1

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION A. Background Speaking is one of the crucial of English parts. The understanding of speaking is really important to know because it is also one way to master and know English. In this case, many methods that have been applied by many teachers of English for their learners, but there are still many mistakes done by the application of those methods. The understanding between teachers and students is not usually suitable. The real problem that we always find in learning reading is the lack of spirit from the students, because the method applied is sometimes makes the students or learners born. This condition make the matter of speaking cannot be understood well by the learners. Sometimes the learners can speak the conversation but they cannot interpret the meaning of it. In other case, the learners only get the understanding about how to spell all words in the speaking conversation then, they continue to speak it. It means the target to learn reading is only the way how speak and spell it, no alternative to know more about the meaning and interpretation of it. As one of parts of English, speaking is not only the complement to master English, but it is a subject as important part that must be known in many aspects of it. The step by step learning of speaking start from the understanding of spelling until the way to interpret it has to be formulated to learn. The speaking mustbe known in all aspects so the method suitable

2

to do it must be progressive method which has some steps in mastering speaking well. It means, some collaborative ways of strategies are needed to learn speaking in one interactional English activity. Many students considered that learning speaking as a difficult subject. This difficulty is caused by psychology factor of the students and lack of teachers¶ creativity in teaching speaking English subject in SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba. The students at the secondyearin Class A of SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba still cannot communicate by using English. The students at the second year in Class A of SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba still cannot use their English in

communication because they considered that English subject is bored and scare. So their scores in speaking are low. As value of observation in the class room the students¶ has score 56 especially speaking skill. This score is as a category poor, while the standard speaking in curriculum is 6.5. Based on statement above, the researcher would like to introduce an approach that could be used by teachers to improve their teaching approach ( in teaching English specially) and can help the students to have better understanding in learning English speaking, it is Interactional English Activity . The researcher wants to achieve the score 7 target in speaking subject by applying this method.

3

By using Interactional English Activity will help the students to speak up. In this case, the teacher introduces a situation which contextualizes the language to be thought then presented, next the students practice the new language in a control way and then students are encouraged to use the new language in a free way either for their own purpose and meanings or in a similar context introduced by the teacher. Interactional English Activity (IEA) teachers- students to use comprehension strategies while working cooperatively. Student strategies include previewing the context: giving ongoing feed back by deciding ³ click ´ ( I get it ) or ³ clunk ³ ( I don¶t get it ) at the end of each conversation ; ³ getting the gist ´ of the most important parts of the conversation ; and ³ wrapping up ³ key ideas. Fin out how to help students of mixed achievement levels apply comprehension strategies while speaking content area text in small groups. (Klingner& Vaughn: 1996) explain that the goals of Interactional English Activity (IEA) are to improve speaking skilland increase conceptual learning in ways the maximize students involvement. Developed to enhance speaking skill for students with learning disabilities and students at for reading difficulties, Interactional English Activity (IEA) has also yielded positive outcomes for average and high average achievement students. B. Problem statements Based on the previous description, the researcher formulates a research questions as follow:

4

1. How is the implementation of Interactional English Activity (IEA) to improve the students¶ speaking accuracy at second year in Class A of SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba? 2. How is the implementation of Interactional English Activity (IEA) to improve the students¶ speaking fluency at second year in Class A of SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba? C. Objective of the study Based on the research questions above, this research aims as follows: 1. To explain about the implementation of Interactional English Activity (IEA) to improve the students¶ speaking accuracy at the second year in Class A of SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba. 2. To explain about the implementation of Interactional English Activity (IEA) to improve the students¶ speaking fluency at the second year in Class A of SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba.

D. Significance of the Study This research will be expected to be useful information for many people in learning process, such as: 1. For educationists, the result of this research are expected to give contribution theoretically and practically in the development in English teaching.

5

2.

For the teacher, this research expected to add information of teaching approach in the class and to encourage their teaching, especially for teaching speaking.

3.

For the students, this research is expected to improve the students¶ achievement in learning English and make them interest to speak English.

4.

For the researcher, this research is expected information or contribution to other researcher who want to conduct more complex research especially in classroom action.

E. Scope of the Study This research is limited to the use of Interactional English Activity to improve the students¶ speaking proficiency. Focused on students¶ accuracy that included (vocabulary, grammar) and fluency that covered (accent, effectiveness). The researcher take these items because this is very important to be identified by the researcher to improve the role of interactional English activity in motivating and overcoming the students¶ problems in learning speaking in English language.

6

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. The Concepts of Interactional English Activity 1. Definition of Interactional English Activity Interactional English Activity (IEA) is an exellent technique fo teaching students speaking and building vocabulary and also working together cooperatively. It is a wonderfull srategy to build up the speaking understanding we have been using it the social studies text and it¶s turned out beautifully. IEA is great for students with learning disabilities because they contribute to their groups and feel succesfull, and they get the help they need with their speaking. IEA is also one of speaking strategy that can be used to improve the speaking achievement. In this case, some steps of learning speaking are found in IEA. The strategy applied is a need in understanding speaking efficiently. The strategy is done step by step ranking the difficulty of speaking context, starting from spelling until the understanding of it.

2. Strategy of Speaking Interactional English Activity (IEA) There some steps that applied in IEA. Those steps will control the speaking understanding strategy regulary. The students also can easily understand the regular parts of speaking starting from the spelling and vocabulary. To know more about them, A plan for strategic speaking of speaking IEA are explained as followes:

7

a. Preview Students preview the entire context before they speak each section. The goals of previewing ,they are: 1. For sudents to learn as much about the contexts as they can in a brief period of time (2-3 minutes), 2. To activate their background knowledge about the topic, and 3. To help them make predicitions about what they will speak. Previewing serves to motivate students¶ interest in the topic and the engage them in active speaking from the onset. Introduce previewing to students by asking them whether they have ever been to the movies and seen previews. Prompt students to tell you what they learn from previews by asking questions like the following: a). Do you learn who is going to be in the movie? b). Do you learn during what historical period the movie will take place? c). Do you learn whether or not you might like the movie? d). Do you have questions about what more you would like to know about the movie? When students preview before speaking, they should look at headings: words that are spelt or mentioned, and picture, and pictures,

8

ideas, pronounciation, and other key information to help the do two things: (a) brainstorm what they know about the topic and (b) predict what they will learn about the topic. Just as in watching a movie preview, students are provided minimal time to generate their ideas and discuss their backgound knowledge and pedictions. Tiffany royal teaches in a fifth-grade inclusion class with 34 students (nine with learning disabilities and the others of mixed

achievement levels). She gives her students 1.5 minutes to speak down everything they already know about a topic in their IEA learning logs. Students then share their responses with one another for about 1 minute. Another 1.5 minutes are provided for students to write down their predictions of what they might learn , followed by 1 minute to share their best ideas. You may teach students the previewing strategy from the beginning of the school year and before they read aloud or silently. I like most of the IEA strategies, you may apply it across the curriculum. By using previewing in different subject areas, students become highly familiar with the strategy and it use. They will also have had opportunities to watch you model and apply the strategy with the class as a whole, making its implementations in small groups easier. From the explanation before, we can conclude the urgency part of that step which called information integrity as follows: a. Brainstrom : what do we already know about the topic?

