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OnCAT Project First Part

TITLE: Study of the economic and technical viability to implant a data network TITULATION: Telecommunications engineering AUTHOR: Adrià López Molina David López Salvadó Marc Ros Contreras Sergio Soria Nieto Manuel Torres Castro DIRECTORS: Jordi Curià Salvatore Spadaro DATE: December 30th 2010

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INDEX
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 7   CHAPTER 1. TRAFFIC STUDY ..................................................................................... 8   1.1.   1.2.   1.3.   1.4.   1.5.   Catalonia population .................................................................................... 8   Estimation of Bandwidth demand ............................................................... 9   Provincial level or aggregation/concentration ......................................... 10   Interprovincial level or backbone level ..................................................... 13   Network oversized ...................................................................................... 15

CHAPTER 2. NETWORK TOPOLOGY ....................................................................... 16   2.1.   2.2.   2.3.   2.4.   2.5.   2.5.1.   2.5.2.   2.5.3.   2.5.4.   2.5.5.   2.5.6.   2.6.   2.7.   Backbone ..................................................................................................... 17   Lleida topology ........................................................................................... 19   Girona topology .......................................................................................... 21   Tarragona topology .................................................................................... 23   Barcelona topology .................................................................................... 24   Barcelona Backbone (Ring 1) ................................................................ 25   Barcelona City 1 (Ring 2) ....................................................................... 27   Barcelona City 2 (Ring 3) ....................................................................... 28   Barcelona WEST (Ring 4) ....................................................................... 30   Barcelona EAST (Ring 5)........................................................................ 31   Complete Topology of Barcelona province.......................................... 32   Catalonia topology ..................................................................................... 33   Municipality links to regional nodes ......................................................... 34

CHAPTER 3. PROTECTION ........................................................................................ 37   3.1.   3.2.   3.3.   3.4.   Types of protection used ........................................................................... 37   Backbone protection .................................................................................. 38   Lleida, Tarragona and Girona’s protection .............................................. 40   Barcelona’s protection ............................................................................... 40

CHAPTER 4. SYNCHRONIZATION ............................................................................ 42   4.1.   SDH synchronization network planning ................................................... 42   Synchronization sources ................................................................... 42   Synchronization status messages .................................................... 43   Synchronization network design ....................................................... 43  

4.1.1.   4.1.2.   4.1.3.   4.2.  

SDH synchronization network ................................................................... 45 3  

 

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CHAPTER 5. NETWORK ELEMENTS ........................................................................ 46   5.1.   Network Elements ....................................................................................... 46   ADM ...................................................................................................... 46   DxC ....................................................................................................... 46   WDM ..................................................................................................... 47   SDH targets ......................................................................................... 48   Optical fibre ......................................................................................... 49   Connectors .......................................................................................... 50   Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier (EDFA) .............................................. 50   ADM ...................................................................................................... 50   DxC ....................................................................................................... 52   WDM ..................................................................................................... 52   SDH Targets ........................................................................................ 52   Optical fibre ......................................................................................... 53   Connectors .......................................................................................... 54   Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier (EDFA) .............................................. 54   PRC & SSU .......................................................................................... 55

5.1.1.   5.1.2.   5.1.3.   5.1.4.   5.1.5.   5.1.6.   5.1.7.   5.2.   5.2.1.   5.2.2.   5.2.3.   5.2.4.   5.2.5.   5.2.6.   5.2.7.   5.2.8.  

Equipment used .......................................................................................... 50  

CHAPTER 6. TECHNOLOGIES .................................................................................. 56   6.1.   6.2.   6.3.   SDH .............................................................................................................. 56   WDM ............................................................................................................. 57   Optical fibre ................................................................................................. 57

CHAPTER 7. BUDGET ................................................................................................ 59   7.1.   7.2.   7.3.   7.4.   Budget of optical fibre ................................................................................ 59   Budget of elements .................................................................................... 61   Budget of municipalities ............................................................................ 62   Total budget ................................................................................................ 65

CHAPTER 8. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ................................................................. 66   BIBLIOGRAPHY .......................................................................................................... 67   APPENDIX ................................................................................................................... 69   APPENDIX I. DEMOGRAPHIC STUDY ................................................................... 69   I.I. Total generated traffic by destination .......................................................... 69   4    

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I.II. Total generated traffic by provinces ........................................................... 70 APPENDIX II. CALCULATIONS .............................................................................. 71   II.I. Traffic distribution ......................................................................................... 71   II.II. Power balance. ................................................................................................. 74 APPENDIX III. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS ...................................................... 78   III.I. Marconi OMS 1600. ...................................................................................... 78   III.II. Marconi OMS 1200. ..................................................................................... 79   III.III. Marconi OMS 800. ...................................................................................... 80   III.IV. Marconi 2400. ............................................................................................. 81   III.V. Marconi 3200. .............................................................................................. 82   III.VI. Marconi 3000. ............................................................................................. 83   III.VII. STM1 SH 1310-8. ....................................................................................... 84   III.VIII. STM4 LH 1550........................................................................................... 84   III.IX. STM16 LH AS 1550..................................................................................... 85   III.X. CORNING LEAF. .......................................................................................... 85   III.XI. Connector Hellermann Tyton.................................................................... 86   III.XII. EDFA Telnet. .............................................................................................. 86   III.XIII. Symmetricom SSU 2000e. ....................................................................... 87   III.XIV. Symmetricom PRC-3100. ........................................................................ 88  

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INTRODUCTION
The OnCAT Project’s main objective is to provide connectivity to the entire territory of Catalonia. Previously, is necessary to analyse the viability of the implementation and make an action plan composed of the different stages of the project The first stage is focused on the core and aggregation networks’ design. This is the stage we studied in this first delivery, which aims to define specifications and details of it. The second stage, which defines the access network, will be studied on the final delivery of the project. The available budget for the project’s design, implementation and operation starting is about 250M €. This document is structured in some sections that define the different designing parts that we have to take in account. Starting with the calculations required determining the traffic in the regions of the territory and the technological solutions chosen, following the definition of topologies and equipment used, and ending with the budgeting of the project. The implementation of the OnCAT Project’s network will last at maximum 3 years with the objective to begin to offer services in March 2014. As mentioned, in this first part will define the major specifications of the network's backbone, leaving to the future the final delivery of the documentation (completed with the access network's definition), with deadline January 2011.

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CHAPTER 1. TRAFFIC STUDY
The aim of this project is to design and implement an optimal network according to the demand of population of Catalonia’s territory. To implement this network, we have to take into account three types of sectors: residential, companies and enterprises because each sector has his own requirements in terms of traffic.

1.1. Catalonia population
The Catalonia’s population will be extracted from IDESCAT (Institut d’Estadística de Catalunya). First of all, we have to explain that Catalonia’s populations are distributed by regions called comarca, each region has a large number of municipalities or municipalities and one of them, will be the capital of the region (normally is the biggest city in terms of populations and area). To have an idea, there are approximately 950 municipalities and 7500000 of inhabitants in all Catalonia territory. Once we obtained all the municipalities, we have to separate each municipality in each region in order to have a structure to simplify the futures calculations. Table 1.1 Separation of the municipalities by regions
Municipality
Alcarràs Almacelles Alpicat Lleida Torrefarrera

Region
Segrià Segrià Segrià Segrià Segrià

Once we have separated all municipalities by regions, we have to apply the Table 1.2 in order to obtain what type of city are each one and which are the number of companies and administrations of each municipality. We have to take into account that all municipalities with less than 1000 inhabitants are obviated for the design of the network. Table 1.2 Types of Municipalities
Type of city
A B C

Population
> 50000 10000 – 50000 1000 - 10000

Companies
100 30 10

Enterprises
30 15 5

In type of cities A, we choose the next criteria to know which are the number of companies and enterprises: !º  !"#$%&'() =   !º  !"!#$%&'"( ×100 50000 !º  !"#!$%$&'!' =   !º  !"!#$%&'"( ×30 50000

All cities type B has the same number of companies (30) and enterprises (15) independent of the number of inhabitants and all cities type C has the same criteria of B cities but with the difference that his companies are 10 and enterprises 5.

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Ex: if the population of an A city is 450000, the number of companies are 900 and the number of enterprises are 270. !º  !"#$%&'() =   450000 ×100 = 900 50000 !º  !"#!$%$&'!' =   450000 ×30 = 270 50000

1.2. Estimation of Bandwidth demand
Once we known the number of inhabitants, companies and enterprises separated by regions, in Catalunya are called comarcas, we have to calculate the traffic demand according to the potential users and their distribution services (each type of cities has its demand of traffic). Table 1.3 Estimation of bandwidth of A cities
Population Residential Companies Administration 20 % 100 % 100 % Distribution 5M 80 % Distribution 10M 20 % 50 % 70 % Distribution 100M 40 % 30 % Distribution 1000M 10 % Penetration 40 % 30 % 10 %

Table 1.4 Estimation of bandwidth of B cities
Population Residential Companies Administration 15 % 95 % 100 % Distribution 5M 80 % Distribution 10M 20 % 60 % 70 % Distribution 100M 40 % 30 % Distribution 1000M Penetration 35 % 25 % 10 %

Table 1.5 Estimation of bandwidth of C cities
Population Residential Enterprise Administration 10 % 90 % 100 % Distribution 5M 90 % Distribution 10M 10 % 80 % 70 % Distribution 100M 20 % 30 % Distribution 1000M Penetration 30 % 20 % 10 %

If we convert the table of cities type A in formulas, we obtain the follow: Residential: !"#$%"&'$"()  5! =  !º  !"!#$%&'"(×0,2×0,8×0,4 !"#$%"&'$"()  10! =  !º  !"!#$%&'"(×0,2×0,2×0,4 Enterprise: !"#$%"&'$"()  10! =  !º  !"#!$%$&'!'×1×0,5×0,3 !"#$%"&'$"()  100! =  !º  !"#!$%$&'!'×1×0,4×0,3 !"#$%"&'$"()  1000! =  !º  !"#!$%$&'!'×1×0,1×0,3 where the number of enterprises is the value previously obtained in function of our criteria of A cities. 9    

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!"#$%"&'$"()  10! =  !º  !"#$%$&'(!'$)%×1×0,7×0,1 !"#$%"&'$"()  100! =  !º  !"#$%$&'(!'$)%×1×0,3×0,1 where the number of administrations is the value previously obtained in function of our criteria of A cities. Table 1.6 Estimation of bandwidth of Alt Urgell’s region (city type C)
ALT URGELL
Municipality Population Residential 5M Residential 10M Companies 10M Companies 100M Companies 1000M Administration 10M Administration 100M

La Seu d’Urgell Oliana Montferrer i Castellbò

13063 1976 1089

548,646 53,352 29,403

137,1615 5,928 3,267

4,275 1,44 1,44

2,85 0,36 0,36

-

1,05 0,35 0,35

0,45 0,15 0,15

1.3. Provincial level or aggregation/concentration
The goal of this section is to know the traffic distribution from local user in a region to its region, each province, each interprovincial and Internet. The transit generated by the clients of a municipality (include residential, enterprises, companies and Internet) arrives at its local node (which normally is the biggest municipality of each region). This transit will be transported until the local node where will take the first routing decision (send the information to another municipality of each region or send to another region). The transit which is not for its region will be transported by the other regions nodes in order to transport the information to the other region nodes or to the provincial node where will take the second routing decision. Finally, if the information is not for the province means that there are from other provinces so, the provincial node takes the decision to which other provincial node has to send the information. Picture 1.1 shows the above explanation.

Picture  1.1  scheme  of  traffic  provincial  level

The criteria of this transit distribution are the table 1.7 Destination \ Source Residential Enterprise Administration Comarcal node 10 % 30 % Provicial node 25 % 30 % Interprovincial node 50 % 35 % Internet (CATNix) 100 % 15 % 5%

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Which indicates table 1.7 is the following: Residential traffic: All residential traffic must cross all network and goes to Internet (CATNix).   Companies traffic:   o o o o 10% of the traffic generated by companies (enterprises) of municipality are directed to other municipalities of same region and not arrive at provincial node. 25% of the traffic generated by companies (enterprises) arrive until the provincial node but it is directed to other regions of the own province and not influence on backbone network planning. 50% of the traffic generated by companies (enterprises) arrive until the provincial node to be directed through the network from backbone to other provinces 15% of the transit generated by the companies (enterprises) has a destiny Internet and has to arrive at CATNix.

Administration traffic:   o It has applied the same routing criteria as companies’ traffic but with different percentages.

