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YouCast: Tree-based Peer-to-Peer Video Streaming Service

Natalia Chernenko Stanley (Xinlei) Wang Matt Zitzmann

Recitation: Girod 1PM May 10, 2007

Natalia Chernenko Stanley (Xinlei) Wang Matt Zitzmann

YouCast: Tree-based Peer-to-Peer Video Streaming Service

1. Introduction

The YouCast system is a scalable and reliable peer-to-peer streaming solution that allows multiple users

to watch video streams in real-time. In the system, a video server obtains video content from a camera,

and streams the content to subscribers in the peer-to-peer network. Since there can be many video

servers, a tracking server maintains a list of IP addresses of all active video servers.

In this paper, we describe a tree-based video dissemination architecture with the video server as the root.

Peers in the tree are both clients as well as servers for peers in the next level of the tree. The tree has an

average branching factor of 3. Thus, more than 170,000 peers can be accommodated with a tree of only

10 peer levels.

Our system operates according to a set of protocols that govern how new nodes join the system, how

video is disseminated, how node failures are repaired, and how private streams are encrypted. All video

data is streamed over UDP. All other communication between machines on the system is over TCP/IP.

Our design is based on the key principles of keeping the design simple, minimizing the network traffic,

and ensuring that our system is scalable. We choose a relatively simple tree structure over more other

more complex structures. We minimize network traffic by eliminating unnecessary pinging and

messaging between machines on the network. We ensure that our system is scalable by choosing a

dissemination structure and private stream encryption method that allow our system to easily

accommodate thousands of peers.

2. Tree-based Dissemination Architecture

The structure of our dissemination network is represented by a tree with a branching factor of three for

most of the nodes. As shown in Figure 1, each node in the tree corresponds to a peer in the network.

Each peer can handle on average five concurrent streams. One of these streams is used for receiving

video content from the peer’s parent. Three outgoing streams are used for streaming video to the peer’s

children. The fifth stream is normally left unused so that repair operations can be accomplished swiftly.


Video Server Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer
Video Server

Natalia Chernenko Stanley (Xinlei) Wang Matt Zitzmann

Tracking Server Video Server Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer
Tracking Server
Video Server

Figure 1. Tree architecture of the YouCast system. Arrows correspond to dependencies between the nodes of the network. Each peer has a primary parent (solid arrow), and a backup parent (dashed line), which are assigned when it joins the network.

Each peer in the tree has a primary parent as well as a backup parent. A peer only streams video from its

primary parent. The peer retains the IP address of a backup parent in case its primary parent fails. When

new peers join the network, the video server attempts to assign backup parents to each new peer such that

different backup parents are assigned to peers streaming from the same primary parent. The video server

also attempts to assign backup parents to new peers such that the backup parent is on the same level of the

tree as the primary parent of the new peer.

The video server stores the state of the tree in its memory. This is feasible because if each node needs 1

KB of memory, then a tree with 1 million nodes will use 1 GB of memory – a reasonable amount by

today’s standards. Table 1 lists the specific information that the video server stores about each peer in the

network. The video server gathers all information in this table when the peer joins the network.

Table 1. Data stored about each peer at the video server. This information is stored in each node of the tree data structure in the video server’s memory.



IP Address

Node’s IP address


Node’s connection bandwidth in Mb/s

Connection Type

How this node is connected to the Internet (wired or wireless)

Primary Parent IP

IP address of this node’s primary parent


Natalia Chernenko Stanley (Xinlei) Wang Matt Zitzmann

Backup Parent IP

IP address of this node’s backup parent

Children IP Addresses

List of IP addresses of children of this node

Backup Children IP Addresses

List of IP addresses of nodes that use this node as backup parent

Join Score

Used to determine best parents for new peers (see Section 3)

IP addresses serve as the identification of each peer on the network. For basic functionality, either the

parent or the children IP addresses needs to be saved for each node. However, to make the video server

efficient, we choose to store both the parent and children IP addresses for each node. The connection type

data is used to evaluate the reliability of the peer. Wired connections are considered much more reliable

than wireless connections because wireless connections have a higher packet drop rate. Using the

bandwidth and reliability data of each peer, the video server periodically reshuffles adjacent peers (i.e.

parent-children relationship) in the tree to maximize the chance that the peers with the highest bandwidth

and strongest reliability are positioned near the top of the tree.

