld (SAW) Gas metal arc weld (GMAWl Combined GMAW, Spiral As. required by specification As required by specification 0.75 (Note (1)]
(a)
(bl API5L
Straight with one or two. seams Spiral
0.95
~
NOTE: {ll It is not permitted. to increase
the. joint quality factor by additional
exam. nation for joint 1, Z, or 4a.
17
ASMEI A.'1SI B31..31987 Edition
Table
nr
APPENDIXD FLEXIBILITY AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTORS
(8)
FLEXIBIUTY
TABLE 011 FACTOR.k AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FAC!O.Ri
S tress. Intensification Factor [Notes (2), (3)] Out~plane
Description
Flexibility Factor k
t,
Inplane
I~'
Flexibility Characteristic
h Sketch
L Welding elbow or pipe bend [Notes (2), (4)(7)] 1.05 11 0.75 0.9
T
r:z
,.,2 Z
tlI3
tlI3
1  bend radius
(e)
Closely spac:ed miter bend s < r2 (1 + tan 8) [Notes (2), (4), (5), (7)]
1.52
0.9
/Ill)
0.9
/12/)
,'f""
cot II  Bz 2
rz
(e)
Single miter bend or Widely spaced. miter bend s ;? rz (l + tan 8) [Notes (2), (4), (7)]
1.52
0.9
til)
0.9
fill)
+ cot II
2
'2
tr1b
Welding tee per ANSI Blb.9 with
1
0.9
fill)
r, ~ l,OoDL
1.5. T [Notes (2l, (4), (6), (lll]
r, ~.
Not~s to this Tab/I! follow
on /J. 228.
ASMEiANSI
831.31987 Edition
Table D.1
TABLE 011 (CONeI'D) FLEXIBILITY FACTOR k AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTOR.i
100
80
60
r,
~
V Flexibility
~
"
40 30
~
20
15
t,
~
V
~ ~
V'
V
V
L
elbowsk
factor for 1.651h
10 8 6
r,
"""i
"<r,1\
/'
V V
./
V V
V
Flexibility factor for miters Ie = 1.52/h 5/6 . Stress. intensification factor i  0.91h2l3
r, r,
4
""'<
0.04
<,
~
/"
./
kr\ / ~ "/" "'
V
Stress intensification factor i  0,75/h 2/3
, ~
"""i~
I
r, ~~
~
3
2 1.5
~"'"r, "' "
~ ~
0.15 0.2 Characteristic h Chart A
r,~
""' ~
0.4
~
C'"I
,
0.02 0.03 0.06 0.10.
I
II
0.3
"
c, •
~
'"' ,
~
s,
<,
1.5 2
I
0.6
0.81.0
...
u
a
1 End flanged
c, . h"· .
h
2 Ends. flanged
'tJ
Chart B
Notl!!s to this Tdbll! follow on nex: pdgl!;
227
Table
oi
FLEXIBILITY TABLE 011 (CONTO) FACTOR k AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION,
Stress Intensification Factor (Notes (2), (3)] Outplane
I~
ASMEI ANSI. 831..31987 Edition
FACTOR i
Description
Flexibility Factor~ k
Inplane
i;
Flexibility Cllaracteristic h
Sketch
Reinforced fabricated tee with pad or saddle (Notes (2), (4), (8)]
1
tT+ T
112 T,lZ.5
Urz
Unreinforced fabricated (Notes (2), (4)]
tee
1
0.'1
t?i)
T
Extruded welding. tee with rr;:: 0.050& T< < 1.51' (Notes. (2), (4)]
1
0.'1
t?13
.1.
rx
4.4 
i
..
..J_rZ
Weldedin contour insert with r, <: V.Ob T, 1.5 l' [Notes (2), (4), (Ill]
1
0.'1
t?J)
f rz
z
Branch weldedon fitting (integrally reinforced) [Notes (2), (4), ('II]
1
0.9
;?!J
Description Butt. welded joint, reducer, or weld neck flange Doublewelded slipen flange
Flexibility Factor k 1 1 1
1 1
Stress Intensification Factor i 1.0 1.2 1.3
1.&
Fillet. welded joint, or socket weld flange Lap joint flange (with ANSI 31b.9 lap. joint stub) Threaded Corrugated pipe. joint, or threaded. flange straight pipe, or corrugated. or creased bend. (Note
2.3 2.5
ucn
5
Notes. to this. Tab/I! follow on p. 228;
226
(
ASMElA."'lSI
831.3·1987 Edition
For branch. (Leg 3): (20) where Sb = resultant bending. stress Z~ = effective section modulus for branch, =
rrr22Ts
(21)
rz = mean. branch crosssectional radius Ts = effective branch. wall thickness, .. lesser of 1;; and. (Ii )(~) Tj, = thickness of pi pe matching run. of tee or header exclusive of reinforcing elements Tb = thickness of pipe matching branch t, = outplane stress intensification. factor (Appen, dix D) i, = inplane stress intensification factor (Appendix D) (d) Allowable. stress range SA and permissible additive.stresses.shallbecomputedinaccordancewith.para. 302.3.5(d).
319A.5 Required. Weld Quality Assurance. Any weld at which SE exceeds. D,SSA (as defined in para. 302.3.5) for any portion of a. piping system, and. the equivalent number of cycles. N exceeds. 7000 •.shall be fully examined in. accordance with para .. 341.4.3.
(a)
where C = coldspring factor varying from zero for no cold spring to 1.0 for 100% cold. spring. (The factor twothirds is based. On.experience. which shows that specified cold spring. cannot be fully assured, even with elaborate preeautions..) Ea = modulus of elasticity at installation. temperature Em = modulus of elasticity at maximum. or minimum. metal temperature R = range of reaction forces. or moments (derived from.f!exibility analysis) corresponding to the full. displacement stress ..range and based on Ell . Rm = estimated instantaneous maximum reaction force. or moment at maximum. or minimum metal temperature (b) For Original CoruiitiDrr, Ra. The temperature for this computation. is the expected temperature at which the piping is to be assembled.
Ra
=
CR or C1R. whichever is greater
where nomenclature
is. as. in. (a) above. and (23)
319.5
Reactions,
Metallic
Piping
Reaction forces and moments to be used in design of restraints and supports. for a. piping system, and in evaluating the effects. of piping displacements on connected equipment, shall be based on the reaction range R for the extreme displacement conditions, considering 're temperature range defined ..in para. 319.3.1(b),. and using Ea. The designer shall consider instantaneous maximum values. of forces and moments in the original and extreme displacement conditions (see para. 319.2.3), as. well as the reaction range, in making these evaluations.
(a)
= estimated selfspring or relaxation factor; use zero if value of C1 is negative, R" = estimated instantaneous reaction force or moment at inst.allation temperature SE = computed: displacement. stress range. (see para. 319.4.4) Sir = see definition in paras 302.3.S(d) 319.5.2 Maximum Reactions. for Complex Systems. For multianchor piping systems and for twoanchor systems. with intermediaterestraints, Eqs, (22) and (23) are not applicable, Each. case. must be studied ..to estimate location, nature, and extent of local. overstrain, and its. effect on. stress distribution and reactions,
(a)
319.5.1 Maximum Reactions for Simple Systems. For a twoanchor piping system. without. intermediate restraints. the maximum instantaneous values of reaction forces and moments may be estimated from. Eqs. (22) and (23). (a) For Extreme. Displacement Conditions. Rm. The temperature. for this. computation is. the. maximum or mrmmum metal temperature defined in para. 319.3.1(b). whichever produces. the larger reaction:
R=Rl.
m
319.6
CaIc:nlatiOIl of Movements, Metallic Piping
(
2C) Em
3
Ea
(22)
40
calculations of displacements and rotations at specific locations may be required. where clearance problems are involved. In. cases. where smallsize branch lines attached. to stiffc:r main. lines are to be calculated separately, the linear and angular movements. of the
Table.Dl
ASMEiANSI
B31..31987 Edition
TABLE
01 (CONT'O)
NOTES: (ll For Code references to this Appendix,. see para •.319'.3.0. The data in Table 01. are for use in the absence of more. directly applicable data (2l The flexibility factor k in the Table applies to, bendil'1q in any plane. The flexibility factors k and stress intensineatiol'1fact.ors i slIallnot be. less than unity; factors for torsion equal. unity; Both factors apply over the effeetive arclength (showtr by' heavy center lim in the sketches) for curved and miter bends,. and to the intersection point. for tees. (3) A sinqle intensification factor equal to O.9th ¥. may be used for both ii and; i. if desired. (4) The values of k and i can be. read; directly from Chart A by enterinq with the characteristic. h computed. from, the. fonnulas given. above. Nomenclature. is as follows. T for elbows and miter bends,. the nominal wall thickness of the fitting = for tees, the nominal wall thickness of the matchinq; pipe. Tc the. crotch thickness of tees
= =
(e)
pad or saddle thickness 9 = onehalf angle between adjacent miter axes r2 = mean radius. of matchinq pipe Rl bend radius of welding. elbow or pipe bend rJt see definition in para.. 304.3.4(c) s miter spaCing at center line Db outside diameter of branclt (5) Where flanqes are attached to one or both ends, the values of /( and i in the Table shall be corrected by the factors ~, which can. be. read directly from Chart. B, entering with the. computed; h. (t.) The. designer is cautioned. that cast buttwelded fittings may have considerably heavier wallS;than that of the pipe withwhidlthey are. used. Large errors may be. introduced. unless the. effect. of these greater thicknesses is cOl'1$idered, (7) In large diameter thin·waU elbows. and; bends, pressure. can signincantlyaffeet the magnitudes of k and; i. To correct. values from the Table. divide k by
~=
= = = =
[1. divide i by
+
Eo (~)
(;)
u» (~)
1/)]
[1
(8)
+
3.25 (~) ( ~)
5/Z
(
:1) 2I3J
(!I)
When T, is > ll,lz T, useh = 4 Tfrz The designer must be satisfied that this fabrication has. a pressure rating equivalent to straight pipe. nO) Factors shown apply to bending .. Flexibility factor for torsion equals 0.9. (11) When the radius andthid:ness limits are not met for this component, and in.the absence of more directly applicable data (see para •.319J.b), the. stress intensification factor used shall be that for an unreinferced fabricated tee,
(9)
228
ASME 831..31990 Edition quake. forces need not. be. considered. as acting concur" rently. (b) Test. Stresses due. to test conditions are not subject to. the limitations in. para. 302.3. It. is not necessary to consider other occasional. loads, such as. wind and earthquake. as.. ccurring concurrently with. test loads. o 302~4 Allowances TABLE .304.1.1 VALUES OF COEFFICIENT FOR t < 0/6
900 Materials
Ftrritic:
(4B2l
302.3.&.J04.1.1
(b)
Y
950
(510) 0.5
Temperature, 'F ('t) 1,000; 1,050 1.100 1.150
(621)
& lower 0.4
(538) 0.7
(566)
0.7
(593) 0.7
& up 0.7
steels Austenitic steels
Other ductile 0.4 0>4 0.4 0.4 OS 0.7
In. determining the minimum required tbicknessof a piping component, allowances. shalF be. included for corrosion. erosion. and thread depth 01" groove depth. See definition. for c in para. 304:.l.1(b). 302.4.1 Mechanical Strength.. When. necessary, the wall thickness shall be. increased to prevent. over" stress. damage, collapse, or buckling due. to superimposed. loads from supports, ice formation. bacldill, or other causes, Where increasing the thickness would excessively increase. local stresses 01" the risk of brittle fracture. or is otherwise impracticable, the required strength may be obtained through. additionaksupports; braces •.or other means without an increased wall thick.~ ness. Particular consideration should be given. to the. mechanical strength of small. pipe. connections to piping or equipment.
0.4
004
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
metals Cast iron O,Q
PART 2
PRESSURE DESIGN OF PIPING COMPONENTS
(8)
303
GENERAl.
Components manufactured. in accordance with standards listed in Table 326.1 shall be. considered suitable for use at pressuretemperature ratings in. accordance with para. 302.2 ..1. The rules. in para, 304 are. intended for pressure design of components not covered. in.Table 326.1. but may be used for a special or more rigorous design. of such components. Designs. shall. be checked for adequacy of mechanical strength under applicable loadings enumerated in para. 301.
304 304.1
PRESSURE. DESIGN COMPONENTS Straight Pipe
OF
304.1.1 General (a) The required. thickness of straigh t sections of pipe
shall. be determined in accordance
with Eq. (2): (2)
19
The minimum thickness for the pipe selected, consider .. ing manufaCfllrer's minllStoieranc::e.shall be. not less than 1m' (b) The. follOwing nomenclature is.used in the equations for pressure. design of straight pipe. 1m = minimum. required thickness •. including mechanical; corrosion. and. erosion allowances t = pressure. design thickness.. as. calculated inac .. cordance with. para. 304.1.2 for internal pressure or as determined. in accordance with. para. 304.1.3 for external pressure c = the. sum. of the. mechanical allowances (thread or groove depth) pius ..corrosion and erosion allowances. For threaded components, the nominal thread depth (dimension. h of AS ME Ht.20d. or equivalent} shall. apply. For machined surfaces. or grooves where the tolerance is. not specified •.the tolerance shall. be assumed to. be. 0;02 in ..(0.5 mm): in addition to the specified. depth of the cut. d = inside diameter of pipe. For pressure design calculation, theinside.dia.meterof the pipe is the. maximum value allowable under the. purchase specification. P = internal design. gage. pressure D = outside. diameter of pipe E = quality factor from Table A·1A or AI B S = stress value for material from Table AI T = pipe. wall. thickness. (measured or minimum per purchase specification) Y = coefficient from Table 304.1.1. valid for I < D/6. and for materials shown .. 'The value of Y may be interpolated.forintennediatetemperatures,
302..3.5
ASME. B31.J.1993 EditiOll TABLE .302.3.3D1 ACCEPTANCE LEVELS FORCASTlNGS TABLE 302:.3.5 STRES5RANGEREDUCTlON FACTORS f Factor f
7,000 and less Over 7,000 to 14,000 Over U,OOO to 22,000 Over 22,000 to 45,000 Over 45.000 to 100,000 Over 100,000 to 200,000 Over 200,000 to 700.000 Over 700,000 to 2,000,000 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3
Material
<Tbickness)
Steel
(tOi
Euminect
Applicable
Acceptance Level
Standanl
ASTM E 44f>
(or Class)
1
Acc~b1e Discontinuities
 Types. A. B. C
1 in.)
(ZSmm)
Steel 1 in;. to 2 in.) (25 to 51 mm)
(0Yft'
ASTM E 44f>
2.
Types A. B. C
Steel 2 in;. to 4Vz inol (S1mm to 114 mm)
(0Yft'
ASTM E 186
2
cate90ries
A. B, C
f
= stress
range reduction. factor". from Table 302.3.5 or calculated by Eq •. (lc)': (Ic)
Steel (over 4Vz in; to 12 inc.' (114 nvn to. 305mm) Aluminum &. magnesium Copper. NiCu Bronze
ASTM E.28O
2
cate9Qries
A, B, C
ASTM E 155
Shown in reference radioqraphs 2
2
ASTM E 272 ASTM E 310
Codes A, Sa, Bb Codes A and B
where. N = equivalent number of full displacement cycles during. the expected servicc.lifeof thc::piping system. 6 When the computed stress. range varies. whether from thermal expansion or other conditions..Si is defined as. the greatest computed. displacement stress range" The value of N in. such. cases can be calculated by Eq. (ld):
N
NOTE: (1) Titles of standards referenced in this Table are as follows: ASTM E 155 Reference Radi09raphs, for inspe<:tion of Aluminum and Magnesium castings E 186. Reference. Radioqraphs for HeaVY.Walled. [2 to 4Vz.in. (51 to 114mmll Steel Castings E 272 Reference Radiographs. for HighStrength CopperBase and Niclcel~ Castings E 280 Reference Radiographs. for HeavyWallee. (4..l,i'z to 12in. (114 to 30smmn Steel Castings E :no. Reference Racf~ for Tin Bronze Castings E 446 Reference Radiograpl1s.1or Steel Castings Up to 2 in. (51 mm) in Thielcness
=
NE
+
~[ri sN;) for i
=
1,2. ... ,
It
(ld)
where NE = number of cycles. of maximum. computed displacement stress range, SE r, = S;lSE Sj = any computed displacement stress range smaller than SE Ni = number of cycles. associated with displacement stress range. Sr.
)For c::asrings. the basic allowable stress shall. be multiplied by the
In. Eqs ..(1a) and (lb): Se = basic allowable stress) at minimum metal .. emt perature. expected 'during. the displacement cycle under analysis. S, = basic allowable. stress3 at ~p1uIIrmt:tai temperature expected. during the 6ispIac.em~ t cycle under analysis  .  18
applicable casting quality f1JCtOrEt" ..For wddS.tbe basic allowable sll'CSSnecd:bOt be multiplied by the. weld'qlialityfJldor E}" 4Applic:s to CS$C2Itially eoecorreded piping_ Cotrtl$iOlican $barply dccn:::ll.$ecyelic life: t.bctd'ore;. corros:ioIIresisuJumatc:ria.lS. should
be corWdettd
ionltirudirW
when:.•a large number of IlUjot'sttcsS
eyclc:s. is an
ticipated, 'Equation(lc) does. bOt apply bc:yondapproximatdy2 X lO'cyc:l= Selectioo off flidors. beyond,2 X 10. cycles is the dc:signct'S responsibility,
"TIie designer
is Clurioocd that the fatigue life of materials: operated at elevated temperarure may be. reduced.
Table AI TABLE AI (CONI'D) BASIC ALLOWABLE STRESSES IN TENSION FOR METALSl
ASME. 831..31991 Edition
Numbers in Parentheses Refer to Notes for Appendix A Tables; Specifications ..Are ASTM: Unless. Otherwise Indicate.j
p.
No.
'1.5)
Notes
Milt. Temp., 'f(61
~:Mino.
Stnft9th. Iai
Temp..
to: 100
Milt.
300·
CMbon· Sled. (COat'd) Pipes. and Tubes (2) (COm '40 AS)
A 106
1
A)U
A):J.4
J_
•
1 1
8 8
(!I7) (!I9) (!I7l (!I7) (!I71T (!IUj(!I7) (!I9) .: (811):··_' ·120 '··(811)·· .... jzO (!IU (!IS) (!II) (!II) (!II) (!IS) (!II) .(!I1) (!I7) (67) (!I7) (67) 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 50 35 35 )S 20.0 20.0 20.0
A)M
A lII1 APlsL
A 139 A l3.9
1
SPl 1
"1·'··:SP2· SP2
FPIS Y::ls IS C ...
"
. ],:. '·0 ._.
