You are on page 1of 128

For Official Use only

ARS/NET Examination


Printed : December 2007

© 2007, Agricultural Scientists' Recruitment Board

(Indian Council of Agricultural Research)
New Delhi
1. Agronomy ............................................................................................................................................. 1
2. Agricultural Chemicals and Chemistry .................................................................................................. 5
3. Soil Science ......................................................................................................................................... 9
4. Agricultural Physics and Meteorology .................................................................................................12
5. Seed Science and Technology .............................................................................................................15
6. Crop Improvement ...............................................................................................................................17
7. Agricultural Entomology .......................................................................................................................19
8. Plant Pathology ....................................................................................................................................23
9. Plant Biochemistry and Plant Physiology ............................................................................................28
10. Agricultural Biotechnology ...................................................................................................................33
11. Agriculture Microbiology ......................................................................................................................35
12. Horticulture ..........................................................................................................................................37
13. Agricultural Structures and Process Engineering .................................................................................42
14. Agriculture Machinery and Energy .......................................................................................................45
15. Land and Water Management Engineering and Technology ..................................................................49
16. Home Science and Family Resources Management ...........................................................................51
17. Environmental Science ........................................................................................................................56
18. Forestry ...............................................................................................................................................59
19. Food Science & Technology ................................................................................................................61
20. Economics and Agricultural Business Management ............................................................................65
21. Agricultural Technology Transfer ...........................................................................................................69
22. Aquaculture ..........................................................................................................................................72
23. Fisheries Science ................................................................................................................................74
24. Fish Harvest & Post-harvest Technology .............................................................................................76
25. Statistics and Comuter Application ......................................................................................................78
26. Animal Biotechnology ..........................................................................................................................82
27. Veterinary Microbiology ........................................................................................................................86
28. Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology .................................................................................................90
29. Dairy Chemistry & Mirobiology ............................................................................................................91
30. Dairy Engineering and Technology .......................................................................................................97
31. Animal Genetics & Breeding .............................................................................................................. 100
32. Animal Physiology and Nutrition ........................................................................................................ 103
33. Animal Reproduction .......................................................................................................................... 105
34. Livestock Producton and Management .............................................................................................. 108
35. Veterinary Pharmacology & Medicine ................................................................................................ 111
36. Veterinary Anatomy and Surgery ....................................................................................................... 115
37. Poultry Science and Technology ........................................................................................................ 117
38. Animal Product Technology ................................................................................................................ 119
39. Chemical Engineering ........................................................................................................................ 120
40. Electronics and Instrumentation ........................................................................................................ 122
1. Agronomy
Unit 1 : Concepts in Agronomy
Development of scientific agriculture in India and the world physical, chemical and biological factors
affecting growth, development and distribution of field crops Constraints in crop yield -maximization. Tillage
and its advantage, minimum and zero tillage: Sustainable agriculture, organic farming, recycling of organic
waste: Low Input Sustainable Agriculture (LISA): High tech precision farning with reference to Indian
agriculture: Green house production technology: Cropping systems and cropping patterns; Farming systems
in relation to field crop production; Role of cultural practices and crop rotation in controlling pests and
diseases: Concepts of Agro - biology.
Unit 2 : Crop Management
Factors affecting; growth, development and distribution of crops. Crop production techniques for
different field crops (cereal, pulses, oilseeds and fodder). Principles of weed management. herbicides -
their selectivity, mode of action, formulation, resistance etc. Weed control in field crops. Integrated weed
management. Resource management in cropping systems.
Unit 3 : Soil Management
‘Tillage and its advantages. Modem concept of conservation tillage. Problem soils and their
distribution in India. Reclamation of problem soils. Concept of essentiality of plant nutrients. Diagnostic
techniques-with special emphasis on emerging deficiencies of secondary and micronutrients. Fertilizer
materials and their composition. Integrated nutrient management. Fertilizer related environmental problems.
Unit 4: Evapotranspiration and Water Management
Hydrological cycle and concept of water balance. Concept of evaporation and evapotranspiration.
Consumptive use. Different approaches of ET determination. Determination of soil water content.
Agricultural drought and its classification. Techniques of moisture conservation in situ. Water use and
water use efficiency. Factors affecting WUE. Dry matter production and crop yield functions. Crop water
requirement. Concepts and different approaches of irrigation scheduling. Methods of irrigation. Measurement
of irrigation water, application and distribution efficiencies. Rainwater harvesting and recycling. Climate
change, green house effect. Co 2 increase, global warming and their impact on agriculture.
Unit 5 : Agro Meteorology
Elements of weather and climate. Effect of thermal environment on growth and yield of crops, Cardinal
temperatures. Thermo-periodism and photoperiodism. Heat unit concept. Contingency planning for different
weather aberrations. Soil-climatic, agro-climatic and agro-ecological zones in relation to crop planning.

Micro-meteorology of important field crops. Wind break’s and shelterbelts. Modification of field
microclimate. Frost protection. Spectral properties of vegetation, light interception by crop canopies as
influenced by leaf area index, leaf arrangement and leaf transmissibility. Extinction coefficient and radiation-
use efficiency.
Unit 6: Agricultural Statistics
Frequency distribution, Measures of central tendency. Correlation and regression. Tests of significance.
Design of field experiments. Data transformation and missing plot techniques. pooled analysis.

Unit 1: Crop Ecology and Geography
Principles of crop ecology; Ecosystem concept and determinants of productivity of ecosystem;
Physiological limits of crop yield and variability in relations, relation to ecological optima; Crop adaptation:
Climate shift and its ecological implication, Green house effect-, Agro ecological and agro climatic regions
of lndia: Geographical distribution of cereals, legumes oilseeds, vegetables, fodders and forages,
commercial crops, condiments and spices, medicinal and aromatic plants; Adverse climatic factors and
crop productivity; Photosynthcsis, respiration; Adverse climatic factors and crop productivity;
Photosynthesis, respiration, net assimilation, solar energy conversion efficiency and relative water content,
light intensity, water and Co2 in relation to photosynthetic ratios and efficiency; Physiological stress in
crops, Remote sensing : Spectral indices and their application in agriculture, crop water stress indices
and crop stress detection.

Unit 2 : Weed Management

Scope and principles of weed management; Weeds-classification, biology, ecology and allelopathy;
Crop weed competition, weed threshold; Herbicides classification, formulation, mode of action, selectivity
and resistance: Persistence of herbicides in soils and plants; Application methods and equipments;
Biological weed control, bio herbicides: Integrated weed management; Special weeds, parasitic and aquatic
weeds and their management in cropped and non cropped lands ; weed control schedules in field crops
vegetables and plantation crops; Role of GM crops in weed management.

Unit 3 : Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Use

History of soil fertility and fertilizer use: Concept of essentiality of plant nutrients, their critical
concentrations in plants, nutrient interactions, diagnostic techniques with special emphasis on emerging
deficiencies of secondary and micro-nutrients, Soil fertility and productivity and their indicators; Fertilizer
materials including liquid fertilizers, their composition, mineralization, availability and reaction products
in soils; Water solubility in Phosphate fertilizers; Slow release fertilizers, nitrification inhibitors and their
use for crop production; Principles and methods of fertilizer application; Integrated nutrient management
and bio-fertilizers ; Agronomic and physiological efficiency and recovery of plant nutrients applied; Criteria
for determining fertilizer schedules for cropping systems direct, residual and cumulative effects; Fertilizer
related environmental problems including ground water pollution. Site specific nutrient management,
contamination of heavy metals in peri-urban soils and their remediation.

Unit 4 : Dryland Agronomy

Concept of dryland farming; dryland farming vs. rain fed farming; History, development,
significance and constraints of dryland agriculture in India; Climatic classification and delineation of
dryland tracts; Characterization of agro climatic environments of drylands: Rainfall analysis and length
of growing season: Types of drought, drought syndrome, effect on plant growth, drought resistance,
drought avoidance, drought management; Crop Planning including contingency, crop diversification,
varieties, cropping systems, conservation cropping and mid-season corrections for aberrant weather
conditions; Techniques of moisture conservation in situ to reduce evapotranspiration, runoff and to
increase infiltration: Rain water harvesting and recycling concept, techniques and practices; Time lines
and precision key factors timely sowing, precision in seeding, weed control; Fertilizer placement, top
dressing and foliar application: Concept and importance of watershed management in dryland areas.


Unit 5 : Crop Production in Problem Soils

Problem soils and their distribution in India, acid, saline, waterlogged and mine - soils; Response
of crop to acidity, salinity, sodality, excess water and nutrient imbalances: Reclamation of problem soils,
role of amendments and drainage; Crop production techniques in problem soils -crops, varieties, cropping
system and agronomic practices; Effects of water table fluctuation on crop growth; Degraded lands and
their rehabilitation.
Unit 6 : Crop Production
Crop production techniques for cereals, millets, legumes, oilseeds, fiber crops, sugarcane, tobacco,
fodder and pasture crops including origin, history, distribution, adaptation, climate, soil , season, modern
varieties, fertilizer requirernents, intercultural, water requirement. weed control, quality components,
industrial use, economics and post harvest technology.
Unit 7 : Agricultural Statistics
Frequency, distribution, standard error and deviation, correlation and regression analyses, co-cfficient
of variation; tests of significance-t, F and chi-square: Date transformation and missing plot techniques;
Design of experiments basic principles, completely randomized, randomized block, split plot, strip-plot,
factorial and simple confounding designs; Efficiency of designs; Methods of statistical analysis for cropping
systems-including intercropping; Pooled analysis.
Unit 8 : Sustainable Land Use Systems
Concept of sustainability; Sustainability parameters and indicators; Alternate land use systems; Types,
extent and causes of wasteland: Shifting cultivation. Agro forestry systems:
Agricultural and agro industrial residues and its recyecling, safe disposal: Allelopathy and biomass
Unit 9: Basics of Soil and Water
Soil and water as vital resources for agricultural production. Hydrological cycle. Soil plant water
relationship. Fate of rain water received at the soil surface, runoff and infiltration reciprocity-, factors
affecting infiltration, means to enhance in filterability of soil, mechanical and biolooical means to reduce
runoff and soil loss. Water harvesting for crop life saving irrigations, watershed management. Contingent
crop plans and other strategies for aberrant weather conditions. Cropping patterns, alternate land use
and crop diversification in rain fed areas.
Unit 10 : Soil Water Relationship
Soil water relations, water retention by soil, soil moisture characteristics, field capacity, permanent
wilting point, plant available water and extractable water. Soil irritability, classifications, factors affecting
profile water storage. Determination of soil water content, computation of soil water depletion, soil water
potential and its components, hydraulic head. Movement of soil water saturated and unsaturated water
flow. Field water budget water gains and water losses from soil, deep percolation beyond root zone, capillary
rise. Evapotranspiration (ET), scope for economizing water, measures for reducing direct evaporation
from soil and crop canopies. Soil physical properties in relation to plant growth and development.
Unit 11 : Plant-Water Relationship
Plant water relations : concept of plant water potential, cell water relations, plant water potential
and its components, significance of osmotic adjustment, leaf diffusive resistance, canopy temperature,
canopy temperature depression (CTD). Water movement through soil - plant atmosphere systems, uptake


and transport of water by roots. Development of crop water deficit, crop adaptation to water deficit, morpho
physiological effect of water deficit. Drought tolerance, mechanisms of drought tolerance, potential drought
tolerance traits and their measurements. management and breeding strategies to improve crop productivity
under different patterns of drought situations of limited water supplies.
Unit 12 : Irrigation Water Management
Management of irrigation water. History of irrigation in India. Major irrigation projects in India. Water
resources development. Crop water requirements. Concepts of irrigation scheduling. Different approaches
of irrigation scheduling, soil water depletion plant indices and climatic parameters. Concept of critical
stages of crop growth in relation to water supplies. Crop modeling, crop coefficients, water production
factions. Methods of irrigation surface methods, overhead methods, drip irrigation-and air conditioning
irrigation, merits and demerits of various methods. Measurement of irrigation water, application and
distribution efficiencies. Management of water resources (rain, canal and ground water) for agricultural
production. Agronomic considerations in tile-design and operation of irrigation projects, characteristics of
irrigation and family systems affecting irrigation management. lrrigation legislation. Water Quality, joint/
conjunctive u use of water, irrigation strategies under different situation of water availability, optimum
crop plans and cropping patterns in canal command areas. Socio-economic aspects of on farm water
Unit 13 : Management of Problematic Soils and Water
Problem soils and their distribution in India salt affected, acidic, water logged soils. Ground water
resources, water quality criteria and use of brackish waters in agriculture. Excess salt and salt tolerant
crops. Hydrological imbalances and their corrective measures. Concept of critical water table depths for
crop growth. Contribution of shallow water table to crop water requirements. Management strategies for
flood prone areas crop and crop calendar for flood affected areas. Drainage for improving water logged
soils for crop production. Crop production and alternate use of problematic soils and poor quality water
for agricultural and fish production.

2. Agricultural Chemicals and Chemistry
1. General chemistry: Structure and Bonding: Atomic orbitals, electronic configuration of atoms (L-S
coupling) and the periodic properties of elements; ionic radii, ionisation potential, electron affinity,
electronegativity; concept of hybridization. Molecular orbitals and electronic configuration of
homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules. Shapes of polyatomic molecules; VSEPR theory.
Symmetry elements and point groups for simple molecules. Bond lengths, bond angles, bond order and
bond energies. Types of Chemical Bonds (weak and strong) intermolecular forces, structure of simple
ionic and covalent solids, lattice energy.
2. Acids and Bases: Bronsted and Lewis acids and bases, pH and pKa, acid-based concept in non-
aqueous media; HSAB concept. Buffer solution. Acid-base indicators. Redox reactions: Oxidation
numbers. Redox potential. Redox indicators.
3. Energetic and Dynamics of Chemical Reactions: Entropy, free-energy, relationship between free energy
change and equilibrium. Rates of chemical reactions (first-and second - order reactions). Arrhenius
equation and concept of transition state. Mechanisms, including SNl and SN2 reactions, electron
transfer reactions, catalysis. Colligative properties of solutions.
4. General characteristics s, p, d, f Block Elements. Coordination chemistry: structural aspects,
isomerism, octahedral and tetrahedral crystal - field splitting of d orbitals. magnetism and colour of
transition metal ions. Sandwich compounds, metal carbonyls and metal clusters, non-stoichiometric
oxides. Radioactivity and transmutation of elements. Isotopes and their applications.
5. IUPAC Nomenclature of Simple Organic and Inorganic Compounds. Concept of Chirality: Recognition
of symmetry elements and chiral structures; R-S nomenclature, diastereoisomerism in acyclic and
cyclic systems; E-Z isomerisms. Conformational analysis of simple cyclic (chair and boat cyclo
hexanes) and acyclic systems. Interconversion of Fischer, Newman and Sawhorse projections.
6. Common Organic Reactions and Mechanisms: Reactive intermediates. Formation and stability of
carbonium ions, carbanions, carbenes, nitrenes, free radicals and arynes. Nucleophilic, electrophilic,
radical substitution, addition and elimination reactions. Familiar name reactions: Aldol, Perkin, Stobbe,
Dieckmarn condensations; Hofmann, Schmidt, Lossen, Curtius, Beckmann and Fries rearrangements;
Reimer - Tiemann, Reformatsky and Grignard reactions. Diels - Alder reactions; Clasien rearrangements;
Friedel - Craft reactions; Wittig reactions; and Robinson annulation. Routine functional group
transformations and interconversions of simple functionalities. Hydroboration, Oppenauer oxidations;
Clemmensen, Wolff- Kisluler, Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley and Birch reductions.
7. Elementary principles and applications of electronic, vibrational, NMR, and Mass Spectral techniques
to simple structural problems.
8. Chemical Laboratory Techniques: Precautions in handling toxic chemicals and hazardous reactions.
Solvent purification and drying Extraction, distillation, crystallization, sublimation, separation methods.
Functions of common equipments, water and oil pumps, heating and cooling baths, stirrers, rotary
evaporators, good laboratory practices (GLP).
9. Introduction to Agrochemicals: Classification, IUPAC nomenclature, structure, properties, mode of
action and uses of major conventional synthetic and natural agrochemicals including plant production

chemicals. safety aspects, pesticide poisoning and antidotes. Production, consumption and trade
statistics of pesticides and fertilizers. General aspects of pest and pesticide management.
10. Agrochemicals - Regulation, Quality Control and Management: Laws, acts and rules governing
registration and regulations of agrochemical production and use. Acts and regulations promoting social
security and welfare of workers. EPA, WHO, FAO, CODEX and national/international guidelines.
Regulatory aspects as per Insecticide Act, Quality control, Sanitary and phytosanitary standards
11. Agrochemical Formulation: Classification, formulation codes. Solid and liquid formulations: preparation,
properties, specifications and uses. Formulants: carriers / diluents, surfactants, synergists, safeners,
encapsulants, binders, anti-oxidants, stabilizers. Application: devices and quality of deposits.
12. Pesticide Residue Chemistry: Pesticide residues: concepts and toxicological significance. Experimental
design, sampling, principles of extraction and clean-up from different substrates. Application of
spectrophotometric, chromatographic, ELISA and radiotracer techniques / methods in pesticide residue
analysis Confirmatory techniques. Multi-residue methods. Bound and conjugated residues. Method
validation: linearity, LOD and LOQ, Abiotic and biotic transformations microbial and photochemical
degradation, adsorption / desorption, leaching in soil, modeling of pesticide fate in the environment.
13. Chemistry of Plant Nutrients: Essential plant nutrients (major, secondary and micro), organic manures
(farm yard, compost, sewage, sludge, green manure, biogas slurries, etc.), production and manufacture
and uses of various nitrogenous. phosphatic. potassic and complex fertilizers and fertilizer mixtures,
liquid fertilizers. biofertilizers. integrated plant nutrient systems. Nutrient use efficiency (principles and
approaches). Soil conditioners and amendments.
14. Application of chemical principles and knowledge in the field of nanoscience and technology,
chemoinformatics, biotechnology and genetic engineering, combinatorial chemistry and pesticide
15. Data Analysis: Types of errors, accuracy and precision, least-squares analysis, analysis of variance,
correlation: t-test, chi square, F test.

Section 1 - General chemistry
1.1 Structure and Bonding: Atomic orbitals, electronic configuration of atoms (L-S coupling) and the periodic
properties of elements; ionic radii, ionisation potential, electron affinity, electronegativity; concept of
hybridization. Molecular orbitals and electronic configuration of homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic
molecules. Shapes of polyatomic molecules; VSEPR theory. Symmetry elements and point groups for
simple molecules. Bond lengths, bond angles, bond order and bond energies. Types of Chemical Bonds
(weak and strong) intermolecular forces, structure of simple ionic and covalent solids, lattice energy.
Acids and Bases: Bronsted and Lewis acids and bases, pH and pKa, acid-based concept in
nonaqueous media; HSAB concept. Buffer solution. Acid-base indicators. Redox Reactions: Oxidation
numbers. Redox potential. Redox indicators.
1.2 Chemistry of Non-transition Elements: General discussion on the properties of the non transition
elements; special features of individual elements; properties and structure of their halides and oxides,
polymorphism of carbon, phosphorus and sulphur. Properties and structure of silicates, carbides,
silicones, sulphur -nitrogen compounds: peroxo compounds of boron, carbon and sulphur; oxy acids of
nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur and halogens


1.3 Chemistry of Transition Elements: Coordination chemistry of transition metal ions; Stability constants
of complexes and their determination; stabilization of unusual oxidation states. Magnetism: Dia-, para-
, ferro- and antiferromagnetism, inorganic reaction mechanisms; substitution reactions, trans effect and
electron transfer reactions. Use of lanthanide compounds as shift reagents.
1.4 General characteristics s, p, d, f block elements. Coordination chemistry: structural aspects,
isomerism, octahedral and tetrahedral crystal - field splitting of d orbitals. magnetism and colour of
transition metal ions. Sandwich compounds, metal carbonyls and metal clusters. non-stoichiometric
oxides. Radio activity and transmutation of elements. Isotopes and their applications.
1.5 Nuclear Chemistry: Radioactive decay and equilibrium. Nuclear reactions; Q value, types of reactions,
Radioactive techniques; tracer technique, neutron activation analysis, counting techniques such as
G.M. ionization and proportional counter.
1.6 Solids: Dislocation in solids, Schottky and Frenkel defects, Electrical properties; Insulators and
semiconductors; superconductors; band theory of solids, Solid-state reactions.
Section 2 - Agricultural Chemicals
2.1 Chemistry of Pesticides: Chemistry of major groups of insecticides (organochlorine, organo-phosphorus,
organocarbamates, synthetic pyrethroids, neonicotinoids etc.), fungicides (dithiocarbamates, phenols,
quinones, carboxamides, azoles etc.); herbicides (phenoxyacids, carbamates, anilides, triazines,
phenylureas, dinitroanilines, bipyridiliums etc), rodenticides (coumarins etc), acaricides, juvenile
hormones, sources, natural pesticides: pyrethroids, nicotinoids, rotenoids, limonoids and microbial
macrolides (avermectins and milbemycins), rodenticides, nematicides. Biopesticides: mycoherbicides,
bioinsecticides; semiochemicals, insect hormones, insect growth regulators, Allelochemicals, plant
hormones, phytoallexins, Humus: formation, composition and properties.
2.2 Agrochemical Formulation: Classification, formulation codes. Solid and liquid formulations: preparation,
properties, specifications and uses. Formulants: carriers / diluents, surfactants, synergists, safeners,
encapsulants, binders, anti-oxidants, stabilizers. Application: devices and quality of deposits.
2.3 Pesticide Residue Chemistry: Pesticide residues: concepts and toxicological significance. Experimental
design, sampling, principles of extraction and clean-up from different substrates. Application of
spectrophotometric, chromatographic, ELISA and radiotracer techniques / methods in quantitative
analysis of agrochemicals and their metabolites, pollutants and food commodities. Confirmatory
techniques. Multi-residue methods. Bound and conjugated residues. Method validation: linearity,
accuracy, precision, LOD and LOQ, Abiotic and biotic transformations microbial and photochemical
degradation, adsorption / desorption, leaching in soil, modeling of pesticide fate in the environment.
Applications of chromatographic methods, atomic and molecular absorption and emission
spectroscopy in, Advances in instrumentation.
2.4 Principles of pest management, Environmental Implication of Agrochemicals: Chemodynamics of
agrochemicals (pesticides. fertilizers etc.) in agroecosystems. biotic and abiotic transformations.
Principles of monitoring and analysis, toxicological aspects. Heavy metal pollution. Effects on non-
target organisms, agrochemical disposal: approaches and implications. Industrial effluents (nature,
treatment and disposal). Other related chemical xenobiotics.
2.5 Key provisions of the Insecticides Act (1968). The Fertilizer Control Order (1985). The Water (Prevention
and Control of Pollution) Act (1974). Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act (1981) and the
Environmental Protection Act (1986).


2.6 Bioinorganic Chemistry: Metal ions in Biology, Molecular mechanism of ion transport across
membranes; ionophores. Photosynthesis, PS-I, PS-II; nitrogen fixation, oxygen uptake, proteins,
cytochromes and ferrodoxins.
Section 3 - Physical Chemistry
3.1 Energetics and Dynamics of Chemical Reactions: Entropy, free-energy, relationship between free energy
change and equilibrium. Rates of chemical reactions (first-and second - order reactions). Arrhenius
equation and concept of transition state. Mechanisms, including SNI and SN2 reactions, electron
transfer reactions, catalysis. Colligative properties of solutions.
3.2 Thermodynamics: First law of thermodynamics, relation between Cp. and Cv; enthalpies of physical and
chemical changes; temperature dependence of enthalpies. Second law of thermodynamics, entropy,
Gibbs-Helmoholtz equation. Third law of thermodynamics and calculation of entropy.
3.3 Chemical Equilibrium: Free energy and entropy of mixing, partial molar quantities, Gibbs-Duhem
equation. Equilibrium constant, temperature-dependence of equilibrium constant, phase diagram of one-
and two-component systems, phase rule.
3.4 Ideal and Non-ideal solutions. Excess functions, activities, concept of hydration number: activities in
electrolytic solutions; mean ionic activity coefficient; DebyeHuckel treatment of dilute electrolyte
3.5 Surface Phenomena: Surface tension, adsorption on solids, electrical phenomena at interfaces,
including electrokinetic, micelles and reverse micelles: solubilization, micro-emulsions. Application of
photoelectron spectroscopy. ESCA and Auger spectroscopy to the study of surfaces.
3.6 Reaction Kinetics: Methods of determining rate laws. Mechanisms of photochemical, chain and
oscillatory reactions. Collision theory of reaction rates; steric factor, treatment of unimolecular reactions.
Theory of absolute reaction rates, comparison of results with Eyring and Arrhenius equations. Ionic
reactions: salt effect. Homogeneous catalysis and Michaelis-Menten kinetics; heterogeneous catalysis.
Section 4 - Organic Chemistry
4.1 Chemistry of Natural Products: Carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenolics, isoprenoids, antibiotics, plant
pigments, saponins and sapogenins, lignin, amino acids, Lipids, and essential oils.
4.2 Macromolecules: Structure and function of biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids. Number-
average and weight average molecular weights; determination of molecular weights.
4.3 Reagents in Organic Synthesis: Use of the following reagents in organic synthesis and functional group
transformations; Complex metal hydrides, Gilman’s reagent, lithium dimethylcuprate, lithium
disopropylamide (LDA) dicyclohexylcarbodimide. 1,3-Dithiane (reactivity umpolung), trimethylsilyl
iodide, tri-n-butyltin hybride, Woodward and prevost hydroxylation, osmium tetroxide, DDQ, selenium
dioxide, phase transfer catalysts, crown ethers and Merrifield resin, Peterson’s synthesis, Wilkinson’s
catalyst, Baker yeast. Organometallic reagents in organic synthesis and in homogeneous catalytic
reactions (hydrogenation, hydroformylation, isomerisation and polymerization).
4.4 Heterocyclic Chemistry: Synthesis and reactivity of furan, thiophene, pyrrole, pyridine, quinoline,
isoquinoline and indole; Skraup synthesis, Fischer indole synthesis.
4.5 Spectroscopy: Applications of mass, UV-VIS, IR and NMR spectroscopy for structural elucidation of
4.6 Elements of cereal chemistry, chemistry of flavanoids, food chemistry.

3. Soil Science
Unit 1 : Pedology
Evolution and composition of earth: Concept and definition of soil; Rocks and minerals; classification,
composition and characteristics; Weathering of rocks and minerals; Soil formation: pedogenic factors and
process; Description of soil profile and designation of horizons; Soil micromorphology and its importance
in soil genesis studies.

Soil Survey: Kinds of soil survey. Base map and its significance in soil survey ; Soil mapping
units and taxonomic units; Soil Survey report, its interpretation and application Benchmark soils of India
and their importance; Soil Monoliths; Application of remote sensing. (GIS and GPS in soil resource mapping
and land characterization.

Soil Classification: historical development of soil classification systems; FAO/UNESCO system

of soil classification salient features, nomenclature system and structure of soil taxonomy: Diagnostic
horizons, soil temperature regime and soil moisture regime: Characteristics and distribution of major soil
orders of the world; Soils of India; characteristics, distribution, taxonomy-, mineralogy and management;
Principles and types of’ land evaluation: Land capability and irrigability classification; physical rating of
soils and linkage for crop suitability classification, Soil site suitability evaluation for land use planning:
Agro ecological regions of India and its relevance in agro technology transfer and sustainable land resource

Unit 2 : Soil Physics

Study of soil as a physical system : Mass volume relationships in soil ; Soil texture Indices and
evaluation. Mechanical analysis - Stokes law, soil texture in relation to plant growth Soil structure - Indices
and evaluation. Genesis and theory of aggregate formation: Soil structure and plant growth Management
of soil structure Soil compaction, crust and seedling emergence; Management of high permeable, slowly
permeable, resurfaced and compacted soils: Dynamic properties of soils - Soil consistency, hydration,
swelling, shrinking, hardening and cracking; Soil tilt and tillage, soil tilt evaluation : Specific surface of
soil; Soil physical properties under different cropping systems.

States of water and heat involved in its transformation. Concept of soil water potential: (Gibb’s free
energy and thermodynamic concept of soil water potential: Soil moisture characteristics and hysteretic;
Soil moisture determination; Water retention and transmission: Water flow: Darcy’s law theory of saturated
and unsaturated flow, hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity, infilteration, redistribution & evapotranspiration;
field water balance and measurement of ties components: estimation of evapotranspiration; Soil Plant-
Water-Atmospheric relationship: Soil water availability in relation with plant growth; Indices of plant - water
stress: Methods of water application. Irrigation water management under adequate and limited water supply,
irrigation scheduling, water use efficiency effect of saline, sodic and industrial effluent on soil physical
properties and plant growth.

Soil air composition, characterization of soil aeration status; Movement of soil air mass flow and
Fick’s law of diffusion; Soil accretion in relation to plant growth. Soil temperature sources of soil heat
and heat balance, thermal properties of soil, heat capacity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity; heat
flow in soil; Environmental, soil and plant factors affecting soil temperature; Soil temperature variation,

effect of soil temperature on plant growth including germination and emergence of seeds, root and shoot
growth. Effect of soil temperature on microbial activity and nutrient transformation and uptake
measurement and management of soil thermal environment.
Unit 3 : Agricultural Physics
Soil physical environment and plant growth; Hydrologic cycle, water budgeting and water production
functions for irrigation scheduling; Assessment of growth and yield of crops: modeling water and nutrient
balance components.
Agro climatic zones/Agro ecological sub region of India: Crop micrometeorology, crop weather
interaction, Methods of ET estimation, principle of remote sensing-, Micro wave remote sensing: Use of
remote sensing for resource management, crop water use, land use planning, drought monitoring and
soil moisture availability; GIS and GPS principles and applications.
Unit 4 : Soil Chemistry
Chemical composition of soil; Mineralogy of major soil groups of India; Structure, characteristics
and identification of soil minerals. Genesis and transformation of clay minerals; Clay-organic complexes;
Non-crystalline components of soil, soil colloids; Ion exchange - adsorption, desorption, ion activity and
ionic equilibria in soils; Adsorption isotherms-, Cation exchange equations and ratio law; Donnan distribution
of ions and its thermodynamic treatment; Double layer theory; Boltzman distribution; Electro kinetic
phenomena electro osmosis, electrophoresis, zeta potential and streaming potential; Chemical equilibria
in soil acid base equilibria, oxidation reduction equilibria etc. Chemistry of water logged soils; redox
potential and nutrient availability; Solubility equilibria for carbonates, aluminosilicates, phosphates and
iron in relation to fixation and release of nutrients; Plant nutrient dynamics with special reference to NP.K.
Soil organic matter fractionation. characterization and significance of each fraction in soil Function.
Unit 5 : Soil Fertility
Essentiality criteria of macro and micro plant nutrients-, ‘ Nutrient interaction- and their importance
in plant nutrition; Forms, transformation and release of nutrients in soil; Mechanism of nutrient loses
from soil and control measures: Mechanisms of ion absorption by plants: Problem soils and their
management, Development properties and management of acidic, saline, sodic and waterlogged soils;
Lime and gypsum requirements of soils. irrigation water quality: ESC. SAR. RSC and specific cations.
Soil fertility evailation - soil testing, plant and tissue tcsts, biological methods and common spoil
test methods for fertilizer recommendation: Soil test crop response correlations: Fertility status of major
soil groups of India; Fertilizer optima and its calculation.
Manures and fertilizers; Chemistry of production of different fertilizers. Fertilizer mixtures. slow
release fertilizers, and nitrification retarders; Quality control of fertilizers, Direct, residual and cumulative
effect of fertilizers, Recent concepts of nutrient management, site specific nutrient managements DRIS,
variable rate technology, integrated nutrient management. Soil fertility; management in organic farming:
use of isotopes in soil critility research.
Fertilizer nutrient use efficiency – concept, measures of expressions, factor affecting fertilizer use
efficiency; Crop response to secondary and micro-nutrient fertilization, foliar application of nutrients;
Nutrient production function for assessing growth and yield of crops in response to nutrient application.
Unit 6 : Soil Biology
Soil biota-bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, protozoa, viruses: Soil metazoannematodes. millipedes,
mites, collembolans, earthworms; Factors affecting the occurrence and distribution of microflora in soil;


Nutritional requirement and growth of microorganisms; Role and biochemical mechanism for decomposition
of plant residues including lingo cellulose compounds Biochemistry of humus formation and soil organic
matter Biological nitrogen fixation symbiotic, asymbiotic and associative, Biochemistry of –N2: fixation;
Mycorrhiza ecto, endo and AM and its role in plant growth; Soil enzymes-dehydrogenses, ureasc,
phosphatascs and aryIsulfatases; Mechanism of phosphorus solubilization by microoganisms; Sulphur
oxidation and reduction Microbial transformation of meals-Zn, Fe, and Mn; Phyllosphere; Microbial
associations-symbiosis, commensalisms, amenosalism and competition, Plant growth promoting
hizobacteria microbial production of siderophores in soil: Biofertilizer and Biopesticides; Composting
methods; impact of Agro-chemicals other crop management practices on soil biota: Methods for studying
soil microorganisms-isolation and estimation of bacteria, fungi and actionomycetes; Estimation of microbial
biomass C and dehydrogenises; Soil organic carbon sequestration; Organic carbon dynamics in major
cropping systems.
Unit 7 : Soil/Land Degradation And Management
Types, factors and processes of land degradation and its prevention/ remediation: identification,
monitoring and management of waste lands Concept of watershed its characterization and management;
Characterization of soil and land quality indicators: Interaction of soil with heavy metals and pesticides;
Bioremediation; Soil pollution through industrial effluents, sewage, heavy metals. pesticides and fertilizers;
Radioactive contamination of soil; Soil factors in emission of green house bases, carbon sequestration
in mitigating green House effect; Risk and potential of using urban soiled waste in agriculture.
Principles of soil and water conservation; Hydrologic cycle; Rainfall-runoff relationship-. Estimation
of runoff and sedimentation yield; Different types of soil erosion. nature and extent of soil erosion problem
in India; Soil physical properties in relation to water erosion; Soil erodibility; Universal soil loss equation
and its evuation and evaluation of parameter, processes and control measures; Sand dune formation
and stabilization Shelter belts and wind breaks; Soil conservation and survey; Soil moisture conservation
and dry land farming; Use of mulches, grasses, tillage‘s and a forestation for soil and water conservation;
Rainwater harvesting and recycling; Simulation modeling for soil and water conservation (resource
management and grown & yield assessment.).
Unit 8: Analytical Methods And Instrumentation
Determination of soil reaction, soil organic carbon, CEC, exchangeable cation, available nutrients
and soil moisture retention; Lysimeter studies; Instrumental methods flame photometry, X-ray diffraction,
conductometry, thermal analysis electron microscopy; and polarizing microscopy; Modern methods of
soil, plant and fertilizer analysis - AAS, ICP, UV, visible and IR spectrophotometer, potentiometer, principles
and application in soil research; Nuclear magnetic resonance - spectroradiometer. infrared thermometer.
Unit 9 : Agricultural Statistics
Measures of central tendency and dispersion, Bionomial distribution, Chi square test. correlation
and regression, t and F test; Experimental designs- radomized, latin -square, split - plot and factorial
designs; Spatial statistical: variogram and kriging techniques, Crop simulation models as decision support
systems, Statistical and conventional methods for yield estimation. Principles of computer use, window
based statistical software’s and modem methods of information, storage,retrieval and transfer.

4. Agricultural Physics and Meteorology
Section 1
Definition and scope of Agricultural Physics, Major components of Agricultural Physics (Soil Physics,
Biophysics, Agricultural Meteorology, Remote Sensing, Geographic Information System and Simulation),
Electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with matter. Optical and microwave remote sensing. Spectral
characteristics of soil and vegetation, Spectroradiometer, Infrared thermometer, Spectral vegetation indices
and their applications. Hyperspectral remote sensing, Use of remote sensing for resource management,
crop water use, crop growth monitoring, land cover mapping and land use planning, drought monitoring
and soil moisture availability. Principal of geographic information system and global positioning system.
Geoinformatics - components and applications.
Radioactivity, Radio-tracers for use in agricultural research, X-ray diffraction, Electron and polarizing
microscopes, AAS, UV, visible and IR spectrophotometer, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nano-technology.
Section 2
Planck’s Law of radiation, Stefan-Boltzman’s law, Wien’s displacement law, Kirchoff’s law, Beer’s law,
and Lambert’s law. Solar constant, Day length, Direct and diffuse solar radiation, Ozone hole,. Convection
and Conduction, Gas laws, Carioles force, Geosgrotopic and cyclostropic winds, Pressure systems, Cyclonic
and anti-cyclonic motion, Thermal wind, Contour chart, Relative and specific humidity, Humidity mixing
ratio, Vapour pressure deficit, Dew point, Psychrometric equation,. Vertical stability of atmosphere, Virtual
and potential temperatures, Moist and dry adiabatic processes, Clouds classification, Artificial rain making,
Bergeron-Findeison theory, Dew, frost, fog, mist, haze, thunderstorm and hail, Air masses and fronts,
Extra-tropical cyclones, Land and sea breeze, Mountains and valley winds, Tropical cyclones.
Section 3
Major soil groups of India-their characteristics and distribution, Soil profile diagnostic horizons,
Physical and chemical composition of soil, Soil colloids, Role of soil organic matter in maintaining soil
fertility, Soil texture analysis. Stoke’ law, Soil as a three phase disperse system. Mass-volume relationship,
Bulk density, porosity and pore size distribution, Soil structure classification and structural indices and
evaluation in relation to crop growth, Soil crust and seedlings emergence. Management of highly permeable,
slowly permeable desurfaced and compacted soils, Soil consistency, hydration, swelling, shrinkage,
hardening and cracking, Soil tilth and tillage, Zero, minimum and conventional tillage, Resource Conserving
Technologies, Dynamics of soil physical environment under different cropping systems.
Section 4
State of soil water, Gibb’s free energy and thermodynamics concept of soil water potential. Soil
moisture characteristics and hysteresis, Darcy’s law, Theory of saturated and unsaturated flow, Soil water
content measurement techniques- neutron scattering, gamma attenuation, time-domain refectometry,
pressure plate and membrane apparatus, tensiometer, gypsum block and thermocouple psychrometer,
Soil hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity, Infiltration rate and soil infiltrability, Estimation of
Evapotranspiration, Lysimeters, Solute transport in soil and nutrient availability to crops, Irrigation water
management under variable water supply, Quality of irrigation water, Effect of saline, sodic and industrial
effluents on soil properties and crop growth, Water use-yield relationships, Water production functions,
Simulation of soil water balance.