The state of the tree stored at the video server is not necessarily the exact current state, but is adequate for

our protocols to function correctly. The video server updates the tree when a new peer joins or when a

peer tells the video server that the peer’s parent has failed. The video server also updates the tree when a

leaf drops out, in which case the parent of the leaf sends a message to the video server. The parent of the

leaf knows about the leaf’s state because when a leaf is functional, it sends frame-resend requests (when

frames get lost in the network) or keep-alive messages to its parent such that at least one message is sent

every three seconds.

An alternative design choice is to have the video server ping every peer periodically so that it can

maintain the latest version of the tree. We chose to avoid this solution because it requires too much

network traffic, which would decrease the efficiency of our system.

3. Join Protocol

When a new peer joins the network, the new peer first asks the tracking server for the IP address of the

video server. The new peer then uses this information to ask the video server for the IP addresses of a

primary parent and a backup parent. The video server responds by giving the new peer the IP address of

the available parent with the highest join score (see next paragraph), along with a feasible backup parent.


Natalia Chernenko Stanley (Xinlei) Wang Matt Zitzmann

If the primary parent is unavailable, the new peer will ask the video server for another set of primary and

backup parents. During join, the video server also does its best to ensure that children of the same peer

are given different backup parents on the same level of the tree.

The join score is a score calculated for each peer in the client tree when the peer joins. This score takes

into account the bandwidth and the reliability of the node. Each peer can find out about its bandwidth and

connection type (wired vs. wireless) by asking its network card. The peer then sends this information to

the video server. If the peer has a wireless connection, the peer’s join score is calculated by the formula:

2/3*bandwidth. If the peer has a wired connection, then its bandwidth is the join score. The formula is

based on the common estimate that a wireless connection can drop 33% of the packets when its

bandwidth is fully utilized [1]. The video server maintains a priority queue of leaf nodes with the join

score as the key. This way, IP addresses of the best leaf nodes can be given out with little processing

time when a new peer requests it.

There are rare cases where the video server may ask a new peer to connect to a failed peer because the

video server does not yet know that the peer failed. One case is that a leaf fails, and then its parent fails

before the parent can notify the video server. Another case is when a new peer is asked to connect to a

leaf that has just dropped out, before the leaf’s parent can notify the video server. In both cases, the new

peer can still join correctly by asking the video server for alternative parents. These cases are also likely

to be rare, so a new peer usually receives a valid parent IP address on the first try.

4. Dissemination Protocol

The dissemination protocol governs how video data is dispersed among clients and servers. In our model,

the video server functions only as the main server and the machines that connect to it function as both

clients and servers.

4.1 Dataflow

The flow of data begins at the video server, which sends packets to the clients connected directly to it.

Each packet contains a frame of video and a sequence number of that frame. The server has a buffer that

contains 1 minute of video data. This buffer is needed because if one of the clients is missing a frame, it

can request the server to resend it.


Natalia Chernenko Stanley (Xinlei) Wang Matt Zitzmann

Each peer receives the frame data and places it into its buffer. These frames may be out of order and some

may be missing. The peer sends the unordered frame data to all of its clients immediately as it is received

to minimize network latency. It then rearranges the frames and requests its parent to retransmit ones that

have not yet been received. If it has not received some frames by the time it should play them, the peer

ignores the gap and plays the preceding frame instead. The peer’s children can request missing frames

from the peer’s buffer. If a peer has not requested a frame for 3 seconds, it sends a keep-alive message to

its parent. It is through these keep-alive messages and frame requests that a parent knows that its child

should be given content. A child cannot distinguish whether its parent is a peer or the main video server.