ONCat will guarantee to the client a minimum speed of connection of 10% for the residential users and 100% for the companies and administration users. Since the estimation of bandwidth demand has been known, we have to apply the next formulas in order to calculate the traffic will go to each province, which traffic goes for other provinces and which one goes for Internet (CATNix). In order to obtain this traffic, we have separated the residential, enterprise and companies’ traffic according to the request capacity (5Mbps, 10Mbps, 100Mbps and 1000Mbps). The formulas we have applied to each municipality in order to obtain which is it’s the total traffic estimation demand are: !"#$%"&'$()  5! = !"#$%"&'$()  10! = !"#$%&'()  10! = !"#$%&'()  100! = !"#$%&'()  1000! = !"#$%$&'(!'$)%  10! = !"#$%$&'(!'$)%  100! = where: residential_5M and residential_10M are the sum of all contribution of 5Mbps and 10Mbps of each municipality of each region, respectively. companies_10M, companies_100M and companies_1000M are the sum of all contribution of 10Mbps, 100Mbps and 1000Mbps of each municipality of each region, respectively. 11     ∑(!"#$%"&'$(!!!!"#$%&'() )×5 ×0,1   ∑(!"#$%"&'$(!!!!"#$%&'() )×10 ×0,1   ∑(!"#$%&'(!!"!!"#$%&'() )×10 ×1   ∑(!"#$%&'(!!""!!"#$%&'() )×100 ×1   ∑(!"#$%&'(!!""!!!"#$%&'( )×1000 ×1   ∑(!"#$%$&'(!'$)%!"!!"#$%&'() )×10 ×1   ∑ !"#$%$&'(!'$)%!""!!"#$%&'() ×100 ×1  

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administration_10M and administration_100M are the sum of all contribution of 10Mbps and 100Mbps of each municipality of each region, respectively. Table 1.8 Provincial estimation bandwidth of the region Alt Urgell
ALT URGELL
Municipality Population Residential 5M Residential 10M Companies 10M Companies 100M Companies 1000M Administration 10M Administration 100M

La Seu d’Urgell Oliana Montferrer i Castellbò TOTAL ALT URGELL Destí Node Comarcal Destí Node Provincial Destí Altres províncies Internet (CATNix)

13063 1976 1089

548,646 53,352 29,403 315,7005 0 0 0 315,7005

137,1615 5,928 3,267 146,3565 0 0 0 146,3565

4,275 1,44 1,44 71,55 7,155 17,8875 35,775 10,7325

2,85 0,36 0,36 357 35,7 89,25 178,5 53,55

-

1,05 0,35 0,35 17,5 5,25 5,25 6,125 0,875

0,45 0,15 0,15 75 22,5 22,5 26,25 3,75

Once we calculate all traffic of all provinces, we have to multiply it by the utilization factor (1/3). This traffic is called total_traffic and we have to split it in each region node by a half because we decide to send the information by two sides like picture 1.1 so the result is called on table 1.9, total_traffic / 2. We have to take into account that we don’t have to split the traffic in the capital of the province (Lleida) because the traffic is already in the provincial node.   Table 1.9 shows the below explanation of the Alta Urgell and Alta Ribagorça regions  
Region ALT URGELL ALTA RIBAGORÇA … Traffic dest. Provincial Altres províncies Internet (CATNix) Provincial Altres províncies Internet (CATNix) … Traffic 134,8875 246,65 530,9645 36,3 63,35 58,262 … Utilization factor 0,33333333 0,33333333 … Total traffic 44,9625 82,21666667 176,9881667 12,1 21,11666667 19,42066667 … Toral traffic/2 22,48125 41,10833333 88,49408333 6,05 10,55833333 9,710333333 …

The following equations show us which is the traffic arrives at each node and the total traffic we have to split in each node in order not to overflow the nodes: Traffic arrived: 1 ∑!"#$!!"#!!"#$%&%'(!")!*+   3 1 !"!#$!"#$%&%'(!")!*!!"#$$%& = ∑!"#$!!"#!!"#$%&%'(!")!*+   3 1 !"!#$!"#$%"$#!"#$$!" = ∑!"#$!!"#!!"#$%&%'(!")!*+   3 !"!#$!"#$%&'%(!!"#$$%& = 1 ∑!"!#$!"#$%&'%(!!"#$$%& 2 1 = ∑!"!#$!"#$%"$#!"#$$%&   2 12    

Spit traffic: !"!#$!"#$%&'%(!!"#$$%& = !"!#$!"#$%"$#!"#$$%&

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In all results of total traffic, we have obviated the region traffic (comarcal_traffic) because the contribution of this traffic in front of the provincial, interprovincial and Internet (CATNix) send and arrived is too insignificant than the other type of traffic to be taken into account.

1.4. Interprovincial level or backbone level
This section explains which is the total traffic that all municipalities of one region are sending to his province’s capital and later, this capital’s node is the responsible for transmitting this traffic to the rest of three capitals’ nodes of provinces. To know this traffic, we have been calculated previously, the traffic which arrives at the provincial node multiplied by the utilization factor (1/3) and later we have applied the utilization factor (3/5) and the percentage of traffic which each province send to the others. We use these two factor because we assume all user in all municipalities where not connected at the same time. This traffic must be calculated applying the table 1.10 and the following two steps   a) Outbound traffic à this total outbound traffic is the traffic that all municipalities of the province send to the others provinces and must be calculated by the sum of contributions of desti_node_altes_provincies and desti_internet of all regions in the province multiplied by the utilization factor (3/5). This factor is used because not all users are connected at same time.   !"#$!"%&!"#$%&'!!"#$$%& = 3 ∑!"#$!!"#!!"#$%&%'(!")!*+ + !!"#$!"#$%"$#   5

We can see how we apply this formula in the picture 1.2    

 
Picture  1.2  total  outbound  traffic  of  Lleida

b)

Interprovincial traffic à this traffic is the percentage of traffic which each province send to the others. This traffic is applied like table 1.9 and the following formula depending on which are the source province and the destination province.  

!"#$%&'$%(&_!"#$%&!"!"#$$%& = !"#$!"%&!"#$%&'!!"#$$%& ×!"#$"%&'("!"#$%&!!"#$%&'$%(&   13    

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Table 1.10 shows the percentages of the traffic which goes to the other provinces  
Destination \ Source Barcelona node Tarragona node Lleida node Girona node Barcelona node 60 % 60 % 60 % Tarragona node 33 % 20 % 20 % Lleida node 33 % 20 % 20 % Girona node 33 % 20 % 20 % -

As we explained above, table 1.10 shows the percentages of the traffic which goes to the other provinces and means the following:   Barcelona source à all his interprovincial traffic must send to Tarragona, Lleida and Girona’s province by the same percentage (33%)   Tarragona source à a 60% of all his interprovincial traffic must be sent to Barcelona and the rest must be sent in equal parts to Lleida and Girona’s province.   Girona source à Lleida source à a 60% of all his interprovincial traffic must be sent to Barcelona and the rest must be sent in equal parts to Tarragona and Lleida’s province.   Lleida source à a 60% of all his interprovincial traffic must be sent to Barcelona and the rest must be sent in equal parts to Tarragona and Girona’s province.  

Picture 1.3 shows a schematic graphic of the distribution percentages of all provinces.  

 
Picture  1.3  scheme  of  percentage  distribution  traffic

Picture 1.4 shows the previous result of Lleida province once we have applied its percentage of traffic.  

 
Picture  1.4  Percentage  of  Lleida’s  traffic

In the picture 1.4 we can show which is the traffic that Lleida province send to the rest of provinces applying the percentage factor of the table 1.10. Because of 14    

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percentage Girona and percentage Tarragona is the same, the traffic that send to this two provinces is the same.

1.5. Network oversized
In this section we treat about the network oversize. Due to specifications of OnCAT project, we have to apply an oversize of 25% of the traffic flow in each node (input and output) in order to prevent the total occupancy of the link or node and to permit an upgrade of the traffic or an upgrade of the Ethernet. To realise this oversize, we have applied an oversized factor of 1.25 in each link in order to obtain later the number of interfaces, STM’s. (We explain this section in the chapter of network elements). To know which is the total traffic supported by a node or link including the oversize we have to apply the follow equation: !"!#!!"#!!"#$$%& = 1,25×!"!#!!"#$!"#$$%&   Table 1.11 shows an example of the result of the oversized on Alt Empordà’s and Garrotxa’s links.  
Node Link Input/Output Figueres - Girona Alt Empordà Girona - Figueres Olot - Banyoles Garrotxa Banyoles - Olot 12505,28687 15631,60859 12505,28687 1,25 12505,28687 15631,60859 15631,60859 Traffic Input/Output 12505,28687 Factor oversized Total traffic with oversized 15631,60859

In this oversized, we must keep in mind that almost all links in the same province has the same input and output traffic with oversize and without it because all links have to support the same quantity of traffic. There are only four links in Catalonia (three in Lleida and one in Girona’s province) which have to carry less traffic because they are not included in the ring and have a point to point connections.

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CHAPTER 2. NETWORK TOPOLOGY
The goal of this section is to define which the topology we have thought about in all Catalan cities and why we decide to choose this topology and not another one. To create the topology, we have to take into account the traffic study previously realised in chapter 1 in order to performed rings very similar between them and the available topologies we can use. The available topologies we can use are: a) Point to point à is used to establish a direct connection between two networking nodes as show in picture 2.1. This topology has the disadvantage that if a failure occurs in the fibre, the networking node that not transmits or receives any kind of traffic and the advantage that is the most economical topology because is too simple.

Picture  2.1  point-­‐to-­‐point  interconnection  

b)

Bus à is a network architecture in which a set of clients is interconnected via shared communications line as show in picture 2.2. This type of topology is the simplest way to interconnect a set of clients but a problem occurs when two or more clients want to transmit at the same time on the same bus.

Picture  2.2-­‐bus  interconnection  

c)

Ring à in this type of topology each node is connecting to two other nodes. The information (data) travels from node to node. If all nodes are interconnected, the appearance of the topology is like a ring as show picture 2.3. This type of topology may be affected by a failure link but this problem may be solved introducing a second fibre in the other direction, called protection in order to protect the link.

Picture  2.3  ring  interconnection  

d)

Mesh à in this topology all nodes are interconnected between them thought a point-to-point connection as in picture 2.4. The advantages of this topology are that allows continuous topology and reconfiguration around failed links by hopping from node to node in order to arrive at the destination node and are the most tolerant topology in front of failures due to previous hopping and due to the high number of paths. 16  

 

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Picture  2.4-­‐mesh  interconnection  

To have a summary of what are the advantages and disadvantages of the topologies available, we create table 2.1. Table 2.1 comparative between the different types of topologies Topology
Point to point Bus Ring Mesh

Advantages
The most economic The simplest to implement Easy to extend Requires less fibre Orderly network Different types of protection available Different paths to different nodes Too much security

Disadvantages
No protection Limited number of clients A problem with fibre means a network failure A changes of devices, can affect the network Very expensive Difficult to implement

Once we have search and compare which are the topologies available, we decide to use the ring topology because is the most appropriate to implement and in particulars nodes we will use the point to point topology because we don’t have more nodes to interconnect and costs too much to expand the ring topology in order to create a perfect ring. In order to create the Catalonia’s topology, we decide to separate it in four provinces (Lleida, Girona, Tarragona and Barcelona), which are been connected by the backbone ring. In order to interconnect the nodes in Barcelona that go the the CATNIX with its node, we have used a mixture topology between mesh and ring as shown in picture 2.5.

Picture  2.5  interconnection  between  Barcelona’s  nodes  with  CATNix  

At the end of this chapter we know which is the topology for each province and why we choose this one and why not other.

2.1. Backbone
Backbone must link the four capitals of provinces (Barcelona, Tarragona, Lleida and Girona) and its topology was a single perfect ring. This backbone has these direct links connections: – – – – Lleida ↔ Girona Lleida ↔ Tarragona Barcelona ↔ Girona Barelona ↔ Tarragona 17    

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We can create another two connections more between Lleida-Barcelona and Girona-Tarragona but we decide not to create it in order to save money so we have to investigate a little and purpose how we send the Lleida’s traffic which goes to Barcelona and the Tarragona’s traffic which goes to Girona. In order not to overflow Barcelona node’s, we decide to send the Tarragona’s traffic which goes to Girona directly by the Lleida’s link so, in this case we will have to increment the Lleida’s capacity node and the Lleida’s traffic which goes to Barcelona node’s we decide to split in by a half because this traffic is not very important in front of the others. In this ring, we have to put a protection of four fibres because is one of the most important ring in terms of traffic. We put four fibres because of the links or nodes stop working, we can send the information through the other three nodes doing a loop in order to the province receive the information. Picture 2.6 shows the backbone’s topology

Picture  2.6  Backbone’s  topology  

In the picture 2.6 we have to take into account that Barcelona’s unique node represented in previous picture is not the same for Tarragona-Barcelona’s link and for Girona-Barcelona’s one because we decide to create a different topology in Barcelona due to inhabitants and total traffic generates but we explain it in more details in 2.5. All the fibre connections of this backbone must go for two different ways (in order to do the protection which is being explained in the next chapter); one connection must go by the railways and the other must go by the motorways. In the table 2.2 and picture 2.7 we must observe which are the distance of each link connection and through which connections (railways, motorways) must pass the fibres and the interconnection of the backbone in the territory’s topology. Table 2.2 shows the type of connection and the distance between nodes. Link
Barcelona – Girona Barcelona – Tarragona Lleida – Girona Lleida - Tarragona

Connection
ADIF AP-7 ADIF C-32 ADIF A2 / C-25 ADIF AP-2

Distance (km)
103 103 100 100 283 228 104 104

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  Picture  2.7  Backbone’s  interconnection  in  the  territory’s  topology  of  Catalonia  

2.2. Lleida topology
The province of Lleida was composed by twelve capital of region, so the first option for the ring was to create a perfect ring composed by these twelve nodes (one node in each capital of region) but due to topology of Lleida’s territory and the few infrastructures are built, we should spent too much money to create the links so we decide to create a little different topology. Once we have discard the previous option, we think about to eliminate some capital of region’s node but we discard too because we don’t know technologies that send the traffic information along distance similar like 50km or more and how we have to treat this information in order to be send later. After discarding these two options, we decide to design a non-perfect ring formed by nine nodes (one of them is the biggest one, Lleida, which is the capital of the region and the capital of the province) and three nodes which has been created with a point to point connection in order to spend less money and to have a better traffic distribution. With this topology, we have to take into account for the future that regions which have a point to point connection (Vall d’Aran, Alta Ribagorça and Garrigues) have more possibilities that stay offline due to a cut of fibre or another problem, so we will have to assume that these municipalities have more possibilities to stay offline than others that have a bigger protection or assume that we will have to gain less money for the fibre services. In table 2.3 and picture 2.8 we can see the capitals of regions of Lleida’s province where we situate the SDH nodes and the topology of the ring we have previously explained. Table 2.3 shows the capital of each region. Region
Alt Urgell Alta Ribagorça Garrigues La Vall D’aran Noguera Segarra Segria

