A population is all the organisms that both belong to the same species and live in the same geographical

area. The area that is used to define the population is such that interbreeding is possible between any pair within the area and more probable than crossbreeding with individuals from other areas. Normally breeding is substantially more common within the area than across the border.[1] In sociology, population refers to a collection of human beings. Demography is a sociological discipline which entails the statistical study of human populations. This article refers mainly to human population.

Fertility is the natural capability of giving life. As a measure, "fertility rate" is the number of children born per couple, person or population. Human fertility depends on factors of nutrition, sexual behavior, culture, instinct, endocrinology, timing, economics, way of life, and emotions. In demographic contexts, fertility refers to the actual production of offspring, rather than the physical capability to produce which is termed fecundity.[1][2][3] While fertility can be measured, fecundity cannot be. Demographers measure the fertility rate in a variety of ways, which can be broadly broken into "period" measures and "cohort" measures. "Period" measures refer to a cross-section of the population in one year. "Cohort" data on the other hand, follows the same people over a period of decades. Both period and cohort measures are widely used.[4] Suicide (Latin suicidium, from sui caedere, "to kill oneself") is the act of a human being intentionally causing his or her own death. Suicide is often committed out of despair, or attributed to some underlying mental disorder which includes depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, alcoholism and drug abuse.[1] Financial difficulties, troubles with interpersonal relationships and other undesirable situations play a significant role.[2] Over one million people commit suicide every year. The World Health Organization estimates that it is the thirteenth-leading cause of death worldwide[3] and the National Safety Council rates it sixth in the United States.[4] It is a leading cause of death among teenagers and adults under 35.[5][6] Rates of suicide are higher in men than in women.[7] There are an estimated 10 to 20 million non-fatal attempted suicides every year worldwide.[8] Views on suicide have been influenced by broader cultural views on existential themes such as religion, honor, and the meaning of life. The Abrahamic religions consider suicide an offense towards God due to religious belief in the sanctity of life. In the West it was often regarded as a serious crime. Conversely, during the samurai era in Japan, seppuku was respected as a means of atonement for failure or as a form of protest. In the 20th century, suicide in the form of self-immolation has been used as a form of protest, and in the form of kamikaze and suicide bombing as a military or terrorist tactic. Sati is a Hindu funeral practice in which the widow would immolate herself on her husband's funeral pyre, either willingly, or under pressure from the family and in-laws.[9]

in extreme pain. may help carry out the act if the individual lacks the physical capacity to do so even with the supplied means. Jack Kevorkian. Murder–suicide Main article: Murder–suicide A murder–suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more other persons immediately before or at the same time as him or herself. and was sentenced to prison time. Suicide attack Main article: Suicide attack A suicide attack is when an attacker perpetrates an act of violence against others. London. that results in his or her own death as . on display at Science Museum. Émile Durkheim's theory termed such acts "altruistic suicide."[10 Euthanasia and assisted suicide Main article: Euthanasia Euthanasia machine invented by Dr. Assisted suicide is a contentious moral and political issue in many countries. as seen in the scandal surrounding Dr. The other person.Medically assisted suicide (euthanasia. usually a family member or physician. however. Self-sacrifice for others is not always considered suicide. Philip Nitschke. as the goal is not to kill oneself but to save another. typically to achieve a military or political goal. or the right to die) is currently a controversial ethical issue involving people who are terminally ill. was found to have helped patients end their own lives. or have (perceived or construed) minimal quality of life through injury or illness. The motivation for the murder in murder–suicide can be purely criminal in nature or be perceived by the perpetrator as an act of care for loved ones in the context of severe depression. Individuals who wish to end their own lives may enlist the assistance of another person to achieve death. a medical practitioner who supported euthanasia.

