This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
© PCTC 1998
Welcome
Page 1 of 202
3
Change the colour settings.
Analysis ToolPak.
View the Function List.
How to use the dictionary.
What the dictionary can be used for.
Select An Option  Then click OK
Excel
FUNCTION
DICTIONARY
Excel
FUNCTION
DICTIONARY
Peter Noneley  Cardiff, Wales
peter.noneley@cdffcomtr.wales.nhs.uk
noneley@hotmail.com
OK
Recalculating Cells
Please wait
This can take a few minutes
on slow computers.
Recalculating Cells
Please wait
This can take a few minutes
on slow computers.
Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
Documentation
Page 2 of 202
What Is In The Dictionary ?
This workbook contains 173 worksheets, each explaining the purpose and usage of
particular Excel functions.
There are also a number of sample worksheets which are simple models of common
applications, such as Timesheet and Date Calculations.
Formatting
Each worksheet uses the same type of formatting to indicate the various types of entry.
North Text headings are shown in grey.
100
100 Data is shown as purple text on a yellow background.
100
300 The results of Formula are shown as blue on yellow.
=SUM(C13:C15) The formula used in the calulations is shown as blue text.
The Arial font is used exclusivley throughout the workbook and should display correctly
with any installation of Windows.
Each sheet has been designed to be as simple as possible, with no fancy macros to
accomplish the desrired result.
Printing
Each worksheet is set to print on to A4 portrait.
The printouts will have the column headings of A,B,C... and the row numbers 1,2,3... which
will assist with the reading of the formula.
The ideal printer would be a laser set at 600dpi.
If you are using a dot matrix or inkjet, it may be worth switching off the colours before printing,
as these will print as dark grey. (See the sheet dealing with Colour settings).
Protection
Each sheet is unprotected so that you will be able to change values and experiment
with the calculations.
Macros
There are only a few very simple macros which are used by the various buttons to
naviagte through the sheets. These have been written very simply, and do not make any attempt
to change your current Toolbars and Menus.
Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
Instructions
Page 3 of 202
What Do The Buttons Do ?
View
View
This button will display the
worksheet containing the function
example.
1. Click on the function name, then
2. Click on the View button.
Sort
This button sorts the list of functions
into alphabetical order.
Sort
Category
This describes the category the
function is a member of.
Click this button to sort alphabetically.
Category
Location
This shows where the function is
stored in Excel.
Builtin indicates that the function
is part of Excel itself.
Analysis ToolPak indicates the
function is stored in the Analysis
ToolPak addin.
Click this button to sort alphabetically.
Location
Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
Colours
Page 4 of 202
Using Different Monitor Settings
Each sheet has been designed to fit within the visible width of monitors with a low resolution
of 640 x 480. This ensures that you do not need to scroll from left and right to see all the data.
The colours are best suited to monitors capable of 256 colours.
On monitors using just 16 colours the greys may look a bit rough!
You can switch colours off and on using the button below.
This may take a
few minutes on
any computer !
Sample Colour Scheme
North South East West Total
Alan 100 100 100 100 400
Bob 100 100 100 100 400
Carol 100 100 100 100 400
Total 300 300 300 300 1200
Colour On
Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
Analysis ToolPak
Page 5 of 202
Analysis ToolPak
What Is The Analysis ToolPak ?
The Analysis ToolPak is an addin file containing
extra functions which are not built in to Excel.
The functions cover areas such as Date and
Mathematical operations.
The Analysis ToolPak must be addedin to Excel before
these functions will be available.
Any formula using these functions without the ToolPak loaded will show the #NAME error.
Check For Analysis ToolPak
Analysis ToolPak
Load the Analysis ToolPak
UnLoad the Analysis ToolPak
Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
FunctionList
Page 6 of 202
Y  Project Dates Sample Sample Example using date calculation.
Y  Timesheet Sample Sample
Y ABS Mathematical Builtin Returns the absolute value of a number
Y AND Logical Builtin Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE
 AVEDEV Statistical Builtin Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean
Y AVERAGE Statistical Builtin Returns the average of its arguments
Y BIN2DEC Engineering Analysis ToolPak Converts a binary number to decimal
Y CEILING Mathematical Builtin Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance
Y CELL Information Builtin Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell
Y CHAR Text Builtin Returns the character specified by the code number
Y CHOOSE Lookup Builtin Chooses a value from a list of values
Y CLEAN Text Builtin Removes all nonprintable characters from text
Y CODE Text Builtin Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string
 COLUMN Lookup Builtin Returns the column number of a reference
 COLUMNS Lookup Builtin Returns the number of columns in a reference
Y COMBIN Mathematical Builtin Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects
Y CONCATENATE Text Builtin Joins several text items into one text item
Y CONVERT Engineering Analysis ToolPak Converts a number from one measurement system to another
Y CORREL Statistical Builtin Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets
Y COUNT Statistical Builtin Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments
Y COUNTA Statistical Builtin Counts how many values are in the list of arguments
Y COUNTBLANK Information Builtin Counts the number of blank cells within a range
Y COUNTIF Mathematical Builtin Counts the number of nonblank cells within a range that meet the given criteria
 CUMIPMT Financial Analysis ToolPak Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods
 CUMPRINC Financial Analysis ToolPak Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods
Y DATE Date Builtin Returns the serial number of a particular date
Y DATEVALUE Date Builtin Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number
Y DAVERAGE Database Builtin Returns the average of selected database entries
Y DAY Date Builtin Converts a serial number to a day of the month
Y DAYS360 Date Builtin Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360day year
Y DB Financial Builtin Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixeddeclining balance method
Y DCOUNT Database Builtin Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database
Y DCOUNTA Database Builtin Counts nonblank cells in a database
 DDB Financial Builtin Returns depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the doubledeclining balance method or some other you specify
Y DEC2BIN Engineering Analysis ToolPak Converts a decimal number to binary
Y DEC2HEX Engineering Analysis ToolPak Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal
Y DELTA Engineering Analysis ToolPak Tests whether two values are equal
Y DGET Database Builtin Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria
Y DMAX Database Builtin Returns the maximum value from selected database entries
Y DMIN Database Builtin Returns the minimum value from selected database entries
Y DOLLAR Text Builtin Converts a number to text, using currency format
 DPRODUCT Database Builtin Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database
 DSTDEV Database Builtin Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries
 DSTDEVP Database Builtin Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries
Y DSUM Database Builtin Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria
 DVAR Database Builtin Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries
 DVARP Database Builtin Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries
Y EDATE Date Analysis ToolPak Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date
 EFFECT Financial Analysis ToolPak Returns the effective annual interest rate
Y EOMONTH Date Analysis ToolPak Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months
Y ERROR.TYPE Information Builtin Returns a number corresponding to an error type
Y EVEN Mathematical Builtin Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer
Y EXACT Text Builtin Checks to see if two text values are identical
Y FACT Mathematical Builtin Returns the factorial of a number
 FALSE Logical Builtin Returns the logical value FALSE
Y FIND Text Builtin Finds one text value within another (casesensitive)
Y FIXED Text Builtin Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals
Y FLOOR Mathematical Builtin Rounds a number down, toward zero
Y FORECAST Statistical Builtin Returns a value along a linear trend
Y FREQUENCY Statistical Builtin Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array
 FV Financial Builtin Returns the future value of an investment
Y GCD Mathematical Analysis ToolPak Returns the greatest common divisor
Y GESTEP Engineering Analysis ToolPak Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value
Y GROWTH Statistical Builtin Returns values along an exponential trend
Y HEX2DEC Engineering Analysis ToolPak Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal
Y HLOOKUP Lookup Builtin Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell
Y HOUR Date Builtin Converts a serial number to an hour
 HYPERLINK Lookup Builtin Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet
Y IF Logical Builtin Specifies a logical test to perform
Y INDEX Lookup Builtin Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array
Y INDIRECT Lookup Builtin Returns a reference indicated by a text value
Y INFO Information Builtin Returns information about the current operating environment
Y INT Mathematical Builtin Rounds a number down to the nearest integer
Y ISBLANK Information Builtin Returns TRUE if the value is blank
Y ISERR Information Builtin Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A
Y ISERROR Information Builtin Returns TRUE if the value is any error value
Y ISEVEN Information Analysis ToolPak Returns TRUE if the number is even
Y ISLOGICAL Information Builtin Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value
Y ISNA Information Builtin Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value
View Category Location Sort
Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
FunctionList
Page 7 of 202
View Category Location Sort
Y ISNONTEXT Information Builtin Returns TRUE if the value is not text
Y ISNUMBER Information Builtin Returns TRUE if the value is a number
Y ISODD Information Analysis ToolPak Returns TRUE if the number is odd
Y ISREF Information Builtin Returns TRUE if the value is a reference
Y ISTEXT Information Builtin Returns TRUE if the value is text
Y LARGE Statistical Builtin Returns the kth largest value in a data set
Y LCM Mathematical Analysis ToolPak Returns the least common multiple
Y LEFT Text Builtin Returns the leftmost characters from a text value
Y LEN Text Builtin Returns the number of characters in a text string
 LINEST Statistical Builtin Returns the parameters of a linear trend
 LOGEST Statistical Builtin Returns the parameters of an exponential trend
Y LOOKUP (vector) Lookup Builtin Looks up values in a vector or array
Y LOWER Text Builtin Converts text to lowercase
Y MATCH Lookup Builtin Looks up values in a reference or array
Y MAX Statistical Builtin Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments
 MDETERM Mathematical Builtin Returns the matrix determinant of an array
Y MEDIAN Statistical Builtin Returns the median of the given numbers
Y MID Text Builtin Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify
Y MIN Statistical Builtin Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments
Y MINUTE Date Builtin Converts a serial number to a minute
Y MINVERSE Mathematical Builtin Returns the matrix inverse of an array
Y MMULT Mathematical Builtin Returns the matrix product of two arrays
Y MOD Mathematical Builtin Returns the remainder from division
Y MODE Statistical Builtin Returns the most common value in a data set
Y MONTH Date Builtin Converts a serial number to a month
Y MROUND Mathematical Analysis ToolPak Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple
Y N Information Builtin Returns a value converted to a number
Y NA Information Builtin Returns the error value #N/A
Y NETWORKDAYS Date Analysis ToolPak Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates
Y NOT Logical Builtin Reverses the logic of its argument
Y NOW Date Builtin Returns the serial number of the current date and time
 NPV Financial Builtin Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate
Y ODD Mathematical Builtin Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer
 OFFSET Lookup Builtin Returns a reference offset from a given reference
Y OR Logical Builtin Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE
 PERCENTILE Statistical Builtin Returns the kth percentile of values in a range
 PERCENTRANK Statistical Builtin Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set
Y PERMUT Statistical Builtin Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects
Y PI Mathematical Builtin Returns the value of Pi
Y POWER Mathematical Builtin Returns the result of a number raised to a power
Y PRODUCT Mathematical Builtin Multiplies its arguments
Y PROPER Text Builtin Capitalises the first letter in each word of a text value
 PV Financial Builtin Returns the present value of an investment
Y QUARTILE Statistical Builtin Returns the quartile of a data set
Y QUOTIENT Mathematical Analysis ToolPak Returns the integer portion of a division
Y RAND Mathematical Builtin Returns a random number between 0 and 1
Y RANDBETWEEN Mathematical Analysis ToolPak Returns a random number between the numbers you specify
Y RANK Statistical Builtin Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers
Y REPLACE Text Builtin Replaces characters within text
Y REPT Text Builtin Repeats text a given number of times
Y RIGHT Text Builtin Returns the rightmost characters from a text value
Y ROMAN Mathematical Builtin Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text
Y ROUND Mathematical Builtin Rounds a number to a specified number of digits
Y ROUNDDOWN Mathematical Builtin Rounds a number down, toward zero
Y ROUNDUP Mathematical Builtin Rounds a number up, away from zero
 ROW Lookup Builtin Returns the row number of a reference
 ROWS Lookup Builtin Returns the number of rows in a reference
 SEARCH Text Builtin Finds one text value within another (not casesensitive)
Y SECOND Date Builtin Converts a serial number to a second
Y SIGN Mathematical Builtin Returns the sign of a number
Y SLN Financial Builtin Returns the straightline depreciation of an asset for one period
Y SMALL Statistical Builtin Returns the kth smallest value in a data set
Y STDEV Statistical Builtin Estimates standard deviation based on a sample
 STDEVA Statistical Builtin Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values
Y STDEVP Statistical Builtin Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population
 STDEVPA Statistical Builtin Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values
Y SUBSTITUTE Text Builtin Substitutes new text for old text in a text string
Y SUBTOTAL Mathematical Builtin Returns a subtotal in a list or database
Y SUM Mathematical Builtin Adds its arguments
 SUM with OFFSET Lookup
Y SUMIF Mathematical Builtin Adds the cells specified by a given criteria
Y SUMPRODUCT Mathematical Builtin Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components
Y SYD Financial Builtin Returns the sumofyears' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period
Y T Text Builtin Converts its arguments to text
Y TEXT Text Builtin Formats a number and converts it to text
Y TIME Date Builtin Returns the serial number of a particular time
Y TIMEVALUE Date Builtin Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number
Y TODAY Date Builtin Returns the serial number of today's date
Y TRANSPOSE Lookup Builtin Returns the transpose of an array
Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
FunctionList
Page 8 of 202
View Category Location Sort
Y TREND Statistical Builtin Returns values along a linear trend
Y TRIM Text Builtin Removes spaces from text
 TRUE Logical Builtin Returns the logical value TRUE
Y TRUNC Mathematical Builtin Truncates a number to an integer
Y TYPE Information Builtin Returns a number indicating the data type of a value
Y UPPER Text Builtin Converts text to uppercase
Y VALUE Text Builtin Converts a text argument to a number
Y VAR Statistical Builtin Estimates variance based on a sample
Y VARP Statistical Builtin Calculates variance based on the entire population
 VDB Financial Builtin Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period using a declining balance method
Y VLOOKUP Lookup Builtin Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell
Y WEEKDAY Date Builtin Converts a serial number to a day of the week
Y WORKDAY Date Analysis ToolPak Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays
Y YEAR Date Builtin Converts a serial number to a year
Y YEARFRAC Date Analysis ToolPak Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date
FuntionlistNotes Page 9
Notes.
Column A:
I used this to keep track of the my progress. A
letter Y indicates that its been finished. This
column would have been removed if I had ever
completed the project.
Usage:
1. Click a function name in column B.
2. Then click on the View button at the top.
Protection:
Some of sheets may be protected, but there is no
password. You may find that the macros re
protect the sheets at some stage.
If there are any passwords, try 'rainbow', I use
that as a working password during project
development.
Analysis ToolPak
Remember that these functions will not work
unless the toolpak is loaded. See the Analysis
Toolpak sheet for more details.
(Does anyone know how to change the colour of
the tab for the sheet names?)
End
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 97 AVERAGEA Page 10 of 202
AVERAGEA
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average
Temp C 30 31 32 29 26 28 27 #MACRO? =AVERAGE(D4:J4)
Rain cm 0 0 0 4 6 3 1 2 =AVERAGE(D5:J5)
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average
Temp C 30 32 29 26 28 27 28.67 =AVERAGE(D8:J8)
Rain cm 0 0 4 6 3 1 2.33 =AVERAGE(D9:J9)
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average
Temp C 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 28.67 =AVERAGE(D12:J12)
Rain cm 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2.33 =AVERAGE(D13:J13)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the average from a list of numbers.
If the cell is blank or contains text, the cell will not be used in the average calculation.
If the cell contains zero 0, the cell will be included in the average calculation.
Syntax
=AVERAGE(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 97 MAXA Page 11 of 202
MAXA
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 ABS Page 12 of 202
ABS
Number Absolute Value
10 10 =ABS(C4)
10 10 =ABS(C5)
1.25 1.25 =ABS(C6)
1.25 1.25 =ABS(C7)
What Does it Do ?
This function calculates the value of a number, irrespective of whether it is positive or negative.
Syntax
=ABS(CellAddress or Number)
Formatting
The result will be shown as a number, no special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a company testing a machine which cuts timber.
The machine needs to cut timber to an exact length.
Three pieces of timber were cut and then measured.
In calculating the difference between the Required Length and the Actual Length it does
not matter if the wood was cut too long or short, the measurement needs to be expressed as
an absolute value.
Table 1 shows the original calculations.
The Difference for Test 3 is shown as negative, which has a knock on effect
when the Error Percentage is calculated.
Whether the wood was too long or short, the percentage should still be expressed
as an absolute value.
Table 1
Difference
Test 1 120 120 0 0%
Test 2 120 90 30 25%
Test 3 120 150 30 25%
=D36E36
Table 2 shows the same data but using the =ABS() function to correct the calculations.
Table 2
Difference
Test 1 120 120 0 0%
Test 2 120 90 30 25%
Test 3 120 150 30 25%
=ABS(D45E45)
Test
Cut
Required
Length
Actual
Length
Error
Percentage
Test
Cut
Required
Length
Actual
Length
Error
Percentage
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 ADDRESS Page 13 of 202
ADDRESS
Type a column number : 2
Type a row number : 3
Type a sheet name : Hello
$B$3 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,1,TRUE)
B$3 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,2,TRUE)
$B3 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,3,TRUE)
B3 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,4,TRUE)
R3C2 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,1,FALSE)
R3C[2] =ADDRESS(F4,F3,2,FALSE)
R[3]C2 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,3,FALSE)
R[3]C[2] =ADDRESS(F4,F3,4,FALSE)
Hello.$B$3 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,1,TRUE,F5)
Hello.B$3 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,2,TRUE,F5)
Hello.$B3 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,3,TRUE,F5)
Hello.B3 =ADDRESS(F4,F3,4,TRUE,F5)
What Does It Do ?
This function creates a cell reference as a piece of text, based on a row and column
numbers given by the user.
This type of function is used in macros rather than on the actual worksheet.
Syntax
=ADDRESS(RowNumber,ColNumber,Absolute,A1orR1C1,SheetName)
The RowNumber is the normal row number from 1 to 16384.
The ColNumber is from 1 to 256, cols A to IV.
The Absolute can be 1,2,3 or 4.
When 1 the reference will be in the form $A$1, column and row absolute.
When 2 the reference will be in the form A$1, only the row absolute.
When 3 the reference will be in the form $A1, only the column absolute.
When 4 the reference will be in the form A1, neither col or row absolute.
The A1orR1C1 is either TRUE of FALSE.
When TRUE the reference will be in the form A1, the normal style for cell addresses.
When FALSE the reference will be in the form R1C1, the alternative style of cell address.
The SheetName is a piece of text to be used as the worksheet name in the reference.
The SheetName does not actually have to exist.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 AND Page 14 of 202
AND
Items To Test Result
500 800 TRUE =AND(C4>=100,D4>=100)
500 25 FALSE =AND(C5>=100,D5>=100)
25 500 FALSE =AND(C6>=100,D6>=100)
12 TRUE =AND(D7>=1,D7<=52)
What Does It Do?
This function tests two or more conditions to see if they are all true.
It can be used to test that a series of numbers meet certain conditions.
It can be used to test that a number or a date falls between an upper and lower limit.
Normally the AND() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF().
Syntax
=AND(Test1,Test2)
Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests.
Formatting
When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE.
Example 1
The following example shows a list of examination results.
The teacher wants to find the pupils who scored above average in all three exams.
The =AND() function has been used to test that each score is above the average.
The result of TRUE is shown for pupils who have scored above average in all three exams.
Name Maths English Physics Passed
Alan 80 75 85 TRUE
Bob 50 30 40 FALSE
Carol 60 70 50 FALSE
David 90 85 95 TRUE
Eric 20 30 Absent FALSE
Fred 40 60 80 FALSE
Gail 10 90 80 FALSE
Harry 80 70 60 TRUE
Ian 30 10 20 FALSE
Janice 10 20 30 FALSE
=AND(C38>=AVERAGE(C29:C38),D38>=AVERAGE(D29:D38),E38>=AVERAGE(E29:E38))
Averages 47 54 60
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 AREAS Page 15 of 202
AREAS
Pink Name Age Err:504 =AREAS(PeopleLists)
Alan 18
Bob 17
Carol 20
Green Name Age
David 20
Eric 16
Fred 19
What Does It Do?
This function tests a range to determine whether it is a single block of data, or whether
it is a multiple selection.
If it is a single block the result will be 1.
If it is a multiple block the result will be the number of ranges selected.
The function is designed to be used in macros.
Syntax
=AREAS(RangeToTest)
Formatting
The result will be shown as a number.
Example
The example at the top of this page shows two ranges coloured pink and green.
These ranges have been given the name PeopleLists.
The =AREAS(PeopleLists) gives a result of 2 indicating that there are two separate
selections which form the PeopleLists range.
Note
To name multiple ranges the CTRL key must be used.
In the above example the pink range was selected as normal, then the Ctrl key
was held down before selecting the green range.
When a Range Name is created it will consider both Pink and Green as being one range.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 AVERAGE Page 16 of 202
AVERAGE
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average
Temp 30 31 32 29 26 28 27 29 =AVERAGE(D4:J4)
Rain 0 0 0 4 6 3 1 2 =AVERAGE(D5:J5)
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average
Temp 30 32 29 26 28 27 28.67 =AVERAGE(D8:J8)
Rain 0 0 4 6 3 1 2.33 =AVERAGE(D9:J9)
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average
Temp 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 28.67 =AVERAGE(D12:J12)
Rain 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2.33 =AVERAGE(D13:J13)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the average from a list of numbers.
If the cell is blank or contains text, the cell will not be used in the average calculation.
If the cell contains zero 0, the cell will be included in the average calculation.
Syntax
=AVERAGE(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Note
To calculate the average of cells which contain text or blanks use =SUM() to get the total and
then divide by the count of the entries using =COUNTA().
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average
Temp 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 24.57 =SUM(D31:J31)/COUNTA(D31:J31)
Rain 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2 =SUM(D32:J32)/COUNTA(D32:J32)
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average
Temp 30 32 29 26 28 27 28.67 =SUM(D35:J35)/COUNTA(D35:J35)
Rain 0 0 4 6 3 1 2.33 =SUM(D36:J36)/COUNTA(D36:J36)
Further Usage
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 BIN2DEC Page 17 of 202
BIN2DEC
Binary Number Decimal Equivalent
0 0 =BIN2DEC(C4)
1 1 =BIN2DEC(C5)
10 2 =BIN2DEC(C6)
11 3 =BIN2DEC(C7)
111111111 511 =BIN2DEC(C8)
1111111111 1 =BIN2DEC(C9)
1111111110 2 =BIN2DEC(C10)
1111111101 3 =BIN2DEC(C11)
1000000000 512 =BIN2DEC(C12)
11111111111 Err:502 =BIN2DEC(C13)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a binary number to decimal.
Negative numbers are represented using two'scomplement notation.
Syntax
=BIN2DEC(BinaryNumber)
The binary number has a limit of ten characters.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
CEILING
Page 18 of 202
CEILING
Number Raised Up
2.1 3 =CEILING(C4,1)
1.5 2 =CEILING(C5,1)
1.9 2 =CEILING(C6,1)
20 30 =CEILING(C7,30)
25 30 =CEILING(C8,30)
40 60 =CEILING(C9,30)
What Does It Do ?
This function rounds a number up to the nearest multiple specified by the user.
Syntax
=CEILING(ValueToRound,MultipleToRoundUpTo)
The ValueToRound can be a cell address or a calculation.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example 1
The following table was used by a estate agent renting holiday apartments.
The properties being rented are only available on a weekly basis.
When the customer supplies the number of days required in the property the =CEILING()
function rounds it up by a multiple of 7 to calculate the number of full weeks to be billed.
Days Required
Customer 1 3 7 =CEILING(D28,7)
Customer 2 4 7 =CEILING(D29,7)
Customer 3 10 14 =CEILING(D30,7)
Example 2
The following table was used by a builders merchant delivering products to a construction site.
The merchant needs to hire trucks to move each product.
Each product needs a particular type of truck of a fixed capacity.
Table 1 calculates the number of trucks required by dividing the Units To Be Moved by
the Capacity of the truck.
This results of the division are not whole numbers, and the builder cannot hire just part
of a truck.
Table 1
Item
Bricks 1000 300 3.33 =D45/E45
Wood 5000 600 8.33 =D46/E46
Cement 2000 350 5.71 =D47/E47
Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to round up the result of
the division to a whole number, and thus given the exact amount of trucks needed.
Table 2
Days To
Be Billed
Units To
Be Moved
Truck
Capacity
Trucks
Needed
A B C D E F G H
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Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
CEILING
Page 19 of 202
Item
Bricks 1000 300 4 =CEILING(D54/E54,1)
Wood 5000 600 9 =CEILING(D55/E55,1)
Cement 2000 350 6 =CEILING(D56/E56,1)
Example 3
The following tables were used by a shopkeeper to calculate the selling price of an item.
The shopkeeper buys products by the box.
The cost of the item is calculated by dividing the Box Cost by the Box Quantity.
The shopkeeper always wants the price to end in 99 pence.
Table 1 shows how just a normal division results in varying Item Costs.
Table 1
Item Box Qnty Box Cost Cost Per Item
Plugs 11 £20 1.81818 =D69/C69
Sockets 7 £18.25 2.60714 =D70/C70
Junctions 5 £28.10 5.62000 =D71/C71
Adapters 16 £28 1.75000 =D72/C72
Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to raise the Item Cost to
always end in 99 pence.
Table 2
Item In Box Box Cost Cost Per Item Raised Cost
Plugs 11 £20 1.81818 1.99
Sockets 7 £18.25 2.60714 2.99
Junctions 5 £28.10 5.62000 5.99
Adapters 16 £28 1.75000 1.99
=INT(E83)+CEILING(MOD(E83,1),0.99)
Explanation
=INT(E83) Calculates the integer part of the price.
=MOD(E83,1) Calculates the decimal part of the price.
=CEILING(MOD(E83),0.99) Raises the decimal to 0.99
Units To
Be Moved
Truck
Capacity
Trucks
Needed
A B C D E F G H
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 CELL Page 20 of 202
CELL
This is the cell and contents to test. 17.50%
The cell address. $D$3 =CELL("address",D3)
The column number. 4 =CELL("col",D3)
The row number. 3 =CELL("row",D3)
The actual contents of the cell. 0.18 =CELL("contents",D3)
v =CELL("type",D3)
=CELL("prefix",D3)
The width of the cell. 12 =CELL("width",D3)
P2 =CELL("format",D3)
0 =CELL("parentheses",D3)
0 =CELL("color",D3)
1 =CELL("protect",D3)
The filename containing the cell. 'file:///opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6674/52857261.xls'#$CELL
=CELL("filename",D3)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a cell and displays information about the contents, position and formatting.
Syntax
=CELL("TypeOfInfoRequired",CellToTest)
The TypeOfInfoRequired is a text entry which must be surrounded with quotes " ".
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Codes used to show the formatting of the cell.
Numeric Format Code
General G
0 F0
#,##0 ,0
0.00 F2
#,##0.00 ,2
$#,##0_);($#,##0) C0
$#,##0_);[Red]($#,##0) C0
$#,##0.00_);($#,##0.00) C2
$#,##0.00_);[Red]($#,##0.00) C2
0% P0
0.00% P2
0.00E+00 S2
# ?/? or # ??/?? G
m/d/yy or m/d/yy h:mm or mm/dd/yy. D4
dmmmyy or ddmmmyy D1
dmmm or ddmmm D2
mmmyy D3
mm/dd D5
h:mm AM/PM D7
h:mm:ss AM/PM D6
h:mm D9
h:mm:ss D8
Example
The following example uses the =CELL() function as part of a formula which extracts the filename.
The name of the current file is : #VALUE!
=MID(CELL("filename"),FIND("[",CELL("filename"))+1,FIND("]",CELL("filename"))FIND("[",CELL("filename"))1)
The type of entry in the cell.
Shown as b for blank, l for text, v for value.
The alignment of the cell.
Shown as ' for left, ^ for centre, " for right.
Nothing is shown for numeric entries.
The number format fo the cell.
(See the table shown below)
Formatted for braces ( ) on positive values.
1 for yes, 0 for no.
Formatted for coloured negatives.
1 for yes, 0 for no.
The type of cell protection.
1 for a locked, 0 for unlocked.
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 CHAR Page 21 of 202
CHAR
ANSI Number Character
65 A =CHAR(G4)
66 B =CHAR(G5)
169 © =CHAR(G6)
What Does It Do?
This function converts a normal number to the character it represent in the ANSI
character set used by Windows.
Syntax
=CHAR(Number)
The Number must be between 1 and 255.
Formatting
The result will be a character with no special formatting.
Example
The following is a list of all 255 numbers and the characters they represent.
Note that most Windows based program may not display some of the special characters,
these will be displayed as a small box.
1
1
26
2
51 3 76 L 101 e 126 ~ 151 ¯ 176 ° 201 É 226 â 251 û
2
2
27
2
52 4 77 M 102 f 127 152 ¯ 177 ± 202 Ê 227 ã 252 ü
3
3
28
2
53 5 78 N 103 g 128 153 a 178 ² 203 Ë 228 ä 253 ý
4
4
29
2
54 6 79 O 104 h 129 154 q 179 ³ 204 Ì 229 å 254 þ
5
5
30
3
55 7 80 P 105 i 130 Q 155 a 180 ´ 205 Í 230 æ 255 ÿ
6
6
31
3
56 8 81 Q 106 j 131 q 156 q 181 µ 206 Î 231 ç
7
7
32 57 9 82 R 107 k 132 o 157 182 ¶ 207 Ï 232 è
8
8
33 ! 58 : 83 S 108 l 133 m 158 183 · 208 Ð 233 é
9
9
34 " 59 ; 84 T 109 m 134 o 159 s 184 ¸ 209 Ñ 234 ê
10 35 # 60 < 85 U 110 n 135 æ 160 185 ¹ 210 Ò 235 ë
11
1
36 $ 61 = 86 V 111 o 136 q 161 ¡ 186 º 211 Ó 236 ì
12
1
37 % 62 > 87 W 112 p 137 o 162 ¢ 187 » 212 Ô 237 í
13
1
38 & 63 ? 88 X 113 q 138 d 163 £ 188 ¼ 213 Õ 238 î
14
1
39 ' 64 @ 89 Y 114 r 139 o 164 ¤ 189 ½ 214 Ö 239 ï
15
1
40 ( 65 A 90 Z 115 s 140 æ 165 ¥ 190 ¾ 215 × 240 ð
16
1
41 ) 66 B 91 [ 116 t 141 166 ¦ 191 ¿ 216 Ø 241 ñ
17
1
42 * 67 C 92 \ 117 u 142 167 § 192 À 217 Ù 242 ò
18
1
43 + 68 D 93 ] 118 v 143 168 ¨ 193 Á 218 Ú 243 ó
19
1
44 , 69 E 94 ^ 119 w 144 169 © 194 Â 219 Û 244 ô
20
2
45  70 F 95 _ 120 x 145 170 ª 195 Ã 220 Ü 245 õ
21
2
46 . 71 G 96 ` 121 y 146 171 « 196 Ä 221 Ý 246 ö
22
2
47 / 72 H 97 a 122 z 147 172 ¬ 197 Å 222 Þ 247 ÷
23
2
48 0 73 I 98 b 123 { 148 173 198 Æ 223 ß 248 ø
24
2
49 1 74 J 99 c 124  149 ¯ 174 ® 199 Ç 224 à 249 ù
25
2
50 2 75 K 100 d 125 } 150 ¯ 175 ¯ 200 È 225 á 250 ú
Note
Number 32 does not show as it is the SPACEBAR character.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 CHOOSE Page 22 of 202
CHOOSE
Result
1 Alan =CHOOSE(C4,"Alan","Bob","Carol")
3 Carol =CHOOSE(C5,"Alan","Bob","Carol")
2 Bob =CHOOSE(C6,"Alan","Bob","Carol")
3 18% =CHOOSE(C7,10%,15%,18%)
1 10% =CHOOSE(C8,10%,15%,18%)
2 15% =CHOOSE(C9,10%,15%,18%)
What Does It Do?
This function picks from a list of options based upon an Index value given to by the user.
Syntax
=CHOOSE(UserValue, Item1, Item2, Item3 through to Item29)
Formatting
No special formatting is required.
Example
The following table was used to calculate the medals for athletes taking part in a race.
The Time for each athlete is entered.
The =RANK() function calculates the finishing position of each athlete.
The =CHOOSE() then allocates the correct medal.
The =IF() has been used to filter out any positions above 3, as this would cause
the error of #VALUE to appear, due to the fact the =CHOOSE() has only three items in it.
Name Time Position Medal
Alan 1:30 2 Silver =IF(D30<=3,CHOOSE(D30,"Gold","Silver","Bronze"),"unplaced")
Bob 1:15 4 unplaced =IF(D31<=3,CHOOSE(D31,"Gold","Silver","Bronze"),"unplaced")
Carol 2:45 1 Gold =IF(D32<=3,CHOOSE(D32,"Gold","Silver","Bronze"),"unplaced")
David 1:05 5 unplaced =IF(D33<=3,CHOOSE(D33,"Gold","Silver","Bronze"),"unplaced")
Eric 1:20 3 Bronze =IF(D34<=3,CHOOSE(D34,"Gold","Silver","Bronze"),"unplaced")
=RANK(C34,C30:C34)
Index
Value
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 CLEAN Page 23 of 202
CLEAN
Dirty Text Clean Text
Hello Hello =CLEAN(C4)
Hello Hello =CLEAN(C5)
Hello Hello =CLEAN(C6)
What Does It Do?
This function removes any nonprintable characters from text.
These nonprinting characters are often found in data which has been imported
from other systems such as database imports from mainframes.
Syntax
=CLEAN(TextToBeCleaned)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed. The result will show as normal text.
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 CODE Page 24 of 202
CODE
Letter ANSI Code
A 65 =CODE(C4)
B 66 =CODE(C5)
C 67 =CODE(C6)
a 97 =CODE(C7)
b 98 =CODE(C8)
c 99 =CODE(C9)
Alan 65 =CODE(C10)
Bob 66 =CODE(C11)
Carol 67 =CODE(C12)
What Does It Do?
This function shows the ANSI value of a single character, or the first character in a piece
of text.
The ANSI character set is used by Windows to identify each keyboard character by using
a unique number.
There are 255 characters in the ANSI set.
Syntax
=CODE(Text)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed, the result will be shown as a number between 1 and 255.
Example
See the example for FREQUENCY.
1
1
26
2
51 3 76 L 101 e 126 ~ 151 — 176 ° 201 É 226 â 251 û
2
2
27
2
52 4 77 M 102 f 127 152 ˜ 177 ± 202 Ê 227 ã 252 ü
3
3
28
2
53 5 78 N 103 g 128 € 153 ™ 178 ² 203 Ë 228 ä 253 ý
4
4
29
2
54 6 79 O 104 h 129 154 š 179 ³ 204 Ì 229 å 254 þ
5
5
30
3
55 7 80 P 105 i 130 ‚ 155 › 180 ´ 205 Í 230 æ 255 ÿ
6
6
31 56 8 81 Q 106 j 131 ƒ 156 œ 181 µ 206 Î 231 ç
7
7
32 57 9 82 R 107 k 132 „ 157 182 ¶ 207 Ï 232 è
8
8
33 ! 58 : 83 S 108 l 133 … 158 ž 183 · 208 Ð 233 é
9
9
34 " 59 ; 84 T 109 m 134 † 159 Ÿ 184 ¸ 209 Ñ 234 ê
10
1
35 # 60 < 85 U 110 n 135 ‡ 160 185 ¹ 210 Ò 235 ë
11
1
36 $ 61 = 86 V 111 o 136 ˆ 161 ¡ 186 º 211 Ó 236 ì
12
1
37 % 62 > 87 W 112 p 137 ‰ 162 ¢ 187 » 212 Ô 237 í
13
1
38 & 63 ? 88 X 113 q 138 Š 163 £ 188 ¼ 213 Õ 238 î
14
1
39 ' 64 @ 89 Y 114 r 139 ‹ 164 ¤ 189 ½ 214 Ö 239 ï
15
1
40 ( 65 A 90 Z 115 s 140 Œ 165 ¥ 190 ¾ 215 × 240 ð
16
1
41 ) 66 B 91 [ 116 t 141 166 ¦ 191 ¿ 216 Ø 241 ñ
17
1
42 * 67 C 92 \ 117 u 142 Ž 167 § 192 À 217 Ù 242 ò
18
1
43 + 68 D 93 ] 118 v 143 168 ¨ 193 Á 218 Ú 243 ó
19
1
44 , 69 E 94 ^ 119 w 144 169 © 194 Â 219 Û 244 ô
20
2
45  70 F 95 _ 120 x 145 ‘ 170 ª 195 Ã 220 Ü 245 õ
21
2
46 . 71 G 96 ` 121 y 146 ’ 171 « 196 Ä 221 Ý 246 ö
22
2
47 / 72 H 97 a 122 z 147 “ 172 ¬ 197 Å 222 Þ 247 ÷
23
2
48 0 73 I 98 b 123 { 148 ” 173  198 Æ 223 ß 248 ø
24
2
49 1 74 J 99 c 124  149 • 174 ® 199 Ç 224 à 249 ù
25
2
50 2 75 K 100 d 125 } 150 – 175 ¯ 200 È 225 á 250 ú
A B C D E F G H I J K
1
2
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4
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 COMBIN Page 25 of 202
COMBIN
Pool Of Items Items In A Group Possible Groups
4 2 6 =COMBIN(C4,D4)
4 3 4 =COMBIN(C5,D5)
26 2 325 =COMBIN(C6,D6)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the highest number of combinations available based upon
a fixed number of items.
The internal order of the combination does not matter, so AB is the same as BA.
Syntax
=COMBIN(HowManyItems,GroupSize)
Formatting
No special formatting is required.
Example 1
This example calculates the possible number of pairs of letters available
from the four characters ABCD.
Total Characters Group Size Combinations
4 2 6 =COMBIN(C25,D25)
The proof ! The four letters : ABCD
Pair 1 AB
Pair 2 AC
Pair 3 AD
Pair 4 BC
Pair 5 BD
Pair 6 CD
Example 2
A decorator is asked to design a colour scheme for a new office.
The decorator is given five colours to work with, but can only use three in any scheme.
How many colours schemes can be created ?
Available Colours Colours Per Scheme Totals Schemes
5 3 10 =COMBIN(C41,D41)
The colours
Red
Green
Blue
Yellow
Black
Scheme 1 Scheme 2 Scheme 3 Scheme 4 Scheme 5
Red Red Red Red Red
Green Green Green Blue Blue
Blue Yellow Black Yellow Black
Scheme 6 Scheme 7 Scheme 8 Scheme 9 Scheme 10
Green Green Green Blue ??????
A B C D E F G
1
2
3
4
5
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 COMBIN Page 26 of 202
Blue Blue Yellow Yellow
Yellow Black Black Black
A B C D E F G
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58
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 CONCATENATE Page 27 of 202
CONCATENATE
Name 1 Name 2 Concatenated Text
Alan Jones AlanJones =CONCATENATE(C4,D4)
Bob Williams BobWilliams =CONCATENATE(C5,D5)
Carol Davies CarolDavies =CONCATENATE(C6,D6)
Alan Jones Alan Jones =CONCATENATE(C7," ",D7)
Bob Williams Williams, Bob =CONCATENATE(D8,", ",C8)
Carol Davies Davies, Carol =CONCATENATE(D9,", ",C9)
What Does It Do?
This function joins separate pieces of text into one item.
Syntax
=CONCATENATE(Text1,Text2,Text3...Text30)
Up to thirty pieces of text can be joined.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed, the result will be shown as normal text.
Note
Name 1 Name 2 Concatenated Text
Alan Jones AlanJones =C25&D25
Bob Williams BobWilliams =C26&D26
Carol Davies CarolDavies =C27&D27
Alan Jones Alan Jones =C28&" "&D28
Bob Williams Williams, Bob =D29&", "&C29
Carol Davies Davies, Carol =D30&", "&C30
You can achieve the same result by using the & operator.
A B C D E F G H I
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Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
CONVERT
Page 28 of 202
CONVERT
1 in cm 2.54 =CONVERT(C4,D4,E4)
1 ft m 0.3 =CONVERT(C5,D5,E5)
1 yd m 0.91 =CONVERT(C6,D6,E6)
1 yr day 365.25 =CONVERT(C8,D8,E8)
1 day hr 24 =CONVERT(C9,D9,E9)
1.5 hr mn 90 =CONVERT(C10,D10,E10)
0.5 mn sec 30 =CONVERT(C11,D11,E11)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a value measure in one type of unit, to the same value expressed
in a different type of unit, such as Inches to Centimetres.
Syntax
=CONVERT(AmountToConvert,UnitToConvertFrom,UnitToConvertTo)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by an Import / Exporting company to convert the weight
and size of packages from old style UK measuring system to European system.
Pounds Ounces Kilograms
Weight 5 3 2.35
=CONVERT(D28,"lbm","kg")+CONVERT(E28,"ozm","kg")
Feet Inches Metres
Height 12 6 3.81
Length 8 3 2.51
Width 5 2 1.57
=CONVERT(D34,"ft","m")+CONVERT(E34,"in","m")
Abbreviations
This is a list of all the possible abbreviations which can be used to denote measuring systems.
Weight & Mass Distance
Gram g Meter m
Kilogram kg Statute mile mi
Slug sg Nautical mile Nmi
Pound mass lbm Inch in
U (atomic mass) u Foot ft
Ounce mass ozm Yard yd
Angstrom ang
Time Pica (1/72 in.) Pica
Year yr
Day day Pressure
Hour hr Pascal Pa
Minute mn Atmosphere atm
Second sec mm of Mercury mmHg
Amount
To Convert
Converting
From
Converting
To
Converted
Amount
A B C D E F G H
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53
Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
CONVERT
Page 29 of 202
Temperature Liquid
Degree Celsius C Teaspoon tsp
Degree Fahrenheit F Tablespoon tbs
Degree Kelvin K Fluid ounce oz
Cup cup
Force Pint pt
Newton N Quart qt
Dyne dyn Gallon gal
Pound force lbf Liter l
Energy Power
Joule J Horsepower HP
Erg e Watt W
c
IT calorie cal Magnetism
Electron volt eV Tesla T
Horsepowerhour HPh Gauss ga
Watthour Wh
Footpound flb
BTU BTU
These characters can be used as a prefix to access further units of measure.
Prefix Multiplier Abbreviation Prefix Multiplier Abbreviation
exa 1.00E+18 E deci 1.00E01 d
peta 1.00E+15 P centi 1.00E02 c
tera 1.00E+12 T milli 1.00E03 m
giga 1.00E+09 G micro 1.00E06 u
mega 1.00E+06 M nano 1.00E09 n
kilo 1.00E+03 k pico 1.00E12 p
hecto 1.00E+02 h femto 1.00E15 f
dekao 1.00E+01 e atto 1.00E18 a
Thermodynamic
calorie
Using "c" as a prefix to meters "m" will allow centimetres "cm" to be calculated.
A B C D E F G H
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 CORREL Page 30 of 202
CORREL
Table 1 Table 2
Month Avg Temp Sales
Jan 20 100 £2,000 £20,000
Feb 30 200 £1,000 £30,000
Mar 30 300 £5,000 £20,000
Apr 40 200 £1,000 £40,000
May 50 400 £8,000 £40,000
Jun 50 400 £1,000 £20,000
Correlation 0.864 Correlation 28%
=CORREL(D5:D10,E5:E10) =CORREL(G5:G10,H5:H10)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines two sets of data to determine the degree of relationship
between the two sets.
The result will be a decimal between 0 and 1.
The larger the result, the greater the correlation.
In Table 1 the Monthly temperature is compared against the Sales of air conditioning units.
The correlation shows that there is an 0.864 realtionship between the data.
In Table 2 the Cost of advertising has been compared to Sales.
It can be formatted as percentage % to show a more meaning full result.
The correlation shows that there is an 28% realtionship between the data.
Syntax
=CORREL(Range1,Range2)
Formatting
The result will normally be shown in decimal format.
Air Cond
Sales
Advertising
Costs
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 COUNT Page 31 of 202
COUNT
Entries To Be Counted Count
10 20 30 3 =COUNT(C4:E4)
10 0 30 3 =COUNT(C5:E5)
10 20 30 3 =COUNT(C6:E6)
10 1Jan88 30 3 =COUNT(C7:E7)
10 21:30 30 3 =COUNT(C8:E8)
10 0.62 30 3 =COUNT(C9:E9)
10 30 2 =COUNT(C10:E10)
10 Hello 30 2 =COUNT(C11:E11)
10 #DIV/0! 30 2 =COUNT(C12:E12)
What Does It Do ?
This function counts the number of numeric entries in a list.
It will ignore blanks, text and errors.
Syntax
=COUNT(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a builders merchant to calculate the number of sales
for various products in each month.
Item Jan Feb Mar
Bricks £1,000
Wood £5,000
Glass £2,000 £1,000
Metal £1,000
Count 3 2 0
=COUNT(D29:D32)
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 COUNTA Page 32 of 202
COUNTA
Entries To Be Counted Count
10 20 30 3 =COUNTA(C4:E4)
10 0 30 3 =COUNTA(C5:E5)
10 20 30 3 =COUNTA(C6:E6)
10 1Jan88 30 3 =COUNTA(C7:E7)
10 21:30 30 3 =COUNTA(C8:E8)
10 0.1 30 3 =COUNTA(C9:E9)
10 30 2 =COUNTA(C10:E10)
10 Hello 30 3 =COUNTA(C11:E11)
10 #DIV/0! 30 3 =COUNTA(C12:E12)
What Does It Do ?
This function counts the number of numeric or text entries in a list.
It will ignore blanks.
Syntax
=COUNTA(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a school to keep track of the examinations taken by each pupil.
Each exam passed was graded as 1, 2 or 3.
A failure was entered as Fail.
The school needed to known how many pupils sat each exam.
The school also needed to know how many exams were taken by each pupil.
The =COUNTA() function has been used because of its ability to count text and numeric entries.
Maths English Art History
Alan Fail 1 2
Bob 2 1 3 3
Carol 1 1 1 3
David Fail Fail 2
Elaine 1 3 2 Fail 4
=COUNTA(D39:G39)
How many pupils sat each Exam.
Maths English Art History
4 3 5 2
=COUNTA(D35:D39)
Exams Taken
By Each Pupil
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 COUNTBLANK Page 33 of 202
COUNTBLANK
Range To Test Blanks
1 2 =COUNTBLANK(C4:C11)
Hello
3
0
1Jan98
5
What Does It Do ?
This function counts the number of blank cells in a range.
Syntax
=COUNTBLANK(RangeToTest)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a company which was balloting its workers on whether
the company should have a no smoking policy.
Each of the departments in the various factories were questioned.
The response to the question could be Y or N.
As the results of the vote were collated they were entered in to the table.
The =COUNTBLANK() function has been used to calculate the number of departments which
have no yet registered a vote.
Admin Accounts Production Personnel
Factory 1 Y N
Factory 2 Y Y N
Factory 3
Factory 4 N N N
Factory 5 Y Y
Factory 6 Y Y Y N
Factory 7 N Y
Factory 8 N N Y Y
Factory 9 Y
Factory 10 Y N Y
Votes not vet registered : 16 =COUNTBLANK(C32:F41)
Votes for Yes : 14 =COUNTIF(C32:F41,"Y")
Votes for No : 10 =COUNTIF(C32:F41,"N")
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 COUNTIF Page 34 of 202
COUNTIF
Item Date Cost
Brakes 1Jan98 80
Tyres 10May98 25
Brakes 1Feb98 80
Service 1Mar98 150
Service 5Jan98 300
Window 1Jun98 50
Tyres 1Apr98 200
Tyres 1Mar98 100
Clutch 1May98 250
How many Brake Shoes Have been bought. 2 =COUNTIF(C4:C12,"Brakes")
How many Tyres have been bought. 3 =COUNTIF(C4:C12,"Tyres")
How many items cost £100 or above. 5 =COUNTIF(E4:E12,">=100")
Type the name of the item to count. service 2 =COUNTIF(C4:C12,E18)
What Does It Do ?
This function counts the number of items which match criteria set by the user.
Syntax
=COUNTIF(RangeOfThingsToBeCounted,CriteriaToBeMatched)
The criteria can be typed in any of the following ways.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
To match a specific number type the number, such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5,100)
To match a piece of text type the text in quotes, such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5,"Hello")
To match using operators surround the expression with quotes, such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5,">100")
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DATE Page 35 of 202
DATE
Day Month Year Date
25 12 99 12/25/1999 =DATE(E4,D4,C4)
25 12 99 25Dec99 =DATE(E5,D5,C5)
33 12 99 January 2, 2000 =DATE(E6,D6,C6)
What Does It Do?
This function creates a real date by using three normal numbers typed into separate cells.
Syntax
=DATE(year,month,day)
Formatting
The result will normally be displayed in the dd/mm/yy format.
By using the Format,Cells,Number,Date command the format can be changed.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DATEVALUE Page 36 of 202
DATEVALUE
Date Date Value
25dec99 36519 =DATEVALUE(C4)
25/12/99 Err:502 =DATEVALUE(C5)
25dec99 36519 =DATEVALUE(C6)
25/12/99 Err:502 =DATEVALUE(C7)
What Does It Do?
The function is used to convert a piece of text into a date which can be used in calculations.
Dates expressed as text are often created when data is imported from other programs, such as
exports from mainframe computers.
Syntax
=DATEVALUE(text)
Formatting
The result will normally be shown as a number which represents the date. This number can
be formatted to any of the normal date formats by using Format,Cells,Number,Date.
Example
The example uses the =DATEVALUE and the =TODAY functions to calculate the number of
days remaining on a property lease.
The =DATEVALUE function was used because the date has been entered in the cell as
a piece of text, probably after being imported from an external program.
Property Ref. Expiry Date
BC100 25dec99 4088
FG700 10july/99 Err:502
TD200 13sep98 4556
HJ900 30/5/2000 Err:502
=DATEVALUE(E32)TODAY()
Days Until
Expiry
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DAVERAGE Page 37 of 202
DAVERAGE
Product Wattage Brand Unit Cost
Bulb 200 3000 Horizon £4.50 4 3 £54.00
Neon 100 2000 Horizon £2.00 15 2 £60.00
Spot 60 £0.00
Other 10 8000 Sunbeam £0.80 25 6 £120.00
Bulb 80 1000 Horizon £0.20 40 3 £24.00
Spot 100 unknown Horizon £1.25 10 4 £50.00
Spot 200 3000 Horizon £2.50 15 0 £0.00
Other 25 unknown Sunbeam £0.50 10 3 £15.00
Bulb 200 3000 Sunbeam £5.00 3 2 £30.00
Neon 100 2000 Sunbeam £1.80 20 5 £180.00
Bulb 100 unknown Sunbeam £0.25 10 5 £12.50
Bulb 10 800 Horizon £0.20 25 2 £10.00
Bulb 60 1000 Sunbeam £0.15 25 0 £0.00
Bulb 80 1000 Sunbeam £0.20 30 2 £12.00
Bulb 100 2000 Horizon £0.80 10 5 £40.00
Bulb 40 1000 Horizon £0.10 20 5 £10.00
To calculate the Average cost of a particular Brand of bulb.
Brand
Type the brand name : sunbeam
The Average cost of sunbeam is : £1.24 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19,F3,E23:E24)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a list of information and produces and average.
Syntax
=DAVERAGE(DatabaseRange,FieldName,CriteriaRange)
field names at the top of the columns.
The first set of information is the name, or names, of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis
for selecting the records, such as the category Brand or Wattage.
The second set of information is the actual record, or records, which are to be selected, such
as Horizon as a brand name, or 100 as the wattage.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Examples
The average Unit Cost of a particular Product of a particular Brand.
Product Brand
Bulb Horizon
The average of Horizon Bulb is : £1.16 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19,F3,E49:F50)
This is the Database range.
Life
Hours
Box
Quantity
Boxes In
Stock
Value Of
Stock
These two cells are the Criteria range.
The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine, including the
The FieldName is the name, or cell, of the values to be averaged, such as "Unit Cost" or F3.
The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DAVERAGE Page 38 of 202
This is the same calculation but using the actual name "Unit Cost" instead of the cell address.
£1.16 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19,"Unit Cost",E49:F50)
The average Unit Cost of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.
Product Wattage
Bulb 100
Average of Bulb 100 is : £0.53 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19,"Unit Cost",E60:F61)
The average Unit Cost of a Bulb less then a particular Wattage.
Product Wattage
Bulb <100
Average of Bulb <100 is : £0.17 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19,"Unit Cost",E67:F68)
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DAY Page 39 of 202
DAY
Full Date The Day
25Dec98 25 =DAY(C4)
5Mar11 Thu 4 =DAY(C5)
5Mar11 5 =DAY(C6)
What Does It Do?
This function extracts the day of the month from a complete date.
Syntax
=DAY(value)
Formatting
Normally the result will be a number, but this can be formatted to show the actual
day of the week by using Format,Cells,Number,Custom and using the code ddd or dddd.
Example
The =DAY function has been used to calculate the name of the day for your birthday.
Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy : 3/25/1962
You were born on : Wednesday 24 =DAY(F21)
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DAYS360 Page 40 of 202
DAYS360
StartDate EndDate Days Between * See the Note below.
1Jan98 5Jan98 4 =DAYS360(C4,D4,TRUE)
1Jan98 1Feb98 30 =DAYS360(C5,D5,TRUE)
1Jan98 31Mar98 89 =DAYS360(C6,D6,TRUE)
1Jan98 31Dec98 359 =DAYS360(C7,D7,TRUE)
What Does It Do?
Shows the number of days between two dates based on a 360day year (twelve 30day months).
Use this function if your accounting system is based on twelve 30day months.
Syntax
=DAYS360(StartDate,EndDate,TRUE of FALSE)
TRUE : Use this for European accounting systems.
FALSE : Use this for USA accounting systems.
Formatting
The result will be shown as a number.