Section 5
Soil air composition, Movement of soil air, Fick’s law of diffusion, Oxygen diffusion rate, Plant growth
in relation to soil aeration, Sources of soil heat, Components of soil heat balance, Thermal properties of
soil and heat capacity, Thermal conductivity and diffusivity, Factors affecting soil temperature, Soil
temperature measurement-thermocouples, thermistors, heat flux plate, Effect of soil temperature on plant
growth including germination, root and shoot growth, Effect of soil temperature on microbial activities in
nutrient transformation, Management of soil thermal environment.
Section 6
Principles of soil and water conservation, Hydrologic cycle, Rainfall-runoff relationships, Sediment
yield, Different types of soil erosion and extent of problem in India. Water erosion, Soil erodibility, Universal
soil loss equation, Control of water erosion including gullies and ravines, Wind erosion: factors and control
options, Sanddunes formation and stabilization, Shelter belts and windbreaks. Dry land farming, Use of
mulches, tillage and afforestation for soil and water conservation. Rainwater harvesting and recycling,
Characterization and evaluation of soil and land quality, Land capability classification, Causes of land
degradation and management for prevention/restoration, Identification, monitoring and management of
waste lands, Concept of watershed-its characterization and management.
Section 7
Interactions in biological systems, Structure and functions in living organisms, Biomolecules, Life
forms-Unicellular and multicellular, Structure of plant and animal cells, membranes and their modifications,
Bioelectricity of cell membrane and measurement, Protein structure-amino acids, Lipids. Bioenergetics,
Laws of thermodynamics, Transport phenomenon in biological systems.
Section 8
Weather and climate, Seasonal distribution of radiation, rainfall, temperature, sunshine, wind,
pressure, cyclones and anti-cyclones over India, Climatic classification (Koppen and Thornwaite),
Climatology of principle weather phenomenon occurring in four main seasons of India. Indian monsoonal
system, Climatic variability-recent trends, Atmospheric and agricultural droughts, Moisture availability
index. Heat and cold waves. Continent, maritime and monsoonal climate, El-nino, La-nina and their impacts
on Indian rainfall systems, Agro-meteorological instruments, Automatic weather station.
Effect of thermal environment on growth and yield of crop, Cardinal temperatures, Thermoperiodism,
photoperiodism, Vonthoff’s law, phenology of crops, Heat unit concept, Thermal use efficiency, Length of
growing period determination, Contingency planning for different weather aberrations. Meteorological factors
associated with incidence and development of crop pests and disease, Locust meteorology, Bioclimatology-
thermal zones, Role of weather- factors in animal disease and protection against weather hazards.
Section 9
Micrometeorological processes near bare ground and crop surfaces. Shearing stress, molecular and
eddy diffusion, force and free convection. Boundary layer, frictional velocity, roughness, length and zero
plane displacement, Day and night radiations, humidity, temperature, wind and COz profiles in crop
canopies, Richardson number, Reynolds analogy, Fluxes of momentum, water vapour, CO2 and heat,
Inversion and its effect on smoke plum distribution, Wind breaks and shelterbelts, Extinction coefficient
and radiation use efficiencies.
Potential and actual evapotranspiration (ET), consumptive water use, different approaches of ET
determination (empirical, energy balance, Bowen’s ratio, soil water balance, aerodynamic, eddy correlation,
combination method, lysimeter, canopy temperature based).


Section 10
Crop-weather interaction models and their use in crop yield assessment, Global climate change
and its impact on agriculture, Adaptation and mitigation strategies to sustain agricultural production under
climate change, Crop weather calendars. Short and medium and long range weather forecasting, Agro-
advisories, Meteorological satellites for weather forecast, Early warning systems for agricultural operation
Section 11
Measures of central tendency and dispersion. Binomial distribution, X2 test, correlation and
regression, t and F tests, Experimental designs-randomized, latin square, split-plot and factorial, Spatial
statistic variogram and kriging techniques Principle of computer software, Methods of information storage,
retrieval and transfer, Crop simulation model, Markov-chain probability and its application, Normal, binomial
and gamma distribution.

5. Seed Science and Technology
Unit 1 : Seed Biology
Floral biology, mode of reproduction, sporogenesis, pollination, fertilization, embryogenesis, fruit
and seed development. Apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony and somatic embryoids and synthetic
seeds. Seed structure of monocot and dicot. Seed maturation and longevity in orthodox and recalcitrant
seed. Chemical composition of seeds. Seed dormancy - types, causes and mechanisms of induction
and release, factors affecting, methods to overcome dormancy and its significance in agriculture. Seed
germination - requirements, physiological and biochemical changes, and role of hormones.
Unit 2 : Seed Production
Introduction to crop breeding methods. Variety testing, release and notification. Genetic purity :
concept and factors responsible for deterioration of varieties. Maintenance breeding. Systems of seed
multiplication and Seed Production Agencies. Identification of seed production areas and factors affecting
it. Compact area approach in seed production. Seed production planning, equipment, input and manpower
requirement. Factors affecting pollination and seed setting viz., temperature, humidity, wind velocity, insect
pollinators, and supplementary pollination. Male sterility systems, self-incompatibility and their role in
hybrid seed production. Principles and methods of seed production of varieties and hybrids of cereals
like wheat, paddy, sorghum, pearlmillet and maize; pulses like chickpea, pigoenpea, green gram, black
gram, soybean and cowpea; oilseeds like groundnut, brassica, sesame, sunflower and castor; fibre crops
like cotton and jute; vegetables crops like tomato, brinjal, okra, chilli, important cole and cucurbitaceous
crops; important forage legumes and grasses and seed crop management, time of harvesting and
threshing/extraction methods. Seed production technology of plantation crops like coffee, tea, rubber,
cocoa, cardamom and pepper. Disease free clonal propagation of crops like potato, sugarcane sweet
potato, tapioca, colocasia, betel vine, fruit crops like mango, citrus, banana, guava, sapota, pineapple,
grape, apple, pear, plum, peach, apricot and seed production and clonal propagation of annual and perennial
flowers like rose, gladiolus, chrysanthemum, marigold, dahlia, flox and petunia.. Micro propagation.
Unit 3 : Seed Processing
Principles of seed processing. Seed drying principles and methods. Precleaning, grading, treatment,
pelleting and packaging. Seed invigoration and enhancement treatment and their applications. Seed
processing machines like cleaner cum grader, specific gravity separator, indented cyclinder, seed treater,
weighing and begging machines, their operation and maintenance. Seed quality maintenance during
Unit 4: Seed Quality Control
Seed legislation - Seeds Act 1966, Seed Rules 1969 and New Seed Bill 2004, Seed Law Enforcement.
Seed certification – history, concept organization, phases and minimum certification standards. Field
inspection principles and methods. Inspection at harvesting, threshing and processing. Pre-and post-harvest
quality testing for genetic purity. Seed Certification Schemes, concepts and procedures. Seed Testing
concepts and objectives, its role in seed quality control. Seed sampling, seed moisture testing, purity
analysis, germination testing, tolerance tables. Seed testing equipments and procedures for major agri-
horticulture crops. Quick viability tests. Seed vigour, its significance and testing methods. Testing for
genuineness of varieties – principles and methods based on seed, seedling and plant characters,

biochemical techniques namely electrophoresis of proteins and isoenzymes and DNA fingerprinting.
International Seed Testing Association (ISTA), its role in development of seed testing procedures, rules
and seed quality assurance for international seed trade.
Unit 5 : Seed Storage
Requirements and types of seed storage. Factors affecting seed storage and role of moisture,
temperature, RH and moisture equilibrium. Viability nomographs. Seed deterioration : causes and methods
of control. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes during seed ageing. Seed drying and
Packaging needs. Storage structures. Controlled storage. Germplasm storage. Cryo preservation.
Requirements and features of short, medium and long-term seed storage. Construction and maintenance
of Seed stores. Operation and management of seed stores.
Unit 6 : Seed Health
Significance of seed health. Mode and mechanism of transmission of microorganismsfungi, bacteria
and viruses. Procedures for seed health test and rules. Externally and internally seed - borne pathogens,
mode of infection, development and spread, methods of detection of seed borne diseases. Important
seed-borne diseases of cereals, oilseeds, pulses, fibre crops, vegetables and their control measures.
Quarantine and international procedures of phyto-sanitary certificates. Important storage pests, their
identification, monitoring and detection. ET value, nature and extent of damage, natural enemies and
management. Use of pesticides, botanicals, mycotoxins for seed treatments. Carry over infestation,
principles of fumigation and safe use of fumigants.
Unit 7: Seed Industry Development and Marketing
Trends in national and international seed industry development. International Seed Trade Federation
(ISF) and Indian seed associations. Economics of seed production. Market survey, demand forecasting,
pricing policies, marketing channels, planning and sales promotion. Buyer behaviour and role of
Government, cooperative and private sectors in seed trade. Responsibilities of seed companies and dealers
in Seed Act. Seed import and export.
Unit 8 : Protection of Plant Varieties
Plant Variety Protection (PVP) and its significance. Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Right
Act, 2001, its essential features. International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV)
and its role in development of Plant breeders Rights and Seed Industry Development. Impact of PVP on
seed supply system. DUS testing : principles and application. Biodiversity Act. Criteria for protection of
Essentially Derived Varieties (EDVs) and Genetically modified (GM) varieties.

6. Crop Improvement
Unit 1: Elements of Genetics
Cell structure. Cell division - mitosis and meiosis. Mendelian inheritance. Dominance relationships.
Gene interactions. Pleiotropy. Linkage, its detection and estimation. Recombination. Allelism and fine
structure of the gene. Gene’concept. Nature of genetic material. DNA - structure, function, replication
and repair. Genetic code. Gene-enzyme relationship. Transcription and RNA processing. Translation. Gene
regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Genome organization and repetitive DNA. Mobile genetic
elements. Extra-chromosomal inheritance. Chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes. Spontaneous and
induced mutations and their molecular mechanisms.
Unit 2: Genome organization and Cytogenetics of Crop Plants
Chromosome structure, function and replication. Karyotype analysis. Chromosome banding techniques.
In situ hybridization. Special types of chromosomes - polytene chromosomes, lampbrush chromosomes
and B chromosomes. Structural changes in chromosomes - duplications, deficiencies, inversions and
interchanges. Numerical changes in chromosomes - aneuploids, haploids and polyploids. Various types
of cytogenetic stocks and their utility. Cytogenetic techniques for gene mapping. Wide hybridization and
chromosomal manipulations for alien gene transfer. Genome organization and cytogenetics of important
crop species - wheat, rice, maize, Brassica, cotton, Vigna, potato and sugarcane. Construction and use
of molecular marker based chromosome maps. Comparative mapping and genome analysis.
Unit 3: Botanical Classification, Description and Economic Uses of Field Crops
Origin, distribution, classification, description and utilization of economic plants: cereals (wheat,
rice, maize, sorghum, pearl millet, minor millets); pulses (pigeonpea, chickpea, black gram, green gram,
cowpea, soybean, pea, lentil, horse gram, lab-lab, rice bean, winged bean, lathyrus, French bean, butter
bean, Lima bean); oilseeds (groundnut, sesamum, castor, rapeseed mustard, sunflower, Niger, oil palm,
coconut, linseed); fibre crops (cotton, jute, sunnhemp, mesta); sugar crops (sugarcane, sugarbeet); fodder
and green manures; medicinal and aromatic plants.
Unit 4: Reproductive Systems and Plant Breeding
Crop domestication. Vavilovian laws and Centres of diversity. Early developments in plant breeding.
Emergence of plant breeding as a scientific activity. Plant breeding objectives. Plant breeding
accomplishments and role of national and international institutes. Role of plant introduction in crop
improvement. Gametogenesis and fertilization. Modes of sexual and asexual reproduction and its relation
to plant breeding methodology. Male sterility, incompatibility and apomixis and their use in plant breeding.
Unit 5: Plant Breeding Methods
Breeding methods for self-pollinated, cross-pollinated and clonally propagated crops. Mass selection
and pure line selection. Component and transgressive breeding. Backcrossing. Single seed descent.
Multilines. Recurrent selection: inter- and intra-population improvement. Development of synthetics and
composites. Hybrid breeding and genetic basis of heterosis. Ideotype breeding. Mutation breeding.
Unit 6: Plant Breeding for Stress Resistance and Nutritional Quality
Genetic basis of resistance to diseases and insect-pests. Breeding for vertical and hortizontal
resistance to diseases. Breeding for resistance to insect-pests. Genetic and physiological basis of abiotic

stress tolerance. Breeding for resistance to abiotic stresses (drought, heat, frost, excess water and soil
nutrient deficiencies). Important quality parameters in various crops, their genetic basis, and breeding
for these traits.
Unit 7: Quantitative Genetics and Population Genetics for Crop Improvement
Quantitative characters. Multiple factor inheritance. Polygenic variation. Breeding value, heritability.
Response to selection, correlated response. Estimates of variance components and covariance among
relatives. Mating designs with random and inbred parents. Estimation of gene effects and combining ability.
Components of variation and their partitioning. Effects of linkage and epistasis on estimation of genetic
parameters. Maternal effects. Genotype-environment interactions and stability of performance. Heterosis
and its biometrical basis. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Factors affecting HWE. Linkage disequlibrium.
Genetic load.
Unit 8: Biotechnological Tools for Crop Improvement
Plant tissue culture and its applications in crop improvement. Recombinant DNA technology. Genomic
and cDNA libraries. Gene cloning strategies. DNA sequencing. Genetic transformation. Transgenics and
their role in crop improvement. Types of molecular markers. DNA fingerprinting. Marker-based genetic
diversity analysis. Gene tagging and pyramiding. QTL mapping. Marker-assisted selection (MAS). Genome
projects and utilization of sequence formation.
Unit 9: Plant Genetic Resources and their Regulatory System; Varietal Release and Seed Production
Germplasm exploration, introduction, exchange, exchange, conservation, evaluation and utilization
of plant genetic resources. Convention on Biological Diversity and International Treaty on Plant Genetic
Resources for Food and Agriculture. Intellectual Property Rights. Biodiversity Act. Plant Variety Protection
and Farmers’ Rights Act. System of variety release and notification. Types of seeds and seed chain.
Seed production and certification.
Unit 10: Statistical Methods and Field Plot Techniques
Frequency distribution. Measures of central tendency. Probability theory and its applications in
genetics. Probability distribution and tests of significance. Correlation, linear, partial and multiple regression.
Genetic divergence. Multivariate analysis. Design of experiments - basic principles, completely randomized
design, randomized block design and split block design. Complete and incomplete block designs.
Augmented design grid and honeycomb design. Hill plots, unreplicated evaluation. Data collection, analysis
and interpretation.

7. Agricultural Entomology
Unit 1: Systematics
History and development of Entomology, Evolution of insects, position of insects in the animal world,
characteristics of phylum Arthropoda, structural features of important arthroped groups such as Trilobita,
Chelicerata and Mandibulata, structural features of important classes of phylum Arthropoda viz. Arachnida,
Crustacea, Chilopoda, Diplopoda and Hexapoda. Hierarchy of insects, species concepts.
Classification of insects up to order level, habits, habitats and distinguishing features of different
Order and important Families.
Unit 2: Morphology
Body wall, its structure, outgrowths, endoskeleton, Body regions, segmentation, sclerites and sutures.
Head and head appendages, types of mouth parts, antennae, their structure and types. Thora structure,
thoracic appendages and their modification. Wings, their modification and venation, Abdomen; structure
abdominal appendages both in Ptoerygota and Apterygota. External genitalia, general structure and
modification in important insect orders.
Unit 3: Embryology, Internal Anatomy and Physiology
Embryonic and post embryonic development, types of metamorphosis, physiology of ecdysis General
features and types of larvae and pupae.
Structure, function and physiology of Digestive, Circulatory, Respiratory, Reproductive, Nervous and
Excretory systems, Sense Organs; structure and types. Insect food and nutrition; minerals, carbohydrates,
proteins and amino acids, lipids, vitamins and their role in growth and development. Artificial diets.
Unit 4: Ecology
Concept of ecology, Environment and its components biotic and abiotic factors and their effects on
growth, development, population dynamics, distribution and dispersal. Principle of biogeography and insects
biodiversity. Biotic potential and environmental resistance. Ecosystems, agro ecosystems analysis, their
characteristics and functioning. Intra and inter specific relationship; competition, predator -prey and host
-parasite interactions, ecological niche. Life table studies, population models. Food chain and food web.
Arthropod population monitoring and distribution, pest forescasting. Diapause and causes of pest out
Unit 5: Biological Control
Importance and scope of biological control, history of biological control. Biocontrol agents-parasites,
predators and insect pathogens. Important Entomophagous insect Orders and Families. Ecological,
biological, taxonomic, legal and economic aspects of biological control phenomena of multiple parasitism,
hyperparasitism, superparasitism and their applied importance. Principles and procedures of using exotic
biocontrol agents. utilization of natural biocontrol agents: conservation, habitat management and
augmentation. mass multiplication techniques and economics. effectiveness evaluation techniques,
Biocontrol organisations in world and India. successful cases of biological control of pests.
Entomophilic pathogens: bacterial, fungi, viruses, rickettsiae. Protozoan, nematodes, Modes of
transmission, methods of uses, symptoms of infection. Microbial insecticides and their formulation. Merits
and demerits of microbial control. Registration procedure of bio pesticides.

Role of biocontrol agents and microbial insecticides in Integrated Pest Management.

Unit 6: Chemical Insecticide Control and Toxicology:
History, scope and principles of chemical control. Insecticides and their classification. Formulations
of insecticides. Susceptibility of insects to the entry of insecticides. Physical, chemical and toxiological
properties of different groups of insecticides: chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates,
synthetic pyrethroids, chlord imeform, chitin, synthesis inhibitors, avermectins, nitroguandines,
phenylpyrrozzoles, botanicals (natural pyrethroids, rotenone, neem products, nicotine, pongamia spp. etc).
Combination insecticides. Problems of pesticide hazards and environmental pollution, safe use of
pesticides, precautions and first aid treatments. Insecticides Act 1968, Registration and quality control
of insecticides.
Evaluation of toxicity, methods of toxicity testing, determination of LC 50, LD 50, LT 50, RL 50 etc.
Pesticides residues in the environment and their dynamics of movements, methods of residue estimation.
Pharmacology of insect poisons. mode of action of different groups of insecticides; neuroactive (axonal
and synaptic) poisons, respiratory poisons, chitin synthesis inhibitors. Metabolism of insecticides; activative
and degradative metabolism, detoxification enzymes and their role in metabolism. selectivity of insecticidal
actions; insecticide resistance; mechanism, genetics and management of insecticide resistance.
Unit 7: Host Plant Resistance
Concept of resistance, degrees of resistance, Evaluation of plants and insects. Host habitat finding
process in insects. Chemical ecology mechano and chemo receptors. Theories of host plant selection
by phytophagous insects. Secondary plant substances and their defences agaisnt phytophagous insect.
Basis and mechanisms of resistance. (Antixenosis, Antobiosis, Tolerance), Biotypes development and
its remedial measures. Tritrophic interactions. Induced resistance. Breeding for insect resistant plant
varieties. Resistance development and evaluation techniques. Genetics of Resistance; Vertical resistance,
horizontal resistance, oligogenic resistance, polygenic resistance. Biotechnological approach and
development of transgenic insect resistant plants, its advantages and limitations. Case histories. Insect
resistance to transgenic plants and its management.
Unit 8: Innovative Approaches in Pest control
Behavioral control: pheromones, types of pheromones and their uses, advantages and limitations.
Hormonal control; types and function of insect hormones, insect hormone mimics, advantages and
limitations. Chemosterilants, Antifeedants, Attractants, Repellents; their types, methods of applications,
advantages and limitations. Genetic control; concepts and methods and genetic control, methods of gene
markers insect resistants plants, case histories, advantages and limitations. Potentialities of innovative
appearance in IPM.
Unit 9: Integrated Pest Management
History, concept and principles of IPM. Components of IPM: Host plant, resistance, agronomic
manipulation, mechanical and physical methods, chemical control agents, bio control agents utilization,
genetic and behavioural control strategy etc. IPM strategies for field and horticultural crops. IPM case
histories. Concept of damage levels, Economic threshold levels, Economic injury levels and their
determination. System approach, Agro ecosystem and cropping system vs. IPM Constraints and Strategies
of IPM implementation. Role of IPM in sustainable agricualture.
Unit 10: Pesticide Application Equipments
Types of appliances; sprayers, dusters, fog generators, smoke generators, soil injecting guns seed


treating drums, flame throwers, etc. Power operated sprayers and dusters. Types of nozzles and their
uses. Maintenance of appliances. Air Carrier sprayers.
Aerial application of pesticides, principles of aerial application, factors affecting the effectiveness
of aerial application. Equipments for aerial applications. Advantages and disadvantages of aerial
Unit 11: Pests of Field Crops and their Management
Distribution, host range, biology and bionomics, nature of damage and management of arthropod
pests of cereals, Oilseeds, pulse and fibre crops, sugarcane and tobacco. Polyphagous pests; locusts,
termites, hairy catepillars, cut worms, white grub, Helieoverpa.
Unit 12: Pests of Horticultural Crops and their Management
Distribution, host range, biology and bionomics, nature of damage and management of arthropod
pests of vegetable, fruit and plantation crops, spices and condiments and ornaments and medicinal plants.
Unit 13: Pests of Stored Products and their Management
Fundamentals of storage of grains and grain products. storage losses, sources of infestation/infection,
factors influencing losses, insect and non-insect pests, their nature of damage and control. microflora in
storage environment and their control. Storage structures, bulk storage and bag storage, their relative
efficacy and demerits. grain drying methods and aeration. Non-insect pests (rodents, birds, mites) of
stored products and their control. Integrated management of storage pests.
Unit 14: Arthrpod Vectors of Plant Diseases
Common arthropod vectors viz. aphids, leafhoppers, plant hoppers, whiteflies, thrips, psylids, beetles,
weevils, flies, bees and mites and their relations with the plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses,
mycoplasma. Mechanism of pathogen transmission : Active mechanical transmission, Biological
transmission. Toxicogenic insects, mites and phytotoxemia. some important arthropod vector transmitted
diseases in India and their epidemiology. Management of vector and its effect on control of diseases.
Unit 15: Honey Bees and Bee-keeping
Honey bees and their economic importance. bee species their behaviour, habit and habitats. Bee
Keeping: bee pasturage, hives and equipments, seasonal management. Bee enemies including diseases
and their control.
Unit 16: Silkworms and Sericulture
Silkworm species, their systematic position and salient features. Rearing techniques of mulberry-
muga-eri and tassar silkworms. Nutritional requirements of silkworms. Sericulture: rearing house and
appliances, silkworm breeds, principles of voltism and nioultism, seed production and its economics.
Insect pests and diseases of silkworms and their management. sericulture organisation in India.
Unit 17: Lac Insect
Lac insect, its biology, habit and habitats. Host Trees; pruning, inoculation, lac cropping techniques,
and harvesting. Enemies of lac insect and their control.
Unit 18: Other Useful Insects
Pollinators, biocontrol agents of weeds, soil fertility improving agents, scavengers, use of’ insects
and insect products in medicines, usefulness of insects in scientific investigations, insects as food.
Unit 19: Statistics and Computer Application
Frequency distribution mean, mode and median. Standard, normal, bionomial and poisson’s


distribution, Sampling methods and standard errors. Correlation and Regression; Partial and multiple, tests
of significance; t, F, chi- square, Duncans multiple range tests. Design of experiments: Principles of
Randomised block, Completely radomised block, Latin square, Split-plot designs. Probit analysis.
Use of soft ware packages like SPSS, SAS, etc. for the above tests and designs of experiments
for analysis.

8. Plant Pathology
PAPER - I (B) and PAPER - II

Paper-I (B)
Unit 1: Historical Development
Development of phytopathology in ancient era, pre-modern era and modern era: development of
science of mycology, plant bacteriology, plant virology and plant nematology: development of plant
quarantine, chemical control or plant diseases and breeding for disease resistance.
Unit 2: Principles of Plant Diseases
Nature and classification of Plant diseases: mutual relationships between organisms: production,
liberation and dissemination of inoculums: infection process: germination and entrance of the pathogen
in to the host: symptomatology: external and internal: growth and reproduction of pathogens: predisposition:
effect of environment and nutrition and disease development: physiologic specialization.
Unit 3: Plant Disease Management
General principles of disease management, physical methods, quarantine, seed certification, cultural
practices, biological control, host resistance, use of chemicals, integrated disease management.
Unit 4: Epidemology, Forecasting and Assessment of Losses
Factors governing epidemics, artificial and natural control; of epidemics: prediction of epidemics,
forecasting (warning) services, disease intensity and yield loss relationships, methods of estimation of
Unit 5: Disease Diagnosis
Laboratory equipments, preparation of culture media, Koch’s postulates, isolation and identification,
purification of cultures, maintenance and preservation: Molecular detection techniques: Enzyme -linked
immunoassay (EIBA), Nucleic Acid Spot hybridization (NASH), Polymerase chain reaction
(PCR),chromatography and spectrophotometry, data collection and preparation of publication.
Unit 6: Plant Nematode Relationships
Type of parasitism in nematodes. Nature of damage caused by various groups of Plant parasitic
nematodes and mechanisms involved. Pathotypes in nematodes. Mechanisms of nematode resistance
and tolerance in plants and its assessment. Physiological. Biochemical and molecular changes in plants
due to nematode infections.
Unit 7: Interactions of Nematodes with soil Organisms
Importance of interactions (interrelatioships) of nematodes with soil organisms. Interactions of
nematodes with bacteria, fungi, viruses, mycorhizae and other nematodes nematodes as vectors of viruses
and other microorganisms.

Unit 1: History and Principles of Plant Pathology
Milestones in phytopathology with particular reference to India. Major epidemics and their social

impacts. Historical developments of chemicals, legislative, cultural and biological protection measures
including classification of plant diseases. Physiologic specialization, Koch postulates, Growth, reproduction,
Survival and dispersal of plant pathogens. Factors influencing infection, colonization and development of
Unit 2: Laboratory and Analytical Techniques
Preparation and sterilization of common media. Methods of isolation of pathogens. Preservation of
micro organisms in pure culture. Methods of inoculation. Measurement of plant disease. molecular detection
of pathogens in seeds and other planting materials: Nucleic acid probes southern, Northern and Western
hybridization: ELISA, ISEM and PCR. Laboratory equipment and their use: autoclave, hot air oven, laminar
flow, spectrophotometer, electrophoresis, light and electron microscopy. Incubator, ultracentrifuge, ELISA
Unit 3: Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology
Altered metabolism of plants under biotic and abiotic stresses. Molecular mechanisms of
pathogenesis: recognition phenomenon, penetration, invasion, primary disease determinant. Enzymes and
toxins in relation to plant disease. Mechanisms of resistance phytoalexins. PR proteins. Antiviral proteins.
SAR. HR and active oxygen radicals. Tissue culture. Somoclonal variation and somatic hybridization.
Elementary genetic engineering. Management of pathogens through satellite, antisense - RNA. Ribozymes,
coat protein, hypovirulence/cross protection/useful genes and promoter technology biosafety and bioethics.
Unit 4: Mycology
Classification of fungi. Economic mycology, edible fungi and entomogenous fungi, Mycorrhizal
associations. Cell organelles. Their morphology. Functions and chemical composition.
Unit 5: Plant Bacteriology
Identification and classification of bacteria. Morphology. Ultrastructure and chemical composition of
prokaryotic cell in relation to function. Growth curve. Nutrition and auxotrophic mutants. Resting cells in
prokaryotic, elementary bacterial genetics and variability: transformation, conjugation, transduction. Biology
of extra chromosomal elements: plasmis borne genes and their expression: avr, hrp and pat genes.
Bacteriopages: lytic and lysogenic cycles. Prokaryotic inhibitors and their mode of action. Economic
uses of prokaryotes. Morphology , biochemical characteristics. Reproduction and life cycle of phytoplasmas
and other fastidious prokaryotes.
Unit 6: Plant Virology
Nature composition and architecture of viruses and viroids. Properties of viruses. Variability in viruses.
Satellite Viruses and satellite RNA. Assay of plant viruses including biological, physical, chemical,
serological and molecular methods. Conventional and biotechnological techniques used in detection and
diagnosis. Behaviour of viruses in plants including infection, replication and movement. Histopathological
changes induced by viruses in plants. Inclusion bodies. Transmission of viruses: virus - vector relationships.
Nomenclature and classification of viruses.
Unit 7: Plant Disease Epidemiology, Forecasting & Assessment of losses
Concepts in epidemiology. Development of disease in plant population. Monocyclic and polycyclic
pathogens. Role of environment and meterological factors in the development of plant disease epidemics.
Survey, surveillance (including through remote sensing) and prediction and forecasting of diseases.
Epidemic analysis and prediction models. Crop loss assessment: critical and multiple point models,
methods of estimation of losses.


Unit 8: Phanerogamic parasites and Non-parasitic Diseases of crop plants

Diseases caused by Phanerogamic parasites and their management diseases due to unfavourable
soil environment: drought and flooding stress etc. Nutritional deficiencies. Primary /secondary air pollutants
and acid rain.
Unit 9: Fungal Diseases of Crop Plants
Fungal diseases of cereal, millets, oilseeds, pulses, fruits, vegetables, plantation, fiber, spices and
ornamental crops with special reference to etiology, disease cycle, perpetuation, epidemiology and
management. Post harvest diseases in transit and storage: aflatoxin and their integrated management.
Unit 10: Bacterial and Viral Diseases of Crop Plants
Crop diseases of cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits, plantation and fiber crops caused by
bacteria, viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas and other fastidious prokaryotes. Mode of transmission and
pathogen vector relationships. Epidemiology and management.
Unit 11: Management of Plant diseases
General principles of plant quarantine. Exotic pathogens and pathogens introduced in to India.
Sanitary and phytosanitary issues under WTO. TRIPS and PRA. Genetic basis of disease resistance
and pathogenicity: gene for gene hyphothesis: parasite mediated frequency -dependent selection concept
QTL mapping: breeding for disease resistance. Production of disease free seeds and planting materials.
Seed certification. Chemical nature and classification of fungicides and antibiotics: their bioassy and
compatibility nature and classification of fungicides and antibiotics: their bioassay and compatibility with
other agricultural chemicals: resistance to fungicides/ antibiotics: effect on environment. Spraying and
dusting equipments, their care and maintenances. Important cultural practices and their role in disease
management, solarization, integrated disease management. Microorganisms antagonistic to plant
pathogens in soil, rhizosphere and phyllosphere and their use in the control of plant diseases; soil
fungistasis. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria.
Unit 12: Seed Pathology
Introduction: Economic significance and historical developments. Infection of seeds: Term and
definitions-Necrotrophs, biotrophs, etc., seed infection routes, outcome of infection. Detection of seed
borne pathogens: current techniques, direct inspection, incubation methods, immunodiagnostic methods,
nucleic acid based methods including PCR. Longevity of seed borne organisms: Factors affecting longevity,
life span of seeds, longevity of pathogens, effect of seed storage on pathogen viability and infectivity.
Seed transmission: effect of environment, soil microorganisams and host genotype on seed transmission,
Control of seed borne diseases: chemical and physical seed treatment, systemic fungicides, fungicidal
resistance, use of biocontrol agents. Seed certification standards, seed health testing, selection of disease
free seed production areas, designated seed borne diseases in seed act, global seed trade, phytosanitary
certificate under WTO and TRIPS, breeding for disease resistance, pest risk analysis.
Unit 13: Biological Control of Plant Diseases and Weeds
Introduction: Definition, history, scope, principles and factors affecting biological control. Merits and
demerits of biological control. Pathogen and antagonist and their relationship. Sensitive stages in pathogen
cycle, role of agroecosystem. Mechanisms of biolcontrol: Hyperparasistism, antibiosis, competition PGPR,
Siderophores. Mycorrhizae, Biocontrol agents: Bioagents and commercial formulations, characterization.
Management of classic plant diseases through different biocontrol agents. Increasing efficacy: Genetic
engineering, mutagens, hybridisation. Delivery system: problems and limits. Biocontrol of weeds:
Advantages of mycoherbicides, inoculative, inundative and augumentative strategies. Commercial
production and distribution system.


Unit 14: Host Plant Resistance

Definition of resistance, immunity and tolerance, simple and compound interest diseases. Types of
resistance - vertical, horizontal resistance, tolerance, durable, avoidance. Biochemical and structural
resistance and others. Mechanism and inheritance of resistance to plant diseases. Defense at the perimeter,
extruded chemicals, preformed internal chemicals defenses, defense triggered by invaders, recognition
and compatibility phenomenon. Hypersensitivity, phyto alxins, detoxifying toxins, Stabilising selection and
mathematic models on vertical and horizontal resistance, gene deployment, multiline concept, gene
pyramiding, induced resistance etc. Gene - to - gene theory. Theories of disease management and boom
and burst cycle. Identification of races of rusts of wheat, late blight of potato and blast of rice.

Unit 15: History and Economic Importance
History and economic impor tance of nematology; Diseases caused by plant-parasitic
nematodessymptomatology, biology, distribution and management of plant parasitic nematodes of economic
importance (Pratylenchus, Radopholus, Hirschamiella, Meloidogyne, Globodera, Rotylenchus, Tylenchulus,
Ditylenchus, Anguina, Aphelenchoides, Tylenchorhynchus, Helicotylenchus, Hoplolaimus, Scutellonema,
Paratylenchus, etc.) Entomopathogenic nematodes.
Unit 16: Nematode Taxonomy and Morphology
Principles and concepts of taxonomy. Rules of nomenclature. Nematode phylogeny and systematic.
Classification of soil and plant -parasitic nematodes and their relationships with other related phyla. Detailed
classification of plant - parasitic nematodes up to generic level with emphasis on genera of economic
importance. General morphology and anatomy of nematodes. Various systems: digestive,, excretory,
nervous, reproductive etc. development biology of nematodes.
Unit 17: Nematological Techniques
Methods of extraction of nematodes from soil and plant material. Microscopy - principles and types
including electron microscopes. Methods of killing, fixing, preserving; staining, mounting and measuring
of nematodes. Techniques for histopathology and culturing of nematodes -plant parasitic, entomophilic and
saprophytic including axenic methods. Experimental techniques for proving pathogenicity, estimation of
crop losses, nernaticide screening, screening and evaluation for nematode resistance in crops. Molecular
technique for nematode diagnostics. Techniques for mass culturing of nematode antagonistic bioagents.
Unit 18: Nematode Ecology
Ecological classification and distribution of nematodes mode of nematode dispersal. Adaptations
to parasitc mode of life. Soil as environment for nematodes. Effect of biotic and abiotic factors on
nematode surviva, activity reproduction. Nematode population dynamics,. Nematodeinduced plant damage
and modeling, community analysis.
Unit 19: Plant Nematode Relationships
Types of parasitism in nematodes. Nature of damage caused by various groups of Plant parasitic
nematodes and mechanisms involved. Pathotypes in nematodes. Mechanisms of nematode resistance
and tolerance in plants and its assessment. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes implants
due to nematode infections.
Unit 20: Nematode Physiology and Cytologty
Chemical composition of nematodes. Principles of nematode physiology. Physiological functions of


cell; organelles. Physiology of respirayion, digestion, excretion, reproduction, growth and development.
Physiology of muscular, nervous and Sensory responses. Physiology of moulting, hatching and nematode
survival. Chemoreception in nematodes. Nematode as biological models Caenorhabditis elegans. Cytological
changes in plants due to infection including syncytia, giant cell formation and their modification etc.
Unit 21: Nematode Management
Principles and methods of nematode management - physical, cultural biology, chemical and
legislative, Nematicides (including those of biological origin)-history, classification, formulations, application
and mode of action. Host resistance for nematode management. Integrated nematode management. Role
of biotechnology in nematode management.
Unit 22: Interactions of Nematodes with Soil Organisms
Importance of interactions (interrelationships) of nematodes with soil organisms. Interactions of
nematodes with bacteria, fungi, viruses, mycorhizae and other nematodes. Nematodes as vectors of
viruses and other microorganisms.
Unit 23: Statistics
Frequency, distribution, measures of central tendency and dispersion: mean, median, mode, standard
deviation etc. population distributions normal, binomial and poisson. Correlationspartial and multiple. Tests
of significance, t, F and Chi square and completely randomized, Randomized block, Latin square and
split plot designs and their analysis and interpretation.

9. Plant Biochemistry and
Plant Physiology
PAPER - I (B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1: Cell Organelles and Water Relations
Cell organelles and their physiological functions Structure and physiological functions of cell wall,
cell inclusions. Cell membrane structure and functions. Water and its role in plants, Properties and functions
of water in the cell, water relations, water potential of plant cells Mechanism of water uptake by roots
transport in roots, movement of water in plants, water loss from plants, energy balance, solar energy,
input energy dissipation at crop canopy level. Evapotranspiration, plant factors influencing transpiration
rate. Stroma, structure function - Mechanism of stomatal movement, antitranspirants. Physiology of water
stress in plants. Influence of water stresses at cell, organ, plant and canopy levels. Indices for assessment
of drought resistance.
Unit 2: Metabolic Processes
Energy and work, free energy and chemical potential, redox reactions and electrochemical potential.
Enzyme classification and mechanism of action, factors affecting enzyme action. Gene expression and
protein turnover. Photosynthesis, Translocation and Respiration as key processes regulating carbon
metabolism and plant growth. Photosynthesis and bioproductivity. Photochemical process- Chloroplast,
its structure” CAM plants and their significance. Rubisco structure and regulations, Photorespiration and
its significance, C02 fixation as a diffusive process, effect of environmental factors on photosynthetic
rates. Synthesis of sucrose, starch, oligo and polysaccharides. Translocations of photosynthates and its
importance in sink growth. Mitochondrial respiration, growth and maintenance respiration, cyanide resistant
respiration and its significance. Nitrogen metabolism. Inorganic nitrogen species (N2, N03, NH3) and their
reduction, protein synthesis, nucleic acids. Sulphate uptake and reduction. Lipid metabolism- storage,
protective and structural lipids. Secondary metabolites and their significance in plant defence mechanism.
Unit 3: Crop Productivity and Modeling
Role of crop physiology in agriculture, Crop growth and productivity Crop growth models describing
yield (Duncan/Passioura), phenology-crop productivity, growth factors related to biomass - concept of
growth rates- canopy photosynthesis (leaf area and net assimilation rates as determining factors). Light
interception as a major function of leaf area-index, LAD canopy architecture- Light extinction coefficient
relative growth rate. Net assimilation rate. Biomass and yield relations. Assimilate partitioning, yield and
yield structure analysis. Concept of source and sink, factors influencing source and sink size and
productivity. Environmental factors determining crop growth. Light, temperature and VPD, effect of
photoperiod and thermoperiod on duration of growth stages. Ideotype concept-selection-indices for improving
crop productivity.
Unit 4: Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants
Abiotic stresses affecting plant productivity. Basic principles of a crop improvement programme
under stress, interactions between biotic and abiotic stresses. Droughtcharacteristic features, water
potential in the soil- plant air continuum. Development of water deficits, energy balance concept,
transpiration and it’s regulation – stomatal functions/VPD Physiological process affected by drought.
Drought resistance mechanisms: Escape, dehydration postponement (Drought avoidance), Dehydration
tolerance, and characteristics of resurrection plants. Osmotic adjustment Osmoprotectants, stress proteins.