as well as more recent attacks. political. Suicide pact Main article: Suicide pact A suicide pact describes the suicides of two or more individuals in an agreed-upon plan. An example is the mass suicide that took place by members of the Peoples Temple. one of the most . or friends) whose motivations are intensely personal and individual.[14] About 5% of people with schizophrenia die of suicide. on the other hand. While external circumstances. military or paramilitary context. Mass suicides can take place with as few as two people. Metaphorical suicide The metaphorical sense of "willful destruction of one's self-interest". such as a traumatic event. family members. factors A number of factors are associated with the risk of suicide including: mental illness. Historical examples include the assassination of Czar Alexander II and the in-part successful kamikaze attacks by Japanese air pilots during the Second World War. often within a religious. in a "suicide pact". substance abuse in 18%. such as the September 11th attacks. Mass suicide Main article: Mass suicide Some suicides are done under peer pressure or as a group.[12] for example political suicide. Suicide bombings are often regarded as an act of terrorism. schizophrenia in 14%. The plan may be to die together. an American cult led by Jim Jones in Guyana in 1978. or with a larger number of people. The latter refers to incidents in which a larger number of people kill themselves together for the same ideological reason. or separately and closely timed.[15] Depression. usually involve small groups of people (such as married or romantic partners.[14] When broken down into type mood disorders are present in 30%. Suicide pacts. Mental illness See also: Depression (differential diagnoses) Mental disorders are frequently present at the time of suicide with estimates from 87%[13] to 98%.0% of suicides. drug addiction. and personality disorders in 13.well. Suicide pacts are generally distinct from mass suicide. may trigger suicide it does not seem to be an independent cause. and socio-economic factors.

[34] Alcohol misuse is associated with a number of mental health disorders. It has been found that drinking 6 drinks or more per day results in a sixfold increased risk of suicide. In New York City during a crack epidemic one in five people who committed suicide were found to have recently consumed cocaine. Polysubstance misuse has been found to more often result in suicide in younger adults whereas suicide from alcoholism is more common in older adults.[32][33] Methamphetamine use has a high association with depression and suicide as well as a range of other adverse effects on physical and mental health. Depression in the United States alone affects 17.[18][19] and is often a precipitating factor in suicide.[36] Cigarette smoking . Substance abuse See also: Long-term effects of alcohol and Long-term effects of benzodiazepines Substance abuse is the second most common risk factor for suicide after mood disorders.[31] Misuse of drugs such as cocaine have a high correlation with suicide.commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders[16][17] is being diagnosed in increasing numbers in various segments of the population worldwide.[35] High rates of major depressive disorder occur in heavy drinkers and those who abuse alcohol.[30] An investigation in the New York Prison Service found that 90% of inmates who committed suicide had a history of substance abuse.[29] More than 50% of suicides are related to alcohol or drug use. This is attributed to the intoxicating and disinhibiting effects of many psychoactive substances.6 million Americans each year or 1 in 6 people. Controversy has previously surrounded whether those who abused alcohol who developed major depressive disorder were self medicating (which may be true in some cases) but recent research has now concluded that chronic excessive alcohol intake itself directly causes the development of major depressive disorder in a significant number of alcohol abusers. Suicide is most likely to occur during the "crash" or withdrawal phase of cocaine in chronic abusers. In San Diego it was found that 30% of suicides in people under the age of 30 had used cocaine. In adolescents the figure is higher with alcohol or drug misuse playing a role in up to 70% of suicides. Within the next twenty years depression is expected to become the second leading cause of disability worldwide and the leading cause in high-income nations. It has been recommended that all drug addicts or alcoholics are investigated for suicidal thoughts due to the high risk of suicide. when combined with personal grief such as bereavement the risk of suicide is greatly increased. The "come down" or withdrawal phase from cocaine can result in intense depressive symptoms coupled with other distressing mental effects which serve to increase the risk of suicide. and alcoholics have a very high suicide rate. [28] Both chronic substance misuse as well as acute substance abuse is associated with suicide. including the United States. Up to 25% of drug addicts and alcoholics commit suicide.

