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ARS/NET Examination Syllabi
AGRICULTURAL SCIENTISTS RECRUITMENT BOARD
(INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH) NEW DELHI
© 2007, Agricultural Scientists' Recruitment Board (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) New Delhi
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. Agronomy ............................................................................................................................................. 1 Agricultural Chemicals and Chemistry .................................................................................................. 5 Soil Science ......................................................................................................................................... 9 Agricultural Physics and Meteorology .................................................................................................12 Seed Science and Technology .............................................................................................................15 Crop Improvement ...............................................................................................................................17 Agricultural Entomology .......................................................................................................................19 Plant Pathology ....................................................................................................................................23 Plant Biochemistry and Plant Physiology ............................................................................................28 Agricultural Biotechnology ...................................................................................................................33 Agriculture Microbiology ......................................................................................................................35 Horticulture ..........................................................................................................................................37 Agricultural Structures and Process Engineering .................................................................................42 Agriculture Machinery and Energy .......................................................................................................45 Land and Water Management Engineering and Technology ..................................................................49 Home Science and Family Resources Management ...........................................................................51 Environmental Science ........................................................................................................................56 Forestry ...............................................................................................................................................59 Food Science & Technology ................................................................................................................61 Economics and Agricultural Business Management ............................................................................65 Agricultural Technology Transfer ...........................................................................................................69 Aquaculture ..........................................................................................................................................72 Fisheries Science ................................................................................................................................74 Fish Harvest & Post-harvest Technology .............................................................................................76 Statistics and Comuter Application ......................................................................................................78 Animal Biotechnology ..........................................................................................................................82 Veterinary Microbiology ........................................................................................................................86 Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology .................................................................................................90 Dairy Chemistry & Mirobiology ............................................................................................................91 Dairy Engineering and Technology .......................................................................................................97 Animal Genetics & Breeding .............................................................................................................. 100 Animal Physiology and Nutrition ........................................................................................................ 103 Animal Reproduction .......................................................................................................................... 105 Livestock Producton and Management .............................................................................................. 108 Veterinary Pharmacology & Medicine ................................................................................................ 111 Veterinary Anatomy and Surgery ....................................................................................................... 115 Poultry Science and Technology ........................................................................................................ 117 Animal Product Technology ................................................................................................................ 119 Chemical Engineering ........................................................................................................................ 120 Electronics and Instrumentation ........................................................................................................ 122
PAPER-I (B) AND PAPER - II
Unit 1 : Concepts in Agronomy Development of scientific agriculture in India and the world physical, chemical and biological factors affecting growth, development and distribution of field crops Constraints in crop yield -maximization. Tillage and its advantage, minimum and zero tillage: Sustainable agriculture, organic farming, recycling of organic waste: Low Input Sustainable Agriculture (LISA): High tech precision farning with reference to Indian agriculture: Green house production technology: Cropping systems and cropping patterns; Farming systems in relation to field crop production; Role of cultural practices and crop rotation in controlling pests and diseases: Concepts of Agro - biology. Unit 2 : Crop Management Factors affecting; growth, development and distribution of crops. Crop production techniques for different field crops (cereal, pulses, oilseeds and fodder). Principles of weed management. herbicides their selectivity, mode of action, formulation, resistance etc. Weed control in field crops. Integrated weed management. Resource management in cropping systems. Unit 3 : Soil Management ‘Tillage and its advantages. Modem concept of conservation tillage. Problem soils and their distribution in India. Reclamation of problem soils. Concept of essentiality of plant nutrients. Diagnostic techniques-with special emphasis on emerging deficiencies of secondary and micronutrients. Fertilizer materials and their composition. Integrated nutrient management. Fertilizer related environmental problems. Unit 4: Evapotranspiration and Water Management Hydrological cycle and concept of water balance. Concept of evaporation and evapotranspiration. Consumptive use. Different approaches of ET determination. Determination of soil water content. Agricultural drought and its classification. Techniques of moisture conservation in situ. Water use and water use efficiency. Factors affecting WUE. Dry matter production and crop yield functions. Crop water requirement. Concepts and different approaches of irrigation scheduling. Methods of irrigation. Measurement of irrigation water, application and distribution efficiencies. Rainwater harvesting and recycling. Climate change, green house effect. Co 2 increase, global warming and their impact on agriculture. Unit 5 : Agro Meteorology Elements of weather and climate. Effect of thermal environment on growth and yield of crops, Cardinal temperatures. Thermo-periodism and photoperiodism. Heat unit concept. Contingency planning for different weather aberrations. Soil-climatic, agro-climatic and agro-ecological zones in relation to crop planning. Micro-meteorology of important field crops. Wind break’s and shelterbelts. Modification of field microclimate. Frost protection. Spectral properties of vegetation, light interception by crop canopies as influenced by leaf area index, leaf arrangement and leaf transmissibility. Extinction coefficient and radiationuse efficiency. Unit 6: Agricultural Statistics Frequency distribution, Measures of central tendency. Correlation and regression. Tests of significance. Design of field experiments. Data transformation and missing plot techniques. pooled analysis.
