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Compressional, Shear and Converted Wave Seismic
Reservoir characterization. It provides valuable insights for reservoirs where conventional seismic fails to deliver. imaging through gas. Multicomponent is a signiﬁcant tool in allowing a fuller understanding of your reservoir and enabling the right development decisions to be made. wide-azimuth 3C onshore and 4C ocean bottom surveys. Getting full value from multicomponent technology requires the marriage of high-quality acquisition with excellence in processing and imaging. such as heavy oil deposits. rigidity and density) while S-waves are inﬂuenced by rigidity and density only. processing and interpretation. ﬂuid discrimination. During this time. can yield better results when using multicomponent data. This has opened the way for use of the full elastic waveﬁeld in processing and reservoir characterization. As the industry turns towards higher-risk conventional reservoirs and unconventional sources of hydrocarbons. multicomponent has evolved from its origins in small-scale land surveys to the latest high-density. Multicomponent Experts CGGVeritas has been a signiﬁcant driver of advances in multicomponent technologies throughout the past decades. Why Use Multicomponent Seismic? The purpose of multicomponent seismic is to record and utilize both compressional (P) and shear (S) wave modes. Multicomponent has many vital uses including lithology identiﬁcation. with over 18.Multicomponent Introduction CGGVeritas has been a leader in the use of multicomponent seismic for more than 30 years. Recording both wave modes captures more information related to rock properties. During this time we have developed market-leading expertise in acquisition. CGGVeritas has the resources to acquire the largest of surveys. fracture and stressﬁeld characterization and density estimation. As important is the smooth integration between all groups within CGGVeritas to ensure survey design. processing ﬂows and interpretation are optimally co-ordinated. Combining these observations allows more accurate estimation of key reservoir characteristics. such as fracture analysis. data acquisition. P-waves are inﬂuenced by all three bulk rock properties (compressibility. Multicomponent Milestones 1970s 1980s 1987 1990s 1999 2000s Pioneered the acquisition and processing of 3C data Promoted the use of converted waves Acquired and processed ﬁrst 9C survey Advent of 4C ocean bottom recording Processed industry’s ﬁrst timelapse 4C survey Introduction of MEMS digital sensors Development of Optowave Industry-ﬁrst optical LoFS deployment Lower Your Risk The realities of modern hydrocarbon exploration and production are that the commercial success of a ﬁeld can depend on very ﬁne margins. Recovery-rate improvement of a few percentage points can have a crucial impact on a reservoir’s economic viability and its production longevity. 2 Multicomponent .000 multicomponent DSUs*. multicomponent seismic has truly come of age. Multicomponent provides important complementary seismic information for comparison with conventional P-wave images and AVO results. 2006 2010 *Please refer to the back cover for a glossary explaining the many acronyms and abbreviations used in the discussion of multicomponent. CGGVeritas has developed the necessary expertise and tools for advanced multicomponent processing and interpretation.
