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# PHYSICS 209

LECTURE NOTES

Dr. John W. Norbury

Professor of Physics

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

c (2003 John W. Norbury

September 24, 2003

2

Contents

1 INTRODUCTION 5

1.1 What is Physics? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.2 How to Study Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.3 Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.4 Powers of Ten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.5 Conversion of Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

1.6 Signiﬁcant Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.7 Problems (8 questions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2 CALCULUS REVIEW 11

2.1 Derivative Equals Slope or Rate of Change . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.1.1 Slope of a Straight Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.1.2 Slope of a Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.1.3 Some Common Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.1.4 Extremum Value of a Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.2 Integral Equals Antiderivative or Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.2.1 Integral Equals Antiderivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

2.2.2 Integral Equals Area Under Curve . . . . . . . . . . . 22

2.2.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

2.2.4 Deﬁnite and Indeﬁnite Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

2.3 Problems (10 questions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

3 STRAIGHT LINE MOTION 29

3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

3.2 Position, Distance and Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3.3 Average Velocity and Average Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

3.4 Position and Velocity Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

3.5 Instantaneous Velocity and Instantaneous Speed . . . . . . . 35

3.6 Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

3

4 CONTENTS

3.7 Constant Acceleration Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

3.7.1 Algebraic Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

3.7.2 Summary of Constant Acceleration equations . . . . . 41

3.7.3 Calculus Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

3.8 Free Fall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

3.9 Historical Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

3.10 Problems (8 questions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

4 VECTORS 49

4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

4.2 Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

4.3 Vector Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

4.4 Unit Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

4.5 Vector Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

4.6 Vector Multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

4.6.1 Scalar Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

4.6.2 Vector Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

4.7 Problems (7 questions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

5 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL MOTION 67

5.1 Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

5.2 Constant Acceleration Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

5.3 Projectile Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

5.4 Circular Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

5.5 Problems (8 questions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

6 NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 83

6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

6.2 Forces and the Second Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

6.2.1 Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

6.2.2 Normal Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

6.2.3 Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

6.2.4 Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

6.2.5 Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

6.3 Circular Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

6.4 Historical Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

6.5 Problems (10 questions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

CONTENTS 5

7 WORK AND ENERGY 105

7.1 Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

7.2 Simple Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

7.2.1 Ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

7.2.2 Pulley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

7.2.3 Lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

7.2.4 Hydraulic Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

7.3 Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

7.4 Work-Energy Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

7.5 Gravitational Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

7.6 Conservation of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

7.7 Spring Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

7.8 Appendix: alternative method to obtain potential energy . . 122

7.9 Problems (8 questions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

8 MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS 125

8.1 Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

8.1.1 Many Particle Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

8.1.2 Rigid Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

8.2 Newton’s Second Law for a Many Particle System . . . . . . 131

8.3 Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

8.3.1 Point Particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

8.3.2 Many Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

8.3.3 Conservation of Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

8.4 Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

8.4.1 Collisions in 1-dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

8.4.2 Collisions in 2-dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

8.5 Center of Mass Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

8.6 Problems (7 questions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

9 ROTATIONAL MOTION 145

9.1 Angular Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration . . . . . . . . . 145

9.1.1 Constant Angular Acceleration Equations . . . . . . . 146

9.2 Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

9.3 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

9.4 Torque and Newton’s Second Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

9.5 Work and Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

9.6 Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

9.6.1 Many Particle System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

9.6.2 Rigid Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

6 CONTENTS

9.6.3 Conservation of Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . 157

9.7 Problems (8 questions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

10 GRAVITY 163

10.1 Newton’s Gravitational Force Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

10.2 Gravity near the Surface of Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

10.2.1 Gravity Inside Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

10.3 Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

10.4 Escape Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

10.5 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

10.6 Einstein’s Theory of Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

10.7 Problems (9 questions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

11 FLUIDS 183

12 OSCILLATIONS 185

12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

12.2 Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

12.2.1 Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

12.3 Pendulums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

12.4 Navigation and Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

12.5 Problems (7 questions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

13 WAVES 201

13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

13.2 Wavelength, Frequency, Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

13.3 Interference, Standing Waves and Resonance . . . . . . . . . 205

13.4 Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

13.5 Doppler Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

13.6 Problems (8 questions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

14 THERMODYNAMICS 217

14.1 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

14.2 Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

14.2.1 Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

14.2.2 Speciﬁc Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

14.2.3 Molar Speciﬁc Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

14.2.4 Heats of Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

14.3 Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

14.4 First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

CONTENTS 7

14.4.1 Adiabatic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

14.4.2 Constant-volume Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226

14.4.3 Cyclical Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

14.4.4 Free Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

14.5 Kinetic Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

14.5.1 Ideal Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

14.5.2 Work Done by an Ideal Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

14.5.3 Speed, Energy and Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

14.6 Problems (8 questions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

8 CONTENTS

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 What is Physics?

A good way to deﬁne physics is to use what philosophers call an osten-

sive deﬁnition, i.e. a way of deﬁning something by pointing out examples.

Physics includes the following general topics, such as:

Motion

Thermodynamics

Electricity and Magnetism

Optics and Lasers

Relativity

Quantum mechanics

Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology

Nuclear Physics and Elementary particles

Physics of Surfaces

Condensed Matter Physics

Atoms and Molecules

Solids, Liquids, Gases

Electronics

Acoustics

Materials science

Geophysics

Biophysics

Chemical Physics

Mathematical Physics and Applied Mathematics

Computational Physics

Engineering Physics

9

10 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Physics is a very fundamental science which explores nature from the

scale of the tiniest particles to the behaviour of the universe and many things

in between. Most of the other sciences such as biology, chemistry, geology,

medicine rely heavily on techniques and ideas from physics. For example,

many of the diagnostic instruments used in medicine (MRI, x-ray) were

developed by physicists. All ﬁelds of technology and engineering are very

strongly based on physics principles. The electronics and computer industry

is based on physics principles. Much of the communication today occurs via

ﬁber optical cables which were developed from studies in physics. Also the

World Wide Web was invented at the famous physics laboratory called the

European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Thus anyone who plans to

work in any sort of technical area needs to know the basics of physics. This

is what an introductory physics course is all about, namely getting to know

the basic principles upon which most of our modern technological society is

based.

1.2 How to Study Physics

If you want to learn to ride a bicycle or play the piano, we all know that

reading a book alone will never suﬃce. One must practice. This inevitably

means falling oﬀ the bicycle a few times or bungling a few tunes. The same

is true with physics. You will never learn physics only by reading a book.

It is essential to practice physics by doing problems. A strong emphasis of

any good physics course will be on examples and homework problems. This

is what we call active learning.

Here are some tips that will help you succeed:

1. Read the relevant section of the book before it is covered in class.

This will help you enormously in understanding what is presented in

lectures.

2. Carefully study the examples in the book. The best way to do this

is to read the problem statement and cover the solution. Then spend

10 minutes trying to work out the example yourself. Only then take a

look at the solution. Remember it’s all about active learning.

3. As mentioned above practice is of utmost importance. You should do

every homework problem.

4. What if you can’t ﬁgure out a homework problem? There is a lot of

research showing that students learn very well by working together.

1.3. UNITS 11

This is called peer instruction. Get together with your classmates

and help each other understand the material. If you can’t work out

a problem then discuss it with your classmates. Remember active

learning. If none of you can work it out then go and see your instructor

and ask for help.

5. Obviously the best way to prepare for a piano exam is to practice the

music pieces that you have been learning. Similarly in preparing for

your physics exams you should work out examples and problems. Go

back through the book and again read the example statements in the

book (and cover the solution) and work out the problem. Do the same

with the homework. The best way to prepare for your physics exams is

to make sure you can do every example and homework problem from

scratch. The worst way to prepare is to simply read over the book and

homework. You must practice by doing. Active learning!

Let’s summarize. Passive learning, such as just reading over the book

or lecture notes or problems, is not eﬀective. Learning physics is all about

active learning and there is a great deal of educational research literature

that proves this.

1.3 Units

We shall come across a wide variety of diﬀerent units being used for dif-

ferent physical quantities. Some that you may already be familiar with are

distance measured in feet or meters. The British unit is foot, but the inter-

national system (SI) of units uses meter. In science one of the most common

standards is to use SI units, and these will be used throughout this book.

Some SI units are listed in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1 SI Units

Quantity Unit Symbol

Time second s

Length meter m

Mass kilogram kg

12 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

1.4 Powers of Ten

Because the study of physics involves very large systems, such as the be-

havior of galaxies, and very small systems, such as the behavior of atoms,

we will need to use very large and very small numbers. Instead of writing

60,000 meters, i.e. 60 thousand m, we instead write it as 60 10

3

m or

60 km. Similarly 6 one hundredths of a meter is 0.06 m which is written

610

−2

m or 6 cm. Some common preﬁxes are listed in Table 1.2.

Table 1.2 Preﬁxes for large and small numbers.

Number Familiar name Preﬁx Symbol

10

3

= 1, 000 thousand kilo- k

10

6

= 1, 000, 000 million mega- M

10

9

billion giga- G

10

12

trillion tera- T

10

−1

= 0.1 tenth deci- d

10

−2

= 0.01 hundredth centi- c

10

−3

= 0.001 thousandth milli- m

10

−6

= 0.000001 millionth micro- µ

10

−9

billionth nano- n

10

−12

trillionth pico- p

10

−15

femto- f

1.5 Conversion of Units

We shall often have to convert units from one to another. The method shown

below is based on substitution. That is you just ﬁnd what one quantity is

in terms of another and then substitute. The units should be treated as

algebraic quantities that can be multiplied, divided, squared etc.

1.6. SIGNIFICANT FIGURES 13

Example Convert 20 m to km.

Solution We know that km = 1000 m so that 1 m =

km

1000

= 10

−3

km. Thus 20 m = 20 10

−3

km.

Example Convert 1 minute

2

to s

2

.

Solution 1 minute

2

= (60 sec)

2

= 3600 sec

2

Another thing that we will come across is the little word per, as used for

example in 55 miles per hour or 55 mph. It is very important to realize that

the word per means divided by. Thus

55 miles per hour = 55

miles

hour

= 55 miles hour

−1

1.6 Signiﬁcant Figures

The number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures reﬂects how accurately a certain number

has been measured. A number such as 4.7 has 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. 4700

has 4 signiﬁcant ﬁgures which can also be written as 4.700 10

3

, which still

has 4 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. However 47 has only 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures and is

re-written as 4.710

1

. It would be incorrect to write it as 4.7010

1

, which

would have 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures.

Suppose we can measure the length of a table very accurately, say 5.135

m, but suppose we cannot measure the width as accurately, say 2.3 m. The

area is the length times the width and we might write area = 11.81 m.

However quoting such a large number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures would imply we

know the area to better accuracy than the width, which does not make sense.

Obviously the area should be rounded oﬀ to reﬂect the least accuracy in the

width or length, namely 12 m.

When numbers are multiplied or divided, the number of signiﬁ-

cant ﬁgures in the answer should be the same as the number of

signiﬁcant ﬁgures in the least accurate number.

Now consider addition and subtraction. Suppose we measure the length

of a sidewalk in two stages. Suppose the ﬁrst length is measured as 1.23 m

and the second length is measured as 22 m. The total length is not 23.23 m,

14 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

because that would mean we know the total length more accurately than

one of the measured lengths. Instead the total length should be written as

23 m.

When numbers are added or subtracted, the number of decimal

points in the answer should be the same as the number of decimal

points in the least accurate number.

1.7 Problems (8 questions)

1. Based on the discussion in the text, write a summary on how you are

going to approach your study of physics.

2. Based on the discussion in the text, discuss how you should not study

physics.

3. Convert 24 hours to seconds (s). Write your answer in scientiﬁc nota-

tion using the correct number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures.

4. Convert 36 seconds to hours. Write your answer in scientiﬁc notation

using the correct number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures.

5. Convert 55 miles per hour to km/s. Write your answer in scientiﬁc

notation using the correct number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures. (Note that

1 mile = 1.61 km.)

6. A car acclerates at 10 m/s

2

. Convert this to km/hour

2

. Write your

answer in scientiﬁc notation using the correct number of signiﬁcant

ﬁgures.

7. What is 23.178 +.01 to the correct number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures?

8. What is 23.178 ÷.01 to the correct number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures?

Chapter 2

CALCULUS REVIEW

Calculus is used extensively in the study of motion. Indeed speed is deﬁned

as the derivative of distance with respect to time. Acceleration is the deriva-

tive of speed with respect to time. Conversely, the distance can be obtained

by integrating the speed, as can the speed be obtained by integrating the

acceleration. So before delving into the study of mechanics, we ﬁrst review

the basic notions of calculus.

2.1 Derivative Equals Slope or Rate of Change

2.1.1 Slope of a Straight Line

Recall the equation for a straight line

y(x) = mx +c (2.1)

where c is the intercept on the y axis and m is the slope of the line. To

prove to ourselves that m really is the slope, we need a good deﬁnition of

slope. Let’s deﬁne

Slope ≡

∆y

∆x

≡

y

f

−y

i

x

f

−x

i

(2.2)

where ∆y is the diﬀerence between ﬁnal and initial values y

f

and y

i

. In

Fig.2.1 the graph of y(x) = 2x + 1 is plotted and the slope has been deter-

mined by measuring ∆y and ∆x.

15

16 CHAPTER 2. CALCULUS REVIEW

y(x)

x

∆ x=2

∆y=4

Figure 2.1 Plot of y(x) = 2x + 1. The slope is

∆y

∆x

= 2.

Rather than always having to verify the slope graphically, let’s do it

analytically for all lines. Take x

i

= x as the initial x value and x

f

= x+∆x

as the ﬁnal value. Obviously x

f

−x

i

= ∆x. The initial value of y is

y

i

≡ y(x

i

) = mx

i

+c

= mx +c (2.3)

and the ﬁnal value is

y

f

≡ y(x

f

) = mx

f

+c

= y(x + ∆x) = m(x + ∆x) +c (2.4)

Thus ∆y = y

f

−y

i

= m(x +∆x) +c −mx −c = m∆x. Therefore the slope

becomes

∆y

∆x

=

m∆x

∆x

= m (2.5)

which is a proof that y = mx +c has a slope of m.

From above we can re-write our formula (2.2) using y

f

= y(x+∆x) and

y

i

= y(x), so that

Slope ≡

∆y

∆x

=

y

f

−y

i

x

f

−x

i

=

y(x + ∆x) −y(x)

∆x

(2.6)

2.1. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE OR RATE OF CHANGE 17

2.1.2 Slope of a Curve

A straight line always has constant slope m. That’s why it’s called straight.

The parabola y(x) = x

2

+ 1 is plotted in Fig.2.2 and obviously the slope

changes. In fact the concept of the slope of a parabola doesn’t make any

sense because the parabola continuously curves. However we might think

about little pieces of the parabola. If you look at any tiny little piece it looks

straight. These tiny little pieces are all tiny little line segments, each with

their own slope. Notice that the slope of the tiny little line segments keeps

changing. At x = 0 the slope is 0 (the tiny little line is ﬂat) whereas around

x = 1 the slope is larger.

x

y(x)

Figure 2.2 Plot of y(x) = x

2

+ 1. Some tiny little pieces are

indicated, which look straight.

One of the most important ideas in calculus is the concept of the deriva-

tive, which is nothing more than

Derivative ≡ Slope of tiny little line segment.

In Fig.2.1 we got the slope from ∆y and ∆x on the large triangle in the top

right hand corner. But we would get the same answer if we had used the

tiny triangles in the bottom left hand corner. What characterizes these tiny

triangles is that ∆x and ∆y are both tiny (but their ratio,

∆y

∆x

= 2 always).

Another way of saying that ∆x is tiny is to say

∆x is tiny ≡ lim

∆x→0

That is the limit as ∆x goes to zero is another way of saying ∆x is tiny.

18 CHAPTER 2. CALCULUS REVIEW

Let us now evaluate some expressions involving these tiny limits.

Examples

1) lim

∆x→0

[∆x + 3] = 3

2) lim

∆x→0

∆x = 0

3) lim

∆x→0

[(∆x)

2

+ 4] = 4

4) lim

∆x→0

(∆x)

2

+ 4∆x

∆x

= lim

∆x→0

(∆x + 4) = 4

5) lim

∆x→0

3 = 3

For a curve like the parabola we can’t draw a big triangle, as in Fig.2.1,

because the hypotenuse would be curved. But we can get the slope at a point

by drawing a tiny triangle at that point. Thus let’s deﬁne the

Slope of

curve at

a point

≡ lim

∆x→0

∆y

∆x

=

Slope of tiny

little line

segment

≡ Derivative

So it’s the same deﬁnition as before in (2.6) except lim

∆x→0

is an instruction

to use a tiny triangle. Now

∆y

∆x

=

y(x+∆x)−y(x)

∆x

from (2.6) and the derivative

is given a fancy new symbol

dy

dx

so that

dy

dx

≡ lim

∆x→0

y(x + ∆x) −y(x)

∆x

(2.7)

The symbol dy simply means

dy ≡ tiny ∆y

That is, usually ∆y can be big or small. If we are talking about a tiny ∆y

we write dy instead. Similarly for ∆x.

2.1. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE OR RATE OF CHANGE 19

Example Calculate the derivative of the straight line y(x) = 3x.

Solution y(x) = 3x

y(x + ∆x) = 3(x + ∆x)

dy

dx

= lim

∆x→0

3(x + ∆x) −3x

∆x

= lim

∆x→0

3x + 3∆x −3x

∆x

= lim

∆x→0

3∆x

∆x

= lim

∆x→0

3 = 3

Thus the derivative is the slope!

Example Calculate the derivative of the straight line y(x) = 4

Solution y(x) = 4

y(x + ∆x) = 4

dy

dx

= lim

∆x→0

4 −4

∆x

= 0

The line y(x) = 4 has 0 slope and therefore 0 derivative.

The derivative was deﬁned to give us the slope of a curve at a point. The

two examples above show that it also works for a straight line. A straight

line is a special case of a curve. Now we do some examples for real curves.

Example Calculate the derivative of the parabola y(x) = x

2

Solution y(x) = x

2

y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)

2

= x

2

+ 2x∆x + (∆x)

2

dy

dx

= lim

∆x→0

y(x + ∆x) −y(x)

∆x

= lim

∆x→0

x

2

+ 2x∆x + (∆x)

2

−x

2

∆x

= lim

∆x→0

(2x + ∆x)

= 2x

20 CHAPTER 2. CALCULUS REVIEW

Example Calculate the slope of the parabola y(x) = x

2

at the

points x = −2, x = 0, x = 3.

Solution We already have

dy

dx

= 2x. Thus

dy

dx

x=−2

= −4

dy

dx

x=0

= 0

dy

dx

x=3

= 6

which shows how the slope of a tiny little line segment varies as

we move along the parabola.

Example Calculate the slope of the curve y(x) = x

2

+ 1 (see

Fig.2.2) at the points x = −2, x = 0, x = 3

Solution y(x) = x

2

+ 1

y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)

2

+ 1

= x

2

+ 2x∆x + (∆x)

2

+ 1

dy

dx

= lim

∆x→0

y(x + ∆x) −y(x)

∆x

= lim

∆x→0

x

2

+ 2x∆x + (∆x)

2

+ 1 −(x

2

+ 1)

∆x

= lim

∆x→0

2x + ∆x

= 2x

Thus the slopes are the same as in the previous example.

2.1.3 Some Common Derivatives

In a previous example we saw that the derivative of y(x) = 4 was

dy

dx

= 0,

which make sense because a graph of y(x) = 4 reveals that the slope is

always 0. This is true for any constant c. Thus

dc

dx

= 0 (2.8)

2.1. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE OR RATE OF CHANGE 21

We also saw in a previous example that

d

dx

x

2

= 2x. In general we have

dx

n

dx

= nx

n−1

(2.9)

This is a very important result. We have already veriﬁed it for n = 2. Let’s

verify it for n = 3.

Example Check that (2.9) is correct for n = 3.

Solution Formula (2.9) gives

dx

3

dx

= 3x

3−1

= 3x

2

We wish to verify this. Take y(x) = x

3

.

y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)

3

= x

3

+ 3x

2

∆x + 3x(∆x)

2

+ (∆x)

3

dy

dx

= lim

∆x→0

y(x + ∆x) −y(x)

∆x

= lim

∆x→0

x

3

+ 3x

2

∆x + 3x(∆x)

2

+ (∆x)

3

−x

3

∆x

= lim

∆x→0

3x

2

+ 3x∆x + (∆x)

2

= 3x

2

in agreement with our result above.

A list of very useful results for derivatives is given in Tables 2.1 and 2.2.

These results are proved in calculus books.

22 CHAPTER 2. CALCULUS REVIEW

Table 2.1 Properties of Derivatives and Derivatives of Partic-

ular Functions. [nnn from Tipler, pg. AP-16, 1991].

Multiplicative constant rule:

The derivative of a constant times a function equals the constant

times the derivative of the function:

d

dx

[Cy(x)] = C

dy(x)

dx

Addition rule:

The derivative of a sum of functions equals the sum of the deriva-

tives of the functions:

d

dx

[y(x) +z(x)] =

dy(x)

dx

+

dz(x)

dx

Chain rule:

If y is a function of z and z is in turn a function of x, the deriva-

tive of y with respect to x equals the product of the derivative

of y with respect to z and the derivative of z with respect to t:

d

dx

y(z) =

dy

dz

dz

dx

Derivative of a product:

The derivative of a product of functions y(x)z(x) equals the ﬁrst

function times the derivative of the second plus the second func-

tion times the derivative of the ﬁrst:

d

dx

[y(x)z(x)] = y(x)

dz(x)

dx

+

dy(x)

dx

z(x)

Reciprocal derivative:

The derivative of y with respect to x is the reciprocal of the

derivative of x with respect to y, assuming that neither derivative

is zero:

dy

dx

=

dx

dy

−1

if

dx

dy

= 0

2.1. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE OR RATE OF CHANGE 23

Table 2.2 Derivatives of Particular Functions. [from Tipler,

pg. AP-16, 1991].

dC

dx

= 0 where C is a constant

d(x

n

)

dx

= nx

n−1

d

dx

sinωx = ω cos ωx

d

dx

cos ωx = −ω sinωx

d

dx

tanωx = ω sec

2

ωx

d

dx

e

bx

= be

bx

d

dx

lnbx =

1

bx

Example Use of multiplicative constant rule,

d

dx

[Cy(x)] = C

dy(x)

dx

This just means, for instance, that

d

dx

(3x

2

) = 3

dx

2

dx

= 3 2x = 6x

Example Use of addition rule,

d

dx

[y(x) +z(x)] =

dy(x)

dx

+

dz(x)

dx

Take for instance y(x) = x and z(x) = x

2

. This rule just means

d

dx

(x +x

2

) =

dx

dx

+

dx

2

dx

= 1 + 2x

24 CHAPTER 2. CALCULUS REVIEW

Now consider the chain rule,

dy

dx

=

dy

dz

dz

dx

. A rough “proof” of this is to

just note that the dz cancels in the numerator and denominator. The use

of the chain rule is best seen in the following example, where y is not given

as a function of x.

Example Verify the chain rule for y = z

3

and z = x

2

.

Solution We have y(z) = z

3

and z(x) = x

2

. Thus y(x) = x

6

.

⇒

dy

dx

= 6x

5

dy

dz

= 3z

2

dz

dx

= 2x

Now

dy

dz

dz

dx

= (3z

2

)(2x) = (3x

4

)(2x) = 6x

5

.

Thus we see that

dy

dx

=

dy

dz

dz

dx

.

Now consider the product rule,

d

dx

[y(x)z(x)] = y(x)

dz(x)

dx

+

dy(x)

dx

z(x).

The use of this arises when multiplying two functions together as follows.

Example If y(x) = x

3

and z(x) = x

2

, verify the product rule.

Solution y(x)z(x) = x

5

⇒

d

dx

[y(x)z(x)] =

dx

5

dx

= 5x

4

Now let’s show that the product rule gives the same answer.

y(x)

dz(x)

dx

= x

3

dx

2

dx

= x

3

2x = 2x

4

dy(x)

dx

z(x) =

dx

3

dx

x

2

= 3x

2

x

2

= 3x

4

y(x)

dz(x)

dx

+

dy(x)

dx

z(x) = 2x

4

+ 3x

4

= 5x

4

in agreement with our answer above.

2.2. INTEGRAL EQUALS ANTIDERIVATIVE OR AREA 25

2.1.4 Extremum Value of a Function

A ﬁnal important use of the derivative is that it can be used to tell us when

a function attains a maximum or minimum value. This occurs when the

derivative or slope of the function is zero.

Example What are the (x, y) coordinates of the place where

the parabola y(x) = x

2

+ 3 has its minimum value?

Solution The minimum value occurs where the slope is 0. Thus

0 =

dy

dx

=

d

dx

(x

2

+ 3) = 2x

⇒ x = 0

y = x

2

+ 3 ⇒y = 3

Thus the minimum is at (x, y) = (0, 3). You can verify this by

plotting a graph.

We have completed our review of the derivative. Now let’s turn to the

second major topic.

2.2 Integral Equals Antiderivative or Area

2.2.1 Integral Equals Antiderivative

The derivative of y(x) = 3x is

dy

dx

= 3. The derivative of y(x) = x

2

is

dy

dx

= 2x. The derivative of y(x) = 5x

3

is

dy

dx

= 15x

2

.

Let’s play a game. I tell you the answer and you tell me the question.

Or I tell you the derivative

dy

dx

and you tell me the original function y(x)

that it came from. Ready?

If

dy

dx

= 3 then y(x) = 3x

If

dy

dx

= 2x then y(x) = x

2

If

dy

dx

= 15x

2

then y(x) = 5x

3

26 CHAPTER 2. CALCULUS REVIEW

We can generalize this to a rule.

If

dy

dx

= x

n

then y(x) =

1

n + 1

x

n+1

Actually I have cheated. Let’s look at the following functions

y(x) = 3x + 2

y(x) = 3x + 7

y(x) = 3x + 12

y(x) = 3x +C (C is an arbitrary constant)

y(x) = 3x

All of them have the same derivative

dy

dx

= 3. Thus in our little game of

re-constructing the original function y(x) from the derivative

dy

dx

there is

always an ambiguity in that y(x) could always have some constant added to

it.

Thus the correct answers in our game are

If

dy

dx

= 3 then y(x) = 3x + constant

Actually instead of always writing ”constant”, let me just write C.

If

dy

dx

= 2x then y(x) = x

2

+C

If

dy

dx

= 15x

2

then y(x) = 5x

3

+C

If

dy

dx

= x

n

then y(x) =

1

n + 1

x

n+1

+C.

This original function y(x) that we are trying to get is given a special

name called the antiderivative or integral, but it’s nothing more than the

original function.

2.2.2 Integral Equals Area Under Curve

Let’s see how to extract the integral from our original deﬁnition of derivative.

The slope of a curve is

∆y

∆x

or

dy

dx

when the ∆ increments are tiny. Notice

that y(x) is a function of x but so also is

dy

dx

. Let’s call it

f(x) ≡

dy

dx

=

∆y

∆x

(2.10)

2.2. INTEGRAL EQUALS ANTIDERIVATIVE OR AREA 27

Thus if f(x) =

dy

dx

= 2x then y(x) = x

2

+ C, and similarly for the other

examples.

In equation (2.10) I have written

∆y

∆x

also because

dy

dx

is just a tiny version

of

∆y

∆x

.

Obviously then

∆y = f ∆x (2.11)

or

dy = f dx (2.12)

What happens if I add up many ∆y increments? For instance suppose you

are aged 18. Then if I add up many age increments in your life, such as

Age = ∆Age

1

+ ∆Age

2

+ ∆Age

3

+ ∆Age

4

or

1 year + 3 years + 0.5 year + 5 years + 0.5 year + 5 years + 3 years

= 18 years

I get your complete age. Thus if I add up all possible increments of ∆y then

I get back y. That is

y = ∆y

1

+ ∆y

2

+ ∆y

3

+ ∆y

4

+

We use a special symbol Σ for this,

y =

¸

i

∆y

i

(2.13)

where

∆y

i

= f

i

∆x

i

(2.14)

Now looking at Fig.2.3 we can see that the area of the shaded section is just

f

i

∆x

i

. Thus ∆y

i

is an area of a little shaded region. Add them all up and

we have the total area under the curve. Thus

Area under

curve f(x)

=

¸

i

f

i

∆x

i

=

¸

i

∆y

i

∆x

i

∆x

i

=

¸

i

∆y

i

= y (2.15)

Let’s now make the little intervals ∆y

i

and ∆x

i

very tiny. Call them dy and

dx. If I am using tiny intervals in my sum

¸

then I am going to use a new

symbol

. Thus

Area =

fdx =

dy

dx

dx =

dy = y (2.16)

which is just the tiny version of (2.15). Notice that the dx “cancels”.

28 CHAPTER 2. CALCULUS REVIEW

∆x

1

∆x

2

∆x

i

x

1

x

i

f

1

f

i

f(x)

x

Figure 2.3 A general function f(x). The area under the shaded

rectangle is approximately f

i

∆x

i

. The total area under the curve

is therefore

¸

i

f

i

∆x

i

. If the ∆x

i

are tiny then write ∆x

i

= dx

and write

¸

i

=

. The area is then

f(x)dx.

In formula (2.16) recall the following. The derivative is f(x) ≡

dy

dx

and

y is my original function which we called the integral or antiderivative.

We now see that the integral or antiderivative or original function can be

interpreted as the area under the derivative curve f(x) ≡

dy

dx

.

By the way

f dx reads “integral of f with respect to x.”

2.2. INTEGRAL EQUALS ANTIDERIVATIVE OR AREA 29

2.2.3 Summary

Let us brieﬂy summarize what we have so far. If we have

f(x) =

dy

dx

then this implies

y =

f dx +c

For example we obtain the following derivatives

y(x) = x

2

⇒

dy

dx

= 2x ≡ f(x)

y(x) = x

2

+ 4 ⇒

dy

dx

= 2x ≡ f(x)

and we get back the original functions by integrating

dy

dx

= 2x ⇒y(x) =

f dx +c = x

2

+c

where c = 0 for the ﬁrst example and c = 4 for the second case.

Our derivations are summarized as follows.

Let f(x) =

dy

dx

=

∆y

∆x

⇒ ∆y = f∆x

or dy = f dx

Any function y is a sum of tiny increments, as in

y =

¸

i

∆y

i

=

dy

=

¸

i

f

i

∆x

i

=

f dx

= Area under curve f(x)

= Antiderivative

y =

f dx +c

30 CHAPTER 2. CALCULUS REVIEW

Example What is

xdx?

Solution The derivative function is f(x) =

dy

dx

= x. Therefore

the original function must be

1

2

x

2

+c. Thus

xdx =

1

2

x

2

+c

2.2.4 Deﬁnite and Indeﬁnite Integrals

The integral

xdx is supposed to give us the area under the curve x, but

our answer in the above example (

1

2

x

2

+c) doesn’t look much like an area.

We would expect the area to be a number.

Example What is the area under the curve f(x) = 4 between

x

1

= 1 and x

2

= 6?

Solution This is easy because f(x) = 4 is just a horizontal

straight line as shown in Fig.2.4. The area is obviously 45 = 20.

x

f(x)

1

6

Figure 2.4 Plot of f(x) = 4. The area under the curve between

x

1

= 1 and x

2

= 6 is obviously 4 5 = 20.

2.2. INTEGRAL EQUALS ANTIDERIVATIVE OR AREA 31

Consider

4dx = 4x + c. This is called an indeﬁnite integral or an-

tiderivative. The integral which gives us the area is actually a thing called

the deﬁnite integral written

x

2

x

1

4dx ≡ [4x +c]

x

2

x

1

≡ (4x

2

+c) −(4x

1

+c)

= [4x]

x

2

x

1

= 4x

2

−4x

1

(2.17)

Let’s explain this. The formula 4x+c by itself does not give the area directly.

For an area we must always specify x

1

and x

2

(see Fig.2.4) so that we know

what area we are talking about. In the previous example we got 4 5 = 20

from 4x

2

− 4x

1

= (4 6) − (4 1) = 24 − 4 = 20, which is the same as

(2.17). Thus (2.17) must be the correct formula for area! Notice here that it

doesn’t matter whether we include the constant c because it cancels out when

we calculate area.

Thus

4dx = 4x + c is the antiderivative or indeﬁnite integral and it

gives a general formula for the area but not the value of the area itself. To

evaluate the value of the area we need to specify the edges x

1

and x

2

of the

area under consideration as we did in (2.17). Using (2.17) to work out the

previous example we would write

6

1

4dx = [4x +c]

6

1

= [(4 6) +c] −[(4 1) +c]

= 24 +c −4 −c

= 24 −4 = 20 (2.18)

or leaving out the constant c we get

6

1

4dx = [4x]

6

1

= (4 6) −(4 1)

= 24 −4 = 20

Example Evaluate the area under the curve f(x) = 3x

2

be-

tween x

1

= 3 and x

2

= 5.

Solution

5

3

3x

2

dx = [x

3

+c]

5

3

= (125 +c) −(27 +c) = 98

or leaving out the constant c we get

5

3

3x

2

dx = [x

3

]

5

3

= 125 −27 = 98

32 CHAPTER 2. CALCULUS REVIEW

2.3 Problems (10 questions)

1. Calculate the derivative of y(x) = 5x + 2.

2. Calculate the slope of the curve y(x) = 3x

2

+ 1 at the points x = −1,

x = 0 and x = 2.

3. Calculate the derivative of x

4

using the formula

d

dx

x

n

= nx

n−1

Verify your answer by calculating the derivative from

dy

dx

= lim

∆x→0

y(x + ∆x) −y(x)

∆x

4. Prove that

d

dx

(3x

2

) = 3

d

dx

x

2

.

5. Prove that

d

dx

(x +x

2

) =

dx

dx

+

dx

2

dx

.

6. The chain rule for derivatives is

dy

dx

=

dy

dz

dz

dx

Verify that this is true by taking y = z

3

and z = x

2

and calculating

the left and right hand sides of the chain rule showing they are equal.

7. The product rule for derivatives is

d

dx

(yz) = y

dz

dx

+z

dy

dx

Verify that this is true by taking y = x and z = x

2

and calculating

the left and right hand sides of the chain rule showing they are equal.

8. Where do the extremum values of y(x) = x

2

− 4 occur? Verify your

answer by plotting a graph.

9. Evaluate

x

2

dx and

3x

3

dx.

10. What is the area under the curve f(x) = x between x

1

= 0 and x

2

= 3?

Work out your answer A) graphically and B) with the integral.

Chapter 3

STRAIGHT LINE MOTION

3.1 Introduction

When you drive you car and go on a journey there are several things you

are interested in. Typically these are the distance travelled and the speed

with which you travel. Often you want to know how long a journey will take

if you drive at a certain speed over a certain distance. Also you are often

interested in the acceleration of your car, especially for a very short journey

such as a little speed race with you and your friend. You want to be able

to accelerate quickly so that you reach your top speed more quickly. In this

chapter we will spend a lot of time studying the concepts of distance, speed

and acceleration.

Experiment

Drop a ball from diﬀerent heights. It falls straight down and it

goes faster at the bottom if released from higher distances.

In the experiment an object is dropped from a certain height, it starts oﬀ

with zero speed and ends up hitting the ground with a large speed. If you

think about it, that’s a pretty amazing phenomenom. Why did the speed

of the ball increase? You might say gravity. But what’s that? The speed

of the ball increased, and therefore gravity provided an acceleration. But

how? Why? When? We shall address these deep questions in this and later

chapters.

33

34 CHAPTER 3. STRAIGHT LINE MOTION

3.2 Position, Distance and Displacement

In 1-dimension, positions are measured along the x-axis with respect to some

origin. It is up to us to deﬁne where to put the origin, because the x-axis is

just something we invented to put on top of, say a real landscape.

The following example explains what is meant by the term position,

which is given the symbol x. The example also shows how position changes

depending on where the origin is located.

Example Chicago is 100 miles South of Milwaukee and there

is a town called Glendale which is 10 miles North of Milwaukee.

A) If we deﬁne the origin of the x-axis to be at Glendale what

is the position of someone in Chicago, Milwaukee and Glendale?

B) If we deﬁne the origin of x-axis to be at Milwaukee, what is

the position of someone in Chicago, Milwaukee and Glendale?

Solution A) For someone in Chicago, x=110 miles.

For someone in Milwaukee, x = 10 miles.

For someone in Glendale, x = 0 miles.

B) For someone in Chicago, x = 100 miles.

For someone in Milwaukee, x = 0 miles.

For someone in Glendale, x = −10 miles. This is a negative

position.

Displacement is deﬁned as a change in position. Speciﬁcally,

∆x ≡ x

f

−x

i

(3.1)

Note: We always write ∆anything ≡ anything

f

−anything

i

where anything

f

is the ﬁnal value and anything

i

is the initial value. This applies to such

things as position, speed, time etc.

Distance is best understood simply as what the odometer on your car

reads. The odometer does not read displacement (except if displacment and

distance are the same, as is the case for a one way straight line journey).

You can see that if x

i

is bigger than x

f

then the displacement can be

negative. Distance will be the magnitude of the displacement. For example,

if the displacement is 100 m then the distance is also 100 m. But if the

displacement is −100 m then the distance is still 100 m.

3.3. AVERAGE VELOCITY AND AVERAGE SPEED 35

Example What is the displacement for someone driving from

Milwaukee to Chicago? What is the distance?

Solution With the origin at Milwaukee, then the initial position

is x

i

= 0 miles and the ﬁnal position is x

f

= 100 miles, so that

∆x = x

f

− x

i

= 100 miles. You get the same answer with the

origin deﬁned at Gendale. Try it.

The distance is also 100 miles.

Example What is the displacement for someone driving from

Milwaukee to Chicago and back? What is the distance?

Solution With the origin at Milwaukee, then the initial position

is x

i

= 0 miles and the ﬁnal position is also x

f

= 0 miles, so that

∆x = x

f

− x

i

= 0 miles. Thus there is no displacement if the

beginning and end points are the same. You get the same answer

with the origin deﬁned at Gendale. Try it.

The distance is 200 miles. This is what the odometer in your car

would read.

3.3 Average Velocity and Average Speed

Average velocity is deﬁned as the ratio of displacement divided by the corre-

sponding time interval.

¯ v

x

≡

∆x

∆t

=

x

f

−x

i

t

f

−t

i

(3.2)

whereas average speed is just the total distance divided by the time interval,

¯ v ≡

total distance

∆t

=

d

∆t

(3.3)

36 CHAPTER 3. STRAIGHT LINE MOTION

Example What is the average velocity and averge speed for

someone driving from Milwaukee to Chicago who takes 2 hours

for the journey?

Solution ∆x = 100 miles and ∆t = 2 hours , giving

¯ v

x

=

100 miles

2 hours

= 50

miles

hour

≡ 50miles per hour ≡ 50mph

The average speed is the same as average velocity in this case

because the total distance is the same as the displacement. Thus

¯ v = 50 mph.

Example What is the average velocity and averge speed for

someone driving from Milwaukee to Chicago and back to Mil-

waukee who takes 4 hours for the journey?

Solution ∆x = 0 miles and ∆t = 2 hours, giving ¯ v

x

= 0.

However the total distance is 200 miles completed in 4 hours

giving ¯ v =

200 miles

4 hours

= 50 mph again.

3.4. POSITION AND VELOCITY GRAPHS 37

3.4 Position and Velocity Graphs

A very important thing to understand is how to read graphs of position and

time and graphs of velocity and time, and how to interpret such graphs.

It is useful to see how the average velocity is obtained from a position-

time graph. In Fig. 3.1 an arbitrary position time graph is shown. Even

though the motion is quite complicated, it is an easy matter to obtain the

average velocity. We simply substitute the initial and ﬁnal times and pos-

tions into (3.2). It does not matter how complicated the motion is between

x

i

and x

f

.

t

x

x

f

x

i

t

f

t

i

Figure 3.1 Arbitrary Position - time graph.

Let us now study the position-time (x, t) and velocity-time (v

x

, t) graphs

for an object standing still and an object moving at constant speed. This

can be realised in the following simple demonstration.

38 CHAPTER 3. STRAIGHT LINE MOTION

Experiment

A) Take a billiard ball and let it sit at rest.

B) Take a billiard ball and let it roll in a straight line on a smooth

horizontal table. (We want the table to be smooth, so that the

ball does not slow down.)

The position-time graphs are shown in Fig. 3.2. For the ball

at rest the position x does not change and is therefore just a

straight horizontal line. For the ball moving at constant velocity,

the position keeps increasing and so the position-time graph is

an inclined straight line.

Now the (v, t) graph is the slope of the (x, t) graph. Thus for

the ball at rest, the slope of the (x, t) is zero, so that the (v, t)

is always at zero. For the ball moving at constant speed the

(x, t) graph has a constant slope, so that the (v, t) graph is just

a straight horizontal line. This is displayed in Fig. 3.2.

t

x

t

v

t

t

x

t

v

t

(A) (B)

Figure 3.2 Position - time and Velocity - time graphs for

A) object standing still and B) object moving at constant speed.

3.5. INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY AND INSTANTANEOUS SPEED39

3.5 Instantaneous Velocity and Instantaneous Speed

When you drive to Chicago with an average velocity of 50 mph you probably

don’t drive at this velocity the whole way. Sometimes you might pass a truck

and drive at 70 mph and when you get stuck in the traﬃc jams you might

only drive at 20 mph.

Now when the police use their radar gun and clock you at 70 mph, you

might legitimately protest to the oﬃcer that your average velocity for the

whole trip was only 50 mph and therefore you don’t deserve a speeding ticket.

However, as we all know police oﬃcers don’t care about average velocity or

average speed. They only care about your speed at the instant that you

pass them. Thus let’s introduce the concept of instantaneous velocity and

instantaneous speed.

What is an instant? It is nothing more than an extremely short time

interval. The way to describe this mathematically is to say that an instant

is when the time interval ∆t approaches zero, or the limit of ∆t as ∆t →0

(approaches zero). We denote such a tiny time interval as dt instead of ∆t.

The corresponding distance that we travel over that tiny time interval will

also be tiny and we denote that as dx instead of ∆x.

Thus instantaneous velocity or just velocity is deﬁned as

v

x

≡ lim

∆t→0

∆x

∆t

=

dx

dt

(3.4)

This is the derivative of x with respect to t.

The instantaneous speed, or just speed, is deﬁned as simply the magnitude

of the instantaneous velocity or magnitude of velocity.

The units of distance and displacement are m and the units of time are

s. Therefore the units for velocity or speed are m/sec.

3.6 Acceleration

We saw that velocity tells us how quickly position changes. Acceleration

tells us how much velocity changes. Average acceleration is deﬁned as

¯ a

x

=

v

xf

−v

xi

t

f

−t

i

=

∆v

x

∆t

(3.5)

and the instantaneous acceleration, or just acceleration, is deﬁned as

a

x

=

dv

x

dt

(3.6)

40 CHAPTER 3. STRAIGHT LINE MOTION

Given that the units of velocity are m/sec, it follows that the units of

acceleration are m/sec

2

. If the velocity is written in miles per hour then the

acceleration is miles per hour

2

.

Now because v

x

=

dx

dt

we can write a

x

=

d

dt

v

x

=

d

dt

dx

dt

which is often

written instead as

d

dt

dx

dt

≡

d

2

x

dt

2

, that is the second derivative of position

with respect to time. Another way to write acceleration isusing the chain

rule as a

x

=

dvx

dt

=

dvx

dx

dx

dt

= v

x

dvx

dx

. Thus the acceleration can be written in

the alternative forms

a

x

=

dv

x

dt

=

d

2

x

dt

2

= v

x

dv

x

dx

(3.7)

You can check that the units are the same throughout.

Example When driving your car, what is your average accel-

eration if you are able to reach 20 mph from rest in 5 seconds?

Solution

v

xf

= 20 mph v

xi

= 0

t

f

= 5 seconds t

i

= 0

¯ a

x

=

20 mph −0

5 sec −0

=

20 miles per hour

5 seconds

= 4

miles

hour seconds

= 4 mph per sec

= 4

miles

hour

1

3600

hour

= 14, 400 miles per hour

2

Now let’s return to our previous Experiment and plot the acceleration-

time graphs corresponding to Fig. 3.2. The acceleration is simply the slope

of the velocity-time graph. Both velocity-time graphs have zero slope and

so the acceleration-time graphs are always zero. This makes sense. An

object at rest or constant speed in a striaght line does not accelerate. This

is plotted in Fig. 3.3.

3.7. CONSTANT ACCELERATION EQUATIONS 41

t

a

t

(A)

t

a

t

(B)

Figure 3.3 Acceleration-time graphs for motion depicted pre-

viously in Fig. 3.2.

3.7 Constant Acceleration Equations

Velocity describes changing position and acceleration describes changing ve-

locity. A quantity called jerk describes changing acceleration. However, very

often the acceleration is constant, and we don’t consider jerk. When driving

your car the acceleration is usually constant when you speed up or slow

down or put on the brakes. (When you slow down or put on the brakes the

acceleration is constant but negative and is called deceleration.) When you

drop an object and it falls to the ground it also has a constant acceleration.

When the acceleration is constant, then we can derive ﬁve very handy

equations that will tell us everything about the motion. We will now show

how to derive these equations using only algebra. When this is ﬁnished we

show the derivations using calculus.

3.7.1 Algebraic Derivation

We are going to use the following values:

t

i

≡ 0

t

f

≡ t

and acceleration a is a constant so that a

xf

= a

xi

≡ a

x

. Thus now

∆t = t

f

−t

i

= t −0 = t

∆x = x

f

−x

i

∆v

x

= v

xf

−v

xi

∆a

x

= a

xf

−a

xi

= a

x

−a

x

= 0

42 CHAPTER 3. STRAIGHT LINE MOTION

(∆a must be zero because we are only considering constant a.)

Also, because acceleration is constant then average acceleration is always

the same as instantaneous acceleration

¯ a

x

= a

x

Now use the deﬁnition of average acceleration

¯ a

x

= a

x

=

∆v

x

∆t

=

v

xf

−v

xi

t −0

=

v

xf

−v

xi

t

⇒ a

x

t = v

xf

−v

xi

or

v

xf

= v

xi

+a

x

t (3.8)

which is the ﬁrst of our constant acceleration equations. If you plot this on

a (v, t) graph, then it is a straight line of slope a, for a = constant. In that

case the average velocity is (see Example below)

¯ v

x

=

1

2

(v

xf

+v

xi

)

From the deﬁnition of average velocity

¯ v

x

=

∆x

∆t

=

x

f

−x

i

t

⇒

x

f

−x

i

t

=

1

2

(v

xf

+v

xi

)

=

1

2

(v

xi

+a

x

t +v

xi

)

giving

x

f

−x

i

= v

xi

t +

1

2

a

x

t

2

(3.9)

which is the second of our constant acceleration equations. To get the other

three constant acceleration equations, we will just combine the ﬁrst two as

the following examples show.

3.7. CONSTANT ACCELERATION EQUATIONS 43

Example When the acceleration is constant, show that

¯ v

x

=

1

2

(v

xf

+v

xi

)

Solution If the acceleration is constant then the equation v

xf

=

v

xi

+ a

x

t shows that a (v

x

, t) graph is a straight line of slope a.

Such a graph is plotted in Figure 3.4.

∆t

v

x

v

xf

v

xi

t

Figure 3.4 (v

x

, t) graph for constant acceleration.

The area under the graph gives the position ∆x, which is just

the area of the rectangle plus the area of the triangle. Thus

∆x = v

xi

∆t +

1

2

(v

xf

−v

xi

)∆t

=

1

2

(v

xi

+v

xf

)∆t

giving

¯ v

x

=

∆x

∆t

=

1

2

(v

xf

+v

xi

)

44 CHAPTER 3. STRAIGHT LINE MOTION

Example Prove that

v

2

xf

= v

2

xi

+ 2a

x

(x −x

i

) (3.10)

Solution Obviously t has been eliminated. From (3.8)

t =

v

xf

−v

xi

a

x

Substituting into (3.9) gives

x

f

−x

i

= v

xi

v

xf

−v

xi

a

x

+

1

2

a

x

v

xf

−v

xi

a

x

2

a

x

(x

f

−x

i

) = v

xi

v

xf

−v

2

xi

+

1

2

(v

2

xf

−2v

xf

v

xi

+v

2

xi

)

=

1

2

(v

2

xf

−v

2

xi

)

⇒ v

2

xf

= v

2

xi

+ 2a

x

(x

f

−x

i

)

Example Prove that

x

f

−x

i

=

1

2

(v

xi

+v

xf

)t (3.11)

Solution Obviously a

x

has been eliminated. From (3.8)

a

x

=

v

xf

−v

xi

t

Substituting into (3.9) gives

x

f

−x

i

= v

xi

t +

1

2

v

xf

−v

xi

t

t

2

= v

xi

t +

1

2

(v

xf

t −v

xi

t)

=

1

2

(v

xi

+v

xf

)t

The ﬁnal equation is

x

f

−x

i

= v

xf

t −

1

2

a

x

t

2

(3.12)

This derivation is left to the Problems.

3.7. CONSTANT ACCELERATION EQUATIONS 45

3.7.2 Summary of Constant Acceleration equations

The 5 constant acceleration equations are:

v

xf

= v

xi

+a

x

t

v

2

xf

= v

2

xi

+ 2a

x

(x

f

−x

i

)

x

f

−x

i

=

v

xi

+v

xf

2

t

= v

xi

t +

1

2

a

x

t

2

= v

xf

t −

1

2

a

x

t

2

46 CHAPTER 3. STRAIGHT LINE MOTION

3.7.3 Calculus Derivation

The constant acceleration equations can be derived from integral calculus

as follows.

Example Prove that v

xf

= v

xi

+a

x

t using calculus.

Solution For constant acceleration a

x

is not a function of po-

sition x or time t. That is a

x

= a

x

(x) and a

x

= a

x

(t). Now

a

x

=

dv

x

dt

and integrating both sides gives

t

f

t

i

a

x

dt =

dv

x

dt

dt

Given that a

x

is constant, we can take it outside the integral

giving

a

x

t

f

t

i

dt =

v

xf

v

xi

dv

x

⇒ a

x

(t

f

−t

i

) = v

xf

−v

xi

a

x

(t −0) = v

xf

−v

xi

⇒ v

xf

= v

xi

+a

x

t

Example Prove that x

f

−x

i

= v

xi

t +

1

2

a

x

t

2

using calculus.

Solution We have

v

x

=

dx

dt

Intedgrate both sides with respect to t giving

v

x

dt =

dx

dt

dt

However now v

x

changes and so it cannot be taken outside the

integral. In fact the formula telling us how v

x

changes was

3.7. CONSTANT ACCELERATION EQUATIONS 47

v

xf

(t) = v

xi

+ a

x

t and so we substitute this into the previous

expression to get

t

f

t

i

(v

xi

+at)dt =

x

f

x

i

dx

⇒

¸

v

xi

t +

1

2

at

2

t

f

t

i

= x

f

−x

i

= v

xi

(t

f

−t

i

) +

1

2

a(t

f

−t

i

)

2

= v

xi

(t −0) +

1

2

a

x

(t −0)

2

= v

xi

t +

1

2

a

x

t

2

which gives

x

f

−x

i

= v

xi

t +

1

2

a

x

t

2

Example Prove that v

2

xf

= v

2

xi

+ 2a

x

(x

f

−x

i

) using calculus.

Solution Here we use the chain rule,

a

x

=

dv

x

dt

=

dv

x

dx

dx

dt

= v

x

dv

x

dx

Integrate both sides,

x

f

x

i

a

x

dx =

v

x

dv

x

dx

dx

The acceleration is constant and can be taken outside the inte-

gral,

a

x

x

f

x

i

dx =

v

xf

v

xi

v

x

dv

x

⇒ a

x

(x

f

−x

i

) =

¸

1

2

v

2

x

v

xf

v

xi

=

1

2

v

2

xf

−v

2

xi

**to ﬁnally give
**

v

2

xf

= v

2

xi

+ 2a

x

(x

f

−x

i

)

One can now get the other equations using algebra.

48 CHAPTER 3. STRAIGHT LINE MOTION

3.8 Free Fall

One of the most common instances of constant acceleration occurs when

an object is dropped near the surface of the Earth. An extraordinary fact,

originally discovered by Galileo when dropping object from the tower of

Pisa, is that all objects fall to the ground with the same acceleration if air

resistance is neglected. We can easily demonstrate this with the following

expreiment.

Experiment

A) Take two identical cans and ﬁll one with water or dirt. Drop

them from the same height. They hit the ground at the same

time!

B) Drop a paper cup ﬁlled with water which has a hole in the

bottom. Water leaks out if the cup is held stationary. Water

does not leak out while the cup is dropping!

We often think that lighter objects, such as a feather, fall more slowly than

heavier objects. But this is just because a light object such as a feather

experiences a lot of air resistance. In the experiment above air resistance is

the same for the two falling cans.

A famous demonstration done by Apollo astronauts on the Moon was to

drop a feather and hammer at the same time. They hit the ground at the

same time because there is no air on the Moon.

If we neglect air resistance, then near the surface of Earth, all falling

objects have same acceleration given by

a = g = 9.8 m/sec

2

When we study gravitation in more detail we will be able to explain where

this number comes from and also why all objects fall with the same accel-

eration near the Earth’s surface.

3.9. HISTORICAL NOTE 49

3.9 Historical Note

The constant acceleration equations were ﬁrst discovered by Galileo Galilei

(1564 - 1642). Galileo is widely regarded as the father of modern science

because he was really the ﬁrst person who went out and actually did ex-

preiments to arrive at facts about nature, rather than relying solely on

philosophical argument. Galileo wrote two famous books entitled Dialogues

concerning Two New Sciences [Macmillan, New York, 1933; QC 123.G13]

and Dialogue concerning the Two Chief World Systems [QB 41.G1356].

In Two New Sciences we ﬁnd the following [Pg. 173]:

“THEOREM I, PROPOSITION I : The time in which any space

is traversed by a body starting from rest and uniformly accel-

erated is equal to the time in which that same space would be

traversed by the same body moving at a unifrom speed whose

value is the mean of the highest speed and the speed just before

acceleration began.”

In other words this is Galileo’s statement of our equation

x −x

i

=

1

2

(v

xi

+v)t (3.13)

We also ﬁnd [Pg. 174]:

“THEOREM II, PROPOSITION II : The spaces described by a

falling body from rest with a uniformly accelerated motion are

to each other as the squares of the time intervals employed in

traversing these distances.”

This is Galileo’s statement of

x −x

i

= v

xi

t +

1

2

at

2

= v

xf

t −

1

2

at

2

(3.14)

Galileo was able to test this equation with the simple device shown in

Figure 3.5. This is basically a ball rolling down an inclined plane. Ob-

jects moving down inclined planes are studied in all introductory physics

courses. Galileo is responsible for this! By the way, Galileo also invented

the astronomical telescope.

50 CHAPTER 3. STRAIGHT LINE MOTION

moveable fret wires

Figure 3.5 Galileo’s apparatus for verifying the constant ac-

celeration equations.

[from “From Quarks to the Cosmos” Leon M. Lederman and

David N. Schramm (Scientiﬁc American Library, New York, 1989)]

3.10. PROBLEMS (8 QUESTIONS) 51

3.10 Problems (8 questions)

1. The following functions give the position as a function of time:

i) x = A

ii) x = Bt

iii) x = Ct

2

iv) x = Dcos ωt

v) x = E sinωt

where A, B, C, D, E, ω are constants.

A) What are the units for A, B, C, D, E, ω?

B) Work out expressions for the velocity and acceleration. Indicate for

what functions the acceleration is constant.

C) Sketch graphs of x, v, a as a function of time.

2. The ﬁgures below show position-time graphs. Sketch the correspond-

ing velocity-time and acceleration-time graphs.

t

x

t

x

t

x

3. Suppose you drop an object from a height H above the ground.

A) Derive a formula for the speed with which the object hits the ground.

(This is the speed the instant before the object touches the ground.)

B) Check your formula by making sure that the units on the right hand

side are the same as those on the left hand side.

C) If the height is 1.0 m, what is the numerical value of the ﬁnal speed?

52 CHAPTER 3. STRAIGHT LINE MOTION

4. If you start your car from rest and accelerate to 30 mph in 10 seconds,

what is your acceleration in mph per sec and in miles per hour

2

?

5. If you throw a ball up vertically at speed V , with what speed does it

return to the ground? Prove your answer using the constant accelera-

tion equations, and neglect air resistance.

6. Show that x

f

− x

i

= v

xf

t −

1

2

a

x

t

2

follows from the other constant

acceleration equations. Use only algebra.

7. A car is travelling at constant speed v

1

and passes a second car moving

at speed v

2

. The instant it passes, the driver of the second car decides

to try to catch up to the ﬁrst car, by stepping on the gas pedal and

moving at acceleration a. The ﬁrst car travels at constant speed v

1

and does not accelerate. Derive a formula for how long it takes to

catch up. Your formula should only involve t, v

1

, v

2

and a.