Note
The calculation does not include the last day. The result of using 1Jan98 and 5Jan98 will
give a result of 4. To correct this add 1 to the result. =DAYS360(Start,End,TRUE)+1
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Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
DB
Page 41 of 202
DB
Purchase Price : £5,000
Life in Years : 5
Salvage value : £200
Year Deprecation
1 £2,375.00 =DB(E3,E5,E4,D8)
2 £1,246.88 =DB(E3,E5,E4,D9)
3 £654.61 =DB(E3,E5,E4,D10)
4 £343.67 =DB(E3,E5,E4,D11)
5 £180.43 =DB(E3,E5,E4,D12)
Total Depreciation : £4,800.58 * See example 4 below.
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates deprecation based upon a fixed percentage.
The first year is depreciated by the fixed percentage.
The second year uses the same percentage, but uses the original value of the item less
the first years depreciation.
Any subsequent years use the same percentage, using the original value of the item less
the depreciation of the previous years.
The percentage used in the depreciation is not set by the user, the function calculates
the necessary percentage, which will be vary based upon the values inputted by the user.
An additional feature of this function is the ability to take into account when the item was
originally purchased.
If the item was purchased part way through the financial year, the first years depreciation
will be based on the remaining part of the year.
Syntax
=DB(PurchasePrice,SalvageValue,Life,PeriodToCalculate,FirstYearMonth)
The FirstYearMonth is the month in which the item was purchased during the
first financial year. This is an optional value, if it not used the function will assume 12 as
the value.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example 1
This example shows the percentage used in the depreciation.
Year 1 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price alone.
Year 2 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price minus Year 1 deprecation.
Year 3 deprecation is based upon original Purchase Price minus Year 1 + Year 2 deprecation.
The % Deprc has been calculated purely to demonstrate what % is being used.
Purchase Price : £5,000
Salvage value : £1,000
Life in Years : 5
Year Deprecation % Deprc
1 £1,375.00 27.50%
2 £996.88 27.50%
3 £722.73 27.50%
A B C D E F G H I
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Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
DB
Page 42 of 202
4 £523.98 27.50%
5 £379.89 27.50%
=DB(E47,E48,E49,D56)
Total Depreciation : £3,998.48
Example 2
This example is similar to the previous, with the exception of the deprecation being calculated
on a monthly basis. This has been done by multiplying the years by 12.
Purchase Price : £5,000
Life in Years : £5
Salvage value : 100
Month Deprecation
56 £8.79
57 £8.24
58 £7.72
59 £7.23
60 £6.78
=DB(E66,E68,E67*12,D75)
Example 3
This example shows how the length of the first years ownership has been taken into account.
Purchase Price : £5,000
Life in Years : 5
Salvage value : £1,000
First Year Ownership In Months : 6
Year Deprecation % Deprc
1 £687.50 13.75%
2 £1,185.94 27.50%
3 £859.80 27.50%
4 £623.36 27.50%
5 £451.93 27.50%
=DB(E74,E76,E75,D84,E77)
Total Depreciation : £3,808.54
Why Is The Answer Wrong ?
In all of the examples above the total depreceation may not be exactly the expected value.
This is due to the way in which the percentage value for the depreceation has been calculated
by the =DB() fumction.
The percentage rate is calculated by Execl using the formula = 1  ((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)).
The result of this calculation is then rounded to three decimal places.
Although this rounding may only make a minor change to the percentage rate, when applied
to large values, the differnce is compounded resulting in what could be considered as
approximate values for the the depreceation.
Example 4
A B C D E F G H I
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Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
DB
Page 43 of 202
This example has been created with both the Excel calculated percentage and the 'real'
percentage calculated manually.
The Excel Deprecation uses the =DB() function.
The Real Deprecation uses a manual calculation.
This is the 'real' deprecation percentage, calculated manually : 27.522034%
=1((E117/E116)^(1/E118))
Purchase Price : £5,000 = 1  ((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)).
Salvage value : £1,000
Life in Years : 5
Year
1 £1,375.0000 £1,376.1017 27.500%
2 £996.8750 £997.3705 27.500%
3 £722.7344 £722.8739 27.500%
4 £523.9824 £523.9243 27.500%
5 £379.8873 £379.7297 27.500%
Total Depreciation : £3,998.48 £4,000.00
Error difference : £1.52
Excel
Deprecation
Real
Depreciation
Excel
% Deprc
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DCOUNT Page 44 of 202
DCOUNT
Product Wattage Brand Unit Cost
Bulb 200 3000 Horizon £4.50 4 3 £54.00
Neon 100 2000 Horizon £2.00 15 2 £60.00
Spot 60 £0.00
Other 10 8000 Sunbeam £0.80 25 6 £120.00
Bulb 80 1000 Horizon £0.20 40 3 £24.00
Spot 100 unknown Horizon £1.25 10 4 £50.00
Spot 200 3000 Horizon £2.50 15 1 £37.50
Other 25 unknown Sunbeam £0.50 10 3 £15.00
Bulb 200 3000 Sunbeam £5.00 3 2 £30.00
Neon 100 2000 Sunbeam £1.80 20 5 £180.00
Bulb 100 unknown Sunbeam £0.25 10 5 £12.50
Bulb 10 800 Horizon £0.20 25 2 £10.00
Bulb 60 1000 Sunbeam £0.15 25 1 £3.75
Bulb 80 1000 Sunbeam £0.20 30 2 £12.00
Bulb 100 2000 Horizon £0.80 10 5 £40.00
Bulb 40 1000 Horizon £0.10 20 5 £10.00
Count the number of products of a particular Brand which have a Life Hours rating.
Brand
Type the brand name : Horizon
The COUNT value of Horizon is : 7 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,D3,E23:E24)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a list of information and counts the values in a specified column.
It can only count values, the text items and blank cells are ignored.
Syntax
=DCOUNT(DatabaseRange,FieldName,CriteriaRange)
field names at the top of the columns.
The first set of information is the name, or names, of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis
for selecting the records, such as the category Brand or Wattage.
The second set of information is the actual record, or records, which are to be selected, such
as Horizon as a brand name, or 100 as the wattage.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Examples
The count of a particular product, with a specific number of boxes in stock.
Product
Bulb 5
This is the Database range.
Life
Hours
Box
Quantity
Boxes In
Stock
Value Of
Stock
These two cells are the Criteria range.
The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine, including the
The FieldName is the name, or cell, of the values to Count, such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.
The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.
Boxes In
Stock
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DCOUNT Page 45 of 202
The number of products is : 3 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,H3,E50:F51)
This is the same calculation but using the name "Boxes In Stock" instead of the cell address.
3 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E50:F51)
The count of the number of Bulb products equal to a particular Wattage.
Product Wattage
Bulb 100
The count is : 2 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E61:F62)
The count of Bulb products between two Wattage values.
Product Wattage Wattage
Bulb >=80 <=100
The count is : 4 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E68:G69)
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DCOUNTA Page 46 of 202
DCOUNTA
Product Wattage Brand Unit Cost
Bulb 200 3000 Horizon £4.50 4 3 £54.00
Neon 100 2000 Horizon £2.00 15 2 £60.00
Spot 60 £0.00
Other 10 8000 Sunbeam £0.80 25 6 £120.00
Bulb 80 1000 Horizon £0.20 40 3 £24.00
Spot 100 unknown Horizon £1.25 10 4 £50.00
Spot 200 3000 Horizon £2.50 15 1 £37.50
Other 25 unknown Sunbeam £0.50 10 3 £15.00
Bulb 200 3000 Sunbeam £5.00 3 2 £30.00
Neon 100 2000 Sunbeam £1.80 20 5 £180.00
Bulb 100 unknown Sunbeam £0.25 10 5 £12.50
Bulb 10 800 Horizon £0.20 25 2 £10.00
Bulb 60 1000 Sunbeam £0.15 25 1 £3.75
Bulb 80 1000 Sunbeam £0.20 30 2 £12.00
Bulb 100 2000 Horizon £0.80 10 5 £40.00
Bulb 40 1000 Horizon £0.10 20 5 £10.00
Count the number of products of a particular Brand.
Brand
Type the brand name : Horizon
The COUNT value of Horizon is : 8 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19,E3,E23:E24)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a list of information and counts the non blank cells in a specified column.
It counts values and text items, but blank cells are ignored.
Syntax
=DCOUNTA(DatabaseRange,FieldName,CriteriaRange)
field names at the top of the columns.
The first set of information is the name, or names, of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis
for selecting the records, such as the category Brand or Wattage.
The second set of information is the actual record, or records, which are to be selected, such
as Horizon as a brand name, or 100 as the wattage.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Examples
The count of a product with an unknown Life Hours value.
Product Life Hours
Bulb unknown
This is the Database range.
Life
Hours
Box
Quantity
Boxes In
Stock
Value Of
Stock
These two cells are the Criteria range.
The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine, including the
The FieldName is the name, or cell, of the values to Count, such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.
The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DCOUNTA Page 47 of 202
The number of products is : 1 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19,D3,E50:F51)
This is the same calculation but using the name "Life Hours" instead of the cell address.
1 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19,"Life Hours",E50:F51)
The count of the number of particular product of a specific brand.
Product Brand
Bulb Horizon
The count is : 5 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19,"Product",E61:F62)
The count of particular products from specific brands.
Product Brand
Spot Horizon
Neon Sunbeam
The count is : 3 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19,"Product",E68:F70)
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DEC2BIN Page 48 of 202
DEC2BIN
Decimal Number Binary Equivalent
0 0 =DEC2BIN(C4)
1 1 =DEC2BIN(C5)
2 10 =DEC2BIN(C6)
3 11 =DEC2BIN(C7)
511 111111111 =DEC2BIN(C8)
512 Err:502 =DEC2BIN(C9)
1 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C10)
2 1111111110 =DEC2BIN(C11)
3 1111111101 =DEC2BIN(C12)
511 1000000001 =DEC2BIN(C13)
512 1000000000 =DEC2BIN(C14)
Decimal Number Places To Pad Binary Equivalent
1 1 1 =DEC2BIN(C17,D17)
1 2 01 =DEC2BIN(C18,D18)
1 3 001 =DEC2BIN(C19,D19)
1 9 000000001 =DEC2BIN(C20,D20)
1 1 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C21,D21)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a decimal number to its binary equivalent.
It can only cope with decimals ranging from 512 to 511.
The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros, although this is ignored for negatives.
Syntax
=DEC2BIN(DecimalNumber,PlacesToPad)
The PlacesToPad is optional.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DEC2HEX Page 49 of 202
DEC2HEX
Decimal Number Hexadecimal
0 0 =DEC2HEX(C4)
1 1 =DEC2HEX(C5)
2 2 =DEC2HEX(C6)
3 3 =DEC2HEX(C7)
25 19 =DEC2HEX(C8)
26 1A =DEC2HEX(C9)
27 1B =DEC2HEX(C10)
28 1C =DEC2HEX(C11)
1 FFFFFFFFFF =DEC2HEX(C12)
2 FFFFFFFFFE =DEC2HEX(C13)
3 FFFFFFFFFD =DEC2HEX(C14)
2 FFFFFFFFFE =DEC2HEX(C15)
1 FFFFFFFFFF =DEC2HEX(C16)
549,755,813,887 7FFFFFFFFF =DEC2HEX(C17)
549,755,813,888 8000000000 =DEC2HEX(C18)
549,755,813,888 8000000000 =DEC2HEX(C19)
549,755,813,889 7FFFFFFFFF =DEC2HEX(C20)
Decimal Number Places To Pad Hexadecimal
1 1 1 =DEC2HEX(C23,D23)
1 2 01 =DEC2HEX(C24,D24)
26 3 01A =DEC2HEX(C25,D25)
26 9 00000001A =DEC2HEX(C26,D26)
26 1 FFFFFFFFE6 =DEC2HEX(C27,D27)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a decimal number to its hexadecimal equivalent.
It can only cope with decimals ranging from 549,755,813,888 to 549,755,813,887.
The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros, although this is ignored for negatives.
Syntax
=DEC2HEX(DecimalNumber,PlacesToPad)
The PlacesToPad is optional.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DELTA Page 50 of 202
DELTA
Number1 Number2 Delta
10 20 0 =DELTA(C4,D4)
50 50 1 =DELTA(C5,D5)
17.5 17.5 1 =DELTA(C6,D6)
17.5 18 1 =DELTA(C7,D7)
17.50% 0.18 1 =DELTA(C8,D8)
Hello Hello Err:502 =DELTA(C9,D9)
1 =DELTA(C10,D10)
What Does It Do ?
This function compares two values and tests whether they are exactly the same.
If the numbers are the same the result will be 1, otherwise the result is 0.
It only works with numbers, text values produce a result of #VALUE.
The formatting of the number is not significant, so numbers which appear rounded due
to the removal of decimal places will still match correctly with non rounded values.
Syntax
=DELTA(FirstNumber,SecondNumber)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table is used to determine how may pairs of similar numbers are in a list.
The =DELTA() function tests each pair and then the =SUM() function totals them.
Number1 Number2 Delta
10 20 0 =DELTA(C30,D30)
50 50 1 =DELTA(C31,D31)
30 30 1 =DELTA(C32,D32)
17.5 18 1 =DELTA(C33,D33)
12 8 0 =DELTA(C34,D34)
100 100 1 =DELTA(C35,D35)
150 125 0 =DELTA(C36,D36)
Total Pairs 4 =SUM(E30:E36)
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DGET Page 51 of 202
DGET
Product Wattage Brand Unit Cost
Bulb 200 3000 Horizon £4.50 4 3 £54.00
Neon 100 2000 Horizon £2.00 15 2 £60.00
Spot 60 £0.00
Other 10 8000 Sunbeam £0.80 25 6 £120.00
Bulb 80 1000 Horizon £0.20 40 3 £24.00
Spot 100 unknown Horizon £1.25 10 4 £50.00
Spot 200 3000 Horizon £2.50 15 1 £37.50
Other 25 unknown Sunbeam £0.50 10 3 £15.00
Bulb 200 3000 Sunbeam £5.00 3 2 £30.00
Neon 100 2000 Sunbeam £1.80 20 5 £180.00
Bulb 100 unknown Sunbeam £0.25 10 5 £12.50
Bulb 10 800 Horizon £0.20 25 2 £10.00
Bulb 60 1000 Sunbeam £0.15 25 1 £3.75
Bulb 80 1000 Sunbeam £0.20 30 2 £12.00
Bulb 100 2000 Horizon £0.80 10 5 £40.00
Bulb 40 1000 Horizon £0.10 20 5 £10.00
How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock?
Product Wattage Brand
Bulb 100 Horizon
The number in stock is : 5 =DGET(B3:I19,H3,C23:F24)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a list of information and produces one result.
If more than one record matches the criteria the error #NUM is shown.
If no records match the criteria the error #VALUE is shown.
Syntax
=DGET(DatabaseRange,FieldName,CriteriaRange)
field names at the top of the columns.
The first set of information is the name, or names, of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis
for selecting the records, such as the category Brand or Wattage.
The second set of information is the actual record which needs to be selected, such
as Horizon as a brand name, or 100 as the wattage.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example 1
This example extracts information from just one record.
How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock?
This is the Database range.
Life
Hours
Box
Quantity
Boxes In
Stock
Value Of
Stock
Life
Hours
The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine, including the
The FieldName is the name, or cell, of the values to Get, such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.
The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DGET Page 52 of 202
Product Wattage Brand
Bulb 100 Horizon
The number in stock is : 5 =DGET(B3:I19,H3,C51:F52)
Example 2
How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock?
Product Wattage Brand
Bulb 100
The number in stock is : Err:502 =DGET(B3:I19,H3,C63:F64)
Example 3
This example extracts information from no records and therefore shows the #VALUE error.
How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock?
Product Wattage Brand
Bulb 9999
The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19,H3,C64:F65)
Example 4
This example uses the =IF() function to display a message when an error occurs.
How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock?
Product Wattage Brand
Bulb 9999
The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19,H3,C85:F86)
Err:502
=IF(ISERR(F88),CHOOSE(ERROR.TYPE(F88)/3,"No such product.","Duplicates products found."),"One product found.")
Life
Hours
This example extracts information from multiple records and therefore shows the #NUM error.
Life
Hours
Life
Hours
Life
Hours
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DMAX Page 53 of 202
DMAX
Product Wattage Brand Unit Cost
Bulb 200 3000 Horizon £4.50 4 3 £54.00
Neon 100 2000 Horizon £2.00 15 2 £60.00
Spot 60 £0.00
Other 10 8000 Sunbeam £0.80 25 6 £120.00
Bulb 80 1000 Horizon £0.20 40 3 £24.00
Spot 100 unknown Horizon £1.25 10 4 £50.00
Spot 200 3000 Horizon £2.50 15 0 £0.00
Other 25 unknown Sunbeam £0.50 10 3 £15.00
Bulb 200 3000 Sunbeam £5.00 3 2 £30.00
Neon 100 2000 Sunbeam £1.80 20 5 £180.00
Bulb 100 unknown Sunbeam £0.25 10 5 £12.50
Bulb 10 800 Horizon £0.20 25 2 £10.00
Bulb 60 1000 Sunbeam £0.15 25 0 £0.00
Bulb 80 1000 Sunbeam £0.20 30 2 £12.00
Bulb 100 2000 Horizon £0.80 10 5 £40.00
Bulb 40 1000 Horizon £0.10 20 5 £10.00
To calculate largest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb.
Brand
Type the brand name : Horizon
The MAX value of Horizon is : £60.00 =DMAX(B3:I19,I3,E23:E24)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a list of information and produces the largest value from a specified column.
Syntax
=DMAX(DatabaseRange,FieldName,CriteriaRange)
field names at the top of the columns.
The first set of information is the name, or names, of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis
for selecting the records, such as the category Brand or Wattage.
The second set of information is the actual record, or records, which are to be selected, such
as Horizon as a brand name, or 100 as the wattage.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Examples
The largest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.
Product Brand
Bulb sunbeam
The largest value is : £30.00 =DMAX(B3:I19,I3,E49:F50)
This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.
£30.00 =DMAX(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E49:F50)
This is the Database range.
Life
Hours
Box
Quantity
Boxes In
Stock
Value Of
Stock
These two cells are the Criteria range.
The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine, including the
The FieldName is the name or cell, of the values to pick the Max from, such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.
The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DMAX Page 54 of 202
The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.
Product Wattage
Bulb 100
The largest Value Of Stock is : £40.00 =DMAX(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E60:F61)
The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage.
Product Wattage
Bulb <100
The largest Value Of Stock is : £24.00 =DMAX(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E67:F68)
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DMIN Page 55 of 202
DMIN
Product Wattage Brand Unit Cost
Bulb 200 3000 Horizon £4.50 4 3 £54.00
Neon 100 2000 Horizon £2.00 15 2 £60.00
Spot 60 £0.00
Other 10 8000 Sunbeam £0.80 25 6 £120.00
Bulb 80 1000 Horizon £0.20 40 3 £24.00
Spot 100 unknown Horizon £1.25 10 4 £50.00
Spot 200 3000 Horizon £2.50 15 1 £37.50
Other 25 unknown Sunbeam £0.50 10 3 £15.00
Bulb 200 3000 Sunbeam £5.00 3 2 £30.00
Neon 100 2000 Sunbeam £1.80 20 5 £180.00
Bulb 100 unknown Sunbeam £0.25 10 5 £12.50
Bulb 10 800 Horizon £0.20 25 2 £10.00
Bulb 60 1000 Sunbeam £0.15 25 1 £3.75
Bulb 80 1000 Sunbeam £0.20 30 2 £12.00
Bulb 100 2000 Horizon £0.80 10 5 £40.00
Bulb 40 1000 Horizon £0.10 20 5 £10.00
To calculate lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb.
Brand
Type the brand name : Horizon
The MIN value of Horizon is : £10.00 =DMIN(B3:I19,I3,E23:E24)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a list of information and produces smallest value from a specified column.
Syntax
=DMIN(DatabaseRange,FieldName,CriteriaRange)
field names at the top of the columns.
The first set of information is the name, or names, of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis
for selecting the records, such as the category Brand or Wattage.
The second set of information is the actual record, or records, which are to be selected, such
as Horizon as a brand name, or 100 as the wattage.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Examples
The lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.
Product Brand
Bulb sunbeam
The lowest value is : £3.75 =DMIN(B3:I19,I3,E49:F50)
This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.
£3.75 =DMIN(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E49:F50)
This is the Database range.
Life
Hours
Box
Quantity
Boxes In
Stock
Value Of
Stock
These two cells are the Criteria range.
The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine, including the
The FieldName is the name, or cell, of the values to pick the Min from, such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.
The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DMIN Page 56 of 202
The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.
Product Wattage
Bulb 100
The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12.50 =DMIN(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E60:F61)
The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb between two Wattage values.
Product Wattage Wattage
Bulb >=80 <=100
The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12.00 =DMIN(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E67:G68)
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DOLLAR Page 57 of 202
DOLLAR
10 $10.00 =DOLLAR(C4)
10 $10 =DOLLAR(C5,0)
10 $10.0 =DOLLAR(C6,1)
10 $10.00 =DOLLAR(C7,2)
10.25 $10.25 =DOLLAR(C8)
10.25 $10 =DOLLAR(C9,0)
10.25 $10.3 =DOLLAR(C10,1)
10.25 $10.25 =DOLLAR(C11,2)
What Does It Do?
This function converts a number into a piece of text formatted as currency.
Syntax
=DOLLAR(Number,DecimalPlaces)
Number : This is the number which needs to be converted.
DecimalPlaces : This is the amount of decimal places needed in the converted number.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
The result will be shown as a text entry.
Original
Number
Converted
To Text
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DSUM Page 58 of 202
DSUM
Product Wattage Brand Unit Cost
Bulb 200 3000 Horizon £4.50 4 3 £54.00
Neon 100 2000 Horizon £2.00 15 2 £60.00
Spot 60 £0.00
Other 10 8000 Sunbeam £0.80 25 6 £120.00
Bulb 80 1000 Horizon £0.20 40 3 £24.00
Spot 100 unknown Horizon £1.25 10 4 £50.00
Spot 200 3000 Horizon £2.50 15 0 £0.00
Other 25 unknown Sunbeam £0.50 10 3 £15.00
Bulb 200 3000 Sunbeam £5.00 3 2 £30.00
Neon 100 2000 Sunbeam £1.80 20 5 £180.00
Bulb 100 unknown Sunbeam £0.25 10 5 £12.50
Bulb 10 800 Horizon £0.20 25 2 £10.00
Bulb 60 1000 Sunbeam £0.15 25 0 £0.00
Bulb 80 1000 Sunbeam £0.20 30 2 £12.00
Bulb 100 2000 Horizon £0.80 10 5 £40.00
Bulb 40 1000 Horizon £0.10 20 5 £10.00
To calculate the total Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb.
Brand
Type the brand name : Horizon
The stock value of Horizon is : £248.00 =DSUM(B3:I19,I3,E23:E24)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a list of information and produces the total.
Syntax
=DSUM(DatabaseRange,FieldName,CriteriaRange)
field names at the top of the columns.
The first set of information is the name, or names, of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis
for selecting the records, such as the category Brand or Wattage.
The second set of information is the actual record, or records, which are to be selected, such
as Horizon as a brand name, or 100 as the wattage.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Examples
The total Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.
Product Brand
Bulb sunbeam
Total stock value is : £54.50 =DSUM(B3:I19,I3,E49:F50)
This is the Database range.
Life
Hours
Box
Quantity
Boxes In
Stock
Value Of
Stock
These two cells are the Criteria range.
The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine, including the
The FieldName is the name, or cell, of the values to be totalled, such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.
The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 DSUM Page 59 of 202
This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.
£54.50 =DSUM(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E49:F50)
The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.
Product Wattage
Bulb 100
Total Value Of Stock is : £52.50 =DSUM(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E60:F61)
The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage.
Product Wattage
Bulb <100
Total Value Of Stock is : £56.00 =DSUM(B3:I19,"Value Of Stock",E67:F68)
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 EAST Page 60 of 202
Eastern data.
Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function.
Jan Feb Mar Total
Alan 1000 2000 3000 6000
Bob 4000 5000 6000 15000
Carol 7000 8000 9000 24000
Total 12000 15000 18000 45000
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 EDATE Page 61 of 202
EDATE
Start Date Plus Months End Date
1Jan98 3 1Apr98 =EDATE(C4,D4)
2Jan98 3 2Apr98 =EDATE(C5,D5)
2Jan98 3 2Oct97 =EDATE(C6,D6)
What Does It Do?
This function is used to calculate a date which is a specific number of months in the past or
in the future.
Syntax
=EDATE(StartDate,Months)
Formatting
The result will normally be expressed as a number, this can be formatted to represent
a date by using the Format,Cells,Number,Date command.
Example
This example was used by a company hiring contract staff.
The company needed to know the end date of the employment.
The Start date is entered.
The contract Duration is entered as months.
The =EDATE() function has been used to calculate the end of the contract.
Start Duration End
Tue 06Jan98 3 Mon 06Apr98 =EDATE(C27,D27)
Mon 12Jan98 3 Sun 12Apr98 =EDATE(C28,D28)
Fri 09Jan98 4 Sat 09May98 =EDATE(C29,D29)
Fri 09Jan98 3 Thu 09Apr98 =EDATE(C30,D30)
Mon 19Jan98 3 Sun 19Apr98 =EDATE(C31,D31)
Mon 26Jan98 3 Sun 26Apr98 =EDATE(C32,D32)
Mon 12Jan98 3 Sun 12Apr98 =EDATE(C33,D33)
The company decide not to end contracts on Saturday or Sunday.
The =WEEKDAY() function has been used to identify the actaul weekday number of the end date.
If the week day number is 6 or 7, (Sat or Sun), then 5 is subtracted from the =EDATE() to
ensure the end of contract falls on a Friday.
Start Duration End
Tue 06Jan98 3 Mon 06Apr98
Mon 12Jan98 3 Fri 10Apr98
Fri 09Jan98 4 Fri 08May98
Fri 09Jan98 3 Thu 09Apr98
Mon 19Jan98 3 Fri 17Apr98
Mon 26Jan98 3 Fri 24Apr98
Mon 12Jan98 3 Fri 10Apr98
=EDATE(C48,D48)IF(WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48,D48),2)>5,WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48,D48),2)5,0)
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 EOMONTH Page 62 of 202
EOMONTH
StartDate Plus Months End Of Month
5Jan98 2 35885 =EOMONTH(C4,D4)
5Jan98 2 31Mar98 =EOMONTH(C5,D5)
5Jan98 2 30Nov97 =EOMONTH(C6,D6)
What Does It Do?
This function will show the last day of the month which is a specified number of months
before or after a given date.
Syntax
=EOMONTH(StartDate,Months)
Formatting
The result will normally be expressed as a number, this can be formatted to represent
a date by using the Format,Cells,Number,Date command.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 ERROR.TYPE Page 63 of 202
ERROR.TYPE
Data The Error Error Type
10 0 #DIV/0! 532 =ERROR.TYPE(E4)
10 3 Err:508 508 =ERROR.TYPE(E5)
10 3 #VALUE! 519 =ERROR.TYPE(E6)
10:00 13:00 21:00 #N/A =ERROR.TYPE(E7)
What Does It Do?
This function will show a number which corresponds to an error produced by a formula.
Syntax
=ERROR.TYPE(Error)
Error is the cell reference where the error occurred.
Formatting
The result will be formatted as a normal number.
Example
See Example 4 in the =DGET() function.
A B C D E F G H
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 EVEN Page 64 of 202
EVEN
Original Value Evenly Rounded
1 2 =EVEN(C4)
1.2 2 =EVEN(C5)
2.3 4 =EVEN(C6)
25 26 =EVEN(C7)
What Does It Do ?
This function round a number up the nearest even whole number.
Syntax
=EVEN(Number)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table is used by a garage which repairs cars.
The garage is repairing a fleet of cars from three manufactures.
Each manufacturer uses a different type of windscreen wiper which are only supplied in pairs.
Table 1 was used to enter the number of wipers required for each type of car
and then show how many pairs need to be ordered.
Table 1
Car Wipers To Order Pairs to Order
Vauxhall 5 3 =EVEN(D28)/2
Ford 9 5 =EVEN(D29)/2
Peugeot 7 4 =EVEN(D30)/2
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 EXACT Page 65 of 202
EXACT
Text1 Text2 Result
Hello Hello TRUE =EXACT(C4,D4)
Hello hello FALSE =EXACT(C5,D5)
Hello Goodbye FALSE =EXACT(C6,D6)
What Does It Do?
This function compares two items of text and determine whether they are exactly the same.
The case of the characters is taken into account, only words which are spelt the same and
which have upper and lower case characters in the same position will be considered as equal.
Syntax
=EXACT(Text1,Text2)
Only two items of text can be compared.
Formatting
If the two items of text are exactly the same the result of TRUE will be shown.
If there is any difference in the two items of text the result of FALSE will be shown.
Example
Here is a simple password checking formula.
You need to guess the correct password.
The password is the name of a colour, either red blue or green.
The case of the password is important.
The =EXACT() function is used to check your guess.
Guess the password : red
Is it correct : No
(To stop you from cheating, the correct password has been entered as a series of =CHAR()
functions, which use the ANSI number of the characters rather than the character itself!)
Its still very easy though.
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 FACT Page 66 of 202
FACT
Number Factorial
3 6 =FACT(C4)
3.5 6 =FACT(C5)
5 120 =FACT(C6)
10 3,628,800 =FACT(C7)
20 2,432,902,008,176,640,000 =FACT(C8)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the factorial of a number.
The factorial is calculated as 1*2*3*4..etc.
The factorial of 5 is calculated as 1*2*3*4*5, which results in 120.
Decimal fractions of the number are ignored.
Syntax
=FACT(Number)
Formatting.
No special formatting is needed.
A B C D E F G H
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 FIND Page 67 of 202
FIND
Text Letter To Find Position Of Letter
Hello e 2 =FIND(D4,C4)
Hello H 1 =FIND(D5,C5)
Hello o 5 =FIND(D6,C6)
Alan Williams a 3 =FIND(D7,C7)
Alan Williams a 11 =FIND(D8,C8,6)
Alan Williams T #VALUE! =FIND(D9,C9)
What Does It Do?
This function looks for a specified letter inside another piece of text.
When the letter is found the position is shown as a number.
If the text contains more than one reference to the letter, the first occurrence is used.
An additional option can be used to start the search at a specific point in the text, thus
enabling the search to find duplicate occurrences of the letter.
If the letter is not found in the text, the result #VALUE is shown.
Syntax
=FIND(LetterToLookFor,TextToLookInside,StartPosition)
LetterToLookFor : This needs to be a single character.
TextToLookInside : This is the piece of text to be searched through.
StartPosition : This is optional, it specifies at which point in the text the search should begin.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed, the result will be shown as a number.
A B C D E F G
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 FIXED Page 68 of 202
FIXED
10 10.00 =FIXED(C4)
10 10 =FIXED(C5,0)
10 10.0 =FIXED(C6,1)
10 10.00 =FIXED(C7,2)
10.25 10.25 =FIXED(C8)
10.25 10 =FIXED(C9,0)
10.25 10.3 =FIXED(C10,1)
10.25 10.25 =FIXED(C11,2)
1000 1,000.00 =FIXED(C12)
1000.23 1,000 =FIXED(C13,0)
1000.23 1000 =FIXED(C14,0,TRUE)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a numeric value to text.
During the conversion the value can be rounded to a specific number of decimal places,
and commas can be inserted at the 1,000's.
Syntax
=FIXED(NumberToConvert,DecimalPlaces,Commas)
If DecimalPlaces places is not specified the function will assume 2.
The Commas option can be TRUE for commas or FALSE for no commas.
If the Commas is not specified the function will assume TRUE.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Note that any further formatting with the Format, Cells, Number command will not have any effect.
Original
Number
Converted
To Text
A B C D E F G H I J
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Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
FLOOR
Page 69 of 202
FLOOR
Number Rounded Down
1.5 1 =FLOOR(C4,1)
2.3 2 =FLOOR(C5,1)
2.9 2 =FLOOR(C6,1)
123 100 =FLOOR(C7,50)
145 100 =FLOOR(C8,50)
175 150 =FLOOR(C9,50)
What Does It Do ?
This function rounds a value down to the nearest multiple specified by the user.
Syntax
=FLOOR(NumberToRound,SignificantValue)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used to calculate commission for members of a sales team.
Commission is only paid for every £1000 of sales.
The =FLOOR() function has been used to round down the Actual Sales to the
nearest 1000, which is then used as the basis for Commission.
Name Actual Sales Relevant Sales Commission
Alan £23,500 £23,000 £230
Bob £56,890 £56,000 £560
Carol £18,125 £18,000 £180
=FLOOR(D29,1000)
A B C D E F G H
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 FORECAST Page 70 of 202
FORECAST
Month Sales
1 £1,000
2 £2,000
3 £2,500
4 £3,500
5 £3,800
6 £4,000
Type the month number to predict : 12
The Forecast sales figure is : £7,997 =FORECAST(E11,F4:F9,E4:E9)
What Does It Do ?
This function uses two sets of values to predict a single value.
The predicted value is based on the relationship between the two original sets of values.
If the values are sales figures for months 1 to 6, (Jan to Jun), you can use the function
to predict what the sales figure will be in any other month.
The way in which the prediction is calculated is based upon the assumption of a Linear Trend.
Syntax
=FORECAST(ItemToForeCast,RangeY,RangeX)
ItemToForecast is the point in the future, (or past), for which you need the forecast.
RangeY is the list of values which contain the historical data to be used as the basis
of the forecast, such as Sales figures.
RangeX is the intervals used when recording the historical data, such as Month number.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a company considering expansion of their sales team.
The Size and Performance of the previous teams over a period of three years were entered.
The size of the New Sales team is entered.
The =FORECAST() function is used to calculate the predicted performance for the new sales
team based upon a linear trend.
Year
1996 10 £5,000
1997 20 £8,000
1998 30 £8,500
Size Of The New Sales Team : 40
Estimated Forecast Of Performance : £10,667 =FORECAST(E43,E39:E41,D39:D41)
Size Of
Sales Team
Known
Performance
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 FREQUENCY Page 71 of 202
FREQUENCY
Jan Feb Mar
North £5,000 £6,000 £4,500
South £5,800 £7,000 £3,000
East £3,500 £2,000 £10,000
West £12,000 £4,000 £6,000
Sales £4,000 and below. £4,000 4 {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7,E9:E11)}
Sales above £4,000 up to £6,000 £6,000 5 {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7,E9:E11)}
Sales above £6,000 £999,999 3 {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7,E9:E11)}
What Does It Do ?
This function compares a range of data against a list of intervals.
The result shows how many items in the range of data fall between the intervals.
The function is entered in the cells as an array, that is why it is enclosed in { } braces.
Syntax
=FREQUENCY(RangeOfData,ListOfIntervals)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example 1
The following tables were used to record the weight of a group of children.
The =FREQUENCY() function was then used to calculate the number of children whose
weights fell between specified intervals.
Weight Kg Number Of Children:
Child 1 20.47 Between 0  15 Kg 2
Child 2 22.83 Above 15 but less than or equal to 20 Kg 4
Child 3 15.74 Above 20 Kg 3
Child 4 10.80 {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38,C41:C43)}
Child 5 8.28 {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38,C41:C43)}
Child 6 20.66 {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38,C41:C43)}
Child 7 17.36
Child 8 16.67
Child 9 18.01
Kg Weight Intervals
15
20
100
Example 2
This example uses characters instead of values.
A restaurant has asked 40 customers for their rating of the food in the restaurant.
The ratings were entered into a table as a single letter, E, V, A, P or D.
The manager now wants to calculate how many responses fell into each category.
Unfortunately, the =FREQUENCY() function ignores text entries, so how can the frequency
of text be calculated?
The answer is to use the =CODE() and =UPPER() functions.
The =UPPER() forces all the text entries to be considered as capital letters.
The =CODE() function calculates the unique ANSI code for each character.
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 FREQUENCY Page 72 of 202
As this code is a numeric value, the =FREQUENCY() function can then be used!
Rating Frequency
Excellent E 6 {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)),CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))}
Very Good V 8 {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)),CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))}
Average A 9 {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)),CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))}
Poor P 8 {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)),CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))}
Disgusting D 9 {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)),CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))}
Customer Ratings
V D V A p A D D
V P a D A P V d
A V E P p E D A
A E d V D P a E
V e P P A V E D
A B C D E F G H I
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FREQUENCY 2
Page 73
FREQUENCY 2
This example shows how the =FREQUENCY() function has been used to calculate
how often certain numbers appear in the Lottery results.
Table 1 is a record of all the results from the past seven weeks.
Table 1
Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7
1st Number 3 36 5 3 2 41 45
2nd Number 6 3 19 37 23 15 4
3rd Number 15 44 35 20 47 29 44
4th Number 32 15 32 46 6 45 23
5th Number 37 31 13 22 49 13 43
6th Number 5 22 30 8 49 11 46
Bonus Ball 17 13 15 25 18 17 1
Table 2 is the list of possible number from 1 to 49, and how many appearances
each number has made during the past seven weeks.
Table 2
1 1 {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16,B24:B72)}
2 1 {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16,B24:B72)}
3 3 {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16,B24:B72)}
4 1 {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16,B24:B72)}
5 2
6 2
7 0
8 1
9 0 Special tip!
10 0 To count how many unique numbers in a range
11 1 use the following formula. It has to be entered,
12 0 as an array, so press Ctrl+Shift+Enter rather than,
13 3 just Enter alone.
14 0
15 4 Unique values. 31
16 0
17 2 =SUM(1/COUNTIF(C10:I16,C10:I16))
18 1
19 1
20 1
21 0
22 2
23 2
24 0
25 1
26 0
Lottery
Number
How Many
Appearances
FREQUENCY 2
Page 74
27 0
28 0
29 1
30 1
31 1
32 2
33 0
34 0
35 1
36 1
37 2
38 0
39 0
40 0
41 1
42 0
43 1
44 2
45 2
46 2
47 1
48 0
49 2
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 GCD Page 75 of 202
GCD
Numbers
6 15 3 =GCD(C4,D4)
28 49 7 =GCD(C5,D5)
5 99 1 =GCD(C6,D6)
Numbers
18 72 96 6 =GCD(C9,D9,E9)
300 500 200 100 =GCD(C10,D10,E10)
2.5 4 6 0.5 =GCD(C11,D11,E11)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the largest number which can be used to divided all the
values specified.
The result is always a whole number.
Where there is no common divisor the value of 1 is used.
Decimal fractions are ignored.
Syntax
=GCD(Number1,Number2,Number3... through to Number29)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Greatest
Divisor
Greatest
Divisor
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 GESTEP Page 76 of 202
GESTEP
Number1 Number2 GESTEP
10 20 0 =GESTEP(C4,D4)
50 20 1 =GESTEP(C5,D5)
99 100 0 =GESTEP(C6,D6)
100 100 1 =GESTEP(C7,D7)
101 100 1 =GESTEP(C8,D8)
2 1 =GESTEP(C9,D9)
2 0 =GESTEP(C10,D10)
What Does It Do ?
This function test a number to see if it is greater than or equal to another number.
If the number is greater than or equal, the result of 1 will be shown, otherwise 0 is shown.
Syntax
=GESTEP(NumberToTest,NumberToTestAgainst)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used to calculate how many sales staff achieved their targets.
The =GESTEP() function compares the Sales with Target, and the results are totalled.
Name Sales Target GESTEP
Alan £3,000 £4,000 0 =GESTEP(D27,E27)
Bob £5,000 £4,000 1 =GESTEP(D28,E28)
Carol £1,000 £2,000 0 =GESTEP(D29,E29)
David £2,000 £2,000 1 =GESTEP(D30,E30)
Eric £8,000 £7,000 1 =GESTEP(D31,E31)
Targets Achieved 3 =SUM(F27:F31)
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 GROWTH Page 77 of 202
GROWTH
10 £50,000
20 £60,000
30 £70,000
40 £75,000
50 £80,000
60 £82,000
70 £84,000
80 £86,000
90 56,263
100
110
Size Of
Sales Team
Known
Performance
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 HEX2DEC Page 78 of 202
HEX2DEC
Hexadecimal Decimal Number
0 0 =HEX2DEC(C4)
1 1 =HEX2DEC(C5)
2 2 =HEX2DEC(C6)
3 3 =HEX2DEC(C7)
1A 26 =HEX2DEC(C8)
1B 27 =HEX2DEC(C9)
7FFFFFFFFF 549,755,813,887 =HEX2DEC(C10)
8000000000 549,755,813,888 =HEX2DEC(C11)
FFFFFFFFFF 1 =HEX2DEC(C12)
FFFFFFFFFE 2 =HEX2DEC(C13)
FFFFFFFFFD 3 =HEX2DEC(C14)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a hexadecimal number to its decimal equivalent.
Syntax
=HEX2DEC(HexaDecimalNumber)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used to add two hexadecimal values together.
Hexadecimal
Value 1 F
Value 2 1A
Result 29 =DEC2HEX(HEX2DEC(C29)+HEX2DEC(C30))
A B C D E F G
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 HLOOKUP Page 79 of 202
HLOOKUP
Jan Feb Mar row 1 The row numbers are not needed.
10 80 97 row 2 they are part of the illustration.
20 90 69 row 3
30 100 45 row 4
40 110 51 row 5
50 120 77 row 6
Type a month to look for : Feb
Which row needs to be picked out : 4
The result is : 100 =HLOOKUP(F10,D3:F10,F11,FALSE)
What Does It Do ?
This function scans across the column headings at the top of a table to find a specified item.
When the item is found, it then scans down the column to pick a cell entry.
Syntax
=HLOOKUP(ItemToFind,RangeToLookIn,RowToPickFrom,SortedOrUnsorted)
The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user.
The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the column headings at the top.
The RowToPickFrom is how far down the column the function should look to pick from.
The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. TRUE for yes, FALSE for no.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example 1
This table is used to find a value based on a specified month and name.
The =HLOOKUP() is used to scan across to find the month.
The problem arises when we need to scan down to find the row adjacent to the name.
To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used.
The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the name we require. It then calculates
the position of the name in the list. Unfortunately, because the list of names is not as deep
as the lookup range, the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require, so and extra 1 is
added to compensate.
The =HLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look down the month column and
picks out the correct cell entry.
The =HLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the
column headings are not sorted, even though to us the order of Jan,Feb,Mar is correct.
Jan Feb Mar
Bob 10 80 97
Eric 20 90 69
Alan 30 100 45
Carol 40 110 51
David 50 120 77
Type a month to look for : feb
Type a name to look for : alan
If they were sorted alphabetically they would have read as Feb,Jan,Mar.
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 HLOOKUP Page 80 of 202
The result is : 100
=HLOOKUP(F54,D47:F54,MATCH(F55,C48:C52,0)+1,FALSE)
Example 2
This example shows how the =HLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for
different makes of cars.
The =HLOOKUP() scans the column headings for the make of car specified in column B.
When the make is found, the =HLOOKUP() then looks down the column to the row specified
by the =MATCH() function, which scans the list of spares for the item specified in column C.
The function uses the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol $. This ensures that
when the formula is copied to more cells, the ranges for =HLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do
not change.
Maker Spare Cost
Vauxhall Ignition £50 Vauxhall Ford VW
VW GearBox £600 GearBox 500 450 600
Ford Engine £1,200 Engine 1000 1200 800
VW Steering £275 Steering 250 350 275
Ford Ignition £70 Ignition 50 70 45
Ford CYHead £290 CYHead 300 290 310
Vauxhall GearBox £500
Ford Engine £1,200
=HLOOKUP(B79,G72:I77,MATCH(C79,F73:F77,0)+1,FALSE)
Example 3
In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders.
The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick, Wood and Glass.
The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product.
The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total.
All the calculations take place in the Orders Table.
The name of the Item is typed in column C.
The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table.
The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product
names across the top of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted.
Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match. If a match is
not found, the function will produce an error.
=HLOOKUP(C127,E111:G112,2,FALSE)
The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table
If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the top of the Discount Table the =HLOOKUP will
look down the column to find the correct discount.
The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values
across the top of the Discount Table are sorted.
Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match. If the Quantity Ordered does
not match a value at the top of the Discount Table, the next lowest value is used.
Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100, and the discount from
the 100 column is used.
=HLOOKUP(D127,E115:G118,MATCH(C127,D116:D118,0)+1,TRUE)
Unit Cost Table
A B C D E F G H I J
56
57
58
59
60
61
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64
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69
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71
72
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107
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 HLOOKUP Page 81 of 202
Brick Wood Glass
£2 £1 £3
Discount Table
1 100 300
Brick 0% 6% 8%
Wood 0% 3% 5%
Glass 0% 12% 15%
Orders Table
Item Units Unit Cost Discount Total
Brick 100 £2 6% £188
Wood 200 £1 3% £194
Glass 150 £3 12% £396
Brick 225 £2 6% £423
Wood 50 £1 0% £50
Glass 500 £3 15% £1,275
Unit Cost =HLOOKUP(C127,E111:G112,2,FALSE)
Discount =HLOOKUP(D127,E115:G118,MATCH(C127,D116:D118,0)+1,TRUE)
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 HOUR Page 82 of 202
HOUR
Number Hour
21:15 21 =HOUR(C4)
0.25 6 =HOUR(C5)
What Does It Do?
The function will show the hour of the day based upon a time or a number.
Syntax
=HOUR(Number)
Formatting
The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 23.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 IF Page 83 of 202
IF
Name Sales Target Result
Alan 1000 5000 Not Achieved =IF(C4>=D4,"Achieved","Not Achieved")
Bob 6000 5000 Achieved =IF(C5>=D5,"Achieved","Not Achieved")
Carol 2000 4000 Not Achieved =IF(C6>=D6,"Achieved","Not Achieved")
What Does It Do?
This function tests a condition.
If the condition is met it is considered to be TRUE.
If the condition is not met it is considered as FALSE.
Depending upon the result, one of two actions will be carried out.
Syntax
=IF(Condition,ActionIfTrue,ActionIfFalse)
The Condition is usually a test of two cells, such as A1=A2.
The ActionIfTrue and ActionIfFalse can be numbers, text or calculations.
Formatting
No special formatting is required.
Example 1
The following table shows the Sales figures and Targets for sales reps.
Each has their own target which they must reach.
The =IF() function is used to compare the Sales with the Target.
If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target the result of Achieved is shown.
If the Sales do not reach the target the result of Not Achieved is shown.
Note that the text used in the =IF() function needs to be placed in double quotes "Achieved".
Name Sales Target Result
Alan 1000 5000 Not Achieved =IF(C31>=D31,"Achieved","Not Achieved")
Bob 6000 5000 Achieved =IF(C32>=D32,"Achieved","Not Achieved")
Carol 2000 4000 Not Achieved =IF(C33>=D33,"Achieved","Not Achieved")
Example 2
The following table is similar to that in Example 1.
This time the Commission to be paid to the sales rep is calculated.
If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target, the Commission is 10% of Sales.
If the Sales do not reach Target, the Commission is only 5% of Sales.
Name Sales Target Commission
Alan 1000 5000 50 =IF(C43>=D43,C43*10%,C43*5%)
Bob 6000 5000 600 =IF(C44>=D44,C44*10%,C44*5%)
Carol 2000 4000 100 =IF(C45>=D45,C45*10%,C45*5%)
Example 3
This example uses the =AND() within the =IF() function.
A builders merchant gives 10% discount on certain product lines.
The discount is only given on products which are on Special Offer, when the Order Value
is £1000 or above.
the value of the order is above £1000.
Special Order
Product Offer Value Discount Total
Wood Yes £2,000 £200 £1,800
The =AND() function is used with the =IF() to check that the product is on offer and that
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 IF Page 84 of 202
Glass No £2,000 £ £2,000
Cement Yes £500 £ £500
Turf Yes £3,000 £300 £2,700
=IF(AND(C61="Yes",D61>=1000),D61*10%,0)
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 INDEX Page 85 of 202
INDEX
Holiday booking price list.
People
Weeks 1 2 3 4
1 £500 £300 £250 £200
2 £600 £400 £300 £250
3 £700 £500 £350 £300
How many weeks required : 2
How many people in the party : 4
Cost per person is : 250 =INDEX(D7:G9,G11,G12)
What Does It Do ?
This function picks a value from a range of data by looking down a specified number
of rows and then across a specified number of columns.
It can be used with a single block of data, or noncontinuos blocks.
Syntax
There are various forms of syntax for this function.
Syntax 1
=INDEX(RangeToLookIn,Coordinate)
This is used when the RangeToLookIn is either a single column or row.
The Coordinate indicates how far down or across to look when picking the data from the range.
Both of the examples below use the same syntax, but the Coordinate refers to a row when
the range is vertical and a column when the range is horizontal.
Colours
Red
Green
Blue Size Large Medium Small
Type either 1, 2 or 3 : 2 Type either 1, 2 or 3 : 2
The colour is : Green The size is : Medium
=INDEX(D32:D34,D36) =INDEX(G34:I34,H36)
Syntax 2
=INDEX(RangeToLookIn,RowCoordinate,ColumnColumnCordinate)
This syntax is used when the range is made up of rows and columns.
Country Currency Population Capitol
England Sterling 50 M London
France Franc 40 M Paris
Germany DM 60 M Bonn
Spain Peseta 30 M Barcelona
Type 1,2,3 or 4 for the country : 2
Type 1,2 or 3 for statistics : 3
The result is : Paris =INDEX(D45:F48,F50,F51)
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 INDEX Page 86 of 202
Syntax 3
=INDEX(NamedRangeToLookIn,RowCoordinate,ColumnColumnCordinate,AreaToPickFrom)
Using this syntax the range to look in can be made up of multiple areas.
The easiest way to refer to these areas is to select them and give them a single name.
The AreaToPickFrom indicates which of the multiple areas should be used.
In the following example the figures for North and South have been named as one
range called NorthAndSouth.
NORTH Qtr1 Qtr2 Qtr3 Qtr4
Bricks £1,000 £2,000 £3,000 £4,000
Wood £5,000 £6,000 £7,000 £8,000
Glass £9,000 £10,000 £11,000 £12,000
SOUTH Qtr1 Qtr2 Qtr3 Qtr4
Bricks £1,500 £2,500 £3,500 £4,500
Wood £5,500 £6,500 £7,500 £8,500
Glass £9,500 £10,500 £11,500 £12,500
Type 1, 2 or 3 for the product : 1
Type 1, 2, 3 or 4 for the Qtr : 3
Type 1 for North or 2 for South : 2
The result is : Err:504 =INDEX(NorthAndSouth,F76,F77,F78)
Example
This is an extended version of the previous example.
It allows the names of products and the quarters to be entered.
The =MATCH() function is used to find the row and column positions of the names entered.
These positions are then used by the =INDEX() function to look for the data.
EAST Qtr1 Qtr2 Qtr3 Qtr4
Bricks £1,000 £2,000 £3,000 £4,000
Wood £5,000 £6,000 £7,000 £8,000
Glass £9,000 £10,000 £11,000 £12,000
WEST Qtr1 Qtr2 Qtr3 Qtr4
Bricks £1,500 £2,500 £3,500 £4,500
Wood £5,500 £6,500 £7,500 £8,500
Glass £9,500 £10,500 £11,500 £12,500
Type 1, 2 or 3 for the product : wood
Type 1, 2, 3 or 4 for the Qtr : qtr2
Type 1 for North or 2 for South : west
The result is : Err:504
=INDEX(EastAndWest,MATCH(F100,C91:C93,0),MATCH(F101,D90:G90,0),IF(F102=C90,1,IF(F102=C95,2)))
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 INDIRECT Page 87 of 202
INDIRECT
Jan Feb Mar
North 10 20 30
South 40 50 60
East 70 80 90
West 100 110 120
Type address of any of the cells in the above table, such as G6 : G6
The value in the cell you typed is : 80 =INDIRECT(H9)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a plain piece of text which looks like a cell address into a usable
cell reference.
The address can be either on the same worksheet or on a different worksheet.
Syntax
=INDIRECT(Text)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example 1
This example shows how data can be picked form other worksheets by using
the worksheet name and a cell address.
The example uses three other worksheets named NORTH, SOUTH and EAST.
The data on these three sheets is laid out in the same cells on each sheet.
When a reference to a sheet is made the exclamation symbol ! needs to be placed
between the sheet name and cell address acting as punctuation.
North
C8
The contents of the cell C8 on North is : 120 =INDIRECT(G33&"!"&G34)
The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =NORTH!C8
Example 2
This example uses the same data as above, but this time the =SUM() function is
used to calculate a total from a range of cells.
South
C5
C7
The sum of the range C5:C7 on South is : 1200
=SUM(INDIRECT(G44&"!"&G45&":"&G46))
The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =SUM(SOUTH!C5:C7)
Type the name of the sheet, such as North :
Type the cell to pick data from, such as C8 :
Type the name of the sheet, such as South :
Type the start cell of the range, such as C5 :
Type the end cell of the range, such as C7 :
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 INFO Page 88 of 202
INFO
System Information
Current directory Err:502 =INFO("directory")
Available bytes of memory Err:502 =INFO("memavail")
Memory in use Err:502 =INFO("memused")
Total bytes of memory Err:502 =INFO("totmem")
Number of active worksheets 1 =INFO("numfile")
Cell currently in the top left of the window Err:502 =INFO("origin")
Operating system Windows (32bit) NT 5.01 =INFO("osversion")
Recalculation mode Automatic =INFO("recalc")
Excel version 310m19(Build:9420) =INFO("release")
Name of system. (PC or Mac) LINUX =INFO("system")
What Does It Do?
This function provides information about the operating environment of the computer.
Syntax
=INFO(text)
text : This is the name of the item you require information about.
Formatting
The results will be shown as text or a number depending upon what was requested.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 INT Page 89 of 202
INT
Number Integer
1.5 1 =INT(C4)
2.3 2 =INT(C5)
10.75 10 =INT(C6)
1.48 2 =INT(C7)
What Does It Do ?