volcaniclastics and basalt dykes and sills. Venezuela. Use of multicomponent data can help discriminate between: sand. shale. such as: identiﬁcation of shale volume through better density estimation tracking temperature changes in 4D surveys identifying local variations in anisotropy. Joint PP and PS inversion provides S-wave properties directly and hence better ﬂuid and lithology identiﬁcation than either one alone. (Hanitch et al. cross-plotting Vp with Vs aids the discrimination of reservoir from non-reservoir.Lithology Discrimination Identify Your Reservoir Rocks Better Lithology Discrimination P. such as accurate Vp/Vs ratios.and S-wave data helps in discriminating lithology. P-wave seismic is unable to differentiate reservoir sandstones from basement. Multicomponent data has several applications in heavy oil developments. Note how the reservoir interval is almost transparent on the PP data yet shows clear internal structure on the PS image. which decrease uncertainty and aid quantitative interpretation. 2006) Multicomponent and Volcanics In some parts of the world. Advances in technology are opening access to hydrocarbons once thought uneconomic to produce. China and Russia. Canada. In this example from onshore Libya. A key step towards successful inversion is ensuring the S-wave image is of the highest possible resolution. carbonates and volcanics ﬂuid. such as onshore Libya.and S-waves provide complementary information about the rock matrix properties. Multicomponent data can be used to plan well locations more effectively. From early laboratory rock physics studies to recent seismic surveys. PP Heavy Oil Reservoir PS CGGVeritas recently processed this multicomponent data from a heavy oil survey in Alberta. pore ﬂuids and pressures. P-wave data alone requires the use of long offsets and AVO techniques to derive S-wave impedances and velocities. it can be difﬁcult to distinguish between reservoir and volcanic formations. leading to a higher recovery factor. In this way it plays a valuable role in signiﬁcantly reducing exploration and development risk. Multicomponent data provides vital additional information. Shale volume is a particularly important parameter for the heavy oil recovery process since shale units act as barriers or bafﬂes to steam movement. Here. Multicomponent and Heavy Oil Heavy oil reservoirs can be found around the world. The primary objective was to obtain an improved understanding of the reservoir via joint interpretation of the PP and PS images. including Canada. the combined use of P. Seismic inversion provides estimates of rock properties used to identify lithologies and ﬂuids. temperature and pressure changes during production gas and lithology bright spots. Vs Vp P-wave velocity alone cannot always distinguish between different lithologies.com 3 . cggveritas.
Unlike P-waves. caused by shallow gas. Uniﬁed Model Building A velocity model was created using P-wave. The amplitude of P-waves passing through the gas is attenuated. etc. The additional information provided by analysis of S-wave data leads to a more accurate model of the subsurface and hence improved imaging results. hydrocarbon volume calculation. consequently. Both PP and PS data were migrated using TTI Kirchhoff PSDM algorithms. P-wave time images suffer from structural distortion caused by low velocities in the vicinity of the gas. Vertical incidence VSPs were used to help calibrate the P. giving increased conﬁdence in the results.and S-wave velocities. This led to uncertainties in interpretation and. The PSDM data have been stretched back to time for comparison.Imaging Through Gas Deﬁne Obscured Reservoirs Multicomponent acquisition and processing can provide greatly improved imaging compared to conventional data. Streamer PSTM PP OBC PSDM 4 Multicomponent . Many areas of the world feature shallow gas pockets. Velocity updates were iterated until there was a reasonable tie between the PP and the PS images below the gas. transmission of S-waves is largely insensitive to pore ﬂuid content. S-wave data helps model these low-velocity zones to remove the push-down effect from the ﬁnal image. gas-charged fault zones. S-wave. S-wave amplitudes are undiminished and so provide clear images under the gas. Data courtesy of Statoil. giving rise to false structure. offshore Norway. gas chimneys. The multi-azimuth OBC data shows a signiﬁcant improvement in image quality compared to the mono-azimuth streamer data. well log and VSP data. This allowed accurate interpretation of the bounding fault leading to more accurate reservoir volume calculations. interpreted horizons. A key step in the model building involved estimating velocities in the shallow section. PP OBC PSDM PS OBC PSDM Deﬁning the Reservoir The multicomponent OBC results represent a signiﬁcant improvement in the image of the reservoir. This included Tau-Px-Py demultiple and intensive S-wave static correction work. Walkaway VSPs were used to provide anisotropy estimates. Multicomponent Offshore Norway The examples below are taken from the Snøhvit ﬁeld. hence obscuring deeper events. Multi-azimuth OBC data was recorded in 2006 and processed by CGGVeritas in 2007. The push-down effect has been resolved by incorporating the shallow gas to the P-velocity model. particularly in the western part of the ﬁeld. Existing streamer data suffered from poor seismic imaging. through a complex 4C sequence. The PS image reveals details of the reservoir hidden on the PP image by effects from the shallow gas. This affects events beneath the gas.