9

b. Predict : what do we think we will find out about the topic when we speak the contexts? Speak : the first introduction or section. Besides that, we find many gaps in researches above especially in application section of those methods. The lack of speaking teaching is also become the problem to improve the students¶ speaking skill. Therefore, the writer collects all the gaps and solves them in one strategy namely Interactional Englisg Activity(IEA). b. Click and clunk Students click and clunk while speaking each section of the passage. The goal of clicking and clunking is to teach students to monitor their speaking and to identify when they have breakdowns in understanding. Cliks refer to portions of the text that make sense to the speakers: ³ click, click, click ³ ± conprehension clicks into place as the speakers proceeds smoothly through the context. When a students comes to a word, concept, or idea that does not make sense, ³clunk´ ± conprehensins breaks down. For example when students do not know the meaning of a word, it is a clunk. Many students with speaking and learning problems fail to monitor their understanding when they read. Clicking and clunking is designed to teach students to pay attention to when they are understanding ± or failing to understand - what they are speaking or what is being read to them. The teacher asks, ³ is everything clicking? Who has clunks about the section we just speak ?´ students know that

10

they will be asked this questions and Are alert to identify clunks during speaking. After students identify clunks, the class uses´ fix-up´ strategies to figure out the clunks. Tiffany royal teaches her students to use ³clunks cards´ as prompts to remind them of various fix-up strategies. On each of the clunk cards is printed a different strategy for figuring out a clunk word, concept, or idea: 1) Speak the context without the word. Think about what information that is provided that would help you understand the meaning of the words. 2) Speak the context with the clunk and the ideas before or after the clunk looking for clues. 3) Look for a frefix or suffix in the context. 4) Break the word a part and look for smaller words you know. As with the other strategies, you may teach students the click and clunk strategy from the beginning of the year and use it in various contexts. Students apply these fix-up strategies at first wtih help from the teacher and then in their small groups. Lucille sullivan encourages her students to click and clunk throughout the day. She noted, ³ another reason I like this technique is that there is a transfer. The students will be speaking in the cafetaria, and they say ³ hey, lokk at this clunk word, what does means?¶ and that just thrills me.´

11

The application of the step above conclude two important point in analyzing the speaking skill. Those are as follows: 1. Were there any parts that were hard to understand (clunks)? 2. How can we fix the clunks? Use fix-up strategies. c. Get the gist Student learn to ³ get the gist ³ by identifying the most important iea in a section of context ( usually a statement). The goal of getting the gist is to teach students to re-state in their own words the most important as a way of making sure they have understood what they have spoken. This strategy can improve students¶ understanding and memory of what they have learned. When you teach students to ³ get the gist .´ promt them to identify the most important person, place, or thing in the paragraph they have just speak. Then ask them to tell you in their own words the most important idea about the person, place, or thing. Teach students to provide the gist in as few words as possible while conveying the most meaning, leaving out details. Carmel johnson taught the gist this way. She would ask students to think about the passage they had just speak and to spell down the most important person. Place or thing in the statement. She would then call on individual students to obtain their responses. She would ask other students which answer wast best and why, then she would ask students to work alone or in pairs to spell the gist of the

12

context.she would then ask students to speak their gists aloud and to invite other students to comment on the effectiveness of the gist, this refining the skills of all the students. The real efoorts of this step are mentioned as follows: a. What is most important who or what? b. What is the most important idea about the who or what? Speak: do steps 2 and 3 again, ith all the context or sections in the passage. d. Wrap up Students learn to wrap up by formulating questions and answers about what they have learned and by reviewing key ideas. The goals are to improve students¶ knowledge, understanding, and memory of what was spoken. Students generate bquestions that ask about important information in passage they have just spoken. The best way to teach wrap up is to tell students to use the following questions starters to begintheir questions:who, what, when, where, why, and how ( the 5 Ws and an H). It is also a good idea to tell students to pretend they are teachers and to think of questions they would ask on a test to find out if their students really understood what they had read. Other students should try to answer the questions. If a questions cannot be answered, that might mean it is not a good questions and needs to be clarified.

13

Teach students to ask some questions about information that is stated explicitly in the passage and other questions that require and answer not right in the context, but ³ in your head.´ Encourage students to ask questions that involve higher-level thinking skills, rather than literal recall. Wtih her fifth-grade students, tiffany royal emphasizes that every question can be made into an even better questions with the addition of the phrase.´why do you think that?¶ The facilitate students¶ ability to generate higher-level questions, you may provide questions stems, such as the following: 1) How were _ and ___the same? Different? 2) What do you think would happen if ___ ? 3) What do you think caused ____ to happen? 4) What other solution can you think of for the problem of ____ ? 5) What might have prevented the problem of ____ from happening? 6) What are the strenghts ( or weaknesses) of ____ ? To review, students write down the most important ideas they learned from the day¶s reading assignment in their IEA learning logs. They then take turns sharing what they learned with the class. Many students can share their best idea in a a short priod of time, providing the teacher wth valuable information about each student¶s level of understanding.

14

This last step will apply the two main point the understand the speaking context totally. those are: a. Ask questions: what questions would show we understand the most important information? b. Review: what did we learn?

B. Speaking Proficiency 1. Definition of Speaking Speaking skill should be taught and practiced in the language classroom. Because the language course truly enables the students to communicate in English, so speaking skill needs the special treatment. In the reality, in our daily life most of us speak more than writing. Many English teachers still spend the majority of class time on reading and writing practice almost ignoring speaking and listening skills. Based on the statement above, there should be a good balance to practice in classroom. According to Hornby (1973 : 45) speaking is making the use of words in an ordinary voice, offering words, knowing and being able to use a language expressing one-self in words, and making speech. Therefore the researcher infers that speaking uses the word and produces of sound to express ourselves either idea, feeling, thought and needs orally in an ordinary voice. Furthermore, success in communication is often dependent as much on the listener as on the speaker.

15

There are three components to make fluent in producing speech, namely vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar.According to Walter in Mila (2008: 10) speaking is one way of learning about one self. In speaking, someone must face problems that have history and relatively to other people, groups, and the predictions we have formed for living together. According to Widdowson (1985: 10) states that speaking is a means of oral communication that gives information involves two elements, namely the speaker who gives the message and the listener who receptive the message. While Tarigan in Mila (2008: 10) states speaking that is gotten by the children preceded by listening skill. After getting the language input the students are able to master speaking skill. So that, speaking is the way to express our idea and feeling to one another. 2. The Elements of the Speaking There are three main language elements that should be paid attention by the students in order that they can improve their speaking ability. Those elements are vocabulary, structure, and pronunciation. a. Vocabulary When we firs learn a language, vocabulary is the earliest element if spoken language should be taken into account. It should be mastered when a students need to develop his speaking ability. This statement is supported by Yasin (1997:15) stating that, ³vocabulary is the most important thing to be mastered for those who want to be skillful is speaking. Whatever he think,