The YouCast system is optimized for smooth streaming in a tree that is up to 11 levels deep (10 levels of

peers). This tree will contain 177,146 peers, assuming that each peer can support an average of 5 streams.

One stream will be the incoming data, three will be outgoing data to children, and one will be kept open,

so that the peer can serve as a backup parent in case of failure in other nodes. The system will function

with deeper trees, but peers at the lower levels of the tree may miss several frames of data in the case of a

failure or when the nodes in the tree are reordered.

The frame data is sent using the UDP protocol, which does not guarantee delivery. We take this approach

in order to send the frame data in a timely manner. The other messages, such as requests for missing

frames, are sent using TCP/IP, which is much more reliable.

4.2 Reshuffling

In order to optimize the network and prevent situations where less reliable peers are closer (in terms of

hops in the tree) to the main server, we utilize a reshuffling algorithm. After a peer has joined the

network, and has its buffer nearly full, the main server reshuffles the system to optimize it, placing the

closest, most reliable peers at the top of its tree structure. It does this reshuffling two levels at a time,

switching in a parent-child pairwise fashion. For example, a parent and a child may switch, but nodes

within the same level cannot. Also, nodes may not skip levels. For example, a node in the seventh level

can switch with a node in the sixth level, but not with a node in the second level. It can move this high in

the tree, however, if it does so progressively, moving up one level at a time. This technique allows the

buffers of nodes to fill as much as possible before moving. After moving the server updates the backup

parents of the switched peers. This strategy helps minimize latency.


Natalia Chernenko Stanley (Xinlei) Wang Matt Zitzmann

4.3 Buffering

The YouCast system streams video data from servers to clients. The clients, in turn, function as servers to

their children. When the data travels across a network, the packets with video frames may arrive out of

order or be lost entirely. This method requires that the peers in the network, as well as the main video

server, have buffers in which they can store video frames. As servers, they may need to retransmit frames

to their children. As clients, they need to place the frame packets in the correct order before displaying

them on the screen.

The challenge of designing a buffering scheme for a real-time peering network lies in network latency.

Frames require a certain amount of time to travel between nodes. If it takes one second to travel between

two given nodes, then, in a tree with 11 levels, the maximum difference in time from the main video

server to the lowest level of the tree will be 10 seconds. If a server sends a frame at time t seconds, a leaf

at the lowest level will receive it at t + 10 seconds. In addition, if a peer’s parent fails and its backup is not

available, it will need a maximum of 9 seconds to reestablish a connection with a new parent (1 second to

realize that it is no longer receiving content, 2 seconds to send a message to its parent and determine that

there is no response, 2 seconds to contact a backup parent and establish that it is unavailable, 2 seconds to

contact the main video server and obtain a new parent, and 2 seconds to connect to the new parent). The

repair section of this document contains a more detailed explanation of how a peer deals with parent

failure. Because the maximum latency from the main server to a peer plus the time for repair is 20

seconds and peers can move within the tree, a given peer needs to have 20 seconds of buffer space in

which to store frames before playing them.

As described earlier, peers in the YouCast system may periodically move up or down in the tree to

optimize network function. Peers with higher bandwidth, for example, are better to have at the top of the

tree (closer to the main video server), rather than close to the bottom. Because the position of the nodes is

not static, the peers’ buffers need to account for network latency, as well as being able to handle being

clients and servers either higher or lower in the tree structure without interrupting the video stream or


Taking into account that the maximum smoothly supported depth of the tree is 11 levels, our system

provides each peer with a 60-second buffer. This buffer is divided into three parts: the section into which

frames arrive and are sorted before being played (20 seconds), the section into which data is stored after

having been played (20 seconds), and extra buffer space for frames that are sequentially newer than the