0 1500 m Anisotropy analysis of multicomponent data can map polarization and time delay information associated with velocity anisotropy. For the azimuthally anisotropic case. These can provide information about pressure depletion and production efﬁciency. polarization is determined by the fracture orientation (right). leading to an improvement in image quality. orientation is indicated by the individual vector segments and the magnitude of time delay between “fast” and “slow” polarization is shown in colour. cggveritas.Fracture Analysis Optimize Development of Fractured Reservoirs Knowledge of fractures is important for understanding the ﬂuid pathways and ﬂuid ﬂow within a reservoir.com 5 . most fractures are well below seismic resolution. This is a measure of the observable anisotropy. by examining velocity or amplitude variation with azimuth. anisotropic effects can be compensated for during seismic processing. the Splitting Error Range is plotted. Conventional seismic allows the interpretation of large-displacement faults. Anisotropy and Fractures It can be very useful to understand the anisotropy orientation (which indicates fracture orientation and potentially directions of preferred permeability) and the anisotropy intensity (which indicates fracture density and potentially porosity). natural and induced fractures are essential for economic gas production. These anisotropy properties can be predicted and mapped using S-wave splitting. S-waves come in two types – characterized by orthogonal polarizations.95 km Attributes derived during S-wave splitting analysis provide a measure of observable anisotropy. The 4D data can also be used to optimally design reservoir stimulation treatments such as “frac-ing”. Here. direct approach to fracture analysis. The information being mapped is cumulative anisotropy through a thick carbonate section. when multicomponent data is available. 1. polarization is determined by the source-receiver geometry (left). In this ﬁgure. This requires a good distribution of offsets for each azimuth. Anisotropy due to the overburden must be compensated for before analysis at the reservoir level can be performed. it offers a robust. we depend on macro effects of fracturing on seismic attributes to highlight fracture orientation and density. For the isotropic case. Modern techniques now make these viable production targets. 24 Multicomponent and Tight Gas Tight gas reservoirs can be found around the world. 12 ms A typical tight gas reservoir has very low permeability. This provides valuable insight into key reservoir properties that are essential for optimizing well placement and production. However. In this example. crack-like pore structure and fractures in the subsurface. including the USA and the Middle East. A producing ﬁeld can be monitored by repeat multicomponent surveys. Once measured. What is Shear-Wave Splitting? Unlike P-waves. It may be that there is more than one anisotropic layer in which case the imprint corresponds to the shallowest layer. However. These can be related to stress. The rose plot in the lower left illustrates the distribution of fast shear polarizations. Instead.55 km 1. Fracture analysis is often tackled using P-wave data alone. and layer stripping compensation is required for deeper layers.
9C: 3C x 3C For All Environments Hydrocarbons are increasingly likely to be found in some of the world’s most awkward and complex terrains. Single 3C MEMS point-receivers can now replace conventional arrays. reactivity and productivity. led by Sercel’s DSU suite of sensors. broadband.Land Acquisition Invest in the Full Elastic Waveﬁeld CGGVeritas has been at the forefront of multicomponent land seismic throughout its development and has acquired over 120 3C surveys and recently processed over 90 3C and 9C projects. Through state-of-the-art equipment. as sources. Sercel DSU3-428: . The lowering of a survey’s logistical complexity sees important rewards both in costs and in the environmental and HSE beneﬁts of needing less people in the ﬁeld. The advantage of 9C over 3C is that 9C data allow all elastic modes to be utilized and analyzed. Multicomponent – “The New Standard” The development of 3C MEMS digital sensor units has revolutionized receiver technology. Land Equipment Options Sercel UNITE Digital: .000 channels. It is possible to use one vertical and two orthogonal S-wave vibrators. geological and geophysical demands of a survey site. lowland salt plain Our resources combine with our expertise and experience to enable us to be the company of choice for those seeking to explore in sensitive or difﬁcult environments. In the isotropic case.Omni-Tilt automatic orientation correction .autonomous or real-time recording. CGGVeritas – Acquiring Multicomponent in All Environments 6 Multicomponent . Sercel’s UNITE Digital system offers unprecedented levels of ﬂexibility. We design and implement surveys that respond both to clients’ needs and to the geographical. using a P-wave source and 3C receivers. the transverse component has much lower noise levels.system capacity up to 100. or one tri-axial vibrator.ease of layout in difﬁcult terrain or situations .cable-free . When recorded by the same 3C receivers this gives a total of 9 components for analysis. data gathering now features: single 3C receiver recording high-ﬁdelity. Most multicomponent land data records three components. 9C is also key for 2D acquisition when birefringence (related to anisotropy) is an issue. digital multicomponent data more efﬁcient ﬁeld operations due to lighter units and reduced power consumption. CGGVeritas is uniquely positioned to overcome the difﬁculties of conducting surveys in these challenging locations: mountain dense forest and jungle transition zone urban desert swamp arctic.3C MEMS accelerometers .