X4Z Y4Z Y48 X46 Y46
.. "'foj:.
"'2 42 "'8
421··
20.0 20;0 20;0 20.6 21.0 21.0 21.3 21.7 21..7
20.0·· 20.0 20;0
G:~.i API SL
AlIIl A lII1 AP(SL A lII1 ( > ~ In.
A A A A 516 SIS SIS 516 Gr. Gr, Gr. Gr.
U1ic_k)
20.0 20.0 20;0 18.7
SPl .SP) . SPl· SPl
1 1 1 1 1
21.0 21..0 20.3 21.3 21.3
21.0 21.0 19.3 20.7 20.7
A 381
YSO
6S 65 6S 65
04671 A67l 04672 04672 AU9 API5L A lIIl o467l "'671 04672 A 672
106 A 1>71
A
}
E
X!52 .Y5Z CC70 CB70 870 C70 C. C070 070 CMSH70 } .
[8t1)
( > ~ In. thicltl
A A A A 516.&r. 515 Gr. 515 Gr. SIb Gr. 70 70 70 70
SP3 . SP3
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
en
(!II) (!IS)
120 20
20 20 20 20 70 70 70
52 52 52 38
22.0 22.0 22.0 23.3
22.0 22.0 22.0 :0·.1 23.1
22.0.
zz.o.
n.o
(sn (Ion
[57) (b7l
n;5
(!I7) } (b7)
<40
23.3
23.3
A 537 CI. 1 (s Z ..... In. thic:l;l A 537 0. 1 (S2 .....1rt. thidcl A 537 1 ( S 2..... In. thicltl
A 672
20
70
so
23.3
23.3
22.9
o.
o46'fl
( > ~ in. thicJt)
API5L A lII1
X56 YS6
(!II) (S5) (71) (!Ill (!IS):(71)
20 20
n
71
56 56
23.7 23.7
23.7 23.7
23.7 23.7
(8) (s ~
In. thick) A 381
SPl
YS2
(!II).
20
n
S2
24.0
24.0
24.0
,'"
.,"

.....
,
. ,........ ...
_p 3 ..4

154
ASME B31.31993 Edition
Tltble.A·l
Numbers. in Parentheses Refer to Notes for Appendix A Tables;. Specifications. Are ASTM Unless. Otherwise Indicated
~ic AJlowabk Stms S. ksi (1', lit. Mtt.at Tempu.ature; "F
(7)
TABL.E AI (CONTO> BASIC.ALLOWABLE STRESSES IN TENSION FOR M ETALSl
400
500
600
650
7CXJ
750
BOO.
850
900
9SO
1000
1050
1100
Pipes
Glade
SIlK' No;
Steel (ClInt'd)
w. Tubes
~rtIocf
(2) U:ont'dl
ASl
a
B 20;0 18.9 17.3 17.0 16.5. ll.0 10·sf S.7 0.5 4.5 2.5 1.6
1.0
6
"
.1.106 A ll)O
Al34 .1.369 A 381
FPB
YlS B
APt 51..
A 139 ·All9 APISL. .1.381 A 381
I 2~:~n
20.0 17;.8 : 21_0 210 18,4 20.0 20.0 110.9
_. ...
_ 
.
_ ...... _
.
....

. 


.

.__.. 
[~ ..
X42 Y42 Y48 X46 Y"I>
16.0
l..5.S

0
17.4 18.9 18.9 16.5 17.3 17.3 16.0 17.0 17.0 11..8 10.8 13.9 13.9 9.0 9.0 1..5. 1..5 4.5 4.5 2.5 2.5 1.1. 1.0
APr 51. .1.381 A 381 A A A A 117l 117l 1072 672
'1'50
11'' 1
11.4
CCbS. {CS6S BbS.
C6S E X52 YS2
I 2'2~~U
22.0 Z1..7 21.7 Z2_9 20.5 20.5 21.1. 18.7 18.7: 19.7 IB.4 18,4 19.4 laJ 18.3 19.2 ).4.8 14,8 14.8 12.0 12.0 12.0 9.3 9.3 6.5 6.5 4.5 4.5 2.5 2.5 1.6
A 139 APISL. A 381 A 671 Ab71 A Ion AbTZ A 100 A 1071 A ..72 A 0'11
CC70 {CB70 1.0 870
22.9
22.9
22_0
22.0.
21.4
{""
C 070 X56 '1'56 '1'52
DO
CMSH70
2J.71l 23.7
API5L. A 381
(a)
24.0 A 381
ISS
.
.  ~..
RICHMOND upON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No: 2 Page:l
SCOPE OF CODE RULES The Piping Specification for any contract should nominate the Code which is to be used so that ne useful. purpose is.served by continuing a.mere list, Let us instead consider the various. aspects of the design of a piping system which must be dealt with by any Code worthy of such a description and which are oiimportanceto the Stress. Engineer in.the exercise of his duties, Every such Piping. Code will contain recommendations, or mandatory requirements. on.the following design ..opics» t a) b) c) d) e)
£)
Thickness oithe pipe to withstand internal pressure. Thickness of the pipe to withstandextemaI pressure vacuums. Reinforcement requirements for branch connections. Minimum. flexibility requirements for thermal expansion. Allowable stresses for varicus piping materials. Support. criteria.
It is in the matter of the Stress Analyst. demonstrating compliance. withthe requirements coming under headings (c), (d) and.(e} on the one hand and the.Piping Designer achieving a practical. and economic layout on the other that disagreement usually arises, We will not consider each of the above topics in tum. to see how they affect the Stress Engineer. a) Thickness of pipe for internal pressure (sustained stress) As discussed in the first lecture the elementary theory gives us the following relationship between the internal pressure, the diameter, the thickness and the circumferential or 'hoop' stress in. a cylinder: p.D =2 f. whereas:
P
t.
D
f
t
= =
=
the the the the
internal pressure mean diameter of the cy lindrical shell "hoop" stress thickness of the wall of the. cylinder
Obviously, the units must be consistent throughout. All major Codes use a more refined expression of the form:
t= ~
2(SE+ PY) In this expression the various terms have the following meanings:
t
P
Do
IDIWEEK·2.POCI1'01141lCSiSC<:.Scrv1c:a1ll/l2J904
the minimum required thickness of the pipe wall, the 'design' internal pressure. the outside diameter of the pipe
RICHMOND UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS
s
E Y
= = =
Lecture No: 2 Page:2 the allowable stress in the.material at 'design.' temperature thejoint efficiency factor for longitudinal seams. a factor which takes account of the material properties and the 'design.' temperature. The values of this for various materials can be found at the end. of these lecture
notes The use of this expression. is best illustrated by means of an. example:
t
=
P.Do
2(SE+Py)
+c
where 'c' is.the corrosion allowance specified
IDIWEEKZ.DOCIP0714l1CS1SO;.Scrvt='lJ/IU94
RICHMOND UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No: 2 Page:3
If we re look at the example on page 2 of lecture no 2 with. the modifications. shown above then we find the min thickness to be ;;. 1 x 356/ 2.(138 x 0.95 + [ 1 x 0.4 J
)
= 1.35mm
As you can see this is.only 4% greater than. basic. thin. wall' cylinder method. Until quite recently, it has been the custom is the Petrochemical Industry, for the wall thicknesses to be calculated by the department responsible for the Piping Specification. However, the trend in process design conditions has meant that, in some cases, internal pressure is not governing for wall thickness and the tendency in certain organisations is for the piping Stress Section to advise their requirements on wall thicklless to the Engineering Dept. concerned with specifications. It should be noted that the pipe wall thickness may be governed not by the internal pressure, but by the mechanical strength. The methods used to determine the mechanical strength are varied and complex. b) Reinforcements for branch.connections(forpressure therefore sustained)
When a pipe which is subject to an internal.pressure has. a hole cut in it for a branch connection, a disc of material which would. normally be carrying tensile stresses. in the 'hoop' direction is removed, and some altemativepathrnust be provided for the loads which were originally carried via the disc. Most Codes adopt the simplified 'Area replacement'or Compensation'approach,whereby, within a specified distance from the edge of the hole~ an additional area of material is provided, equal to the area of material. removed. The replaced. material may take the form. of a reinforcing padioI' of one of the proprietary forged fittings (e.g. a 'Weldolet') depending on service requirements. The notion is illustrated. in the sketches of fig. 1 for the case of as imp Ie 'pad'type reinforcement.
I
ID
I
(a) (b) Fig. 1 Fig. l(a)
lD/WEEK2.DOCIP07I 4IJCS/SeC.SeM<ZSI1 3/12194
,
(c)
(d)
represents a section of pipe and shows the hoop stresses in the
RICHMOND UPON mAMES
COLLEGE
fIrING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No: 2 Page:4
vicinity of a proposed hole for a branch connection. Fig .. 1(b) shows. the disc of material. removed, and the hoop stresses. it would normally carry. shows. an annulus. having a cross sectional area. of material .on. the section. 'M' equal to the cross section ..area of the disc on the diameter 'M'. shows the appearance of the completed branch connection.
Fig .. l(c)
Fig. l(d)
Occasionally, reinforcement has. to be provided. at branch intersections to cater for the stresses whielaarisefrom thermal expansion effects(~lf1imiting).. In these cases, such reinforcement. hasta be called. up by the Stress Engineet.if it is not required. by the piping Specification forpressure purposes, Itshould be noted that this type of reinforcement redueesthe intensified stresses that arise at branch connections; The SIF is. geometric parameter used to.detertnine.fa.tigue stresses arising from thermal expansion. In the various Codes, the sketches of fig. 1 appear as a single drawing of the section'M', showing the cross section of the. mate rialto be replaced and. the boundary within which the replacement material mustbe located. .. Wherethe wall of the pipe is thicker than. the minimum required for intemalpressurei.creditrnay be taken for the excess. material when calculating the available replacement material, but always within. the boundary set for reinforcement material Fig. 2 below reproduces the essential features of Fig. 304.3.3A of the ANSIB31.3 Code.
j'
t
GENERAL NOTE: '11110 F..... U_""'_
Pipe
1'"....... CJf __ ,3.1 It_
not,nd
Id,,,,oo ill or. ..
prof __
of
_FOt~""Id'_II;_ FlG •. 3043.1
FlOc 328.IS;AO; BRANCK CONNECTION NOMENCLA TU RE
1D/WCEK·2.DOCIP07141JCS/SCC.ScmcalIJ/I219+
RICHMOND UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STHESS.ANALXSIS
Lecture No; 2 Page:5 '
In Fig ..above •.tn is the minimum thickness. of material required, as given by the equation at the bottom. of page 2;. d, is the diameter of the branch pipe. in the corroded conditions. and.with the wall thickness at the. minimum value permitted by the specification. The required area is therefore: The boundaries of the 'Reinforcement Zone' are defined by the radius d2 and a height L4 extending from the outer surface of the header.These boundaries are in fact artificial and represent a zone beyond which any further reinforcement would be to far away to have any influence on the problem. d2 is equal to dl in the great majority of cases * L4 is the smallerof2.5 where: (Th  c) or 2.5 (Tb  c) + tr
Th is the nominal. thickness of the header or 'run' pipe. Tb is the nominal thickness of the branch pipe tr is the thickness. of the reinforcing ring or saddle plate.
Within the 'reinforcement zone' any material not required for pressure purposes may be included in the 'replacement area' although in the case of weld metal it is usually necessary to reduce the affective area in order to compensate for a lower tensile strength. Example. on page 3 shows the complete working. It should. be noted at this stage that if the header thickness. after deducting manufactorers tolerances and corrossion allowances is.twice as thick or more for the design pressure then no further analysis is.necessary .There wil] be.enough surplas material in the header to replace the removed material without the need to add a pad. *The student is.referred to ANSI B31.3 section 3Q4.3.3 for alternative values of d2 which are appropriate in. cases of fairly thick, small diameter pipes.
IDIWEEK·2.00CIP07141Jcs/So:.ScmceslI
J/I2194
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No: 2 Page:6·
Example (2) A 250 nom ..diam. pipe has design conditions of 345°C and 2.75 n/mm" It is made. from seamless material to specification. ASIM.A51Gr.B Sen.ZO.. The corrosion allowance is 0.75 mm It has. a 100 diam, branch., Sen. 40,.. f the same o material, What are suitable dimensions for the.reinforcementifit is to be.made from plate of equal quality to that of the pipe material.
*********************
We start off by calculating the. minimum thicknesses required for both the 250 header and.the 100 branch from the. basic equation:
t
=
p!~ 2. (SE + PY)
=
Allowable stress for ASTM A53 Gr.B at 345°C For header; tmin = 2.76 x 273 2. (103.45 x 1.0 + {2.76 x 0.4}) 2.76 x 114.3 x 1.0 + {2.76 x OA})
103.45 n/mm'
= 3.6mm = 1.51 mm
For branch; tmin
=
2. (103.45
Then, Minimum thickness 250 nb Sch.20 = 5.65 mm, excess = 5.653.60.75 = 1.21 rnm Minimum thickness 100 nb Sch, 40
= 5.268 mm,
excess = 5.261.510.75 =3mm
The minimum thicknesses above are the nominal schedule dimensions. less the. 12 Y2% 'mill tolerance' allowed by the Standards. This then gives us the dimensions dt = 114.3  2. (5.260.751.51) dimension. d2 = dl L4 is the minimum of 2.5 (Th  c) or 25 (Tb  c) + tr
i.e. is the minimum of2.5 x 5.6 or 25 x 53 + 6 (say) 108.3
Clearly, the first condition governs, so that
1D/WEEK.l.DOCIP07I41JCS/SCC.ScnnccIII3JI2194
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES CQLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No: 2 Page: 7
Requiredarea
=
tminxdl
=3.6£108.3
= 390mm?
Compensation area available from.header
=
=
(2dZ  dr) x (excess thickness) 108.3 x I.Z1 = 130rnm? (excess thickness) = 84mm2
Compensation area. available. from branch
= (ZL4J x
=Z8x3
Total compensation available without reinforcing. pad. Cross section area. of pad required,
=
= Z14 mm
= (390  Z14)/2
= 88 mnr'
This infers a ring of section 6 mm thk.. y 15 mm wide, our neglect of the area of b the weld fillets makiligrio difference in. practice.. It must be. pointed out, however, that for a service of this severity a 'Weldolet' would be preferred.
PIPING AlJXIlLIARlES Those elements other than straight pipe which go to.make. up a complete piping system may be described as "Piping Auxiliaries". They are of importance. to the Stress Engineerfor a variety of reasons, which are explained in. this lecture, to the extent that a knowledge of their individual effects on the flexibility of a piping system,.. nd the.stresses in it, is essential a before a calculation for anything more cornplicatedthan a straight length. of pipe, can be undertaken. Included in this category are suchirems asbends,elbows,i tee pieces, reducers, flanges, valves ..and so on. These will now be dealt with.in. their order of importance to the Stress Department, and the applicable Code requirements relating to them summarised. ELBOWS These can be divided into two main. categeries.geometrically speaking; the short radius variety where the centreline to face dimension is.. adeequal to the nominal. diameter of the m pipe, and the long radius..variety which has;a centreline to face dimension equalto 1% x the nominal diameter of the pipe. The use of the shortradius variety tends to be restricted because it gives rise to high. pressure drops; soithat, where elbows must be used, the "I liz D" long radius elbow is almost universal in applica.tion. Sometimes pipes are bent to a radius of} pipe diameters or even. 5 diameters where the flow conditions demand a very low pressure drop; in these cases the construction. is known. as a "swept" or "pulled" bend. Bending of the elbows Ifabending moment "m" is applied. to the ends ofa straight piece of'pipeitbehavesas a uniform. beam and exhibits a change of slope; from end to end, given by the expression:
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS. ANALYSIS Lecture No; 2 Page:S
9=M.L I E.I
And the maximum bending stress is given by
fb·· = xM = M
I Z
Early attempts to analyse the stresses in.piping systems containing elbows disclosed that the established. structural. engineering theory and the results. of experiment did not agree. at aU well; practical piping systems. were fcund, to be far more. flexible that the theory predicted and the discrepancy was shown to lie in the flexibility of the.elbows. The first theoretical analysis of the behaviour of pipe bends when.subject to a bending moment was. made by Theodore von Karman, who showed. that, when a curved pipe is subjected to a bending moment in its.own plane, the circular cross section becomes flattened and this results in increased flexibility. The ratio of the flexibility of a bend to that of a straight pipe having the same length and cross section is known as its "Flexibility Factor", usually denoted by the letter "k", * Other work has. been carried out by Yigness, Rodabaugh, and Markl since von Karman's analysis in. 1911. Von Karmans original analysis gave the following: k where 12;"2+ 10 12 ;.. 2 + 1
;..= Flexibility Characteristics
* The theory predicts that the same. flexibility factor is applicable for out of plane bending.
The concept is.illustrated simply in the fig. below.
8=M.L / E.I
9= k. M.L I E.I
.....
HOV
""
\
Suppose that we now consider how the flattening of the cross section occurs. Under the action of the.bending moments 'M'
RICHMOND UPON THAMES CQI,.LEGE
PIPING STBESSA~ALXSIS
Tension
Compression
Lecture No: 2 rage;.9 ordinary engineers' bending theory gives tensile. stresses. on the. outside ofthe centreline 'AB' and compressor stresses on the inside. surface.
Now consider the. forces. on a thin slice taken between two radial planes. 'XX' and 'YY'.
<
1D1WEEX·2.DOCIP0714/JCS/SCC.Sc:rvic:alIJ/12l9(
RICHMOND
upQN THAMES CQLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No; 2 Page:l()
The resultant effect on.the tensile loads 'T' in. the outer fibres. is an inward radial load on the element.
T
Similarly theresultantof the compressive loads 'C' in the inner fibres is an inward radial load on the element.
e
If we view the 'slide.' as a cross section. of the pipe, and draw a loading diagram for the ring which, in effect, it is.we arrive at the situanonshcwn inthen.ext fig•.Un.der the applied loading, the ring flattens into an ellipse with. its. major axis.horizontal.. Had the sign of the bending moment been. reversed the tensile and compressive forces wouIdhavebeen.reversed and the cross section elongated instead of flattened.
If we now consider the element in more detail, we see that the flattening produces. bending moments in the ring which are a maximum at the ends of the horizontal diameter where the curvature is a.maximum. These moments produce a.stress which varies from tension to compression through the thickness of the pipewall and which is.circumferential. in. direction. If we consider one half of this. ring, we can illustrate. the stress system in a simplified form in the following way.
Circumferential stress in pipewall
+V .~ ......__/ ..
}It
,
MV
,
~ ...