modified to simply "starvation" on the death certificates after protests from the striker's families.[58] Much of this relationship acts through the heritability of mental illness.[53] A 2010 Australian hospital study found that 17% of suicidal patients admitted to the Alfred Hospital's emergency department were problem gamblers.S. those smoking between 1-24 cigarettes per day had twice the suicide risk.[49][50][51] Early onset of problem gambling increases the lifetime risk of suicide.[56] Biological Genetics has an effect on suicide risk[57] accounting for 30–50% of the variance. it is a strong predictor of suicide attempts among the offspring.[59] Social As a form of defiance or protest In Ireland protesting via hunger strike to the death has been used as a tactic in recent times for political causes. During The Troubles in Northern Ireland a hunger strike was launched by the provisional IRA to demand that their prisoners be reclassified as prisoners of war rather than as terrorists. The cause of death was recorded as "starvation. led by Bobby Sands. than those who had never smoked. such as in murder–suicides. 4 times the suicide risk.[60] Judicial suicide See also: murder–suicide A person who has committed a crime may commit suicide to avoid prosecution and disgrace.[52] However. a definitive link between suicide and smoking was observed with those smoking over a pack a day having twice the suicide rate of non-smokers. suicidal ideation and suicide attempts.[48] Problem gambling Main article: Problem gambling Problem gambling is often associated with increased suicidal ideation and attempts compared to the general population. Nazi leader Hermann Göring. self-imposed" rather than suicide by the coroner. 25 cigarettes or more.[46][47] In a study of 300. Army soldiers.[44][45] In a study conducted among nurses. gambling-related suicide attempts are usually made by older people with problem gambling.000 male U.There have been various studies done showing a positive link between smoking. a high-ranked Nazi . this protest resulted in 10 deaths.[53] Both comorbid substance use[54][55] and comorbid mental disorders increase the risk of suicide in people with problem gambling.[58] There is also evidence to suggest that if a parent has committed suicide. during the infamous 1981 hunger strikes.

committed suicide with cyanide capsules rather than be hanged after his conviction at the Nuremberg Trials. Near the end of WWII the Japanese designed a small aircraft whose only purpose was kamikaze missions. The Japanese also built one-man "human torpedo" suicide submarines called Kaitens. to relieve some dishonor or punishment. It can be voluntary. Rommel was threatened with public trial. which he did. of fatal self-violence at one's own hands done in the belief that it will secure a greater good. In Nazi Germany. or imposed by threats of death or reprisals on one's family or reputation (a kind of murder by remote control).[61] Some school shootings. some Japanese pilots volunteered for kamikaze missions in an attempt to forestall defeat for the Empire of Japan. rather than to escape harsh or impossible conditions. while Japanese ground forces initiated banzai charges.[62] A more modern case is Erwin Rommel. Similarly. Disgraced Roman aristocrats were sometimes allowed to commit suicide to spare themselves a trial and penalties against their families. Dutiful suicide Dutiful suicide is an act. many soldiers and government officials[who?] (including Adolf Hitler) killed themselves rather than surrender to Allied forces.and head of the Luftwaffe. in which a fighter consumes his own life in delivering a weapon to the enemy. including the Columbine and Virginia Tech massacres. who was found to have foreknowledge of the July 20 Plot on Hitler's life.[63] . concluded with the perpetrators committing suicide. units of the Luftwaffe flew Selbstopfereinsatz (self-sacrifice missions) against Soviet bridges. It can be culturally traditional or generally abhorred. Dutiful suicide can be distinguished from a kamikaze or suicide bomb attack. An example of this was Emperor Nero who reportedly committed forced suicide facing a revolt and execution. Military suicide Main articles: Suicide attack and :Category:Military personnel who committed suicide A kamikaze attack on the escort carrier USS White Plains In the final days of World War II. it can be heavily ritualized as in seppuku or purely functional. execution and reprisals on his family unless he killed himself. or non-fatal attempt at the act.