This function rounds a number down to the nearest whole number.
Syntax
=INT(Number)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a school to calculate the age a child when the
school year started.
A child can only be admitted to school if they are over 8 years old.
The Birth Date and the Term Start date are entered and the age calculated.
Table 1 shows the age of the child with decimal places
Table 1
Birth Date Term Start Age
1Jan80 1Sep88 8.67 =(D27C27)/365.25
5Feb81 1Sep88 7.57
20Oct79 1Sep88 8.87
1Mar81 1Sep88 7.5
Table 2 shows the age of the child with the Age formatted with no decimal places.
This has the effect of increasing the child age.
Table 2
Birth Date Term Start Age
1Jan80 1Sep88 9 =(D38C38)/365.25
5Feb81 1Sep88 8
20Oct79 1Sep88 9
1Mar81 1Sep88 8
Table 3 shows the age of the child with the Age calculated using the =INT() function to
remove the decimal part of the number to give the correct age.
Table 3
Birth Date Term Start Age
1Jan80 1Sep88 8 =INT((D49C49)/365.25)
5Feb81 1Sep88 7
20Oct79 1Sep88 8
1Mar81 1Sep88 7
Note
The age is calculated by subtracting the Birth Date from the Term Start to find the
age of the child in days.
The number of days is then divided by 365.25
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 INT Page 90 of 202
The reason for using 365.25 is to take account of the leap years.
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 ISBLANK Page 91 of 202
ISBLANK
Data Is The Cell Blank
1 FALSE =ISBLANK(C4)
Hello FALSE =ISBLANK(C5)
TRUE =ISBLANK(C6)
25Dec98 FALSE =ISBLANK(C7)
What Does It Do?
This function will determine if there is an entry in a particular cell.
It can be used when a spreadsheet has blank cells which may cause errors, but which
will be filled later as the data is received by the user.
Usually the function is used in conjunction with the =IF() function which can test the result
of the =ISBLANK()
Syntax
=ISBLANK(CellToTest)
Formatting
Used by itself the result will be shown as TRUE or FALSE.
Example
The following example shows a list of cheques received by a company.
When the cheque is cleared the date is entered.
Until the Cleared date is entered the Cleared column is blank.
While the Cleared column is blank the cheque will still be Outstanding.
When the Cleared date is entered the cheque will be shown as Banked.
The =ISBLANK() function is used to determine whether the Cleared column is empty or not.
Cheques Received Date Date
Num From Received Amount Cleared Banked Outstanding
chq1 ABC Ltd 1Jan98 £100 2Jan98 100 0
chq2 CJ Design 1Jan98 £200 7Jan98 200 0
chq3 J Smith 2Jan98 £50 0 50
chq4 Travel Co. 3Jan98 £1,000 0 1000
chq5 J Smith 4Jan98 £250 6Jan98 250 0
=IF(ISBLANK(F36),0,E36)
=IF(ISBLANK(F36),E36,0)
Totals 550 1050
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 ISERR Page 92 of 202
ISERR
Cell to test Result
3 FALSE =ISERR(D4)
#DIV/0! TRUE =ISERR(D5)
Err:508 TRUE =ISERR(D6)
#VALUE! TRUE =ISERR(D7)
Err:502 TRUE =ISERR(D8)
Err:502 TRUE =ISERR(D9)
#N/A FALSE =ISERR(D10)
What Does It Do ?
This function tests a cell and shows TRUE if there is an error value in the cell.
It will show FALSE if the contents of the cell calculate without an error, or if the error
is the #NA message.
Syntax
=ISERR(CellToTest)
The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a calculation.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following tables were used by a publican to calculate the cost of a single bottle
of champagne, by dividing the cost of the crate by the quantity of bottles in the crate.
Table 1 shows what happens when the value zero 0 is entered as the number of bottles.
The #DIV/0 indicates that an attempt was made to divide by zero 0, which Excel does not do.
Table 1
Cost Of Crate : £24
Bottles In Crate : 0
Cost of single bottle : #DIV/0! =E32/E33
Table 2 shows how this error can be trapped by using the =ISERR() function.
Table 2
Cost Of Crate : £24
Bottles In Crate : 0
Cost of single bottle : Try again! =IF(ISERR(E40/E41),"Try again!",E40/E41)
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 ISERROR Page 93 of 202
ISERROR
Cell to test Result
3 FALSE =ISERROR(D4)
#DIV/0! TRUE =ISERROR(D5)
Err:508 TRUE =ISERROR(D6)
#VALUE! TRUE =ISERROR(D7)
Err:502 TRUE =ISERROR(D8)
Err:502 TRUE =ISERROR(D9)
#N/A TRUE =ISERROR(D10)
What Does It Do ?
This function tests a cell or calculation to determine whether an error has been generated.
It will show TRUE for any type of error and FALSE if no error is found.
Syntax
=ISERROR(CellToTest)
The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a formula.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following tables was used to calculate the difference between two dates.
Table 1 shows an error due to the fact that the first entry was entered using an inappropriate
date format.
Table 1
Start date : Jan 01 98
End date : 5Jan98
Difference : 3Jan00 =D31D30
Table 2 shows how the =ISERROR() function has been used to trap the error and inform the
user that there has been an error in the data entry.
Table 2
Start date : Jan 01 98
End date : 5Jan98
Difference : 3Jan00
=IF(ISERROR(D40D39),"Error in data entry",D40D39)
A B C D E F G H
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 ISEVEN Page 94 of 202
ISEVEN
Number Is it Even
1 0 =ISEVEN(C4)
2 1 =ISEVEN(C5)
2.5 1 =ISEVEN(C6)
2.6 1 =ISEVEN(C7)
3.5 0 =ISEVEN(C8)
3.6 0 =ISEVEN(C9)
Hello 1 =ISEVEN(C10)
1Feb98 0 =ISEVEN(C11)
1Feb96 1 =ISEVEN(C12)
What Does It Do ?
This function tests a number to determine whether it is even.
An even number is shown as TRUE an odd number is shown as FALSE.
Note that decimal fractions are ignored.
Note that dates can be even or odd.
Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error.
Syntax
=ISEVEN(CellToTest)
Formatting
No special formatting is required.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 ISLOGICAL Page 95 of 202
ISLOGICAL
Cell To Test Result
FALSE TRUE =ISLOGICAL(D4)
TRUE TRUE =ISLOGICAL(D5)
FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D6)
20 FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D7)
1Jan98 FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D8)
Hello FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D9)
#DIV/0! FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D10)
What Does It Do ?
This function tests a cell to determine whether the cell contents are logical.
The logical values can only be TRUE or FALSE.
If the cell does contain a logical value, the result TRUE is shown.
If the cell does not contain a logical value, the result FALSE is shown.
Syntax
=ISLOGICAL(CellToTest)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 ISNA Page 96 of 202
ISNA
Number Result
1 FALSE =ISNA(C4)
Hello FALSE =ISNA(C5)
FALSE =ISNA(C6)
1Jan98 FALSE =ISNA(C7)
#N/A TRUE =ISNA(C8)
What Does It Do?
This function tests a cell to determine whether it contains the Not Available error #N/A.
The #N/A is generated when a function cannot work properly because of missing data.
The #N/A can also be typed in to a cell by the user to indicate the cell is currently empty,
but will be used for data entry in the future.
The function is normally used with other functions such as the =IF() function.
Syntax
=ISNA(CellToTest)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 ISNONTEXT Page 97 of 202
ISNONTEXT
Item To Test Is It A Number?
10 TRUE =ISNONTEXT(C4)
Hello FALSE =ISNONTEXT(C5)
TRUE =ISNONTEXT(C6)
1Jan98 TRUE =ISNONTEXT(C7)
1OO FALSE =ISNONTEXT(C8)
What Does It Do?
This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is a number, rather than text.
It would be used to ensure that only numeric entries are used in calculations, rather
than text which looks like a number, such as typing the letter O instead of zero 0.
The function is normally used with other function such as the =IF() function.
Syntax
=ISNONTEXT(CellToTest)
Formatting
No special formatting.
Examples
The following table is used by an electrical retailer to calculate the selling price
of an item based on the buying price and the shop markup.
Table 1 shows the #VALUE! error generated when a number, 300, is entered
using the letter O instead of the zero 0.
Table 1
Item Buying Price Markup Profit
Radio 400 150% 600
TV 800 200% 1600
Video 3OO 150% #VALUE! =D32*E32
Table 2 shows how the error is trapped using the =ISNONTEXT function and
the =IF() function in the calculation.
Table 2
Item Buying Price Markup Profit
Radio 400 150% 600
TV 800 200% 1600
Video 3OO 150% Retype the Price
=IF(ISNONTEXT(D40),D40*E40,"Retype the Price")
A B C D E F G H
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 ISNUMBER Page 98 of 202
ISNUMBER
Cell Entry Result
1 TRUE =ISNUMBER(D4)
1Jan98 TRUE =ISNUMBER(D5)
FALSE =ISNUMBER(D6)
#DIV/0! FALSE =ISNUMBER(D7)
Hello FALSE =ISNUMBER(D8)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a cell or calculation to determine whether it is a numeric value.
If the cell or calculation is a numeric value the result TRUE is shown.
If the cell or calculation is not numeric, or is blank, the result FALSE is shown.
Syntax
=ISNUMBER(CellToTest)
The cell to test can be a cell reference or a calculation.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee.
The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value.
The =ISNUMBER() function has been used to identify the type of entry made, and then
the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform.
ID No. Name Salary
1 Alan £10,000
2 Eric £12,000
3 Carol £8,000
4 Bob £15,000
5 David £12,000
Type Employee Name or ID : eric
The Salary is : £12,000
=IF(ISNUMBER(E35),VLOOKUP(E35,C29:E33,3,FALSE),VLOOKUP(E35,D29:E33,2,FALSE))
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 ISODD Page 99 of 202
ISODD
Number Is it Odd
1 1 =ISODD(C4)
2 0 =ISODD(C5)
2.5 0 =ISODD(C6)
2.6 0 =ISODD(C7)
3.5 1 =ISODD(C8)
3.6 1 =ISODD(C9)
Hello 0 =ISODD(C10)
1Feb98 1 =ISODD(C11)
1Feb96 0 =ISODD(C12)
What Does It Do ?
This function tests a number to determine whether it is odd.
An odd number is shown as TRUE an even number is shown as FALSE.
Note that decimal fractions are ignored.
Note that dates can be odd or even.
Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error.
Syntax
=ISODD(CellToTest)
Formatting
No special formatting is required.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 ISREF Page 100 of 202
ISREF
TRUE =ISREF(A1)
FALSE =ISREF(B99)
Err:508 =ISREF(Hello)
FALSE =ISREF(10)
FALSE =ISREF(NOW())
FALSE =ISREF("A1")
Err:508 =ISREF(XX99)
What Does It Do ?
This function shows TRUE if given a cell address, or FALSE for any other type of value.
Its a bit of an odd one, and is normally used in macros rather than on the worksheet.
Syntax
=ISREF(ValueToTest)
The ValueToTest can be any type of data, but when used on the worksheet, it cannot be a
reference to the contents of another cell, as the reference will itself be evaluated by the function.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 ISTEXT Page 101 of 202
ISTEXT
Cell To Test Result
Hello TRUE =ISTEXT(D4)
1 FALSE =ISTEXT(D5)
25Dec98 FALSE =ISTEXT(D6)
FALSE =ISTEXT(D7)
What Does It Do ?
This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is text.
If the entry is text is shows TRUE.
If the entry is any other type it shows FALSE.
Syntax
=ISTEXT(CellToTest)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee.
The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value.
The =ISTEXT() function has been used to identify the type of entry made, and then
the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform.
ID No. Name Salary
1 Alan £10,000
2 Eric £12,000
3 Carol £8,000
4 Bob £15,000
5 David £12,000
Type Employee Name or ID : 3
The Salary is : £8,000
=IF(ISTEXT(E33),VLOOKUP(E33,D27:E31,2,FALSE),VLOOKUP(E33,C27:E31,3,FALSE))
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 LARGE Page 102 of 202
LARGE
Values Highest Value 800 =LARGE(C4:C8,1)
120 2nd Highest Value 250 =LARGE(C4:C8,2)
800 3rd Highest Value 120 =LARGE(C4:C8,3)
100 4th Highest Value 120 =LARGE(C4:C8,4)
120 5th Highest Value 100 =LARGE(C4:C8,5)
250
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position
in the list.
Syntax
=LARGE(ListOfNumbersToExamine,PositionToPickFrom)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used to calculate the top 3 sales figures between Jan, Feb and Mar.
Sales Jan Feb Mar
North £5,000 £6,000 £4,500
South £5,800 £7,000 £3,000
East £3,500 £2,000 £10,000
West £12,000 £4,000 £6,000
Highest Value £12,000 =LARGE(D24:F27,1)
2nd Highest Value £10,000 =LARGE(D24:F27,2)
3rd Highest Value £7,000 =LARGE(D24:F27,3)
Note
Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use
the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.
Highest £12,000 =MAX(D24:F27)
Lowest £2,000 =MIN(D24:F27)
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 LCM Page 103 of 202
LCM
Numbers
6 20 60 =LCM(C4,D4)
12 18 36 =LCM(C5,D5)
34 96 1632 =LCM(C6,D6)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculate the Least Common Multiple, which is the smallest number
that can be divided by each of the given numbers.
Syntax
=LCM(Number1,Number2,Number3... through to Number29)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Least
Common
Multiple
A B C D E F G H I J
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Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
LEFT
Page 104 of 202
LEFT
Text Left String
Alan Jones 1 A =LEFT(C4,D4)
Alan Jones 2 Al =LEFT(C5,D5)
Alan Jones 3 Ala =LEFT(C6,D6)
Cardiff 6 Cardif =LEFT(C7,D7)
ABC123 4 ABC1 =LEFT(C8,D8)
What Does It Do ?
This function displays a specified number of characters from the left hand side of a
piece of text.
Syntax
=LEFT(OriginalText,NumberOfCharactersRequired)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used to extract the first name of a person from their full name.
The =FIND() function was used to locate position of the space between the first and second name.
The length of the first name is therefore the position of the space minus one character.
The =LEFT() function can now extract the first name based on the position of the space.
Full Name First Name
Alan Jones Alan =LEFT(C27,FIND(" ",C27)1)
Bob Smith Bob =LEFT(C28,FIND(" ",C28)1)
Carol Williams Carol =LEFT(C29,FIND(" ",C29)1)
Number Of
Characters
Required
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 LEN Page 105 of 202
LEN
Text Length
Alan Jones 10 =LEN(C4)
Bob Smith 9 =LEN(C5)
Carol Williams 14 =LEN(C6)
Cardiff 7 =LEN(C7)
ABC123 6 =LEN(C8)
What Does It Do ?
This function counts the number of characters, including spaces and numbers, in a piece of text.
Syntax
=LEN(Text)
Formatting
No Special formatting is needed.
Example
This example shows how the =LEN() function is used in a formula which extracts the
second name from a text entry containing both first and second names.
Original Text
Carol Williams 6 =FIND(" ",C24)
This is the position of the space.
Carol Williams 8 =LEN(C24)FIND(" ",C24)
This is the length of the second name.
Calculated by taking the overall length of the complete
name and subtracting the position of the space.
=RIGHT(C24,LEN(C24)FIND(" ",C24))
This is just the second name.
Calculated by using the =RIGHT() function to extract
the rightmost characters up to the length of
the second name.
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 LOOKUP (Array) Page 106 of 202
LOOKUP (Array)
Name Jan Feb Mar
Alan 10 80 97
Bob 20 90 69
Carol 30 100 45
David 40 110 51
Eric 50 120 77
Francis 60 130 28
Gail 70 140 73
Type a Name in this cell : Eric
77 =LOOKUP(F12,D4:G10)
What Does It Do ?
This function looks for a piece of information in a list, and then picks an item from the
last cell in the adjacent row or column.
It always picks the data from the end of the row or column, so it is no good if you need
to pick data from part way across a list, (use VLOOKUP or HLOOKUP).
The way in which the function decides whether to pick from the row or column is based
on the size of the table.
trying to find a match for the piece of information
you asked it to look for.
When a match is found, the function will look
across to the right most column to pick the
last entry on the row.
work in just the same way as if the table had more
rows than columns, as in the description above.
to find a match for the piece of information you
have asked it to look for.
When a match is found, the function will then look
down to the bottom cell of the column to pick
the last entry of the column.
Syntax
=LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor,RangeToLookIn)
The WhatToLookFor should be a single item.
The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical.
Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the range as these will cause errors.
Example 1 Example 2
In this table there are more In this table there are more columns than rows, so
rows than columns, so the the row heading of Jan is not included in the
column heading of Jan is lookup range.
not included in the lookup
The March value for this person is :
If the table has more rows than columns : the function will look down the left most column
If the table has the same amount of rows and columns :
the function will look down the left most column and
If the table has more columns than rows : the function will look across the top row trying
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 LOOKUP (Array) Page 107 of 202
range. Alan Bob Carol David
Jan Jan 100 100 100 100
Alan 100
Bob 100
Carol 100
David 100
Eric 100
Fred 100
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Problems
The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order, otherwise errors
will occur, either as #N/A or incorrect results.
Table 1 shows the Name column sorted alphabetically, the results of using =LOOKUP() will
be correct.
Table 2 shows the same data, but not sorted. Sometimes the results will be correct, but other
times the result will be an #N/A error or incorrect figure.
Table 1 Table 2
Name Jan Feb Mar Name Jan Feb Mar
Alan 10 80 97 David 40 110 51
Bob 20 90 69 Eric 50 120 77
Carol 30 100 45 Alan 10 80 97
David 40 110 51 Bob 20 90 69
Eric 50 120 77 Carol 30 100 45
Francis 60 130 28 Francis 60 130 28
Gail 70 140 73 Gail 70 140 73
Name : Eric Name : Eric
Value : 77 Value : 77
=LOOKUP(C88,B80:E86) =LOOKUP(H88,G80:J86)
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 LOOKUP (Vector) Page 108 of 202
LOOKUP (Vector)
Name Jan Feb Mar
Alan 10 80 97
Bob 20 90 69
Carol 30 100 45
David 40 110 51
Eric 50 120 77
Francis 60 130 28
Gail 70 140 73
Type a Name in this cell : Eric
120 =LOOKUP(F12,D4:G10,F4:F10)
What Does It Do ?
This function looks for a piece of information in a list, and then picks an item from
a second range of cells.
Syntax
=LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor,RangeToLookIn,RangeToPickFrom)
The WhatToLookFor should be a single item.
The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical.
The RangeToPickFrom must have the same number of cells in it as the RangeToLookin.
Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the ranges as these will cause errors.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following example shows how the =LOOKUP() function was used to match a name typed
in cell G41 against the list of names in C38:C43. When a match is found the =LOOKUP() then
picks from the second range E38:J38.
If the name Carol is used, the match is made in the third cell of the list of names, and then
the function picks the third cell from the list of values.
RangeToLookIn RangeToPickFrom
Alan 5 10 15 20 25 30
Bob
Carol
David Type a name : Carol
Eric Value : 15
Fred =LOOKUP(G41,C38:C43,E38:J38)
Problems
The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order, otherwise errors
will occur, either as #N/A or incorrect results.
The Feb value for this person is :
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 LOWER Page 109 of 202
LOWER
Upper Case Text Lower Case
ALAN JONES alan jones =LOWER(C4)
BOB SMITH bob smith =LOWER(C5)
CAROL WILLIAMS carol williams =LOWER(C6)
CARDIFF cardiff =LOWER(C7)
ABC123 abc123 =LOWER(C8)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts all characters in a piece of text to lower case.
Syntax
=LOWER(TextToConvert)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
A B C D E F G H
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 MATCH Page 110 of 202
MATCH
Names Values
Bob 250
Alan 600
David 1000
Carol 4000
Type a name to look for : Alan Type a value : 1000
The position of Alan is : 2 Value position : 3
=MATCH(E9,E4:E7,0) =MATCH(I9,I4:I7,1)
What Does It Do ?
This function looks for an item in a list and shows its position.
It can be used with text and numbers.
It can look for an exact match or an approximate match.
Syntax
=MATCH(WhatToLookFor,WhereToLook,TypeOfMatch)
The TypeOfMatch either 0, 1 or 1.
Using 0 will look for an exact match. If no match is found the #NA error will be shown.
Using 1 will look for an exact match, or the next lowest number if no exact match exists.
If there is no match or next lowest number the error #NA is shown.
The list of values being examined must be sorted for this to work correctly.
Using 1 will look for an exact match, or the next highest number if no exact match exists.
If there is no exact match or next highest number the error #NA is shown.
The list must be sorted for this to work properly.
Examples 1
Using the 0 option suitable for an exact match.
Ascending Descending Wrong Value
10 40 10
20 30 20
30 20 30
40 10 40
20 20 25
2 3 #N/A
=MATCH(G45,G40:G43,0)
Example 2
Using the 1 option suitable for a ascending list to find an exact or next lowest match.
The Ascending list gives the exact match.
The Descending list gives the exact match.
The Wrong Value list cannot find an exact match, so the #NA is shown.
The Ascending list gives the exact match.
The Descending list gives the #NA error.
The Wrong Value list finds the next lowest number..
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 MATCH Page 111 of 202
Ascending Descending Wrong Value
10 40 10
20 30 20
30 20 30
40 10 40
20 20 25
2 #N/A 2
=MATCH(G62,G57:G60,1)
Example 3
Using the 1 option suitable for a descending list to find an exact or next highest match.
Ascending Descending Wrong Value
10 40 40
20 30 30
30 20 20
40 10 10
20 20 25
2 3 2
=MATCH(G79,G74:G77,1)
Example 4
The tables below were used to by a bus company taking booking for bus tours.
They need to allocate a bus with enough seats for the all the passengers.
The list of bus sizes has been entered in a list.
The number of passengers on the tour is then entered.
The =MATCH() function looks down the list to find the bus with enough seats.
If the number of passengers is not an exact match, the next biggest bus will be picked.
After the =MATCH() function has found the bus, the =INDEX() function has been used
to look down the list again and pick out the actual bus size required.
Bus Size Passengers on the tour : 23
Bus 1 54 Bus size needed : 50
Bus 2 50 =INDEX(D95:D99,MATCH(H94,D95:D99,1),0)
Bus 3 22
Bus 4 15
Bus 5 6
Example 5
The tables below were used by a school to calculate the exam grades for pupils.
The list of grade breakpoints was entered in a list.
The pupils scores were entered in another list.
The pupils scores are compared against the breakpoints.
If an exact match is not found, the next lowest breakpoint is used.
The =INDEX() function then looks down the Grade list to find the grade.
Exam Score Grade Pupil Score Grade
The Ascending list gives the #NA error.
The Descending list gives the exact match.
The Wrong Value list finds the next highest number.
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 MATCH Page 112 of 202
0 Fail Alan 60 Pass
50 Pass Bob 6 Fail
90 Merit Carol 97 Distinction
95 Distinction David 89 Pass
=INDEX(D111:D114,MATCH(G114,C111:C114,1),0)
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 MAX Page 113 of 202
MAX
Values Maximum
120 800 100 120 250 800 =MAX(C4:G4)
Dates Maximum
1Jan98 25Dec98 31Mar98 27Dec98 4Jul98 27Dec98 =MAX(C7:G7)
What Does It Do ?
This function picks the highest value from a list of data.
Syntax
=MAX(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
In the following example the =MAX() function has been used to find the highest value for
each region, month and overall.
Sales Jan Feb Mar Region Max
North £5,000 £6,000 £4,500 £6,000 =MAX(C23:E23)
South £5,800 £7,000 £3,000 £7,000
East £3,500 £2,000 £10,000 £10,000
West £12,000 £4,000 £6,000 £12,000
Month Max £12,000 £7,000 £10,000
=MAX(E23:E26)
Overall Max £12,000
=MAX(C23:E26)
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 MEDIAN Page 114 of 202
MEDIAN
Value1 Value2 Value3 Value4 Value5 Median
20 50 10 30 40 30 =MEDIAN(C4:G4)
2000 1000 10 20 8000 1000 =MEDIAN(C6:G6)
10 20 40 40 40 40 =MEDIAN(C8:G8)
Value1 Value2 Value3 Value4 Median
20 40 30 10 25 =MEDIAN(C11:F11)
20 20 40 20 20 =MEDIAN(C13:F13)
What Does It Do ?
This function finds the median value of a group of values.
The median is not the average, it is the half way point where half the numbers in the group are
larger than it and half the numbers are less than it.
If there is no exact median number in the group, the two nearest the half way point are
added and their average is used as the median.
Syntax
=MEDIAN(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 MID Page 115 of 202
MID
Text Mid String
ABCDEDF 1 3 ABC =MID(C4,D4,E4)
ABCDEDF 2 3 BCD =MID(C5,D5,E5)
ABCDEDF 5 2 ED =MID(C6,D6,E6)
ABC100DEF 100 =MID(C8,5,3)
ABC200DEF 200 =MID(C9,5,3)
ABC300DEF 300 =MID(C10,5,3)
Item Size: Large Large =MID(C12,12,99)
Item Size: Medium Medium =MID(C13,12,99)
Item Size: Small Small =MID(C14,12,99)
What Does It Do ?
This function picks out a piece of text from the middle of a text entry.
The function needs to know at what point it should start, and how many characters to pick.
If the number of characters to pick exceeds what is available, only the available characters
will be picked.
Syntax
=MID(OriginalText,PositionToStartPicking,NumberOfCharactersToPick)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example 1
The following table uses the =MID() function to extract a post code from a branch ID used
by a company.
It is assumed that all branch ID's follow the same format with the letters identifying the
postal region being in the 5th and 6th positions.
Branch ID Postal Region
DRSCF476 CF =MID(C35,5,2)
DRSWA842 WA =MID(C36,5,2)
HLTNP190 NP =MID(C37,5,2)
Example 2
This example shows how to extract an item which is of variable length, which is inside
a piece of text which has no standard format, other than the required text is always
between two slash / symbols.
Full Branch Code Postal Region
DRS/STC/872 STC
HDRS/FC/111 FC
S/NORTH/874 NORTH
HQ/K/875 K
SPECIAL/UK & FR/876 UK & FR
Find the first /, plus 1 for the Start of the code.
Find the second /, occurring after the first /
Start
Position
How Many
Characters
=MID(C50,FIND("/",C50)+1,FIND("/",C50,FIND("/",C50)+1)FIND("/",C50)1)
A B C D E F G H
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 MID Page 116 of 202
Calculate the length of the text to extract, by subtracting the position
of the first / from the position of the second /
A B C D E F G H
55
56
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 MIN Page 117 of 202
MIN
Values Minimum
120 800 100 120 250 100 =MIN(C4:G4)
Dates Maximum
1Jan98 25Dec98 31Mar98 27Dec98 4Jul98 1Jan98 =MIN(C7:G7)
What Does It Do ?
This function picks the lowest value from a list of data.
Syntax
=MIN(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
In the following example the =MIN() function has been used to find the lowest value for
each region, month and overall.
Sales Jan Feb Mar Region Min
North £5,000 £6,000 £4,500 £4,500 =MIN(C23:E23)
South £5,800 £7,000 £3,000 £3,000
East £3,500 £2,000 £10,000 £2,000
West £12,000 £4,000 £6,000 £4,000
Month MIN £3,500 £2,000 £3,000
=MIN(E23:E26)
Overall MIN £2,000
=MIN(C23:E26)
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 MINUTE Page 118 of 202
MINUTE
Number Minute
3/5/2011 2:52 52 =MINUTE(D4)
9:15:00 PM 15 =MINUTE(D5)
0.02 28 =MINUTE(D6)
0.52 28 =MINUTE(D7)
1.52 28 =MINUTE(D8)
What Does It Do?
The function will show the minute of the hour based upon a time or a number.
Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day.
Syntax
=MINUTE(Number)
Formatting
The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59.
Example
The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time.
The time functions of =HOUR(), =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction
with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats.
To update the clock press the function key F9.
Clock
Hour  02
Minute  51
Second  15
=REPT("",HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW()),"00")
=REPT("",MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW()),"00")
=REPT("",SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW()),"00")
Related Information
To convert a time in hh:mm format to decimal format.
Enter a time in hh:mm format : 2:45
The same time converted to a decimal : 2.75 =F38*24
To extract the hours as a decimal : 2 =INT(F38*24)
To extract the minutes as a decimal : 0.75 =MOD(F38*24,1)
To convert a time in decimal format to hh:mm format.
Enter a time in decimal format : 3.75
The same time converted to hh:mm format is : 3:45 =F49/24
To extract the hours in hh:mm format : 3:00 =INT(F49)/24
To extract the minutes in hh:mm format : 0:45 =MOD(F49,1)/24
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 MINUTE Page 119 of 202
The three formula above have also been formatted as hh:mm using
the Format, Cells, Number, Time command.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 MINVERSE Page 120 of 202
MINVERSE
3 5 1 0
1 2 0 1
2 5
1 3
3
4
Err:502
Err:502
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Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
MMULT
Page 121 of 202
MMULT
What Does It Do ?
This function multiplies one range of values with another range of values.
The ranges do not have to be of equal size.
The dimensions of the result range is in direct proportion to dimensions of the two input ranges.
It is an Array function and must be entered using the Ctrl+Shift+Enter combination.
Syntax
=MMULT(Range1,Range2)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following tables were used by a company producing boxes of chocolates.
The types of chocolate produced were Milk, Dark and White.
The company boxed the chocolates in three differing mixtures of Milk, Dark and White.
In the run up to Christmas customers ordered various quantities of each box.
The chocolate company now needed to know what quantity of each type of chocolate to produce.
The =MMULT() function was used to multiply the contents of boxes by the customer orders.
The result of the =MMULT() is the total number of each type of chocolate to produce.
Chocolates in the box
Size Milk Dark White
Giant 50 50 50
Standard 30 20 10
Economy 20 5 5
Customers Orders
Giant Standard Economy
300 400 500
Quantity To Produce
Milk Dark White
37,000 25,500 21,500
{=MMULT(C32:E32,C26:E28)}
In all three cells
How It Was Done
Cells C36 to E36 were selected.
The formula =MMULT(C32:E32,C26:E28) was typed, (but not yet entered).
The keys Ctrl+Shift+Enter were pressed to confirm the entry as an array.
The formula then showed the correct result.
Getting The Dimensions Correct
The dimensions of the Result range are directly related to the two input ranges.
The number of rows in the Result should be equal to the rows in Range1.
The number of columns in the Result should be equal to the columns in Range2.
Example 2
The following tables were used by the chocolate company to calculate the amount of
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Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
MMULT
Page 122 of 202
ingredients needed to produce batches of chocolate.
The company has four factories, each of which has to order enough Butter, Eggs and Sugar
to ensure they can meet production targets.
Range 1 contains the planned production of Milk and Dark chocolate for each factory.
Range 2 contains the amount Butter, Eggs and Sugar needed to make 1 unit of Milk or Plain.
The Result range shows the quantities of each ingredient that will have to be ordered to
meet the production target.
Note the depth of the Result is the same as the depth of Range 1, and the width of
the Result is the same as the width of Range 2.
Range 1 Range 2
Production Milk Dark Ingredients Butter Eggs Sugar
Factory 1 20 0 Milk 1 3 10
Factory 2 20 1 Dark 2 2 5
Factory 3 10 5
Factory 4 20 10
Result
Ingredients To Order Butter Eggs Sugar
Factory 1 20 60 200
Factory 2 22 62 205
Factory 3 20 40 125
Factory 4 40 80 250
{=MMULT(C69:D72,G69:I70)}
In all cells
Hint
To get a feel for how the =MMULT() function operates, set all values in Range1 and Range2
to zero 0, then change a single value in each.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 MOD Page 123 of 202
MOD
Number Divisor Remainder
12 5 2 =MOD(C4,D4)
20 7 6 =MOD(C5,D5)
18 3 0 =MOD(C6,D6)
9 2 1 =MOD(C7,D7)
24 7 3 =MOD(C8,D8)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the remainder after a number has been divided by another number.
Syntax
=MOD(Number,Divisor)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 MODE Page 124 of 202
MODE
Value1 Value2 Value3 Value4 Value5 Mode
20 50 10 10 40 10 =MODE(C4:G4)
40 20 40 10 40 40 =MODE(C6:G6)
10 10 99 20 20 10 =MODE(C8:G8)
20 20 99 10 10 10 =MODE(C9:G9)
10 20 20 99 10 10 =MODE(C10:G10)
10 20 30 40 50 #VALUE! =MODE(C12:G12)
What Does It Do ?
This function displays the most frequently occurring number in a group of numbers.
For it to work correctly there must be at least two numbers which are the same.
If all the values in the group are unique the function shows the error #N/A.
When there is more than one set of duplicates, the number closest to the beginning
of the group will be used. (Which is not really an accurate answer!)
Syntax
=MODE(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table shows garments sold in a clothes shop.
The shopkeeper wants to keep track of the most commonly sold size.
The =MODE() function has been used to calulate this.
Order Garmet Size
001 Blouse 10 Most frequently ordered size : 10
002 Skirt 10 =MODE(D33:D52)
003 Shirt 8
004 Blouse 10
005 Skirt 12 Count of size 8 : 6
006 Dress 8 =COUNTIF(D33:D52,"8")
007 Shirt 10
008 Blouse 10 Count of size 10 : 11
009 Dress 8 =COUNTIF(D33:D52,"10")
010 Shirt 10
011 Dress 12 Count of size 12 : 3
012 Skirt 12 =COUNTIF(D33:D52,"12")
013 Skirt 10
014 Shirt 10
015 Dress 8
016 Shirt 10
017 Blouse 10
018 Blouse 8
019 Dress 10
020 Skirt 8
Note
If the =AVERAGE() function had been used the answer would have been : 9.7
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 MODE Page 125 of 202
This figure is of no benefit to the shopkeeper as there are no garmets of this size!
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 MONTH Page 126 of 202
MONTH
Original Date Month
1Jan98 1 =MONTH(C4)
1Jan98 December =MONTH(C5)
What Does It Do?
This function extracts the month from a complete date.
Syntax
=MONTH(Date)
Formatting
Normally the result will be a number, but this can be formatted to show the actual
month by using Format,Cells,Number,Custom and using the code mmm or mmmm.
Example
The =MONTH function has been used to calculate the name of the month for your birthday.
Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy 3/25/1962
You were born in January =MONTH(F20)
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 MROUND Page 127 of 202
MROUND
Number Multiple
110 50 100 =MROUND(C4,D4)
120 50 100 =MROUND(C5,D5)
150 50 150 =MROUND(C6,D6)
160 50 150 =MROUND(C7,D7)
170 50 150 =MROUND(C8,D8)
What Does It Do ?
This function rounds a number up or down to the nearest multiple specified by the user.
Syntax
=MROUND(NumberToRound,MultipleToUse)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Rounded
Value
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 N Page 128 of 202
N
Original Converted
1 1 =N(C4)
3 1/2 3.5 =N(C5)
3.5 3.5 =N(C6)
3.50% 0.04 =N(C7)
25Dec98 36154 =N(C8)
TRUE 1 =N(C9)
FALSE 0 =N(C10)
Hello 0 =N(C11)
0 =N(C12)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a numeric entry to its mathematical value.
Anything which will not convert is shown as 0 zero.
Excel does not really need this function, due to the fact that Excel calculates in this way
naturally. The function is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs.
Syntax
=N(NumericEntry)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 NA Page 129 of 202
NA
#N/A =NA()
Value Test
10 11 =IF(ISBLANK(C6),NA(),C6+1)
#N/A =IF(ISBLANK(C7),NA(),C7+1)
30 31 =IF(ISBLANK(C8),NA(),C8+1)
Sales
North 100
South #N/A =NA()
East #N/A =NA()
West 200
Total #N/A =SUM(D11:D14)
What Does It Do ?
This function is a place marker used to indicate that required information is Not Available.
It can be type directly in to a cell as =NA() or it can be used as part of a calculation.
When the =NA() is used, any calculations which depend upon the cell will also show #NA.
It is used to indicate that all the data has not yet been entered in to the spreadsheet.
Syntax
=NA()
Formatting
No special formatting is required.
Example
The following table was used by a company to calculate the monthly Wage of an employee.
The Salary and Tax percentage are entered.
The Tax is then deducted from the Salary to calculate the Wage.
Table 1 shows that when the Tax is not entered, the Wage is still calculated.
On a large spreadsheet this may go unnoticed and the wrong Wage paid.
Table 1
Salary Tax % Pay
Alan 1000 25% 750 =C39C39*D39
Bob 1000 1000 =C40C40*D40
Carol 1000 20% 800 =C41C41*D41
Table 2 shows how the =NA() has been inserted in the unknown Tax to act as a
reminder that the Tax still needs to be entered.
Table 2
Salary Tax % Pay
Alan 1000 25% 750 =C49C49*D49
Bob 1000 #N/A #N/A =C50C50*D50
Carol 1000 20% 800 =C51C51*D51
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Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
NETWORKDAYS
Page 130 of 202
NETWORKDAYS
Start Date End Date Work Days
1Mar98 7Mar98 5 =NETWORKDAYS(C4,D4)
25Apr98 30Jul98 69 =NETWORKDAYS(C5,D5)
24Dec98 5Jan99 9 =NETWORKDAYS(C6,D6)
What Does It Do?
This function will calculate the number of working days between two dates.
It will exclude weekends and any holidays.
Syntax
=NETWORKDAYS(StartDate,EndDate,Holidays)
Holidays : This is a list of dates which will be excluded from the calculation, such as Xmas
and Bank holidays.
Formatting
The result will be shown as a number.
Note
The calculation does not include the last day. The result of using 1Jan98 and 5Jan98 will
give a result of 4. To correct this add 1 to the result. =NETWORKDAYS(Start,End,Holidays)+1
Example
The following example shows how a list of Holidays can be created.
Start Date End Date Work Days
Mon 02Mar98 Fri 06Mar98 5 =NETWORKDAYS(B28,C28,C33:C37)
Mon 02Mar98 Fri 13Mar98 10 =NETWORKDAYS(B29,C29,C33:C37)
Mon 27Apr98 Fri 01May98 4 =NETWORKDAYS(B30,C30,C33:C37)
Holidays
Bank Holiday 1May98
Xmas 25Dec98
New Year 1Jan97
New Year 1Jan98
New Year 1Jan99
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 NORTH Page 131 of 202
Northern data.
Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function.
Alan
Jan Feb Mar Total
Alan 10 20 30 60
Bob 40 50 60 150
Carol 70 80 90 240
Total 120 150 180 450
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 NOT Page 132 of 202
NOT
Cells To Test Result
10 20 TRUE =NOT(C4>D4)
10 20 TRUE =NOT(C5=D5)
10 20 FALSE =NOT(C6<D6)
1Jan98 1Feb98 TRUE =NOT(C7>D7)
Hello Goodbye TRUE =NOT(C8=D8)
Hello Hello FALSE =NOT(C9=D9)
What Does It Do ?
This function performs a test to see if the test fails. (A type of reverse logic).
If the test fails, the result is TRUE.
If the test is met, then the result is FALSE.
Syntax
=NOT(TestToPerform)
The TestToPerform can be reference to cells or another calculation.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a library to track books borrowed.
The date the book was Taken out is entered.
The period of the Loan is entered.
The date the book was returned is entered.
The =NOT() function has been used to calculate whether the book was returned within
the correct time, by adding the Loan value to the Taken date.
If the book was not returned on time the result Overdue is shown, otherwise OK is shown.
Taken Loan Returned Status
1Jan98 14 5Jan98 OK =IF(NOT(D33<=B33+C33),"Overdue","OK")
1Jan98 14 15Jan98 OK =IF(NOT(D34<=B34+C34),"Overdue","OK")
1Jan98 14 20Jan98 Overdue =IF(NOT(D35<=B35+C35),"Overdue","OK")
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 NOW Page 133 of 202
NOW
The current Date and Time
3/5/2011 2:52 =NOW()
03/05/11 02:52 AM =NOW()
What Does It Do?
This function shows the current date and time. The result will be updated each time the
worksheet is opened and every time an entry is made anywhere on the worksheet.
Syntax
=NOW()
Formatting
The result will be shown as a date and time. If it is formatted to show as a number
the integer part is used for the date and the decimal portion represent the time.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 ODD Page 134 of 202
ODD
Number
2 3 =ODD(C4)
2.4 3 =ODD(C5)
2.9 3 =ODD(C6)
3 3 =ODD(C7)
3.4 5 =ODD(C8)
3.9 5 =ODD(C9)
What Does It Do ?
This function rounds a number up to the next highest whole odd number.
Syntax
=ODD(NumberToBeRounded)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Rounded To
Next Odd
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 OR Page 135 of 202
OR
Order No. Cost
AB001 1000 Cash £ =IF(OR(E4="Visa",E4="Delta"),5,0)
AB002 1000 Visa £5 =IF(OR(E5="Visa",E5="Delta"),5,0)
AB003 2000 Cheque £ =IF(OR(E6="Visa",E6="Delta"),5,0)
AB004 5000 Delta £5 =IF(OR(E7="Visa",E7="Delta"),5,0)
What Does It Do?
This function tests two or more conditions to see if any of them are true.
It can be used to test that at least one of a series of numbers meets certain conditions.
Normally the OR() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF().
Syntax
=OR(Test1,Test2)
Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests.
Formatting
When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE.
Example
The following table shows a list of orders taken by a company.
A handling charge of £5 is made on all orders paid by Visa or Delta cards.
The =OR() function has been used to determine whether the charge needs to be applied.
Order No. Cost
AB001 1000 Cash £ =IF(OR(E27="Visa",E27="Delta"),5,0)
AB002 1000 Visa £5
AB003 2000 Cheque £
AB004 5000 Delta £5
Payment
Type
Handling
Charge
Payment
Type
Handling
Charge
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Ordering Stock
Page 136
Ordering Stock
This is an example of a spreadsheet to calculate the best time interval to order stock.
Scenario
A garage fits exhaust systems.
The manager orders the exhausts on a regular basis.
Each time an order is made for new stock, there is a fixed administrative cost.
The exhausts are kept in stock until needed.
Keeping the exhausts in stock incurs a cost due to capital tied up and warehouse costs.
The supplier of the Exhausts gives a discount on large orders.
Objective
Find the time interval to order stock which will result in the lowest Admin and Warehouse costs.
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Ordering Stock
Page 137
Input Data
Cost of a single Exhaust system : £75
Cost of keeping Exhaust in stock. (As a % of the stock value) : 12%
Quantity of Exhausts used per day : 10
Admin cost each time new Exhausts are ordered : £25
Average quantity of Exhausts in stock (As % of ordered quantity) : 0.5
Ordering Intervals to evaluate. (Expressed in Days) : 2
Suppliers first Price Break and Discount% offered : 200 1%
Suppliers second Price Break and Discount% offered : 750 5%
Output
1 10 £750 £ 365 £9,125 £45 £9,170 
2 20 £1,500 £ 183 £4,575 £90 £4,665 
4 40 £3,000 £ 92 £2,300 £180 £2,480 
6 60 £4,500 £ 61 £1,525 £270 £1,795 
8 80 £6,000 £ 46 £1,150 £360 £1,510 
10 100 £7,500 £ 37 £925 £450 £1,375 
12 120 £9,000 £ 31 £775 £540 £1,315 
14 140 £10,500 £ 27 £675 £630 £1,305 
16 160 £12,000 £ 23 £575 £720 £1,295 
18 180 £13,500 £ 21 £525 £810 £1,335 
20 200 £15,000 £150 19 £475 £900 £1,225 Best
22 220 £16,500 £165 17 £425 £990 £1,250 
24 240 £18,000 £180 16 £400 £1,080 £1,300 
26 260 £19,500 £195 15 £375 £1,170 £1,350 
28 280 £21,000 £210 14 £350 £1,260 £1,400 
30 300 £22,500 £225 13 £325 £1,350 £1,450 
32 320 £24,000 £240 12 £300 £1,440 £1,500 
34 340 £25,500 £255 11 £275 £1,530 £1,550 
36 360 £27,000 £270 11 £275 £1,620 £1,625 
38 380 £28,500 £285 10 £250 £1,710 £1,675 
40 400 £30,000 £300 10 £250 £1,800 £1,750 
42 420 £31,500 £315 9 £225 £1,890 £1,800 
44 440 £33,000 £330 9 £225 £1,980 £1,875 
46 460 £34,500 £345 8 £200 £2,070 £1,925 
48 480 £36,000 £360 8 £200 £2,160 £2,000 
50 500 £37,500 £375 8 £200 £2,250 £2,075 
52 520 £39,000 £390 8 £200 £2,340 £2,150 
54 540 £40,500 £405 7 £175 £2,430 £2,200 
56 560 £42,000 £420 7 £175 £2,520 £2,275 
58 580 £43,500 £435 7 £175 £2,610 £2,350 
60 600 £45,000 £450 7 £175 £2,700 £2,425 
Things To Try
Change the Discount % to 0% and 0%.
Change the Ordering Interval to 1 or 30.
Change the Cost of the Exhaust making it cheaper or more expensive.
Change the Quantity used per day to a larger or smaller number.
Ordering
Interval
In Days
Quantity
Per Order
Order
Value
Order
Discount
Orders
Per Year
Annual
Admin
Cost
Annual
Ware
house
Costs
Annual
Total
The Best
Ordering
Interval
A B C D E F G H I
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Ordering Stock
Page 138
Explanation
Column A Ordering Interval In Days
The first of these cells has the value 1 entered in it.
This is the smallest ordering period, which would require stock to be ordered every day.
The second cell picks the ordering interval from the Input Data table.
The third and subsequent cells add the ordering interval to the previous cell to create
a list of values of the same interval.
Column B Quantity Per Order
This is the number of Exhausts which will need to be ordered.
Calculation : OrderingInterval * QuantityUsedPerDay
Column C Order Value
This is the value of the Order before any discount.
Calculation : QuantityOrdered * CostOfExhaust
Column D Order Discount
The discount which can be subtracted from the order value.
The discount is only given on orders which are equal to or greater than the
Price Break values set by the supplier.
Calculation : OrderValue * SupplierDiscount
The supplier discount is calculated using the =IF() and the =AND() functions.
If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the first Price Break, but below
the second Price Break, then the first Price Break discount is used.
If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the second Price Break,
the second Price Break discount is used.
If the OrderQuantity does not qualify for a discount, zero discount is used.
Column E Orders Per Year
This is how many orders will need to be made based upon the ordering interval.
With an interval of 1, there will have to be 365 orders.
Calculation : 365/OrderingInterval
This calculation may give results which are decimal, such as 2.3
This decimal will cause problems, due to the fact that the number of
orders must always be a whole number.
The =CEILING() function has been used to 'round up' any decimals to
the next highest whole number.
=CEILING(365/A29,1)
=C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24,B29<$G$25),$H$24,IF(B29>=$G$25,$H$25,0))
=C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24,B29<$G$25),$H$24,IF(B29>=$G$25,$H$25,0))
=C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24,B29<$G$25),$H$24,IF(B29>=$G$25,$H$25,0))
A B C D E F G H I
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Ordering Stock
Page 139
Column F Annual Admin Costs
This is the administration costs involved in making the orders.
Calculation : OrdersPerYear * AdminCost
=E29*$G$20
Column G Annual Warehouse Costs
This is the cost of keeping the stock in the warehouse.
It is based on the managers knowledge that on average the stock level is 50% of the
quantity ordered.
Calculation : QuantityOrdered * AverageStockLevel) * ExhaustCost * WarehousingCost
=(B29*$G$21)*$G$17*$G$18
Column H Annual Total
This is the full yearly cost of ordering the Exhausts, based upon how frequently the
orders are made.
It does not take in to account the actual costs of the Exhausts, as the manager only
wants to know what the lowest values for the overheads associated with ordering and
storing the exhaust systems.
However, the Discount figure is taken into account as this can be used to offset some
of the overheads.
Calculation : AnnualAdminCosts + AnnualWarehouseCosts  OrderDiscount
=F29+G29D29
Column I The Best Ordering Interval
This shows the Best ordering interval, giving the lowest annual overheads.
It compares the value in column H against the minimum value for all of column H.
If the two values match the word Best is shown, otherwise a dash is shown.
=IF(H29=MIN($H$29:$H$59),"Best","")
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 PACKERS Page 140 of 202
Box size Sample Packer1 Packer2 Packer3 Packer4
Small 1 10 10 10 10
Medium 1 20 20 20 21
Large 1 30 28 35 30
Small 2 11 9 10 10
Medium 2 21 20 0 20
Large 2 31 28 30 30
Small 3 8 10 12 10
Medium 3 22 20 20 19
Large 3 32 28 30 30
Box size Sample Packer1 Packer2 Packer3 Packer4
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 PERMUT Page 141 of 202
PERMUT
Pool Of Items Items In A Group Permutations
4 2 12 =PERMUT(C4,D4)
4 3 24 =PERMUT(C5,D5)
10 4 5040 =PERMUT(C6,D6)
26 6 165,765,600 =PERMUT(C7,D7)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the maximum number of permutations given a fixed number of items.
The internal order is significant, so AB and BA will be considered as two possible permutations.
It could be used to calculate the possible number of 4 digit passwords from the digits 0 to 9.
Syntax
=PERMUT(PoolToPickFrom,ItemsInAGroup)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used to calculate the total number of 8 letter passwords which can
be created by using all 26 letters of the alphabet.
Letter In Alphabet 26
Password Size 8
Permutations 62,990,928,000
In the case of a two letter password made from the letter A, B, C and D, the following
twelve permutations would be possible.
ABCD
Password 1 AB Password 7 BA
Password 2 AC Password 8 CA
Password 3 AD Password 9 DA
Password 4 BC Password 10 CB
Password 5 BD Password 11 DB
Password 6 CD Password 12 DC
A B C D E F G H
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 PI Page 142 of 202
PI
π
3.14159265358979 =PI()
What Does It Do ?
This function is equal to the value of Pi.
It is correct to 15 decimal places.
It does not need any input, it is a self contained function.
Syntax
=PI()
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
To calculate the area of a circle.
Radius Area
5 78.54 =PI()*(C21^2)
25 1963.50
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 POWER Page 143 of 202
POWER
Number Power Result
3 2 9 =POWER(C4,D4)
3 4 81 =POWER(C5,D5)
5 2 25 =POWER(C6,D6)
5 4 625 =POWER(C7,D7)
What Does It Do ?
This function raises a number to a user specified power.
It is the same as using the ^ operator, such as 3^4, which result is 81.
Both the POWER() function and the ^ operator are the same as using 3*3*3*3.
Syntax
=POWER(NumberToBeRaised,Power)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
To calculate the area of a circle.
Radius Area
5 78.54 =PI()*POWER(C22,2)
25 1963.50
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 PRODUCT Page 144 of 202
PRODUCT
Numbers Product
2 3 6 =PRODUCT(C4,D4)
5 10 50 =PRODUCT(C5:D5)
3 7 210 =PRODUCT(C6:D6,10)
6300 =PRODUCT(C4:D6)
What Does It Do ?
This function multiples a group of numbers together.
It is the same as using 2*3*5*10*3*7, which results in 6300.
Syntax
=PRODUCT(Number1,Number2,Number3... through to Number30)
or
=PRODUCT(RangeOfNumbers)
or
=PRODUCT(Number1,Range,Number2...)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 PROPER Page 145 of 202
PROPER
Original Text Proper
alan jones Alan Jones =PROPER(C4)
bob smith Bob Smith =PROPER(C5)
caRol wILLIAMS Carol Williams =PROPER(C6)
cardiff Cardiff =PROPER(C7)
ABC123 Abc123 =PROPER(C8)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts the first letter of each word to uppercase, and all subsequent letters
are converted to lower case.
Syntax
=PROPER(TextToConvert)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 QUARTILE Page 146 of 202
QUARTILE
Values Quarter No. Quartile
1 0 1 =QUARTILE(C4:C8,E4)
25 1 25 =QUARTILE(C4:C8,E5)
50 2 50 =QUARTILE(C4:C8,E6)
75 3 75 =QUARTILE(C4:C8,E7)
100 4 100 =QUARTILE(C4:C8,E8)
Values Quarter No. Quartile
817 104 640 767 0 104 =QUARTILE(C12:F16,H12)
748 756 369 703 1 285.75 =QUARTILE(C12:F16,H13)
372 993 294 261 2 489 =QUARTILE(C12:F16,H14)
487 384 185 491 3 750 =QUARTILE(C12:F16,H15)
140 607 894 182 4 993 =QUARTILE(C12:F16,H16)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a group of values and then shows the values which are of the
upper limits of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th quarters of the data.
The Quartile of 0 (zero) is actually lowest value, which can be obtained using the =MIN() function.
The Quartile of 4 is actually highest value, which can be obtained using the =MAX() function.
Syntax
=QUARTILE(RangeToBeExamined,QuartileValue)
The QuartileValue can only be 0,1,2,3 or 4.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
A B C D E F G H I J K
1
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 QUOTIENT Page 147 of 202
QUOTIENT
Number Divisor Result
12 5 2 =QUOTIENT(C4,D4)
20 3 6 =QUOTIENT(C5,D5)
46 15 3 =QUOTIENT(C6,D6)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the number of times a number can be divided by another number.
It ignores any remainder, only showing the whole number.
Syntax
=QUOTIENT(NumberToBeDivided,Divisor)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following example was used by a drinks merchant to calculate the number of
crates which could be packed using bottles in stock.
The merchant can only sell full crates.
Table 1 calculates the crates by simple division. This however shows
decimal fractions which are not needed.
Table 1
Item Crates Needed
Wine 126 12 10.5 =D28/E28
Champagne 200 8 25
Rum 15 4 3.75
Beer 250 20 12.5
Table 2 uses the =QUOTIENT() function to remove the decimal fraction to
give the correct result.