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
A. AGRONOMY Unit 1: Crop Ecology and Geography Principles of crop ecology; Ecosystem concept and determinants of productivity of ecosystem; Physiological limits of crop yield and variability in relations, relation to ecological optima; Crop adaptation: Climate shift and its ecological implication, Green house effect-, Agro ecological and agro climatic regions of lndia: Geographical distribution of cereals, legumes oilseeds, vegetables, fodders and forages, commercial crops, condiments and spices, medicinal and aromatic plants; Adverse climatic factors and crop productivity; Photosynthcsis, respiration; Adverse climatic factors and crop productivity; Photosynthesis, respiration, net assimilation, solar energy conversion efficiency and relative water content, light intensity, water and Co2 in relation to photosynthetic ratios and efficiency; Physiological stress in crops, Remote sensing : Spectral indices and their application in agriculture, crop water stress indices and crop stress detection. Unit 2 : Weed Management Scope and principles of weed management; Weeds-classification, biology, ecology and allelopathy; Crop weed competition, weed threshold; Herbicides classification, formulation, mode of action, selectivity and resistance: Persistence of herbicides in soils and plants; Application methods and equipments; Biological weed control, bio herbicides: Integrated weed management; Special weeds, parasitic and aquatic weeds and their management in cropped and non cropped lands ; weed control schedules in field crops vegetables and plantation crops; Role of GM crops in weed management. Unit 3 : Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Use History of soil fertility and fertilizer use: Concept of essentiality of plant nutrients, their critical concentrations in plants, nutrient interactions, diagnostic techniques with special emphasis on emerging deficiencies of secondary and micro-nutrients, Soil fertility and productivity and their indicators; Fertilizer materials including liquid fertilizers, their composition, mineralization, availability and reaction products in soils; Water solubility in Phosphate fertilizers; Slow release fertilizers, nitrification inhibitors and their use for crop production; Principles and methods of fertilizer application; Integrated nutrient management and bio-fertilizers ; Agronomic and physiological efficiency and recovery of plant nutrients applied; Criteria for determining fertilizer schedules for cropping systems direct, residual and cumulative effects; Fertilizer related environmental problems including ground water pollution. Site specific nutrient management, contamination of heavy metals in peri-urban soils and their remediation. Unit 4 : Dryland Agronomy Concept of dryland farming; dryland farming vs. rain fed farming; History, development, significance and constraints of dryland agriculture in India; Climatic classification and delineation of dryland tracts; Characterization of agro climatic environments of drylands: Rainfall analysis and length of growing season: Types of drought, drought syndrome, effect on plant growth, drought resistance, drought avoidance, drought management; Crop Planning including contingency, crop diversification, varieties, cropping systems, conservation cropping and mid-season corrections for aberrant weather conditions; Techniques of moisture conservation in situ to reduce evapotranspiration, runoff and to increase infiltration: Rain water harvesting and recycling concept, techniques and practices; Time lines and precision key factors timely sowing, precision in seeding, weed control; Fertilizer placement, top dressing and foliar application: Concept and importance of watershed management in dryland areas. 2
Unit 5 : Crop Production in Problem Soils Problem soils and their distribution in India, acid, saline, waterlogged and mine - soils; Response of crop to acidity, salinity, sodality, excess water and nutrient imbalances: Reclamation of problem soils, role of amendments and drainage; Crop production techniques in problem soils -crops, varieties, cropping system and agronomic practices; Effects of water table fluctuation on crop growth; Degraded lands and their rehabilitation. Unit 6 : Crop Production Crop production techniques for cereals, millets, legumes, oilseeds, fiber crops, sugarcane, tobacco, fodder and pasture crops including origin, history, distribution, adaptation, climate, soil , season, modern varieties, fertilizer requirernents, intercultural, water requirement. weed control, quality components, industrial use, economics and post harvest technology. Unit 7 : Agricultural Statistics Frequency, distribution, standard error and deviation, correlation and regression analyses, co-cfficient