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Various studies on exchange traded funds related to small and medium enterprises had been conducted in foreign countries .However, in indian context ,the number is quite few.Depending on the various issues of exchange traded funds ,the review has been discussed in brief as follows:
Poterba & Shoven (2002) analysed that Exchange traded funds (ETFs) are a new variety of mutual fund that first became available in 1993. ETFs have grown rapidly and now hold nearly $80 billion in assets. ETFs are sometimes described as more 'tax efficient' than traditional equity mutual funds, since in recent years, some large ETFs have made smaller distributions of realized and taxable capital gains than most mutual funds. It also compares the pre-tax and post-tax returns on the largest ETF, the SPDR trust that invests in the S&P500, with the returns on the largest equity index fund, the Vanguard Index 500. The results suggest that between 1994 and 2000, the before- and after-tax returns on the SPDR trust and this mutual fund were very similar. Both the after-tax and the pre-tax returns on the fund were slightly greater than those on the ETF. These findings suggest that ETFs offer taxable investors a method of holding broad baskets of stocks that deliver returns comparable to those of low-cost index funds.
Alexander & Barbosa (2005) investigates the optimal short-term hedging of Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolios with index futures. Using daily data from May 2000 to December 2004 on the four largest passive ETFs (the Spider, the Diamond, the Cubes and the Russell iShare) and their corresponding index futures we examine the performance of minimum variance hedges for efficient variance reduction and for investors with exponential utility. Our findings relate to daily hedging based on OLS regression, exponentially weighted moving averages and ECM-GARCH models and the utility-based performance evaluation criterion is adopted to capture an efficient reduction in skewness and kurtosis as well as the variance. The basis risk on US equity indices is now extremely low and as a result we find no evidence that minimum variance hedge ratios outperform a naïve 1:1 futures hedge, either for individual ETFs or for portfolios of
ETFs. Where minimum variance hedge ratios are useful is for the cross-hedging of ETFs, i.e. the netting of long-short positions prior to placing a futures hedge. We also find that hedging of an ETF portfolio with just one index future can be almost as effective as hedging with all the relevant index futures. Our results should be of interest to tax arbitrage investors in ETFs and their market makers, who often face large and heterogeneous creation and redemption demands on different ETFs. Both types of traders may consider hedging their positions overnight or over a few days.
Nguyen, et all (2009) examine the opening of Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) markets in a multimarket trading environment and find that the opening trades on the American Stock Exchange (AMEX) are the most costly. This result is consistent with the market power hypothesis which suggests that the specialists use their informational advantage about the order imbalance at the open or take advantage of the inelastic demand at the open by imposing wider spreads. We also find that the transparent opening mechanisms of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and Electronic Communication Networks (ECNs) enable them to facilitate greater price discovery at the opening and to have more efficient opening prices. This result implies that the transparency effect dominates the market power effect. Further, we find that peripheral markets do not passively free ride on information revealed through the AMEX because their opening trades contribute significantly to the price discovery process.
Jaggia & Hawke (2009) argues that Recent studies have documented the importance of asymmetry and tail-fatness of returns on portfolio-choice, asset-pricing, value-at-risk and option-valuation models. This article explores the nature of skewness and elongation in daily Exchange-traded Fund (ETF) return distributions using g, h and (g × h) distributions. These exploratory data analytic techniques of Tukey (1977) reveal patterns that are hidden from a cursory glance at conventional measures for skewness and elongation. The g, h and (g × h) distributions provide parameter estimates that indicate substantial variation in skewness and elongation for individual ETFs; nonetheless, some trends are discovered when the funds are grouped by fund size and style of investing. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that these exploratory techniques are able to capture
Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) family of models.