Capital
La Seu d’Urgell El Pont de Suert Les Borges Blanques Vielha e Mijaran Balaguer Cervera Lleida

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Solsones Pallars Jussa Pallars Sobira Pla d’Urgell Urgell

 
Solsona Tremp Sort Mollerussa Tarrega

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Picture  2.8  Lleida’s  topology  

Once we have decided where we allocate the nodes of the regions of Lleida’s province and calculated which are the traffic supported by the node, we start to find which are the railways, motorways or other possibilities to interconnect them and we have obtain the table 2.4. Source node
Lleida Balaguer Tremp Sort La Seu d’Urgell

Destination node
Balaguer Tremp Sort La Seu d’Urgell Solsona

Distance (Km)
27,3 56,6 12,5 26,2 52 4,9 40,5 22 5 18,4 9,2 17 12,8 22,7 28,3 12,5 33,1 40,1

Interconnection
ADIF ADIF C-13 N-260 N-260 N-260 C-14 C-26 C-149 LV-3005 LV-3113 L-313 ADIF ADIF ADIF C-13 N-260 N-230

Solsona Cervera Tàrrega Mollerussa Tremp El Pont de Suert

Cervera Tàrrega Mollerussa Lleida El Pont de Suert Vielha e Mijaran

In table 2.4 and picture 2.9 we can see which are the interconnections between each region nodes; ADIF interconnection means that we have to rent the fibres using 20    

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railways and the other interconnections means all the interconnections which we have to create and do the infrastructure so this means an excessive increment of budget. The parameter distance (km) shows the distance between the two interconnected nodes.

Picture  2.9  Lleida’s  interconnection  in  territory’s  topology  of  Lleida  

2.3. Girona topology
Following the first steps that we had thought in Lleida’s topology, the first idea for Girona’s topology was to put one node in each region. In this case, however, the node didn’t have to be in each capital of region. Due to long way in some links, we decided to modify the first perfect ring topology determined. The main changes implanted on the ring were to delete some nodes which were in a remote place, where there were few municipalities. Later, we think that these discards could give us problems later, so we create point-to-point links for these cases. This saves us build connections with very high distances to reach remote locations with few connections. Another proposal that we perform was to change the positions of nodes so that the links were not excessively high. The new positions not diverted from the features of the previous municipality, in terms of number of connections and number of people. The finally Girona’s topology is a ring composed by seven nodes. One of them is the Provincial node which is connected in the interprovincial backbone. In fact, in terms of traffic we consider this as only one node, but physically will be two nodes which bear the load split between them. It impacts to the budget, but not in traffic and topology.

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Also, there is a remote node in Puigcerdà which connects to Ripoll. As well we have said above, we have chosen to perform this particular case of this way because Cerdanya has got few municipalities and the traffic generated is low, so we thought that we would save more with just one link between Puigcerdà and Ripoll. As we well know, the ring topology protects itself, so this point-to-point link hasn’t got this lucky. This causes we have to use protection in these kinds of links or that we have to charge more less money in this remote municipalities. Picture 2.10 shows the scheme that we explained in previous paragraphs.

Picture  2.10  Girona’s  Topology  

Once we decided the Girona’s topology, the next step is to compute the link distances between nodes. In the following table we specify it and the real paths. Table 2.5 and picture 2.11 shows the connections between Girona’s nodes. Source node
Sils Puigcerdà Ripoll Olot Banyoles Figueres Girona Palafrugell

Destination node
Ripoll Ripoll Olot Banyoles Figueres Girona Palafrugell Sils

Distance (Km)
87 65,5 26,2 22 13 17 18 39 29 24 29 24 23

Interconnection
ADIF ADIF N-260 A-26 C-66 GI-513 N-II ADIF C-65 C-31 C-65 C-31 ADIF

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Picture  2.11  shows  the  connection  between  Girona’s  nodes  

2.4. Tarragona topology
A first look to the traffic study made for the purpose of this project show us that Tarragona province is the second most populated area in Catalonia. So in terms of traffic, we must consider this fact carefully for the design of our ring. This province, which capital is Tarragona, is composed by 2 type-A cities, 14 type-B and 72 type-C, with a total amount of population estimated in 800.000. The calculations realized in our traffic study shows that the total out coming traffic generated by the population of this province is about 12.3Gbps. In the design of this ring, we took as a first proposition to choose every capital of region as a node in first idea. Tarragona is composed by 10 regions, and each one is connected with to the next node in the ring as shown in the table below. Table 2.6 show the capitals of each Tarragona’s region Source node Destination node
Tarragona El Vendrell Valls Montblanc Reus Falset Mora d'Ebre Gandesa Tortosa Amposta El Vendrell Valls Montblanc Reus Falset Mora d'Ebre Gandesa Tortosa Amposta Tarragona

Distance (Km)
35,6 40,5 17,2 29,1 30,8 20 21,5 13 21,9 21,5 32,9

Interconnection
AP-7 AP-2 N-240 C-14 N-420 N-420 N-420 C-43 C-12 ADIF ADIF

Then, due to the very low density population of Falset (composed by 2 type C municipalities), we thought that it would be a possible solution to remove it from the ring and connect it to the network by using a simple link between this and Mora d’Ebre, the nearest regional node. After considering this solution, it was discarded because the 23    

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way of the links needed to connect Falset to Mora would be coincident with the needed to connect Mora d’ Ebre to Reus (Falset is in the middle of this way). So finally we came back to the first solution and decide the following design for this backbone:

Picture  2.12.  Topology  design  of  the  Tarragona  backbone.  

The picture below shows the final geographical disposition of the nodes in the province of Tarragona, and also the routes used to link them (see Table 2.5):

  Picture  2.13.  Geographical  node  and  links  disposition  in  Tarragona  province.  

2.5. Barcelona topology
The province of Barcelona is the most important province in terms of number of final users (enterprises, administrations, residential users, etc.) and in consequence in terms of generated bandwidth.

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Given the fact that Barcelona is the province that generates more traffic in Catalonia, its topology was designed in a way completely different from the other provinces. For this reason, our decision was to split the traffic of Barcelona in five rings. The distribution of the five rings is the next: – – – – – Barcelona Backbone (Ring 1): the main ring in the province of Barcelona. Is the union point of the other rings that compose the full topology of the province. Barcelona City 1 (Ring 2): composed by the half of the region of Barcelona. Barcelona City 2 (Ring 3): composed by the other half of the region of Barcelona. Barcelona EAST (Ring 4): composed by the regions located at the east side of the province. Barcelona WEST (Ring 5): composed by the regions located at the west side of the province.

Is important to take into account the Capitals of each Region inside the province of Barcelona because in each one of these we placed a network node. Table 2.7 shows the capital of each region. Region
Alt Penedès Anoia Bages Baix Llobregat Barcelonès Berguedà Garraf Maresme Osona Vallès Occidental Vallès Oriental

Capital
Vilafranca del Penedès Igualada Manresa Sant Feliu de Llobregat Barcelona Berga Vilanova i la Geltrú Mataró Vic Sabadell Granollers

In summary, and following the previous distributions, then we detail the 5 rings that form the topology expected for the province of Barcelona.

2.5.1. Barcelona Backbone (Ring 1)
This is the main ring in the province of Barcelona. It consists of four nodes located in the following cities: Node 1: located in L’Hospitalet de Llobregat (Region of Barcelona). Node 2: located in Badalona (Region of Barcelona). Node 3: located in Sant Feliu de Llobregat (Region of Baix Llobregat). Node 4: located in Sabadell (Region of Vallès Occidental). Note that in this ring in particular we see that there are two nodes that are not located in a capital of region. These nodes are L’Hospitalet de Llobregat and Badalona. The reason is that the region of Barcelona, which is so large and generates a lot of traffic, is to be divided into two rings. It causes that two cities in the same area must provide a link to the two rings of the city. Take into account the distribution of the region of El Barcelonès that we considered (for this ring and for the two Barcelona City rings). 25    

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Table 2.8 shows the cities of El Barcelonès region. Cities of El Barcelonès
Barcelona L’Hospitalet de Llobregat Badalona Santa Coloma de Gramanet Sant Adrià de Besòs

Moreover, the city of Barcelona is the city that generates the most of the traffic of the Region. In consequence, we decided to divide Barcelona City in ten parts (according to the Districts of the City). Table 2.9 shows the distribution of Barcelona City (Districts). Distribution of Barcelona City
Les Corts Sarrià - St. Gervasi Sants - Montjuïc Ciutat Vella Eixample Gràcia Sant Martí Sant Andreu Nou Barris Horta - Guinardó

The next picture shows the topology of the Barcelona Backbone Ring.

Picture  2.14  Topology  of  Barcelona  province’s  backbone  

Note that in the middle of the ring appears the CATNix node. We considered that from each node of the Barcelona Backbone ring there’s a link to the CATNix node. This ring supports all the Barcelona traffic and all the traffic from the other provinces to the CATNix node. In this way we get to distribute the large volume of traffic destined to CATNix in 4 links point to point.

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  Picture  2.15  Topology  map  of  Barcelona  province’s  backbone  

Table 2.10 shows the connections between nodes of Barcelona’s backbone. Source node
L’Hospitalet Badalona Sabadell Sant Feliu

Destination node
Badalona Sabadell Sant Feliu L’Hospitalet

Distance (Km)
21,4 24,1 30 7,4

Interconnection
B-20 C-33 C-58 C-58 AP-7 B-23 B-20

Table 2.11 shows the connections between the backbone’s nodes and the CATNix node. Source node
L’Hospitalet Badalona Sabadell Sant Feliu

Destination node
CATNix CATNix CATNix CATNix

Distance (Km)
5,1 19,2 28 7,3

Interconnection
B-20 C-31 B-10 B-20 C-58 C-33 B-20 B-23 B-20

2.5.2. Barcelona City 1 (Ring 2)
As we discussed in the previous section, the region of Barcelona is divided in two rings (also, remember that the City of Barcelona is divided according to their Districts). This ring is one of these and is composed by the following nodes: Node 1: located in L’Hospitalet de Llobregat (Region of Barcelona). This is the link to Barcelona Backbone. Node 2: located in Les Corts (District of Barcelona City). Node 3: located in Sarrià-Sant Gervasi (District of Barcelona City). Node 4: located in Sants-Montjuïc (District of Barcelona City). Node 5: located in Ciutat Vella (District of Barcelona City). 27    

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Node 6: located in L’Eixample (District of Barcelona City).

Picture  2.16  Topology  of  the  Ring  1  of  Barcelona  City  

Picture  2.17  Topology  map  of  the  Ring  1  of  Barcelona  City  

Table 2.12 shows the connections between nodes of the Ring 1 of Barcelona City. Source node
L’Hospitalet Les Corts Sarrià-St.Gervasi Sants-Montjuïc Ciutat Vella Eixample

Destination node
Les Corts Sarrià-St.Gervasi Sants-Montjuïc Ciutat Vella Eixample L’Hospitalet

Distance (Km)
8,4 2,6 4,6 3,3 3,6 12,4

Interconnection
B-20 Metro (L-3) Metro (L-5) FGC Metro (L5) FGC Metro (L-1) Metro (L-3) B-20

2.5.3. Barcelona City 2 (Ring 3)
Like the previous ring (point 2.5.2), this third ring contain the nodes corresponding to the other half of Barcelona region: Node 1: located in Badalona (Region of Barcelona). This is the link to Barcelona Backbone. Node 2: located in Gràcia (District of Barcelona City). Node 3: located in Sant Martí (District of Barcelona City). Node 4: located in Sant Adrià de Besòs (Region of Barcelona). 28    

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Node 5: located in Santa Coloma de Gramanet (Region of Barcelona). Node 6: Sant Andreu (District of Barcelona City). Node 7: Nou Barris (District of Barcelona City). Node 8: Horta-Guinardó (District of Barcelona City).

Picture  2.18  Topology  of  the  Ring  2  of  Barcelona  City  

Picture  2.19  Topology  map  of  the  Ring  2  of  Barcelona  City  

Table 2.13 shows the connections between nodes of the Ring 2 of Barcelona City. Source node
Badalona Gràcia Sant Martí Sant Adrià Besòs Santa Coloma Sant Andreu Nou Barris Horta-Guinardó

Destination node
Gràcia Sant Martí Sant Adrià Besòs Santa Coloma Sant Andreu Nou Barris Horta-Guinardó Badalona

Distance (Km)
11,3 5,4 2,8 5,4 2,7 2,6 3,9 13,4

Interconnection
C-31 Metro (L-4) Metro (L-2) Metro (L2) B-10 Metro (L-1) Metro (L-1) Metro (L-3) C-31 B-10 B-20

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2.5.4. Barcelona WEST (Ring 4)
This is the ring that includes the western regions of the province of Barcelona. The nodes included in this ring are: Node 1: located in Sant Feliu de Llobregat (Region of Baix Llobregat). Node 2: located in Manresa (Region of bages). Node 3: located in Igualada (Region of Anoia). Node 4: located in Vilafranca del Penedès (Region of Alt Penedès). Node 5: located in Vilanova I la Geltrú (Region of Garraf).