Water use efficiency as a drought as a drought resistance trait. Molecualr responses to water deficit
Stress perception, expression of regulatory and function genes and significance of gene products. Stress
and hormones-ABA as a signaling molecule – Cytokinin as negative signal. Oxidative stress: reactive
oxygen species (ROS) – role of scavenging systems (SOD, catalase etc.). High temperature stress:
tolerance mechanisms- role of membrane lipids in high temperance tolerance. Functions of HSP’s chilling
stress; effects on physiological processes. Crucial role of membrane lipids. Salinity: species variation in
salt tolerance. Salinity effects at cellular and whole plant level, tolerance mechanisms. Breeding for salt
resistance. Heavy metal stress: aluminum and cadmium toxicity in acid soils. Role of phytochelatins
(heavy, metal binding proteins).
Unit 5: Plant Growth Regulators and Plant Development
Plant growth regulators – Hormones, endogenous growth substances and synthetic chemicals.
Endogenous growth regulating substances other than hormones. Brassinosteriods, triacontanol, phenols
polyamines, jasmonates, concept of death hormone. Classification, site of synthesis, biosynthetic
pathways and metabolism and influence on plant growth and development by auxins, gibberellins,
cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene. Concept of hormone action - hormone receptors and signal
transduction Hormone mutants. Hormonal regulation of gene expressions at various developmental stages
of plant-flowering, seed maturity, seed dormancy. Action of hormones on cellular functions: Auxins- cell
elongation., retardation of abscission of plant parts, gibberellins – stem elongation, germination of dormant
seeds, cytokinins- cell division, retardation of senescence. Abscisic acid- stomatal closure and induction
of drought resistance, ethylene- fruit ripening, acceleration of senescence of leaves. Interaction of
hormones in regulation of plant growth and development processes. Synthetic growth regulators, growth
retardants, apical dominance, senescene, fruit growth, abscission. Growth and differentiation, hormonal
concept of growth and differentiations. Rooting of cuttings- flowering- physiological and molecular aspects
of control of reproductive growth. Apical dominance, senescence and abscission. Fruit growth and
development, physiological and molecular aspects of ripening processes and improving post harvest life
of fruits. Induction and breaking dormancy in seeds and buds. Synthetic growth regulators. Practical utility
in agriculture and horticulture. Herbicides, classification and their mode of action.
Unit 6: Mineral Nutrition
Importance of mineral nutrition in plant growth. Classification and essentiality criteria. General
mechanisms - concept of apparent free space and nature of bio-membranes. Dual mechanism and other
concepts of ion uptake. Short distance transport-pathway from external solution (Apoplasm) to sieve
across the root cortical cells-factors contributing to xylem loading. Long distance transport in xylem and
phloem, xylem unloading in leaf cells. Uptake and release of mineral nutrients by foliage. Rhizosphere and
root biology, root growth, influence of micro-organism in nutrient acquisition, release and uptake by plant
roots. Yield and mineral nutrition-concept of nutrient use efficiency, Mineral nutrition under adverse soil
situations- drought, salinity, acidity etc. Heavy metal toxicity and concept of phytoremediation. Interaction
of phytohormones and nutrients. Molecular aspects- uptake and transport, role of transporter genes, genetics
of nutrient uptake, identification and transfer of genes for tolerance to nutrient deficiencies, etc.
Unit 7: Climate and Climate Change
Climate- Analytical methods to determine long term changes in environment- Tree ring, cellulose,
stable carbon isotope discrimination, stable 180 discrimination for hydrological changes. Likely changes
in climate in future and its impact on crop and ecosystems. The greenhouse gases and global warning.
CO 2 as an important greenhouses gas, global carbon deposits, fluxes in the sinks and sources.
Approaches to contain atmospheric C02 level. Effect of elevated C02 on plant growth and development.


Methane as a green house gases. Prediction on global warning, GCA models, effects on climate and
biota. High temperature and C02 interaction on plant growth and productivity, lonising radiation UV-B
chlorofluro carbon (CFC)– their impact on ozone layer- ozone hole and alteration in UV-B radiation. Effects
of UV-B radiation on plant ecosystem, repair and acclimation to UV-B damage. Carotenoids and their
role in membrane stabilization. Air pollution, SO 2, NO, Methane, Ozone, peroxy acetyl nitrate and their
effect on ecosystem. Industrial and domestic effluent- their effect, on aquatic ecosystem, plant growth
and development.
Unit 8: Seed Physiology
Structure of seeds and their storage. Seed development patterns and source of assimilates for seed
development. Pathway of movement of assimilates in developing grains of monocots and dicots. Chemical
composition of seeds. Storage of carbohydrates, proteins and fats in seeds. Hydration of seeds.
Physiological processes. Seed respiration, mitochondrial activity Mobilization of stored resource in seeds.
Chemistry of oxidation of starch, proteins and fats. Utilization of breakdown products by embryonic axis.
Control processes in mobilization of stored reserves. Role of embryonic axes. Gibberellin and aamylase
and other hydrolytic activity. Seed maturation phase and desiccation damage, role of LEA proteins. Seed
viability. Seed dormancy. Means to overcome seed dormancy.
Unit 9: Physiology of Flowering and Reproduction
Evolutionary history of flowering plants (angiosperms). Semelparous and iteroparous reproduction,
monocarpic and perennial life etc. Flowering phenomenonal, effect of plant age, juvenility- transition to
flowering. Flowering nature and classification of plants. Photoperiodic responses and the mechanisms in
short and long day plants. Theories related to flowering. Endogenous substances and flowering. Gene
expression in flowering. Control of flowering. Thermoperiodism - photo and thermoperiod. interactions.
Vernalization-mechanism. Photomorphogenesis, photoreceptors, phytochrome, cryptochrome, physiology
of flowering, photoperiodism and vernalization. Optimization in flowering response-to environmental features
(light, temperature, stress) etc. plant reproductive physiology. Mating strategy in plants, molecular
techniques to understand mating patterns, self incompatibility responses, physiological processes
mediating fertilization (pollen-stigma interactions), seed and fruit development, seed and fruit abortion
and means to overcome it. Molecular biology of seed development, physiological basis of cytoplasmic
male sterility and fertility restoration. Physiology of heterosis.
Unit 10: Physiology of Horticultural and Plantation Crop Species
Growth and development of horticultural and plantation crop species. Juvenility, shoot growth, types
of shoots, patterns of shoot growth, cambial growth and its regulation. Physiological aspects of pruning
and dwarfing. Growth measurements. Water relations of tree species. Water uptake and transport. Concepts
of transpiration ration and water use efficiency. Sexual and asexual propagation. Root stock and scion
interactions. Physiology of flowering in perennial species, photoperiodism and thermoperiodism.
Physiological aspects of fruit crops: mango, banana, grapes, citrus, papaya and pineapple etc.
Physiological aspects of plantation crops: coffee, cardamom, coconut, pepper.
Unit 11: Post-harvest Physiology
Senescence and ageing in plants. Ethylene – the senescence hormone, leaf senescence. Monocarpic
plant senescence. Biochemistry and molecular biology of flower senescence. Gene expression during
senescence. Concept of physiological maturity of seeds -post harvest changes in biochemical constituents
in field crops- loss of viability, loss of nutritive value, environmental factors influencing post -harvest
deterioration of seeds. Physiological and biochemical changes during fruit ripening and storage. Senescence
and post harvest life of cut flowers. Physical, physiological and chemical control of postharvest


deterioration of fruits, vegetables and cut flowers and its significance during storage and transport.
Molecular approach in regulation of fruit ripening. Transgenic technology for improvement of shelf-life.
Unit 12: Biomolecules and Biophysical Principles
Scope and importance of biochemistry and molecular biology in plants. Chemical bonding in biological
systems, Acids, bases and fuffers. Cell organelles. Thermodynamics and bioenergetics- concept of entropy,
and free energy changes in biological reactions, Redox reactions, Role of high energy phosphates.
Classification structure, chemistry, properties and function of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic
acids. Membrane structure and composition. Membrane transport. Mode of action and biochemical
functions of vitamins and hormones.
Unit 13: Intermediary Metabolism
Anabolism, catabolism and their regulation. Metabolism of carbohydrates – glycoltic pathway, HMP
pathway, TCA cycle, glyoxylate pathway and gluconeogenesis. Biological oxidation- electron transfer and
oxidative phosphorylation. Lipid metabolism degradation and biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols and
phospholipids. Amino acid metabolism –general reactions, degradation and biosynthesis of individual amino
acids. Metabolism of nucleic acids - degradation of biosynthesis of purines, pyrimidines and nucleotides.
Secondary methabolites. Sulphate reduction.
Unit 14: Biochemistry of Food-grains, Fruits and Vegetables:
Biochemical composition of various food - grains, fruits and vegetables, Biochemistry of fruit ripening,
biochemical aspects of post harvest technology, storage and preservation. Biochemical basis of quality
improvement of food grains, vegetables and fruits.
Unit 15: Enzymes
Enzyme structure. Active site and its mapping. Classification, kinetics and mechanism of action of
enzymes. Enzyme inhibition and activation. Multisubstrate reactions. Kinetic experiments to determine
the mechanism of multisubstrate reactions. Coenzymes, isoenzymes and immobilized enzymes. Regulation
of enzyme activity. Allosteric regulation. Isolation, prufication and measurement of enzyme activity. Enzyme
utits. Ribozytnes. Enzyme engineering. Role of enzymes in industry, agriculture and medicine.
Unit 16: Molecular Biology
Structure of DNA and RNA Replication, transcription and translation. Regulation of protein synthesis
in prokaryotes and eykaryotes. Post-transcriptional and translational modifications. Transcriptional and
translation control of prokaryotes and eykaryotes. Genetic code. Mutation. DNA damage and repair. Gene
expression - operon model, inducible and repressible enzymes. Mitochondrial genomes. Replication of
viruses. Molecular basis of male sterility.
Unit 17: Biotechnology / Genetic Engineering
General principles of gene cloning, Restriction enzymes, Isolation of genes and methods of gene
transfer - plasmids, and viruses as vectors. Splicing techniques. Blotting and hybridization. DNA finder
and foot printing. Protoplast fusion. Application of recombinant DNA technology. DNA sequence analysis.
Oligonucleotide, synthesis. Site directed mutagenesis. Transposon tagging. Basics of genome organization
and mapping, genomica and functional genomics. Genomic libraries. Antisense RNA. Restriction fragment
length polymorphism. RAPD, AFLP and other molecular marker techniques. Polymerasechain reaction
and chromosome walking. Benefits of gene manipulation in agriculture. Transgenic plants - methods of
development. Plant transformation, transformation vectors, binary vectors, concept of selectable and score-
able markers. Agrobacterium mediated transformation, ballistics, electroporation, selection of putative
transgenic plants, genetic analysis, PCR, southern analysis, evaluation of transgenic plants.


Unit 18: Immunology

The immune system, antigens, antibodies, complement systems and antigen antibody reaction.
Immunity - innate and acquired. Immune response - hunoral and cell mediated. Lymphokines and
interdeukins. Immunization practices. Histocompatability antigens and transplantation. Immunological
antigens and transplanataion. Immunological techniques- precipitation, electrophoresis, immunodiffusion,
RIA, EILISA, immuno- fluorescence and fluorescence immunoassay, flow cytofluorimetry and florescence
activated cell sorting (FACS). Avidin - biotin mediated immunoassay. Monoclonal antibodies and hybridoma
technology. Western blotting.
Unit 19: Techniques
Principles of optical, phase contrast, fluorescence and electron microscopy, Spectrophometry, UV and
Vis, fluorimetry, turbidimetry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Radioisotopic techniques – detection
and measurement of radioactivity and its application in biological sciences. Flectrophoresis - general principles
and application SDS - PAGE, isoelectric focusing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Chromatographic techniques
such as paper, thin layer and column chromatography, GC and HPLC etc. Centrifugation - principles of
sedimentation, differential centrifugation, cell fractionation. Density gradient and ultracentrifugation. Organ
and tissue slice techniques. Cell disruption. Plant cell and tissue culture. Cell sorting and counting.
Unit 20: Photosynthesis and Photorespiration
Photosynthesis – basic equation and photosynthetic pigments. Chlorophyll. Photosystems.
Photophosphorylation. Chemisomotic coupling. Carbon cycle and its regulation, C3, C4 and CAM pathways.
Dark reactions. Ion fluxes and conformational changes during photosynthesis. Photorespiration. Relationship
between photosynthesis, photorespiration and crop productivity. Chloroplasm morphology, structure and
biochemical anatomy. Chloroplasm metabolism. Cytosolic and organelle interactions. Nature and exchange
of metabolites through translocators. Seed reserve biosynthesis.
Unit 21: Plant Metabolism
Uptake and metabolism of mineral nutrients in plants. Nitrogen cycle. Nitrate and nitrite reduction,
denitrifcation, symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Assimilation of fixed nitrogen in plants.
Genetics and mechanism of nitrogen fixation. Biochemical and physiological role of hydrogenase.
Chemoautrotrophy in rhizobia and nitrifying bacteria. Growth regulation in plants. Signal transduction
pathways. Cell cycle. Phytohormones. Molecular mechanism of plant growth, hormone action, auxin,
gibberllins, cytokinins, ethylene, absissic acid and phenolic inhibitors. Preliminary methods of statistical
analysis as applied to agricultural data – standard deviation, standard error, test, ANOVA, correlation
and regression.

10. Agricultural Biotechnology
Section 1: Cell Structure and Function
Origin of Cell, Ultrastructure of prokaryotic and cukaryotic cells. Cytoskelton. Cell wall and plasma
membrane. Cell organelles including vacuoles, mitochondriaplastids, golgi apparatus, ER, peroxisomes,
glyoxisomes, etc, their organization and function. Cell division. Different stages of mitosis and meiosis,
regulation of cell cycle.
Section 2: Biomolecules and Metabolism
Structure, characterization and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, isolation
and purification of enzymes, their classification, catalytic site, mechanism of action, regulation of enzyme
activity, basic enzyme kinetics, inhibition, enzymes immobilization and its application. Catabolism
synthesis of carbohydrate, glycolysis, HMP, citric acid cycle, purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis, metabolic
regulation, bioenergetics, etc. Oxidative phosphorylation and substrate level phosphorylation, vitamins &
plant hormones.
Section 3: Molecular Genetics
Concept of gene mutation, recombination, transformation, transduction, conjugation, transposable
elements and transposition, split genes, overlapping genes and pseudogenes. Organization of prokaryotic
and eukaryotic genes and genomes including operon, exon, intron, enhancer promoter sequences and
other regulatory elements, activators, repressors, co-activators, co-repressors in prokaryotes and
eukaryotes, inducible gene, promoter and vectors.
Section 4: Gene Expression
Genetic material: structure replication and repair, transcription and translation in prokaryotes and
eukaryotes. RNA processing and posttranscriptional modifications, post-translational modification and
protein transport and their significance. DNA modification and repair structure. Finction and expression
of mitochondrial and chloroplast genome. Small RNA’s
Section 5: Molecular Biology Techniques
Isolation and hybridization of nucleic acids. Cot analysis. Southern, northern and western blottings and
hybridization. Consruction and screening of genomic and DNA libraries. Current methods of radioactive and
non-radioactive labeling of proteins and nucleic acids. DNA sequencing. Restriction fragment length polymorphism
(RFLP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA sequences
(RAPD) SNPs, gene mapping Molecular breeding, genome mapping and sequencing gene tagging and targetting,
polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, DNA synthesis, monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, ribozyme
antisence RNA methodology, radiommunoassay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Section 6: Gene Cloning
Restriction enzymes and their uses. Salient features and uses of most commonly used vectors i.e.
plasmids, bacteriophages, phagmids, cosmids, BACs, PACs and YACs expression vectors. Cloning, sub-
cloning strategies and transformation. Plant genetic transformation vectors.
Section 7: Tissue Culture
Basic techniques in cell culture and somatic cell genetics. Clonal propagation. Concept of cellular
totipotency. Anther and pollen culture for haploid and double haploid production; somatoclonal and

gametoclonal variations. Hybrid embryo culture, somatic hybridization and cybridization. Jermplasm
conservation and exchange. Application of tissue culture in crop improvement.
Section 8: Plant Genetic Engineering
Isolation of genes of economic importance. Gene constructs for tissue specific expression. Different
methods of gene transfer to plants viz. direct and vector mediated. Potential applications of plant genetic
engineering to crop improvement i.e. specific and non-specific resistance (defence) genes to disease
and pest, herbicide resistance, storage protein quality, oil quality, vitamins, stress resistance and post-
harvest, production of secondary metabolities and alien proteins. Current status of transgenics, containment
and IPR issues. Nanobiotechnology.
Section 9: Molecular Biology of Photosynthesis & Nitrogen Fixation
Photoregulation and phytochrome regulation of nuclear and chloroplastic gene expression. Molecular
biology of light and dark reaction of photosynthesis, Rhizosphere, plant growth promoting organisms.
Molecular mechanism of nitrogen fixation, nitrate reductase and genetics of nif genes. Molecular biology
of various stress, viz., drought, salr, hear and cold. Signal transduction and its molecular basis.
Section 10: Industrial Biotechnology
Principles of fermentation processes, bioreactors and biosensors, protein engineering. Single cell
proteins. Biopesticides, Phytoremediation. Microbial degradation of waste and biogas production.
Bioleaching and bioremediation. Application of fermentation technology. Plant bioreactors, production of
industrial compounds and molecular farming. Biofuels.

11. Agriculture Microbiology
Section 1: History of Microbiology
Evolution of microbial life. Theory of spontaneous generiation. Contributions of various scientists’
the development of different areas of microbiology.
Section 2: Microbial Taxonomy
Eucaryotes, prokaryotes and archaebacteria, kingdom prokaryotes and detailed classification of
prokaryotes. Techniques used in identification and classification. of bacteria - numerical taxonomy, DNA
base composition, nucletic acid hybridization, RNA sequencing and catalouging and serological analysis.
Important groups of prokaryotes photosynthetic bacteria, chenmoautrophic bacteria, spore forming
bacteria and actinomycetes. Heterotrophic bacteria - enterobacteria, nitrogen - fixing bacteria and
cyanobacteria, lactic acid bacteria, halophiles, thermophiles, acidophiles and methanogens. Structure
and classification of viruses, growth of viruses, lytic and lysogenic cycles, plant viruses.
Section 3: Morphology and Cytology
Cell structure – plrocaryotes and eucaryotes. Chemical composition, structure and function of cell
wall, cytoplasmic inclusions, nuclear material and other specialized cell wall structures - endospores,
cysts, beterocysts, akinites etc.
Section 4: Microbial Ecology:
Principles of microbial ecology and their application to different ecosystems. Microbiology of
ecosystems - soil, rhizosphere, phyllosphere, water - fresh and marine, and air. Microbial interactions -
symbiosis,’ synergism, commenalism, parasitism, amensalism, antagonism and predation, adoption of
micro - organisms to various ecosystems.
Section 5: Microbial Physiology
Bacterial growth and growth curve. Kinetics of growth -.continuous and batch culture. Diauxic and
synchronous growth. ‘Microbial nutrition. Bacterial metabolism - aerobic and anaerobic respiration, electron
transport chain, oxidative, substrate level and photo - phosphorylation. Biosynthesis of macro molecules
-.bacterial cell wall, ribosomes, proteins and nucleic acids.
Section 6: Microbial Genetics
Replication of DNA primosomes, replisonies, gyrase and helicase. Mutations - spontaneous, induced
and site directed; DNA damage and repair. Biochemical genetics - elucidation of biochemical pathways
using auxotrophic mutants. Gene transfer - conjugation, transformation and transduction. plasmids and
Recombinant DNA technology (RDT). Importance of RDT over conventional genetic techniques.
Restriction enzymes, vectors, DNA cloning and cDNA cloning. Regulation of gene expression - operator,
promoter, operon, positive and negative regulatory control, atennuation and tryptophane,operon; anti-sense
Section 7: Microbial Biotechnology
Industrial production of metabolites - organic acids, alcohols, amino acids, organic solvents,
antibiotics, vitamins and enzymes. Types of bioreactors. Control of fermentation process - batch, feed

batch and continuous. Down stream processing in fermentation industry. Production of single cell proteins,
hormones, biofertilizers, bio ~ pesticides, bio - pigments, bio - flavours, mushrooms and silage.
Section 8: Food Microbiology
Microbiology of raw and processed food. Role of microbes in food fermentation - sauerkraut, pickles,
cheese, yogurt, tempeh, soysauce etc. Food preservation, contamination and spoilage. Food - borne
illnesses and intoxication.
Section 9: Soil Microbiology
Distribution of micro - organisms in soil. Root exudates and rhizosphere effects. Manipulation of
rhizosphere microflora in plant productivity’. Microbial biomass: Decomposition of plant and animal residues
- cellulose, hemi - cellulose, lignin, proteins etc. Humus role in soil fertility. Transformation of nitrogen in .
soil ammonification, nitrification and denitrification. Biological nitrogen fixation–symbiotic and asymbiotic.
Biochemistry and genetics of nitrogen fixation. Microbial transformation of phosphorus, sulphur and minor
nutrients. Mycorrhizal symbuiosis (ecto and endo) – role in agriculture and forestry. Bio-degradation of
pesticides. Bio-fertilizers and their role in sustainable agriculture. Biocontrol of insect pests and plant
pathogens. Bioremidation of problem soils. Plant growth promting rhizobacteria and their mode of action:
Section I0: Environmental Microbiology
Pollution of soil, water and air-role of microorganisms. Sources of pollution and their impact on
environment. Microbiology of sewage and industrial effluents and their safe disposal. Management of
solid and liquid organic wastes – composting, biogas, production and treatment of sewage and industrial
Section 11: Microbiological Techniques
Isolation and preservation of different types of micro - organisms. Methods of sterilization and
disinifection. Optical phasae contrast, fluorescent, dark field and electon microscopy. Colorimetry,
spectophotometry, centrifugation, chromatography and gel electophoresis. Chonosomal and plasmid DNA
isolation and charecterization. Physical, chemical and site directed mutagens. Microbial assay of vitamins,
amino acids and antibiotics. Microbilogical tests for potability of water. Methods for estimation of microbial
bio-mass and nitrogen fixation. Polymerase chain reaction and its application.
Section 12: Statistics
Elementary principles of statistics. Mean, median, mode. Experimental designs, analysis of variance
and chi-square test. Correlation and regression.

12. Horticulture
PAPER - I (B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1 :
Principles and fundamentals of horticulture. orchards management nursery management and seed
production. Principles of breeding of horticultural crops improvement of fruits and plantation crops.
Importance of fruits and vegetable in human nutrition. Contribution of Horticulture in National Economy
and exports. Programmes of development - National Horticulture Mission.
Unit 2 :
Growth and Development physiology of flowering, fruit set and development, parthenocarpy and
seedlessness. Maturity and ripening plant growth regulators and their role. physiological basis of flowering
and fruiting.
Unit 3 :
Improved production technology of fruits and plantation crops, high density planting. integrated
nutrient and water management, fertigation precision farming in horticulture watershed management for
promotion of horticulture. Protected cultivation training. pruning and canopy management.
Unit 4:
Importance of vegetables and spices hybrid seed production, breeding Strategies for vegetables
tubers potato and spices. Biotic and abiotic stress breeding, biotechnological tools for breeding.
Unit 5:
Mieropropogation, meristem culture, ovule culture in vitro pollination. Production of’ bio-agents and
bio-fertilizer and green house management stionic relations and rootstock. Protected cultivation for
improved productivity–vegetables and flowers.
Unit 6:
Principles of floriculture and landscaping, production technology for indoor plants. Flower arrangements
value addition commercial floriculture. Gardening and park management dry flowers and potted plants.
Medicinal and Aromatic plants of importance and their management.
Unit 7:
Importance of post harvest handling, in horticultural crops, physiology of fruits, vegetables and flowers
after harvest. Different method of storage,s cool chain management, processing for value addition and
product diversification disease management in storage, packing and grading and packing technology.
Quality assurance and food laws.

Unit 1: Orchard Establishment and Propagation and Nursery Management
Importance, area, production and distribution of fruits and plantation crops. Planning. layout and
management of progeny orchards, nurseries. Collection of mother plants, planting, care ideal propagating

media, containers. soil sterilization. Raising of seedlings, rootstocks, and inter tocks. Method and time
of propagation of different fruit and plantation crops in different regions.
Unit 2: Root stock and Nursery Management
Dormancy, seed germination, seedling growth, apomixes, polyembryony root induction. role of growth
regulatory and chemical. Stock and scion relationship, incompatibility propagation and hardening of different
fruit and plantation crops and its commercial importance. Rejuvenation of old and unproductive orchards.
Packing and transport of’ nursery plants.
Unit 3 Growth and Development
Dormancy, rest period, chilling requirements and heat units. Fruit bud different iation in Physiology
of flowering and chemical induction of flowering. Fruit set, development fruit drop and its control
parthenocarpy and seedlessness. Maturity and ripening. Biochemical changes associated with fruit ripening.
Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. Role of bioregulators in fruits production. Bearing habits.
Unfruitfulness alternate bearing citrus, deeline, mango malformation.
Unit 4 : Fruit Breeding
Principles, problems prospects of fruit breeding. Methods of improvement e.g. introduction clonal
selection, hybridization, mutation breeding, polyploidy and heterosis breeding. Breeding of new stocks
and scion. Crop improvement objectives. Inheritance of characters, problems and advances achieved in
important fruit crops like mango citrus, banana grape, sapota, papaya, apple, pear, peach, aonla,
pomegranate, coconut, arecanut, oil palm, cashew, tea coffee olive, cocoa, rubber, nutmeg clove,
cinnamon, bay-leaf and other minor fruits and plantation crops.
Unit 5: Fruits and Plasntation Crops Production Technology
Improved production technology for fruit and plantation crops covering soil, climate. Propagation
methods. varieties; planting, plant density, training and pruning. Factors related to nutrient availability,
inter-relationship of elements. Organic farming.
Unit 6: Production System and Management
Integrated nutrient and water management, weed, disease including IPM and other orchard
management practices of important fruit and plantation crops. Physiological disorders in fruits and plantation
crops. Concept of high density planting, use of plastics drip irrigation fertigation cropping in hostile situation
e.g. dry land and land with denuded forests, hill slopes intercropping mulching, multistory cropping, cropping
in watersheds and precision farming.
Unit 7 : Pollinisation
Role of pollination, pollinisors, role of insect, plants and rains honey-bees in pollination of fruit crops,
basics of maintaining bee colonies during flowering and off seasons: multiplication of bee colonies, honey
extraction, processing and storage of honey.
Unit 8 : Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Plantation Crops
Harvesting technique, maturity standards. handling of fruits and plantation crops. grading storage
and transport. Cordex standards. Quality assurance system, value addition, primary processing, various
products of fruits and plantation Crops.
Unit 9 : Principles of Vegetable Production
Introduction, economic nutritive value of vegetables and spices: production and productivity in India.


Classification of vegetables and spices. Effect of temperatures photoperiod light relative humidity on
production. Organic Fanning nutrients essential for plant growth plant growth substances chemical and
bio-fertilizer and their response irrigation and water requirements: crop rotation, crop succession, inter
and mixed cropping, weed control, different insects nematodes and diseases and their management,
role of plant growth substances.
Unit 10 : Production of Vegetables and Spices
Importance, origin, history area, distribution, productivity, taxonomy. Climatic and soil requirements,
commercial varieties and hybrids nutritional requirements, irrigation, interculture, weed control, mulching
plant protection and other cultural practices of warm and cool season crops i.e. solanaccous fruit
vegetables, okra, cucurbits, kharif onion, early cauliflwer, sweet potato, cowpea, cluster bean. Indian
hean, colocasia amorpholallus and amsaranthus and production of tuber crops such as potato, tapioca,
diascorea, sweet potato, yams, cole crops, root crops, bulb crops, potato, pea, broad bean and leafy
Unit 11 : Biodiversity and Conservation of Vegetable Crops
Biodiversity and its conservation in vegetables and spices - Genetic erosion and its consequenees
- Centres of diversity, exploitation and collection germplasm maintenance. Charaetrization of landraees,
wild species and other genotvpes of vegetables and spices.
Unit 12 : Principles of Breeding of Vegetables and Spices
Principles of vegetable breeding and importance. Genetic architecture, breeding systems, breeding
methods. Host parasite relationship. Mechanism of resistance gene minining biotechnological approaches
for improvement in vegetables.
Unit 13 : Breeding of Self and Cross Pollination Crops
Origin, distribution, cytogenetics, genetics, breeding objectives and breeding methods used for
improvement of self pollinated and crop pollinated vegetable crops viz. tomato, brinjal. capsicum, garden
peas, french bean, lablab bean, cowpea, clusterbean, broadbean okra. lettuce cole crops, cucurbitaceous
crops, bulb crops, root crops leafy vegetable and spices (Black pepper, cardamom, nutmeg, cinnamon,
clove, allspice tamarind, garcinia, vanilla. cumin, fennel, coriander and fenugreek.
Unit 14 : Biotechnology in Vegetable Crops
Improvement of vegetables. and spices through biotechnological tools. Application of molecular
markers such as RFLP. RAPD, AFLP in vegetable improvement. Exploitation of genetic engineering for
vegetable improvement and solving the problem of interspecific intergenetic barriers.
Unit 15 : Principles and Techniques of Seed Production
History, importance and present status of vegetable seed industries in India and world. Agronomical
and genetical principles of seed production. Definition of seed and its quality. Pollination system in
vegetable crops. Production and maintenance of nucleus foundation and certified seed. Economics of
seed production, IPR and WTO. Seed certification & seed laws.
Unit 16 : Protected Cultivation of Vegetables
Objectives, importance and scope of protected cultivation of vegetable crops. Principles Regulatory
structures/system used in green house and glass houses. Regulation of flowering and fruiting. Types of
green houses, glass houses, hot beds, cold frames, poly houses. Different media for growing nursery
under cover. Specific technology for raising tomato. sweet pepper, cucumber and other vegetables in
green house. Insect, nematode and disease management in green house. Importance and type of
mushroom cultivation.



Unit 17 : Principles of Floriculture and Landscaping.
Importance and scope of floriculture. History and development of gardens. Factors affecting growth
and development. Cultivation of ornamental trees, shrubs, climbers, ground covers, bedding and bulbous
plants. Nursery management techniques. Cacti and succulents, ferns, palms and foliage plants. Introduction
to commercial floriculture-traditional flowers, cut flowers and flowers production of important flower crops
including cost of production. Use of plant growth regulators in floriculture, structures used in floriculture.
Preparation of bonsai. Flower shows. Flower arrangements. Principles and elements of landscaping. garden
features and adornments.
Unit 18 : Turf Grass Management
Introduction - history, value and prospects of turf grass industry. Turf grass environment. Light,
temperature. water, air, and soil for turf grass. Types of grasses - specicies - combinations - planting
techniques, cultural practices - mowing - rolling–fertilization. irrigation. -Pests and diseases - mixing lawns
with other components.
Unit 19 : Indoor Plants and Interior Scaping
Importance and scope of house plants and interior scaping. Factors affecting growth and flowering
of house plants. Containers and potting media used for house plants. Plant care including propagation,
training, grooming, nutrition. Care and maintenance of indoor plants. Description and cultivation of various
house plants. Principles of interior scaping. environmental consideration. Special gardens like dish,
terrarium, hanging baskets. window boxes, miniature gardens, plant stand and vertical gardens.
Unit 20 : Flower Arrangement and Value Addition
Importance and scope of flower arrangement, principles. types of flower arrangements. Vases and
materials used in flower arrangements for different occasions like marriages. social functions, making of
bouquets, corsages, gajra, rangoli, veni, button holes and wreaths etc. Dry flower arrangements and
packing. Economic considerations for flower arrangements.
Unit 21 : Production Technology of Ornamentals
Present status of floriculture, medicinal and aromatic plants in India and its potential in the global
market. Breeding strategies for development of new cultivars of ornamental flowers and aromatic plants.
Commercial production of field flowers, bulbous, foliage, pot plants, medicinal and aromatic plants. Specific
problems concerning production of roses. chrysanthemum, carnation, jasmine, marigold and other minor
cut flowers crops. Orchid and anthurium culture. Production of essential oil yielding flowers. Major insects,
nematodes, diseases and their management. Processing and extraction of active ingredients in important
medicinal plants.

Unit 22 : Landscape Horticulture

Principles of art and their application in landscape compositions and interior decoration. Man as
the human habitat. Natural and man-made forms and features. Analysis of various types of sites and
their landscape treatments. Organization of spaces. Visual aspects of plan arrangement-view. vista and
axis. Principles of circulation. Garden structures. Analysis of problems and application of landscaping
principles for various types of houses, educational institutions, religious places, industrial sites, country
side, farm complexes, embassies, hotels and other buildings. Special problem of landscaping of terrace
and roof gardens and multistory buildings. Factors affecting outdoor recreation. Selection of sites and
their landscaping for various categories of tourist complexes, picnic spots and camping grounds.


Unit 23 : Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

Importance of medicinal and aromatic plants in India and abroad. Classifications of medicinal and
aromatic plants. Commercial production and processing of aromatic and medicinal plants. Improvement
of medicinal and aromatic plants through breeding methods. Nursery management and seed production.
Greenhouse cultivation, nutrients and water management, insect pests and diseases, extration of oil in
aromatic plants, primary processing in medicinal plants. Organisational support for the promotion of
medicinal and aromatic plants.


Unit 24 :Value Addition in Horticultural Crops
Importance of post harvest handling and processing for enhancing shelf life, value addition and
value chain management; Current status of primary and. Secondary processing of horticultural produce
in India and abroad. Various method for enhancing shelf life of perisable horticultural produce. Importance
of grading and packing for effective marketing and reduced losses. Factors affecting the processability
of horticultural produce. Pre-harvest factors influencing the post harvest life and processing quality.
Unit 25: Post Harvest Technology and Processing for Value Addition of Fruits
Importance of post harvest handling in fruit and plantation crops: maturity indices for harvesting
and ripening, pre-cooling, various types of storage and storage temperature. grading, packing and
transportation. Reefer containers and cold chain. Different methods of storage including controlled
atmosphere storage, storage disorders and use of chemicals, skin coatings, growth regulators and
irradiation for control of spoilage during storage and transit. Storage structures for different crops. Role
of micro-organisms, enzymes and water activity in preservation, principles and methods of preservation
by heat, chemicals, drying, radiation, freezing and fermentation. Methods of preparation of different
processed products, fruit juices, beverages and concentrates. Canning, fruit jams, jelly and marmalades;
Food laws hazard analysis and critical control points. TQM. GMP investment analysis. Processing for
Value addition, product diversification in fruits and plantation crops.
Unit 26 : Post - Harvest Management of Vegetables
Structure and composition of vegetables. Maturity indices, harvesting, grading methods.
Physicochemical changes during ripening and storage. Physiological processes - respiration, transpiration
and ethylene biosynthesis and their influence on storage quality and senescence. Pre-storage treatments
for quality retention and .egulation of ripening using chemicals, Growth regulators, fungicides; Irradiation.
Packages sand packing house operation; Storage systems. Pre-cooling, Low temperature Controlled
Atmosphere (CA). Modified Atmosphere (MA) and Hypobolic storage. On-farm storage: Storage
requirements of vegetables and mushroom; Post harvest management of mushrooms. Storage disorders;
Spoilage and their control; Transportation, marketing and export requirement. Processing of vegetables,
drying of vegetables, canning of vegetables, other vegetable products.
Unit 27 : Processing of Horticultural Produce
Product development, labeling of products, market assessment, quality management, food laws
and its regulations, spoilage of product, factor affecting the spoilage. aseeptic packing of product, freeze
drying and development of new products, storage conditions for processed products and enhancement
of shelf life.

13. Agricultural Structures and Process Engineering
PAPER - I (B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1: Engineering Properties and Quality of Biomaterials
Uniqueness of bio-materials Physical characteristics-shape, size, volume, density, porosity, surface
areas, friction, rolling resistance, angle of repose. Properties of bulk particulate solids- specific surface
area, mean diameter, flow rate.
Aerodynamics- drag coefficient, terminal velocity. pressure drop through packet beds. Thermal
properties specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity. Dielectric properties - dielectric and
microwave radiation, dielectric constant, energy absorption, heating. Optical properties. transmittance.
Rheological properties - stress strain time relationship, theological models. visco-elasticity. Hurd’s
theory of contact stresses.
Food Quality: Composition. BIS specifications for quality of food materials, milling quality analysis,
Cooking baking qualities. Determination of microbial loads, protein oil content, carbohydrates, colour,
hardness, texture. Organolaptic and sensory evaluation of product quality. Nutritive value and bio-
Unit 2 : Post Harvest Unit Operations
Grading, cleaning, washing, sorting, shelling, dehusking, decortications, milling, polishing pearling,
drying EMC, water activity and psychrometry, size reduction, granulation, crystallization, filtration,
evaporation, distillation, mixing, clarification, coagulation, mechanical separation, sedimentation, pressing,
expelling’, leaching, extraction, palleting, extrusion. Industrial fermentation and processing.
Unit 3: Process Technology and Machinery
Premilling/conditioning treatments. Process technology and machinery for cereals, pulses, oil seeds,
fruits. vegetables, spices. Condiments. plantation crops. animal products, sea foods. fiber crops, leather.
sugar crops bio-fertilizer, animal feeds.
Seed processing and technology
Agricultural byproducts/residue utilization
Waste disposal of food processing plants. methods and equipment. Maintenance Engineering
Unit 4 : Design of Agricultural Structure and Processing Machinery
Functional and structural design of structures- godown, silos, warehouses aeration systems, air
blowers, livestock structure green houses and growth chambers. Design of grain cleaners, graders, dryers,
parboiling plants, size reduction machines, bio-reactors, fermenters, centrifuges, eyelones heat-exchange,
evaporators, filters, extrusion cookers.
Heat pumps, thermicfluids, steam boilers and their accessories. Cold storage refrigeration, air
conditioning, thermal load, insulation.
Computer aided design application of Autocad.
Unit 5: Material Handling, Packaging and Transport
Bulk conveying equipment - belt conveyors, screw/auger conveyors, bucket elevators, drag/chain

Estimation of energy requirement. Damage to products, during, mechanical handling.