16

say or listen, write and those words or sentences, they are produced base on the vocabulary.´ Furthermore, Berlin in Yasin (1997:15) also said, ³vocabulary is one of the significant components of learning. Vocabulary building is very important in any foreign language learning, not only because it has a close relationship with intellectual maturity of learners but also because the fact that it can improve the four language skills of the students, without grammar, very little can be conveyed, but without vocabulary, nothing can be conveyed.´ In learning English, vocabularies should be central of interest for both students and teachers. It is the firs language elements that should be taken into consideration by teacher of English. b. Structure The second element of spoken language is structure. One is able to speak English well if he knows much about structure and how to apply it. It is usually the main handicap of the learners in speaking English. They are afraid of making structural mistakes in their speaking. Structure also pays an important rule in improving the learner¶s speaking quality. The quality of students¶ speaking ability will be better if they have good structure. c. Pronunciation Quirk in Muh. Jaharuddin (2007:34) states,´ pronunciation is the way in which a particular language is pronounced´. Pronunciation also becomes a

17

big problem for students who are not able to pronounce the English sounds perfectly. However, the fact that some students are able to acquire reasonable pronunciation without overt pronunciation teaching should not blind us to the benefits of a focus on pronunciation in our lesson. Pronunciation teaching not only makes students aware of differences sound and what they mean, but can also improve their speaking immeasurably. Concentrating on sounds, showing were they are made in the mouth, making students aware of where words should be stressed, all these things give them extra information about spoken English and help them achieve the goal of improved comprehension and intelligibility, (Jeremy Harmer: 2001). d. Self Confidence Speaking is the oral communication. Speaking with the other people need braveness. There are many students who have not self confidence when they speak so they can not communicate well. They sometimes feel nervous to speak specially in English. 3. The Characteristics of a Successful Speaking Activity

According to Penny Ur (1996: 120), Speaking for leaner is not easy; at least four criteria should be covered by the learner in speaking activity. They are:

a. Learners talk a lot. Learners can talk a lot as much as possible of the period of time

18

allotted to the activity is in fact occupied by learner talk. b. Participation is even. Classroom discussion is not dominated by a minority of talkative participants: all get a chance to speak, and contributions are fairly evenly distributed. c. Motivation is high. Learners are eager to speak: because they are interested in the topic and have something new to say about it, or because they want to contribute to achieving a task objective. d. Language is an acceptable level. Learners express themselves in utterances that are relevant, easily comprehensible to each other, and of an acceptable level of language accuracy. 4. Speaking Accuracy and Fluency Speaking covers two elements that can not be separated one another they are accuracy which consists of grammar, vocabulary, and fluency which consists of effectiveness and accent a. Accuracy According to Webster dictionary (1996: 15) accuracy is the quality of being accurate. While in oxford dictionary (1996: 20) accuracy is degree of being correct. Marcel (1978) states that accuracy is a manner of people in using appropriate word and pattern of sentences. Accuracy

19

covers three elements that can not be separated one another. They are grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. 1. Grammar Grammar is a branch of linguistics study that deal with classes of words, their inflection or their means of indicating relation to each other function and relation in the sentences as employed according to established usage and that is sometimes extended include related matter. Webster (1996: 275) 2. Vocabulary It is impossible without mastering vocabulary. Therefore this element is somewhat essential to learn before practicing speaking. The students sometimes get trouble in memorizing all vocabulary that they know because they lack of practicing and use them. Thus, they need to practice more to keep them in mind.. Furthermore, Harmer (2001: 10) distinguishes two types of vocabulary in the words, active vocabulary and passive vocabulary is the words, which we want students to understand, but they will not use themselves. In addition, Marcel (1978: 10) defines that someone can be consider of having good vocabulary use, when the vocabulary produce is wide (lack of repetition) or appropriate with certain situation of dialog or speech. 3. Pronunciation

20

Sometimes the listener does not understand what we are talking about because lock in pronunciation. According to oxford dictionary (1996: 343) pronunciation is the way in which a language or particular word or sound is spoken. b. Fluency Fluency refers to how well a learner communicate meaning rather than how many mistakes that they make in grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. Fluency is often compared with accuracy, which is concerned with the type, amount and seriousness of mistakes made. Therefore fluency is highly complex ration relate mainly to smoothness of continuity in discourse, it includes a consideration of how sentences pattern very in word order and omit element of structure and also certain aspects of the prosily of discourse. According to Random house Webster collage dictionary (1997 : 500) fluency refers to be able to speak or write smoothly, easily, or readily to an easy flow is word are to respond able to communicate with base it suggest to ready flow an accomplish speak or write. It is usually a term of communication. Whereas, Marcel (1978: 12) states that fluency is someone¶s way of speaking dealing with how to procedure words in certain period of tones without missing any main words on their speech. As said by Brown (1982 : 255) fluency is probably best achieved by allowing the ³ stream´ of speech to flow then, assumes of his speech spills over beyond of comprehensibility to ³ riverbank´ of instruction or

21

someone detail of phonology, grammar, discourse will channel to speech or more purpose full course. There are four characteristics of fluency activity: a. The facts are usually whole pieces of discourse: conversation, stories etc. b. Performance is assessed and how well ideas are expressed or understood. c. Texts are usually used as they would be in real life. d. Tasks are often simulated real like situation.

C. Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework of IEA will involve the role of teacher¶s teaching in guiding the students¶ understanding the speaking context, and the position of students to understand the speaking context in total. IEA operates on part of understanding vocabulary, plot, interpretation, spelling, and word election. It means, by IEA, the students can understand the speaking totally.the can find the difficult word, pronounciation, and interpret them to makes a good understanding in a speaking context. To understand more about it, the writer explains in one sketch that combines the IEA, the role of teachers and students, and the understanding of speaking context as follows:

22

IEA (A Class Active

Students

Teacher

Priview

Speaking Contexts

Click and Clunk

Get tha Gist

Good Understanding in Speaking

Wrap Up

Efective Use of IEA

Efective Part of Speaking

The sketch above shows that, the researcher will use IEA as a method in teaching speaking skill. This method has four stages to use it in the classroom, those are preview, click and clunk, get the gist and wrap up. Those will be used by the teacher to teach speaking. After applying this method, the researcher hope the students will have good understanding in speaking and it will effective use of IEA and effective part of speaking.

23

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD A. Research Setting The method that was used in this research was a classroom action research (CAR). It was conducted through two cycles to observe the students¶ achievment to speak English through Interactional English Activity. It consisted of planning, action, observation and reflection. The classroom action research was carried out by researcher and English teacher as collaborator. 1. Research Location This research took place in SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba. The author choosen the place to do action research because the authors saw a need to improve conversation skills in English, especially in students by using methods Interactional English Activity. 2. Research Time / Schedule This research was done and begun at the mid of October 2010 till the end of December. 3. Research Cycles The research cycles were done by two cycles where the cycle I was done for four meetings and the cycle II was done for four meetings also. It meant that all of the cycles included of eight meetings.

24

B. Variables and Indicators The following were the variables of the research: 1. Independent Variable Independent variable of the research was the use of Interactional English Activity in teaching speaking proficiency. Interactional English Activity was a technique to facilitate the students to build their motivation and achievement in speakingclass. 2. Dependent variables Dependent variables consisted of students¶ accuracy and fluency in speaking English. The indicators were: a. The indicators of the students¶ accuracy were: grammar and vocabulary. b. The indicators of the students¶ fluency were : effectiveness and repetition. C. Research Procedures In this research, the researcher used the CAR principle to collect the data. The research was divided into two cycles where each cycles consisted of four phases. The cycles was describe through the scheme of action research phases as follows:

25

Planning

Reflection

Cycle I Action Observation Re-Planning

Cycle II Reflectio

Action

Observation

?