of variation; tests of significance-t, F and chi-square: Date transformation and missing plot techniques; Design of experiments basic principles, completely randomized, randomized block, split plot, strip-plot, factorial and simple confounding designs; Efficiency of designs; Methods of statistical analysis for cropping systems-including intercropping; Pooled analysis. Unit 8 : Sustainable Land Use Systems Concept of sustainability; Sustainability parameters and indicators; Alternate land use systems; Types, extent and causes of wasteland: Shifting cultivation. Agro forestry systems: Agricultural and agro industrial residues and its recyecling, safe disposal: Allelopathy and biomass production. B. SOIL & WATER MANAGEMENT Unit 9: Basics of Soil and Water Soil and water as vital resources for agricultural production. Hydrological cycle. Soil plant water relationship. Fate of rain water received at the soil surface, runoff and infiltration reciprocity-, factors affecting infiltration, means to enhance in filterability of soil, mechanical and biolooical means to reduce runoff and soil loss. Water harvesting for crop life saving irrigations, watershed management. Contingent crop plans and other strategies for aberrant weather conditions. Cropping patterns, alternate land use and crop diversification in rain fed areas. Unit 10 : Soil Water Relationship Soil water relations, water retention by soil, soil moisture characteristics, field capacity, permanent wilting point, plant available water and extractable water. Soil irritability, classifications, factors affecting profile water storage. Determination of soil water content, computation of soil water depletion, soil water potential and its components, hydraulic head. Movement of soil water saturated and unsaturated water flow. Field water budget water gains and water losses from soil, deep percolation beyond root zone, capillary rise. Evapotranspiration (ET), scope for economizing water, measures for reducing direct evaporation from soil and crop canopies. Soil physical properties in relation to plant growth and development. Unit 11 : Plant-Water Relationship Plant water relations : concept of plant water potential, cell water relations, plant water potential and its components, significance of osmotic adjustment, leaf diffusive resistance, canopy temperature, canopy temperature depression (CTD). Water movement through soil - plant atmosphere systems, uptake 3
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
and transport of water by roots. Development of crop water deficit, crop adaptation to water deficit, morpho physiological effect of water deficit. Drought tolerance, mechanisms of drought tolerance, potential drought tolerance traits and their measurements. management and breeding strategies to improve crop productivity under different patterns of drought situations of limited water supplies. Unit 12 : Irrigation Water Management Management of irrigation water. History of irrigation in India. Major irrigation projects in India. Water resources development. Crop water requirements. Concepts of irrigation scheduling. Different approaches of irrigation scheduling, soil water depletion plant indices and climatic parameters. Concept of critical stages of crop growth in relation to water supplies. Crop modeling, crop coefficients, water production factions. Methods of irrigation surface methods, overhead methods, drip irrigation-and air conditioning irrigation, merits and demerits of various methods. Measurement of irrigation water, application and distribution efficiencies. Management of water resources (rain, canal and ground water) for agricultural production. Agronomic considerations in tile-design and operation of irrigation projects, characteristics of irrigation and family systems affecting irrigation management. lrrigation legislation. Water Quality, joint/ conjunctive u use of water, irrigation strategies under different situation of water availability, optimum crop plans and cropping patterns in canal command areas. Socio-economic aspects of on farm water management. Unit 13 : Management of Problematic Soils and Water Problem soils and their distribution in India salt affected, acidic, water logged soils. Ground water resources, water quality criteria and use of brackish waters in agriculture. Excess salt and salt tolerant crops. Hydrological imbalances and their corrective measures. Concept of critical water table depths for crop growth. Contribution of shallow water table to crop water requirements. Management strategies for flood prone areas crop and crop calendar for flood affected areas. Drainage for improving water logged soils for crop production. Crop production and alternate use of problematic soils and poor quality water for agricultural and fish production.