[58] Much of this relationship acts through the heritability of mental illness. homelessness. as it is a major risk group for depression. Intelligence may also factor. During The Troubles in Northern Ireland a hunger strike was launched by the provisional IRA to demand that their prisoners be reclassified as prisoners of war rather than as terrorists. Initially proposed as a part of an evolutionary psychology explanation.[66] Advocacy of suicide has been cited as a contributing factor.[75] Biological Genetics has an effect on suicide risk[57] accounting for 30–50% of the variance.[67][68][69][70][71] Some scientists doubt however that intelligence can be a cause of suicide.[58] There is also evidence to suggest that if a parent has committed suicide.000 debtridden farmers in India have committed suicide in the past decade. According to a report by Tata Institute of Social Sciences in Mumbai.[60] .Suicide as an escape In situations where continuing to live is intolerable.[73] One study found that a lack of social support. this protest resulted in 10 deaths.[65] Poverty may not be a direct cause but it can increase the risk of suicide. poverty. the positive correlation between IQ and suicide has been replicated in a number of studies. suicide was more likely among inmates who had committed a violent crime. a deficit in feelings of belongingness and living alone were crucial predictors of a suicide attempt. modified to simply "starvation" on the death certificates after protests from the striker's families.[74] One study found that among prison inmates. self-imposed" rather than suicide by the coroner. Some inmates in Nazi concentration camps are known to have killed themselves by deliberately touching the electrified fences.[64] Other Socio-economic factors such as unemployment. 150. it is a strong predictor of suicide attempts among the offspring. some people use suicide as a means of escape. during the infamous 1981 hunger strikes. which posited a minimum intelligence required for one to commit suicide. led by Bobby Sands.[59] Social As a form of defiance or protest In Ireland protesting via hunger strike to the death has been used as a tactic in recent times for political causes.[72] and the intelligence is no longer a predictor of suicide when regressed with national religiousness and perceptions of personal health. The cause of death was recorded as "starvation. and discrimination may trigger suicidal thoughts.

Dutiful suicide Dutiful suicide is an act. some Japanese pilots volunteered for kamikaze missions in an attempt to forestall defeat for the Empire of Japan.Judicial suicide See also: murder–suicide A person who has committed a crime may commit suicide to avoid prosecution and disgrace. in which a fighter consumes his own life in delivering a weapon to the enemy. It can be voluntary. a high-ranked Nazi and head of the Luftwaffe. Similarly. it can be heavily ritualized as in seppuku or purely functional. The Japanese also built one-man "human torpedo" suicide submarines called Kaitens. to relieve some dishonor or punishment. Military suicide Main articles: Suicide attack and :Category:Military personnel who committed suicide A kamikaze attack on the escort carrier USS White Plains In the final days of World War II. such as in murder–suicides. or non-fatal attempt at the act. Dutiful suicide can be distinguished from a kamikaze or suicide bomb attack. many soldiers and government officials[who?] (including Adolf Hitler) killed themselves rather than surrender to Allied forces. Disgraced Roman aristocrats were sometimes allowed to commit suicide to spare themselves a trial and penalties against their families. units of the Luftwaffe flew Selbstopfereinsatz (self-sacrifice missions) against Soviet bridges. rather than to escape harsh or impossible conditions. of fatal self-violence at one's own hands done in the belief that it will secure a greater good. concluded with the perpetrators committing suicide. while Japanese ground forces initiated banzai charges. Near the end of WWII the Japanese designed a small aircraft whose only purpose was kamikaze missions. or imposed by threats of death or reprisals on one's family or reputation (a kind of murder by remote control).[61] Some school shootings. including the Columbine and Virginia Tech massacres. It can be culturally traditional or generally abhorred. In Nazi Germany. An example of this was Emperor . committed suicide with cyanide capsules rather than be hanged after his conviction at the Nuremberg Trials. Nazi leader Hermann Göring.