Table 2
Item Crates Needed
Wine 126 12 10 =QUOTIENT(D39,E39)
Champagne 200 8 25
Rum 15 6 2
Beer 250 20 12
Bottles
To Pack
Bottles
Per Crate
Bottles
To Pack
Bottles
Per Crate
A B C D E F G H
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 RAND Page 148 of 202
RAND
Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 1.
0.69 =RAND()
Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 10
2.2 =RAND()*10
Random between 5 and 10.
7.13 =RAND()*(105)+5
What Does It Do ?
This function creates a random number >=0 but <1.
The number will change each time the worksheet recalculates, or when F9 is pressed.
Syntax
=RAND()
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Examples
The following examples show how the =RAND() function has been used to randomly
sort list of information.
A list of cards has been entered in column C, and =RAND() in column D.
By clicking inside the random numbers and then using Data, Sort or the Sort button
the cards will be shuffled.
The same technique has been used to generate a list of six winning lottery numbers.
Card Random Lottery Random
Clubs 8 0.57 29 0.67
Clubs 6 0.39 34 0.18
Diamond 9 0.97 30 0.53
Spades 13 0.79 41 0.44
Clubs 9 0.18 40 0.56
Diamond 7 0.96 37 0.64
Diamond 4 0.24 26 0.54
Clubs 10 0.05 32 0.78
Spades 3 0.58 21 0.27
Hearts 6 0.33 19 0.53
Hearts 4 0.97 7 0.47
Diamond 8 0.49 10 0.44
Hearts 11 0.26 16 0.7
Clubs 3 0.49 8 0.63
Clubs 13 0.14 48 0.67
Spades 5 0.58 43 0.13
Diamond 3 0.23 44 0.27
Spades 2 0.06 4 0.29
Diamond 6 0.08 3 0.72
Clubs 5 0.47 45 0.94
Spades 1 0.79 47 0.98
Clubs 12 0.22 49 0.81
Hearts 10 0.65 35 0.06
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 RAND Page 149 of 202
Hearts 13 0.01 27 0.33
Spades 7 0.63 1 0.62
Spades 6 0.43 13 0.45
Diamond 12 0.88 31 0.22
Hearts 3 0.58 5 0.08
Hearts 5 0.12 18 0.62
Hearts 8 0.1 39 0.65
Hearts 1 0 23 0.05
Diamond 13 0.69 12 0.29
Hearts 9 0.48 11 0.83
Clubs 4 0.97 20 0.59
Diamond 5 0.48 33 0.74
Spades 4 0.66 42 0.4
Clubs 1 0.93 24 0.23
Spades 8 0.72 2 0.28
Hearts 7 0.71 14 0.17
Diamond 1 0.51 25 0.5
Clubs 2 0.05 9 0.8
Hearts 2 0.68 38 0.64
Diamond 11 1 15 0.94
Clubs 7 0.31 28 0.5
Spades 12 0.17 17 0.27
Spades 10 0.14 6 0.61
Clubs 11 0.89 22 0.64
Diamond 2 0.41 46 0.54
Diamond 10 0.2 36 0.9
Spades 9 0.36
Spades 11 0.48
Hearts 12 0.89
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 RANDBETWEEN Page 150 of 202
RANDBETWEEN
Low High Random
5 10 10 =RANDBETWEEN(C4,D4)
1 49 43 =RANDBETWEEN(C5,D5)
What Does It Do ?
This function produces a random whole number between two specified numbers.
The random number will change each time the spreadsheet is recalculated or F9 is pressed.
Syntax
=RANDOMBETWEEN(LowLimit,HighLimit)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table shows how the =RANDBETWEEN() has been used to generate six
numbers to use for the National Lottery.
Note that the function does not check to ensure all numbers are unique, the same number
could be generated twice or more.
Lottery Numbers
1 49 9 =RANDBETWEEN($C$24,$D$24) Number 1
27 =RANDBETWEEN($C$24,$D$24) Number 2
Press function Key 11 =RANDBETWEEN($C$24,$D$24) Number 3
F9 to recalculate. 39 =RANDBETWEEN($C$24,$D$24) Number 4
49 =RANDBETWEEN($C$24,$D$24) Number 5
22 =RANDBETWEEN($C$24,$D$24) Number 6
43 =RANDBETWEEN($C$24,$D$24) Bonus ball
All OK
{=IF(SUM(1/COUNTIF(E24:E30,E24:E30))<>7,"Duplicates! Spin again","All OK")}
This formula is used to determine whether all the numbers are different.
It is entered as an array using Ctrl+Shift+Enter.
The Winning
Ticket!
A B C D E F G H I
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Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
RANK
Page 151 of 202
RANK
Values
7 4 =RANK(C4,C4:C8)
4 5 =RANK(C5,C4:C8)
25 1 =RANK(C6,C4:C8)
8 3 =RANK(C7,C4:C8)
16 2 =RANK(C8,C4:C8)
Values
7 2 =RANK(C11,C11:C15,1)
4 1 =RANK(C12,C11:C15,1)
25 5 =RANK(C13,C11:C15,1)
8 3 =RANK(C14,C11:C15,1)
16 4 =RANK(C15,C11:C15,1)
Values
10 5 =RANK(C18,C18:C22)
30 2 =RANK(C19,C18:C22)
20 4 =RANK(C20,C18:C22)
30 2 =RANK(C21,C18:C22)
40 1 =RANK(C22,C18:C22)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the position of a value in a list relative to the other values in the list.
A typical usage would be to rank the times of athletes in a race to find the winner.
The ranking can be done on an ascending (low to high) or descending (high to low) basis.
If there are duplicate values in the list, they will be assigned the same rank. Subsequent ranks
would not follow on sequentially, but would take into account the fact that there were duplicates.
If the numbers 30, 20, 20 and 10 were ranked, 30 is ranked as 1, both 20's are ranked as 2, and
the 10 would be ranked as 4.
Value Rank
30 1 =RANK(B34,B34:B37)
20 2 =RANK(B35,B34:B37)
20 2 =RANK(B36,B34:B37)
10 4 =RANK(B37,B34:B37)
Syntax
=RANK(NumberToRank,ListOfNumbers,RankOrder)
The RankOrder can be 0 zero or 1.
Using 0 will rank larger numbers at the top. (This is optional, leaving it out has the same effect).
Using 1 will rank small numbers at the top.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used to record the times for athletes competing in a race.
The =RANK() function was then used to find their race positions based upon the finishing times.
Ranking Position
High to Low
Ranking Position
Low to High
Ranking Position
High to Low
A B C D E F G H I
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Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
RANK
Page 152 of 202
Athlete Time Race Position
John 1:30 4 =RANK(C53,C53:C58,1)
Alan 1:45 6 =RANK(C54,C53:C58,1)
David 1:02 1 =RANK(C55,C53:C58,1)
Brian 1:36 5 =RANK(C56,C53:C58,1)
Sue 1:27 3 =RANK(C57,C53:C58,1)
Alex 1:03 2 =RANK(C58,C53:C58,1)
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 REPLACE Page 153 of 202
REPLACE
Original Text
ABCDEFGH 2 1 x AxCDEFGH =REPLACE(C4,D4,E4,F4)
ABCDEFGH 2 5 x AxGH =REPLACE(C5,D5,E5,F5)
ABCDEFGH 2 1 hello AhelloCDEFGH =REPLACE(C6,D6,E6,F6)
ABCDEFGH 2 5 hello AhelloGH =REPLACE(C7,D7,E7,F7)
What Does It Do ?
This function replaces a portion of text with a new piece of text.
You need to specify where the replacement should start, how many characters to
remove and what the new replacement text should be.
Syntax
=REPLACE(OriginalText,StartPosition,NumberOfCharactersToReplace,NewText)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Start
Position
Characters
To Replace
New
Character
Modified
Text
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 REPT Page 154 of 202
REPT
A 3 AAA =REPT(C4,D4)
AB 3 ABABAB =REPT(C5,D5)
 10  =REPT(C6,D6)
 10  =REPT(C7,D7)
What Does It Do ?
This function repeats a piece of text a specified number of times.
You need to specify the text to be repeated and how many times to repeat it.
Syntax
=REPT(TextToRepeat,Repetitions)
The maximum number of repetitions is 200.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example 1
The following table was used to display a simple histogram of sales figures.
The =REPT() function uses the value of Sales, but this is divided by 100 to scale down the
number of repetitions to below the maximum of 200.
Month Sales
Jan £1,000 
Feb £5,000 
Mar £3,000 
Apr £2,000 
=REPT("",D29/100)
Example 2
The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time.
The time functions of =HOUR(), =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction
with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats.
To update the clock press the function key F9.
Clock
Hour  02
Minute  51
Second  22
=REPT("",HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW()),"00")
=REPT("",MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW()),"00")
=REPT("",SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW()),"00")
Text To
Repeat
Number Of
Repeats
Repeated
Text
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 RIGHT Page 155 of 202
RIGHT
Alan Jones 1 s =RIGHT(C4,D4)
Alan Jones 2 es =RIGHT(C5,D5)
Alan Jones 3 nes =RIGHT(C6,D6)
Cardiff 6 ardiff =RIGHT(C7,D7)
ABC123 4 C123 =RIGHT(C8,D8)
What Does It Do ?
This function displays a specified number of characters from the right hand side of a
piece of text.
Syntax
=RIGHT(OriginalText,NumberOfCharactersRequired)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used to extract the second name of a person from their full name.
The =FIND() function locates the position of the space between the first and second name.
The length of the second name is calculated by subtracting the position of the space from
the overall length of the full name.
The =RIGHT() function can then extract the second name.
Full Name Second Name
Alan Jones Jones =RIGHT(C28,LEN(C28)FIND(" ",C28))
Bob Smith Smith =RIGHT(C29,LEN(C29)FIND(" ",C29))
Carol Williams Williams =RIGHT(C30,LEN(C30)FIND(" ",C30))
Original
Text
Number Of
Characters
Required
Right
String
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 ROMAN Page 156 of 202
ROMAN
Number Roman
1 I =ROMAN(C4)
2 II =ROMAN(C5)
3 III =ROMAN(C6)
5 V =ROMAN(C7)
10 X =ROMAN(C8)
1998 MCMXCVIII =ROMAN(C9)
1998 MCMXCVIII =ROMAN(C10,0)
1998 MLMVLIII =ROMAN(C11,1)
1998 MXMVIII =ROMAN(C12,2)
1998 MVMIII =ROMAN(C13,3)
1998 MVMIII =ROMAN(C14,4)
1998 MLMVLIII =ROMAN(C15,TRUE)
1998 MCMXCVIII =ROMAN(C16,FALSE)
What Does It Do ?
This function produces a number shown as Roman numerals in various formats.
Syntax
=ROMAN(NormalNumber,RomanNumberFormat)
The RomanNumberFormat can be any of the following.
0 is Classic. This is used if no format is specified.
1 is more Concise.
2 is even more Concise.
3 is even more Concise still.
4 is Simplified.
TRUE is Classic
FALSE is Simplified
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Note
There is no function to do the opposite calculation of Roman to normal.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 ROUND Page 157 of 202
ROUND
Number
1.48 0 1 =ROUND(C4,D4)
1.48 1 1.5 =ROUND(C5,D5)
1.48 2 1.48 =ROUND(C6,D6)
13643.48 1 13640 =ROUND(C7,D7)
13643.48 2 13600 =ROUND(C8,D8)
13643.48 3 14000 =ROUND(C9,D9)
What Does It Do ?
This function rounds a number to a specified amount od decimal places.
If 0 is used the number is rounded to the nearest whole number.
If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.
Syntax
=ROUND(NumberToRound,DecimalPlacesToUse)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Places To
Round
Rounded
Number
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 ROUNDDOWN Page 158 of 202
ROUNDDOWN
Number
1.48 0 1 =ROUNDDOWN(C4,D4)
1.48 1 1.4 =ROUNDDOWN(C5,D5)
1.48 2 1.47 =ROUNDDOWN(C6,D6)
13643.48 1 13640 =ROUNDDOWN(C7,D7)
13643.48 2 13600 =ROUNDDOWN(C8,D8)
13643.48 3 13000 =ROUNDDOWN(C9,D9)
What Does It Do ?
This function rounds a number down to a specified amount of decimal places.
If 0 is used the number is rounded down to the nearest whole number.
If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.
Syntax
=ROUNDDOWN(NumberToRound,DecimalPlacesToUse)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Places To
Round
Rounded
Down
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 ROUNDUP Page 159 of 202
ROUNDUP
Number
1.48 0 2 =ROUNDUP(C4,D4)
1.48 1 1.5 =ROUNDUP(C5,D5)
1.48 2 1.48 =ROUNDUP(C6,D6)
13643.48 1 13650 =ROUNDUP(C7,D7)
13643.48 2 13700 =ROUNDUP(C8,D8)
13643.48 3 14000 =ROUNDUP(C9,D9)
What Does It Do ?
This function rounds a number up to a specified amount of decimal places.
If 0 is used the number is rounded up to the nearest whole number.
If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.
Syntax
=ROUNDUPNumberToRound,DecimalPlacesToUse)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Places To
Round
Rounded
Up
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 SECOND Page 160 of 202
SECOND
Number Second
05/Mar/11 02:52:58 58 =SECOND(C4)
12:00:00 PM 0 =SECOND(C5)
0.50 0 =SECOND(C6)
0.51 24 =SECOND(C7)
1.51 24 =SECOND(C8)
What Does It Do?
The function will show the second of the minute based upon a time or a number.
Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day.
Syntax
=SECOND(Number)
Formatting
The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59.
Example
The following table was used by a telephone compnay to calculate the cost of a call.
The telephone company only deals in seconds which are a multiple of 5.
The seconds in a call are rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5 before the bill is calculated.
The Duration of the call is entered.
The =MINUTES() function calculates the total number of minutes.
The =SECOND() function calculates the total number of seconds.
The =CEILING() function rounds the seconds up to the nearest muliple of 5.
The Cost of the call is then calculated.
Cost Per Second : £0.01
Billed Duration
Duration Minutes Seconds Cost
0:01:08 1 10 £0.70
0:02:03 2 5 £1.25
0:01:47 1 50 £1.10
=CEILING(SECOND(C36),5)
A B C D E F G H
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 SIGN Page 161 of 202
SIGN
Value
10 1 =SIGN(C4)
20 1 =SIGN(C5)
0 0 =SIGN(C6)
10 1 =SIGN(C7)
20 1 =SIGN(C8)
What Does It Do ?
This function tests a value to determine whether it is positive or negative.
If the value is positive the result is 1.
If the value is negative the result is 1.
If the value is zero 0 the result is 0.
Syntax
=SIGN(CellToTest)
The CellToTest can be a cell or a calculation.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Positive or
Negative
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 SLN Page 162 of 202
Page 162 of 202
SLN
Cost £12,000
Salvage £2,000
Life 4
Straight Line Depreciation £2,500 =SLN(F3,F4,F5)
Purchase Value Of A New Car £20,000
Second Hand Value £8,000
Number Of Years Ownership 6
Annual Straight Line Depreciation £2,000 =SLN(F9,F10,F11)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the Straight Line Depreciation of an item.
(Also known as Fixed Instalment method).
The Straight Line Depreciation is how much the value of an item reduced during a specific
period of time. The result is a uniform depreciation value.
An example would be if you bought a new car for £20,000, then kept it for 6 years.
At the end of your ownership you sell the car for £8,000.
The difference between the original and the trade in price is £20,000  £8,000 which is £12,000.
Because you owned the car for 6 years, the SLN is calculated as £12,000 / 6 which is £2,000.
Syntax
=SLN(OriginalCost,SellingPrice,LengthOfOwnership)
The LengthOfOwnership can be any time period, days, months or years.
However, the SLN which is calculated will, be for that time, specifying 2 years ownership
as 24 months will give an SLN per month.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
A B C D E F G H I
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 SMALL Page 163 of 202
SMALL
Values Lowest Value 100 =SMALL(C4:C8,1)
120 2nd Lowest Value 120 =SMALL(C4:C8,2)
800 3rd Lowest Value 120 =SMALL(C4:C8,3)
100 4th Lowest Value 250 =SMALL(C4:C8,4)
120 5th Lowest Value 800 =SMALL(C4:C8,5)
250
What Does It Do ?
This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position
in the list.
Syntax
=SMALL(ListOfNumbersToExamine,PositionToPickFrom)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used to calculate the bottom 3 sales figures between Jan, Feb and Mar.
Sales Jan Feb Mar
North £5,000 £6,000 £4,500
South £5,800 £7,000 £3,000
East £3,500 £2,000 £10,000
West £12,000 £4,000 £6,000
Lowest Value £2,000 =SMALL(D24:F27,1)
2nd Lowest Value £3,000 =SMALL(D24:F27,2)
3rd Lowest Value £3,500 =SMALL(D24:F27,3)
Note
Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use
the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.
Highest £12,000 =MAX(D24:F27)
Lowest £2,000 =MIN(D24:F27)
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 SOUTH Page 164 of 202
Southern data.
Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function.
Jan Feb Mar Total
Alan 100 200 300 600
Bob 400 500 600 1500
Carol 700 800 900 2400
Total 1200 1500 1800 4500
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 STDEV Page 165 of 202
STDEV
Values Values Values
10 10 10
10 10 11
9 11 9
10 10 12
0.5 0.5 1.29
=STDEV(C4:C7) =STDEV(E4:E7) =STDEV(G4:G7)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the sample population standard deviation of a list of values.
A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population.
Syntax
=STDEV(Range1,Range2,Range3 through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine
to pack washing powder.
Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.
At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production
of each machine.
The boxes were weighed and the =STDEV() function used as these boxes only represented
a sample of the complete days production.
The machine with the smallest deviation was the most consistent.
Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance
Machine 1 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.5 0.0816 =STDEV(D34:G34)
Machine 2 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 0.0500 =STDEV(D35:G35)
Machine 3 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 0.1291 =STDEV(D36:G36)
The smallest deviation is : 0.0500 =MIN(H34:H36)
The machine with the smallest deviation is : Machine 2
=INDEX(C34:C36,MATCH(MIN(H34:H36),H34:H36,0))
Explanation of formula:
This finds the lowest value. =MIN(H34:H36)
This finds the position of the lowest value. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36),H34:H36,0)
This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36,MATCH(MIN(H34:H36),H34:H36,0))
find the machine name.
A B C D E F G H I J K
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 STDEVP Page 166 of 202
STDEVP
Values Values Values
10 10 10
10 10 11
9 11 9
10 10 12
0.43 0.43 1.12
=STDEVP(C4:C7) =STDEVP(E4:E7) =STDEVP(G4:G7)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the standard deviation of a list of values.
The result is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population.
Syntax
=STDEVP(Range1,Range2,Range3 through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine
to pack washing powder.
A trial run of just four boxes per machine were produced.
The boxes were weighed and the =STDEVP() function used as these boxes
represented the entire test run.
The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent. ????????????????????
Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance
Machine 1 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.5 0.0707 =STDEVP(D32:G32)
Machine 2 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 0.0433 =STDEVP(D33:G33)
Machine 3 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 0.1118 =STDEVP(D34:G34)
The smallest variance is : 0.0433 =MIN(H32:H34)
The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2
=INDEX(C32:C34,MATCH(MIN(H32:H34),H32:H34,0))
Explanation of formula:
This finds the lowest value. =(MIN(H32:H34)
This finds the position of the lowest value. =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34),H32:H34,0)
This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34,MATCH(MIN(H32:H34),H32:H34,0))
find the machine name.
A B C D E F G H I J K
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 SUBSTITUTE Page 167 of 202
SUBSTITUTE
Original Text Updated Text
ABCDEF CD hello ABhelloEF =SUBSTITUTE(B4,C4,D4)
ABCDABCD CD hello ABhelloABhello =SUBSTITUTE(B5,C5,D5)
Northern Region Region Area Northern Area =SUBSTITUTE(B6,C6,D6)
Sand and Cement and & S& & Cement =SUBSTITUTE(B7,C7,D7)
Original Text Updated Text
ABCABCABC ABC hello 3 ABCABChello
Sand and Cement and & 2 Sand & Cement
=SUBSTITUTE(B10,C10,D10,E10)
=SUBSTITUTE(B11,C11,D11,E11)
What Does It Do ?
This function replaces a specified piece of text with a different piece of text.
It can either replace all occurrences of the text, or a specific instance.
The function is case sensitive.
Syntax
=SUBSTITUTE(OriginalText,TextToRemove,TextToInsert,InstanceToUse)
The InstanceToUse is optional, if it is omitted all instances will be substituted.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Note
To cope with upper or lower case in the substitution you can use other text functions
such as =UPPER(), =LOWER() or =PROPER() to ensure that the substitution will take place.
Table 1 shows how differing text cases alter the result of the substitution.
Table 1
Original Text Updated Text
Northern Region Region Area Northern Area
Region Area Northern region
Northern Region region Area Northern Region
Northern Region Region area Northern area
Northern Region region area Northern Region
=SUBSTITUTE(B39,C39,D39)
Table 2 shows how the =PROPER() function has been used to take account of the mixed cases.
Table 2
Original Text Updated Text
Northern Region Region Area Northern Area
Region Area Northern Area
Northern Region region Area Northern Area
Northern Region Region area Northern Area
Northern Region region area Northern Area
=SUBSTITUTE(PROPER(B50),PROPER(C50),PROPER(D50))
Old Text
To Remove
New Text
To Insert
Old Text
To Remove
New Text
To Insert
Instance To
Be Replaced
Old Text
To Remove
New Text
To Insert
Northern region
Old Text
To Remove
New Text
To Insert
Northern region
A B C D E F G H
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 SUBTOTAL Page 168 of 202
SUBTOTAL
Name Jan Feb Mar Qtr1 Apr May Jun Qtr2 Jul Aug Sep Qtr3 Oct Nov Dec Qtr4 Total
Alan 10 10 10 30 20 20 20 60 30 30 30 90 40 40 40 120 300
Bob 10 10 10 30 20 20 20 60 30 30 30 90 40 40 40 120 300
Carol 10 10 10 30 20 20 20 60 30 30 30 90 40 40 40 120 300
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 SUBTOTAL2 Page 169 of 202
Item Area Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total
Wood East 10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 300
Glass East 10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 300
Brick East 10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 300
East Total 30 30 30 60 60 60 90 90 90 120 120 120 900
Wood North 10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 300
Glass North 10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 300
Brick North 10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 300
North Total 30 30 30 60 60 60 90 90 90 120 120 120 900
Wood South 10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 300
Glass South 10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 300
Brick South 10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 300
South Total 30 30 30 60 60 60 90 90 90 120 120 120 900
Wood West 10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 300
Glass West 10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 300
Brick West 10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 300
West Total 30 30 30 60 60 60 90 90 90 120 120 120 900
Grand Total 120 120 120 240 240 240 360 360 360 480 480 480 3600
SUBTOTAL Sheet 2
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q
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Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
SUM
Page 170 of 202
SUM
Horizontal
100 200 300 600 =SUM(C4:E4)
Vertical
100
200
300
600 =SUM(C7:C9)
Single Cells
100 300 600 =SUM(C13,D14,E13)
200
Multiple Ranges
100 400
200 500
3000 600
4800 =SUM(C17:C19,E17:E19)
Functions
100 400
200 500
300 600
800 =SUM(AVERAGE(C23:C25),MAX(E23:E25))
What Does It Do ?
This function creates a total from a list of numbers.
It can be used either horizontally or vertically.
The numbers can be in single cells, ranges are from other functions.
Syntax
=SUM(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30).
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Note
Many people use the =SUM() function incorrectly.
This example shows how the SUM has been combined with plus + symbols.
The formula is actually doing more work than needed.
It should have been entered as either =C48+C49+C50 or =SUM(C48:C50).
100
200
300
600 =SUM(C48+C49+C50) Wrong!
=SUM(C48:C50) Correct
=C48+C49+C50 Correct
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 SUM (3) for Running Total Page 171 of 202
SUM (Running Total)
Using =SUM() For A Running Total
Month Sales
Jan 10 10 =SUM($D$7:D7)
Feb 50 60 =SUM($D$7:D8)
Mar 30 90 =SUM($D$7:D9)
Apr 20 110 =SUM($D$7:D10)
May 110 =SUM($D$7:D11)
Jun 110 =SUM($D$7:D12)
Jul 110 =SUM($D$7:D13)
Aug 110 =SUM($D$7:D14)
Sep 110 =SUM($D$7:D15)
Oct 110 =SUM($D$7:D16)
Nov 110 =SUM($D$7:D17)
Dec 110 =SUM($D$7:D18)
Type the formula =SUM($D$7:D7) in cell E7 and then copy down the table.
It works because the first reference uses dollar symbols $ to keep $D$7 static
as the formula is copied down. Each occurrence of the =SUM() then adds all
the numbers from the first cell down.
The function can be tidied up to show 0 zero when there is no adjacent value
by using the =IF() function.
Month Sales
Jan 10 10 =SUM(IF(D7,$D$7:D7,0))
Feb 50 60 =SUM(IF(D8,$D$7:D8,0))
Mar 30 90 =SUM(IF(D9,$D$7:D9,0))
Apr 20 110 =SUM(IF(D10,$D$7:D10,0))
May 0 =SUM(IF(D11,$D$7:D11,0))
Jun 0 =SUM(IF(D12,$D$7:D12,0))
Jul 0 The =SUM() only takes place when
Aug 0 there is data in column D.
Sep 0 Otherwise the value 0 zero is entered.
Oct 0
Nov 0
Dec 0
Running
Total
Running
Total
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 SUM using =OFFSET function Page 172 of 202
SUM (and the =OFFSET Function)
Sometimes it is necessary to base a calculation on a set of cells in different locations.
An example would be when a total is required from certain months of the year, such as
the last 3 months in relation to the current date.
One solution would be to retype the calculation each time new data is entered, but this
would be time consuming and open to human error.
A better way is to indicate the start and end point of the range to be calculated by
using the =OFFSET() function.
The =OFFSET() picks out a cell a certain number of cells away from another cell.
By giving the =OFFSET() the address of the first cell in the range which needs to
be totalled, we can then indicate how far away the end cell should be and the =OFFSET()
will give us the address of cell which will be the end of the range to be totalled.
The =OFFSET() needs to know three things;
1. A cell address to use as the fixed point from where it should base the offset.
2. How many rows it should look up or down from the starting point.
3. How many columns it should look left or right from the starting point.
Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May
10 10 400 500 600 700
This example uses E24 as the starting point and offsets no rows or columns which
results in the range being summed as E24:E24.
410 10 400 500 600 700
This example uses E29 as the starting point and offsets 1 col to pick out
cell F29 resulting in a the range E29:F29 being summed.
910 10 400 500 600 700
This example uses E34 as the starting point and offsets 2 cols to pick out
cell G34 resulting in a the range E34:G34 being summed.
Using =OFFSET() Twice In A Formula
The following examples use =OFFSET() to pick both the start and end of the range
which needs to be totalled.
Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May
400 10 400 500 600 700
The cell E45 has been used as the starting point for both offsets and each has
been offset by just 1 column. The result is that just cell F45 is used as the
range F45:F45 for the sum function to calculate.
900 10 400 500 600 700
The cell E51 has been used as the starting point of both offsets, the first offset is
offset by 1 column, the second by 2 columns. The result is the range F51:G51 which
is then totalled.
=SUM(E24:OFFSET(E24,0,0))
=SUM(E29:OFFSET(E29,0,1))
=SUM(E34:OFFSET(E34,0,2))
=SUM(OFFSET(E45,0,1):OFFSET(E45,0,1))
=SUM(OFFSET(E51,0,1):OFFSET(E51,0,2))
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 SUM using =OFFSET function Page 173 of 202
1500 10 400 500 600 700
The cell E57 has been used as the starting point for both offsets, the first offset is
offset by 1 column, the second by 3 columns. The result is the range F57:H57 which
is then totalled.
Example
The following table shows five months of data.
To calculate the total of a specific group of months the =OFFSET() function has been used.
The Start and End dates entered in cells F71 and F72 are used as the offset to produce
a range which can be totalled.
Type in the Start month. Feb98
Type in the End month. Mar98
Total Jan98 Feb98 Mar98 Apr98 May98
900 10 400 500 600 700
1020 15 20 1000 2000 3000
13 5 3 10 800 900
=SUM(OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(F71)):OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(F72)))
Explanation
The following formula represent a breakdown of what the =OFFSET function does.
The formula displayed below are only dummies, but they will update as you enter
dates into cells F71 and F72.
Formula 1 =SUM( OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(F71)) : OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(F72)) )
This is the actual formula entered by the user.
Formula 2 =SUM( OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(2)) : OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(3)) )
This shows how the =MONTH function calculates the month number.
In this example the values of the months are 2 and 3 for Feb and Mar.
These values are the 'offsets' relative to cell D79.
Formula 3 =SUM( OFFSET(D79,0,2) : OFFSET(D79,0,3) )
This shows where the month numbers are used in the =OFFSET function.
Formula 4 =SUM( F79:G79 )
This shows how the =OFFSET eventually equates to cell addresses
to be used as a range for the =SUM function.
=SUM(OFFSET(E57,0,1):OFFSET(E57,0,3))
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Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
SUM with OFFSET
Page 174 of 202
SUM and the =OFFSET function
Sometimes it is necessary to base a calculation on a set of cells in different locations.
An example would be when a total is required from certain months of the year, such as
the last 3 months in relation to the current date.
One solution would be to retype the calculation each time new data is entered, but this
would be time consuming and open to human error.
A better way is to indicate the start and end point of the range to be calculated by
using the =OFFSET() function.
The =OFFSET() picks out a cell a certain number of cells away from another cell.
By giving the =OFFSET() the address of the first cell in the range which needs to
be totalled, we can then indicate how far away the end cell should be and the =OFFSET()
will give us the address of cell which will be the end of the range to be totalled.
The =OFFSET() needs to know three things;
1. A cell address to use as the fixed point from where it should base the offset.
2. How many rows it should look up or down from the starting point.
3. How many columns it should look left or right from the starting point.
Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May
10 10 400 500 600 700
This example uses E24 as the starting point and offsets no rows or columns which
results in the range being summed as E24:E24.
410 10 400 500 600 700
This example uses E29 as the starting point and offsets 1 col to pick out
cell F29 resulting in a the range E29:F29 being summed.
910 10 400 500 600 700
This example uses E34 as the starting point and offsets 2 cols to pick out
cell G34 resulting in a the range E34:G34 being summed.
Using =OFFSET() Twice In A Formula
The following examples use =OFFSET() to pick both the start and end of the range
which needs to be totalled.
Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May
400 10 400 500 600 700
The cell E45 has been used as the starting point for both offsets and each has
been offset by just 1 column. The result is that just cell F45 is used as the
range F45:F45 for the sum function to calculate.
900 10 400 500 600 700
The cell E51 has been used as the starting point of both offsets, the first offset is
offset by 1 column, the second by 2 columns. The result is the range F51:G51 which
=SUM(E24:OFFSET(E24,0,0))
=SUM(E29:OFFSET(E29,0,1))
=SUM(E34:OFFSET(E34,0,2))
=SUM(OFFSET(E45,0,1):OFFSET(E45,0,1))
=SUM(OFFSET(E51,0,1):OFFSET(E51,0,2))
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Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
SUM with OFFSET
Page 175 of 202
is then totalled.
1500 10 400 500 600 700
The cell E57 has been used as the starting point for both offsets, the first offset is
offset by 1 column, the second by 3 columns. The result is the range F57:H57 which
is then totalled.
Example
The following table shows five months of data.
To calculate the total of a specific group of months the =OFFSET() function has been used.
The Start and End dates entered in cells F71 and F72 are used as the offset to produce
a range which can be totalled.
Type in the Start month. Feb98
Type in the End month. Mar98
Total Jan98 Feb98 Mar98 Apr98 May98
900 10 400 500 600 700
1020 15 20 1000 2000 3000
13 5 3 10 800 900
=SUM(OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(F71)):OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(F72)))
Explanation
The following formula represent a breakdown of what the =OFFSET function does.
The formula displayed below are only dummies, but they will update as you enter
dates into cells F71 and F72.
Formula 1 =SUM( OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(F71)) : OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(F72)) )
This is the actual formula entered by the user.
Formula 2 =SUM( OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(2)) : OFFSET(D79,0,MONTH(3)) )
This shows how the =MONTH function calculates the month number.
In this example the values of the months are 2 and 3 for Feb and Mar.
These values are the 'offsets' relative to cell D79.
Formula 3 =SUM( OFFSET(D79,0,2) : OFFSET(D79,0,3) )
This shows where the month numbers are used in the =OFFSET function.
Formula 4 =SUM( F79:G79 )
This shows how the =OFFSET eventually equates to cell addresses
to be used as a range for the =SUM function.
=SUM(OFFSET(E57,0,1):OFFSET(E57,0,3))
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Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
SUMIF
Page 176 of 202
SUMIF
Item Date Cost
Brakes 1Jan98 80
Tyres 10May98 25
Brakes 1Feb98 80
Service 1Mar98 150
Service 5Jan98 300
Window 1Jun98 50
Tyres 1Apr98 200
Tyres 1Mar98 100
Clutch 1May98 250
Total cost of all Brakes bought. 160 =SUMIF(C4:C12,"Brakes",E4:E12)
Total cost of all Tyres bought. 325 =SUMIF(C4:C12,"Tyres",E4:E12)
Total of items costing £100 or above. 1000 =SUMIF(E4:E12,">=100")
Total of item typed in following cell. service 450 =SUMIF(C4:C12,E18,E4:E12)
What Does It Do ?
This function adds the value of items which match criteria set by the user.
Syntax
=SUMIF(RangeOfThingsToBeExamined,CriteriaToBeMatched,RangeOfValuesToTotal)
=SUMIF(C4:C12,"Brakes",E4:E12) This examines the names of products in C4:C12.
It then identifies the entries for Brakes.
It then totals the respective figures in E4:E12
=SUMIF(E4:E12,">=100") This examines the values in E4:E12.
If the value is >=100 the value is added to the total.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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SUMPRODUCT
Page 177
SUMPRODUCT
Item Sold price
Tyres 5 100
Filters 2 10
Bulbs 3 2
Total Sales Value : 526 =SUMPRODUCT(D4:D6,E4:E6)
What Does It Do ?
This function uses at least two columns of values.
The values in the first column are multipled with the corresponding value in the second column.
The total of all the values is the result of the calculation.
Syntax
=SUMPRODUCT(Range1, Range, Range3 through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following table was used by a drinks merchant to keep track of stock.
The merchant needed to know the total purchase value of the stock, and the potential
value of the stock when it is sold, takinging into account the markup percentage.
The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Case Price to
calculate what the merchant spent in buying the stock.
The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with
the Bottles In Case and the Bottle Setting Price, to calculate the potential value of the
stock if it is all sold.
Product Markup
Red Wine 10 £120 10 £12.00 25% £15.00
White Wine 8 £130 10 £13.00 25% £16.25
Champagne 5 £200 6 £33.33 80% £60.00
Beer 50 £24 12 £2.00 20% £2.40
Lager 100 £30 12 £2.50 25% £3.13
=D39/E39 =F39+F39*G39
Total Value Of Stock : £7,440 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39,D35:D39)
Total Selling Price Of Stock : £9,790 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39,E35:E39,H35:H39)
Profit : £2,350 =E44E43
Cases In
Stock
Case
Price
Bottles
In Case
Bottle
Cost
Bottle Selling
Price
SYD Page 178
SYD
Purchase Value Of A New Car £20,000
Second Hand Value £8,000
Number Of Years Ownership 6
Deprecation in year 1 £3,429 =SYD(F3,F4,F5,1)
Deprecation in year 2 £2,857 =SYD(F3,F4,F5,2)
Deprecation in year 3 £2,286 =SYD(F3,F4,F5,3)
Deprecation in year 4 £1,714 =SYD(F3,F4,F5,4)
Deprecation in year 5 £1,143 =SYD(F3,F4,F5,5)
Deprecation in year 6 £571 =SYD(F3,F4,F5,6)
Total Depreciation : £12,000 =SUM(F7:F12)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the depreciation of an item throughout its life, using the sum of the
years digits.
The depreciation is greatest in the earlier part of the items life.
What is the Sum Of The Years Digits ?
The sum of the years digits adds together the each of the years of the life.
A life of 3 years has a sum of 1+2+3 equalling 6.
Each of the years is then calculated as a percentage of the sum of the years.
Year 3 is 50% of 6, year 2 is 33% of 6, year 1 is 17% 6.
The total depreciation of the item is then allocated on the basis of these percentages.
A depreciation of £9000 is allocated as 50% being £4500, 33% being £3000, 17% being £1500.
£9,000
1 17% £1,500
2 33% £3,000
3 50% £4,500
As the greater part of the depreciation is allocated to the earliest years the values are
inverted, year 1 is $4500, year 2 is £3000 and year 1 is £1500.
Example 1
Purchase Price Of A Car : £10,000
Salvage Value : £1,000
Expected Life in Years : 3
As % Of Total Depreciation
Depreciation in Year 1 : £4,500 ===> 0.5
Depreciation in Year 2 : £3,000 ===> 0.33
Depreciation in Year 3 : £1,500 ===> 0.17
=SYD(E39,E40,E41,3)
1. Add together the digits of the Life to get the SumOfTheYearsDigits, 1+2+3=6.
2. Subtract the Salvage from the Purchase Price to get Total Deprectation, £10000£1000=£9000.
3. Divide the Total Deprectation by the SumOfTheYearsDigits, £9000/6=£1500.
4. Invert the year digits, 1,2,3 becomes 3,2,1.
5. Multiply 3,2,1 by £1500 to get £4500, £3000, £1500, these values are the depreciation
values for each of the three years in the life of the item.
Example 2
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SYD Page 179
The same example using 4 years.
Purchase Price Of A Car : £10,000
Salvage Value : £1,000
Expected Life in Years : 4
As % Of Total Depriciation
Depreciation in Year 1 : £3,600 0.4
Depreciation in Year 2 : £2,700 0.3
Depreciation in Year 3 : £1,800 0.2
Depreciation in Year 4 : £900 0.1
Total Depreciation : £9,000 100%
Example 3
This example will adjust itself to accommodate any number of years between 1 and 10.
Purchase Price Of A Car : £10,000
Salvage Value : £1,000
Expected Life in Years (1 to 10) : 7
As % Of Total Depriciation
Year 1 £2,250 25%
Year 2 £1,929 21%
Year 3 £1,607 18%
Year 4 £1,286 14%
Year 5 £964 11%
Year 6 £643 7%
Year 7 £321 4%
Year
Year
Year
£9,000 100%
Syntax
=SYD(OriginalCost,SalvageValue,Life,PeriodToCalculate)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 T Page 180 of 202
T
Cell To Test Result
Hello Hello =T(D4)
10 =T(D5)
1Jan98 =T(D6)
=T(D7)
What Does It Do ?
This function examines an entry to determine whether it is text or not.
If the value is text, then the text is the result of the function
If the value is not text, the result is a blank.
The function is not specifically needed by Excel, but is included for compatibility with
other spreadsheet programs.
Syntax
=T(CellToTest)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 TEXT Page 181 of 202
TEXT
10 10.00 =TEXT(C4,"0.00")
10 £10.00 =TEXT(C5,"£0.00")
10 10 =TEXT(C6,"0")
10 £10 =TEXT(C7,"£0")
10.25 10.3 =TEXT(C8,"0.0")
10.25 £10.3 =TEXT(C9,"£0.0")
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a number to a piece of text.
The formatting for the text needs to be specified in the function.
Syntax
=TEXT(NumberToConvert,FormatForConversion)
Formatting
No special formatting is required.
Original
Number
Converted
To Text
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 TIME Page 182 of 202
TIME
Hour Minute Second Time
14 30 59 14:30:59 =TIME(C4,D4,E4)
14 30 59 2:30:59 PM =TIME(C5,D5,E5)
14 30 59 0.60485 =TIME(C6,D6,E6)
What Does It Do?
This function will convert three separate numbers to an actual time.
Syntax
=TIME(Hour,Minute,Second)
Formatting
The result will be shown as a time which can be formatted either as 12 or 24 hour style.
If a normal number format is applied a decimal fraction is shown which represents the
time as a fraction of the day.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 TIMEVALUE Page 183 of 202
TIMEVALUE
Text Time
14:30:59 0.6 =TIMEVALUE(C4)
14:30:59 14:30:59 =TIMEVALUE(C5)
14:30:59 2:30:59 PM =TIMEVALUE(C6)
What Does It Do?
This function will show an actual time based on a piece of text which looks
like a time. It is useful when data is imported from other applications, such as
from mainframe computers, which convert all values to text.
Syntax
=TIMEVALUE(Text)
Formatting
The result will be shown as a number representing the time a fraction of the day.
Formatting can be applied for either the 12 or 24 hour clock system.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 TODAY Page 184 of 202
TODAY
Today Is
5Mar11 =TODAY()
What Does It Do?
Use this to show the current date.
Syntax
=TODAY()
Formatting
The result will normally be displayed using the DDMMMYY format.
Example
The following example shows how the Today function is used to calculate the number
of days since a particular day.
Date Days Since
1Jan97 03/03/14 =TODAY()C20
10Aug97 07/25/13 =TODAY()C21
Note that the result is actually the number of days before todays date. To calculate
a result which includes the current date an extra 1 will need to be added.
Date Days Since
1Jan97 5177 =TODAY()C28+1
10Aug97 4956 =TODAY()C29+1
Example
The following example shows the number of days from today until the year 2000.
Year 2000 Days Until
01Jan2000 10/27/88 =C36TODAY()
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 TRANSPOSE Page 185 of 202
TRANSPOSE
Jan Feb
Alan 10 30
Bob 40 50
Carol 70 80
Total 120 160
Alan Bob Carol Total
Jan 10 40 70 120
Feb 30 50 80 160
{=TRANSPOSE(C3:E7)}
As an array formula in all these cells
What Does It Do ?
This function copies data from a range, and places in it in a new range, turning it so
that the data originally in columns is now in rows, and the data originally in rows
is in columns.
The transpose range must be the same size as the original range.
The function needs to be entered as an array formula.
To enter an array formula you must first highlight all the cells where the formula is required.
Next type the formula, such as =TRANSPOSE(A1:A5).
Finally press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to confirm it.
If changes need to be made to the formula, the entire array has to be highlighted, the edits
can then be made and the Ctrl+Shift+Enter used to confirm it.
Syntax
=TRANSPOSE(Range)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 TREND Page 186 of 202
Page 186 of 202
TREND WHAT IS CONST b ?
Historical Data Predicted Values
Month Sales Month Sales
1 £1,000 7 £4,940 {=TREND(C8:C13,B8:B13,E8:E13)}
2 £2,000 8 £5,551 {=TREND(C5:C10,B5:B10,E5:E10)}
3 £2,500 9 £6,163 {=TREND(C5:C10,B5:B10,E5:E10)}
4 £3,500 10 £6,774 {=TREND(C5:C10,B5:B10,E5:E10)}
5 £3,800 11 £7,386 {=TREND(C5:C10,B5:B10,E5:E10)}
6 £4,000 12 £7,997 {=TREND(C5:C10,B5:B10,E5:E10)}
What Does It Do ?
This function predicts values based upon three sets of related values.
The prediction is based upon the Linear Trend of the original values.
The function is an array function and must be entered using Ctrl+Shift+Enter.
Syntax
=TREND(KnownYs,KnownXs,RequiredXs,Constant)
The KnownYs is the range of values, such as Sales Figures.
The KnownXs is the intervals used when collecting the data, such as Months.
The RequiredXs is the range for which you want to make the prediction, such as Months.
The Constant I have no fuccking idea what its about!
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The following tables were used by a company to predict when they would start to
make a profit.
Their bank manager had told the company that unless they could show a profit by the
end of the next year, the bank would no longer provide an overdraft facility.
To prove to the bank that, based upon the past years performance, the company would
start to make a profit at the end of the next year, the =TREND() function was used.
The historical data for the past year was entered, months 1 to 12.
The months to predict were entered, 13 to 24.
The =TREND() function shows that it will be month 22 before the company make a profit.
Historical Data Predicted Values
Month Profit Month Profit
1 £5,000 13 £2,226 {=TREND(C41:C52,B41:B52,E41:E52)}
2 £4,800 14 £1,968 The
3 £4,600 15 £1,709 same
4 £4,750 16 £1,451 function
5 £4,800 17 £1,193 used
6 £4,500 18 £935 in
7 £4,000 19 £676 all
8 £3,800 20 £418 cells
9 £3,300 21 £160 as
10 £2,000 22 £98 an
11 £2,500 23 £356 array
12 £2,800 24 £615 formula
How To Enter An Array Formula
Select all the cells where the array is required, such as F41 to F52.
Type the formula such as =TREND(C41:C52,B41:B52,E41:E52), but do not press Enter.
Hold the Ctrl+Shift keys down.
Press Enter to enter the formula as an array.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 TRIM Page 187 of 202
TRIM
Original Text Trimmed Text
ABCD ABCD =TRIM(C4)
A B C D A B C D =TRIM(C5)
Alan Jones Alan Jones =TRIM(C6)
ABCD ABCD =TRIM(C7)
What Does It Do ?
This function removes unwanted spaces from a piece of text.
The spaces before and after the text will be removed completely.
Multiple spaces within the text will be trimmed to a single space
Syntax
=TRIM(TextToTrim)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 TRUNC Page 188 of 202
TRUNC
Number
1.48 0 1 =TRUNC(C4,D4)
1.48 1 1.4 =TRUNC(C5,D5)
1.48 2 1.47 =TRUNC(C6,D6)
1.48 1 1.4 =TRUNC(C7,D7)
1.48 2 1.47 =TRUNC(C8,D8)
13643.48 1 13640 =TRUNC(C9,D9)
13643.48 2 13600 =TRUNC(C10,D10)
13643.48 3 13000 =TRUNC(C11,D11)
What Does It Do ?
This function removes the decimal part of a number, it does not actually round the number.
Syntax
=TRUNC(NumberToTuncate,Precision)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Precision
For
Truncation
Truncated
Number
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 TYPE Page 189 of 202
TYPE
DOES NOT WORK AS PER HELP SYSTEM
10 1
Hello 2
TRUE 8
8 8
#DIV/0! 16
1 2 3 8
4 5 6
7 8 9
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 UPPER Page 190 of 202
UPPER
Original Text Upper Case
alan jones ALAN JONES =UPPER(C4)
bob smith BOB SMITH =UPPER(C5)
carOl wiLLiamS CAROL WILLIAMS =UPPER(C6)
cardiff CARDIFF =UPPER(C7)
abc123 ABC123 =UPPER(C8)
What Does It Do ?
This function converts all characters in a piece of text to upper case.
Syntax
=UPPER(TextToConvert)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
See the example for FREQUENCY.
A B C D E F G H
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 VALUE Page 191 of 202
VALUE
Text Containing A Number Value
Annual turnover was £5000 Err:502 =VALUE(MID(C4,SEARCH("£",C4),99))
There was a 2% increase in sales. #VALUE!
There was a 50% increase in sales. #VALUE!
A 100% increase was achieved. #VALUE!
Only a 2% increase in sales. #VALUE!
Approx 50% increase in sales. #VALUE!
There was a 100% increase in sales. #VALUE! * See explanation below.
The winning time was 1:30 seconds. #VALUE! =VALUE(MID(C14,SEARCH("??:??",C14),5))
The winning time was 1:30 seconds. #VALUE! =VALUE(MID(C15,SEARCH("??:??",C15),5))
The winning time was 10:30 seconds. #VALUE! =VALUE(MID(C16,SEARCH("??:??",C16),5))
The winning time was 0:30 seconds. #VALUE! =VALUE(MID(C17,SEARCH("??:??",C17),5))
What Does It Do ?
This function converts a piece of text which resembles a number into an actual value.
If the number in the middle of a long piece of text it will have to be extracted using other
text functions such as =SEARCH(), =MID(), =FIND(), =SUBSTITUTE, =LEFT() or =RIGHT().
Syntax
=VALUE(TextToConvert)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
The result will be shown as a value, based upon the original text.
If the £ sign is included in the text it will be ignored.
If the % sign is included in the text, the result will be a decimal fraction which can then
be formatted as a percentage.
If the original text format appears as a time hh:mm the result will be a time.
The same will be true for other recognised formats.
Explanation of formula shown above.
To extract the values from the following text is complicated!
The actual percentage value is of variable length, it can be either one, two or three digits long.
The only way to identify the value is the fact it always ends with the % sign.
There is no way to identify the beginning of the value, other than it is preceded by a space.
The main problem is calculating the length of the value to extract.
If the extraction assumes the maximum length of three digits and the % sign, errors will occur
when the percentage is only one digit long, as alphabetic characters will be included.
To get around the problem the =SUBSTITUTE() function was used to increase the size of the
spaces in the text.
Now when the extraction takes place any unnecessary characters will be spaces which are
ignored by the =VALUE() function.
There was a 2% increase in sales. #VALUE!
There was a 50% increase in sales. #VALUE!
There was a 100% increase in sales. #VALUE!
=VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C52," "," "),SEARCH("???%",SUBSTITUTE(C52," "," ")),4))
=VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C11," "," "),SEARCH("???%",SUBSTITUTE(C11," "," ")),4))
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 VAR Page 192 of 202
VAR
Values Values Values
10 10 10
10 10 11
9 11 9
10 10 12
0.25 0.25 1.67
=VAR(C4:C7) =VAR(E4:E7) =VAR(G4:G7)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the sample population variance of a list of values.
A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population.
Syntax
=VAR(Range1,Range2,Range3 through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine
to pack washing powder.
Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.
At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production
of each machine.
The boxes were weighed and the =VAR() function used as these boxes only represented
a sample of the complete days production.
The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.
Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance
Machine 1 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.5 0.0067 =VAR(D34:G34)
Machine 2 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 0.0025 =VAR(D35:G35)
Machine 3 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 0.0167 =VAR(D36:G36)
The smallest variance is : 0.0025 =MIN(H34:H36)
The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2
=INDEX(C34:C36,MATCH(MIN(H34:H36),H34:H36,0))
Explanation of formula:
This finds the lowest value. =MIN(H34:H36)
This finds the position of the lowest value. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36),H34:H36,0)
This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36,MATCH(MIN(H34:H36),H34:H36,0))
find the machine name.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 VARP Page 193 of 202
VARP
Values Values Values
10 10 10
10 10 11
9 11 9
10 10 12
0.19 0.19 1.25
=VARP(C4:C7) =VARP(E4:E7) =VARP(G4:G7)
What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the variance of a list of values.
The variance is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population.
Syntax
=VARP(Range1,Range2,Range3 through to Range30)
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example
The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine
to pack washing powder.
A trial run a just four boxes per machine were produced.
The boxes were weighed and the =VARP() function used as these boxes
represented the entire test run.
The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.
Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results
Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance
Machine 1 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.5 0.0050 =VARP(D32:G32)
Machine 2 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.5 0.0019 =VARP(D33:G33)
Machine 3 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 0.0125 =VARP(D34:G34)
The smallest variance is : 0.0019 =MIN(H32:H34)
The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2
=INDEX(C32:C34,MATCH(MIN(H32:H34),H32:H34,0))
Explanation of formula:
This finds the lowest value. =(MIN(H32:H34)
This finds the position of the lowest value. =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34),H32:H34,0)
This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34,MATCH(MIN(H32:H34),H32:H34,0))
find the machine name.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 VLOOKUP Page 194 of 202
VLOOKUP
The column numbers are not needed.
they are part of the illustration.
col 1 col 2 col 3 col 4 col 5 col 6
Jan 10 20 30 40 50
Feb 80 90 100 110 120
Mar 97 69 45 51 77
Type a month to look for : Feb
Which column needs to be picked out : 4
The result is : 100
=VLOOKUP(G11,C6:H8,G12,FALSE)
What Does It Do ?
This function scans down the row headings at the side of a table to find a specified item.
When the item is found, it then scans across to pick a cell entry.
Syntax
=VLOOKUP(ItemToFind,RangeToLookIn,ColumnToPickFrom,SortedOrUnsorted)
The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user.
The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the row headings at the left hand side.
The ColumnToPickFrom is how far across the table the function should look to pick from.
The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. TRUE for yes, FALSE for no.
Formatting
No special formatting is needed.
Example 1
This table is used to find a value based on a specified name and month.
The =VLOOKUP() is used to scan down to find the name.
The problem arises when we need to scan across to find the month column.
To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used.
The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the month we require. It then calculates
the position of the month in the list. Unfortunately, because the list of months is not as wide
as the lookup range, the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require, so and extra 1 is
added to compensate.
The =VLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look across the columns and
picks out the correct cell entry.
The =VLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the
row headings are not sorted.
Jan Feb Mar
Bob 10 80 97
Eric 20 90 69
Alan 30 100 45
Carol 40 110 51
David 50 120 77
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 VLOOKUP Page 195 of 202
Type a name to look for : eric
Type a month to look for : mar
The result is : 69
=VLOOKUP(F56,C50:F54,MATCH(F57,D49:F49,0)+1,FALSE)
Example 2
This example shows how the =VLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for
different makes of cars.
The =VLOOKUP() scans down row headings in column F for the spare part entered in column C.
When the make is found, the =VLOOKUP() then scans across to find the price, using the
result of the =MATCH() function to find the position of the make of car.
The functions use the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol . This ensures that
when the formula is copied to more cells, the ranges for =VLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do
not change.
Maker Spare Cost Lookup Table
Vauxhall Ignition £50 Vauxhall Ford VW
VW GearBox £600 GearBox 500 450 600
Ford Engine £1,200 Engine 1000 1200 800
VW Steering £275 Steering 250 350 275
Ford Ignition £70 Ignition 50 70 45
Ford CYHead £290 CYHead 300 290 310
Vauxhall GearBox £500
Ford Engine £1,200
=VLOOKUP(C81,F75:I79,MATCH(B81,G74:I74,0)+1,FALSE)
Example 3
In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders.
The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick, Wood and Glass.
The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product.
The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total.
All the calculations take place in the Orders Table.
The name of the Item is typed in column C of the Orders Table.