The circumferential. stress due to the moment 'M.' can be many times.the valuey.M' I obtained
RICHMOND
upON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS
Lecture No; 2 Pagedl' by ordinary bending theory fer structural. members. The factor by which the circumferential stresses. exceed the longitudinal stresses. in the bend is called the "Stress. Intensification Factor" often written SIF. One practical. manifestation of the existence of these circumferential stresses is that when an elbow is subjected to.repeated 'in plane.' bending it ultimately develops a.fatigue crack ~ its sides. When we take account of the elbows in.a piping system, we are therefore. able to claim additional flexibility due to. this flattening ofthe elbows, but by the same token, we must also take account of the.induced circumferential stresses multiplying the stresses at the bends due to. the overall bending moment in the piping system by the appropriate 'Stress Intensification Factor', The expressions to be used for calculating beth. the Flexibility Factor and the Stress Intensification Factor are given in.the ANSI B313 Code.
h=
T. Rl_ ( f2)2
Where:
T = wall thickness in inches R 1 = mean radius of bend. in.inches f2 = mean radius of pipewall in inches
1D/WEEK2.DOCIP<17l4llCS/S<C.Savic:colll/l2194
RICHMOND
upON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS
Lecture No: 2
Page:.!!
Using this parameter the B31.3 Code. gives the following expressions; ~Iexibility Factor Inplane S.I.F. Outplane S.LF. 'k' = 1.65/ h 'ii' = 0.9/ hlP ) 'io =0.75 / hlP
To avoid confusion the directions. of inplane and outplane as defined by the. code. are as shown on the fig below.
""U .
..FScb
, itta
The question might now be asked as to how two different expressions are. given for the Stress Intensification. Factor. The explanation is that the descriptive analysis. on the.previous pages has, of necessity, been very much simplified; when a rigorous mathematical examination of the problem is made, the following facts emerge: a) The Flexibility Factor applies to bending in any plane.
b) The Stress Intensification Factor is.greater for 'inplane' bending moments. than for out of plane ones. The Code permits the use of the in plane S.LF. for bending moments in any plane.
The quantify (length. of arc.centreline) x (Flexibility Factor) is sometimes referred to as the 'Virtual length' of the bend, ana. for large diam..thin walled pipes itis considerable. MlTBEBENDS In a.somewhat similar manner to smooth elbows, mitre bends exhibit enhanced flexibility and intensified. stresses when subjected to bending moments. Mitre bends)can be constructed. with any number of segments; A 5·cut mitre has Stress Intensification Factors and Flexibility Factors which differ little from those of a smooth elbow of the same. bendradius; but because mitres are chosen as an economic way of making a change in direction, the most commonly used geometry is that with 2 or 3 welds only. The 831.3 Code differentiates. between" Closely spaced" mitres, where the centreline length of a segment is given by the expression.
RICHMONJ)
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING SIRESSANALYSIS
Lectur:eNoj 2
Page:13 S. < r2. (1 + tanS)
and the "single" or "widely spaced" mitre bend where
8;::.rz. (1 + tanS)
The Code expressions for the flexibility factors and stresL intensification. factors. for these. mitre bends can be found at the back of these notes.
FLANGES
The various types. of flanges in use are subject to the following Stress Intensification in their own right: Weld neck flange Double welded. slipon flange Socket welded flange Lap joint flange 1.0 Factors
1.2
1.3
1.6
In all these. cases. the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. However, the above figures are of less significance. than the effect which a flange has. on the S.I.F. and Flexibility Factor of any bend to which it might be attached. Earlier the manner in which a bend develops its flexibility was described. Because a. flange, by virtue of its heavy construction exerts a severe restraint to the flattening of the cross section of the pipe, it follows. that the attachment of a flange to an elbow or mitre reduces the flexibility and by the same token reduces the Stress Intensification Factor; A flange. at both ends. of a bend reduces these factors further still. The B31.3 Code provides a chart for obtaining the appropriate correction factor to be applied. and this can be as. low as 0.25 in the case of large diameter thin walled pipes. A copy of this chart is included in the supplement of these lecture. notes. This correction factor~ denoted as C] in the Code, has. the values: Cl Cl
=
=
h
h
for one end only flanged. for both ends flanged factor.
Note that it is a REDUCTION
BRANCH CONNECTIONS
In the first part of this lecture the question of the reinforcement at branch intersections was examined. For that discussion the loading was. that due to an internal pressure, but it was noted that in some. instances the Stress Engineer might callfor the reinforcement of a branch connection where this would not be required ifpressure was the only concern. We must now deal with. the effects of "flexibility" loading on branch intersections, and under this heading we include forged tees, branch connections made with 'Weldolets:or similar proprietary items, pad reinforced openings and plain unreinforced 'Stubins'. All of the items
,"
RICHMOND
upON THAMES. COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No: 2 Paged4
listed are subject. to 2 common flexibility considerations: a) b) Inevery case, the Flexibility Factor is 1.0. In every case, there, is a Stress. Intensification Factor.
From the point. of view of Stress Intensification Factor" the type of branch intersection is very important; as the design of the connection. is progressively reduced; Plain, unreinforced "Stubins" have the highest intensification ofal~ whilst forged Tee pieces. or welded in "Contour inserts" have the lowest. Since the Flexibility Factor in all cases is 1.0, the substitution of one form of connection for another win not. affect the forces and moments in a flexibility calculation, so it happens that" ifsucn a calculation, indicatesovetst:ressfat an unreinforced intersection, it may still be possible to accept the proposed layout provided that the offending detail is reinforced or changed toa forged fittings. It is f~r this reason. that a Stress. Engineer may call for a.branch connection, to be reinforced although no reinforcing would be required for the service pressure and, temperature, There is an important difference to note between reinforcement for internal pressure and reinforcement for expansion stresses when calculating the size of the latter. In. the calculation of pressure, reinforcement there is the clearly defined requirement that the reinforcement area should equal the required area and at the same time lie entirely within the stipulated reinforcement zone. We shall see when we come to the calculation of the Stress Intensification Factors for pad reinforced branches that the only variable is the thickness of the pad; there. is no.stipulation. regarding the. width of the.pad. It is common practice, therefore" when sizing pads for this form of reinforcement, to work on the basis of 100% of the maximum possible "Required Area" for pressure, taken. in,conjunction with whatever pad thickness. is required to satisfy the Stress Intensification Factor expressions. In, other words let the O.D. of the pad be twice the diameter of the branch. The "Flexibility and Stress Intensifications Factors" can be found in Appendix D of the code, A copy of this is attached to the back of these notes. The above expressions are derived from experimental work. It will be noted that the only expression which caries with the form of construction is 'h' the,Flexibility Characteristic. These expressions assume that the branch diameter is.equal to the header diameter; there is no reduction for smaller diameter branches. This is a very conservativeapproach which can grossly overestimate the stresses in the case of a small diameter branch in,a large diameter header. Where the branch is less than V4of the header diameter, the Stress Engineer can usefully apply the methods used in. the analysis of the stresses. around the nozzles of vessels. Such methods were. developed by BIJLAARD in 1954. OBLIQUE BRANCH INTERSECTIONS Although in the matter of the reinforcement of branch intersections for internal pressure the B31.3 Code requirements are valid for angles of up to.45°, there is no corresponding stipulation relating to.the Stress Intensification Factors. used in Flexibility calculations. A certain amount of experimental work on the subject has been.carried out in the. United States under the auspices of the Welding Research Council but the extent is very limited.
,
RICHMOND
upON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS
Lecture NQ.; "
Page:lS From the point of view of the Piping Designer tw~ 'Rules. of Thumb' emerge for the case of the 45° intersection which is the. commonest in occurrence: 1) The. Stress Intensification Factor for an.unreinforced 45° intersection may be taken as 25 x the SJ.F. for the corresponding 90° branch connection. The detail design. of the intersection. should be such:that a generous. radius can.be achieved at the acute angle 'A.' in.Fig •.below, Experill1entally,cracks have been known to start in this region even .. uring the hydrostatic test condition. d
2)
'A'
Detail ' J.. t
When reviewing stress intensifications associated. with tees.there is sometimes confusion regarding the definition of inplane and outplane. The fig from B313 below should help. Mi in plane bending, Mo outplane bending and Mt for torsion.
Leg. 3
"'i
0,
cbcb i
I
Leg. 2
Leg 1
I
Pipin~ Reducers
c:t?"
I
These may be of concentric of eccentric form, but in either case the Flexibility Factor and the Stress Intensification Factor are both 1.0. In any case the overall length. of a.reduce is so small that the effect on the flexibility of the normal. piping layout can be neglected. When preparing input data for the computer program for a piping layout containing a reducer, it is
1D/WEEK·2.DOCIP071~ICS1S<c.Scmc:al2llfl:1J'J4
..,
RICHMOND upON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS
,
I
Lecture No; 2 Page:16 customary to assume an abrupt change of diameter at the midlength of this item. Where the reducer is of the eccentric variety, care must be taken to see that the geometry entered in the program is consistent; the offset in an accentric reducer is sufficient to cause some programs to fail to run. Probably the safety way of avoiding this inconvenience is to treat all reducers as being of the concentric variety and to adjust the length of an adjacent piping leg which is at right angles to the leg containing the reducer. It should be noted that codes such as B31.1 .do not consider the S.LF. equal to 1.0. Valves From the Stress. Engineers' point of view; the body ofavalve represents. a short length of very thick pipe, Some computer programs have· a facility for enteringsuc:nlengtbs;as ':R.IGID'but the overaI11ength is.so small. that no great error is involved ifthe.presel)~e. of the valve is neglected in the majority of layouts. A valve has. greater significance as the position where a.temperature change can occur in.a layout containing branches at different temperatures, .. s in.the case of the pipingiassociated a with the '2 pumps with common. spare' layout. It must not be forgotten that,. in the. larger diameters and higher pressure ratings, valves can attain. a weight of several tons so that the associated deadweight stresses. in the.pipe become significant. So far, we have considered the 'normal' valve. with a comparatively thick cast body; the proceeding comments will not always apply, particularly in the cases of some 'proprietary' designs with fabricated bodies. In some. instances it may be necessary to cometo an agreement with. the.manufacture on the forces and. bending moments which can be applied to the valve as wen as to the manner in which it is to be supported. Of particular interest to the Stress Engineer are high pressure "letdawn" valves found on steam. systems .. Control valves with large actuators. also present a significant problem because. of the need to support the. valve and. actuator.
\
I
1
IDIWEEIC·2.DOCIP0714nCSlSec:.Scrv":<sI2~I2194
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Le£iuuNQ: 3 Page: 1
AAJAA?'DAIH I"R"""~N •R
SIMPLIFIED •
METHODS OF ANALYSIS
GuIded Cantilever Nomograph
...
The elastic theory gives. us the following expression. 0 = £...L: P S St 12.E.I
'CD~o
s/
I I ~
where
<5
L = Length ofBC inmm E = Youngs. Modulas in n/mrrr' I = Moment of inertia in rnm'
P = Force. to bend. BC in n
= movemant in mm
I I
p
When a pipe bends in the mode shown by the dotted line it is referred to as a Guided Cantilever. Note if I is input in SI units. it would be ems' Therefore the formula would have to be divided.'by 101 therefore P> 12.E.I.
L3
max M = .2.E.l L2
2
y=QI2 2 fromwhieh
'1i~
1
f
I
f=6.E.I. .6:. (od)! L.2 .1.2 [::;o3·0.E. Q 1.2
RICHMONf
J
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture NQ: 3 Page: 2
Limiting
f to 100 n/mm' and E to 192,400 nzmmf we get
L~·7~
This particular type of problem can be conveniently represented. on. a simple nomograph which makes the check for adequacy of flexibility the work of a few moments. This nomograph, usually referred to as the 'L' shape nomograph, is included in the supplement to these course notes, and as. an example of the method of its use, let us work the problem of example below. Step No. 1
Draw a straight line through the 45 metres. in the column. numbered Step No. 2
we
150')(... (l).
point in the column numbered (2) to, pass through. L 1 =
Extend this line to intersect the. expansion column (3) on the right hand side of the page, and read 0 = 70mm. Step No, 3 From the point 8 = 70mm, draw a straight line through the nominal pipe diameter in the colwnn marked (4). Step No, 4 Continue this line until it intersects the column marked (5) and read the required minimum leg length L2
=
10 inches
= 9 metres.
It should be noted that the values obtained from this chart. are based on E and an allowable stress f of 138 n/mm" Note that, had the deflection been omitted.
= 204138
n/rnrn'
been known, the steps numbered (1) and (2) above could have
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Oisc)/JCSlScc.Scrv.ccslOSJOII9SfP2
RICHMOND
.
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS Lecture No: 3 Page: 3
ANALYSIS
Minimum Size of Layout Suppose that we check the required minimum leg length. to cater for the expansienof'e length of 14 in..diameter pipe With.a design temperature of 350°C. The. nomograph shows. that 4.8 m is required to absorb the.expansion. But the nomograph also shows that the expansionofthls4.8mleg of 5.5 rn to absorb its.own expansion. Similarly. the expansion of this 5.5 m lengthrequiresa. 5.8 111•. leg. Continuing this process leads ultimately to the conclusion that with a 14" dia. at 350°C, the minimum practical dimensions for an 'L' shape.pipe. would be.slightly less than 6 m. x 6 m. However, in a later lecture we shall see how these overall dimensions can be reduced when the flexibility of the elbows is taken into account. Guided Cantilever Method applied to a general shape Suppose that two 'Guided Cantilevers' were joined together in series with a rigid member between them and then a load 'P'wasappiiedlo the complete system. Thearrangernentts illustrated in the fig. below. requires a minirnum.length 3 m.
_)_j
p
We can write the arrangement in the following form:
p
<5=P.U.
\
12.E.I
I
) ) ) )
and if I] = 12 as it would be in the case of a continuous length of pipe, this reduces to
)
)
.6=<5+i5=fz, •
12EI
[L3+UJ 'l.
So that we may write: <5=_U x .6. ,~ [L 3 + U]
I
.
<5= __
1
,
""L.... _ 3
1..
x .6
[U+U]
t..
IDlWoolV<Jl(oWft Disc)/JCSlSeeServic:eslOSIOIJ9S1P3
RICHMOND
upON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lectu re NQ; 3 Page; 4
Ail:this stage it can. be noted that since. the rigid leg 'BC' remains vertical. the orientation of Is immaterial; the above relationship holds both. for the case of a 'Single plane'. layout and for the case where 'CD' is perpendicular to 'AB'. We have thus obtained the>first simple, albeit crude, method fordealing with a 3  dimensional layout.
'CJJJ)'
If we now extend the method to incorporate 3 operative lets of lengths L 1, L2 & L3 their
respective deflections under an applied load 'P' are:
~=f..L.:.1
,I
)
)
12EI
and similarly,
)
5. = P.p 't
't
12EI
) ) )
Ll.=o+o+8 , '\.
'l
fr = P I 12EI [U + L 3+ V
, '! l
J
) S=£..L:}. 1t 12EI
)
which is more. conveniently written
Ll.= P 112EI I U
....
and as before we can go on to apportion the total deflection between the various legs in PBoportion to the cubes of their respective lengths, i.e.:
fp
~L1
I'~_t
___ l~
p
0= _.7. U 7.
IV
'"
amd we could go on to incorporate as many operative legs as we chose. 'Wtehave already seen how a simple 'L Shape' nomograph can be used to obtained the minimum leg length required to absorb a given deflection at a maximum stress of 138 n/mm. A r.ather more elaborate nomograph which is also to be found in the supplement to these Iedlime notes. will give an.indication of the stress in any leg associated with given values of its length, its diameter and.the amount of movement it is required to absorb. This chart is used in'ithe following manner:
ImIIII'i>C!IYCI1(own
DiseYICS1Sec.ServiasIIl510J19SIP4
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No: 3 Page: 5
Step No, 1 Enter the left hand side of the nomograph at the calculated deflection for the leg in question. Step No. 2 Move horizontally to the intersection with the vertical line through the.appropriate pipe diameter. Step No, 3 From this intersection move. upwards and to the.right along a diagonal line parallel to the diagonals drawn. Step No, 4 Continue along this. diagonal line to where it intersects. the heavy vertical line which. passes through the position Diameter = O. Step No. 5 From this second intersection point move horizontally to the right until.an intersection is made with a.diagonal line representing the actual length of the leg. This set of diagonals is marked with the leg lengths. Step No, 6 From this third, and final, intersection point move vertically downwards and read the stress at the bottom of the sheet. Effect of Adjacent Legs Up to this point flexibility has been assumed to be due entirely to the members at right angles to the direction of the. maj or expansion bending in the mode of 'Guided Cantilevers'. Consider once. more the simple 'L' shape ABC in.fig ..below but this time separate the two members AB & BC at 'B' and apply the internal effects. required for the equilibrium of each of the members, i.e. the force 'P' and the moment 'M',
~l' A_·
p~
a
,
I I
I
{
c
(0) Clearly, the bending moment 'M.'at B must cause a rotation of the 'free.'end of 'AB', denoted by e in fig. 37, and this rotation must relieve the moment calculated on the basis of a 'fixed' end .. It should therefore, be apparent that some correction factor or other must be.applied to
IDlWoo!ycn(oWlt Disc)llCSlSec.ServiceslO5lO1I9SfPS
(af
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS A.NALYSIS Lecture No; 3 Page: 6
the results derived by the use of the generalised Guided. Cantilever Nomograph, and. it appears reasonable to relate the required. correction to the ratio of the lengths A.Band Be.
_&'3)
M
_=v~0M ,
~
I
I I
.
(L
,
I
.
\_.~i92
Suppose that the overall layout was.a.Zed.shape with unequal legs as illustratedin.fig. 3&, above. AB 91
> CD
> 92
so that to remain on the 'conservative' side of the line when assessing the relief to the bending of the leg Be, the correction. factor must.be based on the length of the shorter adjacent leg. In the development of the Guided Cantilever method, it was noted that since the orientation of the operative leg was immaterial. the procedure lent itself to the solution of 3 dimensional layouts. Fig. 39 shows a typical piping configuration which might be analysed in such.a manner. The expansion of'A.B' is absorbed by the legs. 'BC' and 'CD' which are both perpendicular to the major expansion. Note that, in this system both. 'BC' and 'CD' are subject to torsion moments as well as bending moments. we should therefore expect a greater degree of rotation of the ends of the operative legs than would be.the !"ig•.39. case if the adjacent legs were subject to bending moments alone. The. amount of correction which. has to be applied to the results given by the nomograph therefore depends on the orientation of the 'adjacent' legs as well as.on their lengths. The appropriate correction. factors are plotted as.curves to a base equal. to the ratio of the length of the leg under consideration to the length of its shorter adjacent leg, usually denoted LILa, and these curves appear in the Supplement to the course notes. Thee cases are considered: CASEl This. curve applies when the cantilever leg has.an anchor at one end. It is also referred to as an. 'external' leg.
lDIWoolvcn(OWII Dilc)lICSlSec.SCtYic=106lOII9S1P6
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No: 3 Page: 7
CASE II This curve applies to a leg which •.together with. its shorter adjacent leg, lies in a plan parallel to the direction of the major expansion (or deflection in the case of a movement. arising from anextemal influence).