Picture  2.20  Topology  of  Barcelona  region’s  west  side  

  Picture  2.21  Topology  map  of  Barcelona  region’s  west  site  

Table 2.14 shows the connections between nodes of the west ring of El Barcelonès region. Source node
Sant Feliu Manresa

Destination node
Manresa Igualada

Distance (Km)
57,3 27,3

Interconnection
C-32 AP-2 AP-7 C-16 C-55 C-37

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Igualada Vilafranca Vilanova I la Geltrú Vilafranca Vilanova i la Geltrú Sant Feliu

 
34,5 18,8 47,1 C-15 C-15 C-32

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2.5.5. Barcelona EAST (Ring 5)
The last ring that we considered in the province of Barcelona is the ring that includes the eastern regions of the province of Barcelona. The following nodes compose the ring: Node 1: located in Sabadell (Region of Vallès Occidental). Node 2: located in Mataró (Region of Maresme). Node 3: located in Granollers (Region of Vallès Oriental). Node 4: located in Vic (Region of Osona). Node 5: located in Berga (Region of Berguedà).

Picture  2.22  Topology  of  Barcelona  region’s  east  side  

Picture  2.23  Topology  map  of  Barcelona  region’s  east  site  

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Table 2.15 shows the connections between nodes of the east ring of El Barcelonès region. Source node
Sabadell Mataró Granollers Vic Berga

Destination node
Mataró Granollers Vic Berga Sabadell

Distance (Km)
41,9 19 42,3 58,4 87,3

Interconnection
C-58 C-33 B-20 C-32 C-60 C-17 C-154 E-9 C-16

2.5.6. Complete Topology of Barcelona province
Joining the five rings described in the preceding paragraphs, we have that the final topology proposed for the province of Barcelona would be the following:

Picture  2.24  Complete  Topology  of  Barcelona  province  

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2.6. Catalonia topology
Once we have explained which are the ring topologies of each province and the backbone, we join all the rings in order to create which is the topology of the infrastructure of Catalonia. The topology of Catalonia was formed by four provinces joined by the backbone. Lleida is the smallest one in number of inhabitants and traffic distribution but is the most expensive one because of there are not so much infrastructures and we have to build it. Barcelona province is the biggest one in terms of inhabitants and due to there is too much infrastructures because have optical fibres in metro, railway, FGC, we have to rent all this fibres so we spend less money initially. The other two provinces, Girona and Tarragona, are quite in terms of number of inhabitants and infrastructures. To finalize the Catalonia’s topology explanation, we said that Catalonia was formed by eight ring joined by another ring called backbone like the picture 2.25.

Picture  2.25  Catalonia’s  Topology  

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2.7. Municipality links to regional nodes
As a company which provide internet service to the maximum number of users, we must design the access network, so among other things we need to know the total length of optical fibre needed. We must consider the distance between each node and its neighbour (which has been already calculated for the rings and backbone design), and also the distances from each town to its regional node, which are difficult to calculate due to the large number of towns currently existing in Catalonia. Taking into account that all the municipalities of Catalonia are classified in 3 types attending to its population (A, B or C), a sample of each type of municipality was given to us from our tutors in order to calculate the average distance between each kind of municipality and its nearest regional node. These samples were Cerdanyola (A), Salou (B) and Cervera (C). Despite this fact, we have considered more accurate to calculate manually all the distances between type-A and type-B cities to their regional node because they are not so many, and apply another approximation for type-C municipalities: As a proposed solution, we have considered 15 random samples of type-C municipalities, calculated the average distance and approximated the rest of the distances between type-C municipalities and their regional node to this average distance which finally was 9.8 Km. Table 2.16 shows the municipalities type C we have choose in order to calculate the average of the distance
Link Vallmoll – Valls La Jonquera - Figueres Olesa de bonesvalls – Vilafranca Monteferrer - La Seu d'Urgell Vall de Boí - El Pont de Suert La Poble de claramunt – Igualada Sant Salvador Guardiola – Manresa Riudecols – Reus Roquetes – Tortosa Begur – Palafrugell Sant Feliu de Llobregat – Cervelló l'Arboç - El Vendrell Polinyà – Sabadell Alcarràs – Lleida Calldetenes - Vic AVERAGE Distance (km) 6,1 20 16 4,1 18,9 7,5 8 12 9 7,2 9,5 8,7 6,3 10,7 3,2 9,8

In order to guarantee service in each municipality, we need to choose the equipment necessary to switch the incoming/out-coming traffic on each municipality that is not a node of a ring. Again, we should consider each municipality of Catalonia and estimate the traffic generated by each one, but that would be quite difficult task that is not within the purposes of this project. The solution proposed is to estimate the traffic generated in the municipalities given as a sample to our group and extrapolate them to the rest of municipalities in our network. The table below shows these estimations: Table 2.16 Estimation of traffic generated in a sample of each kind of municipality. Municipality
Cerdanyola del Vallès Salou Cervera

Type
A B C

Traffic Generated (MB/s)
4066,46734 1597,28625 208,82

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In order to ensure these capacities, we decided the following equipment necessary in each type of municipality: - Type A: 2 x Dual LTM Marconi OMS 870 (STM-16) + DWDM Marconi 3000. - Type B: LTM Marconi OMS 870 (STM-16) - Type C: ADM Marconi OMS 860. (STM-4) We have to take into account that there are many municipalities that are a capital of region so, in these cases we don’t use an LTM and we have to use an ADM that belongs to the provincial ring. Picture 2.26 shows the distance of the three types of municipalities we have been assigned to its capital of node

 

  Picture  2.26  Interconnection  between  the  types  A,  B  and  C  municipalities  to  its  capital  of  region  

In municipality type C, we have to take into account that Cervera is a capital of region, so the distance to it is 0 km but in order to know the distance of municipalities type C to this capital of region we applied the criteria we have previously explained. The fibre used in this links is the same than the one used for the ring design, the mono-mode Corning-Leaf optical fibre. For detailed information about this devices and the optical fibre, go to sections 5.2.1 and 5.2.5. • Cerdanyola del Vallès interconnection:

Cerdanyola del Vallès is a municipality type A that belongs to the province of Vallès Occidental and its capital of region is Terrassa. The total traffic that Cerdanyola send to Terrassa taking into account the same criteria as chapter 1 is this one:
Residential 5M 1879,904 Destí Node Comarcal Destí Node Provincial Destí altres provincies Destí CATNix 0 0 0 1879,904 Residential 10M 469,976 0 0 0 469,976 Companies 10M 176,241 17,6241 44,06025 88,1205 26,43615 Companies 100M 1409,928 140,9928 352,482 704,964 211,4892 Companies 1000M 0 0 0 0 0 Enterprises 10M 24,67374 7,402122 7,402122 8,635809 1,233687 Esterprises 100M 105,7446 31,72338 31,72338 37,01061 5,28723 197,742402 435,667752 838,730919 2594,326267 Total

TOTAL

4066,46734

The total traffic that the municipality sends to its capital is 4066.46734 Mbps so we have to use 2 STM-16 (1 STM-16 is 2.5Gbps) in order to can send these data information. 35    

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Salou is a municipality type B that belongs to the province of Tarragonès and its capital of region is Tarragona. The total traffic that Salou send to Tarragona taking into account the same criteria as chapter 1 is this one:
Residential 5M Destí Node Comarcal Destí Node Provincial Destí altres provincies Destí CATNix 559,629 0 0 0 559,629 Residential 10M 139,90725 0 0 0 139,90725 Companies 10M 42,75 4,275 10,6875 21,375 6,4125 Companies 100M 285 28,5 71,25 142,5 42,75 Companies 1000M 0 0 0 0 0 Enterprises 10M 285 85,5 85,5 99,75 14,25 Esterprises 100M 0 0 0 0 0 118,275 167,4375 263,265 792.94875 Total

TOTAL

1597,28625

The total traffic that the municipality sends to its capital is 1597.28625 Mbps so we have to use 1 STM-16 (1 STM-16 is 2.5Gbps) in order to can send these data information.

Cervera interconnection:   Cervera is a municipality type C that belongs to the province of Segarra and its capital of region is the same Cervera so the total traffic that Cervera generates taking into account the same criteria as chapter 1 is:   •
Residential 5M 125,928 Destí Node Comarcal Destí Node Provincial Destí altres provincies Destí CATNix 0 0 0 125,928 Residential 10M 13,992 0 0 0 13,992 Companies 10M 14,4 1,44 3,6 7,2 2,16 Companies 100M 36 3,6 9 18 5,4 Companies 1000M 0 0 0 0 0 Enterprises 10M 3,05 1,05 1,05 1,225 0,175 Esterprises 100M 15 4,5 4,5 5,25 0,75 10,59 18,15 31,675 148,405 Total

TOTAL

208,82

  The total traffic that the municipality sends to its capital is 208.82 Mbps so we have to use 1 STM-4 (1 STM-4 is 622.28 Mbps) in order to can send these data information.

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CHAPTER 3. PROTECTION
Any connection system like we are studying, with very long link distances and traffic movement that we have seen in previous chapters, we must take into account some form of protection in case that our links suffers mistakes or cuts. In this chapter we will explain how we to solve this problem.

3.1. Types of protection used
Before to explain the specific protection used in each province, first, we go to talk about the solutions that we have implemented in several ring links. More specifically, we only use two protections for this project, Four-Fibre MS-BSHR and Two-Fibre MSBSHR. In Four-Fibre MS-BSHR or Four-Fibre MS-SPRing two fibres are used as working fibres and two are used for protection. Working traffic can be carried on both directions along the ring but usually traffic is routed on the shortest path; however, in certain cases traffic may be routed along the longer path to reduce network congestion and make better use of the available capacity. It employs two types of protection mechanism: span switching where if a transmitter or receiver on a working fibre fails, the traffic is routed onto the protection fibre between the two nodes on the same link (Picture 3.1); ring switching where in case a fibre or cable is cut, service is rerouted around the ring by the nodes adjacent to the failure. Ring switching is also used to protect against a node failure (Picture 3.2).

Picture  3.1.  Span  switching  

Picture  3.2.  Ring  switching  

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In Two-Fibre MS-BSHR or Two-Fibre MS-SPRing both of the fibres are used to carry working traffic, but half the capacity on each fibre is reserved for protection purposes (Picture 3.3). Span switching is not possible here, but ring switching works in much the same way as in a BLSR/4. In the event a link failure, the traffic on the failed link is rerouted along the other part of the ring using the protection capacity available in the two fibres.

Picture  3.3.  Two-­‐Fibre  MS-­‐BSHR  

When the working fibres fail, there are several system recovery modes. In our case, we have to decide what happens when this case occurs. The protection mechanisms that we have explained previously use a protection switching called 1:1 (Picture 3.4). 1:1 sends a copy of signal on a working channel only, while the protection channel is reserved for future use in case that the working channel gets failed. In normal time, the protection channel can also be used for low priority data traffic transmission. It exist a similar protection switching called 1+1 which, in contrast to 1:1, a copy of data signal is transmitted respectively on a working and a protection channel. At the receiver side, the receiver can make a decision to accept which copy of signal based on the signal quality.

Picture  3.4  1:1  Protection  Architecture    

3.2. Backbone protection
The interprovincial ring is the topology where the traffic amount is biggest than the provincial rings. Also, there are longest distances link. The failures at this level would

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make that provincial nodes might suffer overloads and, as consequence, which the network will has more errors. For this reason, we use a Four-Fibre MS-BSHR protection in Backbone. We can have two basic failures, as well be has explained in previous section. Suppose that the working fibre in one of two ways suffer a cut. In this case, simply, the data will be transport thought the protection fibre for this direction. Another typical situation is when both working and protection fibre stops working. The traffic is routed by the other side of the node (We remember that it's a ring topology). Then, the loads on the other three links will increase. To avoid this problem we overrating the values obtained in the first compute. This will make the equipment is prepared. As can be seen, if we put the protection and working fibres on the same path, it is more likely that the second situation commented above occurs, and we prefer will not arise. So, we proposed to send the protection fibres through different way that working fibres. Thus, is harder that it occurs. This solution increases the final economical result, but in the opposite case that we don’t want to use it, if the working and protection fibre fails the equipment is designed to support these changes, but the network devices could be break down. The routes of each fibre are basically highway for working fibres (Section 2.1 of Chapter 2) and ADIF for protection fibre (Picture 3.5). The links Girona – Tarragona, Tarragona – Barcelona, Barcelona – Girona are direct but, as there isn’t an ADIF direct connection between Girona and Lleida, This path is made up for the union of Barcelona – Girona and Barcelona – Lleida, but without going, physically, through the Barcelona’s node.