The cycle of Classroom Action Research (Arikunto: 2007)
Cycle I

Cycle I consisted of planning, action, observation and reflection as follows: 1. Planning a. Prepared speaking material that had given to the students. b. Made lesson plan after getting the problems. c. Made an observation sheet to observe the condition of learning process. d. Made research instruments. 2. Action

26

a. The teacher asked the students¶ to preview the entire context of speaking topik before they spoke each section. b. The students¶ learned the speaking topic 2-3 minutes, to activate their background knowledge about the topic, and to help them made predictions about what they have spoken. c. The next activity, the students clicked and clunked while speaking. d. Then the students learned to ³ get the gist´ by identifying the most important idea in a section of speaking material. e. The teacher asked the students to identify the most important person, place, or thing in the paragraph they have just speak. f. The teacher asked the students to tell the paragraph in their own words. g. The last, of the students learned to wrap up by formulating questions and answers about what they have learned and review the key ideas. 3. Observation a. Identified and made note of the activity. Researcher observed the students¶ response, participation and everything which is found during the teaching and learning process based on observation sheet that has been arranged b. Did evaluation to know the students¶ improvement. c. Gave the students¶ chance for giving suggestion to complete the action research.

4. Reflection

27

After collecting the data, the researcher evaluated the teachinglearning process. Then, the researcher reflected herself by seeing the result of the observation, whether the teaching learning process of speaking using interactional english activity was good to imply in teaching learning process or not. If the first plan was unsuccessful, the researcher should made the next plan (re planning) to get a good result. During the process of the action research the researcher uses the diary and document as the instrument for gathering the data. Diaries contain personal accounts of the observation on feeling, reaction, interpretations, reflections, explanations and documents are used to provide information, which was relevant to the problem under investigation. The documents were used by the researcher were lesson plan and the sample of students¶ work. Cycle II It was like cycle in the cycle I, cycle II also consisted of planning, action, observation and reflection as follows: 1. Planning In this phase, the researcher made: a. The lesson plan to apply information interactional english activity (IEA) b. Instruments that used in classroom action research cycle. c. Observation sheet

2. Action

28

In this phase, action was done to improve the result based on the cycle reflection a. In cycle two, the teacher increased the students problem in cycle I. b. the teacher used short paragraph then consist of intresting story to the students. c. the teacher asked the students preview speaking before asking them to speak about that paragraph. d. the teacher gave 2-5 minutes to read that paragraph and make prediction about what they have spoken. e. the students clicked and clunked while speaking. f. the teacher asked the students to ³ get the gist ³ by identifying to most important idea in a section of speaking topic. g. the teacher also asked the students to identifying the most important person, place, or thing from that paragraph. h. the teacher asked the students to retell the paragraph by telling about the person, place or thing from that paragraph. i. the students learned to wrap up by formulating questions and answers about reviewing the keys ideas. 3. Observation In this phase, the researcher observed:

29

a.

The students¶ response, participation and everything which was found during the teaching and learning process based on observation sheet that has been arranged

b. c. 4.

The students¶ improvement in speaking ability. Did evaluation to know the students¶ improvement.

Reflection After collecting the data, the researcher evaluated the teachinglearning process. Then, do reflection by seeing the result of the observation, whether the teaching learning process of speaking using interactional english activity (IEA) reaches success criteria based on the test result of second action. From the result of the research, the researcher have drawn conclusion that interactional english activity strategy could improve the students¶ speaking ability.

D. Research Subject The subject of this research was the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba in 2010/2011 academic year. That consisted of 30 students. E. Research Instruments The instrument of data collection for this research consisted of 10 questions. The test was given to the students to know the students¶ improvement after using intractional english activity strategy. The researcher also used document for gathering the data during teaching and learning process.

30

E. Procedures of Collection Data The technique of data collection used in this research is as follow: a. Observation; it aimed at finding out the students¶ participation during the teaching and learning process. b. Test; it aimed to find out the students¶ improving speaking proficiency and the effectiveness of using Interaction English Activity in teaching speaking. In scoring, the result of students¶ test were evaluated based on two aspect of speaking below:

Table 1: Scores and criteria of Accuracy (Vocabulary and Grammar) Classification Excellent Score 9.6 - 10 Criteria Their speaking is very good of using grammar, unlimited of vocabulary and more sentences. Very good 8.6 ± 9.5 Their speaking is good of using grammar unlimited of vocabulary. Good 7,6 ± 8,5 Their speaking sometimes hasty but appropriate use of grammar and good of vocabulary mastery. Fair good 6,6 ± 7,5 Their speaking more sentences not

appropriate to use grammar and low

31

vocabulary mastery. Fair 5.6 ± 6.5 Their speaking more sentences not

appropriate to use of grammar, low vocabulary communication. (Layman 1972:216) Table 2: Scores and Criteria of Fluency (Content) Classification Excellent Score 9.6 - 10 Criteria Their speaking effectively without any missing word and very understandable. Very good 8.6 ± 9.5 Their speaking effectively occasionally missing word and understandable. Good 7,6 ± 8,5 Their speaking sometimes hasty, make understand and very simple speech. Fair good 6,6 ± 7,5 Their speaking is hasty and understanding is too little. Fair 5,6 - 6,5 Their speaking is very hasty and no sentences understand (Layman 1972:216)
G. Data Analysis

mastery

and

no

The data from cycle I and cycle II were analysis through the following steps:

32

1. Calculating the mean score of the students by using the following formula:
X !

§X
N

Where:
X

= Mean score

§ X = Total score
N = Number of student (Gay, 1981: 331) 2. After collecting the data of the students, the researcher classified the score of the students. He classified the score of the students into the following criteria: a. 9.6 to 10 is classified as excellent b. 8.6 to 9.5 is classified as very good c. 7.6 to 8.5 is classified as good d. 6.6 to 7.5 is classified as fairy good e. 5.6 to 6.5 is classified as fairy f. 3.6 to 5.5 is classified as poor g. 0.0 to 3.5 is classified as very poor (Direktorat Pendidikan, 1999)

33

34

CHAPTER IV

This chapter presented findings and discussion of the research. The findings consists of the implementation of Interactional English Activity Strategy to improve the students¶ speaking accuracy and fluency at the second year in class A of SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba. The discussion explains about the improvement of students and their scores after applying the Interactional English Activity in improving the speaking proficiency. A. Findings The data were collected after giving the learning process by using Interactional English Activity. This method was given to the total number of samples namely 30 students. Those students are valuated into criteria of speaking performance; they are criteria of accuracy (vocabulary and grammar) and criteria of fluency. The learning process of speaking performance using Learning Cycle method in term of speaking accuracy and fluency. The cycle was divided in two category namely cycle I as the students¶ achievement by using usual method (the scores getting from the data of school for the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba), and Cycle II as students¶ achievement getting from the result of applying the Interactional English Activity. Vocabulary and Grammar are usually used in to judge the speaking accuracy. Then the contents of speaking were judged to value the students¶