2. Agricultural Chemicals and Chemistry
PAPER–I (B) AND PAPER – II
PAPER I - B 1. General chemistry: Structure and Bonding: Atomic orbitals, electronic configuration of atoms (L-S coupling) and the periodic properties of elements; ionic radii, ionisation potential, electron affinity, electronegativity; concept of hybridization. Molecular orbitals and electronic configuration of homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules. Shapes of polyatomic molecules; VSEPR theory. Symmetry elements and point groups for simple molecules. Bond lengths, bond angles, bond order and bond energies. Types of Chemical Bonds (weak and strong) intermolecular forces, structure of simple ionic and covalent solids, lattice energy. 2. Acids and Bases: Bronsted and Lewis acids and bases, pH and pKa, acid-based concept in nonaqueous media; HSAB concept. Buffer solution. Acid-base indicators. Redox reactions: Oxidation numbers. Redox potential. Redox indicators. 3. Energetic and Dynamics of Chemical Reactions: Entropy, free-energy, relationship between free energy change and equilibrium. Rates of chemical reactions (first-and second - order reactions). Arrhenius equation and concept of transition state. Mechanisms, including SNl and SN2 reactions, electron transfer reactions, catalysis. Colligative properties of solutions. 4. General characteristics s, p, d, f Block Elements. Coordination chemistry: structural aspects, isomerism, octahedral and tetrahedral crystal - field splitting of d orbitals. magnetism and colour of transition metal ions. Sandwich compounds, metal carbonyls and metal clusters, non-stoichiometric oxides. Radioactivity and transmutation of elements. Isotopes and their applications. 5. IUPAC Nomenclature of Simple Organic and Inorganic Compounds. Concept of Chirality: Recognition of symmetry elements and chiral structures; R-S nomenclature, diastereoisomerism in acyclic and cyclic systems; E-Z isomerisms. Conformational analysis of simple cyclic (chair and boat cyclo hexanes) and acyclic systems. Interconversion of Fischer, Newman and Sawhorse projections. 6. Common Organic Reactions and Mechanisms: Reactive intermediates. Formation and stability of carbonium ions, carbanions, carbenes, nitrenes, free radicals and arynes. Nucleophilic, electrophilic, radical substitution, addition and elimination reactions. Familiar name reactions: Aldol, Perkin, Stobbe, Dieckmarn condensations; Hofmann, Schmidt, Lossen, Curtius, Beckmann and Fries rearrangements; Reimer - Tiemann, Reformatsky and Grignard reactions. Diels - Alder reactions; Clasien rearrangements; Friedel - Craft reactions; Wittig reactions; and Robinson annulation. Routine functional group transformations and interconversions of simple functionalities. Hydroboration, Oppenauer oxidations; Clemmensen, Wolff- Kisluler, Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley and Birch reductions. 7. Elementary principles and applications of electronic, vibrational, NMR, and Mass Spectral techniques to simple structural problems. 8. Chemical Laboratory Techniques: Precautions in handling toxic chemicals and hazardous reactions. Solvent purification and drying Extraction, distillation, crystallization, sublimation, separation methods. Functions of common equipments, water and oil pumps, heating and cooling baths, stirrers, rotary evaporators, good laboratory practices (GLP). 9. Introduction to Agrochemicals: Classification, IUPAC nomenclature, structure, properties, mode of action and uses of major conventional synthetic and natural agrochemicals including plant production
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
chemicals. safety aspects, pesticide poisoning and antidotes. Production, consumption and trade statistics of pesticides and fertilizers. General aspects of pest and pesticide management. 10. Agrochemicals - Regulation, Quality Control and Management: Laws, acts and rules governing registration and regulations of agrochemical production and use. Acts and regulations promoting social security and welfare of workers. EPA, WHO, FAO, CODEX and national/international guidelines. Regulatory aspects as per Insecticide Act, Quality control, Sanitary and phytosanitary standards 11. Agrochemical Formulation: Classification, formulation codes. Solid and liquid formulations: preparation, properties, specifications and uses. Formulants: carriers / diluents, surfactants, synergists, safeners, encapsulants, binders, anti-oxidants, stabilizers. Application: devices and quality of deposits. 