8. A car is stopped at a red traﬃc light. When the light turns green

the car starts accelerating with a constant acceleration of a

c

. At the

instant the light turns green, a truck travelling at constant speed v

t

passes the car at the traﬃc light. Assuming the car keeps accelerating,

then after some time the car will eventually cath up and pass the truck.

Derive a formula for how long this takes.

Chapter 4

VECTORS

4.1 Introduction

When we considered 1-dimensional motion in the last chapter we only had

two directions to worry about, namely motion to the Right or motion to

the Left and we indicated direction with a + or − sign. We found that

the following quantities had a direction (i.e. could take a + or − sign):

displacement, velocity and acceleration. Quantities that don’t have a sign

were distance, speed and magnitude of acceleration.

Now in 2 and 3 dimensions we need more than a + or − sign. That’s

where vectors come in.

Vectors are quantities with both magnitude and direction.

Scalars are quantities with magnitude only.

Examples of Vectors are: displacement, velocity, acceleration,

force, momentum, electric ﬁeld

Examples of Scalars are: distance, speed, magnitude of acceler-

ation, time, temperature

Vectors are usually either written as boldface quantities such as A or as

quantities with a little arrow over the top as in

A. Usually textbooks use

the A notation, but when writing things by hand or on the blackboard it is

easier to use the

A notation, becuase it is diﬃcult to write bold face when

writing by hand. Throughout this book we use the A notation.

Before delving into vectors consider the following problem.

53

54 CHAPTER 4. VECTORS

Example Joe and Mary are rowing a boat across a river which

is 40 m wide. They row in a direction perpendicular to the bank.

However the river is ﬂowing downstream and by the time they

reach the other side, they end up 30 m downstream from their

starting point. Over what total distance did the boat travel?

Solution Obviously the way to do this is with the triangle in

Fig. 4.1, and we deduce that the distance is 50 m.

30 m

40 m

50 m

Figure 4.1 Graphical solution to river problem.

4.1. INTRODUCTION 55

Another way to think about the previous problem is with vectors, which

are little arrows whose orientation speciﬁes direction and whose length spec-

iﬁes magnitude. The displacement along the river is represented as

Figure 4.2 Displacement along the river.

with a length of 30 m, denoted as A and the displacement across the river,

denoted B,

Figure 4.3 Displacement across the river.

with length of 40 m. To re-construct the previous triangle, the vectors are

added head-to-tail as in Fig. 4.4.

Figure 4.4 Vector addition solution to the river problem.

The resultant vector, denoted C, is obtained by ﬁlling in the triangle. Math-

ematically we write C = A+B.

56 CHAPTER 4. VECTORS

The graphical method of solving our original problem is to take out a

ruler and actually measure the length of the resultant vector C. You would

ﬁnd it to be 50 m.

Summary:

When adding any two vectors A and B, we add them head-to-

tail.

The graphical method requires the use of a ruler and protractor for

measuring the lengths of vectors and their angles. Thus there is always the

problem of inaccuracy in making these measurements. It’s better to use

analytical methods which rely on pure calculation. To learn this we must

learn about components. To do this we need trigonometry.

4.2 Trigonometry

Lines are made by connecting two points. Triangles are made by connecting

three points. Of all the vast number of diﬀerent possible triangles, the

subject of trigonometry has to do with only a certain, special type of triangle

and that is a right-angled triangle, i.e. a triangle where one of the angles is

90

◦

. Let’s draw one:

Hypotenuse

Figure 4.5 Right-angled triangle.

4.2. TRIGONOMETRY 57

The side opposite the right angle is always called the Hypotenuse. Consider

one of the other angles, say θ.

Hypotenuse

Adjacent

Opposite

θ

Figure 4.6 Right-angled triangle showing sides Opposite and Adjacent to

the angle θ.

The side adjacent to θ is called Adjacent and the side opposite θ is called

Opposite. Now consider the other angle α. The Opposite and Adjacent sides

are switched because the angle is diﬀerent.

Hypotenuse

Opposite

Adjacent

α

Figure 4.7 Right-angled triangle showing sides Opposite and Adjacent to

the angle α.

Let’s label Hypotenuse as H, Opposite as O and Adjacent as A. Pythago-

ras’ theorem states

H

2

= A

2

+O

2

58 CHAPTER 4. VECTORS

This is true no matter how the Opposite and Adjacent sides are labelled, i.e.

if Opposite and Adjacent are interchanged, it doesn’t matter for Pythagoras’

theorem.

Often we are interested in dividing one side by another. Some possible

combinations are

O

H

,

A

H

,

O

A

. These special ratios are given special names.

O

H

is called Sine.

A

H

is called Cosine.

O

A

is called Tangent. Remember them by

writing SOH, CAH, TOA. The names are usually abbreviated to sin, cos,

tan.

Example Using the previous triangle for the river problem,

write down sinθ, cos θ, tanθ, sinα,cos α, tanα.

Solution

sinθ =

O

H

=

40 m

50 m

=

4

5

= 0.8

cos θ =

A

H

=

30 m

50 m

=

3

5

= 0.6

tanθ =

O

A

=

40 m

30 m

=

4

3

= 1.33

sinα =

O

H

=

30 m

50 m

=

3

5

= 0.6

cos α =

A

H

=

40 m

50 m

=

4

5

= 0.8

tanα =

O

A

=

30 m

40 m

=

3

4

= 0.75

30 m

40 m

50 m

α

θ

Figure 4.8 Triangle for river problem.

4.3. VECTOR COMPONENTS 59

Now whenever the sin of an angle is 0.8 the angle is always 53.1

◦

. Thus

θ = 53.1

◦

. Again whenever tan of an angle is 0.75 the angle is always 36.9

◦

.

So if we have calculated any of the ratios, sin, cos or tan then we always

know what the corresponding angle is.

4.3 Vector Components

An arbitrary vector has both x and y components. These are like shadows

on the x and y areas, as shown in Figure 4.9.

x

y

A

x

A

y

A

Figure 4.9 Components, A

x

and A

y

, of vector A.

The components are denoted A

x

and A

y

and are obtained by dropping a

perpendicular line from the vector to the x and y axes. That’s why we

consider trigonometry and right-angled triangles!

60 CHAPTER 4. VECTORS

A physical understanding of components can be obtained.

Experiment

Pull a cart with a rope at some angle to the ground, as shown

in Fig. 4.11. Vary the angle and notice how the acceleration of

the cart varies, even thought the pulling force is kept constant.

In this experiment the cart will move with a certain acceleration, deter-

mined not by the force F, but by the component F

x

in the x direction. If

you change the angle, the acceleration of the cart will change.

4.3. VECTOR COMPONENTS 61

F

F

x

Figure 4.10 Pulling a cart with a force F.

Let’s re-draw Figure 4.10, writing A instead of F as follows:

A

A

x

A

y

θ

α

Figure 4.11 Components and angles for Fig. 4.10.

62 CHAPTER 4. VECTORS

Let’s denote the magnitude or length of A simply as A. A better notation

is [A[, but it’s quicker to just write A. However sometimes we will also use

[A[. Pythagoras’ theorem gives

A

2

= A

2

x

+A

2

y

and also

tanθ =

A

y

A

x

and

tanα =

A

x

A

y

(Also sinθ =

Ay

A

, cos θ =

Ax

A

, sinα =

Ax

A

, cos α =

Ay

A

.)

Thus if we have the components, A

x

and A

y

we can always get the

magnitude and direction of the vector, namely A and θ (or α). Similarly if

we start with A and θ (or α) we can always ﬁnd A

x

and A

y

.

4.4 Unit Vectors

A vector is completely speciﬁed by writing down magnitude and direction

(i.e. A and θ) or x and y components (A

x

and A

y

).

There’s another very useful and compact way to write vectors and that is

by using unit vectors. The unit vector i is deﬁned to always have a length of

1 and to always lie in the positive x direction, as in Fig. 4.12. (The symbol

ˆ

i is used to denote these unit vectors, when writing them by hand.)

x

y

i

Figure 4.12 Unit vector i.

4.4. UNIT VECTORS 63

Similarly the unit vector j is deﬁned to always have a length of 1 also but

to lie entirely in the positive y direction.

x

y

j

Figure 4.13 Unit vector j.

The unit vector k lies in the positive z direction.

x

y

k

z

Figure 4.14 Unit vector k.

Thus any arbitrary vector A is now written as

A = A

x

i +A

y

j +A

z

k

64 CHAPTER 4. VECTORS

4.5 Vector Addition

Finally we will now see the use of components and unit vectors. Remember

how we discussed adding vectors graphically using a ruler and protractor. A

better method is with the use of components, because then we can get our

answers by pure calculation.

In Fig. 4.16 we have shown two vectors A and B added to form C, but

we have also indicated all the components.

A

x

C

x

A

y

B

x

B

y

C

y

B

C

A

x

y

Figure 4.15 Adding vectors by components.

By carefully looking at the ﬁgure you can see that

C

x

= A

x

+B

x

C

y

= A

y

+B

y

This is a very important result.

4.5. VECTOR ADDITION 65

Now let’s back-track for a minute. When we write

C = A+B

you should say, “Wait a minute! What does the + sign mean?” We are used

to adding numbers such as 5 = 3 + 2, but in the above equation A, B and

C are not numbers. They are these strange arrow-like objects called vectors

which are “added” by putting head-to-tail. We should really write

C = A⊕B

where ⊕is a new type of “addition”, totally unlike adding numbers. However

A

x

, B

x

, A

y

, B

y

, C

x

, C

y

are ordinary numbers and the + sign we used

above does denote ordinary addition. Thus C = A ⊕ B actually means

C

x

= A

x

+ B

x

and C

y

= A

y

+ B

y

. The statement C = A ⊕ B is really

shorthand for two ordinary addition statements. Whenever anyone writes

something like D = F+E it actually means two things, namely D

x

= F

x

+E

x

and D

y

= F

y

+E

y

.

All of this is much more obvious with the use of unit vectors. Write

A = A

x

i +A

y

j and B = B

x

i +B

y

j and C = C

x

i +C

y

j. Now

C = A+B

is simply

C

x

i +C

y

j = A

x

i +A

y

j +B

x

i +B

y

j

= (A

x

+B

x

)i + (A

y

+B

y

)j

and equating coeﬃcients of i and j gives

C

x

= A

x

+B

x

and

C

y

= A

y

+B

y

66 CHAPTER 4. VECTORS

Example Do the original river problem using components.

Solution

A = 30i B = 40j

C = A+B

C

x

i + C

y

j = A

x

i +A

y

j +B

x

i +B

y

j

A

y

= 0 B

x

= 0

C

x

i + C

y

j = 30i + 40j

C

x

= 30 C

y

= 40

or C

x

= A

x

+B

x

= 30 + 0 = 30

C

y

= A

y

+B

y

= 0 + 40 = 40

C

2

= C

2

x

+C

2

y

= 30

2

+ 40

2

= 900 + 1600 = 2500

⇒ C = 50

4.6 Vector Multiplication

4.6.1 Scalar Product

We know how to add vectors. Now let’s learn how to multiply them.

When we add vectors we always get a new vector, namely C = A +

B. When we multiply vectors we get either a scalar or vector. There are

two types of vector multiplication called scalar product and vector product.

These are often also called dot product and cross product.

The scalar product is deﬁned as

A B ≡ ABcos θ (4.1)

where A and B are the magnitude of A and B respectively and θ is the

angle between A and B. The whole quantity A B = ABcos θ is a scalar,

i.e. it has magnitude only.

Based on our deﬁnition (4.1) we can work out the scalar products of all

of the unit vectors.

4.6. VECTOR MULTIPLICATION 67

Example Evaluate i i

Solution i i = ii cos θ

but i is the magnitude of i which is 1, and the angle θ is 0

◦

. Thus

i i = 1

Example Evaluate i j

Solution i j = ij cos 90

◦

= 0

Thus we have i i = j j = k k = 1 and i j = i k = j k = j i = k i =

k j = 0.

Now any vector can be written in terms of unit vectors as A = A

x

i +

A

y

j + A

z

k and B = B

x

i + B

y

j + B

z

k. Thus the scalar product of any two

arbitrary vectors is

A B = ABcos θ

= (A

x

i +A

y

j +A

z

k) (B

x

i +B

y

j +B

z

k)

= A

x

B

x

+A

y

B

y

+A

z

B

z

Thus we have a new formula for scalar product, namely

A B = A

x

B

x

+A

y

B

y

+A

z

B

z

(4.2)

which has been derived from the original deﬁnition (4.1) using unit vectors.

What’s the good of all this? Well for one thing it’s now easy to ﬁgure

out the angle between vectors, as the next example shows.

Example What is the angle between A = i +j and B = i −j?

Solution We have

A B = A

x

B

x

+A

y

B

y

= 1 −1 = 0

= ABcos θ

⇒ θ = 90

o

68 CHAPTER 4. VECTORS

4.6.2 Vector Product

In making up the deﬁnition of vector product we have to deﬁne its magnitude

and direction. The symbol for vector product is AB. Given that the result

is a vector let’s write C ≡ AB. The magnitude is deﬁned as

C = ABsinθ

and the direction is deﬁned to follow the right hand rule. (C = thumb, A

= foreﬁnger, B = middle ﬁnger.)

Example Evaluate i j

Solution [i j[ = ij sin90

◦

= 1

The direction is in direction k

Thus i j = k

Example Evaluate k k

Solution [k k[ = kk sin0 = 0

Thus k k = 0

Therefore

i j = k j k = i k i = j

j i = −k k j = −i i k = −j

and

i i = j j = k k = 0

Thus the vector product of any two arbitrary vectors is

AB = (A

x

i +A

y

j +A

z

k) (B

x

i +B

y

j +B

z

k)

which gives a new formula for vector product, namely

AB = (A

y

B

z

−A

z

B

y

)i + (A

z

B

x

−A

x

B

z

)j

+(A

x

B

y

−A

y

B

x

)k

4.7. PROBLEMS (7 QUESTIONS) 69

4.7 Problems (7 questions)

1. Calculate the angle between the vectors A = i + 2j and B = j − k.

Use A) the scalar product and then B) the vector product to obtain

your answer, which should be the same in both cases.

2. Evaluate (A+2B ) C where A = i +2j and B = j −k and C = i −j.

3. Two vectors are deﬁned as A = j +k and B = i +j. Evaluate:

A) A+B

B) A−B

C) A B

D) AB

4. Using the right hand rule, ﬁgure out the direction of the following

vector products.

A) i k

B) i (−k)

C) j i

D) (−j) (−k)

E) (−j) i

F) (−k) (−i)

5. Write A = A

x

i + A

y

j + A

z

k and similarly for B and C. Work out a

formula for A (BC) in terms of the components of A, B and C.

6. An airplane pilot wishes to ﬂy 100 mph North. However a wind is

blowing at 30 mph towards the West. What speed and direction should

the pilot ﬂy the plane? Give the direction as the number of degrees

North of East. Work out the problem using unit vectors.

7. A pilot is aiming her plane in a direction 45

o

South of West at a speed

of 200 mph. A wind is blowing at 50 mph in a direction 30

o

East

of North. What will be the resulting speed and direction of the plane

with respect to the ground? Use unit vectors to work out this problem.

70 CHAPTER 4. VECTORS

Chapter 5

2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL

MOTION

5.1 Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration

In this chapter we will go over everything we did in Chapter 3 concerning

motion, except that now the entire discussion will involve vectors.

In Chapter 3 we used the coordinate x alone to denote position. However

for 3-dimensions position is generally described with the position vector

r = xi +yj +zk.

Now in Chapter 3, displacement was deﬁned as a change in position, namely

displacement = ∆x = x

f

− x

i

. In 3-dimensions, displacement is deﬁned as

the change in position vector,

displacement = ∆r = r

f

−r

i

= ∆xi + ∆yj + ∆zk

= (x

f

−x

i

)i + (y

f

−y

i

)j + (z

f

−z

i

)k

Thus displacement is a vector.

In 1-dimension, the average velocity was deﬁned as displacement divided

by time interval or ¯ v

x

≡

∆x

∆t

=

x

f

−x

i

t

f

−t

i

. Similarly, in 3-dimensions average

velocity is deﬁned as

¯ v ≡

∆r

∆t

=

r

f

−r

i

t

f

−t

i

=

∆xi + ∆yj + ∆zk

∆t

71

72 CHAPTER 5. 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL MOTION

=

∆x

∆t

i +

∆y

∆t

j +

∆z

∆t

k

= ¯ v

x

i + ¯ v

y

j + ¯ v

z

k

For 1-dimension, the instantaneous velocity, or just velocity, was deﬁned as

v

x

≡

dx

dt

. In 3-dimensions we deﬁne velocity as

v ≡

dr

dt

=

d

dt

(xi +yj +zk)

=

dx

dt

i +

dy

dt

j +

dz

dt

k

= v

x

i +v

y

j +v

z

k

Thus velocity is a vector. Note the following.

The instantaneous velocity of a particle is always tangent to the

path of the particle.

Of course that’s because the velocity is the derivative of the position

vector r, and we saw that the derivative is just the slope.

Again we follow the deﬁnitions made for 1-dimension. In 3-dimensions,

the average acceleration is deﬁned as

¯ a ≡

∆v

∆t

=

v

f

−v

i

t

f

−t

i

and acceleration (instantaneous acceleration) is deﬁned as

a =

dv

dt

Thus acceleration is also a vector.

5.2 Constant Acceleration Equations

In 1-dimension, our basic deﬁnitions were

¯ v

x

=

∆x

∆t

v

x

=

dx

dt

¯ a

x

=

∆v

∆t

a

x

=

dv

dt

5.2. CONSTANT ACCELERATION EQUATIONS 73

We found that if the acceleration is constant, then from these equations we

can prove that

v

xf

= v

xi

+a

x

t

v

2

xf

= v

2

xi

+ 2a

x

(x

f

−x

i

)

x

f

−x

i

=

v

xi

+v

xf

2

t

= v

xi

t +

1

2

a

x

t

2

= v

xf

t −

1

2

a

x

t

2

which are known as the 5 constant acceleration equations.

In 3-dimensions we had

¯ v ≡

∆r

∆t

or

¯ v

x

i + ¯ v

y

j + ¯ v

z

k =

∆x

∆t

i +

∆y

∆t

j +

∆z

∆t

k

or

¯ v

x

=

∆x

∆t

, ¯ v

y

+

∆y

∆t

, ¯ v

z

=

∆z

∆t

These 3 equations are the meaning of the ﬁrst vector equation ¯ v ≡

∆r

∆t

.

Similarly

v ≡

dr

dt

or

v

x

=

dx

dt

, v

y

=

dy

dt

, v

z

=

dz

dt

Similarly

¯ a ≡

∆v

∆t

or

¯ a

x

=

∆v

x

∆t

, ¯ a

y

=

∆v

y

∆t

, ¯ a

z

=

∆v

z

∆t

and

a ≡

dv

dt

or

a

x

=

dv

x

dt

, a

y

=

dv

y

dt

, a

z

=

dv

z

dt

So we see that in 3-dimensions the equations are the same as in 1-

dimension except that we have 3 sets of them; one for each dimension. Thus

74 CHAPTER 5. 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL MOTION

if the 3-dimensional acceleration vector a is now constant, then a

x

, a

y

and

a

z

must all be constant. Thus we will have 3 sets of constant acceleration

equations, namely

v

xf

= v

xi

+a

x

t

v

2

xf

= v

2

xi

+ 2a

x

(x

f

−x

i

)

x

f

−x

i

=

v

xi

+v

xf

2

t

= v

xi

t +

1

2

a

x

t

2

= v

xf

t −

1

2

a

x

t

2

and

v

yf

= v

yi

+a

y

t

v

2

yf

= v

2

yi

+ 2a

y

(y

f

−y

i

)

y

f

−y

i

=

v

yi

+v

yf

2

t

= v

yi

t +

1

2

a

y

t

2

= v

yf

t −

1

2

a

y

t

2

and

v

zf

= v

zi

+a

z

t

v

2

zf

= v

2

zi

+ 2a

z

(z

f

−z

i

)

z

f

−z

i

=

v

zi

+v

zf

2

t

= v

zi

t +

1

2

a

z

t

2

= v

zf

t −

1

2

a

z

t

2

These 3 sets of constant acceleration equations are easy to remember. They

are the same as the old ones in 1-dimension except now they have subscripts

y and z in addition to x.

5.2. CONSTANT ACCELERATION EQUATIONS 75

Remember that any vector equation say

A = B

really means that

A

x

= B

x

A

y

= B

y

A

z

= B

z

Thus the 3 sets of constant acceleration equations are written more com-

pactly as vector equations,

v

f

= v

i

+at

v

2

f

= v

2

i

+ 2a(r

f

−r

i

)

r

f

−r

i

=

v

i

+v

f

2

t

= v

i

t +

1

2

at

2

= v

f

t −

1

2

at

2

It’s easiest to remember the constant acceleration equations in this vector

form.

76 CHAPTER 5. 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL MOTION

5.3 Projectile Motion

Most motion in 3-dimensions actually only occurs in 2-dimensions. The

classic example is kicking a football oﬀ the ground. It follows a 2-dimensional

curve, as shown in Fig. 5.1. Thus we can ignore all motion in the z direction

and just analyze the x and y directions. Also we shall ignore air resistance.

v

i

v

xi

v

yi

range, R

θ

Figure 5.1 Projectile Motion.

5.3. PROJECTILE MOTION 77

Example A football is kicked oﬀ the ground with an initial

velocity of v

i

at an angle θ to the ground. Write down the x

constant acceleration equation in simpliﬁed form. (Ignore air

resistance)

Solution The x direction is easiest to deal with, because there is

no acceleration in the x direction after the ball has been kicked,

i.e. a

x

= 0. Thus the constant acceleration equations in the x

direction become

v

xf

= v

xi

v

2

xf

= v

2

xi

x

f

−x

i

=

v

xi

+v

xf

2

t = v

xi

t = v

xf

t

x

f

−x

i

= v

xi

t

= v

xf

t (5.1)

The ﬁrst equation (v

xf

= v

xi

) makes perfect sense because if

a

x

= 0 then the speed in the x direction is constant, which

means v

xf

= v

xi

. The second equation just says the same thing.

If v

xf

= v

xi

then of course also v

2

xf

= v

2

xi

. In the third equation

we also use v

xf

= v

xi

to get

v

xi

+v

xf

2

=

v

xi

+v

xi

2

= v

xi

or

v

xi

+v

xf

2

=

v

xf

+v

xf

2

= v

xf

. The fourth and ﬁfth equations are also consistent

with v

xf

= v

xi

, and simply say that distance = speed time

when the acceleration is 0.

Now, what is v

xi

in terms of v

i

≡ [v

i

[ and θ? Well, from Fig. 5.1

we see that v

xi

= v

i

cos θ and v

yi

= v

i

sinθ. Thus (5.1) becomes

x

f

−x

i

= v

i

cos θ t

78 CHAPTER 5. 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL MOTION

Example What is the form of the y-direction constant acceler-

ation equations from the previous example?

Solution Can we also simplify the constant acceleration equa-

tions for the y direction? No. In the y direction the acceleration

is constant a

y

= −g but not zero. Thus the y direction equations

don’t simplify at all, except that we know that the value of a

y

is

−g or −9.8 m/sec

2

.

Also we can write v

yi

= v

i

sinθ. Thus the equations for the y

direction are

v

yf

= v

i

sinθ −gt

v

2

yf

= (v

i

sinθ)

2

−2g(y

f

−y

i

)

y

f

−y

i

=

v

i

sinθ +v

y

2

t

y

f

−y

i

= v

i

sinθ t −

1

2

gt

2

An important thing to notice is that t never gets an x, y or z subscript.

This is because t is the same for all 3 components, i.e. t = t

x

= t

y

= t

z

.

LECTURE DEMONSTRATIONS

1) Drop an object: it accerates in y direction.

Air track: no acceleration in x direction.

2) Push 2 objects oﬀ table at same time. One falls in vertical path and

the other on parabolic trajectory but both hit ground at same time.

3) Monkey shoot.

5.3. PROJECTILE MOTION 79

Example The total horizontal distance (called the Range) that

a football will travel when kicked, depends upon the initial speed

and angle that it leaves the ground. Derive a formula for the

Range, and show that the maximum Range occurs for θ = 45

◦

.

(Ignore air resistance and the spin of the football.)

Solution The Range, R is just

R = x

f

−x

i

= v

xi

t

= v

i

cos θ t

Given v

i

and θ we could calculate the range if we had t. We get

this the y direction equation. From the previous example we had

y

f

−y

i

= v

i

sinθ t −

1

2

gt

2

But for this example, we have y

f

−y

i

= 0. Thus

0 = v

i

sinθ t −

1

2

gt

2

0 = v

i

sinθ −

1

2

gt

⇒t =

2v

i

sinθ

g

Substituting into our Range formula above gives

R = v

i

cos θ t

=

2v

2

i

sinθ cos θ

g

=

v

2

i

sin2θ

g

using the formula sin2θ = 2 sinθ cos θ. Now R will be largest

when sin2θ is largest which occurs when 2θ = 90

o

. Thus θ = 45

o

.

80 CHAPTER 5. 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL MOTION

COMPUTER SIMULATION (Interactive Physics): Air Drop.

H=200 m

R=400 m

origin

Figure 5.2 Air Drop.

Example A rescue plane wants to drop supplies to isolated

mountain climbers on a rocky ridge a distance H below. The

plane is travelling horizontally at a speed of v

xi

. The plane

releases supplies a horizontal distance of R in advance of the

mountain climbers. Derive a formula in terms of H, v

xi

, R and

g, for the vertical velocity (up or down) that the supplies should

be given so they land exactly at the climber’s position. If H=200

m, v

xi

= 250 km/hr and R=400 m, calculate a numerical value

for this speed. (See Figure 5.2.)

5.3. PROJECTILE MOTION 81

Solution Let’s put the origin at the plane. See Fig. 5.2. The

initial speed of supplies when released is v

xi

= +250 km/hour

x

f

−x

i

= R −0 = R

a

y

= −g

y

f

−y

i

= 0 −H = −H (note the minus sign !)

We want to ﬁnd the initial vertical velocity of the supplies,

namely v

yi

. We can get this from

y

f

−y

i

= v

yi

t +

1

2

a

y

t

2

= −H

= v

yi

t −

1

2

gt

2

or

v

yi

=

−H

t

+

1

2

gt

and we get t from the x direction, namely

x

f

−x

i

= v

xi

t = R

⇒t =

R

v

xi

giving

v

yi

=

−H v

xi

R

+

1

2

g

R

v

xi

which is the formula we seek. Let’s now put in numbers:

= −

200 m250 kmhour

−1

400 m

+

1

2

9.8

m

sec

2

400 km

250 km hour

−1

= −125

km

hour

+ 7.84

m

2

hour

sec

2

km

= −125

1000 m

60 60 sec

+ 7.85

m

2

60 60 sec

sec

2

1000 m

= −34.722 m/sec + 28.22 m/sec

= −6.5 m/sec

Thus the supplies must be thrown in the down direction (not up)

at 6.5 m/sec.

82 CHAPTER 5. 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL MOTION

5.4 Circular Motion

In today’s world of satellites and spacecraft circular motion is very important

to understand because many satellites have circular orbits. Also circular

motion is a classic example where we have a deﬁnite non-zero acceleration

even though the speed of a satellite is constant. This occurs because the

direction of velocity is constantly changing for the satellite even though the

magnitude of velocity (i.e. speed) is constant. This is shown in Fig. 4-19 of

Halliday. The word “uniform” means that speed is constant.

In circular motion, there is a well deﬁned radius which we will call r.

Also the time it takes for the satellite to complete 1 orbit is called the period

T. If the speed is constant then it is given by

v =

∆s

∆t

=

2πr

T

(5.2)

Here I have written

∆s

∆t

instead of

∆x

∆t

or

∆y

∆t

because ∆s is the total distance

around the circle which is a mixture of x and y.

2πr

T

is just the distance of

1 orbit (circumference) divided by the time of 1 orbit (period).

What about the acceleration? Well that’s just a =

∆v

∆t

but how do we

work it out? Look at Figure 5.3, where the displacement and velocity vectors

are drawn for a satellite at two diﬀerent positions P

i

and P

f

.

= r

2

- r

1

∆ v = v

2

- v

1

∆ r

r

2

r

1

v

2

v

1

v

1

v

2

∆θ

∆θ

∆s

P

1

P

1

Figure 5.3 Circular Motion.

5.4. CIRCULAR MOTION 83

Now angle ∆θ is deﬁned as (with [r

i

[ = [r

f

[ ≡ r)

∆θ ≡

∆s

r

=

v∆t

r

(5.3)

The velocity vectors can be re-drawn as in the bottom part of the ﬁgure.

The triangle is similar to the top triangle in that the angle ∆θ is the same.

Also the speed v is constant, meaning that

[v

f

[ = [v

i

[ ≡ v. (5.4)

Writing ∆v ≡ [∆v[ the bottom ﬁgure also gives

∆θ =

∆v

v

(5.5)

Now the magnitude of acceleration is

a =

∆v

∆t

(5.6)

Combining the above two equations for ∆θ gives

∆v

∆t

=

v

2

r

, i.e.

a ≡

∆v

∆t

=

v

2

r

(5.7)

This is a very important equation. Whenever we have uniform circular

motion we always know the actual value of acceleration if we know v and

r. We have worked out the magnitude of the acceleration. What about its

direction? I will show you a VIDEO in class (Mechanical Universe video

#9 showing vectors for circular motion) which will clearly show that the

direction of acceleration is always towards the center of the circle. For this

reason it is called centripetal acceleration.

One ﬁnal thing. When you drive your car around in a circle then you, as

the driver, feel as though you are getting pushed against the door. In reality

it is the car that is being accelerated around in the circle, and because of

your inertia, the car pushes on you. This “acceleration” that you feel is

the same as the car’s acceleration. The “acceleration” you feel is called the

centrifugal acceleration. The same idea occurs when you spin-dry clothes in

a washing machine.

84 CHAPTER 5. 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL MOTION

Example Future spacecraft will be made to spin in order to

provide artiﬁcial gravity for the astronauts. Suppose the space-

craft is in the shape of a circular toroid of radius R. Derive a

formula for the rotation period it would need to spin in order to

simulate the gravity on Earth. If R= 1 km what is the numerical

value for the period?

Solution The centifugal acceleration is a and we want it to

equal g. Thus

g =

v

2

R

=

(2πR/T)

2

R

=

4π

2

R

T

2

Thus

T

2

=

4π

2

R

g

giving

T = 2π

R

g

which is the formula we seek. Putting in numbers:

T = 2π

1000 m

9.8 m sec

−2

= 2π

√

102.04 sec

−2

= 2π 10.1 sec

= 63.5 sec

i.e. about once every minute!

Example The Moon is 1/4 million miles from Earth. How fast

does the Moon travel in its orbit?

Solution The period of the Moon is 1 month. Thus

v =

2πr

T

=

2π 250, 000 miles

30 24 hours

= 2, 182 mph

i.e. about 2000 mph!

5.5. PROBLEMS (8 QUESTIONS) 85

5.5 Problems (8 questions)

1. A) A projectile is ﬁred with an initial speed v

i

at an angle θ with

respect to the horizontal. Neglect air resistance and derive a formula

for the horizontal range R, of the projectile. (Your formula should

make no explicit reference to time, t). At what angle is the range a

maximum?

B) If v

i

= 30 km/hour and θ = 15

o

calculate the numerical value of R.

2. A projectile is ﬁred with an initial speed v

i

at an angle θ with respect

to the horizontal. Neglect air resistance and derive a formula for the

maximum height H, that the projectile reaches. (Your formula should

make no explicit reference to time, t). At what angle is the height a

maximum?

3. A) If a bulls-eye target is at a horizontal distance R away, derive an

expression for the height L, which is the vertical distance above the

bulls-eye that one needs to aim a riﬂe in order to hit the bulls-eye.

Assume the bullet leaves the riﬂe with speed v

i

.

B) How much bigger is L compared to the maximum projectile height

H? Note: In this problem use previous results found for the range R

and height H, namely R =

v

2

i

sin2θ

g

=

2v

2

i

sinθ cos θ

g

and H =

v

2

i

sin

2

θ

2g

.

4. Normally if you wish to hit a bulls-eye some distance away you need to

aim a certain distance above it, in order to account for the downward

motion of the projectile. If a bulls-eye target is at a horizontal distance

D away and if you instead aim an arrow directly at the bulls-eye (i.e.

directly horiziontally), by what (downward) vertical distance would

you miss the bulls-eye?

5. Prove that the trajectory of a projectile is a parabola (neglect air

resistance). Hint: the general form of a parabola is given by y =

ax

2

+bx +c.

86 CHAPTER 5. 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL MOTION

6. Even though the Earth is spinning and we all experience a centrifugal

acceleration, we are not ﬂung oﬀ the Earth due to the gravitational

force. In order for us to be ﬂung oﬀ, the Earth would have to be

spinning a lot faster.

A) Derive a formula for the new rotational time of the Earth, such

that a person on the equator would be ﬂung oﬀ into space. (Take the

radius of Earth to be R).

B) Using R =6.4 thousand km, calculate a numerical answer for the

rotation time and compare it to the actual rotation time of the Earth

today. (Note that the radius of the Earth is 6,400 km ≈ 4000 miles

which is roughly the width of the continental United States.)

7. A cannon ball is ﬁred horizontally at a speed v

i

from the edge of the

top of a cliﬀ of height H. Derive a formula for the horizontal distance

(i.e. the range) that the cannon ball travels. Check that your answer

has the correct units.

8. A stone is thrown from the top of a building upward at an angle

θ to the horizontal and with an initial speed of v

i

as shown in the

ﬁgure. If the height of the building is H, derive a formula for the

time it takes the stone to hit the ground below. Your answer will be

a quadratic equation with two solutions, yet there can only be one

answer. Interpret both solutions physically.

θ

v

i

H

Chapter 6

NEWTON’S LAWS OF

MOTION

6.1 Introduction

So far we have studied some things about acceleration but we never consid-

ered what causes things to accelerate. The answer is force. The gravitational

force causes objects to fall (i.e. accelerate downwards). Friction force causes

cars to slow down (decelerate), etc.

Fundamental classical physics is all about ﬁnding the force. Once you

know that you can get acceleration as we shall see. Once you have the

acceleration, you can ﬁnd velocity, displacement and time as we have studied

previously.

Newton’s First Law of Motion:

A body remains in a state of rest, or uniform motion in a straight

line, unless acted upon by a force.

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Tablecloth

Newton’s second law of motion is not something we can derive from

other equations. Rather it is a fundamental postulate of physics. It was

introduced by Isaac Newton to describe the cause of acceleration.

Newton’s Second Law of Motion:

ΣF = ma

87

88 CHAPTER 6. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION

ΣF represents the sum (Σ) of all forces (F) acting on a single body of

mass m. The body then undergoes an acceleration given by a. One of the

key activities in classical physics is to ﬁnd all the forces ΣF. Once you have

them then you have the acceleration via a =

ΣF

m

and once you have that

you can get velocity, displacement and time.

Now Newton’s second law is a vector equation. Thus its actual meaning

is given by 3 equations, namely

ΣF

x

= ma

x

ΣF

y

= ma

y

ΣF

z

= ma

z

Once we have ΣF

x

, ΣF

y

, ΣF

z

we just divide by m to give the accelerations

a

x

, a

y

, a

z

. If they are constant, just plug them into the constant acceleration

equations and solve for the other quantities you are interested in.

One extra point is the units. The units of a are m/sec

2

. The units of m

are kg and thus the units of F are kg m/sec

2

. This is given a special name

called Newton (N). Thus

N ≡ kg m/sec

2

In the English system of units a Pound (lb) is a unit of force. The mass unit

is called slug. The units of acceleration are foot/sec

2

. thus

Pound (lb) ≡ slug foot/sec

2

Newton’s Third Law of Motion:

Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Fire extinguisher rocket

6.2 Forces and the Second Law

In this section we ﬁrst discuss various diﬀerent types of forces in general and

then we will turn to some speciﬁc examples.

6.2.1 Weight

If you stand on a set of scales you measure your weight. If you stand on the

same scales on the moon your weight will be less because the moon’s gravity

is small, even though your mass is the same.

Weight is deﬁned as

W ≡ mg

where g is the acceleration due to gravity. (It’s 9.8 m/sec

2

on Earth, but

only 1.7 m/sec

2

on the Moon.) Weight is a force which pulls you down.

6.2. FORCES AND THE SECOND LAW 89

6.2.2 Normal Force

You are sitting still in your chair. The sum of all forces in the x and z

direction are zero (ΣF

x

= 0, ΣF

z

= 0) which means that a

x

= a

z

= 0. Now

you also know that a

y

= 0. (You are not moving.) Yet there is a weight

force W pulling down.

If your a

y

= 0 then there must be another force pushing up to balance

the weight force. We call this up force the Normal force N. Thus

ΣF

y

= ma

y

N −W = 0

The N has a + sign (up) and W has a − sign (down) and they both balance

out to give zero acceleration. That’s how we know that the chair must push

up on the person sitting on it. The heavier the person, the bigger N must

be.

The Normal force is called “Normal” because it always acts perpendicu-

lar (normal means perpendicular) to the surface (of the chair).

6.2.3 Tension

Another important type of force is tension, which is the force in a rope or

cable when under a stress.

6.2.4 Spring

A very important force is that produced by a spring. When a spring is

pulled, one feels a resistance in the opposite direction depending on the

distance by which the spring is extended. This is described by Hooke’s law,

F = −kx (6.1)

6.2.5 Friction

There are two types of friction — static and kinetic. When two surfaces are

in relative motion then the friction is kinetic, such as when you slam the

brakes on in your car and the car skids along the road. Eventually, kinetic

friction will cause the car to stop.

If you put a coin on top of a book and tilt the book at a small angle, the

coin will remain stationary. Static friction prevents the coin from sliding.

Tilt the book a bit more and still the coin does not slide. The static friction

90 CHAPTER 6. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION

has increased to keep the coin in place. Eventually however, static friction

will be overcome and the coin will slide down the book (with kinetic friction

operating). Notice that the maximum amount of static friction occurred

just before the coin started to slide.

(LECTURE DEMONSTRATION of above.)

If you press down hard on the coin, then the friction force will increase.

When you press down you are causing the normal force N to get bigger.

Thus friction is proportional to N. The proportionality constant is called

the coeﬃcient of friction µ.

The kinetic friction force f

k

is given by

f

k

≡ µ

k

N

where µ

k

is the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction. We saw that static friction

varies. However the maximum value of the static friction force f

s,max

is

f

s,max

≡ µ

s

N

Both of these equations can be regarded as deﬁnitions for µ

k

and µ

s

.

6.2. FORCES AND THE SECOND LAW 91

Example A chandelier of mass m is hanging from a single cord

in the ceiling. Derive a formula for the tension in the cord. If

m = 50 kg evaluate a numerical answer for the tension.

Solution Carefully draw a diagram showing all forces, as seen

in Fig. 5.1. Then solve ΣF = ma. Thus

ΣF

x

= ma

x

ΣF

y

= ma

y

ΣF

z

= ma

z

but all forces and acceleration in the x and z directions are zero

and so the only interesting equation is

ΣF

y

= ma

y

.

Now the forces are tension (+T) in the up direction and weight

(−W) in the down direction. You don’t want the chandelier to

move, so a

y

= 0. Thus

T −W = 0

⇒ T = W

= mg

which is the formula we seek. Putting in numbers:

T = 50 kg 9.8 m/sec

2

= 490 kg m/sec

2

= 490 N

T

W

Figure 5.1 Chandelier hanging from ceiling.

92 CHAPTER 6. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION

Example A chandelier of mass m is now suspended by two

cords, one at an angle of α to the ceiling and the other at θ.

Derive a formula for is the tension in each cord. If m = 50 kg

and α = 60

o

and θ = 30

o

evaluate a numerical answer for each

tension.

Solution Again carefully draw a ﬁgure showing all forces. See

Fig. 5.2.

T

1 T

2

W

θ

α

Figure 5.2 Chandelier suspended by 2 cables.

In the z direction all forces and acceleration are zero. We need

to consider the x and y directions (both with a

x

= a

y

= 0),

namely,

ΣF

x

= ma

x

and ΣF

y

= ma

y

T

2x

−T

1x

= 0 and T

2y

+T

1y

−W = 0

Now

T

2x

= T

2

cos θ, T

1x

= T

1

cos α

T

2y

= T

2

sinθ, T

1y

= T

1

sinα

6.2. FORCES AND THE SECOND LAW 93

giving

T

2

cos θ −T

1

cos α = 0 and T

2

sinθ +T

1

sinα = W

The x equation gives T

2

=

T

1

cos α

cos θ

which is substituted into the

y equation giving

T

1

cos α

cos θ

sinθ +T

1

sinα = W

or

T

1

=

W

cos αtanθ + sinα

=

mg

cos αtanθ + sinα

and upon substitution

T

2

=

T

1

cos α

cos θ

=

mg

sinθ + tanαcos θ

which are the formulas we seek. Putting in numbers gives:

W = mg

= 50 kg 9.8 m/sec

2

= 490 N

Thus

T

1

=

490N

cos 60 tan30 + sin60

= 426 N.

Now put back into

T

2

=

T

1

cos 60

cos 30

=

426N cos 60

cos 30

= 246 N

94 CHAPTER 6. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION

Example If you normally have a weight of W, how much will a

weight scale read if you are standing on it in an elevator moving

up at an acceleration of a?

Solution The reading on the scale will just be the Normal force.

Thus

ΣF = ma

N − W = ma

N = W +ma

The answer makes sense. You would expect the scale to read a

higher value.

6.2. FORCES AND THE SECOND LAW 95

Example A block of mass m slides down a frictionless incline

of angle θ.

A) What is the normal force?

B) What is the acceleration of the block?

Solution In Fig. 5.3 the forces are drawn. Notice that I have

chosen the orientation of the y axis to lie along the normal force.

You could make other choices, but this will make things easier

to work out.

N

W

W

c

o

s

θ

W

s

i

n

θ

θ

θ

9

0

−

θ

y

x

Figure 5.3 Block sliding down frictionless incline.

96 CHAPTER 6. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION

A) Analyzing the y direction,

ΣF

y

= ma

y

N −W cos θ = 0

because the block has zero acceleration in the y direction.

Thus

N = W cos θ = mg cos θ

B) Analyzing the x direction,

ΣF

x

= ma

x

W sinθ = ma

x

a

x

=

W sinθ

m

=

mg sinθ

m

= g sinθ

6.2. FORCES AND THE SECOND LAW 97

Example Derive a formula for the acceleration of the block

system shown in Fig. 5.4 (Atwood machine). Assume the pulley

is frictionless and the tension T is the same throughout the rope.

T

T

m

1

m

2 W

1

W

2

Figure 5.4 Atwood machine.

Solution The tension is the same throughout the rope; thus

T

1

= T

2

= T. Analyze forces in y direction on m

1

;

ΣF

y

= m

1

a

1

T −W

1

= m

1

a (6.2)

with a

1

≡ a. Analyze forces in y direction on m

2

;

ΣF

y

= m

2

a

2

T −W

2

= m

2

a

2

but if a

1

= a then a

2

= −a giving

T −W

2

= −m

2

a (6.3)

Subtracting eqn. (6.3) from eqn. (6.2) gives

T − W

1

−(T −W

2

) = m

1

a −(−m

2

a)

− W

1

+W

2

= m

1

a +m

2

a

a =

W

2

−W

1

m

1

+m

2

=

m

2

−m

1

m

1

+m

2

g

Thus a is positive if m

2

> m

1

and negative if m

2

< m

1

.

98 CHAPTER 6. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION

Example The coeﬃcient of static friction is just the tangent of

the angle where two objects start to slide relative to each other.

Show that µ

s

= tanθ.

Solution A force diagram is shown in Fig. 6.1.

N

W

W

c

o

s

θ

W

s

i

n

θ

θ

θ

9

0

−

θ

y

x

f

s

Figure 6.1 Block sliding down incline with friction.

6.3. CIRCULAR MOTION 99

Analyze forces in y direction

ΣF

y

= ma

y

N −W cos θ = 0

In x direction

ΣF

x

= ma

x

f

s

−W sinθ = 0

µ

s

N −W sinθ = 0

µ

s

=

W sinθ

N

where a

x

= 0 just before object starts to slide. Now we get N

from y equation above (N = cos θ). Thus

µ

s

=

W sinθ

W cos θ

or

µ

s

= tanθ

6.3 Circular Motion

In the case of circular motion we always know that the acceleration is a =

v

2

r

.

Thus we always know the right hand side of Newton’s second law, namely

ΣF = ma

=

mv

2

r

The forces that produce circular motion get put into the left hand side.

100 CHAPTER 6. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION

Example In designing a curved road, engineers consider the

speed v of a car and the coeﬃcient of friction between the car

tires and the road. The radius of curvature of the road bend is

chosen to be large enough so that the car will be able to derive

around smoothly in a part-circle. Work out a formula for the

radius of curvature in terms of the speed of the car and the

coeﬃcient of friction.

Solution Force diagrams are shown in Fig. 6.2. The top part of

the ﬁgure shows that static friction alone keeps the car in circular

motion. (The forward motion of the car involves moving kinetic

friction, but the sideways motion involves static friction.)

N

f

s

x

x

y

side view

view from above

Figure 6.2 Car rounding a curve.

In the x direction

ΣF

x

= ma

x

6.3. CIRCULAR MOTION 101

f

s

= m

v

2

r

µ

s

N =

mv

2

r

We get N from the y direction,

ΣF

y

= ma

y

N −W = 0

N = W

= mg

Substituting into the x equation gives

µ

s

mg =

mv

2

r

or

r =

v

2

µ

s

g

This formula tells an engineer how large to make the radius of

curvature of the road for a given car speed v (say 5 times the

speed limit) and a coeﬃcient of friction µ

s

.

102 CHAPTER 6. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION

6.4 Historical Note

Isaac Newton is widely regarded as the greatest physicist of all time. One of

his major works was Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Math-

ematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.) [University of California Press,

Berkeley, California, ed. by F. Cajori; 1934; QA 803 .A45 1934]. Very early

on in the book we ﬁnd the section entitled Axioms, or Laws of Motion. The

laws are stated as follows:

“LAW I: Every body continues in a state of rest, or of uniform

motion in a right line, unless it is compelled to change that state

by forces impressed upon it.

LAW II: The change of motion is proportional to the motive force

impressed; and is made in the direction of the right line in which

that force is impressed.

LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal re-

action; or, the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are

always equal, and directed to contrary parts.”

After the axioms are stated, the Principia is then divided into two major

books, namely Book I: The Motion of Bodies and Book II: The Motion of

Bodies (in resisting mediums). In these books we ﬁnd discussion of such

toipics as centripetal forces, conic sections, orbits, rectilinear motion, oscil-

lating pendulum, attractive force of spherical bodies, motion of bodies in

ﬂuids, ﬂuid dynamics, hydrostatics, etc. This makes for wonderful reading

and is highly recommended.

By the way Newton also invented calculus and the reﬂecting telescope !

6.5. PROBLEMS (10 QUESTIONS) 103

6.5 Problems (10 questions)

1. A mass m

1

hangs vertically from a string connected to a ceiling. A

second mass m

2

hangs below m

1

with m

1

and m

2

also connected by

another string. Calculate the tension in each string.

2. What is the acceleration of a snow skier sliding down a frictionless ski

slope of angle θ?

Check that your answer makes sense for θ = 0

o

and for θ = 90

o

.

3. A ferris wheel rotates at constant speed in a vertical circle of radius

R and it takes time T to complete each circle. Derive a formula, in

terms of m, g, R, T, for the weight that a passenger of mass m feels at

the top and bottom of the circle. Comment on whether your answers

make sense. (Hint: the weight that a passenger feels is just the normal

force.)

continued over page

104 CHAPTER 6. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION

4. A block of mass m

1

on a rough, horizontal surface is connected to a

second mass m

2

by a light cord over a light frictionless pulley as shown

in the ﬁgure. (‘Light’ means that we can neglect the mass of the cord

and the mass of the pulley.) A force of magnitude F is applied to the

mass m

1

as shown, such that m

1

moves to the right. The coeﬃcient

of kinetic friction between m

1

and the surface is µ. Derive a formula

for the acceleration of the masses.

m

m

1

2

θ

F

5. If you whirl an object of mass m at the end of a string in a vertical

circle of radius R at constant speed v, derive a formula for the tension

in the string at the top and bottom of the circle.

continued over page

6.5. PROBLEMS (10 QUESTIONS) 105

6. Two masses m

1

and m

2

are connected by a string passing through a

hollow pipe with m

1

being swung around in a circle of radius R and

m

2

hanging vertically as shown in the ﬁgure.

m

2

R

m

1

Obviously if m

1

moves quickly in the circle then m

2

will start to move

upwards, but if m

1

moves slowly m

2

will start to fall.

A) Derive an expression for the tension T in the string.

B) Derive an expression for the acceleration of m

2

in terms of the period

t of the circular motion.

C) For what period t, will the mass m

2

be at rest?

D) If the masses are equal, what is the answer to Part C)?

E) For a radius of 9.81 m, what is the numerical value of this period?

106 CHAPTER 6. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION

7. A) What friction force is required to stop a block of mass m moving

horizontally at speed v

i

, assuming that we want the block to stop over

a distance d?

B) Work out a formula for the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction that will

achieve this.

C) Evaluate numerical answers to the above two questions assuming

the mass of the block is 1000 kg , the initial speed is 60 km per hour

and the braking distance is 200 m.

8. A mass m is attached to the end of a spring with spring constant k on

a frictionless horizontal surface. The mass moves in circular motion

of radius R and period T. Due to the centrifugal force, the spring

stretches by a certain amount x from its equilibrium position. Derive

a formula for x in terms of k, R and T. Check that x has the correct

units.

continued over page

6.5. PROBLEMS (10 QUESTIONS) 107

9. A mass of m

1

on a frictionless incline of angle θ is attached to a

second mass of m

2

via a string over a frictionless pulley as shown in

the ﬁgure. Derive an expression for the tension T in the string and

the acceleration of the whole system.

θ

m

1

m

2

continued over page

108 CHAPTER 6. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION

10. Three masses are connected by two strings, with one string extending

over a frictionless pulley as shown in the Figure. Calculate the tension

in each string and the acceleration of the entire system, in terms of

m

l

, m

2

, m

3

, g.

m

2

m

1

m

3

Chapter 7

WORK AND ENERGY

In our study of mechanics so far our approach has been to identify all the

forces, divide by mass to get acceleration and then solve for velocity, dis-

placement, time, etc. There is an alternative formulation of mechanics which

does not rely heavily on force, but rather is based on the concepts of work

and energy. The work-energy formulation of mechanics is worthwhile since

sometimes it is easier to work with and involves only scalar quantities. Also

it leads to a better physical understanding of mechanics. However the key

reason for introducing work-energy is because energy is conserved. This

great discovery simpliﬁed a great deal of physics and we shall study it in

detail.

7.1 Work

The basic concept of work is that it is force times distance. You do work

on an object by applying a force over a certain distance. When you lift an

object you apply a lifting force over the height that you lift the object.

Machines are objects that allow us to do work more eﬃciently. For

example, a ramp is what is called a simple machine. If you load objects into

a truck, then a large ramp (large distance) allows you to apply less force to

achieve the same work.

All students should read my handout on simple machines. There it is

clearly explained why work is deﬁned as force distance.

Actually the proper physical deﬁnition of work is more complicated. The

proper deﬁnition is

W ≡

r

f

r

i

F dr

109

110 CHAPTER 7. WORK AND ENERGY

Writing

F = F

x

i +F

y

j +F

z

k

and

dr = dxi +dy j +dz k

gives

W =

(F

x

i +F

y

j +F

z

k) (dxi +dy j +dz k)

=

F

x

dx +F

y

dy +F

z

dz

Let’s ﬁrst look at the 1-dimensional case

W =

x

f

x

i

F

x

dx

If the force F

x

is constant then it can be taken outside the integral to give

W = F

x

x

f

x

i

dx = F

x

[x]

x

f

x

i

= F

x

(x

f

−x

i

) = F

x

∆x

= force distance

giving us back our original idea. The reason why we have an integral is in

case the force depends on distance. The reason we have the scalar product

F dr is if the force and distance are at some angle, such as a tall person

pulling a toy wagon along with a rope inclined at some angle.

By the way, the units of work must be Newton meter which is given

a special name, Joule. Thus

Joule ≡ Newton meter

Example If I push a sled with a constant force of 100 N along

a 5 m path, how much work do I do?

Solution The force is constant and in only 1-dimension, so

W = F

x

∆x

= 100 N5 m

= 500 Nm

= 500 Joule

7.2. SIMPLE MACHINES 111

7.2 Simple Machines

The Work-Energy theorem is one of the most important ideas in classical

mechanics, and is often discussed in high school physics courses and college

level freshman physics classes. Nevertheless, the reason for deﬁning work as

force times distance often remains obscure to the student. And the idea that

work is conserved, in that a smaller force implies that the distance must be

larger in order to obtain the same work (and thus impart the same energy

to an object), is often lost on students. On the other hand, simple machines

are often studied in elementary school science classes. These students get

to experience how machines can amplify forces. For instance with a sim-

ple lever, the students can lift weights that would otherwise be impossible.

Usually what is emphasized in the study of simple machines is the idea of

mechanical advantage, or force ampliﬁcation. This is ﬁne and students learn

from it. However rarely is the idea of work emphasized in the study of simple

machines.

The idea of the present section is to emphasize the constancy of work

in the use of simple machines. The aim is twofold. Firstly, after reading

the discussion below, students will have a much clearer understanding as to

why work is deﬁned as force times distance. Simple machines will be used

to illustrate the deﬁnition of work. Secondly, students will have a clearer

understanding of work as it pertains to simple machines.

The outline of this section is as follows. Four diﬀerent types of simple

machines (ramp, pulley, lever, hydraulic press) will be studied. In each case

it will be shown explicitly that if less force is applied then a corresponding

greater moving distance is involved such that the work (or eﬀort) always

remains the same, and correspondingly therefore the energy imparted is the

same. The theme will be less force, more distance, same work. Or if you

like one can say more force, less distance, same work.

A good set of references on simple machines is provided [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,

9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14]. One of the best is the book by Lehrman [6]. There

are also some good sources for elementary school teachers [3, 4, 5] and high

school and college teachers [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14].

7.2.1 Ramp

The ramp (or inclined plane) is shown in Fig. 7.1, where h is the height of

the ramp and s is the distance along the ramp. A weight exerts a vertical

force mg. For an experiment two ramps can be constructed in which the

distance s of one ramp is double the distance of the other. However both

112 CHAPTER 7. WORK AND ENERGY

ramps should have the same vertical distance h. An example might be

loading furniture into a truck and choosing a ramp to make the job easier.

One can push the weight up both ramps. (It is better to put the weight

on wheels so that friction is minimized.) You will be pushing the weight

through the distance s. The force that you will have to overcome is then

mg sinθ. (see Fig. 7.1.)

h

s

θ

mg

mg sinθ

Figure 7.1 Ramp

The simple idea for students to understand is the following. For a long

ramp you would notice that the weight is easier to push. Nevertheless you

will be pushing over a correspondingly greater distance and at the end of

pushing the weight up both ramps, you will have expended the same eﬀort.

That is the work is the same. The ﬁnal potential energy (mgh) of the weight

is the same. Less force, more distance, same work.

One can also work this result out mathematically as follows. The dis-

tance up the ramp is

s =

h

sinθ

(7.1)

7.2. SIMPLE MACHINES 113

which is large for small angles. The pushing force (see Fig. 7.1) is

F = mg sinθ (7.2)

which is small for small angles. Thus ramps are easy to use when the angle

is small. The product of force and distance is

Fs = mg sinθ

h

sinθ

= mgh. (7.3)

Thus for both ramps the product Fs is the same. This clearly shows that

you can’t get something for nothing. Less force, more distance, same work.

You should now have a clear grasp as to why the work (or eﬀort) is deﬁned

as force times distance. It makes sense with the intuitive idea experienced in

actually pushing the weight up the two diﬀerent ramps. The eﬀort expended

in both cases was the same and this is embodied in the deﬁnition of work.

(Note that of course work is really deﬁned as the integral of the scalar

product of force and displacement. This complication is not discussed in

this section as the main idea is to develop intuition about the concept of

work.) Most books which discuss simple machines emphasize mechanical

advantage rather than work. For completeness, the mechanical advantage

(MA) is deﬁned as the load force divided by the input force or

MA ≡

Load force

Input force

=

mg

mg sinθ

=

1

sinθ

=

s

h

. (7.4)

Thus a long ramp (large s) gives a large mechanical advantage.