35

speaking fluency of the Second Year Students of SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba. The contents were usually filled by the pronunciation, feedback understanding and description technique. There are five steps in each of cycle, namely planning, observation, action, evaluation and reflection. Those steps are explained as follows : 1. Cycle I a. Planning Before implementing the method, the researcher did the preresearch. Through observation the teacher, found that he, as the teacher, did not provide attractive and interactive materials for the students. The teacher had brought some materials by speaking into the class, but still the students were easily get bored with the speaking material. When they got bored they became less attentive to this lesson. When this happened, their speaking intake was not satisfying. That¶s why the researcher tried to make a planning where in this fase, the researcher tried to identify problem about how to improve the students¶ speaking proficiency and after that the problem was analyzed and formulated. Actually, the most problem is the students were not interested to attend the learning process carefully. So that, the researcher preparing lesson planning for teaching and instruments for the students. The researcher planned to conduct pre-test and post-test to measure the students¶ speaking accuracy and fluency improvement before and after the action. The topics of test are Self Introduction . The students were

36

asked to introduce theirselves in front of their friends. Then, the writer has found that the students still shy to convey their speaking. They have got score still low. So that, the researcher formulated the next step, namely do the action. b. Action Before doing the application of Interactional English Activity (IEA), the writer gave the result of scores of students about their understanding in vocabulary and grammar to value the students¶ speaking accuracy, then scoring the students¶ speaking fluency, as the prior knowledge in

speaking. From the combination of vocabulary and grammar (accuracy) and the contents of speaking (Fluency) evaluation, the writer got the score of 30 samples. In this section, the writer also gave the general English speaking method by explaining what the speaking skill is. The writer took the students to the Cycle I as the comparison for the Cycle II which is using the Interactional English Activity (IEA) strategy. The researcher gave the students a material about ³Self Introduction´ by using Interactional English Activity procedures, namely : 1) Preview the entire context of speaking topik before they spoke each section. 2) The students¶ learned the speaking topic 2-3 minutes, to activate their background knowledge about the topic, and to help them made predictions about what they have spoken.

37

3) The next activity, the students clicked and clunked while speaking. 4) Then the students learned to ³ get the gist´ by identifying the most important idea in a section of speaking material. 5) The teacher asked the students to identify the most important person, place, or thing in the paragraph they have just speak. 6) The teacher asked the students to tell the paragraph in their own words. 7) The last, of the students learned to wrap up by formulating questions and answers about what they have learned and review the key ideas. c. Observation In this phase, the researcher observed the students¶ response, participation and everything which was found during the teaching and learning process based on observation sheet that has been arranged. By seeing the students¶ responses, there are students still shy to speak up in front of their friends. Also there are 4 students didn¶t pay attention to the learning process. They still busy with theirselves and one of them disturbed their friends. Then, the researcher did gave the evaluation to know their improvement in speaking proficiency for their accuracy and fluency. And the researcher has found also that the students¶ improvement in speaking proficiency still want to be make it be better than before.

38

That¶s why the researcher asked to their students about what are their difficulties in learning speaking. The score result of this section is combined by the result of Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy. The score of this section can be seen as follows: Table 1. The Students¶ Score in Speaking Proficiency for Accuracy and Fluency at the Cycle I Students¶ Score Criteria of Accuracy Criteria of Fluency (Vocabulary & (Contents) Grammar) 5.6 6 6 6 6.5 6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 6.5 6 5.6 5.6 5 6.5 7 6.5 5.6 6 7.5 5.6 6.5 5.6 6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 6 6.5 5.6 7 7 6.5 5.6 5.6 6 6.5 5.6 5.6 6 6 6 5.6 6 5.6 5.6 7 5.6

No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

Names of Students Sumarni Nasrullah Agustina Ayyub Fitranda Sulfidalwana Harianto Satriani Irfan Setiawan Juita Lestari Adi Purnomo Akram Edwin Kurniawan Yusran Basri Ilham Akbar Irwan Idris Kasmawati A. Agung A. Andri Marnob Muh. Arfan Hasrawati AR A. Baso Payeng Abd. Muktadir Indra Jayadi Dian Ariadi Sulfikar Bahar Badar Sofyan

39

27. 28. 29. 30.

Yayan Indraji M. Nurdin Burhanuddin Selvianti

6 6 5.6 6.5

6 5.6 5.6 5.6

The table above shows that the speaking proficiency of the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba was not standard value or not enough to compete. The score was clarified to know the percentage of students¶ score. It can be understood by classifying the following scores¶ parts. 1. The Percentage of Students¶ Accuracy Score After getting the students¶ score of all categories, the writer gave the percentage of each category. In this part, we will know the percentage of students¶ speaking accuracy score. The table can be seen as follows: Table 2. The Students¶ Percentage of Accuracy in Speaking Proficiency by Using Interactional English Activity (IEA) at Cycle I Classification Excellent Very Good Good Fair Good Fair Score 9.6-10 8.6-9.5 7.6-8.5 6.6-7.5 5.6-6.5 Total Students f 4 26 30 % 0% 0% 0% 13.33% 86.66% 100%

The table above shows that the classification of students was still in low level. All of them were just in fair good and fair level, namely

40

26 students or 86.66% students got fair, 4 students or 13.33% students got fair good, and other 3 classifications filled by 0 or 0% students. It indicated that the method generally used at the Second year Students of SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba had not enough the development of students¶ speaking ability yet. The students are still lack of the vocabulary mastery and ranks of sentences which is used in speaking. It was caused also by the misunderstanding grammar.

2. The Percentage of Students¶ Fluency Score Besides that, the writer also made the classification of students¶ fluency score. This category related to the content of students¶ speaking including the rank of speaking and the intonations in each sentences said. The score was also taken from the documentation of SMA Muhammadiyah Students¶ score for the second year students. It means the score is only the value from the result of the students¶ speaking skill before applying the Interactional English Activity. The classification can be shown as follows: Table 3. The Students¶ Percentage of Fluency in Speaking Proficiency by Using Interactional English Activity (IEA) at Cycle I Students Classification Score F % Excellent 9.6-10 0 0% Very Good 8.6-9.5 0 0% Good 7.6-8.5 0 0% Fair Good 6.6-7.5 1 3.33% Fair 5.6-6.5 29 96.66% Total 30 100

41

The table above shows that no one student got the high grid, namely good level, very good and excellent. Only one student or 3.33% got the fair good score, and most of them 29 students or 96.66% got the underneath level as fair score. It indicated that most of students are still low to master the fluency of speaking. The method used before cannot enough to enrich the speaking skill of them. Below is the table about the students¶ activeness at classroom in learning speaking: Table 4. The Students¶ Activeness in Learning Process for Speaking Proficiency at the Cycle I Students¶ Score No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Names of Students Sumarni Nasrullah Agustina Ayyub Fitranda Sulfidalwana Harianto Satriani Irfan Setiawan Juita Lestari Adi Purnomo Akram Edwin Kurniawan Yusran Basri Ilham Akbar Irwan Idris Kasmawati A. Agung A. Andri Marnob Muh. Arfan Frequency of Attendance 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 2 4 3 4 3 4 2 3 4 4 4 Score Percentage Ideal (%) 4 75 4 100 4 100 4 75 4 100 4 100 4 75 4 100 4 50 4 100 4 75 4 100 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 75 100 50 75 100 100 100 Note Medium High High Medium High High Medium High Low High Medium High Medium High Low Medium High High High