CASE III This. applies to a leg which, together with its shorter adjacent leg, lies.in.aplant perpendicular to the direction of the major expansion or movement. If we refer to the fig. above, BC & CD are 'operative' legs if we assume that the major expansion. is.in the direction ofAB giving rise to the terminal forces 'P'. When evaluating the stresses in the leg 'CD' we would use the factor given by the curve marked. CASE I because, being anchored atD', it is.an extemal leg. The assumption already made that the major expansion is.in the direction 'AB' implies that CD is shorter than AS so that when considering the stresses in BC we would first calculate the ration LILa equal to BC/CD. However, in this case, the plane containing BC and CD lies.at right angles. to the. direction of AB so we would take the correction factor from the curve marked 'CASE Ill'. TIle sketches at the top of the sheet giving the Correction Factor curves illustrate all three cases very concisely. (See Supplernent.)
IT IS IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT THE INDICATED STRESSES ARE DIVIDED BY THE APPROPRIATE CORRECTION FACTOR. W"enow have the basis for making an assessment of the stresses in a pipe of any shape which is located between two rigid points (anchors). However, the ANSI B31.3 Piping Code. states in Clause 319.4.2(b): "Approximate or simplified methods may be applied only if they are used in the range of configurations for which their adequacy has been demonstrated". Let us now investigate the method to see what limitations might be applicable. Guided Cantilever Chart The basis of this Chart is the expression
f=l.~
.U
lDtvI",,,I_(own
Disc)lJCSlSo::.Scmc:csi0510
119S1P7
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS
Lecture NQ: 3
Page: 8
This expression has. a. purely academic. derivation. analysis. is. that imposed ... the range of the Chart. by above expression can be used. Correction Factor Chart
so that the only limitoni.thiscpart .. :fthe o Outside of the rangeofthechart,the
We have already seen how the correction factor is related to the stiffness of the. shorter adjacent leg. Since the longer adjacent leg must rotate more than the shorter one for a given terminal moment, it follows that this assumption will lead to results which error on the conservative side. There remains the question of the validity of the actual correction factor curves; these curves are circulating widely within the Petrochemical Industry so let us now examine their derivation. Correction Curve Case
I
L

a
I
Mc~!
fig. 40
1
L
The Guided Cantilever 'BC' and its adjacent.merrrber 'AB'are separated aL'B'.andthefirst'P' and moment 'M' applied to each side of the break in order to maintain equilibrium. Consider the equilibrium equations given by elementary engineerirtgtheory: ForAB
e=
6
=
ML
EI
For BC
PL3_
3EI
MLZ
2EI
 ML
e
=
PU.
2EI
EI
Now let
LILa = k
., La
=
Llk
Since the rotation '0' is the same for AB and. BC at B, equate these expressions:
MLa
EI
PV
2EI
ML
so that EI
ML
=
PU
2EI
ML
EI
kEI
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No: :2 Page; 9
PLl2 = M. (1 _ 11k) M=PL.k substitute this. value of M in.the expression for /1 Then
/1= 1 2 Ck+ l)
(I)
£L:
3EI PU 12EI PL3 12EI
PL.k,V 2EI.2 (k+ 1) 4 (k + 1)  3 k (k+ 1) k+4 k+l """""" .."""" "" (II)
/1.=
/1=
but at 'C'
Mo = PL 
M Mo Mo
=
=
PL  PL.kl2 (k + 1) PL(Ikl2{k+
I»
PL (k + 2U) .."" ........ ""."",,(III) (2k+2)
again, from Eqn, (II) PL 12EI6 V
~. (k.±.l)
(k+ I) (k +4)
k
+2 ) =
V
giving maximum stress f
k+4
2k +2)
6EL6{k + 2) V k+4 3D£6 Ck+ 2) [2 k+4
=
y,Mo/I
=
D.Mo/21
=
but as.we have already seen, f = 3.D £.11.1 U is the basic cantilever stress, so thatto make allowance for the. adjacent leg we must.divide by the factor (k + 4) I (k + 2). These are tabulated below for a range of values of LILa =k
If we now plot out these values on the Correction Factor chart, we. can see that there is a reasonable agreement with the Case I. curve. Note that for this curve the expression. for the factor implies a value of2.0when.theratio'k' is very small and a.value of 1,0 when it is very large.
IDIWool_(oWll
Oisc:)I1CS1SeccServiceslOSJOI19SIP9
RICHMOND UPON THAMES COLLEGE
Lecture No: :1
Page: 10
Correction Factor Curve. Case III
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS
Here we will assume that the ends of the Guided Cantilever member are connected. at each. end. to alegoflengthLaandthatbothofthese legs are in pure. torsion, as in fig ..41 below .
.Jli:re~Uan
"<,
movement.
In fig. 41 (b) above, BC is the Guided Cantilever element under consideration and.is subject to terminal moments 'M' associated with. the deflection Each. of the adjacent legs. AB and CD is therefore subject to a torsional moment 'M'; from the work on earlier we see that each leg of length La will rotate through. an angle
o.
8
=
1.3 MLalE1
6, .
We can now superimpose the deflections. associated with this twist 8 upon the basic value .From fig. 41 (a) above we see that this additional deflection
6,. ' =
L
x 0 = L x 1.3 MLalEI. Now let LILa
= k as before:
Total deflection
associated 6. = MU; 6EI
with a moment 'M' at B or C = 6. + 6'
s:
(ML.: 6EI
= 1.3 M.La.L / EI ; 6.' = L.3..
ML:
EI
k +
(6.+ 6') =
l..3.
x
MW
EI
This means that whereas we have calculated a stress y.MIl for a deflection , in.practice we achieve a deflection 6,. + 6' for the same stress. We may therefore reduce the 'Nomograph' stress by a factor which is:
C.F
(1
(6
+
U) k)
1
6
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Di><),JCSlScc.Scrv,<c:rIOOIO
II9SIP 10
RICHMOND
upON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS. Lecture NQ: J Page: 11
This correction factor may then be evaluated for a range of values of the ratio k = LILa as follows:
If these values are plotted on the Correction. Factor Chart, areasonable agreerrrerrtwilkbe seen, thus confirming that pure torsion in the adjacent legs. is.indeed the basis. of the curve; note that the correction factor tends to the value infinity as the ration LILa tends to zero. Correction Factor Curve. Case II The following derivation and explanation is offered without comment. It gives values. in almost exact agreement with those of Chart C  14 in KeUoggs' , Design ofPipingSysterns'{Revised2nd Ed. 1965). These are the. values. which. have been used in the construction of the Chart in the. Supplement to these course notes and.as we have already seen the validity in the Cases I & IILcan be substantiated.
L
I
~'
...
C
D
C
fig.42
In fig. 42, BC is.an 'operative' member and AB and BC and.two 'adjacent' legs, both shown in the Case II bending configuration. On the basis. of the shorter adjacent member; e"" M.La/EI so that we have a rotation 8/2 at each end of the operative member. This gives an. augmented deflection
=
L.fr
2
=
L.M.La 2EI
=
ML.:
k.2EI
The actual deflection used in the nomograph solution for the maximum stress
M.L:
6EI
CHARTS AND TABLES
C14. Correction Factor
I,. Guided
CantUem:r Method.
... c....
CON1. FOr aoy exterior leg L.
CON II. For any interior lee, L whole JIl&Si.. mum de8edion ill in the plane of L and LA where LA is the aborter of the connectiDg lep.
_J'
t.
CONIII. For any interior lee L whose JIl&Si.. mum dellectjon ill perpeudicul&r to the plane of L and L.#. where L.#. ill the shorter of the conneeiiD& ..
f
,
j
LENGTH OF LEe UNDEtt CONSIDERATION LENITH Of SHORTER AD"ACENT LEt
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No; 3 Page; 12
Therefore total implied deflection for the stress level. indicated by the Chart,
~+~.I =
ML.: +
6E!
ML.:
2kE!
so that as in the pure torsion case, (Case. HI) we have calculated the stress associated with a deflection (~ + il') whereas in.fact we only need. tlre.stress.fer a deflection.. Ll.
Therefore we divide the nomograph stress by a.Correction Factor.
C.F.
=
(1
(6
+
1)
2k)
1
6
Taking the same.range. of values of LILa as before we obtain the following:
If these values. are now plotted on the Correction Factor Chart (found in the Supplement, ), it will be.noted that there is a considerable discrepancy and the factor calculated above is.higher than that given by the Chart, i.e. the Chart curve is well on the "right side of the line". If these calculated values are divided by 1.3,. we obtain:
A check against the Chart at this stage. will show almost exact agreement up to a value of
LILa = k = 2.6. Limitations to Guided Cantilever Method
lDlWoolven(own
Di",YJCSlSec.Semcesl06l01/9SlPll
RICHMOND UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS
Lecture No: 3
Page: 13
Suppose that we have an. 'operative.' leg BC in a layout as shown in fig. 43 where AB of length L 1 is one adjacent. leg and CD, of length L2 is the other, Let AB be the subject of the. CASE IICorrection Factor (bending) and let CD at the other end of the cantilever be subject to the CASE III (torsion) curve. Rotation. of AB at. the end. B due to moment 'M' Rotation of CD at the end C due. to moment 'M'
= M.L 1 / 2EI = 1.3.M.L2
/ EI
But the. whole concept of the. correction factor is. that it is. based only on that end of the cantilever which experiences the least rotation, so that when dealing with. a member where one end is joined to a. torsion leg and the. other is attached to a bending leg, if this assumption is. to be. satisfied: M.L·l 2 EI Therefore,
>
1.3. M.L2 EI
>
2.6
(If based on the Case III curve)
below this ratio, the Case II factor for AB has the lower value, had the end A been fixed, i.e. if A.B had been an 'exterior' leg, then we would have had a corresponding ratio L l1L2~ 1.3. Probably the safest advice which can be given to a beginner is to check the correction required at both ends of a member where one adjacent leg is in torsion and the other in bending (One end Case III and one end Case II). Stress Intensification Factors
We have already seen how a bend or elbow is subject to a Stress Intensification Factor when the effects of an applied bending moment are being evaluated. Since the ends of a. Guided Cantilever are the positions where the stresses given by the nomograph occur, and since the changes of direction will normally be made. with an elbow or mitre bend, it seems reasonable to expect that the appropriate. S.LE be applied to the nomograph stresses. This is in fact required by the B31.3 Code. However, if the Code S.I.F. is applied directly to the nomograph stresses, the result is usually a significant overestimate of the stresses; KeHoggs' in their 'Design of Piping Systems' (Rev. 2nd. Ed ..August 1965) report on page 112, that an empirical value equal to the square root of the Code S.I.F. will usually be found adequate.
********************
Let us now demonstrate example and. afterwards the same problem.
IDlWoolvCll(oWll Dise)/JCSlSee.Scrviccs/06lO
the use of the Guided Cantilever Method by means of a typical compare the results with those given by a full computer analysis of
II9SIP I]
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS
Lecture NQ: 3
Page: 14
2'01'1
Expansion. rate @ 200°C .. Major expansion.
= 2.2 mm/metre
mm
=
20.4 x 2.2 = 45 100
Li=45mm
The calculation is best performed in tabular fashion:
Leg
L m.
U
L'/LL3
5 mm.
fb n/mm'
ULa
TYPE
C.F.
f coer,
S. 1. F.
STRESS
AB BC CD DE EF FG
:E 2.44 14.5 53 0.273 1.0 0.48 1.76 234.5 1.143 1.5 156.3 3 2 1.52 27 8 3.5 0.51 0.15 0.067
0.9
0.264 O.U8
27.6 1793
I.5 1.3 0.76
III III III
5.5 62 10.0
50.2 28.9 17.2
2.27 2.27 2.27
I13.84 65.6 39
1 72.4
2.2.7
355.
The first point to note regarding the input is.that the legs. ,,413 EF are not considered and effective because they, in fact, are responsible for the deflection which has to be accommodated by the bending of therernairring.legs which are at rightangles to the direction of the expansion. The second point is to note that we have not considered any guides on the leg AB. Had a guide been installed on AB nearer to '13'than. Zm, then this legwould have been the "shorter adjacent leg" for BC and the stress given by the Chart wouldbave been subject to a Case II Correction Factor.
A third pint arises in connection with the Case II / Case III anomaly discussed earlier and this
IDlWoolven(o .. 'Il Oisc)IJCSlSec.ServiasiOSIO I19SIP 14
."
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
LectureNQ: 3
Page: 15
PIPING STBESSANALYSIS
example has been constructed to illustrate the. matter. Referring back to the calculation and to the calculation of the stresses in the. leg 'DE', in.accordance. with convention we. have taken CD of length. 2m as the shorter adjacent leg and applied the appropriate Case III Correction Factor of 93. We must take note cfthe Jeg EF whichalthougb. it has.a length. of2.13m is however subject to a Case II Correction Factor.
If we complete the calculation for the end 'E' of DE we obtain:
LILa
=
1.5212.13 = 0.712
Correction Factor for Case II = 3.8 Corrected Stress = 172.4013.8=45.37 Stress Intensification Factor nlmm2
=
2.27
Final calculated stress = 45.37 x.2.27 = 103 nlmm2 This has to be compared with the stress of 39 n/mrrr' .. calculated in.the Table for the end 'D' thus. demonstrating the point.
********************
Having now obtained an estimate of the stresses in the pipe, and it must be emphasised that this method can do not more than. give a rough estimate of the stresses, we must now assess their importance. At 200°C and with sayan A 106 Gr.B pipe the B31.3 Code would indicate an allowable stress range as.follows: Using the values from the supplement, Allowable stress, cold, Sc = 137.93 n/mrrf Allowable stress at 200°C. Sh = 119 n/mm' Allowable stress range Allowable stress range
=
f(1.25 Sc + 0.25 Sh) and taking F = 1.0, = 1.0(1.25 x 137.93 + 0.25 x 119)
2Q2n1mm2
=
Now an inspection of the last column of the calculation shows.that this allowable stress range is only exceeded in the case of the leg 'FG'. Faced. with. an indicated stress range of this order; the Stress Engineer has the option of suggesting arerouting of the line in order to achieve a lower stressor perhaps. running acomputer calculation. His choice of action will depend on the relative importance of the line; in. this particular instance an.experienced Engineer might well accept the indicated stresses on the following grounds. It was noted on.earlier that to apply the full Code Stress Intensification Factor to a "Square Comer'! analysis, such as the Guided Cantilever analysis, usually results in.a significant over!DIWooIVCll(o_DiscYJCSIS ... ScrvicesiOSIOI19SIPIS
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Le£tyre No; J.
Page: 16
estimate of the stresses and that in such cases Kelloggs' had suggested that an empirical factor equal to the square root of the Code S.LF. might be appropriate. Let us apply this empirical S.LE to the present problem. BJ 1.3 Code Stress Intensification Factor S.I.E Maximum corrected stress, for leg FG Maximum intensified stress = 156.32 x 151
=
= 2.27 = 1.51
156.32 n/mm' 236 nimm2
=
This. is still somewhat greater than the allowable. stress. range permitted by the Code rules so that it might be possible to make out a case for a full Computer analysis, In order to demonstrate the. validity of this approach we will next compare the results obtained by the Guided Cantilever analysis. with those from a.Computer run of the same problem.
********************
IDIWooIVCll(oW'ltDUc:)lJCSlSeo:.Serv.aslOSIOII9SIPI6
RICHMOND UPON THAMES
COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture NQ, 4 Page: I
().JoT'6 I'AC;.e;s:
+
LoeA TION OF SUPPORTS
AND RESTRAINTS
'BE:.e~
"'DeLe't"E.i:))
* ~.