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20-second sorted frames to be played (20 seconds). The played buffer is used to allow for smooth video

playback in case of parent failure. The buffer section with the old data is used so that if a node that was

originally at the top of the tree moves to a place near the bottom, it can support its children’s requests for

missing frames. The buffer section with the new data is used in case a peer moves from the bottom of the

tree to the top. It will have gained extra frame data in the process of its progressive move upward. It will

need this space so that its buffer does not overrun. It also needs to store this data to be able to support its

children’s requests for missing frames. Please see Figure 3 for an illustration of how these buffers are

allocated and Figure 4 to see the how the video content changes for nodes that move up or down in the

tree structure.

Sequence # New Frame
Sequence #
New Frame

Peer’s Video Buffer (30 MB)

Post-Play Section (20 Sec)

Pre-Play Section (20 Sec)

Flexible Section (20 sec)

Oldest Frames

Section (20 Sec) Flexible Section (20 sec) Oldest Frames Newest Frames Play Frame Figure 3. Three

Newest Frames

Play Frame

Figure 3. Three sections of each peer’s video buffer.

Buffer Content of Peer Bubbling Down 10 Consecutive Times

Joins at 1 st Level At 6 th Level At 10 th Level
Joins at 1 st Level
At 6 th Level
At 10 th Level

+20 sec

0 sec

-20 sec


-40 sec


Buffer Content of Peer Bubbling Up 10 Consecutive Times


Joins at 10 th Level


At 6 th Level


At 1 st Level


+20 sec

0 sec

-20 sec


-40 sec

Buffer Space Occupied by Content    +20 sec 0 sec -20 sec   -40 sec Unused Buffer Space Figure 4.

Unused Buffer Space-20 sec   -40 sec Buffer Space Occupied by Content Figure 4. Occupied and unused buffer

Figure 4. Occupied and unused buffer space for peers moving up or down the tree for 10 consecutive times. The 0- second mark corresponds to the current frame being played.


Natalia Chernenko Stanley (Xinlei) Wang Matt Zitzmann

The peers begin playing the video after they have received approximately 20 seconds of data. If a client

has not received a needed frame within 100 milliseconds (2 frames) of the time it must be played, it

simply displays the previous frame. It does, however, request this frame from its parent, so that it can

transmit it to its children. Parents obtain the frame data that they transmit to their children from any of the

three sections of the buffer.

0 th Level

1 st Level

2 nd Level

9 th Level

10 th Level

Video Server Node B . . . . . . Peer Peer Max Latency 10
Video Server
Node B
. .
. .
Max Latency
10 sec
Node A

Figure 5. Illustration of positions of Node A and Node B. Each link between consecutive levels of the tree contributes to a max latency of 1 second. Arrows point from child to primary parent.

To illustrate how the buffering works, consider a node (Node A) at the tenth level of a tree (considering

the server to be the 0 th level) with a total network latency of 10 seconds (Figure 5). It receives data 9

seconds after a node (Node B) at the first level of the tree receives it, and 10 seconds after the video

server disseminates it. Node A buffers the frames for 20 seconds and begins to play the video. Since Node

B also buffered its data for 20 seconds before playing it, Node A is now playing its video 9 seconds after

Node B. In this case, Node A plays a given frame 30 seconds after the main video server has disseminated


Suppose now that because Node A is a very high-bandwidth node with a wired connection, it gets

promoted to the top of the tree structure. It is still playing frames 30 seconds behind the server, but its


Natalia Chernenko Stanley (Xinlei) Wang Matt Zitzmann

children are playing their video only 22 seconds behind the server. The other 8 seconds of data need extra

buffer space to prevent buffer overrun. Also, even though Node A transmits frames as soon as it receives

them, it needs to be able to answer its children’s requests for missing frames. In case one of Node A’s

parents breaks before Node A reaches the top of the structure, it needs to be able to recover within 10

seconds. To allow for both repair and movement up the tree, the flexible buffer space is designed to hold

up to 20 seconds of frames.