42

20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Hasrawati AR A. Baso Payeng Abd. Muktadir Indra Jayadi Dian Ariadi Sulfikar Bahar Badar Sofyan Yayan Indraji M. Nurdin Burhanuddin Selvianti

4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 2 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

100 100 100 100 75 75 100 100 100 50 75

High High High High Medium Medium High High High Low Medium

The table above is shown about the students¶ activeness at the learning process in classroom for cycle I where there are 18 (60%) students who are classified as high for their activeness, while there are 9 (30%) students who are classified as medium and 3 (10%) students who are classified as low for their activeness in the learning process. And to make it easier to describe, look at the following graphic :
70

The Students' Activeness in Learning Process at the Cycle I
60

60 50 40 30 30
20

10
10 0

High

Medium Cycle I

Low

Graphic 1. The Students¶ Activeness in Learning Process at the Cycle I

43

The coloration between students¶ accuracy and fluency is horizontal. It can be judged that the more students¶ accuracy develops the more their fluency does. It means, to get a good achievement, the learning method must focus to those two items (accuracy and fluency). But this case founds that the students are still lack of both. 3. The mean score of both categories (Accuracy and Fluency) This part shows the mean score of both fluency and accuracy. It was done to know the general achievement of all students of the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba, before applying the Interactional English Activity (IEA) strategy. a) Mean Score of Accuracy The mean score of Accuracy is 6.08. The result of mean score above, although the students get 6.08 as their score, it is still low performance of speaking if the score relates to the standard grade of speaking value. It was the lowest level and still needing the improvement more. b) Mean Sore of Fluency Like the stage of accuracy, this part also shows the mean score of fluency. The mean score for the students¶ fluency is 5.85. Both of mean score for speaking elements above can be seen as graphic below:

44

The Students' Mean Score of Accuracy and Fluency
Accuracy 6.08 Fluency

5.85

Graphic 1. The Mean Score of the Students¶ Proficiency in Accuracy and Fluency by Using Interactional English Activity (IEA) at Cycle I The mean score above is lower than the students¶ mean score achievement in Accuracy, the score was not relevant to the speaking capability needed. The score¶s not only low level but also irrelevant each other. It means that the correlation between accuracy and fluency was not support each other. d. Reflection After collecting the data, the researcher evaluated the teachinglearning process. Then, do reflection by seeing the result of the observation, whether the teaching learning process of speaking using Interactional English Activity (IEA) reaches success criteria based on the test result of second action. From the result of the research, the researcher have drawn conclusion that Interactional English Activity

 

ean Score

45

strategy could improve the students¶ speaking ability but still need to go to the next step namely Cycle II because there is only 1 students who is classified as fairly good and another are classified as fair. The researcher has found that although there is an improvement from their pre-test but there are still students who feel uneasy to speak up, so that they can speak easily. By this resulting, the researcher has a strong wish to improve their speaking proficiency in accuracy and fluency in the next cycle. 2. Cycle II a. Planning The researcher has made the lesson plan with the topics of Word Order . The students were asked to make an explanation about one of their friends in front of them. After that, the researcher formulated the next step, namely do the action. b. Action In this section, the writer still gave the Interactional English Activity (IEA). The writer took the students to the Cycle II as the progress of the Cycle I which is using the Interactional English Activity (IEA) strategy. The researcher gave the students a material about ³Word Order´ by using Interactional English Activity procedures, namely : 1) Preview the entire context of speaking topik before they spoke each section.

46

2) The students¶ learned the speaking topic 2-3 minutes, to activate their background knowledge about the topic, and to help them made predictions about what they have spoken. 3) The next activity, the students clicked and clunked while speaking. 4) Then the students learned to ³ get the gist´ by identifying the most important idea in a section of speaking material. 5) The teacher asked the students to identify the most important person, place, or thing in the paragraph they have just speak. 6) The teacher asked the students to tell the paragraph in their own words. 7) The last, of the students learned to wrap up by formulating questions and answers about what they have learned and review the key ideas. c. Observation In this phase, the researcher observed the students¶ response, participation and everything which was found during the teaching and learning process based on observation sheet that has been arranged. By seeing the students¶ responses, there is a good improvement where the students feel easy to speak up in front of their friends. Then, the researcher did the evaluation to know their improvement in speaking proficiency for their accuracy and fluency. And it has proved by the score for the students, the researcher has found also that

47

the students¶ improvement in speaking proficiency is better than the Cycle I. That¶s why the researcher conclude to finish the action classroom research on the Cycle II . The score result of this section is combined by the result of Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy. The score of this section can be seen as follows: Table 4. The Students¶ Score in Speaking Proficiency for Accuracy and Fluency at the Cycle II Students¶ Score No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Names of Students Sumarni Nasrullah Agustina Ayyub Fitranda Sulfidalwana Harianto Satriani Irfan Setiawan Juita Lestari Adi Purnomo Akram Edwin Kurniawan Yusran Basri Ilham Akbar Irwan Idris Kasmawati A. Agung A. Andri Marnob Muh. Arfan Hasrawati AR A. Baso Payeng Abd. Muktadir Indra Jayadi Dian Ariadi
Criteria of Accuracy (Vocabulary & Grammar) 7.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 6.5 6 7 6 7.5 7 6.5 6.5 7 6 7.5 7 6.5 6 7 8 6.5 7 7.5 Criteria of Fluency (Contents) 6.5 6 6 7 7 6 6.5 6.5 6.5 7 6 6.5 6 6.5 6 6 6.5 6 7 6.5 7.5 6 6 7

48

25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Sulfikar Bahar Badar Sofyan Yayan Indraji M. Nurdin Burhanuddin Selvianti Total

8 6.5 7 6.5 8.5 7 207

6.5 7 7.5 7 8 7 197.5

The table before shows that the students¶ speaking proficiency after using the Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy got improvement in all sides, especially in Accuracy and Fluency. It indicated that Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy was better than the strategy used at the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah. To know more the improvement of students according to each level of students¶ scores, the next part explained it as mean score explanation. 1. The Percentage of Students¶ Accuracy Score After knowing the score of students, the writer divined the score level of students. It can be seen in the following table: Table 5. The Students¶ Percentage of Accuracy in Speaking Proficiency by Using Interactional English Activity (IEA) at Cycle II Classifircation Excellent Very Good Good Fair Good Fair Total Score 9.6-10 8.6-9.5 7.6-8.5 6.6-7.5 5.6-6.5 Students f 0 0 3 14 13 30 % 0% 0% 10% 46.66% 43.33% 100

49

The table shows that the students¶ improvement got more better than the score before, it indicates by there are 3 students or 10% got good level. Before applying IEA, no student got this level. In fair level, there were 14 or 46.66% students, and there 13 students or 43.33% got fair, it more decreased that before. 2. The Percentage of Students¶ Fluency This part found the percentage of students¶ speaking achievement in fluency level. The result also can be seen in the following table: Table 6. The Students¶ Percentage of Fluency in Speaking Proficiency by Using Interactional English Activity (IEA) at Cycle II Classification Excellent Very Good Good Fair Good Fair Total Score 9.6-10 8.6-9.5 7.6-8.5 6.6-7.5 5.6-6.5 Students f 0 0 1 19 10 30 % 0% 0% 3.33% 63.33% 33.33% 100

Based on the table above, the students¶ achievement also got increasing. It was proofed by there¶s one student or 3.33% got good level (before using IEA, no student got it), 19 students or 63.33% got fair good (before using IEA, only one student got it), and only 10 students or 33.33% got fair level (before applying IEA, most of students or 29 students got it).