Operational and maintenance.
Horticultural and animal products grading. washing. pre cooling, mechanical handling.
Packaging material characteristics and selection. Packaging techniques and equipment for liquid,
power and granular material. Asceptic packaging.
Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP).
Transpiration of food -bullock, trailers, trucks, rail wagons, containers.
Cool/cold chain design and operation Refrigerated containers and trucks for perishable Grain mandi
Unit 6 : Storage Engineering
Storage environment and its interaction with sotred product: factors/parameters influencing the shelf
life of the stored product: climatograph and deterioration index. Modeling of metabolic activities and
predication of storage life: quality deterioration mechanisms and their control; storage practices (including
fumigation) and structures (traditional and modern) for food grains, design of bulk storage and aeration
system, analysis of heat, moisture and gas transfer in bulk storage structures quality analysis of stored
produce; bag storage structures, their design and management; storage of perishables - ventilated,
refrigerated and controlled atmosphere storage systems and their design; BIS standards on practices,
equipments and design of storage structures and systems for food grains and other commodities.
Unit 7 : Basic Sciences and Allied Engineering Subjects
Introduction, thermodynamics properties, thermodynamic processes basic law of thermodynamics,
energy equations, heat, work, heat engine. heat pump and refrigerator, steam table
Heat and mass transfer
Modes of heat transfer, heat exchanger. mass transfer and mass heat momentum transfer anologies,
simultaneous heat and mass transfer.
Engineering Mathematics
Infinite series, partial deferential equation. Green’s theorem. vectors, matrices
Fluid mechanics
Fluid static’s, fluid dynamies continuity equation and Bernoullis theorem
Agricultural Statistics
measures of central tendencies, measures of dispersion multiple correlation and regression, test of
Unit 8 : Project Planning and Agri-business Management; Modeling, Simulation and Instrumentation;
Data Structure and Computer Programming
Project development. market survey and time; motion analysis. Selection of equipment. technology
option, techno - economic feasibility, plant layout. Product and process design, PERT. CPM, transport
model, simplex, linear and dynamic programming. Plant utilities, Plant operation and management operation
Iog book. material balance and efficiency analysis, testing performance, performance indices, energy
requirement and consumption. Plant sanitation hygiene effluent treatment Marketing of agricultural products,
market positioning


HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) and ISO certification for food processing plants.
Simulation of processing operations. Simulation models, Mathematical modeling. Finite element
analysis. Dimensional analysis- Model types theory law and scale. Transducers for force, torque. pressure,
temperature, stress, strain, displacement, acceleration, speed, frequency, sound. vibration, flow Instruments
for measurement of calorific values, gas composition using GLC dust concentration and pollution of air
and water. Process controllers
Computer hardware and operation systems.
Data mining, acquisition. storage, structure and analysis, Introduction to programming, numerical
techniques, spread-sheets, computer modeling and optimization.
Database management, graphics, and Computer based instrumentation, automation. Process control
software and hard wares.
Internet, web page. e-marketing, e-commerce.

14. Agriculture Machinery and Energy
Unit 1
Status of farm mechanization in India. Power availability on farms. Hand tools used for different
kinds of farm work and materials for construction. Principle of working, constructional features and
operation of animal and power operated equipment for tillage, land development, sowing, planting, fertilizer
application, intercultivation, plant protection, harvesting, threshing.
Unit 2
Selection of machine elements: Gears, pulleys, chains and sprockets, belts, bearings, couplings
and springs. Pull, draft, unit draft and power measurements and calculation for animal and power operated
implements. Dynamometers.
Unit 3
Calibration of seed drills, planters, plant protection equipment. Method of testing and performance
evaluation of tillage equipment, seed drills, planters, fertilizer applicators, sprayers, dusters, harvesting
and threshing equipment. Farm machinery selection and management for different soils, crops and
Unit 4
Spark and compression ignition engines, trouble shootings, calculation of horse power, torque, speed
and related parameters.
Tractor: Types, clutches, transmission, differential and final drives. Power outlets: PTO, drawbar and
hydraulic system. Power tiller: Operation and management.
Dynamic properties of soil and their measurements. Introduction to traction devices, traction aids,
tyres function, size and their selection. Slippage and sinkage of wheels. Soil compaction and control
Ergonomics and safety in agriculture.
Unit 5
Characteristics of the Sun, spectrum, Earth-Sun angles, solar energy measuring instruments.
Solar energy collection: Flat plate collectors, concentration of collectors, solar tracking,
concentrators, selective surfaces.
Solar energy storage: Type of storage, sensible heat and latent heat storage, storage efficiency.
Solar energy applications: Cooking, drying, cooling, refrigeration, distillation, photovoltaic
conservation, SPV powered system.
Unit 6
Wind energy: Generation, application, wind power equipment, storage of wind energy, wind measuring
instruments. Wind machines: Types of wind mill, system of wind machines, different parts, transmission
systems, wind blades, forces on the blade, control used in wind machines.
Unit 7
Biomass production: Introduction, generation, method of conversion, preprocessing of biomass.

Biomass technology: Chemistry, physical condition, raw materials, affecting factors. Biogas plants:
Types, designs, distribution and utilization, properties, uses. Briquetting, pallatization and densification
of biomass.
Unit 8
Geothermal energy: Generation potential, types of systems, storage, application, advantages and
Energy sources in agriculture: Conventional and renewable energy requirements in agriculture
production systems.
Energy auditing: Different types of energy auditing, energy accounting and analysis.

Unit 1: Farm Mechanization and Equipment
Status of farm mechanization in India. Power availability on farm. Hand tools used for different kinds
of farm work and materials for construction. Functional requirement, principle of working, constructional
features and operation of animal and power operated equipment for tillage, land development, sowing,
planting, fertilizer application, intercultivation, plant protection, harvesting, threshing, mowing, chaff cutting
and baling. Special equipment for crops such as sugarcane, cotton, groundnut, potato and plantation
crops like coconut, areca nut, cashu nut.
Unit 2: Farm Machinery Design
Selection of machinery elements: Gears, pulleys, chains and sprockets, belts, bearings, couplings
and springs. Force analysis on agricultural tools and implements, pull, draft, unit draft and power calculation
of animal and power operated implements. Design of soil working tools., sowing, planting, Fertilizer
applicators, intercultivation equipment, harvesting and threshing machineries, forge harvesters, chaff cutters.
Unit 3: Farm Machinery Testing, Evaluation and Management
Calibration of seed drills, planters, plant protection equipment. Method of testing and performance
evaluation of tillage equipment, seed drills and planters, fertilizer applicators, sprayers and dusters
harvesting and threshing equipment, grain and straw combines, and special equipment such as sugarcane,
cotton, rice and potato planter. Calculations of field capacity, efficiency and rates of seed, fertilizer and
chemical applicators. Calculation of capacity, efficiency and losses in threshers, harvesters and chaff
cutters. Farm machinery selection and management for different soils, crops and operations. Cost analysis
of animal and tractor operated implements and tractors.
Unit 4: Thermodynamics and Engines
Various systems of spark and compression ignition engines. Operations, adjustment and trouble
shooting for working of the system. Design of engine components. Calculations on horse power, torque,
speed, firing arrangement and intervals, heat load and power transmission from piston to the flywheel.
Unit 5: Tractor Design and Analysis
Tractors: Clutches, gear trains, differential, final drives. Power outlets : P.T.O., drawbar. Trend in tractor
design. Mechanical and power steering. Tractor chassis mechanics. Power tillers : Operation and
management. Hitching systems and hydraulic controls for tractors. Automatic position control and draft
control systems used in tractors. Various types of dynamometers. Tractor testing and test codes.


Unit 6: Ergonomics and safety

Anthropometry in equipment design, physiological cost and effect of work on physiological responses
and comfort. Ergonomics in design of farm tools. Safety aspects of agricultural machinery. Effect of
noise and vibration on work performance. Chemical hazards and control measures. Operator’s protective
gadgets. Design of tractor controls : Hand and foot controls, visual range and limitations, seat design.
Unit 7 : Soil Dynamics in Tillage and Traction
Dynamic properties of soil and their measurements. Rheological properties of soil, stress-strain
relationship. Theories of soil failure, mechanics of tillage tools. Design parameters and performance of
tillage tools. Introduction to traction devices, tyre function and size, their selection, mechanics of traction
devices, traction theories slippage and sinkage of wheels, evaluation and prediction of traction performance.
Soil compaction : Causes and methods of alleviation, effect on soil and crop response.
Unit 8: Solar Energy
Solar Radiation and its measurement: Characteristics of the Sun, spectrum, Earth-Sun angles.
Attenuation, solar radiation data and its measurement. Heat and mass transfer in solar energy selective
surfaces and solar system materials. Solar energy collection : Flat plate collectors, concentrating collectors,
solar tracking concentrators, CPC, central receiver collector. Solar energy storage: Type of storage, sensible
heat and latent heat storage, material for storage and storage efficiencies. Solar energy applications:
Cooking, drying, cooling and refrigeration, Solar architecture, photovoltaic conversion, SPV powered
systems, solar distillation, absorption cooling, Solar refrigeration.
Unit 9 : Wind Energy
Generation, application, wind velocity, wind mapping. Wind power : Production, wind current, effect
of height, obstacle and valley, selection of site, power curves. Wind power equipment. Storage of wind
energy, Wind power plant. Wind measuring instruments and controls : Different systems of measuring
and recording wind velocity, wind power, controls used in wind machines. Wind machines : Types of wind
mills, systems of wind machines, different parts, power transmission systems. Wind blade: Forces on
wind blade, speed range selection, selection of materials for different parts.
Unit 10 : Biomass Energy
Biomass Production: Introduction, generation, characterization, properties, analysis. Harvesting and
coppicing. Methods of conversion. Preprocessing of biomass.
Bioconversion of biomass: Conversion into alcohols, organic acids, solvents amino acids, antibiotics.
Bio-photosynthesis. Biogas technology, chemistry, physical condition, raw material. Affecting factors.
Biogas plants : Types of designs, distribution and utilization, properties, uses. Devices: Burners and stoves,
biogas lamps, biogas scrubbing and compressing. Thermo, chemical conversion of biomass: Direct
combustion, pyrolysis and gasification, Sterling engine, chemical conversion process, hydrolysis and
hydro-generation. Carbonization, briquetting, pallatization and densification of biomass.
Unit 11 : Management and Planning of Energy in Agriculture
Energy sources in agriculture: Conventional and renewable energy equivalents, energy requirements
in agriculture production system, energy requirement in different agro-based industries and in green house
production system. Energy analysis: Energy ratio and specific energy value. Inflow and outflow of energy
in unit agriculture operation. Village energy survey, consumption patterns, resource use pattern. Input/
output ratio, energy inflow in village ecosystem, planning for energy conservation. Questionnaire for field


survey. Yardstick for energy resource analysis. Integrated energy system: Scope, planning and design of
energy system, modeling, project preparation strategies.
Unit 12: Energy Auditing and Conservation
Energy Conservation: Status and significances, concept and thermodynamics of energy conservation,
appropriate technology. Energy conservation techniques for thermal, mechanical, electrical energy. Controls
for energy conservation. Energy audit: Type of energy auditing, energy accounting and analysis, energy
auditing of different sectors, industrial tools, agricultural fields and electrical auditing, energy audit in
agro-processing industries. Identification and ranking of energy conservation measures, implementation.
Control and instruments/equipment in energy conservation. Cogeneration : Waste heat recovery,
cogeneration with alternate energy system.
Unit 13 : Other Alternative Sources of Energy
Geothermal energy: Introduction, generation, potential, types of systems, storage, application,
advantages and disadvantages. Ocean energy : Ocean Thermal Electricity Generation (OTEC): Introduction,
generation, potential, system components, types, application and limitations. Ocean thermal energy
system, tidal and wave energy system.
Hydrogen energy: Generation potential, system components, storage, application and capabilities.
MHD ( Magneto Hydro Dynamic) power : Introduction, basic principle, system components, potential,
types and applications. Chemical energy source: Introduction, types, principles, types of fuel cell,
application and limitations.

15. Land and Water Management Engineering and
PAPER - I (B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1: Wells and Pumps
Present status and scope of development of water resources. Increasing water use efficiency.
Principles of surface and groundwater flow. Hydraulics of fully and partially penetrating wells. Aquifer
types and parameters. Design, construction and development of irrigation wells. Water lifts, pumps and
prime movers : Performance evaluation and selection of pumps. Design of centrifugal pumps. Groundwater
recharge, conjunctive use of surface and groundwater.
Unit 2: Open Channel Hydraulics
Hydraulics of open channel flow, energy and momentum principles. Hydraulic jump and classification.
Design of irrigation channels. Irrigation water measurement: velocity area method, water meters, weirs,
notches, flumes, orifices etc. Water conveyance and control. Conveyance losses and lining of irrigation
channels. Irrigation water delivery and distribution. Hydraulics and design of surface and pressurized
irrigation systems. Irrigation efficiency and economics of different irrigation systems.
Unit 3: Soil, Plant, Water and Atmosphere Relationship
Water movement through soil plant atmosphere system. Estimation of evaporation and
evapotranspiration, Crop coefficient and irrigation requirement. Critical stages of crop growth in relation
to irrigation. Irrigation scheduling. Origin of salts in irrigation water. Quality of irrigation water and its
pollution through different sources. Irrigation water. Quality of irrigation water and its pollution through
different sources. Irrigation with poor quality water. Drainage: Theory of flow in saturated soil. Flow net
theory and its application. Drainage investigations. Drainage characteristics of various type of soils. Water
table contour maps and isobaths maps. Drainage coefficient. Design and installation of surface and
subsurface drains. Interceptor and relief drains and their design. Drain pipe and accessories. Pumped
drainage. Drainage requirements of crops. Drainage in relation to salinity and water table control.
Unit 4: Hydrology
Hydrologic cycle: precipitation, infiltration and runoff. Measurement and analysis of hydrologic data.
Probability concepts. distributions and application. Rainfall fun off relationships, runoff measurement and
estimation: hydrograph, unit hydrograph theory and application. Flood routing methods and calculations.
Soil erosion. Soil loss measurement and estimation. Erosion control measures and their design. Gully
control structures and their design. Design and construction of farm pond and reservoir. Seepage theory.
Design of earthen dams and retaining walls, stability analysis of slopes. Mathematical models and
simulation of hydrologic processes.
Unit 5: Water Management
Watershed concept, Identification and characterization of watersheds. Hydrological and
geomorphological characteristics of watersheds. Land capability and irritability classification, Soil maps.
Development of watershed management plans. Feasibility and economic evaluation of plans. Land leveling
and grading. Land leveling machinery and equipment.
Unit 6:
Reclamation of ravine, waterlogged, swampy areas and polders. Salt-affected soils and their

reclamation. Command area development organizational structures and activities. River valley projects,
interstate disputes. Water rights and legal aspects. Irrigation water users association concept and
responsibilities. Environmental considerations in land and water resources management.
Unit 7: Basics of Soil and Water
Soil and water as vital resources for agricultural production. Hydrological cycle. Soil plant water
relationship. Fate of rain water received at the soil surface. Contingent crop plans and other strategies
for aberrant weather conditions. Cropping patterns, alternate land use and crop diversification in rain fed
Unit 8: Soil Water Relationship
Water retention by soil, soil moisture characteristics, field capacity, permanent wilting point, plant
available water and extractable water. Soil irritability classifications, factors affecting profile water storage.
Determination of soil water content, computation of soil water depletion, soil water potential and its
components, hydraulic head. Field water budget water gains and water losses from soil, deep percolation
beyond root zone, capillary rise. Evapotranspiration (ET), scope for economizing water, measures for
reducing direct evaporation from soil and crop canopies.
Unit 9: Plant Water Relationship
Plant water relations : concept of plant water potential, cell water relations, plant water potential
and its components, significance of osmotic adjustment, leaf diffusive resistance, canopy temperature,
canopy temperature depression (CTD). Uptake and transport of water by roots. Development of crop water
deficit, crop adaptation to water deficit, morpho physiological effect of water deficit. Drought tolerance,
mechanisms of drought tolerance, potential drought tolerance traits and their measurements, management
and breeding strategies to improve crop productivity under different patterns of drought situations of limited
water supplies.
Unit 10: Irrigation Water Management
Management of irrigation water. History of irrigation in India. Major irrigation projects in India. Crop
water requirements. Soil water depletion plant indices and climatic parameters. Crop modeling, water
production factions. Methods of irrigation surface methods, overhead methods, drip irrigation and air
conditioning irrigation, merits and demerits of various methods. Application and distribution efficiencies.
Agronomic considerations in the design and operation of irrigation projects, characteristics of irrigation
and family systems affecting irrigation management. Irrigation legislation. Irrigation strategies under different
situation of water availability, optimum crop plans and cropping patterns in canal command areas. Socio-
economic aspects of on farm water management.
Unit 11 : Management of Problematic Soils and Water
Problem soils and their distribution in India, acidic. Ground water resources, water quality criteria
and use of brackish waters in agriculture. Excess salt and salt tolerant crops. Hydrological imbalances
and their corrective measures. Concept of critical water table depths for crop growth. Contribution of shallow
water table to crop water requirements. Management strategies for flood prone areas crop and crop calendar
for flood affected areas. Crop production and alternate use of problematic soils and fish production.

16. Home Science and Family Resources Management

Part-I: Life span development and behaviour dynamics:
Unit-I : Human development across the life span
Unit-II : Theories of Human development and behaviour
Unit-III : Children with developmental challenges
Unit-IV : Methods and Techniques of assessment in Human Development
Part-II: Socio cultural perspectives in Human Development
Unit-I : Trends and issues in early childhood care and education
Unit-II : Family dynamics
Unit-III : Guidance and counseling
Unit-IV : Population education and family welfare

Unit-I: Human development across the life span
Major factors influencing human growth and development across life span. Principles of Human
growth, and development. Conception and child birth. Development during infancy, childhood and
adolescence - definition, characteristics, physical and motor development, emotional, intellectual, social,’
moral, language and personality development. Disciplinary techniques and socialization. Role of family
school and peer interaction in the development of the child. Adolescence: Primary and secondary sexual
characteristics. Hetrosexual relationships, Emotionality. Self-Development of identity. Adulthood-
characteristics, socio-emotional intellectual and personality development. Adjustment during adulthood.
Old age-characteristics, physical, social and emotional problems. Current issues in human development
- gender differences, child abuse, family violence, fatherhood and impact of mass media on development.
Unit-II: Theories of Human Development and behaviour
Meaning and significance of theories of Child/ Human development with special reference to
cognitive development theories – Piaget and Vygotoksy. Kothberg’s theory of Moral development.
Psychoanalytic theory - Freud, Adler and Jung. Erickson’s theory of psychosocial development. Language
development theory of Chomosky. Learning theories Stimulus - Response theories - Pavlov. Thorndike
and Skinner; social larning theory-Bandura; personality theories - Allport and Murray: Need theory of
Abraham Maslow, Ecological theory Uric, Bronfenbrenner. comparative analysis of theories and their
educational and research implications.
Unit-III: Children with developmental challenges:
Definition and classification of exceptionality. Needs of exceptional children. Types of impairments

- physical, visual, auditory, mental retardation, cerebral palsy and learning disabilities. The gifted, emotional
and behavioural deviations. Identification of social maladjustment. Special education for children with
developmental challenge - integrated v/s segregated approach, learning environment and infrastructural
setting with specific reference to each category of disability. Recent development of special education in
India and abroad.
Unit-IV: Methods and Techniques of assessment in Human Development
Assessment definition, functions, concept of measurement. Comparison of measurement techniques
and their relative efficacy in measuring different aspects of human development i.e. Physical, cognitive,
language, personality and socio emotional. Trends and challenges in assessment of human behaviour,
ethical issues in the assessment of human development. The scientific methods and its criteria - reliability,
validity, control, item analysis, assessment methods, use of objective measures and methods.
Development of test / scale and standardization procedure types of scales - nominal ordinal, interval
and ratio scale.

Unit-I: Trends and issues in early childhood care and education
Perspective on early childhood care and development- history of ECE in India nd abroad, critical
analysis and procedures for early childhood education - Montessori, open school, day care, K.G.,
Anganwadi, pre-basic, mobile creches etc., Behavioural analysis procedure, The Piagetian procedure,
Progressive procedure, Open education, play way method comparative analysis of curriculum modlels.
National and international policies and schemes for the pre-school children and their education.
Administrative and management issues - organizational and administrative consideration (budget, admission
tests and intake policy, class size and Teacher-child ratio, teacher’s qualities and role in child’s development
- gender issues, physical aspects - building, space, equipment, , supervision. Involving parents in
programmes of education and care of young children. Parent and community education - meaning need,
methods and procedure. Factors affecting the use of different methods. of parent and community education.
Areas of knowledge for parent education. Assessment and Monitoring of ECCE programmes. Recruiting
personnel of ECCD - Training curriculum for various functionaries (orientation, refresher).
Unit-II: Family dynamics
Family in social context. Approaches to study family-developmental social, psychological and
educational. Modern trends in Indian urban and rural amenities and changing family functions. Changing
role and relationships. Influence of socio-economics status, culture, religion and role of family in maintaining
mental health. Types of family crisis and coping strategies - financial, behavioural, interpersonal
relationships and health. The disadvantaged family - its needs, problems and support mechanism.
Unit-III: Guidance and counselling
Guidance and counseling: Concepts, need and principles of guidance and conselling. Objectives of
individual and group guidance. Identification, problems, strategies and approaches. Application of
psychological tests. Criteria for testing and measurements. Methods and techniques in counseling children
and parents. Skill and characteristics of effective counselor. Research trends in guidance and counseling
in Indian and abroad and possible areas of research in future.
Unit-IV: Population education and family welfare
Demography and population dynamics in developed and developing countries. Indian population


policy. Population education - Role of national, international and non governmental agencies. Population
statistics with special reference to children and women infant mortality and morbidity. Population growth.
Birth control measures. Reproductive and child health programmes. Reproductive rights of women. Family
welfare services - community based assistance to family, daycare services, services for families in poverty
and with problem children. Rehabilitation of juvenile delinquents. Rehabilitation and services for the aged.
Development programmes at central and state level for women and children. Family laws and family courts.
Agencies and organizations involved in the welfare of children, women and family. Rights of women and
children. National policy for children. National commission for women.


Unit-I: Resource Management and Consumer Science

Interdisciplinary nature of management and systems approach to Family Resource Management.
Concepts of management: Goal types and goal setting. Value types. sources of learning values and their
importance to family; Standards -types and relationship with values and goals. Resources - types,
characteristics, and factors affecting use. Needs and wants. Communication - importance. and components.
Process of management - planning. controlling, evaluating, organizing and their application to resource
use and resource development. Decision making process. types. factors affecting decisions, decision
conflicts and coping strategies in resolving conflicts in the family. Family life cycle-time, energy and
money demands. Application of management process to time and energy for work simplification. Fatigue
- meaning, types, causes, effects and remedies. Techniques of time and motion studies and application
of Mundel’s classes of change in household work agricultural and allied tasks.
Household energy forms: sources, fuels and their classification. Energy crisis, its causes and
implications for energy management in homes. National efforts for energy and environmental conservation.
Equipment, tools and accessories for rural and urban houses, their selection, maintenance and care.
Ergonomic designing improvements in making equipments worker friendly.
Money: its types and function. Application of management process to money for realization of goals
and raising socio-economic stats of family.
Family income: types. sources and contributions, methods of handling family income Financial)
planning. controlling and evaluation. Guidelines for budgeting. Engel’s law of expenditure, account keeping,
investment and savings. Banking, e-banking and insurance. Credit - rural and urban credit sources.
Advantages, disadvantages. selection and repayments. Credit/debit cards. Consumer problems, Consumer
Protection Act. and other laws. Grading, standardization and packaging.. Fraudulent practices. Public
distribution system. Consumer rights and responsibilities and consumer protection services/measures,’
Consumer organizations and their roles. Basic Economic laws - Demand, supply, consumer surplus, price
mechanics in various competitions. price index, inflation, deflation, income distribution. Cost of living,
standard of living, factors affecting standard of living.
National Income: Methods of calculation. Taxes - types, principles and procedure of income tax
calculation, preparation of income tax statement. Consumer and public utilities. Consumer cooperatives,
role of media in consumer information.
Market-Types of markets. their functions and pricing. E-marketing and rural super market”.marketing
information systems. Sales management and product promotion. Consumer behaviour with income effect.
price effect. scale of preference. consumer state of equilibrium with indifference curve. Consumer goods


- types. buying motive; channels of distribution - meaning. types. advantages and disadvantages. Consumer
retail services. Advertising - role, types and legislation, Price determination. International trade. world
trade organization and trade related intellectual property rights (TRIPS). Right to Information Act.
Concepts and Principles Human Resource management: Human resource - policy, recruitment/
selection, placement and promotion, motivation. learning concepts and principles, Importance and Scope
of entrepreneurship. Basic concepts: enterprise, entrepreneurship, business enterprise and economic
system, entrepreneurship development and employment promotion. characteristics of an entrepreneur.
Sources of information or, project proposals and kinds or information needed. Role of government and
private organization in financing. Agencies for entrepreneurship development - Role and functions of small
- scale industries. KVIC, DRDA, DIC, voluntary organizations, state and central level agencies. Behavioural
and managerial factors affecting entrepreneurship. Financial input and management -formulating project
proposal, feasibility report, and means of finance, working capitals, calculating risk, and information on
assistance schemes.
Environment and Human Ecology: Man, environment and resources, micro and macro environment,
family as an ecosystem, impact of environment on family life, environment and health hazards due to
pollution. Different types of pollution - air, water and noise. Role of homemaker in improving home
Unit-II: Housing and interior space designing
Identifying family housing needs and future projections. Selection of site - orientation and zoning.
Factors to be considered in house planning - space requirements for various activities and room layout.
Drawing house plans for different income groups and activities. Lighting, electrical and sanitary fittings
and fixtures. Functional design for work areas and storage space. Space saving housing plans. Different
types of houses, economic house construction. Building materials - characteristics, selection and suitability
for low cost rural and urban housing. Eco friendly building materials and building designs. Advantages of
owing and renting a house. House ownership. Building bye - laws. Estimating cost of building a house.
Housing finance - sources and cost. Government / semi-government housing schemes / programmes.
Housing problems and research needed. Role of NBO, CBRI. Acoustics and its importance in homes.
Rain water harvesting. Effect of environment on planning landscaping.
Importance of Interior space designing
Elements and principles of art and their application in interior decoration. Design and its types. Colour
- its importance in interior decoration, psychological effect of different colours, colour theories, colour
schemes and their application in interior decoration. Effect of hue, value and intensity. Accessories -
importance, role in interior decoration, types, and placement. Furniture - types, selection, arrangement,
care and maintenance. Household furnishing- types, selection, care and maintenance. Wall treatments,
window types and window treatments. Floor and floor coverings. Lighting - functions, natural and artificial
light - sources, types, lighting fixtures, lighting for specific areas and activities. Creating optical illusion
through colour and light. Flower arrangement - selection and care of flowers, types of arrangements,
application of art principles, tools and accessories used.
Ergonomics - its significance and scope:
Work, worker and work place relationship. Human costs of work in relation to affective, cognitive,
temporal and physical components. Anthropometry and its application in designing house and its interiors
and consumer products. Functional design and arrangement of work places for different occupational
activities: kitchen, laundry, storage areas, office space etc. Ergonomic designing of furniture and


equipment. Determining physiological cost of work. Posture - its importance in work, effect on health
and output of work. Planning interiors for people with special needs.

Unit- Textiles and Apparel designing

Textile Science & Quality Analysis
Textile fibers- processing /manufacturing, properties of cotton, silk, wool, rayon and synthetics.
Blending- principles, types and technology. Textile yarns- classification, characteristics and uses.
Advantages and disadvantages of shuttle less looms. projectile ,rapier, air jet and water jet looms. Woven
textiles- basic and special weaves-leno, double cloth, dobby, jacquard, warp and weft figuring, terry, pile,
huck-a-back. Study of damasks, brocades, carpets, shawls, weave calculations and economics of
production. Comparison of woven and knitted structures. Production of specially knits and integral garments.
Textile design centers and their functions.
Classification of dyes and pigments. Natural dyes-importance, sources, method of dyeing. Synthetic
dyes-composition, properties and application on different textiles. Basic methods and styles of printing.
Printing auxiliaries. Technological advances in dyeing and printing. Assessment of colorfastness of dyed
textiles. Different types of finishes and their relevance to consumers. Importance of textiles and apparel
testing, standardization and quality control. Fiber testing- length, fineness, evenness and strength. Yarn
testing- twist, count, cloth cover, crimp, evenness, strength and elongation. Fabric testing - fabric count,
balance, weight, thickness, strength, (breaking, tearing, bursting) elongation, abrasion resistance, billing,
crease, recovery, stiffness, drapability, handle, air and water permeability, thermal conductivity,
flammability, qualitative and quantitative estimation of blends and mixtures in textiles. Apparel testing-
quality specifications and standards in cutting, sewing, supplies, finishing and packing.
Apparel Designing, Manufacturing and Industrial Management
Analysis of traditional and contemporary textile designs of India and other countries. Application of
art principles in apparel and textile designing. Types of motifs and design repeats. Study of historic
costumes in relation to fabrics, motifs and colours and other related accessories of different states of
India. Fashion-History and evolution from 1900 to date influence of fashion on apparel trends. Analysis
and interpretation of fashion forecasts and fashion cycle. Factors influencing apparel designing and clothing
selection. Clothing needs of different age groups and for different figures types. Pattern making techniques
and grading. Fitting problems. Sewing techniques and their applications in manufacturing of apparel/
garments. Machinery and equipment for apparel manufacturing. Finishing and packaging of apparels.
Apparel brands and costing. Trends in production, marketing, distribution and consumption, sales promotion
techniques for textiles and apparel. Textile industry in India-status of the industry over a decade with
reference to cotton, silk, wool, jute, rayon and synthetics. Garments and hosiery industries. Export and
import policies of textiles and apparels. Export infrastructural facilities and incentives. Techniques of
retailing and merchandising of textiles and apparel industry. Need for consumer education in textiles and
clothing. Status of textile and apparel industries in the global scenarioGATT/WTO, ISO 9000-2000 series
and ISO 14000 series SWOT analysis, problems of industries and remedial measures.

17. Environmental Science
Unit 1
Definition and scope of environment science and its interrelationship with other sciences and
agriculture. Origin and evolution of the earth and its environs-atmosphere: hydrosphere. Lithosphere and
biosphere. Biogeochemical cycles. Components of environment - biotic, abiotic and social. Weather and
climate. History and evolution of human settlement.
Unit 2
Basic ecological concepts-habitat ecology, systems ecology, synecology, autecology. Ecosystem
concept. Structure and functions of biotic and abiotic components. Energy in ecosystems and environment.
Energy exchange and productivity-food chains and food webs-ecological pyramids, nutrient cycles and
recycle pathways. Population - characteristics and measurement. Communities-habitats, niches; population
dynamicsspecies and individual in the ecosystem. Recent trends in ecology. Types characteristic features,
structure and function of forest, grassland, plantation, desert. Aquatic and agro ecosystem. Ecological
succession - types and causes.
Unit 3
Biodiversity concepts, levels and types, changes in tune and space, centres of origin, species
concept. Significance of biodiversity. Plant genetic resources, exploration and collection: plant introductions;
migration and utilization: IUCN classes and concept of threatened and endangered species. Principles of
conservation of biological diversity insitu and ex-situ. Causes of loss of biodiversity: introduction of exotics
and invasive plants. Methods of conservation, role of national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, biosphere
reserves. National and global conservation measures, institutions and conventions. Indian Biodiversity
Act- 2002. Biodiversity and economics with special reference to India. Biodiversity in relation to global
environmental changes. Biodiversity hot spots in India and world. Forest policies and legislation in India.
Role of forests in national economy. Forest types of India and their salient features. Introduction to
succession. Climax and retrogression. Concept and definition of agro forestry, social forestry, community
forestry and farm forestry. Benefits and constraints of agro forestry. Historical development of agro forestry
and overview of global agro forestry systems.
Unit 4
Composition of air. Air pollution: sources and classification of major air pollutants. Smoke, smog,
photochemical smog and SPM. Methods of air pollution monitoring. Effects of air pollutants on crops.
vegetation, animals and human health; acid rain; mitigation measures for combating air pollution. National
and international laws and policies on air pollution. Permissible limits of air pollutants in the residential,
commercial and industrial areas. Noise pollution-concept and effects.
Unit 5
Soil and water pollution: sources and types of soil and water pollutants. Effects of pollutants on
soil health and productivity. Radioactive pollutants, their lifetime and disposal. Point and non-point sources
of water pollution, major types of water pollutants, their impacts on environment and agro-ecosystems.
Pollution in Freshwater bodiesponds, lakes, rivers and wells. National and International laws and maximum
permissible limits of soil and water pollutants.

Physical, chemical and biological properties of wastes. Effluent treatment processes for major
industries viz: distilleries. paper and pulp, sugar, sewage and other agro-industrial wastes. Resource, product
recovery, recycling and value addition to wastes. Biodegradation and bioconversion of organic wastes-
composting, landfills. Vermicomposting, biogas. animal feed. mushroom cultivation etc. Use of sludge.
flyash. effluents and other agro industrial wastes in agriculture. Microbial. chemical and phytoremediation
processes. Microbiological and public health aspects of waste disposal.
Unit 6
Climate change: Global warming and greenhouse effect, sources and sinks of green house gases,
major GHGs, analytical techniques of monitoring greenhouse gases in atmosphere. Global climate change-
its history and future predictions. Impact of climate change on agriculture, forestry, water resources. sea
level rise, livestock. fisheries, coastal ecosystem and dynamics and pests and diseases and overall
ecological processes. Climate change and food security. Contribution of agriculture and forestry to climate
change. International conventions on climate change. Stratospheric Ozone layer depletion-effect of UV-
B radiation on plants and human health.
Unit 7
Energy consumption pattern in urban and rural India. Types of renewable sources of energy. Solar
energy; concepts of heat and mass transfer. design of solar thermal system and their applications in
heating. cooling. distillation. drying. dehydration etc., design of solar photovoltaic systems, power
generation for rural electrification-water pumping, solar ponds. Wind energy for mechanical and electrical
power generation, types of wind mills. Geothermal and tidal energy. Biogas from animal and agricultural
wastes; types of biogas plants, utilization of biogas for heating, cooking lighting and power generation.
Characteristics of biogas slurry and its utilization. Energy from biogas. Liquid fuels from petrocrops, energy
plantation crops. Concepts of producer gas; characterization of materials for producer gas, types of
gasifiers. Animals draft power and its utilization in rural sector. Briquetting of agro-wastes for fuel. Potential
of renewable energy sources in India, Integrated rural energy programme.
Unit 8
Natural resources of India: land, soil, water and forest: their conservation and management including
wildlife. Effects of deforestation on soil erosion. Land degradation. Enviromnent and rural economy.
Wasteland : their extent, characteristics and reclamation. Soil and water conservation, rain water harvesting
and watershed management. Desertification and biological invasion. Rain water harvesting. Mineral
resources: use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources. Disaster
management: floods, droughts. earthquakes. Tsunami, cyclones and landslides. Nuclear hazards.
Environmental impact assessment for physical. chemical. biological and socio-economic factors. Legislative
implications of EIA, environmental impacts tatement and enviroiunental auditing. Major global envirorunental
Human population and environment: Population growth. variation among nations. Population explosion
- Family Welfare Programme. World food resources. World food problems. Environment and human health.
Environmental ethics: issues and possible solutions. Environmental policies and laws in India. Public
environmental awareness. Human rights. Role of information technology in environmental and human health.
Industrial pollutants. Sea weeds and their utilization in agar, alginic acid, carrageenan. agarose and
agaropectin production.
Unit 9
Frequency distribution. Mean. median. mode and standard deviation. Nomral, binomial and Poisson


distribution. Correlations - partial and multiple. Regression coefficients and multiple regression. Tests of
significance I and Chi-square tests. Experimental designs basic principles, completely randomized.
randomized block, latiil square and split plot designs.