12. Pesticide Residue Chemistry: Pesticide residues: concepts and toxicological significance. Experimental design, sampling, principles of extraction and clean-up from different substrates. Application of spectrophotometric, chromatographic, ELISA and radiotracer techniques / methods in pesticide residue analysis Confirmatory techniques. Multi-residue methods. Bound and conjugated residues. Method validation: linearity, LOD and LOQ, Abiotic and biotic transformations microbial and photochemical degradation, adsorption / desorption, leaching in soil, modeling of pesticide fate in the environment. 13. Chemistry of Plant Nutrients: Essential plant nutrients (major, secondary and micro), organic manures (farm yard, compost, sewage, sludge, green manure, biogas slurries, etc.), production and manufacture and uses of various nitrogenous. phosphatic. potassic and complex fertilizers and fertilizer mixtures, liquid fertilizers. biofertilizers. integrated plant nutrient systems. Nutrient use efficiency (principles and approaches). Soil conditioners and amendments. 14. Application of chemical principles and knowledge in the field of nanoscience and technology, chemoinformatics, biotechnology and genetic engineering, combinatorial chemistry and pesticide discovery 15. Data Analysis: Types of errors, accuracy and precision, least-squares analysis, analysis of variance, correlation: t-test, chi square, F test.
Section 1 - General chemistry 1.1 Structure and Bonding: Atomic orbitals, electronic configuration of atoms (L-S coupling) and the periodic properties of elements; ionic radii, ionisation potential, electron affinity, electronegativity; concept of hybridization. Molecular orbitals and electronic configuration of homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules. Shapes of polyatomic molecules; VSEPR theory. Symmetry elements and point groups for simple molecules. Bond lengths, bond angles, bond order and bond energies. Types of Chemical Bonds (weak and strong) intermolecular forces, structure of simple ionic and covalent solids, lattice energy. Acids and Bases: Bronsted and Lewis acids and bases, pH and pKa, acid-based concept in nonaqueous media; HSAB concept. Buffer solution. Acid-base indicators. Redox Reactions: Oxidation numbers. Redox potential. Redox indicators. 1.2 Chemistry of Non-transition Elements: General discussion on the properties of the non transition elements; special features of individual elements; properties and structure of their halides and oxides, polymorphism of carbon, phosphorus and sulphur. Properties and structure of silicates, carbides, silicones, sulphur -nitrogen compounds: peroxo compounds of boron, carbon and sulphur; oxy acids of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur and halogens 6
1.3 Chemistry of Transition Elements: Coordination chemistry of transition metal ions; Stability constants of complexes and their determination; stabilization of unusual oxidation states. Magnetism: Dia-, para, ferro- and antiferromagnetism, inorganic reaction mechanisms; substitution reactions, trans effect and electron transfer reactions. Use of lanthanide compounds as shift reagents. 1.4 General characteristics s, p, d, f block elements. Coordination chemistry: structural aspects, isomerism, octahedral and tetrahedral crystal - field splitting of d orbitals. magnetism and colour of transition metal ions. Sandwich compounds, metal carbonyls and metal clusters. non-stoichiometric oxides. Radio activity and transmutation of elements. Isotopes and their applications. 1.5 Nuclear Chemistry: Radioactive decay and equilibrium. Nuclear reactions; Q value, types of reactions, Radioactive techniques; tracer technique, neutron activation analysis, counting techniques such as G.M. ionization and proportional counter. 1.6 Solids: Dislocation in solids, Schottky and Frenkel defects, Electrical properties; Insulators and semiconductors; superconductors; band theory of solids, Solid-state reactions. Section 2 - Agricultural Chemicals 2.1 Chemistry of Pesticides: Chemistry of major groups of insecticides (organochlorine, organo-phosphorus, organocarbamates, synthetic pyrethroids, neonicotinoids etc.), fungicides (dithiocarbamates, phenols, quinones, carboxamides, azoles etc.); herbicides (phenoxyacids, carbamates, anilides, triazines, phenylureas, dinitroanilines, bipyridiliums etc), rodenticides (coumarins etc), acaricides, juvenile hormones, sources, natural pesticides: pyrethroids, nicotinoids, rotenoids, limonoids and microbial macrolides (avermectins and milbemycins), rodenticides, nematicides. Biopesticides: mycoherbicides, bioinsecticides; semiochemicals, insect hormones, insect growth regulators, Allelochemicals, plant hormones, phytoallexins, Humus: formation, composition and properties. 