114 CHAPTER 7. WORK AND ENERGY

7.2.2 Pulley

Next consider some pulley systems as shown in Fig. 7.2.

T

mg

T

T

mg

T

F

T

F

Figure 7.2 Pulley systems

For simplicity we only consider a single and double pulley. These will

be suﬃcient to illustrate the main idea. Imagine that the weight is pulled

with a force F at constant speed so that the acceleration is zero. Applying

F = ma to the weight gives T − mg = 0 where T is the tension. Thus the

pulling force F equals T and

F = mg. (7.5)

The rope in the pulley is pulled through a distance s. If the weight is to be

raised by a height h then obviously

s = h. (7.6)

7.2. SIMPLE MACHINES 115

Now consider the two pulley system in Fig. 7.2. Again applying F = ma to

the weight gives 2T −mg = 0 or T =

mg

2

giving

F =

mg

2

. (7.7)

Now by looking at Fig. 7.2 it can be seen that if the rope is pulled through

a distance of s then the weight will only be raised by h =

s

2

. Thus now

s = 2h. (7.8)

Thus for the double pulley, it’s twice as easy to lift the weight, but one has

to pull double the distance to raise the weight the same height. The product

of force and distance however remains the same.

Fs =

mg

2

2h = mgh (7.9)

Less force, more distance, same work. You can do the calculations to show

explicitly that the product Fs remains the same and thus is good for a

deﬁnition of work.

The mechanical advantage is

MA ≡

Load force

Input force

=

mg

mg/2

= 2 =

s

h

. (7.10)

116 CHAPTER 7. WORK AND ENERGY

7.2.3 Lever

The lever is another famous simple machine and is shown in Fig. 7.3.

b

a

s

h

b

θ

a

θ

a

b

mg F

Figure 7.3 Lever

In the top part of the ﬁgure, a lever is shown in the horizontal position

and one imagines that a person is pushing down with the force F to hold a

weight mg in balance. This will be the case no matter what is the orientation

of the lever. For static equilibrium the torques produced by both forces must

be the same, τ

1

= τ

2

giving mga = Fb or

F = mg

a

b

(7.11)

Thus only a small pushing force F is needed if the lever arm b is large. This

is something easily demonstrated. However if one is to use the lever to lift

the weight, then the longer the lever arm, the larger the distance s one will

have to lift through. This is seen in the bottom part of Fig. 7.3. From the

ﬁgure θ =

h

a

=

s

b

where h is the distance the object is to be lifted. The

distance that the lever arm will have to be moved through is

s = h

b

a

(7.12)

showing that if the lever arm b is large (small force) the distance s must be

large. All students can experience this using the lever. The point is though

7.2. SIMPLE MACHINES 117

that the product of force and distance will always be the same,

Fs = mg

a

b

h

b

a

= mgh. (7.13)

As an experiment you can use the lever, change the length of the lever

arm and notice that even though it’s easier to lift, you have to lift through

a larger distance s and the work, or eﬀort, remains the same. You can

demonstrate mathematically that the work remains the same. Again we

have the principle of less force, more distance, same work.

The mechanical advantage is

MA ≡

Load force

Input force

=

mg

F

=

b

a

=

s

h

. (7.14)

118 CHAPTER 7. WORK AND ENERGY

7.2.4 Hydraulic Press

Finally the hydraulic press can also be used to demonstrate these ideas. The

press is shown in Fig. 7.4.

s

h

mg

F

A

1 A

2

fluid

(surface area) surface area)

Figure 7.4 Hydraulic Press

The pressure P is deﬁned as

Pressure ≡

Force

Area

(7.15)

but the pressure throughout the ﬂuid is the same. Thus

P =

F

A

1

=

mg

A

2

(7.16)

7.3. KINETIC ENERGY 119

giving the applied force as

F =

A

1

A

2

mg (7.17)

which shows that for a large area A

2

then only a small force F need be

applied. However from Fig. 7.4 it can be seen that if A

2

is large then

the weight mg will only be lifted a small distance h. This can be seen

mathematically. The volume change ∆V will be the same,

∆V = A

1

s = A

2

h (7.18)

giving

s =

A

2

A

1

h (7.19)

showing that if A

2

is large (small force needed) then the distance s over

which the force must be applied will have to be large. You can experience

this by using two diﬀerent hydraulic presses with diﬀerent areas A

2

. The

work is always the same. Mathematically this is seen from

Fs =

A

1

A

2

mg

A

2

A

1

h = mgh (7.20)

For the hydraulic press less force, more distance, same work. The mechanical

advantage is

MA ≡

Load force

Input force

=

mg

F

=

A

2

A

1

=

s

h

. (7.21)

7.3 Kinetic Energy

Now we know that F = ma and so work can be written

W =

r

f

r

i

F dr = m

r

f

r

i

a dr

where m is taken outside the integral because it’s a constant. Let’s just

consider 1-dimension to make things easier. Thus

W =

x

f

x

i

F dx = m

x

f

x

i

a dx

Now use an old trick.

a =

dv

dt

=

dv

dx

dx

dt

120 CHAPTER 7. WORK AND ENERGY

using the chain rule for derivatives. But v =

dx

dt

, giving

a =

dv

dx

v

= v

dv

dx

Thus

W = m

x

f

x

i

a dx = m

x

f

x

i

v

dv

dx

dx

= m

v

f

v

i

v dv

= m

¸

1

2

v

2

v

f

v

i

=

1

2

mv

2

f

−

1

2

mv

2

i

Notice that we have found that the work is equal to the change in the

quantity

1

2

mv

2

. We give this a special name and call it Kinetic Energy

K ≡

1

2

mv

2

Thus we have found that W = K

f

−K

i

or

W = ∆K

The total work is always equal to the change in kinetic energy. Kinetic

energy is the energy of motion. If m is large and v small, or m is small and

v large the kinetic energy in both cases will be comparable. Note also that

K must have the same units as W, namely Joule.

What happens when we do work on an object? Well if you lift up an

object, you increase its Potential energy (more about that in a moment). If

you work on an object you can also increase its kinetic energy. If you push a

marble on a table its speed will increase and so you have changed its kinetic

energy.

Notice how the equation

W = F∆x =

1

2

mv

2

f

−

1

2

mv

2

i

is equivalent to

v

2

xf

= v

2

xi

+ 2a(x

f

−x

i

)

7.4. WORK-ENERGY THEOREM 121

Modify this to

1

2

v

2

xf

=

1

2

v

2

xi

+a(x

f

−x

i

)

1

2

v

2

xf

=

1

2

v

2

xi

+a∆x

1

2

mv

2

xf

=

1

2

mv

2

xi

+ma∆x

=

1

2

mv

2

xi

+F∆x

or

F∆x =

1

2

mv

2

xf

−

1

2

mv

2

xi

= ∆K

as we have above !

Thus the work-energy formulation provides an alternative approach to

mechanics.

7.4 Work-Energy Theorem

Let’s review what we have done. Work was deﬁned as W ≡

F dr and by

putting in F = ma we found that the total work is always ∆K where the

kinetic energy is deﬁned as K ≡

1

2

mv

2

. Thus

W ≡

r

2

r

1

F dr = ∆K.

So far so good. Note carefully what we did to get this result. We put in the

right hand side of F = ma to prove W = ∆K. What we actually did was

W =

r

2

r

1

ma dr ≡ ∆K

Now let’s not put F = ma but just study the integral

r

2

r

1

F dr by itself.

Before we do that, we must recognize that there are two types of forces

called conservative and non-conservative.

Anyway, to put it brieﬂy, conservative forces “bounce back” and non-

conservative forces don’t. Gravity is a conservative force. If you lift an

object against gravity and let it go then the object falls back to where it

122 CHAPTER 7. WORK AND ENERGY

was. Spring forces are conservative. If you pull a spring and then let it go, it

bounces back to where it was. However friction is non-conservative. If you

slide an object along the table against friction and let go, then the object

just stays there.

With conservative forces we always associate a potential energy.

Thus any force F can be broken up into the conservative piece F

C

and

the non-conservative piece F

NC

, as in

W ≡

r

f

r

i

F dr

=

r

f

r

i

F

C

dr +

r

f

r

i

F

NC

dr

≡ W

C

+W

NC

and each piece corresponds therefore to conservative work W

C

and non-

conservative work W

NC

. Let’s deﬁne the conservative piece as the negative

of the change in a new quantity called potential energy U. The deﬁnition is

W

C

≡ −∆U

where −∆U = −(U

f

−U

i

) = −U

f

+ U

i

. Now we found that the total work

W was always ∆K. Combining all of this we have

W = W

C

+W

NC

= ∆K

= −∆U +W

NC

or

∆U + ∆K = W

NC

which is the famous Work-Energy theorem.

7.5. GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY 123

7.5 Gravitational Potential Energy

We have been doing a lot of formal analysis. Let’s backtrack a little and

try to understand better what we have done. Let’s look at the conservative

piece a little more closely and examine potential energy in more detail.

Let’s consider the simplest conservative force, namely the weight force

where W = mg which is a constant. Let’s work out W

C

and ∆U in 1-

dimension.

The gravitational force due to weight is

F

C

= −mg j

giving

W

C

≡ −∆U =

F

C

dr

= −(U

f

−U

i

) = −mg

j (dxi +dy j +dz k) = −mg

y

f

y

i

dy

= −U

f

+U

i

= −mg [y]

y

f

y

i

= −mg(y

f

−y

i

) = −mgy

f

+mgy

i

which gives −U

f

= −mgy

f

, i.e. U

f

= mgy

f

and U

i

= mgy

i

. Thus we can

simply write

U = mgy

which is our expression for gravitational potential energy. If an object is

raised to a large height y then it has a large potential energy.

If we do work in lifting an object, then we give that object potential en-

ergy, just as we can give an object kinetic energy by doing work. Similarly

if an object has potential energy or kinetic energy then the object can do

work by releasing that energy. This is the principle of hydro-electric power

generators. A large amount of water is stored in a dam at a large height y

with a large potential energy. When the water falls and reduces it poten-

tial energy (smaller y) the energy is converted into work to drive electric

generators.

7.6 Conservation of Energy

Let’s summarize again. The work-energy theorem is ∆U + ∆K = W

NC

where K ≡

1

2

mv

2

and for gravity U = mgy. W

NC

is the non-conservative

work, such as friction, heat, sound, etc. It is often zero. because things

such as heat and friction are negligible. In that case we get the following

conservation of mechanical energy.

124 CHAPTER 7. WORK AND ENERGY

The the work energy theorem is

∆U + ∆K = 0

or

U

f

−U

i

+K

f

−K

i

= 0

or

U

f

+K

f

= U

i

+K

i

That is the total energy

E ≡ U +K

is constant. This is the famous conservation of mechanical energy, i.e.

E

f

= E

i

Example Prove that a swinging pendulum always rises to the

same height. (Neglect friction.)

Solution With friction ignored we have W

NC

= 0 and

1

2

mv

2

f

+mgy

f

=

1

2

mv

2

i

+mgy

i

I let go of the pendulum with speed v

i

= 0 and it returns with

speed v

f

= 0. Thus

mgy

f

= mgy

i

or

y

f

= y

i

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Bowling Ball Pendulum

7.7. SPRING POTENTIAL ENERGY 125

7.7 Spring Potential Energy

When you pull a spring you feel a force in the opposite direction from which

you pull. Also the force increases with distance. This can be expressed as

F

C

= −kxi

in the x direction. Thus

W

C

≡ −∆U =

F

C

dr

= −(U

f

−U

i

) = −k

xi (dxi +dy j +dz k)

= −U

f

+U

i

= −k

x

f

x

i

xdx = −k

¸

1

2

x

2

x

f

x

i

= −k

1

2

x

2

f

−

1

2

x

2

i

= −

1

2

kx

2

f

+

1

2

kx

2

i

which gives −U

f

= −

1

2

kx

2

f

, i.e. U

f

=

1

2

kx

2

f

and U

i

=

1

2

kx

2

i

. Thus we can

simplify and write

U =

1

2

kx

2

which is our expression for spring potential energy

IMPORTANT NOTE:

The spring is an example of a variable force F = −kx which varies as

distance. Thus the acceleration a = −

kx

m

is not constant and the constant

acceleration equations cannot be used to solve the previous example. Also

the variable force requires the integral deﬁnition of work as W =

F dr.

HALLIDAY SIMULATION: “A Spring”

126 CHAPTER 7. WORK AND ENERGY

7.8 Appendix: alternative method to obtain po-

tential energy

Potential energy is deﬁned through

W

c

=

F

c

dr ≡ −∆U

Let’s just ignore the vectors for the moment and write

F

c

dr = −∆U

Thus we must have

F

c

= −

dU

dr

To see this write

f

i

F

c

dr = −

f

i

dU

dr

dr = −

U

f

U

i

dU = −[U]

U

f

U

i

= −(U

f

−U

i

) = −∆U.

(cf. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus).

For gravity we have F = −mgj or F = −mg and for a spring we have

F = −kxi or F = −kx. Thus instead of working out the integral

F dr to

get U, just ask what U will give F according to F = −

dU

dr

.

Example For gravity F = −mg, derive U without doing an

integral.

Solution For gravity dr ≡ dy. The question is what U will give

F = −mg = −

dU

dy

The answer is U = mgy. Let’s check:

−

dU

dy

= −mg

dy

dy

= −mg

which is the F we started with !

7.8. APPENDIX: ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO OBTAIN POTENTIAL ENERGY127

Example For a spring F = −kx, derive U without doing an

integral.

Solution For a spring d ≡ dx. The question is what U will give

F = −kx = −

dU

dx

The answer is U =

1

2

kx

2

. Let’s check

−

dU

dx

= −

1

2

k

dx

2

dx

= −

1

2

k 2x = −kx

which is the F we started with!

128 CHAPTER 7. WORK AND ENERGY

7.9 Problems (8 questions)

1. A sled of mass m is stationary on some frictionless ice. If I push the

sled with a force of F over a distance ∆x, what will be the speed of

the sled? Use the relation between work and kinetic energy to get your

answer.

2. Work out the previous problem using the constant acceleration equa-

tions.

3. If you drop an object from a height H, derive a formula for the speed

just before it hits the ground? Use the work-energy theorem. Assume

W

NC

= 0.

4. Complete the previous problem using the constant acceleration equa-

tions.

5. A spring with spring constant k has a mass of m on one end. The

spring is stretched by a distance d. When released, how fast will the

mass be moving when it returns to its original position? (Assume the

motion occurs on a horizontal frictionless surface.)

6. A block of mass m slides down a rough incline of height H and angle

θ to the horizontal. Calculate the speed of the block when it reaches

the bottom of the incline, assuming the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction

is µ

k

.

7. A staellite is in a circular orbit around a planet of mass M and radius

R at an altitude of H. Derive a formula for the additional speed that

the satellite must acquire to completely escape from the planet. Check

that your answer has the correct units.

8. A skier starts from rest at the top of a frictionless ski slope of height

H and inclined at an angle θ to the horizontal. At the bottom of

the slope the surface changes to horizontal and has a coeﬃcient of

kinetic friction µ

k

between the horizontal surface and the skis. Derive

a formula for the distance d that the skier travels on the horizontal

surface before coming to a stop. (Assume that there is a constant

deceleration on the horizontal surface). Check that your answer has

the correct units.

Chapter 8

MOMENTUM AND

COLLISIONS

Almost everything we have done so far has referred to the motion of a single

body of mass m, and we have always been able to treat that single body

as though it were a point. But suppose we wich to study the motion of a

complex object such as a spinning baseball bat or a dancing ballerina? A bat

and a ballerina can be considered as a collection of a huge number of single

particles. We now want to study the motion of such systems of particles.

8.1 Center of Mass

When we studied say a block sliding down an incline, and replaced it with

just a single point and studied the motion of that point, we made a very

convenient simpliﬁcation. This special point is called the center of mass of an

object and by studying its motion alone we avoid all the extra complications

of a body of ﬁnite size.

“The center of mass of a body or a system of bodies is the points that

moves as though all of the mass were aconcentrated there and all exter-

nal forces were applied there.” [Halliday, 1997]. Notice we have included

a system of bodies. For instance the motion of the Earth-Moon system

around the Sun is actually governed by the center of mass of the two-body

Earth-Moon system.

An easy way to ﬁnd the center of mass is to just regard it as a balance

point. For example the center of mass of a ruler is located as the point

where you can balance the ruler on your ﬁnger without it falling oﬀ. Thus

we already know the answer for a ruler! The center of mass is located at the

129

130 CHAPTER 8. MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS

center. We will prove this mathematically in a moment.

8.1.1 Many Particle Systems

Now let’s come up with a mathematical deﬁnition for center of mass which

is more precise than just saying it’s the balance point (although the balance

point always gives the correct answer). The location of the center of mass

is deﬁned as

r

CM

≡

1

M

¸

n

i

m

i

r

i

(8.1)

where the sum over i running from 1 to n means sum over all of the point

particles within the body, assuming there are a total of n point particles.

M is the total mass of all the individual bodies and can be written

M ≡

n

¸

i

m

i

(8.2)

We have deﬁned the center of mass. Now let’s see if our deﬁnition makes

sense. First of all it’s a vector equation and so what it really means is the

usual 3-dimensional decomposition as

x

CM

≡

1

M

n

¸

i

m

i

x

i

(8.3)

y

CM

≡

1

M

n

¸

i

m

i

y

i

(8.4)

z

CM

≡

1

M

n

¸

i

m

i

z

i

(8.5)

Let’s just consider the 1-dimensional version for the case of 2 bodies only.

Then the total mass M becomes

M = m

1

+m

2

(8.6)

and (8.2) becomes

x

CM

=

m

1

x

1

+m

2

x

2

m

1

+m

2

. (8.7)

Does this make sense? Let’s see.

8.1. CENTER OF MASS 131

Example Where is the position of the center of mass for a

system consisting of two dumbells, each with the same mass m

each at the end of a 4 ft massless rod?

Solution Now you know that the answer to this must be at the

center of the rod. After all that is the balancing point. That is

our guess is that x

CM

= 2 ft. Let’s use our deﬁnition of center

of mass, equation (8.1) and see if it gives this answer.

Now we have a 1-dimensional problem and therefore (8.1) re-

duces to only (8.3). Furthermore we only have two bodies and

this reduces further to (8.7). Choosing the origin of the x-

coordinate system to be at the left dumbell gives x

1

= 0 ft and

x

2

= 4 ft. Substituting gives

x

CM

=

m0 ft +m4 ft

m+m

= 2 ft (8.8)

which is exactly what we expected. Therefore we can believe that

our deﬁnition for center of mass (8.1) makes perfect sense.

Let’s look at what happens if we use a diﬀerent coordinate system.

Example Repeat the previous problem, but with the x-origin

located at the center between the two dumbells instead of on the

left dumbell.

Solution Well now we would guess that the center of mass

would be given by x

CM

= 0. Let’s see if our formula works

here. With the origin of the x-axis chosen to be at the center

of the dumbells we have the position of each dumbell given by

x

1

= −2 ft and x

2

= +2 ft respectively. Subsituting we get

x

CM

=

m(−2 ft) +m(+2 ft)

m+m

= 0 (8.9)

which is exactly what we expected. Therefore again we can be-

lieve that our deﬁnition for center of mass (8.1) makes perfect

sense.

132 CHAPTER 8. MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS

Being able to ﬁnd the center of mass is actually useful, as the following

example shows.

Example A baby of mass m

B

sits on a see-saw. Mary’s mass

is m

M

. Where should Mary sit in order to balance the see-saw?

Work out a formula and also a numerical answer if m

B

= 10 kg

and m

M

= 80 kg.

Solution Again our intuition tells us that we can guess that

the ratio of the distances should be 1/8. That is the baby should

be 8 times as far away from the center of the see-saw as Mary.

Let’s see if our center of mass deﬁnition (8.1) tells us this.

Again this is a 1-dimensional, 2-body problem and so the formula

for the center of mass is again

x

CM

=

m

B

x

B

+m

M

x

M

m

B

+m

M

.

Now we want the center of mass located at the center of the

see-saw and we will put the origin of our x-axis there as well.

Thus

x

CM

=

m

B

x

B

+m

M

x

M

m

B

+m

M

= 0

giving

m

B

x

B

+m

M

x

M

= 0

which means that

m

B

x

B

= −m

M

x

M

or

x

B

x

M

= −

m

B

m

M

= −

m

M

or

x

M

= −

M

m

x

B

Putting in numbers we get

x

M

= −

80 kg

10 kg

x

B

= −8 x

B

just as we suspected.

8.1. CENTER OF MASS 133

8.1.2 Rigid Bodies

Above we considered ﬁnding the center of mass of two bodies. This can

easily be extended to 3 or more bodies and some of this will be explored in

the homework. That’s all well and good, but how do we ﬁnd the center of

mass of systems made up of millions of particles such as a baseball bat. In

other words how do we ﬁnd the center of mass of rigid bodies? That’s what

we will look at now.

In physics whenever we want to change our study from a collection of

discrete particles (desribed by a sum

¸

i

) to a continuous collection of parti-

cles, the sum just changes to an integral. Hopefully this makes perfect sense

from what you have studied in calculus. You all now know that an integral

is just the limit of a sequence of sums.

Now each of the millions of particles in a rigid body has a tiny little mass

denoted by dm. For a discrete collection of particles we had (8.1) as

x

CM

≡

1

M

n

¸

i

x

i

m

i

(8.10)

but for a continuous distribution of particles we now deﬁne

x

CM

≡

1

M

xdm (8.11)

This is easier to work with if we introduce density ρ as mass / volume or

ρ ≡

mass

volume

≡

dm

dV

≡

M

V

. (8.12)

where dV is the volume occupied by the mass dm. Thus our deﬁnition can

be written

x

CM

≡

1

M

xdm ≡

1

M

xρdV

and the same for y and z. If the density is constant, then it can be taken

outside the integral to give

x

CM

=

1

V

xdV

and the same for y and z.

There’s one additional catch. Above we deﬁned a 3-dimensional density

as mass / volume. But what if we have a dense 1-dimensional object such

as a very long and thin pencil. Well then we will want a linear mass density.

134 CHAPTER 8. MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS

Instead of ρ, we use the symbol λ for linear mass density and deﬁne it

as

λ ≡

mass

length

≡

dm

dL

≡

M

L

so that now we have

x

CM

≡

1

M

xdm =

1

M

xλdL

and for a constant λ,

x

CM

=

1

L

xdL

Because this is linear mass density we do not have any equations for x or

y. Similarly we may have mass distributed only in 2 dimensions such as the

surface of a table. We use area mass density deﬁned as

σ ≡

mass

area

≡

dm

dA

≡

M

A

giving

x

CM

≡

1

M

xdm =

1

M

xσ dA

and for constant σ,

x

CM

=

1

A

xdA

and similarly for y; but there is no equation for z. (why?)

Example Locate the center of mass of a very thin pencil of

length L balanced sideways.

Solution Again using intuition we know the answer must be

at the center of the pencil. Now the element of length dL ≡ dx,

and the linear mass density λ of the pencil is constant, so that

x

CM

=

1

L

L

0

xdx

We have taken the origin (x = 0) to be at one end of the pencil.

Thus

x

CM

=

1

L

¸

1

2

x

2

L

0

=

1

L

1

2

L

2

−0

=

1

2

L

which is just the answer we expected! Thus we can believe that

the formulas given previously really do work.

8.2. NEWTON’S SECOND LAW FOR A MANY PARTICLE SYSTEM135

8.2 Newton’s Second Law for a Many Particle Sys-

tem

For a single particle of mass m we already have encountered Newton’s second

law, namely

¸

F = ma, and

¸

F are all the forces acting on the mass m and

a is the resulting acceleration of the mass m. What happens for a system

of particles?

The end result is

¸

F

ext

= Ma

CM

(8.13)

where

¸

F

ext

is the sum of all external forces acting on the body (all the

internal forces cancel out to zero), M is the total mass of the body and a

CM

is the acceleration of the center of mass of the body.

Example Prove equation (8.13).

Solution Recall our deﬁnition of center of mass, namely

r

CM

≡

1

M

¸

i

m

i

r

i

or

Mr

CM

=

¸

i

m

i

r

i

Taking the time derivative gives

Mv

CM

=

¸

i

m

i

v

i

and taking the time derivative again gives

Ma

CM

=

¸

i

m

i

a

i

=

¸

i

F

i

which is just the sum of all the forces acting on each mass m

i

.

These forces will be both external and internal. However for a

rigid body all the internal forces must cancel because in a rigid

body the particles don’t move relative to each other. Thus

¸

i

F

i

just becomes

¸

F

ext

in agreement with (8.13).

136 CHAPTER 8. MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS

8.3 Momentum

8.3.1 Point Particle

A more fundamental way of discussing Newton’s second law is in terms of a

new quantity called momentum. It is deﬁned as

p ≡ mv

and it is important because it is a conserved quantity just like energy. The

proper way to write Newton’s second law is

¸

F =

dp

dt

Now

dp

dt

=

d

dt

(mv) = m

dv

dt

= ma if the mass is constant. Thus

dp

dt

= ma

if the mass is constant. (If the mass is not constant then

dp

dt

=

d

dt

(mv) =

m

dv

dt

+

dm

dt

v = ma+

dm

dt

v so that Newton’s second law actually reads

¸

F =

ma +

dm

dt

v).

8.3.2 Many Particles

The total momentum P of a system of particles is just the sum of the

momenta of each individual particle, namely

P =

¸

i

p

i

Now from the previous example we had Mv

CM

=

¸

i

m

i

v

i

=

¸

i

p

i

, giving

the total momentum of a system of particles as

P = Mv

CM

which is a very nice handy formula for the total momentum equals total mass

multiplied by the velocity of the center of mass. Taking the time derivative

gives

dP

dt

= M

dv

CM

dt

= Ma

CM

assuming that M is constant. Thus Newton’s

second law for a system of particles can be written

¸

F

ext

=

dP

dt

8.3. MOMENTUM 137

8.3.3 Conservation of Momentum

If all the external forces are zero (

¸

F

ext

= 0) then

dP

dt

= 0 which implies

that the total momentum

P = constant (8.14)

Note that this is only true if all the external forces are zero. This is called

a closed, isolated system.

Another way of stating (8.14) is

P

i

= P

f

Remembering that P is the total momentum of a system of particles (P =

p

1

+p

2

+p

3

+ ), the conservation equation is

p

1

i

+p

2

i

+p

3

i

+ = p

1

f

+p

2

f

+p

3

f

+

This is a vector equation, so we must always write it out in x, y, or z com-

ponents.

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Explosion: spring release on air track.

138 CHAPTER 8. MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS

Example A riﬂe of mass m

R

ﬁres a bullet of mass m

B

which

emerges at a speed of v

B

f

. With what speed does the riﬂe recoil?

Solution The bullet-riﬂe system is a closed, isolated system.

When the riﬂe is held at rest the sum of all external forces is

zero. Thus momentum is conserved for the bullet (B)–riﬂe (R)

two body system. The total momentum is P = p

R

+p

B

, so that

conservation of momentum is

p

R

i

+p

B

i

= p

R

f

+p

B

f

Now this is a vector equation, so it must be written in terms of

components, namely

p

Rx

i

+p

Bx

i

= p

Rx

f

+p

Bx

f

p

Ry

i

+p

By

i

= p

Ry

f

+p

By

f

but there is only motion in the x direction and nothing is hap-

pening in the y direction, so let’s re-write the x-equation, leaving

oﬀ the x’s as

p

R

i

+p

B

i

= p

R

f

+p

B

f

or

m

R

v

R

i

+m

B

v

B

i

= m

R

v

R

f

+m

B

v

B

f

But v

R

i

+ v

B

i

= 0 because before the gun is ﬁred (initial situ-

ation) the bullet and gun do not move. After the gun is ﬁred

(ﬁnal situation) they both move. Thus

O = m

R

v

R

f

+m

B

v

B

f

⇒ v

R

f

= −

m

B

m

R

v

B

f

where the minus sign indicates that the riﬂe moves in a direction

opposite to the bullet.

8.4. COLLISIONS 139

8.4 Collisions

8.4.1 Collisions in 1-dimension

Elastic Collisions

Recall our work energy theorem for a single particle,

∆U + ∆K = W

NC

or

U

f

−U

i

+K

f

−K

i

= W

NC

or

U

f

+K

f

= U

i

+K

i

+W

NC

If W

NC

= 0 then energy will not be conserved. For a two-body collision

process, then an inelastic collision is one in which energy is not conserved

(i.e. W

NC

= 0), but an elastic collision is one in which energy is conserved

(W

NC

= 0).

Now if you think of a collision of two billiard balls on a horizontal pool

table then U

f

= mgy

f

and U

i

= mgy

i

, but y

f

= y

i

and thus U

f

= U

i

or

∆U = 0. Thus the above work-energy theorem would be

K

f

= K

i

+W

NC

Thus for collisions where U

i

= U

f

, we often say more simply that an elas-

tic collision is when the kinetic energy alone is conserved and an inelastic

collision is when it is not conserved.

In this section we ﬁrst will deal only with elastic collisions in 1-dimension.

140 CHAPTER 8. MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS

Example A billiard ball of mass m

1

and initial speed v

1i

hits a

stationary ball of mass m

2

. All the motion occurs in a straight

line. Calculate the ﬁnal speeds of both balls in terms of m

1

, m

2

,

v

1i

, assuming the collison is elastic (Is this a good assumption?).

Solution All the motion is in 1-dimension and so conservation

of momentum (with v

2i

= 0) is just

m

1

v

1i

+ 0 = m

1

v

1f

+m

2

v

2f

and conservation of kinetic energy is

1

2

m

1

v

2

1i

+ 0 =

1

2

m

1

v

2

1f

+

1

2

m

2

v

2

2f

Here we have two equations with the two unknowns v

1f

and v

2f

.

Thus the rest of the problem is simply doing some algebra. Let’s

solve for v

1f

in the ﬁrst equation and then substitute into the

second equation to get v

2f

. Thus

v

1f

= v

1i

−

m

2

m

1

v

2f

or

v

2

1f

= v

2

1i

−2

m

2

m

1

v

2f

v

1i

+

m

2

m

1

2

v

2

2f

Substituting this into the conservation of kinetic energy equation

gives

1

2

m

1

v

2

1i

=

1

2

m

1

v

2

1i

−m

2

v

2f

v

1i

+

1

2

m

2

2

m

1

v

2

2f

+

1

2

m

2

v

2

2f

which simpliﬁes to

0 = −2m

2

v

1i

+v

2f

m

2

2

m

1

+m

2

giving

v

2f

=

2m

2

m

2

2

m

1

+m

2

v

1i

which is ﬁnally

v

2

f

=

2m

1

m

1

+m

2

v

1i

8.4. COLLISIONS 141

Substituting this back into the conservation of momentum equa-

tion gives

m

1

v

1i

= m

1

v

1f

+

2m

1

m

2

m

1

+m

2

v

1i

which gives

v

1f

= v

1i

1 −

2m

2

m

1

+m

2

= v

1i

m

1

+m

2

−2m

2

m

1

+m

2

or

v

1f

=

m

1

−m

2

m

1

+m

2

v

1i

There are some interesting special situations to consider.

1) Equal masses (m

1

= m

2

). This implies that v

1f

= 0 and

v

2f

= v

1i

. That is the projectile billiard ball stops and

transfers all of its speed to the target ball. (This is also

true if the target is moving.)

2) Massive target (m

2

m

1

). In this case we get v

1f

≈ −v

1i

and v

2f

≈

2m

1

m

2

v

1i

≈ 0 which means the projectile bounces

oﬀ at the same speed and the target remains stationary.

3) Massive projectile (m

1

m

2

). Now we get v

2f

≈ 2v

1i

and

v

1f

≈ v

1i

meaning that the projectile keeps charging ahead

at about the same speed and the target moves oﬀ at double

the speed of the projectile.

COMPUTER SIMULATIONS

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: colliding pendula

142 CHAPTER 8. MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS

Inelastic Collisions

A completely inelastic collision is deﬁned as one in which the two particles

stick together after the collision.

Example Repeat the previous example for a completely inelas-

tic collision.

Solution If the particles stick to each other after the collision

then their ﬁnal speeds are the same; let’s call it V ,

v

1f

= v

2f

≡ V

And writing v

1i

≡ v we have from conservation of momentum

m

1

v + 0 = m

1

V +m

2

V

or

V =

m

1

m

1

+m

2

v

Let’s look again at the special situations.

1) Equal masses (m

1

= m

2

). This gives

V =

1

2

v

2) Massive target (m

2

m

1

). This gives

V ≈

m

1

m

2

v ≈ 0

3) Massive projectile (m

1

m

2

). This gives

V ≈ v

8.4.2 Collisions in 2-dimensions

Glancing collisions (i.e. not head-on) are more complicated to analyze. Fig-

ure 10.1 shows a typical conﬁguration.

8.4. COLLISIONS 143

1i

v

2f

v

1f

v

x

y

m

1

m

2 1

θ

2

θ

Figure 10.1 Glancing collision.

144 CHAPTER 8. MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS

Example Write down the conservation of energy and momen-

tum equations for the glancing collision depicted in Fig. 10.1

where the target ball is initially at rest.

Solution Conservation of momentum is

p

1i

+p

2i

= p

1f

+p

2f

but p

2i

= 0. In x and y components these are

m

1

v

1ix

= m

1

v

1fx

+m

2

v

2fx

m

1

v

1iy

= m

1

v

1fy

+m

2

v

2fy

or

m

1

v

1i

= m

1

v

1f

cos θ

1

+m

2

v

2f

cos θ

2

0 = −m

1

v

1f

sinθ

1

+m

2

v

2f

sinθ

2

If the collision is elastic we also have conservation of kinetic

energy,

1

2

m

1

v

2

1i

=

1

2

m

1

v

2

1f

+

1

2

m

2

v

2

2f

These three equations must then be solved for the quantities of

interest.

8.5. CENTER OF MASS FRAME 145

Example A ball of mass m

1

and speed v

1i

collides with a

stationary target ball of mass m

2

, as shown in Fig. 10.1. If

the target is scattered at an angle of θ

2

what is the scattering

angle θ

1

of the projectile in terms of m

1

, m

2

, v

1i

, θ

2

and v

2f

where v

2f

is the ﬁnal speed of the target?

Solution Conservation of momentum gives

Σp

i

= Σp

f

or

Σp

ix

= Σp

fx

and Σp

iy

= Σp

fy

The x direction gives

m

1

v

1i

+ 0 = m

1

v

1f

cos θ

1

+m

2

v

2f

cos θ

2

0 = −m

1

v

1f

sinθ

1

+m

2

v

2f

sinθ

2

We want to ﬁnd θ

1

. Solve the ﬁrst and second equations for θ

1

giving

cos θ

1

=

m

1

v

1i

−m

2

v

2f

cos θ

2

m

1

v

1f

and

sinθ

1

=

m

2

v

2f

sinθ

2

m

1

v

1f

giving

tanθ

1

=

m

2

v

2f

sinθ

2

m

1

v

1i

−m

2

v

2f

cos θ

2

(Notice that this result is valid for both elastic and inelastic

collisions. We did not use conservation of energy.)

8.5 Center of Mass Frame

Remember that the total momentum P of a system of particles was given

by P = Mv

CM

or

P = Mv

CM

=

¸

i

p

i

=

¸

i

m

i

v

i

146 CHAPTER 8. MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS

Up to now we have been measuring velocities with respect to the “Lab”

reference frame, which is the name for the reference frame associated with

a stationary target. The Lab does not move, or in other words v

Lab

= 0.

We can also measure velocities with respect to the center of mass frame

where v

CM

= 0. This is also often called the center of momentum frame

because if v

CM

= 0 then

¸

i

p

i

= 0. If v = velocity in Lab frame and u =

velocity in CM frame then

u = v −v

CM

Example A red billiard ball of mass m

R

moving at a speed v

R

collides head on with a black billiard ball of mass m

B

at rest. A)

What is the speed of the center of mass? B) What is the speed

of both balls in the CM frame?

Solution

v

B

= 0

v

CM

=

m

R

v

R

+m

B

v

B

m

R

+m

B

=

m

R

v

R

+ 0

m

R

+m

B

=

m

R

m

R

+m

B

v

R

which is the speed of the center of mass. Now get the speed of

the red ball via

u

R

= v

R

−v

CM

= v

R

−

m

R

m

R

+m

B

v

R

= v

R

(1 −

m

R

m

R

+m

B

) = v

R

(

m

R

+m

B

−m

R

m

R

+m

B

)

=

m

B

m

R

+m

B

v

R

and the speed of the black ball is

u

B

= v

B

−v

CM

= 0 −

m

R

m

R

+m

B

v

R

= −

m

R

m

R

+m

B

v

R

8.6. PROBLEMS (7 QUESTIONS) 147

8.6 Problems (7 questions)

1. A particle of mass m is located on the x axis at the position x = 1 and

a particle of mass 2m is located on the y axis at position y = 1 and

a third particle of mass m is located oﬀ-axis at the position (x, y) =

(1, 1). What is the location of the center of mass?

2. Consider a square ﬂat table-top. Prove that the center of mass lies at

the center of the table-top, assuming a constant mass density.

3. A child of mass m

c

is riding a sled of mass m

s

moving freely along an

icy frictionless surface at speed v

i

. If the child falls oﬀ the sled, derive

a formula for the change in speed of the sled. (Note: energy is not

conserved!)

4. In a game of billiards, the player wishes to hit a stationary target ball

with the moving projectile ball. After the collision, show that the sum

of the scattering angles is 90

o

. Ignore friction and rolling motion and

assume the collision is elastic. Also both balls have the same mass.

5. A package originally at rest explodes into three parts, A, B and C.

Parts A and B have equal mass and part C has a mass twice that of

A and B. Part A moves West at speed v

A

and part B moves South at

speed v

B

. Derive a formula (in terms of v

A

and v

B

) for the speed of

part A and its angle with respect to East after the explosion.

6. A car of mass m

C

is travelling East with a speed v

C

and collides at an

intersection with a truck of mass m

T

travelling North with a speed v

T

.

Derive formulas (in terms of v

C

, v

T

, m

C

and m

T

) for the direction and

magnitude of the velocity of the wreckage after the collision, assuming

that the vehicles undergo a perfectly ineastic collision (i.e. they stick

together) . Give the direction as an angle θ relative to East.

7. A neutron decays into a proton and electron. (It actually decays into

a proton, electron and neutrino, but the neutrino is so light that it can

be approximately ignored.)

A) Prove that the relative angle between the emitted neutron and electron

is 180

o

.

B) Derive a formula for ratio of the speed of the proton to the speed of

the electron in terms of their masses.

148 CHAPTER 8. MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS

Chapter 9

ROTATIONAL MOTION

9.1 Angular Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration

We have studied how point particles and systems of particles (rigid bodies)

move as a whole. The next thing to consider is rotational motion, as opposed

to the translational motion studied previously.

When studying rotational motion it is very convenient and instructive to

develop the whole theory in analogy to translational motion. I have therefore

written the Master Table that we shall refer to often.

Previously we denoted translational position in 1-dimension with the

symbol x. If a particle is located on the rim of a circle we often use s

instead of x to locate its position around the circumference of the circle.

Thus s and x are equivalent translational variables

s ≡ x

Now the angular position is described by angle which is deﬁned as

θ ≡

s

r

where s (or x) is the translation position and r is the radius of the circle.

Notice that angle has no units because s and r both have units of m. The

angle deﬁned above is measured in radian, but of course this is not a unit.

One complete revolution is 2π radian often also called 360

◦

.

Translational position is given by x (or s) and translation displacement

was ∆x ≡ x

2

−x

1

(or ∆s ≡ s

2

−s

1

). Similarly angular displacement is

∆θ ≡ θ

2

−θ

1

149

150 CHAPTER 9. ROTATIONAL MOTION

and because θ ≡

s

r

then it is related to translation displacement by

∆θ =

∆s

r

=

∆x

r

This is the ﬁrst entry in the Master Table.

Secondly we deﬁned translational average velocity as ¯ v ≡

∆x

∆t

≡

∆s

∆t

and

instantaneous velocity as v ≡

dx

dt

=

ds

dt

. Similarly we deﬁne average angular

velocity as

¯ ω ≡

∆θ

∆t

and instantaneous velocity as

ω ≡

dω

dt

Now because we have ∆θ =

∆x

r

we must also have

∆θ

∆t

=

∆x

r∆t

or ¯ ω =

¯ v

r

as

relating average velocity and average angular velocity. Similarly

ω =

v

r

This is the second entry in the Master Table.

Finally the angular acceleration α is deﬁned as

α ≡

dω

dt

and

α =

a

r

relating angular acceleration α to translational acceleration a

t

. (Notice that

a is not the centripetal acceleration. For uniform circular motion α = 0 and

a

t

= 0 because the particle moves in a circle at constant speed v and the

centripetal acceleration is a

r

=

v

2

r

. For non-uniform circular motion, where

the speed keeps increasing (or decreasing) then α = 0 and a = 0.) See the

third entry in the Master Table.

9.1.1 Constant Angular Acceleration Equations

The equations for constant angular acceleration are obtained in identical

fashion to the translational constant acceleration equations. They are listed

in the Master Table.

9.1. ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT, VELOCITY, ACCELERATION 151

Example A ﬂywheel is spinning at 100 revolutions per second

and is stopped by a brake in 10 seconds. What is the angular

acceleration of the ﬂywheel?

Solution The initial angular velocity is

ω

0

= 100 2π sec

−1

and the ﬁnal angular velocity is ω = 0. Using ω = ω

0

+αt gives

α =

ω −ω

0

t

=

0 −100 2π sec

−1

10 sec

= −62.8 sec

−2

152 CHAPTER 9. ROTATIONAL MOTION

9.2 Kinetic Energy

To calculate the kinetic energy of a rotating object we add up all of the

kinetic energies of the individual particles making up the object, namely

K =

¸

i

1

2

m

i

v

2

i

The speeds are v

i

= ωr

i

. Note we do not write v

i

= ω

i

r

i

because the

rotational velocity of all particles is the same value ω. That is ω

1

= ω

2

=

ω

3

= ≡ ω. Substituting gives

K =

¸

i

1

2

m

i

ω

2

r

2

i

=

1

2

¸

i

m

i

r

2

i

ω

2

Deﬁne rotational inertia or rotational mass as

I ≡

¸

i

m

i

r

2

i

and we get

K =

1

2

Iω

2

which looks exactly like K =

1

2

mv

2

where instead of velocity v we have ω

and instead of mass (or inertia) m we have rotational mass (or rotational

inertia) I. Recall that mass, or inertia, tells us how diﬃcult it is to move

an object. Similarly the rotational mass, or rotational inertia, tells us how

diﬃcult it is to rotate an object. See Master Table.

9.3. MOMENT OF INERTIA 153

9.3 Moment of Inertia

For a continuous distribution of mass the rotational inertia has the sum

replaced by an integral, namely

I ≡

¸

i

r

2

i

m

i

=

r

2

dm

=

r

2

ρdV =

r

2

σdA =

r

2

λdL

where dm has been replaced by ρdV or σdA or λdL depending on whether

the rigid body is 3-dimensional, 2-dimensional or 1-dimensional.

Now when you spin an object, you always spin it about some axis. Take

your physics book for example. It is easy to spin about an axis through the

center (i.e. center of mass) but more diﬃcult to spin about an axis through

the edge of the book.

Remember that the rotational inertia I tells us how diﬃcult it is to

get something rotating, or spinning, just as ordinary inertia m tells us how

diﬃcult it is to get something moving. Thus I is small for the spin axis

through the center of the book, but large for an axis through the edge of

the book. In the formula for I =

¸

i

r

2

i

m

i

=

r

2

dm then r will always be

measured from the rotation axis.

A very handy formula which helps a lot in calculating I is the famous

parallel axis theorem,

I = I

CM

+Mh

2

where I is the rotational inertia about an axis located a distance h from the

center of mass and parallel to a line through the center of mass. M is the

total mass of the whole rigid body. This theorem is proved on Pg. 250 of

Halliday.

Let’s now look at some examples of how to calculate I.

154 CHAPTER 9. ROTATIONAL MOTION

Example A rod of length L and negligible mass has a dumbbell

of mass m located at each end. Calculate the rotational inertia

about an axis through the center of mass (and perpendicular to

the rod).

Solution Each dumbbell is a discrete mass and so we use

I =

¸

i

r

2

i

m

i

= r

2

1

m+r

2

2

m

where there are only two terms because there are only two dumb-

bells, and also m

1

= m

2

≡ m. Now r

1

=

1

2

L and r

2

= −

1

2

L

giving

I =

1

2

L

2

m+

−

1

2

L

2

m

=

1

2

mL

2

Example Repeat the previous example for an axis through one

of the dumbbells (but still perpendicular to the rod).

Solution Now we have r

1

= 0 and r

2

= L giving

I = r

2

1

m+r

2

2

m

= 0 +L

2

m

= mL

2

9.3. MOMENT OF INERTIA 155

Example Repeat the previous example using the parallel axis

theorem.

Solution The parallel axis theorem is I = I

CM

+ Mh

2

where

the total mass if M = 2m and h is the distance from the center

of mass to the rotation axis. Thus h = L/2 giving

I =

1

2

mL

2

+ (2m)

L

2

2

= mL

2

This is the same as before and so we have good reason to believe

that the parallel axis theorem is true.

Example Calculate the rotational inertia of a thin uniform rod

of mass M and length L about an axis through the center of the

rod (and perpendicular to its length).

Solution Let the linear mass density of the rod be λ ≡

M

L

.

Then (with dr = dL)

I =

r

2

dm =

L/2

−L/2

r

2

λdr

where the integration limits are −L/2 to L/2 because the axis is

through the center of the rod. The rod is uniform which means

λ is constant and can be taken outside the integral to give

I = λ

L/2

−L/2

r

2

dr = λ

¸

1

3

r

3

L/2

−L/2

= λ

¸

1

3

L

2

3

−

1

3

−

L

2

3

¸

= λ

L

3

12

=

M

L

L

3

12

=

1

12

ML

2

156 CHAPTER 9. ROTATIONAL MOTION

Example Repeat the previous example for an axis through one

end of the rod.

Solution Now we have

I = λ

L

0

r

2

dr = λ

¸

1

3

r

2

2

0

= λ

1

3

L

3

−0

= λ

1

3

L

3

=

M

L

1

3

L

3

=

1

3

ML

2

Example Repeat the previous example using the parallel axis

theorem.

Solution

I = I

CM

+Mh

2

=

1

12

ML

2

+M

L

2

2

=

1

3

ML

2

9.4. TORQUE AND NEWTON’S SECOND LAW 157

9.4 Torque and Newton’s Second Law

We now want to determine the rotational equivalent of force. Rotational

force is called torque. It is a vector deﬁned as the cross product of r and F,

τ ≡ r F

Its magnitude is

τ = rF sinθ

where θ is the angle between r and F. Now r sinφ is just a perpendicular

distance r

⊥

= r sinθ, so that

τ = r

⊥

F

See the Master Table.

Now just as we have

¸

F = ma for translational dynamics we would

guess that

¸

τ = I α

would be Newton’s second law for rotation. This is exactly right!

9.5 Work and Kinetic Energy

We have seen that in 1-dimension, work is W =

F dx. Similarly for rota-

tions we have

W ≡

τ dθ

See Master Table.

Note that when a wheel rolls without slipping, then static friction is

involved. When the wheel slips then kinetic friction is involved. I shall now

discuss an important example.

158 CHAPTER 9. ROTATIONAL MOTION

Example Calculate the rotational inertia of a hollow cylinder

and a solid cylinder, about the long axis through the center of

the cylinder as shown in Fig. 12.1.

dA = 2 π r dr

L

Figure 12.1 Solid Cylinder.

Solution The rotational inertia of a hollow cylinder is simply

I = MR

2

To calculate the rotational inertia of the solid cylinder, refer to

Fig. 12.1. The small element of area indicated is dA = 2πrdr

corresponding to a small element of volume dV = dA L =

2πrdrL. Thus the rotational indertia (with ρ =

M

LπR

2

being

the density of the cylinder) is

I =

r

2

dm

=

r

2

ρdV

= ρ2πL

R

0

r

3

dr

= ρ2πL

1

4

R

4

9.5. WORK AND KINETIC ENERGY 159

=

M

LπR

2

2πL

1

4

R

4

=

1

2

MR

2

Example If a solid cylinder and a hollow cylinder with the same

mass and radius roll down an incline, which reaches the bottom

ﬁrst?

Solution The kinetic energy of a rolling object now consists of

two terms; one rotational and one translational, i.e.

K =

1

2

I

CM

ω

2

+

1

2

Mv

2

CM

≡ K

rotation

+K

translation

where I

CM

is the rotational inertia about the center of mass

and v

CM

is the translational speed of the center of mass. The

rotational inertias of Hoop, Disk and Sphere are

I

Hollow cylinder

= MR

2

I

Solid cylinder

=

1

2

MR

2

The hollow cylinder has the larger moment of inertia and there-

fore more kinetic energy will go into rotation, and thus less into

translation. Therefore the solid cylinder reaches the bottom ﬁrst.

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: show the above example.

160 CHAPTER 9. ROTATIONAL MOTION

MASTER TABLE

Translational Motion Rotational Motion Relation

Displacement ∆x ≡ ∆s

Velocity v ≡

dx

dt

Acceleration a

t

≡

dv

dt

Angular Displ. ∆θ

Angular Vel. ω ≡

dθ

dt

Angular Accel. α ≡

dω

dt

∆x = ∆s = r∆θ

v = rω

a

t

= rα

Constant Accel. Eqns:

v = v

0

+at

v

2

= v

2

0

+ 2a(x −x

0

)

x −x

0

=

v+v

0

2

t

= v

0

t +

1

2

at

2

= vt −

1

2

at

2

Constant Angular Accel:

ω = ω

0

+αt

ω

2

= ω

2

0

+ 2α(θ −θ

0

)

θ −θ

0

=

ω+ω

0

2

t

= ω

0

t +

1

2

αt

2

= ωt −

1

2

αt

2

K =

1

2

mv

2

¸

F = ma

W =

F dx

K =

1

2

Iω

2

¸

τ = Iα

W =

τdθ

I ≡

¸

i

r

2

i

m

i

=

r

2

dm

τ ≡ r F

9.6 Angular Momentum

We have previously deﬁned torque (or angular force) as τ ≡ r F. Now

Newton’s Second Law is

¸

F =

dp

dt

where p ≡ mv is the momentum. We

therefore expect an angular version of Newton’s Second Law involving an-

gular force or torque and angular momentum l. Thus we expect

¸

τ =

dl

dt

But we haven’t said what l is. We can ﬁgure it out.

Consider the following quantity,

d

dt

(r p) =

dr

dt

p +r

dp

dt

= v mv +r m

dv

dt

= m(v v +r a)

9.6. ANGULAR MOMENTUM 161

but v v = 0 giving

d

dt

(r p) = mr a

= r F

= τ

Thus the unknown l must be

l ≡ r p

9.6.1 Many Particle System

Let’s call the angular momentum of a system of particles L. In terms of the

angular momentum l

i

of each particle, it is

L =

¸

i

l

i

and Newton’s Second Law for a system of particles becomes

¸

τ

ext

=

dL

dt

as we would expect, based on analogy with

¸

F

ext

=

dp

dt

where p was the

total momentum.

9.6.2 Rigid Body

In a rigid body, all particles rotate at the same speed. One can show that

L = Iω

which is exactly analogous to p = mv.

9.6.3 Conservation of Angular Momentum

For translational motion we had

¸

F

ext

=

dP

dt

and for

¸

F

ext

= 0 we had

P = constant, i.e. conservation of momentum. Similarly from

¸

τ

ext

=

dL

dt

,

then if there are no external torques

¸

τ

ext

= 0 then the total angular

momentum is conserved, namely

L = constant

162 CHAPTER 9. ROTATIONAL MOTION

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: example below

Example A student is spinning on a stool and holding two

heavy weights with outstretched hands. If the student brings

the weights closer inward, show that the spin rate increases.

Solution For a rigid body spinning about a ﬁxed axis we had

L = Iω. Angular momentum is conserved, thus

L

i

= L

f

or

I

i

ω

i

= I

f

ω

f

The moment of inertia of the two weights is I = 2Mr

2

where r

is the length of the student’s arm. The rotational inertia of the

student remains the same. Thus

2Mr

2

i

ω

i

= 2Mr

2

f

ω

f

giving

ω

f

=

r

i

r

f

2

ω

i

And r

i

> r

f

giving ω

f

> ω

i

.

9.6. ANGULAR MOMENTUM 163

MASTER TABLE 2

Translational Motion Rotational Motion Relation

¸

F = ma =

dp

dt

¸

τ = Iα =

dl

dt

l = r p

p = mv L = Iω

164 CHAPTER 9. ROTATIONAL MOTION

9.7 Problems (8 questions)

1. Show that the ratio of the angular speeds of a pair of coupled gear

wheels is in the inverse ratio of their respective radii.

2. Show that the magnitude of the total linear acceleration of a point

moving in a circle of radius r with angular velocity ω and angular

acceleration α is given by a = r

√

ω

4

+α

2

3. The turntable of a record player rotates initially at a rate of 33 revo-

lutions per minute and takes 20 seconds to come to rest. How many

rotations does the turntable make before coming to rest, assuming

constant angular deceleration?

4. A cylindrical shell of mass M and radius R rolls down an incline of

height H. With what speed does the cylinder reach the bottom of

the incline? How does this answer compare to just dropping an object

from a height H?

5. Four point masses are fastened to the corners of a frame of negligible

mass lying in the xy plane. Two of the masses lie along the x axis at

positions x = +a and x = −a and are both of the same mass M. The

other two masses lie along the y axis at positions y = +b and y = −b

and are both of the same mass m.

A) If the rotation of the system occurs about the y axis with an angu-

lar velocity ω, ﬁnd the moment of inertia about the y axis and the

rotational kinetic energy about this axis.

B) Now suppose the system rotates in the xy plane about an axis through

the origin (the z axis) with angular velocity ω. Calculate the moment

of inertia about the z axis and the rotational kinetic energy about this

axis.

6. A uniform object with rotational inertia I = αmR

2

rolls without

slipping down an incline of height H and inclination angle θ. With

what speed does the object reach the bottom of the incline? What

is the speed for a hollow cylinder (I = mR

2

) and a solid cylinder

(I =

1

2

MR

2

)? Compare to the result obtained when an object is

simply dropped from a height H.

7. A pencil of length L, with the pencil point at one end and an eraser

at the other end, is initially standing vertically on a table with the

9.7. PROBLEMS (8 QUESTIONS) 165

pencil point on the table. The pencil is let go and falls over. Derive a

formula for the speed with which the eraser strikes the table, assuming

that the pencil point does not move.

8. A bullet of mass m travelling with a speed v is shot into the rim of a

solid circular cylinder of radius R and mass M as shown in the ﬁgure.

The cylinder has a ﬁxed horizontal axis of rotation, and is originally

at rest. Derive a formula for the angular speed of the cylinder after

the bullet has become imbedded in it. (Hint: The rotational inertia of

a solid cylinder about the center axis is I =

1

2

MR

2

).

166 CHAPTER 9. ROTATIONAL MOTION

Chapter 10

GRAVITY

The study of gravitation has been one of the core areas of physics research

for the last 500 years. Indeed it was the study of gravity that revolutionized

much of our thinking of our place in the universe, for one of the key results

in the last 500 years was the realization that Earth is NOT the center of

the universe. This has had profound and dramatic consequences for all of

humankind.

I wish to emphasize the historical approach to the subject because it is

interesting and helps us understand the physics much better. A wonderful

book that tells the whole story in nice detail is by R. Kolb, ”Blind Watchers

of the Sky” (Helix Books, Addison-Wesley, New York, 1996). This would be

great reading between semesters! Some of the key historical ﬁgure are the

following:

Claudius Ptolemy (l40 A.D.)

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)

Isaac Newton (1642-1727)

Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

I would now like to just brieﬂy describe the contributions of each of these

ﬁgures. We shall elaborate on the mathematical details afterwards.

In the system of Ptolemy (l40 A.D.), the Earth was believed to be at

the center of the universe and the Sun, Moon, stars and planets all revolved

around the Earth, as seems to be indicated by simple observation. However,

upon closer inspection it can be seen that the planets (Greek word meaning

wanderer) actually do not move in smooth circles about the Earth but rather

167

168 CHAPTER 10. GRAVITY

do a kind of wandering motion. Actually they undergo a retrograde motion

with respect to an observer on Earth. This retrograde motion was very

puzzling to the ancients, and ran afoul of the idea that all heavenly bodies

moved in pure circles. In order to save the theoretical notion of pure circles

and yet to explain the observational fact of retrograde motion for the planets,

Ptolemy introduced the idea of epicycles. Figure 14.1 shows that instead

of a planet moving in a great circle about the Earth, as do the Sun and

Stars, Ptolemy’s idea was that another circle called an epicycle moves ina

great circle around the Earth and the planets move around on the epicycles.