up to 300 m water depth. Seamless Acquisition Now more than ever. With over 100 transition zone surveys recorded worldwide. incorporating data from all types of source and receiver. provides: .com 7 . CGGVeritas is the partner of choice to deliver high-quality seismic results and excellent HSE performance. improving illumination. From Vibroseis trucks and 3C receivers on land to airguns and 4C cable in the sea. The survey was carefully planned and successfully conducted around local ﬁshing communities. Marine Equipment Options Sercel SeaRay 4C: . To operate successfully within these constraints requires specialist expertise and resources. or 500 m with speciﬁc handling .subsea receiver cable connected to the recording vessel via high-speed ﬁber-optic lead-in. Dedicated source equipment coupled with a suite of 4D QC tools provides for real-time optimal source repeatability. the boundaries between “land”. cggveritas. strong river mouth currents and offshore infrastructure. In this survey. “transition zone” and “marine” are blurred. either cables or nodes. Careful processing allows the creation of a single seismic volume.Seabed Acquisition Go Beyond Streamer Acquisition Shallow Water Experts The so-called “transition zone” between land and marine seismic operations encompasses some of the most remote. OYO Geospace 4C: . CGGVeritas can provide the full spectrum of acquisition technologies. cable and cable-handling equipment for ﬂexible mobilization.improved P-wave data. 2C cables were used up to a depth of 15 m.additional information from the converted wave (PS) data .000 channels.system capacity up to 100. sensitive and at times the most congested environments on the planet. Fully containerized source. A deepwater 4C cable was used for the remainder of the survey to depths of up to 230 m.up to 3000 m water depth . Working around and beneath surface and subsea infrastructure for improved survey coverage. Ocean Bottom vs Towed Streamer Ocean bottom acquisition. SeaRay is a new-generation 4C ocean bottom cable featuring the latest Sercel 428 digital MEMS technology. reservoir characterization and identiﬁcation of drilling hazards: Lower noise environment gives improved data quality. Ability to record data with all azimuths and large offsets. Recording multicomponent S-wave data using geophone sensors in addition to hydrophones. provides wide-azimuth multicomponent data with great advantages for exploration.