[64] Other Socio-economic factors such as unemployment. and discrimination may trigger suicidal thoughts. Some inmates in Nazi concentration camps are known to have killed themselves by deliberately touching the electrified fences.000 debtridden farmers in India have committed suicide in the past decade. Intelligence may also factor.[65] Poverty may not be a direct cause but it can increase the risk of suicide. According to a report by Tata Institute of Social Sciences in Mumbai. which he did. some people use suicide as a means of escape. Initially proposed as a part of an evolutionary psychology explanation. 150.[67][68][69][70][71] Some scientists doubt however that intelligence can be a cause of suicide. who was found to have foreknowledge of the July 20 Plot on Hitler's life. as it is a major risk group for depression. a deficit in feelings of belongingness and living alone were crucial predictors of a suicide attempt.[74] One study found that among prison inmates. it is a strong predictor of suicide attempts among the offspring.[66] Advocacy of suicide has been cited as a contributing factor. homelessness.[75] Biological Genetics has an effect on suicide risk[57] accounting for 30–50% of the variance. poverty.[73] One study found that a lack of social support. the positive correlation between IQ and suicide has been replicated in a number of studies.[58] Much of this relationship acts through the heritability of mental illness. Rommel was threatened with public trial.[63] Suicide as an escape In situations where continuing to live is intolerable. execution and reprisals on his family unless he killed himself.[59] Social As a form of defiance or protest In Ireland protesting via hunger strike to the death has been used as a tactic in recent times for political causes.Nero who reportedly committed forced suicide facing a revolt and execution. which posited a minimum intelligence required for one to commit suicide. suicide was more likely among inmates who had committed a violent crime.[72] and the intelligence is no longer a predictor of suicide when regressed with national religiousness and perceptions of personal health. During The Troubles in Northern Ireland a hunger strike was launched by the provisional IRA to demand that their prisoners be reclassified as .[62] A more modern case is Erwin Rommel.[58] There is also evidence to suggest that if a parent has committed suicide.

rather than to escape harsh or impossible conditions. or imposed by threats of death or reprisals on one's family or reputation (a kind of murder by remote control). of fatal self-violence at one's own hands done in the belief that it will secure a greater good. It can be voluntary. Military suicide Main articles: Suicide attack and :Category:Military personnel who committed suicide A kamikaze attack on the escort carrier USS White Plains In the final days of World War II. committed suicide with cyanide capsules rather than be hanged after his conviction at the Nuremberg Trials. to relieve some dishonor or punishment.[60] Judicial suicide See also: murder–suicide A person who has committed a crime may commit suicide to avoid prosecution and disgrace. during the infamous 1981 hunger strikes. led by Bobby Sands. many soldiers and government officials[who?] (including Adolf Hitler) killed themselves rather than surrender to Allied forces. The cause of death was recorded as "starvation. while Japanese ground forces initiated banzai charges. The Japanese also built one-man "human torpedo" suicide submarines called Kaitens. It can be culturally traditional or generally abhorred. it can be heavily ritualized as in seppuku or purely functional. such as in murder–suicides. units of the Luftwaffe flew Selbstopfereinsatz (self-sacrifice missions) against Soviet bridges.[61] Some school shootings. Nazi leader Hermann Göring. In Nazi Germany. Near the end of WWII the Japanese designed a small aircraft whose only purpose was kamikaze missions. Dutiful suicide can be distinguished from a . including the Columbine and Virginia Tech massacres. modified to simply "starvation" on the death certificates after protests from the striker's families. a high-ranked Nazi and head of the Luftwaffe. self-imposed" rather than suicide by the coroner. some Japanese pilots volunteered for kamikaze missions in an attempt to forestall defeat for the Empire of Japan. this protest resulted in 10 deaths.prisoners of war rather than as terrorists. Similarly. concluded with the perpetrators committing suicide. or non-fatal attempt at the act. Dutiful suicide Dutiful suicide is an act.