The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table.
The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product
names down the side of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted.
Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match. If a match is
not found, the function will produce an error.
=VLOOKUP(C126,C114:D116,2,FALSE)
The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table
If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the side of the Discount Table the =VLOOKUP will
look across to find the correct discount.
The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values
down the side of the Discount Table are sorted.
Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match. If the Quantity Ordered does
not match a value at the side of the Discount Table, the next lowest value is used.
Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100, and the discount from
the 100 row is used.
=VLOOKUP(D126,F114:I116,MATCH(C126,G113:I113,0)+1,TRUE)
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 VLOOKUP Page 196 of 202
Discount Table
Unit Cost Table Brick Wood Glass
Brick £2 1 0% 0% 0%
Wood £1 100 6% 3% 12%
Glass £3 300 8% 5% 15%
Orders Table
Item Units Unit Cost Discount Total
Brick 100 £2 6% £188
Wood 200 £1 3% £194
Glass 150 £3 12% £396
Brick 225 £2 6% £423
Wood 50 £1 0% £50
Glass 500 £3 15% £1,275
Formula for :
Unit Cost =VLOOKUP(C126,C114:D116,2,FALSE)
Discount =VLOOKUP(D126,F114:I116,MATCH(C126,G113:I113,0)+1,TRUE)
Total =(D126*E126)(D126*E126*F126)
A B C D E F G H I J
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 WEEKDAY Page 197 of 202
WEEKDAY
Date Weekday
Thu 01Jan98 5 =WEEKDAY(C4)
Thu 01Jan98 5 =WEEKDAY(C5)
Thu 01Jan98 5 =WEEKDAY(C6,1)
Thu 01Jan98 4 =WEEKDAY(C7,2)
Thu 01Jan98 3 =WEEKDAY(C8,3)
What Does It Do?
This function shows the day of the week from a date.
Syntax
=WEEKDAY(Date,Type)
Type : This is used to indicate the week day numbering system.
1 : will set Sunday as 1 through to Saturday as 7
2 : will set Monday as 1 through to Sunday as 7.
3 : will set Monday as 0 through to Sunday as 6.
If no number is specified, Excel will use 1.
Formatting
The result will be shown as a normal number.
Example
The following table was used by a hotel which rented a function room.
The hotel charged different rates depending upon which day of the week the booking was for.
The Booking Date is entered.
The Actual Day is calculated.
The Booking Cost is picked from a list of rates using the =LOOKUP() function.
Booking Date Actual Day Booking Cost
7Jan98 Wednesday £30.00
=LOOKUP(WEEKDAY(C34),C39:D45)
Booking Rates
Day Of Week Cost
1 £50
2 £25
3 £25
4 £30
5 £40
6 £50
7 £100
To show the result as the name of the day, use Format, Cells, Custom and set
the Type to ddd or dddd.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 WORKDAY Page 198 of 202
WORKDAY
StartDate Days Result
1Jan98 28 35836 =WORKDAY(D4,E4)
1Jan98 28 10Feb98 =WORKDAY(D5,E5)
What Does It Do?
Use this function to calculate a past or future date based on a starting date and a
specified number of days. The function excludes weekends and holidays and can
therefore be used to calculate delivery dates or invoice dates.
Syntax
=WORKDAY(StartDate,Days,Holidays)
Formatting
The result will normally be shown as a number which can be formatted to a
normal date by using Format,Cells,Number,Date.
Example
The following example shows how the function can be used to calculate delivery dates
based upon an initial Order Date and estimated Delivery Days.
Order Date Delivery Days Delivery Date
Mon 02Feb98 2 Wed 04Feb98
Tue 15Dec98 28 Tue 26Jan99
=WORKDAY(D25,E25,D28:D32)
Holidays
Bank Holiday Fri 01May98
Xmas Fri 25Dec98
New Year Wed 01Jan97
New Year Thu 01Jan98
New Year Fri 01Jan99
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 YEAR Page 199 of 202
YEAR
Date Year
25Dec98 1998 =YEAR(C4)
What Does It Do?
This function extracts the year number from a date.
Syntax
=YEAR(Date)
Formatting
The result is shown as a number.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 YEARFRAC Page 200 of 202
YEARFRAC
Start Date End Date Fraction
1Jan98 1Apr98 0.25 =YEARFRAC(C4,D4)
1Jan98 31Dec98 1 =YEARFRAC(C5,D5)
1Jan98 1Apr98 25% =YEARFRAC(C6,D6)
What Does It Do?
This function calculates the difference between two dates and expresses the result
as a decimal fraction.
Syntax
=YEARFRAC(StartDate,EndData,Basis)
Basis : Defines the calendar system to be used in the function.
0 : or omitted USA style 30 days per month divided by 360.
1 : 29 or 30 or 31 days per month divided by 365.
2 : 29 or 30 or 31 days per month divided by 360.
3 : 29 or 30 0r 31 days per month divided by 365.
4 : European 29 or 30 or 31 days divided by 360.
Formatting
The result will be shown as a decimal fraction, but can be formatted as a percent.
Example
The following table was used by a company which hired people on short term contracts
for a part of the year.
The Pro Rata Salary which represents the annual salary is entered.
The Start and End dates of the contract are entered.
The =YEARFRAC() function is used to calculate Actual Salary for the portion of the year.
Start End Pro Rata Salary Actual Salary
1Jan98 31Dec98 £12,000 £12,000 =YEARFRAC(B32,C32+1,4)*D32
1Jan98 31Mar98 £12,000 £3,000 =YEARFRAC(B33,C33+1,4)*D33
1Jan98 30Jun98 £12,000 £6,000 =YEARFRAC(B34,C34+1,4)*D34
Note
The extra 1 has been added to the End date to compensate for the fact that the =YEARFRAC()
function calculates from the Start date up to, but not including, the End date.
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52857261.xls at 03/05/2011  TimeSheet Page 201 of 202
TIMESHEET
Week beginning Mon 05Jan98 Normal Hours 37:30
Day Arrive Lunch Out Lunch In Depart Total
Mon 05 8:00 13:00 14:00 17:00 8:00
Tue 06 8:45 12:30 13:30 17:00 7:15
Wed 07 9:00 13:00 14:00 18:00 8:00
Thu 08 8:30 13:00 14:00 17:00 7:30
Fri 09 8:00 12:00 13:00 17:00 8:00
Total Hours 38:45
Under worked by 
Over worked by 1:15
This is simple example of a timesheet.
Instructions :
Type the week start date in cell C3, the Week beginning.
Use the format dd/mm/yy, the name of the day will appear automatically.
The date is then passed down to the Day column.
Type the amount of hours you are expected to work in G3, the Normal Hours.
This is used later to calculate if have worked over or under the required hours.
Type the times you arrive and leave work in the appropraite columns.
Use the format of hh:mm.
Note
The Total Hours cell has been formatted as [h]:mm.
This ensures the total hours can be expressed as a value above 24 hours.
If the [h]:mm format had not been used the Total Hours would show as : 14:45
If the [h]:mm format does not show in the cell format dialog box
on your computer, it can be created using Format, Cells, Number, Custom.
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Excel Function Dictionary
© PCTC 1998
 Project Dates
Page 202 of 202
Project Dates House Building
Target Delivery Tue 27Jan98 Target Budget £12,000
Job Stage Start Date End Date Daily Cost Total
Survey Mon 05Jan98 5 Fri 09Jan98 £200 £1,000
Foundation Mon 12Jan98 4 Thu 15Jan98 £1,000 £4,000
Walls Fri 16Jan98 3 Tue 20Jan98 £800 £2,400
Roof Wed 21Jan98 6 Wed 28Jan98 £400 £2,400
Electrics Thu 29Jan98 4 Tue 03Feb98 £300 £1,200
Actual Delivery Tue 03Feb98 Total Cost £11,000
Against Target 5 days behind Budget % 92%
Total Days 22
This is simple example of using dates for project management.
Text to be written.
UNDER CONSTRUCTION !
=WORKDAY(C10,D101)
This calculates the next working day.
Days
Required
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Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998
Documentation Page 2 of 202
What Is In The Dictionary ? This workbook contains 173 worksheets, each explaining the purpose and usage of particular Excel functions. There are also a number of sample worksheets which are simple models of common applications, such as Timesheet and Date Calculations. Formatting Each worksheet uses the same type of formatting to indicate the various types of entry. North 100 100 100 300 =SUM(C13:C15) Text headings are shown in grey. Data is shown as purple text on a yellow background. The results of Formula are shown as blue on yellow. The formula used in the calulations is shown as blue text.
The Arial font is used exclusivley throughout the workbook and should display correctly with any installation of Windows. Each sheet has been designed to be as simple as possible, with no fancy macros to accomplish the desrired result. Printing Each worksheet is set to print on to A4 portrait. The printouts will have the column headings of A,B,C... and the row numbers 1,2,3... which will assist with the reading of the formula. The ideal printer would be a laser set at 600dpi. If you are using a dot matrix or inkjet, it may be worth switching off the colours before printing, as these will print as dark grey. (See the sheet dealing with Colour settings). Protection Each sheet is unprotected so that you will be able to change values and experiment with the calculations. Macros There are only a few very simple macros which are used by the various buttons to naviagte through the sheets. These have been written very simply, and do not make any attempt to change your current Toolbars and Menus.
Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998
Instructions Page 3 of 202
What Do The Buttons Do ?
View View Sort Sort
This button will display the worksheet containing the function example. 1. Click on the function name, then 2. Click on the View button.
This button sorts the list of functions into alphabetical order.
Category Category
Location Location
This describes the category the function is a member of. Click this button to sort alphabetically.
This shows where the function is stored in Excel. Builtin indicates that the function is part of Excel itself. Analysis ToolPak indicates the function is stored in the Analysis ToolPak addin. Click this button to sort alphabetically.
Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998
Colours Page 4 of 202
Using Different Monitor Settings Each sheet has been designed to fit within the visible width of monitors with a low resolution of 640 x 480. This ensures that you do not need to scroll from left and right to see all the data. The colours are best suited to monitors capable of 256 colours. On monitors using just 16 colours the greys may look a bit rough! You can switch colours off and on using the button below.
This may take a Colour On few minutes on any computer !
Alan Bob Carol Total
North 100 100 100 300
Sample Colour Scheme South East West 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 300 300 300
Total 400 400 400 1200
The Analysis ToolPak must be addedin to Excel before these functions will be available. . The functions cover areas such as Date and Mathematical operations.Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 Analysis ToolPak Page 5 of 202 Analysis ToolPak What Is The Analysis ToolPak ? The Analysis ToolPak is an addin file containing extra functions which are not built in to Excel. Analysis ToolPak Check For Analysis ToolPak Load the Analysis ToolPak UnLoad the Analysis ToolPak Any formula using these functions without the ToolPak loaded will show the #NAME error.
Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 FunctionList Page 6 of 202 Sort Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y View Category Sample Sample Mathematical Logical Statistical Statistical Engineering Mathematical Information Text Lookup Text Text Lookup Lookup Mathematical Text Engineering Statistical Statistical Statistical Information Mathematical Financial Financial Date Date Database Date Date Financial Database Database Financial Engineering Engineering Engineering Database Database Database Text Database Database Database Database Database Database Date Financial Date Information Mathematical Text Mathematical Logical Text Text Mathematical Statistical Statistical Financial Mathematical Engineering Statistical Engineering Lookup Date Lookup Logical Lookup Lookup Information Mathematical Information Information Information Information Information Information Location Sample Sample Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Analysis ToolPak Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Analysis ToolPak Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Analysis ToolPak Analysis ToolPak Builtin Analysis ToolPak Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Analysis ToolPak Builtin Builtin Example using date calculation. using currency format Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the st Returns the effective annual interest rate Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of month Returns a number corresponding to an error type Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer Checks to see if two text values are identical Returns the factorial of a number Returns the logical value FALSE Finds one text value within another (casesensitive) Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals Rounds a number down. an intranet.TYPE EVEN EXACT FACT FALSE FIND FIXED FLOOR FORECAST FREQUENCY FV GCD GESTEP GROWTH HEX2DEC HLOOKUP HOUR HYPERLINK IF INDEX INDIRECT INFO INT ISBLANK ISERR ISERROR ISEVEN ISLOGICAL ISNA Returns the absolute value of a number Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean Returns the average of its arguments Converts a binary number to decimal Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance Returns information about the formatting. toward zero Returns a value along a linear trend Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array Returns the future value of an investment Returns the greatest common divisor Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value Returns values along an exponential trend Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell Converts a serial number to an hour Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server.Timesheet ABS AND AVEDEV AVERAGE BIN2DEC CEILING CELL CHAR CHOOSE CLEAN CODE COLUMN COLUMNS COMBIN CONCATENATE CONVERT CORREL COUNT COUNTA COUNTBLANK COUNTIF CUMIPMT CUMPRINC DATE DATEVALUE DAVERAGE DAY DAYS360 DB DCOUNT DCOUNTA DDB DEC2BIN DEC2HEX DELTA DGET DMAX DMIN DOLLAR DPRODUCT DSTDEV DSTDEVP DSUM DVAR DVARP EDATE EFFECT EOMONTH ERROR. or contents of a cell Returns the character specified by the code number Chooses a value from a list of values Removes all nonprintable characters from text Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string Returns the column number of a reference Returns the number of columns in a reference Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects Joins several text items into one text item Converts a number from one measurement system to another Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments Counts how many values are in the list of arguments Counts the number of blank cells within a range Counts the number of nonblank cells within a range that meet the given criteria Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods Returns the serial number of a particular date Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number Returns the average of selected database entries Converts a serial number to a day of the month Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360day year Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixeddeclining balance meth Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database Counts nonblank cells in a database Returns depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the doubledeclining balance method Converts a decimal number to binary Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal Tests whether two values are equal Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria Returns the maximum value from selected database entries Returns the minimum value from selected database entries Converts a number to text.Project Dates . . or the Specifies a logical test to perform Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array Returns a reference indicated by a text value Returns information about the current operating environment Rounds a number down to the nearest integer Returns TRUE if the value is blank Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A Returns TRUE if the value is any error value Returns TRUE if the number is even Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value . location.
and logical Substitutes new text for old text in a text string Returns a subtotal in a list or database Adds its arguments Adds the cells specified by a given criteria Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components Returns the sumofyears' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period Converts its arguments to text Formats a number and converts it to text Returns the serial number of a particular time Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number Returns the serial number of today's date Returns the transpose of an array . including numbers. text. as text Rounds a number to a specified number of digits Rounds a number down. away from zero Returns the row number of a reference Returns the number of rows in a reference Finds one text value within another (not casesensitive) Converts a serial number to a second Returns the sign of a number Returns the straightline depreciation of an asset for one period Returns the kth smallest value in a data set Estimates standard deviation based on a sample Estimates standard deviation based on a sample.Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 FunctionList Page 7 of 202 Sort Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y View Category Information Information Information Information Information Statistical Mathematical Text Text Statistical Statistical Lookup Text Lookup Statistical Mathematical Statistical Text Statistical Date Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Statistical Date Mathematical Information Information Date Logical Date Financial Mathematical Lookup Logical Statistical Statistical Statistical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Text Financial Statistical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Statistical Text Text Text Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Mathematical Lookup Lookup Text Date Mathematical Financial Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Statistical Text Mathematical Mathematical Lookup Mathematical Mathematical Financial Text Text Date Date Date Lookup Location Builtin Builtin Analysis ToolPak Builtin Builtin Builtin Analysis ToolPak Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Analysis ToolPak Builtin Builtin Analysis ToolPak Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Analysis ToolPak Builtin Analysis ToolPak Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin ISNONTEXT ISNUMBER ISODD ISREF ISTEXT LARGE LCM LEFT LEN LINEST LOGEST LOOKUP (vector) LOWER MATCH MAX MDETERM MEDIAN MID MIN MINUTE MINVERSE MMULT MOD MODE MONTH MROUND N NA NETWORKDAYS NOT NOW NPV ODD OFFSET OR PERCENTILE PERCENTRANK PERMUT PI POWER PRODUCT PROPER PV QUARTILE QUOTIENT RAND RANDBETWEEN RANK REPLACE REPT RIGHT ROMAN ROUND ROUNDDOWN ROUNDUP ROW ROWS SEARCH SECOND SIGN SLN SMALL STDEV STDEVA STDEVP STDEVPA SUBSTITUTE SUBTOTAL SUM SUM with OFFSET SUMIF SUMPRODUCT SYD T TEXT TIME TIMEVALUE TODAY TRANSPOSE Returns TRUE if the value is not text Returns TRUE if the value is a number Returns TRUE if the number is odd Returns TRUE if the value is a reference Returns TRUE if the value is text Returns the kth largest value in a data set Returns the least common multiple Returns the leftmost characters from a text value Returns the number of characters in a text string Returns the parameters of a linear trend Returns the parameters of an exponential trend Looks up values in a vector or array Converts text to lowercase Looks up values in a reference or array Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments Returns the matrix determinant of an array Returns the median of the given numbers Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments Converts a serial number to a minute Returns the matrix inverse of an array Returns the matrix product of two arrays Returns the remainder from division Returns the most common value in a data set Converts a serial number to a month Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple Returns a value converted to a number Returns the error value #N/A Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates Reverses the logic of its argument Returns the serial number of the current date and time Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a dis Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer Returns a reference offset from a given reference Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE Returns the kth percentile of values in a range Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects Returns the value of Pi Returns the result of a number raised to a power Multiplies its arguments Capitalises the first letter in each word of a text value Returns the present value of an investment Returns the quartile of a data set Returns the integer portion of a division Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Returns a random number between the numbers you specify Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers Replaces characters within text Repeats text a given number of times Returns the rightmost characters from a text value Converts an arabic numeral to roman. including numbers. toward zero Rounds a number up. text. and logical values Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population.
Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 FunctionList Page 8 of 202 Sort Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y TREND TRIM TRUE TRUNC TYPE UPPER VALUE VAR VARP VDB VLOOKUP WEEKDAY WORKDAY YEAR YEARFRAC View Category Statistical Text Logical Mathematical Information Text Text Statistical Statistical Financial Lookup Date Date Date Date Location Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Builtin Analysis ToolPak Builtin Analysis ToolPak Returns values along a linear trend Removes spaces from text Returns the logical value TRUE Truncates a number to an integer Returns a number indicating the data type of a value Converts text to uppercase Converts a text argument to a number Estimates variance based on a sample Calculates variance based on the entire population Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period using a declining balance me Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell Converts a serial number to a day of the week Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays Converts a serial number to a year Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_da .
I use that as a working password during project development. Analysis ToolPak Remember that these functions will not work unless the toolpak is loaded. Column A: I used this to keep track of the my progress. (Does anyone know how to change the colour of the tab for the sheet names?) End . Then click on the View button at the top. Protection: Some of sheets may be protected. This column would have been removed if I had ever completed the project. If there are any passwords. Click a function name in column B.FuntionlistNotes Page 9 Notes. A letter Y indicates that its been finished. You may find that the macros reprotect the sheets at some stage. 2. Usage: 1. try 'rainbow'. but there is no password. See the Analysis Toolpak sheet for more details.
Range3.33 =AVERAGE(D4:J4) =AVERAGE(D5:J5) Temp C Rain cm =AVERAGE(D8:J8) =AVERAGE(D9:J9) Temp C Rain cm Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 =AVERAGE(D12:J12) =AVERAGE(D13:J13) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the average from a list of numbers. . If the cell is blank or contains text..67 2. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. the cell will not be used in the average calculation. If the cell contains zero 0.52857261.33 Average 28.. the cell will be included in the average calculation.67 2. Syntax =AVERAGE(Range1.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 B C D E 97 AVERAGEA F G H I J K Page 10 of 202 L M AVERAGEA Temp C Rain cm Mon 30 0 Mon 30 0 Tue 31 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 32 29 26 28 27 0 4 6 3 1 Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 32 29 26 28 27 0 4 6 3 1 Average #MACRO? 2 Average 28.Range2.
xls at 03/05/2011 1 2 A MAXA B C D 97 MAXA E F G H Page 11 of 202 I J .52857261.
The Difference for Test 3 is shown as negative. the measurement needs to be expressed as an absolute value. Whether the wood was too long or short. In calculating the difference between the Required Length and the Actual Length it does not matter if the wood was cut too long or short. Syntax =ABS(CellAddress or Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a number. Table 2 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Required Length 120 120 120 Actual Length 120 90 150 Error Percentage 0 0% 30 25% 30 25% =ABS(D45E45) Difference .25 Absolute Value 10 10 1. Table 1 Test Cut Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Required Length 120 120 120 Actual Length 120 90 150 Difference 0 30 30 =D36E36 Error Percentage 0% 25% 25% Table 2 shows the same data but using the =ABS() function to correct the calculations.25 1. Three pieces of timber were cut and then measured. irrespective of whether it is positive or negative. no special formatting is needed. The machine needs to cut timber to an exact length. the percentage should still be expressed as an absolute value.25 =ABS(C4) =ABS(C5) =ABS(C6) =ABS(C7) What Does it Do ? This function calculates the value of a number.52857261. which has a knock on effect when the Error Percentage is calculated. Table 1 shows the original calculations.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D ABS E F G Page 12 of 202 H I ABS Number 10 10 1.25 1. Example The following table was used by a company testing a machine which cuts timber.
xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 B C D ADDRESS E F G Page 13 of 202 H I ADDRESS Type a column number : Type a row number : Type a sheet name : $B$3 B$3 $B3 B3 R3C2 R3C[2] R[3]C2 R[3]C[2] Hello. When 2 the reference will be in the form A$1.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4. the normal style for cell addresses. column and row absolute.$B3 Hello.F3. Syntax =ADDRESS(RowNumber.F3.F3. This type of function is used in macros rather than on the actual worksheet.F3.3.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.F5) =ADDRESS(F4.1. When 3 the reference will be in the form $A1.F5) =ADDRESS(F4.SheetName) The RowNumber is the normal row number from 1 to 16384.F3.F3. neither col or row absolute.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4.52857261. only the row absolute.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4.2.1.TRUE.F5) What Does It Do ? This function creates a cell reference as a piece of text.1. The SheetName is a piece of text to be used as the worksheet name in the reference. only the column absolute.ColNumber. . When FALSE the reference will be in the form R1C1. When TRUE the reference will be in the form A1.$B$3 Hello. based on a row and column numbers given by the user.B$3 Hello. cols A to IV.2.TRUE.TRUE) =ADDRESS(F4. The Absolute can be 1.F3.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.4.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.4. The ColNumber is from 1 to 256.F3.F3.3.F3. When 1 the reference will be in the form $A$1.2.3 or 4.TRUE. the alternative style of cell address.F5) =ADDRESS(F4.Absolute.A1orR1C1.F3. The SheetName does not actually have to exist. When 4 the reference will be in the form A1.B3 2 3 Hello =ADDRESS(F4.3.F3.4. The A1orR1C1 is either TRUE of FALSE.TRUE.FALSE) =ADDRESS(F4.2.
D7<=52) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if they are all true.52857261. Example 1 The following example shows a list of examination results.E38>=AVERAGE(E29:E38)) Averages 47 54 60 . Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE.D6>=100) =AND(D7>=1. The teacher wants to find the pupils who scored above average in all three exams. The =AND() function has been used to test that each score is above the average.Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests. It can be used to test that a number or a date falls between an upper and lower limit. It can be used to test that a series of numbers meet certain conditions.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 B C D E AND F G Page 14 of 202 H I AND Items To Test 500 800 500 25 25 500 12 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE =AND(C4>=100.D5>=100) =AND(C6>=100.D38>=AVERAGE(D29:D38). The result of TRUE is shown for pupils who have scored above average in all three exams.D4>=100) =AND(C5>=100. Normally the AND() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF(). Name Maths English Physics Passed Alan 80 75 85 TRUE Bob 50 30 40 FALSE Carol 60 70 50 FALSE David 90 85 95 TRUE Eric 20 30 Absent FALSE Fred 40 60 80 FALSE Gail 10 90 80 FALSE Harry 80 70 60 TRUE Ian 30 10 20 FALSE Janice 10 20 30 FALSE =AND(C38>=AVERAGE(C29:C38). Syntax =AND(Test1.
These ranges have been given the name PeopleLists. If it is a multiple block the result will be the number of ranges selected. .xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D AREAS E F G Page 15 of 202 H AREAS Pink Name Alan Bob Carol Name David Eric Fred Age 18 17 20 Age 20 16 19 Err:504 =AREAS(PeopleLists) Green What Does It Do? This function tests a range to determine whether it is a single block of data. Syntax =AREAS(RangeToTest) Formatting The result will be shown as a number.52857261. In the above example the pink range was selected as normal. If it is a single block the result will be 1. Example The example at the top of this page shows two ranges coloured pink and green. then the Ctrl key was held down before selecting the green range. The =AREAS(PeopleLists) gives a result of 2 indicating that there are two separate selections which form the PeopleLists range. Note To name multiple ranges the CTRL key must be used. The function is designed to be used in macros. or whether it is a multiple selection. When a Range Name is created it will consider both Pink and Green as being one range.
57 =SUM(D31:J31)/COUNTA(D31:J31) 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2 =SUM(D32:J32)/COUNTA(D32:J32) Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28.33 =SUM(D36:J36)/COUNTA(D36:J36) Temp Rain Mon Temp 30 Rain 0 Further Usage . through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 24. the cell will be included in the average calculation...67 =SUM(D35:J35)/COUNTA(D35:J35) 0 4 6 3 1 2.Range3. If the cell contains zero 0. Syntax =AVERAGE(Range1.33 =AVERAGE(D9:J9) Temp Rain Temp Rain Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 28. Note To calculate the average of cells which contain text or blanks use =SUM() to get the total and then divide by the count of the entries using =COUNTA(). the cell will not be used in the average calculation. If the cell is blank or contains text.33 =AVERAGE(D13:J13) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the average from a list of numbers.67 =AVERAGE(D8:J8) 0 4 6 3 1 2.Range2.67 =AVERAGE(D12:J12) 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2.52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 B C D E F G AVERAGE H I J K L Page 16 of 202 M N AVERAGE Temp Rain Mon 30 0 Mon 30 0 Tue 31 0 Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 29 =AVERAGE(D4:J4) 0 4 6 3 1 2 =AVERAGE(D5:J5) Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average 32 29 26 28 27 28.
.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 B C BIN2DEC D E F G Page 17 of 202 H I BIN2DEC Binary Number Decimal Equivalent 0 0 1 1 10 2 11 3 111111111 511 1111111111 1 1111111110 2 1111111101 3 1000000000 512 11111111111 Err:502 =BIN2DEC(C4) =BIN2DEC(C5) =BIN2DEC(C6) =BIN2DEC(C7) =BIN2DEC(C8) =BIN2DEC(C9) =BIN2DEC(C10) =BIN2DEC(C11) =BIN2DEC(C12) =BIN2DEC(C13) What Does It Do ? This function converts a binary number to decimal. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Negative numbers are represented using two'scomplement notation.52857261. Syntax =BIN2DEC(BinaryNumber) The binary number has a limit of ten characters.
33 8. and thus given the exact amount of trucks needed. Days To Be Billed 7 7 14 Days Required Customer 1 3 Customer 2 4 Customer 3 10 =CEILING(D28.7) Example 2 The following table was used by a builders merchant delivering products to a construction site. The properties being rented are only available on a weekly basis. Table 2 . Example 1 The following table was used by a estate agent renting holiday apartments.7) =CEILING(D29. Table 1 Item Bricks Wood Cement Units To Be Moved 1000 5000 2000 Truck Capacity 300 600 350 Trucks Needed 3. Table 1 calculates the number of trucks required by dividing the Units To Be Moved by the Capacity of the truck.30) =CEILING(C9. The merchant needs to hire trucks to move each product.71 =D45/E45 =D46/E46 =D47/E47 Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to round up the result of the division to a whole number.33 5.9 20 25 40 Raised Up 3 2 2 30 30 60 =CEILING(C4.5 1.1) =CEILING(C7.1 1. and the builder cannot hire just part of a truck. This results of the division are not whole numbers. Syntax =CEILING(ValueToRound.1) =CEILING(C6. Each product needs a particular type of truck of a fixed capacity.7) =CEILING(D30.MultipleToRoundUpTo) The ValueToRound can be a cell address or a calculation.Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 B C D E F G CEILING Page 18 of 202 H CEILING Number 2. When the customer supplies the number of days required in the property the =CEILING() function rounds it up by a multiple of 7 to calculate the number of full weeks to be billed.30) =CEILING(C8.30) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the nearest multiple specified by the user. Formatting No special formatting is needed.1) =CEILING(C5.
25 £28.60714 5.1) =CEILING(MOD(E83).1).10 £28 Cost Per Item Raised Cost 1.81818 2. Table 1 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters Box Qnty 11 7 5 16 Box Cost £20 £18.99 2.1) =CEILING(D55/E55.60714 2.75000 =D69/C69 =D70/C70 =D71/C71 =D72/C72 Table 2 shows how the =CEILING() function has been used to raise the Item Cost to always end in 99 pence.99 . Raises the decimal to 0. Table 1 shows how just a normal division results in varying Item Costs.99 5.0.99) Calculates the integer part of the price.1) Example 3 The following tables were used by a shopkeeper to calculate the selling price of an item.1) =CEILING(D56/E56. The shopkeeper buys products by the box.62000 5. Table 2 Item Plugs Sockets Junctions Adapters In Box 11 7 5 16 Box Cost £20 £18.62000 1.99 =INT(E83)+CEILING(MOD(E83.0.99 1. The cost of the item is calculated by dividing the Box Cost by the Box Quantity.99) Explanation =INT(E83) =MOD(E83.75000 1.Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 B C Item Bricks Wood Cement D Units To Be Moved 1000 5000 2000 E Truck Capacity 300 600 350 F Trucks Needed 4 9 6 G CEILING Page 19 of 202 H =CEILING(D54/E54. The shopkeeper always wants the price to end in 99 pence.10 £28 Cost Per Item 1.25 £28. Calculates the decimal part of the price.81818 1.
0 for unlocked.##0.D3) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell and displays information about the contents.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 B C CELL D E F G Page 20 of 202 H I CELL This is the cell and contents to test. Codes used to show the formatting of the cell. 12 =CELL("width". The width of the cell.##0. 'file:///opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch6674/52857261. The cell address. v for value.##0_).00 #.[Red]($#.FIND("]".D3) Shown as ' for left.0 F2 .##0.00 $#. The type of entry in the cell. Shown as b for blank.D3) 1 for yes. 17. The name of the current file is : #VALUE! =MID(CELL("filename").D3) (See the table shown below) Formatted for braces ( ) on positive values.50% $D$3 4 3 0. The row number.CellToTest) The TypeOfInfoRequired is a text entry which must be surrounded with quotes " ".FIND("[".($#.00_).($#. position and formatting. ^ for centre. The actual contents of the cell. Numeric Format General 0 #. The type of cell protection.CELL("filename"))+1. 0 =CELL("color". Nothing is shown for numeric entries.xls'#$CELL =CELL("filename".D3) =CELL("row".D3) 1 for a locked. dmmmyy or ddmmmyy dmmm or ddmmm mmmyy mm/dd h:mm AM/PM h:mm:ss AM/PM h:mm h:mm:ss Code G F0 . " for right. 0 for no.D3) The alignment of the cell.18 v =CELL("address".[Red]($#.00E+00 # ?/? or # ??/?? m/d/yy or m/d/yy h:mm or mm/dd/yy.D3) The number format fo the cell. Syntax =CELL("TypeOfInfoRequired". Formatted for coloured negatives.CELL("filename"))1) .00% 0.##0. P2 =CELL("format".##0. l for text.##0) $#.##0_).D3) =CELL("col". 0 =CELL("parentheses". Formatting No special formatting is needed.52857261.D3) 1 for yes.00) 0% 0.00_). The column number.##0) $#.2 C0 C0C2 C2P0 P2 S2 G D4 D1 D2 D3 D5 D7 D6 D9 D8 Example The following example uses the =CELL() function as part of a formula which extracts the filename.D3) =CELL("type". 0 for no. 1 =CELL("protect".00) $#. The filename containing the cell. =CELL("prefix".CELL("filename"))FIND("[".##0 0.D3) =CELL("contents".
Syntax =CHAR(Number) The Number must be between 1 and 255. Example The following is a list of all 255 numbers and the characters they represent. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 ! 34 " 35 # 36 $ 37 % 38 & 39 ' 40 ( 41 ) 42 * 43 + 44 . Formatting The result will be a character with no special formatting.52857261. 45 46 . Note that most Windows based program may not display some of the special characters. 60 < 61 = 62 > 63 ? 64 @ 65 A 66 B 67 C 68 D 69 E 70 F 71 G 72 H 73 I 74 J 75 K 76 L 77 M 78 N 79 O 80 P 81 Q 82 R 83 S 84 T 85 U 86 V 87 W 88 X 89 Y 90 Z 91 [ 92 \ 93 ] 94 ^ 95 _ 96 ` 97 a 98 b 99 c 100 d 101 e 102 f 103 g 104 h 105 i 106 j 107 k 108 l 109 m 110 n 111 o 112 p 113 q 114 r 115 s 116 t 117 u 118 v 119 w 120 x 121 y 122 z 123 { 124  125 } 126 ~ 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 ¡ 162 ¢ 163 £ 164 ¤ 165 ¥ 166 ¦ 167 § 168 ¨ 169 © 170 ª 171 « 172 ¬ 173 174 ® 175 ¯ 176 ° 177 ± 178 ² 179 ³ 180 ´ 181 µ 182 ¶ 183 · 184 ¸ 185 ¹ 186 º 187 » 188 ¼ 189 ½ 190 ¾ 191 ¿ 192 À 193 Á 194 Â 195 Ã 196 Ä 197 Å 198 Æ 199 Ç 200 È 201 É 202 Ê 203 Ë 204 Ì 205 Í 206 Î 207 Ï 208 Ð 209 Ñ 210 Ò 211 Ó 212 Ô 213 Õ 214 Ö 215 × 216 Ø 217 Ù 218 Ú 219 Û 220 Ü 221 Ý 222 Þ 223 ß 224 à 225 á 226 â 227 ã 228 ä 229 å 230 æ 231 ç 232 è 233 é 234 ê 235 ë 236 ì 237 í 238 î 239 ï 240 ð 241 ñ 242 ò 243 ó 244 ô 245 õ 246 ö 247 ÷ 248 ø 249 ù 250 ú 251 û 252 ü 253 ý 254 þ 255 ÿ Note Number 32 does not show as it is the SPACEBAR character.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D E F G H I J CHAR K L M N O P Q R S T Page 21 of 202 U V W X CHAR ANSI Number Character 65 A 66 B 169 © =CHAR(G4) =CHAR(G5) =CHAR(G6) What Does It Do? This function converts a normal number to the character it represent in the ANSI character set used by Windows. . these will be displayed as a small box. 47 / 48 0 49 1 50 2 51 3 52 4 53 5 54 6 55 7 56 8 57 9 58 : 59 .
18%) What Does It Do? This function picks from a list of options based upon an Index value given to by the user.15%."Bob"."Bob"."Carol") =CHOOSE(C5."Bronze")."Silver".52857261."Silver"."Silver". Example The following table was used to calculate the medals for athletes taking part in a race."unplaced") =RANK(C34."unplaced") 1 Gold =IF(D32<=3.CHOOSE(D30."Alan". Item3 through to Item29) Formatting No special formatting is required.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Index Value 1 3 2 3 1 2 Result Alan Carol Bob 18% 10% 15% B C D CHOOSE E F G H Page 22 of 202 I J CHOOSE =CHOOSE(C4. Syntax =CHOOSE(UserValue.10%."Alan"."Bronze"). Item2.CHOOSE(D31."Silver". The =CHOOSE() then allocates the correct medal.18%) =CHOOSE(C9. The =IF() has been used to filter out any positions above 3."Bronze").10%."Bronze")."Bronze").CHOOSE(D34."Gold". Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Time 1:30 1:15 2:45 1:05 1:20 Position Medal 2 Silver =IF(D30<=3.CHOOSE(D32."Alan".CHOOSE(D33.C30:C34) ."Carol") =CHOOSE(C7."unplaced") 5 unplaced =IF(D33<=3."Carol") =CHOOSE(C6.10%."unplaced") 3 Bronze =IF(D34<=3. as this would cause the error of #VALUE to appear.15%."Gold". The =RANK() function calculates the finishing position of each athlete."Silver". The Time for each athlete is entered."Gold"."Gold".18%) =CHOOSE(C8.15%."Bob"."unplaced") 4 unplaced =IF(D31<=3."Gold". Item1. due to the fact the =CHOOSE() has only three items in it.
Syntax =CLEAN(TextToBeCleaned) Formatting No special formatting is needed. . These nonprinting characters are often found in data which has been imported from other systems such as database imports from mainframes.52857261. The result will show as normal text.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D CLEAN E F G H Page 23 of 202 I CLEAN Dirty Text Hello Hello Hello Clean Text Hello =CLEAN(C4) Hello =CLEAN(C5) Hello =CLEAN(C6) What Does It Do? This function removes any nonprintable characters from text.
There are 255 characters in the ANSI set. < = > ? @ A B C D E F G H I J K 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ ` a b c d 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z {  } 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 ~ € ‚ ƒ „ … † ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ Œ Ž ‘ ’ “ ” • – 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 — ˜ ™ š › œ ž Ÿ ¡ ¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª « ¬ ® ¯ 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ · ¸ ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Ð Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö × Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ ß à á 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö ÷ ø ù ú 251 252 253 254 255 û ü ý þ ÿ . 71 / 72 0 73 1 74 2 75 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : .70 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 ! 58 " 59 # 60 $ 61 % 62 & 63 ' 64 ( 65 ) 66 * 67 + 68 . the result will be shown as a number between 1 and 255. The ANSI character set is used by Windows to identify each keyboard character by using a unique number. Syntax =CODE(Text) Formatting No special formatting is needed. 69 . Example See the example for FREQUENCY. or the first character in a piece of text.52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 B C D E CODE F G H I Page 24 of 202 J K CODE Letter A B C a b c Alan Bob Carol ANSI Code 65 66 67 97 98 99 65 66 67 =CODE(C4) =CODE(C5) =CODE(C6) =CODE(C7) =CODE(C8) =CODE(C9) =CODE(C10) =CODE(C11) =CODE(C12) What Does It Do? This function shows the ANSI value of a single character.
D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the highest number of combinations available based upon a fixed number of items.D25) The four letters : ABCD Pair 1 AB Pair 2 AC Pair 3 AD Pair 4 BC Pair 5 BD Pair 6 CD Example 2 A decorator is asked to design a colour scheme for a new office.52857261. Total Characters 4 The proof ! Group Size 2 Combinations 6 =COMBIN(C25.D41) The colours Red Green Blue Yellow Black Scheme 1 Red Green Blue Scheme 6 Green Scheme 2 Red Green Yellow Scheme 7 Green Scheme 3 Red Green Black Scheme 8 Green Scheme 4 Red Blue Yellow Scheme 9 Blue Scheme 5 Red Blue Black Scheme 10 ?????? . so AB is the same as BA.D4) =COMBIN(C5. but can only use three in any scheme.D5) =COMBIN(C6. How many colours schemes can be created ? Available Colours Colours Per Scheme Totals Schemes 5 3 10 =COMBIN(C41.GroupSize) Formatting No special formatting is required. Syntax =COMBIN(HowManyItems. The decorator is given five colours to work with.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 B C COMBIN D E F Page 25 of 202 G COMBIN Pool Of Items 4 4 26 Items In A Group 2 3 2 Possible Groups 6 4 325 =COMBIN(C4. Example 1 This example calculates the possible number of pairs of letters available from the four characters ABCD. The internal order of the combination does not matter.
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 57 58 B Blue Yellow C Blue Black COMBIN D Yellow Black E Yellow Black F Page 26 of 202 G .
".C8) Davies Davies.C9) What Does It Do? This function joins separate pieces of text into one item. Syntax =CONCATENATE(Text1.52857261. ". "&C29 Davies Davies. Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol Name 2 Concatenated Text Jones AlanJones =C25&D25 Williams BobWilliams =C26&D26 Davies CarolDavies =C27&D27 Jones Alan Jones =C28&" "&D28 Williams Williams. Carol =CONCATENATE(D9. Bob =D29&". the result will be shown as normal text. "&C30 .D4) Williams BobWilliams =CONCATENATE(C5.D5) Davies CarolDavies =CONCATENATE(C6.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D CONCATENATE E F G Page 27 of 202 H I CONCATENATE Name 1 Alan Bob Carol Alan Bob Carol Name 2 Concatenated Text Jones AlanJones =CONCATENATE(C4.D6) Jones Alan Jones =CONCATENATE(C7.Text2.. Note You can achieve the same result by using the & operator.Text30) Up to thirty pieces of text can be joined. Carol =D30&".Text3. Bob =CONCATENATE(D8.".".D7) Williams Williams. Formatting No special formatting is needed.." ".
5 0.E11) What Does It Do ? This function converts a value measure in one type of unit. such as Inches to Centimetres.54 =CONVERT(C4.D9.E8) =CONVERT(C9."m") Weight Height Length Width Abbreviations This is a list of all the possible abbreviations which can be used to denote measuring systems.5 yr day hr mn Converting To cm m m day hr mn sec B C D E F G CONVERT Page 28 of 202 H CONVERT Converted Amount 2.D8.E10) =CONVERT(C11."ft".D6.81 3 2.D5."lbm"."ozm".D4."kg")+CONVERT(E28."kg") Feet 12 8 5 Inches Metres 6 3.D11. Weight & Mass Gram Kilogram Slug Pound mass U (atomic mass) Ounce mass Time Year Day Hour Minute Second Distance Meter Statute mile Nautical mile Inch Foot Yard Angstrom Pica (1/72 in.Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 Amount Converting To Convert From 1 in 1 ft 1 yd 1 1 1.25 24 90 30 =CONVERT(C8.35 =CONVERT(D28.E5) 0.E4) 0.) Pressure Pascal Atmosphere mm of Mercury g kg sg lbm u ozm m mi Nmi in ft yd ang Pica yr day hr mn sec Pa atm mmHg ."m")+CONVERT(E34.D10.91 =CONVERT(C6.UnitToConvertTo) Formatting No special formatting is needed.UnitToConvertFrom. Syntax =CONVERT(AmountToConvert.E6) 365.51 2 1. Pounds Ounces Kilograms 5 3 2.3 =CONVERT(C5.E9) =CONVERT(C10.57 =CONVERT(D34. Example The following table was used by an Import / Exporting company to convert the weight and size of packages from old style UK measuring system to European system."in". to the same value expressed in a different type of unit.
00E18 Abbreviation d c m u n p f a .00E+15 P 1.00E+06 M 1.00E09 1.00E01 1.00E15 1.00E+02 h 1.Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 A 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 B Temperature Degree Celsius Degree Fahrenheit Degree Kelvin Force Newton Dyne Pound force Energy Joule Erg Thermodynamic calorie IT calorie Electron volt Horsepowerhour Watthour Footpound BTU C D E Liquid Teaspoon Tablespoon Fluid ounce Cup Pint Quart Gallon Liter Power Horsepower Watt F G CONVERT Page 29 of 202 H C F K N dyn lbf tsp tbs oz cup pt qt gal l J e c cal eV HPh Wh flb BTU HP W Magnetism Tesla Gauss T ga These characters can be used as a prefix to access further units of measure.00E03 1.00E+09 G 1.00E02 1.00E+03 k 1.00E12 1.00E+01 e Prefix deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto Multiplier 1. Prefix exa peta tera giga mega kilo hecto dekao Multiplier Abbreviation 1.00E+18 E 1.00E+12 T 1.00E06 1. Using "c" as a prefix to meters "m" will allow centimetres "cm" to be calculated.
The result will be a decimal between 0 and 1.000 Correlation 0.000 £20.52857261.000 £1. the greater the correlation.000 £20.000 £30. The correlation shows that there is an 0. In Table 1 the Monthly temperature is compared against the Sales of air conditioning units.000 £40. The correlation shows that there is an 28% realtionship between the data. Syntax =CORREL(Range1.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Avg Temp 20 30 30 40 50 50 B C D CORREL E F G H Page 30 of 202 I J CORREL Table 1 Air Cond Sales 100 200 300 200 400 400 Table 2 Advertising Costs £2.H5:H10) What Does It Do ? This function examines two sets of data to determine the degree of relationship between the two sets.000 £8.000 £5.000 £1.Range2) Formatting The result will normally be shown in decimal format.000 Sales £20.864 =CORREL(D5:D10.864 realtionship between the data.000 £1. In Table 2 the Cost of advertising has been compared to Sales.000 £40.E5:E10) Correlation 28% =CORREL(G5:G10. It can be formatted as percentage % to show a more meaning full result. The larger the result. .
000 Metal £1.000 Wood £5. text and errors. Syntax =COUNT(Range1. Example The following table was used by a builders merchant to calculate the number of sales for various products in each month. Item Jan Feb Bricks £1. It will ignore blanks.000 Count 3 2 =COUNT(D29:D32) Mar 0 .000 £1.62 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 =COUNT(C4:E4) =COUNT(C5:E5) =COUNT(C6:E6) =COUNT(C7:E7) =COUNT(C8:E8) =COUNT(C9:E9) =COUNT(C10:E10) =COUNT(C11:E11) =COUNT(C12:E12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric entries in a list. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D COUNT E F G H Page 31 of 202 I J COUNT Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 20 30 10 1Jan88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0..000 Glass £2.Range3..Range2.
A failure was entered as Fail.52857261. The school also needed to know how many exams were taken by each pupil. Each exam passed was graded as 1..xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Alan Bob Carol David Elaine B C D COUNTA E F G H Page 32 of 202 I J COUNTA Entries To Be Counted 10 20 30 10 0 30 10 20 30 10 1Jan88 30 10 21:30 30 10 0. The school needed to known how many pupils sat each exam. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. It will ignore blanks.1 30 10 30 10 Hello 30 10 #DIV/0! 30 Count 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 =COUNTA(C4:E4) =COUNTA(C5:E5) =COUNTA(C6:E6) =COUNTA(C7:E7) =COUNTA(C8:E8) =COUNTA(C9:E9) =COUNTA(C10:E10) =COUNTA(C11:E11) =COUNTA(C12:E12) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric or text entries in a list.Range2. The =COUNTA() function has been used because of its ability to count text and numeric entries. Example The following table was used by a school to keep track of the examinations taken by each pupil. Maths Fail 2 Fail 1 English 1 1 3 Art 1 3 1 Fail 2 History Exams Taken By Each Pupil 2 3 3 2 4 =COUNTA(D39:G39) 1 Fail How many pupils sat each Exam.Range3. Maths English Art History 4 3 5 2 =COUNTA(D35:D39) .. 2 or 3. Syntax =COUNTA(Range1.
"N") Blanks 2 =COUNTBLANK(C4:C11) Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Factory 5 Factory 6 Factory 7 Factory 8 Factory 9 Factory 10 N Y Y N Y Y N N N Votes not vet registered : Votes for Yes : Votes for No : .52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D COUNTBLANK E F G Page 33 of 202 H I COUNTBLANK Range To Test 1 Hello 3 0 1Jan98 5 What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of blank cells in a range. The response to the question could be Y or N."Y") =COUNTIF(C32:F41. Example The following table was used by a company which was balloting its workers on whether the company should have a no smoking policy. Each of the departments in the various factories were questioned. The =COUNTBLANK() function has been used to calculate the number of departments which have no yet registered a vote. Syntax =COUNTBLANK(RangeToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. As the results of the vote were collated they were entered in to the table. Admin Y Accounts N Y Production Y N Y Y Y Y Y Personnel N N N Y Y 16 14 10 =COUNTBLANK(C32:F41) =COUNTIF(C32:F41.
Syntax =COUNTIF(RangeOfThingsToBeCounted."Tyres") =COUNTIF(E4:E12.100) To match a piece of text type the text in quotes. .">=100") =COUNTIF(C4:C12. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5. service What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of items which match criteria set by the user.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 B C D COUNTIF E F Page 34 of 202 G COUNTIF Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1Jan98 10May98 1Feb98 1Mar98 5Jan98 1Jun98 1Apr98 1Mar98 1May98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 2 3 5 2 =COUNTIF(C4:C12."Hello") To match using operators surround the expression with quotes."Brakes") =COUNTIF(C4:C12. How many Tyres have been bought.">100") Formatting No special formatting is needed.CriteriaToBeMatched) The criteria can be typed in any of the following ways. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5. such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5.52857261. How many items cost £100 or above. To match a specific number type the number.E18) How many Brake Shoes Have been bought. Type the name of the item to count.
D4.Cells.day) Formatting The result will normally be displayed in the dd/mm/yy format.C4) 25Dec99 =DATE(E5.Number.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B C D E F DATE G H Page 35 of 202 I J DATE Day Month 25 12 25 12 33 12 Year 99 99 99 Date 12/25/1999 =DATE(E4.D6. Syntax =DATE(year. .Date command the format can be changed.D5.C6) What Does It Do? This function creates a real date by using three normal numbers typed into separate cells. 2000 =DATE(E6.52857261.month. By using the Format.C5) January 2.
Cells. Syntax =DATEVALUE(text) Formatting The result will normally be shown as a number which represents the date. Example The example uses the =DATEVALUE and the =TODAY functions to calculate the number of days remaining on a property lease.52857261. probably after being imported from an external program. Days Until Expiry Date Expiry 25dec99 4088 10july/99 Err:502 13sep98 4556 30/5/2000 Err:502 =DATEVALUE(E32)TODAY() Property Ref.Number. Dates expressed as text are often created when data is imported from other programs. BC100 FG700 TD200 HJ900 .Date. such as exports from mainframe computers. This number can be formatted to any of the normal date formats by using Format.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C DATEVALUE D E Page 36 of 202 F G DATEVALUE Date 25dec99 25/12/99 25dec99 25/12/99 Date Value 36519 Err:502 36519 Err:502 =DATEVALUE(C4) =DATEVALUE(C5) =DATEVALUE(C6) =DATEVALUE(C7) What Does It Do? The function is used to convert a piece of text into a date which can be used in calculations. The =DATEVALUE function was used because the date has been entered in the cell as a piece of text.
or names.00 £0. such as the category Brand or Wattage.00 £5.20 40 3 £24. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 £2.00 £2. of the values to be averaged.F3.00 £0.00 To calculate the Average cost of a particular Brand of bulb.00 £0. The second set of information is the actual record.F3. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. Product Bulb The average of Horizon Bulb is : £1.25 10 5 £12.50 £0.00 £0.FieldName.25 10 4 £50.00 15 2 £60.00 £0.10 20 5 £10.16 Brand Horizon =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.20 30 2 £12. or cell.24 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.80 10 5 £40.20 25 2 £10.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.15 25 0 £0.80 25 6 £120.00 £1. The FieldName is the name. or 100 as the wattage. Type the brand name : sunbeam The Average cost of sunbeam is : £1.00 £0. Syntax =DAVERAGE(DatabaseRange. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.80 20 5 £180. such as "Unit Cost" or F3.E49:F50) . or records.00 £0.00 £0. Examples The average Unit Cost of a particular Product of a particular Brand.00 3 2 £30.E23:E24) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces and average.50 10 3 £15. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.50 4 3 £54. such as Horizon as a brand name.52857261.00 £0. The first set of information is the name. including the field names at the top of the columns.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 B C D DAVERAGE E F G H Page 37 of 202 I J DAVERAGE Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.50 15 0 £0. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. which are to be selected.00 £1.
£1.17 Wattage <100 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19.53 Wattage 100 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19."Unit Cost". Product Bulb Average of Bulb <100 is : £0.xls at 03/05/2011 A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D DAVERAGE E F G H Page 38 of 202 I J This is the same calculation but using the actual name "Unit Cost" instead of the cell address."Unit Cost".E67:F68) .16 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19. Product Bulb Average of Bulb 100 is : £0.E60:F61) The average Unit Cost of a Bulb less then a particular Wattage."Unit Cost".52857261.E49:F50) The average Unit Cost of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.
Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy : You were born on : 3/25/1962 Wednesday 24 =DAY(F21) . Example The =DAY function has been used to calculate the name of the day for your birthday. Syntax =DAY(value) Formatting Normally the result will be a number.52857261.Cells.Number. but this can be formatted to show the actual day of the week by using Format.Custom and using the code ddd or dddd.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D DAY E F Page 39 of 202 G H DAY Full Date 25Dec98 5Mar11 5Mar11 The Day 25 Thu 4 5 =DAY(C4) =DAY(C5) =DAY(C6) What Does It Do? This function extracts the day of the month from a complete date.
TRUE) =DAYS360(C6. Use this function if your accounting system is based on twelve 30day months. =DAYS360(Start. FALSE : Use this for USA accounting systems.TRUE) What Does It Do? Shows the number of days between two dates based on a 360day year (twelve 30day months).D6. The result of using 1Jan98 and 5Jan98 will give a result of 4.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 B C D DAYS360 E Page 40 of 202 F DAYS360 StartDate 1Jan98 1Jan98 1Jan98 1Jan98 EndDate 5Jan98 1Feb98 31Mar98 31Dec98 Days Between 4 30 89 359 * See the Note below.End.TRUE)+1 . Syntax =DAYS360(StartDate.TRUE) =DAYS360(C5. To correct this add 1 to the result.52857261.D7.TRUE) =DAYS360(C7.D4. Note The calculation does not include the last day.TRUE of FALSE) TRUE : Use this for European accounting systems. Formatting The result will be shown as a number.D5. =DAYS360(C4.EndDate.