Picture  3.5.  ADIF  connections  [4]    

Is important to comment in this section that in each provincial node we assume that we have two equipment with the same tech features. Thus, we split the work between two and, if one of them breaks, the other one will use 100% capacity. therefore, the protection chosen for the backbone ring should do that each equipment need twice inputs and outputs, but as we use two physical nodes, the interfaces of the receiver or emitting it's just like one. 39    

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3.3. Lleida, Tarragona and Girona’s protection
We explain Lleida, Tarragona and Girona protection in the same section because they are very similar between them. As also discussed in Chapter, which refers to Network topology, the main topologies implemented in this provinces is the ring topology too. But, in this case, we haven’t got a traffic load inside the ring as large as the backbone. This reason leads us to think in softer protections which decrease the project final cost. With a Two-Fibre MS-BSHR protection we only use two fibres, not four. It fits perfectly with what we are looking for. Although protection is obviously “lower” than Four-Fibre MS-BSHR, it is sufficient to protect the provincial rings. If a working fibre in one direction fails the other working fibre, which goes in the opposite direction, at that time it fills protection channels with the traffic which can’t arrives at the other point. This type of protection is called Ring or Path-Switching. This is possible because the impact on failure is not very high in these rings In Lleida and Girona, we have some exceptions because there are two special cases. In Girona exists point to point connection between Ripoll and Puigcerdà, and in Lleida there are two point to point consecutive connections.

3.4. Barcelona’s protection
As in almost all cases, we have separated Barcelona's Province explanation from the others, because it behaves some different. In the Chapter 2 (Network Topology) has been explained that the Barcelona's topology will be made up four sub-rings which are joined by a core ring formed by the nodes on Sabadell at the Valles Occidental, which manages the Barcelona’s East; Sant Feliu de Llobregat, which manages the Barcelona`s West; Hospitalet de Llobregat and Badalona, which manage the Barcelona’s municipality and the close surroundings. Each one of them is connected with the CATNix node. If there are a failure into one of the rings managed by these nodes the traffic repercussion on the near connections, like happens in provinces of Girona, Lleida and Tarragona, don't increase enough to put into this rings a protection based on four fibres like Four-Fibre MS-BSHR. In these four sub-rings we will use a Two-Fibre MS-BSHR protection. The trouble comes when we step into the core ring. A failure in here can lead us to high traffic loads on the rest of nodes that made up the core ring. This problems is mainly caused because comes a high traffic with destination CATNix. For this reason, we connect the four nodes that form the central ring, each one separately, with the CATNix node. In the case that one of these links fails, there are three other options to arrive at de destiny. Thanks to this separation we can afford to put a Two-Fibre MSBSHR protection in this ring too. The final protection scheme is shown in Picture 3.6. As maybe can't be appreciate the line colours in the picture, we help to the reader to distinguish them. In the legend puts that the black line is for A to B direction and the orange or yellow line is for B to A direction. A and B aren't physical places, basically, each colour represents one transport data direction of the fibre. 40    

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  Picture  3.6  Protection  Scheme  

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CHAPTER 4. SYNCHRONIZATION
SDH is a technology that allows high throughput across point-to-point connections, making it ideal for WAN links. However, in order to have these high throughputs, it is necessary to use highly accurate synchronization between network nodes in order to avoid bit errors or frame losses during transmission. An incorrectly synchronized SDH network causes jitter and wander, which would cause the network nodes not be able to determine when a frame starts/ends, ultimately meaning reduced bit rates or traffic loss. Synchronization between network nodes in an SDH network is done by synchronizing an SDH node to a master clock called reference clock. Due to financial reasons (A PRC can cost around 80K EUROS), a reference clock is not deployed in each physical location next to an SDH node. To be able to synchronize the SDH network nodes, the synchronization signal is transported through SDH networks using the STM-N signals using a synchronization message. By doing this, remote SDH equipment is able to extract the signal from a reference clock.

4.1.

SDH synchronization network planning

The standard, ETSI EG 201 793, defines a series of recommended guidelines to be followed when planning how to deploy a synchronization signal across a SDH network. The document also mentions two types of architectures used to deploy synchronization in an SDH network: - Hierarchical Master-Slave - Pseudo-synchronous (Distributed architecture) In either architecture, several synchronization sources are used to be able to synchronize the entire network. Our network is being designed with Hierarchical Master-Slave architecture.

4.1.1. Synchronization sources
The ITU-T defines 3 types of synchronization sources in the standards G.811, G.812 and G.813: • Primary Reference Clock (PRC) à Is defined in standards ITU-T G.811 and ETSI EN 300 462-7-1. A PRC provides the reference signal for the synchronization of others clocks within a network, either SDH equipment or slave clocks specified in G.812. A PRC can be an autonomous clock operating by itself, or a non-autonomous clock that is disciplined by radio or satellite system. In both cases, the short-term stability and long-term accuracy defined in G.811 still apply. The main characteristic is the long-term accuracy (10!!! )

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Synchronization Slave Unit (SSU) à Is defined in the standard ITU-T G.812. A clock whose timing output is phase-locked to a reference timing signal received from a higher quality clock. It is used to redistribute the PRC signal across the rest of the network. There are two types of SSU’s, SSU-Transit (SSU-T) and SSU-Local (SSU-L). The main characteristics are: Ø Long-term accuracy: § SSU-T : 5 · 10!!" , drift: 10 · 10!!" per day § SSU-L : 5 · 10!! , drift: 5 · 10!! per day Ø Bandwidth: 3 mHz SDH Equipment Clock (SEC) à Is defined in the standard G.813, a clock whose timing output is phased-locked to a reference clock, which can be a PRC or SSU. The main characteristics are: o Long-term accuracy: 4.6 · 10!! , drift: 5 · 10!! /day o Bandwidth: 1-10 Hz

4.1.2. Synchronization status messages
SSU’s and SEC’s generally receive a reference signal from various sources, in order to avoid loops and decide which synchronization signal is the best to be used, a message called Synchronization Status Message (SSM) is passed within each SDH frame (STM-N). The SSM is a 4 bit message that is carried over the S1 byte in the MSOH header of a STM-N signal. The various synchronization sources utilize this message to decide which synchronization signal to use. Table 4.1 shows the quality level and coding in synchronization status messages used in SDH networks. Quality Information
Quality Unknown Quality PRC Quality SSU-T Quality SSU-L Quality SEC Do not Use (DNU)

SSM coding [MSB…LSB]
0000 0001 0010 1000 1101 1111

4.1.3. Synchronization network design
In order to design our network, we will follow the guidelines mentioned in the document, ETSI EG 201 793, that describe a general topology to be used in synchronization networks. Our network is master-slave hierarchy architecture, which a general topology is shown in the figure below:

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  Picture  4.1  Master-­‐slave  architecture  

Since we are designing a Master-slave network, the next guidelines are to be followed: – – – – – Find out the connections to the national PRC-system Plan the locations for SSUs à when placing a SSU node the importance of the node locations for the traffic networks to be synchronized and the synchronization network itself is considered. Plan the synchronization trails à first the transmission systems for the synchronization transfer is selected. Secondly the timing configuration of the selected systems is planned in detail. Use of a second PRC as backup is recommended Avoid timing loops à make use of SSM messages to recover from a failure in a synchronization trail and follow through all physical loops (clockwise and counter-clockwise) making sure that the reference signal loop is not closed and the clocks are not in Holdover. Minimize the chain clocks à as defined in standard G.803, no more than 60 SECs and 10 SSUs can be part of a synchronization chain and a maximum of 20 SECs can be between two SSUs.

Figure  4.2  Chain  clock  

Ø Ø Ø – – –

Maximum number of SEC’s between 2 SSU’s: m1, m2… mn+1 ≥ 20 Maximum number of SSU’s in a chain: n ≥ 10 Maximum number of SEC’s: 60

Choose the best timing facilities Maintain the clock hierarchy also after protection rearrangements. Use alternate routes to use different synchronization sources in case PRC fails.

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4.2.

SDH synchronization network

For our synchronization network, we used: – – – 2 PRC’s; 1 Master, 1 Back-up 5 SSU’s 47 SEC’s supplied with each SDH equipment

The master PRC located on Sant Feliu is going to synchronize its aggregation ring, the backup PRC and the rest of the SSU’s. In order to reduce costs, our backup PRC in Badalona is going to be in active state acting but only covering its aggregation ring while being stand-by for the rest of the SSU’s. The backup PRC is going to be synchronized by the Master PRC with priority 1 and the GPS signal with priority 2. The rest of the aggregation rings: Tarragona, L’Hospitalet, Sabadell, Girona and Lleida, each is going to have its own SSU. This is to avoid from internal traffic within a ring to be affected in case a SSU loses the PRC signal because of fiber cuts. After following the guidelines recommended by standard ETSI EG 201 793, our network design is shown in figure 4.3.

  Picture  4.3  Catalonia’s  synchronization  network  

 

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CHAPTER 5. NETWORK ELEMENTS
This chapter tries to explain a little description of all elements we have to use in all network infrastructures and which are the elements of the providers we have use it. To find which is exactly the network elements to use, we had to search on Internet all the providers that manufactures these type of elements and find the characteristics that are very similar like the calculations we have done previously.

5.1. Network Elements
The network elements we have used in order to create all Catalonia’s infrastructures are:

5.1.1. ADM
ADM are the initials of Add and Drop Multiplexer and is an important element of an optical fibre network. An ADM has the capability to add one or more lower-bandwidth signals to an existing high-bandwidth data stream and at the same time can extract or drop other low-bandwidth signals, removing them from the stream and redirecting them to some other network path. This is used as a local “on-ramp” and “off-ramp” to the high speed network. ADM’s can be used both in long-haul core networks and in shorter-distance metro networks, although the former are much more expensive due to the difficulty of scaling the technology to the high data rates and dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) used for long/haul communications. ADMs are placed on the regions nodes that provide a less traffic and don’t have to interconnect less or equal than two nodes. A recent shift in ADM technology has introduced so called “multi-service SDH&SONET” (also known as a multi-service provisioning platform, MSPP) equipment which has all the capabilities of legacy ADMs, but can also include cross-connect functionality to manage multiple fibre rings in a single chassis. These new devices can replace multiple legacy ADMs and also allow connections directly from Ethernet LANs to a service provider’s optical backbone.  

Picture  5.1  interconnection  of  ADM  [1]  

5.1.2. DxC
DxC are the initials of Digital Cross Connect and is a network device used by telecom carriers and large enterprises to switch and multiplex low-speed voice and data signals onto high-speed lines and vice versa. It is typically used to aggregate several T1 lines into a higher-speed electrical or optical line as well as to distribute signals to various destinations and its purpose is to regroup and switch data streams 46    

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between the interfaces of the cross-connect system. The DxC are usually placed in the connection of backbone nodes and the provincial’s capital where there is existed high traffic and have to interconnect more than two nodes or different rings.  

  Picture  5.2  Structure  of  DxC  [1]  

5.1.3. WDM
WDM are the initials of Wavelength Division Multiplexing and is a technology which multiplexes a number of optical carrier signals onto a simple optical fibre by using different wavelengths (colours) of a laser light. This technique enables bidirectional communications over one strand of fibre, as well as multiplication of capacity. The term WDM is commonly applied to an optical carrier (which is typically described by its wavelength), whereas FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing) typically applies to a radio carrier (which is more often described by frequency). Since wavelength and frequency are tied together through a simple relationship, the two terms actually describe the same concept

Picture  5.3  WDM  technique  [5]  

There are three categories of WDM: a) b) Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWM) à the original WDM systems were for dual-channel 1310/1550 systems and for 2 to 4 wavelengths per fibre. Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) à typically is from 4 to 8 wavelengths per fibre and is being designed for short to medium-haul networks (regional and metropolitan area networks). Since 2002 and revised in 2003, ITU create a standard to use wavelengths from 1271nm to 1611nm with a channel spacing of 20nm. The main characteristic of CWDM standard is that the signals are not spaced appropriately for amplification by EDFAs. This

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c)

therefore limits the total CWDM optical span to somewhere near 60 Km for a 2.5Gbit/s signals. CWDM is also being used in cable television networks Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) à is used to increase bandwidth over existing fibre optic backbones. DWDM works by combining and transmitting multiple signals simultaneously at different wavelengths on the same fibre. DWDM-based networks can transmit data in IP, ATM, SONET/SDH, and Ethernet, and handle bit rates between 100Mbit/s and 2.5Gbit/s. Therefore, DWDM-based networks can carry different types of traffic at different speeds over an optical channel. From a QoS standpoint, DWDM-based networks create a lower cost way to quickly respond to customers’ bandwidth demands and protocol changes.

DWDM allows greater scalability if, in a future, the capacity of the network increase and is capable of carrying out links at longer distances without having to use amplifiers. Due to these reasons, the best solution is to use DWDM in the entire network.

5.1.4. SDH targets
SDH are the initials of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy and is a standardized multiplexing protocol that transfers multiple digital bit streams over optical fibre. This standard was originally defined by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and is formalized as International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standards G.707, G.783, G.784 and G.803. The unit of framing are the SDH targets that permit to define the optical interfaces in our equipment in order to transmit the optical signal between all nodes of the network. There three types of targets which have to verify the ITU G.957 standard: a) b) c) STM-1 à is the basic unit of framing in SDH. Has a byte-oriented structure with 9 rows and 270 columns of bytes, for a total of 2430 bytes and operates at 155.52 Mbit/s. Each byte corresponds to a 64kbit/s channel. STM-4 à is a SDH ITU-T fibre optic network transmission standard with a bit rate of 622.080 Mbit/s. STM-16 à is a SDH ITU-T fibre optic network transmission standard with a bit rate of 2488.32 Mbit/s.