2.2 Agrochemical Formulation: Classification, formulation codes. Solid and liquid formulations: preparation, properties, specifications and uses. Formulants: carriers / diluents, surfactants, synergists, safeners, encapsulants, binders, anti-oxidants, stabilizers. Application: devices and quality of deposits. 2.3 Pesticide Residue Chemistry: Pesticide residues: concepts and toxicological significance. Experimental design, sampling, principles of extraction and clean-up from different substrates. Application of spectrophotometric, chromatographic, ELISA and radiotracer techniques / methods in quantitative analysis of agrochemicals and their metabolites, pollutants and food commodities. Confirmatory techniques. Multi-residue methods. Bound and conjugated residues. Method validation: linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD and LOQ, Abiotic and biotic transformations microbial and photochemical degradation, adsorption / desorption, leaching in soil, modeling of pesticide fate in the environment. Applications of chromatographic methods, atomic and molecular absorption and emission spectroscopy in, Advances in instrumentation. 2.4 Principles of pest management, Environmental Implication of Agrochemicals: Chemodynamics of agrochemicals (pesticides. fertilizers etc.) in agroecosystems. biotic and abiotic transformations. Principles of monitoring and analysis, toxicological aspects. Heavy metal pollution. Effects on nontarget organisms, agrochemical disposal: approaches and implications. Industrial effluents (nature, treatment and disposal). Other related chemical xenobiotics. 2.5 Key provisions of the Insecticides Act (1968). The Fertilizer Control Order (1985). The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act (1974). Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act (1981) and the Environmental Protection Act (1986). 7
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
2.6 Bioinorganic Chemistry: Metal ions in Biology, Molecular mechanism of ion transport across membranes; ionophores. Photosynthesis, PS-I, PS-II; nitrogen fixation, oxygen uptake, proteins, cytochromes and ferrodoxins. Section 3 - Physical Chemistry 3.1 Energetics and Dynamics of Chemical Reactions: Entropy, free-energy, relationship between free energy change and equilibrium. Rates of chemical reactions (first-and second - order reactions). Arrhenius equation and concept of transition state. Mechanisms, including SNI and SN2 reactions, electron transfer reactions, catalysis. Colligative properties of solutions. 3.2 Thermodynamics: First law of thermodynamics, relation between Cp. and Cv; enthalpies of physical and chemical changes; temperature dependence of enthalpies. Second law of thermodynamics, entropy, Gibbs-Helmoholtz equation. Third law of thermodynamics and calculation of entropy. 3.3 Chemical Equilibrium: Free energy and entropy of mixing, partial molar quantities, Gibbs-Duhem equation. Equilibrium constant, temperature-dependence of equilibrium constant, phase diagram of oneand two-component systems, phase rule. 3.4 Ideal and Non-ideal solutions. Excess functions, activities, concept of hydration number: activities in electrolytic solutions; mean ionic activity coefficient; DebyeHuckel treatment of dilute electrolyte solutions. 3.5 Surface Phenomena: Surface tension, adsorption on solids, electrical phenomena at interfaces, including electrokinetic, micelles and reverse micelles: solubilization, micro-emulsions. Application of photoelectron spectroscopy. ESCA and Auger spectroscopy to the study of surfaces. 3.6 Reaction Kinetics: Methods of determining rate laws. Mechanisms of photochemical, chain and oscillatory reactions. Collision theory of reaction rates; steric factor, treatment of unimolecular reactions. Theory of absolute reaction rates, comparison of results with Eyring and Arrhenius equations. Ionic reactions: salt effect. Homogeneous catalysis and Michaelis-Menten kinetics; heterogeneous catalysis. Section 4 - Organic Chemistry 4.1 Chemistry of Natural Products: Carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenolics, isoprenoids, antibiotics, plant pigments, saponins and sapogenins, lignin, amino acids, Lipids, and essential oils. 4.2 Macromolecules: Structure and function of biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids. Numberaverage and weight average molecular weights; determination of molecular weights. 4.3 Reagents in Organic Synthesis: Use of the following reagents in organic synthesis and functional group transformations; Complex metal hydrides, Gilman’s reagent, lithium dimethylcuprate, lithium disopropylamide (LDA) dicyclohexylcarbodimide. 