This ’explains’ the observations of retrograde motion. But Ptolemy’s system

leaves unanswered the question of where the epicycle comes from. However

this system of epicylces enjoyed great success for over a thousand years.

Earth

epicycle

Figure 14.1 Ptolemaic epicycle.

However later on came Copernicus (1473-1543), a Polish monk, who

suggested that the Earth is not at the center of the universe. From a psy-

169

chological point of view, this is probably the most important scientiﬁc idea

in history. Copernicus thought instead that the Sun was at the center of

the universe and that all the planets, including Earth, revolved around it.

This provided an alternative explanation for the retrograde motion of the

planets, for if the planets move at diﬀerent speeds around the Sun, then

from the point of view of an observer on Earth, the planets will appear to

move forward and then backward depending upon the relative orientation.

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was one of the greates observational astronomers

in history. Of course the telescope had not yet been invented and all of Ty-

cho’s observations were with some geometric instruments and the naked eye.

He mounted an intensive campaign to accurately record the motion of all the

planets. After Tycho died, Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) obtained access to

Tycho’s precision data and was able to use it to ﬁgure out the exact motion

of the planets to a high degree of precision. In particular Kepler discovered

that the motion of the planets was not the perfect circle after all, but rather

the motions were elliptical. From analyzing Tycho’s data Kepler discovered

3 important facts about the planets. These are usually called Kepler’s laws

of planetary motion. They are

1) All planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus.

2) The line joining any planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal

times.

3) The period squared is proportional to the mean distance cubed, i.e.

T

2

∝ R

3

. (The period T is the time it takes for a planet to complete one

orbit of the Sun. For Earth this is 365 days. The mean distance R is the

average distance from the Sun to the planet in question.)

Meanwhile, Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) used the newly invented telescope

to view the heavens for the ﬁrst time. Among his many great discoveries,

were observations of the moons of Jupiter clearly showing orbits around the

planet itself. This was the ﬁrst direct observation of bodies which did not

orbit Earth.

One important point to note about Kepler’s laws is that they were ’mere’

empirical facts. No one understood why they were true. In fact Kepler

spent the rest of his life trying to explain then. It was not until Isaac

Newton (1642-1727) invented a theory of gravity that Kepler’s laws were

ﬁnally understood on a theoretical basis. Newton had been thinking deeply

about what holds the moon in orbit around Earth and what holds the planets

in orbit around the Sun. The story goes that Newton was sitting under

an apple tree watching the apples fall oﬀ the tree onto the ground. It

suddenly occured to Newton that the force causing the apples to fall to the

ground is the same force that keeps the moon in orbit about Earth and the

170 CHAPTER 10. GRAVITY

planets in orbit about the Sun. What a great leap of imagination ! Newton

hypothesized that the gravitational force between any two objects was given

by an inverse square law of the form

F = G

m

1

m

2

r

2

(10.1)

where m

1

and m

2

are the masses of the bodies and r is the distance between

their centers. G is a constant. Note that this says that if the distance

between two bodies is doubled the force drops by a factor of 4. The great

triumph of Newton’s gravitational theory was that he could derive Kepler’s

laws. We shall go through this derivation in a moment.

The story of gravity is not complete without mentioning Einstein’s Gen-

eral Theory of Relativity which was another theory of gravity completely at

odds with Newton’s theory. In Einstein’s theory there is no mention of any

forces at all. Rather, gravity is seen to be due to a curvature of space and

time. The concept of force is more of an illusion. Einstein’s theory was also

able to explain Kepler’s laws, but its advantage over Newton’e theory was

that it explained additional facts about the planets such as the precession

of the orbit of mercury and the deﬂection of starlight by the Sun.

Actually even today the story of gravity is not complete. In fact of the

4 forces that we have identiﬁed in nature (gravity, electromagnetism, strong

force, weak force), it is gravity that still remains poorly understood. The

theory of quantum mechanics was invented early this century to describe the

motion of tiny particles such as atoms. The great problem with gravity is

that no one has succeeded in making it consistent with quantum mechanics.

A recent theory, called Superstring theory, may be the answer but we will

have to wait and see. By the way, the physics department at the University

of Wisconsin-Milwaukee is one of the leading centers in the nation for the

modern study of gravity.

10.1 Newton’s Gravitational Force Law

We already know about Newton’s three laws of motion, the second of which

is

¸

F = ma. These three laws describe motion in general. They never

refer to a speciﬁc force. Newton however did also study in detail a speciﬁc

force, namely gravity. He conjectured that the gravitational force between

two bodies of mass m

1

and m

2

whose centers are separated by a distance of

r has a magnitude of

F = −G

m

1

m

2

r

2

10.2. GRAVITY NEAR THE SURFACE OF EARTH 171

The minus sign tells us that the force points inwards. The value of G was

determined later in 1798 by Cavendish. It’s value measured today is

G = 6.67 10

−11

Nm

2

kg

−2

However, it is interesting that today the gravitational constant is the least

accurately known of all the fundamental constants. For instance, its most

accurately known value is actually G = (6.67259±0.00085)10

−11

Nm

2

kg

−2

[see Particle Properties Data Booklet, 1996] whereas for example the charge

of the electron is (1.60217733 ±0.00000049) 10

−19

Coulomb or the speed

of light is 299 792 458 m sec

−1

which are known much more accurately than

G. Another example is the strength of the electrical force, called the ﬁne

structure constant, α

−1

= 137.0359895 ±0.0000061.

Note: F should always be written with a minus sign to indicate an atractive

inwards force.

Now the vector form of Newton’s Law is

F = −G

m

1

m

2

r

2

ˆr

where ˆr is a unit vector point from one mass out to the other. The gravita-

tional force is an inward force and that’s why the minus sign appears.

10.2 Gravity near the Surface of Earth

Newton’s formula F = G

m

1

m

2

r

2

is often called the law of Universal Gravita-

tion because it applies to all bodies in the universe. How does it ﬁt in with

our concept of Weight which we deﬁned to be the gravitational force at the

surface of the Earth, namely

W ≡ mg

where g = 9.8 m sec

−1

is the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the

Earth? Well, if F = G

m

1

m

2

r

2

is universal then it should predict the Weight

force. Let’s see how this comes about.

172 CHAPTER 10. GRAVITY

Example Show that F = G

m

1

m

2

r

2

gives the same result as

W = mg near the surface of Earth.

Solution Let m

1

≡ M be the mass of Earth, which is m

1

=

M = 5.98 10

24

kg. Let m

2

≡ m be the mass of a person of

weight W = mg. The distance between the centers of the masses

is just the radius of Earth, i.e. r = 6370 km (which is about 4000

miles, only slightly larger than the width of the United States or

Australia). Thus the gravitational force between the two masses

is

F = G

mM

r

2

= 6.67 10

−11

Nm

2

kg

−2

m5.98 10

24

kg

(6.37 10

6

m)

2

= m9.8 m sec

−2

which is the same as W = mg. In other words we have predicted

the value of g from the mass and radius of Earth. You could now

do the same for the other planets.

Example Explain how to measure the mass of Earth.

Solution In the previous example, we found

g = G

M

r

2

where M is the mass of Earth and r is the radius of Earth. Thus

by measuring g (which you do in the lab) and by measuring r

(which the ancient Greeks knew how to do by comparing the

depth of a shadow in a well at two diﬀerent locations at the

same time) then M is given by

M =

gr

2

G

and G was measured in the famous Cavendish experiment (look

this up).

10.2. GRAVITY NEAR THE SURFACE OF EARTH 173

10.2.1 Gravity Inside Earth

If you go down a deep mine shaft then there will be Earth below you and

Earth above you. It is interesting to ﬁgure out that the Earth above you

won’t have any overall gravitational eﬀect. The easiest way to see this

is to suppose you were located exactly at the center of Earth. Then the

gravitational pull of all the Earth surrounding you above will all cancel out

and you will fee zero net force. Now consider Figure 14.2 where a person

is located at point P inside the Earth, at a distance r from the center of

Earth.

r

B

A

P

Figure 14.2 A person is located as point P inside the Earth, as a

distance r from the center of Earth.

I have drawn a dotted circle of radius r intersecting point P. We all

agree that the total mass located inside the dotted circle produces a net

gravitational force on the person. However the mass outside the dotted

circle produces no net gravitational force. This can be seen by considering

the shaded regions A and B. Region A contains a small amount of mass

which will pull the person at P outwards. However the mass contained in

174 CHAPTER 10. GRAVITY

B will pull in the opposite direction. Now there is more mass in B, but it

is further away and so the gravitational eﬀects of the mass in A and in B

cancel out. Thus we can ignore all of the mass located outside of the dotted

circle.

10.3 Potential Energy

Let’s brieﬂy recall our ideas about work and energy. The total work was

deﬁned as W ≡

**F dr. By substituting F = ma we found the work was
**

always equal to the change in kinetic energy, i.e.

W ≡

F dr = ∆K

The total work consisted of two parts namely, conservative W

C

and non-

conservative W

NC

. We deﬁned potential energy U via

W

C

=

F

C

dr ≡ −∆U

giving

W = W

C

+W

NC

= −∆U +W

NC

= ∆K

or

∆U + ∆K = W

NC

which we called the work-energy theorem. Now K is always given by K =

1

2

mv

2

(which came from

ma dr = ∆K) but U is diﬀerent for diﬀerent

forces (because −∆U =

F dr).

For a spring force F = −kx

ˆ

i we found U =

1

2

kx

2

. For gravity near the

surface of Earth, F = −mg

ˆ

j we found U = mgy. For universal gravitation

F = −G

m

1

m

2

r

2

ˆr we will ﬁnd that the gravitational potential energy is

U = −G

m

1

m

2

r

10.3. POTENTIAL ENERGY 175

Example For gravity near the surface of Earth, prove that

U = mgy.

Solution This was already done in Chapter 8 (these notes).

Let’s do it again.

W

C

≡

F

C

dr ≡ −∆U

Now F = −mg

ˆ

j and dr = dx

ˆ

i +dy

ˆ

j +dz

ˆ

k. Thus

F dr = −mg dy

giving

W

C

= −mg

y

f

y

i

dy ≡ −∆U

= −mg(y

f

−y

i

) = −(U

f

−U

i

)

= −mgy

f

+mgy

i

= −U

f

+U

i

giving

U

f

= mgy

f

U

i

= mgy

i

or just

U = mgy

176 CHAPTER 10. GRAVITY

Example For universal gravitation, prove that U = −G

m

1

m

2

r

.

Solution

W

C

=

F

C

dr ≡ −∆U

F = −G

m

1

m

2

r

2

ˆr and ds ≡ dr =ˆr dr

F dr = −G

m

1

m

2

r

2

dr ˆr ˆr = −G

m

1

m

2

r

2

dr

giving

W

C

= −Gm

1

m

2

r

f

r

i

1

r

2

dr = −∆U

= −Gm

1

m

2

¸

−

1

r

r

f

r

i

= −(U

f

−U

i

)

= −Gm

1

m

2

−

1

r

f

−−

1

r

i

= −Gm

1

m

2

−

1

r

f

+

1

r

i

= +G

m

1

m

2

r

f

−G

m

1

m

2

r

i

= −U

f

+U

i

giving

U

f

= −G

m

1

m

2

r

f

U

i

= −G

m

1

m

2

r

i

or just

U = −G

m

1

m

2

r

10.3. POTENTIAL ENERGY 177

Recall that we also had an alternative way of ﬁnding U without having

to work out the integral

F

C

dr. We had W

C

=

F

C

dr ≡ −∆U. Ignoring

the vectors we write

F

C

dr = −∆U

meaning that we must have

F

C

= −

dU

dr

This occurs because

f

i

F

C

dr = −

f

i

dU

dr

dr = −

U

f

U

i

dU = −[U]

U

f

U

i

= −(U

f

−U

i

) = −∆U

Example For universal gravitation F = −G

m

1

m

2

r

2

, derive U

without doing an integral.

Solution For universal gravitation, the question is what U will

give

F = −G

m

1

m

2

r

2

= −

dU

dr

The answer is U = −G

m

1

m

2

r

2

. Let’s check:

−

dU

dr

= +Gm

1

m

2

d

dr

1

r

2

= −

Gm

1

m

2

r

which is the F we started with!

178 CHAPTER 10. GRAVITY

10.4 Escape Speed

If you throw a ball up in the air it always comes back down. If you throw

it faster it goes higher before returning. There is a speed, called the escape

speed, such that the ball will not return at all. Let’s ﬁnd out what this is.

Example Calculate the speed with which a ball must be thrown,

so that it never returns to the ground.

Solution The ball usually returns to the ground because of its

gravitational potential energy U = −G

m

1

m

2

r

. However if we can

throw the ball to an inﬁnite distance, r = ∞, then U will be zero

and the ball will not return. We want to throw the ball so that

it just barely escapes to inﬁnity, that is its speed, when it gets

to inﬁnity, has dropped oﬀ to zero. Using conservation of energy

we have

K

i

+U

i

= K

f

+U

f

or

1

2

mv

2

i

−G

Mm

R

= O +O

where M is the mass of Earth, m is the mass of the ball and R is

the radius of Earth, because we throw the ball from the surface

of Earth. v

i

is the escape speed that we are looking for. Thus

1

2

mv

2

i

= G

Mm

R

and m cancels out giving

v

i

=

2GM

R

for the escape speed. Now the mass and radius of Earth are

M = 6 10

24

kg and R = 6370 km, giving

v

i

=

2 6.67 10

−11

Nm

2

kg

−2

6 10

24

kg

6.37 10

6

m

= 40, 353 km hour

−1

≈ 25, 000 miles per hour

10.4. ESCAPE SPEED 179

Now you can see that if M is very large or R is very small then the

escape speed gets very big. The speed of light is c = 3 10

8

m/sec. You

can imagine an object so massive or so small that the escape speed is bigger

than the speed of light. Then light itself cannot escape. Such an object is

called a Black Hole.

Example To what size would we need to squeeze Earth to turn

it into a Black Hole?

Solution Let’s set the escape speed equal to the speed of light

c = 3 10

8

m/sec. Thus

c =

2GM

R

c

2

=

2GM

R

giving

R =

2GM

c

2

=

2 6.67 10

−11

Nm

2

kg

−2

6 10

24

kg

(3 10

8

msec

−1

)

2

= 4.4 mm

(where M = mass of Earth = 6 10

24

kg). Thus if we could

squeeze the Earth to only 4 mm it would be a black hole!

180 CHAPTER 10. GRAVITY

Example The size of the universe is about 10 billion light years

and its total mass is about 10

53

kg. Calculate the escape speed

for the universe.

Solution A light year is the distance that light travels in one

year. Thus

light year = c 1 year

= 3 10

8

m

sec

365 24 60 60 sec

= 10

16

m

Thus

v =

2GM

r

=

2 6.67 10

−11

Nm

2

kg

−2

10kg

10 10

9

10

16

m

= 3.7 10

8

m/sec

= 1.2c

which is 1.2 times the speed of light. Thus is our universe really

a black hole? Do we actually live inside a black hole?

10.5. KEPLER’S LAWS 181

10.5 Kepler’s Laws

Let’s now use Newton’s law of gravitation to prove some of Kepler’s laws of

planetary motion.

Kepler’s ﬁrst law is that the planets move in elliptical orbits with the

Sun at one focus. This is somewhat diﬃcult to prove and we will leave it to

a more advanced physics course. A picture is shown in Figure 14.3 with the

Sun at the focus of an ellipse.

Sun

Planet

∆ t

∆ t

Figure 14.3 Planets sweep out equal areas in equal times.

Kepler’s second law states that the line joining a planet to the Sun sweeps

out equal areas in equal times. This is shown in Fig. 14.3. In the upper

part of the ﬁgure there are two shaded regions with the same area. The

planet takes the same time ∆t to sweep out this area. Thus the planets

move quickly when close to the Sun and move slowly when farther away.

182 CHAPTER 10. GRAVITY

Example Prove that Kepler’s second law can be derived from

Newton’s law of universal gravitation.

Solution Figure 14.4 shows the radius vector r and the dis-

placement v dt for the planet of mass m.

Sun

m

r

v dt

Figure 14.4 Area swept out by planet.

The shaded portion is the area swept out and has the shape of

a triangle of area

dA =

1

2

r v dt

The rate of change of area is

dA

dt

=

1

2

r v =

1

2m

mr v =

l

2m

where l is the angular momentum of the planet. But angular

momentum is constant, therefore

dA

dt

= constant

meaning that equal areas are swept out in equal times!

10.5. KEPLER’S LAWS 183

Kepler’s third law is that the period squared is proportional to the aver-

age distance cubed (T

2

∝ r

3

) for a planetary orbit. This is diﬃcult to prove

for elliptical orbits, which is done in a more advanced physics course. We

will prove it for a circular orbit only.

Actually the essenticity of the elliptical orbits are typically very small.

In other words the elliptical orbits are very close to circular orbits with

the Sun at the center. We shall prove Kepler’s other two laws with the

assumption that the orbits are circles. Thus we immediately know that the

right hand side of F = ma is

mv

2

r

because all uniform circular motion has

the centripetal acceleration given by a =

v

2

r

.

Example Prove that Kepler’s third law can be derived from

Newton’s law of universal gravitation. (Assume circular orbits

only)

Solution F = ma

gives

G

Mm

r

2

= m

v

2

r

Now the period T is the time to complete one orbit. Thus

v =

2πr

T

or

G

M

r

2

=

1

r

4π

2

r

2

T

2

=

4π

2

r

T

2

giving

T

2

=

4π

2

GM

r

3

or

T

2

∝ r

3

184 CHAPTER 10. GRAVITY

10.6 Einstein’s Theory of Gravity

10.7. PROBLEMS (9 QUESTIONS) 185

10.7 Problems (9 questions)

1. A hole is drilled from the United States to China through the center

of Earth. Ignoring the rotation of Earth, show that a particle dropped

into the hole experiences a gravitational force like Hooke’s law, and

therefore will undergo oscillation in the hole.

2. When you go down a mine shaft, do you weigh more or less than you

did at the surface of the Earth?

3. To what size would we need to squeeze Earth to turn it into a Black

Hole?

4. The distance between Earth and the Sun is about 93 million miles and

can easily be determined using parallax and trigonometry. How can

the mass of the Sun be subsequently determined? Derive a formula

for the mass of the Sun and then calculate it numerically.

5. The mass of Earth is m

E

= 5.8 10

24

kg and that of the Moon is

m

M

= 7.4 10

22

kg. The equatorial radius of Earth is R

E

= 6378 km

and that of the Moon is R

M

= 1738 km.

A) Derive a formula for the ratio of the weight of an astronaut on the

Moon compared to the weight of an astronuat on the Earth.

B) Calculate a number for this ratio. What is this as a percentage?

6. The International Space Station (ISS) is in an orbit approximately 400

km above the surface of the Earth.

A) How fast does the ISS move in its orbit? Give your answer in mph.

B) How long does it take to complete one orbit? Give your answer in

hours.

7. The average distance from Earth to the Sun is r

E

= 93 million miles.

This is given the fancy name of “Astronomical Unit” and is abbrevi-

ated as AU. The average distance between Mars and the Sun is d

M

=

1.5 AU.

A) Derive a formula for the orbital speed of Mars v

M

, in terms of the

orbital speed of Earth v

E

, which involves d

E

and d

M

.

B) How much faster does Earth move in its orbit compared to Mars?

(Calculate a number.)

186 CHAPTER 10. GRAVITY

8. Many satellites are put into geostationary orbits, so that the satellite

remains ﬁxed above a single point on Earth. The abbreviation for

such an orbit is GEO. (Examples are communications satellites and

the satellites in the Global Positioning System.)

A) Derive a formula for the orbital radius of a satellite which is geosta-

tionary above a point on the Earth’s equator. Your formula should

involve the G, the mass of Earth and the rotation period of Earth (i.e.

T = 24 hours).

B) Deduce a formula for the height H above the Earth’s surface of such

a satellite.

C) Calculate a numerical value for H in miles.

D) Compare this to the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) occupied by the Interna-

tional Space Station which is a only a height of 400 km = 250 miles,

above the Earth’s surface. Roughly how many times higher is GEO

compared to LEO?

9. The Lagrangian point between any two astronomical bodies (such as

the Earth and Moon) is the point where the gravitational forces cancel

out. This is a fascinating point because it acts as a virtual new planet

about which an oject can be orbited as long as the orbit is perpendic-

ular to the line between the two bodies. (You should think about why

this is so.)

A) Derive a formula for the position of the Lagrangian point from the

center of Earth, as a fraction of the distance from Earth to the Moon.

B) Determine the numerical value of this fraction.

C) The Moon is about 1/4 million miles from Earth. Where is the La-

grangian point? Give your answer as a distance from the center of

Earth.

Chapter 11

FLUIDS

I have not written this yet !

187

188 CHAPTER 11. FLUIDS

Chapter 12

OSCILLATIONS

12.1 Introduction

Much of the motion that we have considered, such as motion of a car in

a straight line or projectile motion, has started and then ﬁnished, i.e. it

does not repeat. However a great deal of motion in nature is repetitive

or oscillatory, such as a satellite undergoing circular motion, or an object

suspended on a spring or a buoy bobbing up and down in the water. We

would now like to study oscillations in detail. This will later lead to the

study of wave motion which is also oscillatory in nature.

Oscillations are of great technological importance, especially in regard

to time keeping.

(Note: Mechanical Universe tapes very good – especially discussion of clocks

and navigation.)

12.2 Simple Harmonic Motion

An important property of oscillatory motion is the frequency f which is the

number of oscillations completed each second. The units are sec

−1

or Hertz,

often abbreviated as Hz. Thus

1 Hertz = 1 Hz = 1 oscillation per second

= 1 sec

−1

.

Another related quantity is the period T which is the time taken to

189

190 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS

complete 1 full oscillation. Now

f =

number of oscillations

time

and if the time is simply T then 1 oscillation is completed. Thus

f =

1

T

In circular motion, which is a type of oscillatory motion, we introduced the

angular speed ω deﬁned as

ω =

∆θ

∆t

Clearly if ∆θ = 2π then ∆t = T giving ω =

2π

T

. Thus angular velocity and

frequency are related by

ω = 2πf

In oscillations ω is often called angular frequency.

Any motion that repeats itself at regular intevals is called oscillatory

motion or harmonic motion. Now of all the mathematical functions that you

have ever come across, there is one famous function that displays oscillations

and that is cos θ, which is plotted in Figure 16.1.

0 5 10 15 20

x

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

C

o

s

x

Figure 16.1 Plot of cos θ.

Thus the displacement x for oscillatory motion can be written

x = Acos θ

but ω =

θ

t

, giving

x = Acos ωt

12.2. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 191

We can also introduce a phase angle φ if we want and instead write

x = Acos(ωt +φ)

Here A refers to the maximum value of the displacement x. And A is often

called the amplitude of the motion.

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Spring and Pendulum

Any motion that obeys the above equation x = Acos ωt is called Simple

Harmonic Motion (SHM).

The velocity of SHM is easy to ﬁgure out. First recall that if y = cos kx

then

dy

dx

= −k sinkx. Now the velocity is

v =

dx

dt

= −ωAsinωt

Also recall if y = sinkx when

dy

dx

= k cos kx. Now the acceleration is

a =

dv

dt

= −ω

2

Acos ωt

from which it follows that

a = −ω

2

x

In Figure 16-4 of Haliday, there is a plot of x, v, a. Notice that when x and

a are at a maximum, then v is a minimum and vice-versa.

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show this for Spring

Now consider Newton’s law for a Spring where the force is given by

F = −kx (Hooke’s law), where k is called the spring constant. Substituting

into

F = ma

−kx = ma

but we found that a = −ω

2

x giving

−kx = −mω

2

x

or

ω =

k

m

192 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS

which is the angular frequency for an oscillating spring. The period is ob-

tained from ω = 2πf =

2π

T

or

T = 2π

m

k

Notice an amazing thing. The period does not depend on the amplitude

of oscillation A! When a spring is oscillating, the oscillations tend to die

down in amplitude A but the period of oscillation remains the same! This

is crucial to the operation of clocks. I can “wind” my spring clock by just

pulling on it a bit and still the period is the same.

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show this for Spring and Pendulum. Also

show T ∝

√

m and T ∝

1

√

k

.

12.2. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 193

Example F = ma is really a diﬀerential equation, that is an

equation involving derivatives. For the spring, it becomes −kx =

ma = m¨ x where ¨ x =

d

2

x

dt

2

. Thus the diﬀerential equation is

m¨ x +kx = 0

In mathematics there are special techniques for solving diﬀer-

ential equations, which you will learn about in a special dif-

ferential equations course. Using these special techniques one

can prove that x = Acos ωt is a solution to the above diﬀeren-

tial equation. (Just like the solution to the algebraic equation

x

2

− 5 = 4 is x = ±3. We verify this solution by sustituting,

(±3)

2

−5 = 9 −5 = 4). Many students will not have yet learned

how to solve diﬀerential equations, but we can verify that the

solution given is correct.

Verify that x = Acos ωt is a solution to the diﬀerential equation

m¨ x +kx = 0.

Solution

x = Acos ωt

˙ x =

dx

dt

= −ωAsinωt

¨ x =

d ˙ x

dt

=

d

2

x

dt

2

= −ω

2

Acos ωt

Substitute into

m¨ x +kx = 0

giving

−mω

2

Acos ωt +kAcos ωt = 0

or

−mω

2

+k = 0

Thus if

ω =

k

m

then x = Acos ωt is a solution.

194 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS

Example When a mass is suspended from the end of a massless

spring, the spring stretches by a distance x. If the spring and

mass are then put into oscillation, what is the period?

Solution We saw that the period is given by T = 2π

m

k

. We

don’t know m or k ! We can get k from Hooke’s law F = −kx.

The weight W = mg stretches the spring, thus mg = kx or

k =

mg

x

. Thus

T = 2π

mx

mg

and fortunately m cancels out giving

T = 2π

x

g

12.2.1 Energy

We found before that the potential energy stored in a spring is U =

1

2

kx

2

and the kinetic energy is K =

1

2

mv

2

. The conservation of mechanical energy

says that

E

i

= E

f

where the total energy is

E ≡ K +U

That is

K

i

+U

i

= K

f

+U

f

Thus E is constant. However for a spring x and v are always changing. Can

we be sure that E is always constant ?

12.3. PENDULUMS 195

Example For SHM, show that the total energy is always con-

stant even though K and U always change.

Solution Recall that for SHM we have x = Acos ωt and

v = −ωAsinωt. Thus

U =

1

2

kx

2

=

1

2

kx

2

m

cos

2

ωt

and

K =

1

2

mv

2

=

1

2

mω

2

A

2

sin

2

ωt.

Thus U and K always change. Let’s add them.

E = K +U

=

1

2

mω

2

A

2

sin

2

ωt +

1

2

kA

2

cos

2

ωt

but we previously found that ω =

k

m

giving

E =

1

2

m

k

m

A

2

sin

2

ωt +

1

2

kA

2

cos

2

ωt

=

1

2

kA

2

(sin

2

ωt + cos

2

ωt)

E =

1

2

kA

2

which is always constant because the amplitude A is constant!

12.3 Pendulums

A pendulum is a very important type of oscillating motion and a very im-

portant clock (e.g. “Grandfather Clock”). The forces on a pendulum are

shown in the ﬁgure nnn. Let’s analyze the forces and show that the period

is independent of amplitude.

Example Prove that the period of a pendulum undergoing

small oscillations is given by T = 2π

L

g

where L is the length

of the pendulum.

196 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS

Solution From the ﬁgure nnn we have

¸

F

k

= ma

x

where we take the x direction to be perpendicular to the string.

Thus

−mg sinθ = mαL

where α is the angular acceleration α =

d

2

θ

dt

2

. Now for small

oscillations, sinθ ≈ θ, so that

−gθ = m

d

2

θ

dt

2

L

Now compare this to our spring equation which was

−kx = ma

−kx = m

d

2

x

dt

2

which had period T = 2π

m

k

. Thus for the pendulum we must

have

T = 2π

L

g

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show T ∝

√

L

12.3. PENDULUMS 197

Example A Physical Pendulum consists of a solid piece of mat-

ter undergoing oscillations. Prove that the period of oscillation

is T = 2π

I

mg h

, where I is the rotational inertia, m is the total

mass and h is the distance from the rotation axis to the center

of mass. Assume small oscillations.

Solution The torque is

τ = −(mg sinθ)h

where the minus sign indicates that when θ increases the torque

acts in the opposite direction. For small oscillations sinθ ≈ θ

giving

τ ≈ −mgθh

Substitute into Newton’s second law

¸

τ = Iα

gives

−mgθh = I

¨

θ

= I

d

2

θ

dt

2

Now compare this to our spring equation which was

−kx = ma

−kx = m

d

2

x

dt

2

which had period T = 2π

m

k

. Thus for the physical pendulum

we must have

T = 2π

I

mgh

198 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS

m

m

m

k

1

1

k

k

1

k

2

k

2

k

2

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 16.2 Block sliding on frictionless surface with various spring com-

binations.

12.3. PENDULUMS 199

Example Two springs, with spring constants k

1

and k

2

, are

connected in parallel to a mass m sliding on a frictionless surface,

as shown in Fig. 16.2a. What is the eﬀective spring constant K?

(i.e. If the two springs were replaced by a single spring with

constant K, what is K in terms of k

1

and k

2

?) Assume both

springs have zero mass.

Solution If m moves by an amount x then it feels two forces

−k

1

x and −k

2

x, giving

¸

F = ma

−k

1

x −k

2

x = m¨ x

−(k

1

+k

2

)x = m¨ x

giving

K = k

1

+k

2

200 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS

Example The two springs of the previous example are con-

nected in series, as shown in Fig. 16.2b. What is the eﬀective

spring constant K ?

Solution If spring 1 moves a distance x

1

and spring 2 moves a

distance x

2

then the mass moves a distance x

1

+ x

2

. The force

the mass feels is

F = −K(x

1

+x

2

)

Now consider the motion of the mass plus spring 2 system. The

force it feels is

f = −k

1

x

1

but we must have F = f because ma is same for mass m and

mass plus spring 2 system because spring 2 has zero mass. Thus

K =

k

1

x

1

x

1

+x

2

but

k

1

x

1

= k

2

x

2

(the ratio of stretching

x

1

x

2

=

k

2

k

1

is inversely proportional to spring

strength.) Thus K =

k

1

x

1

x

1

+

k

1

k

2

x

1

giving

K =

k

1

k

2

k

1

+k

2

or

1

K

=

1

k

1

+

1

k

2

12.4. NAVIGATION AND CLOCKS 201

Example The two springs of the previous example are con-

nected as shown in Fig.16.2c. What is the eﬀective spring con-

stant K?

Solution If spring 1 is compressed by x then spring 2 is stretched

by −x. Thus

¸

F = ma

−k

1

x +k

2

(−x) = m¨ x

−(k

1

+k

2

)x = m¨ x

giving

K = k

1

+k

2

12.4 Navigation and Clocks

NNN - FIX For a pendulum, this independence of the period on the am-

plitude was ﬁrst noticed by Galileo and led to the development of clocks

which was very important for navigation. The reason was that it enabled

one to determine longitude on Earth. (Latitude was easy to determine just

by measuring the height of the Sun in the sky at noon.) By dragging knotted

ropes behind a ship it was easy to measure the speed of a ship. If one knew

how long one had been travelling (i.e. measure the time of travel, say with

a pendulum or spring clock) then one knew the distance from the port from

which one had set sail. Knowing longitude and latitude gives one’s position

on the Earth. Thus the invention of accurate clocks (based on the indepen-

dence of period and amplitude) enabled accurate estimates of longitude and

thus revolutionized navigation.

202 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS

12.5 Problems (7 questions)

1. An object of mass m oscillates on the end of a spring with spring con-

stant k. Derive a formula for the time it takes the spring to stretch from

its equilibrium position to the point of maximum extension. Check

that your answer has the correct units.

2. An object of mass m oscillates at the end of a spring with spring

constant k and amplitude A. Derive a formula for the speed of the

object when it is at a distance d from the equilibrium position. Check

that your answer has the correct units.

3. A block of mass m is connected to a spring with spring constant k,

and oscillates on a horizontal, frictionless surface. The other end of the

spring is ﬁxed to a wall. If the amplitude of oscillation is A, derive a

formula for the speed of the block as a function of x, the displacement

from equilibrium. (Assume the mass of the spring is negligible.)

4. A particle that hangs from a spring oscillates with an angular fre-

quency ω. The spring-particle system is suspended from the ceiling of

an elevator car and hangs motionless (relative to the elevator car), as

the car descends at a constant speed v. The car then stops suddenly.

Derive a formula for the amplitude with which the particle oscillates.

(Assume the mass of the spring is negligible.)

5. A large block, with a second block sitting on top, is connected to a

spring and executes horizontal simple harmonic motion as it slides

across a frictionless surface with an angular frequency ω. The coeﬃ-

cient of static friction between the two blocks is µ

s

. Derive a formula

for the maximum amplitude of oscillation that the system can have if

the upper block is not to slip. (Assume that the mass of the spring is

negligible.)

6. A simple pendulum consists of a ball of mass M hanging from a uni-

form string of mass m, with m <M (m is much smaller than M). If

the period of oscillation for the pendulum is T, derive a formula for

the speed of a transverse wave in the string when the pendulum hangs

at rest.

7. For a mass m subject only to a spring force F = −kx, the motion is

described by x = Acos ωt. Substituting into F = ma one can show

12.5. PROBLEMS (7 QUESTIONS) 203

that ω =

k

m

. Now consider the spring suspended from a ceiling so

that it is also subject to gravity. Show that ω =

k

m

is still true.

204 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS

Chapter 13

WAVES

13.1 Introduction

So far we have studied the motion of single particles and systems of particles.

However the motion of waves requires a diﬀerent type of approach, although

we will use extensively some of our results from harmonic motion.

Waves are an important phenomenon in nature. There are water waves,

sound waves by which we hear, light waves by which we see, and radio waves

by which we communicate. Thus in today’s modern society it is important

to understand wave motion.

There are two diﬀerent types of waves. Transverse waves are the ones

you are most familiar with, such as water waves or waves on a string. Trans-

verse waves have the property that the wave displacement is perpendicular

to the velocity of the wave. Sound waves are an example of longitudinal

waves in which the wave displacement is parallel to the wave velocity. When

you hear a sound wave, the wave travels to your ear and vibrates your ear

drum in the same direction as travel.

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Slinky showing tranverse and longitudinal

waves.

13.2 Wavelength, Frequency, Speed

There are 3 important variables for a wave, namely, i) the height y of the

wave, ii) the distance x that the wave travels and iii) the time t that the

wave travels. When visualizing a wave we usually think of a y −x plot or a

y −t plot.

205

206 CHAPTER 13. WAVES

The y − x plot represents an instant of time t and is similar to a pho-

tograph or snapshot of a water wave that we would take at the beach. The

distance between wave crests (that we could measure from our snapshot) is

called the wavelength λ.

The y −t plot represents a single location x and is similar to a movie of

a buoy bobbing up and down in the water as a wave passes through. The

buoy is anchored to the ocean ﬂoor at a ﬁxed distance x. The time it takes

the buoy to bob up and down once is called the period T of the wave.

Thus, to summarize, λ is determined from the y − x graph (instant of

time t) whereas T is determined from the y − t graph (ﬁxed distance x).

Thus y is a function of both x and t, written as y(x, t). Now the y −x graph

can be written

y(x, 0) = Asinkx

where we have taken the instant of time to be t = 0. The reason we have

written sinkx and not just sinx is because the domain of the sine function

is an angle. We can only ever have sinθ where θ is an angle. Thus we cannot

write sinx because x is not an angle. Actually x is a distance with units of

m. However we want to use x as a plotting variable. To do this we have to

multiply it by something called k, so that the quantity kx is an angle, i.e.

θ ≡ kx. Now what is k? Well if kx is an angle then after one complete wave

cycle, the angle kx must be 2π. Now after one complete cycle the distance

the wave moves is x = λ. Thus we must have

θ = kx

or

2π = kλ

giving

k =

λ

2π

which is called the wave number. Similarly, the y −t graph can be written

y(0, t) = Asinωt

where we have taken the ﬁxed distance to be x = 0. We did not write sint

because t is not an angle, whereas ωt is an angle. ω is the angular speed

that we have discussed before. Again after one complete wave cycle ωt must

be 2π and after one cycle the time t will just be one period T. Thus we

must have

θ = ωt

13.2. WAVELENGTH, FREQUENCY, SPEED 207

or

2π = ωT

giving

ω =

2π

T

= 2πf

which is often called the angular frequency ω. We previously deﬁned f ≡

1

T

in Chapter 16. A general wave can be written

y(x, t) = Asin(kx +ωt)

Does this agree with what we had before? Yes. We can see that

y(x, 0) = Asinkx and y(0, t) = Asinωt.

A handy formula for wave speed is easy to get! In one complete cycle

the wave travels a distance x = λ and takes a time t = T to do it. Thus the

wave speed must be

v =

distance

time

=

x

t

=

λ

T

Simple algebra also gives

v =

λ

T

= fλ =

ω

k

208 CHAPTER 13. WAVES

Example What is the amplitude, wavelength, frequency and

speed of the wave described by

y(x, t) = 5 sin(3x + 2t)

with all quantities in SI units (i.e. 5 m, 3 m

−1

and 2 sec

−1

).

Solution The general wave is

y(x, t) = Asin(kx +ωt)

Thus the amplitude is

A = 5 m

the wave number is

k = 3 m

−1

and angular frequency is

ω = 2 sec

−1

Now k =

2π

k

= 3 m

−1

giving

λ =

2π

k

=

2π

3 m

−1

= 2.1 m

and ω = 2πf = 2 sec

−1

giving

f =

ω

2π

=

2 sec

−1

2π

= 0.32 sec

−1

and the speed is

v = fλ = 0.32 sec

−1

2.1 m = 0.67 m/sec

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Wave speed depends on tension.

When a wave travels on a string, the wave speed depends on both the

string tension τ and the mass per unit length µ, or linear mass density.

What must the exact formula be? (τ is now tension, not torque) Well the

units of v are m sec

−1

and units of τ are N ≡ kg m sec

−1

and units of µ are

13.3. INTERFERENCE, STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 209

kg m

−1

. To get m sec

−1

from kg m sec

−2

and kg m

−1

can only be obtained

with

m sec

−1

=

kg m sec

−2

kg m

−1

=

√

m

2

sec

−2

= m sec

−1

Thus we must have

v =

τ

µ

And we can combine with our previous formula, so that the wave speed on

a string is v = fλ =

τ

µ

.

13.3 Interference, Standing Waves and Resonance

discuss interference

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show wave interference using slinky.

When waves travel down a string they can reﬂect back from the other

end and interfere with the other waves.

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Standing waves on slinky.

In this way standing waves of diﬀerent wavelength can be produced. The

wave of lowest frequency (longest wavelength) is called the fundamental

harmonic. Higher frequencies are called higher harmonics. The various

allowed harmonics are shown in Fig. 17-18 (Haliday). The relations between

the wavelength λ and the length of the string L for the various harmonics

are

L =

λ

2

L = λ =

2λ

2

L =

3λ

2

etc. These can be written in general as

L = n

λ

2

with n = 1, 2, 3,

210 CHAPTER 13. WAVES

Now the wave speed is v = fλ =

τ

µ

and writing λ =

2L

n

gives f

2L

n

=

τ

µ

or

f =

n

2L

τ

µ

This is an extremely important formula for the design of muscial instru-

ments.

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show how frequency of Sound from Violin

depends on length L, tension τ and mass density µ, thus verifying the above

formula.

13.4. SOUND 211

Example Middle C has a frequency of 262 Hz. What tension

do we need to apply to a violin string to get this frequency for

the fundamental harmonic? (Assume the string has a mass of

about 10 gram and a length of 1/4 m.)

Solution The mass per unit length µ is

µ =

10 gram

1/4 m

=

0.01 kg

.25 m

= 0.04 kg m

−1

The frequency is given by f =

n

2L

τ

µ

. The fundamental har-

monic corresponds to n = 1, giving

τ = µ(2Lf)

2

= 0.04 kg m

−1

(2 0.25 m 262 sec

−1

)

2

= 686 kg m

−1

m

2

sec

−2

= 686 kg m sec

−2

= 686 N

13.4 Sound

This section is mostly devoted to the study of sound waves, although much

of what we have to say can also be applied to light waves. By the way, sound

waves are longitudinal whereas light waves are transverse.

The speed of sound in any medium is given by

v =

B

ρ

where ρ is the density of the medium and B is the Bulk Modulus deﬁned as

B ≡ −

∆p

∆V/V

where a change in pressure ∆p causes a change in the volume ∆V of a

medium.

In air the speed of sound is

343 m/sec = 1125 ft/sec = 767 mph

212 CHAPTER 13. WAVES

The speed of sound was exceeded in an airplane many years ago. However

the sound barrier was broken by an automobile only for the ﬁrst time in

October 1997!

Sound Intensity: Understand the formula for sound level

β ≡ 10dBlog

I

I

o

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Standing Sound Waves & Water Column

Example For a pipe open at both ends, determine the relation-

ship between the length of the pipe L and the frequencies of the

various harmonics.

Solution The pipe open at both ends is shown in ﬁgure nnn.

There is a pressure node at the closed end and an anitnode at

the open end. The relations between the wavelength λ and the

pipe length L for the various harmonics is

L =

λ

2

=

1

2

λ

L = λ =

2

2

λ

L =

3

2

λ

L = 2λ =

4

2

λ

etc. These can be written in general as

L =

nλ

2

with n = 1, 2, 3

13.4. SOUND 213

Example Repeat the previous example for a pipe open at only

one end.

Solution Obviously

L =

λ

4

=

1λ

4

L =

3λ

4

L =

5λ

4

etc. These can be written in general as

L =

nλ

4

with n = 1, 3, 5

Now recall that v = fλ =

B

ρ

. Thus for the pipe open at both ends

f =

n

2L

B

ρ

with n = 1, 2, 3,

and for the pipe open at one end,

f =

n

4L

B

ρ

with n = 1, 3, 5,

These are very important formulas for the design of wind musical instru-

ments, such as a ﬂute or recorder.

Note that a longer instrument (larger L) will give a lower frequency.

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Two recorders.

Also note that the frequency depends on the density of air.

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Talking with Helium gas.

214 CHAPTER 13. WAVES

13.5 Doppler Eﬀect

Everyone has noticed the pitch of the sound of a train varies when the

train passes. You can also easily hear this just listening to cars drive down

the road. This change in frequency of a moving sound source is called the

Doppler eﬀect.

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Moving Microphone (twirl on a string)

The same Doppler eﬀect is also observed when the listener is moving and

the source is stationary.

We have previously seen that for a stationary observer and source, then

f =

v

λ

where v is the wave speed and λ is the wavelength.

Example An observer moves toward a stationary source of

sound waves at a speed v

D

(detector speed). Derive a formula

for the observed frequency f

**in terms of the stationary frequency
**

f.

Solution The detector will sense a higher frequency as in

f

=

v +v

D

λ

Now

f

f

=

v+v

D

λ

v

λ

=

v +v

D

v

or

f

= f

v +v

D

v

Note: if the observer was moving away, the result would be

f

= f

v −v

D

v

13.5. DOPPLER EFFECT 215

Example A sound wave moves toward a stationary observer at

a speed v

s

. Derive a formula for the observed frequency f

in

terms of the stationary frequency f.

Solution This time it is the wavelength which changes and it

will be smaller as in

λ

= λ −

v

s

f

f

is now (due to change in λ

)

f

=

v

λ

=

v

λ −

vs

f

=

vf

λf −v

s

=

vf

v −v

s

or

f

= f

v

v −v

s

Note: if the source was smoving away, the result would be

f

= f

v

v +v

s

All of the previous results can be combined into a single formula,

f

= f

v ±v

D

v ∓v

s

If v

s

= 0 we get f

= f

v±v

D

v

as before and if v

D

= 0 we get f

= f

v

v∓vs

as

before. An easy way to remember the signs is that if detector and source

are moving toward each other the frequency increases. If they are moving

away from each other the frequencydecreases.

216 CHAPTER 13. WAVES

The Austrian physicist, Johann Christian Doppler proposed the eﬀect in

1842. In 1845 it was tested experimentally by Buys Ballot using a locomotive

drawing an open train car with trumpeters playing.

Example Middle C has a frequency of 264 Hz. The D note has

a fequency of 300 Hz. If a trumpeter is playing the C note on

a train, how fast would the train need to travel for a stationary

person (with perfect pitch) on the ground to hear a D note?

Solution Solution Here v

D

= 0 and we want to ﬁnd v

s

. The

frequency increases and we have

f

= f

v

v −v

s

⇒

1

f

=

v −v

s

fv

⇒ v −v

s

=

fv

f

⇒ v

s

= v(1 −

f

f

)

= 767 mph (1 −

264Hz

300Hz

)

= 92 mph

13.6. PROBLEMS (8 QUESTIONS) 217

13.6 Problems (8 questions)

1. A uniform rope of mass m and length L is suspended vertically. Derive

a formula for the time it takes a transverse wave pulse to travel the

length of the rope. (Hint: First ﬁnd an expression for the wave speed at

any point a distance x from the lower end by considering the tension

in the rope as resulting from the weight of the segment below that

point.)

2. A uniform cord has a mass m and a length L. The cord passes over

a pulley and supports an object of mass M as shown in the ﬁgure.

Derive a formula for the speed of a wave pulse travelling along the

cord.

M

x

L - x

218 CHAPTER 13. WAVES

3. A block of mass M, supported by a string, rests on an incline making

an angle θ with the horizontal. The string’s length is L and its mass

is m <M (i.e. m is negligible compared to M). Derive a formula for

the time it takes a transverse wave to travel from one end of the string

to the other.

L

θ

M

4. A stationary train emits a whistle at a frequency f. The whistle

sounds higher or lower in pitch depending on whether the moving

train is approaching or receding. Derive a formula for the diﬀerence

in frequency ∆f, between the approaching and receding train whistle

in terms of u, the speed of the train, and v, the speed of sound.

5. Three successive resonance frequencies in an organ pipe are 1310,

1834, and 2358 Hz.

A) Is the pipe closed at one end or open at both ends?

B) What is the fundamental frequency?

C) What is the length of the pipe?

(Note: Hz = sec

−1

, speed of sound = 344 m/sec)

13.6. PROBLEMS (8 QUESTIONS) 219

6. The G string on a violin is 30 cm long. When played without ﬁngering,

it vibrates at a frequency of 196 Hz. (Hz = sec

−1

) The next highest

note on the scale is A (220 Hz). How far from the end of the string

must a ﬁnger be placed to play the A note?

7. Two connected wires with linear mass densities that are related by

µ

1

= Nµ

2

are under the same tension. When the wires oscillate at the

same frequency f, what is the ratio of the wavespeed in the second

wire to the wavespeed in the ﬁrst wire?

8. A horizontal platform vibrates with simple harmonic motion in the

horizontal direction with an frequency of vibration f. A body on the

platform starts to slide when the amplitude of vibration reaches a value

A. Find a formula for the coeﬃcient of static friction µ

s

, between the

body and the platform.

220 CHAPTER 13. WAVES

Chapter 14

THERMODYNAMICS

We now leave our study of mechanics and begin our study of thermody-

namics. The most important system that we will study is an ideal gas and

how the temperature, pressure and volume are related. (Actually, however,

thermodynamic quantities are related to our study of mechanics. This is

the study of the kinetic theory of gases, i.e. a microscopic approach to ther-

modynamics.)

14.1 Temperature

One of the most important properties of a macroscopic system, such as a

liquid or gas is the temperature, or thermal energy.

If two bodies have the same temperature then they are said to be in

thermal equilibrium. Thus the zeroth law of thermodynamics simply states

that:

“If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, then they are

in thermal equilibrium with each other.”

The antiquated Farenheit temperature scale is only still used in a few

countries (including the United States). Water freezes at 32

◦

F and boils at

212

◦

F. A much more natural temperature scale, called Celsius or Centigrade,

rates the freezing and boiling point of water at 0

◦

C and 100

◦

C respectively.

To convert between the two scales use

F =

9

5

C + 32

where F is the temperature in Farenheit and C is the temperature in Centi-

grade.

221

222 CHAPTER 14. THERMODYNAMICS

Example If you set your house thermostate to 70

◦

F what is

the temperature in Centigrade?

Solution

F =

9

5

C + 32

F −32 =

9

5

C

C =

5

9

(F −32)

=

5

9

(70 −32)

= 23

◦

C

Example At what temperature are the Farenheit and Centi-

grade scales equal?

Solution When they are equal the F=C=x giving

x =

9

5

x + 32

x

1 −

9

5

= 32

−

4

5

x = 32

x = −40

◦

i.e.

−40

◦

F = −40

◦

C

14.1. TEMPERATURE 223

From a microscopic point of view (see Chapter 20), the temperature of a

substance is related to the speed of the individual molecules which also give

rise to pressure. Thus a gas which has fast moving molecules will have a

high temperature and pressure. What happens if we slow all the molecules

to zero speed? Well then the gas pressure will be zero. The temperature at

which this happens is −273.15

◦

C.

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show this.

This leads to a third type of tmperature scale called Absolute temperature

or Kelvin temperature. The Kelvin temperature at which a gas has zero

pressure is deﬁned to be 0

◦

K. Thus

C = K −273.15

where C is the temperature in Centigrade and K is the temperature in

Kelvin.

224 CHAPTER 14. THERMODYNAMICS

14.2. HEAT 225

Example What is the relationship between Farenheit and Kelvin?

Solution

C = K−273

and

C =

5

9

(F −32)

giving

5

9

(F −32) = K−273

or

F =

9

5

(K−273) + 32

=

9

5

K−459.4

14.2 Heat

14.2.1 Heat Capacity

If you put a certain amount of energy or heat into a block of wood then the

temperature will increase by a certain amount. If you do the same thing to

a lump of steel (of the same mass) its temperature increase will be larger

than for the wood. Heat capacity tells us how much the temperature of an

object will increase for a given amount of energy or heat input. It is deﬁned

as

C ≡

Q

∆T

where C is the heat capacity, Q is the heat and ∆T is the temperature

change, or

Q = C(T

f

−T

i

)

Example Which has the largest heat capacity; wood or steel?

Solution For a given Q then ∆T will be larger for steel. From

C =

Q

∆T

it means that C is small for steel and large for wood.

226 CHAPTER 14. THERMODYNAMICS

14.2.2 Speciﬁc Heat

If we put a certain amount of heat into a small block of steel compared to a

large block then the small block will change its temperature the most. Thus

we also need to include the mass of the block in determining temperature

change. Thus we deﬁne speciﬁc heat (with a lower case c) as

c ≡

Q

m∆T

or

Q = cm(T

f

−T

i

)

In other words the speciﬁc heat is just the heat capacity per unit mass or

c =

C

m

14.2.3 Molar Speciﬁc Heat

Instead of deﬁning speciﬁc heat with the mass of the object, we could deﬁne

it according to the total number of molecules in the object. But if we write

down the total number of molecules we will be writing down huge numbers.

Now we always use other words for huge numbers. Instead of saying “one

hundred tens” we say “thousand”, i.e.

thousand ≡ 1000

or instead of saying “one thousand thousands” we say “million”, i.e.

million ≡ 1, 000, 000

Now even million, billion and trillion are too small for the number of

molecules in an object. Thus deﬁne

mole ≡ 6.02 10

23

(This number arose because in 12 grams of

12

C there is 1 mole of atoms.)

Thus molar speciﬁc heat is deﬁned as

c

m

≡

Q

N∆T

where N is the number of moles of molecules in the substance.

14.2. HEAT 227

Example How much heat is required to increase the tempera-

ture of 2 kg of water from 20

◦

C to 30

◦

C?

Solution The speciﬁc heat of water is 1.00 cal g

−1

K

−1

. Thus

the temperature should be in

◦

K. Now ∆T = 30

◦

C − 20

◦

C =

20

◦

C or

∆T = −243

◦

K−−253

◦

K = 10

◦

K

giving

Q = mc∆T

= 2kg 1 cal g

−1

K

−1

10 K

= 2000 g 1 cal g

−1

K

−1

10 K

= 20,000 cal = 83,720 J

= 20 kcal

where we have used 1 cal ≡ 4.186 J.

228 CHAPTER 14. THERMODYNAMICS

14.2.4 Heats of Transformation

When you put heat or energy into an object the temperature does not always

change! For example, if you put heat into a block of ice at 0

◦

C it may just

melt to a pool of water still at 0

◦

C. Thus heat can cause a change of phase.

Putting heat into water at 100

◦

C may just vaporize the water to steam at

100

◦

C. The heat of transformation L is deﬁned via

Q ≡ Lm

where Q is the heat and m is the mass. If melting is involved L is called a

heat of fusion L

f

or for vaporizing L is called a heat of vaporization L

v

.

Exercise The latent heat of fusion for water is L

f

= 333 kJ/kg

and the latent heat of vaporization is L

v

= 2256 kJ/kg. Does it

take more heat to melt ice or vaporize water (of the same mass)?

Example How much heat is required to melt 2 kg of ice at 0

◦

C

to water at 0

◦

C?

Solution The latent heat of fusion is L

f

= 79.5 cal g

−1

giving

Q = Lm

= 79.5 cal g

−1

2000 g

= 159,000 cal

= 159 kcal

14.3 Work

When discussing work and energy for thermodynamic systems it is useful to

think about compressing the gas in a piston, as shown in Fig. 19.1.

14.3. WORK 229

Figure 19.1 Piston.

By pushing on the piston the gas is compressed, or if the gas is heated

the piston expands. Such pistons are crucial to the operation of automobile

engines. The gas consists of a mixture of gasoline which is compressed by the

piston. Sitting inside the chamber is a spark plug which ignites the gas and

pushes the piston out. The piston is connected to a crankshaft connecting

the auto engine to the wheels of the automobile.

Another such piston system is the simple bicycle pump. Recall our

deﬁnition of Work as

W ≡

F ds

For the piston, all the motion occurs in 1-dimension so that

W =

F dx

(or equivalently Fds = F dxcos 0

◦

= F dx). The pressure of a gas is deﬁned

as force divided by area (of the piston compressing the gas) or

p ≡

F

A

giving dW = pAdx = pdV where the volume is just area times distance or

dV = Adx. That is when we compress the piston by a distance dx, the

volume of the gas changes by dV = Adx where A is the cross-sectional area

of the piston. Writing W =

dW gives

W =

V

f

V

i

p dV

230 CHAPTER 14. THERMODYNAMICS

which is the work done by a gas of pressure p changing its volume from V

i

to V

f

(or the work done on the gas).

14.4 First Law of Thermodynamics

We have already studied this! The ﬁrst law of thermodynamics is nothing

more than a re-statement of the work energy theorem, which was

∆U + ∆K = W

NC

Recall that the total work W was always W = ∆K. Identify heat Q as

Q ≡ W

NC

and internal energy (such as energy stored in a gas, which is just

potential energy) is E

int

≡ U and we have

∆E

int

+W = Q

or

∆E

int

= Q−W

which is the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. The meaning of this law is that

the internal energy of a system can be changed by adding heat or doing

work. Often the ﬁrst law is written for tiny changes as

dE

int

= dQ−dW

14.4.1 Adiabatic Processes

Adiabatic processes are those that occur so rapidly that there is no transfer

of heat between the system and its environment. Thus Q = 0 and

∆E

int

= −W

For example if we push in the piston very quickly then our work will increase

the internal energy of the gas. It will store potential energy (∆U = ∆E

int

)

like a spring and make the piston bounce back when we let it go.

14.4.2 Constant-volume Processes

If we glue the piston so that it won’t move then obviously the volume is

constant, and W =

pdV = 0, because the piston can’t move. Thus

∆E

int

= Q

14.4. FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 231

which means the only way to increase the internal energy of the gas is by

adding heat Q.

14.4.3 Cyclical Processes

Recall the motion of a spring. It is a cyclical process in which the spring

oscillates back and forth. After one complete cycle the potential energy U

of the spring has not changed, thus ∆U = 0. Similarly we can push in the

piston, then let it go and it will push back to where it started, similar to

the spring. Thus ∆E

int

= 0 and

Q = W

meaning that work done equals heat gained.

14.4.4 Free Expansion

Another way to get ∆E

int

= 0 is for

Q = W = 0

232 CHAPTER 14. THERMODYNAMICS

14.5 Kinetic Theory

The subject of classical thermodynamics, studied in the last chapter, was

developed in the 18th and 19th centuries before we knew about molecules and

atoms. The kinetic theory of gases attempts to explain all of the concepts of

classical thermodynamics, such as temperature and pressure, in terms of an

underlying microscopic theory based on atoms and molecules. For example,

we shall see that the temperature of a gas is related to the average kinetic

energy of all molecules in the gas.