Barnhart & Rosenstein (2010) examined that Exchange-traded funds (ETFs), like closed-end funds (CEFs), are managed portfolios traded like individual stocks. We hypothesize that the introduction of an ETF in an asset class similar to an existing CEF results in a substitution effect that reduces the value of the CEF's shares relative to that of its underlying assets. Our event studies show that upon the introduction of a similar ETF, CEF discounts widen significantly and relative volume declines significantly. Singleequation and systems estimation models show that the widening in discounts and reduction in volume are related to returns-based measures of the substitutability of ETFs for CEFs. Copyright (c) 2010, The Eastern Finance Association
Tang & Wong (2010) examines that The Tracker Fund of Hong Kong, the first launched exchange-traded fund in Asia except Japan, aims to track the performance of the Hang Seng Index. This article examines the fund's characteristic via investigating the intraday and intraweek patterns of the fund's premiums. Empirical results suggest that no such patterns exist on the mean premium. However, a weak intraweek pattern is found for the volatility of premium and the number of transactions. Furthermore, for all measures except the mean premium, we find that a significant intraday pattern with a double-U shape or a W-shape exists.
Wong & Shum (2010) analysed that An Exchange-Traded Fund (ETF) aims to track the performance of market indices. This article examines the performances of 15 worldwide ETFs across bearish and bullish markets over the period 1999 to 2007. The results indicate that ETFs always provide higher returns in a bullish market than in a bearish market by the Sharpe ratio test that shows that ETF returns are not positive, proportional to the market volatility. Additionally, ETFs with the same underlying index do not perform exactly the same. It is believed that active portfolio management plays an important role in ETFs.
Agapova (2010) argues that Existing literature on ETFs and conventional index mutual funds suggests that the two fund types are substitutes for each other in terms of attracting investors¶ money. Vanguard is an industry-leading index fund provider that offers both conventional index mutual funds and ETFs. The question is whether Vanguard experiences a substitution effect between its index funds and ETFs to the same degree as is observed in the industry in general. The examination of the substitutability of the two fund types can help explain Vanguard¶s decision to offer ETFs that could cannibalize the firm¶s existing products. Results of the article show that contrary to the initial expectations, Vanguard¶s ETFs and corresponding index funds are not substitutes but rather complements. The flows of ETFs and index funds positively affect each other. Positive spillover effects, such as ETF tax efficiency, may help explain the synergy between Vanguard index products. The results can help fund families take advantage of similar efficiency spillover effects when structuring new products.
Steeley, et all(2010) argues that the aim of the paper is to examine whether Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) diversify away the private information of informed traders. We apply the spread decomposition models of Glosten and Harris (1998) and Madhavan, Richardson and Roomans (1997) to a sample of ETFs and their control securities. Our results indicate that ETFs have significantly lower adverse selection costs than their control securities. This suggests that private information is diversified away for these securities. Our results therefore offer one explanation for the rapid growth in the ETF market.
Heidorn et all (2010) analysed that Exchange Traded Funds (ETF) were established in Europe in 2000 and have grown to a size of over 200 bn US$. Some issuers use a full replication strategy while others prefer a swap based approach. The ETF are dealt parallelly in the primary and in the secondary market, as new ETFs can be created at any time. Therefore, the market is very liquid with small ask bid spreads. The fees are considerably lower compared to active managed fonds. For liquid share indices both strategies can replicate the index convincingly. In the EUROSTOXX the ETF can
outperform the Index due to dividend and tax optimization. This was not possible for the Dax. For illiquid large indices (MSCI Emerging Markets), there was a considerable difference between the monthly returns of the index compared to the ETFs. Both strategies have counterparty risk. The full replication uses security lending to enhance the performance.
The perusal of the literature reveals that Exchange-traded funds (ETFs), like closed-end funds (CEFs), are managed portfolios traded like individual stocks. Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) markets in a multimarket trading environment and find that the opening trades on the American Stock Exchange (AMEX) are the most costly. Exchange traded funds (ETFs) are a new variety of mutual fund that first became available in 1993. ETFs have grown rapidly and now hold nearly $80 billion in assets. ETFs are sometimes described as more 'tax efficient' than traditional equity mutual funds, since in recent years, some large ETFs have made smaller distributions of realized and taxable capital gains than most mutual funds