1,3-Dithiane (reactivity umpolung), trimethylsilyl iodide, tri-n-butyltin hybride, Woodward and prevost hydroxylation, osmium tetroxide, DDQ, selenium dioxide, phase transfer catalysts, crown ethers and Merrifield resin, Peterson’s synthesis, Wilkinson’s catalyst, Baker yeast. Organometallic reagents in organic synthesis and in homogeneous catalytic reactions (hydrogenation, hydroformylation, isomerisation and polymerization). 4.4 Heterocyclic Chemistry: Synthesis and reactivity of furan, thiophene, pyrrole, pyridine, quinoline, isoquinoline and indole; Skraup synthesis, Fischer indole synthesis. 4.5 Spectroscopy: Applications of mass, UV-VIS, IR and NMR spectroscopy for structural elucidation of compounds. 4.6 Elements of cereal chemistry, chemistry of flavanoids, food chemistry. 8
3. Soil Science
PAPER-I (B) and PAPER II
Unit 1 : Pedology Evolution and composition of earth: Concept and definition of soil; Rocks and minerals; classification, composition and characteristics; Weathering of rocks and minerals; Soil formation: pedogenic factors and process; Description of soil profile and designation of horizons; Soil micromorphology and its importance in soil genesis studies. Soil Survey: Kinds of soil survey. Base map and its significance in soil survey ; Soil mapping units and taxonomic units; Soil Survey report, its interpretation and application Benchmark soils of India and their importance; Soil Monoliths; Application of remote sensing. (GIS and GPS in soil resource mapping and land characterization. Soil Classification: historical development of soil classification systems; FAO/UNESCO system of soil classification salient features, nomenclature system and structure of soil taxonomy: Diagnostic horizons, soil temperature regime and soil moisture regime: Characteristics and distribution of major soil orders of the world; Soils of India; characteristics, distribution, taxonomy-, mineralogy and management; Principles and types of’ land evaluation: Land capability and irrigability classification; physical rating of soils and linkage for crop suitability classification, Soil site suitability evaluation for land use planning: Agro ecological regions of India and its relevance in agro technology transfer and sustainable land resource management. Unit 2 : Soil Physics Study of soil as a physical system : Mass volume relationships in soil ; Soil texture Indices and evaluation. Mechanical analysis - Stokes law, soil texture in relation to plant growth Soil structure - Indices and evaluation. Genesis and theory of aggregate formation: Soil structure and plant growth Management of soil structure Soil compaction, crust and seedling emergence; Management of high permeable, slowly permeable, resurfaced and compacted soils: Dynamic properties of soils - Soil consistency, hydration, swelling, shrinking, hardening and cracking; Soil tilt and tillage, soil tilt evaluation : Specific surface of soil; Soil physical properties under different cropping systems. States of water and heat involved in its transformation. Concept of soil water potential: (Gibb’s free energy and thermodynamic concept of soil water potential: Soil moisture characteristics and hysteretic; Soil moisture determination; Water retention and transmission: Water flow: Darcy’s law theory of saturated and unsaturated flow, hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity, infilteration, redistribution & evapotranspiration; field water balance and measurement of ties components: estimation of evapotranspiration; Soil PlantWater-Atmospheric relationship: Soil water availability in relation with plant growth; Indices of plant - water stress: Methods of water application. Irrigation water management under adequate and limited water supply, irrigation scheduling, water use efficiency effect of saline, sodic and industrial effluent on soil physical properties and plant growth. Soil air composition, characterization of soil aeration status; Movement of soil air mass flow and Fick’s law of diffusion; Soil accretion in relation to plant growth. Soil temperature sources of soil heat and heat balance, thermal properties of soil, heat capacity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity; heat flow in soil; Environmental, soil and plant factors affecting soil temperature; Soil temperature variation,
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