In the G.957 standard, the optical interface is divided in function of the distance of the links, the wavelength and the frame type used. In table 5.1 we can see this explanation: Table 5.1 shows the classification of the optical interfaces by the ITU G.957 Application
Source nominal wavelength (nm) Type of fibre Distance (Km) STM-1 STM STM-4 level STM-16

Intra-office
1310 Rec. G.652 ≤2 I-1 I-4 I-16

Short-haul
1310 Rec. G.652 S-1.1 S-4.1 S-16.1 1550 Rec. G.652 ≈15 S-1.2 S-4.2 S-16.2

Inter-office Long-haul
1310 Rec. G.652 ≈40 L-1.1 L-4.1 L-16.1 1550 Rec. G.652 Rec. G.653 Rec. G.654 ≈80 L-1.2 L-1.3 L-4.2 L-4.3 L-16.2 L-16.3

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5.1.5. Optical fibre
An optical fibre is a thin, flexible, transparent fibre that acts as a waveguide to transmit light between the two ends of the fibre. Optical fibre typically consists of a transparent core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower refraction index. Light is kept in the core by total internal reflection. This causes the fibre to act as a waveguide. There are two types of fibres: a) Multi-Mode Fibre (MMF) à is the fibre which supports many propagation paths or transverse modes. These types of fibres, generally, have a larger core diameter, and are used for short distances communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted. Single-Mode Fibre (SMF) à is the fibre which supports only one propagation paths. These types of fibres are used for most communication links longer than 1050m.

b)

These two types of fibre are composed by the elements that picture 5.4 shows:

Picture  5.4  Elements  of  a  optical  fibre  [1]  

Cladding à is one or more layers of material of lower refractive index, in intimate xontact with a core material of higher refractive index. The cladding causes light to be confined to the core of the fibre by total internal reflection at the boundary between the two. Normally has a diameter of 125 µm. Core à is a cylinder of glass or plastic that runs along the fibres length. The core is surrounded by a medium with a lower refraction index, typically a cladding. Light travelling in the core reflects from the core/cladding boundary due to total internal reflection, as long as the angle between the light and the boundary is less than the critical angle as in picture 5.5. Normally has a diameter of 8 or 9 µm.  

Picture  5.5  Propagation  in  the  core  of  the  optical  fibre  [1]  

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External cover à normally, has a diameter of 4 µm. Internal cover à normally, has a diameter of 250 µm.

5.1.6. Connectors
An optical fibre connector terminates the end of the optical fibre, and enables quicker connection and disconnection than splicing. The connectors mechanically couple and align the cores of fibres so that light can pass. These connectors are used to interconnect the SDH targets with the optical fibre.

5.1.7. Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier (EDFA)
EDFA is the most deployed fibre amplifier as its amplification window coincides with the third transmission window of silica-based optical fibre. Two bands have developed in the third transmission window, the conventional or C-band, from approximately 1525 nm - 1565 nm, and the Long or L-band, from approximately 1570 nm to 1610 nm. Both of these bands can be amplified by EDFAs, but it is normal to use two different amplifiers, each optimized for one of the bands. The principal difference between C and L-band amplifiers is that a longer length of doped fibre is used in L-band amplifiers. EDFAs have two commonly used pumping bands, 980 nm and 1480 nm. The 980 nm band has a higher absorption cross-section and is generally used where low-noise performance is required. The absorption band is relatively narrow and so wavelength stabilised laser sources are typically needed. The 1480 nm band has a lower, but broader, absorption cross-section and is generally used for higher power amplifiers. A combination of 980 nm and 1480 nm pumping is generally utilised in amplifiers.

5.2. Equipment used
With the previous theory explanation of the elements we have to use and the total traffic distribution we have calculated in chapter 1. Now we will explain the specific features of each equipment chosen and then we will see where is allocate each of them in the network. Before to start, we think that is important qualify that almost all equipments are provided by Marconi. This concept is not reflected on the budget or another section of the project. We have decided it just because if the majority of network equipments belong at the same company will have fewer incompatibility problems and the provider will be much available when any equipment will suffer some failure.

5.2.1. ADM
We have looked for in the datasheets the specifications of each component. So we have to choose the equipments which more closely resemble our requirements. The main requirements in which we have set are the commutation matrix and the maximum number of equivalent STM-1 which we have to equip. 50    

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The ADMs chosen are: Table 5.2 Shows the ADM chosen. Model
Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1654 Marconi OMS 1240 Marconi OMS 870 Marconi OMS 860

Matrix (Gbps)
40 20 4 2,5 0,62228

STM-1 equivalets
176 STM-1 128 STM-1 4 STM-1 16 STM-1 4 STM-1

The nodes where we use the ADM of the previous table are show in the following table: Table 5.3 Nodes which use ADM. Node
Figueres Banyoles Olot Ripoll Puigcerdà Sils Palafrugell Balaguer Tremp Sort La Seu d’Urgell Solsona Cervera Tàrrega Mollerussa Les Borges Blanques El Pont de Suert Vielha El Vendrell Valls Montblanc Reus Falset Mora d’Ebre Gandesa Tortosa Amposta Les Corts Sarrià – St. Gervasi Sants – Montjuic Ciutat Vella Eixample Gràcia Sant Martí Sant Adrià del Besós Santa Coloma Sant Andreu Nou Barris Horta Mataró Granollers Vic Berguedà Manresa Igualada Vilafranca

Province
Girona Girona Girona Girona Girona Girona Girona Tarragona Tarragona Tarragona Tarragona Tarragona Tarragona Tarragona Tarragona Tarragona Tarragona Tarragona Lleida Lleida Lleida Lleida Lleida Lleida Lleida Lleida Lleida Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona

Model
Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1240 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1654 Marconi OMS 1654 Marconi OMS 1654 Marconi OMS 1654 Marconi OMS 1654 Marconi OMS 1654 Marconi OMS 1654 Marconi OMS 1654 Marconi OMS 1240 Marconi OMS 1240 Marconi OMS 1240 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi OMS 1654 Marconi OMS 1654 Marconi OMS 1654

Amount
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

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5.2.2. DxC
The search of digital cross-connect equipments also is based on the same requirements that the ADMs: the commutation matrix and the maximum number of equivalent STM-1 which we have to equip. The DxCs chosen are: Table 5.4 Shows the DxCs chosen. Model
Marconi OMS 1600 Marconi OMS 2430 Marconi OMS 3240 Marconi OMS 3255

Matrix (Gbps)
60 100 80 160

STM-1 equivalets
384 STM-1 608 STM-1 504 STM-1 640 STM-1

The nodes where we use the DxC of the previous table are show in the following table: Table 5.5 Nodes which use DxC. Node
Girona Lleida Tarragona Hospitalet Badalona Sabadell Sant Feliu de Ll.

Province
Girona Lleida Tarragona Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona Barcelona

Model
Marconi OMS 2430 Marconi OMS 1600 Marconi OMS 2430 Marconi OMS 3240 Marconi OMS 3240 Marconi OMS 3255 Marconi OMS 3255

Amount
2 2 2 2 2 2 2

 

5.2.3. WDM
In Wavelength Division Multiplex equipments the features are different. The requirements used for obtain the best WDM multiplexers for our network is: the type of WDM, i.e. if the multiplexer is Dense or Coarse (DWDM or CWDM) and the maximum number of lambdas that it have to join or split. The WDMs chosen are: Table 5.6 Shows the WDM chosen. Model
Marconi 3000

Type
DWDM

Lambdas
18

5.2.4. SDH Targets
To compute the type of SDH card that are needed in each equipment, first we have had to know the number of equivalent cards to the traffic which is incoming or outbound, which are the same because the SDH technology is symmetric. 52    

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With the traffic oversized we divide it by a STM-16 value, i.e. 2.5Gbit/s. This operation give us the exact number of STM-16 and an over traffic which can't fill a STM-16. With this over traffic we have decided if is needed a STM-1, STM-4 or STM16. The general equation is: !"#$%&'#(  !"#$$%& 2,5  !"#$ !"#$  !"#$$%& = !"#$%&'#(  !"#$$%& − (!º  !"##  !"#16 ∙ 2,5!"#$) !º  !"##  !"#16 =   To help to understand better this explanation we show an example of a link between Olot and Banyoles in Gironas Province. Table 5.7 Shows the example of Olot-Banyoles link. Link
Olot - Banyoles

Oversized traffic
2217,18 Gbps

STM-1
0

STM-4
0

STM-16
5

Once we had all the STMs for each link, the next step is to looking for the SDH card which can emit and receive STM-1, STM-4 or STM-16. As in datasheets of the cards of Marconi don't specify the transmission power and sensitivity of it, which help us to decide if we need some amplifier between links, we search the cards in Cisco, which give us this information. The STM cards are the following: Table 5.8 Shows the STM cards chosen. Model
STM1 SH 1310-8 STM4 LH 1550 STM16 LH AS 1550

Type
STM-1 STM-4 STM-16

Tx. (dBm)
-15 to -8 -3 to +2 -2 to +3

Rx. (dBm)
-28 to -8 -28 to -8 -28 to -9

Wavelength
1310nm SM 1550nm SM 1550nm SM

Connector
LC SC SC

 

5.2.5. Optical fibre
The choice of the optical fibre is one of the most important decisions we must take for the design of our network, as there are almost 3000 km of links between nodes in our design, and we must invest a big amount of our budget to this network element. Once we decided to use a mono-mode fibre and the ITU G-655 standard, we had to choose between manufacturers. The most interesting technical parameters used to balance between them are attenuation, the chromatic dispersion, and the cut-off wavelength. The table 2.5 shows the comparison between different manufacturers and their technical parameters. Table 5.9 G-655 Fibres selection. Fiber Type G-655 (λ=1550nm) Manufacturer / Type
CORNING / LEAF OFS / REACH OFS / REACH

Att. Máxima (dB/Km)
0,2 ± 0,02 0,22 ± 0,02 0,22 ± 0,02

Dispersión cromátca (ps/nm*Km)
4 6,9 4

λ cutoff (nm)
1330 1260

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DRAKA / TeraLight G.655.E TELNET / NZDS G.655 ≤0.25 dB/km ≤0.24 dB/km

 
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≤ 1450

Our final decision was the Corning/Leaf fibre, which has the lowest attenuation and also a low dispersion so it was the best choice for us.

5.2.6. Connectors
About connectors, the main parameter that we need is the attenuation which decreases our outbound transmission power of the SDH card. The card datasheets give us the type of connector that we need for connect it with the fibre. As the SDH cards which we use are either STM-4 or STM-16 and, as we can see in the Table 5.6, both need SC connectors.

5.2.7. Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier (EDFA)
Before to looking for the Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier equipment we have to know all the power balance between links. To compute it we use the following equation. !!"#$% = !!" − ! ∙ ! − !!"#!$ Where Ptx is the transmission power of the STM card, α is the fiber attenuation, L is the length of the link, αotros is the summation of connector losses, multiplexer losses and regenerator losses. Pfinal is the power which arrives at the end of the link; it has to be between the sensibilities ranges. We have applied this equation at each link and the only place where the Pfinal arrives under receiver sensitivity is on the interprovincial ring. To help to understand better this explanation we show the following table with the equation applied in the interprovincial ring. Table 5.10 Power balance interprovincial links. Link Ptx αfiber L (km) αotros Pfinal Prx
-28 -28 -28 -28 -28

diff
2,48 2,18 37,4 42,2 3,6

Sant Feliu – Tarragona -3 0,2 97,4 8 -30,48 Sabadell – Girona -3 0,2 95,9 8 -40,18 Girona – Lleida -3 0,2 243 13,8 -65,40 Girona – Lleida (*) -3 0,2 263 14,6 -70,20 Tarragona -Lleida -3 0,2 102 8,2 -31,60 (*)  the  protection  fiber  goes  through  Barcelona.  

According to the Table 5.8, we need an EDFA between Sant Feliu de Llobregat and Tarragona, Sabadell and Girona and Tarragona and Lleida; meanwhile, to obtain a good receiver power we need two EDFA between Girona and Lleida. In the links which we just we need one, it will be allocated in the middle of the path; however, in the links which we need two, the amplifiers will be allocated at 1/3 of path and 2/3 of path. The requirements in the search of optical amplifiers are basically the gain range. The EDFAs selected are: Table 5.11 EDFAs selected. 54    

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Model
Telnet EDFA

Gain range
20dB

5.2.8. PRC & SSU
The theory about the synchronization equipment’s and, in general, the synchronization has been explained in the previous chapter. For this reason, in this end part of network elements chapter only we have appointed the PRC and SSU chosen. To looking for them we have based in the compliance of the ITU standards. Table 5.11 PRC and SSU selected. Model
Symmetricom PRC-3100 Symmetricom SSU 2000e

 

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CHAPTER 6. TECHNOLOGIES
Before to start with the budget of this first part of this project, we go to talk about the basic technologies used in all that we have explained until here. All of these technologies have been seen in the subjects of XDSF block. We will make a brief introduction of SDH, WDM and topics related with the fiber optics. We focus in the parts which we have seen along the project. To know everything that involves it we would need a report much longer.