18. Forestry
Unit 1
National Forest Policy 1894, 1952 and 1988. Indian Forest Act, 1927. Forest Conservation Act,
1980 and Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. Forests-extent, basis for classification and distribution in India.
Geographical distribution and salient features of major world forest types. Role of forests in national
economy - productive, protective and ameliorative, tribal and rural livelihoods. Forest types of India:
distribution and types. Succession, climax and retrogression. Concepts of biomass, productivity, energy
flow and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystem. Effect of global warming, pollution and acid rain on growth
and regeneration of forest trees.
Unit 2
Concept and definition of agroforestry, social forestry, community forestry and farm forestry. Benefits
and constraints of agroforestry. Historical development of agroforestry and overview of global agroforestry
systems. Classification of agroforestry systems: structural, functional, socio-economic and ecological.
Diagnosis and design of agroforestry system. Land capability classification and land use. Criteria of an
ideal agroforestry designproductivity, sustainability and adoptability. Multipurpose tree species and their
characteristics suitable for agroforestry.
Unit 3
Plant management practices in agroforestry. Tree-crop interactions: ecological and economic. Concept
of complementarity, supplementarity and competition. Productivity, nutrient cycling and light, water and
nutrient competition in agroforestry. Concept of allelopathy and its impact on agroforestry. Energy plantations
- choice of species and management. Lopping of top-feed species such as frequency and intensity of
lopping. Organic farming. Financial analysis and economic evaluation of agroforestry systems: cost benefit
analysis and land equivalent ratio. Agroforestry practices and systems in different agro - ecological zones
of India.
Unit 4
Extent and causes of land denudation. Effects of deforestation on soil erosion, land degradation,
environment and rural economy. Wastelands: their extent, characteristics and reclamation. Watershed
management and its role in social, economic and ecological development. Biomass production for fuel
wood, small timber, raw material for plant based cottage industries, non-wood forest products such as
gums, resins & tannins, medicinal plants, essential oils, edible fruits, spices, bamboo and canes. Wood
quality and wood preservation. Plywood and pulp industries.
Unit 5
Forest mensuration - definition, object and scope. Methods of measuring diameter, girth, height,
stem form, bark thickness, crown width and crown length and volume of trees. Volume estimation of
stands, current and mean annual increment. Classification of volume tables. Forest inventory: kinds of
enumeration, sampling methods, sample plots, surveys, inventory preparation and photo interpretation.
Point sampling. GIS and remote sensing - concept and scope.
Unit 6
Definition, object and scope of silviculture. Site factors - climatic, edaphic, physiographic, biotic

and their influence on forest vegetation. Forest regeneration: natural and artificial. Silvicultural systems
- high forest (clear felling, shelterwood and selection system) and coppice systems. Silviculture of
important tree species - Populus, Eucalyptus, Dalbergia, Acacia, Tectona, Shorea, Prosopis, Casuarina,
Pinus, Gmelina, Azadirachta, Diospyros, Pterocarpus, Anogeissus, Santalum, Quercus, Albizia and
Unit 7
Seed collection, processing, storage, viability and pre-treatment. Seed dormancy and methods for
breaking dormancy. Seed testing and germination tests. Seed certification. Forest nursery - need, selection
and preparation of site, layout and design of nursery beds. Types of containers. Root trainers. Growing
media and sowing methods. Management of nursery-shading, watering, manuring, fertilizer application,
weed control, insect pest and diseases control. Planting techniques:site selection, evaluation and
protection. Soil working techniques for various edaphic and climatic conditions. Planting patterns. Plant
spacing, manure and fertilizer application, irrigation/moisture conservation techniques. Choice of species.
Afforestation of difficult sites: saline-alkaline soils, coastal sands, lateritic soils, wetlands, ravine and
sand dunes, dry and rocky areas, cold desert. Tending operations - weeding, cleaning, climber cutting,
thinning - mechanical, ordinary, crown and selection thinning, improvement felling, pruning and girdling.
Forest fires: causes, types, impacts and control measures. Major forest pests and weeds.
Unit 8
Forest management: definition and scope. Concept of sustained yield and normal forest. Rotation.
Estimation of growing stock, density and site quality. Management of evenaged and unevenaged forest.
Regulation of yield in regular and irregular forests by area, volume, increment and number of trees. Working
Plan. Joint Forest Management. Conservation and management of natural resources including wildlife.
Forest valuation - Internal rate of return, present net worth and cost benefit analysis.
Unit 9
Tree improvement: nature and extent of variations in natural population. Natural selection. Concept
of seed source/ provenance. Selection of superior trees. Seed production areas, exotic trees, land races.
Collection, evaluation and maintenance of germplasm. Provenance testing. Genetic gains. Tree breeding:
General principles, mode of pollination and floral structure. Basics of forest genetics - inheritance, Hardy-
weinburg Law, genetic drift. Aims and methods of tree breeding. Seed orchard : Types, establishment,
planning and management, progeny test and designs. Clonal forestry - merits and demerits. Techniques
of vegetative propagation, tissue culture, mist chamber. Role of growth substances in vegetative
Unit 10
Frequency distribution. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation.Normal, binomial and Poisson
distribution. Correlations - partial and multiple. Regression coefficients and multiple regression. Tests of
significance-F and Chi-square tests. Experimental designsbasic principles, completely randomized,
randomized block, latin square and split plot designs.

19. Food Science & Technology
Unit 1
Introduction of Food Technology: Definition, scope and opportunities, Food industries development
in the country, Food security, Nutrition security, community nutrition.
Unit 2
Causes of food spoilage, sources of microbial contamination of foods, food borne illnesses, water
activity and it relation to spoilage of food. Spoilage of processed products and their detection. Safety
related quality management systems.
Unit 3
Food attributes - color, texture, flavour, nutritive value and consumer preferences. Composition and
related quality factors for processing. Factors affecting food quality, quality measurement, quality
management sytems.
Unit 4
Method of food preservation - heat processing, pasteurization, canning, dehydration, freezing,
fermentation, irradiation and chemical additives. Refrigerated and modified atmosphere storage, aspetic
preservation, hurdle technology, hydrostatic pressure technology, microwave processing etc.
Unit 5
Use of non-thermal technologies (micro filtration (UF & MP) bactofugation, ultra high voltage electric
fields, irradiation, thermosonication), alternate-thermal technologies (ohmic heating, dielectric heating,
infrared and induction heating) & biological technologies (antibacterial enzymes, proteins & peptides) in
food processing.
Unit 6
Unit opreating of food processing machineries for various unit operations, Mass and energy balance
in food processing. Packaging materials - properties and testing procedure, packaging of fresh and
processed foods. Shelf life studies. Recent trends in packaging - aseptic, modified atmosphere. Vacuum
and gas packaging etc. Nutritional labeling requirements of foods. Requirements and functions of containers.
Principles of package design.
Unit 7
Flavour composition of food/beverages (identification and quantitative analysis of the flavour
precursors and their products. Characterization of the staling reaction using stable isotopes). Flavour
composition of foods/beverages in relation with maturation and microbial activity/or the processing
conditions (e g. fermented dairy products, beer, wine, honey, fruits) etc. Analysis of odour - active
compounds of foods/beverages (Charm analysis). Synthesis of flavour by micro organism and plant cells.
Lipid derived flavours. Investigation of The equilibrium of key flavour compounds that govern the flavour
stability of beverages. Natural antioxidants constraints in spices.
Unit 8
Socio-cultural, physiological and economical consideration for food appearance, domestic and export
marketing. Consumer ti-ends and their impact on new product development. Product development - To

conceive ideas, evaluation of ideas, developing idea in to products, test marketing and commercialization.
Role of food in human nutrition- Nutritional disorders ‘associated with foods. Diet therapy Therapeutic
Engineered Fabricated foods, organic foods, specialty foods.



Unit 9: Post Harvest Technology of Fruits and Vegetables
Post harvest handling, and storage of fresh fruits and vegetables. Maturity standards, pretreatments
and pre-packaging, refrigerated storage and transportation, pack house operation. Preparation of fruits
and vegetables for processing. Minimally processed products.
Unit 10: Processing Fruits and Vegetables
Thermal processing - process time evaluation for canned products, process optimization, aseptic
canning, methods for canning of different fruits and vegetables. Dehydration and associated quality
changes during drying and storage of hydrated products. Solar drying. Intermediate moisture foods.
Preparation and utilization of fruits and vegetables, juice in non-fermented aerated beverages. Membrane
tachnology. Chemistry and manufacture of peptic role in gel formation and products like jellies and
marmalades. Technology of preserve; pickles, chutneys and sauces. Nature and control of spoilage in
these products. By-product utilization of fruits and vegetables processing industry. FPO and related
formalities to, obtain it. Frozen fruits and vegetables–methods, IQF products, packaging, storage and
thawing. Tomato products-juice, puree, paste, soup, sauce and ketchup. Other convenience foods from
fruits and vegetables.
Unit 11– Food Grain Processing
Structure of different grains like wheat, rice, barley, oat, maize, millets etc. Milling of grains. Wheat
flour/semolina and its use in traditional/nontraditional foods like breads, biscuits, cakes, doughnuts, buns,
pasta goods, extruded, breakfast and snack foods. Preparation of vital wheat gluten and its utilization-
Instant ready mixes. Milling and parboiling of rice: by-products of rice milling and their utilization. Processed
products from rice, Pearling, malting, brewing and preparation of malted milk foods from barley. Milling of
oats and its processing into flakes, porridge, oatmeal etc. Wet and dry milling of corn, manufacture of
corn flakes, corn syrup, corn starch, corn steep liquor and germ oil, confectionary products
Unit 12 - Legume and Oilseed Processing
Structure and composition of pulses and their importance in Indian diet. Milling ad processing of
pulse-germination, cooking, roasting, drying, canning and fermentation.
Use in traditional products, protein concentrates and Isolates; Oilseeds; edible oil sews, composition
and importance in India. Oilseed processing; Oil extraction and its processing. Production, packaging
and storage of vanaspati, peanut butter, protein concentrates, isolates and thier use in high foods. Export
of oilseed cakes. International market and consumer preferences for quality in cakes for use in textured
vegetable proteins.
Unit 13 - Food Quality Management
Objectives, importance and functions of quality control. Quality systems and tools used for quality


assurance including control charts, acceptance and auditing inspections, critical control points, reliability,
recall and liability, The principles and practices of food , plant sanitation. Food and hygiene regulations.
Environment and waste management. Total quality management, good managment practices. HACCP &
Codex in food. International and National food laws. US-FDA/ISO-9000 etc. Food adulteration, food safety.
Sensory evaluation, pawl screening, selection methods. Sensory and instrumental analysis quality control.
Quality control of food at all stages & for packaging materials. Quality certification, record keeping
materials, manuals and other documents.


Unit 1: Ccommmunity Nutrition
Food production and consumption trends in vatious states and in India in reletion to population.
Cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits, meat, eggs, fish, poultry and milk- their nutritive value and
contribution in India diets. Food security at household and national level. concept of geern, white, yellow
and blue revolution. Impact of green revolution on food production and conumption. Biotechnological
applications for augmentation in food production. Concept of organic foods. Assessment of community
nutritional status anthropometry, diet survey, biochemical and clinical methods. Indicators/parameters.
India and International Standards used to quantify malnutrition. Nutrition survellance. Nutrrition during
emerrgencies like farmings, floods etc. Assessment of body composition and its importance. Major
nutritional problems in India- causes, magnitude and distribution. National food and nutrition policies and
programmes to combat malnutrition- the strategies, targets, progress and impact. Functional significance
of malnutrition. Planning and conducting a research and impact. Functional significance of malnutrition.
Planning and conducting a research project. Collection, analysis and interpretation of data report writing.
Unit 4: Food Safety and Quality Control
Natural, microbial and chemical toxicants, pesticide residues, common adulterants, mycotoxins and
anti-nutritional factors in foods, their harmful effects on health and methods of eliminating them. Food
spoilage and its prevention. Food hygiene. Sampling and specification of raw materials. Application of
food standards and their specifications for foods, food products, additives, preservatives, colouring agents,
emulsifying and stabilizing agents and anti oxidants. Various methods/ techniqes for the assessment of
quality of different foods. Selection of sensory panel and sensory evalution of food products. Grading
and marketing of standards and specification of finished products. Importance of quality control &
assurance, food laws and regulation.
Units 2: Macro and Micro Nutrients in Human Nutrition
Body composition. Distinction between requriements and recommendations. Factors affecting
requriements and formulation of recommended allowance of energy, proteins, vitamins and minerals for
different age and activity group. Functions, source and utilization of carboydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins,
minerals, fiber and water in human body. Regulation of food intake. Nitrogen balance. Protein qulity. Amino
acid requriements and amino acid imbalance. Nutrient adaptation to low intake of energy and protein.
Relationship between energy and protein requlerments. Inter-relationship between vitamins, minerals and
Unit 3: Nutrition during Life Cycle
Nutritional reqiurements during infancy, preschool age, adolescent and adulthod. Physiological
changes in body composition during pregnancy. Iactation and geriatrics. Planning of meals for differents
age group considering sex. occupation and economic status. Infant and child feeding practices in India
and importance of promoting healthy feeding practices, growth monitoring and immunization.


Unit 4: Therapeutic Nutrition

Therapeutic nutrition-Its importance and scop. Therapeutic adaptation of normal diet. Commercial
preparation for therapeutic uses. Health foods and supplements. Methods and problems of feeding patients.
Etiology, symptoms and dietary management of overweight, underweight, influenza, malaria, measles,
pneumonia, typhoid, tuberculosis, gout etc. Etiology, symptomis and dietary treatment of candiovascular,
diabetes, digestives and renal disorders. Foods allergy. Diet followering burns. Dietary factors related to
cancer. Dietary recommendation for blood donors. Nutrition and immunity. Nutrition and alcoholism.
Guidelines for follow up nutrition and rehabilitation of the sick and injured Management of a dietary
Unit 5: Laboratory Techniques in Human Nutrition
Techniques for the estimation of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals.
Principales of chromatography, spectrophotomentry, repirography, calorimetry and flame
photometry. Role of GLC and HPLC in food analysis. Use of radioisotopes in nutrition research.
Principles of animal assay and designing an animal experiment-selection of animals, physical
laboratory facilities, diets and feeding.

20. Economics and Agricultural Business
Unit 1 : Economic Theory
Managerial economics, objectives of the firm and basic economic principles. demand and revenue
analysis - types and determinants of demand; demand function and elasticities, demand estimation and
forecasting; production analysis and input demand-production function. laws of returns, production
elasticities and input demand; cost and supply analysis - cost concepts, cost-output relationships, cost
functions and estimation, supply analysis: determination of price and output under different market
structures. government interventions and pricing; pricing models: risk and uncertainty - decision making
under risk and uncertainty; the national income, consumption, investment, aggregate demand, saving,
inflation; economic growth; business fluctuations and stabilization policy; Basic concepts and theories of
international trade.
Unit 2 : Agricultural Environment
Role of agriculture in Indian economy; Agricultural output - crops. livestock, poultry, fish, forestry
etc.; Productivity and performance of Indian Agriculture; Agricultural inputs-seed fertilizer, plant protection,
irrigation, mechanization, cattle feeds and fodder: Problems and policy changes relating to farm supplies,
farm production, agro processing. agri- finance etc. in the country; linkages among sub sectors of the
agribusiness system, agribusiness industries seed, fertilizer, pesticides, food, farm machinery; economic
reforms arid agribusiness sector commercialization, liberalization, privatization, globalization, arid
consumerism; emerging trends in agri production, agri-proccssing, agri-marketing, agri exports-imports.
WTO, AOA, FTA, agri policy; cooperatives in agribusiness; agribusiness policies; procurement, buffer
stocking and public distribution system, contract fanning-status, issues and challenges; regulatory and
support systems for agribusiness in India. AoA- market access, domestic support and export
competition. SPS measures, anti-dumping, protection tariff and non-tariff measures. Agricultural trade
structure in India
Unit 3: Quantitative Tools for Decision Making
Time Series Analysis: Growth curves arid their estimation; Index numbers. their characteristics and
construction; Econometric models; linear. The BLUE properties of least squares estimate; Problems of
multicollinearity, auto-correlation and heteroseedasticity; Dummy variables.
Linear programming methods - formulation of LP problems and their solutions in agriculture and
allied sectors; Simplex method of solving maximization and minimization problems; transportation and
assignment problems; PERT and CPM; Sensitivity analysis.
Unit 4 : Organizational Behaviour and Human Resource Management
The agribusiness systems, management processes, managerial skills, decision making models,
management by objectives, organizational culture, managing change, leadership styles group dynamics,
motivation. Human resources: environment and planning, training and development, performance appraisal,
participative management.
Suggested additions in the syllabus for Agri-Business Management.

Unit 5: Financial Management

Objectives and functions of financial management, fundamentals of accounting and book-keeping;
financial statements - balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement - and their analysis;
agri-business financial systems in India.
Unit 6: Marketing Management
The concept, definition and scope of marketing management; consumer behavious; market
segmentation and targeting; marketing mix; product mix; product planning and product management,
marketing information system and marketing research; product promotion.

Unit 1 : Agricultural Development and Policies
Role of agriculture in economic development; Growth and development, characteristics of developing
And developed economics; Theories of development; Role of economic, technological, social, cultural,
political and environmental factors; Interdependence between agricultural and industrial development;
Growth models - Harrod-Domar, Neoclassical, Von Neumann, Development strategies in India; Five-year
Plans and agriculture.

Agricultural growth analysis - determinant of agricultural growth and its measurements; Planning
models, features of planning in capitalist, socialist, neo-socialist and mixed ecnomics; Types of planning
- micro level, regional, sectoral, agro-eco agricultural development; Role of NGOs and SHGs in agricultural
development; Characterizing, agricultural growth, changes in cropping pattern, decomposition analysis
and sources of output growth; analysis of instability; Capital formation, crop livestock insurance.’
infrastructure; Transfer of technology - constraints to technology adoption, yield gap analysis and research
planning; agricultural information system.

Agricultural policy analysis and reforms - energy, water, fertilizer, land, seed, labour, technology,
rural infrastructure, marketing, pricing, trade etc.

Concepts of food security, production oriented policies, food price policies, food subsides, food
safety net, and food quality. Measurement of poverty, poverty alleviation programmes.
Unit 2 : Natural Resource Management
Characteristics and classification of natural resources; Sustainability issues in natural resources;
Role of economics in natural resource accounting, planning, management and policy formulation; Social
welfare function; Allocation of renewable and non-renewable resources (fisheries, forests, water, land etc.)
under various market structures: Management strategies for major natural resources; Government
Programmes for conservation* and development of natural resources.
Unit 3 : Farm Business Management and Production Economics
Basic principles of farm management - marginal returns, opportunity cost, cost substitution
equimarginal returns, enterprises combination, time comparison, and comparative advantage Cost concepts
and analysis; Farm efficiency measures: Farm financial analysis: Farm planning and budgeting; Book keeping
and accountancy; Process of decision making under different knowledge situations; Risk and uncertainty
in agriculture (including livestock., horticulture, fisheries, forestry etc.) -measurement and management,
Diversification and insurance in agriculture and allied sectors.


Forms and applications of production functions - linear, quadratic, square root, Spillman, cubic, semi-
log, Cobb-Douglas, CES, VES, etc; Dualities between production, cost and profit functions; Derivation of
supply’ and factor demand functions from production and profit functions; Optimization of resource
allocation; Product relationships; Resources-enterprise organisation; Resource-use efficiency and returns
to scale; Concept of frontier production function; Concept of total factor productivity; Rainbow (Green.
White, Yellow. Blue etc.) revolution.
Unit 4 : Agricultural Finance
lmportance of agricultural finance; Rural credit structure-demand, supply, sources and forms.
Estimation of credit requirement; Cost of credit/capital, Credit appraisal- 3 Rs and 3 Cs of credit; Reforms
lin agricultural credit policy: Innovations in agricultural financing microfinance, kissan credit cards; Role
of institutions in agri-finance -public and private sector banks; cooperative MFIs; SHGs; international
financial institutions; Principles of agricultural financial management: Successes and failures of co-
operative sector in India; Role of co-operatives under emerging economic scenario.
Unit 5 : Agricultural Marketing and Price Analysis
Marketing in a developing economy; Structure, conduct and performance analysis: Marketable and
marketed surplus; Marketing functions; Processing. transportation. storage and warehousing: Forward
trading, future market: and commodity Boards: Channels in marketing, price spread, and efficiency;
Problems in marketing agricultural produce: - Government interventions including regulated markets.
procurement, buffer stock Operations, co-operative marketing etc.: Demand and supply models-
formulation. estimation and projection: Marketed surplus models: Marketing of agricultural inputs: Market
integration; Price stabilization measures and policies.


Unit 6: Organizational Behaviour and Human Resource Management
The agribusiness system management processes, planning, controlling. organizing. motivating and
leading; decision making; managerial skills-. levels of managers; organizational context of decisions;
decision making models; management .by objectives; organizational culture, management of organizational
conflicts; managing change, -leadership styles ;group dynamics: motivation. Human resource environment
and planning, job analysis and design recruitment, selection, induction and placement; human resource
training and development: management development; performance appraisal and Job evaluation wage
and salary administration; promotion, transfer, separation, absenteeism and turnover, employee welfare
and safety; morale: personnel supervision; styles; participative management; labour management relations;
negotiation and negotiating skills.
Unit 7 : Financial Management
Fundamentals of acccounting and book-keeping; objectives and functions of financial management:
analysis of financial statements- balance sheet, income statements, cash flow statement, capital structure
theories; sources of long term finance and cost of capital. concepts and components of working capital,
managing working capital - cash management, dividend decision; capital budgeting, appraisal criteria;
agribusiness financing system in India-money and capital markets, national, regional and global financial
instiutions; rural insurance; risk management; micro-credit.
Unit 8 : Marketing Management
Indian marketing environment; rural marketing; agricultural marketing system, .wholesailing and
retailing, consumer behaviour; the buying process; marketing mix; marketing strategy; planning marketing


mix; market segmentation, marketing organization, market information system, market research, marketing
extension; rural retailing-, international marketing and finance.
Unit 9: Production and Operations Management
Agricultural productivity management; operations management of an agro industrial unit including
operations system and processes; productivity of operations: work force productivity; facilities management;
operations planning and control; material and supply chain management; quality management.
Unit 10 : Strategic Management
Corporate strategy and planning including its frame Work, strategic management including the
process, elements and models, Corporate management, SWOT analysis, strategy and structure, strategic
analysis, strategy and technology, strategy and leadership, total quality management, the customer
resource, development of strategy, creating competitive advantage strategy, implementing and evaluation
of strategy.
Unit 11: Entrepreneurial Skills and New Venture Planning
Enterepreneurship and small business concepts; process of business opportunity identification;
project feasibility study; detailed business plan preparation, managing small enterprises; planning for
growth; sickness in small enterprises. Government policy for promotion of small and tiny enterprises;
rehabilitation of sick enterprises; entrepreneurship.

21. Agricultural Technology Transfer
PAPER - I (B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1: Fundamentals of Agricultural Extension and Communication
Concepts of Agricultural Extension and Communication. Historical and emerging perspectives of
Agricultural Extension in India and other countries. Conceptual and philosophical similarities and
dissimilarities among extension education, adult education and continuing/distance education. Scope
and role of Agricultural Extension/home Science Extension Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension/
Dairy Extension/Fishers Extension in Rural Development. Farming System Research and Extension
(FSR&E) and participatory development approaches. National Agricultural Extension System and
Networking of State development Departments, State Agricultural Universities- Indian Council of Agricultural
Research. NGOs, Cooperatives and private Organizations. Human Behavioral Dimensions related to
Agricultural Extension. Concepts of teaching and learning process–principles of learning as applied to
agricultural extension. Understanding of basic rural institutions, social structure, culture and norms.
Social and technological change processes, group dynamics Concepts and theories of rural leadership.
Concept and modules of communication, credibility, fidelity, empathy and feedback in communication.
Concept and stages of Innovation - decision Process. Innovation attributes and consequences of
Innovations. Concept and elements of diffusion and adoption categories.

Critical analysis of Extension systems of SAARC and other selected countries (USA, UK, Japan,
Philippines, Israel etc.) meaning and characteristics of attitude, factors affecting attitude change;

Andragoy and theories of adult learning

Unit 2: Information Communication Technologies in Agricultural Extension
Concept of Information Communication Technology and its role in agricultural development. Extension
teaching methods and audio-visual aids; classification, selection and use. Information Communication
Technologies -print and electronic media, e-mail. Internet, use of multi media, video and teleconferencing,
computer-assisted instructions, touch screens. micro-computers and web technologies. Networking system
of’ information, problems and prospects of Information Communication Technologies. Interpersonal and
mass communication methods. Basics of agricultural .journalism, types of publications - bulletins, folders,
leaflets, booklets, news-Ietters, popular and scientific articles. Information Kiosks. Agricultural Technology
Information Centers (A TIC), Technology Parks, Management Information System in Agricultural Extension,
Management of Agricultural Knowledge System (MAKS) and use of expert system in agricultural extension.
Components of computer network, types of network such as PAN, LAN, CAN,MAN, WAN, internet
work,AGRINET,e-Governance, Cyber extension Initiatives in India and other developing Countries.
Extension through Virtual Mode, e-learning, Challenges and limitations in Promotion of Virtual Education
and Extension:
Unit 3: Agricultural Extension Managenient
Concept of administration and management. Principles of administration and management, scientific
management movement, classical and modem theories of management, school of management thought.
Functions of management planning organizing, staffing, directing and leading, controlling. coordinating,
reporting and budgeting. Monitoring and evaluation. Types and methods of administrative communication,
decision-making in organization. organizational effectiveness. organizational climate, organizational

behaviour, organizational development. Coordination at different levels of extension management, methods

of coordination. Management by Objective (MBO), Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT),
Logical Frame Working (LFW) and Project Management Techniques, Personal management, scope of Agri
Business Management and Institutions - National Institute of Agricultural Extension and management
(MANAGE). Indian Institute of Plantation Management (IIPM) NlRD. EEI and NAARM. Monitoring,
evaluation and impact analysis of extension programs.
Unit 4: Research Methodology in Extension Education
Research. Social research and types of research/Science and scientific approach. Characteristics
of scientific methods. Theory and Fact. Selection and identification of research problems, methods of
data collection- interview method and mailed questionnaires, variable-meaning and types, independent,
dependent and intervening variables. Hypothesis-concept characteristics. types and testing of hypothesis.
Research design - concept and types of research design, ex-post facto and experimental design, field
studies. case studies and survey method. Action Research and participatory research. Measurement -
meaning. levels of measurement. Methods of sampling and statistical tests. Reliability and validity of
tests. normal distribution. tests of significance. ANOVA, correlation and regression, scaling techniques.
Processing of data, coding. - tabulation, analysis and interpretation. Writing of scientific reports, citing
references. Participator approaches, PRA. RRA PLA and PTD.

Concept, Cunstruct. Discriminative scale construction- Gutman’s Scalogram Analysis and H-

Technique, Parametric and non-parametric statistics. Statistical Packages for analysis

Unit 5 : Agricultural Human Resource Development

Human resources and their importance in agricultural development. Concepts of human resource
and human resource management. Training and development of human-resources. Training process (capacity
building). Phases of training - pre training and post training. Developing training modules, training
requirements, training methods. Lecture cum demonstration method, case method, group brain storming,
syndicate method, business games, simulation exercises, in basket exercise, programmed instruction.
Experiential learning techniques such as sensitivity training, T-group, transactional analysis and fish bowl
exercise. Entrepreneurship development - agriclinics and agribusiness centers. Capacity Building in relation
to Dairying, Poultry, Piggery. Goat and Sheep farming, cottage industries, Rabbitry, Apiculture. Sericulture,
Biofertilizer, Floriculture, and Biopesticides. Evaluation of training - types and techniques of training
evaluation. Motivation, stress management and organizational behaviour as facilitators of human resource
development. Performance appraisal - concept and types.
Training needs assessment

Unit 6 : Developmental Strategies and Issues in Agricultural Extension

Issues related to extension policies and developmental strategies. Developmental strategies such
as Watershed Development Programmes; Technology Mission Horticulture Mission. Front Line Extension
Programmes of ICAR/TAR-IVLP, NATP, NAIP, IRDP, ATMA, ITD, SREP, Research-Extension-Farmer-
Interface. Identification, characterization, documentation and valediction of ITKs. Privatization of extension,
market led extension, production to consumption and end to end innovative approaches. Issues related
to globalization and IPR. Self Help Groups - Concepts, Organisation. Mobilisation, Micro-finance and
functioning of SHG groups for empowerment and sustainability. Rural, Agricultural, Animal Husbandry
Dairy and Women Developmental Programmes implemented by Govt. of India. Gender Issues -Women
in Agriculture and their Empowerment. International Cooperation in Agriculture - SAlC, Common wealth.
FAO, US All AID. DFID and CGIAR system. Concepts of yield gaps, FLD and OFT in relation to TOT


programmes. Agricultural Extension in the context of enhancing productivity. Quality, Nutrition. Profitability,
Income and Employment.
Environmental impact of farm technology and Role of extension and environmental education, Farmers
and public attitudes towards bio-technological innovations. Environmental impact of biotechnology, Extension
implications in promotion of biotechnology,
Concept, Types. Merits and demerits of contract farming.
Public private partnership in agricultural extension service.
Features of National Agricultural Policy including Agricultural Extension Policy, Report of National
Farmer’s Commission.

22. Aquaculture
Unit 1: Fish and Shellfish Hatcheries and Aquatic including Seaweed Farming Systems
Aquaculture practices in different parts of the world. Criteria for selection of organisms for aquaculture.
Criteria for selection of sites for culture, farms, hatcheries, nurseries. grow outs. Hatchery technology
for different species. Pond culture, cage culture, pen culture. recirculatory systems, aquaranching.
Broodstock development, maintenance, maturation and induced breeding of cultivable species- Induced
breeding, hatchery protocols, larval stages, larval feeds and rearing techniques, packaging and
transportation of larvae. nursery rearing. Preparation and stocking of grow-out ponds, water and soil quality
maintenance, natural and suplementary feeds, health management. Integration of aquaculture with
agriculture and animal husbandry, organic aquaculture. Aquaculture practices for freshwater fish (carps,
catfish, snakeheads, mahseer, trouts). Prawns, brackish water and m,.inc fish (sea bass, milkfish, mullets,
rabbit fish, Cobia, breams), shrimp (Penaeus monodon and P. indicus. P semisulcatus) mussels, oysters,
pearl oysters, scallops, clams, sea cucumbers. Culture of aquatic weeds including seaweeds: major
seaweed species of commerce, methods of culture of seaweeds, farming of agar, algin, carrageenan
yielding species in India and emerging trends in their farming in open seas and integrated with other
farming system. Breeding and rearing of freshwater and marine ornamental fish. Feeding, packaging and
transport of live fish. Good manufacturing practice (GMP), Responsible Aquaculture, Sanitary and
phytosanitary (SPS) agreement.
Unit 2: Fish physiology and Nutrition
Nutritional requirements of cultivable fish and shellfish at larval, Juvenile and adult stages. Role of
amino acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Nutritional physiology, biochemistry,
bioenergetics. Diet formulations, digestibility of Feeds and their evaluation, feed additives (attractants,
growth stimulants, probiotics) and binders their role in nutrition. Stability and storage properties of
formulated feeds. Methods of feeding. Feed quality assessment. Feeds suitable for application in different
aquaculture systems. Nutritional pathology. toxins in feeds and economic of formulated feeds. Reproductive
physiology, endocrine control of growth, moulting and reproduction. Eco-physiology. Stress physiology.
Unit 3: Genetics and Biotechnology
Principal of fish genetics. Heredity and cytogenties of fish reproduction: inheritance of qulitative
and quantitative traits in fish, biochemical and molecular genetic market selective breeding and
hybridization, chromosome set manipulation and sex control in aquaculture, genetic engineering: and
production of transgenic fish, fish genomes, proteomies, comparative genomies. Regulatory aspects of
fish biotechnology and transgenics. Use of molecular genetic markers in management of fish. Resources,
identification of resource, understanding breeding and stock structure of the resource, estimating the
size of resource, identification of key habitats for the resource. Biotechnologies in fish conservation.
Biotechnology in health management-- molecular (nucleic acid and antibody based) diagnostics and
vaccines GMOs.
Unit 4: Fish Health Management
Diseases in aquaculture: parasitic, bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens of fish and shellfish. Water,
soil, environmental quality and effects on fish health. Pathological changes in diseases: nutritional
pathology. Disease in hatcheries and grow out systems. Epidemiology of diseases. Microbiological,

histopathological and molecular techniques. Disease surveillance and reporting. Defence systems in fish-
innate and acquired immunity, inflammation and Response to diseases. Antibody and cell mediated
immunity in fish and shellfish. Methods for disease control and management. Environment management,
chemotherapeutic agents, host management, prophylaxis vaccines, immunostimulants, probiotics. Use
and abuse of antibiotics and chemicals in health management. Fish heath and quarantine systems. seed
certification, germplasm exchange.
Unit 5: Aquatic Microbiology and Fish Food Organisms
Bacteria, viruses. fungi, unicellular algae and protozoa in aquatic environment. Primary production,
degradation of molecules in aquatic environment, water pollution and purification, physiology and
biochemistry of aquatic microorganisms, their role in carbon. nitrogen, phosphorus. sulphur cycling and
their impact on aquatic habitats and fish species. Role of microorganism, in fish production, fish heath
and fish safety. Public health microbiology, algal blooms Shellfish toxicities.
Fish food organisms- bacterioplankton, phytoplankton and zooplankton and their role in larval nutrition,
nutrition and feeding in aquaculture systems. Mass culture of fish food organisms and its applications in
hatcheries. Culture of microalgae, rotifers, artemia and other fish food organisms.

23. Fisheries Science
PAPER - I (B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1: Fisheries Resources
Major fisheries resources of the world, global trends in production. Target and non-target fisheries
resources of the Indian subcontinent and the EEZ Distribution composition status trends and dynamics
of major exploited fishery resources in hill streams, rivers, reservoirs lakes. lagoons estuaries, territorial
waters pelagic and demersal seas oceanic waters deep sea occanic islands, straddling/shared stocks
non-conventional resources. Sport game and ornamental fisheries Major species groups which are
commercially exploited their potentials, status, bionomics dynamics, trends. methods of capture. crafts.
gear. tackle and yields. Issues related to capture fisheries; endangered and threatened species in situ
and ex situ conservation, fisheries and biodiversity act juvenile fishing destructive gears, by -catch and
discards, status and impact of exotic species, accidental introductions. guideline and policies for exotics.
Unit 2: Fishery Biology
Life history of economically important fish species; Food and feeding fish, methods for studying
feeding habits. Reproductive biology maturity stages. fecundity. ova diameter studies, breeding cycles;
Length weight relationships. Condition Index, Gonado - Somatic Index. Age and growth in fish. Methods for
determination of age. Study of growth rates direct and indirect methods. Identification and classification of
major groups of fish. Recruitment, growth and mortality of fish in natural water bodies. Different analytical
models of fish stock assessment, their advantages and disadvantages. Study of growth curves, length
weight relationships and cohort analysis. Catch per unit effort as an index of stocking abundance. Concept
of maximum sustainable yield and maximum economic yield use of - remote sensing for resource mapping
and forecasting. Mechanisms, methods and status of fish yield data acquisition. storage. retrieval and
processing for national estimates. trend analysis management policy formulations. Concepts of MSY MEY
and ecosystem -based fisheries management tools, Monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) systems
for major fisheries. Modeling in fisheries management. Classical management models. Modern tools and
approaches in modeling. Use of predictive models and management games.
Unit 3: Aquatic Environment
Various aquatic habitats and the fish faunal compositions, trophic relationships. distribution and
abundance. Relationship between environment and fisheries. Tides, waves and currents. Biological
occanography and marine fisheries. Limnological parameters and riverine fisheries. Influence of
environmental parameters on fish abundance, distribution, resource resilience. Impact of fishing on the
environment. Impact of fishing on fish stock. Impact of aquaculture other anthropogenic activities weather
climate, pollution and natural disasters on fisheries resources. capture fisheries. Meteorology in relation
to fisheries. Disaster management in fisheries. Productivity and fisheries. Methods for increasing
productivity of water bodies (Use of thermal energy and deep sea water through artificial upwelling Use
of ranching Artificial reefs FADs and their uses) Habitat degradation and impacts on fisheries pollution
of water bodies and Its impact on fisheries. Bioindicators. Bioremediation. Pretected areas (sancuaries
marine parks biosphere reserves). Potential fishing zones and application of GIS and remote sensing in
Unit 4: Fisheries Management
Concepts and principles of Fisheries management. Fisheries acts and Iegislations, revisions and

amendments. Fisheries policies, MFRAs, other regulatory instruments of the State and Cetral Governments.
Instruments and mechanisms for inland, coastal and open ocean fisheries management. Management of
riverine, reservoir and lacustrine fisheries. Management of marine fisheries. Modes of fisheries management:
Open access, regulated, advisory; participatory, user rights. Ecosystem approach to Fisheries management.
International fishery regulations, treaties and instruments. Input control measures such as access control,
size. type, number and power of boats, duration of fishing, Output control measures such as Total Allowable
Catch. Catch Quotas, Licensing Technical control measures such as size limitations, closed fishing areas,
closed seasons, size of nets and mesh size regulations, limited entry. Diversification in fisheries. National
fisheries policies and guidelines. Impediments to informed fisheries governance. UNCLOS. FAO Code of
Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. India’s commitment to international treaties and resolutions.
Unit 5: Fishing, Practices
Present status of fishing technology in India. Different types of gears, their operation and
maintenance. Traditional gears and traps use in inland waters. Hooks and lines and their operation.
Selectivity of fishing gears, by-catch reduction devices in trawls turtle excluder devices. Different types
of crafts. their operation. Use of modern techniques and equipments for finding and capturing fish.
Unit 6: Economics and Marketing
Role of fisheries in Indian economy. Supply. demand. price dynamics in the fisheries sector. Domestic
and export marketing of fish and fish products, trends, channels, mechanisms, regulations, trade and
non-trade barriers. concerns and strategies. Modern marketing methods and channels. Cold chains, storage,
value additions. domestic and international market demands. International regulations and practices
affecting Indian fisheries trade. WTO and Indian fisheries scenario EEU and Indian fisheries. Issues in
branding, labeling. quality concerns. consumer safety. Growth of domestic and exports markets. Market
trends and diversification. Emerging consumer preferences and trade practices. Live fish trade. Fisheries
co-operatives. Role of financial institutions, MPEDA,, export houses, policies and regulation.
Unit 7: Fisheries Livelihood
Relevance of, capture fisheries on the food, nutritional, employment, income. and livelihood securities
of fisher communities. Vulnerability of fishers to changing source availability, exploitation and utilization
patterns. Marginalization of fishers. small scale processors and traders due to changing scenarios of
product diversification, markets and trade. lmpact of WTO and globalization on fisher communities. Impact
of dams, river linking. CRZ. biodiversity bill, protected/closed area, fishing bans, closed seasons, protected
man-groves, sanctuaries and parks on the fisher communities. Impact of aquaculture, other anthropogenic
activities, weather, climate, pollution, and natural disasters on fisher livelihoods, employment and
nutritional securities. Land and water body use issues in fisheries. Role of extension in fisheries.
Mechanisms and modes of extension and their impact on capture on fisheries and fisher livelihoods.
Alternative livelihood options. Management of conflicts with in sectors in fisheries. Role of communication
mechanisms and strategies, information technology. GIS and remote sensing in fisher livelihoods. Women
in fisheries, status, role, impact, future. Vulnerability of fishers to natural disasters and coping mechanisms
in disaster management. Role of awareness, preparedness, HRD, societal, governmental and non-
governmental interventions.