Now suppose that Node B is a low-bandwidth node and gets demoted to the ninth level of the tree (one

above the lowest level). It is playing its video 21 seconds behind the server, while its children are playing

it 30 seconds behind. In case they request frames, Node B needs to provide them with data that it has

already played. In this case, it needs to store old data. We allocate 20 seconds to this buffer to allow for

the 10-second difference and repair.

Because the nodes keep data from the past and potentially, to them, more than the standard buffering time

of 20 seconds into the future, the nodes are free to move within the tree. The server maintains 60 seconds

of frames to support all children’s frame requests, regardless of where they originally joined the tree. This

scheme allows the tree to be dynamically optimized.

4.4 Pseudocode

Functions for handling frames run on each server in the network. There are two versions of these

modules, one runs on the main video server, while the other runs on each of the peers.

On the video server, the camera that is generating the visual output calls the function

Frame_Handler(frame_ptr pt) every 50 milliseconds. The frame handler places the frame into

its buffer and sends it to all of the server’s direct children. It places the frame into the buffer first, so that

if one of its children requests a frame before the server is finished sending it to all the children, it can

fulfill the request. When a child is missing a frame, it can send a message back to the server, asking for a

particular frame. The module that handles retransmission of frames runs as a separate thread on the

server. When called, it finds a needed frame and sends it to the child that requested it.

The following pseudocode is a representation of these modules. These are modules that run on the main

video server.


Natalia Chernenko Stanley (Xinlei) Wang Matt Zitzmann

Frame_Handler(frame_ptr pt) { Place_frame_in_buffer(pt, frame_buffer); for_each(child, children) { Send_Frame(ptr, get_ip(child));



Retransmit_Missing_Frame(sequence_number frame_num, IP_address child) { frame_ptr pt = Find_frame_in_buffer(frame_num, frame_buffer); Send_Frame(pt, child);


Each peer runs four threads: one for receiving frames, placing them in the appropriate buffers, and disseminating them, one for sorting and otherwise managing the buffers, one for playing frames, and one for retransmitting missing ones to the children. The pseudocode is shown in below.

Receive_Frame(frame_ptr pt, IP_address source) { Place_frame_in_preplay_buffer(pt); for_each(child, children) { Send_Frame(ptr, get_ip(child));



Manage_Buffers() { Sort_preplay_buffer(); // Sorts all but 2 frame slots // closest to play time

if(missing_frame) { frame_ptr ptr = request_missing_frame_from_parent( Get_Frame_Seqn(frame)); place_frame_into_buffer(ptr);


if(not_requested_frame_for_3_seconds) { send_keep_alive_to_parent();



Play_Control() { every(50 milliseconds) { frame_ptr pt = get_current_frame(); Play_Frame(pt); move_frames_in_buffer(); // Moves played frames to // post play section of // buffer, moves new // frames closer to play time



Retransmit_Missing_Frame(sequence_number frame_num, IP_address child) { frame_ptr pt = Find_frame_in_buffer(frame_num, frame_buffer); if(frame_in_buffer) { Send_Frame(pt, child);




Natalia Chernenko Stanley (Xinlei) Wang Matt Zitzmann

This code runs on the peers and manages the flow of the data in the network. It is optimized for fast dissemination.

4.5 Backups Each client in the network has one parent and one backup parent to which it can connect in case its primary parent fails. The number of children each parent has is one less than the maximum number of streams it can support, so that it is capable of fulfilling its backup parent responsibilities. We keep only one stream open because we assume that only one node in the network may fail at any one time. Also, the server, to the best of its ability, assigns backup parents to nodes in such a way that children of one primary parent do not share backup parents. It attempts to assign backup parents that are on the same level as the primary parents. Because these children do not have the same backup parent, if their primary parent fails, the backup parents, each of which keeps one stream open for such emergencies, can support these nodes. It is possible that a backup parent is unavailable at the time its child requests a stream. In this case, the child asks the server to rejoin the tree.