One mole is the number of atoms in a 12 gram sample of

12

C, and this

number is determine from experiment to be 6.02 10

23

. This is often called

Avagadro’s number. The number of molecules must be the number of moles

times the number of molecules per mole. Thus we write Avagadro’s number

as

N

A

= 6.02 10

23

mole

−1

and

N = nN

A

where N is the number of molecules and n is the number of moles.

14.5.1 Ideal Gas

One of the most fundamental properties of any macroscopic system is the

so-called equation of state. This is the equation that speciﬁes the exact

relation between pressure p, volume V , and temperature T for a substance.

The equation of state for a gas is very diﬀerent to the equation of state of

a liquid. Actually there is a giant accelerator, called the Relativistic Heavy

Ion Collider (RHIC) currently under construction at Brookhaven National

Laboratory on Long Island. This accelerator will collide heavy nuclei into

each other at extremely high energies. One of the main aims is to determine

the nuclear matter equation of state at very high temperatures and densities,

simulating the early universe.

Now it turns out that most gases obey a simple equation of state called

the ideal gas law

pV = nRT

where p is the pressure, V is the volume, T is the temperature (in

◦

K), n is

the number of moles of the gas and R is the so called gas constant with the

value

R = 8.31 J mol

−1

K

−1

14.5. KINETIC THEORY 233

Recall that the number of molecules is given by N = nN

A

where n is the

number of moles. Thus pV = nRT =

N

N

A

RT and deﬁne Boltzmann’s con-

stant

k ≡

R

N

A

=

8.31J mole

−1

K

−1

6.02 10

23

mole

−1

= 1.38 10

−23

JK

−1

= 8.62 10

−5

eV K

−1

where an electron volt is deﬁned as

eV ≡ 1.6 10

−19

J

Thus the ideal gas law is also often written as

pV = NkT

where N is the total number of molecules.

The ideal gas law embodies exactly the properties we expect of a gas:

1) If the volume V is held constant, then the pressure p increases as

temperature T increases.

2) If the pressure p is held constant, then as T increases, p increases.

3) If the temperature T is held constant, then as p increases, V decreases.

LECTURE DEMONSTRATIONS: Show this

14.5.2 Work Done by an Ideal Gas

The equation of state can be represented on a graph of pressure vs. volume,

often called a pV diagram. Remember an equation of state is an equation re-

lating the three variables p, V , T. A pV diagram takes care of two variables.

The third variable T represents diﬀerent lines on the pV diagram. These

diﬀerence lines are called isotherms (meaning same temperature). For ﬁxed

T (say 310 K) the pressure is inversely proportional to volume as speciﬁed

in the ideal gas law.

234 CHAPTER 14. THERMODYNAMICS

Example What is the work done by any gas (ideal or not) at

constant volume (isometric)?

Solution If V

i

= V

f

then

W =

V

f

V

i

pdV = 0

which is obvious when we think of the piston in the previous

chapter. If the volume does not change then the piston doesn’t

move and the work is zero.

Example Derive a formula for the work done by any gas (ideal

or not) which expands isobarically (i.e. at constant pressure).

Solution If p is a constant it can be taken outside the integral,

giving

W =

V

f

V

i

pdV

= p

V

f

V

i

dV

= p [V ]

V

f

V

i

= p(V

f

−V

i

)

= p∆V

14.5. KINETIC THEORY 235

Example Derive a formula for the work done by a gas when it

expands isothermally (i.e. at constant temperature).

Solution The work done by an expanding gas is given by

W =

V

f

V

i

pdV

But this time the pressure changes. For an ideal gas we have

p =

nRT

V

giving

W = nRT

V

f

V

i

1

V

dV

= nRT [lnV ]

V

f

V

i

= nRT(lnV

f

−lnV

i

)

= nRT ln

V

f

V

i

**236 CHAPTER 14. THERMODYNAMICS
**

14.5.3 Speed, Energy and Temperature

Now consider our ﬁrst kinetic theory problem. Imagine a gas, consisting of n

moles being conﬁned to a cubical box of volume V . What is the connection

between the pressure p exerted by the gas on the walls and the speeds of

the molecules? Pressure is deﬁned as Force divided by Area or p ≡

F

A

where

F =

dp

dt

. Using Newtonian Mechanics, one can show that

p =

nMv

2

RMS

3V

where n is the number of moles, M is the mass of 1 mole of the gas (so that

nM is the total mass of the gas), v

RMS

is the average speed of the molecules

and V is the volume of the gas. The above equation is derived purely from

applying Newtonian mechanics to the individual molecules.

Now by comparing to the ideal gas law pV = nRT or p =

nRT

V

we must

have

nMv

2

RMS

3

= nRT or

v

RMS

=

3RT

M

which shows that the temperature T is related to the speed of molecules!

The speed of molecules at room temperature is very large; about 500

m/sec for air (about 1000 mph).

For a single molecule its average kinetic energy is

¯

K =

1

2

mv

2

RMS

and using v

RMS

=

3RT

M

gives

¯

K =

1

2

m

3RT

M

.

Remember that M is the molar mass, which is the mass of 1 mole of gas

and m is the mass of the molecule. Thus

M

m

= 1 mole = 6.02 10

23

= N

A

,

Avagadro’s number. Thus

¯

K =

3RT

2N

A

or

¯

K =

3

2

kT

This is a very interesting result. For a given temperature T, all gas molecules,

no matter what their mass, have the same average translational kinetic en-

ergy.

14.5. KINETIC THEORY 237

Example In the center of the Sun the particles are bare hydro-

gen nuclei (protons). Calculate their average kinetic energy.

Solution The center of the Sun is at a temperature of about

20,000,000

◦

K. Thus

¯

K =

3

2

kT

=

3

2

8.62 10

−8

eV

K

20 10

6

K

= 2586 eV

≈ 3 MeV

Not all molecules travel at the speed v

RMS

. this is just the average

molecular speed. We would like to know how many molecules travel above

or below this speed. This was worked out by Maxwell. The probbility of a

given speed is

P(v) = 4π

M

2πRT

3/2

v

2

e

−

Mv

2

2RT

where M is the molar mass of the gas.

Even though room temperature air molecules have a large RMS speed

v

RMS

≈ 500 m/sec, that does not mean that they move across a room in a

fraction of a second. If you open a bottle of perfume at one end of a room,

it takes a while for you to notice the smell at the other end of the room.

This is because the molecules undergo an enormous number of collisions on

their way across the room.

The mean free path λ is the average distance that a molecule travels in

between collisions. It is given by

λ =

1

√

2πd

2

N/V

where d is the average diameter of a molecule, and N/V is the average

number of molecules per unit volume.

238 CHAPTER 14. THERMODYNAMICS

14.6 Problems (8 questions)

1. The coldest that any object can ever get is 0 K (or -273 C). It is rare for

physical quantities to have an upper or lower possible limit. Explain

why temperature has this lower limit.

2. Suppose it takes an amount of heat Q to make a cup of coﬀee. If you

make 3 cups of coﬀee how much heat is required?

3. How much heat is required to make a cup of coﬀee? Assume the mass

of water is 0.1 kg and the water is initially at 0

◦

C. We want the water

to reach boiling point.

Give your answer in Joule and calorie and Calorie.

(1 cal = 4.186 J; 1 Calorie = 1000 calorie.

For water: c = 1

cal

gC

= 4186

J

kg C

; L

v

= 2.2610

6 J

kg

; L

f

= 3.3310

5 J

kg

)

4. How much heat is required to change a 1 kg block of ice at −10

◦

C to

steam at 110

◦

C?

Give your answer in Joule and calorie and Calorie.

(1 cal = 4.186 J; 1 Calorie = 1000 calorie.

c

water

= 4186

J

kg C

; c

ice

= 2090

J

kg C

; c

steam

= 2010

J

kg C

For water, L

v

= 2.26 10

6 J

kg

; L

f

= 3.33 10

5 J

kg

)

5. Consider varying the thermodynamic parameters of an ideal gas.

A) If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled, by how much does

the pressure change if the volume and temperature are held constant?

B) If the volume of an ideal gas is halved, by how much does the pressure

change if the temperature and number of molecules is constant?

C) If the temperature of an ideal gas changes from 200 K to 400 K, by how

much does the volume change if the pressure and number of molecules

is constant.

D) Repeat part C) if the temperature changes from 200 C to 400 C.

6. If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled and the volume

is doubled, by how much does the pressure change if the temperature

is held constant?

14.6. PROBLEMS (8 QUESTIONS) 239

7. If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled, and the absolute

temperature is doubled and the pressure is halved, by how much does

the volume change?

(Absolute temperature is simply the temperature measured in Kelvin.)

8. In an insulated vessel, 250 gram of ice at 0

◦

C is added to 600 gram

of water at 18

◦

C.

A) What is the ﬁnal temperature of the system?

B) How much ice remains when the system reaches equilibrium?

water: c = 4.18

kJ

kg K

ice: c = 2.05

kJ

kg K

ice-water: L = 333.5

kJ

kg

240 CHAPTER 14. THERMODYNAMICS

Bibliography

[1] R.A. Serway and J.W. Jewett, Jr., Principles of Physics, 3rd ed., (Har-

court College Publishers, New York, 2002).

[2] D. Halliday, R. Resnick and J. Walker, Fundamentals of Physics (Wiley,

New York, 1997).

[3] A.A. Carin, “Guided discovery activities for elementary school science”,

(Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1997), pp. A-53 - A-66.

[4] J.D. Harlin and M.S. Rivkin, “Science experiences for the early child-

hood years” ”, (Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1996), pp. 223 - 239.

[5] National Academy Press, “Resources for teaching elementary school

science”, (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 68

-95.

[6] R.L. Lehrman, “Physics the easy way”, (Barron’s Educational Series,

New York, 1990), pp. 95 - 117.

[7] N.C. Harris and E.M. Hemmerling, “Introductory applied physics”, 2nd

ed., (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), pp. 181 - 210.

[8] A. Beiser, “Applied Physics”, 3rd ed., (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995),

pp. 147 - 158.

[9] F.J. Bueche, “College Physics”, 8th ed., (McGraw-Hill, New York,

1997), pp. 68 - 73.

[10] A. Halpern, “Beginning Physics I: mechanics and heat”, (McGraw-Hill,

New York, 1995), pp. 172 - 188.

[11] H.O. Hooper and P. Gwynne, “Physics and the physical perspective”,

2nd ed., (Harper and Row, San Francisco, 1980), pp. 136 - 139.

241

242 BIBLIOGRAPHY

[12] S.M. Lea and J.R. Burke, “Physics: the nature of things”, (West, New

York, 1997), pp. 237 - 239.

[13] P.M. Fishbane, S. Gasiorowicz, and S.T. Thornton, “Physics for sci-

entists and engineers”, 2nd ed., (Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1996), pp.

117 - 149.

[14] E. Hecht, “Physics calculus”, (Brooks/Cole, Paciﬁc Grove, California,

1996), pp. 406 - 408.

2

Contents

1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 What is Physics? . . . 1.2 How to Study Physics 1.3 Units . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Powers of Ten . . . . . 1.5 Conversion of Units . 1.6 Signiﬁcant Figures . . 1.7 Problems (8 questions) 5 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 11 11 11 13 16 21 21 21 22 25 26 28 29 29 30 31 33 35 35

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2 CALCULUS REVIEW 2.1 Derivative Equals Slope or Rate of Change 2.1.1 Slope of a Straight Line . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Slope of a Curve . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3 Some Common Derivatives . . . . . 2.1.4 Extremum Value of a Function . . . 2.2 Integral Equals Antiderivative or Area . . . 2.2.1 Integral Equals Antiderivative . . . . 2.2.2 Integral Equals Area Under Curve . 2.2.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.4 Deﬁnite and Indeﬁnite Integrals . . . 2.3 Problems (10 questions) . . . . . . . . . . .

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3 STRAIGHT LINE MOTION 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Position, Distance and Displacement . . . . . . . 3.3 Average Velocity and Average Speed . . . . . . . 3.4 Position and Velocity Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Instantaneous Velocity and Instantaneous Speed 3.6 Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

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4 3.7 Constant Acceleration Equations . . . . . 3.7.1 Algebraic Derivation . . . . . . . . 3.7.2 Summary of Constant Acceleration 3.7.3 Calculus Derivation . . . . . . . . 3.8 Free Fall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.9 Historical Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.10 Problems (8 questions) . . . . . . . . . . . 4 VECTORS 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . 4.2 Trigonometry . . . . . 4.3 Vector Components . . 4.4 Unit Vectors . . . . . 4.5 Vector Addition . . . . 4.6 Vector Multiplication . 4.6.1 Scalar Product 4.6.2 Vector Product 4.7 Problems (7 questions) . . . . . . . . . . . . equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 37 41 42 44 45 47 49 49 52 55 58 60 62 62 64 65 67 67 68 72 78 81 83 83 84 84 85 85 85 85 95 98 99

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5 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL MOTION 5.1 Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration 5.2 Constant Acceleration Equations . . . . 5.3 Projectile Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Circular Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Problems (8 questions) . . . . . . . . . . 6 NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Forces and the Second Law . . . . 6.2.1 Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.2 Normal Force . . . . . . . . 6.2.3 Tension . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.4 Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.5 Friction . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Circular Motion . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Historical Note . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 Problems (10 questions) . . . . . .

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.3 Moment of Inertia . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Pulley . . . . . . . . . . .1 Many Particle Systems . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . 9. . . .5 Work and Kinetic Energy . . . . . . 112 . . . . . 124 125 125 126 129 131 132 132 132 133 135 135 138 141 143 . . Velocity. . 8. . . 8. . . . .4 Work-Energy Theorem . .3 Lever . . . . . .2.4. . .1 Angular Displacement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 . . . . .2 Newton’s Second Law for a Many Particle System 8. . . . . . . .1 Ramp . . . . 9. . . . Acceleration . . . 8. . . . . . 157 . . . . . . . . . 107 . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . 119 . . . . . . 145 . . 121 .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Rigid Bodies . . 149 . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 7 WORK AND ENERGY 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Rigid Body . . . . . . . . .3 Conservation of Momentum . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . 157 . . . .1 Point Particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Collisions . . . . . 9.3 Kinetic Energy . . 7. . . .9 Problems (8 questions) . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . 9 ROTATIONAL MOTION 9. . . . . . 8. . . . 115 . .5 Center of Mass Frame . . . . . . . . . 148 . . . . . . . .6 Conservation of Energy . .2 Many Particles . 107 . . . . . . . . . 145 . . . 114 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Appendix: alternative method to obtain potential energy 7. . . . .2. . . . . . .6. . 8. . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . 122 .1 Work . . . . . . . .6 Angular Momentum .7 Spring Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 . . . . . 153 . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .4. . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .1 Collisions in 1-dimension . . 7. . . . .1 Center of Mass . . . . .2 Kinetic Energy . . . 8. . . . . . .1. .3 Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . 5 105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Constant Angular Acceleration Equations 9.6. . 8. . . . . . . . . 8. . . 7. . . . .4 Torque and Newton’s Second Law . . . . . . . 8 MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS 8. . .3. . .2. 119 . . . . . 7.4 Hydraulic Press . . .6 Problems (7 questions) . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . .2 Simple Machines . . . .2 Collisions in 2-dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . 105 . . . . .3. 117 .1 Many Particle System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . .5 Gravitational Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 . . 146 . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . 201 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 . 14. . . . . . . . 226 9. . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . 10. . . 198 201 . . . . . . .3 Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . .3 Pendulums . . . . . . . . .6 CONTENTS 9. 207 . . 14 THERMODYNAMICS 14. . . .6 Einstein’s Theory of Gravity . . . . 157 Problems (8 questions) . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1 Newton’s Gravitational Force Law 10. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 WAVES 13. . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Problems (9 questions) . 160 163 166 167 169 170 174 177 180 181 183 185 . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . .2. . . . . .2 Gravity near the Surface of Earth . 213 217 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 FLUIDS 12 OSCILLATIONS 12. . . . . . . . . . . .4 First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Conservation of Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 . . . 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 10 GRAVITY 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 . . . . .1 Energy . . . . . . 222 . . . . . . 210 . . . . . . . . . . .5 Kepler’s Laws . . . . . Resonance .3 Molar Speciﬁc Heat .3 Work . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Heat Capacity . . . . . . 185 . . . . . .3 Interference. Standing Waves and 13. . .5 Doppler Eﬀect . . 224 .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 . . . . . . .4 Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 . 12. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Temperature . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Problems (7 questions) . . . 10. . . . . . . .1 Gravity Inside Earth . . . . . . .2 Speciﬁc Heat . .6. . 12. .4 Heats of Transformation 14. . . . . . . . . . 13. 10. .6 Problems (8 questions) .2. . . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. 190 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . .2 Simple Harmonic Motion 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . Frequency. . . . 185 . . . 12. . .2 Heat . . . . 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 . . . . . Speed . . . . . . .4 Navigation and Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 . . 14. .2 Wavelength. . . 217 .2.4 Escape Speed . . . . . . . . . . . 201 . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . .

. . . . .4. . . . .2 Constant-volume Processes . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . 7 226 226 227 227 228 228 229 232 234 . . . . . .1 Adiabatic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . Energy and Temperature 14. . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . 14. . . . . . .3 Cyclical Processes . .1 Ideal Gas . . . . .6 Problems (8 questions) . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 14.4. . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . .5 Kinetic Theory . . . . . . . 14.4 Free Expansion . . . .2 Work Done by an Ideal Gas . .5.3 Speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . .

8 CONTENTS .

Liquids. Astrophysics and Cosmology Nuclear Physics and Elementary particles Physics of Surfaces Condensed Matter Physics Atoms and Molecules Solids.1 What is Physics? A good way to deﬁne physics is to use what philosophers call an ostensive deﬁnition. Gases Electronics Acoustics Materials science Geophysics Biophysics Chemical Physics Mathematical Physics and Applied Mathematics Computational Physics Engineering Physics 9 . such as: Motion Thermodynamics Electricity and Magnetism Optics and Lasers Relativity Quantum mechanics Astronomy. i. a way of deﬁning something by pointing out examples.e.Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Physics includes the following general topics.

INTRODUCTION Physics is a very fundamental science which explores nature from the scale of the tiniest particles to the behaviour of the universe and many things in between. chemistry. 4. 1. All ﬁelds of technology and engineering are very strongly based on physics principles. Then spend 10 minutes trying to work out the example yourself. A strong emphasis of any good physics course will be on examples and homework problems.2 How to Study Physics If you want to learn to ride a bicycle or play the piano. Thus anyone who plans to work in any sort of technical area needs to know the basics of physics. This will help you enormously in understanding what is presented in lectures. Carefully study the examples in the book. . Also the World Wide Web was invented at the famous physics laboratory called the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). The best way to do this is to read the problem statement and cover the solution. The electronics and computer industry is based on physics principles. One must practice. It is essential to practice physics by doing problems. For example. medicine rely heavily on techniques and ideas from physics. This is what we call active learning. You will never learn physics only by reading a book. Much of the communication today occurs via ﬁber optical cables which were developed from studies in physics. What if you can’t ﬁgure out a homework problem? There is a lot of research showing that students learn very well by working together. namely getting to know the basic principles upon which most of our modern technological society is based.10 CHAPTER 1. This is what an introductory physics course is all about. many of the diagnostic instruments used in medicine (MRI. Most of the other sciences such as biology. we all know that reading a book alone will never suﬃce. This inevitably means falling oﬀ the bicycle a few times or bungling a few tunes. The same is true with physics. x-ray) were developed by physicists. Only then take a look at the solution. 3. Here are some tips that will help you succeed: 1. Remember it’s all about active learning. Read the relevant section of the book before it is covered in class. You should do every homework problem. As mentioned above practice is of utmost importance. geology. 2.

but the international system (SI) of units uses meter. Active learning! Let’s summarize. Passive learning.1 SI Units Quantity Unit Symbol Time Length Mass second meter kilogram s m kg .3 Units We shall come across a wide variety of diﬀerent units being used for different physical quantities. In science one of the most common standards is to use SI units.1. If you can’t work out a problem then discuss it with your classmates. Learning physics is all about active learning and there is a great deal of educational research literature that proves this. Go back through the book and again read the example statements in the book (and cover the solution) and work out the problem. Some that you may already be familiar with are distance measured in feet or meters. 5. is not eﬀective. Similarly in preparing for your physics exams you should work out examples and problems. Do the same with the homework. Get together with your classmates and help each other understand the material.3. Obviously the best way to prepare for a piano exam is to practice the music pieces that you have been learning. and these will be used throughout this book. You must practice by doing. UNITS 11 This is called peer instruction. such as just reading over the book or lecture notes or problems. 1.1. The worst way to prepare is to simply read over the book and homework. Some SI units are listed in Table 1. The best way to prepare for your physics exams is to make sure you can do every example and homework problem from scratch. Table 1. The British unit is foot. If none of you can work it out then go and see your instructor and ask for help. Remember active learning.

5 Conversion of Units We shall often have to convert units from one to another. INTRODUCTION 1. .4 Powers of Ten Because the study of physics involves very large systems. The method shown below is based on substitution.12 CHAPTER 1.2 Preﬁxes for large and small numbers. 000 109 1012 10−1 = 0.01 10−3 = 0. The units should be treated as algebraic quantities that can be multiplied. Number Familiar name Preﬁx Symbol 103 = 1. and very small systems.000 meters. Similarly 6 one hundredths of a meter is 0. such as the behavior of atoms. 000. we will need to use very large and very small numbers. divided. 000 106 = 1.2. Table 1.001 10−6 = 0. That is you just ﬁnd what one quantity is in terms of another and then substitute.1 10−2 = 0. such as the behavior of galaxies.000001 10−9 10−12 10−15 thousand million billion trillion tenth hundredth thousandth millionth billionth trillionth kilomegagigateradecicentimillimicronanopicofemto- k M G T d c m µ n p f 1.06 m which is written 6×10−2 m or 6 cm. we instead write it as 60 ×103 m or 60 km. 60 thousand m. Some common preﬁxes are listed in Table 1. i.e. Instead of writing 60. squared etc.

as used for example in 55 miles per hour or 55 mph. However 47 has only 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures and is re-written as 4. say 5.81 m. which still has 4 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. but suppose we cannot measure the width as accurately. It would be incorrect to write it as 4.1.7 has 2 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. 4700 has 4 signiﬁcant ﬁgures which can also be written as 4. Example Convert 1 minute2 to s2 . A number such as 4. SIGNIFICANT FIGURES 13 Example Convert 20 m to km. the number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures in the answer should be the same as the number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures in the least accurate number.700 × 103 .23 m and the second length is measured as 22 m. Now consider addition and subtraction. Suppose the ﬁrst length is measured as 1. The total length is not 23. namely 12 m. say 2.3 m. which does not make sense. However quoting such a large number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures would imply we know the area to better accuracy than the width.6 Signiﬁcant Figures The number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures reﬂects how accurately a certain number has been measured. Obviously the area should be rounded oﬀ to reﬂect the least accuracy in the width or length.6. Thus 55 miles per hour = 55 miles = 55 miles hour−1 hour 1. . which would have 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures.7 × 101 . Solution 1 minute2 = (60 sec)2 = 3600 sec2 Another thing that we will come across is the little word per. Suppose we measure the length of a sidewalk in two stages. Suppose we can measure the length of a table very accurately. The area is the length times the width and we might write area = 11. Thus 20 m = 20 ×10−3 km.135 m. km Solution We know that km = 1000 m so that 1 m = 1000 = 10−3 km.70 × 101 . It is very important to realize that the word per means divided by. When numbers are multiplied or divided.23 m.

3. Write your answer in scientiﬁc notation using the correct number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures. 5.01 to the correct number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures? 8. write a summary on how you are going to approach your study of physics.178 ÷ . Convert 36 seconds to hours.61 km. Write your answer in scientiﬁc notation using the correct number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures. Write your answer in scientiﬁc notation using the correct number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures. Convert 24 hours to seconds (s). Convert 55 miles per hour to km/s.14 CHAPTER 1.01 to the correct number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures? . Convert this to km/hour2 . What is 23. discuss how you should not study physics. (Note that 1 mile = 1. Instead the total length should be written as 23 m. When numbers are added or subtracted. INTRODUCTION because that would mean we know the total length more accurately than one of the measured lengths. Based on the discussion in the text. 1. A car acclerates at 10 m/s2 . 4.7 Problems (8 questions) 1. 2. What is 23. Based on the discussion in the text.) 6. the number of decimal points in the answer should be the same as the number of decimal points in the least accurate number. 7. Write your answer in scientiﬁc notation using the correct number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures.178 + .

Chapter 2 CALCULUS REVIEW Calculus is used extensively in the study of motion. Indeed speed is deﬁned as the derivative of distance with respect to time. To prove to ourselves that m really is the slope. Let’s deﬁne yf − yi ∆y (2. So before delving into the study of mechanics.1 the graph of y(x) = 2x + 1 is plotted and the slope has been determined by measuring ∆y and ∆x.1 2. we ﬁrst review the basic notions of calculus. as can the speed be obtained by integrating the acceleration. Conversely.1) where c is the intercept on the y axis and m is the slope of the line. 15 . Acceleration is the derivative of speed with respect to time.2) ≡ Slope ≡ ∆x xf − xi where ∆y is the diﬀerence between ﬁnal and initial values yf and yi . we need a good deﬁnition of slope. 2. the distance can be obtained by integrating the speed.2. In Fig.1.1 Derivative Equals Slope or Rate of Change Slope of a Straight Line Recall the equation for a straight line y(x) = mx + c (2.

2) using yf = y(x + ∆x) and yi = y(x). so that Slope ≡ yf − yi ∆y y(x + ∆x) − y(x) = = ∆x xf − xi ∆x (2.3) Thus ∆y = yf − yi = m(x + ∆x) + c − mx − c = m∆x. CALCULUS REVIEW y(x) ∆y=4 ∆ x=2 x Figure 2.5) ∆x ∆x which is a proof that y = mx + c has a slope of m. From above we can re-write our formula (2. Therefore the slope becomes ∆y m∆x = =m (2.4) (2. let’s do it analytically for all lines. The initial value of y is yi ≡ y(xi ) = mxi + c = mx + c and the ﬁnal value is yf ≡ y(xf ) = mxf + c = y(x + ∆x) = m(x + ∆x) + c (2.6) . Obviously xf − xi = ∆x.16 CHAPTER 2. Rather than always having to verify the slope graphically. The slope is ∆y ∆x = 2.1 Plot of y(x) = 2x + 1. Take xi = x as the initial x value and xf = x + ∆x as the ﬁnal value.

At x = 0 the slope is 0 (the tiny little line is ﬂat) whereas around x = 1 the slope is larger.2 Slope of a Curve A straight line always has constant slope m.2. If you look at any tiny little piece it looks straight. What characterizes these tiny ∆y triangles is that ∆x and ∆y are both tiny (but their ratio. However we might think about little pieces of the parabola. Notice that the slope of the tiny little line segments keeps changing. which is nothing more than Derivative ≡ Slope of tiny little line segment. One of the most important ideas in calculus is the concept of the derivative.2 Plot of y(x) = x2 + 1. These tiny little pieces are all tiny little line segments. which look straight. Another way of saying that ∆x is tiny is to say ∆x is tiny ≡ lim ∆x→0 That is the limit as ∆x goes to zero is another way of saying ∆x is tiny. . each with their own slope.2 and obviously the slope changes. In Fig. y(x) x Figure 2. Some tiny little pieces are indicated. ∆x = 2 always). But we would get the same answer if we had used the tiny triangles in the bottom left hand corner. In fact the concept of the slope of a parabola doesn’t make any sense because the parabola continuously curves. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE OR RATE OF CHANGE 17 2.1 we got the slope from ∆y and ∆x on the large triangle in the top right hand corner.2.1. That’s why it’s called straight.1. The parabola y(x) = x2 + 1 is plotted in Fig.2.

2. because the hypotenuse would be curved. usually ∆y can be big or small. CALCULUS REVIEW Let us now evaluate some expressions involving these tiny limits.6) except lim is an instruction ∆x→0 ∆y to use a tiny triangle. as in Fig.18 CHAPTER 2.1. If we are talking about a tiny ∆y we write dy instead. . Thus let’s deﬁne the Slope of Slope of tiny ∆y curve at ≡ lim ≡ Derivative = little line ∆x→0 ∆x a point segment So it’s the same deﬁnition as before in (2.7) That is. Examples 1) lim [∆x + 3] = 3 ∆x→0 ∆x→0 ∆x→0 2) lim ∆x = 0 3) lim [(∆x)2 + 4] = 4 4) lim (∆x)2 + 4∆x = lim (∆x + 4) = 4 ∆x→0 ∆x→0 ∆x 5) lim 3 = 3 ∆x→0 For a curve like the parabola we can’t draw a big triangle. Similarly for ∆x.6) and the derivative ∆x dy is given a fancy new symbol dx so that dy y(x + ∆x) − y(x) ≡ lim dx ∆x→0 ∆x The symbol dy simply means dy ≡ tiny ∆y (2. Now ∆x = y(x+∆x)−y(x) from (2. But we can get the slope at a point by drawing a tiny triangle at that point.

DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE OR RATE OF CHANGE 19 Example Calculate the derivative of the straight line y(x) = 3x. The two examples above show that it also works for a straight line. A straight line is a special case of a curve.1. Now we do some examples for real curves. The derivative was deﬁned to give us the slope of a curve at a point.2. Solution y(x) = 3x y(x + ∆x) = 3(x + ∆x) dy dx = lim 3(x + ∆x) − 3x ∆x→0 ∆x 3x + 3∆x − 3x = lim ∆x→0 ∆x 3∆x = lim = lim 3 = 3 ∆x→0 ∆x ∆x→0 Thus the derivative is the slope! Example Calculate the derivative of the straight line y(x) = 4 Solution y(x) = 4 y(x + ∆x) = 4 4−4 dy = lim =0 dx ∆x→0 ∆x The line y(x) = 4 has 0 slope and therefore 0 derivative. Example Calculate the derivative of the parabola y(x) = x2 Solution y(x) = x2 y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)2 = x2 + 2x∆x + (∆x)2 dy dx y(x + ∆x) − y(x) ∆x→0 ∆x 2 + 2x∆x + (∆x)2 − x2 x = lim ∆x→0 ∆x = lim (2x + ∆x) = lim ∆x→0 = 2x .

which make sense because a graph of y(x) = 4 reveals that the slope is always 0. CALCULUS REVIEW Example Calculate the slope of the parabola y(x) = x2 at the points x = −2.20 CHAPTER 2. x = 0.8) .2) at the points x = −2. x = 3. Thus dc =0 dx (2. Solution We already have dy dx = 2x. This is true for any constant c. x = 0. Example Calculate the slope of the curve y(x) = x2 + 1 (see Fig.1. 2.3 Some Common Derivatives dy In a previous example we saw that the derivative of y(x) = 4 was dx = 0. Thus = −4 dy dx dy dx dy dx x=−2 =0 x=0 =6 x=3 which shows how the slope of a tiny little line segment varies as we move along the parabola.2. x = 3 Solution y(x) = x2 + 1 y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)2 + 1 = x2 + 2x∆x + (∆x)2 + 1 y(x + ∆x) − y(x) ∆x 2 + 2x∆x + (∆x)2 + 1 − (x2 + 1) x = lim ∆x→0 ∆x = lim 2x + ∆x = ∆x→0 dy dx lim ∆x→0 = 2x Thus the slopes are the same as in the previous example.

Solution Formula (2. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE OR RATE OF CHANGE We also saw in a previous example that d 2 dx x 21 = 2x.2. We have already veriﬁed it for n = 2.1.9) dxn = nxn−1 dx This is a very important result. These results are proved in calculus books.9) is correct for n = 3. In general we have (2. Example Check that (2. Take y(x) = x3 .2. . y(x + ∆x) = (x + ∆x)3 = x3 + 3x2 ∆x + 3x(∆x)2 + (∆x)3 dy dx y(x + ∆x) − y(x) ∆x x3 + 3x2 ∆x + 3x(∆x)2 + (∆x)3 − x3 = lim ∆x→0 ∆x = lim 3x2 + 3x∆x + (∆x)2 = ∆x→0 lim = 3x in agreement with our result above. ∆x→0 2 A list of very useful results for derivatives is given in Tables 2. Let’s verify it for n = 3.1 and 2.9) gives dx3 = 3x3−1 = 3x2 dx We wish to verify this.

22 CHAPTER 2. the derivative of y with respect to x equals the product of the derivative of y with respect to z and the derivative of z with respect to t: d dy dz y(z) = dx dz dx Derivative of a product: The derivative of a product of functions y(x)z(x) equals the ﬁrst function times the derivative of the second plus the second function times the derivative of the ﬁrst: d dz(x) dy(x) [y(x)z(x)] = y(x) + z(x) dx dx dx Reciprocal derivative: The derivative of y with respect to x is the reciprocal of the derivative of x with respect to y.1 Properties of Derivatives and Derivatives of Particular Functions. [nnn from Tipler. Multiplicative constant rule: The derivative of a constant times a function equals the constant times the derivative of the function: d dy(x) [Cy(x)] = C dx dx Addition rule: The derivative of a sum of functions equals the sum of the derivatives of the functions: d dy(x) dz(x) [y(x) + z(x)] = + dx dx dx Chain rule: If y is a function of z and z is in turn a function of x. pg. CALCULUS REVIEW Table 2. 1991]. AP-16. assuming that neither derivative is zero: dx −1 dx dy if = =0 dx dy dy .

pg.2 Derivatives of Particular Functions. DERIVATIVE EQUALS SLOPE OR RATE OF CHANGE 23 Table 2. for instance.2. that d dx2 (3x2 ) = 3 = 3 × 2x = 6x dx dx Example Use of addition rule. This rule just means dx dx2 d (x + x2 ) = + = 1 + 2x dx dx dx .1. This just means. dC = 0 where C is a constant dx d(xn ) = nxn−1 dx d sin ωx = ω cos ωx dx d cos ωx = −ω sin ωx dx d tan ωx = ω sec2 ωx dx d bx e = bebx dx d 1 ln bx = dx bx Example Use of multiplicative constant rule. [from Tipler. d dy(x) dz(x) [y(x) + z(x)] = + dx dx dx d dy(x) [Cy(x)] = C dx dx Take for instance y(x) = x and z(x) = x2 . AP-16. 1991].

Example Verify the chain rule for y = z 3 and z = x2 . verify the product rule. dx2 dz(x) = x3 = x3 2x = 2x4 dx dx dy(x) dx3 2 z(x) = x = 3x2 x2 = 3x4 dx dx dz(x) dy(x) y(x) + z(x) = 2x4 + 3x4 = 5x4 dx dx in agreement with our answer above. dx dx dx The use of this arises when multiplying two functions together as follows. Example If y(x) = x3 and z(x) = x2 .24 CHAPTER 2. = . CALCULUS REVIEW dy dy dz Now consider the chain rule. dz dy dz Thus we see that dx = dy dx . dz d dz(x) dy(x) Now consider the product rule. y(x) . The use of the chain rule is best seen in the following example. Solution We have y(z) = z 3 and z(x) = x2 . ⇒ dy dx dy dz dz dx = 6x5 = 3z 2 = 2x dz Now dy dx = (3z 2 )(2x) = (3x4 )(2x) = 6x5 . [y(x)z(x)] = y(x) + z(x). A rough “proof” of this is to dx dz dx just note that the dz cancels in the numerator and denominator. Solution y(x)z(x) = x5 ⇒ d dx5 [y(x)z(x)] = = 5x4 dx dx Now let’s show that the product rule gives the same answer. Thus y(x) = x6 . where y is not given as a function of x.

1. 2. You can verify this by plotting a graph. This occurs when the derivative or slope of the function is zero. INTEGRAL EQUALS ANTIDERIVATIVE OR AREA 25 2. Thus 0= d 2 dy = (x + 3) = 2x dx dx ⇒y=3 ⇒ x=0 y = x2 + 3 Thus the minimum is at (x.2 2. The derivative of y(x) = x2 is dy dy 3 2 dx = 2x. Let’s play a game. y) coordinates of the place where the parabola y(x) = x2 + 3 has its minimum value? Solution The minimum value occurs where the slope is 0. 3). y) = (0. We have completed our review of the derivative. Ready? If If If dy =3 then y(x) = 3x dx dy = 2x then y(x) = x2 dx dy = 15x2 then y(x) = 5x3 dx .4 Extremum Value of a Function A ﬁnal important use of the derivative is that it can be used to tell us when a function attains a maximum or minimum value. Now let’s turn to the second major topic.2. Example What are the (x. dy Or I tell you the derivative dx and you tell me the original function y(x) that it came from. I tell you the answer and you tell me the question.2.2.1 Integral Equals Antiderivative or Area Integral Equals Antiderivative dy The derivative of y(x) = 3x is dx = 3. The derivative of y(x) = 5x is dx = 15x .

Let’s look at the following functions y(x) = 3x + 2 y(x) = 3x + 7 y(x) = 3x + 12 y(x) = 3x + C (C is an arbitrary constant) y(x) = 3x dy All of them have the same derivative dx = 3. Notice dy that y(x) is a function of x but so also is dx . dx n+1 This original function y(x) that we are trying to get is given a special name called the antiderivative or integral. ∆y dy The slope of a curve is ∆x or dx when the ∆ increments are tiny.2. Thus in our little game of dy re-constructing the original function y(x) from the derivative dx there is always an ambiguity in that y(x) could always have some constant added to it.26 We can generalize this to a rule. let me just write C. Thus the correct answers in our game are If dy = 3 then y(x) = 3x + constant dx Actually instead of always writing ”constant”. If CHAPTER 2.2 Integral Equals Area Under Curve Let’s see how to extract the integral from our original deﬁnition of derivative. Let’s call it f (x) ≡ dy ∆y = dx ∆x (2. but it’s nothing more than the original function. CALCULUS REVIEW dy 1 = xn then y(x) = xn+1 dx n+1 Actually I have cheated.10) . If 2. dy = 2x then y(x) = x2 + C dx dy If = 15x2 then y(x) = 5x3 + C dx dy 1 If then y(x) = = xn xn+1 + C.

16) which is just the tiny version of (2. .15) Let’s now make the little intervals ∆yi and ∆xi very tiny.2.2. Add them all up and we have the total area under the curve. y= i ∆yi (2.13) where ∆yi = fi ∆xi (2. such as Age = ∆Age1 + ∆Age2 + ∆Age3 + ∆Age4 · · · or 1 year + 3 years + 0. ∆y dy In equation (2.14) Now looking at Fig. Call them dy and dx. INTEGRAL EQUALS ANTIDERIVATIVE OR AREA 27 dy Thus if f (x) = dx = 2x then y(x) = x2 + C.5 year + 5 years + 3 years = 18 years I get your complete age. Thus Area = f dx = dy dx = dx dy = y (2.15). Thus if I add up all possible increments of ∆y then I get back y.2.10) I have written ∆x also because dx is just a tiny version ∆y of ∆x .11) or dy = f dx (2. and similarly for the other examples.5 year + 5 years + 0. If I am using tiny intervals in my sum then I am going to use a new symbol . That is y = ∆y1 + ∆y2 + ∆y3 + ∆y4 + · · · We use a special symbol Σ for this. Thus Area under = curve f (x) fi ∆xi = i i ∆yi ∆xi = ∆xi ∆yi = y i (2.3 we can see that the area of the shaded section is just fi ∆xi . Then if I add up many age increments in your life.12) What happens if I add up many ∆y increments? For instance suppose you are aged 18. Obviously then ∆y = f ∆x (2. Notice that the dx “cancels”. Thus ∆yi is an area of a little shaded region.

dy In formula (2. CALCULUS REVIEW f(x) fi f1 x1 ∆x1 ∆x2 xi ∆xi x Figure 2. The total area under the curve is therefore fi ∆xi . The area under the shaded rectangle is approximately fi ∆xi .16) recall the following. The area is then f (x)dx.28 CHAPTER 2. By the way f dx reads “integral of f with respect to x. We now see that the integral or antiderivative or original function can be dy interpreted as the area under the derivative curve f (x) ≡ dx . The derivative is f (x) ≡ dx and y is my original function which we called the integral or antiderivative.” . If the ∆xi are tiny then write ∆xi = dx i and write i = .3 A general function f (x).

as in y = i ∆yi = fi ∆xi = i dy f dx = = Area under curve f (x) = Antiderivative y= f dx + c . dy ∆y = dx ∆x Let ⇒ or f (x) = ∆y = f ∆x dy = f dx Any function y is a sum of tiny increments.2.2.3 Summary dy dx Let us brieﬂy summarize what we have so far. Our derivations are summarized as follows. If we have f (x) = then this implies y= f dx + c For example we obtain the following derivatives y(x) = x2 y(x) = x2 + 4 ⇒ dy = 2x ≡ f (x) dx dy ⇒ = 2x ≡ f (x) dx and we get back the original functions by integrating dy = 2x dx ⇒ y(x) = f dx + c = x2 + c where c = 0 for the ﬁrst example and c = 4 for the second case.2. INTEGRAL EQUALS ANTIDERIVATIVE OR AREA 29 2.

f(x) 1 6 x Figure 2. Thus 2 1 x dx = x2 + c 2 = x. but our answer in the above example ( 1 x2 + c) doesn’t look much like an area. CALCULUS REVIEW Example What is x dx? dy dx Solution The derivative function is f (x) = the original function must be 1 x2 + c. The area under the curve between x1 = 1 and x2 = 6 is obviously 4 × 5 = 20.2.4 Plot of f (x) = 4.30 CHAPTER 2.4. 2 We would expect the area to be a number. . Example What is the area under the curve f (x) = 4 between x1 = 1 and x2 = 6? Solution This is easy because f (x) = 4 is just a horizontal straight line as shown in Fig.2. The area is obviously 4×5 = 20. Therefore 2.4 Deﬁnite and Indeﬁnite Integrals The integral x dx is supposed to give us the area under the curve x.

Thus 4dx = 4x + c is the antiderivative or indeﬁnite integral and it gives a general formula for the area but not the value of the area itself.17). Solution 5 3 3x2 dx = [x3 + c]5 = (125 + c) − (27 + c) = 98 3 5 3 or leaving out the constant c we get 3x2 dx = [x3 ]5 = 125 − 27 = 98 3 .17) to work out the previous example we would write 6 1 4dx = [4x + c]6 = [(4 × 6) + c] − [(4 × 1) + c] 1 = 24 + c − 4 − c = 24 − 4 = 20 (2.2. The formula 4x+c by itself does not give the area directly. which is the same as (2. This is called an indeﬁnite integral or antiderivative.17). Thus (2. INTEGRAL EQUALS ANTIDERIVATIVE OR AREA 31 Consider 4dx = 4x + c. In the previous example we got 4 × 5 = 20 from 4x2 − 4x1 = (4 × 6) − (4 × 1) = 24 − 4 = 20.4) so that we know what area we are talking about.18) or leaving out the constant c we get 6 1 4dx = [4x]6 = (4 × 6) − (4 × 1) 1 = 24 − 4 = 20 Example Evaluate the area under the curve f (x) = 3x2 between x1 = 3 and x2 = 5. To evaluate the value of the area we need to specify the edges x1 and x2 of the area under consideration as we did in (2.17) Let’s explain this.2.2.17) must be the correct formula for area! Notice here that it doesn’t matter whether we include the constant c because it cancels out when we calculate area. Using (2. For an area we must always specify x1 and x2 (see Fig. The integral which gives us the area is actually a thing called the deﬁnite integral written x2 x1 4dx ≡ [4x + c]x2 ≡ (4x2 + c) − (4x1 + c) x1 = [4x]x2 = 4x2 − 4x1 x1 (2.

8. 10. Calculate the slope of the curve y(x) = 3x2 + 1 at the points x = −1.3 Problems (10 questions) 1. 9. Evaluate x2 dx and 3x3 dx. CALCULUS REVIEW 2. Calculate the derivative of x4 using the formula d n x = nxn−1 dx Verify your answer by calculating the derivative from y(x + ∆x) − y(x) dy = lim dx ∆x→0 ∆x 4. 3.32 CHAPTER 2. Calculate the derivative of y(x) = 5x + 2. The chain rule for derivatives is dy dy dz = dx dz dx Verify that this is true by taking y = z 3 and z = x2 and calculating the left and right hand sides of the chain rule showing they are equal. 2. The product rule for derivatives is d dz dy (yz) = y +z dx dx dx Verify that this is true by taking y = x and z = x2 and calculating the left and right hand sides of the chain rule showing they are equal. Where do the extremum values of y(x) = x2 − 4 occur? Verify your answer by plotting a graph. dx dx + x2 ) = + dx2 dx . 6. . 7. What is the area under the curve f (x) = x between x1 = 0 and x2 = 3? Work out your answer A) graphically and B) with the integral. x = 0 and x = 2. Prove that 5. Prove that d 2 dx (3x ) d dx (x d = 3 dx x2 .

But how? Why? When? We shall address these deep questions in this and later chapters. speed and acceleration.1 Introduction When you drive you car and go on a journey there are several things you are interested in. it starts oﬀ with zero speed and ends up hitting the ground with a large speed. Experiment Drop a ball from diﬀerent heights.Chapter 3 STRAIGHT LINE MOTION 3. Typically these are the distance travelled and the speed with which you travel. Often you want to know how long a journey will take if you drive at a certain speed over a certain distance. But what’s that? The speed of the ball increased. especially for a very short journey such as a little speed race with you and your friend. If you think about it. Also you are often interested in the acceleration of your car. In this chapter we will spend a lot of time studying the concepts of distance. You want to be able to accelerate quickly so that you reach your top speed more quickly. It falls straight down and it goes faster at the bottom if released from higher distances. 33 . Why did the speed of the ball increase? You might say gravity. and therefore gravity provided an acceleration. that’s a pretty amazing phenomenom. In the experiment an object is dropped from a certain height.

Milwaukee and Glendale? Solution A) For someone in Chicago. x = 10 miles. x=110 miles. The example also shows how position changes depending on where the origin is located. Example Chicago is 100 miles South of Milwaukee and there is a town called Glendale which is 10 miles North of Milwaukee. x = −10 miles. what is the position of someone in Chicago. as is the case for a one way straight line journey).2 Position. Distance is best understood simply as what the odometer on your car reads. For someone in Milwaukee.1) Note: We always write ∆anything ≡ anythingf −anythingi where anythingf is the ﬁnal value and anythingi is the initial value. It is up to us to deﬁne where to put the origin. For someone in Milwaukee. The following example explains what is meant by the term position. Displacement is deﬁned as a change in position. Distance will be the magnitude of the displacement. x = 100 miles. positions are measured along the x-axis with respect to some origin. For someone in Glendale. ∆x ≡ xf − xi (3. time etc. x = 0 miles.34 CHAPTER 3. You can see that if xi is bigger than xf then the displacement can be negative. This is a negative position. if the displacement is 100 m then the distance is also 100 m. . Distance and Displacement In 1-dimension. A) If we deﬁne the origin of the x-axis to be at Glendale what is the position of someone in Chicago. speed. because the x-axis is just something we invented to put on top of. But if the displacement is −100 m then the distance is still 100 m. Speciﬁcally. The odometer does not read displacement (except if displacment and distance are the same. STRAIGHT LINE MOTION 3. B) For someone in Chicago. say a real landscape. which is given the symbol x. This applies to such things as position. For someone in Glendale. x = 0 miles. Milwaukee and Glendale? B) If we deﬁne the origin of x-axis to be at Milwaukee. For example.

Try it. so that ∆x = xf − xi = 100 miles. You get the same answer with the origin deﬁned at Gendale. then the initial position is xi = 0 miles and the ﬁnal position is also xf = 0 miles. v≡ ¯ total distance d = ∆t ∆t (3. You get the same answer with the origin deﬁned at Gendale. This is what the odometer in your car would read. Example What is the displacement for someone driving from Milwaukee to Chicago and back? What is the distance? Solution With the origin at Milwaukee.2) whereas average speed is just the total distance divided by the time interval. The distance is also 100 miles. Thus there is no displacement if the beginning and end points are the same. then the initial position is xi = 0 miles and the ﬁnal position is xf = 100 miles. so that ∆x = xf − xi = 0 miles.3) .3 Average Velocity and Average Speed Average velocity is deﬁned as the ratio of displacement divided by the corresponding time interval. vx ≡ ¯ xf − xi ∆x = ∆t t f − ti (3. 3. The distance is 200 miles.3. AVERAGE VELOCITY AND AVERAGE SPEED 35 Example What is the displacement for someone driving from Milwaukee to Chicago? What is the distance? Solution With the origin at Milwaukee.3. Try it.

¯ 4 hours .36 CHAPTER 3. ¯ However the total distance is 200 miles completed in 4 hours giving v = 200 miles = 50 mph again. giving vx = ¯ 100 miles miles = 50 ≡ 50miles per hour ≡ 50mph 2 hours hour The average speed is the same as average velocity in this case because the total distance is the same as the displacement. STRAIGHT LINE MOTION Example What is the average velocity and averge speed for someone driving from Milwaukee to Chicago who takes 2 hours for the journey? Solution ∆x = 100 miles and ∆t = 2 hours . giving vx = 0. Thus v = 50 mph. ¯ Example What is the average velocity and averge speed for someone driving from Milwaukee to Chicago and back to Milwaukee who takes 4 hours for the journey? Solution ∆x = 0 miles and ∆t = 2 hours.

t) graphs for an object standing still and an object moving at constant speed. x xf xi ti tf t Figure 3. POSITION AND VELOCITY GRAPHS 37 3. Let us now study the position-time (x. it is an easy matter to obtain the average velocity.3.1 an arbitrary position time graph is shown. Even though the motion is quite complicated.4. It does not matter how complicated the motion is between xi and xf .4 Position and Velocity Graphs A very important thing to understand is how to read graphs of position and time and graphs of velocity and time.2). and how to interpret such graphs. In Fig. This can be realised in the following simple demonstration. .time graph.1 Arbitrary Position . It is useful to see how the average velocity is obtained from a positiontime graph. 3. We simply substitute the initial and ﬁnal times and postions into (3. t) and velocity-time (vx .

STRAIGHT LINE MOTION Experiment A) Take a billiard ball and let it sit at rest. For the ball moving at constant velocity.2 Position . . x x t v v t t (A) (B) t Figure 3. For the ball moving at constant speed the (x. t) graph is just a straight horizontal line. For the ball at rest the position x does not change and is therefore just a straight horizontal line.38 CHAPTER 3. the slope of the (x. Thus for the ball at rest. so that the ball does not slow down. t) graph is the slope of the (x. This is displayed in Fig. t) is zero. t) is always at zero. so that the (v.time and Velocity . t) graph. (We want the table to be smooth. the position keeps increasing and so the position-time graph is an inclined straight line. so that the (v.time graphs for A) object standing still and B) object moving at constant speed. Now the (v. 3.) The position-time graphs are shown in Fig.2.2. B) Take a billiard ball and let it roll in a straight line on a smooth horizontal table. t) graph has a constant slope. 3.

is deﬁned as ax = dvx dt (3.5) and the instantaneous acceleration. or the limit of ∆t as ∆t → 0 (approaches zero). you might legitimately protest to the oﬃcer that your average velocity for the whole trip was only 50 mph and therefore you don’t deserve a speeding ticket. or just speed. The instantaneous speed. Now when the police use their radar gun and clock you at 70 mph. Average acceleration is deﬁned as ax = ¯ vxf − vxi ∆vx = tf − ti ∆t (3.6) .5. Thus let’s introduce the concept of instantaneous velocity and instantaneous speed. or just acceleration. We denote such a tiny time interval as dt instead of ∆t. as we all know police oﬃcers don’t care about average velocity or average speed.4) ∆t dt This is the derivative of x with respect to t.3. Therefore the units for velocity or speed are m/sec. They only care about your speed at the instant that you pass them. is deﬁned as simply the magnitude of the instantaneous velocity or magnitude of velocity. The way to describe this mathematically is to say that an instant is when the time interval ∆t approaches zero. What is an instant? It is nothing more than an extremely short time interval. Sometimes you might pass a truck and drive at 70 mph and when you get stuck in the traﬃc jams you might only drive at 20 mph. vx ≡ lim ∆t→0 3.5 Instantaneous Velocity and Instantaneous Speed When you drive to Chicago with an average velocity of 50 mph you probably don’t drive at this velocity the whole way.6 Acceleration We saw that velocity tells us how quickly position changes. INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY AND INSTANTANEOUS SPEED39 3. However. Acceleration tells us how much velocity changes. The units of distance and displacement are m and the units of time are s. The corresponding distance that we travel over that tiny time interval will also be tiny and we denote that as dx instead of ∆x. Thus instantaneous velocity or just velocity is deﬁned as ∆x dx = (3.

what is your average acceleration if you are able to reach 20 mph from rest in 5 seconds? Solution vxf = 20 mph tf = 5 seconds vxi = 0 ti = 0 ax = ¯ 20 mph − 0 20 miles per hour = 5 sec − 0 5 seconds miles = 4 = 4 mph per sec hour seconds miles = 14. 400 miles per hour2 = 4 1 hour 3600 hour Now let’s return to our previous Experiment and plot the accelerationtime graphs corresponding to Fig. 3. d d Now because vx = dx we can write ax = dt vx = dt dx which is often dt dt d x written instead as dt dx ≡ d 2 .3. STRAIGHT LINE MOTION Given that the units of velocity are m/sec. This makes sense.2. 3. . that is the second derivative of position dt dt with respect to time. Both velocity-time graphs have zero slope and so the acceleration-time graphs are always zero. If the velocity is written in miles per hour then the acceleration is miles per hour2 .40 CHAPTER 3. The acceleration is simply the slope of the velocity-time graph. An object at rest or constant speed in a striaght line does not accelerate. Another way to write acceleration isusing the chain rule as ax = dvx = dvx dx = vx dvx . it follows that the units of acceleration are m/sec2 .7) You can check that the units are the same throughout. Thus the acceleration can be written in dt dx dt dx the alternative forms 2 ax = dvx dvx d2 x = 2 = vx dt dt dx (3. This is plotted in Fig. Example When driving your car.

7 Constant Acceleration Equations Velocity describes changing position and acceleration describes changing velocity. 3. When the acceleration is constant.7. CONSTANT ACCELERATION EQUATIONS 41 a a t (A) (B) t Figure 3. very often the acceleration is constant.7. When this is ﬁnished we show the derivations using calculus. and we don’t consider jerk.1 Algebraic Derivation ti ≡ 0 tf ≡ t We are going to use the following values: and acceleration a is a constant so that axf = axi ≡ ax . then we can derive ﬁve very handy equations that will tell us everything about the motion. We will now show how to derive these equations using only algebra. A quantity called jerk describes changing acceleration. When driving your car the acceleration is usually constant when you speed up or slow down or put on the brakes. However.3 Acceleration-time graphs for motion depicted previously in Fig. 3.) When you drop an object and it falls to the ground it also has a constant acceleration. (When you slow down or put on the brakes the acceleration is constant but negative and is called deceleration.3. 3.2. Thus now ∆t = tf − ti = t − 0 = t ∆x = xf − xi ∆vx = vxf − vxi ∆ax = axf − axi = ax − ax = 0 .

If you plot this on a (v. for a = constant. To get the other three constant acceleration equations. because acceleration is constant then average acceleration is always the same as instantaneous acceleration ax = ax ¯ Now use the deﬁnition of average acceleration ax = ax = ¯ vxf − vxi vxf − vxi ∆vx = = ∆t t−0 t ⇒ ax t = vxf − vxi or vxf = vxi + ax t (3.42 CHAPTER 3. STRAIGHT LINE MOTION (∆a must be zero because we are only considering constant a. then it is a straight line of slope a. .9) xf − xi ∆x = ∆t t 1 (vxf + vxi ) 2 1 (vxi + ax t + vxi ) 2 which is the second of our constant acceleration equations. we will just combine the ﬁrst two as the following examples show. In that case the average velocity is (see Example below) 1 vx = (vxf + vxi ) ¯ 2 From the deﬁnition of average velocity vx = ¯ ⇒ xf − xi t = = giving 1 xf − xi = vxi t + ax t2 2 (3.) Also. t) graph.8) which is the ﬁrst of our constant acceleration equations.

t) graph is a straight line of slope a. vx vxf vxi ∆t t Figure 3. The area under the graph gives the position ∆x.4 (vx .7. show that 1 vx = (vxf + vxi ) ¯ 2 Solution If the acceleration is constant then the equation vxf = vxi + ax t shows that a (vx . Such a graph is plotted in Figure 3.3. Thus 1 ∆x = vxi ∆t + (vxf − vxi )∆t 2 1 = (vxi + vxf )∆t 2 giving vx = ¯ ∆x 1 = (vxf + vxi ) ∆t 2 . CONSTANT ACCELERATION EQUATIONS 43 Example When the acceleration is constant. which is just the area of the rectangle plus the area of the triangle. t) graph for constant acceleration.4.