We have processed more than 90 3C surveys in recent years. TAU-PX-PY Demultiple CGGVeritas has developed a Tau-Px-Py transform to provide improved noise attenuation and demultiple for wide-azimuth datasets.and S-wave arrivals. CGGVeritas is a world leader in providing advanced geophysical technologies to the oil and gas industry. We have unequalled experience with 9C programs. resulting in poor focusing and attenuation of noise and multiples. This process also implicitly designatures the data. even when separate passes of Tau-P processes are applied in inline and crossline directions. from input PZ or PS data. The transform can take into account the offset and azimuth of the traces in 3D wide-azimuth gathers. allowing multiples and coherent noise to be accurately modeled and removed in the Tau-Px-Py domain. 2D Tau-P Tau-Px-Py Adaptive polarization ﬁltering effectively removes high-amplitude ground roll energy from multicomponent data. 8 Multicomponent . Adaptive Polarization Filtering Adaptive Polarization Filtering takes advantage of the full-vector particle motion recorded by multicomponent sensors to provide excellent discrimination and attenuation of surface waves. The ﬁltering speciﬁcally targets the surface-wave noise cone. seabed and land datasets. P Vz Up/down Deconvolution Standard PZ summation attenuates only receiver-side downgoing multiples. Up/down deconvolution will remove all surface-related water column multiples. U/D Up/down deconvolution removes all surface-related multiples (annotated) and designatures ocean bottom data. making it efﬁcient and accurate. largely through our involvement with the Colorado School of Mines Reservoir Characterization Project. including source. It is more effective than single-component techniques and can remove high-amplitude aliased ground roll whilst preserving the underlying P. In comparison. Tau-Px-Py processing is applicable for wide-azimuth marine.Processing & Imaging Get More from Your Data Breadth and Depth of our Experience Processing multicomponent data requires speciﬁc expertise beyond processing conventional 1C data. 2D Tau-P transforms ignore the trace azimuth. We have also processed 4C OBC and OBS data from around the world.and receiver-side multiples.
but only where a 1D assumption is valid. This generates better P-wave images than those produced conventionally from the primary upgoing waves. and rugose waterbottoms. Alternately. cggveritas. providing poor illumination of shallow targets. Mirror migration solves this problem by separation of the seabed hydrophone and geophone data into upgoing and downgoing waves. Comprehensive Imaging Toolbox CGGVeritas is at the forefront of advanced imaging technology and offers a comprehensive range of algorithms to suit land. It requires the migration of the multiple generators at and around the sea ﬂoor for use as a model. The main reasons for the improvement in P-wave imaging are: The illumination of the downgoing wave has a larger aperture than that of the upgoing waves. The ghosts are travelling closer to vertical than the primaries. for PS-wave data. or ghost reﬂections. The ghosts travel twice through the water after going through any seabed anomalies and so are proportionally less sensitive to them. as long as there are sufﬁcient shots to avoid aliasing. as annotated on the seismic sections. we have developed Kirchhoff PSTM and PSDM imaging algorithms and velocity analysis tools. 3D SRME can be achieved even for sparse OBS data.True 3D SRME for Ocean Bottom Data Standard convolutional methods of SRME do not easily apply to ocean bottom data. Where receiver information is sparse the best model is obtained using mirror migration. This example shows sparse ocean bottom acquisition using ﬁve nodes.com 9 . This problem affects both OBS nodes and the crossline spacing of ocean bottom cables. In particular. as the sources and receivers are at different depths. Mirror Migration Large receiver intervals tend to be used in OBS acquisition. with VTI. PZ summation can be effective for removing seabed pegleg multiples. Using the CGGVeritas waveﬁeld modeling approach.and S-wave information during model building to generate improved images. Conventional imaging Mirror migration Mirror migration provides improved P-wave imaging of shallow events. as though they had been recorded as high as the sea is deep above the sea surface. HTI or TTI anisotropy: Kirchhoff One-Way Wave Equation Controlled Beam Reverse Time. We can combine P. The seabed can be imaged with the ghosts but not at all with the upgoing waves. We then image the downgoing waves. and so is effective even for very sparse node acquisition. marine and ocean bottom data. The upper images are timeslices. Waveﬁeld modeling 3D SRME is applied to common receivers.