,,",AvE
This. far in the course wehave only considered pipes extending from one. fixed point to another; we must now look into the question ofinterrrtediate restraintsoecause. in.serving their purpose of controlling the movements. that the pipewouldexperietlceill.theit.iabsence~ they modify the stress system to a marked degree. For this reason alone the practising Stress Analyst soon learns that the location of supports. and restraints cannot be divorced from the flexibility calculations. The scope of the Pipe Support function is stated in the relevant Clause oftheB31.3 repeated here. verbatim: "321.1.1 Objective The. layout and design of the piping, including supporting elements, shall be made with due regard to preventing the following: 1) 2) 3) piping stresses in excess of those permitted by the Code leakage at joints excessive forces or moments on connected equipment (such as pumps and turbines) excessive stresses in the pipe supporting (or restraining) elements resonance with imposed vibrations excessi ve interference with thermal expansion and contraction of piping which is otherwise adequately flexible unintentional disengagement of piping from its supports. ( thermal lift off) excessive sag in piping requiring drainage slop~ Code,
4)
5) 6) 7) 8)
Let us now consider these topics at greater length: 1) Permitted Piping Stresses The ASNI B31.3 Code stipulate that the sum of the longitudinal stresses with the pipe in the corroded condition and due to all sustained 10adsi(Le..internalpressure; 'Weight, wind, etc), shall not exceed the tabulated allowable stress at the desigrrtemperature. Now, the pipe if designed up to the limit allowedby the Code. could have a hoop stress in the corroded condition equal to the allowable stress Sh; the associated axial stress then being Sh/2 due to internal pressure.
lDlWEEK
•• DOCiP07I
4iJCSlScc.S<rVlccsl091O
I /95
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS AN,t\.. YSIS L Lectu Fe No, 4 Page: 2
Therefore, the maximum value of the longitudinal stress in the corroded condition due to all the sustained loadings other than. internal pressure cannot exceed Sh/2. After internal pressure, the deadweight is usually the most significant effect produ .ing a sustained longitudinal stress, but it is conventional to limit the stress from this effect to one half of this value i.e. Sh/4. The pipe support designer will normally work to 'Standards' Tables of allowable spa 1S when deciding on his support spacing and such spans will depend on such variables s pipe. diameter, schedule, design temperature, insulation thickness, whether the contents are liquid or gaseous. and so on. In order to keep any such tabular method within reasonable bounds, some simplifying assumptions must, of necessity, be introduced and these must give answers on the "right side of the line". Some of the most usual simplifications. made are as follows: a) Tables are usually confined to Std. Sch. carbon steel pipe as this is by far the most common material. Tables are usually constructed from the lowest grade of steel, i.e. the information will then be on the safe side in au' cases. The number of temperature cases is kept to a minimum, e.g. common values used for Tables of allowable piping spans are: 1) 2) 3) Ambient temperature lines Lines up to 1000 C Lines up to 3000 C
b)
c)
Although the difference in the allowable stresses in these.temperature ranges would not materially affect the allowable spans, the increased weight of the insulation has to be taken into account particularly in the case of large bore steam and gas lines. d) Piping spans are normally only tabulated for empty and water filled lines; the water filled condition will clearly cover the case of hot lines containing petroleum products, whilst the empty line spans can be used for steam or vapour lines. Piping. spans are calculated on the basis of "pin ended" conditions;
e)
IDIWEEK_ 4.DOCIP07I 4/JCSlSec.ScrvJl:cs/091O 1m
RICHMOND UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No.4
Page: 3
The maximum bending moment occurs at the centre of the span and is given by: Mmax = w.L 2f8kgs. metres. Note. 1 kg. is 9.81 m for approximate purposes say 10 then Mmax
= w.U x
lO4i8 n.mm
If f n/mrrr' is the stress allowed for weight purposes, andZ is ern' then f = w.U 1Cd8.Z
and using the practical units of L metres., w kgs./metre & Z ems' this last equation reduces to
v=
8.f.ZIlO·:w
Suppose that we now apply this expression to the calculation of the allowable spans for a range of ambient pipes for which we can assume no insulation .. We will work on the basis of the lower grades of carbon steel pipe, i.e..APL5L Gr.A,. ASTM AS3 Gr.A or ASTM AI06 Gr.A for all of which the allowable stress at ambo is. 110 n/mrrr'. Therefore, f= 110/4 = 27.6 n/mrrr'
For the water filled condition this leads to: L=
fi7.6. z , 8/10'
4.7 [ ~
w
Therefore,
Now putting in the values of the Section Modulus Z (em') and weightper metre run 'w' (kgszm) in the water fined condition; both being taken from Tables Of published data, we obtain:
Diam.(ins) Z.(cm~) w (Kg.lm) L (metres) 3. 28.2 15.9 6.28 4 52.6 24.3 7 6 139.3 46.9 8.17 8 275.3 74.9 9.1 10 490
III
12 718 147 10.48
14 873 169.7 10.76
16 1152
211A
18 1468 256 11.37
20 18.19 305 11.58
24
2655 415
12
9.97
11.1
RICHMOND UPON THAMES
COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS
Lecture No.4
Page: 4
We could construct similar tables for lines at a higher temperature, taking into account the insulation thickness 'normal' for such a temperature. 'Budget' values for such insulation are of the following order:
Diam.(ins) Temp •.in 3 4 6 8 10 12 ]4 ]6 18 20
24
weights in kgs./rn. run
°C
Up. to. ]00 Up to. 300 1.9 4.5 2.4 7 4.9 9.1 6.1 11.8 7.7 13.2 8.9 18.9 9.2 18.9 10 19.5 11.5 24.3 12.7 26.3 14.9 31.3
so that to construct a table of allowable spans for temperatures ofJOO°C we would proceed as follows: Allowable Sh at 300°F = 85 n/mrn? for API 5L Gr. A or ASTM A53 Gr.A Allowable stress for weight = Sh/4 = 21.29 n/rnrrr' Therefore, Lmax =
J
0.8)<2h29 4.13
" :.
Lmax =
This expression gi ves the following values for the maximum allowable span of carbon steel lines at 300°e.
Diam.(ins) Lmax (m) 3 16.0
4
6 21.6
8 24.4
10 27.1
12 28.5
14 29.4
16 30.4
18 31.3
20 32.0
24
33:4
17.7
********************
2) Leakage at joints The Stress Engineer will have checked that the thermal expansion forces do not give excessive bending moments at flanges, particularly where they occur at a vessel nozzle From the Pipe. Support Designers' point of view, flanges should be located, as far as possible, from position where there is a.highbendingrnoment in the pipe. Ifindoubt, consult the Stress Engineer. 3) Excessive forces
Of
moments onconnected.equipment
The Stress Engineer has to keep a watch on the allowable forces and moments on connected equipment, particularly in the case of rotating machines such as turbines, compressors and pumps.
IDIWEEK_ 4.DOCIP0714/JCSlScc.ScrviceslO9lOl19S
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No.4 Page; 5
In practice the magnitude of these forces and moments. is controlled by the use of various piping restraints. which can be divided broadly into three maincategones: a) b) c) Anchors "Line Stops" Guides
Let us now consider the functions of each of these types. of restraints. a) Anchors At an anchor a pipe is assumed to be completely restrained against any displacement or rotation, RELATIVE TO THE STRUCTURE OF THE ANCHOR. This means that it is possible to have an anchor which has a displacement or rotation imposed upon it by influences external to the piping system and which it then transmits on.to the piping system .. For example, suppose that one end of a pipe ended at a flanged nozzle nearthe 'sliding' end of a.Shell and.tube heat exchanger. The Stress Engineer would regard.that flange as an "anchor" for the purposes of calculation, but it will' move by an amount determined by the thermal expansion of the exchanger shell and it will impose this movement on the. piping anchored to it; this movement will then either add or subtract from the restrained thermal expansion of the piping as the case may be. Anchors may be fitted at points .. ther than the terminations ofapipe in which o case they are known. as intermediate anchors" and in this. sense the great maj ority of anchors used in.piping installations are of this intermediate category. These anchcraserve the purpose ofdefirringfixed points in the system.
II
As an example of this use of an anchor, consider the case where we have, say a 6 in. diam ..branch to the inlet of'a Turbine taken from a 12 in. diam; header;
G)
I A
ItI
A
D
c
(a;)
".B
c
(b)
lDlWEEK_
4.DOCIP07I
4flCSfSce.Sc:rviC<Si09/0
1195
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No.4 Page: 6
Suppose that a large movement 0 of the 12 in. header at 'A' produced unacceptable forces and moments at the Turbine flange 'D', and that it was not possible to increase the flexibilitycfthe intervening pipe ABeD. We could then try anchoring the header on.the piperackbeam (2) as shown in fig. (b) and making a check on the forces and moments developed. by the shap ABeD with this section only of the header included in the calculation. Intermediate anchors can also. be used to.isolate a section of a line having a smaller diameter than the remainder ofthe layout and which, by virtue of its greater flexibility would accept most ofthe expansion in the layout thus becoming overstressed, As an example of this, consider the layout in fig. 56 and, in particular, the loop section ABeD. As drawn, this section of the pipe would be far more flexible than the loop section GHJK so.that, although this section GHIK might be well able to accommodate the expansion arising between say 'F' and 'K', most of this expansion would, in fact, be adsorbed. by the section ABCD. The remedy for an indicated overstress condition in the section ABeD is therefore to limit the amount of expansion it has to accommodate by the addition of an anchor at some position conveniently near the point 'F'; the loop ABCD would then accommodate the expansion from 'A' to. 'F' and the loop GHIK would similarly take care of the section from 'F' to. 'K'. This is illustrated in fig. 56.
c
"",,,,,,,,
a",
D
c
A
R
J
On very long piperack runs, where more than. one expansion loop is required to.absorb the expansion between given terminakpoints, interrrrediate.anchors MUST be fitted between each pair of expansion loeps even though the line is of uniform size and theloops are.nominally identical, i.e.
~
•

,[
I
x~n::2J~atel~~'
==
IDIWEEK_ 4.DOCIP07141JCSlSec.Scrv,ccsl09/0
I/9S
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No.4 Page: 8
The reason for this requirement is that the pipe is subject to manufacturing tolerances in wall thickness so that even though the loops have the same overall dimensions they will have somewhat different. flexibility's and. in the absence of intermediate anchors which define the amount of expansion taken by each loop, one or other of them would take more than. its calculated share of the total movement. b) Line Stops A line stop is a restraint which prevents any axial movement of the pipe to which it is fitted but at the same time allows unrestricted travel in any direction at right angles to the axis of the pipe. It also permits. rotation, freely, in any plane. In many instances where the requirement is for an. axial restraint only, a 'Line stop' can be substituted for a 'full' anchor; situations do arise where the ability of the 'stop' to permit lateral movement makes its use imperative. Suppose we have the "header and branch" situation illustrated 1: •• "
0~
in fig. below
Q
.
...,
1\.
1
~(,)
.
"t (b)
A.
EX
1
A1 • c ~:r.lt~  ; 1 ""'\cAr., '
 ~.(eI)
r'":.
(0.)
D
A~
(c)
/STOP.
r
c '8
l!
c
l!
In the fig. (a) above we have a 6" nom. diam ..branch ABCD from an. 8" nom. diam ..header, and analysis shows that the forces and moments at '0' due to the deflection Li, are excessive. In fig. (b) above, we have added. an anchor at 'E' which reduces the axial movement at 'A' to Li2 but a check analysis shows that the branch ABCD is still overstressed as a result of the restrained expansion 63 due to the length of AB. The remedy is. shown in the fig.( c) above, where the anchor at 'E' has been replaced with a line 'stop'. This allows. the point 'A' to move over to the position 'AI' thereby relieving the forces and moments due to the restraining of Ll3. In the situation shown in fig. (c) above, there must be an axial compression force along the leg 'AB' sufficient to move the 8 in header sideways against the friction forces exerted at its supports. This force could be some instances exceed that which can be taken on the nozzle atD'. The problem can be resolved by the addition of a further 'Stop' on the leg 'AB' as shown at 'F' in
lD/WEEK_ 4.DOCIP0714I1CSlSce.Seovlcesl09/01/95
f ,'~ ot~
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No.4 Page: 10
Ideally, 'F' should be.located so that the deflection <5 at 'C', due to the nozzle movement + the thennaiexpansion.oftheleg.'DC' is balanced by a corresponding <5 due. to the.thermal expansiomofthe length 'FB'. In practice, this ideal is difficult to realise but a suitable compromise position canusually be found; this compromise solution. could welkentail additional structural steelwork. c) Guides A guide is a restraint. which precludes lateral. movement of the pipe in one or both of the planes at right angles to the pipe centreline. Itleavesthepipe completely free to move axially and it offers no resistance to rotationofthe pipe in any direction. Guides are fitting whenever it is necessary to maintain the position of the centreline of the pipe and we must now consider some of the more common applications. 1) Alignment guides in a piperack The centre to centre spacing of the pipes. in a rack is such that they must be positively located at intervals. along their length.
\
\
F
\ \
E
D
I
J
I
c
G
Suppose that we have a length of pipe in a rack as shown in fig. 58. There will be an axial force 'X' at F due to the thermal expansion of the length 'AF' and this is balanced by the reaction at the line stop at 'A'. The force 'X' deflects the length 'FG' to the position 'F' G', and its magnitude can be conservatively estimated by the Guided Cantilever method described in earlier Lectures. Furthennore, at each of the supports B,C,D & E there will be a friction force JlR; as the pipe expands this will add to the basic flexibility force 'X'. At any position along the pipe we, therefere, have a compression force 'P' given by P=X+ LJl.R
lDlWEEK_4.00CIP07I
4/ICSlSec.SctVic:esl09/0IJ95
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPFN~ STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No ..4 Page: 11
Now, if this force 'P' becomes. high enough the line will buckle sideways as shown, the theoretical value of 'P' at which this will occur is given by the Euler strut. expression It should. be noted that this only occurs in practice on small bore pipework ie 2" nb.
where: Pcr is the buckling load in kgs E is Modulus of Elasticity, n/mrrf I is Moment of Inertia of pipe cross section in cm4 L is the guide spacing along the rack in metres In practice, it would be prudent to limit the practical guide spacing to something of the order of 70% of the value given by the above expression. Also, practically, the length'L' will be fixed by the overall design of the rack, and since the rack frame spacing will have been settled. from other considerations long before any pipe support work is commenced, the location of the position of guides becomes. a matter of deciding whether they shall be fitted at every one, two or three frame spacings. Note that because the friction .. omponent of the compression c forces in the pipe reduces. as one gets Jurther from the.anchor, it. may not be necessary to maintain a wrifolln. guide. spacing throughout. the full length. 2) Wind Guides on.vertical.Iines As we. say in Lecture No.2. a number of lines.extend from near Grade elevation to various positions on.a fractionating cclumn, Particularly, at higher elevations, the.wind loading ana pipe can. be quite considerable. and the line must be guided at.intervals; a good 'Budget' value for the. wind. loading in this country is between 1200 and 1450 n/rnm", and the load on each guide is given by Load = wind pressure x projected area of pipe between guides An average value for the spacing of wind guides on a column is between 8m. and 12m. depending on diameter. They are commonly designed to restrain.bcthradial andcircumferential movement.and as such are often referred to as 'boxed' guides.
IDIWEEK" 4.DOCIP071 41ICSlSee.Scrviocsl09/0 1195
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS
Lecture NQ. 4
Page: 12
c)
Guides. at pump suctian nozzles On a typical pump suction layout was illustrated below. One way of relieving high farces and moments at the suctian nazzle of a front suction pump is to. fit a guide which is made to.very clase talerances and which has an appreciable length. This guide is then capable, so.the argument goes, of absarbing any terminal moments in additian to. the side shear farces; the pump may, therefore, be cansidered protected from the effects of the piping laads whilst the guide canstructian permits free movement of the nazzle arising from the expansion of the pump casing. In general, Stress Engineers wauld prefer to see additional piping flexibility as a means to reducing pump nozzle loads in preference to the arrangement just described and which is illustrated in fig.below.
,
;~Pipe
f
Check upward. grawth of pump nozzle before using this. support.
It should be understood; however, that it is custamaryto provide a plain guide. and.a .. upport at the.suction naZZleaf afrant entry pump. s 4) Excessive stress inthesuppartingelements This is essentially a matter of the mechanical design of the support or restraint in question. Suffice it to say here that the design of the support must be adequate for the loads which the Flexibility Analysis or Weight Analysis show to exist, having regard to the probable temperatures in the element at the design conditions, 5) Resonance with imposed vibrations The 'natural' frequency of vibration of a length ofpipe between two supports is inversely proportional to the. square of the span.
RICHMOND UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No.4 Page: 13
It sometimes happens that this frequency is the same, or very nearly the same, as the frequency is the same, or very nearly the same, as the frequency of disturbances caused by the.vibration of nearby or connected equipment; the pipe thendevelops a vibration at this 'natural' frequency. Reciprocating pumps and reciprocating compressors are the principle offenders in this connection. Since such vibrations can usually be eliminated by additional supports, which, by reducing the span materially alter the natural frequency of the pipe so.that it is.no longer in resonance with the exciting forces, it is usual to wait for these effects to manifest themselves during the initial. operations of the plant before making any remedial alterations,
_.
However, on particularly important lines, where any subsequent alteration is seen to be impracticable, or where previous experience suggests that there might wen be a vibration problem, a vibration analysis is performed during the design study stage. As a result of such an investigation, the Stress Engineer may ask for a rerouting of the pipe or for certain supports. and/or restraints to be located at specific positions. 6) Excessive interference with thermal expansion Use of the Guided Cantilever analysis in deciding the location of guides in a piperack. see fig below.
J..
R
~.
9"51. 3 __
11· • •
.
s
I
,,.
...
.
1
W
....
I .
Il.
..."
.

·f
Vi
:z ox •
J
x:
.t.
.",
I
4>.
L
1
v;
.
Clearly, if the guide, which was..positioned on frame 'K' had instead been located on Column Row 'J', the sideways forceomit would have been given by P = EI.6 / 144.V where 'L' now had the valueof we would then have had:
IDIWEEK_ 4.DOC/P01 14IJCSlSec.Sc:rvic:csl09/0 119$
1.8m. Suppose that the pipe had been Sch..30,
RICHMOND UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING SIBESS ANALYSIS
Lecture No •.4
Page: 14
E I
6.
192000 nl mm 5744cm4
=
29mm l.8m 12.1.92.10'.29.57.4.10'/1.8293• 626832 n = 630 kn io
L therefore, p p
The practical implication of this is that the guide would have broken long before this sideways load had developed, possibly causing a penn anent set in the pipe during the process; this situation is now known in practice, hence the reason for the warning in the Code. There is much to be.said for the old maxim that the fewer restraints on a line, the better.
lDlWEEK_ 4.DOCIP0714/JCSlSec.Serv>ecsl09IOI19S
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture NQ, 4 Page: 15
7)
Unintentional disen~a~ement from supports Insulated lines, in all. but the smallest sizes. have a 'shoe' at each support position ~oprevent damage to the insulation as the pipe expands or contracts across the support beam. If this.shoe is of insufficient length, or is wrongly located on the pipe, then as the line expands the shoe will overrun the beam, and deprived of the reaction at the support, the pipe win sage. When the line is next taken out of service, the shoe on the contracting pipe is usually unable to ride.up onto the beam again and this results in a broken shoe, at best; or a broken beam. in more serious cases. In track pipework where the pipe is.testing; on concrete it has been known for the shoe to rupture the pipe. This is a very common cause of trouble during initial startup operations and much of the trouble stems from the practice of offsetting the shoe in anticipation of the pipe expansion. For one reason or another,be it incorrect instructions on the pipe support drawings or misinterpretation of the drawings on the part of the fabricator, the shoe is installed with.the offset in the wrong direction. Pipe shoes are cheap enough, and the surest way of avoiding this sort of trouble is to install the shoes. centrally over the support in the "erected" position of the pipe and then to ensure that thereis a length of shoe on either side of this centreline at least equal to the.calculated travel of the shoe. plus 75 mm, i.e. a minimum length of shoe equal. to twice the travel plus 150mm is required. To a lesser extent, this problem occurs at the lower wind guides on fractionating columns. These guides. normally comprise 20r 4 shoes bearing in a structural steel frame clipped to the column, and since the>differential movement in.the operating case is usually comparatively small, there. is a tendency to skimp on the length of these shoes. As we saw in lecture No.2, the operating case does.notnecessa:rily govern, and.it is not unknown for these guides to disengage. during Steam ..out or Startup sequences.
8)
Excessive sag in piping At the beginning of this Lecture, we derived the allowable.spans for a.range of standard schedule pipes on the basis ofarneximum stress equal to Sh/4. The expression used gave no indication of the.deflection (i.e. 'sag') at the centre of the span, In many instances it does not matter whether this central deflection is 6mm or 30mm, but such. a sag leaves.a pocket of'liquid in the line when it is emptied; to avoid leaving these pockets some lines are constructed with. a.slope to say 1%. Whilst we could calculate the allowable spans. on the basis of the.maximum allowable slope at the ends of a simply supported span a more usual approach is to li~it the central deflection.to a definite value.