E4. using the original value of the item less the depreciation of the previous years.D12) £4. Year 2 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price minus Year 1 deprecation.88 £654.FirstYearMonth) The FirstYearMonth is the month in which the item was purchased during the first financial year.E5.000 £1. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Purchase Price : Salvage value : Life in Years : Year 1 2 3 £5.D9) =DB(E3. the first years depreciation will be based on the remaining part of the year. Year 3 deprecation is based upon original Purchase Price minus Year 1 + Year 2 deprecation.50% .00 £996.61 £343.E4. Year 1 depreciation is based upon the original Purchase Price alone.58 * See example 4 below.E5. but uses the original value of the item less the first years depreciation.375.Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 B C D E F G DB Page 41 of 202 H I DB Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total Depreciation : £5. Syntax =DB(PurchasePrice.E4.73 % Deprc 27. The second year uses the same percentage.000 5 Deprecation £1.375. if it not used the function will assume 12 as the value.50% 27.50% 27.Life. The first year is depreciated by the fixed percentage.E5.43 =DB(E3.D8) =DB(E3.D10) =DB(E3. the function calculates the necessary percentage.PeriodToCalculate.246.88 £722.SalvageValue. Example 1 This example shows the percentage used in the depreciation. What Does It Do ? This function calculates deprecation based upon a fixed percentage. Any subsequent years use the same percentage.00 £1.E5. The percentage used in the depreciation is not set by the user.E4. which will be vary based upon the values inputted by the user.E4.67 £180.000 5 £200 Deprecation £2. This is an optional value. An additional feature of this function is the ability to take into account when the item was originally purchased.E5. If the item was purchased part way through the financial year.800.D11) =DB(E3. The % Deprc has been calculated purely to demonstrate what % is being used.
89 =DB(E47. The percentage rate is calculated by Execl using the formula = 1 .((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)). Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : First Year Ownership In Months : Year 1 2 3 4 5 £5.36 £451.D84.93 =DB(E74.24 £7. Example 4 .50% 27.94 £859.000 6 Deprecation £687.79 £8. Purchase Price : Life in Years : Salvage value : Month 56 57 58 59 60 £5.E76.D75) Example 3 This example shows how the length of the first years ownership has been taken into account.50% 27.185.50% Total Depreciation : Why Is The Answer Wrong ? In all of the examples above the total depreceation may not be exactly the expected value.78 =DB(E66.E48.50% 27.Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 A 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 B C D 4 5 E F £523.E68. Although this rounding may only make a minor change to the percentage rate.72 £7. when applied to large values.E75.48 G 27.D56) £3.E67*12.80 £623. This has been done by multiplying the years by 12.E49. with the exception of the deprecation being calculated on a monthly basis.50% DB Page 42 of 202 H I Total Depreciation : Example 2 This example is similar to the previous. This is due to the way in which the percentage value for the depreceation has been calculated by the =DB() fumction.000 £5 100 Deprecation £8.23 £6.000 5 £1.75% 27.50 £1.998.E77) £3.808. The result of this calculation is then rounded to three decimal places.98 £379.54 % Deprc 13. the differnce is compounded resulting in what could be considered as approximate values for the the depreceation.50% 27.
500% Year 1 2 3 4 5 Total Depreciation : Error difference : .522034% =1((E117/E116)^(1/E118)) Purchase Price : £5.500% 27.500% 27.00 £1.9824 £379.376. calculated manually : 27.000 Life in Years : 5 Excel Deprecation £1.500% 27.48 Real Depreciation £1. This is the 'real' deprecation percentage.3705 £722.8739 £523.0000 £996.Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 A 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 DB Page 43 of 202 H I B C D E F G This example has been created with both the Excel calculated percentage and the 'real' percentage calculated manually.((salvage / cost) ^ (1 / life)).1017 £997.375. The Excel Deprecation uses the =DB() function.7297 £4.7344 £523.8873 £3.52 Excel % Deprc 27.000 = 1 . Salvage value : £1.500% 27.9243 £379.000. The Real Deprecation uses a manual calculation.8750 £722.998.
20 40 3 £24. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.00 £0. which are to be selected. with a specific number of boxes in stock. such as Horizon as a brand name. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 £5.FieldName. It can only count values. or cell.00 £0.20 25 2 £10.00 £1. such as the category Brand or Wattage.50 10 3 £15. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. Horizon 7 =DCOUNT(B3:I19. Boxes In Stock 5 Product Bulb .00 £0.15 25 1 £3.80 10 5 £40. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.50 15 1 £37. The FieldName is the name.00 15 2 £60.20 30 2 £12.10 20 5 £10.00 £0.D3.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. Syntax =DCOUNT(DatabaseRange. Examples The count of a particular product. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 3 2 £30.00 £0.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 B C D DCOUNT E F G H Page 44 of 202 I J DCOUNT Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.00 £2. or 100 as the wattage.50 £0. The first set of information is the name.50 4 3 £54.80 25 6 £120.25 10 5 £12. including the field names at the top of the columns. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3. or records.00 £0.50 £0.52857261.25 10 4 £50. of the values to Count.00 Count the number of products of a particular Brand which have a Life Hours rating. The second set of information is the actual record.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The COUNT value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and counts the values in a specified column.00 £2.00 £1.75 £0. the text items and blank cells are ignored.00 £0.80 20 5 £180. or names.
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 B C D
DCOUNT E 3 F G H
Page 45 of 202 I J
The number of products is :
=DCOUNT(B3:I19,H3,E50:F51)
This is the same calculation but using the name "Boxes In Stock" instead of the cell address. 3 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E50:F51)
The count of the number of Bulb products equal to a particular Wattage. Product Bulb The count is : 2 Wattage 100 =DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E61:F62)
The count of Bulb products between two Wattage values. Product Bulb The count is : 4 Wattage >=80 Wattage <=100
=DCOUNT(B3:I19,"Boxes In Stock",E68:G69)
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 B C D
DCOUNTA E F G H
Page 46 of 202 I J
DCOUNTA
Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.50 4 3 £54.00 £2.00 15 2 £60.00 £0.00 £0.80 25 6 £120.00 £0.20 40 3 £24.00 £1.25 10 4 £50.00 £2.50 15 1 £37.50 £0.50 10 3 £15.00 £5.00 3 2 £30.00 £1.80 20 5 £180.00 £0.25 10 5 £12.50 £0.20 25 2 £10.00 £0.15 25 1 £3.75 £0.20 30 2 £12.00 £0.80 10 5 £40.00 £0.10 20 5 £10.00
Count the number of products of a particular Brand. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. Horizon 8 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19,E3,E23:E24)
Type the brand name : The COUNT value of Horizon is :
What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and counts the non blank cells in a specified column. It counts values and text items, but blank cells are ignored. Syntax =DCOUNTA(DatabaseRange,FieldName,CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine, including the field names at the top of the columns. The FieldName is the name, or cell, of the values to Count, such as "Value Of Stock" or I3. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information. The first set of information is the name, or names, of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records, such as the category Brand or Wattage. The second set of information is the actual record, or records, which are to be selected, such as Horizon as a brand name, or 100 as the wattage. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Examples The count of a product with an unknown Life Hours value.
Product Bulb
Life Hours unknown
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 B C D
DCOUNTA E 1 F G H
Page 47 of 202 I J
The number of products is :
=DCOUNTA(B3:I19,D3,E50:F51)
This is the same calculation but using the name "Life Hours" instead of the cell address. 1 =DCOUNTA(B3:I19,"Life Hours",E50:F51)
The count of the number of particular product of a specific brand. Product Bulb The count is : 5 Brand Horizon =DCOUNTA(B3:I19,"Product",E61:F62)
The count of particular products from specific brands. Product Spot Neon The count is : 3 Brand Horizon Sunbeam =DCOUNTA(B3:I19,"Product",E68:F70)
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C
DEC2BIN D E F
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DEC2BIN
Decimal Number Binary Equivalent 0 0 =DEC2BIN(C4) 1 1 =DEC2BIN(C5) 2 10 =DEC2BIN(C6) 3 11 =DEC2BIN(C7) 511 111111111 =DEC2BIN(C8) 512 Err:502 =DEC2BIN(C9) 1 1111111111 =DEC2BIN(C10) 2 1111111110 =DEC2BIN(C11) 3 1111111101 =DEC2BIN(C12) 511 1000000001 =DEC2BIN(C13) 512 1000000000 =DEC2BIN(C14) Decimal Number 1 1 1 1 1 Places To Pad 1 2 3 9 1 Binary Equivalent 1 01 001 000000001 1111111111
=DEC2BIN(C17,D17) =DEC2BIN(C18,D18) =DEC2BIN(C19,D19) =DEC2BIN(C20,D20) =DEC2BIN(C21,D21)
What Does It Do ? This function converts a decimal number to its binary equivalent. It can only cope with decimals ranging from 512 to 511. The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros, although this is ignored for negatives. Syntax =DEC2BIN(DecimalNumber,PlacesToPad) The PlacesToPad is optional. Formatting No special formatting is needed.
Syntax =DEC2HEX(DecimalNumber.813.D27) What Does It Do ? This function converts a decimal number to its hexadecimal equivalent. The result can be padded with leading 0 zeros.755.889 Decimal Number 1 1 26 26 26 Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 19 1A 1B 1C FFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFD FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFF 7FFFFFFFFF 8000000000 8000000000 7FFFFFFFFF Places To Pad 1 2 3 9 1 =DEC2HEX(C4) =DEC2HEX(C5) =DEC2HEX(C6) =DEC2HEX(C7) =DEC2HEX(C8) =DEC2HEX(C9) =DEC2HEX(C10) =DEC2HEX(C11) =DEC2HEX(C12) =DEC2HEX(C13) =DEC2HEX(C14) =DEC2HEX(C15) =DEC2HEX(C16) =DEC2HEX(C17) =DEC2HEX(C18) =DEC2HEX(C19) =DEC2HEX(C20) Hexadecimal 1 01 01A 00000001A FFFFFFFFE6 =DEC2HEX(C23.813.755.755. although this is ignored for negatives.755.755.D26) =DEC2HEX(C27.887.D25) =DEC2HEX(C26.813.813.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 B C DEC2HEX D E F Page 49 of 202 G H DEC2HEX Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 25 26 27 28 1 2 3 2 1 549.888 549.813.D23) =DEC2HEX(C24. .813.D24) =DEC2HEX(C25.755. It can only cope with decimals ranging from 549.52857261.887 549.888 to 549.PlacesToPad) The PlacesToPad is optional. Formatting No special formatting is needed.888 549.
D8) =DELTA(C9.52857261. The formatting of the number is not significant. Example The following table is used to determine how may pairs of similar numbers are in a list. text values produce a result of #VALUE. The =DELTA() function tests each pair and then the =SUM() function totals them.D10) What Does It Do ? This function compares two values and tests whether they are exactly the same. Number1 10 50 30 17. If the numbers are the same the result will be 1.D34) =DELTA(C35. so numbers which appear rounded due to the removal of decimal places will still match correctly with non rounded values.D36) =SUM(E30:E36) .D33) =DELTA(C34.D9) =DELTA(C10.5 17.D35) =DELTA(C36.D32) =DELTA(C33. otherwise the result is 0. Syntax =DELTA(FirstNumber.18 Hello Delta 0 1 1 1 1 Err:502 1 =DELTA(C4.D30) =DELTA(C31.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D DELTA E F G H Page 50 of 202 I J DELTA Number1 10 50 17.5 18 0.D6) =DELTA(C7.D31) =DELTA(C32.5 17.50% Hello Number2 20 50 17. It only works with numbers.D4) =DELTA(C5.D7) =DELTA(C8.SecondNumber) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D5) =DELTA(C6.5 12 100 150 Number2 20 50 30 18 8 100 125 Total Pairs Delta 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 4 =DELTA(C30.
52857261. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 £5.25 10 4 £50. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 15 2 £60.80 10 5 £40.00 £0. or names.FieldName.H3.C23:F24) The number in stock is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces one result. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? .00 £2.00 3 2 £30.10 20 5 £10. such as Horizon as a brand name. Example 1 This example extracts information from just one record.00 £0. or cell.15 25 1 £3.00 How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand Horizon 5 =DGET(B3:I19. The second set of information is the actual record which needs to be selected.00 £1.00 £2. Syntax =DGET(DatabaseRange.50 15 1 £37. or 100 as the wattage.00 £0.50 10 3 £15.00 £1.00 £0.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 B C D DGET E F G H Page 51 of 202 I J DGET Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.75 £0. including the field names at the top of the columns.50 4 3 £54.00 £0.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. If no records match the criteria the error #VALUE is shown. The first set of information is the name.00 £0.00 £0.50 £0.20 30 2 £12. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.20 40 3 £24.25 10 5 £12.50 £0. If more than one record matches the criteria the error #NUM is shown. such as the category Brand or Wattage. The FieldName is the name. of the values to Get. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.80 20 5 £180.20 25 2 £10.80 25 6 £120.
H3.H3.H3.") .C64:F65) Example 4 This example uses the =IF() function to display a message when an error occurs.xls at 03/05/2011 A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C Product Bulb D Wattage 100 DGET E Life Hours F Brand Horizon 5 G H Page 52 of 202 I J The number in stock is : =DGET(B3:I19."Duplicates products found.H3. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 9999 Brand The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19. How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 100 Brand The number in stock is : Err:502 =DGET(B3:I19.").C63:F64) Example 3 This example extracts information from no records and therefore shows the #VALUE error.CHOOSE(ERROR."One product found.".C85:F86) Err:502 =IF(ISERR(F88). How many boxes of a particular item do we have in stock? Life Hours Product Bulb Wattage 9999 Brand The number in stock is : #VALUE! =DGET(B3:I19.52857261."No such product.TYPE(F88)/3.C51:F52) Example 2 This example extracts information from multiple records and therefore shows the #NUM error.
25 10 5 £12. The FieldName is the name or cell. or 100 as the wattage.00 3 2 £30.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The MAX value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces the largest value from a specified column.00 £0.00 £0.15 25 0 £0."Value Of Stock".00 15 2 £60. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.80 25 6 £120.00 £2. such as Horizon as a brand name. Examples The largest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.I3. such as the category Brand or Wattage.80 20 5 £180. Product Bulb The largest value is : £30. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.20 40 3 £24.00 £2. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.00 =DMAX(B3:I19.E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.50 £0.00 £0. Horizon £60.00 £1.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.I3.10 20 5 £10.E49:F50) .25 10 4 £50.00 Brand sunbeam =DMAX(B3:I19. or records.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon B C D E DMAX F G H I Page 53 of 202 J K DMAX This is the Database range.50 10 3 £15.00 =DMAX(B3:I19.FieldName.20 30 2 £12.50 4 3 £54.00 Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon To calculate largest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb.52857261. The first set of information is the name.00 £0.00 £1. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. of the values to pick the Max from. Syntax =DMAX(DatabaseRange. Formatting No special formatting is needed.00 £5. which are to be selected.20 25 2 £10.00 £0. The second set of information is the actual record.00 £0.50 15 0 £0.00 £0. £30. including the field names at the top of the columns.80 10 5 £40.00 £0.00 £0. or names.
"Value Of Stock".00 Wattage 100 =DMAX(B3:I19.E60:F61) The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage."Value Of Stock". Product Bulb The largest Value Of Stock is : £24. Product Bulb The largest Value Of Stock is : £40.E67:F68) .xls at 03/05/2011 A 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E DMAX F G H I Page 54 of 202 J K The largest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.00 Wattage <100 =DMAX(B3:I19.52857261.
I3. or cell. or 100 as the wattage.00 £0. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range.00 =DMIN(B3:I19.80 10 5 £40.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The MIN value of Horizon is : What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces smallest value from a specified column. Formatting No special formatting is needed.E49:F50) .00 £0.20 25 2 £10.20 40 3 £24.75 Brand sunbeam =DMIN(B3:I19. The FieldName is the name. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.10 20 5 £10. The second set of information is the actual record.80 25 6 £120. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.20 30 2 £12.50 15 1 £37.00 £0. £3.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine. or names. including the field names at the top of the columns.00 £5.FieldName.25 10 5 £12.50 £0.00 £0.I3. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records. The first set of information is the name."Value Of Stock". such as the category Brand or Wattage.00 15 2 £60.00 £2.00 £1. Product Bulb The lowest value is : £3.00 £0. such as Horizon as a brand name.50 4 3 £54. which are to be selected. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4. Examples The lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.00 £2. or records.00 £0.52857261.80 20 5 £180.00 To calculate lowest Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb.50 £0.00 £1.E49:F50) This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon B C D E DMIN F G H I Page 55 of 202 J K DMIN This is the Database range.50 10 3 £15. Syntax =DMIN(DatabaseRange.15 25 1 £3.25 10 4 £50.00 3 2 £30.75 =DMIN(B3:I19.00 £0. of the values to pick the Min from. Horizon £10.75 £0.
"Value Of Stock".xls at 03/05/2011 A 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D E DMIN F G H I Page 56 of 202 J K The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.E67:G68) . Product Bulb The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12.00 Wattage >=80 Wattage <=100 =DMIN(B3:I19."Value Of Stock".52857261. Product Bulb The lowest Value Of Stock is : £12.E60:F61) The lowest Value Of Stock of a Bulb between two Wattage values.50 Wattage 100 =DMIN(B3:I19.
Formatting No special formatting is needed.52857261.25 10.1) =DOLLAR(C11.25 10.25 Converted To Text $10.00 $10 $10.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Original Number 10 10 10 10 10. .0) =DOLLAR(C10.25 $10 $10. DecimalPlaces : This is the amount of decimal places needed in the converted number.0) =DOLLAR(C6.2) What Does It Do? This function converts a number into a piece of text formatted as currency.DecimalPlaces) Number : This is the number which needs to be converted.3 $10.1) =DOLLAR(C7.25 10.25 B C D DOLLAR E F G H Page 57 of 202 I J DOLLAR =DOLLAR(C4) =DOLLAR(C5. The result will be shown as a text entry.2) =DOLLAR(C8) =DOLLAR(C9.00 $10.0 $10. Syntax =DOLLAR(Number.
80 10 5 £40. which are to be selected.20 30 2 £12.E49:F50) .I3. such as Horizon as a brand name. The FieldName is the name.50 10 3 £15.80 20 5 £180. or cell.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Product Bulb Neon Spot Other Bulb Spot Spot Other Bulb Neon Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Bulb Wattage 200 100 60 10 80 100 200 25 200 100 100 10 60 80 100 40 Life Hours 3000 2000 8000 1000 unknown 3000 unknown 3000 2000 unknown 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 B C D DSUM E F G H Page 58 of 202 I J DSUM Brand Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Horizon Horizon Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Sunbeam Sunbeam Horizon Horizon This is the Database range.50 15 0 £0. of the values to be totalled.50 4 3 £54. Formatting No special formatting is needed. of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis for selecting the records.00 £0.25 10 4 £50.50 Brand sunbeam =DSUM(B3:I19.00 £2.00 £1.00 £0.00 £0. including the field names at the top of the columns. The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.00 £5. Examples The total Value Of Stock of a particular Product of a particular Brand.CriteriaRange) The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine.00 £0.20 40 3 £24. The second set of information is the actual record. Brand These two cells are the Criteria range. Syntax =DSUM(DatabaseRange.00 £0.00 £0.00 £2.00 3 2 £30.E23:E24) Type the brand name : The stock value of Horizon is : £248.15 25 0 £0. The first set of information is the name. such as the category Brand or Wattage.80 25 6 £120.00 £0.00 15 2 £60.I3.FieldName.00 £1.00 What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of information and produces the total.10 20 5 £10. Horizon =DSUM(B3:I19. or 100 as the wattage. Box Boxes In Value Of Unit Cost Quantity Stock Stock £4.52857261. such as "Value Of Stock" or I3.00 £0.00 £0.50 £0. or records. Product Bulb Total stock value is : £54.25 10 5 £12. or names.20 25 2 £10.00 To calculate the total Value Of Stock of a particular Brand of bulb.
£54."Value Of Stock".52857261.E60:F61) The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb less than a particular Wattage.xls at 03/05/2011 A 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 B C D DSUM E F G H Page 59 of 202 I J This is the same calculation but using the name "Value Of Stock" instead of the cell address. Product Bulb Total Value Of Stock is : £52.50 =DSUM(B3:I19."Value Of Stock". Product Bulb Total Value Of Stock is : £56.E49:F50) The total Value Of Stock of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage."Value Of Stock".00 Wattage <100 =DSUM(B3:I19.50 Wattage 100 =DSUM(B3:I19.E67:F68) .
52857261. Jan 1000 4000 7000 12000 Feb 2000 5000 8000 15000 Mar 3000 6000 9000 18000 Alan Bob Carol Total Total 6000 15000 24000 45000 .xls at 03/05/2011 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 EAST F G H Page 60 of 202 I J A B C D E Eastern data. Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function.
(Sat or Sun).Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number.Cells. The contract Duration is entered as months.D48).D29) =EDATE(C30.2)>5. The Start date is entered.D33) The company decide not to end contracts on Saturday or Sunday.D4) =EDATE(C5. this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format.D5) =EDATE(C6.Date command. The =EDATE() function has been used to calculate the end of the contract.2)5. then 5 is subtracted from the =EDATE() to ensure the end of contract falls on a Friday.WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48.Number.D27) =EDATE(C28.D48)IF(WEEKDAY(EDATE(C48.52857261. The =WEEKDAY() function has been used to identify the actaul weekday number of the end date. If the week day number is 6 or 7.D48).D28) =EDATE(C29. Start Tue 06Jan98 Mon 12Jan98 Fri 09Jan98 Fri 09Jan98 Mon 19Jan98 Mon 26Jan98 Mon 12Jan98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06Apr98 Sun 12Apr98 Sat 09May98 Thu 09Apr98 Sun 19Apr98 Sun 26Apr98 Sun 12Apr98 =EDATE(C27.D30) =EDATE(C31. Example This example was used by a company hiring contract staff. Syntax =EDATE(StartDate.D31) =EDATE(C32.0) .D32) =EDATE(C33.D6) What Does It Do? This function is used to calculate a date which is a specific number of months in the past or in the future. Start Tue 06Jan98 Mon 12Jan98 Fri 09Jan98 Fri 09Jan98 Mon 19Jan98 Mon 26Jan98 Mon 12Jan98 Duration 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 End Mon 06Apr98 Fri 10Apr98 Fri 08May98 Thu 09Apr98 Fri 17Apr98 Fri 24Apr98 Fri 10Apr98 =EDATE(C48. The company needed to know the end date of the employment.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 B C D EDATE E F Page 61 of 202 G EDATE Start Date 1Jan98 2Jan98 2Jan98 Plus Months 3 3 3 End Date 1Apr98 2Apr98 2Oct97 =EDATE(C4.
xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D EOMONTH E F Page 62 of 202 G EOMONTH StartDate 5Jan98 5Jan98 5Jan98 Plus Months 2 2 2 End Of Month 35885 31Mar98 30Nov97 =EOMONTH(C4.Cells.Months) Formatting The result will normally be expressed as a number. this can be formatted to represent a date by using the Format. Syntax =EOMONTH(StartDate.Number.D6) What Does It Do? This function will show the last day of the month which is a specified number of months before or after a given date.D5) =EOMONTH(C6.D4) =EOMONTH(C5.Date command. .52857261.
xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D ERROR.TYPE Data 10 10 10 10:00 0 3 3 13:00 The Error #DIV/0! Err:508 #VALUE! 21:00 Error Type 532 508 519 #N/A =ERROR.TYPE E F G Page 63 of 202 H ERROR. Formatting The result will be formatted as a normal number.52857261.TYPE(E6) =ERROR.TYPE(E4) =ERROR. .TYPE(E5) =ERROR.TYPE(Error) Error is the cell reference where the error occurred.TYPE(E7) What Does It Do? This function will show a number which corresponds to an error produced by a formula. Syntax =ERROR. Example See Example 4 in the =DGET() function.
xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D EVEN E F G Page 64 of 202 H I EVEN Original Value 1 1. Syntax =EVEN(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table is used by a garage which repairs cars. The garage is repairing a fleet of cars from three manufactures.52857261. Table 1 Car Vauxhall Ford Peugeot Wipers To Order 5 9 7 Pairs to Order 3 =EVEN(D28)/2 5 =EVEN(D29)/2 4 =EVEN(D30)/2 . Table 1 was used to enter the number of wipers required for each type of car and then show how many pairs need to be ordered.2 2. Each manufacturer uses a different type of windscreen wiper which are only supplied in pairs.3 25 Evenly Rounded 2 2 4 26 =EVEN(C4) =EVEN(C5) =EVEN(C6) =EVEN(C7) What Does It Do ? This function round a number up the nearest even whole number.
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D
EXACT E F G H
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EXACT
Text1 Hello Hello Hello Text2 Hello hello Goodbye Result TRUE FALSE FALSE =EXACT(C4,D4) =EXACT(C5,D5) =EXACT(C6,D6)
What Does It Do? This function compares two items of text and determine whether they are exactly the same. The case of the characters is taken into account, only words which are spelt the same and which have upper and lower case characters in the same position will be considered as equal. Syntax =EXACT(Text1,Text2) Only two items of text can be compared. Formatting If the two items of text are exactly the same the result of TRUE will be shown. If there is any difference in the two items of text the result of FALSE will be shown. Example Here is a simple password checking formula. You need to guess the correct password. The password is the name of a colour, either red blue or green. The case of the password is important. The =EXACT() function is used to check your guess. Guess the password : Is it correct : red No
(To stop you from cheating, the correct password has been entered as a series of =CHAR() functions, which use the ANSI number of the characters rather than the character itself!) Its still very easy though.
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D
FACT E F
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FACT
Number Factorial 3 6 3.5 6 5 120 10 3,628,800 20 2,432,902,008,176,640,000 =FACT(C4) =FACT(C5) =FACT(C6) =FACT(C7) =FACT(C8)
What Does It Do ? This function calculates the factorial of a number. The factorial is calculated as 1*2*3*4..etc. The factorial of 5 is calculated as 1*2*3*4*5, which results in 120. Decimal fractions of the number are ignored. Syntax =FACT(Number) Formatting. No special formatting is needed.
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D
FIND E F
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FIND
Text Hello Hello Hello Alan Williams Alan Williams Alan Williams Letter To Find e H o a a T Position Of Letter 2 1 5 3 11 #VALUE! =FIND(D4,C4) =FIND(D5,C5) =FIND(D6,C6) =FIND(D7,C7) =FIND(D8,C8,6) =FIND(D9,C9)
What Does It Do? This function looks for a specified letter inside another piece of text. When the letter is found the position is shown as a number. If the text contains more than one reference to the letter, the first occurrence is used. An additional option can be used to start the search at a specific point in the text, thus enabling the search to find duplicate occurrences of the letter. If the letter is not found in the text, the result #VALUE is shown. Syntax =FIND(LetterToLookFor,TextToLookInside,StartPosition) LetterToLookFor : This needs to be a single character. TextToLookInside : This is the piece of text to be searched through. StartPosition : This is optional, it specifies at which point in the text the search should begin. Formatting No special formatting is needed, the result will be shown as a number.
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 B C D
FIXED E F G H
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FIXED
Original Converted Number To Text 10 10.00 =FIXED(C4) 10 10 =FIXED(C5,0) 10 10.0 =FIXED(C6,1) 10 10.00 =FIXED(C7,2) 10.25 10.25 =FIXED(C8) 10.25 10 =FIXED(C9,0) 10.25 10.3 =FIXED(C10,1) 10.25 10.25 =FIXED(C11,2) 1000 1,000.00 =FIXED(C12) 1000.23 1,000 =FIXED(C13,0) 1000.23 1000 =FIXED(C14,0,TRUE) What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric value to text. During the conversion the value can be rounded to a specific number of decimal places, and commas can be inserted at the 1,000's. Syntax =FIXED(NumberToConvert,DecimalPlaces,Commas) If DecimalPlaces places is not specified the function will assume 2. The Commas option can be TRUE for commas or FALSE for no commas. If the Commas is not specified the function will assume TRUE. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Note that any further formatting with the Format, Cells, Number command will not have any effect.
3 2 2.Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 B C D E F G FLOOR Page 69 of 202 H FLOOR Number Rounded Down 1.SignificantValue) Formatting No special formatting is needed.890 £18.125 Relevant Sales Commission £23.50) =FLOOR(C8.1) =FLOOR(C6.9 2 123 100 145 100 175 150 =FLOOR(C4.000 £560 £18.1) =FLOOR(C7. Name Alan Bob Carol Actual Sales £23.000 £230 £56.1000) .500 £56. which is then used as the basis for Commission. Syntax =FLOOR(NumberToRound.50) =FLOOR(C9.1) =FLOOR(C5. Example The following table was used to calculate commission for members of a sales team. The =FLOOR() function has been used to round down the Actual Sales to the nearest 1000.50) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a value down to the nearest multiple specified by the user.5 1 2. Commission is only paid for every £1000 of sales.000 £180 =FLOOR(D29.
Syntax =FORECAST(ItemToForeCast. The =FORECAST() function is used to calculate the predicted performance for the new sales team based upon a linear trend. Example The following table was used by a company considering expansion of their sales team. such as Sales figures. The predicted value is based on the relationship between the two original sets of values.RangeX) ItemToForecast is the point in the future.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Year 1996 1997 1998 B C D FORECAST E F G Page 70 of 202 H I FORECAST Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type the month number to predict : The Forecast sales figure is : 12 £7. The Size and Performance of the previous teams over a period of three years were entered.667 =FORECAST(E43.D39:D41) Size Of The New Sales Team : Estimated Forecast Of Performance : . The size of the New Sales team is entered.500 £3.000 20 £8. If the values are sales figures for months 1 to 6. (Jan to Jun). (or past). Formatting No special formatting is needed.800 £4.500 £3.000 £2.000 =FORECAST(E11.500 40 £10.997 Sales £1. Size Of Known Sales Team Performance 10 £5.000 £2. such as Month number.E39:E41. RangeX is the intervals used when recording the historical data.52857261.E4:E9) What Does It Do ? This function uses two sets of values to predict a single value.F4:F9.RangeY. you can use the function to predict what the sales figure will be in any other month. for which you need the forecast. RangeY is the list of values which contain the historical data to be used as the basis of the forecast. The way in which the prediction is calculated is based upon the assumption of a Linear Trend.000 30 £8.
The =UPPER() forces all the text entries to be considered as capital letters.000 Feb £6.000 Sales above £4.36 16.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 B C D FREQUENCY E F G H Page 71 of 202 I FREQUENCY North South East West Jan £5. . £4. The function is entered in the cells as an array.000 up to £6.000 £2.000 4 5 3 {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7.15 Kg 2 Above 15 but less than or equal to 20 Kg 4 Above 20 Kg 3 {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38.000 £4.C41:C43)} {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38. the =FREQUENCY() function ignores text entries.000 £7.800 £3. so how can the frequency of text be calculated? The answer is to use the =CODE() and =UPPER() functions. Unfortunately.000 and below. P or D.01 Number Of Children: Between 0 . The =CODE() function calculates the unique ANSI code for each character.ListOfIntervals) Formatting No special formatting is needed.000 Sales above £6.E9:E11)} {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7.80 8. The result shows how many items in the range of data fall between the intervals. Weight Kg 20. A restaurant has asked 40 customers for their rating of the food in the restaurant.000 £6.52857261.999 What Does It Do ? This function compares a range of data against a list of intervals.28 20.E9:E11)} {=FREQUENCY(D4:F7. that is why it is enclosed in { } braces.66 17. E.000 £999. A. The =FREQUENCY() function was then used to calculate the number of children whose weights fell between specified intervals.000 Mar £4. The manager now wants to calculate how many responses fell into each category.000 £10.500 £12.E9:E11)} Sales £4.67 18.83 15.74 10.47 22. The ratings were entered into a table as a single letter.000 £6.C41:C43)} {=FREQUENCY(C30:C38. Example 1 The following tables were used to record the weight of a group of children. Syntax =FREQUENCY(RangeOfData.000 £5.500 £3.C41:C43)} Child 1 Child 2 Child 3 Child 4 Child 5 Child 6 Child 7 Child 8 Child 9 Kg Weight Intervals 15 20 100 Example 2 This example uses characters instead of values. V.
CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)). the =FREQUENCY() function can then be used! Excellent Very Good Average Poor Disgusting Rating E V A P D D P V E e Frequency 6 8 9 8 9 V a E d P {=FREQUENCY(CODE(UPPER(B67:I71)).52857261.CODE(UPPER(C60:C64)))} Customer Ratings V V A A V A D P V P p A p D A A P E P V D V D a E D d A E D .xls at 03/05/2011 A 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 FREQUENCY Page 72 of 202 I B C D E F G H As this code is a numeric value.
31 =SUM(1/COUNTIF(C10:I16. Unique values.B24:B72)} {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16.B24:B72)} Special tip! To count how many unique numbers in a range use the following formula. It has to be entered. just Enter alone. as an array. Table 1 Week 1 1st Number 2nd Number 3rd Number 4th Number 5th Number 6th Number Bonus Ball 3 6 15 32 37 5 17 Week 2 36 3 44 15 31 22 13 Week 3 5 19 35 32 13 30 15 Week 4 3 37 20 46 22 8 25 Week 5 2 23 47 6 49 49 18 Week 6 41 15 29 45 13 11 17 Week 7 45 4 44 23 43 46 1 Table 2 is the list of possible number from 1 to 49. Table 2 Lottery Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 How Many Appearances 1 1 3 1 2 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 3 0 4 0 2 1 1 1 0 2 2 0 1 0 {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16. and how many appearances each number has made during the past seven weeks.C10:I16)) Page 73 . so press Ctrl+Shift+Enter rather than.FREQUENCY 2 FREQUENCY 2 This example shows how the =FREQUENCY() function has been used to calculate how often certain numbers appear in the Lottery results.B24:B72)} {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16. Table 1 is a record of all the results from the past seven weeks.B24:B72)} {=FREQUENCY(C10:I16.
FREQUENCY 2 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 0 0 1 1 1 2 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 2 2 1 0 2 Page 74 .
Syntax =GCD(Number1. .E11) Numbers 72 500 4 96 200 6 What Does It Do ? This function calculates the largest number which can be used to divided all the values specified. through to Number29) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D11. Decimal fractions are ignored.Number2.D9.52857261.5 =GCD(C11. The result is always a whole number.Number3.E9) 100 =GCD(C10.5 Numbers 6 15 28 49 5 99 B C D E GCD F G H Page 75 of 202 I J GCD Greatest Divisor 3 7 1 =GCD(C4...D5) =GCD(C6.D10.D6) Greatest Divisor 6 =GCD(C9.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 18 300 2.D4) =GCD(C5. Where there is no common divisor the value of 1 is used.E10) 0.
D7) 101 100 1 =GESTEP(C8.E28) =GESTEP(D29.000 £2.000 GESTEP 0 1 0 1 1 3 =GESTEP(D27.000 £4.000 £8.E31) =SUM(F27:F31) Targets Achieved .E30) =GESTEP(D31.000 £1. Syntax =GESTEP(NumberToTest.000 £7.000 £2.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 B C D GESTEP E F G H Page 76 of 202 I J GESTEP Number1 Number2 GESTEP 10 20 0 =GESTEP(C4. and the results are totalled.D10) What Does It Do ? This function test a number to see if it is greater than or equal to another number.D6) 100 100 1 =GESTEP(C7.000 £5.D4) 50 20 1 =GESTEP(C5.E27) =GESTEP(D28.000 £2.D5) 99 100 0 =GESTEP(C6.000 Target £4. If the number is greater than or equal.E29) =GESTEP(D30. The =GESTEP() function compares the Sales with Target.52857261. the result of 1 will be shown. otherwise 0 is shown. Example The following table was used to calculate how many sales staff achieved their targets.NumberToTestAgainst) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Sales £3.D9) 2 0 =GESTEP(C10.D8) 2 1 =GESTEP(C9.
000 £75.263 .000 £80.000 £84.000 £60.xls at 03/05/2011 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A B GROWTH C D GROWTH E F G H Page 77 of 202 I J Size Of Sales Team 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Known Performance £50.000 £82.52857261.000 £70.000 56.000 £86.
Hexadecimal F 1A 29 Value 1 Value 2 Result =DEC2HEX(HEX2DEC(C29)+HEX2DEC(C30)) .813. Syntax =HEX2DEC(HexaDecimalNumber) Formatting No special formatting is needed.888 1 2 3 =HEX2DEC(C4) =HEX2DEC(C5) =HEX2DEC(C6) =HEX2DEC(C7) =HEX2DEC(C8) =HEX2DEC(C9) =HEX2DEC(C10) =HEX2DEC(C11) =HEX2DEC(C12) =HEX2DEC(C13) =HEX2DEC(C14) What Does It Do ? This function converts a hexadecimal number to its decimal equivalent.887 549.755.52857261.813. Example The following table was used to add two hexadecimal values together.755.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 B C HEX2DEC D E Page 78 of 202 F G HEX2DEC Hexadecimal 0 1 2 3 1A 1B 7FFFFFFFFF 8000000000 FFFFFFFFFF FFFFFFFFFE FFFFFFFFFD Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 26 27 549.
It then calculates the position of the name in the list. The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 B C D HLOOKUP E F G H Page 79 of 202 I J HLOOKUP Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 Feb 4 100 =HLOOKUP(F10. The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the column headings at the top. The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the name we require. so and extra 1 is added to compensate.D3:F10. FALSE for no.52857261.F11.SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user. Example 1 This table is used to find a value based on a specified month and name.Jan. Type a month to look for : Which row needs to be picked out : The result is : What Does It Do ? This function scans across the column headings at the top of a table to find a specified item. because the list of names is not as deep as the lookup range.RowToPickFrom. Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 feb alan Bob Eric Alan Carol David Type a month to look for : Type a name to look for : . When the item is found. they are part of the illustration. Syntax =HLOOKUP(ItemToFind.Mar is correct.Feb.FALSE) row 1 row 2 row 3 row 4 row 5 row 6 The row numbers are not needed. The =HLOOKUP() is used to scan across to find the month. The RowToPickFrom is how far down the column the function should look to pick from. TRUE for yes. it then scans down the column to pick a cell entry.Mar. The =HLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look down the month column and picks out the correct cell entry. The =HLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the column headings are not sorted.RangeToLookIn. If they were sorted alphabetically they would have read as Feb. Unfortunately. The problem arises when we need to scan down to find the row adjacent to the name. even though to us the order of Jan. To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used. Formatting No special formatting is needed.
Wood and Glass. Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match. which scans the list of spares for the item specified in column C. The =HLOOKUP() scans the column headings for the make of car specified in column B. The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table.FALSE) The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the top of the Discount Table the =HLOOKUP will look down the column to find the correct discount. Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match.E115:G118.C48:C52. =HLOOKUP(D127.FALSE) Example 3 In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders. the next lowest value is used. All the calculations take place in the Orders Table. The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values across the top of the Discount Table are sorted. Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100. The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product.0)+1.TRUE) Unit Cost Table . If the Quantity Ordered does not match a value at the top of the Discount Table.D47:F54. =HLOOKUP(C127. The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick. If a match is not found. the ranges for =HLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do not change.F73:F77. This ensures that when the formula is copied to more cells. The function uses the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol $.D116:D118.MATCH(F55.0)+1. When the make is found.200 =HLOOKUP(B79. The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product names across the top of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted.xls at 03/05/2011 A 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 B C D HLOOKUP E F G H Page 80 of 202 I J The result is : 100 =HLOOKUP(F54. The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total.MATCH(C79.0)+1. the function will produce an error.52857261. Maker Vauxhall VW Ford VW Ford Ford Vauxhall Ford Spare Ignition GearBox Engine Steering Ignition CYHead GearBox Engine Cost £50 Vauxhall Ford VW £600 GearBox 500 450 600 £1.FALSE) Example 2 This example shows how the =HLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for different makes of cars.200 Engine 1000 1200 800 £275 Steering 250 350 275 £70 Ignition 50 70 45 £290 CYHead 300 290 310 £500 £1.G72:I77. the =HLOOKUP() then looks down the column to the row specified by the =MATCH() function.MATCH(C127.E111:G112. The name of the Item is typed in column C.2. and the discount from the 100 column is used.
52857261.2.275 =HLOOKUP(C127.xls at 03/05/2011 A 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 B C D HLOOKUP E Brick £2 F Wood £1 G Glass £3 H Page 81 of 202 I J Brick Wood Glass Discount Table 1 100 0% 6% 0% 3% 0% 12% Orders Table Unit Cost Discount £2 6% £1 3% £3 12% £2 6% £1 0% £3 15% 300 8% 5% 15% Item Brick Wood Glass Brick Wood Glass Unit Cost Discount Units 100 200 150 225 50 500 Total £188 £194 £396 £423 £50 £1.E111:G112.TRUE) .D116:D118.MATCH(C127.FALSE) =HLOOKUP(D127.E115:G118.0)+1.
25 Hour 21 6 =HOUR(C4) =HOUR(C5) What Does It Do? The function will show the hour of the day based upon a time or a number.52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 B C D HOUR E F G Page 82 of 202 H I HOUR Number 21:15 0. . Syntax =HOUR(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 23.
If the Sales do not reach Target.C44*5%) 100 =IF(C45>=D45. when the Order Value is £1000 or above."Achieved"."Not Achieved") What Does It Do? This function tests a condition.800 ."Achieved". If the Sales do not reach the target the result of Not Achieved is shown. Formatting No special formatting is required. Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C31>=D31. The =IF() function is used to compare the Sales with the Target. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target the result of Achieved is shown. The ActionIfTrue and ActionIfFalse can be numbers. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target. If the condition is met it is considered to be TRUE."Achieved".000 Product Wood Discount £200 Total £1. Each has their own target which they must reach.C45*10%. Note that the text used in the =IF() function needs to be placed in double quotes "Achieved". the Commission is only 5% of Sales."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C32>=D32."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C6>=D6. This time the Commission to be paid to the sales rep is calculated. The =AND() function is used with the =IF() to check that the product is on offer and that the value of the order is above £1000."Not Achieved") Not Achieved =IF(C33>=D33."Achieved". If the condition is not met it is considered as FALSE. Special Offer Yes Order Value £2."Achieved"."Not Achieved") Achieved =IF(C5>=D5.C43*5%) 600 =IF(C44>=D44."Not Achieved") Example 2 The following table is similar to that in Example 1."Achieved". Depending upon the result. The discount is only given on products which are on Special Offer. Example 1 The following table shows the Sales figures and Targets for sales reps.C43*10%. A builders merchant gives 10% discount on certain product lines. Syntax =IF(Condition.ActionIfTrue.C44*10%.ActionIfFalse) The Condition is usually a test of two cells. the Commission is 10% of Sales. text or calculations.C45*5%) Example 3 This example uses the =AND() within the =IF() function. Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Commission 50 =IF(C43>=D43. one of two actions will be carried out.52857261. such as A1=A2.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D E IF F G H Page 83 of 202 I J IF Name Alan Bob Carol Sales 1000 6000 2000 Target 5000 5000 4000 Result Not Achieved =IF(C4>=D4.
D61>=1000).D61*10%.52857261.700 =IF(AND(C61="Yes".000 IF E F G H ££2.0) Page 84 of 202 I J .xls at 03/05/2011 A 59 60 61 62 B Glass Cement Turf C No Yes Yes D £2.000 ££500 £300 £2.000 £500 £3.
Country England France Germany Spain Currency Population Capitol Sterling 50 M London Franc 40 M Paris DM 60 M Bonn Peseta 30 M Barcelona 2 3 Paris =INDEX(D45:F48.ColumnColumnCordinate) This syntax is used when the range is made up of rows and columns. People Weeks 1 2 3 1 £500 £600 £700 2 £300 £400 £500 3 £250 £300 £350 4 £200 £250 £300 2 4 250 =INDEX(D7:G9.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 B C D INDEX E F G H Page 85 of 202 I INDEX Holiday booking price list. or noncontinuos blocks.D36) Size Large Medium Small Type either 1. 2 or 3 : 2 The size is : Medium =INDEX(G34:I34.F51) Type 1. Syntax There are various forms of syntax for this function. but the Coordinate refers to a row when the range is vertical and a column when the range is horizontal.Coordinate) This is used when the RangeToLookIn is either a single column or row.F50.G12) How many weeks required : How many people in the party : Cost per person is : What Does It Do ? This function picks a value from a range of data by looking down a specified number of rows and then across a specified number of columns.H36) Syntax 2 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn.RowCoordinate. Colours Red Green Blue Type either 1.2 or 3 for statistics : The result is : .2.3 or 4 for the country : Type 1.52857261. The Coordinate indicates how far down or across to look when picking the data from the range.G11. 2 or 3 : 2 The colour is : Green =INDEX(D32:D34. It can be used with a single block of data. Syntax 1 =INDEX(RangeToLookIn. Both of the examples below use the same syntax.
NORTH Bricks Wood Glass SOUTH Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 £1.000 Qtr3 £3.000 £7.500 £8.500 Qtr2 £2.500 £5. The easiest way to refer to these areas is to select them and give them a single name. 2. 3 or 4 for the Qtr : Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : =INDEX(EastAndWest.500 £12.500 £7.000 Qtr3 £3.000 £6.000 Qtr4 £4.500 Type 1.AreaToPickFrom) Using this syntax the range to look in can be made up of multiple areas.500 £6.RowCoordinate. In the following example the figures for North and South have been named as one range called NorthAndSouth.500 Type 1.500 Qtr3 £3.500 Qtr2 £2.500 £9.500 £10.500 £7.000 £5. 3 or 4 for the Qtr : Type 1 for North or 2 for South : The result is : Example This is an extended version of the previous example.IF(F102=C90.52857261.500 £8.000 Qtr4 £4.500 Qtr3 £3.2))) .000 £10.000 £12.xls at 03/05/2011 A 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 INDEX Page 86 of 202 B C D E F G H I Syntax 3 =INDEX(NamedRangeToLookIn. The AreaToPickFrom indicates which of the multiple areas should be used.000 Qtr1 £1.D90:G90.000 £12.500 £5.MATCH(F101.000 Qtr2 £2.000 £8. These positions are then used by the =INDEX() function to look for the data.500 £11.IF(F102=C95.F77.500 £11.000 £5.F76.1.500 1 3 2 Err:504 =INDEX(NorthAndSouth.500 £10.500 £12. It allows the names of products and the quarters to be entered. 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1.000 Qtr2 £2.0).C91:C93.500 wood qtr2 west Err:504 Qtr4 £4.000 £9.000 £7.000 £9.F78) Qtr4 £4.000 £11.000 £6.MATCH(F100. EAST Bricks Wood Glass WEST Bricks Wood Glass Qtr1 £1.000 £10.0).000 £8.000 Qtr1 £1. 2.500 £9.ColumnColumnCordinate.500 £6. 2 or 3 for the product : Type 1.000 £11. The =MATCH() function is used to find the row and column positions of the names entered.
SOUTH and EAST. such as C7 : C7 The sum of the range C5:C7 on South is : 1200 =SUM(INDIRECT(G44&"!"&G45&":"&G46)) The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =SUM(SOUTH!C5:C7) .xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D INDIRECT E F G H Page 87 of 202 I J INDIRECT North South East West Jan 10 40 70 100 Feb 20 50 80 110 Mar 30 60 90 120 G6 80 =INDIRECT(H9) Type address of any of the cells in the above table. The data on these three sheets is laid out in the same cells on each sheet. The address can be either on the same worksheet or on a different worksheet. but this time the =SUM() function is used to calculate a total from a range of cells. Syntax =INDIRECT(Text) Formatting No special formatting is needed. such as North : Type the cell to pick data from. such as South : South Type the start cell of the range. The example uses three other worksheets named NORTH. such as C5 : C5 Type the end cell of the range. Type the name of the sheet. such as G6 : The value in the cell you typed is : What Does It Do ? This function converts a plain piece of text which looks like a cell address into a usable cell reference. Example 1 This example shows how data can be picked form other worksheets by using the worksheet name and a cell address. When a reference to a sheet is made the exclamation symbol ! needs to be placed between the sheet name and cell address acting as punctuation. Type the name of the sheet. such as C8 : The contents of the cell C8 on North is : The =INDIRECT() created a reference to =NORTH!C8 North C8 120 =INDIRECT(G33&"!"&G34) Example 2 This example uses the same data as above.52857261.
52857261. Formatting The results will be shown as text or a number depending upon what was requested.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 B INFO C D Page 88 of 202 E F INFO Current directory Available bytes of memory Memory in use Total bytes of memory Number of active worksheets Cell currently in the top left of the window Operating system Recalculation mode Excel version Name of system. (PC or Mac) System Information Err:502 Err:502 Err:502 Err:502 1 Err:502 Windows (32bit) NT 5. . Syntax =INFO(text) text : This is the name of the item you require information about.01 Automatic 310m19(Build:9420) LINUX =INFO("directory") =INFO("memavail") =INFO("memused") =INFO("totmem") =INFO("numfile") =INFO("origin") =INFO("osversion") =INFO("recalc") =INFO("release") =INFO("system") What Does It Do? This function provides information about the operating environment of the computer.
48 Integer 1 2 10 2 =INT(C4) =INT(C5) =INT(C6) =INT(C7) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to the nearest whole number.25 .5 =(D27C27)/365.87 7.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D INT E F G H Page 89 of 202 I J INT Number 1. Example The following table was used by a school to calculate the age a child when the school year started.25 Table 2 shows the age of the child with the Age formatted with no decimal places.67 7. Table 1 shows the age of the child with decimal places Table 1 Birth Date 1Jan80 5Feb81 20Oct79 1Mar81 Term Start 1Sep88 1Sep88 1Sep88 1Sep88 Age 8.57 8.5 2.25 Table 3 shows the age of the child with the Age calculated using the =INT() function to remove the decimal part of the number to give the correct age. The Birth Date and the Term Start date are entered and the age calculated. Table 2 Birth Date 1Jan80 5Feb81 20Oct79 1Mar81 Term Start 1Sep88 1Sep88 1Sep88 1Sep88 Age 9 8 9 8 =(D38C38)/365. A child can only be admitted to school if they are over 8 years old.75 1.3 10. Syntax =INT(Number) Formatting No special formatting is needed.25) Note The age is calculated by subtracting the Birth Date from the Term Start to find the age of the child in days. The number of days is then divided by 365.52857261. This has the effect of increasing the child age. Table 3 Birth Date 1Jan80 5Feb81 20Oct79 1Mar81 Term Start 1Sep88 1Sep88 1Sep88 1Sep88 Age 8 7 8 7 =INT((D49C49)/365.
xls at 03/05/2011 A 59 INT G H Page 90 of 202 I J B C D E F The reason for using 365.52857261. .25 is to take account of the leap years.
Usually the function is used in conjunction with the =IF() function which can test the result of the =ISBLANK() Syntax =ISBLANK(CellToTest) Formatting Used by itself the result will be shown as TRUE or FALSE. Cheques Received Num From chq1 ABC Ltd chq2 CJ Design chq3 J Smith chq4 Travel Co. but which will be filled later as the data is received by the user.52857261.E36.0) Totals 550 1050 .000 £250 Banked Outstanding 100 0 200 0 0 50 0 1000 6Jan98 250 0 =IF(ISBLANK(F36).E36) =IF(ISBLANK(F36). chq5 J Smith Date Received 1Jan98 1Jan98 2Jan98 3Jan98 4Jan98 Date Cleared 2Jan98 7Jan98 Amount £100 £200 £50 £1. When the Cleared date is entered the cheque will be shown as Banked. When the cheque is cleared the date is entered. Example The following example shows a list of cheques received by a company. The =ISBLANK() function is used to determine whether the Cleared column is empty or not.0. Until the Cleared date is entered the Cleared column is blank.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 B C D ISBLANK E F G Page 91 of 202 H I ISBLANK Is The Cell Blank FALSE FALSE TRUE 25Dec98 FALSE Data 1 Hello =ISBLANK(C4) =ISBLANK(C5) =ISBLANK(C6) =ISBLANK(C7) What Does It Do? This function will determine if there is an entry in a particular cell. It can be used when a spreadsheet has blank cells which may cause errors. While the Cleared column is blank the cheque will still be Outstanding.
"Try again!". Table 2 Cost Of Crate : £24 Bottles In Crate : 0 Cost of single bottle : Try again! =IF(ISERR(E40/E41). Syntax =ISERR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a calculation. The #DIV/0 indicates that an attempt was made to divide by zero 0.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D ISERR E F G H Page 92 of 202 I ISERR Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! Err:508 #VALUE! Err:502 Err:502 #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE =ISERR(D4) =ISERR(D5) =ISERR(D6) =ISERR(D7) =ISERR(D8) =ISERR(D9) =ISERR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell and shows TRUE if there is an error value in the cell.E40/E41) . Formatting No special formatting is needed. Table 1 shows what happens when the value zero 0 is entered as the number of bottles.52857261. Example The following tables were used by a publican to calculate the cost of a single bottle of champagne. It will show FALSE if the contents of the cell calculate without an error. which Excel does not do. Table 1 Cost Of Crate : Bottles In Crate : Cost of single bottle : £24 0 #DIV/0! =E32/E33 Table 2 shows how this error can be trapped by using the =ISERR() function. by dividing the cost of the crate by the quantity of bottles in the crate. or if the error is the #NA message.
Table 1 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5Jan98 Difference : 3Jan00 =D31D30 Table 2 shows how the =ISERROR() function has been used to trap the error and inform the user that there has been an error in the data entry.D40D39) .xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C ISERROR D E F G Page 93 of 202 H ISERROR Cell to test 3 #DIV/0! Err:508 #VALUE! Err:502 Err:502 #N/A Result FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE =ISERROR(D4) =ISERROR(D5) =ISERROR(D6) =ISERROR(D7) =ISERROR(D8) =ISERROR(D9) =ISERROR(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell or calculation to determine whether an error has been generated. Formatting No special formatting is needed."Error in data entry". Table 2 Start date : Jan 01 98 End date : 5Jan98 Difference : 3Jan00 =IF(ISERROR(D40D39). It will show TRUE for any type of error and FALSE if no error is found. Table 1 shows an error due to the fact that the first entry was entered using an inappropriate date format. Example The following tables was used to calculate the difference between two dates.52857261. Syntax =ISERROR(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell reference or a formula.