24. Fish Harvest & Post-harvest Technology
PAPER – I (B) and PAPER – II
Unit 1: Craft Technology
Fishing crafts of the world. Principles of design and construction. Corrosion protection. Craft materials
wood marine plywood, fiberglass, reinforced plastic, aluminium, steel, ferrocement. biodeterioration and
preventive measures. FAO Classification of fishing vessels. Different types of fishing vessels in India:
fishing vessel statistics. General arrangements of fishing vessels. Basic principles of fishing vessel design.
Stability of fishing vessels- factors affecting stability. Powering of fishing boats. Deck machinery for travlers
seiners gill netters and liner: winches: net haulers line haulers, power blocks, special purpose winches.
Engine installation, - types of engines for fishing vessels, four stroke cycle, two stroke cycle, selection
of engine for fishing vessels. Transmission systems, reduction/reverse gear boxes. Fundamental principles
of refrigeration. Modem navigation equipment navigation and fishing lights. Life saving equipment: life
jacket life buoy. life raft: SART, EPIRB.
Unit 2: Gear Technology
Gear Materials - Netting yarns - natural fibres-classificatiron, origin, properties preservation. synthetic
fibres - classification, manufacture, identification and comparative properties. Construction of netting twines.
designation of netting yarns and twine, twist-coeffeient, direction yarn numbering system. Specification
and characteristics of netting. Fishing accessories - floats buoys and sinkers. connectors and swivels,
ground gear sheer devices, hooks. Classification of fishing gear. Fishing gear used in India - inland coastal.
deep sea fishing gear. Fish behaviour in relation to fishing techniques. Factors affecting fishing gear design.
Fishing gear selectivity selectively of trawls. gill nets and lines. Model testing of - fishing gear-flume
tank. Structure and operation of trawls. Otter boards - principles of - operation. variation in design. Structure
design variation and operation of purse seines, gillnets and trammel nets, lines and traps. Electrical fishing,
harvesting machines. Selective fishing gear and practices. By catch and discards. By catch reduction
devices (BRDs) and turtle excluder devices (TEDs).
Unit 3: Process Biochemistry
Major and minor constituents in fish, their distribution and function moisture, proteins lipids,
carbohydrates. vitamins and minerals. Glycogen in fish and its functions. Structure, classification and
constitution of proteins. Essential amino acids and limiting amino acids and their requirements. Seafood
proteins Post mortem changes -rigor mortis autolysis auto oxidation and their significance. Lipids in fish
- their structure and classification. Enzymes in fish their classification and mechanism of action. Vitamins
their sources and deficiency diseases. Vitamins minerals and trace elements in fish. Toxins and toxic
substances in fish. Bioaccumulation biomagnification. Biogenic amines. Role of temperature, pH water
activity redox potential in fish preservation. Microbial spoilage of fish. Role of moulds in spoilage of cured
processed fish products. Bacteria of public health Significance contamination and control measures.
Microorganisms in frozen, canned and dried products, and their control.
Unit 4: Fish Processing Technologys
Factors affecting spoilage of fish, principles of fish preservation, onboard handling of fish, sanitary
and phyto-sanitary requirements for maintenance of quality grading of fish, whole fish quality evaluation.
Chilling and freezing of fish - Principles of chilling and freezing, methods of chilling: transportation and
marketing of chilled fish. Freezing-the application of freezing systems in fish processing, changes in
quality on chilled and frozen storage. Canning fish and fish products principles of canning . Modified-

atmosphere packaging (MAP) of fish and fish products. Preservation of fish by curing (drying, salting
and smoking) -water content, water activity (aw) and storage stability. Accelerated freeze drying (AFD).
Surimi and fish-mince products- fish muscle proteins. the surimi process, fish mince. Irradiation–radiation
source units, dose levels, radarpertization, radicidation, radurization. effects of - irradiation on protein.
Quality assurance and management in seafood processing: defining HACCP, practical aspects of Planning
and implementing HACCP systems. HACCP verification. National and international standards, ED regulation
for fish export trade: hazards in sea foods: Sea food toxin, biogenie amines, heavy metals and industrial
pollutants; seafood quality systems. Packaging and transportation temperature modeling and relationships
in fish transportation. transportation of fish, containers and cooling- gels safety quality and spoilage of
fish during transportation. Fishery products and byproducts exported from India.
Packaging- aim, purpose and objectives. Packaging and transportation of fresh fish, cured fish,
canned fish, frozen fish, freeze dried fish, by-products and value added products. Additives–classes of
additives–preservatives–antimicrobial additives.
Unit 5 : Fishery Engineering
Selection of site for fish farms. Assessing water qualities and quantities. Fluid dynamtics, statics,
and control. Configuration of land, topographical survey, land and soil types, chemical composition and
properties of soils. Aquaculture farm layout, types of ponds. design of dykes, bunds. Drainage channels,
inlet and outlet structures, sluice gates. Design and construction of finfish and shellfish hatcheries. Flow
through and recirculatory water systems. Water supply, source, gravity flow, pumping, water flow
requirements and water flow regulations, estimation of evaporation and seepage losses. Construction of
high / Iow level reservoir to feed aquaculture farm. Water quality and waste management monitoring
equipments. Aquaculture facilities and equipment. Refrigeration engineering. Machinery for handling and
processing fish.

25. Statistics and Comuter Application
Unit 1: Mathematical Methods
Linear Algebra: Elements of set theory- de Morgan’s laws, functions, real and complex numbers,
arithmetic, geometric and harmonic progressions, polynomial and roots, groups, rings and fields. Galois
field- Fermat’s little theorem and primitive elements.
Matrix Algebra: Basic terminology, vector space, linear independence, orthogonality; row and column
spaces, matrix operations, determinants, rank and inverse of matrices, System of linear equations. Special
matrices- idempotent, symmetric, orthogonal. Special Products of matrices- Kronecker and Hadamard
product. Eigenvalues of a symmetric matrix. Generalized inverses and their applications.
Calculus: Limits and continuity, differentiation of functions, Taylor’s and Maclaurin’s theorem, mean-
value theorem, partial differentiation, maxima and minima, L’Hospital rule. Integration of rational, irrational
and trigonometric functions. Applications of integration.
Numerical Analysis: Simple interpolation, calculus of finite differences, numerical differentiation
and integration, solution of simple non-linear equations by numerical methods like Newton-Raphson
Linear Programming: Formulation and graphical solution, simplex method, duality, transportation
and assignment problem.
Unit 2: Statistical Methods and Statistical Inference
Classification and tabulation of data, Graphical representation of data, Measures of central tendency
and dispersion, moments, Skewness and Kurtosis, Scatter diagram. Elements of probability theory, laws
of probability, mathematical expectation, Probability distributions: Binomial, Poisson, negative binomial,
Normal distributions and their applications. Random sampling, Concept of sampling distributions: t, chi-
square and F distributions. Tests of significance based on Z, t, Chi-square and F. Point and confidence
interval estimation, Concepts of testing of hypothesis: two types of errors, level of significance and power
of a test. Correlation, rank correlation. Regression analysis, partial and multiple correlations. Coefficient
of determination. Concepts of multivariate analytical tools: cluster analysis, discriminant function, and
principal component analysis. Non-parametric tests: sign test, Wilcoxon test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Wald
Wolfowitz run test, run test for the randomness of a sequence.
Units 3: Applied Statistics
Concept of sampling, Sampling versus complete enumeration, Simple random sampling, Inverse
sampling, Stratified random sampling, Cluster sampling and Systematic sampling, ratio and regression
estimators. Basic principles of design of experiments, Uniformity trials, Analysis of variance, Completely
Randomized design, Randomized complete block design, Latin square design, Factorial experiments
(symmetrical as well as asymmetrical), variance stabilizing transformations, Analysis of covariance,
Mendel’s laws, Linkage, Heritability, selection indices, Hardy-Weinberg law. Index numbers-their
characteristics and construction. Elements of time series analysis.
Unit 4: Introduction to Computers
Definition of computer, its characteristics and uses. History of evolution of computers, Classifications
of computers, Speed and processing power of a computer. Number systems-decimal, octal, binary and

hexadecimal. Representation of integers, fixed and floating point numbers, character representation-ASCII,
EBCDIC, UNICODE. Basic components of a computer: Central Processing Unit (CPU)- the control unit,
arithmetic logic unit and register. Memory-types of memories, Input and Output units. Organizing and accessing
stored data-field, record, file. File organization-sequential, direct and indexed file. Multimedia-requirements
and applications. Operating system (OS)functions, Windows.
Unit 5: Development Tools
Word Processing, Spreadsheets, Statistical data analysis and graphics using spreadsheets,
Presentation. Database Management Systems (DBMS)- Database systems, advantages of databases,
feature of DBMS. Programming languages: need, programming processplanning the solution through flow
charts, coding the program, testing and documentation.
Unit 6: Internet Tools
Networking-need, basic components. Connecting computers- Local Area Networks, Wide Area
Networks. TCP/IP, HTTP protocols. Value added network services-Email, on-line services, Internet etc.

Paper II
There will be 30 questions, 15 from each of the sections. Attempt any 20 questions by selecting at
least 10 from the major Section.


Unit 1: Statistical Methods I
Descriptive statistics. Elements of probability theory, Conditional probability, Bayes’ theorem. Random
variable-discrete and continuous, Mathematical expectation, Moment generating and Characteristic
functions. Laws of large numbers, Central limit theorem. Discrete probability distributions- binomial,
Poisson, negative binomial and hypergeometric. Continuous probability distributions- normal, rectangular,
Cauchy, exponential, gamma and beta. Sampling distributions- chi-square, t, and F. Bivariate normal
distribution-conditional and marginal.

Point estimation- unbiasedness, consistency, efficiency, sufficiency. Completeness, Minimum

variance unbiased estimator, Cramer-Rao Inequality, Rao-Blackwell theorem and Lehman-Scheffe theorem.
Methods of point estimation like maximum likelihood, method of moments, minimum chi-square.
Confidence interval estimation. Testing of hypotheses-two types of errors, level of significance and power
of a test. Neyman Pearson Lemma. Uniformly most powerful tests and their construction. Unbiased test,
Likelihood ratio test. Tests of significance based on Z, t, chi-square and F.

Unit 2: Statistical Methods II

Correlation, rank correlation, correlation ratio, intra-class correlation. Regression analysis, partial
and multiple correlation. Multiple regression equation, examination of residuals, model-adequacy, Selecting
best regression. Order statistics. Non-parametric tests-Run, Sign, Rank, Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-
Whitney, Cochran and Friedman’s tests. Multivariate normal distribution- Estimation of mean vector and
dispersion matrix. Wishart distribution, Hotelling T2 and Mahalanobis D2, Principal component analysis.
Discriminant analysis, Cluster analysis, MANOVA. Contingency tables. Log linear models. Sequential
analysis- Sequential probability ratio test. Elements of stochastic processes.
Unit 3: Statistical Genetics I
Statistical analysis of segregation, detection and estimation of linkage for quantitative characters,


Gene and genotypic frequencies, Random mating and equilibrium in large populations, Disequilibrium due
to linkages for two pairs of genes and for sex linked genes. Selections, mutation and migration, Equilibrium
between forces in large population, Polymorphism, Fisher’s fundamental theorem of natural selection,
Polygenic systems for quantitative characters, Concepts of breeding value, dominance.
Unit 4: Statistical Genetics II
Genetic variance and its partitioning, Correlation between relatives, Regular system of inbreeding,
Effects of inbreeding, Genotype and environment interaction, Estimation of heritability, repeatability and
genetic correlation, Path coefficient analysis, Heterosis, concepts of general and specific combining
abilities, Diallel crosses, Response due to selection, Prediction of response to individual, family and
combined selections, Selection for improvement. Construction of selection index.
Unit 5: Design of Experiments I
Linear models- Random, fixed and mixed effects. Nested and crossed classifications, Gauss-Markoff
theorem. Analysis of variance. Principles of design of experiments, Uniformity trials, Completely
randomized design, Randomized block designs, Latin square design, Factorial experiments: 2nand 3n series
and asymmetrical factorial experiments, Confounding in 2n and 3n experiments, Split and strip-plot designs,
Switch over trials, Missing plot techniques, Analysis of covariance, variance stabilizing transformations.
Unit 6: Design of Experiments II
Fractional replication of symmetrical factorials. Balanced incomplete block designs and their analysis
with and without recovery of inter block information, Partially balanced incomplete block designs with
two associate classes, lattice designs, Youden squares, Multiple comparison procedures, groups of
experiments, Analysis of covariance. Sampling in field experiments. Experiments on cultivators’ fields.
Unit 7: Sample Surveys I
Sampling versus complete enumeration, Concept of probability sampling, Simple random sampling,
Inverse Sampling, Stratified sampling, allocation in stratified sampling, collapsing of strata, Use of auxiliary
information in sample surveys, Ratio and Regression methods of estimation, Cluster, multi-stage sampling
with equal probability and Systematic sampling.
Unit 8: Sample Surveys II
Sampling with unequal probabilities with and without replacement, Sampling schemes with inclusion
probabilities proportional to size. Unbiased ratio type of estimators, Double sampling and sampling on
successive occasions, Inverse sampling. Non-sampling errors-sources and classification, Non-response
survey techniques, imputation methods, measurement errors, Interpenetrating sub-samples. Design and
organization of pilot and large-scale surveys, National sample surveys, Agricultural statistics system in
the country: land use statistics, crop estimation surveys, livestock and fishery statistics.
Unit 9
Computer Organization and Architecture-Boolean algebra, Number system, Computer arithmetic,
Basic concepts of floating point number system, Sequential and combinational logics, Input/Output unit,
Memory, ALU and Control unit, Instruction and execution cycle in CPU, Interrupts, CISC and RISC
Unit 10
Computer algorithms, Programming in C-Building blocks, Control structures, Arrays, Pointers,
Dynamic memory allocation, File management, Graphics: Data StructuresLinked List, Stack, Queue, Tree,
Graph, Sorting and Searching algorithms.


Unit 11
System Analysis and Design- Objectives, Tools, Data collection and analysis, Planning, Cost-benefit
analysis, Design, Testing, refining and optimization, Implementation and evaluation: Software Engineering-
Requirement analysis and specification, Coding tools and techniques, Verification and validation,
Maintenance; Project Management and Control Gantt charts, PERT and CPM, CASE tools.
Unit 12
Data Base Management System- Definition and features, Data models, Relational database; Logical
and physical structure, Relational algebra, Relational calculus, Database design, normalization, Concurrency
control, Security and integrity; Distributed Databases-Concepts, architecture, Design; Structured Query
Language (SQL), PL/SQL, Views, Indexes.
Unit 13
Object Oriented Programming-Encapsulation, Inheritance, Polymorphism with C++/JAVA: Hyper Text
Markup Language (HTML), Building static and dynamic web pages, Client side and server side scripting,
Interaction with database.
Unit 14
Networking- Types of Networks, Network topology, Network Operating Systems, Network
Management, Data communication and transmission, ISO-OSI reference model, TCP/IP reference model,
Internet standards and services, Cryptography, Data compression, Authentication and Firewalls.
Unit 15
Compilers and translators-Regular expression, Finite automata, Formal Languages, Finite state
machines, Lexical analysis, Semantic analysis, Parsing algorithms, Symbol tables, Error handling,
Intermediate code optimization, Machine code generation, Machine dependent optimization.
Unit 16
Operating System- Process management: Inter-process communication, Process scheduling-
Memory management: Swapping, Virtual memory, Paging and segmentation; Device management;
Deadlocks, Semaphores; File systems-Files, Directories, Security and protection mechanisms; Distributed
operating systems.
Unit 17
Numerical analysis- Interpolation, Numerical integration, Solution of ordinary differential equations,
Solution of linear and non-linear system of equations; Modeling and Simulation-Random number generation
and testing, Discrete simulation models, Simulation of stochastic events and processes, Design of
simulation experiments, Analysis of data generated by simulation experiments, Validation of simulation
models, Simulation languages. Linear Programming-formulation and graphical solution, simplex method,
duality, transportation and assignment problems.

26. Animal Biotechnology
A. Animal Biotechnology
Unit -1 : Cell Biology
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell architecture. Molecular organization and functions of cell membrane.
Organisation and functions of the cytoplasm, cell organelles, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi complex,
mitochondria, lysosomes, nucleolus and subnuclear structures. Protein secretion and targeting. Intracellular
digestion. oxidative phosphorylation.
Cell divison. Cell growth and differentiation. Control of proliferation and self regulation. Cell motility.
Cell trafficking and signaling. Apoptosis.
Unit 2 : Molecular Biology
DNA replication in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Structure and functions of DNA polymerases.
Molecular mechanisms of DNA repair. Synthesis and processing of different types of RNA, RNA
polymerases. Protein biosynthesis.
Genetics of mitochondria and plasmids. Transposons and intervening sequences. Miniasatellites and
microsatellites. Molecular mechanism of spontaneous and induced mutations. Site directed mutagenesis.
Recombination in bacteria, fungi and viruses. Molecular mechanisms of genetic recombination,
transduction, transforamtion and conjugation.
Unit 3: Gene structure and expression
Organisation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome. Repeated and non-repeated DNA sequences.
The structure and chemical nature of the gene.
Expression of genetic information, transcription-mechanism of transcription in prokaryotes and
eukaryotes, transcription unit, regulatory sequences and enhancers, transcription factors, post-
transcriptional modifications. DNA-protein interactions.
Genetic code. Mechanism of translation and its control, post-translational modifications. Control of
gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Unit 4: Genetic Engineering and Recombinant DNA Technology
Isolation and purification of DNA/RNA from prokaryotes/eukaryotes. Reverse transcription. Restriction
endonucleases. Generation of DNA fragments. Cloning and expression vectors, plasmids, cosmids, phages,
viruses (vaccinia, herpes, retrovirus and adenovirus) shuttle vectors.
Cloning and expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts. DNA libraries, screening and
characterization of DNA clones, transformation of bacterial and animal cells.
Oligonucleotide synthesis. In situ mutagenesis. DNA amplification. Production of diagnostics and
vaccines using r-DNA technology. Genetically modified foods products. Genetic manipulation of rumen
Safety aspects of genetic engineering. Ethical issues related to use of biotechnology products.
Patenting and Intellectual Property Rights.

Unit 5 : Animal Tissue culture and Hybridoma Technology

Development of cell (tissue) and organ culture techniques. Nutrient requirements of mammalian cells.
Media for culturing cells. Growth supplements. Primary cultures. Established cell lines. Stationary, Roller
and suspension culture techniques. Large-scale production of cells using bioreactors, microcarriers and
perfusion techniques.
Characteriztion of maintenance of cells, karyotyping, cryopreservation and revival. Detection of
contaminants in cell cultures. Isolation and culture of lymphocytes. Application of cell and organ cultures.
Micromanipulation of cells. Cell cloning. Cell fusion and somatic cell hybrids. Principles and methods
of hybridoma technology. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies and their application
in animal health and production.
Unit 6: Embryo Transfer and Related Techniques
Induction of superovulation. Embryo collection and evaluation. Embryo splitting. Embryo sexing.
Embryo transfer. Advantages of embryo transfer in farm animals.
In vitro fertilization. Embryo cloning, Nuclear transplantation. Production of transgenic animals and
gene farming. Identification and transfer of genes influencing production and disease resistance.
Unit 7 : Techniques
Quantitation of nucleic acids. Gel electrophoretic techniques. Isolation of plasmids. Basic principles
and use of latest photometric, chromatographic electrophoretic and radioisotopic methods of biochemical
analysis. Methods of isolation, purification and characterization of proteins, DNA and RNA. Basic principles
of RIA, ELISA, PCR, RFLP and DNA fingerprinting, nucleic acid hybridization southern northern western
blotting. Determination of enzymes, hormones, vitamins and other biochemical constituents with special
reference to disease diagnosis in domestic animals.
Unit 8
Scope of Biochemistry and molecular biology in animals sciences. Structural and functional
organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, viruses and bacteriophages. Compartmentalization of
metabolic processes within the cell and fractionation of subcellular components. Structure and functions
of biomembranes, with special reference to active transport of ions and metabolites. Extra and intracellular
communication. General description of cell culture, hybridoma and animal cloning techniques.
Unit 9
Structure and properties of biologically important carbohydrates including storage and structural
polysaccharides, mucopolysaccharides, blood group substances, peptidoglycans and bacterial
polysaccharides. Structure and properties of fatty acids, acyl glycerol, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids,
glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, sterols, bile acids and prostaglandins. Basic principles of isolation,
estimation and analysis of carbohydrates and lipids
Unit 10
Amino acids, structure and properties. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary structure of
proteins. Glycoproteins, lipoproteins, nucleoproteins, fibrous and globular proteins. Structure and functions
of immunoglobulins, myoglobin and hemoglobin. Physical and chemical proerpties of proteins. Structure
of different types of nucleic acids. Acid base properties, sedimentation behaviour, hyperchromic effect,
base sequencing and restriction analysis of DNA. Computer application in molecular biology, primer
designing, sequence analysis, phylogenetic analysis.


Unit 11
Major classes of enzymes, general properties, kinetics and mechanism of their action. Activation
energy and transition state. Coenzymes and cofactors. Regulation of enzyme activity and enzyme inhibition.
Isoenzymes and enzymes of clinical significance. Applications and scope of enzymes in bioprocess
technology and genetic engineering.
Unit 12
Bioenergetics, biological oxidation, respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Citric acid cycle
and ATP generation. Glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and glycogenesis. Biosynthesis and oxidation
of fatty acids. Volatile fatty acids as source of energy in ruminants. Ketogenesis and causes of ketosis
in ruminants. Biosynthesis of sterols and phospholipids. Catabolism of amino acids, transamination. and
deamination, urea cycle. Integration of carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Conversion of
amino acids into other bioactive compounds. Biosynthesis of nutritionally non essential amino acids.
Metabolism of purines and pyrimidines. Disorders of lipid, carbohydrate, nucleic acid and amino acid
metabolism. Inborn errors of metabolism and scope of gene therapy in combating genetic disorders.
Unit 13 :
Structure and metabolic functions of water soluble and lipid soluble vitamins. Trace elements and
their role in biological processes. Deficiencies and nutritional significance of vitamins and trace elements
in domestic animals and poultry. General description of nature of hormones, receptors and mechanisms
of their action. Metabolic functions of different hormones and associated disorders due to hypo or hyper
secretions of major endocrine glands viz., pituitary, thyroid adrenal, pancreas and gonads.
Unit 14 :
Blood composition and biochemical constituents of erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets. Important
plasma proteins and their functions. Hemoglobin in oxygen and carbon dioxide transport. Role of kidneys
in acid base balance. Composition and metabolism of muscle, connective tissue, cartilage, bone, nervous
tissue, adipose tissue and mammary tissue. Clinical significance of iron, iodine calcium and phosphorus
metabolism in domestic animals and poultry. Biochemical tests for hepatic and renal functions. Urine
composition and analysis.
Unit 15:
Myofibrillar proteins and collagen in fish muscles. Metabolism during starvation. Biochemical
mechanisms, adaptations and functions of specialized tissues and secretions of aquatic animals like
stress proteins, AFP and GFP. Biochemical altrations due to environmental pollutants and contaminants
viz., WSSV infection, anti metabolites, biotoxins, heavy metals, antibiotics, pesticides, steroids and
industrial xenobiotics in fish metabolism, counter current and gaseous exchange in Gill, swim bladder
(oil droplets), vitellogenesis, haemocyanin, pheromones, ecdysone, moulting inhibiting hormone and
esdysis in crustacean, nacre (pearl) in bivalves. Genetic and biochemical mechanisms of sex, reversal
and polyploidy in fishes. Biochemical mechanism of hormonal manipulation in advancing fish maturity
and reproduction.
Unit 16 : Fish Nutrition
Biochemical nutritional requirements of fish and shellfish. Digestion, absorption and assimilation of
energy nutrients, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Mineral and vitamins in fishes and their deficiency
symptoms, nutraceuticals, Probiotics and single cell protein in fish nutrition. Protein sparing effects of
carbohydrates and lipids. Digestive enzymes and hormones, osmotic and ionic regulation. Nitrogen


metabolism and excretion (ammonotelic pathways). Acid-base regulation, improvement of carbohydrate

utilization by fish. Expression of energy value of fish feed (gross energy, digestible energy, metabolizable
energy, net energy), partitioning of energy, protein energy ratio. Biochemical nutrients required for
reproduction, egg and sperm quality of fishes. FCR, PER, NPU, chemical score, biological value. Estimation
of antinutritional factor, trypsin inhibitors, Tannin and HCN in the feed ingredients. Determination of vitamin
C and carotenoids in feeds. Bomb-calorimetry.
Unit 17: Processing Biochemistry
Uses of fish and fishery products, surmi, kamaboko, chitin, chitosan, sutures, cod liver oils, omega-
3 and omega-6 faty acids, fish muscles proteins of cuttlefish, squids, shrimps scampi. Fish meal, bone
meal, fish oil, etc. Biochemical alterations in muscle during post harvesting. Effects of irradiations on
proteins, lipids vitamins, microbial agents, shelf life of fish products. HACCP and hazards in sea foods,
toxins, biogenic amines, heavy metals and industrial pollutants, sea weeds and their utilization in agar,
alginic acid, carrageenan, agarose and agaropectin production.

27. Veterinary Microbiology
Section 1: General Bacteriology:
Milestones in the development of Microbiology, Classfication and nomenclature of bacteria. Structure,
function and chemistry of bacterial nuclear apparatus. Cytoplasm. Intracellular granules. Cell wall.
Cytoplasmic membrane. Mesosomes. Capsule. Flagella. Fimbrae. Endospore. Protoplasts. Spheroplasts.
L-forms. Involution forms. Bacterial stains, staining and microscopy. Growth and nutritional requirements
of bacteria. Bacteria enzymes. Respiration in bacteria. Carbohydrate protein, fat and nucleic acid
metabolism in bacteria. Reproduction and growth phases of bacteria. Effect of chemical and physical
agents and antibiotics. Bacterial variations including transduction, transformation and conjugation. Bacterial
vaccines and toxins.
The role of microbial toxins in the pathogenesis of diseases; Biochemical and biological characteristics
of toxins produced by various bacteria. Toxin producing Gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
Properties and clinical conditions produced by different bacterial toxins.
Section 2: Systematic Bacteriology:
Systematic study of bacteria belonging to genera Borrelia, Leptospira, Campylobacter, Pseudomonas,
Brucella, Bordetella, Escherichia, Citrobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella,m Enterobacter, Proteus,
Vibrio, Hae,ophilus, Pasteurella, Yersinia, Actinobacillus, Actinomyces, Fusobacterium, Moraxella,
Staphylococus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Clostridium, Listeria, Erysipelothrix, Corynebacterium, Nocardia,
Richettsia, Chalmydia, Mycoplasma, Acholeplasma, Spiroplasma, Anaeroplasma and Thermoplasma,
Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium and Neisseria.
Section 3: General Virology:
Historical development of virology. Evolution, classification and nomenclature of viruses. Biophysical
and biochemical characteristics of viruses. Cultivation of viruses and their growth pattern in cell culture,
embryonated eggs and experimental animals. Purification and concentration of viruses. Qualitative and
quantitative assay of viruses. Viral replications. Vikrus-host cell relationships. Replication strategies of
animal viruses and molecular pathogenesis for selected viral.
Systems latent, persistent and chronic virual infections. Study of genetic variability of animal viruses
through use of monoclonal, antibodies, autoimmunikty, immunosuppression and viral mutation in
persistence infections. General principles of laboratory diagnosis of viral diseases. Epidemiology and
methods of spread of viral infection. Oncogenic role of viruses. Pathogenesis and pathology of viral
infections. Immune mechanism in viral diseases. Interference and interferon. Viral vaccines, point of action
of antiviral molecules during the replication cycle of a virus and search for new antiviral compounds,
viruses and gene therapy. Chemotherapy of viral infections.
Section 4: Systematic Virology:
Systematic study of RNA and DNA viruses in livestock and poultry with reference to antigenicity,
cultivation, pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and immunity RNA viruses: Retroviruses and
lymphotropic viruses, visna and maedi,Arboviruses. Rotaviruses. Birnaviruses. Coronaviruses. Togaviruses.
Paramyxoviruses. Orthomyxoviruses. Rhabdoviruses. Picornaviruses. Bunyaviruses. Arenaviruses.
Arterioviruses. Calciviruses. Filoviruses. DNA viruses: Poxviruses. Herpesviruses. Iridoviruses.

Adenoviruses. Papovaviruses. Parvoviruses. Hepadnaviruses. Circoviruses. Unclassified viruses. Slow

viruses Scrapie.
Section 5: Mycology
General characteristics of fungi. Classification and study of pathogenic fungi-Epidermophyton,
Microsporum, Trichophyton, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Candida,
Rhinosporidum, Contaminating fungi, Rhizopus, Mucor and Penicillium.
Fungi causing mastitis, abortion and mycotoxicosis.
Section 6: Immunology:
Historical Perspectives. Host-parasite relationships. Antigens. Types of antigens. Properties and
specificity of antigens. Factors determining antigenicity. Haptens and carriers. Heterophile antigens.
Adjuvants. Mechanisms of action, classification, and their uses. Immunoglobulins - their classes and sub
classes, structure and function. Allotypes. Idiotypes. Synthesis. Genes coding for Igs. Generation of diversity.
Monoclonal antibodies. Purification of antibodies. Theories of antibody formation. Lymphoid organs: primary,
secondary and circulation of lymphocytes, cells involved in the immune response - B lymphocytes, T
lymphocytes, subsets and nature of receptor. Macrophages. Dendritic reticular cells. Langerhans cells.
Cellular interactions. Cell mediated immune response. Maechanism of interaction of antigen and antibody.
The complement system. Classical and alternate pa;thways. Serological reactions: agglutination,
precipitation, neutralization, CFT, FAT, ELISA, DIE, RIA etc, immunological methods as an aid to diagnosis
such as various blotting techniques like Southern, Northern, Western blotting, Ma.jor. Histocompatibility
complex: organization, nature of antigens and MHC restriction. Hypersensitivity - immediate and delayed
types, and mechanism of hypersensitivity. Mechanism of immunity, autoimmunity and immunological
Section 7: Molecular Cell Biology (Vaccine & Diagnostic Technology):
Role of biotechnology in diagnostics and vaccines, RNA electropherotyping. Probes - preparation
of cDNA. Use of DNA probe in animal diseases diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies. Application of
monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis of animal disases. Preparation of monochonal antibodies. Nucleic
acid hybridization.
Modern trends in vaccines. Recombinant DNA vaccines and their probable uses in animal diseases.

Veterinary Public Health

Section 1: Veterinary Public Health:
Definitions : Concept of Public Health, Intersectoral approach to Human Health, Veterinary Medicine,
Veterinary Public Health, Human health goals, Veterinarians Participation in Public Health and justifications,
Veterinary Public Health Unit - its dimensions and functions, National and International organizations
related with Public and Veterinary Public Health, Rural health, Role of Public Health Veterinarians in Rural
health, Health Delivery System.
Section 2: Milk Hygiene
Definitions. Dairy Industry and milk hygiene in India and other countries, Microbiology of milk and
milk products, microbial spoilage of milk and its products, Bacteriophage, Contanination of milk and its
products, Public health aspects of residues: agricultural chemicals, antibiotics and druges, toxic metals,
plant toxins, mycotoxins and adultrants Milk borne diseases, Milk hygiene, Hygienic aspects of production


of milk and processing and manufacture of milk products, Clean milk production, Prevention of
contamination by santiation at dairy farm, collection centers, milk processing and manufacturing plants,.
Pasteurization, Sterilization, Standards. Quality control tests applied to milk and milk proucts.

Section 3: Meat Hygiene:

Definitions, Meat industry and meat hygiene in India and other countries. Raising meat food animals
and birds, their trade and transport. Hygienic aspects of slaughter, bleeding, dressing and processing
and manufacture of carcass meat and meat products. Rigor mortis, Emergency and casualty slaughter.
Meat microbiology. Sources of contamination, Disposal and reclamation of slaughter house wastes and
by products and associated public health problems. Spoilage of meat and meat products, Preservation
of meat. Meat food safety, Antemortem and post mortem examination, Inspection of poultry meat, eggs,
fish and meat from game animals, Judgement, Indices of sanitary quality, National and International
standards, Bacteriological, serological and biochemical tests for quality control, substitution and adultration.

Section 4: Food borne infections and intoxications:

Definitions, Classification of Foodborne disease, Meat borne diseases, Milk borne diseases,
Infections and intoxications traced to consumption of fish, Fast/Street/ Convenience foods, Epidemiological
characteristics of food borne infections and intoxications, Sources of pathogens and factors favouring
for dpoisoning, Bacterial, viral, protozoan, helminthic, mycotic and chemical food poisoning, Epidemiological
investigation of food borne infections and intoxications, Food specific attack rate. Odd ratio, Management
of food poisoning.

Section 5: Zoonoses:
Definitions, Concept and classification of Zoonoses, Ecological aspects of Zoonoses, Wild animals-,
cold blooded animals -,domestic animals-, and aquatic life - associated zoonoses:
Vectors-, milk-, meat-, egg-, fish- and water - spread zoonoses, Occupational zoonoses, Nosocomial
zoonoses, Eenozoonoses, Nationally and internationally emerging zoonoses, Epidemiology of bacterial,
rickettsial, viral, parasitic and mycotic zoonoses, Principles of zoonoses management: methods of
prevention, control and eradication of zoonoses.

Section 6: Environmental. Hygiene:

Natural sources of water. Water hygiene, Pure and wholesome water; microbial contamination and
chemical pollution of water, Impurities in water, plankton, Purification and sanitization of water, Waterborne
diseases, Microbiological examination of water, Potable water, Standards for drinking water. The
atmosphere. Air pollutants, Airborne pathogens and air borne diseases, Ventilation, Methods of air
purification. Agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, domestic and farm effluents polluting environment
- and associated hazards and preventive measures. Residue analysis, Minimum permissible levels of
residues. Waste - recycling, Methods of disposal of dead animals.

Section 7: Epidemiology:
Definition: Epizoutiology, Epidemiology, Causal,- association, Concept of infection, Theory of natural
nidality, Ecological basis of diseases, Disease transmission, Epidemic process, Distribution of diseases
in space and. time, Epidemiologic hypothesis, Types of epidemiological studies, Epidemiological survey,
surveillance, monitoring of diseases, Experimental epidemiology, Epidemiological measurements predictive
epidemiology, Epidemiologic models, Sero-epidemiology. Use of information technology and computer
application in disease monitoring EpidemiologicaI investigation and evaluation of intervention measures.


Section 8: Experimental Animal Medicine:

Occupational health and safety in the care and use of research animals. Breeding, care and
management of experimental animals, Production of gnolobiotic, germrree, and specific pathogen free
animals-Breeding transgenic and syngenic, animals, need for raising experimental and tailor made
.animals, provisions of Animals welfare and Society for prevention of Cruellty to Animals Act.
Section 9: Health Education:
Health education, Communication techniques, Participatory programs to make aware agricultural
workers, butchers, laboratory staff and those engaged in zoological garden, laboratory animals rearing
processing of animal produce about (a) occupational hazards and (b) hazards to consumers.
Section 10: Standards, Guidelines and Legislation:
Defining standards/guidelines of a product and product ingredients. Food hygiene legislation, Meat
food product order, Indian standards for milk and milk products, Meat products, Bureau of Indian Standards,
World Trade Order, International Organization for Standards, ISO 9000, Indian Standards (IS) - 14000,
Codes Alimentarius, Good Manufacturing Practices, Sanitary and phytosanitary measures, Quality
assurance, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Program (HACCP), Total Quality Management to ensure safety
to domestic and foreign consumers of products of animal origin.
Section 11: Microbiology in Public Health:
Food microbiology, Characters of food bacteria, moulds, yeast and virus. Classification of food
microbes according to their requirements for growth - temperature, acidity, moisture, oxygen and salt
concentration; resistance to microenvironment, Food processing and preservation methods. Pathogens -
Virulence factors, microbial enzymes, toxic metabolites and other molecules associated with pathogenic
mechanisms. Resistance mechanism of survival in environment in and outside the host, Antigens eliciting
protective and diagnostic antibodies, Microbiological, Serological, Biological and nucleotide based
diagnostic methods.

28. Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology
Paper-I (B) and Paper-II
Unit I: General Veterinary Pathology
Introduction, history, etiology and scope of pathology. Definition : Etiology of the disease.
Predisposing factors, intrinsic and extrinsic factors responsible for the disease. Haemodynamics
derangements, degenerations and necrosis. Disturbances of circulation, hyperemia, ischemia,
haemorrhage, thrombosis, embolism, infraction, edema and shock. Disturbances of cell metabolism-like
protein, carbohydrates, lipid and pigment metabolism, pathological calcification and ossification. Apoptosis,
necrosis and gangrene.
Inflammation - Definition associated with inflammatory phenomenon, etiology of inflammation, cardinal
signs, pathogenesis of inflammation, chemical mediators released from injured tissues and inflammatory
cells. Cellular response in inflammation, structure and function of cells associated with it. Role of humoral
and cell-mediated defences. Various classification. Immunopathology. Healing and cellular regeneration
capability of different body cells.
Disturbances in cell growth - aplasia, hypoplasia, hyperplasia, atrophy, metaplasia and dysplasia:
Neoplasms - growth, etiology, classification, morphology and behaviour of neoplasms, structure and biology
of the tumour cell, tumour immunology, tissue response to tumours, spread of tumours, pathological
features of various neoplasms.
Unit II: General Veterinary Parasitology
Standard nomenclature of animal parasitic disease (SNOAP AD). Animal - parasite associations.
General classification of parasites, description of typical life-cycle patterns, mode of transmission.
Overview of host parasite relationships, practical methods recommended for sustainable control of
economically important parasites. Drug resistance, methods of monitoring and management of drug
resistance against parasites, standard parasitic zoonoses and the emerging parasitic infections.
Unit III: Animal and Poultry Diseases
Important infectious diseases of animals and poultry : etiology, pathogenesis, pathology and
diagnosis of prion, viral, mycoplasmal, rickettsial, clamydial, bacterial, mycotic and parasitic (protozoan,
helminthic and arthropod-borne) diseases. Important non infectious (Nutritional, metabolic and production)
diseases of animals and poultry : etiopathology, pathogenesis, pathology and diagnosis. Conventional
and molecular techniques in diagnosis of animal and poultry diseases.
29. Dairy Chemistry & Mirobiology
Unit 1
Specific compositional differences among milk from various species, factors affecting composition
of milk, colostrum and abnormal milk, physical properties of milk. Salt balance and its importance in
processing of milk.
Unit 2
Chemistry of mill: lipids. milk proteins, lactose, minerals, vitamins and milk enzymes. biological
and chemical methods of detection of milk adulteration.
Unit 3
Physico-chemical characteristics of cream, butter, condensed milk and evaporated milk, dried milks,
cheese and fermented milks, ice-cream and frozen products. Various chemical changes during manufacture
and storage of milk and milk products. PFA. AGMARK and BIS standards for milk and milk products.
Concepts of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). Total Quality Management (TQM) and HACCP.
Unit 4
Microflora associated with milk and milk products and their importance Characteristics of commonly
occurring microbes in milk and milk products. Types of microbes in normal and mastitic milk and importance
of somatic cell count. Food poisoning, food infections, toxiinfections and other milk borne diseases.
Emerging Food borne pathogens associated with milk and milk products, microbial and chemical changes
in raw milk during chilling and refrigeration.
Unit 5
Bacteriological aspects of processing techniques like bactofugation, separation, thermization,
pasteurization sterilization and URT processing. Type of spoilage in heat treated milks. Prevention of
post processing contamination.
Unit 6
Microbiological quality of cream, butter, ice cream and frozen products, condensed frozen evaporated
milks, dried milks, indigenous. dairy products and by-products, microbiological defect in various dairy
products. National and International Microbiological Standards for milk and milk products.
Unit 7
Types of starter cultures and their classification modem trends in propagation, production and
preservation of starter cultures: factors associated with starter failure. Role of starters in preparation of
cheese and fermented milks,

Unit I
Milk constituents. their normal contents and physical and chemical nature. Specific compositional
differences among milk from various species: Variations in milk composition due to breed, feed, season,

stage of lactation and mastitis; Effect of variation in composition on market like industry; Colostrum and
abnormal milk, physical properties of milk: Acid base equilibria, oxidation-reduction potential, density,
viscosity. Interfacial tension. freezing point, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, refractive index.
mid butter capacity, physical equilibria among milk salts; Effects of various treatments on salt equilibria:
Salt balance and its importance in processing of milk: Water activity, adsorption of water on milk
constituents and milk products and its effect oil shelf life: Colloids, properties and colloidal stability of
milk; Emulsions, foams and gets formation, their stability and Importance in dairy processing.
Lactose - structure. isomers. physical. chemical and biochemical properties. Browning mechanisms.
Estimation and biosynthesis. Lactose intolerance. Significance of carbohydrates in milk and milk products.
Distribution of tree elements in milk and their technological and nutritional importance, Water - soluble
vitamins - molecular structure, milk and milk products, biological significance. and factors affecting, their
Unit 2
Levels, distribution, isolation and genetic polymorphism of different milk proteins; Casein micclles
- structure, size distribution, stability and physico-chemical properties; Casein models. Amino acid
composition and physico-chemical properties of different fractions of caseins: Whey proteins, denaturation
of milk proteins as influenced by temperature pH and additives; Biosynthesis, structure, function and
physico-chemical properties of a-lactalbumin and B-lactoglobulin, proteases, immunoglobulins, lysozme,
lactoferrins, lipoproteins and fat-globule membrane proteins and their Importance; Milk protein allergenicity,
Role in immune response; Chemistry of milk enzymes and their significance with reference to milk
processing and milk products. Kinetics of chemical reactions and enzyme kinetics: Casein hydrolysate,
co-precipitates, and whey protein concentrates-, fermented milk- and bioactive peptides.
Unit 3
Milk lipids - classification, composition. structure and general physical and chemical properties Auto-
oxidation- definition. theories. Factors affecting, preservation and measurement. Antioxidants-mechanism
of reaction and estimation. Lipolysis. Fatty acids Profile, properties and factors affecting. Unsaponifable
matter. Cholesterol - structure, forms, importance and level in milk Chemistry of phospholipid and their
role in milk and milk products- fat -soluble vitamins - chemistry, physiological functions, levels in milk,
cream. butter and ghee. Biosynthesis of milk fat. CLA biosynthesis and its nutritional and health benefits.
Unit 4
Milk-adulteration detection methods: Biological and chemical; Estimation methods for antibiotics,
pesticides, heavy metals, lactose, lactate, protein, total solid, fat, salt, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorous,
iron, citric acid in milk and milk products. Estimation of vitamin A, total phospholipids and free fatty
acids in ghee. Estimation of starch in food. Measurement of BOD and COD in dairy waste. Biological
methods for detection of adulteration in milk and milk products: PCR and DNA probe based detection.
Unit 5
Cream; size distribution of fat globules, creaming phenomenon, composition and properties of cream
and dry cream. Chemistry of- neutralization and ripening. Butter. Mechanism of churning during butler
preparation. Desi and creamery butter composition, properties, microstructure, grading, standards and
defects. Ghee : differences in composition and variations in ghee and butter oil Analytical constants and
factors affecting them. Differences in cow and buffalo ghee. hydrolytic and oxidative deterioration of ghee,
their causes and prevention. Adulteration and methods of detection. Ghee grading: Antioxidants: natural
and synthetic. physico-chemical characteristics of butter milk and ghee residue.


Unit 6
Heat stability of milk as affected by various milk constituents and additives. Role of proteinprotein
interaction and age gelation of UHT milk. Physical and chemical changes during preparation of concentrated
milk and subsequent storage. Compositional differences between condensed and evaporated milk. Dried
milk: Structure, physicochemical properties and stability of milk powder. Physical properties of instant
powder. Infant food. Spoilage of milk powder and its control. Khoa : Composition and changes daring
manufacture. Composition and changes during preparation chhana and paneer.
Unit 7
Composition and varietal differences. Chemistry of rennin action. Influence of acidity, renneting and
heat on the process of cheese manufacture. Changes during manufacture and ripening. Role and
mechanism of action of stabilizers and emulsifiers. rheological properties and defects of chees. Milk
clotting enzymes, from different sources - microbial, animal and plant. Theories and metabolic pathways
of fermentation. Dahi, yoghurt and Acidophillus Milk. Composition and specific differences, chemical
changes during formentation, flavour developmcnt. Composition of Lassi and buttermilk. Nutritional
and therapeutic significance of fermented milk products and functional foods.
Unit 8
Composition and physical structure, changes during ageing, freezing, hardening and defects. Role
and mechanism of stabiliers and emulsifiers. Kulfi composition and differences with ice-cream. Definition
of quality, quality control and assurance. Standards, statutory and voluntary organizations, PEA act,
sampling, labeling, food inspectors and public inspecters and public analysts. PFA and and AOMARK,
BIS. IS09000 standards for milk products. Total quality management, sensory evaluation of milk and milk
products. Specifications of equipment,, calibration of glasswares and tools used in Quality control
laboratory, legal requirements of packaging material, and product information.. IDF code on nutrition labeling.
Isolation of milk constituents and their recombination for product development. Filled milk products.
Unit 9
Molecular interactions - covalent and weak molecular interactions viz. Ionic Interaction, hydrogen
bonding, vander waal interactions, hydrophobic effect, Fundamentals of statistical thermodynamics,
molecular mechanics, quantum mechanics, Molecular modeling. Energy minimization and free energy
calculations, molecular dynamies and simulatiun. Combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening
and synthesis of functionally important groups; protein-ligand interactions - protein -protein interactions,
docking and cumputational techniques for molecular prediction of molecular conformations and structures.
Unit 10
Spectroscopy - UV - V is spectrophotometry, IR and ETIR fluorimetry, Circular dichroism. atomic
absorption spectroscopy, ID, 21) and multidimensional NMR, Single crystal and powder X-ray
crystallography. Mass Spectrormetry, MS-MS, MS-MALDl, Separation techniques: TLC, OLC, LC, LCMS,
IEF, lon exchange, size cxclusion, reverse phase, hydrophobic interaction, affinity chromatography,
analytical sedimentation, sedimentation equilibrium, isopyenic and isokinetic ultracentrifugation,
ultrafiltration, Precipitation by salting out agents, biopolymers (PEO, dextran etc.), organic solvents, Two
and three phase partitioning, solvent-solvent partitioning; Electrophoresis - PAGE, SDS-PAGE:, Agarose
electrophoresis; Radio-tracers admn nonradio-tiaccr based detection techniques
Unit 11
Micro-flora associated with milk and milk products and their importance-. Morphological, cultural,


physiological, spoilage and pathogenic characteristics of commonly occuring microbes in milk and milk
products; Newer approaches for classification of micro-organisms; Types of- microbes in norrl lat arid
mastitic milk and importance of somatic cell counts: Food poisoning, food infections, toxi-infections and
other milk home diseases, Emerging Food borne pathogens associated with milk and milk products;
Epidemiological studies using DNA finger printing techniques like RAPD, RFLP, DGGE, TGGE, Rep-PCR
etc. Sources of microbial contamination of raw milk and their relative importance in influencing quality of
milk during production, collection, transportation and storage. Microbial and chemical Changes in raw
milk during chilling and refrigeration.
Unit 12
Bacteriological aspects of processing techniques like bactofugation, thermisation, pasteurization,
sterilization, boiling. UHT, pulsed field treatment and membrane filtration of milk; Types of spoilages in
heat-treated milks. Enumeration of heat resistant microbes. Germination and sporulation of bacterial spores;
Prevention of post-processing contamination in heated milk. Identification of sources of contamination in
heat treated milks; Heat induced damage and repair in bacterial cells, D. F & Z values for various microbes:
Role of resuscitation, in recovery of heat injured microbial cells: Bacteriological grading of raw. and heat-
treated milk. Microbiological spoilage aspects of thermally processed milks: Role of phychrotrophic,
thermoduric, thermophilic bacteria and their metabolites in milk spoilage.
Unit 13
Naturally occurring preservative systems in milk like I.P’ system, Immunoglobulins, Lysozmye.
Lactoferrin etc: Preservation of milk and milk products by physical (Irradiations) and chemical agents;
Food grade Bipreservatives ((GRAS) viz. Nisin and other antimicrobials produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria
(LAB), Application of bacterioeins as food grade biopreservatives in enhancing shelf life of foods; Enhancing
anti-microbial potentials of LAB by recombinant DNA technology and Genetic engineering; Residues of
antibiotic. detergents, sanitizers, pesticides and aflatoxins in milk, mode of action on microbes and
biological consequences - as well as their detection by newer approaches like Charm test. HPLC. ELISA
and other methods.
Unit 14
Microbiological quality of Fat rich products Cream and Butter), Frozen dairy products (ice cream);
Concentrated dairy products (Evaporated and sweetened condensed milk) and Dried Milks (Roller and
Spray dried milks and Infant foods): Factors Influencing tile microbiological quality of above products
during their production, processing. handling, storage and distribution; Microbial defects associated with
these products and their control: Microbiological safety in relation to potential pathogons
and their public health significance, National and International microbiological standards for dairy products
(BIS, ICMSF. Codex Alimentarius Standards)
Unit 15
Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as Starters: Types of starter cultures and their classification;. Identification
of LAB based on conventional and molecular techniques such as 16S rRNA sequencing. Ribotyping, PCR
and DNA finger printing: Microbiology of Starter cultures: Single and multiple strain cultures, and custom
cultures; Associative growth of starter cultures; Concepts of starter growth and metabolism of lactose and
citratre- Production of taste and aroma compounds by starters in fermented milk, and milk products,
Changes caused by starters in milk during growth: Modem trends in propagation. production and preservation
of starter cultures, Production of starter concentrates. DVS starters-. Judging of starters quality activity:
Starter defects: Starter failure, Intrinsic and extrinsic factors associated with starter failure: Bacteriophages
of dairy starters and their impact on dairy industry: Prevention and control of starter failures.


Genetics and Molecular Biology of acid, flavour and therapeutic properties of LAB; Role of plasmids
in their metabolism; Genetic manipulation of LAB for ameliorated performance; Food grade cloning and
expression vectors; LAB as hosts for expression of heterologous proteins and development of food grade
oral vaccines; LAB genome projects.
Unit 16
Dairy products as functional/health foods; LAB as Probiotics in development of health foods;
Selection ‘criteria, colonization and functional properties; Anti-bacterial and therapeutic properties of
probiotic cultures: Survival and stability of Probiotics in health foods, gut and their tracking: Concept of
prebiotics and Synbiotics; Genetic markers of probiotic functions and their application for mass screening
Genomics of probiotic Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria; Cloning and sequencing of probiotic genes: Sequence
analysis; Blast. Clustal Wind ClustalX. Pair wise and Multiple alignment; Homology and phylogenetic tree
/dendrograms; LAB as nutraccutical ingredients - a source of vitamin synthesis and exopolvsaccharide
production: Bioactive peptides and their role as nutraceuticals in dairy foods.
Unit 17
Role of starters in the preparation of yoghurt, koumiss, kefir, cultured butter milk: and whey based
beverages and other Fermented product; Therapeutic properties of fermented foods; Microbial defects in
these products, safety and their prevention and control:’ Microbiology of hard semi-hard and soft varieties
of cheese; Role of starter culture during preparation and ripening of cheese; Accelerated ripening of cheese;
Production and use of microbial rennet substitutes; Recombinant chymosin and its application; Defects
in cheese, Microbiological safety and their prevention and control.
Unit 18
Micorbiological quality of indigenous dairy products viz. khoa and chhana based sweets: Burfi; peda;
rasogulla, gulabjamun; kheer, kulfi, shrikh and; paneer; dahi: lassi, ghee etc. Sources of microbial
contamination, their role in spoilage of these products and their Microbiological safety, Prevention and
control; Role of personnel and environmental hygiene at the level of production and processing. Need for
microbiological standards for assessing the quality and safety of indigenous producrs; The concept of
TQMand HACCP’ implemenntation in Improvement of quality and safety of indigenous products: Current
role of’ modified packaging for extending the shelf’ stability of indigenous dairy products, Antimicrobial
packaging, controlled and modified atmosphere (CAP/MAP) based techonologies.
Unit 19
Preparation of by products from dairy effluents by microbial fermation; Cleaning and santization of
equipments, machineries and other contact surfaces used in production and processing of milk and milk
products. Types of detergents and their mechanisms of soil removal from the surfaces; Efficacy of sanitizers
including gaseous disinfectants and evaluation of sanitizing/disinfectant properties; Factors affecting
activity of detergents and sanitizers; Built detergents, commercial detergents and combined detergent-
sanitizeres: Biological consequences of dairy waste disposal; Disposal of dairy effluents after microbial.
treatment; BOD and COD analysis in dairy effluents: Microbiological quality of air and water used in Dairy
Unit 20
Microbiological aspects of quality control and quality assurance in production of milk and milk
products; Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) and the relevance and Sanitary Standard Operating
Procedures (SSOP): Importance of Total Quality Management (TQM) in dairy industry; Application of
HACCP programme in dairy industry; Safety concerns of Biofilm formation on equipment surfaces and


their control measures; Risk assessment approaches and role of predictive microbiology in dairy foods.
Conventional and current methods like imepdence. ATP luminescence, pyruvate etc. in detection of’ food
pathogens; Application of immunological. PCR. Real Time PCR DNA probes, Microarrays (Biochips.) and
(Biosenors etc for detection of food pathogens: Biosafety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) foods.

30. Dairy Engineering and Technology
PAPER-1 (B) and Paper- II
Unit 1
Principles and Practices of production of high quality milk, standardization of milk. Centrifugal separation,
clarification and bacto-fugation, pasteurization, sterilization, UHT processing and aseptic packaging units.
Special milks; toned double toned, recombined, reconstituted, flavoured and filled milks cream, butter, butter
oil, ghee, ice cream and frozen products, different types of cheeses and fermented milks.
Unit 2
Sweetened condensed milks, evaporated milks, various indigenous dairy products and bye products.
Packaging of dairy products, cleaning and sanitation in dairy plants.
Unit 3
Alterative processes dairy technology; radiation, ohimic beating, microwave processing, membrane
filtration technique, electrodialysis, incorporation of cereals and legumes in dairy products, biotechnological
applications, retort processing, water activity, freeze drying, new product development, functional food
development, quality of milk (nutritional, physicochemical and microbiological) contaminants and safety
aspects, legal standards, quality systems and certifications.
Unit 4
Basic principles of heat transfer. Design and selection of heat exchangers used in dairy plants.
Basic principles of mass transfer and momentum transfer phenomena process equipment design.
Unit 5
Constructional and design features of cream separator, clarifier, homogenizer, butter and. cheese
making equipments, single and multiple effect evaporators, spray dryer, freeze dryer, drum dryer, ice
cream freezers and packaging systems. Dairy plant design. Instruments for measurement of pressure,
temperature, vacuum, humidity, fluid flow and liquid level, principles of automatic process control and
control elements.
Unit 6
Steam generation, boilers and their accessories, refrigeration and our conditioning vapour
compression system elements and controls, defrosting, condensers. Design of cold storage, water
softening and demineralization operations in dairy plant. Waste treatment and pollution control methods.

Unit 1: Dairy Plant Operations
Status of dairy Industry in India, recent policies governing dairy sector, raw milk preservation,
physicochemical composition of milk, centrifugal separation, clarification, homogenization, thermal
processing; UHT treatment, bactofugation etc. principles of production, packaging and marketing of special

Unit 2: Fat-rich & frozen dairy products

Principles of production, packaging and marketing of cream, butter, butter oil, ghee. margarine. fat
spreads, different kinds of ice creams, frozen desserts, kulfi, malai-ka-barf etc. Fractionation and health
aspects of milk fat, cholesterol reduced and cholesterol-free dairy products, CLA and its applications

Unit 3: Cheese and fermented milk products

Principles of production, packaging and marketing of different kinds of unripened, ripened and
processed cheeses, yoghurt, dahi, fermented milk products, shrikhand, mishidoi etc. Mechanization of
cheese production, accelerated cheese ripening, probiotic dairy products

Unit 4: Concentrated and dried milk products

Principles of production, packaging and marketing of sweetened condensed milk, evaporated milk,
UHT sterilized concentrated milk, whole milk powder, skim milk powder, malted milk powder, instantized
milk powder, ice cream and cheese powders, infant and weaning foods.

Unit 5: Indigenous milk products and dairy by-products

Status and role of traditional dairy products in Indian Dairy Industry. Principles of production.
packaging and marketing of khoa, khoa-based products, chhana, chhanabased products, paneer, rabri,
kheer etc. Pollution problems associated with by-products. Principles of production, packaging and,
marketing of caseins, caseinates, whey powder, whey concentrates, whey-based beverages, syrups and
soups, lactose, butter milk etc.
Unit 6:Packaging of dairy products & Cleaning and sanitation in dairy plants
Conventional and novel packaging materials, systems and lines employed in dairy industry, special
packaging methods - vacuum, shrink, aseptic etc., MAP, standards and regulations of packaging.
Conventional and novel detergents and sanitizers used in dairy industry, automation and CIP, water quality,
waste management, biodetergents, ultrasonic cleaning techniques.
Unit 7: Advances in Dairy Technology-I
Alternative processing and preservation techniques - radiation preservation, microwave heating.
ohmic heating, high pressure processing etc. Membrane processing and its applications, Emulsions, foams
and gels; Electrodialysis; in dairy industry, incorporation of cereals and legumes in dairy products, bakery
and confectionary products, biotechnological applications in dairy processing, designer milk
Unit 8:Advances in Dairy Technology-2
Retort processing, concept of water activity, rheology of dairy foods, freeze drying and its
consequences, intermediate moisture foods, new product development, devclopmcnt of functional foods
such as sports foods, geriatric foods, low residue diets, high Fiber foods, low cholesterol diets, low or
no-sugar diets etc.
Unit 9: Quality and safety aspects of dairy products
Physico-chemical, microbiological and nutritional aspects of dairy products and their assessment,
safety aspects with reference, to mycotoxins, antibiotics, pesticides, weedicides and heavy metals, legal
standards for dairy products, quality systems such as HACCP, ISO certification etc.
Unit 10: Heat and Mass Transfer
Fourier law: Steady state heat conduction through slab, pipe wall and fin. Empirical relations for


convection transfer for flow through pipe and parallel plates. Condensation and boiling heat transfer.
Unsteady state heat conduction in simple geometry. Analytical and numerical solutions to transient state
heat transfer. Mass transfer: Molecular diffusion in solids, liquids and gases, Fick’s law, estimation of
mass transfer co-efficient. Mass balance in equilibrium stage operators. Dimensional analysis-of turbulent
flow. Momentum, heat and mass transfer analogies.
Unit 11: Rheology and Water Activity
Concept of Rheology, ideal, elastic, plastic and viscous behaviour. Viscoelastic models. Stress strain
behaviour, creep and stress relaxation. Characteristics of Newtonian & nonNewtonian fluids.
Water activity of foods, water sorption isotherm and water activity measurement of methods. Permeability
and shelf-life prediction of dairy products. Principles of equipment planning and design in quality milk
Unit 12: Unit Operations in Dairy Engineering
Centrifugal separation of solid, liquid and gas mixtures. Cyclone, cream separator and clarifiers.
Construction and operation of butter and cheese making equipments. Size reduction of particulate solids.
Homogenization, Sedimentation and settling, Filtration, Agitation and mixing. Flexible packaging and aseptic
packaging. Pasteurization, Sterilization and UHT processing of milk. Process time calculations based on
heat resistance of microorganisms and quality attributes of milk. Freezing of food, ice cream freezers,
freezers concentration and freeze-drying
Unit 13: Evaporation and Drying Equipments
Material and energy balance. Design of single and multiple-effect evaporators Design of thermo-
compression system and MVR. Design of spray and its components. Design of drum dryer and fluidized
bed dryer. Powder and energy recovery systems
Unit 14: Instrumentation and Control Engineering
Mechanical, electrical, magnetic, optical and other types of transducers. Instrument for measurement
of pressure, temperature, radiation, humidity, vacuum, fluid flow and liquid level. Principles of automatic
process control and control elements. Proportional, integral and derivative controllers. Data acquisition.
Unit I5: Plant Utilities and Environmental Engineering
Steam generation. Boilers and their accessories. Vapour compression refrigeration system. elements
and controls, defrosting, condensers. Water softening and demineralization operations in dairy plants.
Waste water treatment and pollution control laws.
Unit 16: Process Equipment Design
Design of vessels; corrosion mechanism & control, design of milk storage tanks, formed heads,
process piping and layout. Design of heat exchangers; tubular, shelf & tube, plate heat exchanger, scrapped
surface heat exchangers. Application of aerodynamic properties to pneumatic handling and conveying of
food products.
Unit 17: Dairy Plant Design and Project Engineering
Design of milk collecting centers, chilling centers, fluid milk and multi products plants, small, medium
and large plants, feasibility project report preparation, equipments for indigenous milk products.Selectin
of plant and machineries.Maintanance of dairy equipments and utilities
Unit 18: Dairy Process Engineering
Hygienic aspects of plant and equipment design, CIP systems, batch and continuous operations,
scale-up and simulation. Membrane processes, ultra filtration and reverse osmosis.

31. Animal Genetics & Breeding
Unit I : Mendelian Genetics
History and development of genetics. Mendelian principles - Modification in Mendelian ratios-linkage
and cross over, linkage map- sex linkage- mutations, mutagenic agents, rate of mutation -multiple alleles-
multiple gene inheritance - penctrance - expressivity hereditary disorders in livestock. List of major
qualitative traits and their pattern of inheritance in livestock and poultry.
Unit 2 : Biochemical Genetics:
Polymorphism- genetic basis genetic polymorphism in isozymes, blood protiens , (Albumin, globulin.
hemoglobin transferrin etc. milk proteins, K ion concentration types in sheep - Basic principles for
electrophoresis- utility in parentage identification. Blood of major livestock species.
Unit 3 : Cytogenetics
Development in cytogcnctics - preparation of normal karyotypes- short term blood cultures; -lab,
techniques - principles - preparation of metaphase chromosomes - banding (G banding. C banding, R
banding, fluorescent banding. NOR etc.) Normal karyotypes of livestock species - Metacentric,
submetacentic, acrocentric and telocentric chromosomes variant chromosomes- Y chromosome
polymorphism - chromosome abnormalities - genetic and phenotypic effects - centric fusion (l/29
translocation in cattle, other centric fusions). Sex chromosomes, aneuploidy - mosaics and chimera free
martins. Intersexuality and hermaphrodism in goat - chromosome evolution in family equidae . Chromosome
compliments of Riverine and Swamp buffalo and their crosses.
Unit 4 : Molecular Genetics
Gene - structure of DNA - replication -protein synthesis - Operon concept - introns exons. Genome
size of livestock species- basic principles of DNA extraction from blood, and other body tissues - basic
principles of PCR - various types of electrophoresis - DNA sequencing - manual and automated sequencing.
Molecular genetic techniques i.e. PCRRAPD, PCR RFLP, PCR-AFLP, Multiplex PCR, quantilativc PCR,
SSCP, SNPs, DDRT, SSH, DNA micro array -Microsatelllites. 2D gel electrophoresis.
DNA markers- major genes- K casein, B lactoglobulin, growth hormone, growth hormone receptor
gene, prolactin, MHC (class Il. DRD Ill), Leptin, D) Gat, fecundity gene. etc. Milk synthesis genes, growth
genes etc. Use of microsatellites for between and within breed variation - preparation of dendogram -
genetic distance -gene clusters. Recombinant DNA technique- international gene banks- Gene accessation
No. Genomics – proteomics-genes expression-basics for Bioinformatics - important softwares.
Unit 5 : Population Genetics
Population - Mendelian population- Panmixic population effective population size characteristics of
population -gene frequencies; genotypic frequencies- genetic equilibrium for autosomal and sex linked
genes. Effectiveness of selection (complete and partial), migration, mutation (selection- mutation
equililbrium, mutation equilibrium) and random genetic drifts (fixing of genes and elimination of genes).
Values and means, dominance deviation - additive genetic variance, dominance and epistatic variance.
Unit 6: Quantative Genetics
Quantative traits - phenotypic variance - components of phenotypic variance -genotypic variance.
environmental variance -genotype x environment interaction – genotype environment correlation -genetic

parameters - heritability, repeatability, genetic correlation - basic concept for estimation of genetic
Parameters- resemblancc between relatives - vertical v/s lateral relationships -properties, of genetics,
parameters -methods of estimation of genetic parameters. relative efficiency of methods uses of genetic
parameters - Inheritance of threshold characters. Statistical models for estimation of genetic parameters
– assumptions- additive v/s multiplicative Biometrical technique in Animal Breeding . Design applicable
to Animal Breeding and their analysis.
Unit 7 : Selection and Selection Experiments
Selection - selection differential - intensity of selection - response to selection, realised heritability
- causes for flactuation in genetic gain - basis for selection - accuracy of selection. Individual, pedigree,
family and progeny based selection and their relative efficiency and accuracies. Selection experiments
in poultry and livestock - long term and short term goal genetics slippage. Sire evaluation - station testing.
associated herd testing and field progeny testing programmes - basic norms - sire indices, breeding values
- various methods for estimation of sire Indices - BLUP For breeding values of sire - genetic gain in
progeny testing programmes- Genetic divergence- genetic and environmental trends in breeding
programmes- multi traits selection - tandem, independent culling and selection indicles partial, complete
and restricted). multi source index – individual plus family selectionindividual pedigree selection - Osborne
index. Multi stage selection. Selection for threshold characters.
Unit 8 : Breeding Methods / Mating System
Random mating- inbreeding-out breeding-species hybridization. Coefficient of inhbreeding-path
coeffieint method-genetic and phenotype effects of inbreeding adantages and limitations of inbreeding-
inbreeding depression- uses of inbreeding development of inbred strains and lines.
Out breeding-out crossing/cross breeding – two breed, three breed, four breed crosses rotational
crossing - development of synthetic breed, hybrid vigour I heterosis -genetic and Phenotypic effects of
heterosis - estimation of hctcrosis - maternal heterosis. Grading up. Species hybridization.
Unit 9: Breeding strategies for Livestock and Poultry
Breeds of livestock and poultry - classification - important economics traits of major breeds of
livestock ‘and poultry. Habitate of different breeds in the country- population statistics. Genetic improvement
programmes for cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig, poultry. Genetic gain for important ‘economic traits of
livestock and poultry.
Pure breeding and cross breeding programmes for cattle -selection of male and female selection
indices and breeding values for males and females, Sire evaluation programmes - concept of “Interbull”.
grinding, up of non descript. Cross breeding evaluation of cross bred bulls- new crossbreds developed -
Karanswiss, Karanfrics, Sunandini. ONBS. Molecular genetic markers - identification of QTLs from sire
- daughter, sire - grand daughter and selective genotyping. Sheep and goat breeding for fibre and meat
production. Selective breeding- cross breeding - selection indices - flock structure and productivity -
selection of - males and females- important crossbreds developed viz; Bharat Merino. Avikalin and
Buffalo Breeding Programmes
Poultry - egg type, broiler type - selection indices - Osborn Index - Intra population selection strain
crossing - development of inbred lines - exploitation of heterosis - diallele crossing - poly allele crossing
- SCA. GCA, recurrent selection, reciprocal recurrent selection - selection for feed efficiency (PEl, RFC)
- selection for disease resistance, selection against heat stress. Alternative breeding strategy. Uses of
genetic markers.


Evaluation of pure breeding and cross breeding in livestock and poultry recomended exotic breeds
- level of exotic inheritance. NCBBP. Pig breeding programmes. Breeding programmes,” All India
Co-ordinated Research Project on Cattle, Sheep, Goat, Pig and Poultry.
Unit 10 : Conservation of Genetic Resources
Principal methods of conservation - insitu and exitu conservation - choosing of breeds for
conservation based on population size -genetic status and risk assessment - classification of breeds
according to their risk status (Extinct, Endangered, Vulnerable, Rare and Out of danger - Animal genetic
data bank at global and national level.
Unit 11 : Laboratory Animal Breeding
Labortory animal species viz. mice, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, dog and monkey - Their chromosome
numbers –genome size - major genes. Physiological, nutritional, reproduction, parameters, maintenance
protocol - pedigree recording, planned mating. Nomenclature for differcnt strains, inbred lines ( SPF line,
Knockout mice etc.) - Animal model for human disease, Specific utility of different laboratory species
for different requirements.

32. Animal Physiology and Nutrition
Unit 1: Energy, Protein, Vitamin and Minerals
Animal Cell-Organelle and its functions. Functions of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Available
energy from organic nutrients. Partitioning of dietary energy, basal metabolic rate. Energy retention. Factors
affecting energy utilization. Essential and critical amino acids. Protein evaluation. Metabolizable protein
concept. Protein energy inter-relationship. Functions of Vitamins, deficiency, hyper-vitaminosis, requirement
and sources. Minerals, functions, deficiency and toxicity. Mineral requirements of livestock, sources,
inter-relationship, synergism and antagonism.

Unit 2: Rumen Physiology and Nutrition

Control of rumen motility, rumen environment. Development of functional rumen. Role of rumen
microbes. Significance of rumen fungi - defaunation and transfaunation. Microbial fermentation in rumen.
VFA production, inter conversion and utilization. Dietary proteins break down. Microbial protein
synthesis. NPN compounds and their utilization. Ammonia toxicity - role of slow release urea
compounds. Manipulation of rumen fermentation. Bio-hydrogenation and utilization of dietary lipids.
Methanogenesis and methane inhibitors. Rumen dysfunctions. Role of protected proteins and fats.
Adverse effects of over protection of dietary proteins. Naturally occurring by-pass proteins.

Unit 3: Digestive Physiology and Nutrition of Non-Ruminants

Comparative gastro - intestinal physiology of mono-gastric animals. Digestion and metabolism of
organic nutrients in poultry and swine. Significance of minerals and vitamins in mono-gastric animals.
Inter relationship in nutrient sparing activity.

Unit 4: Nutrition and Reproduction

Male spermatogenesis. Accessory sex glands,. semen and evaluation. Factors affecting semen
production. Artificial insemination - semen collection, preservation and transportation and semen diluents.
Freezing of semen. Oogenesis. Follicular development. Ovulation. Corpus Luteum. Reproductive cycles
in animals. Female reproductive hormones. Energy and protein requirement of gestation.

Unit 5: Nutrition and Lactation

Lactation - Hormonal control of lactation and milk let-down. Maintenance and cessation of lactation.
Mammary gland involution. Milk precursors and synthesis of milk constituents. Milk composition
in different animals. Nutrient requirement and efficiency of milk production.

Unit 6: Physiology of Growth and Nutrition

Concept and definition. Growth regulation and factors affecting prenatal and post natal growth. Role
of growth in production. Growth curve and growth measurement. Nutrient requirement and energetic
efficiency of growth of non- ruminants and ruminants.
Unit 7: Feed Evaluation, Processing, Forage Conservation and Feed Additives
Physical, chemical and biological method of feed processing. Effect of processing on nutritional
quality and utilization. Feed analysis and quality control. Concept of complete diet system. Alternative
feed resources. Anti-nutritional factors and toxins in feeds and forages. Method of detoxification.
Silage, hay making and its grading. Ration formulation, least cost ration. Feeding strategy during stress

and nutritional calamities. Feed additives. Nutritonal role - probiotics, prebiotics and other metabolic
Unit 8: Blood and body fluids
Blood, composition, constituents, coagulation. Blood groups and immunogens. Reticuloendothelial
system. Body fluids, electrolytes and balance mechanisms. Body buffers and acid base balance. .
Unit 9: Circulation and cardiopulmonary system
Blood circulation- systemic and regional. Lymph and lymphatic circulation. Hemodynamics and
biophysical principles. Heart, neural control and autoregulation. Electrocardiography. Respiration- control
and regulation. Gaseous exchange and transport. Respiration in birds.
Unit 10: Nervous system, special senses and Muscle physiology
Nervous system, general organization and action potential generation. Synapse, neurotransmitters
and impulse transmission. Spinal and brain reflexes. Autonomic nervous system. Functions of spinal
cord, brain stem and cerebellum. Limbic system and cerebral cortex. Learning and memory. Pain and
special senses. Skeletal muscle, contractile structures, excitation contraction coupling. Work, exercise
and high altitude physiology.
Unit 11: Climate and behavior physiology
Physiology of climatic stress. Effect of stress on production and reproduction. Neural and hormonal
regulation of body temperature in homeotherms. Mechanism of adaptation. Photoperiodicity and biological
rhythms. Design of shelters/animal houses for different climatic conditions. Feeding, grazing, drinking
and thermoregulatory behavior of livestock.

33. Animal Reproduction
Unit 1 : Veterinary Gynaecology
Biology of sex, development of female genitalia. Functional anatomy of female reproductive system
of farm animals. Growth, puberty and sexual maturity. Reproductive cycles (oestrus cycle) in female
farm animals. ogenesis and folliculogenesis. Follicular dynamics and ovulation. Transport and survival of
gamtetes, fertilization, cleavage, implantation and maternal recognition of pregnancy Development of
foetus and foetal membranes. Placenta - classification and functions. Gestation and Pregnancy diagnosis
in farm animals.
Unit 2 : Reproductive Endocrinology
Reproductive hormones, classification, synthesis, chemical composition and mechanism of action.
Hypothalmus, pituitary, thyrod, gonadotropic, gonadal, placental and pineal gland hormones, prostaglandins,
pheromones, growth factors and hormone antagonists and their significance in animal reproduction.
Hormonal assays. Hormonal regulation of male and female reproduction. Clinical uses of hormones.
Unit 3 : Accidents during Gestation
Pregnancy, pseudoecyesis, Ectopic pregnancy, Abnormalities of fertilization and foetal development,
super fecundation and superfoetation. Abortion bacterial, vira, mycotic, protozoal, physical, toxic and
miscellaneous causes; diagnosis and prevention. MDropsy of foetal membrane and foetus. Maccration,
mummification, pyometra. Antepartum vagino cervical prolapse, uterine torsion and displacement of uterus.
Unit 4: Veterinary Obstetrics
Pelvis and and pelvimetry, parturition – signs approaching parturition, initiation and stages of
parturition, induction of parturition and postpartum period. Presentation, position and posture. Causes
and forms of dystocia and its treatment. Obsterical maneuvers including fetotomy and caesarean section.
Post partum complication in domestic animals, retention of placenta, uterine prolapse, metritis, septie
metritis. Post parturient metabolic disorders.
Unit 5: Andrology
Comparative anatomy of male reproductive system. Thermoregulation of testis and blood testis
barrier, growth, puberty and sexual maturity. Spermatogenesis including cycle of semniferous epithelium
spermatogenic and wave. Sperm morphology and ultra structure of spermatozoa, sperm transport,
maturation and storage in male genital tract. Secretions of male reproductive tract including accessory
glands and their role in reproduction. Sexual/mating behaviour.
Semen and its composition, biochemistry of semen and sperm metabolism. Sperm abnormalities
and its classification, sperm separation and spermatozoa karyo typing.
Unit 6 : Male Infertility
Fertility, infertility and sterility in male domestic animals. Causes and forms of male infertility.
Testicular hypoplasia, cryptochid, testicular degeneration, orchitis. affections of apididymis, vas deference,
penis, prepuce and accessory glands. Tumors of the male reproductive tract. Management ,and nutritional
Infertility: Vices in the males.
Evaluation of male for breeding soundness reproductive health status. Effect of parental drugs and
vaccines on semen quality.