6.1. SDH
Along this report we make refer sometimes to SDH acronyms. Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) is a standard technology for synchronous data transmission on optical media. It is the international equivalent of Synchronous Optical Network (SONET). Both technologies provide faster and less expensive network interconnection than traditional PDH (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy) equipment. The SDH standard was originally defined by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The SONET standard was defined by Telcordia and American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Both are organized in containers, where the bit-rate of each container has been chosen so that the full range PDH and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) signals can be transported over the SDH Network (Table 6.1). Table 6.1 SDH Containers

SDH Containers
SDH Container
C-4 C-3 C-2 C-12 C-11

Container bit-rate (kbits/s)
150336 50112 6912 2304 1728

PDH bit-rate (kbits/s)
139264 44736 34368 6312 2048 1544

All of the SDH containers can be multiplexing within a aggregate of 155.55 Mbps which is called an STM-1 frame (Synchronous Transport Module - Number 1). For knowhow is made up the frame structure of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy, we describe it in this section briefly too. The STM-1 Frame structure has two parts: the headers and the payload. All frames have a dimension of 270 columns or bytes and 9 rows. The headers fill the first 9 bytes of each row. It is divided in three sections: Regeneration Section Overhead (RSOH), Multiplex Section Overhead (MSOH) and the Pointer Area. The first two are modified between two regenerators or a network element an regenerator and between network elements respectively, meanwhile the Pointer Area is used to the align process of the virtual containers into the payload. SDH offers two main benefits: The great configuration flexibility of the nodes which are in the network and increase the management possibilities both traffic as network elements. This makes that a network can be taken from its passive PDH transport structure to one which transports and manages the information actively. 56    

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Self-repairable: automatic rerouting of the traffic without services interrupts. Demand services: quick provision of point to point services under demand. Flexible access: flexible administration of a wide range of services of fixed bandwidth.

SDH also promote the creation of structure with open networks, which increase the competence in the services supply.

6.2. WDM
A technique of sending signals of several different wavelengths of Light into the Fiber simultaneously. In fiber optic communications, wavelength-division Multiplexing (WDM) is a technology which multiplexes multiple optical carrier signals on a single Optical Fiber by using different wavelengths (colors) of Laser light to carry different signals. Two different versions of WDM, defined by standards of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), are distinguished: • Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplex (CWDM) à uses a relatively small number of channels, for instance four or eight, and a large channel spacing of 20 nm. The nominal wavelengths range from 1310 nm to 1610 nm. The wavelength tolerance for the transmitters is fairly large. The single-channel bit rate is usually between 1 and 3.125Gbit/s. Dense Wavelength Division Multiplex (DWDM) à is the extended method for very large data capacities, as required for instance in the Internet backbone. It uses a large number of channels (40, 80, or 160), and a correspondingly small channel spacing of 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 GHz. All optical channel frequencies refer to a reference frequency which has been fixed at 193.10 THz (1552.5 nm). The transmitters have to meet tight wavelength tolerances. The single-channel bit rate can be between 1 and 10Gbit/s, and in the future also 40Gbit/s.

Picture  6.1  WDM  [3]  

 

6.3. Optical fibre
The circuits of fibre optic are a glass threads (it's composed by natural glasses) o plastic (artificial glasses), with diameters around of 10 and 300 µm. It carries messages in form of broad of light which pass through them from one extreme to the other in fact. 57    

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The light transmission principle over fibre is based on the total internal reflection; the light which travels through the fibre core come into contact with the external surface with higher angle than the critical angle, so all the light is reflected without losses into the fibre. Thus, the light can be transmitted reflecting it in a long path. Basically, the fibre optic is a light guide with much better materials than the previous in several ways. We can add that in the fibre optic the signal is not so attenuated than the copper, since in the fibres there aren't information losses by refraction or light dispersion. As result we get better performance than the copper, where the signals are much attenuated by the material resistance to the electromagnetic wave propagations. Furthermore, is possible to emit at the same time several signals which have got different frequencies to distinguish them. In the telephonic ambit it is called multiplex. We can use the fibre optic to transmit light directly and another kind of advantages which aren't topic of this project. Logically, this new technology to transmit data provide us a bit-rate increase with respect historically technologies used. In the following image is possible to see this evolution through the years.

Picture  6.2  Bit-­‐Rate  evolution  [2]

 

 

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CHAPTER 7. BUDGET
Once all the equipment has chosen, the topology are decided and the number of elements we have to use are selected, it is the time to calculate the budget. To calculate this budget we have to know which is the cost of all the elements we have to use (rent and build the optical fibre, ADM, DxC, WDM and the optical amplifiers).

7.1. Budget of optical fibre
In order to calculate the budget of the fibre, we have to take in present two options: a) b) If we rent this optical fibre, the cost per Km per year per fibre is 4500€. This option is only valid if we have an infrastructure build previously by another provider. If we have to build the optical fibre, the cost per Km per fibre is 45.000€. We use this option in the rest of links which don’t have an infrastructure to rent this fibre.

We divide the total budget by provinces in order to know how much it cost the optical fibre but finally, we have to sum all the contributions to calculate the total budget. Table 7.1 shows which is the budget of the Lleida’s optical fibre taking into account the two previous options
Link Lleida - Balaguer Balaguer - Tremp Tremp - Sort Sort - La Seu d'Urgell La Seu d'Urgell - Solsona Solsona - Cervera Cervera - Tàrrega Tàrrega - Mollerussa Mollerussa - Lleida Tremp - El Pont de Suert El pont de Suert - Vielha e Mijaran Mollerussa - Les Borges Blanques LLEIDA Distance (km) 27,3 56,6 38,7 52 67,8 49,6 12,8 22,7 28,3 45,6 40,1 14,2 Rent SI SI NO NO NO NO SI SI SI NO NO NO Build NO NO SI SI SI SI NO NO NO SI SI SI Prize (€) / year 122850 254700 1741500 2340000 3051000 2232000 57600 102150 127350 2052000 1804500 639000

TOTAL

14.524.650

Table 7.2 shows which is the budget of the Girona’s optical fibre taking into account the two previous options
Link Sils - Ripoll Puigcerdà - Ripoll GIRONA Distance (km) Rent 87 SI 65 SI Build NO NO Prize (€) / year 391500 292500

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Ripoll - Olot Olot - Banyoles Banyoles - Figueres Figueres - Girona Girona - Palafrugell Palafrugell - Sils 30 35 35 39 53 23

 
NO NO NO SI NO SI SI SI SI NO SI NO 1350000 1575000 1575000 175500 2385000 103500

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TOTAL

7.848.000

Table 7.3 shows which is the budget of the Tarragona’s optical fibre taking into account the two previous options.
Link Tarragona - El Vendrell El Vendrell - Valls Valls - Montblanc Montblanc - Reus Reus - Falset Falset - Mora d'Ebre Mora d'Ebre - Gandesa Gandesa - Tortosa Tortosa - Amposta Amposta - Tarragona TARRAGONA Distance (km) Rent 35,6 SI 40,5 17,2 29,1 30,8 20 21,5 34,9 21,5 32,9 SI NO SI NO NO NO NO SI SI Build NO NO SI NO SI SI SI SI NO NO Prize (€) / year 160200 182250 774000 130950 1386000 900000 967500 1570500 96750 148050

TOTAL

6.316.200

Table 7.4 shows which is the budget of the Barcelona’s optical fibre taking into account the two previous options.
BARCELONA BARCELONA CITY1 Link L'Hospitalet de Llobregat - Les Corts Les Corts - Sarrià/Sant Gervasi Sarrià - Sants/Montjuic Sants/Montjuic - Ciutat Vella Ciutat Vella - Eixample Eixample - L'Hospitalet de Llobregat Link Badalona - Gràcia Gràcia - Sant Martí Sant Martí - Sant Adrià del Besós Sant Adrià del Besós - Santa Coloma de Gramanet Santa Coloma de Gramanet - Sant Andreu Sant Andreu - Nou Barris Nou Barris - Horta/Guinardó Horta/Guinardó - Badalona Link Sabadell - Berga Berga - Vic Distance (km) 8,4 2,6 4,6 3,3 3,6 12,4 BARCELONA CITY2 Distance (km) 11,3 5,4 2,8 5,4 29,7 29,3 3,9 13,4 BARCELONA WEST Distance (km) 87,3 58,4 Rent SI SI SI SI SI SI Rent SI SI SI SI SI SI SI SI Rent SI SI Build NO NO NO NO NO NO Build NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO Build NO NO Prize (€) / year 37800 11700 20700 14850 16200 55800 Prize (€) / year 50850 24300 12600 24300 133650 131850 17550 60300 Prize (€) / year 392850 262800

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Vic - Granollers Granollers - Mataró Mataró - Sabadell Link Sant Feliu de Llobregat - Manresa Manresa - Igualada Igualada - Vilafranca Vilafranca - Vilanova i la Geltrú Vilanova i la Geltrú - Sant Feliu de Llobregat

 
42,3 19 41,9 BARCELONA EAST Distance (km) 57,3 27,3 34,5 18,8 SI SI SI Rent SI SI SI SI SI Rent SI SI SI SI SI SI SI SI NO NO NO Build NO NO NO NO NO Build NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO

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190350 85500 188550 Prize (€) / year 257850 122850 155250 84600 211950 Prize (€) / year 33300 135000 108450 96300 22950 32850 126000 86400

47,1 BCN Link Distance (km) L'Hospitalet de Llobregat - Sant Feliu de Llobregat 7,4 Sant Feliu de Llobregat - Sabadell Sabadell - Badalona Badalona - L'Hospitalet de Llobregat L'Hospitalet de Llobregat - CATNix Sant Feliu de Llobregat - CATNix Sabadell - CATNix Badalona - CATNix 30 24,1 21,4 5,1 7,3 28 19,2

TOTAL Table 7.5 shows which is the total budget of the optical fibre Province
Lleida Girona Tarragona Barcelona

3.206.250

Budget
14.524.650 7.848.000 6.316.200 3.206.250

TOTAL

41.782.500

With the previous table, we obtain that the total budget of the optical fibre we have to rent and build in Catalonia is 41.782.500 €.

7.2. Budget of elements
In order to calculate the budget of the elements we have to use, we have to know previously which are the amounts of each element we have to use. Table 7.6 shows the elements we have used, the quantity of each of them we have to use and its prize.   Element Quantity Prize (€) / ud. Total prize (€) DxC
Marconi OMS 1600 Marconi OMS 2430 Marconi OMS 3240 Marconi OMS 3255 Marconi OMS 860 Marconi OMS 870 2 4 2 2 80000 170000 150000 180000 160000 680000 300000 360000 6012000 1940000

ADM
334 97 18000 20000

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Marconi OMS 1240 Marconi OMS 1654 Marconi OMS 1664 Marconi 3000 DWDM Telnet EDFA Symmetricom PRC-3100 Symmetricom SSU 2000e 4 8 35

 
22000 47000 63000 88000 376000 2205000 19500 11200 160000 125000

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WDM
26 750

AO
14 800 80000 25000

PRC/SSU
2 5

TOTAL

12.436.700

With the previous table, we obtain that the total budget of the elements we have used in Catalonia is 12.436.700 €

7.3. Budget of municipalities
In order to calculate the budget of all municipalities of Catalonia, we have done the follow actions: − To calculate the budget of the municipalities of type A (municipalities which has more than 50000 inhabitants), we have to do municipality by municipality because the most of this municipalities are capital of region so we don’t have to build the link to its capital. Table 7.7 shows the links of the municipalities type A which are not the capital of the region to its region, the distance of the link and the price of how much it cost the build of the fibre.
Distance to region’s capital (km) 9,3 4,8 6,4 13,6 11 9,9 10,5 18,4 9 10,6 4500 Total budegt 41850 21600 28800 61200 49500 44550 47250 82800 38700 47700

Type

Links Terrassa - Sabadell Cornellà - Sant Feliu de Llobregat Sant Boi de Llobregat - Sant Feliu de Llobregat Sant Cugat del Vellés - Sabadell Rubí - Sabadell

Built

A

Viladecans - Sant Feliu de Llobregat El Prat de Llobregat - Sant Feliu de Llobregat Castelldefels - Sant Feliu de Llobregat Cerdanyola del Vallés - Sabadell Mollet del Vallés - Granollers

TOTAL

463.950

With table 7.7 we can obtain that the budget of municipalities type A which are not capital of region is 463.950 € − To calculate the budget of the municipalities of type B (municipalities which has a population between 10000 and 50000 inhabitants), we have to do municipality by municipality because the most of this municipalities are capital of region so we don’t have to build the link to its capital. 62    

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Table 7.8 shows the links of the municipalities type B which are not the capital of the region to its region, the distance of the link and the price of how much it cost the build of the fibre.
Type Cambrils - Reus Salou - Tarragona Calafell - El Vendrell Vilaseca - Tarragona Sant Carles de Ràpita - Amposta Torredembarra - Tarragona Cunit - El Vendrell Mont-Roig - Reus Deltebre - Tortosa Alcanar - Amposta Blanes - Sils Lloret - Sils Santa Coloma de Farners - Sils Roses - Figueres Castelló d'Empuries - Figueres Escal - Figueres Sant Feliu de Guíxols - Palafrugell Palamós - Palafrugell Torroella de Montgrí - Palafrugell B Calonge - Palafrugell La Bisbal de l'Empordà - Palafrugell Platja d'Aro - Palafrugell Salt - Girona Esplugues - Sant Feliu de Llobregat Gavà - Sant Feliu de Llobregat Ripollet - Sabadell Montcada i Reixach - Sabadell Sant Joan Despí - Sant Feliu de Llobregat Sant Pere de Ribes - Vilanova i la Geltrú Sant Vicenç dels Horts - Sant Feliu de Llobregat Sitges - Vilanova Premià de Mar - Mataró Martorell - Sant Feliu de Llobregat Sant Andreu de la Barca - Sant Feliu de Llobregat Pineda de Mar - Mataró Sant Perpetua de la Mogoda - Sabadell Molins de Rei - Sant Feliu de Llobregat Olesa de Montserrat - Sant Feliu de Montserrat Castellar del Vallés - Sabadell Masnou - Sabadell Links Distance to region’s capital (km) 13,3 10,4 5,9 12,4 11,8 20,4 12,2 19,4 24,4 34,3 21 18,3 9,1 19,5 10,3 15,1 22,2 9 18 13,8 13,5 15,5 4,2 3,7 15,5 9,5 13,8 2,1 7,9 6,8 7,8 10,7 17,5 10,9 26,7 7,6 4,7 22,2 8,7 29,1 4500 Built Total budget 59850 46800 26550 55800 53100 91800 54900 87300 109800 154350 94500 82350 40950 87750 46350 67950 99900 40500 81000 62100 60750 69750 18900 16650 69750 42750 62100 9450 35550 30600 35100 48150 78750 49050 120150 34200 21150 99900 39150 130950