50

After knowing the score result and level of all students, it can be said that the students¶ achievement got the improvement. For completing the explanation, it will be more discussed in the next part.

3. The mean score of both categories (Accuracy and Fluency) To know more the students¶ result of improvement in applying the Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy, the writer also defined the mean score to know the comparison between the students¶ achievement before applying Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy and after applying it. a) The Mean Score of Accuracy To know the score level of all students, the writer defined the mean score of accuracy namely 6.9 The mean score defined above indicated that there was a significant result of accuracy in Cycle II. b) The Mean Score of Fluency Like accuracy category, the writer also gave the mean score of fluency to know the comparison between the result of Cycle I and Cycle II. It is 6.56. Like accuracy category, the result of fluency also got the improvement than the result of fluency in Cycle I.

51

Both of mean score for speaking elements above can be seen as graphic below:

The Mean Score of Students' Speaking Proficiency in Accuracy and Fluency
Accuracy Fluency

6.9

6.56

Mean Score

Graphic 3. The Mean Score of the Students¶ Proficiency in Accuracy and Fluency by Using Interactional English Activity (IEA) at Cycle I

B. Discussion This part explained about the interpretation of findings, teacher analysis, and the process of application of Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy. Like the data result got before, there was indication that there was a significant result from what found Cycle I and Cycle II. The students¶ achievement also got the improvement in all categories informed to this

52

research, namely the capability in Accuracy (grammar and Vocabulary) and Fluency (content of the speaking value). Generally, it was found that the result of students¶ achievement in Cycle I didn¶t indicate that the students¶ speaking skill of the second year of SMA Muhammadiyah as a standard level, then the result of them in Cycle II indicated that their speaking skill got increase more. It can be proved by the result of mean score in Cycle II was higher than Cycle I. 1. The Students¶ Achievement in Accuracy (Grammar and vocabulary) After collecting all data about the students¶ achievement during the process of the research, the writer found that the students¶ speaking accuracy was improved than before. It means that the students¶ achievement was better after applying the Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy. It was proved by the mean score in Cycle I was only 6.08, and the mean score in Cycle II was 6.9. It was proved that the mean score was increasing 0.82 poin (6.9-6.08=0.82). No one got the good score in Cycle I (see table I), and there were 3 students got good level in Cycle II (see table VII). Based on the comparison of the result of Cycle I and Cycle II, it can be said that the Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy was better to apply than the strategy used before. In Cycle II also mentioned that no student again got the lowest score (5.6), and most students (14 students/46.66%) got fair good score (see Table VII).

53

From the result of observation during the research, the writer found that most of the lack from the grammar comes from the students¶ inability to rank the words according to their structure, or they are still lack of word order and the agreement of subject and verb. It most found in Cycle I, namely the before the students applying the Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy. Besides that, the writer also found that the students were lack in vocabulary because of some students are lazy to add their vocabulary by memorizing. In Cycle II, the mistake in grammar can be more decrease by Applying the Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy, because the students, in applying this strategy, got direct corrections when they made mistakes in speaking, so they can directly know what the real sentences. It helped the students to keep in memory, because the corrections were directly given when they felt they really need the corrections. The comparison between Cycle I and Cycle II can be seen in the following table:

Table 7. The Students¶ Percentage of Accuracy in Speaking Proficiency by Using Interactional English Activity (IEA) at Cycle I & Cycle II Students¶ Speaking Accuracy Category Cycle I Cycle II f % f % 0 0% 0 0%

Classification Excellent

Score 9.6-10

54

Very good Good Fair Good Fair

8.6-9.5 7.6-8.5 6.6-7.5 5.6-6.5 Total

0 0 4 26 30

0% 0% 13.33% 86.66% 100%

0 3 14 13 30

0% 10% 46.66% 43.33% 100%

It can be seen also in the graphic below:

The Students Percentage of Accuracy in Speaking Proficiency by Using Interactional English Activity (IEA) at Cycle I & Cycle II
Cycle I
6.9

Cycle II

6.56

2. The Students¶ Improvement in Fluency (Contents of Speaking) The students, like the the achievement of accuracy, got the improvement in fluency after applying the Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy. Most of them didn¶t place the lowest level anymore (fair level). It can be proved by seeing the mean score in Cycle II namely 6.56,

¢ ¡

cc r acy

Graphic 4. The Mean Score of the Students¶ Proficiency in Accuracy by Using Interactional English Activity (IEA) at Cycle I & Cycle II

55

it were higher that before (Cycle I) namely 5.85. It increased 0.71 point. It indicated that the Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy was effective also in this part. Before applying the Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy, some students are still nervous to express their main in conversation. It means the contents of speaking they express, were not organized well. It was proved that by most of their score was in fair level, namely 29 students got it or 96.66%, and only one student or 3.33% got fair good (see table III). It was different from the result in Cycle II, which used the Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy as the learning process. Only 10 students got fair score there (see table VI). The comparison between the students¶ achievement in Cycle I and Cycle II can be seen in the following table: Table 8. The Students¶ Percentage of Fluency in Speaking Proficiency by Using Interactional English Activity (IEA) at Cycle I & Cycle II Students¶ Speaking Fluency Category Cycle I Cycle II f % f % 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 1 3.33% 1 3.33% 10 33.33% 29 96.66% 19 63.33% 30 100% 30 100%

Classification Excellent Very good Good Fair Good Fair

Score 9.6-10 8.6-9.5 7.6-8.5 6.6-7.5 5.6-6.5 Total

It can be seen also in the graphic below:

56

The Students Percentage of Fluency in Speaking Proficiency by Using Interactional English Activity (IEA) at Cycle I & Cycle II
Cycle I
6.56

Cycle II

5.85

Fluency

Graphic 5. The Mean Score of the Students¶ Proficiency in Fluency by Using Interactional English Activity (IEA) at Cycle I & Cycle II After making the comparison between the application of the Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy and the learning process used at the second year of SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba, the writer found that so much significant result got. The Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy was better strategy to improve at the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba.

57

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS After finding and discussing the process of applying the Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy by using Cycle method, the writer stated some conclusions and suggestions for the better application of applying the Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy. A. Conclusions 1. The Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy gave many changes in learning process at the second year of SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba, especially the ability of students to compose the words to speak. 2. The learning process by using Cycle method as the combination to applying the Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy, can be easily control and know the effectiveness of the strategy applied (the general strategy and the Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy). 3. The were significant results between Cycle I (the learning process using general strategy at SMU Muhammadiyah Bulukumba) and Cycle II (the learning process applying the Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy), see table VII and VIII. 4. The Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy is the suitable strategy to improve the speaking skill at the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba. It was proved by the different result got in Cycle I and Cycle II.

58

B. Suggestions 1. In teaching speaking, the teachers should let the students more active that the teachers them selves. It is done to make the strategy applied can be running well, and understood by students totally. 2. The Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy is suggested to apply as the patent program to improve the speaking skill at SMA Muhammadiyah Bulukumba. 3. To get more effectiveness of the Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy, the school must give the supporting rule which can cover the Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy, like making English conversation around the school. 4. There are still many things to observed in the research applying the Interactional English Activity (IEA) Strategy, therefore, the next researcher suggested to make different style to examine this strategy.