From (3.9) gives xf − xi = vxi vxf − vxi ax vxf − vxi 1 + ax 2 ax 2 1 2 2 2 ax (xf − xi ) = vxi vxf − vxi + (vxf − 2vxf vxi + vxi ) 2 1 2 2 = (v − vxi ) 2 xf 2 2 ⇒ vxf = vxi + 2ax (xf − xi ) Example Prove that 1 xf − xi = (vxi + vxf )t 2 Solution Obviously ax has been eliminated.44 CHAPTER 3.9) gives xf − xi = vxi t + 1 vxf − vxi 2 t 2 t 1 = vxi t + (vxf t − vxi t) 2 1 = (vxi + vxf )t 2 (3.8) vxf − vxi ax = t Substituting into (3.11) The ﬁnal equation is 1 xf − xi = vxf t − ax t2 2 This derivation is left to the Problems. STRAIGHT LINE MOTION Example Prove that 2 2 vxf = vxi + 2ax (x − xi ) (3.10) Solution Obviously t has been eliminated.12) . (3. From (3.8) vxf − vxi t= ax Substituting into (3.

CONSTANT ACCELERATION EQUATIONS 45 3.7.2 Summary of Constant Acceleration equations The 5 constant acceleration equations are: vxf 2 vxf = vxi + ax t 2 = vxi + 2ax (xf − xi ) vxi + vxf = t 2 1 = vxi t + ax t2 2 1 = vxf t − ax t2 2 xf − xi .7.3.

2 Solution We have vx = dx dt Intedgrate both sides with respect to t giving vx dt = dx dt dt However now vx changes and so it cannot be taken outside the integral.7. STRAIGHT LINE MOTION 3. Example Prove that vxf = vxi + ax t using calculus.3 Calculus Derivation The constant acceleration equations can be derived from integral calculus as follows. In fact the formula telling us how vx changes was . we can take it outside the integral giving tf vxf ax dt = ti vxi dvx ⇒ ax (tf − ti ) = vxf − vxi ax (t − 0) = vxf − vxi ⇒ vxf = vxi + ax t Example Prove that xf − xi = vxi t + 1 ax t2 using calculus. Solution For constant acceleration ax is not a function of position x or time t. Now ax = and integrating both sides gives tf ti dvx dt ax dt = dvx dt dt Given that ax is constant.46 CHAPTER 3. That is ax = ax (x) and ax = ax (t).

.7. Solution Here we use the chain rule. ax = Integrate both sides. CONSTANT ACCELERATION EQUATIONS vxf (t) = vxi + ax t and so we substitute this into the previous expression to get tf ti xf 47 (vxi + at)dt = tf ti dx xi ⇒ 1 vxi t + at2 2 = xf − xi 1 = vxi (tf − ti ) + a(tf − ti )2 2 1 = vxi (t − 0) + ax (t − 0)2 2 1 2 = vxi t + ax t 2 which gives 1 xf − xi = vxi t + ax t2 2 2 2 Example Prove that vxf = vxi + 2ax (xf − xi ) using calculus.3. xf vxf ax dx = xi vxi vx dvx ⇒ ax (xf − xi ) = = to ﬁnally give 1 2 vxf v 2 x vxi 1 2 2 v − vxi 2 xf 2 2 vxf = vxi + 2ax (xf − xi ) One can now get the other equations using algebra. xf xi dvx dvx dx = dt dx dt = vx dvx dx ax dx = vx dvx dx dx The acceleration is constant and can be taken outside the integral.

8 m/sec2 When we study gravitation in more detail we will be able to explain where this number comes from and also why all objects fall with the same acceleration near the Earth’s surface. is that all objects fall to the ground with the same acceleration if air resistance is neglected. Experiment A) Take two identical cans and ﬁll one with water or dirt. fall more slowly than heavier objects. We can easily demonstrate this with the following expreiment. then near the surface of Earth. such as a feather. If we neglect air resistance. Water leaks out if the cup is held stationary. An extraordinary fact.48 CHAPTER 3. . A famous demonstration done by Apollo astronauts on the Moon was to drop a feather and hammer at the same time. Water does not leak out while the cup is dropping! We often think that lighter objects. They hit the ground at the same time because there is no air on the Moon. all falling objects have same acceleration given by a = g = 9. They hit the ground at the same time! B) Drop a paper cup ﬁlled with water which has a hole in the bottom. Drop them from the same height. STRAIGHT LINE MOTION 3. But this is just because a light object such as a feather experiences a lot of air resistance. In the experiment above air resistance is the same for the two falling cans. originally discovered by Galileo when dropping object from the tower of Pisa.8 Free Fall One of the most common instances of constant acceleration occurs when an object is dropped near the surface of the Earth.

G1356].” This is Galileo’s statement of 1 1 x − xi = vxi t + at2 = vxf t − at2 2 2 (3.” In other words this is Galileo’s statement of our equation 1 x − xi = (vxi + v)t 2 We also ﬁnd [Pg. . PROPOSITION II : The spaces described by a falling body from rest with a uniformly accelerated motion are to each other as the squares of the time intervals employed in traversing these distances.13) Galileo was able to test this equation with the simple device shown in Figure 3. This is basically a ball rolling down an inclined plane. In Two New Sciences we ﬁnd the following [Pg. PROPOSITION I : The time in which any space is traversed by a body starting from rest and uniformly accelerated is equal to the time in which that same space would be traversed by the same body moving at a unifrom speed whose value is the mean of the highest speed and the speed just before acceleration began.9. HISTORICAL NOTE 49 3. New York. 1933. rather than relying solely on philosophical argument. Objects moving down inclined planes are studied in all introductory physics courses.9 Historical Note The constant acceleration equations were ﬁrst discovered by Galileo Galilei (1564 . Galileo is responsible for this! By the way.5.14) (3. 174]: “THEOREM II. 173]: “THEOREM I.G13] and Dialogue concerning the Two Chief World Systems [QB 41. Galileo is widely regarded as the father of modern science because he was really the ﬁrst person who went out and actually did expreiments to arrive at facts about nature. Galileo also invented the astronomical telescope. Galileo wrote two famous books entitled Dialogues concerning Two New Sciences [Macmillan.1642).3. QC 123.

Lederman and David N. STRAIGHT LINE MOTION moveable fret wires Figure 3.50 CHAPTER 3. 1989)] . [from “From Quarks to the Cosmos” Leon M. New York.5 Galileo’s apparatus for verifying the constant acceleration equations. Schramm (Scientiﬁc American Library.

D. x x x t t t 3. The ﬁgures below show position-time graphs.0 m. (This is the speed the instant before the object touches the ground. B. C. PROBLEMS (8 QUESTIONS) 51 3. Indicate for what functions the acceleration is constant.10 Problems (8 questions) 1. C.3. ω? B) Work out expressions for the velocity and acceleration. C) Sketch graphs of x. what is the numerical value of the ﬁnal speed? . Suppose you drop an object from a height H above the ground. C) If the height is 1. B. ω are constants. 2. The following functions give the position as a function of time: i) x = A ii) x = Bt iii) x = Ct2 iv) x = D cos ωt v) x = E sin ωt where A.10. a as a function of time. Sketch the corresponding velocity-time and acceleration-time graphs. v. E. A) Derive a formula for the speed with which the object hits the ground. E.) B) Check your formula by making sure that the units on the right hand side are the same as those on the left hand side. A) What are the units for A. D.

Show that xf − xi = vxf t − 1 ax t2 follows from the other constant 2 acceleration equations. Derive a formula for how long this takes. then after some time the car will eventually cath up and pass the truck. what is your acceleration in mph per sec and in miles per hour2 ? 5. The ﬁrst car travels at constant speed v1 and does not accelerate. 6. 8. v1 . Your formula should only involve t. Use only algebra. At the instant the light turns green. When the light turns green the car starts accelerating with a constant acceleration of ac . a truck travelling at constant speed vt passes the car at the traﬃc light. the driver of the second car decides to try to catch up to the ﬁrst car.52 CHAPTER 3. If you start your car from rest and accelerate to 30 mph in 10 seconds. The instant it passes. and neglect air resistance. A car is stopped at a red traﬃc light. A car is travelling at constant speed v1 and passes a second car moving at speed v2 . v2 and a. Derive a formula for how long it takes to catch up. Assuming the car keeps accelerating. . with what speed does it return to the ground? Prove your answer using the constant acceleration equations. STRAIGHT LINE MOTION 4. If you throw a ball up vertically at speed V . 7. by stepping on the gas pedal and moving at acceleration a.

electric ﬁeld Examples of Scalars are: distance. Quantities that don’t have a sign were distance.1 Introduction When we considered 1-dimensional motion in the last chapter we only had two directions to worry about. magnitude of acceleration. but when writing things by hand or on the blackboard it is easier to use the A notation. Scalars are quantities with magnitude only. velocity and acceleration. acceleration. Throughout this book we use the A notation. becuase it is diﬃcult to write bold face when writing by hand. temperature Vectors are usually either written as boldface quantities such as A or as quantities with a little arrow over the top as in A. We found that the following quantities had a direction (i. Now in 2 and 3 dimensions we need more than a + or − sign. speed. velocity.e. Usually textbooks use the A notation. 53 . speed and magnitude of acceleration. Examples of Vectors are: displacement. could take a + or − sign): displacement. time. momentum.Chapter 4 VECTORS 4. Before delving into vectors consider the following problem. namely motion to the Right or motion to the Left and we indicated direction with a + or − sign. Vectors are quantities with both magnitude and direction. force. That’s where vectors come in.

50 m 40 m 30 m Figure 4.1. VECTORS Example Joe and Mary are rowing a boat across a river which is 40 m wide. However the river is ﬂowing downstream and by the time they reach the other side. Over what total distance did the boat travel? Solution Obviously the way to do this is with the triangle in Fig. they end up 30 m downstream from their starting point. and we deduce that the distance is 50 m. . 4.1 Graphical solution to river problem. They row in a direction perpendicular to the bank.54 CHAPTER 4.

2 Displacement along the river. denoted C.4 Vector addition solution to the river problem. which are little arrows whose orientation speciﬁes direction and whose length speciﬁes magnitude.4. INTRODUCTION 55 Another way to think about the previous problem is with vectors. with a length of 30 m.1. denoted as A and the displacement across the river. The displacement along the river is represented as Figure 4. is obtained by ﬁlling in the triangle. Mathematically we write C = A + B. Figure 4. the vectors are added head-to-tail as in Fig. denoted B. with length of 40 m. 4. The resultant vector. Figure 4.4. .3 Displacement across the river. To re-construct the previous triangle.

VECTORS The graphical method of solving our original problem is to take out a ruler and actually measure the length of the resultant vector C.5 Right-angled triangle. You would ﬁnd it to be 50 m.56 CHAPTER 4. Thus there is always the problem of inaccuracy in making these measurements. The graphical method requires the use of a ruler and protractor for measuring the lengths of vectors and their angles. i. special type of triangle and that is a right-angled triangle. a triangle where one of the angles is 90◦ . To learn this we must learn about components. Of all the vast number of diﬀerent possible triangles. the subject of trigonometry has to do with only a certain. Triangles are made by connecting three points. 4. we add them head-totail.e. It’s better to use analytical methods which rely on pure calculation. To do this we need trigonometry. Let’s draw one: Hypotenuse Figure 4.2 Trigonometry Lines are made by connecting two points. . Summary: When adding any two vectors A and B.

6 Right-angled triangle showing sides Opposite and Adjacent to the angle θ.2. Opposite Hypotenuse θ Adjacent Figure 4.4. Pythagoras’ theorem states H 2 = A2 + O2 . Now consider the other angle α. Let’s label Hypotenuse as H. say θ. α Adjacent Hypotenuse Opposite Figure 4. Consider one of the other angles. The side adjacent to θ is called Adjacent and the side opposite θ is called Opposite. The Opposite and Adjacent sides are switched because the angle is diﬀerent. TRIGONOMETRY 57 The side opposite the right angle is always called the Hypotenuse. Opposite as O and Adjacent as A.7 Right-angled triangle showing sides Opposite and Adjacent to the angle α.

6 50 m 5 40 m 4 = = = 1. H is called Cosine.58 CHAPTER 4.8 Triangle for river problem. H .8 50 m 5 30 m 3 = = = 0. Remember them by writing SOH.e. cos θ.cos α.8 50 m 5 30 m 3 = = = 0. tan θ.75 40 m 4 = α 50 m 40 m θ 30 m Figure 4. VECTORS This is true no matter how the Opposite and Adjacent sides are labelled. TOA. cos. O . tan. CAH.33 30 m 3 30 m 3 = = = 0. sin α. tan α. write down sin θ. it doesn’t matter for Pythagoras’ theorem. Some possible O A O combinations are H . if Opposite and Adjacent are interchanged. These special ratios are given special names. i. The names are usually abbreviated to sin. Solution sin θ = cos θ = tan θ = sin α = cos α = tan α = O H A H O A O H A H O A 40 m 4 = = 0. . A is called Tangent. H A A O is called Sine. Often we are interested in dividing one side by another.6 50 m 5 40 m 4 = = = 0. Example Using the previous triangle for the river problem.

8 the angle is always 53. So if we have calculated any of the ratios. Ax and Ay .75 the angle is always 36. y Ay A Ax x Figure 4. These are like shadows on the x and y areas.9 Components.1◦ . cos or tan then we always know what the corresponding angle is. Again whenever tan of an angle is 0.4.9◦ . of vector A. That’s why we consider trigonometry and right-angled triangles! .1◦ . sin. The components are denoted Ax and Ay and are obtained by dropping a perpendicular line from the vector to the x and y axes. Thus θ = 53.3.9. VECTOR COMPONENTS 59 Now whenever the sin of an angle is 0. 4. as shown in Figure 4.3 Vector Components An arbitrary vector has both x and y components.

Experiment Pull a cart with a rope at some angle to the ground. determined not by the force F. the acceleration of the cart will change. even thought the pulling force is kept constant. If you change the angle. as shown in Fig. . In this experiment the cart will move with a certain acceleration. Vary the angle and notice how the acceleration of the cart varies. but by the component Fx in the x direction.11.60 CHAPTER 4. 4. VECTORS A physical understanding of components can be obtained.

writing A instead of F as follows: A θ α Ay Ax Figure 4. VECTOR COMPONENTS 61 F Fx Figure 4.10. Let’s re-draw Figure 4.3.10 Pulling a cart with a force F. .4.11 Components and angles for Fig. 4.10.

Ax and Ay we can always get the magnitude and direction of the vector. sin α = Ax .) i y i x Figure 4. Pythagoras’ theorem gives A2 = A 2 + A 2 x y and also tan θ = and tan α = A Ay Ax Ax Ay A y y (Also sin θ = A . 4.62 CHAPTER 4. as in Fig.) A A Thus if we have the components. cos θ = Ax . . Similarly if we start with A and θ (or α) we can always ﬁnd Ax and Ay . cos α = A . (The symbol ˆ is used to denote these unit vectors. There’s another very useful and compact way to write vectors and that is by using unit vectors.12. The unit vector i is deﬁned to always have a length of 1 and to always lie in the positive x direction. A and θ) or x and y components (Ax and Ay ).4 Unit Vectors A vector is completely speciﬁed by writing down magnitude and direction (i. namely A and θ (or α). VECTORS Let’s denote the magnitude or length of A simply as A. However sometimes we will also use |A|. but it’s quicker to just write A. when writing them by hand. A better notation is |A|.e.12 Unit vector i. 4.

4.4. y j x Figure 4.13 Unit vector j. y k z x Figure 4. The unit vector k lies in the positive z direction. UNIT VECTORS 63 Similarly the unit vector j is deﬁned to always have a length of 1 also but to lie entirely in the positive y direction. Thus any arbitrary vector A is now written as A = Ax i + A y j + A z k .14 Unit vector k.

15 Adding vectors by components. By carefully looking at the ﬁgure you can see that Cx = Ax + Bx Cy = Ay + By This is a very important result. Remember how we discussed adding vectors graphically using a ruler and protractor.16 we have shown two vectors A and B added to form C. 4. because then we can get our answers by pure calculation.64 CHAPTER 4. . VECTORS 4.5 Vector Addition Finally we will now see the use of components and unit vectors. but we have also indicated all the components. y C B Bx Ay By Cy A Ax Cx x Figure 4. A better method is with the use of components. In Fig.

However Ax . Whenever anyone writes something like D = F+E it actually means two things. Thus C = A ⊕ B actually means Cx = Ax + Bx and Cy = Ay + By . “Wait a minute! What does the + sign mean?” We are used to adding numbers such as 5 = 3 + 2. We should really write C=A⊕B where ⊕ is a new type of “addition”. B and C are not numbers. By . Cy are ordinary numbers and the + sign we used above does denote ordinary addition. They are these strange arrow-like objects called vectors which are “added” by putting head-to-tail. All of this is much more obvious with the use of unit vectors. When we write C=A+B 65 you should say. namely Dx = Fx +Ex and Dy = Fy + Ey . Bx .5. Write A = Ax i + Ay j and B = Bx i + By j and C = Cx i + Cy j.4. The statement C = A ⊕ B is really shorthand for two ordinary addition statements. Cx . VECTOR ADDITION Now let’s back-track for a minute. Ay . but in the above equation A. totally unlike adding numbers. Now C=A+B is simply Cx i + Cy j = Ax i + Ay j + Bx i + By j = (Ax + Bx )i + (Ay + By )j and equating coeﬃcients of i and j gives Cx = Ax + Bx and Cy = Ay + By .

namely C = A + B.1) where A and B are the magnitude of A and B respectively and θ is the angle between A and B.6. it has magnitude only. The scalar product is deﬁned as A · B ≡ AB cos θ (4. When we add vectors we always get a new vector.6 4.1) we can work out the scalar products of all of the unit vectors. VECTORS Example Do the original river problem using components. The whole quantity A · B = AB cos θ is a scalar. These are often also called dot product and cross product. When we multiply vectors we get either a scalar or vector. .66 CHAPTER 4.1 Vector Multiplication Scalar Product We know how to add vectors.e. Solution A = 30i B = 40j C = A+B Cx i + Cy j = Ax i + Ay j + Bx i + By j Ay = 0 Cx i + Cy j = 30i + 40j Cx = 30 Cy = 40 or Cx = Ax + Bx = 30 + 0 = 30 Cy = Ay + By = 0 + 40 = 40 2 2 C 2 = Cx + Cy = 302 + 402 = 900 + 1600 = 2500 Bx = 0 ⇒ C = 50 4. Based on our deﬁnition (4. There are two types of vector multiplication called scalar product and vector product. Now let’s learn how to multiply them. i.

Example What is the angle between A = i + j and B = i − j? Solution We have A · B = Ax Bx + Ay By = 1−1=0 = AB cos θ ⇒ θ = 90o . as the next example shows.2) which has been derived from the original deﬁnition (4.4. Thus i·i=1 Example Evaluate i · j Solution i · j = ij cos 90◦ = 0 Thus we have i · i = j · j = k · k = 1 and i · j = i · k = j · k = j · i = k · i = k · j = 0. namely A · B = Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz (4. VECTOR MULTIPLICATION 67 Example Evaluate i · i Solution i · i = ii cos θ but i is the magnitude of i which is 1. Now any vector can be written in terms of unit vectors as A = Ax i + Ay j + Az k and B = Bx i + By j + Bz k. Thus the scalar product of any two arbitrary vectors is A · B = AB cos θ = (Ax i + Ay j + Az k) · (Bx i + By j + Bz k) = Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz Thus we have a new formula for scalar product.1) using unit vectors. and the angle θ is 0◦ . What’s the good of all this? Well for one thing it’s now easy to ﬁgure out the angle between vectors.6.

2 Vector Product In making up the deﬁnition of vector product we have to deﬁne its magnitude and direction. The symbol for vector product is A×B.6.) Example Evaluate i × j Solution |i × j| = ij sin 90◦ = 1 The direction is in direction k Thus i × j = k Example Evaluate k × k Solution |k × k| = kk sin 0 = 0 Thus k × k = 0 Therefore i×j=k j×k=i k×i=j j × i = −k k × j = −i i × k = −j and i×i=j×j=k×k=0 Thus the vector product of any two arbitrary vectors is A × B = (Ax i + Ay j + Az k) × (Bx i + By j + Bz k) which gives a new formula for vector product. A = foreﬁnger. (C = thumb. The magnitude is deﬁned as C = AB sin θ and the direction is deﬁned to follow the right hand rule. VECTORS 4. B = middle ﬁnger. Given that the result is a vector let’s write C ≡ A × B.68 CHAPTER 4. namely A × B = (Ay Bz − Az By )i + (Az Bx − Ax Bz )j +(Ax By − Ay Bx )k .

2. A wind is blowing at 50 mph in a direction 30o East of North. An airplane pilot wishes to ﬂy 100 mph North. Evaluate: A) A + B B) A − B C) A · B D) A × B 4. 3. Using the right hand rule. ﬁgure out the direction of the following vector products. . What speed and direction should the pilot ﬂy the plane? Give the direction as the number of degrees North of East. Write A = Ax i + Ay j + Az k and similarly for B and C. which should be the same in both cases. Two vectors are deﬁned as A = j + k and B = i + j. 7. However a wind is blowing at 30 mph towards the West. A) i × k B) i × (−k) C) j × i D) (−j) × (−k) E) (−j) × i F) (−k) × (−i) 5. Evaluate (A + 2B ) · C where A = i + 2j and B = j − k and C = i − j.7 Problems (7 questions) 1. Use A) the scalar product and then B) the vector product to obtain your answer. Calculate the angle between the vectors A = i + 2j and B = j − k. A pilot is aiming her plane in a direction 45o South of West at a speed of 200 mph. Work out the problem using unit vectors. PROBLEMS (7 QUESTIONS) 69 4. 6.7. What will be the resulting speed and direction of the plane with respect to the ground? Use unit vectors to work out this problem. Work out a formula for A · (B × C) in terms of the components of A.4. B and C.

VECTORS .70 CHAPTER 4.

Chapter 5

**2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL MOTION
**

5.1 Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration

In this chapter we will go over everything we did in Chapter 3 concerning motion, except that now the entire discussion will involve vectors. In Chapter 3 we used the coordinate x alone to denote position. However for 3-dimensions position is generally described with the position vector r = xi + yj + zk. Now in Chapter 3, displacement was deﬁned as a change in position, namely displacement = ∆x = xf − xi . In 3-dimensions, displacement is deﬁned as the change in position vector, displacement = ∆r = rf − ri = ∆xi + ∆yj + ∆zk = (xf − xi )i + (yf − yi )j + (zf − zi )k Thus displacement is a vector. In 1-dimension, the average velocity was deﬁned as displacement divided x −x by time interval or vx ≡ ∆x = tf −tii . Similarly, in 3-dimensions average ¯ ∆t f velocity is deﬁned as ¯ v ≡ = rf − ri ∆r = ∆t tf − ti ∆xi + ∆yj + ∆zk ∆t 71

72

CHAPTER 5. 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL MOTION ∆x ∆y ∆z i+ j+ k ∆t ∆t ∆t ¯ ¯ = vx i + vy j + vz k ¯ =

For 1-dimension, the instantaneous velocity, or just velocity, was deﬁned as vx ≡ dx . In 3-dimensions we deﬁne velocity as dt v ≡ dr dt d (xi + yj + zk) = dt dy dz dx i+ j+ k = dt dt dt = vx i + vy j + vz k

Thus velocity is a vector. Note the following. The instantaneous velocity of a particle is always tangent to the path of the particle. Of course that’s because the velocity is the derivative of the position vector r, and we saw that the derivative is just the slope. Again we follow the deﬁnitions made for 1-dimension. In 3-dimensions, the average acceleration is deﬁned as ¯ a≡ vf − vi ∆v = ∆t tf − ti dv dt

and acceleration (instantaneous acceleration) is deﬁned as a= Thus acceleration is also a vector.

5.2

**Constant Acceleration Equations
**

∆x ∆t dx dt ∆v ∆t dv dt

In 1-dimension, our basic deﬁnitions were vx = ¯ vx = ax = ¯ ax =

5.2. CONSTANT ACCELERATION EQUATIONS

73

We found that if the acceleration is constant, then from these equations we can prove that vxf

2 vxf

= vxi + ax t

2 = vxi + 2ax (xf − xi ) vxi + vxf = t 2 1 = vxi t + ax t2 2 1 = vxf t − ax t2 2

xf − xi

which are known as the 5 constant acceleration equations. In 3-dimensions we had ∆r ¯ v≡ ∆t or ∆x ∆y ∆z vx i + vy j + vz k = ¯ ¯ ¯ i+ j+ k ∆t ∆t ∆t or ∆x ∆y ∆z ¯ vx = , vy + ¯ , vz = ¯ ∆t ∆t ∆t ¯ These 3 equations are the meaning of the ﬁrst vector equation v ≡ ∆r . ∆t Similarly dr v≡ dt or dx dy dz vx = , vy = , vz = dt dt dt Similarly ∆v ¯ a≡ ∆t or ∆vx ∆vy ∆vz ax = ¯ , ay = ¯ , az = ¯ ∆t ∆t ∆t and dv a≡ dt or dvx dvy dvz , ay = , az = ax = dt dt dt So we see that in 3-dimensions the equations are the same as in 1dimension except that we have 3 sets of them; one for each dimension. Thus

74

CHAPTER 5. 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL MOTION

if the 3-dimensional acceleration vector a is now constant, then ax , ay and az must all be constant. Thus we will have 3 sets of constant acceleration equations, namely vxf

2 vxf

= vxi + ax t

2 = vxi + 2ax (xf − xi ) vxi + vxf = t 2 1 = vxi t + ax t2 2 1 = vxf t − ax t2 2

xf − xi

and vyf

2 vyf

= vyi + ay t

2 = vyi + 2ay (yf − yi ) vyi + vyf = t 2 1 = vyi t + ay t2 2 1 = vyf t − ay t2 2

yf − yi

and

vzf

2 vzf

= vzi + az t

2 = vzi + 2az (zf − zi ) vzi + vzf = t 2 1 = vzi t + az t2 2 1 = vzf t − az t2 2

z f − zi

These 3 sets of constant acceleration equations are easy to remember. They are the same as the old ones in 1-dimension except now they have subscripts y and z in addition to x.

5. CONSTANT ACCELERATION EQUATIONS Remember that any vector equation say A=B really means that Ax = Bx Ay = By Az = Bz 75 Thus the 3 sets of constant acceleration equations are written more compactly as vector equations.2. . vf 2 vf = vi + at 2 = vi + 2a(rf − ri ) vi + vf = t 2 1 = vi t + at2 2 1 = vf t − at2 2 rf − ri It’s easiest to remember the constant acceleration equations in this vector form.

The classic example is kicking a football oﬀ the ground. Thus we can ignore all motion in the z direction and just analyze the x and y directions. It follows a 2-dimensional curve.3 Projectile Motion Most motion in 3-dimensions actually only occurs in 2-dimensions. 2. vi θ vyi vxi range. .1 Projectile Motion. R Figure 5.1.AND 3-DIMENSIONAL MOTION 5.76 CHAPTER 5. Also we shall ignore air resistance. 5. as shown in Fig.

and simply say that distance = speed × time when the acceleration is 0. PROJECTILE MOTION 77 Example A football is kicked oﬀ the ground with an initial velocity of vi at an angle θ to the ground. (Ignore air resistance) Solution The x direction is easiest to deal with. The fourth and ﬁfth equations are also consistent 2 with vxf = vxi . Thus the constant acceleration equations in the x direction become vxf 2 vxf = vxi 2 = vxi vxi + vxf = t = vxi t = vxf t 2 = vxi t xf − xi xf − xi = vxf t (5. The second equation just says the same thing. Now. 5. 2 2 If vxf = vxi then of course also vxf = vxi .1) becomes xf − xi = vi cos θ t v +v v +v . which means vxf = vxi .3.e. i.1 we see that vxi = vi cos θ and vyi = vi sin θ.1) The ﬁrst equation (vxf = vxi ) makes perfect sense because if ax = 0 then the speed in the x direction is constant. Thus (5. because there is no acceleration in the x direction after the ball has been kicked. what is vxi in terms of vi ≡ |vi | and θ? Well.5. Write down the x constant acceleration equation in simpliﬁed form. In the third equation we also use vxf = vxi to get xi 2 xf = vxi +vxi = vxi or xi 2 xf = 2 vxf +vxf = vxf . ax = 0. from Fig.

In the y direction the acceleration is constant ay = −g but not zero. 2. Also we can write vyi = vi sin θ.e. Thus the equations for the y direction are vyf 2 vyf = vi sin θ − gt = (vi sin θ)2 − 2g(yf − yi ) vi sin θ + vy = t 2 1 = vi sin θ t − gt2 2 yf − yi yf − yi An important thing to notice is that t never gets an x.8 m/sec2 .AND 3-DIMENSIONAL MOTION Example What is the form of the y-direction constant acceleration equations from the previous example? Solution Can we also simplify the constant acceleration equations for the y direction? No. Thus the y direction equations don’t simplify at all.78 CHAPTER 5. t = tx = ty = tz . Air track: no acceleration in x direction. 2) Push 2 objects oﬀ table at same time. LECTURE DEMONSTRATIONS 1) Drop an object: it accerates in y direction. This is because t is the same for all 3 components. . y or z subscript. One falls in vertical path and the other on parabolic trajectory but both hit ground at same time. 3) Monkey shoot. i. except that we know that the value of ay is −g or −9.

Now R will be largest when sin 2θ is largest which occurs when 2θ = 90o .3. Derive a formula for the Range. we have yf − yi = 0.5. We get this the y direction equation. (Ignore air resistance and the spin of the football. From the previous example we had 1 yf − yi = vi sin θ t − gt2 2 But for this example. and show that the maximum Range occurs for θ = 45◦ . . PROJECTILE MOTION 79 Example The total horizontal distance (called the Range) that a football will travel when kicked. Thus 1 0 = vi sin θ t − gt2 2 1 0 = vi sin θ − gt 2 2vi sin θ ⇒t = g Substituting into our Range formula above gives R = vi cos θ t 2 2vi sin θ cos θ = g 2 sin 2θ vi = g using the formula sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ.) Solution The Range. depends upon the initial speed and angle that it leaves the ground. Thus θ = 45o . R is just R = xf − xi = vxi t = vi cos θ t Given vi and θ we could calculate the range if we had t.

AND 3-DIMENSIONAL MOTION COMPUTER SIMULATION (Interactive Physics): Air Drop.2 Air Drop. for the vertical velocity (up or down) that the supplies should be given so they land exactly at the climber’s position. R and g. vxi = 250 km/hr and R=400 m.) . vxi . The plane is travelling horizontally at a speed of vxi .2.80 CHAPTER 5. Example A rescue plane wants to drop supplies to isolated mountain climbers on a rocky ridge a distance H below. origin H=200 m R=400 m Figure 5. calculate a numerical value for this speed. Derive a formula in terms of H. 2. (See Figure 5. The plane releases supplies a horizontal distance of R in advance of the mountain climbers. If H=200 m.

5.85 60 × 60 sec sec2 1000 m = −34.8 2 × 2 sec 250 km hour−1 km m2 hour = −125 + 7.2. We can get this from 1 yf − yi = vyi t + ay t2 = −H 2 1 = vyi t − gt2 2 or −H 1 vyi = + gt t 2 and we get t from the x direction. Let’s now put in numbers: 200 m × 250 km hour−1 400 m 400 km m 1 + 9. The initial speed of supplies when released is vxi = +250 km/hour xf − xi = R − 0 = R ay = −g yf − yi = 0 − H = −H (note the minus sign !) We want to ﬁnd the initial vertical velocity of the supplies. PROJECTILE MOTION Solution Let’s put the origin at the plane.22 m/sec = − = −6.5.3. namely vyi . .722 m/sec + 28.5 m/sec Thus the supplies must be thrown in the down direction (not up) at 6.5 m/sec. namely xf − xi = vxi t = R ⇒t= giving vyi = −H vxi 1 R + g R 2 vxi R vxi 81 which is the formula we seek. See Fig.84 2 hour sec km 1000 m m2 × 60 × 60 sec = −125 + 7.

there is a well deﬁned radius which we will call r.e. In circular motion. This is shown in Fig. . 4-19 of Halliday. P1 v1 ∆s ∆r P1 = r2 .r 1 v2 r2 v2 v1 ∆θ ∆ v = v2 . 2. If the speed is constant then it is given by v= ∆s 2πr = ∆t T (5. This occurs because the direction of velocity is constantly changing for the satellite even though the magnitude of velocity (i.v1 r1 ∆θ Figure 5. Also the time it takes for the satellite to complete 1 orbit is called the period T .3.82 CHAPTER 5. Also circular motion is a classic example where we have a deﬁnite non-zero acceleration even though the speed of a satellite is constant.3 Circular Motion. where the displacement and velocity vectors are drawn for a satellite at two diﬀerent positions Pi and Pf . What about the acceleration? Well that’s just a = ∆v but how do we ∆t work it out? Look at Figure 5.2) Here I have written ∆s instead of ∆x or ∆y because ∆s is the total distance ∆t ∆t ∆t around the circle which is a mixture of x and y. 2πr is just the distance of T 1 orbit (circumference) divided by the time of 1 orbit (period). The word “uniform” means that speed is constant.AND 3-DIMENSIONAL MOTION 5.4 Circular Motion In today’s world of satellites and spacecraft circular motion is very important to understand because many satellites have circular orbits. speed) is constant.

When you drive your car around in a circle then you. Also the speed v is constant.4. and because of your inertia. The same idea occurs when you spin-dry clothes in a washing machine. The triangle is similar to the top triangle in that the angle ∆θ is the same. Combining the above two equations for ∆θ gives a≡ ∆v v2 = ∆t r i.4) ∆v v (5. meaning that |vf | = |vi | ≡ v.3) The velocity vectors can be re-drawn as in the bottom part of the ﬁgure.5) (5. Writing ∆v ≡ |∆v| the bottom ﬁgure also gives ∆θ = Now the magnitude of acceleration is a= ∆v ∆t ∆v ∆t (5. (5. Whenever we have uniform circular motion we always know the actual value of acceleration if we know v and r. For this reason it is called centripetal acceleration. We have worked out the magnitude of the acceleration. This “acceleration” that you feel is the same as the car’s acceleration. CIRCULAR MOTION Now angle ∆θ is deﬁned as (with |ri | = |rf | ≡ r) ∆θ ≡ ∆s v∆t = r r 83 (5. What about its direction? I will show you a VIDEO in class (Mechanical Universe video #9 showing vectors for circular motion) which will clearly show that the direction of acceleration is always towards the center of the circle.5. the car pushes on you.e. In reality it is the car that is being accelerated around in the circle. as the driver. feel as though you are getting pushed against the door.7) This is a very important equation. . The “acceleration” you feel is called the centrifugal acceleration.6) = v2 r . One ﬁnal thing.

Putting in numbers: 1000 m 9.5 sec i. 182 mph i. 000 miles v = = T 30 × 24 hours = 2.04 sec−2 = 2π × 10. about once every minute! T = 2π Example The Moon is 1/4 million miles from Earth. about 2000 mph! . Suppose the spacecraft is in the shape of a circular toroid of radius R. 2. Thus g= Thus T2 = giving T = 2π R g v2 (2πR/T )2 4π 2 R = = R R T2 4π 2 R g which is the formula we seek. How fast does the Moon travel in its orbit? Solution The period of the Moon is 1 month.84 CHAPTER 5. Thus 2πr 2π × 250.1 sec = 63.AND 3-DIMENSIONAL MOTION Example Future spacecraft will be made to spin in order to provide artiﬁcial gravity for the astronauts.8 m sec−2 √ = 2π 102.e. Derive a formula for the rotation period it would need to spin in order to simulate the gravity on Earth. If R= 1 km what is the numerical value for the period? Solution The centifugal acceleration is a and we want it to equal g.e.

(Your formula should make no explicit reference to time. Hint: the general form of a parabola is given by y = ax2 + bx + c. which is the vertical distance above the bulls-eye that one needs to aim a riﬂe in order to hit the bulls-eye. derive an expression for the height L.e. Prove that the trajectory of a projectile is a parabola (neglect air resistance). by what (downward) vertical distance would you miss the bulls-eye? 5. Neglect air resistance and derive a formula for the horizontal range R. (Your formula should make no explicit reference to time. 2. namely R = 2 vi sin 2θ g = 2 2vi sin θ cos θ v 2 sin2 θ and H = i 2g . A projectile is ﬁred with an initial speed vi at an angle θ with respect to the horizontal. . of the projectile. directly horiziontally). Assume the bullet leaves the riﬂe with speed vi . that the projectile reaches.5. At what angle is the height a maximum? 3. A) A projectile is ﬁred with an initial speed vi at an angle θ with respect to the horizontal.5. in order to account for the downward motion of the projectile. A) If a bulls-eye target is at a horizontal distance R away. PROBLEMS (8 QUESTIONS) 85 5. t). B) How much bigger is L compared to the maximum projectile height H? Note: In this problem use previous results found for the range R and height H. Neglect air resistance and derive a formula for the maximum height H. Normally if you wish to hit a bulls-eye some distance away you need to aim a certain distance above it. t).5 Problems (8 questions) 1. g 4. If a bulls-eye target is at a horizontal distance D away and if you instead aim an arrow directly at the bulls-eye (i. At what angle is the range a maximum? B) If vi = 30 km/hour and θ = 15o calculate the numerical value of R.

If the height of the building is H.4 thousand km. B) Using R =6. such that a person on the equator would be ﬂung oﬀ into space.e. (Take the radius of Earth to be R). A stone is thrown from the top of a building upward at an angle θ to the horizontal and with an initial speed of vi as shown in the ﬁgure. Check that your answer has the correct units. Even though the Earth is spinning and we all experience a centrifugal acceleration. Your answer will be a quadratic equation with two solutions. Interpret both solutions physically. calculate a numerical answer for the rotation time and compare it to the actual rotation time of the Earth today. the Earth would have to be spinning a lot faster. (Note that the radius of the Earth is 6. vi θ H . A) Derive a formula for the new rotational time of the Earth. In order for us to be ﬂung oﬀ. 8. yet there can only be one answer. the range) that the cannon ball travels. 2.400 km ≈ 4000 miles which is roughly the width of the continental United States. derive a formula for the time it takes the stone to hit the ground below.) 7. Derive a formula for the horizontal distance (i.AND 3-DIMENSIONAL MOTION 6. we are not ﬂung oﬀ the Earth due to the gravitational force.86 CHAPTER 5. A cannon ball is ﬁred horizontally at a speed vi from the edge of the top of a cliﬀ of height H.

Once you know that you can get acceleration as we shall see. Newton’s First Law of Motion: A body remains in a state of rest. The gravitational force causes objects to fall (i. It was introduced by Isaac Newton to describe the cause of acceleration. etc. Fundamental classical physics is all about ﬁnding the force.1 Introduction So far we have studied some things about acceleration but we never considered what causes things to accelerate. The answer is force. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Tablecloth Newton’s second law of motion is not something we can derive from other equations. Newton’s Second Law of Motion: ΣF = ma 87 . Rather it is a fundamental postulate of physics.e. Once you have the acceleration. or uniform motion in a straight line.Chapter 6 NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 6. Friction force causes cars to slow down (decelerate). displacement and time as we have studied previously. you can ﬁnd velocity. accelerate downwards). unless acted upon by a force.

Thus N ≡ kg m/sec2 In the English system of units a Pound (lb) is a unit of force.7 m/sec2 on the Moon. If they are constant. Once you have them then you have the acceleration via a = ΣF and once you have that m you can get velocity.1 Weight If you stand on a set of scales you measure your weight. Thus its actual meaning is given by 3 equations. The units of a are m/sec2 . az . One extra point is the units. Now Newton’s second law is a vector equation. The mass unit is called slug. even though your mass is the same.2. . (It’s 9. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Fire extinguisher rocket 6. just plug them into the constant acceleration equations and solve for the other quantities you are interested in.) Weight is a force which pulls you down. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION ΣF represents the sum (Σ) of all forces (F) acting on a single body of mass m. ΣFy . 6. namely ΣFx = max ΣFy = may ΣFz = maz Once we have ΣFx . but only 1. ΣFz we just divide by m to give the accelerations ax .88 CHAPTER 6. If you stand on the same scales on the moon your weight will be less because the moon’s gravity is small. Weight is deﬁned as W ≡ mg where g is the acceleration due to gravity. displacement and time. ay . thus Pound (lb) ≡ slug foot/sec2 Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Every action has an equal and opposite reaction. The units of acceleration are foot/sec2 . The body then undergoes an acceleration given by a. This is given a special name called Newton (N). The units of m are kg and thus the units of F are kg m/sec2 .8 m/sec2 on Earth.2 Forces and the Second Law In this section we ﬁrst discuss various diﬀerent types of forces in general and then we will turn to some speciﬁc examples. One of the key activities in classical physics is to ﬁnd all the forces ΣF.

4 Spring A very important force is that produced by a spring. Thus ΣFy = may N −W = 0 The N has a + sign (up) and W has a − sign (down) and they both balance out to give zero acceleration.2. (You are not moving. This is described by Hooke’s law. kinetic friction will cause the car to stop.3 Tension Another important type of force is tension.2 Normal Force You are sitting still in your chair. 6.6. When two surfaces are in relative motion then the friction is kinetic.2. which is the force in a rope or cable when under a stress. F = −kx (6. If you put a coin on top of a book and tilt the book at a small angle.2. When a spring is pulled. We call this up force the Normal force N . the bigger N must be. That’s how we know that the chair must push up on the person sitting on it. 6. The static friction . FORCES AND THE SECOND LAW 89 6.2.5 Friction There are two types of friction — static and kinetic. the coin will remain stationary.1) 6. such as when you slam the brakes on in your car and the car skids along the road. Tilt the book a bit more and still the coin does not slide. ΣFz = 0) which means that ax = az = 0. The heavier the person. Static friction prevents the coin from sliding.2. If your ay = 0 then there must be another force pushing up to balance the weight force. The sum of all forces in the x and z direction are zero (ΣFx = 0.) Yet there is a weight force W pulling down. The Normal force is called “Normal” because it always acts perpendicular (normal means perpendicular) to the surface (of the chair). one feels a resistance in the opposite direction depending on the distance by which the spring is extended. Eventually. Now you also know that ay = 0.

90 CHAPTER 6. However the maximum value of the static friction force fs. The kinetic friction force fk is given by fk ≡ µk N where µk is the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction. Eventually however. Notice that the maximum amount of static friction occurred just before the coin started to slide. .max is fs. The proportionality constant is called the coeﬃcient of friction µ.) If you press down hard on the coin. then the friction force will increase. (LECTURE DEMONSTRATION of above. We saw that static friction varies. When you press down you are causing the normal force N to get bigger.max ≡ µs N Both of these equations can be regarded as deﬁnitions for µk and µs . NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION has increased to keep the coin in place. Thus friction is proportional to N . static friction will be overcome and the coin will slide down the book (with kinetic friction operating).

You don’t want the chandelier to move.1 Chandelier hanging from ceiling.6. If m = 50 kg evaluate a numerical answer for the tension.1. so ay = 0. Putting in numbers: T = 50 kg × 9. Thus T −W =0 ⇒ T = W = mg which is the formula we seek.8 m/sec2 = 490 kg m/sec2 = 490 N T W Figure 5. Then solve ΣF = ma. Solution Carefully draw a diagram showing all forces. . as seen in Fig. 5.2. Thus ΣFx = max ΣFy = may ΣFz = maz but all forces and acceleration in the x and z directions are zero and so the only interesting equation is ΣFy = may . Derive a formula for the tension in the cord. FORCES AND THE SECOND LAW 91 Example A chandelier of mass m is hanging from a single cord in the ceiling. Now the forces are tension (+T ) in the up direction and weight (−W ) in the down direction.

namely.2. α T1 θ T2 W Figure 5. 5. If m = 50 kg and α = 60o and θ = 30o evaluate a numerical answer for each tension. See Fig. T2y = T2 sin θ. T1x = T1 cos α T1y = T1 sin α .2 Chandelier suspended by 2 cables.92 CHAPTER 6. We need to consider the x and y directions (both with ax = ay = 0). Solution Again carefully draw a ﬁgure showing all forces. one at an angle of α to the ceiling and the other at θ. In the z direction all forces and acceleration are zero. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION Example A chandelier of mass m is now suspended by two cords. Derive a formula for is the tension in each cord. ΣFx = max and ΣFy = may T2x − T1x = 0 and T2y + T1y − W = 0 Now T2x = T2 cos θ.

2. cos 60 tan 30 + sin 60 T1 cos 60 426N cos 60 = = 246 N cos 30 cos 30 . FORCES AND THE SECOND LAW giving T2 cos θ − T1 cos α = 0 and T2 sin θ + T1 sin α = W The x equation gives T2 = y equation giving T1 cos α cos θ 93 which is substituted into the T1 cos α sin θ + T1 sin α = W cos θ or T1 = = and upon substitution T2 = = T1 cos α cos θ mg sin θ + tan α cos θ W cos α tan θ + sin α mg cos α tan θ + sin α which are the formulas we seek.8 m/sec2 = 490 N Thus T1 = Now put back into T2 = 490N = 426 N.6. Putting in numbers gives: W = mg = 50 kg × 9.

You would expect the scale to read a higher value. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION Example If you normally have a weight of W . Thus ΣF = ma N N − W = ma = W + ma The answer makes sense. how much will a weight scale read if you are standing on it in an elevator moving up at an acceleration of a? Solution The reading on the scale will just be the Normal force.94 CHAPTER 6. .

y N W co θ 90 − θ x sθ θ W sin θ W Figure 5. Notice that I have chosen the orientation of the y axis to lie along the normal force.6. You could make other choices.3 the forces are drawn. but this will make things easier to work out. . A) What is the normal force? B) What is the acceleration of the block? Solution In Fig. FORCES AND THE SECOND LAW 95 Example A block of mass m slides down a frictionless incline of angle θ.3 Block sliding down frictionless incline.2. 5.

ΣFx = max W sin θ = max ax = W sin θ mg sin θ = = g sin θ m m . NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION A) Analyzing the y direction. Thus N = W cos θ = mg cos θ B) Analyzing the x direction. ΣFy = may N − W cos θ = 0 because the block has zero acceleration in the y direction.96 CHAPTER 6.

(6. Assume the pulley is frictionless and the tension T is the same throughout the rope.2) gives T − W1 − (T − W2 ) = m1 a − (−m2 a) − W1 + W2 = m1 a + m2 a m2 − m1 W2 − W1 = g a= m1 + m2 m1 + m2 Thus a is positive if m2 > m1 and negative if m2 < m1 . ΣFy = m1 a1 T − W1 = m1 a with a1 ≡ a.3) (6.2.6. thus T1 = T2 = T . Analyze forces in y direction on m2 . T m1 W1 T m2 W2 Figure 5. (6.3) from eqn. 5.2) . ΣFy = m2 a2 T − W2 = m2 a2 but if a1 = a then a2 = −a giving T − W2 = −m2 a Subtracting eqn.4 Atwood machine. (6. FORCES AND THE SECOND LAW 97 Example Derive a formula for the acceleration of the block system shown in Fig.4 (Atwood machine). Analyze forces in y direction on m1 . Solution The tension is the same throughout the rope.

Solution A force diagram is shown in Fig.1 Block sliding down incline with friction. Show that µs = tan θ.98 CHAPTER 6. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION Example The coeﬃcient of static friction is just the tangent of the angle where two objects start to slide relative to each other. 6. y fs N W co θ 90 − θ x sθ θ W sin θ W Figure 6. .1.

3 Circular Motion 2 In the case of circular motion we always know that the acceleration is a = vr . Thus we always know the right hand side of Newton’s second law. CIRCULAR MOTION Analyze forces in y direction ΣFy = may N − W cos θ = 0 In x direction ΣFx = max fs − W sin θ = 0 µs N − W sin θ = 0 W sin θ N where ax = 0 just before object starts to slide. Thus µs = µs = or µs = tan θ W sin θ W cos θ 99 6. namely ΣF = ma mv 2 = r The forces that produce circular motion get put into the left hand side. .3. Now we get N from y equation above (N = cos θ).6.

NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION Example In designing a curved road.100 CHAPTER 6. In the x direction ΣFx = max . (The forward motion of the car involves moving kinetic friction. engineers consider the speed v of a car and the coeﬃcient of friction between the car tires and the road. The top part of the ﬁgure shows that static friction alone keeps the car in circular motion. Solution Force diagrams are shown in Fig. The radius of curvature of the road bend is chosen to be large enough so that the car will be able to derive around smoothly in a part-circle. 6. but the sideways motion involves static friction. Work out a formula for the radius of curvature in terms of the speed of the car and the coeﬃcient of friction.2 Car rounding a curve.) fs x view from above y N side view x Figure 6.2.

6.3. . CIRCULAR MOTION fs = m µs N = v2 r mv 2 r 101 We get N from the y direction. ΣFy = may N −W =0 N = W = mg Substituting into the x equation gives µs mg = or r= mv 2 r v2 µs g This formula tells an engineer how large to make the radius of curvature of the road for a given car speed v (say 5 times the speed limit) and a coeﬃcient of friction µs .

or of uniform motion in a right line. the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 6. In these books we ﬁnd discussion of such toipics as centripetal forces. unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon it. This makes for wonderful reading and is highly recommended. motion of bodies in ﬂuids. 1934. by F.A45 1934].” After the axioms are stated. and is made in the direction of the right line in which that force is impressed. hydrostatics. conic sections. rectilinear motion.) [University of California Press. and directed to contrary parts. LAW II: The change of motion is proportional to the motive force impressed. QA 803 . attractive force of spherical bodies. By the way Newton also invented calculus and the reﬂecting telescope ! . the Principia is then divided into two major books. etc.102 CHAPTER 6. or. or Laws of Motion. California. One of his major works was Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. namely Book I: The Motion of Bodies and Book II: The Motion of Bodies (in resisting mediums). ed. ﬂuid dynamics. LAW III: To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. oscillating pendulum. Berkeley. Cajori. orbits.4 Historical Note Isaac Newton is widely regarded as the greatest physicist of all time. The laws are stated as follows: “LAW I: Every body continues in a state of rest. Very early on in the book we ﬁnd the section entitled Axioms.

) continued over page . Calculate the tension in each string. in terms of m. R. T .5. (Hint: the weight that a passenger feels is just the normal force.5 Problems (10 questions) 1. What is the acceleration of a snow skier sliding down a frictionless ski slope of angle θ? Check that your answer makes sense for θ = 0o and for θ = 90o . PROBLEMS (10 QUESTIONS) 103 6. g. A mass m1 hangs vertically from a string connected to a ceiling. Derive a formula. 2.6. A ferris wheel rotates at constant speed in a vertical circle of radius R and it takes time T to complete each circle. for the weight that a passenger of mass m feels at the top and bottom of the circle. Comment on whether your answers make sense. A second mass m2 hangs below m1 with m1 and m2 also connected by another string. 3.

horizontal surface is connected to a second mass m2 by a light cord over a light frictionless pulley as shown in the ﬁgure. The coeﬃcient of kinetic friction between m1 and the surface is µ. such that m1 moves to the right. F θ m1 m 2 5. Derive a formula for the acceleration of the masses. If you whirl an object of mass m at the end of a string in a vertical circle of radius R at constant speed v. derive a formula for the tension in the string at the top and bottom of the circle.104 CHAPTER 6. continued over page .) A force of magnitude F is applied to the mass m1 as shown. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 4. (‘Light’ means that we can neglect the mass of the cord and the mass of the pulley. A block of mass m1 on a rough.

will the mass m2 be at rest? D) If the masses are equal.5. PROBLEMS (10 QUESTIONS) 105 6.81 m. R m1 m2 Obviously if m1 moves quickly in the circle then m2 will start to move upwards. A) Derive an expression for the tension T in the string. what is the numerical value of this period? .6. but if m1 moves slowly m2 will start to fall. what is the answer to Part C)? E) For a radius of 9. Two masses m1 and m2 are connected by a string passing through a hollow pipe with m1 being swung around in a circle of radius R and m2 hanging vertically as shown in the ﬁgure. B) Derive an expression for the acceleration of m2 in terms of the period t of the circular motion. C) For what period t.

Derive a formula for x in terms of k.106 CHAPTER 6. continued over page . C) Evaluate numerical answers to the above two questions assuming the mass of the block is 1000 kg . A) What friction force is required to stop a block of mass m moving horizontally at speed vi . Check that x has the correct units. 8. R and T . The mass moves in circular motion of radius R and period T . the initial speed is 60 km per hour and the braking distance is 200 m. the spring stretches by a certain amount x from its equilibrium position. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 7. Due to the centrifugal force. A mass m is attached to the end of a spring with spring constant k on a frictionless horizontal surface. assuming that we want the block to stop over a distance d? B) Work out a formula for the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction that will achieve this.

Derive an expression for the tension T in the string and the acceleration of the whole system. PROBLEMS (10 QUESTIONS) 107 9. m m2 1 θ continued over page .6. A mass of m1 on a frictionless incline of angle θ is attached to a second mass of m2 via a string over a frictionless pulley as shown in the ﬁgure.5.

108

CHAPTER 6. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION

10. Three masses are connected by two strings, with one string extending over a frictionless pulley as shown in the Figure. Calculate the tension in each string and the acceleration of the entire system, in terms of ml , m2 , m3 , g.

m2

m1

m3

Chapter 7

**WORK AND ENERGY
**

In our study of mechanics so far our approach has been to identify all the forces, divide by mass to get acceleration and then solve for velocity, displacement, time, etc. There is an alternative formulation of mechanics which does not rely heavily on force, but rather is based on the concepts of work and energy. The work-energy formulation of mechanics is worthwhile since sometimes it is easier to work with and involves only scalar quantities. Also it leads to a better physical understanding of mechanics. However the key reason for introducing work-energy is because energy is conserved. This great discovery simpliﬁed a great deal of physics and we shall study it in detail.

7.1

Work

The basic concept of work is that it is force times distance. You do work on an object by applying a force over a certain distance. When you lift an object you apply a lifting force over the height that you lift the object. Machines are objects that allow us to do work more eﬃciently. For example, a ramp is what is called a simple machine. If you load objects into a truck, then a large ramp (large distance) allows you to apply less force to achieve the same work. All students should read my handout on simple machines. There it is clearly explained why work is deﬁned as force × distance. Actually the proper physical deﬁnition of work is more complicated. The proper deﬁnition is W ≡

rf ri

F · dr

109

110 Writing

CHAPTER 7. WORK AND ENERGY

F = Fx i + F y j + F z k and dr = dx i + dy j + dz k gives W = = (Fx i + Fy j + Fz k) · (dx i + dy j + dz k) Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz

**Let’s ﬁrst look at the 1-dimensional case
**

xf

W =

xi

Fx dx

**If the force Fx is constant then it can be taken outside the integral to give
**

xf

W

= Fx

xi

dx = Fx [x]xf xi

= Fx (xf − xi ) = Fx ∆x = force × distance giving us back our original idea. The reason why we have an integral is in case the force depends on distance. The reason we have the scalar product F · dr is if the force and distance are at some angle, such as a tall person pulling a toy wagon along with a rope inclined at some angle. By the way, the units of work must be Newton × meter which is given a special name, Joule. Thus Joule ≡ Newton meter

Example If I push a sled with a constant force of 100 N along a 5 m path, how much work do I do? Solution The force is constant and in only 1-dimension, so W = Fx ∆x = 100 N × 5 m = 500 Nm = 500 Joule

7.2. SIMPLE MACHINES

111

7.2

Simple Machines

The Work-Energy theorem is one of the most important ideas in classical mechanics, and is often discussed in high school physics courses and college level freshman physics classes. Nevertheless, the reason for deﬁning work as force times distance often remains obscure to the student. And the idea that work is conserved, in that a smaller force implies that the distance must be larger in order to obtain the same work (and thus impart the same energy to an object), is often lost on students. On the other hand, simple machines are often studied in elementary school science classes. These students get to experience how machines can amplify forces. For instance with a simple lever, the students can lift weights that would otherwise be impossible. Usually what is emphasized in the study of simple machines is the idea of mechanical advantage, or force ampliﬁcation. This is ﬁne and students learn from it. However rarely is the idea of work emphasized in the study of simple machines. The idea of the present section is to emphasize the constancy of work in the use of simple machines. The aim is twofold. Firstly, after reading the discussion below, students will have a much clearer understanding as to why work is deﬁned as force times distance. Simple machines will be used to illustrate the deﬁnition of work. Secondly, students will have a clearer understanding of work as it pertains to simple machines. The outline of this section is as follows. Four diﬀerent types of simple machines (ramp, pulley, lever, hydraulic press) will be studied. In each case it will be shown explicitly that if less force is applied then a corresponding greater moving distance is involved such that the work (or eﬀort) always remains the same, and correspondingly therefore the energy imparted is the same. The theme will be less force, more distance, same work. Or if you like one can say more force, less distance, same work. A good set of references on simple machines is provided [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14]. One of the best is the book by Lehrman [6]. There are also some good sources for elementary school teachers [3, 4, 5] and high school and college teachers [6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14].