Unit 7: Frozen Semen Technology and Artificial Insemination

History and development of’ artificial insemination. Advantage and disadvantage of Al and frozen
semen, selection of bulls for Al purpose. management of’ breeding bulls, methods of semen collection in
different domestic animals, semen evaluation including latest techniques for evaluation of motility and
Ideal extenders, extenders For liquid semen. Preservation of semen at various temperatures.
processing and preservation of liquid semen. Extenders for frozen semcn, principles and techniques of
semen freezing. Cold shock and ultra low temperature shock. Cryoroportectants. Semen additives.
Evaluations of frozen semen. Transport and storage semen. Handling of Frozen semen. Liquid nitrogen
and LN2 containers. Insemination techniques. Planning and organization of semen bank.
Unit 8 : Reproductive Technology
Synchronization of oestrous cycle in domestic aninials, control of ovulation. Embryo transfer
technology - History advantages and disadvantages, supcrovulation, collection. evaluation. preservation
and transfer of embryos.
History of in vitro maturation and fertilization. Recovery of oocytes in vitro and in vivo maturation,
fertilization, culture, evaluation, preservation and transfer of oocytes / embryos.
Micromanipulation of embryo splitting and cloning. Production of transgenic animals.
Micromanipulation of’ embryos. Sex determination and gene insertion. Establishment of laboratory for
ETT. IVM. 1VF and IVC.
Unit 9 : Infertility in Cows and Buffaloes
Fertility, infertility and sterility. Evaluation of herd fertility. Incidence and economic role of infertility,
forms of infertility, congenital and hereditary defects, infectious diseases. Pathological conditions of ovary,
oviduct, uterus, cervix and vulva. Managemental causes of infertility. Hormonal causes of infertility,
ancestrous, repeat breeding, cystic ovarian degeneration, sexual health control and reproductive health
programmes. Breeding soundness examination of cows and buffaloes.
Unit 10: Reproduction and Infertility in Ovine and Caprine
Puberty, sexual maturity, breeding season. estrous cycle. Breeding and conception gestation,
parturition, peri-parturicnt and obstetrical complications. synchronization of estrous cycle. Embryo transfer.
Causes of infertility and their management.
Unit 11 : Reproduction and Infertility in Swine
Estrous cycle, synchronization of estrous cycle. Hormonal control of reproduction. Various forms of
infertility in swine and their management. Various obstetrical problems and their management.
Unit 12: Equine Reproduction
Physiology and pathology of equine reproduction. Research techniques and methodology for the
study of engine reproduction. Equine andrology. Reproductive behaviour and management of stallion. Semen
collection, examination and artificial insemination. Pregnant mare behaviour. Application of modem
electronic and sonographic techniques in equine reproduction. Equine infertility.
Unit 13: Canine and Feline Reproduction
Functional anatomy of dog and cat reproductive system, estrus cycle and endocrinology of estrus
cycle and detection of optimum breeding time. Methods of pregnancy diagnosis. Contraception. Medical
termination of pregnancy. Infertility in bitches disorders of estrus cycle, pseudohpregnancy, pyometra,


cystic endoretrial hyperplasia, tumors of reproductive tract. Reproductive bioassays and diagnostics.
Difficult whelping - types and methods of handling dystocia. Caesarean section. ovario hysterectomy.
Peri parturient complications. Semen collection. evaluation. techniques of artificial insemination, infertility
in male including testicular tumors - cryptorchid, affections of prostrate.

34. Livestock Producton and Management
Unit 1 : General
Present status and future prospects of livestock and poultry development in India. Animal production
systems in different agro-climatic zones of the country. Socioeconomic and environmental issues in relation
to sustainability. of livestock production. Various livestock and poultry development programmes operative
in the country. Effect of industrialization and mechanization of agriculture on livestock sector. Breeds of
cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pigs, equine, camels, rabbits and Poultry. and their conservation and sustainable
utilization. Adaptation and production (if livestock and poultry. in tropics, deserts cold and high altitudes.
Reproductive behaviour in various species of’ livestock and poultry. Behavioural problems In livestock
and poultry- their causes and managemcnt. Ethical issues in animal production. Integrated and specialized
crop and livestock production systems. Labour norms for livestock and poultry management operations.
Maintenance of livestock records. Livestock and poultry shows. Biotechnology in animal production and
management. Biosecurity and environmental considerations in animal production.

Unit 2 : Breeding Management

Breeding policies and strategies for livestock improvement under different agro ecological regions.
Concepts of heritability, repeatability and their application in animal selection. Important methods of
selection and systems of breeding in farm animals and birds. Maintenance and evaluation of breeding
records. Farmer’s herd registration and performance recording.

Unit 3 : Feeding Management

Nutrients and their functions. Nutritional requirements and feeding managements of different
categories of livestock and poultry. Formulation and compounding of rations for various categories of-
livestock and poultry. Least cost ration formulation. Systems of feeding livestock and birds. Feeding
standards for livestock and poultry. conversion efficiency of various categories of livestock and
poultry. Processng and storage of conventional and non -conventional feed ingredients. Feed additives
including antibiotics, Prebiotics and probiotics and their significance in livestock and poultry production.
Agro-industrial byproducts in animal feeding. Water requirement of various categories of livestock and

Unit 4: Reproduction Management

Reproductive systems of farm animals and birds. Climate and nutrition atfecting reproductive
Performance in farm animals. oestrous detection, synchronization. artificial insemination and pregnancy
diagnosis. Causes of impaired fertility its prevention and control in farm animals. Management factors
affecting reproductive efficiency. Seasonality in farm animal breeding and its management.

Unit 5 : Shelter Management

Housing systems. Planning and layout of animal and poultry houses. Space requirement for various
categories of livestock and poultry. Housing designs for different agro-climatic regions. Macro and micro
climatic changes affecting designs of animal and poultry houses. BIS standards for livestock and poultry
housing. Construction of cheap animal and poultry shelters utilizing local resources. Automation in livestock
farning. Disposal of livestock waste and its efficient utilization.

Unit 6 : Health Management

Hygiene and sanitation on animal farm. Symptoms of ill health, important infectious diseases of
livestock and poultry and their control. Vaccination schedules in animals and poultry. Internal and external
parasites and their control. Accidental health disorders and their control. Common disinfectants used on
animal farms. Diseases diagnosis and important diagnostic aids. Concept of first aid at farms. Segregation
and quarantine management for large animals and birds. Quarantine act, zoonotic diseases, labour health
Unit 7 : Production and Management of Cattle and Buffalo
Cattle and buffalo population and performance trends and factors affecting them. Care and
management of cows and buffaloes under pre partum period. Care of neonate and young calves.
Management strategies for reducing morbidity and mortality in calves, age at first calving, and calving
intervals. Milking management and machine milk practice. Management pack-ages for quality milk
production. Optimum performance indices for various livestock breeds under organized farms.
Unit 8: Production and Management of other Animals
Draft animals : Population dynamics of various categories of draft and work animals in India.
Characteristics of draft animals. Estimating draft capacity of different species. Harnesses for various
types of draft animals. Training of work animals. Feeding, care and management of draft animals.
Management of camel with special reference to rearing, feeding and watering. Behavioural studies of
various draft animals. Economics of draft animals vis-a-vis machine power.
Sheep and goat: Selection and mating systems for improving wool, mohair, pashmina, meat and
milk. Feeding practices for economic rearing. Scope of intensive milk and meat production from goat.
Mutton and wool production from sheep. Low cost shelter management. Sheep and goat reproduction.
Health management.
Poultry : Brooding of chicks. Management of growing, laying and breeding flocks. Shelter
management. Cage layer management and well being of birds. Light management. Hatchery business
management. Management during stress. Chick sexing Maintenance of farm records. Health and sanitation
problems. Prevention and disease control. Poultry shows. Handling care of table eggs and processing of
birds for meat.
Equine: Care and management of horses, donkeys and mules. their feeding. breeding systems and
shelter management system. Shoeing. preparation and management of race hourses.
Swine: Major breeds of swine. Mating systems for improving pork production. Feeding’ strategies
for pigs. Care and management of pregnant swines and unweaned piglets.. Reproduction problems in
pigs and remedial measures.
Rabbit : Important fur and meat type breeds of rabbit. Housing, handling. feeding watering, breeding.
management, sanitation and health care of-rabbits.
Unit 9: Wild Life Management
Status of wild life in India and its conservation. Ecological basis of management or wild life. Breeding
and feeding of wild life in captivity. Health management. Wild life acts. Welfare issues in wild life
Unit 10 : Forage Production and Conservation
Classification of feeds and Forages. Feed and fodder resources used for feeding of livestock and
poultry. Nutritive value of feeds and fodders. Conservation and preservation of feeds and fodders. Annual


and perennial fodder crops. Strategies for round the year fodder production. Pasture development and
management. Enrichment of poor quality roughages.
Unit 11 : Economics and Marketing of Livestock and Poultry and their Products
Economic principles as applied to livestock production. Production functions. Farm size resources
and product combinations. Cost concepts. Resources optimization in livestock production. Maintenance
and evaluation of different production records. Insurance and financing of livestock enterprises. Project
formulation for setting up livestock farms. Different approaches to marketing of livestock and its products.
Present status of animal fairs for livestock marketing. Market news and information. Determination of
prices of livestock products. Vertical integration in livestock products industries.

35. Veterinary Pharmacology & Medicine
Unit 1: General Pharmacology
Development and scope, branches of pharmacology, terminology. Sources and nature of drugs.
Pharmacopoeia and drug compendia. Drug schedules. Regulatory considerations of veterinary drugs, factors
modifying drug activity. Pharmacogenetics.
Pharmacodynamics: Drug structure activity relationship, Drug-receptor Interaction. Role of second
messengers, drug modulation via different types of receptors. Characterization of agonists, antagonists.
Pharmacokinetics: Routes of drug administration - principles - absorption. Distrlbuilon,
biotransformation, oxoretion. Factors modifying drug kinetics, kinctic constants. Different models,
determination of kinetic parameter and application in rational dosage regimen, interspecies scaling,
Principles of therupeutics.
Pharmacometrics : Organization and screening programmes and drug development. Multidimentional
screening methods, bioassays. Determination of median doses - LD.-50 therapeutic indices. Types of
dosa-response relationship.
Unit 2: Drugs acting on the Central Nervous System
Role of nouratransmitters in CNS, sedatives, hypnotics, general anacsthctics. Hypotheses and
clinical stages of anaesthesia Pro- and post-anaesthetics, molecular mechanism of action of inhalant
and paranteral anaesthetics. Therapeutic gases. Anticonvulsants. Tranquilizers. Neuroleptanalgesics,
alpha-adrenegic agonists. Narcotic and non-nardcotic analgesics and antipyretics. Drugs affecting
behaviour. Drug dependence and addiction and drug abuse. CNS stimulants. Muscle relaxants. Local
Unit 3 : Drugs acting on the Autonomic and Sumatic. Nervous Systems
Neurohumoral transmission. Adrenergic and antiadrenorgle drugs including adrenergic neuron
blockers. Cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs. Purinergic and Adenosine receptors. Dopaminorgic and
antidopaminorgic agents. Nitric oxide modulators. Neuromuscular blocking agents. Ganglion stimulants
and ganglion blockers.
Unit 4: Drugs acting on the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems
Drugs acting on heart and blood vessels. Antihyportensive and antiarrhythmic agents. Blood
coagulants and anticoagulants, thrombolytic and antiplatclct drugs. Haematinica. Haemorrhagic shock
and its treatment. Expectorants, antitussivcs. Bronchodilators. Mucolytic agents. Analeptics,
Unit 5 : Drugs, Acting on Digestive System
Stomachics, antacids and antiulcer drugs. Carminatives and antizymotics. Emetics and antiemetics.
Cathartics. Antidiarrhoeal agents. Antispasmodics. Pharmacology of rumen and rumenotoric drugs.
Drugs acting on hepatobiliary system.
Nutritional Pharmacology: Fat soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins. Calcium, phosphorus and
other macroelements, trace elements and miscellaneous nutrients.

Unit 6: Drugs Acting on Uro-genital System

Drugs altering fluid balance. Diuretics and antidiuretics- General principles of electrolyte- and fluid
therapy. Drugs acting on uterus (oxytocies and tocolytics). Drugs used for synchronization of oestrus_
Unit 7: Endocrine Pharmacology
Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. Nanpituitury gonadotropins, adrenocerticoids, sex hormones,
insulin and glucagon, thyroid hormones, antithyrold agents, Calcitonin. parathormone.
Unit 8: Autacolds
Pharmacological effects and therapeutics of histamine, antihistarninic agents, 5-IIT and its
antagonists, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, peptides and kinins, renin and angiotcnstns. Platelet
activators, Anti-inflammatory drugs.
Unit 9: Chemotberapy
General principles. Drug allergy, hypersensitivity, mechanisms of resistance. Antiseptics and
disinfectants. Chemistry, mechanism of action and thorapeutics of sulphonamides, trimetboprim and
Antibiotics: Penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosidcs, macrolides, tctracycllines, polypeptides.
Antifungal and other emerging antibiotics. Quinolones, nitrofurans. Antitubercular, antiviral and
antinaoplastic drugs.
Anthelmintios: Antinematodal, anticestodal and antitrematodal drugs, Antiprotozoans, coccidiostats.
Drugs used for ectoparasite control. Drug residues, withdrawal times. Concept of Gene based therapy,
prospects of disease target therapy, immunomodulators, overview of indigenous medicinal drugs and their
components for therapeutic use.
Unit 10 : Toxicology
Terminology, classification of poisons. Toxicity rating. Principles of selective toxicity. Toxicodynamics.
Toxicokiaetics. Diagnosis and treatment of poisoning (antidotal and nonantidotal). Mechanism of
detoxification. Poisons causing respiratory insufticiency. Toxicology of common inorganic compounds,
Toxicity of posticides, metals, non-metals and metalloids. Poisonous plants cyanogenic, nitrate and oxalate
producers. Mycotoxins including ergot poisoning.

Unit 1: General Aspects
Epidemiological studies, casual association, ecological basis of disease and its transmission.
Disease surveillance, monitoring, forecasting, prevention and control. Geographical Information System
(GIS) segregation, isolation and quarantine of animals etc. Diseases prevalence, incidence, morbidity
and mortality etc. Economic impact of diseases. Animals diseases of public health importance, rural
health and health delivery system. Occupational hazards.
Virulence factors of pathogens, pathogenic mechanisms of microbes. Resistance mechanism of
survival of microbes in and outside the host. Antigens eliclting protective and diagnostic antibodies. Various
methods used for diagnostic purpose.
Case history and clinical examination of animals. Application of advanced tools for disease diagnosis,
prognosis and therapy. Genral systemic states like bactermia, septicemia, pyemia, toxemia, hypothermia,
hypoglycemia, allergy, anaphylaxis, shock, dehydration, stress, sudden death, anasarca, anaemia, pica


Unit 2: Gastroenterology
Specific conditions of organs of gastrointestinal system with special emphasis to indigestion,
tympany, colic, Impaction, traumatic reticulitis/peritonitis, abomasal displacement, ascites, jaundice,
hepatitis, enteritis, gastritis etc.
Unit 3: Diseases of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Systems
Acute heart failure. Congestive heart failure. Peripheral circulatory failure. Myocardial and valvular
diseases, Epistaxis, Pulmomoary congestion and edema, emphysema, pneumonia, pleurisy, aspiration
Unit 4: Diseases of Urinary, Nervous, Musculoskektul and Integumentary Systems
Nephrosis, nephritis, pyelonephritis, cystitis, urolithiasis, uremia, cerebral anoxia, encephalitis,
onccphalomalacia, meningitis , encephalomyelitis, paralysis, myopathy, ostovdystrophy, arthritis, urticaria,
dermatitis., photosensitization, conjunctivitis, otitis, keratocojunctivitis, corneal ulcers, eczema alopecia.
Unit 5 : Production and Deficiency Diseases
Metabolic profile tests, milk lever, Downer’s cow syndrome, ke-tosis, hypomagnesaemia, diabetes,
post-parturient haemoglobinuria, azoturia, fat cow syndrome, rickets, osteodystrophic fibrosa, trace mineral
mid vitamin deficiency.
Unit 6: Diseases caused by Physical Agents, Chemicals and Toxins
Diseases caused by physical agents, inorganic and farm chemicals, phytotoxins, mycotoxins,
zootaxins etc.
Unlt 7: Infectious Diseases
Mastitis, strangles, easeuus lymphadenitis in sheep and goats, closttidial diseases. Ulcerative
lymphangitis in horses and cattle, listeriosis, leptospirosis, crysiptlas, collibacillosis, salmonellosis,
pasteurellosis. Brucellosis, TB, JD, actinomyeosis, actinobacillosis, glanders, mycoptasmal disease,
emerging zoonotie infections and their management and control.
Hog cholera, African swine fever, leucosis, FMD, RP, PPM BMC, BSE, mucosal diseasc complex,
blue tongue, influenza, rabies, visna. contagious eethyma, pox, papillomatasis, distemper. infectious
canine hepatitis, Parvo virus enteries, felinc panicucopenia, equine infectious anaomia, chlamydiosis,
Q-fever. Anaplasmosis. Heart water contagious opthalmia, aspergillosis, ring worm, bursattee, lymphangitis,
bahesiosis, thelleriosis, coccidiosis, trypanosominsis, toxoplasmosis, Zoonosis.
Major conditions produced by nematode, cestode and trermatode Infestations, Major conditions
produced by arthropod parasites,
Unit 8: Diseases of the Newborn
Perinatal diseases, congenital defects. Physical and environmental causes of perinatal disease.
Noconatal infections, critical care of newborn
Unit 9 : Poultry Diseases
Newcastle disease, IBD, ID, ILT. Mycoplasmosis. Coccidiosis, Salmonellosis. Necrotic enteritis ALC.
Mareck’s disease, Myeotoxicosis. Avian enoephalomyolitis, Hydropericardiuim syndrome, avian influenza,
psittacosis, ornilhnsia. TB, histomoniasis, spirochaetosib, trichomoniasis etc., parasitic diseases of poultry.
Unit 10: Legislations and Veterinary Jurisprudence
Veterinary ethics and role of veterinArian. Prevention of cruelty to animals and legal enactment of


TPC laws related to domestic animals and wild life. Indian Veterinary Council Act and its role in animal
welfare. Legal requirements for export and import of livestock and their products.
National and international standards for milk, meat, egg and their products, Bureau of Indian
standards. Codex Alimcntaries, Good manufacturing practice required for animal and veterinttry products.
HACCP. Quality control, WTO. Sanitary and phytoganitary measures. Role of various International
organizations in animal disease control.
Toxic ferns. Venomous bites and stings and treatment.
Unit 11. Environmental Toxicology
Types and identification of industrial contamination and pollution residual toxicity. Impact of
pesticides, fungicides, weedlcides, fertilizers on biosphere. Chemical warfare agents and radiation hazards,
toxicity from food additives, preservatives. Statutory regulation on agrochamical formulations and their
uses, lmmunotoxicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, embryotoxicity for toxicological evaluation.
Drugs promoting growth and production- Agents used for doping and restraining of wild animals.
Euthanizing agents. Water and air pollution. Chemical residues in tissues of food animals, residue analysis,
maximum permissible levels of residues.

36. Veterinary Anatomy and Surgery
Unit 1: Veterinary surgery and Radiology
Principles of Surgery. Current concepts of inflammation and its management. Disinfections and
sterilization - Surgical instruments. Suture materials - suture pattern and knots. Bio implants. Pre-intra
and post operative considerations. Pathophysiology of bums. Trauma and shock. Acid base and electrolyte
imbalance. Fluid therapy and blood transfusion. Tissue repair and its biochemical aspects. Principles of
tissue and organ transplantation. Transplantation immunity. Management of operation theatre. Abcess,
cyst, haematoma, tumor, gangrene, sinus, fistula and hernia. Neurological examination. Paralysis and its
treatment Care of critically ill patients. Laser surgery. Cryosurgery.
Unit 2: Veterinary Anatomy and Histology
Locomotive system : Axial, appendicular and visceral skeleton of domestic ruminants, horses, dogs,
pig and fowl. Muscles of the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, thoracic limb and pelvic limb. Joints, ligaments
and cartilage.

Descriptive anatomy of the organs of digestive, resplratory, urogenitai, circulatory and nervous
systems and sense organs of domestic ruminants horses, dog, pig and fowl.

Microscopic structure of cell, epithelium, connective tissue, muscle and nervous tissue: Histology
of the organs of digestive, respiratory. urogenital, circulatory and nervous systems. Histology of the
lymphoid organs, sense organs and endocrine glands.

Developmental Anatomy- Gametogenesis, fertilization, placentation, cleavage, gastrulation and

organogenesis - Development of different organ systems of the body.

PAPER - ll
Unit 1 : Anaesthesia
Anaesthesia and preanaesthetics - Local anaesthesia and techniques. Tranquilizers - Basal marcosis -
General anaesthesia - administration on various animals - patient monitoring during anaesthesia -
intravenous and inhalation anaesthesia.

Neuromuscular blocking agents.

Unit 2 : Rediology
Production of X-rays. Radiographic techniques and Interpretation of skiagrams. soft tissue radiography
and contrast media techniques of different systems. Alternate imaging techniques.

Unit 3: Orthopaedic surgery and Lameness

A brief survey of affactions of the back and limbs and consequent lameness in large and small
animals - principles of muscle surgery - tenotomy and tenorrhaphy techniques - patellar desmotomy,
study of fracture and dislocations in small and large animals. Diseases of bones - healing of fracture of

different bones by external and internal fixations -various affections of the joints, their diagnosis and
treatment of hoof affections in the horse and cattle - Hip dysplasia in dogs.
Unit 4: Surgery of Head and Neck
Surgery of mouth - like cleft plate/tonsillectomy. Aural lesions and their management. Surgical
drainage of the ear- Management of the skull and mandibular injuries. Affections of the nasal cavity and
sinuses. Dental surgery - Surgery oesophagus. Laryngeal hemiplagia in horses - dorsal displacement of
soft palate. Epiglottis entrapment, guttural pouch affections in horses - tracheotomy techniques in bovines
- dehorning techniques. Common eye affections in domestic animals.

Unit 5 : Thoracic and Abdominal Surgery

Thoracotomy techniques - Surgical approaches to abdomen - hernia - acquired and congenital surgical
affections of abdominal organs in small and large animals. Mammary tumors. Surgical affections of udder,
teat and tail and their management. Spleenectomy. Surgical affections of urinary system and their
management surgery of male and female reproductive organs.


Unit 6 : Gross Anatomy
Topographic anatomy of head, neck, thorax, abdomen and limbs of ox, horse, dog, pig. Nasal and
oral cavities - thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities (both sexes) with reference to their structure and
Anatomy of nervous system and sense organs.
Unit 7 : Histology
Histology - microscopic structure of epithelium, connective tissue, muscle and nervous tissue.
Histology of organs of digestive, respiratory, urogenital, circulatory and nervous systems, lymphoid organs
and endocrine glands. Histological section preparation by paraffin methods.
Unit 8 : Embryology
Gametogenesis, fertilization, placentation, cleavage, gastrulatuon and organogenesis - Development
of different organ systems of the body.

37. Poultry Science and Technology
PAPER -1 (B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1: Poultry Genetics and Breeding
Definition of class, breed, variety, strain and line; Common breeds and strains of chickens, ducks,
geese, guinea fowls, quails, turkeys and other species of poultry; Inheritance of qualitative and quantitative
traits in poultry and their usefulness; Sex linked and sex influenced traits; Lethal and semi lethal traits
in poultry and their mode of inheritance; Estimate of heritability, genetic & phenotypic correlations, their
application in selection; Individual selection, family selection, mass selection, combined selection and
indirect selection; Relative merits and demerits of different methods of selection; Construction of selection
indices; Exploitation of additive and non-additive gene effects; Genotype and environment interaction;
Diallel mating, pair mating and pen mating; Artificial insemination in poultry; Inbreeding, cross breeding
and pure line breeding; Hybridization and hybrid vigour in improving economic traits and development of
hybrids; Modern trends in commercial poultry breeding; Major genes and their usefulness in poultry breeding
in tropics; Selection for disease resistance; Immunogenetics, biological polymorphism and usefulness in
poultry breeding; Development of transgenic chicken; Molecular techniques for estimation of genetic
diversity among breeds and line of poultry.

Unit 2 : Poultry Nutrition

Various nutrients and their role in poultry; Nutrient requirements of different species of poultry as
per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and National Research Council (NRC) of the USA; Partition of energy;
Estimation of metabolizable energy (ME) and true metabolizable energy (TME); Essential and critical
amino acids; Evaluation of protein quality; Essential fatty acids, minerals, vitamins and their functions;
Nutrient deficiency, toxicity, synergism and antagonism; Naturally occurring toxicants, their adverse effects
on poultry and methods to overcome them; Different systems of feeding; Restricted and phase feeding
programme; Factors influencing the feed intake; Feed ingredients and sources of various nutrients; Quality
control and BIS specifications for feed ingredients; Unconventional feed stuffs and their utilization
for economic feed formulation; Feed formulation for different species. Least cost feed formulation and
linear programming; Non nutrient feed additives, antibiotics, anticoccidials, antimicrobials, antioxidants,
colouring agents, enzymes, flavoring agents, herbs, prebiotics and probiotics.

Unit 3: Poultry Physiology

Homeostasis and its regulation; Regulation of feed and water intake; Feed passage rate in gastro
intestinal tract in relation to digestion and absorption efficiency; Functional regulation of digestion,
absorption and metabolism of nutrients; Features of endocrine glands; Endocrine control and variable
factors influencing growth process; Mechanism and scope that determines and changes the sex and
allows the development of left ovary and oviduct only; Physiological control of age at sexual maturity;
Ovarian follicular hierarchy, atresia, ovulation, oviposition, pause, clutch size and secretion of egg
components; Photoperiodism and its role in optimization of reproductive functions; Physiology of avian
testes, spermatogenesis, semen ejaculation, sperm transport and storage; Fertilization mechanisms in
female tract; Respiratory system mechanisms of gaseous exchange; Thermoregulatory and stress
mechanisms; Physio-biochemical stress responses and remedial approaches; Embryogenesis and
exogenous interventions and their impacts on physiological limits.

Unit 4: Poultry Products Technology

Structure, chemical composition and nutritive value of egg; Various measures of egg quality; Factors
influencing egg quality; Grading of eggs as per Agmark and USDA standards; Egg processing and methods
of preservation of table eggs; Various egg products and their uses; Production of designer eggs; Hygiene
and sanitation of poultry processing plant; Processing, grading and packing of dressed chicken;
Preservation of poultry meat; Value added poultry meat products; Factors affecting poultry meat quality;
Processing and utilization of egg and poultry processing wastes.
Unit 5: Poultry Management
Selection, care, storage and testing of hatching eggs; Principles and methods of incubation;
Milestones in embryonic development; Photo-acceleration and embryonic growth; Factors influencing
hatchability and production of quality chicks; Hatchery hygiene; Utilization and disposal of hatchery waste;
Lay out of a modern hatchery; Equipments required in a modern hatchery; Single and multi stage
incubators; Sexing, handling, packaging and transportation of day old chicks; Principles and methods of
brooding; Brooding requirement of chicks, quails, ducklings and turkey poults; Management during growing
period; Management of layers and breeders; Light management; Litter managements; Broodiness and
forced moulting in layers; Management of guinea fowls, ducks, quails and turkeys; Summer and winter
management; Study of poultry behaviour including cannibalism, feather pecking and peck order; Welfare
measures for poultry; Farm location and site selection; Ideal designing and layout of poultry houses for
different agroclimatic conditions; Environmentally controlled poultry houses; Cross-ventilation and ridge
ventilation; Ammonia control in poultry houses; Type of brooders, feeders, waters, laying nests, cages
etc; Automation in poultry production; Organic Farming; Backyard poultry farming system.
Unit 6: Poultry Economics and Marketing
Principles of economics as applied to poultry farming; Production, planning and poultry farm records
including book keeping; Resources and products relationships; Cost concepts and product pricing; Criteria
for resource use efficiency; Economics of scale and horizontal-vertical integration; Sources of institutional
finance for poultry enterprises; Govt schemes for promotion of poultry; Poultry insurance; Project
formulation for setting up of poultry farms, hatcheries and feed manufacturing units; Concept of poultry
marketing; Market structure; Conduct and performance; Contract farming arrangements; Importance and
concept of product packaging/branding/advertisement; Institutional support to poultry marketing;
International trade in poultry under WTO regime.
Unit 7: Poultry Health Management
Common diseases of poultry including those of zoonotic and public health importance including
bacteria, viral, fungal, protozoan, parasitic and other emerging diseases of national and international
importance; Nutritional and metabolic diseases of poultry; Importance of vaccination in poultry and
vaccination programme for different species of poultry; Health calendar for poultry including deworming,
medication, feed and water sanitation; Principles of biosecurity for prevention of poultry diseases with
major emphasis on farm hygiene, safe and hygienic disposal of poultry wastes and dead birds; Common
disinfectants and their safe level of application in poultry farming.

38. Animal Product Technology
Unit I: Technology of Meat Products
Present status and future prospect of meat, fish and poultry processing industry in India. Abattoir
and poultry processing plants: layout, construction, design, organization, operation and maintenance of
abattoirs, poultry and fish processing plants. Pre-slaughter care and slaugtering techniques for different
animals and poultry. Ant-mortem and post-mortem inspection. Judging and grading of animals and birds
on floor and on rail. Condemnation and disposal of unfit material. Disposal of slaughter house effluents.
Sanitation, plant operation and maintenance. Sanitary standards for meat packing plants. Meat cutting
and deboning. Adulteration and misrepresentation of meat State, municipal and other regulations pertaining
to meat trade. Meat food products order. Processing and utilization of various animal and poultry by-
products, slaughter house and poultry plant offals Application of computer in abattoir operation.
Processing and Preservation of meat. Retails and whole sale Cuts, Factors affecting meal quality.
Quality assurance and inspection of meat products. HACCP Packaging and storage regulations- Meat
quality regulations and standards. Curing smoking, freezing, canning and dehydration of meat, poultry
and their products Value added meat products manufacturing. Microbial factors-influencing keeping quality
of meat.
Unit 2: Technology of Milk and Milk Products
Milk and milk products production in India. Handling and maintenance of dairy plant equipments.
Dairy plant operation; receiving, separation, clarification, pasteurization, homogenization, sterilization,
storage, transport and distribution of milk- UHT milk, Toned, homogenized, fortified, reconstituted mid
flavoured milks. Technology of fermented milks- Milk products processing - cream, butter, ghee, cheese,
condensed milk, evaporated milk whole and skimmed milk powder, ice-cream, butter oil, khoa, channa,
paneer, chcese spread and similar products. Judging and grading of milk products. Selection and use of
dairy cleaner and sanitizer, inplant cleaning system. Dairy plant sanitation and waste disposal.
Unit 3 : Fish Proccssing Technology
Processing and Preservation of fish and Its products, Handling, canning, smoking and freezing of
fresh water fish and its products. Physiological conditions and quality of fish products. Utilization of by-
products. Zoonatic diseases
Unit 4 : Egg Science and Technology
Structure and composition of avian eggs Factors effecting quality. Quality measurement. Preservation
of eggs using oil coating, refrigeration. Thermo-stabilization Packing, storage and transportation of eggs.
Technology of egg products - egg powder, albumen flakes. Industrial and food uses.
Unit 5 : Biotechnology of Food of Animal Origin
Role of biotechnology in productivity of livestock. Use of biotechnology in production of food
additives. Use of biotechnologicaly improved enzymes in food processing industry. Consumer concerns
about risks and values. Biotechnology and food safety. Future of biotechnology in India.
39. Chemical Engineering


Section 1
Material and energy balance. Calculations for single and multistage operations without chemical
reaction and with chemical reactions. Problems involving recycle and purging. Raoult’s and Henry’s
Iaws and related problems. Calculation of off gas composition for combustion processes. Dimensional
Section 2
First and second law of thermodynamics. Intrinsic and extrinsic properties. Carnot cycle. Ideal and
non-ideal behaviour of gases and solutions. Chemical potential. Application of Gibb’s Duhem equation.
Van-Laar equation and calculation of vapour pressure. Calculation of equilibrium composition for simple
homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. Single and multi-stage compression, refrigeration, vapour
recompression and heat pump.
Section 3
Fluid mechanics. Bernouli’s equation and its application. Flow of compressible and incompressible
fluids. Navier-Stokes equation for one dimensional flow. Boundary-layer theory. Skin and form friction.
Expansion and contraction losses. Free settling and hindered settling. Differential and inclined manometer,
orifice meter, venturimeter, roto-meter and gas-meter. Calculations for pumping of fluids.

Section 4
Principles of heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation. Fourier equation. Natural
convection and forced convection. Design of different types of heat exchangers, condensers and reboilers,
extended surface heat exchangers. Heat transfer in process furnaces and their design. Evaporators.
Calculation of heat transfer area for single-stage and multistage operations.

Section 5
Principles of diffusion. Mass transfer operations. Two film theory and without chemical reaction. Types
of packing materials. Flooding and loading velocity. Plate efficiencies. Design of different types of
distillation column by different methods for two components systems. Analogy between heat-mass and
momentum transfer.

Section 6
Principles of humidification and dehumidification. Wet bulb temperature. Dfferent types of dryers
and designs of packed bed dryer and rotary dryer. Industrial cooling towers. Natural draft and forced draft.
Design of chimney.

Section 7
Kinetics of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. Temperature dependency of reaction
velocity constant. Series and parallel reactions: their product distribution and kinetics. Isothermal,
adiabatic and programmed reactors. Design of batch, semi-batch, CSTR and plug-flow reactors. Gas solid
reactions. Catalysis and design of non-catalytic and catalytic gas solid reaction- Concept of non-ideal

Section 8
Principles of process control. Feed back system. Concept of Laplace transformation. Control loop
and its components. Working mechanism of pneumatic, hydraulic and electronic controller. Choice of
controller settings. Principles of measurement and control for temperature (including furnace temperatures).
pressure and liquid level in chemical processes.
Section 9
Chemical process principles for manufacture of ammonia, superphosphate, urea and mineral acids.
Principles and applications of nitration, sulphonation, alkylation and hydrolysis. Principles of corrosion,
and materials for construction of process equipment. Treatment of industrial effluents and water recycle.
BOD and COD.
Section 10
Profitability criteria: Selection of alternatives. Depreciation, cash flow, discounted cash flow, return
on investment and cost estimation. Bar-chart, PERT and critical path method. Simple optimization methods
viz. Lagrange’s multiplier techniques, linear programming, and general method of differentiation. Scale-
up of heat exchangers and pipe lines. Design of storage vessels for pressure and vacuum. Principles of
industrial management.

40. Electronics and Instrumentation
Section 1: Semiconductor devices
PN diode, PIN diode, Zener, Varactor, shotkey and Tunnel diode, LED.
Operation characteristics and equivalent circuit.
Biasing of BJT and JFET.
Operating point and its stability.

Section 2: Diode Applications

Reatifier and filters, wave shaping and clamping.
Zener diode as voltage regulator
Introduction to regulated power supply.
Section 3: Amplifiers and Oscillators
Small singnal analysis of BJT, JFET amplifiers, cascading and cascoding, Frequency response of RC coupled
Introduction to tuned amplifier.
Feed back (series and shunt), Voltage and current feedback.
Oscillators, Operational amplifier and its application in analog computation, DIFF-AMP using three op-amps
frequency response and compensation.
Classification of amplifiers, power amplifiers, push-pull amplifiers.
Section 4: Digital Electronics
Transistor as switch.
Logic gates, Arithmatic binary adders and subtractor, Enoder and Decoder, Controlled inverter, 1’S, 2’S, 9’S,
Complement generator.
Karnaught map
Flip flops, Register and Counter.
A/D and D/A converter
Introduction to Microprocessor.
Section 5: (Radio Electronics)
Modulation and demodulation circuits for AM, FM, PM Transmission and reception of radio signal.
Elementary antenna and propagation.
Introduction to satellite and optical communication.
Section 6: Basic Measurements and Laboratory Instruments
Basic electrical standars, errors in measurement.
Measurement of current, Voltage and power.

Electronic voltmeter and multimeter

Thermoelectronic voltmeter for true RMS measurement.
AC and DC potentiomenters, Bridges, CRO, XY recorder.
Digital instruments for measuring current, voltage, time, resistance and frequency.
Section 7: Measurement of Non-electrical quantity
Transducers, instrumentation amplifier.
Signal conditioning, measurement of displacement, force, torque, pressure, strain. velocity temperature.
Data acquisition, and introduction to telemetry
Fiber optic sensors single mode and multimode type.
Measurement of humidity absorption.
Section 8: Automatic Controls
Feedback principal in control systems
Servo systems
Self balancing potentiometers
Various controller and their characteristics
PLS in process control.

Appendix -1
S.No. Main Discipline Sub-discipline

1 Agronomy • Agronomy
2 Agri. Chemicals and Chemistry • Agri. Chemistry
• Agri. Chemicals/Organic Chemistry
3 Soil Science • Pedology
• Soil Chemistry Fertility
• Soil Physics, Soil and Water Conservation
4 Agril.Physics and Meteorology • Agri.Physics
• Agril. Meteorology
• Soil Physics, Soil & Water Conservation
5 Seed Science and Technology • Seed Technology
6 Crop Improvement • Genetics
• Plant Breeding
• Economic Botany
7 Agri. Entomology • Agri. Entomology
8 Plant Pathology • Plant Pathology
• Nematology
9 Plant Biochemistry and • Biochemistry
Plant Physiology (Plant Science)
• Plant Physiology
10 Agricultural Biotechnology • Biotechnology (Agri. Science)
11 Agri. Microbiology • Microbiology (Agri.)
12 Horticulture • Fruit Science
• Vegetable Science
• Floriculture
13 Agri. Structures & Process • Agril. Structures and Process Engineering
14 Agri. Machinery and Energy • Farm Machinery and Power
15 Land and Water Management • Soil & Water Conservation Engineering
Engineering and Technology
• Soil and Water Management
16 Home Science & Family • Child Development
Resource Management • Home Management/Family Resource Management
• Textile & Clothing
17 Enviromental Science • Environmental Science

18 Forestry • Forestry
19 Food Science & Technology • Food & Nutrition
• Food Science & Technology
20 Ecnomics and Agri. Business • Agricultural Ecnomics
21 Agri. Tech. Transfer • Agri. Extension
• Home Science Extension
• Veterinary Extension Education
22 Aquaculture • Aquaculture
23 Fisheries Science • Fish & Fishery Science
24 Fish Harvest and Post Harvest • Aquaculture Engineering
Technology • Fish Processing Technology
25 Statistics and Computer • Agril. Statistics
Application • Computer Application in Agril.
26 Animal Biotechnology • Biotechnology (Animal Science)
• Biochemistry (Animal Science)
27 Veterinary Microbiology • Veterinary Microbiology
• Veterinary Public Health
28 Veterinary Pathology & • Veterinary Parasitology
Parasitology • Vety. Pathology
29 Dairy Chemistry & Microbiology • Dairy Chemistry
• Dairy Microbiology
30 Dairy Engineering & Technology • Dairy Processing
• Dairy Engineering
31 Animal Genetics & Breeding • Animal Genetics & Breeding
32 Animal Physiology & Nutrition • Animal Nutrition
• Animal Physiology
33 Animal Reproduction • Animal Reproduction & Gynaecology
34 Livestock Production & • LPM
35 Vety. Pharmacology & Medicine • Veterinary Pharmacology
• Vety. Medicine
36 Vety. Anatomy & • Vety. Anatomy
Surgery • Vety, Surgery
37 Poultry Science & Technology • Poultry Science
38 Animal Product Technology • Livestock Products Technology
39 Chemical Engineering
40 Electronics & Instrumentation

Published by the Chairman, Agricultural Scientists' Recruitment Board, KAB I, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012.
Lasertypeset by M/s Print-O-World, 2579, Mandir Lane, Shadipur, New Delhi 110 008, and printed at M/s Chandu
Press, D-97, Shakarpur, Delhi 110 092.