at 70 m and 300 m water depths. The extremely hard water-bottom in the Clair ﬁeld area means that conventional towed streamer seismic suffers from severe water-bottom multiples. Permanently installed systems also offer enhanced repeatability compared to conventional acquisition. due to the nature of the Weyburn reservoir rock fabric. CGGVeritas also processed the 9C 4D project for RCP at Rulison Field in Colorado. The resulting 4D anomaly maps clearly showed the CO2 ﬁngering and were extremely valuable in facilitating reservoir management decisions. Multicomponent West of Shetlands In 2006. changes in shear wave anisotropy were related to reservoir pressure depletion in a “tight-gas” sandstone reservoir. A CO2 injection program. covering 60 km2. capturing all the details of the production effects which could easily be missed by conventional 4D seismic acquisition. with outstanding repeatability. processing and reservoir characterization. The largest area yet for a permanent installation is planned for Ekoﬁsk in 2010: 4000 x 4C channels. USA. Recently it has also proved highly effective in monitoring steamassisted heavy oil production. including directional designature. have resulted in a full-scale installation being planned on Ekoﬁsk in 2010. the system is designed to allow on-demand and continuous acquisition over extended periods of time. The main advantages of Optowave are: subsea components are completely passive. Hence both could be studied simultaneously using multicomponent. Permanent LoFS Systems We provide comprehensive integrated solutions for Life-of–Field reservoir monitoring. west of the Shetland Islands. Successful pilot studies on the Ekoﬁsk and Snorre ﬁelds in 2008. Multicomponent surveying was required. In this multicomponent. The resulting seismic “movie” facilitates the monitoring of the reservoir on a daily basis. Optowave Fiber Optic Technology For water depths up to 500 m we offer the Sercel Optowave system which consists of ﬁber optic cables and 4C sensor stations with topside laser interrogation instrumentation.4D and Life-of-Field Seismic Reduce Uncertainty in Reservoir Monitoring SeisMovie SeisMovie was developed by CGGVeritas. Where reservoir conditions indicate that frequent monitor surveys would be beneﬁcial. providing greater durability and reliability compared with systems that use electronic or moving-coil sensors no subsea power requirements making this system inherently safer broad bandwidth with inherently low system noise from 1-200 Hz precise and stable signals due to uniform ground-station coupling of accelerometers. 10 Multicomponent . permanently installed systems are the cost-effective alternative to conventional surveys. Tau-Px-Py deconvolution and TTI depth imaging.or multicomponent receivers buried low-energy piezoelectric vibrator sources (10-500 Hz) remotely-controlled onsite systems to allow autonomous recording. A high-porosity “Marly” unit is more sensitive to P-waves while the underlying “Vuggy” is more sensitive to S-waves. using horizontal wells. Multicomponent at Weyburn and Rulison CGGVeritas participated in the Colorado School of Mines Reservoir Characterization Project (RCP) relating to the processing of 9C 4D multicomponent data from the Weyburn ﬁeld in Saskatchewan. 200 km of seismic cables. GDF SUEZ and IFP in the late 1990s as a reservoir-oriented tool to provide high-resolution continuous seismic monitoring of reservoirs used for the seasonal storage of natural gas. Canada. We offer the complete range of services from feasibility studies including planning and design. processing and data transmission both active and passive seismic can be recorded using the same monitoring infrastructure. The key features of SeisMovie are: buried vertical arrays and areal grids of single. CGGVeritas is processing the Clair data. using many of our advanced processing techniques. through supply and installation of equipment to acquisition. BP trenched 40 km of cables over a 13 km2 pilot area of the Clair ﬁeld. The multicomponent data recorded from the OBC acquisition allows additional processing techniques to be used to overcome these problems. Uniquely. time-lapse research project. was initiated to sweep bypassed pay zones in the reservoir and improve production rates.