5. Repair Protocol

If during a one second interval, a peer receives little (less than 20%) or no content, it contacts its parent to

check if it has failed. If the parent responds, then the peer will continue to receive content from the parent

as usual. If there is no response, then the peer deems that its parent has failed.

Upon determining that its parent has failed, a peer will first request the stream from its backup parent. If

the backup parent is able to handle an additional outgoing stream, it begins streaming to the peer. Once

the peer begins receiving content from the backup parent, it sends a message to the video server to update

its tree structure. The server responds to the peer with a new backup parent in case of another failure.

Since peers can disconnect from a stream at any time, it is possible that a peer’s backup parent is no

longer a part of the system. In this case, the peer uses the join protocol to request new primary and backup



Natalia Chernenko Stanley (Xinlei) Wang Matt Zitzmann

Although all parents maintain one open outgoing stream each to fulfill their backup parent

responsibilities, it is feasible that this slot is filled by a different peer from either another failure or the

same failure. A backup parent can be a part of the system, but simply unable to handle an additional

outgoing stream. Similarly to the above case, the peer uses the join protocol to request new primary and

backup parents.

In the case where a parent has no available outgoing streams, we do not reshuffle any of its children to

reopen a slot. Thus, this parent can no longer fulfill its backup parent responsibilities. The video server

instead will send a message to every peer that has a backup parent with no open slots, updating these

peers with new backup parents. This allows these peers to receive content more quickly after a failure

because they no longer have to contact a full backup parent.

Our failure design does not introduce large overhead. In most situations, there is only one roundtrip of

communication before a peer begins receiving content from its backup parent. If a backup parent is

unavailable or unable to handle an additional outgoing stream, there are three roundtrips of

communication before a peer begins receiving content again. By minimizing this overhead, our system is

able to maintain scalability.

6. Private Streams

Our system uses shared-secret cryptography for private streams. Using e-mail correspondence, the camera

owner sends each user the same shared-secret key. Thus, only one secret key is distributed to every peer

in the system. The server will encrypt each frame before it is sent to its children. Note that the server only

encrypts the video content of the frame, and not the entire packet which includes the sequence number,

because we are interested in securing only the video content. No significant changes are necessary to the

system, except that a peer must now decrypt any content received for a private stream using the shared-

secret key that the camera owner sent. Also, peers will only decrypt the content immediately before it is

played so that it can respond to a child’s request for a specific (encrypted) frame very quickly.

Since the video content is encrypted as it is sent across the network, peers without the shared-secret key

are unable to watch the stream. Nonetheless, these peers are still able to stream the content to their

children. All peers transmit encrypted video content so that only peers with the shared-secret key are able

to view the stream.


Natalia Chernenko Stanley (Xinlei) Wang Matt Zitzmann

Although using public-key cryptography is theoretically possible for this situation, it is far less efficient

than shared-secret cryptography. Public-key cryptography is computationally more costly. In fact, it can

be hundreds or even thousands of times slower than shared-secret cryptography [2].

Public-key cryptography with multiple public keys is not a scalable solution because every peer would

need to receive a unique encrypted frame. For each peer, the server would have to encrypt the frame with

the peer’s public key. If there are n peers, then for every frame of video content, n unique frames will

need to be sent out. Since all the peers share the same key in shared-secret cryptography, it is only

necessary for the video server to send out a single encrypted frame.

7. Scalability and Fault Tolerance

7.1.1 Scalability – Join

By using a simple tree structure, our system is able to maintain scalability. On average, a machine can

handle 5 streams. In our system, there is only one incoming stream for a given peer, leaving four outgoing

streams. In general, all parents leave one of their four streams open to fulfill their backup parent

responsibilities. To simplify our analysis, we will assume that our tree has a consistent breadth of three

for each peer and that it is balanced.