6 Hello 1Feb98 1Feb96 Is it Even 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 =ISEVEN(C4) =ISEVEN(C5) =ISEVEN(C6) =ISEVEN(C7) =ISEVEN(C8) =ISEVEN(C9) =ISEVEN(C10) =ISEVEN(C11) =ISEVEN(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is even. Note that decimal fractions are ignored.5 2.6 3. An even number is shown as TRUE an odd number is shown as FALSE.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D ISEVEN E F G Page 94 of 202 H I ISEVEN Number 1 2 2.5 3. Syntax =ISEVEN(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required. Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error. .52857261. Note that dates can be even or odd.
xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D ISLOGICAL E F G H Page 95 of 202 I J ISLOGICAL Cell To Test FALSE TRUE 20 1Jan98 Hello #DIV/0! Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISLOGICAL(D4) =ISLOGICAL(D5) =ISLOGICAL(D6) =ISLOGICAL(D7) =ISLOGICAL(D8) =ISLOGICAL(D9) =ISLOGICAL(D10) What Does It Do ? This function tests a cell to determine whether the cell contents are logical.52857261. the result FALSE is shown. If the cell does not contain a logical value. If the cell does contain a logical value. . the result TRUE is shown. The logical values can only be TRUE or FALSE. Syntax =ISLOGICAL(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed.
The #N/A is generated when a function cannot work properly because of missing data. Syntax =ISNA(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed.52857261. but will be used for data entry in the future. The #N/A can also be typed in to a cell by the user to indicate the cell is currently empty. . The function is normally used with other functions such as the =IF() function.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D ISNA E F G H Page 96 of 202 I J ISNA Number 1 Hello 1Jan98 #N/A Result FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE =ISNA(C4) =ISNA(C5) =ISNA(C6) =ISNA(C7) =ISNA(C8) What Does It Do? This function tests a cell to determine whether it contains the Not Available error #N/A.
rather than text. Syntax =ISNONTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting. Table 1 Item Radio TV Video Buying Price 400 800 3OO Markup 150% 200% 150% Profit 600 1600 #VALUE! =D32*E32 Table 2 shows how the error is trapped using the =ISNONTEXT function and the =IF() function in the calculation.52857261. Table 2 Item Radio TV Video Buying Price Markup Profit 400 150% 600 800 200% 1600 3OO 150% Retype the Price =IF(ISNONTEXT(D40). is entered using the letter O instead of the zero 0.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 B C D ISNONTEXT E F Page 97 of 202 G H ISNONTEXT Item To Test 10 Hello 1Jan98 1OO Is It A Number? TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =ISNONTEXT(C4) =ISNONTEXT(C5) =ISNONTEXT(C6) =ISNONTEXT(C7) =ISNONTEXT(C8) What Does It Do? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is a number. The function is normally used with other function such as the =IF() function. It would be used to ensure that only numeric entries are used in calculations. rather than text which looks like a number. Examples The following table is used by an electrical retailer to calculate the selling price of an item based on the buying price and the shop markup. such as typing the letter O instead of zero 0."Retype the Price") . Table 1 shows the #VALUE! error generated when a number.D40*E40. 300.
Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee.000 £15.C29:E33.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D ISNUMBER E F G H Page 98 of 202 I J ISNUMBER Cell Entry 1 1Jan98 #DIV/0! Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISNUMBER(D4) =ISNUMBER(D5) =ISNUMBER(D6) =ISNUMBER(D7) =ISNUMBER(D8) What Does It Do ? This function examines a cell or calculation to determine whether it is a numeric value.2. Formatting No special formatting is needed. The =ISNUMBER() function has been used to identify the type of entry made.3.D29:E33.FALSE). ID No. The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10.VLOOKUP(E35.000 £12.52857261. the result FALSE is shown.000 Type Employee Name or ID : eric The Salary is : £12. If the cell or calculation is a numeric value the result TRUE is shown. Syntax =ISNUMBER(CellToTest) The cell to test can be a cell reference or a calculation.VLOOKUP(E35. and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform.FALSE)) .000 £8.000 =IF(ISNUMBER(E35). or is blank.000 £12. If the cell or calculation is not numeric.
An odd number is shown as TRUE an even number is shown as FALSE. Note that dates can be odd or even. Note that text entries result in the #VALUE! error.52857261. Note that decimal fractions are ignored.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D ISODD E F G H Page 99 of 202 I J ISODD Number 1 2 2.6 3. Syntax =ISODD(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is required.5 3.5 2.6 Hello 1Feb98 1Feb96 Is it Odd 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 =ISODD(C4) =ISODD(C5) =ISODD(C6) =ISODD(C7) =ISODD(C8) =ISODD(C9) =ISODD(C10) =ISODD(C11) =ISODD(C12) What Does It Do ? This function tests a number to determine whether it is odd. .
and is normally used in macros rather than on the worksheet. Syntax =ISREF(ValueToTest) The ValueToTest can be any type of data. . Its a bit of an odd one. Formatting No special formatting is needed.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D ISREF E F G Page 100 of 202 H I ISREF TRUE =ISREF(A1) FALSE =ISREF(B99) Err:508 =ISREF(Hello) FALSE =ISREF(10) FALSE =ISREF(NOW()) FALSE =ISREF("A1") Err:508 =ISREF(XX99) What Does It Do ? This function shows TRUE if given a cell address. or FALSE for any other type of value. but when used on the worksheet. as the reference will itself be evaluated by the function. it cannot be a reference to the contents of another cell.52857261.
If the entry is any other type it shows FALSE. The employee can be entered as a Name or as a Numeric value.000 Type Employee Name or ID : 3 The Salary is : £8.FALSE)) .000 =IF(ISTEXT(E33).D27:E31.VLOOKUP(E33.000 £8.3. 1 2 3 4 5 Name Alan Eric Carol Bob David Salary £10.000 £15.2.FALSE). The =ISTEXT() function has been used to identify the type of entry made. If the entry is text is shows TRUE. Example The following table was used by a personnel department to lookup the salary of an employee.52857261.000 £12.VLOOKUP(E33. and then the =IF() decides which VLOOKUP to perform.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D ISTEXT E F G H Page 101 of 202 I ISTEXT Cell To Test Hello 1 25Dec98 Result TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE =ISTEXT(D4) =ISTEXT(D5) =ISTEXT(D6) =ISTEXT(D7) What Does It Do ? This functions tests an entry to determine whether it is text.C27:E31. ID No.000 £12. Syntax =ISTEXT(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed.
000 £5.5) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list.000 £6.2) =LARGE(D24:F27.500 £12.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 B C D LARGE E F G H Page 102 of 202 I J LARGE Values 120 800 100 120 250 Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value 4th Highest Value 5th Highest Value 800 250 120 120 100 =LARGE(C4:C8.000 £12.3) Highest Value 2nd Highest Value 3rd Highest Value Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.1) =LARGE(D24:F27.000 Feb £6.2) =LARGE(C4:C8.1) =LARGE(C4:C8. Syntax =LARGE(ListOfNumbersToExamine. Sales North South East West Jan £5. Highest Lowest £12.800 £3.500 £3.000 £10. Feb and Mar.000 =LARGE(D24:F27.000 £2.PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed.4) =LARGE(C4:C8.000 £2.000 £10.52857261.000 £4.000 Mar £4.3) =LARGE(C4:C8.000 £7.000 £7.000 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27) . Example The following table was used to calculate the top 3 sales figures between Jan.
D4) =LCM(C5. which is the smallest number that can be divided by each of the given numbers.D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculate the Least Common Multiple. through to Number29) Formatting No special formatting is needed.52857261.Number3. Syntax =LCM(Number1. .xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Numbers 6 20 12 18 34 96 B C D E LCM F G H Page 103 of 202 I J LCM Least Common Multiple 60 36 1632 =LCM(C4.Number2..D5) =LCM(C6..
Example The following table was used to extract the first name of a person from their full name. Syntax =LEFT(OriginalText.D8) What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the left hand side of a piece of text.FIND(" ".D6) =LEFT(C7.Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 Number Of Characters Required Left String 1 A 2 Al 3 Ala 6 Cardif 4 ABC1 B C D E F G H LEFT Page 104 of 202 I LEFT =LEFT(C4.D7) =LEFT(C8. Full Name First Name Alan Jones Alan =LEFT(C27.FIND(" ".FIND(" ".NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D4) =LEFT(C5.C28)1) Carol Williams Carol =LEFT(C29. The =LEFT() function can now extract the first name based on the position of the space. The =FIND() function was used to locate position of the space between the first and second name.C29)1) . The length of the first name is therefore the position of the space minus one character.D5) =LEFT(C6.C27)1) Bob Smith Bob =LEFT(C28.
=LEN(C24)FIND(" ".C24) This is the position of the space. in a piece of text.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D LEN E F G Page 105 of 202 H I LEN Text Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff ABC123 Length 10 9 14 7 6 =LEN(C4) =LEN(C5) =LEN(C6) =LEN(C7) =LEN(C8) What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of characters.C24)) This is just the second name. including spaces and numbers. Original Text Carol Williams 6 =FIND(" ".52857261. Calculated by using the =RIGHT() function to extract the rightmost characters up to the length of the second name. Carol Williams 8 . Calculated by taking the overall length of the complete name and subtracting the position of the space. Example This example shows how the =LEN() function is used in a formula which extracts the second name from a text entry containing both first and second names. =RIGHT(C24.LEN(C24)FIND(" ". Syntax =LEN(Text) Formatting No Special formatting is needed.C24) This is the length of the second name.
Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the range as these will cause errors. so the row heading of Jan is not included in the lookup range. (use VLOOKUP or HLOOKUP).D4:G10) Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The March value for this person is : What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list. If the table has more rows than columns : the function will look down the left most column trying to find a match for the piece of information you asked it to look for. If the table has the same amount of rows and columns : the function will look down the left most column and work in just the same way as if the table had more rows than columns. Example 1 In this table there are more rows than columns. so the column heading of Jan is not included in the lookup Example 2 In this table there are more columns than rows.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 B C D LOOKUP (Array) E F G H Page 106 of 202 I J LOOKUP (Array) Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 77 =LOOKUP(F12. . The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical. When a match is found. so it is no good if you need to pick data from part way across a list. the function will look across to the right most column to pick the last entry on the row. Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor. When a match is found. The way in which the function decides whether to pick from the row or column is based on the size of the table.52857261. the function will then look down to the bottom cell of the column to pick the last entry of the column. It always picks the data from the end of the row or column. and then picks an item from the last cell in the adjacent row or column.RangeToLookIn) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item. as in the description above. If the table has more columns than rows : the function will look across the top row trying to find a match for the piece of information you have asked it to look for.
52857261.G80:J86) . Table 2 shows the same data. but other times the result will be an #N/A error or incorrect figure. either as #N/A or incorrect results. Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred C Jan 100 100 100 100 100 100 D LOOKUP (Array) E F Jan G Alan 100 H Bob 100 Page 107 of 202 I Carol 100 J David 100 Formatting No special formatting is needed. Table 1 shows the Name column sorted alphabetically.B80:E86) 77 =LOOKUP(H88. otherwise errors will occur.xls at 03/05/2011 A 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B range. but not sorted. Sometimes the results will be correct. the results of using =LOOKUP() will be correct. Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order. Table 1 Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Name : Value : Table 2 Name David Eric Alan Bob Carol Francis Gail Name : Value : Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Eric Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Jan 40 50 10 20 30 60 70 Eric Feb 110 120 80 90 100 130 140 Mar 51 77 97 69 45 28 73 77 =LOOKUP(C88.
If the name Carol is used. . otherwise errors will occur.52857261. The RangeToLook in can be either horizontal or vertical.F4:F10) Mar 97 69 45 51 77 28 73 Type a Name in this cell : The Feb value for this person is : What Does It Do ? This function looks for a piece of information in a list.RangeToLookIn. and then picks an item from a second range of cells. When a match is found the =LOOKUP() then picks from the second range E38:J38.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 B C D LOOKUP (Vector) E F G H Page 108 of 202 I J LOOKUP (Vector) Name Alan Bob Carol David Eric Francis Gail Jan 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Eric 120 =LOOKUP(F12. either as #N/A or incorrect results. Be careful not to include unnecessary heading in the ranges as these will cause errors. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =LOOKUP(WhatToLookFor. The RangeToPickFrom must have the same number of cells in it as the RangeToLookin. RangeToLookIn Alan Bob Carol David Eric Fred RangeToPickFrom 15 20 5 10 25 30 Type a name : Value : Carol 15 =LOOKUP(G41. the match is made in the third cell of the list of names.C38:C43.RangeToPickFrom) The WhatToLookFor should be a single item. Example The following example shows how the =LOOKUP() function was used to match a name typed in cell G41 against the list of names in C38:C43. and then the function picks the third cell from the list of values.D4:G10.E38:J38) Problems The list of information to be looked through must be sorted in ascending order.
.52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C LOWER D E F G Page 109 of 202 H LOWER Upper Case Text ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123 Lower Case alan jones bob smith carol williams cardiff abc123 =LOWER(C4) =LOWER(C5) =LOWER(C6) =LOWER(C7) =LOWER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to lower case. Syntax =LOWER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.
1 or 1.0) Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 25 #N/A Example 2 Using the 1 option suitable for a ascending list to find an exact or next lowest match.. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 =MATCH(G45. The list must be sorted for this to work properly. If no match is found the #NA error will be shown. The Wrong Value list finds the next lowest number. It can be used with text and numbers.G40:G43. Syntax =MATCH(WhatToLookFor. Value position : 3 =MATCH(I9. The Wrong Value list cannot find an exact match.0) What Does It Do ? This function looks for an item in a list and shows its position.WhereToLook. Using 1 will look for an exact match. It can look for an exact match or an approximate match.1) Using 0 will look for an exact match. Using 1 will look for an exact match.xls at 03/05/2011 A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 C D MATCH E F G Page 110 of 202 H I MATCH Names Bob Alan David Carol Type a name to look for : Alan Type a value : Values 250 600 1000 4000 1000 The position of Alan is : 2 =MATCH(E9. The list of values being examined must be sorted for this to work correctly. Examples 1 Using the 0 option suitable for an exact match. or the next highest number if no exact match exists. The Ascending list gives the exact match. .I4:I7.52857261. The Descending list gives the exact match.TypeOfMatch) The TypeOfMatch either 0. or the next lowest number if no exact match exists.E4:E7. If there is no exact match or next highest number the error #NA is shown. If there is no match or next lowest number the error #NA is shown. The Descending list gives the #NA error. so the #NA is shown. The Ascending list gives the exact match.
1) Example 3 Using the 1 option suitable for a descending list to find an exact or next highest match. The Wrong Value list finds the next highest number. Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 Descending 40 30 20 10 20 3 Wrong Value 40 30 20 10 25 2 =MATCH(G79. The Descending list gives the exact match. The number of passengers on the tour is then entered.0) Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 4 Bus 5 Example 5 The tables below were used by a school to calculate the exam grades for pupils. The Ascending list gives the #NA error. The pupils scores are compared against the breakpoints.G74:G77. the =INDEX() function has been used to look down the list again and pick out the actual bus size required. They need to allocate a bus with enough seats for the all the passengers.D95:D99. If the number of passengers is not an exact match. The =MATCH() function looks down the list to find the bus with enough seats.G57:G60. The list of grade breakpoints was entered in a list. If an exact match is not found. the next lowest breakpoint is used.xls at 03/05/2011 A B 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 C Ascending 10 20 30 40 20 2 D MATCH E Descending 40 30 20 10 20 #N/A F G Wrong Value 10 20 30 40 Page 111 of 202 H I 25 2 =MATCH(G62. After the =MATCH() function has found the bus. The =INDEX() function then looks down the Grade list to find the grade. The pupils scores were entered in another list.MATCH(H94. The list of bus sizes has been entered in a list. the next biggest bus will be picked. Bus Size 54 50 22 15 6 Passengers on the tour : 23 Bus size needed : 50 =INDEX(D95:D99. Exam Score Grade Pupil Score Grade .52857261.1).1) Example 4 The tables below were used to by a bus company taking booking for bus tours.
C111:C114.MATCH(G114.52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A B 111 112 113 114 115 C 0 50 90 95 D Fail Pass Merit Distinction MATCH E Page 112 of 202 I F G H Alan 60 Pass Bob 6 Fail Carol 97 Distinction David 89 Pass =INDEX(D111:D114.1).0) .
xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 B C D MAX E F G Page 113 of 202 H I MAX Values 120 800 100 120 250 Maximum 800 =MAX(C4:G4) Dates 1Jan98 25Dec98 31Mar98 27Dec98 What Does It Do ? This function picks the highest value from a list of data.500 £12.000 £12.000 £10..000 =MAX(C23:E23) £7.Range2.52857261.000 Feb £6.000 £10. month and overall.000 £4.000 £10.000 £5.000 £2.000 =MAX(E23:E26) Region Max £6.000 £12.000 Overall Max £12.000 =MAX(C23:E26) . through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.800 £3.000 £7. Syntax =MAX(Range1.000 £6.000 Mar £4.500 £3. Sales North South East West Month Max Jan £5. 4Jul98 Maximum 27Dec98 =MAX(C7:G7) Example In the following example the =MAX() function has been used to find the highest value for each region..Range3.000 £7.
through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Syntax =MEDIAN(Range1. the two nearest the half way point are added and their average is used as the median. it is the half way point where half the numbers in the group are larger than it and half the numbers are less than it. If there is no exact median number in the group...Range3.Range2. . The median is not the average.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 B C D E MEDIAN F G H I Page 114 of 202 J MEDIAN Value1 20 2000 10 Value1 20 20 Value2 50 1000 20 Value2 40 20 Value3 10 10 40 Value3 30 40 Value4 30 20 40 Value4 10 20 Value5 40 8000 40 Median 30 1000 40 Median 25 20 =MEDIAN(C4:G4) =MEDIAN(C6:G6) =MEDIAN(C8:G8) =MEDIAN(C11:F11) =MEDIAN(C13:F13) What Does It Do ? This function finds the median value of a group of values.52857261.
5.5. only the available characters will be picked.2) NP =MID(C37.FIND("/".D5.D6. It is assumed that all branch ID's follow the same format with the letters identifying the postal region being in the 5th and 6th positions.C50)+1. Full Branch Code Postal Region DRS/STC/872 STC HDRS/FC/111 FC S/NORTH/874 NORTH HQ/K/875 K SPECIAL/UK & FR/876 UK & FR =MID(C50. occurring after the first / . Branch ID DRSCF476 DRSWA842 HLTNP190 Postal Region CF =MID(C35.5.FIND("/".5.PositionToStartPicking. If the number of characters to pick exceeds what is available.3) =MID(C12.3) =MID(C9.3) =MID(C10.99) What Does It Do ? This function picks out a piece of text from the middle of a text entry.NumberOfCharactersToPick) Formatting No special formatting is needed.12.E5) 2 ED =MID(C6. Syntax =MID(OriginalText.2) Example 2 This example shows how to extract an item which is of variable length.12.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Text ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABCDEDF ABC100DEF ABC200DEF ABC300DEF Item Size: Large Item Size: Medium Item Size: Small B C MID D E F Page 115 of 202 G H MID Start Position 1 2 5 100 200 300 Large Medium Small How Many Characters Mid String 3 ABC =MID(C4. other than the required text is always between two slash / symbols.52857261.C50.5. and how many characters to pick.12. plus 1 for the Start of the code.C50)1) Find the first /.99) =MID(C14.5. Example 1 The following table uses the =MID() function to extract a post code from a branch ID used by a company. The function needs to know at what point it should start.E6) =MID(C8. which is inside a piece of text which has no standard format.FIND("/".99) =MID(C13.E4) 3 BCD =MID(C5.C50)+1)FIND("/". Find the second /.D4.2) WA =MID(C36.
by subtracting the position of the first / from the position of the second / .xls at 03/05/2011 A 55 56 B MID Page 116 of 202 G H C D E F Calculate the length of the text to extract.52857261.
000 £5.500 =MIN(C23:E23) £3.500 £3.800 £3..Range3. 4Jul98 =MIN(C7:G7) Example In the following example the =MIN() function has been used to find the lowest value for each region.000 Mar £4.000 =MIN(E23:E26) Region Min £4..xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 B C D MIN E F G Page 117 of 202 H I MIN Values 120 800 100 120 250 Minimum 100 Maximum 1Jan98 =MIN(C4:G4) Dates 1Jan98 25Dec98 31Mar98 27Dec98 What Does It Do ? This function picks the lowest value from a list of data.000 £4.000 =MIN(C23:E26) .Range2. Syntax =MIN(Range1.000 Overall MIN £2.000 £10.000 £2.500 Feb £6.000 £4. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.52857261.000 £7.000 £2.000 £2.000 £3.000 £3.500 £12. Sales North South East West Month MIN Jan £5.000 £6. month and overall.
"00") =REPT("".75 2 0. The time functions of =HOUR()."00") Related Information To convert a time in hh:mm format to decimal format.1) To convert a time in decimal format to hh:mm format. To update the clock press the function key F9. Enter a time in decimal format : The same time converted to hh:mm format is : To extract the hours in hh:mm format : To extract the minutes in hh:mm format : 3.1)/24 .75 =F38*24 =INT(F38*24) =MOD(F38*24.52 Minute 52 15 28 28 28 =MINUTE(D4) =MINUTE(D5) =MINUTE(D6) =MINUTE(D7) =MINUTE(D8) What Does It Do? The function will show the minute of the hour based upon a time or a number. Clock Hour  02 Minute  51 Second  15 =REPT("". Example The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time. =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats.02 0.SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW()). Enter a time in hh:mm format : The same time converted to a decimal : To extract the hours as a decimal : To extract the minutes as a decimal : 2:45 2.52 1. Syntax =MINUTE(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59.75 3:45 3:00 0:45 =F49/24 =INT(F49)/24 =MOD(F49.52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 B C D MINUTE E F G Page 118 of 202 H I MINUTE Number 3/5/2011 2:52 9:15:00 PM 0."00") =REPT("". Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day.MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW()).HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW()).
xls at 03/05/2011 A 57 58 B MINUTE Page 119 of 202 H I C D E F G The three formula above have also been formatted as hh:mm using the Format. Time command. Cells. Number. .52857261.
xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 MINVERSE 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 B C D MINVERSE E F G H Page 120 of 202 I J 3 1 5 2 1 0 0 1 2 1 5 3 3 4 Err:502 Err:502 .52857261.
The chocolate company now needed to know what quantity of each type of chocolate to produce. Chocolates in the box Milk Dark White 50 50 50 30 20 10 20 5 5 Customers Orders Giant Standard Economy 300 400 500 Quantity To Produce Milk Dark White 37. The number of rows in the Result should be equal to the rows in Range1. The formula =MMULT(C32:E32. Syntax =MMULT(Range1.500 {=MMULT(C32:E32.Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 B C D E F G H MMULT Page 121 of 202 I J MMULT What Does It Do ? This function multiplies one range of values with another range of values. The dimensions of the result range is in direct proportion to dimensions of the two input ranges. The types of chocolate produced were Milk. Example 2 The following tables were used by the chocolate company to calculate the amount of Size Giant Standard Economy . Dark and White. The company boxed the chocolates in three differing mixtures of Milk. The ranges do not have to be of equal size. The =MMULT() function was used to multiply the contents of boxes by the customer orders. Dark and White. It is an Array function and must be entered using the Ctrl+Shift+Enter combination. The formula then showed the correct result.Range2) Formatting No special formatting is needed. In the run up to Christmas customers ordered various quantities of each box.000 25. Getting The Dimensions Correct The dimensions of the Result range are directly related to the two input ranges. The number of columns in the Result should be equal to the columns in Range2.C26:E28) was typed.500 21.C26:E28)} In all three cells How It Was Done Cells C36 to E36 were selected. The result of the =MMULT() is the total number of each type of chocolate to produce. (but not yet entered). Example The following tables were used by a company producing boxes of chocolates. The keys Ctrl+Shift+Enter were pressed to confirm the entry as an array.
set all values in Range1 and Range2 to zero 0. Note the depth of the Result is the same as the depth of Range 1. The Result range shows the quantities of each ingredient that will have to be ordered to meet the production target. Range 1 contains the planned production of Milk and Dark chocolate for each factory. G H MMULT Page 122 of 202 I J The company has four factories.Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 A 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 B C D E F ingredients needed to produce batches of chocolate. Eggs and Sugar needed to make 1 unit of Milk or Plain. each of which has to order enough Butter. Eggs and Sugar to ensure they can meet production targets. Range 1 Milk Dark 20 0 20 1 10 5 20 10 Result Eggs 60 62 40 80 Range 2 Eggs 3 2 Production Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Ingredients Milk Dark Butter 1 2 Sugar 10 5 Ingredients To Order Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Butter 20 22 20 40 Sugar 200 205 125 250 {=MMULT(C69:D72. and the width of the Result is the same as the width of Range 2. then change a single value in each. . Range 2 contains the amount Butter.G69:I70)} In all cells Hint To get a feel for how the =MMULT() function operates.
Syntax =MOD(Number.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E MOD F G Page 123 of 202 H I MOD Number 12 20 18 9 24 Divisor 5 7 3 2 7 Remainder 2 6 0 1 3 =MOD(C4.D8) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the remainder after a number has been divided by another number. .D6) =MOD(C7.Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D7) =MOD(C8.52857261.D4) =MOD(C5.D5) =MOD(C6.
If all the values in the group are unique the function shows the error #N/A."12") Count of size 10 : Count of size 12 : Note If the =AVERAGE() function had been used the answer would have been : 9.."8") 11 =COUNTIF(D33:D52. For it to work correctly there must be at least two numbers which are the same.7 . When there is more than one set of duplicates.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 B C D MODE E F G H Page 124 of 202 I J MODE Value1 20 40 10 20 10 10 Value2 50 20 10 20 20 20 Value3 10 40 99 99 20 30 Value4 10 10 20 10 99 40 Value5 40 40 20 10 10 50 Mode 10 40 10 10 10 =MODE(C4:G4) =MODE(C6:G6) =MODE(C8:G8) =MODE(C9:G9) =MODE(C10:G10) #VALUE! =MODE(C12:G12) What Does It Do ? This function displays the most frequently occurring number in a group of numbers.52857261.. The shopkeeper wants to keep track of the most commonly sold size. The =MODE() function has been used to calulate this. Example The following table shows garments sold in a clothes shop. the number closest to the beginning of the group will be used. (Which is not really an accurate answer!) Syntax =MODE(Range1.Range3. Order 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 Garmet Blouse Skirt Shirt Blouse Skirt Dress Shirt Blouse Dress Shirt Dress Skirt Skirt Shirt Dress Shirt Blouse Blouse Dress Skirt Size 10 10 8 10 12 8 10 10 8 10 12 12 10 10 8 10 10 8 10 8 Most frequently ordered size : 10 =MODE(D33:D52) Count of size 8 : 6 =COUNTIF(D33:D52.Range2. through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed."10") 3 =COUNTIF(D33:D52.
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 56 MODE Page 125 of 202 I J B C D E F G H This figure is of no benefit to the shopkeeper as there are no garmets of this size! .
Cells. Please enter your date of birth in the format dd/mm/yy You were born in 3/25/1962 January =MONTH(F20) .Number.52857261. Syntax =MONTH(Date) Formatting Normally the result will be a number. Example The =MONTH function has been used to calculate the name of the month for your birthday. but this can be formatted to show the actual month by using Format.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D MONTH E F Page 126 of 202 G MONTH Original Date 1Jan98 1Jan98 Month 1 December =MONTH(C4) =MONTH(C5) What Does It Do? This function extracts the month from a complete date.Custom and using the code mmm or mmmm.
MultipleToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.52857261.D4) =MROUND(C5.D5) =MROUND(C6.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Number 110 120 150 160 170 Multiple 50 50 50 50 50 B C D MROUND E F G H Page 127 of 202 I J MROUND Rounded Value 100 100 150 150 150 =MROUND(C4. . Syntax =MROUND(NumberToRound.D8) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up or down to the nearest multiple specified by the user.D6) =MROUND(C7.D7) =MROUND(C8.
xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 B C D N E F G H Page 128 of 202 I J N Original Converted 1 1 =N(C4) 3 1/2 3. . Anything which will not convert is shown as 0 zero.5 =N(C6) 3. The function is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs. Excel does not really need this function. Syntax =N(NumericEntry) Formatting No special formatting is needed.52857261. due to the fact that Excel calculates in this way naturally.50% 0.5 =N(C5) 3.04 =N(C7) 25Dec98 36154 =N(C8) TRUE 1 =N(C9) FALSE 0 =N(C10) Hello 0 =N(C11) 0 =N(C12) What Does It Do ? This function converts a numeric entry to its mathematical value.5 3.
It can be type directly in to a cell as =NA() or it can be used as part of a calculation. any calculations which depend upon the cell will also show #NA. The Salary and Tax percentage are entered.C7+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C8). Syntax =NA() Formatting No special formatting is required. Table 2 Alan Bob Carol Salary 1000 1000 1000 Tax % 25% #N/A 20% Pay 750 #N/A 800 =C49C49*D49 =C50C50*D50 =C51C51*D51 .52857261. Table 1 shows that when the Tax is not entered. The Tax is then deducted from the Salary to calculate the Wage. On a large spreadsheet this may go unnoticed and the wrong Wage paid. When the =NA() is used.C8+1) North South East West Total =NA() =NA() =SUM(D11:D14) What Does It Do ? This function is a place marker used to indicate that required information is Not Available. the Wage is still calculated.C6+1) =IF(ISBLANK(C7). Table 1 Alan Bob Carol Salary 1000 1000 1000 Tax % 25% 20% Pay 750 1000 800 =C39C39*D39 =C40C40*D40 =C41C41*D41 Table 2 shows how the =NA() has been inserted in the unknown Tax to act as a reminder that the Tax still needs to be entered.NA().xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C D NA E F G H Page 129 of 202 I NA #N/A =NA() Value 10 30 Test 11 #N/A 31 Sales 100 #N/A #N/A 200 #N/A =IF(ISBLANK(C6). Example The following table was used by a company to calculate the monthly Wage of an employee.NA().NA(). It is used to indicate that all the data has not yet been entered in to the spreadsheet.
It will exclude weekends and any holidays. To correct this add 1 to the result.D4) =NETWORKDAYS(C5.C33:C37) Bank Holiday Xmas New Year New Year New Year .Holidays)+1 Example The following example shows how a list of Holidays can be created.Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C D E NETWORKDAYS Page 130 of 202 F NETWORKDAYS Start Date 1Mar98 25Apr98 24Dec98 End Date 7Mar98 30Jul98 5Jan99 Work Days 5 69 9 =NETWORKDAYS(C4.Holidays) Holidays : This is a list of dates which will be excluded from the calculation. Start Date Mon 02Mar98 Mon 02Mar98 Mon 27Apr98 End Date Fri 06Mar98 Fri 13Mar98 Fri 01May98 Holidays 1May98 25Dec98 1Jan97 1Jan98 1Jan99 Work Days 5 10 4 =NETWORKDAYS(B28.C29.C28.D6) What Does It Do? This function will calculate the number of working days between two dates. The result of using 1Jan98 and 5Jan98 will give a result of 4. Syntax =NETWORKDAYS(StartDate.C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B29.EndDate. such as Xmas and Bank holidays.C33:C37) =NETWORKDAYS(B30. =NETWORKDAYS(Start.D5) =NETWORKDAYS(C6.End. Formatting The result will be shown as a number.C30. Note The calculation does not include the last day.
52857261. Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function.xls at 03/05/2011 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 NORTH F G H Page 131 of 202 I J A B C D E Northern data. Alan Jan Feb Mar Alan 10 20 30 Bob 40 50 60 Carol 70 80 90 Total 120 150 180 Total 60 150 240 450 .
"Overdue". The period of the Loan is entered. If the test fails. Formatting No special formatting is needed."OK") 20Jan98 Overdue =IF(NOT(D35<=B35+C35). Taken 1Jan98 1Jan98 1Jan98 Loan 14 14 14 Returned Status 5Jan98 OK =IF(NOT(D33<=B33+C33). then the result is FALSE.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D NOT E F G H Page 132 of 202 I J NOT Cells To Test 10 20 10 20 10 20 1Jan98 1Feb98 Hello Goodbye Hello Hello Result TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE =NOT(C4>D4) =NOT(C5=D5) =NOT(C6<D6) =NOT(C7>D7) =NOT(C8=D8) =NOT(C9=D9) What Does It Do ? This function performs a test to see if the test fails. otherwise OK is shown. (A type of reverse logic). The =NOT() function has been used to calculate whether the book was returned within the correct time."OK") . If the book was not returned on time the result Overdue is shown. Syntax =NOT(TestToPerform) The TestToPerform can be reference to cells or another calculation. If the test is met. the result is TRUE."Overdue". The date the book was returned is entered."Overdue". by adding the Loan value to the Taken date.52857261."OK") 15Jan98 OK =IF(NOT(D34<=B34+C34). Example The following table was used by a library to track books borrowed. The date the book was Taken out is entered.
52857261. Syntax =NOW() Formatting The result will be shown as a date and time.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 B C NOW D E F G Page 133 of 202 H I NOW The current Date and Time 3/5/2011 2:52 03/05/11 02:52 AM =NOW() =NOW() What Does It Do? This function shows the current date and time. . The result will be updated each time the worksheet is opened and every time an entry is made anywhere on the worksheet. If it is formatted to show as a number the integer part is used for the date and the decimal portion represent the time.
4 3.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Number 2 2.4 2.52857261.9 3 3. .9 Rounded To Next Odd 3 3 3 3 5 5 B C D ODD E F G H Page 134 of 202 I ODD =ODD(C4) =ODD(C5) =ODD(C6) =ODD(C7) =ODD(C8) =ODD(C9) What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to the next highest whole odd number. Syntax =ODD(NumberToBeRounded) Formatting No special formatting is needed.
0) =IF(OR(E5="Visa". The =OR() function has been used to determine whether the charge needs to be applied.E4="Delta"). It can be used to test that at least one of a series of numbers meets certain conditions.0) £5 ££5 Order No. A handling charge of £5 is made on all orders paid by Visa or Delta cards.52857261.5.E6="Delta").5. Syntax =OR(Test1. Formatting When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE. Example The following table shows a list of orders taken by a company.5.0) =IF(OR(E7="Visa".E7="Delta").0) =IF(OR(E6="Visa".E5="Delta"). AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 B C D E OR F G H Page 135 of 202 I J OR Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge ££5 ££5 =IF(OR(E4="Visa". Normally the OR() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF().Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests. Payment Type Cash Visa Cheque Delta Handling Charge £=IF(OR(E27="Visa".5.E27="Delta"). AB001 AB002 AB003 AB004 Cost 1000 1000 2000 5000 .5.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Order No.0) What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if any of them are true.
Ordering Stock A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 B C D E F G H I Ordering Stock This is an example of a spreadsheet to calculate the best time interval to order stock. The supplier of the Exhausts gives a discount on large orders. The manager orders the exhausts on a regular basis. Objective Find the time interval to order stock which will result in the lowest Admin and Warehouse costs. Each time an order is made for new stock. Page 136 . The exhausts are kept in stock until needed. Scenario A garage fits exhaust systems. there is a fixed administrative cost. Keeping the exhausts in stock incurs a cost due to capital tied up and warehouse costs.
625 £1.275 £2.530 £1.305 £1.075 £2.675 £1.500 £435 7 £45.170 £4.335 £1.000 £450 7 Annual Ware house Costs £45 £90 £180 £270 £360 £450 £540 £630 £720 £810 £900 £990 £1.500 £61 £6.500 £255 11 £27.295 £1.300 £1.340 £2.500 £285 10 £30.000 £46 £7.665 £2.000 £300 10 £31. (As a % of the stock value) : 18 Quantity of Exhausts used per day : 19 Admin cost each time new Exhausts are ordered : 20 Average quantity of Exhausts in stock (As % of ordered quantity) : 21 Ordering Intervals to evaluate.000 £390 8 £40.5 2 200 750 1% 5% H I 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 Things To Try Change the Discount % to 0% and 0%.795 £1.620 £1. 65 66 Quantity Per Order 10 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 Order Order Orders Value Discount Per Year £750 £365 £1.550 £1.700 The Best Annual Ordering Total Interval £9.800 £1.875 £1. 63 Change the Cost of the Exhaust making it cheaper or more expensive.440 £1.500 £165 17 £18.250 £1. (Expressed in Days) : 22 23 Suppliers first Price Break and Discount% offered : 24 Suppliers second Price Break and Discount% offered : 25 26 27 Output 28 Ordering Interval In Days 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 Annual Admin Cost £9.150 £925 £775 £675 £575 £525 £475 £425 £400 £375 £350 £325 £300 £275 £275 £250 £250 £225 £225 £200 £200 £200 £200 £175 £175 £175 £175 G £75 12% 10 £25 0. 64 Change the Quantity used per day to a larger or smaller number.350 £2.300 £1.150 £2.350 £1.000 £31 £10.610 £2.500 £225 13 £24.250 £2.710 £1.Ordering Stock A B C D E F 16 Input Data Cost of a single Exhaust system : 17 Cost of keeping Exhaust in stock.500 £195 15 £21.450 £1.000 £150 19 £16.000 £210 14 £22.000 £330 9 £34.200 £2.500 £405 7 £42.375 £1.400 £1.980 £2.430 £2.510 £1.080 £1.000 £180 16 £19.500 £37 £9.500 £345 8 £36.000 £270 11 £28.000 £23 £13.225 Best £1.000 £420 7 £43.500 £1.500 £27 £12.125 £4. 62 Change the Ordering Interval to 1 or 30.890 £1.260 £1.500 £21 £15.925 £2.425  Page 137 .800 £1.525 £1.520 £2.000 £360 8 £37.000 £2.350 £1.000 £92 £4.500 £315 9 £33.480 £1.170 £1.160 £2.575 £2.750 £1.315 £1.500 £183 £3.000 £240 12 £25.500 £375 8 £39.070 £2.
=C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24. If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the first Price Break.0)) Column E Orders Per Year This is how many orders will need to be made based upon the ordering interval.B29<$G$25). Column B Quantity Per Order This is the number of Exhausts which will need to be ordered. The discount is only given on orders which are equal to or greater than the Price Break values set by the supplier.IF(B29>=$G$25.0)) If the OrderQuantity is equal to or above the second Price Break. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24. such as 2. Calculation : OrderValue * SupplierDiscount The supplier discount is calculated using the =IF() and the =AND() functions. which would require stock to be ordered every day.1) Page 138 .$H$24. The second cell picks the ordering interval from the Input Data table. The =CEILING() function has been used to 'round up' any decimals to the next highest whole number.B29<$G$25). then the first Price Break discount is used.$H$25. Calculation : 365/OrderingInterval This calculation may give results which are decimal.Ordering Stock 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 A B C D E F G H I Explanation Column A Ordering Interval In Days The first of these cells has the value 1 entered in it. but below the second Price Break. Calculation : OrderingInterval * QuantityUsedPerDay Column C Order Value This is the value of the Order before any discount.$H$24. there will have to be 365 orders. With an interval of 1.$H$24.3 This decimal will cause problems. This is the smallest ordering period.B29<$G$25). The third and subsequent cells add the ordering interval to the previous cell to create a list of values of the same interval. the second Price Break discount is used.0)) If the OrderQuantity does not qualify for a discount. =CEILING(365/A29. zero discount is used.$H$25. Calculation : QuantityOrdered * CostOfExhaust Column D Order Discount The discount which can be subtracted from the order value.$H$25. due to the fact that the number of orders must always be a whole number.IF(B29>=$G$25. =C29*IF(AND(B29>=$G$24.IF(B29>=$G$25.
based upon how frequently the orders are made."Best". otherwise a dash is shown. Calculation : OrdersPerYear * AdminCost =E29*$G$20 Column G Annual Warehouse Costs This is the cost of keeping the stock in the warehouse. as the manager only wants to know what the lowest values for the overheads associated with ordering and storing the exhaust systems. It is based on the managers knowledge that on average the stock level is 50% of the quantity ordered. It compares the value in column H against the minimum value for all of column H. giving the lowest annual overheads. It does not take in to account the actual costs of the Exhausts. However. =IF(H29=MIN($H$29:$H$59). Calculation : AnnualAdminCosts + AnnualWarehouseCosts . the Discount figure is taken into account as this can be used to offset some of the overheads.OrderDiscount =F29+G29D29 Column I The Best Ordering Interval This shows the Best ordering interval. If the two values match the word Best is shown.Ordering Stock 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 A B C D E F G Column F Annual Admin Costs This is the administration costs involved in making the orders."") H I Page 139 . Calculation : QuantityOrdered * AverageStockLevel) * ExhaustCost * WarehousingCost =(B29*$G$21)*$G$17*$G$18 Column H Annual Total This is the full yearly cost of ordering the Exhausts.
xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 B Box size Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Box size C Sample 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 Sample D PACKERS E F G H Page 140 of 202 I J Packer1 Packer2 Packer3 Packer4 10 10 10 10 20 20 20 21 30 28 35 30 11 9 10 10 21 20 0 20 31 28 30 30 8 10 12 10 22 20 20 19 32 28 30 30 Packer1 Packer2 Packer3 Packer4 .52857261.
Example The following table was used to calculate the total number of 8 letter passwords which can be created by using all 26 letters of the alphabet.D7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the maximum number of permutations given a fixed number of items. B.D4) =PERMUT(C5. ABCD Password 1 Password 2 Password 3 Password 4 Password 5 Password 6 AB AC AD BC BD CD Password 7 Password 8 Password 9 Password 10 Password 11 Password 12 BA CA DA CB DB DC .52857261.765. The internal order is significant. Syntax =PERMUT(PoolToPickFrom.600 =PERMUT(C4. Letter In Alphabet 26 Password Size 8 Permutations 62. so AB and BA will be considered as two possible permutations. It could be used to calculate the possible number of 4 digit passwords from the digits 0 to 9.000 In the case of a two letter password made from the letter A.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 B C PERMUT D E F Page 141 of 202 G H PERMUT Pool Of Items 4 4 10 26 Items In A Group 2 3 4 6 Permutations 12 24 5040 165.D6) =PERMUT(C7.ItemsInAGroup) Formatting No special formatting is needed. C and D. the following twelve permutations would be possible.928.990.D5) =PERMUT(C6.
Example To calculate the area of a circle. Syntax =PI() Formatting No special formatting is needed.50 =PI()*(C21^2) .xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 B C D PI E F G Page 142 of 202 H I PI π 3. it is a self contained function.52857261. It is correct to 15 decimal places.14159265358979 =PI() What Does It Do ? This function is equal to the value of Pi.54 1963. It does not need any input. Radius 5 25 Area 78.
Example To calculate the area of a circle.D4) =POWER(C5.D5) =POWER(C6.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 B C D POWER E F G Page 143 of 202 H I POWER Number 3 3 5 5 Power 2 4 2 4 Result 9 81 25 625 =POWER(C4.Power) Formatting No special formatting is needed.54 1963. It is the same as using the ^ operator.D6) =POWER(C7. Both the POWER() function and the ^ operator are the same as using 3*3*3*3. which result is 81.2) .D7) What Does It Do ? This function raises a number to a user specified power.52857261. such as 3^4.50 =PI()*POWER(C22. Syntax =POWER(NumberToBeRaised. Radius 5 25 Area 78.
Syntax =PRODUCT(Number1.Number3.) Formatting No special formatting is needed.52857261. through to Number30) or =PRODUCT(RangeOfNumbers) or =PRODUCT(Number1. It is the same as using 2*3*5*10*3*7...Range..Number2.D4) =PRODUCT(C5:D5) =PRODUCT(C6:D6.Number2.10) =PRODUCT(C4:D6) What Does It Do ? This function multiples a group of numbers together. which results in 6300..xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 B C D PRODUCT E F G Page 144 of 202 H I PRODUCT Numbers 2 5 3 3 10 7 Product 6 50 210 6300 =PRODUCT(C4. .
52857261. Syntax =PROPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed. .xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C PROPER D E F G Page 145 of 202 H I PROPER Original Text alan jones bob smith caRol wILLIAMS cardiff ABC123 Proper Alan Jones Bob Smith Carol Williams Cardiff Abc123 =PROPER(C4) =PROPER(C5) =PROPER(C6) =PROPER(C7) =PROPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts the first letter of each word to uppercase. and all subsequent letters are converted to lower case.
3 or 4. The Quartile of 4 is actually highest value.52857261.H14) 3 750 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.1.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 B C D E QUARTILE F G H I J Page 146 of 202 K QUARTILE Values 1 25 50 75 100 Quarter No.H13) 2 489 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. Syntax =QUARTILE(RangeToBeExamined. 2nd.H16) What Does It Do ? This function examines a group of values and then shows the values which are of the upper limits of the 1st. 3rd and 4th quarters of the data.QuartileValue) The QuartileValue can only be 0. Quartile 0 1 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.E7) 4 100 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.E6) 3 75 =QUARTILE(C4:C8. which can be obtained using the =MIN() function.2. Quartile 0 104 =QUARTILE(C12:F16. Formatting No special formatting is needed. which can be obtained using the =MAX() function.E5) 2 50 =QUARTILE(C4:C8.H12) 1 285.75 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.E8) Values 817 748 372 487 140 104 756 993 384 607 640 369 294 185 894 767 703 261 491 182 Quarter No.H15) 4 993 =QUARTILE(C12:F16.E4) 1 25 =QUARTILE(C4:C8. The Quartile of 0 (zero) is actually lowest value. .
75 12.D5) =QUOTIENT(C6.5 25 3. only showing the whole number.52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 B C D QUOTIENT E F Page 147 of 202 G H QUOTIENT Number 12 20 46 Divisor 5 3 15 Result 2 6 3 =QUOTIENT(C4. The merchant can only sell full crates.D4) =QUOTIENT(C5. Table 1 Bottles Item To Pack Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 4 20 Crates Needed 10. Syntax =QUOTIENT(NumberToBeDivided. It ignores any remainder. Table 2 Bottles Item To Pack Wine 126 Champagne 200 Rum 15 Beer 250 Bottles Per Crate 12 8 6 20 Crates Needed 10 25 2 12 =QUOTIENT(D39.5 =D28/E28 Table 2 uses the =QUOTIENT() function to remove the decimal fraction to give the correct result.E39) . This however shows decimal fractions which are not needed.Divisor) Formatting No special formatting is needed.D6) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the number of times a number can be divided by another number. Table 1 calculates the crates by simple division. Example The following example was used by a drinks merchant to calculate the number of crates which could be packed using bottles in stock.
56 0.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 B C D RAND E F G Page 148 of 202 H I RAND Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 1.27 0.18 0.47 0. Examples The following examples show how the =RAND() function has been used to randomly sort list of information.65 Lottery 29 34 30 41 40 37 26 32 21 19 7 10 16 8 48 43 44 4 3 45 47 49 35 Random 0.29 0.58 0.64 0.94 0.57 0. Syntax =RAND() Formatting No special formatting is needed. A list of cards has been entered in column C.05 0.08 0.23 0.44 0.69 Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 10 2. The number will change each time the worksheet recalculates.53 0.14 0.44 0.13 0.58 0.18 0.97 0. 7.72 0.52857261.7 0.96 0.33 0.63 0.49 0.97 0. 0.98 0.78 0.79 0. or when F9 is pressed.22 0.2 Random between 5 and 10.54 0.24 0.06 0.67 0. and =RAND() in column D. The same technique has been used to generate a list of six winning lottery numbers.67 0.27 0.39 0.26 0.53 0. By clicking inside the random numbers and then using Data.13 =RAND()*(105)+5 =RAND()*10 =RAND() What Does It Do ? This function creates a random number >=0 but <1.81 0.79 0.49 0.47 0.06 . Card Clubs 8 Clubs 6 Diamond 9 Spades 13 Clubs 9 Diamond 7 Diamond 4 Clubs 10 Spades 3 Hearts 6 Hearts 4 Diamond 8 Hearts 11 Clubs 3 Clubs 13 Spades 5 Diamond 3 Spades 2 Diamond 6 Clubs 5 Spades 1 Clubs 12 Hearts 10 Random 0. Sort or the Sort button the cards will be shuffled.
9 Page 149 of 202 H I .43 0.2 0.62 0.58 0.27 0.93 0.61 0.69 0.48 0.05 0.64 0.97 0.17 0.45 0.66 0.4 0.89 0.5 0.41 0.54 0.23 0.48 0.83 0.14 0.05 0.65 0.68 1 0.64 0.31 0.5 0.36 0.71 0.01 0.33 0.28 0.74 0.17 0.94 0.8 0.72 0.88 0.51 0.xls at 03/05/2011 A 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 B C Hearts 13 Spades 7 Spades 6 Diamond 12 Hearts 3 Hearts 5 Hearts 8 Hearts 1 Diamond 13 Hearts 9 Clubs 4 Diamond 5 Spades 4 Clubs 1 Spades 8 Hearts 7 Diamond 1 Clubs 2 Hearts 2 Diamond 11 Clubs 7 Spades 12 Spades 10 Clubs 11 Diamond 2 Diamond 10 Spades 9 Spades 11 Hearts 12 D 0.52857261.89 RAND E F 27 1 13 31 5 18 39 23 12 11 20 33 42 24 2 14 25 9 38 15 28 17 6 22 46 36 G 0.48 0.29 0.59 0.12 0.22 0.08 0.63 0.62 0.1 0 0.
"Duplicates! Spin again".52857261.HighLimit) Formatting No special formatting is needed.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D RANDBETWEEN E F G Page 150 of 202 H I RANDBETWEEN Low 5 1 High 10 49 Random 10 43 =RANDBETWEEN(C4.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. The random number will change each time the spreadsheet is recalculated or F9 is pressed. Example The following table shows how the =RANDBETWEEN() has been used to generate six numbers to use for the National Lottery.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. Note that the function does not check to ensure all numbers are unique.D4) =RANDBETWEEN(C5."All OK")} This formula is used to determine whether all the numbers are different. The Winning Ticket! 9 27 11 39 49 22 43 Lottery Numbers 1 49 Press function Key F9 to recalculate.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. Syntax =RANDOMBETWEEN(LowLimit.$D$24) =RANDBETWEEN($C$24. It is entered as an array using Ctrl+Shift+Enter.$D$24) Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Number 4 Number 5 Number 6 Bonus ball All OK {=IF(SUM(1/COUNTIF(E24:E30. =RANDBETWEEN($C$24.E24:E30))<>7. . the same number could be generated twice or more.D5) What Does It Do ? This function produces a random whole number between two specified numbers.
Using 0 will rank larger numbers at the top.C4:C8) =RANK(C8.C18:C22) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the position of a value in a list relative to the other values in the list. The ranking can be done on an ascending (low to high) or descending (high to low) basis.C18:C22) =RANK(C22.B34:B37) =RANK(B35.C11:C15.1) =RANK(C12. 20 and 10 were ranked. they will be assigned the same rank. Formatting No special formatting is needed.B34:B37) Syntax =RANK(NumberToRank. 20.1) =RANK(C14. 30 is ranked as 1.C4:C8) =RANK(C7.B34:B37) =RANK(B36.C11:C15.C18:C22) =RANK(C19. leaving it out has the same effect).C11:C15. (This is optional.C4:C8) =RANK(C5. both 20's are ranked as 2.C18:C22) =RANK(C20. Example The following table was used to record the times for athletes competing in a race. The =RANK() function was then used to find their race positions based upon the finishing times. but would take into account the fact that there were duplicates. .B34:B37) =RANK(B37.1) =RANK(C15.C18:C22) =RANK(C21.1) Values 10 30 20 30 40 =RANK(C18. A typical usage would be to rank the times of athletes in a race to find the winner. Subsequent ranks would not follow on sequentially. Using 1 will rank small numbers at the top.C11:C15.ListOfNumbers. and the 10 would be ranked as 4.C4:C8) =RANK(C6. Value 30 20 20 10 Rank 1 2 2 4 =RANK(B34. If there are duplicate values in the list.C11:C15.RankOrder) The RankOrder can be 0 zero or 1.1) =RANK(C13. If the numbers 30.Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Values 7 4 25 8 16 Ranking Position High to Low 4 5 1 3 2 Ranking Position Low to High 2 1 5 3 4 Ranking Position High to Low 5 2 4 2 1 B C D E F G H RANK Page 151 of 202 I RANK =RANK(C4.C4:C8) Values 7 4 25 8 16 =RANK(C11.
Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 A 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B Athlete John Alan David Brian Sue Alex C Time 1:30 1:45 1:02 1:36 1:27 1:03 D Race Position 4 6 1 5 3 2 E F G H
RANK Page 152 of 202 I
=RANK(C53,C53:C58,1) =RANK(C54,C53:C58,1) =RANK(C55,C53:C58,1) =RANK(C56,C53:C58,1) =RANK(C57,C53:C58,1) =RANK(C58,C53:C58,1)
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D
REPLACE E F G
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REPLACE
Start Characters New Modified Original Text Position To Replace Character Text ABCDEFGH 2 1 x AxCDEFGH =REPLACE(C4,D4,E4,F4) ABCDEFGH 2 5 x AxGH =REPLACE(C5,D5,E5,F5) ABCDEFGH 2 1 hello AhelloCDEFGH =REPLACE(C6,D6,E6,F6) ABCDEFGH 2 5 hello AhelloGH =REPLACE(C7,D7,E7,F7) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a portion of text with a new piece of text. You need to specify where the replacement should start, how many characters to remove and what the new replacement text should be. Syntax =REPLACE(OriginalText,StartPosition,NumberOfCharactersToReplace,NewText) Formatting No special formatting is needed.