Disgraced Roman aristocrats were sometimes allowed to commit suicide to spare themselves a trial and penalties against their families. Intelligence may also factor. indicates that the person might be an alcoholic ……….[65] Poverty may not be a direct cause but it can increase the risk of suicide. in which a fighter consumes his own life in delivering a weapon to the enemy. a deficit in feelings of belongingness and living alone were crucial predictors of a suicide attempt. homelessness. relationships. the drinker's inability to control such compulsive drinking.[64] Other Socio-economic factors such as unemployment. and social standing.[66] Advocacy of suicide has been cited as a contributing factor. withdrawal. and excessive alcohol use. as it is a major risk group for depression. which posited a minimum intelligence required for one to commit suicide. It is characterized by compulsive and uncontrolled consumption of alcohol despite its negative effects on the drinker's health.[74] One study found that among prison inmates. 150. Rommel was threatened with public trial. suicide was more likely among inmates who had committed a violent crime.[ Alcoholism is the cyclic presence of tolerance. .[72] and the intelligence is no longer a predictor of suicide when regressed with national religiousness and perceptions of personal health.[73] One study found that a lack of social support. Like other drug addictions. despite awareness of its harm to his or her health. An example of this was Emperor Nero who reportedly committed forced suicide facing a revolt and execution. poverty. According to a report by Tata Institute of Social Sciences in Mumbai.[67][68][69][70][71] Some scientists doubt however that intelligence can be a cause of suicide. and discrimination may trigger suicidal thoughts. the positive correlation between IQ and suicide has been replicated in a number of studies. Initially proposed as a part of an evolutionary psychology explanation..kamikaze or suicide bomb attack.000 debtridden farmers in India have committed suicide in the past decade. Some inmates in Nazi concentration camps are known to have killed themselves by deliberately touching the electrified fences. execution and reprisals on his family unless he killed himself. some people use suicide as a means of escape.[63] Suicide as an escape In situations where continuing to live is intolerable.[75] …………………… Alcoholism is a disabling addictive disorder. alcoholism is medically defined as a treatable disease.[62] A more modern case is Erwin Rommel. who was found to have foreknowledge of the July 20 Plot on Hitler's life. which he did.

but absence of physical dependence and hence of an abstinence syndrome [withdrawal]. and town planning integrates land use planning and transportation planning to improve the built. In escort prostitution.commercial sex work :is the act or practice of providing sexual services to another person in return for payment. occurs when people are without jobs and they have actively looked for work within the past four weeks. ………Prostitution . Brothels are establishments specifically dedicated to prostitution.Urban. Regional planning deals with a still larger environment. Drug habituation (habit) is a condition resulting from the repeated consumption of a drug. Its characteristics include: (i) an overpowering desire or need (compulsion) to continue taking the drug and to obtain it by any means. or at the escort's residence or in a hotel room rented for the occasion by the escort (called in-call). spinners. ranchers. substance dependence may be diagnosed. at a less detailed level. by adapting urban planning methods to existing cities suffering from decay and lack of investment Drug addiction: When an individual persists in use of alcohol or other drugs despite problems related to use of the substance. and (iv) detrimental effects. if any. (iii) some degree of psychic dependence on the effect of the drug. (ii) a tendency to increase the dose.An individual who cannot either join an enterprise or create a job is unemployed. as defined by the International Labour Organization. Compulsive and repetitive use may result in tolerance to the effect of the drug and withdrawal symptoms when use is reduced or stopped Drug addiction is a state of periodic or chronic intoxication produced by the repeated consumption of a drug (natural or synthetic). economic and social environments of communities. and (iv) detrimental effects on the individual and on society. (ii) little or no tendency to increase the dose. Another . doctors and merchants are organized into large enterprises. As individual farmers. Prostitution occurs in a variety of forms. the act takes place at the customer's residence or hotel room (referred to as out-call). primarily on the individual Unemployment. (iii) a psychic (psychological) and generally a physical dependence on the effects of the drug. People who execute such activities are called prostitutes The Oldest Profession. Urban planning can include urban renewal. city. those who cannot join or compete become unemployed.[2] The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labour force. Its characteristics include (i) a desire (but not a compulsion) to continue taking the drug for the sense of improved wellbeing which it engenders.