Even if there are over 170,000 peers connected to a single stream, the tree only has ten peer levels. Thus,

the amount of time it takes for a frame to travel from the top of the tree to the bottom is a maximum of 10

seconds. For each additional level of the tree, the system grows exponentially. For example, with 13 peer

levels our system can accommodate over 4.7 million peers with a maximum delay of 13 seconds from the

top to the bottom.

One weakness of our design with respect to scalability is that it can be somewhat slow when numerous

peers all join at the same time. This occurs because the video server needs to determine where each peer

in a certain level resides. Then, it focuses on the next level of peers and so on. The system slows down in

this situation, but we chose to avoid implementing a workaround to maintain a simple design.

7.1.2 Scalability – Dissemination


Natalia Chernenko Stanley (Xinlei) Wang Matt Zitzmann

Our system scales well because the video server does not have to support every client. The system

minimizes latency by having the peers transmit received packets as quickly as possible (without buffering

them first) and by reshuffling peers, putting the most capable ones at the top of the hierarchy. The

capabilities of the system are not infinite, however.

Although we describe our system as being optimized for a tree of maximum depth 11, it can be extended

to account for a greater number of nodes by increasing the size of the buffers on the video server and

peers. The administrator of the system would adjust the size of the buffers before beginning to transmit

the stream to the peers. The number of clients would be estimated before running a given stream on a

video server.

7.2 Fault Tolerance

As a peer attempts to reconnect to its backup parent or to a new parent, it consumes video content from its

buffer. In most cases, it takes the peer a maximum of 9 seconds to begin receiving content again. In

general, it takes the peer a maximum of 3 seconds to determine its parent has failed and, in the case of the

backup parent being unavailable, a maximum of 6 seconds to begin receiving content from a new parent

(assuming a maximum network latency of 1 second). Thus, a buffer size of 20 seconds is large enough to

ensure that a peer maintains a quality stream for the viewer.

One specific situation where a peer may have a loss of performance in the video stream is when its parent

fails, backup parent is unavailable, and rejoining the system takes a significant amount of time. In this

case it takes the peer longer than 6 seconds to begin receiving content from a new parent. We estimate

this situation to be rare and because the buffer maintains roughly 20 seconds of content, we do not foresee

this problem having a significant impact on the system.

8. Conclusion

We have designed a scalable, robust, and high-performance video streaming system that operates according to the join, dissemination, repair and private stream protocols. The tree-structure and the absence of unnecessary communication make our system scalable. Our repair algorithm allows for a peer to quickly find a new parent while using its buffer to maintain the stream of video content. Our dynamic node reshuffling algorithm makes our system perform well by moving the most reliable nodes to the top of the tree.


Natalia Chernenko Stanley (Xinlei) Wang Matt Zitzmann

Before our design can be implemented, some specific parameters should be tested empirically. These parameters include the 3-second keep-alive message interval, as well as the 20% content threshold for running the repair protocol. The low level details of the algorithm for assigning backup parents according to our criteria also need to be determined. Efficient methods of storing the tree structure in memory of the video server should be explored. Geographical location of peers could be considered in more advanced versions of this system. Finally, video network traffic flow properties should be studied to optimize the system.

9. Acknowledgements We acknowledge our recitation instructor, Lewis Girod, and our teaching assistant, David Schultz for providing us with valuable feedback on our design.

10. References [1] M. G. Arranz, R. Aguero, L. Munoz, and P. Mahonen, “Behavior of UDP-based applications over IEEE 802.11 wireless networks,” IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, vol. 2, no. 2, Sep.-Oct., pp: F-72-F-77, 2001.

[2] D.A. Menasce, “Security performance,” IEEE Internet Computing, vol.7, no. 3, May-Jun. pp: 84-87, 2003.

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