7.2.1

Ramp

The ramp (or inclined plane) is shown in Fig. 7.1, where h is the height of the ramp and s is the distance along the ramp. A weight exerts a vertical force mg. For an experiment two ramps can be constructed in which the distance s of one ramp is double the distance of the other. However both

An example might be loading furniture into a truck and choosing a ramp to make the job easier. The force that you will have to overcome is then mg sin θ. One can push the weight up both ramps. (see Fig.1 Ramp The simple idea for students to understand is the following. Less force. same work.1) sin θ .) s h mg sinθ θ mg Figure 7. That is the work is the same. 7.1. The ﬁnal potential energy (mgh) of the weight is the same. Nevertheless you will be pushing over a correspondingly greater distance and at the end of pushing the weight up both ramps. One can also work this result out mathematically as follows. WORK AND ENERGY ramps should have the same vertical distance h.112 CHAPTER 7. you will have expended the same eﬀort. The distance up the ramp is h s= (7. more distance.) You will be pushing the weight through the distance s. (It is better to put the weight on wheels so that friction is minimized. For a long ramp you would notice that the weight is easier to push.

The product of force and distance is F s = mg sin θ h = mgh. This complication is not discussed in this section as the main idea is to develop intuition about the concept of work. Less force.4) Thus a long ramp (large s) gives a large mechanical advantage. more distance. . Input force mg sin θ sin θ h (7.1) is F = mg sin θ 113 (7. sin θ (7. The eﬀort expended in both cases was the same and this is embodied in the deﬁnition of work.7.3) Thus for both ramps the product F s is the same. SIMPLE MACHINES which is large for small angles. 7. This clearly shows that you can’t get something for nothing. same work. It makes sense with the intuitive idea experienced in actually pushing the weight up the two diﬀerent ramps. You should now have a clear grasp as to why the work (or eﬀort) is deﬁned as force times distance. For completeness. the mechanical advantage (MA) is deﬁned as the load force divided by the input force or MA ≡ Load force mg 1 s = = = . The pushing force (see Fig. Thus ramps are easy to use when the angle is small.) Most books which discuss simple machines emphasize mechanical advantage rather than work.2) which is small for small angles. (Note that of course work is really deﬁned as the integral of the scalar product of force and displacement.2.

If the weight is to be raised by a height h then obviously s = h. 7.5) The rope in the pulley is pulled through a distance s. T T T T T F mg F mg Figure 7.2 Pulley Next consider some pulley systems as shown in Fig. (7. Thus the pulling force F equals T and F = mg. Applying F = ma to the weight gives T − mg = 0 where T is the tension. WORK AND ENERGY 7. Imagine that the weight is pulled with a force F at constant speed so that the acceleration is zero.2.114 CHAPTER 7. These will be suﬃcient to illustrate the main idea. (7.6) .2.2 Pulley systems For simplicity we only consider a single and double pulley.

Fs = mg 2h = mgh 2 (7.2. SIMPLE MACHINES 115 Now consider the two pulley system in Fig. 7. (7. 2 (7. but one has to pull double the distance to raise the weight the same height.2 it can be seen that if the rope is pulled through s a distance of s then the weight will only be raised by h = 2 . The mechanical advantage is MA ≡ Load force mg s = =2= .8) Thus for the double pulley. Again applying F = ma to the weight gives 2T − mg = 0 or T = mg giving 2 F = mg . it’s twice as easy to lift the weight. Input force mg/2 h (7.7) Now by looking at Fig. 7.7.2. Thus now s = 2h. more distance.9) Less force.10) . The product of force and distance however remains the same. same work. You can do the calculations to show explicitly that the product F s remains the same and thus is good for a deﬁnition of work.

3. All students can experience this using the lever.12) showing that if the lever arm b is large (small force) the distance s must be large. WORK AND ENERGY 7. 7.3.116 CHAPTER 7. τ1 = τ2 giving mga = F b or F = mg a b (7.11) Thus only a small pushing force F is needed if the lever arm b is large. a mg b F b h θ a a Figure 7. then the longer the lever arm. 7.3 Lever The lever is another famous simple machine and is shown in Fig. However if one is to use the lever to lift the weight.2. The a b distance that the lever arm will have to be moved through is s=h b a (7. This will be the case no matter what is the orientation of the lever. a lever is shown in the horizontal position and one imagines that a person is pushing down with the force F to hold a weight mg in balance. the larger the distance s one will have to lift through. This is seen in the bottom part of Fig. This is something easily demonstrated. From the ﬁgure θ = h = s where h is the distance the object is to be lifted. The point is though . For static equilibrium the torques produced by both forces must be the same.3 Lever θ b s In the top part of the ﬁgure.

remains the same.7. SIMPLE MACHINES that the product of force and distance will always be the same.14) . You can demonstrate mathematically that the work remains the same. The mechanical advantage is MA ≡ mg b s Load force = = = .13) As an experiment you can use the lever. Input force F a h (7. more distance. change the length of the lever arm and notice that even though it’s easier to lift. or eﬀort. you have to lift through a larger distance s and the work.2. same work. a b F s = mg h = mgh. b a 117 (7. Again we have the principle of less force.

15) but the pressure throughout the ﬂuid is the same.2.4. 7. WORK AND ENERGY 7.118 CHAPTER 7. The press is shown in Fig. surface area) (surface area) A1 F A2 s h mg fluid Figure 7.4 Hydraulic Press The pressure P is deﬁned as P ressure ≡ F orce Area (7. Thus P = F mg = A1 A2 (7.4 Hydraulic Press Finally the hydraulic press can also be used to demonstrate these ideas.16) .

KINETIC ENERGY giving the applied force as F = A1 mg A2 119 (7. The work is always the same.21) Input force F A1 h 7. The volume change ∆V will be the same. Let’s just consider 1-dimension to make things easier. This can be seen mathematically.18) showing that if A2 is large (small force needed) then the distance s over which the force must be applied will have to be large. same work. ∆V = A1 s = A2 h giving s= A2 h A1 (7. more distance.20) For the hydraulic press less force. Mathematically this is seen from Fs = A1 A2 mg h = mgh A2 A1 (7.4 it can be seen that if A2 is large then the weight mg will only be lifted a small distance h. a= dv dv dx = dt dx dt . Thus xf xf W = xi F dx = m xi a dx Now use an old trick.3 Kinetic Energy rf rf ri Now we know that F = ma and so work can be written W = ri F · dr = m a · dr where m is taken outside the integral because it’s a constant. MA ≡ = = (7.19) (7. The mechanical advantage is s Load force mg A2 = .7.3. 7.17) which shows that for a large area A2 then only a small force F need be applied. However from Fig. You can experience this by using two diﬀerent hydraulic presses with diﬀerent areas A2 .

120 CHAPTER 7. or m is small and v large the kinetic energy in both cases will be comparable. If you work on an object you can also increase its kinetic energy. namely Joule. If m is large and v small. But v = a = dv v dx dv = v dx giving Thus xf xf W = m xi vf a dx = m xi v dv dx dx = m vi v dv 1 2 v 2 vf vi = m 1 1 2 2 = mvf − mvi 2 2 Notice that we have found that the work is equal to the change in the quantity 1 mv 2 . What happens when we do work on an object? Well if you lift up an object. using the chain rule for derivatives. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Note also that K must have the same units as W . We give this a special name and call it Kinetic Energy 2 1 K ≡ mv 2 2 Thus we have found that W = Kf − Ki or W = ∆K The total work is always equal to the change in kinetic energy. WORK AND ENERGY dx dt . Notice how the equation 1 1 2 2 W = F ∆x = mvf − mvi 2 2 is equivalent to 2 2 vxf = vxi + 2a(xf − xi ) . If you push a marble on a table its speed will increase and so you have changed its kinetic energy. you increase its Potential energy (more about that in a moment).

What we actually did was r2 W = r1 ma · dr ≡ ∆K r2 Now let’s not put F = ma but just study the integral r1 F · dr by itself. So far so good.4 Work-Energy Theorem Let’s review what we have done. Work was deﬁned as W ≡ F · dr and by putting in F = ma we found that the total work is always ∆K where the kinetic energy is deﬁned as K ≡ 1 mv 2 . We put in the right hand side of F = ma to prove W = ∆K. Note carefully what we did to get this result. conservative forces “bounce back” and nonconservative forces don’t. WORK-ENERGY THEOREM Modify this to 1 2 v 2 xf 1 2 v 2 xf 1 mv 2 2 xf = = = = or F ∆x = 1 1 2 2 mvxf − mvxi 2 2 = ∆K 1 2 v + a(xf − xi ) 2 xi 1 2 v + a∆x 2 xi 1 mv 2 + ma∆x 2 xi 1 mv 2 + F ∆x 2 xi 121 as we have above ! Thus the work-energy formulation provides an alternative approach to mechanics.4. we must recognize that there are two types of forces called conservative and non-conservative. Anyway. 7.7. Thus 2 W ≡ r2 r1 F · dr = ∆K. Gravity is a conservative force. If you lift an object against gravity and let it go then the object falls back to where it . Before we do that. to put it brieﬂy.

WORK AND ENERGY was. . Spring forces are conservative. With conservative forces we always associate a potential energy. The deﬁnition is WC ≡ −∆U where −∆U = −(Uf − Ui ) = −Uf + Ui . Now we found that the total work W was always ∆K. If you pull a spring and then let it go. it bounces back to where it was. Thus any force F can be broken up into the conservative piece FC and the non-conservative piece FN C . then the object just stays there. Let’s deﬁne the conservative piece as the negative of the change in a new quantity called potential energy U . However friction is non-conservative. as in W ≡ = ri rf ri rf F · dr FC · dr + rf ri FN C · dr ≡ WC + WN C and each piece corresponds therefore to conservative work WC and nonconservative work WN C . If you slide an object along the table against friction and let go.122 CHAPTER 7. Combining all of this we have W = WC + WN C = ∆K = −∆U + WN C or ∆U + ∆K = WN C which is the famous Work-Energy theorem.

Let’s consider the simplest conservative force. i.e. then we give that object potential energy.5 Gravitational Potential Energy We have been doing a lot of formal analysis. Let’s look at the conservative piece a little more closely and examine potential energy in more detail.5. It is often zero. The work-energy theorem is ∆U + ∆K = WN C where K ≡ 1 mv 2 and for gravity U = mgy. sound. In that case we get the following conservation of mechanical energy. Let’s backtrack a little and try to understand better what we have done. etc. A large amount of water is stored in a dam at a large height y with a large potential energy. namely the weight force where W = mg which is a constant. Thus we can simply write U = mgy which is our expression for gravitational potential energy. . Similarly if an object has potential energy or kinetic energy then the object can do work by releasing that energy. If an object is raised to a large height y then it has a large potential energy. WN C is the non-conservative 2 work. Let’s work out WC and ∆U in 1dimension. just as we can give an object kinetic energy by doing work.7. such as friction. Uf = mgyf and Ui = mgyi . 7.6 Conservation of Energy Let’s summarize again. GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ENERGY 123 7. The gravitational force due to weight is FC = −mg j giving WC ≡ −∆U = FC · dr j · (dx i + dy j + dz k) = −mg yf = −(Uf − Ui ) = −mg dy yi = −Uf + Ui = −mg [y]yf = −mg(yf − yi ) = −mgyf + mgyi yi which gives −Uf = −mgyf . This is the principle of hydro-electric power generators. heat. When the water falls and reduces it potential energy (smaller y) the energy is converted into work to drive electric generators. If we do work in lifting an object. because things such as heat and friction are negligible.

WORK AND ENERGY The the work energy theorem is ∆U + ∆K = 0 or Uf − Ui + Kf − Ki = 0 or Uf + Kf = Ui + Ki That is the total energy E ≡U +K is constant. Ef = Ei Example Prove that a swinging pendulum always rises to the same height. Thus mgyf = mgyi or yf = yi LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Bowling Ball Pendulum .124 CHAPTER 7.e. This is the famous conservation of mechanical energy. i.) Solution With friction ignored we have WN C = 0 and 1 1 2 2 mvf + mgyf = mvi + mgyi 2 2 I let go of the pendulum with speed vi = 0 and it returns with speed vf = 0. (Neglect friction.

Uf = 1 kx2 and Ui = 1 kx2 . HALLIDAY SIMULATION: “A Spring” . Also the force increases with distance. Thus WC ≡ −∆U = FC · dr x i · (dx i + dy j + dz k) xf xi = −(Uf − Ui ) = −k = −Uf + Ui = −k x dx = −k 1 2 x 2 xf xi 1 2 1 2 = −k x − x 2 f 2 i 1 1 = − kx2 + kx2 f 2 2 i which gives −Uf = − 1 kx2 . Thus the acceleration a = − kx is not constant and the constant m acceleration equations cannot be used to solve the previous example.7.7. This can be expressed as FC = −kx i in the x direction.e. i. Also the variable force requires the integral deﬁnition of work as W = F · dr. SPRING POTENTIAL ENERGY 125 7.7 Spring Potential Energy When you pull a spring you feel a force in the opposite direction from which you pull. Thus we can i f f 2 2 2 simplify and write 1 U = kx2 2 which is our expression for spring potential energy IMPORTANT NOTE: The spring is an example of a variable force F = −kx which varies as distance.

derive U without doing an integral. just ask what U will give F according to F = − dU . The question is what U will give F = −mg = − The answer is U = mgy.126 CHAPTER 7.8 Appendix: alternative method to obtain potential energy Potential energy is deﬁned through Wc = Fc · dr ≡ −∆U Let’s just ignore the vectors for the moment and write Fc dr = −∆U Thus we must have Fc = − To see this write f i dU dr Fc dr = − Uf dU U dU = − [U ]Uf dr = − i dr i Ui = −(Uf − Ui ) = −∆U. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus). WORK AND ENERGY 7. dr Example For gravity F = −mg. Solution For gravity dr ≡ dy. f (cf. For gravity we have F = −mgj or F = −mg and for a spring we have F = −kxi or F = −kx. Thus instead of working out the integral F · dr to get U . Let’s check: − dU dy = −mg = −mg dy dy dU dy which is the F we started with ! .

Solution For a spring d ≡ dx. APPENDIX: ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO OBTAIN POTENTIAL ENERGY127 Example For a spring F = −kx.8. Let’s check 2 − 1 dx2 1 dU =− k = − k 2x = −kx dx 2 dx 2 dU dx which is the F we started with! . derive U without doing an integral.7. The question is what U will give F = −kx = − The answer is U = 1 kx2 .

Derive a formula for the distance d that the skier travels on the horizontal surface before coming to a stop. A skier starts from rest at the top of a frictionless ski slope of height H and inclined at an angle θ to the horizontal. A spring with spring constant k has a mass of m on one end. When released. The spring is stretched by a distance d. 2. Complete the previous problem using the constant acceleration equations. what will be the speed of the sled? Use the relation between work and kinetic energy to get your answer. 4. 7. A block of mass m slides down a rough incline of height H and angle θ to the horizontal. 5. Derive a formula for the additional speed that the satellite must acquire to completely escape from the planet. . Work out the previous problem using the constant acceleration equations. (Assume that there is a constant deceleration on the horizontal surface). Check that your answer has the correct units. Check that your answer has the correct units. A sled of mass m is stationary on some frictionless ice. derive a formula for the speed just before it hits the ground? Use the work-energy theorem. how fast will the mass be moving when it returns to its original position? (Assume the motion occurs on a horizontal frictionless surface. 8.9 Problems (8 questions) 1. A staellite is in a circular orbit around a planet of mass M and radius R at an altitude of H.) 6. assuming the coeﬃcient of kinetic friction is µk . WORK AND ENERGY 7.128 CHAPTER 7. If I push the sled with a force of F over a distance ∆x. Calculate the speed of the block when it reaches the bottom of the incline. If you drop an object from a height H. At the bottom of the slope the surface changes to horizontal and has a coeﬃcient of kinetic friction µk between the horizontal surface and the skis. 3. Assume WN C = 0.

8.” [Halliday. Notice we have included a system of bodies. For instance the motion of the Earth-Moon system around the Sun is actually governed by the center of mass of the two-body Earth-Moon system. An easy way to ﬁnd the center of mass is to just regard it as a balance point.1 Center of Mass When we studied say a block sliding down an incline. For example the center of mass of a ruler is located as the point where you can balance the ruler on your ﬁnger without it falling oﬀ. and replaced it with just a single point and studied the motion of that point. 1997]. Thus we already know the answer for a ruler! The center of mass is located at the 129 . This special point is called the center of mass of an object and by studying its motion alone we avoid all the extra complications of a body of ﬁnite size. we made a very convenient simpliﬁcation. We now want to study the motion of such systems of particles. and we have always been able to treat that single body as though it were a point.Chapter 8 MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Almost everything we have done so far has referred to the motion of a single body of mass m. “The center of mass of a body or a system of bodies is the points that moves as though all of the mass were aconcentrated there and all external forces were applied there. But suppose we wich to study the motion of a complex object such as a spinning baseball bat or a dancing ballerina? A bat and a ballerina can be considered as a collection of a huge number of single particles.

3) yCM ≡ zCM mi yi i n (8.1) where the sum over i running from 1 to n means sum over all of the point particles within the body. M is the total mass of all the individual bodies and can be written n M≡ i mi (8. assuming there are a total of n point particles. Now let’s see if our deﬁnition makes sense.5) Let’s just consider the 1-dimensional version for the case of 2 bodies only.1. m1 + m2 (8. The location of the center of mass is deﬁned as rCM ≡ 1 M n i mi ri (8.130 CHAPTER 8.1 Many Particle Systems Now let’s come up with a mathematical deﬁnition for center of mass which is more precise than just saying it’s the balance point (although the balance point always gives the correct answer).2) becomes xCM = Does this make sense? Let’s see.2) We have deﬁned the center of mass. MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS center. m1 x1 + m2 x2 . First of all it’s a vector equation and so what it really means is the usual 3-dimensional decomposition as xCM 1 ≡ M 1 M n mi xi i n (8.7) . We will prove this mathematically in a moment. 8. Then the total mass M becomes M = m1 + m2 and (8.4) 1 ≡ M mi zi i (8.6) (8.

. each with the same mass m each at the end of a 4 ft massless rod? Solution Now you know that the answer to this must be at the center of the rod.1. Choosing the origin of the xcoordinate system to be at the left dumbell gives x1 = 0 ft and x2 = 4 ft.1) and see if it gives this answer. Therefore again we can believe that our deﬁnition for center of mass (8. CENTER OF MASS 131 Example Where is the position of the center of mass for a system consisting of two dumbells.8) which is exactly what we expected.1) makes perfect sense. Now we have a 1-dimensional problem and therefore (8.3). Let’s see if our formula works here. Furthermore we only have two bodies and this reduces further to (8. but with the x-origin located at the center between the two dumbells instead of on the left dumbell. Let’s use our deﬁnition of center of mass.1) makes perfect sense. With the origin of the x-axis chosen to be at the center of the dumbells we have the position of each dumbell given by x1 = −2 ft and x2 = +2 ft respectively.7). After all that is the balancing point.8. Example Repeat the previous problem. Let’s look at what happens if we use a diﬀerent coordinate system. Therefore we can believe that our deﬁnition for center of mass (8.1) reduces to only (8. That is our guess is that xCM = 2 ft. equation (8.9) which is exactly what we expected. Subsituting we get xCM = m × (−2 ft) + m × (+2 ft) =0 m+m (8. Solution Well now we would guess that the center of mass would be given by xCM = 0. Substituting gives xCM = m × 0 ft + m × 4 ft = 2 ft m+m (8.

2-body problem and so the formula for the center of mass is again mB xB + mM xM xCM = . MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Being able to ﬁnd the center of mass is actually useful. Mary’s mass is mM .132 CHAPTER 8. Where should Mary sit in order to balance the see-saw? Work out a formula and also a numerical answer if mB = 10 kg and mM = 80 kg. Solution Again our intuition tells us that we can guess that the ratio of the distances should be 1/8.1) tells us this. Again this is a 1-dimensional. as the following example shows. mB + mM Now we want the center of mass located at the center of the see-saw and we will put the origin of our x-axis there as well. Example A baby of mass mB sits on a see-saw. 80 kg xB = −8 xB 10 kg M xB m . That is the baby should be 8 times as far away from the center of the see-saw as Mary. Thus mB xB + mM xM xCM = =0 mB + mM giving mB xB + mM xM = 0 which means that mB xB = −mM xM or xB mB m =− =− xM mM M or xM = − Putting in numbers we get xM = − just as we suspected. Let’s see if our center of mass deﬁnition (8.

CENTER OF MASS 133 8. Well then we will want a linear mass density. then it can be taken outside the integral to give xCM = 1 V xdV and the same for y and z.12) where dV is the volume occupied by the mass dm.1. the sum just changes to an integral.1) as xCM ≡ 1 M n xi mi i (8.11) This is easier to work with if we introduce density ρ as mass / volume or ρ≡ mass dm M ≡ ≡ . Hopefully this makes perfect sense from what you have studied in calculus. Thus our deﬁnition can be written xCM ≡ 1 M xdm ≡ 1 M xρdV and the same for y and z. In other words how do we ﬁnd the center of mass of rigid bodies? That’s what we will look at now. Above we deﬁned a 3-dimensional density as mass / volume. volume dV V (8. In physics whenever we want to change our study from a collection of discrete particles (desribed by a sum i ) to a continuous collection of particles. You all now know that an integral is just the limit of a sequence of sums.2 Rigid Bodies Above we considered ﬁnding the center of mass of two bodies.10) but for a continuous distribution of particles we now deﬁne xCM ≡ 1 M xdm (8. That’s all well and good. For a discrete collection of particles we had (8. There’s one additional catch. This can easily be extended to 3 or more bodies and some of this will be explored in the homework.8.1. Now each of the millions of particles in a rigid body has a tiny little mass denoted by dm. If the density is constant. But what if we have a dense 1-dimensional object such as a very long and thin pencil. . but how do we ﬁnd the center of mass of systems made up of millions of particles such as a baseball bat.

and the linear mass density λ of the pencil is constant. so that xCM = 1 L L x dx 0 We have taken the origin (x = 0) to be at one end of the pencil. . we use the symbol λ for linear mass density and deﬁne it as λ≡ so that now we have xCM ≡ and for a constant λ. (why?) xCM = Example Locate the center of mass of a very thin pencil of length L balanced sideways. 1 M dm M mass ≡ ≡ area dA A x dm = 1 M x σ dA 1 x dA A and similarly for y. Solution Again using intuition we know the answer must be at the center of the pencil. Similarly we may have mass distributed only in 2 dimensions such as the surface of a table. mass dm M ≡ ≡ length dL L x dm = 1 M x λ dL 1 M 1 x dL L Because this is linear mass density we do not have any equations for x or y. MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Instead of ρ. but there is no equation for z. We use area mass density deﬁned as xCM = σ≡ giving xCM ≡ and for constant σ. Now the element of length dL ≡ dx.134 CHAPTER 8. Thus 1 1 2 L 1 1 2 1 = xCM = x L −0 = L L 2 L 2 2 0 which is just the answer we expected! Thus we can believe that the formulas given previously really do work.

and F are all the forces acting on the mass m and a is the resulting acceleration of the mass m.2. Example Prove equation (8. NEWTON’S SECOND LAW FOR A MANY PARTICLE SYSTEM135 8. Thus Fi i just becomes Fext in agreement with (8. Solution Recall our deﬁnition of center of mass.13) Fext is the sum of all external forces acting on the body (all the where internal forces cancel out to zero).2 Newton’s Second Law for a Many Particle System For a single particle of mass m we already have encountered Newton’s second law. namely rCM ≡ or M rCM = i 1 M mi ri i mi ri Taking the time derivative gives M vCM = i mi vi and taking the time derivative again gives M aCM = i mi ai Fi i = which is just the sum of all the forces acting on each mass mi . These forces will be both external and internal.13). What happens for a system of particles? The end result is Fext = M aCM (8.13). namely F = ma. . M is the total mass of the body and aCM is the acceleration of the center of mass of the body.8. However for a rigid body all the internal forces must cancel because in a rigid body the particles don’t move relative to each other.

2 Many Particles The total momentum P of a system of particles is just the sum of the momenta of each individual particle. (If the mass is not constant then dp = dt (mv) = dt m dv + dm v = ma + dm v so that Newton’s second law actually reads F = dt dt dt ma + dm v). Thus dp = ma dt dt dt d if the mass is constant.1 Momentum Point Particle A more fundamental way of discussing Newton’s second law is in terms of a new quantity called momentum. Taking the time derivative gives dP = M dvCM = M aCM assuming that M is constant. It is deﬁned as p ≡ mv and it is important because it is a conserved quantity just like energy.136 CHAPTER 8. Thus Newton’s dt dt second law for a system of particles can be written Fext = dP dt .3.3 8. The proper way to write Newton’s second law is F= dp dt d Now dp = dt (mv) = m dv = ma if the mass is constant. namely P= i pi mi vi = i i Now from the previous example we had M vCM = the total momentum of a system of particles as P = M vCM pi .3. giving which is a very nice handy formula for the total momentum equals total mass multiplied by the velocity of the center of mass. dt 8. MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS 8.

14) Note that this is only true if all the external forces are zero. the conservation equation is p1i + p2i + p3i + · · · = p1f + p2f + p3f + · · · This is a vector equation. y.8. This is called a closed. .3. MOMENTUM 137 8. or z components. so we must always write it out in x. isolated system. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Explosion: spring release on air track. Another way of stating (8.14) is Pi = P f Remembering that P is the total momentum of a system of particles (P = p1 + p2 + p3 + · · ·).3 Conservation of Momentum dP dt If all the external forces are zero ( Fext = 0) then that the total momentum P = constant = 0 which implies (8.3.

Thus O = mR vRf + mB vBf mB vB mR f ⇒ vRf = − where the minus sign indicates that the riﬂe moves in a direction opposite to the bullet. With what speed does the riﬂe recoil? Solution The bullet-riﬂe system is a closed. isolated system. After the gun is ﬁred (ﬁnal situation) they both move. When the riﬂe is held at rest the sum of all external forces is zero. so that conservation of momentum is pRi + pBi = pRf + pBf Now this is a vector equation. leaving oﬀ the x’s as p R i + pB i = p R f + pB f or mR vRi + mB vBi = mR vRf + mB vBf But vRi + vBi = 0 because before the gun is ﬁred (initial situation) the bullet and gun do not move. namely pRxi + pBxi pRyi + pByi = pRxf + pBxf = p Ryf + pB yf but there is only motion in the x direction and nothing is happening in the y direction. The total momentum is P = pR + pB . . so it must be written in terms of components. Thus momentum is conserved for the bullet (B)–riﬂe (R) two body system. so let’s re-write the x-equation.138 CHAPTER 8. MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Example A riﬂe of mass mR ﬁres a bullet of mass mB which emerges at a speed of vBf .

we often say more simply that an elastic collision is when the kinetic energy alone is conserved and an inelastic collision is when it is not conserved. For a two-body collision process. .e. but yf = yi and thus Uf = Ui or ∆U = 0. ∆U + ∆K = WN C or Uf − Ui + Kf − Ki = WN C or Uf + Kf = Ui + Ki + WN C If WN C = 0 then energy will not be conserved.1 Collisions Collisions in 1-dimension Elastic Collisions Recall our work energy theorem for a single particle.4.8. then an inelastic collision is one in which energy is not conserved (i. In this section we ﬁrst will deal only with elastic collisions in 1-dimension.4.4 8. COLLISIONS 139 8. but an elastic collision is one in which energy is conserved (WN C = 0). Now if you think of a collision of two billiard balls on a horizontal pool table then Uf = mgyf and Ui = mgyi . WN C = 0). Thus the above work-energy theorem would be Kf = Ki + W N C Thus for collisions where Ui = Uf .

Thus the rest of the problem is simply doing some algebra. m2 . Calculate the ﬁnal speeds of both balls in terms of m1 . Thus v1f = v1i − or m2 v2f m1 m2 2 2 m2 v2f v1i + v2f m1 m1 Substituting this into the conservation of kinetic energy equation gives 2 2 v1f = v1i − 2 1 1 1 m2 2 1 2 2 2 2 v2f + m2 v2f m1 v1i = m1 v1i − m2 v2f v1i + 2 2 2 m1 2 which simpliﬁes to 0 = −2m2 v1i + v2f giving v2f = which is ﬁnally v2f = 2m1 v1i m1 + m2 m2 2 + m2 m1 2m2 m2 2 m1 + m2 v1i . Solution All the motion is in 1-dimension and so conservation of momentum (with v2i = 0) is just m1 v1i + 0 = m1 v1f + m2 v2f and conservation of kinetic energy is 1 1 1 2 2 2 m1 v1i + 0 = m1 v1f + m2 v2f 2 2 2 Here we have two equations with the two unknowns v1f and v2f .140 CHAPTER 8. MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Example A billiard ball of mass m1 and initial speed v1i hits a stationary ball of mass m2 . Let’s solve for v1f in the ﬁrst equation and then substitute into the second equation to get v2f . v1i . assuming the collison is elastic (Is this a good assumption?). All the motion occurs in a straight line.

1) Equal masses (m1 = m2 ). Now we get v2f ≈ 2v1i and v1f ≈ v1i meaning that the projectile keeps charging ahead at about the same speed and the target moves oﬀ at double the speed of the projectile. COMPUTER SIMULATIONS LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: colliding pendula .4.8. (This is also true if the target is moving. 3) Massive projectile (m1 m2 ). That is the projectile billiard ball stops and transfers all of its speed to the target ball.) 2) Massive target (m2 m1 ). COLLISIONS Substituting this back into the conservation of momentum equation gives 2m1 m2 v1i m1 v1i = m1 v1f + m1 + m2 which gives v1f = v1i 1 − or v1f = 2m2 m1 + m2 = v1i m1 + m2 − 2m2 m1 + m2 141 m1 − m2 v1i m1 + m2 There are some interesting special situations to consider. This implies that v1f = 0 and v2f = v1i . In this case we get v1f ≈ −v1i 2m1 and v2f ≈ m2 v1i ≈ 0 which means the projectile bounces oﬀ at the same speed and the target remains stationary.

4.1 shows a typical conﬁguration. Solution If the particles stick to each other after the collision then their ﬁnal speeds are the same.e. v1f = v2f ≡ V And writing v1i ≡ v we have from conservation of momentum m1 v + 0 = m1 V + m2 V or V = m1 v m1 + m2 Let’s look again at the special situations. not head-on) are more complicated to analyze. This gives 1 V = v 2 2) Massive target (m2 m1 ).2 Collisions in 2-dimensions Glancing collisions (i. This gives V ≈v 8. This gives V ≈ 3) Massive projectile (m1 m1 v≈0 m2 m2 ). . let’s call it V . Example Repeat the previous example for a completely inelastic collision.142 Inelastic Collisions CHAPTER 8. Figure 10. 1) Equal masses (m1 = m2 ). MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS A completely inelastic collision is deﬁned as one in which the two particles stick together after the collision.

.4. COLLISIONS 143 y v2f v1i m1 θ2 x m2 θ 1 v1f Figure 10.1 Glancing collision.8.

1 where the target ball is initially at rest. MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Example Write down the conservation of energy and momentum equations for the glancing collision depicted in Fig. 10. 1 1 1 2 2 2 m1 v1i = m1 v1f + m2 v2f 2 2 2 These three equations must then be solved for the quantities of interest. In x and y components these are m1 v1ix = m1 v1f x + m2 v2f x m1 v1iy = m1 v1f y + m2 v2f y or m1 v1i = m1 v1f cos θ1 + m2 v2f cos θ2 0 = −m1 v1f sin θ1 + m2 v2f sin θ2 If the collision is elastic we also have conservation of kinetic energy. .144 CHAPTER 8. Solution Conservation of momentum is p1i + p2i = p1f + p2f but p2i = 0.

as shown in Fig.1. If the target is scattered at an angle of θ2 what is the scattering angle θ1 of the projectile in terms of m1 .8. Solve the ﬁrst and second equations for θ1 giving m1 v1i − m2 v2f cos θ2 cos θ1 = m1 v1f and sin θ1 = giving tan θ1 = m2 v2f sin θ2 m1 v1i − m2 v2f cos θ2 m2 v2f sin θ2 m1 v1f (Notice that this result is valid for both elastic and inelastic collisions. CENTER OF MASS FRAME 145 Example A ball of mass m1 and speed v1i collides with a stationary target ball of mass m2 . m2 . v1i .) 8.5 Center of Mass Frame Remember that the total momentum P of a system of particles was given by P = M vCM or P = M vCM = i pi = i mi vi . We did not use conservation of energy. 10.5. θ2 and v2f where v2f is the ﬁnal speed of the target? Solution Conservation of momentum gives Σpi = Σpf or Σpix = Σpf x and Σpiy = Σpf y The x direction gives m1 v1i + 0 = m1 v1f cos θ1 + m2 v2f cos θ2 0 = −m1 v1f sin θ1 + m2 v2f sin θ2 We want to ﬁnd θ1 .

We can also measure velocities with respect to the center of mass frame where vCM = 0. If v = velocity in Lab frame and u = velocity in CM frame then i u = v − vCM Example A red billiard ball of mass mR moving at a speed vR collides head on with a black billiard ball of mass mB at rest. A) What is the speed of the center of mass? B) What is the speed of both balls in the CM frame? Solution vB = 0 vCM = = = mR vR + mB vB mR + mB mR × vR + 0 mR + mB mR vR mR + mB which is the speed of the center of mass. which is the name for the reference frame associated with a stationary target. MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Up to now we have been measuring velocities with respect to the “Lab” reference frame. Now get the speed of the red ball via mR uR = vR − vCM = vR − vR mR + mB mR mR + mB − mR = vR (1 − ) = vR ( ) mR + mB mR + mB mB vR = mR + mB and the speed of the black ball is uB = vB − vCM mR = 0− vR mR + mB mR = − vR mR + mB . This is also often called the center of momentum frame because if vCM = 0 then pi = 0. The Lab does not move. or in other words vLab = 0.146 CHAPTER 8.

8.6. PROBLEMS (7 QUESTIONS)

147

8.6

Problems (7 questions)

1. A particle of mass m is located on the x axis at the position x = 1 and a particle of mass 2m is located on the y axis at position y = 1 and a third particle of mass m is located oﬀ-axis at the position (x, y) = (1, 1). What is the location of the center of mass? 2. Consider a square ﬂat table-top. Prove that the center of mass lies at the center of the table-top, assuming a constant mass density. 3. A child of mass mc is riding a sled of mass ms moving freely along an icy frictionless surface at speed vi . If the child falls oﬀ the sled, derive a formula for the change in speed of the sled. (Note: energy is not conserved!) 4. In a game of billiards, the player wishes to hit a stationary target ball with the moving projectile ball. After the collision, show that the sum of the scattering angles is 90o . Ignore friction and rolling motion and assume the collision is elastic. Also both balls have the same mass. 5. A package originally at rest explodes into three parts, A, B and C. Parts A and B have equal mass and part C has a mass twice that of A and B. Part A moves West at speed vA and part B moves South at speed vB . Derive a formula (in terms of vA and vB ) for the speed of part A and its angle with respect to East after the explosion. 6. A car of mass mC is travelling East with a speed vC and collides at an intersection with a truck of mass mT travelling North with a speed vT . Derive formulas (in terms of vC , vT , mC and mT ) for the direction and magnitude of the velocity of the wreckage after the collision, assuming that the vehicles undergo a perfectly ineastic collision (i.e. they stick together) . Give the direction as an angle θ relative to East. 7. A neutron decays into a proton and electron. (It actually decays into a proton, electron and neutrino, but the neutrino is so light that it can be approximately ignored.) A) Prove that the relative angle between the emitted neutron and electron is 180o . B) Derive a formula for ratio of the speed of the proton to the speed of the electron in terms of their masses.

148

CHAPTER 8. MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS

Chapter 9

ROTATIONAL MOTION

9.1 Angular Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration

We have studied how point particles and systems of particles (rigid bodies) move as a whole. The next thing to consider is rotational motion, as opposed to the translational motion studied previously. When studying rotational motion it is very convenient and instructive to develop the whole theory in analogy to translational motion. I have therefore written the Master Table that we shall refer to often. Previously we denoted translational position in 1-dimension with the symbol x. If a particle is located on the rim of a circle we often use s instead of x to locate its position around the circumference of the circle. Thus s and x are equivalent translational variables s≡x Now the angular position is described by angle which is deﬁned as θ≡ s r

where s (or x) is the translation position and r is the radius of the circle. Notice that angle has no units because s and r both have units of m. The angle deﬁned above is measured in radian, but of course this is not a unit. One complete revolution is 2π radian often also called 360◦ . Translational position is given by x (or s) and translation displacement was ∆x ≡ x2 − x1 (or ∆s ≡ s2 − s1 ). Similarly angular displacement is ∆θ ≡ θ2 − θ1 149

**150 and because θ ≡
**

s r

CHAPTER 9. ROTATIONAL MOTION then it is related to translation displacement by ∆θ = ∆s ∆x = r r

This is the ﬁrst entry in the Master Table. Secondly we deﬁned translational average velocity as v ≡ ∆x ≡ ∆s and ¯ ∆t ∆t dx ds instantaneous velocity as v ≡ dt = dt . Similarly we deﬁne average angular velocity as ∆θ ω≡ ¯ ∆t and instantaneous velocity as ω≡ dω dt

v ¯ r

∆x Now because we have ∆θ = ∆x we must also have ∆θ = r∆t or ω = ¯ r ∆t relating average velocity and average angular velocity. Similarly

as

ω=

v r

This is the second entry in the Master Table. Finally the angular acceleration α is deﬁned as α≡ and dω dt

a r relating angular acceleration α to translational acceleration at . (Notice that a is not the centripetal acceleration. For uniform circular motion α = 0 and at = 0 because the particle moves in a circle at constant speed v and the 2 centripetal acceleration is ar = vr . For non-uniform circular motion, where the speed keeps increasing (or decreasing) then α = 0 and a = 0.) See the third entry in the Master Table. α=

9.1.1

Constant Angular Acceleration Equations

The equations for constant angular acceleration are obtained in identical fashion to the translational constant acceleration equations. They are listed in the Master Table.

What is the angular acceleration of the ﬂywheel? Solution The initial angular velocity is ω0 = 100 × 2π sec−1 and the ﬁnal angular velocity is ω = 0.1.9. ACCELERATION 151 Example A ﬂywheel is spinning at 100 revolutions per second and is stopped by a brake in 10 seconds.8 sec−2 . ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT. VELOCITY. Using ω = ω0 + αt gives α = 0 − 100 × 2π sec−1 ω − ω0 = t 10 sec = −62.

or rotational inertia. . tells us how diﬃcult it is to move an object. See Master Table. namely K= i 1 2 mi vi 2 The speeds are vi = ωri . Note we do not write vi = ωi ri because the rotational velocity of all particles is the same value ω. That is ω1 = ω2 = ω3 = · · · ≡ ω.152 CHAPTER 9.2 Kinetic Energy To calculate the kinetic energy of a rotating object we add up all of the kinetic energies of the individual particles making up the object. Substituting gives K= i 1 1 2 mi ω 2 ri = 2 2 2 mi ri ω 2 i Deﬁne rotational inertia or rotational mass as I≡ i 2 mi ri and we get 1 K = Iω 2 2 which looks exactly like K = 1 mv 2 where instead of velocity v we have ω 2 and instead of mass (or inertia) m we have rotational mass (or rotational inertia) I. tells us how diﬃcult it is to rotate an object. ROTATIONAL MOTION 9. Similarly the rotational mass. or inertia. Recall that mass.

3 Moment of Inertia For a continuous distribution of mass the rotational inertia has the sum replaced by an integral. A very handy formula which helps a lot in calculating I is the famous parallel axis theorem. Remember that the rotational inertia I tells us how diﬃcult it is to get something rotating. but large for an axis through the edge of 2 the book. I = ICM + M h2 where I is the rotational inertia about an axis located a distance h from the center of mass and parallel to a line through the center of mass. This theorem is proved on Pg. i . Let’s now look at some examples of how to calculate I. just as ordinary inertia m tells us how diﬃcult it is to get something moving. M is the total mass of the whole rigid body. or spinning.3. Now when you spin an object. Take your physics book for example. namely I≡ = 2 ri mi = r2 dm r2 λdL r2 ρdV = i r2 σdA = where dm has been replaced by ρdV or σdA or λdL depending on whether the rigid body is 3-dimensional. Thus I is small for the spin axis through the center of the book. 2-dimensional or 1-dimensional. In the formula for I = ri mi = r2 dm then r will always be measured from the rotation axis. 250 of Halliday. you always spin it about some axis.9. MOMENT OF INERTIA 153 9. It is easy to spin about an axis through the center (i. center of mass) but more diﬃcult to spin about an axis through the edge of the book.e.

and also m1 = m2 ≡ m. Now r1 = 1 L and r2 = − 1 L 2 2 giving I = = 1 L 2 1 mL2 2 2 1 m+ − L 2 2 m Example Repeat the previous example for an axis through one of the dumbbells (but still perpendicular to the rod). Calculate the rotational inertia about an axis through the center of mass (and perpendicular to the rod). Solution Each dumbbell is a discrete mass and so we use I = i 2 2 = r1 m + r2 m 2 r i mi where there are only two terms because there are only two dumbbells. Solution Now we have r1 = 0 and r2 = L giving 2 2 I = r1 m + r2 m = 0 + L2 m = mL2 . ROTATIONAL MOTION Example A rod of length L and negligible mass has a dumbbell of mass m located at each end.154 CHAPTER 9.

9.3. MOMENT OF INERTIA

155

Example Repeat the previous example using the parallel axis theorem. Solution The parallel axis theorem is I = ICM + M h2 where the total mass if M = 2m and h is the distance from the center of mass to the rotation axis. Thus h = L/2 giving I = L 1 mL2 + (2m) 2 2 2 = mL

2

This is the same as before and so we have good reason to believe that the parallel axis theorem is true.

Example Calculate the rotational inertia of a thin uniform rod of mass M and length L about an axis through the center of the rod (and perpendicular to its length). Solution Let the linear mass density of the rod be λ ≡ Then (with dr = dL) I= r2 dm =

L/2 −L/2 M L.

r2 λ dr

where the integration limits are −L/2 to L/2 because the axis is through the center of the rod. The rod is uniform which means λ is constant and can be taken outside the integral to give

L/2

I = λ = λ =

−L/2

r2 dr = λ

3

1 3 r 3

L/2 −L/2 3

1 3

L 2

−

1 L − 3 2

=λ

L3 12

M L3 1 = M L2 L 12 12

156

CHAPTER 9. ROTATIONAL MOTION

Example Repeat the previous example for an axis through one end of the rod. Solution Now we have I = λ 1 2 2 r 3 0 0 1 3 1 3 = λ L −0 =λ L 3 3 M1 3 1 = L = M L2 L 3 3

L

r2 dr = λ

**Example Repeat the previous example using the parallel axis theorem. Solution I = ICM + M h2 1 = M L2 + M 12 1 = M L2 3
**

2

L 2

9.4. TORQUE AND NEWTON’S SECOND LAW

157

9.4

Torque and Newton’s Second Law

We now want to determine the rotational equivalent of force. Rotational force is called torque. It is a vector deﬁned as the cross product of r and F, τ ≡r×F Its magnitude is τ = rF sin θ where θ is the angle between r and F. Now r sin φ is just a perpendicular distance r⊥ = r sin θ, so that τ = r⊥ F See the Master Table. Now just as we have guess that F = ma for translational dynamics we would τ =I α would be Newton’s second law for rotation. This is exactly right!

9.5

**Work and Kinetic Energy
**

F dx. Similarly for rota-

We have seen that in 1-dimension, work is W = tions we have W ≡ τ dθ

See Master Table. Note that when a wheel rolls without slipping, then static friction is involved. When the wheel slips then kinetic friction is involved. I shall now discuss an important example.

158

CHAPTER 9. ROTATIONAL MOTION

Example Calculate the rotational inertia of a hollow cylinder and a solid cylinder, about the long axis through the center of the cylinder as shown in Fig. 12.1.

dA = 2 π r dr

L

Figure 12.1 Solid Cylinder. Solution The rotational inertia of a hollow cylinder is simply I = M R2 To calculate the rotational inertia of the solid cylinder, refer to Fig. 12.1. The small element of area indicated is dA = 2πrdr corresponding to a small element of volume dV = dA L = M 2πrdrL. Thus the rotational indertia (with ρ = LπR2 being the density of the cylinder) is I = = r2 dm r2 ρdV

R

= ρ2πL

0

r3 dr

1 = ρ2πL R4 4

e. and thus less into translation. which reaches the bottom ﬁrst? Solution The kinetic energy of a rolling object now consists of two terms. Therefore the solid cylinder reaches the bottom ﬁrst. . 1 1 2 K = ICM ω 2 + M vCM ≡ Krotation + Ktranslation 2 2 where ICM is the rotational inertia about the center of mass and vCM is the translational speed of the center of mass.5. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: show the above example. one rotational and one translational. Disk and Sphere are IHollow cylinder = M R2 1 ISolid cylinder = M R2 2 The hollow cylinder has the larger moment of inertia and therefore more kinetic energy will go into rotation. WORK AND KINETIC ENERGY = = 1 M 2πL R4 2 LπR 4 1 2 MR 2 159 Example If a solid cylinder and a hollow cylinder with the same mass and radius roll down an incline. The rotational inertias of Hoop.9. i.

ROTATIONAL MOTION MASTER TABLE Translational Motion Displacement ∆x ≡ ∆s Velocity v ≡ dx dt dv dt Rotational Motion Angular Displ. ω ≡ dθ dt dω dt Relation ∆x = ∆s = r∆θ v = rω at = rα Acceleration at ≡ Angular Accel. d (r × p) = dt dr dp ×p+r× dt dt dv = v × mv + r × m dt = m(v × v + r × a) . Consider the following quantity. We can ﬁgure it out.160 CHAPTER 9. We dt therefore expect an angular version of Newton’s Second Law involving angular force or torque and angular momentum l. ∆θ Angular Vel. Eqns: v = v0 + at 2 v 2 = v0 + 2a(x − x0 ) Constant Angular Accel: ω = ω0 + αt 2 ω 2 = ω0 + 2α(θ − θ0 ) x − x0 = v+v0 2 t θ − θ0 = ω+ω0 2 t = v0 t + 1 at2 2 = vt − 1 at2 2 K = 1 mv 2 2 F = ma W = F dx = ω0 t + 1 αt2 2 = ωt − 1 αt2 2 K = 1 Iω 2 2 τ = Iα W = τ dθ I≡ 2 r i mi = r2 dm i τ ≡r×F 9. Now Newton’s Second Law is F = dp where p ≡ mv is the momentum.6 Angular Momentum We have previously deﬁned torque (or angular force) as τ ≡ r × F. α ≡ Constant Accel. Thus we expect τ= dl dt But we haven’t said what l is.

namely L = constant . In terms of the angular momentum li of each particle.6.1 Many Particle System Let’s call the angular momentum of a system of particles L. where p was the 9. One can show that L = Iω which is exactly analogous to p = mv. based on analogy with total momentum.3 Conservation of Angular Momentum For translational motion we had Fext = dP and for Fext = 0 we had dt P = constant. i. conservation of momentum. Similarly from τext = dL .6. dt then if there are no external torques τext = 0 then the total angular momentum is conserved.e. it is L= i li and Newton’s Second Law for a system of particles becomes τext = dL dt Fext = dp dt as we would expect.6. 9.6.2 Rigid Body In a rigid body. ANGULAR MOMENTUM but v × v = 0 giving d (r × p) = mr × a dt = r×F = τ Thus the unknown l must be l≡r×p 161 9.9. all particles rotate at the same speed.

ri rf 2 ωi . show that the spin rate increases. Angular momentum is conserved.162 CHAPTER 9. Thus 2 2 2M ri ωi = 2M rf ωf giving ωf = And ri > rf giving ωf > ωi . thus Li = Lf or Ii ωi = If ωf The moment of inertia of the two weights is I = 2M r2 where r is the length of the student’s arm. Solution For a rigid body spinning about a ﬁxed axis we had L = Iω. ROTATIONAL MOTION LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: example below Example A student is spinning on a stool and holding two heavy weights with outstretched hands. If the student brings the weights closer inward. The rotational inertia of the student remains the same.

ANGULAR MOMENTUM MASTER TABLE 2 Translational Motion Rotational Motion Relation dp dl F = ma = τ = Iα = l=r×p dt dt p = mv L = Iω 163 .9.6.

A pencil of length L. The turntable of a record player rotates initially at a rate of 33 revolutions per minute and takes 20 seconds to come to rest.7 Problems (8 questions) 1. Show that the ratio of the angular speeds of a pair of coupled gear wheels is in the inverse ratio of their respective radii. The other two masses lie along the y axis at positions y = +b and y = −b and are both of the same mass m. ﬁnd the moment of inertia about the y axis and the rotational kinetic energy about this axis. With what speed does the object reach the bottom of the incline? What is the speed for a hollow cylinder (I = mR2 ) and a solid cylinder (I = 1 M R2 )? Compare to the result obtained when an object is 2 simply dropped from a height H. 7. ROTATIONAL MOTION 9. is initially standing vertically on a table with the . assuming constant angular deceleration? 4. 2. A) If the rotation of the system occurs about the y axis with an angular velocity ω. How many rotations does the turntable make before coming to rest. A uniform object with rotational inertia I = αmR2 rolls without slipping down an incline of height H and inclination angle θ. Show that the magnitude of the total linear acceleration of a point moving in a circle of radius r √ with angular velocity ω and angular acceleration α is given by a = r ω 4 + α2 3. B) Now suppose the system rotates in the xy plane about an axis through the origin (the z axis) with angular velocity ω. Calculate the moment of inertia about the z axis and the rotational kinetic energy about this axis. A cylindrical shell of mass M and radius R rolls down an incline of height H. Two of the masses lie along the x axis at positions x = +a and x = −a and are both of the same mass M . 6. with the pencil point at one end and an eraser at the other end.164 CHAPTER 9. Four point masses are fastened to the corners of a frame of negligible mass lying in the xy plane. With what speed does the cylinder reach the bottom of the incline? How does this answer compare to just dropping an object from a height H? 5.

The pencil is let go and falls over. The cylinder has a ﬁxed horizontal axis of rotation. Derive a formula for the speed with which the eraser strikes the table.9. assuming that the pencil point does not move. and is originally at rest. Derive a formula for the angular speed of the cylinder after the bullet has become imbedded in it.7. 8. 2 . (Hint: The rotational inertia of a solid cylinder about the center axis is I = 1 M R2 ). A bullet of mass m travelling with a speed v is shot into the rim of a solid circular cylinder of radius R and mass M as shown in the ﬁgure. PROBLEMS (8 QUESTIONS) 165 pencil point on the table.

ROTATIONAL MOTION .166 CHAPTER 9.

Addison-Wesley. We shall elaborate on the mathematical details afterwards. A wonderful book that tells the whole story in nice detail is by R.D. Moon. This would be great reading between semesters! Some of the key historical ﬁgure are the following: Claudius Ptolemy (l40 A.D. the Earth was believed to be at the center of the universe and the Sun. I wish to emphasize the historical approach to the subject because it is interesting and helps us understand the physics much better. for one of the key results in the last 500 years was the realization that Earth is NOT the center of the universe. Kolb. 1996).) Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Albert Einstein (1879-1955) I would now like to just brieﬂy describe the contributions of each of these ﬁgures. upon closer inspection it can be seen that the planets (Greek word meaning wanderer) actually do not move in smooth circles about the Earth but rather 167 .Chapter 10 GRAVITY The study of gravitation has been one of the core areas of physics research for the last 500 years. However. ”Blind Watchers of the Sky” (Helix Books. stars and planets all revolved around the Earth. New York.). Indeed it was the study of gravity that revolutionized much of our thinking of our place in the universe. This has had profound and dramatic consequences for all of humankind. In the system of Ptolemy (l40 A. as seems to be indicated by simple observation.

and ran afoul of the idea that all heavenly bodies moved in pure circles. Actually they undergo a retrograde motion with respect to an observer on Earth.1 shows that instead of a planet moving in a great circle about the Earth. In order to save the theoretical notion of pure circles and yet to explain the observational fact of retrograde motion for the planets. But Ptolemy’s system leaves unanswered the question of where the epicycle comes from. a Polish monk. Ptolemy’s idea was that another circle called an epicycle moves ina great circle around the Earth and the planets move around on the epicycles. However later on came Copernicus (1473-1543). However this system of epicylces enjoyed great success for over a thousand years.168 CHAPTER 10.1 Ptolemaic epicycle. Figure 14. who suggested that the Earth is not at the center of the universe. as do the Sun and Stars. From a psy- . epicycle Earth Figure 14. This ’explains’ the observations of retrograde motion. GRAVITY do a kind of wandering motion. This retrograde motion was very puzzling to the ancients. Ptolemy introduced the idea of epicycles.

This provided an alternative explanation for the retrograde motion of the planets. (The period T is the time it takes for a planet to complete one T orbit of the Sun. Copernicus thought instead that the Sun was at the center of the universe and that all the planets. Among his many great discoveries. The story goes that Newton was sitting under an apple tree watching the apples fall oﬀ the tree onto the ground. It was not until Isaac Newton (1642-1727) invented a theory of gravity that Kepler’s laws were ﬁnally understood on a theoretical basis. After Tycho died. then from the point of view of an observer on Earth. From analyzing Tycho’s data Kepler discovered 3 important facts about the planets.e. It suddenly occured to Newton that the force causing the apples to fall to the ground is the same force that keeps the moon in orbit about Earth and the . 2 ∝ R3 . No one understood why they were true. including Earth. 2) The line joining any planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) used the newly invented telescope to view the heavens for the ﬁrst time. They are 1) All planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus.) Meanwhile.169 chological point of view. Newton had been thinking deeply about what holds the moon in orbit around Earth and what holds the planets in orbit around the Sun. This was the ﬁrst direct observation of bodies which did not orbit Earth. For Earth this is 365 days. These are usually called Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. Of course the telescope had not yet been invented and all of Tycho’s observations were with some geometric instruments and the naked eye. He mounted an intensive campaign to accurately record the motion of all the planets. this is probably the most important scientiﬁc idea in history. In particular Kepler discovered that the motion of the planets was not the perfect circle after all. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) obtained access to Tycho’s precision data and was able to use it to ﬁgure out the exact motion of the planets to a high degree of precision. In fact Kepler spent the rest of his life trying to explain then. for if the planets move at diﬀerent speeds around the Sun. revolved around it. 3) The period squared is proportional to the mean distance cubed. i. The mean distance R is the average distance from the Sun to the planet in question. the planets will appear to move forward and then backward depending upon the relative orientation. were observations of the moons of Jupiter clearly showing orbits around the planet itself. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was one of the greates observational astronomers in history. but rather the motions were elliptical. One important point to note about Kepler’s laws is that they were ’mere’ empirical facts.

He conjectured that the gravitational force between two bodies of mass m1 and m2 whose centers are separated by a distance of r has a magnitude of m1 m2 F = −G 2 r . In Einstein’s theory there is no mention of any forces at all. electromagnetism. GRAVITY planets in orbit about the Sun. gravity is seen to be due to a curvature of space and time. The great triumph of Newton’s gravitational theory was that he could derive Kepler’s laws. By the way. The theory of quantum mechanics was invented early this century to describe the motion of tiny particles such as atoms. These three laws describe motion in general. namely gravity. strong force.170 CHAPTER 10. but its advantage over Newton’e theory was that it explained additional facts about the planets such as the precession of the orbit of mercury and the deﬂection of starlight by the Sun. The story of gravity is not complete without mentioning Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity which was another theory of gravity completely at odds with Newton’s theory. A recent theory. Actually even today the story of gravity is not complete. The concept of force is more of an illusion. Note that this says that if the distance between two bodies is doubled the force drops by a factor of 4. Einstein’s theory was also able to explain Kepler’s laws. We shall go through this derivation in a moment. the second of which is F = ma.1) where m1 and m2 are the masses of the bodies and r is the distance between their centers. may be the answer but we will have to wait and see.1 Newton’s Gravitational Force Law We already know about Newton’s three laws of motion. In fact of the 4 forces that we have identiﬁed in nature (gravity. weak force). The great problem with gravity is that no one has succeeded in making it consistent with quantum mechanics. it is gravity that still remains poorly understood. What a great leap of imagination ! Newton hypothesized that the gravitational force between any two objects was given by an inverse square law of the form F =G m1 m2 r2 (10. 10. Rather. Newton however did also study in detail a speciﬁc force. They never refer to a speciﬁc force. called Superstring theory. G is a constant. the physics department at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee is one of the leading centers in the nation for the modern study of gravity.