.. religious groups. skills. Sex tourism refers to travelling. Accordingly individuals respond either positively or negatively to social disapproval. local or national governments. It results in social disapproval which may express itself in a wide variety of degree. by charities. informal social groups. or abilities that can be applied immediately upon completion. education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge. . This kind of personal disorganization does not deeply disturb the social order. Besides this the Department also provides avenues of handicapped and creates awareness amongst general public regarding the welfare measures of the Department. Teaching refers to the actions of a real live instructor to impart learning to the student.[citation The Department of Social Welfare provides welfare programmes and services to the handicapped persons. Social reality presents an endless confusion of social disapproval from time to time. for example. Learning refers to learning with a view toward preparing learners with specific knowledge. The most visible aspect of personal disorganization in complex societies is that in which there is mild social disapproval to which the individual responds positively. Personal disorganization represents the behavior of the individual which deviates from the social norms. typically from developed to under-developed nations. He becomes enmeshed in the development of mechanisms which further isolate him from the normal influences of group life. This type of personal disorganization results in psychosis through which the individual tries to escape from the web of social relations and in suicide. skills and values from one generation to anotherEducation is the process by which people learn: • • • Instruction refers to the facilitating of learning. usually by a teacher. It may be organized... His innovations lose their social character. In the third aspect in which the individual's response to social disapproval is subjective the person retreats into an individually defined inner world. In its technical sense. It may be mild or violent. Welfare can take many forms in various countries or contexts. The second aspect of social disorganization is that in which there is violent social disapproval and yet the individual responds positively. character or physical ability of an individual..form is street prostitution. Education in the largest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind. or inter-governmental organizations such as the United Nations. to engage in sexual activity with prostitutes. The individual may also react in different ways. social security for the aged and destitute through the network of residential care homes and non-institutional services.

[3][4] prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections.Family planning services are defined as "educational." Purpose:Raising a child requires significant amounts of resources: time. The United Nations projected that half of the world's population would live in urban areas at the end of 2008. and infertility management. the disabled. Other techniques commonly used include sexuality education.[6] social. Urbanization is also defined by the United Nations as movement of people from rural to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration. Planning can help assure that resources are available Health: Waiting until the mother is at least 18 years old before trying to have children improves maternal and child health. and the sociological process of rationalization. .[1] and the use of birth control[2][3] and other techniques to implement such plans. Urban areas are created and further developed by the process of urbanization Urbanization. the infirm. as well as pregnancy termination.[2] Family planning is sometimes used as a synonym for the use of birth control. it is healthier to wait at least 6 months. Urbanization can describe a specific condition at a set time.[3] pre-conception counseling[3] and management. and the elderly. are considered to be social legislation. towns.[8] After a miscarriage or abortion.[2] Urbanization is closely linked to modernization. to determine freely the number and spacing of their children and to select the means by which this may be achieved. So the term urbanization can represent the level of urban relative to overall population. or it can represent the rate at which the urban proportion is increasing. comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals. Family planning is the planning of when to have children.[8] An urban area is characterized by higher population density and vast human features in comparison to areas surrounding it. generally by protecting and assisting the weaker members of society. including minors. ie. Family planning may encompass sterilization. Urban areas may be cities. financial[7]. environmental. or the term can describe the increase of this proportion over time. the proportion of total population or area in cities or towns.Social legislation: Laws that seek to promote the common good. urbanisation or urban drift is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change. It is most usually applied to a female-male couple who wish to limit the number of children they have and/or to control the timing of pregnancy (also known as spacing children). it is healthier for the mother and the child to wait at least 2 years after the previous birth before attempting to conceive (but not more than 5 years). Such legislation includes laws assisting the unemployed. though it often includes more.[8] Also. if additional children are desired after a child is born. industrialization.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful