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SEMESTER II 2007/2008 Laboratory Manual
Mechatronics Engineering Lab III
Liquid Level: Measurement and Control
Transfer function of the tank From the low of mass conservation. Thus. the total sensitivity of the measurement arrangement and errors in linearity.Part 1: Liquid Level Measurement 1. rate change of volume of water in the tank equal to the difference between inlet flow rate and outlet flow rate (assume water is incompressible liquid).(1) . we will be investigating the sensitivity of the differential pressure transducer. Objectives The objective of this experiment is to measure a liquid level in a simple tank by using the bubbling-through method. level measurement element and controller). Where. dv = F1 − F 2 dt v: volume of liquid 2 ……. Introduction Consider the following control system and let’s try to describe the elements in the feedback one by one (transfer function of the tank. 2. 2.1.
.(2) hm: allowable minimum level of the water h: tevel of the water A: base area of the tank. A dh = F1 − k h dt ……..F1: inlet flow rate F2: outlet flow rate Thus.(3) ………(4) With Taylor series. linearization at reference point is possible. at reference point ho. By letting f (h) = h .(5) ho: steady state measurement of water level. we can find: f (h) = ho + (h − ho) 2 ho ……. integrating the equation: v = (h − hm) A Yielding: dh dv =A dt dt ……. F2 can be written as: F2 = k h where: k = pump flow characteristic Therefore. It can be expresses as: f (h) = a + bh Where: 1 ho 2 1 b= 2 ho a= Then we define new variables: h*: departure of h from ho 3 .
4 . This measurement method is only suitable for fluids. The maximum excess pressure permissible in a container may amount to 100 bar.2. The margin of error for this measurement method amounts to 1% at the uppermost limit of the scale. This gas forces the tank's fluid out of the pipe.b (time constant) 2. This pressure can be measured with a differential pressure transducer. The method can also be used for pressurized fluids. Liquid level measurement Description of the measurement procedure is as follows. now arising in the pipe corresponds to the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid column in the tank. Using this method the entire hydrostatic pressure in a tank is measured. Here a pipe is inserted into the tank with the end nearly reaching bottom of the tank. The classical area of application of this method is in the areas of hydraulics and waste water. The application of the bubbling-through method is well suited for continuous liquid level measurement. Liquid level up to 25 m can be determined. it must be the static pressure because the flow rate is very low.F*: departure of F1 from Fo Fo: steady state flowrate of F1 h = ho + h * F1 = Fo + F * Using Laplace Transformation and some substitutions yielding the transfer function of the tank: 1 H * ( s) k . Sketch of the measurement arrangement is as figure below.b ……(6) τ = A k . The pipe is then filled with a gas so that gas bubbles are barely able to form and exit out of the pipe.b = G ( s) = A F * ( s) s 1+ k . The gas pressure here.
While the tank is being filled. the slide on the right remains closed. Set the tree-way valve of the bubbling through pump to the center position. Slowly fill the tank to the first division mark. Open the inlet slide by approx 5mm. Experiment Procedure • • Assemble the experiment in accordance with measurement set-up. It is recommended that water filling procedure be performed by lifting up the left slide by approx 5mm. To empty the tank the right slide is simply lifted somewhat.g 3. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Set the sensitivity of the differential pressure transducer to 0. Set the desired level of water using the pump. Switch on the bubbling pump.The equation with which the liquid level can be calculated is given by: h= P + ho ς .g where: P = hx ς .66V/mbar. The left and right side of the tank are both locked with a closed plastic slide. 5 . Close the outlet slide.
i) j) Read off the measured value of voltage. Continue with g . but only to the point where the indicator just remains idle (approx. Set the tree -way valve to the upward position. Take the height ho of the measurement in to account (ho=10mm). low (e. 3 air bubbles per second).s Division (1Div=15mm) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Liquid level division h (mm) 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 Hydrostatic pressure (mbar) ≈ 0. Record the measurement values of voltage for raising water level at room temperature.5 Voltage U (volt) (rising water) 6 . (Note:1 kg = 1Pa = 10 − 2 mbar ) 2 m.l (while omitting h). In the process bear in mind the measurement range of the connected voltmeter.h) Set the air flow with the needle valve. m) What effect does an air bubble flow have on the indicator when it is set too First calculate the respective hydrostatic pressure for the partial division marks and enter the values into the table. 1 air bubble per second). and when it is set too high (try it!). The air flow through the bubbling pipe is now interrupted and a new liquid level can be set without affecting the water surface through the escaping air bubbles. Regulate the flow of air bubbles down to a minimum.g. k) l) Raise the liquid level to the next partial division.
Draw the desired curve into the diagram (linear curve). Seal the horizontal axis also in pressure units (mbar). Determine the sensitivity of the differential pressure transducer in the range 15-150mm in V/mbar input).4. Calculate the maximum relative linearity error. Determine the sensitivity of the measurement arrangement in the range 15-150mm in V/cm. Measurement Evaluation a. (sensitivity=variation in output/variation in 7 . b. Determine the maximum absolute linearity error d. Again plot the measured values of voltage for rising liquid level in the range 15-150 mm in a graph. c. Plot the measured values for rising water level in a graph (actual curve).
5. Two-position control. Objective The purpose is to control the liquid level by two position and a P-I controller in the feedback system. Two-position control has the widest industrial and domestic use on process having not more than two energy-storage elements. The control can be done whether by twoposition or P-I controller. In operation. How can any eventual linearity errors be explained? f.e. two-position 8 .1. Explain the nature of the characteristic curves. Part 2: Liquid Level Control 5 .
By shifting the linkage. but in theory the action is difficult to analyze because of the discontinuous nature of changes in the manipulated variable.35 mm. 9 . and turns it off when the level is too high. The lowest liquid level amounts to approx 0. The level control LC turns on the inflow when the level is too low. The switching on/off in this experiment is realized by the float-type switch. This figure shows the design of the float type switch. The linkage can be shifted by 120mm. This results in a maximum setting for the liquid level of around 155 mm.This reed contact is activated by a small permanent magnet located inside the polystyrene float. Consider the following process plant: The most elementary case of two-position control is illustrated in this figure.control is very simple. different liquid levels can be set. designed as a Reed contact . At the lower end of longer tube on the left there is an NC (normally closed) contact.
P-I Controller 5.1. explain and comment on the results. Record the output level with the help of the oscilloscope.2.Measurement assembly: The Reed contact can switch currents up to a maximum of 50 mA. It's said that the two-position control is just suited for the control of first order system with a large dead time. Measure the period of oscillations. Thus it is recommended that the floattype switch be installed in the measurement set-up between the Reference-variable generator and the power amplifier (see set-up fig 2). The transfer function of the P-I controller is more or less following: 10 . This has to be taken into consideration when installing the float-type-switch. Background First order systems as water level in a simple tank can be well controlled by a P-I controller. Measure the amplitude of oscillations b. and a given rise time Tr.2. Choose a reference level. The control objectives are to obtain a closed -loop system having a zero steady-state error for a step input. Consider our system (tank) characterized by a first order transfer function. Do you agree? Why? 5. Run the experiment according to the assembly panel. an a periodic response without overshoot. a. The feedback system with P-I controller can be designed.
rise times. Include the response curves in your report. The more detail explanation about P-I controller would be obtained from the control system lecture. and then 90. Explain the results. Evaluate final values. with K i = 4. 4. Give a step input to your system. Why first order systems need P-I controllers? Explain! 6. B) P-I controller: Adjust K p = 5 Do steps 1. Record output level. 40. Report For Part 1. include the response curves in your report. to 6. A) P controller Adjust K p = 5.2. 1. explain why? Give analysis. use the oscilloscope. Give the same values to Kp and Ki. 5. 8. 11 . 70.2. Evaluate the closed-loop transfer function. 3. Give Conclusion. and then 80. plot step responses. Assemble in accordance with the feed-back block diagram. 2. steady state error. If any differences. write a report on the experiment and answer the question given. use SIMULINK to simulate. 5. deductions and comments on the results.Gc = K (1 + 1 ) τs with K represents the proportional gain and τ represents the integral action of controller. What is the effect of the proportional gain in the feed-back system? 6. For Part 2. 20. Once the transfer function of your system was determined. Experiment procedure. 10.
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