IDIWEEK_ 4 .DOCIP07 t 4IJCSlSee.Servocc:sl09IOIf95
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No, 4 Page: 16
For a simply supported beam, elementary bending theory tells us that:
L
A
L
~
uniform
'IN
'1
o=5.w,L
....
11
384. E. I
L
where w = L= E= I= Transposing the above expression gives: L= 384EL6
S.w
total weight per unit length nlmm span mm Youngs.' Modulus n/rnrrr' Moment of Inertia mm
mm
this reduces to or
L= L=
2.96034 EI..a / w mm 0.002964 EI.6. / w metres
As an example, we can. now reevaluate the Table of allowable spans previously worked out earlier. We first have to settle the maximum. allowable value of 6. which is to be permitted; 6,35 mm. and 2.5mm ..are values. which have been variously chosen by manufacturers of pipe supporting equipment when they compiled their catalogues. These catalogues willusually be found to contain Tables of allowable piping.spans, Let us choose 6 = 6.35mm. but for convenience we will convert the units of 'w' to kgs.lm. and 1 as em' This reduces toL = (}.1486 El.
4
.·.W
J
It will be convenient to repeat the calculationfor the ambient, liquid  filled line of the Table. on page 73. so that we have a basis for comparison. Por this line then E = 192414 niItlrIt2 which leads to the following expression when simplified for calculation purposes. L= 1.11 4
[J;
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RICHMOND UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS
Lecture No.4
Page: 12
giving:
Diam.(ins) Icm4 wkglm Lrn.
3 125.7 15.9 5.24
4 300.9 24.3 5.&8
6
I 170
8
30tS 74.9 7.9
10 6701 III 8.7
12 11613 146.8 9.33
14 15525 169.7 9.66
16. 23392 211 10.15
18 33590 256 10.6
20 46202 305 11
24 80749 415 11.7
46.9 7
By comparison with the previous table, it can be seen that the maximum deflection condition governs throughout the ra.ngealthoughforthe limiting value of 6 mm. there is not too much difference.
********************
There remains a number of points, which, whilst relevant to the Code requirements, could not be conveniently included at the appropriate point in the discussion. These relate.primarily to the Section 1) Permitted stresses ..... A) Continuous spans The Tables derived earlier and above, have as their basis a single simply supported span; inapiperackbr pipetrack we have any spans, each identical to the ones>oneitherside. In these cases the governing bending moment occurs at the supponsartdis given by:
M
= ~
12
(consistent writs must be used)
as opposed to: M
= +~
8
ferthe simply supported span. Also for
this.case the bendingmoment at the centre is.reduced to:
M =+w.U
24
This will clearly permit some increase in theallowable span.
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RICHMOND
upON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No.4 Page: 18
b)
Overhung cQrners So far as the Piping Designer is concerned; in the absence of any specific guidance from.the Stress Engineer, he would be best advised to keep to the following "Rule ofthwnb":
..... 1
1
The combined length L 1 + L2 should not exceed 60% of the allowable spans given in the various Tables.
PLA.,J
v ItW
f1g •. 1. 6
?s.
c)
Stress Intensification Factors Cases will arise where a branch wilt join a header at some intermediate point along a span. It is a simple matter to calculate the bending moment at this branch intersection, taking into account the additional load that the branch imposes on the header; do not forget that this bending. moment gives. stresses which should be multiplied by the S.LE. appropriate to the form of the branch intersection.
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RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS LectureNQ5
Page nQJ
LIMITrNG VALUES FOR TERMrNAL FORCES Mention was made earlier that the Stress Engineer might consider that the forces which a.pipe imposes on the equipment to which it is connected as being excessive and therefore a reason for rejecting the layout. It must be realised that this rejection is unlikely to be the personal whim of the Engineer  he will merely be applying the appropriate rules. The maximum permitted. forces wilt vary with the type of equipment concerned; some of the common items of which are listed below together with the reasons for the limitations and some of the values commonly applied. CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS The pump casing is usually much stronger than. the pipe connecting to it, but quite moderate piping reactions can cause it to distort or cause misalignment between the pump and its driver resulting in an early failure of the bearings. The flexibility problem with pump piping is nearly always aggravated by the fact that, in order to reduce the pressure drop in the suction pipe, it is made one or two sizes larger in diameter than the nozzle on the pump, with a 'local' reducer at the pump. This could mean, for example, that the forces and moments associated with the flexibility of, say, an 8" diameter pipe have to be applied to a 6" diameter pump nozzle. A particularly bad case occurs in the use of chemical pumps with casings of a.synthetic material such as 'Ferrobestos'. Here. the.pump casing is very fragile but the associated piping is often carbon steel with a chemically suitable lining .. The Stress Engineer should be consulted. in all such cases before commencing any layout work. Corning to the numerical values which. apply, these usually come from one of three main sources: (1) The Pump Manufacturer The limiting values may be stated on the outline drawings or they may be indicated in the quotation documents. Manufacturers would ideally like no forces or moments applied to the flanges of their pumps and their requirements often appear to be severe. However, they are usually in a position to make concessions and it is a common practice to submit the actual values achieved by the Stress Analyst to them for approval. Bending moments equivalent to a stress of between 30 n/rnrrr' and 40 n/rnrrr' are usually accepted.
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RICHMOND QPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No 5 Page
00.2
(2)
The Purchaser of the Plant Past experience with the apparent intransigence. on the part of the manufacturer who refuses to acknowledge the magnitude of.the terminal: effects of an adequately flexible piping layout has led some of the Petrochemical Industries major operators to incorporate values for the maximum loading they are prepared to sanction. inthein own engineering standards. The Stress Engirieerthenhas to ensure thatthecHents requirements are satisfied. Esso has been one such company The present tendency, however, is to refer to the third source:
(3)
National or Institutional Standards We may take the American Petroleum Institute Standard API 610 covering 'Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Service.' as.being representative. If no other guidance is available, compliance with these standards is usually an acceptable answer to queries regarding pump nozzle loadings. This standard has recently been revised and is considerably more difficult to use. The calculated forces.and moments are compared with a table of values based on nozzle size. However if these are exceeded there are some complicated.precedures which can be seen in the appendix. A factor of 2 x.listed loads. may beapplied if.the baseplate is sufficiently stiff The logic behind the.allowable nozzle loads remains obscure. The attempts to comply with this standard may involve a large expenditure of'manhours,
STEAM TURBINES These items present considerable difficulty to the. Stress Engineer depending on the size of the machine and connecting piping .. For example, T 16 MWcentrifugaI compressor may requirea 20 MW turbine driver using steam .. t TO nlmrrF(WObar and 500°C at the in.let). a The steam may then exhaust at 52°C and fun vacuum due to the high temperature and pressure, with a flow rate of 1OO/tonslhour•.large diameter thick wall pipe will.be required. It is usual to apply the limitations of the NatiQnalElectrica.l Manufacturers AssQciation (NEMA) to this type of machine. Steam turbines may be required to operate at an inlet pressure of 20 bar g and 250°C. exhausting to l O'bar g and 200°C. Such "backpressure" turbines. usually develop kilowatts of power and are connected to relatively small diameter piping; •Both types.·ofmacmne may be required to comply with.NEMA in. the absence ofvender allowables. The allowable loads specified by NErviA are based on the diameter of individual nozzles and an equivalent diameter based OIT the combined crosssectional area of all nozzles. The
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RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS LectureNoS Pageno.3
problems associated may be minimised by early consultations between designer and Stress Engineer. The equations specified by NEMA can be found in the appendix at the back of this lecture being American they are inevitably in Imperial units, a lot of thought has gone into whether it is better to convert the paperwork to S.I units or convert the reactions to Imperial. Attached to this appendix is a standard form which the engineer can use to summate his answers.
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS The allowable nozzle loads for this type of equipment are based on the NEMP. values. The design of this type of machine is usually governed by A.P.L617 (which refers to NEMP. for allowable nozzle loads). This type of machine is not as sensitive to piping loads by comparison with steam. turbines. This is due to the fairly robust construction (associated with high pressure) and the moderate temperatures encountered. FIRED HEATERS The limiting values for applied forces and moments in the case of fired heaters will be invariably laid down by the manufacturer. Not only are the permissible stresses low; by virtue of the high metal temperatures, but restrictions are usually applied to permissible piping movements at the nozzles. particularly rotations. These restrictions arise from consideration of the clearances between the tubes and the refractory lining of the heater as well as the detail design of the gas seals. Typical restrictions. are: Forces Moments Nozzle rotations 800 to 1200 niin. nom. diarn, on header Equivalent to Sh / 4 From Yz0 to 1°
'SHELL & TUBE' TYPE HEAT EXCHANGERS Here again, the limiting values for applied forces and moments are laid down by the manufacturers. The exchanger will be designed, in alLprobability, to the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) Standards so that its shelk will have to comply with the ASME Unfired Pressure Vessel Code. 'This in tune means that there are.strictly limited values for the. stresses in the exchanger shell'.lccal to the nozzles which are attributable to the piping loads on the nozzles. The manufacturer will determine the numerical values offorces and moments which can be taken by his own. detail design. It is not generally appreciated ..bv the average designer thatthere is an "effective" stress intensification at a nozzle ofthe order of 5; that is to say that, if there is a bending stress in
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RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No 5 Page no.4
the pipe at the exchangernozzle of 35 n/rnm', then the bending stress in the exchanger shell plate adjacent to the nozzle will be in the order of 175 n/mm"
This is an approximation and if a detailed analysis is.required there are methods available. to establish the effects of piping loads on shells. FLANGE LEAKAGE Flanges are designed to remain leak free under hydrostatic. test pressure when cold and operating pressure when hot. The. normal design practice for flanges takes no account of bending moments in the pipe. Although there are margins in the design method which mean that, in practice, a flange can transmit some bending moment before it 'opens up', it.is as well to realise that this moment is often very small. Although this depends on the type of flange being considered. Some operators require that certain flanges in hazardous areas shall be checked for possible leakage, and the Stress Engineer may well ask for additional flexibility in the piping or even a rerouting where a flanged joint is located near a point of high bending moment. The code refers the user to ASME VIII but a more comprehensive analysis is available in ASME III especially with regard to high yield bolts. A definition of which can be found inANSIB16.5. See appendix for ASME III rules. PRESSURE VESSELS The usual methods of piping flexibility assume the nozzle to shell intersection to be.rigid. This can give very conservative resultsandJeadtoagross. overestimate of the terminal forces and moments, A detailed analysis includingtheeffectsofsheUflexibility may show acceptable terminalleads. Clearly. the initial layout sbeuldrrct be based on this detailed approach. At the beginning of this lecture, mention was made of the 3 choices available. to the Stress Engineer when deciding whether the flexibility ofaparticular layout is adequate. PACKAGED UNITS It has become common in recent times. for construction companies to sublet self contained units to subcontractors especially in the offshore business. Here. the contractor has to connect his pipework to a variety of connections. One method of standardising reactions is to specify to the subcontractor that he must supply anchors adjacent to thetenninal. points designed such that they not only contain. the subcontractors reactions but also the reactions from contractors pipework. The value of the reactions.are laid down in the enquiry documents. A set of typical values can be found in.the appendix to.this lecture. (a) Accepting on the basis of Past Experience
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UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No 5 Pageno.5
This statement is itself presupposes lengthy experience in.these matters, but procedure may also be adopted as.a means of reducing the volume of work on a particular project. For instance, suppose we have a pumphouse containing some 20 pumps; it may be possible to pick out the worst sets. on the basis of temperature or line diameter and then clear the remaining sets on the strength. of the calculations for the governing layouts.

(b)
Approximate Stress Analysis Methods There is a wide choice of methods available to the Stress Engineer to enable him to make an estimate of the stresses in a layout. For example, he can. idealise the shape as something simpler than that drawn for which there is a standard mathematical solution. Some problems occur with such frequency, that over the.years nomographs have been developed which give quite accurate results. Several of these methods have. already been dealt with earlier in the course. By whatever approximate method he chooses to employ, the Stress Engineer must be aware of the accuracy and.limitations of that method. Most approximate methods will give answers which err on the right side of the. line, but this is not always thecase, The use of approximate methods is sanctioned by the various. Codes.
(c)
Comprehensive Stress Analysis The dividing line between what constitutes. an approximate solution as opposed to a 'comprehensive' analysis is.none too finely drawn. The ANSI B31.3 Code states: "Acceptable comprehensive methods. ofanalysis include analytical and chart methods which provide an evaluation of the forces, moments and stresses caused by displacement strains". However, in practice, approximate or chart solutions which provide this amount of information are limited to '2 Anchor' problems; whilst it is possible to divide ill multi anchor layout into a number of'2Anchor' segments by means.of 'Imaginary anchors', such accuracy as there may have been in the data. when applied to the type of layout for which it was derived is usually lost with this subdivision process. An accurate solution of a branched system invariably demands a 'computer' solution at
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RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No 5 Pageno,6
the present time, by reason of the vast amount of arithmetic involved,  it is no longer economic to perform 'hand' calculation. Modem computer programs which will deal with piping layouts comprising a hundred. or more branches are widely available. Apart from deciding on the degree of flexibility which must be provided, the Stress Engineer must also decide when a layout warrants a formal computer analysis. If the results of an approximate trial calculation put the stresses at the upper end ofthe 'allowable' range, he may well obtain confirmation by resort to a computer solution, and alayout which would be rejected by approximate methods can sometimes be accepted following 'formal' analysis.
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1610 1/95
RICHMOND UPON THAMES
COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No 5 Page no.7
APPENDIX
Centrifugal Pump~
Table 2Nozzle Loadings
Note: Each value shown bc:10"0I0' indicates. a range from minus that value to. plus. that value; for example. ]60 indicates a range from ]60 to + 160. Nominal Force/Momenr' Each top nozzle Size of Nozzle Range (inches)
1 160 200
130
3
4
6 560 700 ]010
460
8 850 1100 700 1560 850 700. 1100 1560 1100 700 850 1560 2600 1900 1300
3500.
10 1200 1500 1000 2200 ]200 1000 1500 2200 1500 1000 1200 2200 3700 2800 1800 5000
11 1500 1800 1200 2600 1500 1200 1800 2600. 1800 1200 1500 2600 4500
3400
14 1600 2000 1300 2900 1600 1300 2000 2900 2000 1300 1600 2900 4700 3500 2300 6300
16
FY
FX
FZ FR Each side nozzle
290 160 130 200 290 200 130 160 290
340
240 300 200 430 240 200 300 430 300
200
320
400
260 570 320 260 400 570
400
1900 2300 1500
3300
FY
FX
Each end. nozzle
FZ FR
560 460 700 1010 700
460
1900 1500 2300 3300 2300 1500 1900
3300
Each nozzle
FZ FR
FY
FX
240 430 700 530
350 950
260 320 570 980 740 500 1330
560 1010 ]700 1300 870 2310
MX MY MZ MR
260 170
4«J
2200 6100
5400 4000 2700 7200
of
• F force, in. pounds; M = moment, nozzle loads (X. y, and Z).
=
in. footpounds;
R = resultant.
See. Figures 15 for orientation
Sha1t
centertine
I
L.
,, ,
... _
..,..
1
I I
y
"
,
x
z
,
Figure 1Coordinate System for the Forces and Moments in Table 2: VerticallnUne Pumps
,..... .,. '
.
Figure 2:Coordinate System tor the Forces.and Moments in Table 2: Vertical Double.Casing Pumps
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No 5 Page no,8
APPENDIX Centrifugal Pumps_(Contd)
y
y
(
4..,
.....
,
x';
JI
,.
.
:: ~_:_
I "...
\
...'
~
1
",""
....
,
\
""'
..'
'X" (',
/.
~.. ,
.• <".'
cee',
\?\
",,0
I
1
" \
~
'
".,\\
"
.....
"
" ....
/
,
'
...\.,
\
• '"
• ..
'"
\1'"'''' ... "1';~'
I
~.
.... ,tf
/
•
J'
........... I
I
I
.

.."
.. .. 'I
peoestal)
centernne
Figure 3Coordinate System for the Forces and Moments in Table 2: Horizontal Pumps With Side Suction and Side Discharge Nozzles
y
Figure 5Coordinate System for the Forces and Moments in Table 2: Horizontal. pumps With Top Nozzles
z
'"
._,
....~,.r;.... /,. .. , ,
.... " ~
y ... ...
",,,
"
"1"""C....__ /
x
.~ I,
..
><.. "" ,' ....
II
,
"
II"
,. ~~
..
.. ....
, ('
I
.
.~
t.•,,,.'
.. '..
...........
Pedestal
Figure 4COordinate System for the Forces and Moments in Table 2: Horizontal Pumps. With End SUction and Top. Discharge Nozzles
!DTonyIP07141JCS/cusIDmcr
dislSoc,Scrvic:cslI6l01f95
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLE.GE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No 5
Pageno,9
APPENDIX
Centrifugal Pumps_(Contd.) APPENDIX FCRITERIA F.1 Horizontal Pumps FOR PIPING DESIGN
MRC", MXC",
= [(MX
=
F.1.1 Acceptable piping configurations should not cause excessive misalignment between the pump and driver. Piping configurations that produce component nozzle loads that lie within the ranges. specified in Table 2 will limit casing distortion to onehalf the pump vendor's design. criterion (see 2.2.8) and will ensure pump shaft displacements. of less than 0.010 inch. F.l.2 Piping configurations that produce loads outside the ranges specified in Table 2 are also acceptable without. consultation with the. pump vendor, provided the conditions specified in El.l.1 through. F.l.l'] are satisfied. Satisfying these conditions will ensure that any pump casing distortion will be within the vendor's design. criteria. (see 2.2.8) and that the displacement. of the pump shaft will be less. than 0.015 inch.
component forces and moments ac:ting on each pump nozzle flange. shall not exceed. the range specified in. Table 2 by a factor of more than 2__
MYCA
=
C",) , + (MYC",f,.. (.\1ZC",ir. MXS.~ + MXOA  [(FrS,~J (;:5) :;(FYO ...) (.: OJ  (FZS~) (yS)  (FZDA) (vO)]!!:!_ MYS ...+ MYD ..... [(FXSA) (=5) + (FXD ..) (;:D)  (FZSA) (.(5)  (FZD ..) (.(D)]1I2.

MZC ...=MZS ... + MZOA
[(FXS ..) (v S)
.,..(FXOA)(yD)  (FYSd(xS)  (FrO,,) (xD)]1l2_
F.'.3 Piping configurations that produce loads greater than those allowed. in FLI or F.l.2 shall be mutually approved by the purchaser and the. vendor.