59

BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexander, L.G. 1991. New Concept English. USA : Longman University Press. Alexander, L.G. 1991. Developing Skills. USA : Longman University Press. Awalia Reski. 2009. Increasing The Students Speaking Ability Through Jigsaw. MAKASSAR. UMM Brown, Douglas. 1980. Principle of Language Learning and Teaching. Englewood CLIFFS. New Jersey. Patrice Hall inc. Gay, L.R. 1981. Educational Research Competence for Anayisis and Applicstion.The Second addition. Charles E. Meril Publishing Company Columbus. Heaps, Stacie. 2007. Write Effective Follow-up Letters. Retrieved from http//:www.yahoo.com (on-line). July 22, 2007. Hornby, A.S. 2000. Oxford Advance Learner¶s DictionaryEnglish. London : Oxford University Press. Hornby, A.S., Gutenby. E.V, and Wakefirld. 1987. The Advanced Learner¶s Dictionary of CurrentEnglish. London : Oxford University Press. Hulse, S. H, Egeth, Horward, and Desce, J. 1981. The Psychology of Learning. London : Mc. Grow Hill. Klingher, J.K. Collaborative Strategic Reading in Cultural and linguistically Diverse Classroom. Retrieved from www.reading-rocket.org, 29 February 2008. Oxford, 1980. Oxford Learners¶ Pocket Dictionary. Oxford : University Press.

60

APPENDIX A. Teaching Material 1. The standard speaking Conversation Lionel : Hai«.! What is your name? Ariel : My name is Ariel, and you? Lionel Ariel Lionel Ariel Lionel Ariel Lionel Ariel : I am Lionel but you can call me Leo! Where do you live here? : I live on Jl. S. Bialo No.35 Bulukumba. May I Know your address? : I live in Makassar. : With whom do you live there? : I live with my family. And you? : I also live with my family. : OK, thanks for this introduction, nice to meet you this time. : You are welcome, nice to meet you too, see you next time.

Self Introduction Assalamu Alaikum Wr. Wb. (Peace be upon you!) The praise of God Almighty! Besides that, shalawat and salam (praying and peace) to our beloved prophet and messenger ³Muhammad SAW´ who has taken us from the darkness to the lightness. Ladies and Gentlemen! I am very happy this time to meet you all in this nice place. This a greet honor for me to stand in front of you all, for introducing my self. Let me introduce my self and my personal identity: My name is I live in/on/at My age is My height is My weight is I was born in My hobby is (ies are) : : : : : : : on (date) (year)

61

My favorite color is «./food is «./drink is «./artist is «./etc. I study at My father¶s name is My mother¶s name is : : : class: semester:

I have «... brother (s) and «.. sister (s) My idea: I will be ««/I want to become ««. I think that¶s all my self identity that I inform for you all to know. Thanks for your care attention, and the time for you all to ask some questions for me about my self besides my introduction just now.

Expressions  Have we met before? (pernakah kita bertemu sebelumnya?)  How many brothers and sisters do you have? (Berapa saudara laki-laki dan saudara perempuanmu?)  Do you like to eat pizza? (apakah kamu suka makan pizza?)  Do you know my father? (apakah kamu kenal dengan ayahku?)  Where have we met before? (dimana kita pernah bertemu sebelumnya?)  Do you like to play football/soccer? (apakah kamu suka bermain bola?)  How long have you lived in Bulukumba? (sudah berapa lama kamu tinggal di Bulukumba?  What is your daily activity? (apa aktivitas sehari-harimu?) 2. The Word Order Berikut cara membuat suatu frase panjang yang terkadang sulit dibuat dalam melakukan percakapan (speaking). ADJECTIVE I see a beautiful bird. Put on the big table. He looks like an old man. We need hot water to make tea. Mr. Aguero has a box blackberry. Rossi rides using blue motor. She¶s a French woman. Don¶t bring the iron pen.

Value Size Age Temperature Shape Color Origin Material

Pada tabel di atas, ada beberapa jenis kata sifat (adjective) yang masing-masing digunakan pada sebuah kalimat untuk menyifati suatu benda. Pada bagian ini akan

62

dipelajari tentang cara menggabungkan jenis-jenis kata sifat terebut untuk menyifati atu benda. Perhatikan penysunan berikut:

1 Value

3 2 Size Age 4 Temperatur e

5 Shape

8 6 Material Color (Warna) 7 Origin

Slogan di atas akan membantu mengurutkan jenis-jenis kata sifat yang lebih dari dua yang menyifati suatu benda. Jenis-jenis kata sifat tersebut diurut mulai dari yang jenis kata yang bernomor 1 (satu) atau yang paling dekat dengan 1 (satu). Exp: Terjemahkan frase di bawah ini ke dalam Bahasa Inggris: ³ Seebuah buku cantik berwarna putih terbuat dari bambu berasal dari Perancis´. Sebuah Cantik Berwarna putih : a/an : Beautiful (value, 1) : White (color, 6)

Terbuat dari bamboo : Bamboo (material, 8) Berasal dari Peranci : French (origin, 7) Buku : Book

Untuk menterjemahkan frase di atas, kata ³a/an´ ditempatkan paling depan dan kata bendanya (noun) dalam hal ini buku ditempatkan paling belakang. Kemudian di tengahtengahnya disusunlah kata-kata sifatnya mulai dari yang terkecil nomornya, dan untuk frase diatas inilah urutannya: A 1, 6, 7, 8 book. A beautiful white French bamboo book. (Seebuah buku cantik berwarna putih terbuat dari bambu berasal dari Perancis). Exercise:

63

Terjemahkan beberapa frase di bawah ini kedalam Bahasa Inggris! a. Seekor harimau tua berwarna hitam berasal dari Amerika. b. Sebuah kue lezat berwarna coklat terbuat dari mentega berbentuk bulat berasal dari Kindang. c. Sebutir telur rusak berwarna putih dan lonjong berasal dari Makassar. d. Seorang laki-laki ganteng tinggi berasal dari Mesir. e. Sebuah pulpen bagus yang panjang berwarna biru terbuat dari plastik beraal dari Barcelona. B. Tables

IMPROVING THE STUDENTS¶ SPEAKING PROFICIENCY THROUGH INTERACTIONAL ENGLISH ACTIVITY STRATEGY AT THE SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF SMA MUHAMMADIYAH BULUKUMBA (A Classroom Action Research )

64

A PROPOSAL

TURAIHAN AJEHURI 10535 1680 05

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTEMENT FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION MAKASSAR MUHAMMADYAH UNIVERSITY 2010 Improving Students Vocabulary Throught Listening English Language Music at SMA Muhammadiyah 6 Makassar

65

A PROPOSAL

MUSTAQIM 10535 1439 04

ENGLISH DEPARTEMEN FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION MAKASSAR MUHAMMADYAH UNIVERSITY 2010

66

COUNSELING SHEET Nama Reg. Num : Mustaqim : 10535 1439 04 Improving Students Vocabulary Throught Listening English Language Music at SMA Muhammadiyah 6 Makassar. Pembimbing No. : Dra. HJ. A. Tenri Ampa, M. Hum Day and date Chapter Note Sign

Judul Skripsi :

67

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.