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Text To Repeat A AB  Number Of Repeats 3 3 10 10 B C D
REPT E F G
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REPT
Repeated Text AAA ABABAB 
=REPT(C4,D4) =REPT(C5,D5) =REPT(C6,D6) =REPT(C7,D7)
What Does It Do ? This function repeats a piece of text a specified number of times. You need to specify the text to be repeated and how many times to repeat it. Syntax =REPT(TextToRepeat,Repetitions) The maximum number of repetitions is 200. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example 1 The following table was used to display a simple histogram of sales figures. The =REPT() function uses the value of Sales, but this is divided by 100 to scale down the number of repetitions to below the maximum of 200. Month Jan Feb Mar Apr Sales £1,000 £5,000 £3,000 £2,000
    =REPT("",D29/100)
Example 2 The =REPT() function has been used to make a digital display for the current time. The time functions of =HOUR(), =MINUTE() and =SECOND() have been used in conjunction with the =NOW() as the basis for the number of repeats. To update the clock press the function key F9. Clock Hour  02 Minute  51 Second  22 =REPT("",HOUR(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(HOUR(NOW()),"00") =REPT("",MINUTE(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(MINUTE(NOW()),"00") =REPT("",SECOND(NOW()))&" "&TEXT(SECOND(NOW()),"00")
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Original Text Alan Jones Alan Jones Alan Jones Cardiff ABC123 B C D
RIGHT E F G
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RIGHT
Number Of Characters Required 1 2 3 6 4 Right String s es nes ardiff C123
=RIGHT(C4,D4) =RIGHT(C5,D5) =RIGHT(C6,D6) =RIGHT(C7,D7) =RIGHT(C8,D8)
What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the right hand side of a piece of text. Syntax =RIGHT(OriginalText,NumberOfCharactersRequired) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Example The following table was used to extract the second name of a person from their full name. The =FIND() function locates the position of the space between the first and second name. The length of the second name is calculated by subtracting the position of the space from the overall length of the full name. The =RIGHT() function can then extract the second name. Full Name Second Name Alan Jones Jones =RIGHT(C28,LEN(C28)FIND(" ",C28)) Bob Smith Smith =RIGHT(C29,LEN(C29)FIND(" ",C29)) Carol Williams Williams =RIGHT(C30,LEN(C30)FIND(" ",C30))
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D
ROMAN E F G H
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ROMAN
Number Roman 1 I 2 II 3 III 5 V 10 X 1998 MCMXCVIII 1998 MCMXCVIII 1998 MLMVLIII 1998 MXMVIII 1998 MVMIII 1998 MVMIII 1998 MLMVLIII 1998 MCMXCVIII =ROMAN(C4) =ROMAN(C5) =ROMAN(C6) =ROMAN(C7) =ROMAN(C8) =ROMAN(C9) =ROMAN(C10,0) =ROMAN(C11,1) =ROMAN(C12,2) =ROMAN(C13,3) =ROMAN(C14,4) =ROMAN(C15,TRUE) =ROMAN(C16,FALSE)
What Does It Do ? This function produces a number shown as Roman numerals in various formats. Syntax =ROMAN(NormalNumber,RomanNumberFormat) The RomanNumberFormat can be any of the following. 0 is Classic. This is used if no format is specified. 1 is more Concise. 2 is even more Concise. 3 is even more Concise still. 4 is Simplified. TRUE is Classic FALSE is Simplified Formatting No special formatting is needed. Note There is no function to do the opposite calculation of Roman to normal.
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 Number 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1.48 1.48 1.48 13643.48 13643.48 13643.48 B C D
ROUND E F G
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ROUND
Places To Rounded Round Number 0 1 =ROUND(C4,D4) 1 1.5 =ROUND(C5,D5) 2 1.48 =ROUND(C6,D6) 1 13640 =ROUND(C7,D7) 2 13600 =ROUND(C8,D8) 3 14000 =ROUND(C9,D9)
What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number to a specified amount od decimal places. If 0 is used the number is rounded to the nearest whole number. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded. Syntax =ROUND(NumberToRound,DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.48 1.48 1.48 13643.48 13643.48 13643.48 B C D
ROUNDDOWN E F G H
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ROUNDDOWN
Places To Rounded Round Down 0 1 =ROUNDDOWN(C4,D4) 1 1.4 =ROUNDDOWN(C5,D5) 2 1.47 =ROUNDDOWN(C6,D6) 1 13640 =ROUNDDOWN(C7,D7) 2 13600 =ROUNDDOWN(C8,D8) 3 13000 =ROUNDDOWN(C9,D9)
What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to a specified amount of decimal places. If 0 is used the number is rounded down to the nearest whole number. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded. Syntax =ROUNDDOWN(NumberToRound,DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.
52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.48 1.48 1.48 13643.48 13643.48 13643.48 B C D
ROUNDUP E F G H
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ROUNDUP
Places To Rounded Round Up 0 2 =ROUNDUP(C4,D4) 1 1.5 =ROUNDUP(C5,D5) 2 1.48 =ROUNDUP(C6,D6) 1 13650 =ROUNDUP(C7,D7) 2 13700 =ROUNDUP(C8,D8) 3 14000 =ROUNDUP(C9,D9)
What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to a specified amount of decimal places. If 0 is used the number is rounded up to the nearest whole number. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded. Syntax =ROUNDUPNumberToRound,DecimalPlacesToUse) Formatting No special formatting is needed.
5) . The =MINUTES() function calculates the total number of minutes. The telephone company only deals in seconds which are a multiple of 5.10 =CEILING(SECOND(C36). Only the fraction part of the number is used as it is this which relates to time of day. The seconds in a call are rounded up to the nearest multiple of 5 before the bill is calculated.50 0.70 2 5 £1.25 1 50 £1. The =CEILING() function rounds the seconds up to the nearest muliple of 5. Example The following table was used by a telephone compnay to calculate the cost of a call. The Cost of the call is then calculated.52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 B C SECOND D E F Page 160 of 202 G H SECOND Number 05/Mar/11 02:52:58 12:00:00 PM 0. Cost Per Second : £0. Syntax =SECOND(Number) Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number between 0 and 59.51 1. The Duration of the call is entered. The =SECOND() function calculates the total number of seconds.01 Duration 0:01:08 0:02:03 0:01:47 Billed Duration Minutes Seconds Cost 1 10 £0.51 Second 58 0 0 24 24 =SECOND(C4) =SECOND(C5) =SECOND(C6) =SECOND(C7) =SECOND(C8) What Does It Do? The function will show the second of the minute based upon a time or a number.
.52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Value 10 20 0 10 20 Positive or Negative 1 1 0 1 1 B C D SIGN E F G H Page 161 of 202 I J SIGN =SIGN(C4) =SIGN(C5) =SIGN(C6) =SIGN(C7) =SIGN(C8) What Does It Do ? This function tests a value to determine whether it is positive or negative. Syntax =SIGN(CellToTest) The CellToTest can be a cell or a calculation. If the value is negative the result is 1. Formatting No special formatting is needed. If the value is zero 0 the result is 0. If the value is positive the result is 1.
52857261.LengthOfOwnership) The LengthOfOwnership can be any time period. However. days.000 . months or years.500 =SLN(F3.000.000 / 6 which is £2.000 £2. Syntax =SLN(OriginalCost. be for that time. Page 162 of 202 .000 6 £2. the SLN which is calculated will. At the end of your ownership you sell the car for £8.000.000.F11) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the Straight Line Depreciation of an item. An example would be if you bought a new car for £20.000 which is £12.000 4 £2.SellingPrice.000 £8. specifying 2 years ownership as 24 months will give an SLN per month.000 =SLN(F9.£8. Because you owned the car for 6 years.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 B C D SLN E F G Page 162 of 202 H I SLN Cost Salvage Life Straight Line Depreciation £12.000.F10. then kept it for 6 years. The Straight Line Depreciation is how much the value of an item reduced during a specific period of time. The difference between the original and the trade in price is £20.F4. the SLN is calculated as £12.F5) Purchase Value Of A New Car Second Hand Value Number Of Years Ownership Annual Straight Line Depreciation £20. The result is a uniform depreciation value. Formatting No special formatting is needed. (Also known as Fixed Instalment method).
000 £2.000 £3.5) What Does It Do ? This function examines a list of values and picks the value at a user specified position in the list.000 £4.4) =SMALL(C4:C8.000 £6.000 =MAX(D24:F27) =MIN(D24:F27) .2) =SMALL(C4:C8.000 £3.PositionToPickFrom) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Feb and Mar.000 £2.000 =SMALL(D24:F27.500 Mar £4.800 £3.2) =SMALL(D24:F27.000 £10.000 £5. Syntax =SMALL(ListOfNumbersToExamine.500 £3.3) =SMALL(C4:C8.000 £7.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 B C D SMALL E F G H Page 163 of 202 I J SMALL Values 120 800 100 120 250 Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value 4th Lowest Value 5th Lowest Value 100 120 120 250 800 =SMALL(C4:C8.1) =SMALL(D24:F27.1) =SMALL(C4:C8. Example The following table was used to calculate the bottom 3 sales figures between Jan.000 Feb £6. Highest Lowest £12.3) Lowest Value 2nd Lowest Value 3rd Lowest Value Note Another way to find the Highest and Lowest values would have been to use the =MAX() and =MIN() functions.500 £12.000 £2.52857261. Sales North South East West Jan £5.
52857261. Used by the example for the =INDIRECT() function. Jan 100 400 700 1200 Feb 200 500 800 1500 Mar 300 600 900 1800 Alan Bob Carol Total Total 600 1500 2400 4500 .xls at 03/05/2011 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SOUTH F G H Page 164 of 202 I J A B C D E Southern data.
0500 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEV(D34:G34) =STDEV(D35:G35) =STDEV(D36:G36) =MIN(H34:H36) The machine with the smallest deviation is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C34:C36.1291 The smallest deviation is : 0. A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population.H34:H36.5 0.8 0.52857261. At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production of each machine.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36.5 0.6 1. Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.5 =STDEV(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.5 1.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).H34:H36.29 =STDEV(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the sample population standard deviation of a list of values.5 1.5 1.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E STDEV F G H I Page 165 of 202 J K STDEV Values 10 10 9 10 0. The boxes were weighed and the =STDEV() function used as these boxes only represented a sample of the complete days production.0)) find the machine name.4 1. =MIN(H34:H36) This finds the position of the lowest value. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.7 1.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36). The machine with the smallest deviation was the most consistent.4 1. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).0816 1.0500 1. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.5 =STDEV(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0. Syntax =STDEV(Range1.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.5 1.6 1. .Range2.H34:H36.
43 =STDEVP(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0. Syntax =STDEVP(Range1.4 1.6 1.0)) find the machine name.0707 1. =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34). A trial run of just four boxes per machine were produced.Range2.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34. .0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.7 1. The boxes were weighed and the =STDEVP() function used as these boxes represented the entire test run.5 1.43 =STDEVP(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.5 1. ???????????????????? Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).H32:H34.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.1118 The smallest variance is : 0.5 1.0433 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =STDEVP(D32:G32) =STDEVP(D33:G33) =STDEVP(D34:G34) =MIN(H32:H34) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C32:C34.5 0.0433 1.H32:H34.52857261.4 1.5 1.8 0. =(MIN(H32:H34) This finds the position of the lowest value. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.H32:H34.12 =STDEVP(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the standard deviation of a list of values.5 0.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 B C D STDEVP E F G H Page 166 of 202 I J K STDEVP Values 10 10 9 10 0.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).6 1. The result is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.
E11) What Does It Do ? This function replaces a specified piece of text with a different piece of text. if it is omitted all instances will be substituted.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 B C SUBSTITUTE D E F Page 167 of 202 G H SUBSTITUTE Old Text New Text Original Text To Remove To Insert Updated Text ABCDEF CD hello ABhelloEF =SUBSTITUTE(B4.D4) ABCDABCD CD hello ABhelloABhello =SUBSTITUTE(B5.C11.D5) Northern Region Region Area Northern Area =SUBSTITUTE(B6. Note To cope with upper or lower case in the substitution you can use other text functions such as =UPPER().C4.52857261.C5.D11. or a specific instance. It can either replace all occurrences of the text. =LOWER() or =PROPER() to ensure that the substitution will take place. Formatting No special formatting is needed.E10) =SUBSTITUTE(B11.D10.InstanceToUse) The InstanceToUse is optional.C39.D6) Sand and Cement and & S& & Cement =SUBSTITUTE(B7.TextToRemove. The function is case sensitive.D7) Old Text New Text Original Text To Remove To Insert ABCABCABC ABC hello Sand and Cement and & Instance To Be Replaced 3 2 Updated Text ABCABChello Sand & Cement =SUBSTITUTE(B10.C6. Table 1 shows how differing text cases alter the result of the substitution.TextToInsert. Table 2 Original Text Northern Region Northern region Northern Region Northern Region Northern Region Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Updated Text Region Area Northern Area Region Area Northern Area region Area Northern Area Region area Northern Area region area Northern Area =SUBSTITUTE(PROPER(B50).D39) Table 2 shows how the =PROPER() function has been used to take account of the mixed cases. Table 1 Original Text Northern Region Northern region Northern Region Northern Region Northern Region Old Text New Text To Remove To Insert Updated Text Region Area Northern Area Region Area Northern region region Area Northern Region Region area Northern area region area Northern Region =SUBSTITUTE(B39.PROPER(D50)) .C10.PROPER(C50). Syntax =SUBSTITUTE(OriginalText.C7.
xls at 03/05/2011 1 2 3 4 5 6 A B C SUBTOTAL D E F G H SUBTOTAL I J K L M N O P Page 168 of 202 Q R S Name Jan Feb Mar Qtr1 Apr May Jun Qtr2 Jul Aug Sep Qtr3 Oct Nov Dec Qtr4 Total Alan 10 10 10 30 20 20 20 60 30 30 30 90 40 40 40 120 300 Bob 10 10 10 30 20 20 20 60 30 30 30 90 40 40 40 120 300 Carol 10 10 10 30 20 20 20 60 30 30 30 90 40 40 40 120 300 .52857261.
xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E F SUBTOTAL2 G H I J K L M N Page 169 of 202 O P Q SUBTOTAL Sheet 2 Item Wood Glass Brick Area East East East East Total North North North North Total South South South South Total West West West West Total Grand Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total 10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 300 10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 300 10 10 10 20 20 20 30 30 30 40 40 40 300 30 30 30 60 60 60 90 90 90 120 120 120 900 10 10 10 30 10 10 10 30 10 10 10 30 10 10 10 30 10 10 10 30 10 10 10 30 10 10 10 30 10 10 10 30 10 10 10 30 20 20 20 60 20 20 20 60 20 20 20 60 20 20 20 60 20 20 20 60 20 20 20 60 20 20 20 60 20 20 20 60 20 20 20 60 30 30 30 90 30 30 30 90 30 30 30 90 30 30 30 90 30 30 30 90 30 30 30 90 30 40 40 40 30 40 40 40 30 40 40 40 90 120 120 120 30 40 40 40 30 40 40 40 30 40 40 40 90 120 120 120 30 40 40 40 30 40 40 40 30 40 40 40 90 120 120 120 300 300 300 900 300 300 300 900 300 300 300 900 Wood Glass Brick Wood Glass Brick Wood Glass Brick 120 120 120 240 240 240 360 360 360 480 480 480 3600 .52857261.
D14.Range2. This example shows how the SUM has been combined with plus + symbols. ranges are from other functions..Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 B C D E F G H SUM Page 170 of 202 I J SUM Horizontal 100 Vertical 100 200 300 600 200 300 600 =SUM(C4:E4) =SUM(C7:C9) Single Cells 100 200 Multiple Ranges 100 200 3000 300 600 =SUM(C13. Syntax =SUM(Range1.Range3.MAX(E23:E25)) What Does It Do ? This function creates a total from a list of numbers. The formula is actually doing more work than needed. The numbers can be in single cells. Formatting No special formatting is needed. It can be used either horizontally or vertically. through to Range30). 100 200 300 600 =SUM(C48+C49+C50) =SUM(C48:C50) =C48+C49+C50 Wrong! Correct Correct .E17:E19) 100 200 300 400 500 600 800 =SUM(AVERAGE(C23:C25).E13) 400 500 600 4800 Functions =SUM(C17:C19. Note Many people use the =SUM() function incorrectly. It should have been entered as either =C48+C49+C50 or =SUM(C48:C50)..
$D$7:D12.0)) =SUM(IF(D12. Each occurrence of the =SUM() then adds all the numbers from the first cell down.0)) =SUM(IF(D10.$D$7:D10.$D$7:D11.0)) =SUM(IF(D8.0)) =SUM(IF(D9.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 B C D SUM (3) for Running Total E F G H Page 171 of 202 I J SUM (Running Total) Using =SUM() For A Running Total Running Total 10 60 90 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sales 10 50 30 20 =SUM($D$7:D7) =SUM($D$7:D8) =SUM($D$7:D9) =SUM($D$7:D10) =SUM($D$7:D11) =SUM($D$7:D12) =SUM($D$7:D13) =SUM($D$7:D14) =SUM($D$7:D15) =SUM($D$7:D16) =SUM($D$7:D17) =SUM($D$7:D18) Type the formula =SUM($D$7:D7) in cell E7 and then copy down the table. Running Total 10 60 90 110 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sales 10 50 30 20 =SUM(IF(D7.$D$7:D8.$D$7:D7.$D$7:D9.0)) The =SUM() only takes place when there is data in column D. .0)) =SUM(IF(D11. It works because the first reference uses dollar symbols $ to keep $D$7 static as the formula is copied down. The function can be tidied up to show 0 zero when there is no adjacent value by using the =IF() function. Otherwise the value 0 zero is entered.52857261.
2. How many rows it should look up or down from the starting point.1)) The cell E45 has been used as the starting point for both offsets and each has been offset by just 1 column. A cell address to use as the fixed point from where it should base the offset.0.1):OFFSET(E51. A better way is to indicate the start and end point of the range to be calculated by using the =OFFSET() function.1)) This example uses E29 as the starting point and offsets 1 col to pick out cell F29 resulting in a the range E29:F29 being summed. the first offset is offset by 1 column. 900 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E51. we can then indicate how far away the end cell should be and the =OFFSET() will give us the address of cell which will be the end of the range to be totalled. . 410 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E29:OFFSET(E29. The result is that just cell F45 is used as the range F45:F45 for the sum function to calculate. How many columns it should look left or right from the starting point.2)) This example uses E34 as the starting point and offsets 2 cols to pick out cell G34 resulting in a the range E34:G34 being summed.0. Using =OFFSET() Twice In A Formula The following examples use =OFFSET() to pick both the start and end of the range which needs to be totalled.0.2)) The cell E51 has been used as the starting point of both offsets. By giving the =OFFSET() the address of the first cell in the range which needs to be totalled. but this would be time consuming and open to human error.0. The result is the range F51:G51 which is then totalled. The =OFFSET() needs to know three things.0.52857261.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 B C D SUM using =OFFSET function E F G H I Page 172 of 202 J SUM (and the =OFFSET Function) Sometimes it is necessary to base a calculation on a set of cells in different locations. The =OFFSET() picks out a cell a certain number of cells away from another cell.0.0)) This example uses E24 as the starting point and offsets no rows or columns which results in the range being summed as E24:E24. 1.0. One solution would be to retype the calculation each time new data is entered. An example would be when a total is required from certain months of the year. 910 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E34:OFFSET(E34. such as the last 3 months in relation to the current date.1):OFFSET(E45. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 400 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E45. 3. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 10 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E24:OFFSET(E24. the second by 2 columns.
These values are the 'offsets' relative to cell D79.MONTH(F72)) ) This is the actual formula entered by the user.0. In this example the values of the months are 2 and 3 for Feb and Mar.3)) The cell E57 has been used as the starting point for both offsets.MONTH(3)) ) This shows how the =MONTH function calculates the month number. but they will update as you enter dates into cells F71 and F72.52857261. the first offset is offset by 1 column.MONTH(F71)):OFFSET(D79.1):OFFSET(E57.0.3) ) This shows where the month numbers are used in the =OFFSET function. Example The following table shows five months of data. The Start and End dates entered in cells F71 and F72 are used as the offset to produce a range which can be totalled.0.2) : OFFSET(D79. Formula 2 =SUM( OFFSET(D79.0.0. Formula 4 =SUM( F79:G79 ) This shows how the =OFFSET eventually equates to cell addresses to be used as a range for the =SUM function. . Type in the Start month.0. The result is the range F57:H57 which is then totalled.MONTH(2)) : OFFSET(D79. Mar98 Total 900 1020 Jan98 10 15 Feb98 400 20 Mar98 500 1000 Apr98 600 2000 May98 700 3000 13 5 3 10 800 900 =SUM(OFFSET(D79. the second by 3 columns.MONTH(F72))) Explanation The following formula represent a breakdown of what the =OFFSET function does. Formula 1 =SUM( OFFSET(D79.MONTH(F71)) : OFFSET(D79. The formula displayed below are only dummies. Feb98 Type in the End month.0.0. To calculate the total of a specific group of months the =OFFSET() function has been used.0.0.xls at 03/05/2011 A 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 B C D SUM using =OFFSET function E F G H I Page 173 of 202 J 1500 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E57. Formula 3 =SUM( OFFSET(D79.
900 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E51. 3.0. the second by 2 columns. 910 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E34:OFFSET(E34.0. 2. 410 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E29:OFFSET(E29.0.2)) This example uses E34 as the starting point and offsets 2 cols to pick out cell G34 resulting in a the range E34:G34 being summed.Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 B C D E F G H I SUM with OFFSET Page 174 of 202 J SUM and the =OFFSET function Sometimes it is necessary to base a calculation on a set of cells in different locations.0.1)) This example uses E29 as the starting point and offsets 1 col to pick out cell F29 resulting in a the range E29:F29 being summed. Using =OFFSET() Twice In A Formula The following examples use =OFFSET() to pick both the start and end of the range which needs to be totalled. A cell address to use as the fixed point from where it should base the offset. One solution would be to retype the calculation each time new data is entered. By giving the =OFFSET() the address of the first cell in the range which needs to be totalled.0. An example would be when a total is required from certain months of the year.1)) The cell E45 has been used as the starting point for both offsets and each has been offset by just 1 column.0. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 400 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E45. such as the last 3 months in relation to the current date.2)) The cell E51 has been used as the starting point of both offsets.0.1):OFFSET(E45.1):OFFSET(E51. The =OFFSET() needs to know three things. How many columns it should look left or right from the starting point. the first offset is offset by 1 column. The result is that just cell F45 is used as the range F45:F45 for the sum function to calculate. Total Jan Feb Mar Apr May 10 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(E24:OFFSET(E24. we can then indicate how far away the end cell should be and the =OFFSET() will give us the address of cell which will be the end of the range to be totalled. The result is the range F51:G51 which .0)) This example uses E24 as the starting point and offsets no rows or columns which results in the range being summed as E24:E24. 1. How many rows it should look up or down from the starting point. A better way is to indicate the start and end point of the range to be calculated by using the =OFFSET() function. but this would be time consuming and open to human error. The =OFFSET() picks out a cell a certain number of cells away from another cell.
the second by 3 columns.0. Formula 1 =SUM( OFFSET(D79.MONTH(F71)) : OFFSET(D79.0.0.3) ) This shows where the month numbers are used in the =OFFSET function.0. In this example the values of the months are 2 and 3 for Feb and Mar.MONTH(F71)):OFFSET(D79.0.0.MONTH(3)) ) This shows how the =MONTH function calculates the month number. The Start and End dates entered in cells F71 and F72 are used as the offset to produce a range which can be totalled. E F G H I SUM with OFFSET Page 175 of 202 J 1500 10 400 500 600 700 =SUM(OFFSET(E57.0.0. The result is the range F57:H57 which is then totalled. These values are the 'offsets' relative to cell D79. Example The following table shows five months of data. Formula 3 =SUM( OFFSET(D79. Type in the Start month. Formula 4 =SUM( F79:G79 ) This shows how the =OFFSET eventually equates to cell addresses to be used as a range for the =SUM function.MONTH(F72))) Explanation The following formula represent a breakdown of what the =OFFSET function does.2) : OFFSET(D79.0.Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 A 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 B C D is then totalled. but they will update as you enter dates into cells F71 and F72.0. The formula displayed below are only dummies. Mar98 Total 900 1020 Jan98 10 15 Feb98 400 20 Mar98 500 1000 Apr98 600 2000 May98 700 3000 13 5 3 10 800 900 =SUM(OFFSET(D79.MONTH(F72)) ) This is the actual formula entered by the user. Formula 2 =SUM( OFFSET(D79. .1):OFFSET(E57. To calculate the total of a specific group of months the =OFFSET() function has been used.MONTH(2)) : OFFSET(D79.3)) The cell E57 has been used as the starting point for both offsets. Feb98 Type in the End month. the first offset is offset by 1 column.
"Brakes". It then totals the respective figures in E4:E12 =SUMIF(E4:E12.E4:E12) =SUMIF(C4:C12."Brakes". Total of item typed in following cell. .E4:E12) Total cost of all Brakes bought.E4:E12) This examines the names of products in C4:C12. Total cost of all Tyres bought.">=100") This examines the values in E4:E12. Total of items costing £100 or above. It then identifies the entries for Brakes. If the value is >=100 the value is added to the total. Formatting No special formatting is needed.E4:E12) =SUMIF(E4:E12.Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 B C D E F G H SUMIF Page 176 of 202 I SUMIF Item Brakes Tyres Brakes Service Service Window Tyres Tyres Clutch Date 1Jan98 10May98 1Feb98 1Mar98 5Jan98 1Jun98 1Apr98 1Mar98 1May98 Cost 80 25 80 150 300 50 200 100 250 160 325 1000 service 450 =SUMIF(C4:C12. What Does It Do ? This function adds the value of items which match criteria set by the user.">=100") =SUMIF(C4:C12."Tyres".RangeOfValuesToTotal) =SUMIF(C4:C12.E18. Syntax =SUMIF(RangeOfThingsToBeExamined.CriteriaToBeMatched.
The total of all the values is the result of the calculation.00 25% £33. The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Case Price to calculate what the merchant spent in buying the stock.13 =F39+F39*G39 Total Value Of Stock : Total Selling Price Of Stock : Profit : £7. Product Red Wine White Wine Champagne Beer Lager Cases In Stock 10 8 5 50 100 Case Price £120 £130 £200 £24 £30 Bottles In Case 10 10 6 12 12 Bottle Cost Markup £12.00 £2.33 80% £2.E35:E39.440 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39. Example The following table was used by a drinks merchant to keep track of stock. Syntax =SUMPRODUCT(Range1. and the potential value of the stock when it is sold. The merchant needed to know the total purchase value of the stock.00 £16.00 20% £2. The values in the first column are multipled with the corresponding value in the second column.40 £3. to calculate the potential value of the stock if it is all sold.00 25% £13.H35:H39) £2.25 £60. Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. Range.50 25% =D39/E39 Bottle Selling Price £15.D35:D39) £9.790 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39.SUMPRODUCT SUMPRODUCT Item Tyres Filters Bulbs Sold 5 2 3 price 100 10 2 526 =SUMPRODUCT(D4:D6.350 =E44E43 Page 177 . The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Bottles In Case and the Bottle Setting Price. takinging into account the markup percentage.E4:E6) Total Sales Value : What Does It Do ? This function uses at least two columns of values.
5. The total depreciation of the item is then allocated on the basis of these percentages.500 ===> =SYD(E39. year 1 is $4500.F5. A depreciation of £9000 is allocated as 50% being £4500. Multiply 3.2.F4.000 ===> £1.857 £2.17 1. year 1 is 17% 6. £9. using the sum of the years digits. 33% being £3000.000 £1. Example 2 .E40.500 £3.F5.000 6 £3.5 0.2) =SYD(F3.F5. £3000.000 3 £4.143 £571 =SYD(F3. £9000/6=£1500.000 £1. these values are the depreciation values for each of the three years in the life of the item.F4.33 0. 17% being £1500. 1. year 2 is 33% of 6. A life of 3 years has a sum of 1+2+3 equalling 6. £1500.3) =SYD(F3.429 £2.F4. 2.2.F4. What is the Sum Of The Years Digits ? The sum of the years digits adds together the each of the years of the life.000 £8.F5.F5.4) =SYD(F3.F4. 4.3 becomes 3. Invert the year digits.F5.2.000 £4.1 by £1500 to get £4500. year 2 is £3000 and year 1 is £1500. 1+2+3=6. The depreciation is greatest in the earlier part of the items life.F4.6) £12.500 ===> £3.500 1 2 3 17% 33% 50% As the greater part of the depreciation is allocated to the earliest years the values are inverted.5) =SYD(F3. 3. Divide the Total Deprectation by the SumOfTheYearsDigits.3) As % Of Total Depreciation 0. £10000£1000=£9000.E41.286 £1.1) =SYD(F3. Add together the digits of the Life to get the SumOfTheYearsDigits.714 £1. Example 1 Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years : Depreciation in Year 1 : Depreciation in Year 2 : Depreciation in Year 3 : £10.1.000 =SUM(F7:F12) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the depreciation of an item throughout its life.SYD A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 B C D E F G H Page 178 I SYD Purchase Value Of A New Car Second Hand Value Number Of Years Ownership Deprecation in year 1 Deprecation in year 2 Deprecation in year 3 Deprecation in year 4 Deprecation in year 5 Deprecation in year 6 Total Depreciation : £20. Year 3 is 50% of 6. Subtract the Salvage from the Purchase Price to get Total Deprectation. Each of the years is then calculated as a percentage of the sum of the years.
000 4 £3.286 £964 £643 £321 As % Of Total Depriciation 25% 21% 18% 14% 11% 7% 4% £9. 100% .700 £1.SYD A 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 B C D The same example using 4 years. Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years (1 to 10) : Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 £10.SalvageValue. Purchase Price Of A Car : Salvage Value : Expected Life in Years : Depreciation in Year 1 : Depreciation in Year 2 : Depreciation in Year 3 : Depreciation in Year 4 : Total Depreciation : E F G H Page 179 I £10.000 Syntax =SYD(OriginalCost.600 £2.000 As % Of Total Depriciation 0.607 £1.4 0.3 0.1 100% Example 3 This example will adjust itself to accommodate any number of years between 1 and 10.000 7 £2.Life.250 £1.000 £1.929 £1.000 £1.800 £900 £9.PeriodToCalculate) Formatting No special formatting is needed.2 0.
but is included for compatibility with other spreadsheet programs.52857261. the result is a blank. If the value is text.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C D E T F G H Page 180 of 202 I J T Cell To Test Hello 10 1Jan98 Result Hello =T(D4) =T(D5) =T(D6) =T(D7) What Does It Do ? This function examines an entry to determine whether it is text or not. then the text is the result of the function If the value is not text. Syntax =T(CellToTest) Formatting No special formatting is needed. . The function is not specifically needed by Excel.
"0.25 10."0") =TEXT(C7.00") =TEXT(C5.00 £10. .00 10 £10 10."0."£0") =TEXT(C8."£0.00") =TEXT(C6.0") =TEXT(C9.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Original Number 10 10 10 10 10.25 Converted To Text 10."£0.0") What Does It Do ? This function converts a number to a piece of text.FormatForConversion) Formatting No special formatting is required.3 B C D TEXT E F G H Page 181 of 202 I J TEXT =TEXT(C4. Syntax =TEXT(NumberToConvert.3 £10. The formatting for the text needs to be specified in the function.52857261.
D5.E5) =TIME(C6. If a normal number format is applied a decimal fraction is shown which represents the time as a fraction of the day.60485 =TIME(C4.D4.E4) =TIME(C5.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B C D E TIME F G Page 182 of 202 H I TIME Hour 14 14 14 Minute 30 30 30 Second 59 59 59 Time 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM 0.Minute.E6) What Does It Do? This function will convert three separate numbers to an actual time.Second) Formatting The result will be shown as a time which can be formatted either as 12 or 24 hour style.D6.52857261. Syntax =TIME(Hour. .
Syntax =TIMEVALUE(Text) Formatting The result will be shown as a number representing the time a fraction of the day.52857261. It is useful when data is imported from other applications. such as from mainframe computers.6 14:30:59 2:30:59 PM =TIMEVALUE(C4) =TIMEVALUE(C5) =TIMEVALUE(C6) What Does It Do? This function will show an actual time based on a piece of text which looks like a time. . which convert all values to text.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C TIMEVALUE D E F Page 183 of 202 G H TIMEVALUE Text 14:30:59 14:30:59 14:30:59 Time 0. Formatting can be applied for either the 12 or 24 hour clock system.
xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B C D TODAY E F Page 184 of 202 G H TODAY Today Is 5Mar11 =TODAY() What Does It Do? Use this to show the current date. Syntax =TODAY() Formatting The result will normally be displayed using the DDMMMYY format. Year 2000 01Jan2000 Days Until 10/27/88 =C36TODAY() . Date 1Jan97 10Aug97 Days Since 03/03/14 07/25/13 =TODAY()C20 =TODAY()C21 Note that the result is actually the number of days before todays date. Date 1Jan97 10Aug97 Days Since 5177 4956 =TODAY()C28+1 =TODAY()C29+1 Example The following example shows the number of days from today until the year 2000. Example The following example shows how the Today function is used to calculate the number of days since a particular day.52857261. To calculate a result which includes the current date an extra 1 will need to be added.
. and places in it in a new range. The transpose range must be the same size as the original range. Finally press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to confirm it. Syntax =TRANSPOSE(Range) Formatting No special formatting is needed. If changes need to be made to the formula.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C D TRANSPOSE E F G H Page 185 of 202 I J TRANSPOSE Alan Bob Carol Total Jan 10 40 70 120 Alan 10 30 Feb 30 50 80 160 Bob 40 50 Carol 70 80 Total 120 160 Jan Feb {=TRANSPOSE(C3:E7)} As an array formula in all these cells What Does It Do ? This function copies data from a range. and the data originally in rows is in columns. turning it so that the data originally in columns is now in rows. such as =TRANSPOSE(A1:A5). The function needs to be entered as an array formula.52857261. To enter an array formula you must first highlight all the cells where the formula is required. Next type the formula. the edits can then be made and the Ctrl+Shift+Enter used to confirm it. the entire array has to be highlighted.
000 8 £3. based upon the past years performance.B41:B52. Page 186 of 202 .B5:B10.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 B C D E TREND F G H I Page 186 of 202 J TREND WHAT IS CONST b ? Predicted Values Month Sales 7 £4. The RequiredXs is the range for which you want to make the prediction.386 12 £7.000 2 £4. the company would start to make a profit at the end of the next year.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.E8:E13)} {=TREND(C5:C10. The KnownXs is the intervals used when collecting the data.774 11 £7. Syntax =TREND(KnownYs.997 Historical Data Month Sales 1 £1. Press Enter to enter the formula as an array.750 5 £4.193 18 £935 19 £676 20 £418 21 £160 22 £98 23 £356 24 £615 {=TREND(C41:C52.B5:B10. Example The following tables were used by a company to predict when they would start to make a profit.E41:E52). such as Months.500 7 £4. The =TREND() function shows that it will be month 22 before the company make a profit.000 {=TREND(C8:C13. months 1 to 12. Type the formula such as =TREND(C41:C52. such as F41 to F52.940 8 £5.000 11 £2.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.52857261.B8:B13. The function is an array function and must be entered using Ctrl+Shift+Enter. but do not press Enter.800 3 £4.B5:B10.600 4 £4. 13 to 24.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10. Hold the Ctrl+Shift keys down.800 6 £4. Historical Data Month Profit 1 £5. the bank would no longer provide an overdraft facility.KnownXs.500 12 £2.800 9 £3.709 16 £1. such as Sales Figures. the =TREND() function was used. The prediction is based upon the Linear Trend of the original values.000 3 £2.551 9 £6.968 15 £1. The months to predict were entered. To prove to the bank that. such as Months.B5:B10.163 10 £6.500 5 £3.451 17 £1.B5:B10.226 14 £1.Constant) The KnownYs is the range of values. The Constant I have no fuccking idea what its about! Formatting No special formatting is needed.800 6 £4.E41:E52)} The same function used in all cells as an array formula How To Enter An Array Formula Select all the cells where the array is required.800 Predicted Values Month Profit 13 £2. Their bank manager had told the company that unless they could show a profit by the end of the next year.RequiredXs.300 10 £2.000 2 £2.B41:B52.E5:E10)} {=TREND(C5:C10.500 4 £3.E5:E10)} What Does It Do ? This function predicts values based upon three sets of related values. The historical data for the past year was entered.
Multiple spaces within the text will be trimmed to a single space Syntax =TRIM(TextToTrim) Formatting No special formatting is needed.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 B C D TRIM E F G Page 187 of 202 H I TRIM Original Text ABCD A B C D Alan Jones ABCD Trimmed Text ABCD ABCD Alan Jones ABCD =TRIM(C4) =TRIM(C5) =TRIM(C6) =TRIM(C7) What Does It Do ? This function removes unwanted spaces from a piece of text. . The spaces before and after the text will be removed completely.52857261.
Precision) Formatting No special formatting is needed.47 =TRUNC(C8. it does not actually round the number.D8) 1 13640 =TRUNC(C9.48 1.48 13643.48 13643.D10) 3 13000 =TRUNC(C11.48 B C D TRUNC E F G H Page 188 of 202 I J TRUNC Precision For Truncated Truncation Number 0 1 =TRUNC(C4.48 1.4 =TRUNC(C5.4 =TRUNC(C7. Syntax =TRUNC(NumberToTuncate.48 1.48 13643.D5) 2 1.D11) What Does It Do ? This function removes the decimal part of a number.D9) 2 13600 =TRUNC(C10.D6) 1 1. .D4) 1 1.52857261.48 1.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Number 1.D7) 2 1.47 =TRUNC(C6.
xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 TYPE 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 B C D TYPE E F G H Page 189 of 202 I J DOES NOT WORK AS PER HELP SYSTEM 10 Hello TRUE 8 #DIV/0! 2 3 5 6 8 9 1 2 8 8 16 8 1 4 7 .52857261.
Example See the example for FREQUENCY. .52857261. Syntax =UPPER(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 B C UPPER D E F Page 190 of 202 G H UPPER Original Text alan jones bob smith carOl wiLLiamS cardiff abc123 Upper Case ALAN JONES BOB SMITH CAROL WILLIAMS CARDIFF ABC123 =UPPER(C4) =UPPER(C5) =UPPER(C6) =UPPER(C7) =UPPER(C8) What Does It Do ? This function converts all characters in a piece of text to upper case.
errors will occur when the percentage is only one digit long. =FIND().C4). Explanation of formula shown above." ". =VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C52.52857261. =MID().5)) =VALUE(MID(C16. =VALUE(MID(SUBSTITUTE(C11. two or three digits long." ". =SUBSTITUTE.C14).SEARCH("£"." ").C17).99)) There was a 2% increase in sales. #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! ")). If the extraction assumes the maximum length of three digits and the % sign. If the number in the middle of a long piece of text it will have to be extracted using other text functions such as =SEARCH().SUBSTITUTE(C11. =LEFT() or =RIGHT(). #VALUE! * See explanation below. The same will be true for other recognised formats." The winning time was 1:30 seconds. The winning time was 10:30 seconds. other than it is preceded by a space.SUBSTITUTE(C52.SEARCH("??:??". it can be either one. To get around the problem the =SUBSTITUTE() function was used to increase the size of the spaces in the text. The only way to identify the value is the fact it always ends with the % sign. There was a 50% increase in sales. #VALUE! There was a 50% increase in sales." ".5)) What Does It Do ? This function converts a piece of text which resembles a number into an actual value." #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE! ").SEARCH("??:??".5)) =VALUE(MID(C15. The winning time was 0:30 seconds. If the £ sign is included in the text it will be ignored.SEARCH("???%". There was a 100% increase in sales. The result will be shown as a value. If the original text format appears as a time hh:mm the result will be a time. If the % sign is included in the text.C15). To extract the values from the following text is complicated! The actual percentage value is of variable length. There was a 2% increase in sales.4)) =VALUE(MID(C14. #VALUE! Approx 50% increase in sales.SEARCH("??:??"." ". #VALUE! There was a 100% increase in sales. There is no way to identify the beginning of the value. based upon the original text." ")). The main problem is calculating the length of the value to extract.5)) =VALUE(MID(C17.SEARCH("???%". The winning time was 1:30 seconds. #VALUE! Only a 2% increase in sales. Now when the extraction takes place any unnecessary characters will be spaces which are ignored by the =VALUE() function.xls at 03/05/2011 A B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 C VALUE D E F Page 191 of 202 G H VALUE Text Containing A Number Annual turnover was £5000 Value Err:502 =VALUE(MID(C4.C16). #VALUE! A 100% increase was achieved. the result will be a decimal fraction which can then be formatted as a percentage.4)) . as alphabetic characters will be included. Syntax =VALUE(TextToConvert) Formatting No special formatting is needed.SEARCH("??:??".
67 =VAR(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the sample population variance of a list of values.4 1.0025 1.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).6 1.H34:H36.52857261.0)) find the machine name.0167 The smallest variance is : 0.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 B C D E VAR F G H Page 192 of 202 I J VAR Values 10 10 9 10 0.8 0.4 1.Range2.5 0. =MIN(H34:H36) This finds the position of the lowest value. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C34:C36. A sample population is used when the list of values represents a sample of a population.0025 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =VAR(D34:G34) =VAR(D35:G35) =VAR(D36:G36) =MIN(H34:H36) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C34:C36.25 =VAR(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.5 1.7 1. =MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).25 =VAR(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed. At the end of the day four boxes of soap powder were picked at random from the production of each machine.5 1.H34:H36.5 1.0067 1. .5 0. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.H34:H36. Three machines were short listed and allow to run for a day.MATCH(MIN(H34:H36).5 1. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.6 1. Syntax =VAR(Range1. The boxes were weighed and the =VAR() function used as these boxes only represented a sample of the complete days production.
. The boxes were weighed and the =VARP() function used as these boxes represented the entire test run. Example The table below was used by a company interested in buying a new machine to pack washing powder.5 0.19 =VARP(C4:C7) Values 10 10 11 10 0.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).25 =VARP(G4:G7) What Does It Do ? This function calculates the variance of a list of values. A trial run a just four boxes per machine were produced.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 B C D VARP E F G H Page 193 of 202 I J VARP Values 10 10 9 10 0.4 1. Syntax =VARP(Range1.H32:H34. Soap Powder Box Filling Machine Test Results Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Variance 1.0)) Explanation of formula: This finds the lowest value.6 1.0019 1.5 1.0019 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 =VARP(D32:G32) =VARP(D33:G33) =VARP(D34:G34) =MIN(H32:H34) The machine with the smallest variance is : Machine 2 =INDEX(C32:C34.5 0.0050 1.H32:H34. =(MIN(H32:H34) This finds the position of the lowest value.Range3 through to Range30) Formatting No special formatting is needed.0) This looks down the Machine column to =INDEX(C32:C34.Range2.MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).52857261.4 1.6 1.5 1.5 1. =MATCH(MIN(H32:H34).19 =VARP(E4:E7) Values 10 11 9 12 1.H32:H34.0125 The smallest variance is : 0. The variance is calculated on the basis that the values represent the entire population. The machine with the smallest variance was the most consistent.5 1.0)) find the machine name.8 0.7 1.
it then scans across to pick a cell entry. FALSE for no. The ColumnToPickFrom is how far across the table the function should look to pick from. The =VLOOKUP() is used to scan down to find the name. Formatting No special formatting is needed. Bob Eric Alan Carol David Jan 10 20 30 40 50 Feb 80 90 100 110 120 Mar 97 69 45 51 77 . It then calculates the position of the month in the list. Unfortunately. When the item is found. so and extra 1 is added to compensate. because the list of months is not as wide as the lookup range. The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. col 1 col 2 col 3 col 4 col 5 col 6 Jan Feb Mar 10 80 97 20 90 69 30 100 45 40 110 51 50 120 77 Type a month to look for : Which column needs to be picked out : The result is : Feb 4 100 =VLOOKUP(G11. The =MATCH() looks through the list of names to find the month we require. TRUE for yes.FALSE) What Does It Do ? This function scans down the row headings at the side of a table to find a specified item. the =MATCH() number is 1 less than we require. they are part of the illustration.G12.C6:H8. The problem arises when we need to scan across to find the month column.52857261. The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the row headings at the left hand side. The =VLOOKUP() uses FALSE at the end of the function to indicate to Excel that the row headings are not sorted. Example 1 This table is used to find a value based on a specified name and month. The =VLOOKUP() now uses this =MATCH() number to look across the columns and picks out the correct cell entry. Syntax =VLOOKUP(ItemToFind.RangeToLookIn.ColumnToPickFrom.SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 B C D VLOOKUP E F G H Page 194 of 202 I J VLOOKUP The column numbers are not needed. To solve the problem the =MATCH() function is used.
200 =VLOOKUP(C81. Maker Vauxhall VW Ford VW Ford Ford Vauxhall Ford Spare Ignition GearBox Engine Steering Ignition CYHead GearBox Engine Cost Lookup Table £50 Vauxhall Ford VW £600 GearBox 500 450 600 £1. If the Quantity Ordered does not match a value at the side of the Discount Table. If a match is not found. using the result of the =MATCH() function to find the position of the make of car. the =VLOOKUP() then scans across to find the price.MATCH(F57. The Unit Cost of the item is then looked up in the Unit Cost Table. Wood and Glass. The Unit Cost Table holds the cost of 1 unit of Brick.52857261.TRUE) .FALSE) Example 2 This example shows how the =VLOOKUP() is used to pick the cost of a spare part for different makes of cars. =VLOOKUP(C126. This ensures that when the formula is copied to more cells. The Orders Table is used to enter the orders and calculate the Total.0)+1. The =VLOOKUP() scans down row headings in column F for the spare part entered in column C.F75:I79. All the calculations take place in the Orders Table. Trying to match an order of 125 will drop down to 100.MATCH(B81. The Discount Table holds the various discounts for different quantities of each product. Using the FALSE option forces the function to search for an exact match.D49:F49. the next lowest value is used.2.F114:I116. Using TRUE will allow the function to make an approximate match. The name of the Item is typed in column C of the Orders Table. The functions use the absolute ranges indicated by the dollar symbol .FALSE) Example 3 In the following example a builders merchant is offering discount on large orders.0)+1. the function will produce an error. the ranges for =VLOOKUP() and =MATCH() do not change.MATCH(C126. The FALSE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the product names down the side of the Unit Cost Table are not sorted. When the make is found.xls at 03/05/2011 A 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 B C VLOOKUP D E Type a name to look for : Type a month to look for : F eric mar G H Page 195 of 202 I J The result is : 69 =VLOOKUP(F56.G74:I74. =VLOOKUP(D126.C114:D116.G113:I113.0)+1. and the discount from the 100 row is used.200 Engine 1000 1200 800 £275 Steering 250 350 275 £70 Ignition 50 70 45 £290 CYHead 300 290 310 £500 £1.C50:F54.FALSE) The discount is then looked up in the Discount Table If the Quantity Ordered matches a value at the side of the Discount Table the =VLOOKUP will look across to find the correct discount. The TRUE option has been used at the end of the function to indicate that the values down the side of the Discount Table are sorted.
FALSE) Discount =VLOOKUP(D126.C114:D116.52857261.TRUE) Total =(D126*E126)(D126*E126*F126) .0)+1.F114:I116.2.G113:I113.275 Formula for : Unit Cost =VLOOKUP(C126.xls at 03/05/2011 A 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 B C D VLOOKUP E F G H Page 196 of 202 I J Unit Cost Table Brick £2 Wood £1 Glass £3 Brick 1 100 300 Discount Table Wood Glass 0% 0% 0% 6% 3% 12% 8% 5% 15% Item Brick Wood Glass Brick Wood Glass Units 100 200 150 225 50 500 Orders Table Unit Cost Discount £2 6% £1 3% £3 12% £2 6% £1 0% £3 15% Total £188 £194 £396 £423 £50 £1.MATCH(C126.
3) What Does It Do? This function shows the day of the week from a date. Example The following table was used by a hotel which rented a function room. The Actual Day is calculated. Cells. The hotel charged different rates depending upon which day of the week the booking was for. use Format. Booking Date Actual Day 7Jan98 Wednesday Booking Cost £30. Syntax =WEEKDAY(Date.Type) Type : This is used to indicate the week day numbering system. Formatting The result will be shown as a normal number. If no number is specified. The Booking Cost is picked from a list of rates using the =LOOKUP() function. The Booking Date is entered. 1 : will set Sunday as 1 through to Saturday as 7 2 : will set Monday as 1 through to Sunday as 7.1) =WEEKDAY(C7.C39:D45) Booking Rates Day Of Week Cost 1 £50 2 £25 3 £25 4 £30 5 £40 6 £50 7 £100 . 3 : will set Monday as 0 through to Sunday as 6.00 =LOOKUP(WEEKDAY(C34).2) =WEEKDAY(C8. Excel will use 1. To show the result as the name of the day. Custom and set the Type to ddd or dddd.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 B C D WEEKDAY E F Page 197 of 202 G H WEEKDAY Date Thu 01Jan98 Thu 01Jan98 Thu 01Jan98 Thu 01Jan98 Thu 01Jan98 Weekday 5 5 5 4 3 =WEEKDAY(C4) =WEEKDAY(C5) =WEEKDAY(C6.52857261.
52857261. Order Date Mon 02Feb98 Tue 15Dec98 Holidays Fri 01May98 Fri 25Dec98 Wed 01Jan97 Thu 01Jan98 Fri 01Jan99 Delivery Days 2 28 Delivery Date Wed 04Feb98 Tue 26Jan99 =WORKDAY(D25.E25.Cells.Days. The function excludes weekends and holidays and can therefore be used to calculate delivery dates or invoice dates. Syntax =WORKDAY(StartDate.E4) =WORKDAY(D5.D28:D32) Bank Holiday Xmas New Year New Year New Year . Example The following example shows how the function can be used to calculate delivery dates based upon an initial Order Date and estimated Delivery Days.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 B C D WORKDAY E F G Page 198 of 202 H WORKDAY StartDate 1Jan98 1Jan98 Days 28 28 Result 35836 10Feb98 =WORKDAY(D4.Date.E5) What Does It Do? Use this function to calculate a past or future date based on a starting date and a specified number of days.Holidays) Formatting The result will normally be shown as a number which can be formatted to a normal date by using Format.Number.
52857261. Syntax =YEAR(Date) Formatting The result is shown as a number. .xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 B C D YEAR E F G H Page 199 of 202 I J YEAR Date 25Dec98 Year 1998 =YEAR(C4) What Does It Do? This function extracts the year number from a date.
000 =YEARFRAC(B33. Start 1Jan98 1Jan98 1Jan98 End Pro Rata Salary Actual Salary 31Dec98 £12. The =YEARFRAC() function is used to calculate Actual Salary for the portion of the year.000 =YEARFRAC(B34. 0 : or omitted USA style 30 days per month divided by 360. the End date.D5) =YEARFRAC(C6.C33+1.000 =YEARFRAC(B32.4)*D33 30Jun98 £12. Example The following table was used by a company which hired people on short term contracts for a part of the year. .C32+1.C34+1.EndData. The Start and End dates of the contract are entered. Syntax =YEARFRAC(StartDate.4)*D34 Note The extra 1 has been added to the End date to compensate for the fact that the =YEARFRAC() function calculates from the Start date up to. Formatting The result will be shown as a decimal fraction. 3 : 29 or 30 0r 31 days per month divided by 365.4)*D32 31Mar98 £12. but can be formatted as a percent. 1 : 29 or 30 or 31 days per month divided by 365.25 1 25% =YEARFRAC(C4.D4) =YEARFRAC(C5.D6) What Does It Do? This function calculates the difference between two dates and expresses the result as a decimal fraction. 4 : European 29 or 30 or 31 days divided by 360. but not including. 2 : 29 or 30 or 31 days per month divided by 360.000 £6.000 £3.52857261.000 £12.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 B C D YEARFRAC E F Page 200 of 202 G H YEARFRAC Start Date 1Jan98 1Jan98 1Jan98 End Date 1Apr98 31Dec98 1Apr98 Fraction 0. The Pro Rata Salary which represents the annual salary is entered.Basis) Basis : Defines the calendar system to be used in the function.
Number.52857261. Note The Total Hours cell has been formatted as [h]:mm. the name of the day will appear automatically. If the [h]:mm format had not been used the Total Hours would show as : If the [h]:mm format does not show in the cell format dialog box on your computer. 14:45 . Use the format dd/mm/yy. The date is then passed down to the Day column. This is used later to calculate if have worked over or under the required hours. the Week beginning. Cells. Custom.xls at 03/05/2011 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 B C . the Normal Hours. Type the amount of hours you are expected to work in G3. Instructions : Type the week start date in cell C3. This ensures the total hours can be expressed as a value above 24 hours. it can be created using Format. Type the times you arrive and leave work in the appropraite columns.TimeSheet D E F Page 201 of 202 G H TIMESHEET Week beginning Mon 05Jan98 Day Mon 05 Tue 06 Wed 07 Thu 08 Fri 09 Arrive 8:00 8:45 9:00 8:30 8:00 Lunch Out Lunch In 13:00 14:00 12:30 13:30 13:00 14:00 13:00 14:00 12:00 13:00 Normal Hours Depart 17:00 17:00 18:00 17:00 17:00 Total Hours 37:30 Total 8:00 7:15 8:00 7:30 8:00 38:45 1:15 Under worked by Over worked by This is simple example of a timesheet. Use the format of hh:mm.
Excel Function Dictionary © PCTC 1998 A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 B C D E F G . .400 £1.200 £11. Text to be written.000 Job Stage Survey Foundation Walls Roof Electrics Actual Delivery Against Target Total Days Start Date Mon 05Jan98 Mon 12Jan98 Fri 16Jan98 Wed 21Jan98 Thu 29Jan98 Tue 03Feb98 5 days behind 22 End Date Fri 09Jan98 Thu 15Jan98 Tue 20Jan98 Wed 28Jan98 Tue 03Feb98 Daily Cost £200 £1.000 92% This is simple example of using dates for project management. UNDER CONSTRUCTION ! =WORKDAY(C10.000 £4.000 £800 £400 £300 Total Cost Budget % Total £1.Project Dates Page 202 of 202 H I Project Dates Target Delivery Tue 27Jan98 House Building Target Budget Days Required 5 4 3 6 4 £12.000 £2.400 £2.D101) This calculates the next working day.
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