F.2
Vertical InLine Pumps
F.l.2.1
The individual
F.1.2.2 The resultant applied force (FRS .... ERDA) , and the resultant applied moment (MRSA, MRDA) act'ng. on each. pump nozzle flange. shall satisfy the appro;riate interaction equation. (Equations. Fl and F2). (FRSA/I.5FRSnJ + (MRS ... /1.5MRSn) s2 (FRDA/1.5FRDnl + (MRD,,/1.5MRD·n)s2 F.l.2.3
(Fl) (F2)
Vertical inline pumps that are supported only by the attached piping may be subjected to component piping loads that are more than double the values. shown in Table 2,. provided these loads do not cause a principal stressgreaterthan6000poundspersquareinc:hineither nozzle. For calculation. purposes, the section properties of the pump nozzlesshaU be. based on SchedUle 40 pipe whose nominal size is equal to that of the appropriate pump nozzle. Equations. F..o,. F7, and F&can be used to evaluate principal stress, longirudinalstress,. and shear stress, respectively, in the nozzles. S
= (a/2)
+ (rr/4 +r2)Y.I< 6000
(F6)
The applied component forces and. moments acting on. each. pump nozzle flange must be translated and. resolved to the center of the pump. The magnitude of the resultant applied force (FRC,,), the resultant applied moment (MRCA),. and. the applied. Z moment (MZCA) shall be limited. by Equations F3,. F4. and FS. (l"he. sign. convention shown in Figures 35 and the righthand rule should be used in. evaluating these equa
a
= [1.27FZ/(Do2
 DI~ + [l22Do(MX2 + My2)Y.I]1 (Do·  D,") (F~7) (FB)
r = [61Do (MZ)J (Do'  DI4)]
+ [1.27 (FX2 + FY1)Y.lJI(Do2  D,:)
tions.) ERC"
MZCA
c l.S(FRSn + FRDn) < 2.O(MZ Sn+ MZDn)
(F;'3) (F4)
Note: FX. FY, FZ. MX. MY. and MZ represent !he applied loads acting 00. !he suction or di$charge nozzles. The suffiXesS" and 0 ... have been omitted to simplify !he equations. Tbesign of FZ. is positive if the load puts the nozzle in tension; the sign is negativei£!he load puts. !he nome in compression•.One must refer 10 Figure 1 and. !he applied nome loadstodetennine whether thenozzleis ill·. tecsion or compression ..The absolute value of MZ should be used 10. Equation
rs,
MRC" < 1.5(MRSn+ MRDn) ''here: FRC = [(FXC )2 + (FYCAl + (FZC J2JY.I. FXCA. = FXSA + FXDA• EYCA = FYS ..... FYD". + FZCA. = FZSA + FZD".
A A A
(F;'5)
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture NQ5 PagenQ.IQ
APPENDIX Centrifugal Pump§_(Contd.)
F.3 Nomenclature
C = center of the pump, as. defined by the intersection. of the pump shaft centerline and the. support pedestal centerline (see. Figures 35). D == discharge nozzle. DI = inside. diameter of Schedule 40 pipe whose nominal size is equal to that of the pump nozzle in question, in inches. Do = outside. diameter of Schedule 40 pipe whose nominal size is equal to that of the pump nozzle in. question, in inches. F = force, in pounds. FR = resultant force. (FRS" and FRD" are calculated by the squarerootofthesumofthesquares method using the applied component forces acting on the nozzle flange .. FRSn and FRDn are extracted from Table 2. using the appropriate nozzle. size.) M = moment, in footpounds. MR resultant moment. (MRS" and MRD ... are calculated. by .the square ..rootcfthesumofthesquares method. using the applied component moments acting on the. nozzle. flange. MRSn and MRDn are extracted from Table 2 using the appropriate nozzle size.) . S = suction. nozzle. S principal stress, in pounds per square inch • .r, y, z = location. coordinates of the. nozzle flanges with.rcspeetto the center of the pump. X, Y, Z = direction of the loads (see. Figures. 35}. longitudinalstress,.in.p<>unds>persquare
=
=
(]'=
T
= shear
inch.
stress, in pounds per square inch. from Table 2.
Subscript. A Subscript T2
= applied. loads. = loads extracted
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d,slScc.Servicei
16101/95
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS
Lecture No 5
Page no.II
APPENDIX
Stearn Turbines
9.4.6.
Allowable Forces and Moments on Steam Turbines
The forces and moments acting on steam turbines due to the steam inlet, extraction. and exhaust connections should be limited by the following:
904.6. t The total resultant force and total resultant moment imposed on the turbine at any connection should not exceed the values per Equation 1.
FR
where: Fe = Combined resultant of inlet, extraction, and exhaust forces, in pounds. Me = Combined resultant of inlet, extraction, and exhaustmoments, ~d moments resulting from forces, in. pound ...eet. f D, = Diameter (in inches) of a circular opening equal to the total areas of the inlet, extraction, and exhaustopenings up to a value of9 inches.in.diameter. For values beyond this. use a value of D, equal. to:
(18
+
M~
=
167 D,
(Equation
I)
+ Equivalent diameter) = inches
3
where: FR = Resultant force (pounds) including pressure forces where unrestrained. expansion.joints are. used at the connection except on vertical exhausts. Full vacuum
b. The components (Figure 912) of these resultants should not exceed:
F.. Fy
F.
= = =
50 D, 125 Dc
100 De
M.. My M.
= 250
=
= 125 o,
D, 125 Dc
load is allowed on vertical down exhaust flanges, It is not included as part of the piping load from Figure 9·12:
The components are. as. follows: F..
= Horizontal = =
Fy
Mit
=
F. Resultant moment in footpounds, from Figure
components of Fe:parallel to the turbine shaft. Vertical component of Fc. Horizontal component of F, at right. angles. to the. turbine shaft.
912.
I M.. =
.
_
D.
=
Nominal pipe size of the connection in inches up to 8 inches. in diameter. For sizes greater than this, use a. value of D..
My
M.
= =
Component of Me around [he horizontal axis parallel to [he turbine shaft. Component of Me around (he vertical axis. ~omponent of Me. around the horizontal axis at nght angles to the turbine shaft.
Authorized. Engineering .lntormation 11141985 .
=
(16 +D"o ...) Inches 3
9.4.6.2 The combined resultants of the forces and moments of the inlet, extraction, and.. xhaust connections, e resolved at the cenrerlines of the exhaust connection should not exceed. the values per Equation. 2. . a. These resultations shall not exceed: F,
=
_2_5_O_D..::.c__·
..:.;.M.:.:=..
2
(Equation. 2)
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No 5 Page no.12
APPENDIX Steam. Turbines (Contd)
9>4.6.3 For installation of turbines with a. vertical. exhaust and an unrestrained expansion joinrat the exhaust. an additional amount of force caused by pressure loading is.allowed. (This additional force is perpendicular to the face of the exhaust flange and centrale) For this type of application. calculate the vertical force component on the exhaust connection excluding pressure loading. Compare this with one sixth of [he pressure loading on the exhaust. Use the larger of these two numbers for vertical force component on. the exhaust connection in making calculations outlined in 9.4.6.1 and 9..+.6.2. The force caused by the pressure loading on the exhaust is allowed in addition to the values. established by the foregoing up to a maximum value of vertical force in pounds on the exhaust connection (including pressure loading) of 151Jztimes the exhaust area in square inches.
9.4.604 These values of allowable. force and moment pertain to the turbine. structure only. They do.rrot; pertain to the forces and moments in. the connecting piping. flange. and flange bolting. which should not exceed the allowable stress as defined by applicable codes and regulatory bodies.
Authorized Engineering. Information 11141985.
VERTICAL RIGHT ANGLE TO TURBINE SHAFT
y+
/
_s_
x+
M,.
PARALLEL TURBINE
TO
SHAFT
z+
Figure 912 COMPONENTS OF FORCES AND MOMENTS ON TURBINE CONSTRUCTION
RICHMOND UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture NoS Pageno ..13
APPENDIX Steam Turbines. (Contd.)
ATTAC~ED
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RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture NoS Page no.14
APPENDIX
NC~3658
Analysis of flanged ..Joints
flanged joints. shall be.analyzed for compliance. with one. of the following SUbparagraphs. NC3658.1 Any Flanged JoinL Flanged joints may be. analyzed and the stresses evaluated. by using the methods. given in Appendix XI as modified by (a) through. (d) below, or by (e) below. Alternatively, they may be. analyzed in accordance with Appendix XIII. (a) The. Design Pressure used. for the. calculation of H in. Appendix XI shall be replaced by a flange. design pressure Pro=P+P.., where P= Design. or Service Condition. Pressure as defined in NCA2.l40,. psi Pnt= equivalent pressure to. account for the moments applied. to. the. flange. joint during the Condition, psi The equivalent pressure Pnt. shall. be determined by the equation
where P is. the Design. or Service Pressure as. defined in. NCA2140. Other terms. are defined. in XI·3lJD. (d) The allowable stress limits. shall be: SH not grater than 1.5S
SR not. greater than 1.5S Sr not greater than. 1.5S
(e) If the flanged joint conforms to one of the. stan. dards listed in Table NC·3132·1, and if each. Pm as calculated by (a) is. less than the rated pressure at the: Design or Service Temperature utilized, the. requirements of NC·3658 are satisfied.
NC~365g.2 Standard
Flanged. Joints at Moderate
Pressures and Temperatures •.flanged joints conforming to ANSI B16.5. MSSSP44, API 605. or AWWA
C207 Class E (275 psi);. and used ..where neither the Design Dor Service Pressure exceeds 100 psi. and neither the Design nor Service Temperature. exceeds 2cxrF, meet the requirements of NC·3658. provided the following equation. is. satisfied:
where and
and G=d.iameter at. location. of gasket load. reaction as defined. in XI·3130. in. (h) Equations ..(3) and. (4) in.. I3223 shall be. used X to. establish minimum bolt area required. using. allowable stress values. given. in Table. 1.7.3. (e) Equation (6) in XI3240 for longitudinal hub stress shall be revised to include the. primary axial membrane stress as. follows:
where the definitions. of Mjs. and. Mjd are. as in NC365S.1 above, and Ab = total crosssectional area of. bolts at root of thread. or section of least diameter under stress, sq. in. C=bolt circle diameter. in. s= allowable bolt stress, psi
.:
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No 5 Pageno.15
APPENDIX
MId
S [11.250A.  (1T/16)D/P/dJC(S,/36)
(17
ANSI B16.5 Flanged. Joints With. High Strength. Bolting .. Flangedjoints using flanges •.bolting. and gaskets. as. specified. in ANSI B16.5 and. using bolting material having an S value at lOO"F not. less than 20.000 psi may be analyzed in accordance. with the following rules, (a) Design Limits and Levels A and B Service Limits (1) The limitations given by Eqs. (12) and (13) shall be met:
NC3658.3
where:
Pjd
Mid.
Dr
.= pressure
outside diameter of raised. face. in. concurrent with .!,f/d' psi
(12) where Mfs = bending or torsional moment (considered separately) applied to the joint. due to weight. thermal. expansion of the piping. sustained anchor movements. relief valve steadystate thrust. and other sustained. mechanical loads. in.lb. If cold springing is used. the moment may be. reduced to the extent. permitted by NC3673.5. Sy = yield strength •.ksi, of flange material at Design Temperature (Table. 12.2). The value of S)'I 36 shall not be taken as greater than unity. C= diameter of bolt circle. in. Ab=total crosssectional area. of bolts at root of thread or section of least diameter under stress. sq in. Mj~. S 62S0(S,,/36)CA. where
Mft/= bending or torsional moment (consideredsep
C. Syo the limitation on SyI36 •. and AI> are defirred in (a) above:. (3) Pipetoflange welds shall be evaluated by Eq, (9) of NC3652.2. using a. stress. limit of I.8S". (c) Level D Service Limits (I) The: pressure shall not exceed 2.0 times the Design Pressure. (2) The limitation given by Eq, (17) shall be met. where. Pld and MId are pressures, psi. and moments. in.Ib •.occurring concurrently. (3) Pipetoflange welds shall be evaluated by Eq. (9) of NC3652.2. using a. stress limit of 2.4 Sh' (d) Test Loadings. Analysis for test loadings is not required.
(13)
arately) as defined for Mft but including dy· namic loadings, in.Ib (2) Flanges. of ANSI Bl65 flanged. joints meeting the. requirements of NC3612.1 are: not required. to be analyzed under NC~3650. However, the pipetaBange Welds. shall meet the requirements of NC~3652 •. using' appropriate stress intensification factors from Fig. NC;' 3673.2(b}1. (b) Level C Service Limits (I)_The pressure shall not exceed 1.5 times the Design Pressure. (2) The limitation given by Eq. (17) shall be. met:
IDTonylP07
14f1CSlcuslDmcr
dislScc.Sorvic:csl
1610 1195
RICHMOND UPON THAMES
COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No 5 Page 00,16
APPENDIX Packaged Units
Maxi.:m.Im. a.liCJllorlable ozzle n
loads
for pressure
v~]
s, .Columns an::i she.ll/t:t1be
type e:xx::::hangers.,
Nanen:::lature
an:i for
t.ermi.nal. oozzles· on skid units.
, _
,
Axis A
is
the nozzle.
centre line to axis. A
Axis E an::i FA' FE MA, FR am.
c
are
m.rt:lJally perperdia.J.lar ~ ~. alla..rable allONable
am. ~
Fe are
forces
lIUlElIts
(N)
Ms. ani Me••are
(Nm)
liCnElIt
are resultant Force (N) ani resultant
(Ntn)
Flarqa
rat.i.ng
in. accordan:::e 'With ANSI. B.16.5, e:xr:ept where. 2500# in
In. this case an. equivalent. loads. wall thickness has
excess of 12 in. n.b.
been u.sed to.
derive. alla..rable
NOzzle
size (in) 1.5"
Flange Ratirq
150
FA
725 970. 970. 970. 1,280. 1,.280. 1,0.0.0. 1,0.00 1,485 1,.485 1, 800 1, 800 1,510. 1,510. 2,045 2,855 3,70.5 3,70.5
FB,
FC
FR. 1,.450 1,935 1,.935 1,.935 2,545 2,545 2,000 2,000 2,975 2,.975 3,600 3,600 3,0.20. 3,0.20. 4,085 5,710. 7,40.5 7,40.5
MA
200 245 245 245 290. 290. 350 350 470. 470. 530. 530. 825 825 1,0.70. 1,.380. 1,.. 645 1,.645
Ma, Me
140. 170. 170. 170. 200 200 250. 250 335 335 375 375 585 585 755 975 1,.160. 1,160.
Ma
280. 345 345 345 40.5 40.5 495 495 665 665 750. 750. 1,170. 1,170. 1,510.. 1,955 2,325 2,325
300 600 90.0. 150.0. 250.0. 150. 30.0. 600 900 150.0. 250.0. 150. 30.0. 600 900. 1500 250.0.
CllSI:;cc.:tcrvacc::st 'OfU fry;)
885 1,.185 1,185 1,.185 1,565 1,565 1,.225 1,225 1,.820. 1,820.; 2,20.5 2,20.5 1,850. 1,850 2,500 3,500 4,535 4,535
2"
3"
IDTonylP0714flCSlcussomer
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No:5 Pageno.17
APPENDIX

Packaged Units (Contd.) Nozzle
Fla.rqe Rat.ing
Size (in.) 4"
150. 30.0. 600 900 150.0. 250.0. 150. 300 600 900 150.0. 250.0. 150. 30.0. 600 900 1500 250.0. 150. 30.0. 600 900 1500 250.0. 150. 30.0.
600
2,150. 2,150. 2,985 3,785 5,450. 5,450. 3,780.
4,600
2,63.52,635 3,655 4,640. 6,720. 6,720. 4,630. 5,630. 6,975 8,880. 12,975 13,150. 6,970. 7,425 8,700 14,820. 19,600 21,880. 9,880. 13,360. 15.730. 21,795 28,0.75 33,250. 12,10.0. 13,0.65 21,635 30.,630. 40..,330. 46,0.85 13,320. 15,485 25,90.5 36,80.5 51,235 74,940. 15,275 20.,200 33,345 46,965 63,795 90.,815
4,~CO 4,30.0. 5,940. 7,575 10.,975" 10.,975(. 7,560. 9,200. 11,390. 14,50.5 21,185 21,.475 ll,38D 12,125 14,20.5 24,200 32,005 35,725 16,135 21,820. 25,680. 35,595 45,845 54,30.0. 19,755 21,335 35,330. 50,0.20. 65,860. 75,255 21,795 25,285 42,30.0. 60.,095 83,665 122,370. 24,940. 32,985 54,445 76,690. 104,170. 148,290.
!,54C
6"
,
1,540. 2,0.50 , 2,485 3,260. 3,260. '4,0.75 4,860 5,865 7,185 9,60.5 9,700
1,090. l,09G1,450. 1,760 2,30.5 2,30.5 2,880. 3,440. 4,145 5,080. 6,795 6,860 5,385 5,710. 6,595 10.,455 13,0.20. 14,110. 9,0.20. ll,895 13,760 18,210. 22,315 25,315
2,180. 2,180. 2,90.0. 3,515 4,610. 4,610. 5,765 6,880. 8,295 10.,160. 13,585 13,720. 10., no. 1l,42D 13,190. 20.,910. 26,045 28,215 18,040. 23,780. .. 27,520. 36,425 44,630. 50.,625 24,780. 26,630. 42,200 56,925 70.,940. 78,340.
5,695 7,250. 10.,595 10.,711.0 5,690. 6,0.60. 7,100 12,100. 16,005 17,865 8,0.70. 10.,910. 12,840. 17,795 22,920. 27,150. 9,880. 10.,665 17,665 25,0.10. 32,930. 37,630. 10.,875 12,.640. 21,150.. 30.,0.50. 41,830.. 61.,.185 12,470. 16,495 27,225 38,345 52,0.85 74,145
8"
7,615 8,0.75 9,325 14,785 18,415 19,950 12,755 16,820. 19,460 25,755 31,555 35,800
10."
12"
900 150.0. 2500. 14" 150. 300 600. 1500. 2500. 16" 150.
300
17,520. 12,390. 18,830. 13,315 29,840.. 21,100 40.,250. 28,460 50.,160. 35,470. 55,395 39,170. 19,870. 22,895 36,635 49,580. 64,465 83,345 24,340. 31,700 50,125 67,40.5 86,180. llQ,400
900
28,100 14,0.50 32,375 16,200 51,810. 25,90.5 70.,115 35,0.60. 91,170. 45,585 117,870. 58,935 17,215 34,425 44,830. • 22,415 70.,890. 35,445 95,325 47,660 60.,940. 121,880. 78,0.65 156,130.
600
900
2500
1500.
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture NQ 5 Page no.18
APPENDIX Packaged Units (Contd.)