1996] whereas for example the charge of the electron is (1.00000049) × 10−19 Coulomb or the speed of light is 299 792 458 m sec−1 which are known much more accurately than G.10. called the ﬁne structure constant. GRAVITY NEAR THE SURFACE OF EARTH 171 The minus sign tells us that the force points inwards.67 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 However. Let’s see how this comes about. its most accurately known value is actually G = (6. namely W ≡ mg where g = 9. The gravitar tional force is an inward force and that’s why the minus sign appears.0000061.2 Gravity near the Surface of Earth m Newton’s formula F = G m1 2 2 is often called the law of Universal Gravitar tion because it applies to all bodies in the universe. The value of G was determined later in 1798 by Cavendish. It’s value measured today is G = 6.0359895 ± 0. 10.67259±0.00085)×10−11 Nm2 kg−2 [see Particle Properties Data Booklet.60217733 ± 0. How does it ﬁt in with our concept of Weight which we deﬁned to be the gravitational force at the surface of the Earth. Note: F should always be written with a minus sign to indicate an atractive inwards force. α−1 = 137. For instance.2. Another example is the strength of the electrical force.8 m sec−1 is the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the m Earth? Well. Now the vector form of Newton’s Law is F = −G m1 m2 ˆ r r2 where ˆ is a unit vector point from one mass out to the other. it is interesting that today the gravitational constant is the least accurately known of all the fundamental constants. if F = G m1 2 2 is universal then it should predict the Weight r force. .

Thus the gravitational force between the two masses is F = G mM r2 m × 5. r = 6370 km (which is about 4000 miles.172 CHAPTER 10. which is m1 = M = 5. Let m2 ≡ m be the mass of a person of weight W = mg. i. Thus by measuring g (which you do in the lab) and by measuring r (which the ancient Greeks knew how to do by comparing the depth of a shadow in a well at two diﬀerent locations at the same time) then M is given by M= gr2 G and G was measured in the famous Cavendish experiment (look this up).98 × 1024 kg (6. GRAVITY m Example Show that F = G m1 2 2 gives the same result as r W = mg near the surface of Earth. You could now do the same for the other planets. . The distance between the centers of the masses is just the radius of Earth. only slightly larger than the width of the United States or Australia). Solution Let m1 ≡ M be the mass of Earth.37 × 106 m)2 = 6.98 × 1024 kg. Example Explain how to measure the mass of Earth. we found g=G M r2 where M is the mass of Earth and r is the radius of Earth.67 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 × = m × 9.8 m sec−2 which is the same as W = mg. In other words we have predicted the value of g from the mass and radius of Earth.e. Solution In the previous example.

2 A person is located as point P inside the Earth. I have drawn a dotted circle of radius r intersecting point P . Now consider Figure 14. B P A r Figure 14. GRAVITY NEAR THE SURFACE OF EARTH 173 10.1 Gravity Inside Earth If you go down a deep mine shaft then there will be Earth below you and Earth above you.2. We all agree that the total mass located inside the dotted circle produces a net gravitational force on the person.2.2 where a person is located at point P inside the Earth. as a distance r from the center of Earth. Then the gravitational pull of all the Earth surrounding you above will all cancel out and you will fee zero net force. It is interesting to ﬁgure out that the Earth above you won’t have any overall gravitational eﬀect. The easiest way to see this is to suppose you were located exactly at the center of Earth. However the mass outside the dotted circle produces no net gravitational force. This can be seen by considering the shaded regions A and B. at a distance r from the center of Earth. Region A contains a small amount of mass which will pull the person at P outwards. However the mass contained in .10.

Now K is always given by K = 1 2 ma · dr = ∆K) but U is diﬀerent for diﬀerent 2 mv (which came from forces (because −∆U = F · dr). 10. Now there is more mass in B. GRAVITY B will pull in the opposite direction. but it is further away and so the gravitational eﬀects of the mass in A and in B cancel out.174 CHAPTER 10. For gravity near the i 2 ˆ we found U = mgy. The total work was deﬁned as W ≡ F · dr. We deﬁned potential energy U via WC = giving W = WC + WN C = −∆U + WN C = ∆K or ∆U + ∆K = WN C which we called the work-energy theorem. W ≡ F · dr = ∆K The total work consisted of two parts namely. By substituting F = ma we found the work was always equal to the change in kinetic energy. conservative WC and nonconservative WN C . Thus we can ignore all of the mass located outside of the dotted circle.3 Potential Energy Let’s brieﬂy recall our ideas about work and energy.e. For a spring force F = −kxˆ we found U = 1 kx2 . i. F = −mg j m F = −G m1 2 2 ˆ we will ﬁnd that the gravitational potential energy is r r U = −G m1 m2 r FC · dr ≡ −∆U . For universal gravitation surface of Earth.

prove that Solution This was already done in Chapter 8 (these notes). POTENTIAL ENERGY 175 Example U = mgy.10. WC ≡ FC · dr ≡ −∆U ˆ Now F = −mgˆ and dr = dxˆ + dyˆ + dz k.3. Thus j i j F · dr = −mg dy giving WC = −mg yf yi dy ≡ −∆U = −mg(yf − yi ) = −(Uf − Ui ) = −mgyf + mgyi = −Uf + Ui giving Uf = mgyf Ui = mgyi or just U = mgy . For gravity near the surface of Earth. Let’s do it again.

176 CHAPTER 10. GRAVITY Example For universal gravitation. Solution WC = F = −G FC · dr ≡ −∆U m1 m 2 ˆ and ds ≡ dr = ˆ dr r r r2 m1 m 2 m1 m2 r r F · dr = −G 2 dr ˆ · ˆ = −G 2 dr r r giving WC = −Gm1 m2 rf ri 1 dr = −∆U r2 rf ri = −Gm1 m2 − 1 r = −(Uf − Ui ) = −Gm1 m2 − = −Gm1 m2 − 1 1 −− rf ri 1 1 + rf ri m1 m2 m1 m2 = +G −G = −Uf + Ui rf ri giving Uf Ui or just U = −G m1 m 2 rf m1 m 2 = −G ri = −G m1 m2 r . prove that U = −G m1rm2 .

10. the question is what U will give m1 m2 dU F = −G 2 = − r dr m The answer is U = −G m1 2 2 . Solution For universal gravitation. We had WC = FC ·dr ≡ −∆U . Let’s check: r − d dU = +Gm1 m2 dr dr 1 r2 =− Gm1 m2 r which is the F we started with! . derive U r without doing an integral. Ignoring the vectors we write FC dr = −∆U meaning that we must have FC = − This occurs because f i dU dr FC dr = − Uf dU U dU = −[U ]Uf dr = − i dr Ui i = −(Uf − Ui ) = −∆U f m Example For universal gravitation F = −G m1 2 2 .3. POTENTIAL ENERGY 177 Recall that we also had an alternative way of ﬁnding U without having to work out the integral FC ·dr.

called the escape speed. Solution The ball usually returns to the ground because of its gravitational potential energy U = −G m1rm2 .37 × 106 m = 40. If you throw it faster it goes higher before returning. when it gets to inﬁnity.4 Escape Speed If you throw a ball up in the air it always comes back down. However if we can throw the ball to an inﬁnite distance. such that the ball will not return at all. because we throw the ball from the surface of Earth. Thus Mm 1 2 mvi = G 2 R and m cancels out giving vi = 2GM R or for the escape speed. GRAVITY 10. m is the mass of the ball and R is the radius of Earth. Using conservation of energy we have Ki + Ui = Kf + Uf 1 Mm 2 mvi − G =O+O 2 R where M is the mass of Earth. 353 km hour−1 ≈ 25.67 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 × 6 × 1024 kg 6. has dropped oﬀ to zero. giving vi = 2 × 6. 000 miles per hour . that is its speed. We want to throw the ball so that it just barely escapes to inﬁnity. Example Calculate the speed with which a ball must be thrown. vi is the escape speed that we are looking for. Now the mass and radius of Earth are M = 6 × 1024 kg and R = 6370 km.178 CHAPTER 10. then U will be zero and the ball will not return. Let’s ﬁnd out what this is. r = ∞. There is a speed. so that it never returns to the ground.

4.10. Then light itself cannot escape. Such an object is called a Black Hole.67 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 × 6 × 1024 kg = (3 × 108 m sec−1 )2 = 4. Thus c= c2 = giving R = 2GM c2 2 × 6. Example To what size would we need to squeeze Earth to turn it into a Black Hole? Solution Let’s set the escape speed equal to the speed of light c = 3 × 108 m/sec. The speed of light is c = 3 × 108 m/sec. You can imagine an object so massive or so small that the escape speed is bigger than the speed of light.4 mm 2GM R 2GM R (where M = mass of Earth = 6 × 1024 kg). Thus if we could squeeze the Earth to only 4 mm it would be a black hole! . ESCAPE SPEED 179 Now you can see that if M is very large or R is very small then the escape speed gets very big.

67 × 10−11 Nm2 kg−2 × 10kg 10 × 109 × 1016 m = 3.180 CHAPTER 10. Solution A light year is the distance that light travels in one year.2 times the speed of light.7 × 108 m/sec = 1. Thus light year = c × 1 year m × 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 sec = 3 × 108 sec = 1016 m Thus v = = 2GM r 2 × 6. GRAVITY Example The size of the universe is about 10 billion light years and its total mass is about 1053 kg. Calculate the escape speed for the universe.2c which is 1. Thus is our universe really a black hole? Do we actually live inside a black hole? .

3. KEPLER’S LAWS 181 10. A picture is shown in Figure 14. The planet takes the same time ∆t to sweep out this area. This is somewhat diﬃcult to prove and we will leave it to a more advanced physics course. Kepler’s second law states that the line joining a planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times.3 with the Sun at the focus of an ellipse. . Thus the planets move quickly when close to the Sun and move slowly when farther away.10.5. Kepler’s ﬁrst law is that the planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus. In the upper part of the ﬁgure there are two shaded regions with the same area. 14. ∆t Sun Planet ∆t Figure 14. This is shown in Fig.3 Planets sweep out equal areas in equal times.5 Kepler’s Laws Let’s now use Newton’s law of gravitation to prove some of Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.

therefore dA = constant dt meaning that equal areas are swept out in equal times! .4 shows the radius vector r and the displacement v dt for the planet of mass m.4 Area swept out by planet. The shaded portion is the area swept out and has the shape of a triangle of area 1 dA = r v dt 2 The rate of change of area is dA 1 1 l = rv = mr v = dt 2 2m 2m where l is the angular momentum of the planet. But angular momentum is constant.182 CHAPTER 10. v dt r Sun m Figure 14. Solution Figure 14. GRAVITY Example Prove that Kepler’s second law can be derived from Newton’s law of universal gravitation.

We will prove it for a circular orbit only. Thus we immediately know that the 2 right hand side of F = ma is mv because all uniform circular motion has r 2 the centripetal acceleration given by a = vr . Actually the essenticity of the elliptical orbits are typically very small. This is diﬃcult to prove for elliptical orbits. KEPLER’S LAWS 183 Kepler’s third law is that the period squared is proportional to the average distance cubed (T 2 ∝ r3 ) for a planetary orbit. We shall prove Kepler’s other two laws with the assumption that the orbits are circles.5. which is done in a more advanced physics course.10. Example Prove that Kepler’s third law can be derived from Newton’s law of universal gravitation. In other words the elliptical orbits are very close to circular orbits with the Sun at the center. (Assume circular orbits only) Solution gives F = ma G v2 Mm =m r2 r Now the period T is the time to complete one orbit. Thus v= or G giving T2 = or T 2 ∝ r3 4π 2 3 r GM 2πr T 1 4π 2 r2 4π 2 r M = = r2 r T2 T2 .

184 CHAPTER 10.6 Einstein’s Theory of Gravity . GRAVITY 10.

B) Calculate a number for this ratio. This is given the fancy name of “Astronomical Unit” and is abbreviated as AU.7 Problems (9 questions) 1. Ignoring the rotation of Earth. When you go down a mine shaft. A) How fast does the ISS move in its orbit? Give your answer in mph. How can the mass of the Sun be subsequently determined? Derive a formula for the mass of the Sun and then calculate it numerically. in terms of the orbital speed of Earth vE . The average distance from Earth to the Sun is rE = 93 million miles. The equatorial radius of Earth is RE = 6378 km and that of the Moon is RM = 1738 km.10. do you weigh more or less than you did at the surface of the Earth? 3.7. A) Derive a formula for the orbital speed of Mars vM . The International Space Station (ISS) is in an orbit approximately 400 km above the surface of the Earth.8 × 1024 kg and that of the Moon is mM = 7. The mass of Earth is mE = 5.5 AU. The average distance between Mars and the Sun is dM = 1. A) Derive a formula for the ratio of the weight of an astronaut on the Moon compared to the weight of an astronuat on the Earth. B) How long does it take to complete one orbit? Give your answer in hours.) .4 × 1022 kg. 7. A hole is drilled from the United States to China through the center of Earth. What is this as a percentage? 6. which involves dE and dM . The distance between Earth and the Sun is about 93 million miles and can easily be determined using parallax and trigonometry. B) How much faster does Earth move in its orbit compared to Mars? (Calculate a number. PROBLEMS (9 QUESTIONS) 185 10. and therefore will undergo oscillation in the hole. 2. show that a particle dropped into the hole experiences a gravitational force like Hooke’s law. To what size would we need to squeeze Earth to turn it into a Black Hole? 4. 5.

B) Determine the numerical value of this fraction. The Lagrangian point between any two astronomical bodies (such as the Earth and Moon) is the point where the gravitational forces cancel out. Many satellites are put into geostationary orbits. T = 24 hours). (Examples are communications satellites and the satellites in the Global Positioning System. Where is the Lagrangian point? Give your answer as a distance from the center of Earth. C) Calculate a numerical value for H in miles.) A) Derive a formula for the position of the Lagrangian point from the center of Earth. The abbreviation for such an orbit is GEO. GRAVITY 8. B) Deduce a formula for the height H above the Earth’s surface of such a satellite. . above the Earth’s surface. as a fraction of the distance from Earth to the Moon. C) The Moon is about 1/4 million miles from Earth. (You should think about why this is so. Roughly how many times higher is GEO compared to LEO? 9. This is a fascinating point because it acts as a virtual new planet about which an oject can be orbited as long as the orbit is perpendicular to the line between the two bodies.e. D) Compare this to the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) occupied by the International Space Station which is a only a height of 400 km = 250 miles. so that the satellite remains ﬁxed above a single point on Earth.) A) Derive a formula for the orbital radius of a satellite which is geostationary above a point on the Earth’s equator. Your formula should involve the G.186 CHAPTER 10. the mass of Earth and the rotation period of Earth (i.

Chapter 11 FLUIDS I have not written this yet ! 187 .

188 CHAPTER 11. FLUIDS .

This will later lead to the study of wave motion which is also oscillatory in nature. Oscillations are of great technological importance. Thus 1 Hertz = 1 Hz = 1 oscillation per second = 1 sec−1 . often abbreviated as Hz. The units are sec−1 or Hertz. Another related quantity is the period T which is the time taken to 189 . such as motion of a car in a straight line or projectile motion.Chapter 12 OSCILLATIONS 12. has started and then ﬁnished. especially in regard to time keeping. We would now like to study oscillations in detail. i. (Note: Mechanical Universe tapes very good – especially discussion of clocks and navigation.) 12. or an object suspended on a spring or a buoy bobbing up and down in the water. it does not repeat.e.2 Simple Harmonic Motion An important property of oscillatory motion is the frequency f which is the number of oscillations completed each second. such as a satellite undergoing circular motion. However a great deal of motion in nature is repetitive or oscillatory.1 Introduction Much of the motion that we have considered.

Thus angular velocity and T frequency are related by ω = 2πf In oscillations ω is often called angular frequency. there is one famous function that displays oscillations and that is cos θ. which is a type of oscillatory motion. Now f= CHAPTER 12.5 Cos x 0 -0. Now of all the mathematical functions that you have ever come across. giving t x = A cos ωt . Any motion that repeats itself at regular intevals is called oscillatory motion or harmonic motion. 1 0.1.190 complete 1 full oscillation. Thus the displacement x for oscillatory motion can be written x = A cos θ but ω = θ . we introduced the angular speed ω deﬁned as ∆θ ω= ∆t Clearly if ∆θ = 2π then ∆t = T giving ω = 2π .5 -1 0 5 10 x 15 20 Figure 16. OSCILLATIONS number of oscillations time and if the time is simply T then 1 oscillation is completed. Thus f= 1 T In circular motion. which is plotted in Figure 16.1 Plot of cos θ.

SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION We can also introduce a phase angle φ if we want and instead write x = A cos(ωt + φ) 191 Here A refers to the maximum value of the displacement x. First recall that if y = cos kx dy then dx = −k sin kx. there is a plot of x. And A is often called the amplitude of the motion.2. a. Now the velocity is v= Also recall if y = sin kx when a= from which it follows that a = −ω 2 x In Figure 16-4 of Haliday. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Spring and Pendulum Any motion that obeys the above equation x = A cos ωt is called Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM). Notice that when x and a are at a maximum. where k is called the spring constant.12. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show this for Spring Now consider Newton’s law for a Spring where the force is given by F = −kx (Hooke’s law). Now the acceleration is dy dx dv = −ω 2 A cos ωt dt = ma −kx = ma . The velocity of SHM is easy to ﬁgure out. then v is a minimum and vice-versa. v. Substituting into F but we found that a = −ω 2 x giving −kx = −mω 2 x or ω= k m dx = −ωA sin ωt dt = k cos kx.

OSCILLATIONS which is the angular frequency for an oscillating spring. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show this for Spring and Pendulum. I can “wind” my spring clock by just pulling on it a bit and still the period is the same. Also √ 1 show T ∝ m and T ∝ √k . . The period is obtained from ω = 2πf = 2π or T T = 2π m k Notice an amazing thing. the oscillations tend to die down in amplitude A but the period of oscillation remains the same! This is crucial to the operation of clocks. The period does not depend on the amplitude of oscillation A! When a spring is oscillating.192 CHAPTER 12.

(±3)2 − 5 = 9 − 5 = 4). For the spring. Many students will not have yet learned how to solve diﬀerential equations. (Just like the solution to the algebraic equation x2 − 5 = 4 is x = ±3. We verify this solution by sustituting. that is an equation involving derivatives.12. but we can verify that the solution given is correct. SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION 193 Example F = ma is really a diﬀerential equation. Using these special techniques one can prove that x = A cos ωt is a solution to the above diﬀerential equation. Verify that x = A cos ωt is a solution to the diﬀerential equation m¨ + kx = 0. which you will learn about in a special differential equations course. x Solution x = A cos ωt dx x = ˙ = −ωA sin ωt dt d2 x dx ˙ = 2 = −ω 2 A cos ωt x = ¨ dt dt Substitute into m¨ + kx = 0 x giving −mω 2 A cos ωt + kA cos ωt = 0 or −mω 2 + k = 0 Thus if ω= then x = A cos ωt is a solution. k m .2. it becomes −kx = 2x ma = m¨ where x = d 2 . Thus the diﬀerential equation is x ¨ dt m¨ + kx = 0 x In mathematics there are special techniques for solving diﬀerential equations.

1 Energy We found before that the potential energy stored in a spring is U = 1 kx2 2 and the kinetic energy is K = 1 mv 2 . what is the period? Solution We saw that the period is given by T = 2π m . thus mg = kx or k = mg . However for a spring x and v are always changing. the spring stretches by a distance x.2. If the spring and mass are then put into oscillation. Thus x mx T = 2π mg and fortunately m cancels out giving T = 2π x g 12. The weight W = mg stretches the spring. The conservation of mechanical energy 2 says that Ei = E f where the total energy is E ≡K +U That is Ki + Ui = Kf + Uf Thus E is constant. We k don’t know m or k ! We can get k from Hooke’s law F = −kx. OSCILLATIONS Example When a mass is suspended from the end of a massless spring.194 CHAPTER 12. Can we be sure that E is always constant ? .

PENDULUMS 195 Example For SHM. Solution Recall that for SHM we have x = A cos ωt and v = −ωA sin ωt. Thus 1 1 U = kx2 = kx2 cos2 ωt 2 2 m and 1 1 K = mv 2 = mω 2 A2 sin2 ωt.12.3 Pendulums A pendulum is a very important type of oscillating motion and a very important clock (e. . “Grandfather Clock”). E = K +U 1 1 = mω 2 A2 sin2 ωt + kA2 cos2 ωt 2 2 but we previously found that ω = E = = E = k m giving 1 1 k 2 2 m A sin ωt + kA2 cos2 ωt 2 m 2 1 2 kA (sin2 ωt + cos2 ωt) 2 1 2 kA 2 which is always constant because the amplitude A is constant! 12. The forces on a pendulum are shown in the ﬁgure nnn.3. Let’s add them. Example Prove that the period of a pendulum undergoing small oscillations is given by T = 2π L where L is the length g of the pendulum. 2 2 Thus U and K always change. show that the total energy is always constant even though K and U always change.g. Let’s analyze the forces and show that the period is independent of amplitude.

196 CHAPTER 12. OSCILLATIONS Solution From the ﬁgure nnn we have Fk = max where we take the x direction to be perpendicular to the string. Thus −mg sin θ = mαL where α is the angular acceleration α = oscillations. so that −gθ = m d2 θ L dt2 d2 θ . dt2 Now for small Now compare this to our spring equation which was −kx = ma d2 x −kx = m 2 dt which had period T = 2π have m k. sin θ ≈ θ. Thus for the pendulum we must L g √ T = 2π LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show T ∝ L .

Assume small oscillations. Prove that the period of oscillation I is T = 2π mg h .12. PENDULUMS 197 Example A Physical Pendulum consists of a solid piece of matter undergoing oscillations. where I is the rotational inertia.3. Thus for the physical pendulum I mgh T = 2π . For small oscillations sin θ ≈ θ giving τ ≈ −mgθh Substitute into Newton’s second law τ = Iα gives ¨ −mgθh = I θ d2 θ = I 2 dt Now compare this to our spring equation which was −kx = ma d2 x −kx = m 2 dt which had period T = 2π we must have m k. Solution The torque is τ = −(mg sin θ)h where the minus sign indicates that when θ increases the torque acts in the opposite direction. m is the total mass and h is the distance from the rotation axis to the center of mass.

198 CHAPTER 12.2 Block sliding on frictionless surface with various spring combinations. OSCILLATIONS (a) k1 k2 m (b) k1 k2 m (c) k1 m k2 Figure 16. .

with spring constants k1 and k2 .12. what is K in terms of k1 and k2 ?) Assume both springs have zero mass. If the two springs were replaced by a single spring with constant K. 16.2a. Solution If m moves by an amount x then it feels two forces −k1 x and −k2 x. as shown in Fig. are connected in parallel to a mass m sliding on a frictionless surface. What is the eﬀective spring constant K? (i.3. PENDULUMS 199 Example Two springs. giving F = ma x −k1 x − k2 x = m¨ −(k1 + k2 )x = m¨ x giving K = k1 + k2 .e.

) Thus K = x1 k2 x2 = k1 is inversely k 1 x1 giving k x1 + k1 x1 2 k1 x1 x1 + x2 proportional to spring K= or k1 k2 k1 + k2 1 1 1 + = K k1 k2 . Thus K= but k1 x1 = k2 x2 (the ratio of stretching strength. OSCILLATIONS Example The two springs of the previous example are connected in series. The force it feels is f = −k1 x1 but we must have F = f because ma is same for mass m and mass plus spring 2 system because spring 2 has zero mass. as shown in Fig. The force the mass feels is F = −K(x1 + x2 ) Now consider the motion of the mass plus spring 2 system.200 CHAPTER 12.2b. 16. What is the eﬀective spring constant K ? Solution If spring 1 moves a distance x1 and spring 2 moves a distance x2 then the mass moves a distance x1 + x2 .

) By dragging knotted ropes behind a ship it was easy to measure the speed of a ship. (Latitude was easy to determine just by measuring the height of the Sun in the sky at noon. Knowing longitude and latitude gives one’s position on the Earth. . this independence of the period on the amplitude was ﬁrst noticed by Galileo and led to the development of clocks which was very important for navigation.2c. Thus F = ma −k1 x + k2 (−x) = m¨ x −(k1 + k2 )x = m¨ x giving K = k1 + k2 12.12. What is the eﬀective spring constant K? Solution If spring 1 is compressed by x then spring 2 is stretched by −x. Thus the invention of accurate clocks (based on the independence of period and amplitude) enabled accurate estimates of longitude and thus revolutionized navigation. measure the time of travel.4.16.4 Navigation and Clocks NNN . The reason was that it enabled one to determine longitude on Earth. say with a pendulum or spring clock) then one knew the distance from the port from which one had set sail.e. If one knew how long one had been travelling (i. NAVIGATION AND CLOCKS 201 Example The two springs of the previous example are connected as shown in Fig.FIX For a pendulum.

derive a formula for the speed of the block as a function of x. Derive a formula for the amplitude with which the particle oscillates. the motion is described by x = A cos ωt. Substituting into F = ma one can show . as the car descends at a constant speed v. If the period of oscillation for the pendulum is T . Derive a formula for the speed of the object when it is at a distance d from the equilibrium position. and oscillates on a horizontal. derive a formula for the speed of a transverse wave in the string when the pendulum hangs at rest.202 CHAPTER 12. Derive a formula for the time it takes the spring to stretch from its equilibrium position to the point of maximum extension. The spring-particle system is suspended from the ceiling of an elevator car and hangs motionless (relative to the elevator car).) 6. Check that your answer has the correct units. is connected to a spring and executes horizontal simple harmonic motion as it slides across a frictionless surface with an angular frequency ω. (Assume the mass of the spring is negligible. An object of mass m oscillates on the end of a spring with spring constant k. A particle that hangs from a spring oscillates with an angular frequency ω. A block of mass m is connected to a spring with spring constant k.) 4. the displacement from equilibrium. OSCILLATIONS 12. with a second block sitting on top.) 5. Check that your answer has the correct units. If the amplitude of oscillation is A. Derive a formula for the maximum amplitude of oscillation that the system can have if the upper block is not to slip. with m M (m is much smaller than M ). (Assume the mass of the spring is negligible. The coeﬃcient of static friction between the two blocks is µs . 7. 3. For a mass m subject only to a spring force F = −kx. A large block. A simple pendulum consists of a ball of mass M hanging from a uniform string of mass m.5 Problems (7 questions) 1. The other end of the spring is ﬁxed to a wall. The car then stops suddenly. (Assume that the mass of the spring is negligible. frictionless surface. 2. An object of mass m oscillates at the end of a spring with spring constant k and amplitude A.

. PROBLEMS (7 QUESTIONS) that ω = k m. Show that ω = is still true. 203 Now consider the spring suspended from a ceiling so k m that it is also subject to gravity.12.5.

OSCILLATIONS .204 CHAPTER 12.

LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Slinky showing tranverse and longitudinal waves. When visualizing a wave we usually think of a y − x plot or a y − t plot.1 Introduction So far we have studied the motion of single particles and systems of particles. Thus in today’s modern society it is important to understand wave motion. ii) the distance x that the wave travels and iii) the time t that the wave travels.Chapter 13 WAVES 13. Sound waves are an example of longitudinal waves in which the wave displacement is parallel to the wave velocity. namely. Speed There are 3 important variables for a wave. such as water waves or waves on a string. Waves are an important phenomenon in nature. although we will use extensively some of our results from harmonic motion. sound waves by which we hear. 205 . 13. Transverse waves are the ones you are most familiar with. Transverse waves have the property that the wave displacement is perpendicular to the velocity of the wave. and radio waves by which we communicate. light waves by which we see. i) the height y of the wave. When you hear a sound wave. There are two diﬀerent types of waves. the wave travels to your ear and vibrates your ear drum in the same direction as travel. There are water waves. However the motion of waves requires a diﬀerent type of approach. Frequency.2 Wavelength.

Now after one complete cycle the distance the wave moves is x = λ. Now what is k? Well if kx is an angle then after one complete wave cycle. i. Thus y is a function of both x and t. 0) = A sin kx where we have taken the instant of time to be t = 0. t) = A sin ωt where we have taken the ﬁxed distance to be x = 0. We did not write sin t because t is not an angle.e. The distance between wave crests (that we could measure from our snapshot) is called the wavelength λ. The time it takes the buoy to bob up and down once is called the period T of the wave. The y − t plot represents a single location x and is similar to a movie of a buoy bobbing up and down in the water as a wave passes through. Now the y − x graph can be written y(x. θ ≡ kx. To do this we have to multiply it by something called k. WAVES The y − x plot represents an instant of time t and is similar to a photograph or snapshot of a water wave that we would take at the beach. The buoy is anchored to the ocean ﬂoor at a ﬁxed distance x. Again after one complete wave cycle ωt must be 2π and after one cycle the time t will just be one period T . Thus we must have θ = ωt . written as y(x. so that the quantity kx is an angle. Similarly. t).206 CHAPTER 13. Thus we must have θ = kx or 2π = kλ giving k= λ 2π which is called the wave number. to summarize. whereas ωt is an angle. ω is the angular speed that we have discussed before. However we want to use x as a plotting variable. Thus we cannot write sin x because x is not an angle. We can only ever have sin θ where θ is an angle. Actually x is a distance with units of m. The reason we have written sin kx and not just sin x is because the domain of the sine function is an angle. the angle kx must be 2π. Thus. the y − t graph can be written y(0. λ is determined from the y − x graph (instant of time t) whereas T is determined from the y − t graph (ﬁxed distance x).

0) = A sin kx and y(0. t) = A sin ωt. Thus the wave speed must be distance x λ v= = = time t T Simple algebra also gives v= λ ω = fλ = T k . A handy formula for wave speed is easy to get! In one complete cycle the wave travels a distance x = λ and takes a time t = T to do it. WAVELENGTH. SPEED or 2π = ωT giving ω= 2π = 2πf T 207 which is often called the angular frequency ω. A general wave can be written y(x. We can see that y(x. t) = A sin(kx + ωt) 1 T Does this agree with what we had before? Yes.2.13. FREQUENCY. We previously deﬁned f ≡ in Chapter 16.

1 m = 0. t) = A sin(kx + ωt) Thus the amplitude is A=5m the wave number is and angular frequency is ω = 2 sec−1 Now k = 2π k k = 3 m−1 = 3 m−1 giving λ= 2π 2π = 2. t) = 5 sin(3x + 2t) with all quantities in SI units (i.32 sec−1 × 2. 5 m. or linear mass density. WAVES Example What is the amplitude. 3 m−1 and 2 sec−1 ). What must the exact formula be? (τ is now tension.32 sec−1 2π 2π LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Wave speed depends on tension.208 CHAPTER 13.e. frequency and speed of the wave described by y(x. not torque) Well the units of v are m sec−1 and units of τ are N ≡ kg m sec−1 and units of µ are .1 m = k 3 m−1 and ω = 2πf = 2 sec−1 giving f= and the speed is v = f λ = 0. When a wave travels on a string. Solution The general wave is y(x.67 m/sec ω 2 sec−1 = = 0. wavelength. the wave speed depends on both the string tension τ and the mass per unit length µ.

The relations between the wavelength λ and the length of the string L for the various harmonics are L = λ 2 2λ 2 L = λ= L = 3λ 2 etc. 2. Standing Waves and Resonance discuss interference LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show wave interference using slinky. INTERFERENCE. The wave of lowest frequency (longest wavelength) is called the fundamental harmonic. 3. Higher frequencies are called higher harmonics. · · · 2 .13. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Standing waves on slinky.3. so that the wave speed on τ a string is v = f λ = µ . 17-18 (Haliday). In this way standing waves of diﬀerent wavelength can be produced. STANDING WAVES AND RESONANCE 209 kg m−1 .3 Interference. To get m sec−1 from kg m sec−2 and kg m−1 can only be obtained with m sec−1 = = Thus we must have v= τ µ √ kg m sec−2 kg m−1 m2 sec−2 = m sec−1 And we can combine with our previous formula. When waves travel down a string they can reﬂect back from the other end and interfere with the other waves. The various allowed harmonics are shown in Fig. These can be written in general as L=n λ with n = 1. 13.

thus verifying the above formula. tension τ and mass density µ.210 CHAPTER 13. . LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show how frequency of Sound from Violin depends on length L. WAVES 2L n τ Now the wave speed is v = f λ = µ and writing λ = or n τ f = 2L µ gives f 2L = n τ µ This is an extremely important formula for the design of muscial instruments.

4.04 kg m−1 1/4 m .4 Sound This section is mostly devoted to the study of sound waves. The speed of sound in any medium is given by v= B ρ where ρ is the density of the medium and B is the Bulk Modulus deﬁned as B≡− ∆p ∆V /V where a change in pressure ∆p causes a change in the volume ∆V of a medium. By the way.01 kg = = 0. In air the speed of sound is 343 m/sec = 1125 ft/sec = 767 mph .13. SOUND 211 Example Middle C has a frequency of 262 Hz.25 m τ µ. although much of what we have to say can also be applied to light waves. sound waves are longitudinal whereas light waves are transverse.25 m ×262 sec−1 )2 = 686 kg m−1 m2 sec−2 = 686 kg m sec−2 = 686 N 13.) Solution The mass per unit length µ is µ= 10 gram 0. n The frequency is given by f = 2L monic corresponds to n = 1. What tension do we need to apply to a violin string to get this frequency for the fundamental harmonic? (Assume the string has a mass of about 10 gram and a length of 1/4 m. giving The fundamental har- τ = µ(2Lf )2 = 0.04 kg m−1 (2 × 0.

There is a pressure node at the closed end and an anitnode at the open end. These can be written in general as L= nλ with n = 1. 2. determine the relationship between the length of the pipe L and the frequencies of the various harmonics.212 CHAPTER 13. 3 · · · 2 . WAVES The speed of sound was exceeded in an airplane many years ago. The relations between the wavelength λ and the pipe length L for the various harmonics is λ 1 = λ 2 2 2 L = λ= λ 2 3 L = λ 2 4 L = 2λ = λ 2 L = etc. However the sound barrier was broken by an automobile only for the ﬁrst time in October 1997! Sound Intensity: Understand the formula for sound level β ≡ 10dB log I Io LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Standing Sound Waves & Water Column Example For a pipe open at both ends. Solution The pipe open at both ends is shown in ﬁgure nnn.

SOUND 213 Example Repeat the previous example for a pipe open at only one end. Also note that the frequency depends on the density of air. · · · ρ and for the pipe open at one end.13. 3. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Two recorders. · · · ρ These are very important formulas for the design of wind musical instruments. 5. Thus for the pipe open at both ends f= B with n = 1. Note that a longer instrument (larger L) will give a lower frequency. such as a ﬂute or recorder. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Talking with Helium gas.4. 2. 5 · · · 4 Now recall that v = f λ = n 2L B ρ. 3. 3. Solution Obviously L = L = L = λ 1λ = 4 4 3λ 4 5λ 4 etc. . These can be written in general as L= nλ with n = 1. f= n 4L B with n = 1.

Derive a formula for the observed frequency f in terms of the stationary frequency f. Example An observer moves toward a stationary source of sound waves at a speed vD (detector speed). then f= v λ where v is the wave speed and λ is the wavelength. WAVES 13. We have previously seen that for a stationary observer and source. You can also easily hear this just listening to cars drive down the road. Solution The detector will sense a higher frequency as in f = Now f = f or v + vD λ v + vD v v+vD λ v λ = v + vD v Note: if the observer was moving away. the result would be f =f f =f v − vD v .214 CHAPTER 13. This change in frequency of a moving sound source is called the Doppler eﬀect.5 Doppler Eﬀect Everyone has noticed the pitch of the sound of a train varies when the train passes. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Moving Microphone (twirl on a string) The same Doppler eﬀect is also observed when the listener is moving and the source is stationary.

Solution This time it is the wavelength which changes and it will be smaller as in vs λ =λ− f f is now (due to change in λ ) f = = = or f =f v λ v λ− vs f = vf λf − vs vf v − vs v v − vs v v + vs Note: if the source was smoving away. If they are moving away from each other the frequencydecreases. DOPPLER EFFECT 215 Example A sound wave moves toward a stationary observer at a speed vs . Derive a formula for the observed frequency f in terms of the stationary frequency f . f =f v ± vD v ∓ vs v If vs = 0 we get f = f v±vD as before and if vD = 0 we get f = f v∓vs as v before.13. the result would be f =f All of the previous results can be combined into a single formula. An easy way to remember the signs is that if detector and source are moving toward each other the frequency increases.5. .

The frequency increases and we have f ⇒ 1 f v v − vs v − vs = fv fv = f f = v(1 − ) f = f = 767 mph (1 − = 92 mph 264Hz ) 300Hz ⇒ v − vs ⇒ vs . Example Middle C has a frequency of 264 Hz. WAVES The Austrian physicist. If a trumpeter is playing the C note on a train.216 CHAPTER 13. The D note has a fequency of 300 Hz. Johann Christian Doppler proposed the eﬀect in 1842. In 1845 it was tested experimentally by Buys Ballot using a locomotive drawing an open train car with trumpeters playing. how fast would the train need to travel for a stationary person (with perfect pitch) on the ground to hear a D note? Solution Solution Here vD = 0 and we want to ﬁnd vs .

Derive a formula for the time it takes a transverse wave pulse to travel the length of the rope.) 2. PROBLEMS (8 QUESTIONS) 217 13. A uniform cord has a mass m and a length L.6 Problems (8 questions) 1. (Hint: First ﬁnd an expression for the wave speed at any point a distance x from the lower end by considering the tension in the rope as resulting from the weight of the segment below that point.13. The cord passes over a pulley and supports an object of mass M as shown in the ﬁgure. L-x x M . A uniform rope of mass m and length L is suspended vertically.6. Derive a formula for the speed of a wave pulse travelling along the cord.

5. m is negligible compared to M ). Derive a formula for the time it takes a transverse wave to travel from one end of the string to the other. supported by a string. and 2358 Hz. WAVES 3. The string’s length is L and its mass is m M (i. A) Is the pipe closed at one end or open at both ends? B) What is the fundamental frequency? C) What is the length of the pipe? (Note: Hz = sec−1 .218 CHAPTER 13. A stationary train emits a whistle at a frequency f . Derive a formula for the diﬀerence in frequency ∆f . rests on an incline making an angle θ with the horizontal. the speed of sound. 1834. speed of sound = 344 m/sec) .e. The whistle sounds higher or lower in pitch depending on whether the moving train is approaching or receding. L M θ 4. Three successive resonance frequencies in an organ pipe are 1310. the speed of the train. between the approaching and receding train whistle in terms of u. and v. A block of mass M .

(Hz = sec−1 ) The next highest note on the scale is A (220 Hz). How far from the end of the string must a ﬁnger be placed to play the A note? 7. Find a formula for the coeﬃcient of static friction µs . A body on the platform starts to slide when the amplitude of vibration reaches a value A. between the body and the platform. . A horizontal platform vibrates with simple harmonic motion in the horizontal direction with an frequency of vibration f . Two connected wires with linear mass densities that are related by µ1 = N µ2 are under the same tension. it vibrates at a frequency of 196 Hz. The G string on a violin is 30 cm long. what is the ratio of the wavespeed in the second wire to the wavespeed in the ﬁrst wire? 8.6. When the wires oscillate at the same frequency f .13. PROBLEMS (8 QUESTIONS) 219 6. When played without ﬁngering.

WAVES .220 CHAPTER 13.

thermodynamic quantities are related to our study of mechanics. Thus the zeroth law of thermodynamics simply states that: “If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body. i. Water freezes at 32◦ F and boils at 212◦ F. pressure and volume are related.) 14. or thermal energy. The most important system that we will study is an ideal gas and how the temperature. however. such as a liquid or gas is the temperature. (Actually. called Celsius or Centigrade.” The antiquated Farenheit temperature scale is only still used in a few countries (including the United States). To convert between the two scales use 9 F = C + 32 5 where F is the temperature in Farenheit and C is the temperature in Centigrade.e. rates the freezing and boiling point of water at 0◦ C and 100◦ C respectively. then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other. If two bodies have the same temperature then they are said to be in thermal equilibrium.Chapter 14 THERMODYNAMICS We now leave our study of mechanics and begin our study of thermodynamics. a microscopic approach to thermodynamics. A much more natural temperature scale. 221 . This is the study of the kinetic theory of gases.1 Temperature One of the most important properties of a macroscopic system.

222 CHAPTER 14. THERMODYNAMICS Example If you set your house thermostate to 70◦ F what is the temperature in Centigrade? Solution 9 F = C + 32 5 9 F − 32 = C 5 C = 5 (F − 32) 9 5 = (70 − 32) 9 = 23◦ C Example At what temperature are the Farenheit and Centigrade scales equal? Solution When they are equal the F=C=x giving 9 x = x + 32 5 x 1− 9 5 = 32 4 − x = 32 5 x = −40◦ i. −40◦ F = −40◦ C .e.

The Kelvin temperature at which a gas has zero pressure is deﬁned to be 0◦ K.15◦ C. The temperature at which this happens is −273. Thus a gas which has fast moving molecules will have a high temperature and pressure. This leads to a third type of tmperature scale called Absolute temperature or Kelvin temperature.1. TEMPERATURE 223 From a microscopic point of view (see Chapter 20). Thus C = K − 273.15 where C is the temperature in Centigrade and K is the temperature in Kelvin.14. What happens if we slow all the molecules to zero speed? Well then the gas pressure will be zero. LECTURE DEMONSTRATION: Show this. . the temperature of a substance is related to the speed of the individual molecules which also give rise to pressure.

THERMODYNAMICS .224 CHAPTER 14.

Heat capacity tells us how much the temperature of an object will increase for a given amount of energy or heat input. or Q = C(Tf − Ti ) Example Which has the largest heat capacity.2.2.4 5 5 C = (F − 32) 9 5 (F − 32) = K − 273 9 14. wood or steel? Solution For a given Q then ∆T will be larger for steel. From Q C = ∆T it means that C is small for steel and large for wood.2 14. . HEAT 225 Example What is the relationship between Farenheit and Kelvin? Solution C = K − 273 and giving or F = = 9 (K − 273) + 32 5 9 K − 459. If you do the same thing to a lump of steel (of the same mass) its temperature increase will be larger than for the wood. Q is the heat and ∆T is the temperature change.1 Heat Heat Capacity If you put a certain amount of energy or heat into a block of wood then the temperature will increase by a certain amount. It is deﬁned as Q C≡ ∆T where C is the heat capacity.14.

thousand ≡ 1000 or instead of saying “one thousand thousands” we say “million”. Thus we deﬁne speciﬁc heat (with a lower case c) as c≡ or Q = cm(Tf − Ti ) In other words the speciﬁc heat is just the heat capacity per unit mass or c= C m Q m∆T 14. Now we always use other words for huge numbers.e.) where N is the number of moles of molecules in the substance. i. Thus we also need to include the mass of the block in determining temperature change. Thus deﬁne mole ≡ 6. 000.2 Speciﬁc Heat If we put a certain amount of heat into a small block of steel compared to a large block then the small block will change its temperature the most. .e. Instead of saying “one hundred tens” we say “thousand”.2. we could deﬁne it according to the total number of molecules in the object.226 CHAPTER 14. THERMODYNAMICS 14. But if we write down the total number of molecules we will be writing down huge numbers. 000 Now even million.2.3 Molar Speciﬁc Heat Instead of deﬁning speciﬁc heat with the mass of the object. million ≡ 1. i. billion and trillion are too small for the number of molecules in an object.02 × 1023 (This number arose because in 12 grams of Thus molar speciﬁc heat is deﬁned as cm ≡ Q N ∆T 12 C there is 1 mole of atoms.

000 cal = 83. Thus the temperature should be in ◦ K.00 cal g−1 K−1 .720 J = 20 kcal where we have used 1 cal ≡ 4. Now ∆T = 30◦ C − 20◦ C = 20◦ C or ∆T = −243◦ K − −253◦ K = 10◦ K giving Q = mc∆T = 2kg × 1 cal g−1 K−1 × 10 K = 2000 g × 1 cal g−1 K−1 × 10 K = 20. HEAT 227 Example How much heat is required to increase the temperature of 2 kg of water from 20◦ C to 30◦ C? Solution The speciﬁc heat of water is 1.186 J.2.14. .

The heat of transformation L is deﬁned via Q ≡ Lm where Q is the heat and m is the mass. if you put heat into a block of ice at 0◦ C it may just melt to a pool of water still at 0◦ C.2. as shown in Fig.3 Work When discussing work and energy for thermodynamic systems it is useful to think about compressing the gas in a piston. Does it take more heat to melt ice or vaporize water (of the same mass)? Example How much heat is required to melt 2 kg of ice at 0◦ C to water at 0◦ C? Solution The latent heat of fusion is Lf = 79.5 cal g−1 × 2000 g = 159.1. . Putting heat into water at 100◦ C may just vaporize the water to steam at 100◦ C. THERMODYNAMICS 14.5 cal g−1 giving Q = Lm = 79. Exercise The latent heat of fusion for water is Lf = 333 kJ/kg and the latent heat of vaporization is Lv = 2256 kJ/kg. Thus heat can cause a change of phase. If melting is involved L is called a heat of fusion Lf or for vaporizing L is called a heat of vaporization Lv . 19.000 cal = 159 kcal 14.228 CHAPTER 14.4 Heats of Transformation When you put heat or energy into an object the temperature does not always change! For example.

Writing W = dW gives p≡ Vf W = Vi p dV .3. The piston is connected to a crankshaft connecting the auto engine to the wheels of the automobile. Such pistons are crucial to the operation of automobile engines.1 Piston. That is when we compress the piston by a distance dx. The gas consists of a mixture of gasoline which is compressed by the piston. all the motion occurs in 1-dimension so that W = F dx (or equivalently F·ds = F dx cos 0◦ = F dx). the volume of the gas changes by dV = Adx where A is the cross-sectional area of the piston. The pressure of a gas is deﬁned as force divided by area (of the piston compressing the gas) or F A giving dW = pAdx = pdV where the volume is just area times distance or dV = Adx. WORK 229 Figure 19. Recall our deﬁnition of Work as W ≡ F · ds For the piston. Sitting inside the chamber is a spark plug which ignites the gas and pushes the piston out. Another such piston system is the simple bicycle pump. or if the gas is heated the piston expands. By pushing on the piston the gas is compressed.14.

14. which was ∆U + ∆K = WN C Recall that the total work W was always W = ∆K.4. THERMODYNAMICS which is the work done by a gas of pressure p changing its volume from Vi to Vf (or the work done on the gas). It will store potential energy (∆U = ∆Eint ) like a spring and make the piston bounce back when we let it go.4 First Law of Thermodynamics We have already studied this! The ﬁrst law of thermodynamics is nothing more than a re-statement of the work energy theorem. because the piston can’t move. Thus ∆Eint = Q . The meaning of this law is that the internal energy of a system can be changed by adding heat or doing work. 14.4.230 CHAPTER 14. Thus Q = 0 and ∆Eint = −W For example if we push in the piston very quickly then our work will increase the internal energy of the gas. Identify heat Q as Q ≡ WN C and internal energy (such as energy stored in a gas. Often the ﬁrst law is written for tiny changes as dEint = dQ − dW 14.2 Constant-volume Processes If we glue the piston so that it won’t move then obviously the volume is constant.1 Adiabatic Processes Adiabatic processes are those that occur so rapidly that there is no transfer of heat between the system and its environment. and W = pdV = 0. which is just potential energy) is Eint ≡ U and we have ∆Eint + W = Q or ∆Eint = Q − W which is the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics.

After one complete cycle the potential energy U of the spring has not changed. Similarly we can push in the piston. Thus ∆Eint = 0 and Q=W meaning that work done equals heat gained. FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 231 which means the only way to increase the internal energy of the gas is by adding heat Q.4.4. similar to the spring. 14.14. then let it go and it will push back to where it started. It is a cyclical process in which the spring oscillates back and forth. 14.4. thus ∆U = 0.4 Free Expansion Another way to get ∆Eint = 0 is for Q=W =0 .3 Cyclical Processes Recall the motion of a spring.

n is the number of moles of the gas and R is the so called gas constant with the value R = 8. was developed in the 18th and 19th centuries before we knew about molecules and atoms.02 × 1023 . The number of molecules must be the number of moles times the number of molecules per mole.31 J mol−1 K−1 .02 × 1023 mole−1 and N = nNA where N is the number of molecules and n is the number of moles.5. The kinetic theory of gases attempts to explain all of the concepts of classical thermodynamics. One mole is the number of atoms in a 12 gram sample of 12 C. such as temperature and pressure. V is the volume. For example. simulating the early universe. called the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island. One of the main aims is to determine the nuclear matter equation of state at very high temperatures and densities.5 Kinetic Theory The subject of classical thermodynamics. THERMODYNAMICS 14. T is the temperature (in ◦ K). This is the equation that speciﬁes the exact relation between pressure p. Thus we write Avagadro’s number as NA = 6. This is often called Avagadro’s number. studied in the last chapter. in terms of an underlying microscopic theory based on atoms and molecules.232 CHAPTER 14. and this number is determine from experiment to be 6. we shall see that the temperature of a gas is related to the average kinetic energy of all molecules in the gas.1 Ideal Gas One of the most fundamental properties of any macroscopic system is the so-called equation of state. and temperature T for a substance. 14. volume V . Actually there is a giant accelerator. This accelerator will collide heavy nuclei into each other at extremely high energies. Now it turns out that most gases obey a simple equation of state called the ideal gas law pV = nRT where p is the pressure. The equation of state for a gas is very diﬀerent to the equation of state of a liquid.

A pV diagram takes care of two variables.14.6 × 10−19 J Thus the ideal gas law is also often written as pV = N kT where N is the total number of molecules. then as p increases.5. KINETIC THEORY 233 Recall that the number of molecules is given by N = nNA where n is the N number of moles. The third variable T represents diﬀerent lines on the pV diagram.31J mole−1 K−1 = NA 6. For ﬁxed T (say 310 K) the pressure is inversely proportional to volume as speciﬁed in the ideal gas law.38 × 10−23 JK−1 = 8. 2) If the pressure p is held constant. T . . p increases. These diﬀerence lines are called isotherms (meaning same temperature). then the pressure p increases as temperature T increases. V decreases. LECTURE DEMONSTRATIONS: Show this 14. often called a pV diagram. V . Remember an equation of state is an equation relating the three variables p.2 Work Done by an Ideal Gas The equation of state can be represented on a graph of pressure vs. 3) If the temperature T is held constant.5. volume. then as T increases. Thus pV = nRT = NA RT and deﬁne Boltzmann’s constant k ≡ R 8.62 × 10−5 eV K−1 where an electron volt is deﬁned as eV ≡ 1. The ideal gas law embodies exactly the properties we expect of a gas: 1) If the volume V is held constant.02 × 1023 mole−1 = 1.

Solution If p is a constant it can be taken outside the integral. giving Vf W = Vi pdV Vf = p Vi V dV = p [V ]Vf i = p(Vf − Vi ) = p∆V .e. If the volume does not change then the piston doesn’t move and the work is zero.234 CHAPTER 14. Example Derive a formula for the work done by any gas (ideal or not) which expands isobarically (i. THERMODYNAMICS Example What is the work done by any gas (ideal or not) at constant volume (isometric)? Solution If Vi = Vf then Vf W = Vi pdV = 0 which is obvious when we think of the piston in the previous chapter. at constant pressure).

Solution The work done by an expanding gas is given by Vf W = Vi pdV But this time the pressure changes. KINETIC THEORY 235 Example Derive a formula for the work done by a gas when it expands isothermally (i. For an ideal gas we have p = nRT giving V Vf W = nRT Vi 1 dV V V = nRT [ln V ]Vf i = nRT (ln Vf − ln Vi ) Vf = nRT ln Vi .14.5. at constant temperature).e.

Imagine a gas. Now by comparing to the ideal gas law pV = nRT or p = nRT we must V have 2 nM vRM S 3 = nRT or vRM S = 3RT M which shows that the temperature T is related to the speed of molecules! The speed of molecules at room temperature is very large. about 500 m/sec for air (about 1000 mph). Thus M = 1 mole = 6. . m 3RT ¯ Avagadro’s number. consisting of n moles being conﬁned to a cubical box of volume V .236 CHAPTER 14. Energy and Temperature Now consider our ﬁrst kinetic theory problem. THERMODYNAMICS 14. M is the mass of 1 mole of the gas (so that nM is the total mass of the gas).02 ×1023 = NA . all gas molecules. For a given temperature T . Using Newtonian Mechanics.3 Speed. vRM S is the average speed of the molecules and V is the volume of the gas.5. For a single molecule its average kinetic energy is 1 2 ¯ K = mvRM S 2 ¯ and using vRM S = 3RT gives K = 1 m 3RT . no matter what their mass. have the same average translational kinetic energy. What is the connection between the pressure p exerted by the gas on the walls and the speeds of the molecules? Pressure is deﬁned as Force divided by Area or p ≡ F where A F = dp . The above equation is derived purely from applying Newtonian mechanics to the individual molecules. one can show that dt p= 2 nM vRM S 3V where n is the number of moles. M 2 M Remember that M is the molar mass. Thus K = 2NA or 3 ¯ K = kT 2 This is a very interesting result. which is the mass of 1 mole of gas and m is the mass of the molecule.

14. it takes a while for you to notice the smell at the other end of the room. that does not mean that they move across a room in a fraction of a second. It is given by λ= √ 1 2πd2 N/V where d is the average diameter of a molecule. and N/V is the average number of molecules per unit volume. Solution The center of the Sun is at a temperature of about 20. The mean free path λ is the average distance that a molecule travels in between collisions. This is because the molecules undergo an enormous number of collisions on their way across the room. KINETIC THEORY 237 Example In the center of the Sun the particles are bare hydrogen nuclei (protons). .000◦ K.5. this is just the average molecular speed. Thus ¯ K = 3 kT 2 eV 3 = × 8.000. The probbility of a given speed is 3/2 M v2 M P (v) = 4π v 2 e− 2RT 2πRT where M is the molar mass of the gas. Calculate their average kinetic energy. If you open a bottle of perfume at one end of a room.62 × 10−8 × 20 × 106 K 2 K = 2586 eV ≈ 3 MeV Not all molecules travel at the speed vRM S . Even though room temperature air molecules have a large RM S speed vRM S ≈ 500 m/sec. This was worked out by Maxwell. We would like to know how many molecules travel above or below this speed.

D) Repeat part C) if the temperature changes from 200 C to 400 C. If you make 3 cups of coﬀee how much heat is required? 3. A) If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled. (1 cal = 4. csteam = 2010 kg C J J For water. 1 Calorie = 1000 calorie. THERMODYNAMICS 14.26 × 106 kg . The coldest that any object can ever get is 0 K (or -273 C).26 × 106 kg . J J J For water: c = 1 cal = 4186 kg C . (1 cal = 4. cice = 2090 kg C . If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled and the volume is doubled.33 × 105 kg ) 5.33 × 105 kg ) gC 4. by how much does the volume change if the pressure and number of molecules is constant. Suppose it takes an amount of heat Q to make a cup of coﬀee.238 CHAPTER 14. Lv = 2. How much heat is required to change a 1 kg block of ice at −10◦ C to steam at 110◦ C? Give your answer in Joule and calorie and Calorie. Lv = 2. by how much does the pressure change if the temperature and number of molecules is constant? C) If the temperature of an ideal gas changes from 200 K to 400 K.6 Problems (8 questions) 1. 6. by how much does the pressure change if the volume and temperature are held constant? B) If the volume of an ideal gas is halved. 1 Calorie = 1000 calorie. by how much does the pressure change if the temperature is held constant? . 2. Consider varying the thermodynamic parameters of an ideal gas. J J J cwater = 4186 kg C . Lf = 3.186 J. Give your answer in Joule and calorie and Calorie. We want the water to reach boiling point.1 kg and the water is initially at 0◦ C. Lf = 3. How much heat is required to make a cup of coﬀee? Assume the mass of water is 0.186 J. Explain why temperature has this lower limit. It is rare for physical quantities to have an upper or lower possible limit.

In an insulated vessel.14. PROBLEMS (8 QUESTIONS) 239 7. and the absolute temperature is doubled and the pressure is halved. A) What is the ﬁnal temperature of the system? B) How much ice remains when the system reaches equilibrium? kJ water: c = 4. If the number of molecules in an ideal gas is doubled.) 8.18 kg K kJ ice: c = 2.6. by how much does the volume change? (Absolute temperature is simply the temperature measured in Kelvin. 250 gram of ice at 0◦ C is added to 600 gram of water at 18◦ C.5 kJ kg .05 kg K ice-water: L = 333.

THERMODYNAMICS .240 CHAPTER 14.

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