and PS-AVO and joint PP. PROMC PROMC is the Hampson-Russell application designed to make multicomponent interpretation and modeling highly accessible. PROMC can convert PS. PROMC contains a range of tools to help correlate events between datasets. optimized model of P and S impedance together with Vp/Vs ratio information. and convert the PS data into PP time. cggveritas. proprietary to CGGVeritas. as well as variations in PS arrival times. During this event correlation process. the event times on the PS. PP-PS Joint Inversion PP. This uses a global optimization process which ties Vp/Vs from traveltimes with Vp/Vs from AVO attributes. If the initial velocity model is incorrect. it is necessary to register the PP and PS data with their respective synthetic seismograms. Optimize Production Interpretation Beneﬁts The additional information recorded by multicomponent surveys allows for better interpretation of reservoir properties: lithology discrimination fracture and stress identiﬁcation and characterization ﬂuid identiﬁcation. PROMC also supports a new joint inversion process that integrates all the available information into a detailed. VectorVista VectorVista is a dedicated workstation designed speciﬁcally to process and QC multicomponent data. The inversion process allows rock property information to be extrapolated from known well locations to yet-to-be drilled prospects. PROMC creates a 3D model of the Vp/ Vs velocity ratio and this information can often be tied directly to lithology. Due to the basic reﬂectivity differences between PP and PS data. Registration is not only a necessary process for interpretation. The registered sections can be QC’d by visually observing consistent structure and stratigraphic characteristics. Key features include: PP-PS Interpretative Processing By its nature. Having both PP and PS inversions available allows for non-boundary-driven Vp/Vs ratio computation.and S-wave seismic data to P-wave time to greatly simplify the interpretation process.com 11 .Interpretation & Reservoir De-risk Exploration. receiver reorientation shear statics derivation azimuthal anisotropy analysis hodogram displays VectorVista includes a unique dual AVO (PP and PS) stratigraphic inversion. Alternatively both the PP and PS data can be converted to depth. the ﬁnal processed PS data can be difﬁcult to work with independently.and PS-inversion offer tremendous capacity for reducing drilling risk. PROMC’s horizon-matching feature will ensure that the structural images are consistent and update the velocities accordingly. it also provides interval Vp/Vs ratio estimates useful for lithology discrimination. which requires dipole sonic logs or multicomponent VSP data. It requires specialist applications to enable the data to be interpreted.or S-wave data will not agree with the P-wave event times. joint processing of PP and PS data has an interpretative element. Therefore.
also known as polar anisotropy e.P. Tel: +1 832 351 8300 Fax: +1 832 351 8701 Regional Ofﬁces Bergen +47 56 11 31 00 Calgary +1 403 205 6000 London +44 1293 683000 Singapore +65 6723 5500 multic.com multic.com multic. Multicomponent Glossary How Many Components? 1C 2C (PZ) 3C 4C 9C 4D traditional single geophone or hydrophone hydrophone (P) and vertical geophone (Z) 3-component sensor (X. TX 77072 U.com . Avenue du Maine B. horizontally layered shales Seismic Waves P-wave S-wave PS-wave Compressional wave Shear wave Converted wave (P-wave converted to S-wave at the reﬂection point) 09B-PI-374-V1 cggveritas. also known as azimuthal anisotropy e. Y.apac@cggveritas. Z) 3C plus hydrophone (P) 3C shear source recorded by 3C sensor (X. 191 75755 Paris Cedex 15 FRANCE Tel: +33 1 64 47 45 00 Fax: +33 1 64 47 34 31 Massy. Y.g. France 1. rue Léon Migaux 91341 Massy Cedex FRANCE Tel: +33 1 64 47 30 00 Fax: +33 1 64 47 39 70 Houston. the generic case Tilted TI Horizontal TI.com The realities of modern hydrocarbon exploration and production are that the commercial success of a ﬁeld can depend on very ﬁne margins.g. Recovery-rate improvement of a few percentage points can have a crucial impact on a reservoir’s economic viability and its production longevity.A.nasa@cggveritas. vertical fracture planes Vertical TI. France Tour Maine-Montparnasse 33. Multicomponent is a signiﬁcant tool in allowing a fuller understanding of your reservoir and enabling the right development decisions to be made. Z) time-lapse data resulting from surveying the same area at different stages in a reservoir’s production (not speciﬁc to multicomponent) Acquisition Hardware MEMS DSU DSU3 OBC OBS LoFS Micro electro mechanical system Digital sensor unit 3C digital sensor unit Ocean bottom cable Ocean bottom seismometer (node) Life-of-ﬁeld seismic Anisotropy (the dependence of any property on direction) TI TTI HTI VTI Transverse isotropy. USA 10300 Town Park Drive Houston.S.eame@cggveritas.Worldwide Headquarters Paris.
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