Nozzle
18"
Size (in)
Flange Rat..irg
.~. 14,065 20,855 34.,060 48,650 65,855 93,195 13,925 21,81.0 37,005 52,505 67,1.75 99,1.25 13,420 22,11.0 38,865 54,795 74,895 107,155 1.2,570 22,755 39,400 57,040 76,260 108,905 17,230 25,545 41,715 59,585 80,660 114,140 17,055 26,71.5 45,320 64,305 82,275 1.21,405 16,435 27,080 47,600 67,11.0 91,840 131,245 15,395 27,870 48,255 69,865 92,405 133,390 28,;!30 ~28,665 41,630 41,715 65,210 68,1.20 97,295 88,770 131,710" ill,180 186,385' 144,465 27,850 43,620 74,005 105,010 134,345 198,250 26,840 44,21.5 77,730 109,585 149,970 214,310 25,140 45,510 78,800 114,085 152,520 217,810 " 32,640 50,020 81,250 110,055 134,465 178,055 36,090 58,120 97,650 131,605 169,585 218,390 38,825 68,475 113,445 156,400
1.97,660
150 300 600 900 1500 2500
150
20,270 ~0,535 29,43.S 58,870 46,llO 92,220 62,770 1.25,540 80,030 160,065 102,1.55  204,310 23,080 35,370 57 ,455 77,820 95,085 125,905 25,520 41,100 69,050 93,060 119,91.5 154,425 27,450 48,420 80,220 llO,590 139,770 179,995 46,165 70,745 ll4,91.0 155,645 190,165 251,810 51,040 82,200 138,100 186,1.20 239,830 308,855 54,905 96,840 160,440 221,180 279,535 359,990
20"
300 600 900 1500 2500
150
22"
300 600 900 1500 2500 150 300 600 900 1500 2500
)
24n
254,550
lDTonyIP071411CS1oustomer
dislScc.SttViccsll6101195
RICHMOND UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No6
Page:l
In this lecture we will look at the use of computers in Piping Stress Analysis First however we have to decide where our priorities lie. Before starting any contract the Stress Engineer should establish the following environmental. values. .Ambient Temperatures Any differential settlements Wind Loading Earthquake considerations
Following this the Stress Engineer should establish the contractual requirements as follows Code of practice and revision applicable. Design Life of the plant Any areas where pipework is expected to exceed 7000 thermal cycles.
The Stress Analyst will normally be asked to review a piperack or an area! module. If we consider the area/module we find that it contains piping of many sizes and temperatures some associated with the equipment in the area, some literally passing through on their way to another module/area. The first thing to do is to identify the equipment and then to establish the conditions of the pipework. One method would be to obtain a copy of the associated studies or General Arrangement drgs. Note it pays to mark or stamp these documents with something that identifies them as belonging to the stress section, they have been known to disappear. It'alse pays to add the date the document was received. In these days of quality control auditors are always looking for this type of information.
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No 6
Page:2
On these mark up each pipe above, say 4", with the following information design temperatures pressures fluid  liquid or gas insulation Some typical examples would look something like this. A steam line 250110/V/40 meaning 250° C at lObar with 40mm thick insulation A cooling water line 100/5/L/O meaning 100° C at 5 bar with no insulation
A process line. 19550/50/L1l 00 meaning 195° to 50° C at 50 bar with 1OOmmthick insulation
Having identified an the equipment and the conditions of the pipework we must consider the supports. Are there any? are they in the best locations for our pipework and are there enough. Any recommendations are. best marked on in red in locations. approximately to scale making sure access is not denied and equipment fouled. The next problem is where do we start. Well there are one or two obvious places  they are first turbines and then centrifugal compressors. As has been discussed before they are probably the most strain sensitive equipment we are likely to encounter. We must therefore analyse this pipework for potential reroureing, the addition of any expansion devices and add any necessary spring supports, stops, guides, and anchors to limit strains at the machinery. Pumps are the next likely cause for concern, they too are vulnerable with their close tolerance moving parts.
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS
Lecture No6 Page:3
Pipework
associated
with distillation columns can be a problem on are to be anticipated
two
counts.
1. Large vertical movements
in the order of IS0mm
2. Supports from the column will have to be designed "up front" as the pipe support design can have an impact on the column design. There will be some pipework where by virtue of its. size and or temperature assess it by visual and or approximate methods. one can
Having established the order in which the remaining pipework is to be undertaken, the next task is to collate all the data necessary to complete a full analysis ... This is best undertaken with a STRESS SKETCH. Normally drawn in isometric form on a standard sheet this document will show relevant information such as temperatures and pipe support locations but without the non essential information such as vents, drains and instrument connections. See example attached. This document would preferably show the X, Y,Z sign convention instead of a North Arrow. It is however preferable to establish a common orientation for this documentation at the beginning of a contract with say North being X and showing this on the STRESS SKETCH. There is one major exceptions to this rule, where the pipework connects to pumps, compressors or turbines where allowable loadirrgsare quoted in accordance with API 610 or NEMA 23, then always oriental the pipework such that the horizontal centreline of the shaft lies on the X axis. The STRESS SKETCH can be produced from studies, General Arrangement Drawings or Isometrics. Whatever is used it should be the latest information available. In fact if it from Isometrics. the it is preferable to attach copies. of these documents to the STRESS SKETCH as some.indication ofthe.source ofthe material.
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS
Lecture No 6
Page:4
The following data and where the change should be included on the STRESS SKETCH or associated. documents and will be included in computer inputs. Line size, Wall thickness, corrosion allowance, manufacturers tolerance.
Material and material specification changes identified. Temperature and pressure from Line List or Process Data Sheets (state source and whether they are design or operating) Flange rating PUlowable Stress(es) Nozzle movements with some sort Of sketch to show how they were obtained (remember a picture tells a thousand words) Valve weights Tees specified correctly (stub ins, reinforced or forged) Density of fluid. Insulation thickness and density
Design Cases and other cases to be properly identified. Supports.  locations, type and other special. considerations. Earthquake Hydrostatic Differential considerations. test if applicable settlement
Relief and Bursting Disc reactions And anything else relevant
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No 6
Page:S
The Data Input for the software CAESAR
2.
There are several steps required to perform a. static analysis as listed in fig 3 1 below START CAESAR II SPECIFY 6EttERATE JOBttAHE IttPUT
PERFORM ERROR CHECKING EXECUTE STATIC ANALYSIS
REVIEW OUTPUT
Figure 3.1. Steps. Necessary to Perform Static Analysis
Once started CAESAR takes the user to the main menu as shown in fig 3.2 below
CAESAR II Pipe. Stress Anal~si$
Directory: E: ,CAESAR JOB.: JACKET 1 Z 3
.q
Inpu.t Statics DynlS11ics Output. Jobn3Me
A B
Structural Input Buried Pipe. Input
URC 1B7
C
D
URC Z97.SIFS. Flanges EquiPH8nt Check~
7 utilities B S
Exit t.o.OOS Configuresetup
5 6
Files/JohnaHe
E
G AISC.Unity Checks
tt
r
z"""n Plot.ting.
J )
I ASCII Utt.or
Change; unit.s
Systen. Check
OPTION <7Help)
II
COADE. INTERNAL ESL
Figure 8.2. Main. Menu
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No6
Page:6
There are several other option to chose from Listed as A thro to J covering such topics as Structural input and Buried Pipe input.
Overview of the Main Menu
The CAESAR n MAIN MENU shown In. Figure 3.2, appears whenever the program is started. Below the heading (showing the version name,job name, wormgdirectory, and current date) there are nineteen menuoptionsttom which to choose ttom.Thefollowmg discussion provides a brief summary of each.option. and provides references to.other related chapters. Additionally, a discu.ssionofthethreemost..com:rn:o:nlyusedk:eys (IiEnte:r],[Escl, and [?]) in. CAESAR n concludes this seetion,
I· Input
Choosing this. option will invoke the piping preprocessor. This option. creates and edits piping models. (Refer to. Chapter 4 for detailed information.) the static analysis of the piping system. Chapte:r5discussesilieloadcasedefinitioIlSand the.analysis,andChapter6discussestheoutputresults. The Dynamics option allows the entry of loads which cause a dynamic imbalance in. a system, such as fluid hammeror:eartb.quakeloading. Chapters7andSdiscu.ss the. dynamic processor. CAESAR n produces several types. of output, such. as static; static animation, dynamic eigensolution.. mode shapes, etc. This • option ..allows the user to select .the particular output.helshewishes to:rev.iew~ The file handler allows the user to. select, ..copy, or delete jobs .. A completed.iscussionof:the file handler isincluded in Chapter 12. Allows the. user to select an existingjohorname a ne.wjob.
This option performs
2· Statics
3 . Dynamics
4· Output
5 • FiIeslJobname
6 Jobname 7  Utilities
Accesses the UTILITIES MENU which. includes such options as accounting. unit conversion, largejob printing. external interfaces, etc. Chapter 12 discusses each. of the utilities options. Terminates the CAESAR II program. This option allows the configuration to be tailored. Chapter 2 discusses the initial configuration, and Chapter 2 of the Technical Reference Manual discusses the detailed configura}.ion.
8 . Exit to DOS
9  ConfigurelSetup
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No 6 Page:7
Key Strokes [Enter] This key accepts the default and continues on to the next .creen display [Esc] [?] The Start Looking at fig 3.2 will show that line" 6 Jobname " you wont be able to start vithout one. Limited to six digits. This key backs out of the current operatron one step at a tune. This Key activates the help facility
From here go to " 1  INPUT" and from which the following menu is shown.
DX
1
3 ft.
FROM TO
NODE NODE
la.
5.
DY DZ
RES.TRAIHTS (Y/M) DISPLACEMEliTS (Y/N) FORCES/MOr1EHTSC Wlt) LtH FORM UIADS (Y/N) UIND. LOADS (Y/N) OFFSETS ( Y/H)
DIAMETER
UT/SCH
INSUL THK
CORROSION BEND(B/Y/N) RIGID ('l:'/H) EXP J.T( 'l:'/N)
lZ.758e. .saBB Z.BBBe
Y N N
MATERIAL: (Z) HIGH CARBON STEEL
Alt.I:
Cont. Fnd Ins Del Break Titl
Plot
Lst Hgr ualve
exp.Jt.l<aux
7.help. IJpct.J:ltOUi.t
Figure 3.3.. Typical Input. Spreadsheet
The spread sheet starts with "From Node" to "To Node" a new branch occurs whenever the following takes place. Changes to Pipe size I wall thickness/contents linsulation Changes to Direction At tees At Supports
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No 6 Page:8
Changes to temperatures Changes to stresses
and pressures
The node numbers can be any from 1 to 32768, but it best to select the numbers in graduations of 5, ie 5 10 15 etc .. This will allow the user to add intermediate nodes such as 6 7 8 11 12 13 etc. Valid entries in the first 2 cols. are numbers and [YJ (yes) and [N] (no) A complete rundown of the input can be found in section 4 of the CAESAR manual, the main features of which are listed at the end of this lecture. Once the first spreadsheet has been completed press [ Enter] key to get to a spreadsheet for the next "element" It will be seen that some of the datais duplicated foreword, to be edited only if required. ie Temperature. Having completed the "model" go to the next function by pressing [Esc] key This will take the user to QUIT NfENlJ shown in fig 3.5 below It should be noted that only functions 0, 1, 2, and 4, will save the data
PIPING OUIT MENU
Jobnal'1e=TUTOR
a
Nel.J JOBNAME for
?Ctl ..
late~.t c.ltcnges.
.
. . 1  S:.art.
 <cr> TO SELECT
Z  Ba.tch Hun 3  RETURN to EDIT 4  EXI.T Editor ( Saye changes)
5  EXIT Editor ( Forget. changes ,
6  Forge.t. changes. READ in another inpu.t. rile
7  File. Archive / Unarchive ENTER OPTI.DI'I>
Figure
3.5. Piping Preprocessor QUIT MENU
RICHMOND UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS .ANALYSIS
LectureNo6
By selecting 1 Start Run and any warnings. A typical message screen appears in fig 4.20 below.
It II
Pa2e:9 an Error Checker starts which will.list any fatal errors
WARNIN~ 38
On el ement 1 to. 5 a NONZERO INSULATION THICKNESS has been specH1 ed and the Irtsul ation dens! ty 1s: ZERO or UNDEFINED. UsIng default of .006655 lb./cu.. In. for CaJcfu~ Silicate.
OPTIONS: 1 2 3 4 5 6 SEND ABOVE ERROR MESSAGE TO THE PRINTER SEND ALL ERROR MESSAGES TO THE PRINTER RESTART ERROR PROCESSING FROM THE BEGINNING SHOW ONLY FATAL ERRORS (NO WARNINGS) RETURN TO THE SPREADSHEET PREPROCESSOR RETURN TO THE CAESAR II MAIN [Esc)
ENTER OPTION ) [cr) OR [space bar] TO CONTINUE TERMINAL ERROR DISPLAY
Figure 4.20. Warning Message Screen
Various options are available with each note, warning, or fatal error message screen. Users may restart error processing, return to the input processor, return to the main menu, print the message, or continue the error checking. Note the [Enter] key is pressed to continue error checking. After all the messages are displayed and tallied, and if no fatal errors were found, the screen shown in fig. 4.21 appears as shown below.
PIPING. ERROR PROCESSING COMPLETED: FATAL ERRORS WARNINGS HOTES OPTIONS: 1 2 3 4 WARNING MESSAGES ARE O.K •• GENERATE EXECUTION FILES FOR THIS PART (default) RETURN TO THE PIPE SPREADSHEET PREPROCESSOR RETURN TO THE CAESAR II HAIN PROGRAH MENU RESTART ERROR PROCESSING FROM THE BEGINNING O. 1 Z
ENTER OPTION )
Figure
4.21 •. Error Check: Summary
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No 6 Pa~e:lO
to
For both successful or unsuccessful checking the user is returned fig. 3.2.
the main menu
Once success has been achieved a Static Analysis can be starred from the Main Menu by going to " 2 Static's" and pressing the [Enter) key.
CAESAR
II
IHCORE
SOl.l.lTIOf1 11ODUL£
OPT IOKS: Fl  Abort Solution Module F2  S.ingle Step. Thru R.est.r"illnt.s F3  Change. Friction Toler.ances F4  Send. Restraint Status to Printer (Fn Requests s::erviC2a it£t.er each bsk)
JOBHAME ••••••••••• EQUAUOI1S •••••••••
BAHDUIDIH •••.•.•..
CURREtfl' CASE ••.•.. TOTAL. CASES ••.•.•. lTEAATIOt! ELAPSED ..•...•.. ...•.
HAt1t!ER 188 12 2 2 2
, B:
STATUS:
He. He n11 fleilr R.estrai nt.s ....•... Solution Core U:s;:e (%) ••••••••..•
11
TII1E
e:
3
2
I>eCOP1position
FOnlard/B.ack SUbstitution
Figure 3.6. Static. Solution. Status Screen Once completed the screen will change to Static Output Menu fig 3.7 below here the operator can select or add to the Load Cases, select the type of report required. and the destination of the report, disc, screen or printer.
LOAD CASES AMAL~ZED
1 Z
REPORT OPTIONS
B DISPLACEMENTS
I/O. DESTINATION
COPE)U+Tl+Pl+FDR (SUS)U+Pl+fOR 3 (EXP)D3=Di:DZ
A"PLOTTED RESULTS
OPTIONS
c.
JU:S'tRAIHTS DRESTRAINTSUMMA~ E GLOBAL ELEMHT FORCES F LOCAL. ELEMHT FORCE:s G STRE:SSES tt SDR'TED STRESSES I HANGER TABLE J HANGER TABLE/iEXT
L DEUlt:.E
M DEUIer
13ZCDLUMH SBYCOLUI'1H
OUTPUT UHITS
mGLISH
MISCELLANEDUS OPTIONS
N ENTER REPORT TITLE
D ll'iPlI'l' WiD P RENAME I/O
DEUICE
flAc:tiYl:lta
Options
fZ~rn~ructions
F~Ret.urn
to
Input
FIaReturn
to
Main
Figure 3..7. Static Output Menu
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS Lecture No 6 Page:ll
Spreadsheet Data ( a summary of the Caesar manual instructions)
FROM HODE TO HODE
D'f DZ
(1)
DX
(Z)
DIAMETER CORRDSIDI'I RIGID
UT/SCH HiSUL THK
(3)
BEHDC E/y/N) ('f/'N) EXP .IT( 't/'N)
H H H
(oot)
MATERIRL:
(5)
AltC
Cont
Fnd In!: Del
Figure 4.9. Input Piping Spreadsheet (Blocks) Block (1)  Node Numbers From and to nodes must be defined. Block (2)  Element Lengths The coordinate length of an element will be added here, if the element does not lie on oneofthethreeaxes. X,Y and Z then the user would have to complete two or lines of this block. Block (3)  Pipe Section Properties The elements outside dia., wall thickness and corrosion allowance are collected in.this block. This data. carries foreword from one screen to next during the input session and need only be entered for the element the where a change occurs. Norninal.pipe sizes and schedules may be specified. For this block outside dia and wall thickness must be added. Block (4)  Special Joint Information Bends, rigid sections and expansion joints require additional information which is recorded in this block. If the element entered on the screen ends in a.bend or elbow then change the N to Y for a Bend
RICHMOND
UPON THAMES COLLEGE
PIPING STRESS ANALYSIS
Lecture No 6
Page:J2 This will. open up some auxiliary information in col 3 with additional information If the element is defined as rigid or an expansion joint change the associated N to Y will open up the auxiliary data box. Block (5)  Piping Material Name For all normal materials added to this section, the values for block (10) and pipe wt in Block (II) will be completed also the coefficient of expansion. If in dough! press [?J to get list of materials available. Block (6)  Point information and distributed loads The YIN cells in this block open up auxiliary data fields: to allow the input of point information such as supports: and concentrated loads. It is recommended that such information be. added to nodes that are TO or FROM nodes: of the particular screen at the time. Block (7)  Piping Code Data If Y is selected the auxiliary field is opened where the hot and cold allowables are added and the code selected. This selection will. govern the combinations of the loadings: in the results. This block als:o allows for the generation of additional S.I.F s. Block (8)  Temperatures: The software can consider three separate temperatures and will create a load case for each one. This thermal data carries foreword from one case to the next. Block (9)  Pressures Two pressure (e.g. design and. hydrotest) can be specified for the element. Each pressure set creates load cases for analysis. Pressure data carries forward from one element to the next. Block (10)  Piping Material Data If for some reason the. material added in block (5) was not in the software library then this section would have. to be filled in. Block (11)  Densities The pipe wt will be generated by the. information in block (5) if standard, the. other two require some info. Insul will default to calcium silicate if info not added. SGnll will be an. adequate alternative for weight.