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Esparraguera - Sant Feliu de Llobregat Manlleu - Vic Vilassar de Mar - Mataró Calella - Mataró Malgrat de Mar - Mataró Sant Quirze del Vallés - Sabadell Franqueses del Vallés - Sabadell Parets del Vallés - Granollers Caldes de Montbui - Granollers Sant Celoni - Granollers Cardedeu - Granollers Canovelles - Granollers Sant Just Desvern - Sant Feliu de Llobregat Montornés del Vallés - Granollers Tordera - Mataró La Garriga - Granollers Arenys de Mar - Mataró Piera - Igualada Lliça de Munt - Granollers Palau Solità i Plegamans - Sabadell Vallirana - Sant Feliu de Llobregat Corbera - Sant Feliu de Llobregat Llagosta - Granollers Torelló - Vic Cubelles - Vilanova i la Geltrú Badia del Vallés - Sabadell Canet de Mar - Mataró Vilanova del Camí - Igualada Sant Sadorní d'Anoia- Vilafranca Castellbisbal - Sabadell Argentona - Mataró Abrera - Sant Feliu de Llobregat Pallejà - Sant Feliu de Llobregat Sant Joan de Vilatorta - Manresa Montgat - Mataró La Roca del Vallés - Granollers Sant Andreu de Llavaneres - Mataró

 
28,6 10,8 6,7 26 32,1 3,3 31,1 14,3 13,1 23,3 8,3 1,7 2,9 8,5 35,6 10,3 11,5 20,5 4,7 11,6 12,4 14,9 16,4 19,6 6,8 5,4 14,3 2,7 14,7 22,9 5,4 23 7,6 3,3 17,9 3,8 7,5

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128700 48600 30150 117000 144450 14850 139950 64350 58950 104850 37350 7650 13050 38250 160200 46350 51750 92250 21150 52200 55800 67050 73800 88200 30600 24300 64350 12150 66150 103050 24300 103500 34200 14850 80550 17100 33750

 

 

TOTAL

 

4.782.150

With table 7.8 we can obtain that the budget of all municipalities type B which are not capital of region is 4.782.150 € − To calculate the budget of the municipalities of type C (municipalities which has a population between 1000 and 10000 inhabitants), we have done an approximation for all municipalities because the majority of this municipalities are not a capital of region so, in order to simplify the operations, we consider that all municipalities type C has the distance to its capital of region. In order to simplify the calculations and do an approximation of the budget, we consider 64    

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that the 60% of all municipalities have not a fibre build so we have to build it and the 40% of all municipalities can we rent it. To calculate the number of municipalities, we obtain all municipalities type C in Catalonia (346) and remove all municipalities type C which is capital of region (12). These municipalities type C that is capital of region are: Les Borges Blanques, Cervera, Gandesa, Falset, Montblanc, Móra d’Ebre, El Pont se Suert, Puigcerdà. Solsona, Sort, Tremp and Vielha e Mijaran). The distance of the municipalities type C to its capital of nodes is 9,8 Km as well as we explain in chapter 2.7 Table 7.10 shows the links of the municipalities type C to its region’s capital, the distance of the link and the price of how much it cost the build of the fibre.
Type C Distance to region’s capital (km) 9,8 Number of municipalities 134 200 Fibre price 4500 45000 Total budget 5.909.400 88.200.000

TOTAL

94.109.400

With table 7.10 we can obtain that the budget of municipalities type C which is not capital of region is 94.109.400 € Table 7.11 shows the sum of the contributions of the total budget of municipalities’ type A, type B and type C. Type of municipality
A B C

Price (€)
463.950 4.782.150 94.109.400

TOTAL

99.355.500

7.4. Total budget
In order to calculate the total budget of the optical fibre used in Catalonia, we have to sum the three contributions (budget of optical fibre, budget of elements and budget of municipalities) like the table 7.12. Table 7.12 shows the total budget of the first part of OnCAT project. Type of budget
Optical fibre Elements Municipalities

Price (€)
41.782.500 12.436.700 99.355.500

TOTAL  

153.574.700

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CHAPTER 8. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
In this chapter we pretend to analyse the environmental impact that may cause the deployment of the OnCAT project. It includes all the effects that can affect to the environment by the required operations to deploy the entire network. In our case, we have to take in account all the needed operations to implement the network and try to minimize the environmental impact it can cause, as much as possible. The main operation that can cause this impact, may be the fibre unfolding that we need to done. In order to try to minimize the impact that may cause fibre unfolding around all the Catalonia territory, we think that the best solution is the possibility to rent the fibre, instead of performing civil works that causes the biggest impact to the environment. Renting fibres in Highways and in public transport infrastructures (like metro or train), are two possibilities to avoid carrying out works and, consequently, to avoid the environmental impact that may affect the environment. But not all the fibres can be rented, due to the unavailability of fibres previously unfolded. In these cases we need to perform civil works, but we try to reduce the impact, doing some good practises, like doing the works as close as possible to the roads and avoiding them in populated zones as long as possible. In contrast, a factor that could affect the environment such as radiation and pollution levels that could lead fibres is negligible. It’s therefore a factor that we avoid in this section. In summary, in this project we have considered the environmental impact that could have and we have taken the actions that have been possible to minimize it.  

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
• Publications
– – – – – – – – – Bregni, S. (2002). Synchronization of digital telecommunications networks. Calvet, J.-T., & Girault, C. (2001). A Simulation Environment for SDH Synchronization Network Planning. Budapest, Hungary. International Telecommunication Union. (1990). G.709: Synchronous Multiplexing Structure. International Telecommunication Union. (1993, March). G.707: SDH Bit Rates. International Telecommunication Union. (1994, November). G.780: Vocabulary of Terms for SDH Networks and Equipment. International Telecommunication Union. (1994, January). G.782 Types and General Characteristics of SDH Equipment. International Telecommunication Union. (1999, September). G.811: Timing characteristics of primary reference. International Telecommunication Union. (2000, March). G.803: Architecture of transport networks based on the synchronous digital hierarchy. International hierarchy. – International requirements – Telecommunication of slave clocks Union. suitable (2004, for use June). as G.812: node Timing in clocks Telecommunication Union. (1999, June). G.957: Optical interfaces for equipments and systems relating to the synchronous digital

synchronization networks.
[1] Escola d’Enginyeria de Telecomunicació I Aeroespacial de Castelldefels

(2010, Novembre). Synchronous Digital Networks, Functional Architecture: network elements and topology. – –
[2] Govind P. Agrawal. (2002). Fiber-optic Communications Systems. [3] Escola d’Enginyeria de Telecomunicació I Aeroespacial de Castelldefels

(2010, Novembre). WDM technology part 1.

Web pages
www.idescat.cat
[4] www.adif.es

www.tmb.cat www.fgc.es www.ericsson.com 67    

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[5] http://www.networkdictionary.com/telecom/wdm.php www.pirelli.com www.ofsoptics.com www.tellabs.com

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APPENDIX APPENDIX I. DEMOGRAPHIC STUDY
In appendix I, we will show which is the demographic study depending on the number of inhabitants separated by provinces.

I.I. Total generated traffic by destination
Table I.I.1 shows the total generated traffic by destination REGIONAL PROVINCIAL

INTERPROVINCIAL

CATNIX

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I.II. Total generated traffic by provinces
Table I.II.1 shows the total generated traffic by provinces BARCELONA

TARRAGONA

LLEIDA

GIRONA

The colors of these maps mean the following traffic:

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APPENDIX II. CALCULATIONS
II.I. Traffic distribution
Table II.I.1 Traffic distribution of Girona TRAFFIC  OF  GIRONA   COMARCA  
ALT EMPORDÀ BAIX EMPORDÀ CERDANYA GARROTXA GIRONÈS PLA DE L'ESTANY RIPOLLÈS SELVA

TRÀFIC  N.   COMARCAL  
345,96   441,285   42,36   144,735   1077,401808   91,785   91,785   338,895  

TRÀFIC   TRÀFIC  N.  INTER-­‐ N.PROVINCIAL   PROVINCIAL  
648,45   853,4625   72,6   261,9375   2472,537708   171,1875   171,1875   622,4625   1176,65   1568,175   126,7   468,375   4822,316076   310   310   1120,05  

TRÀFIC  CATNix  
3528,8765   4100,538   274,4605   1461,2775   7762,778268   810,061   625,2265   4431,4095  

TOTAL  

2574,206808  

5273,825208  

9902,266076  

22994,62777  

Table II.I.2 Traffic distribution of Lleida TRAFFIC  OF  LLEIDA   COMARCA  
ALT URGELL ALTA RIBAGORÇÀ GARRIGUES NOGUERA PALLARS JUSSÀ PALLARS SOBIRÀ PLA D'URGELL SEGARRA SEGRIÀ

TRÀFIC  N.   COMARCAL  
70,605   21,18   42,36   112,965   31,77   10,59   144,735   42,36   1484,817354  

TRÀFIC   TRÀFIC  N.  INTER-­‐ N.PROVINCIAL   PROVINCIAL  
134,8875   36,3   72,6   207,4875   54,45   18,15   261,9375   72,6   3409,760304   246,65   63,35   126,7   373,35   95,025   31,675   468,375   126,7   6651,585563  

TRÀFIC  CATNix  
530,9645   58,262   247,945   843,807   200,817   47,788   879,024   330,379   9438,635459  

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SOLSONÈS URGELL VALL D'ARAN
21,18   112,965   31,77  

 
36,3   207,4875   54,45   63,35   373,35   95,025  

Grup  8  
187,2005   876,177   168,4935  

TOTAL  

2127,297354  

4566,410304  

8715,135563  

13809,49296  

Table II.I.3 Traffic distribution of Tarragona TRAFFIC  OF  TARRAGONA   COMARCA  
ALT CAMP BAIX CAMP BAIX EBRE BAIX PENEDÈS CONCA DE BARBERÀ MONTSIÀ PRIORAT RIBERA D'EBRE TARRAGONÈS TERRA ALTA

TRÀFIC  N.   COMARCAL  
102,375   1229,197188   172,98   243,585  

TRÀFIC   TRÀFIC  N.  INTER-­‐ N.PROVINCIAL   PROVINCIAL  
189,3375   2816,132088   324,225   459,1125   341,675   5489,563686   588,325   834,975  

TRÀFIC  CATNix  
1073,108   8674,807998   2153,35   2929,2405  

52,95   201,225   21,18   84,72   1600,210218   63,54  

90,75   386,5125   36,3   145,2   3677,192868   108,9  

158,375   708,275   63,35   253,4   7174,756471   190,05  

326,984   2052,3605   80,9735   398,8535   11539,4155   218,154  

TOTAL  

3771,962406  

8233,662456  

15802,74516  

29447,2475  

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Table II.I.4 Traffic distribution of Barcelona TRAFFIC  OF  BARCELONA   COMARCA   ALT  PENEDÈS   ANOIA   BAGES   BAIX  LLOBREGAT   BARCELONÈS   BERGUEDÀ   GARRAF   MARESME   OSONA   VALLÈS  OCCIDENTAL   VALLÈS  ORIENTAL   TOTAL   TRÀFIC  N.   COMARCAL  
300,06   275,355   988,857228   4199,684844   20821,70507   134,145   786,58074   1902,588252   381,255   6404,746086   1825,752972  

TRÀFIC   TRÀFIC  N.  INTER-­‐ N.PROVINCIAL   PROVINCIAL  
542,025   513,5625   2195,861628   9683,761044   49813,66652   243,7875   1809,05274   4201,970352   695,0625   15101,02264   4001,803572   968,425   930   4238,233566   18914,49372   98382,5574   178,85   3530,66153   8095,884994   1246,75   29696,02162   7691,063334  

TRÀFIC  CATNix  
535,7861   614,8956   1353,925768   7141,540075   27352,13202   195,6493   1304,412958   3268,824748   765,0029   9239,605356   2957,657372  

38020,7302  

88801,576  

173872,9412  

54729,43219  

73    

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II.II. Power balance.
Table II.II.1 Power Balance of Girona

Table II.II.2 Power Balance of Lleida

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Table II.II.3 Power Balance of Tarragona

Table II.II.4 Power Balance of Barcelona

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76    

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Table II.II.5 Power Balance of Main Backbone

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APPENDIX III. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
To know more about the parameters related with the equipments which we have appointed, in this appendix we show the technical specifications.

III.I. Marconi OMS 1600.

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Grup  8  

III.II. Marconi OMS 1200.

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III.III. Marconi OMS 800.

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III.IV. Marconi 2400.

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III.V. Marconi 3200.

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III.VI. Marconi 3000.

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III.VII. STM1 SH 1310-8.

III.VIII. STM4 LH 1550.

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III.IX. STM16 LH AS 1550.

III.X. CORNING LEAF.

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III.XI. Connector Hellermann Tyton.

III.XII. EDFA Telnet.

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III.XIII. Symmetricom SSU 2000e.

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III.XIV. Symmetricom PRC-3100.

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