effect of soil temperature on plant growth including germination and emergence of seeds, root and shoot growth. Effect of soil temperature on microbial activity and nutrient transformation and uptake measurement and management of soil thermal environment. Unit 3 : Agricultural Physics Soil physical environment and plant growth; Hydrologic cycle, water budgeting and water production functions for irrigation scheduling; Assessment of growth and yield of crops: modeling water and nutrient balance components. Agro climatic zones/Agro ecological sub region of India: Crop micrometeorology, crop weather interaction, Methods of ET estimation, principle of remote sensing-, Micro wave remote sensing: Use of remote sensing for resource management, crop water use, land use planning, drought monitoring and soil moisture availability; GIS and GPS principles and applications. Unit 4 : Soil Chemistry Chemical composition of soil; Mineralogy of major soil groups of India; Structure, characteristics and identification of soil minerals. Genesis and transformation of clay minerals; Clay-organic complexes; Non-crystalline components of soil, soil colloids; Ion exchange - adsorption, desorption, ion activity and ionic equilibria in soils; Adsorption isotherms-, Cation exchange equations and ratio law; Donnan distribution of ions and its thermodynamic treatment; Double layer theory; Boltzman distribution; Electro kinetic phenomena electro osmosis, electrophoresis, zeta potential and streaming potential; Chemical equilibria in soil acid base equilibria, oxidation reduction equilibria etc. Chemistry of water logged soils; redox potential and nutrient availability; Solubility equilibria for carbonates, aluminosilicates, phosphates and iron in relation to fixation and release of nutrients; Plant nutrient dynamics with special reference to NP.K. Soil organic matter fractionation. characterization and significance of each fraction in soil Function. Unit 5 : Soil Fertility Essentiality criteria of macro and micro plant nutrients-, ‘ Nutrient interaction- and their importance in plant nutrition; Forms, transformation and release of nutrients in soil; Mechanism of nutrient loses from soil and control measures: Mechanisms of ion absorption by plants: Problem soils and their management, Development properties and management of acidic, saline, sodic and waterlogged soils; Lime and gypsum requirements of soils. irrigation water quality: ESC. SAR. RSC and specific cations. Soil fertility evailation - soil testing, plant and tissue tcsts, biological methods and common spoil test methods for fertilizer recommendation: Soil test crop response correlations: Fertility status of major soil groups of India; Fertilizer optima and its calculation. Manures and fertilizers; Chemistry of production of different fertilizers. Fertilizer mixtures. slow release fertilizers, and nitrification retarders; Quality control of fertilizers, Direct, residual and cumulative effect of fertilizers, Recent concepts of nutrient management, site specific nutrient managements DRIS, variable rate technology, integrated nutrient management. Soil fertility; management in organic farming: use of isotopes in soil critility research. Fertilizer nutrient use efficiency – concept, measures of expressions, factor affecting fertilizer use efficiency; Crop response to secondary and micro-nutrient fertilization, foliar application of nutrients; Nutrient production function for assessing growth and yield of crops in response to nutrient application. Unit 6 : Soil Biology Soil biota-bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, protozoa, viruses: Soil metazoannematodes. millipedes, mites, collembolans, earthworms; Factors affecting the occurrence and distribution of microflora in soil; 10
Nutritional requirement and growth of microorganisms; Role and biochemical mechanism for decomposition of plant residues including lingo cellulose compounds Biochemistry of humus formation and soil organic matter Biological nitrogen fixation symbiotic, asymbiotic and associative, Biochemistry of –N2: fixation; Mycorrhiza ecto, endo and AM and its role in plant growth; Soil enzymes-dehydrogenses, ureasc, phosphatascs and aryIsulfatases; Mechanism of phosphorus solubilization by microoganisms; Sulphur oxidation and reduction Microbial transformation of meals-Zn, Fe, and Mn; Phyllosphere; Microbial associations-symbiosis, commensalisms, amenosalism and competition, Plant growth promoting hizobacteria microbial production of siderophores in soil: Biofertilizer and Biopesticides; Composting methods; impact of Agro-chemicals other crop management practices on soil biota: Methods for studying soil microorganisms-isolation and estimation of bacteria, fungi and actionomycetes; Estimation of microbial biomass C and dehydrogenises; Soil organic carbon sequestration; Organic carbon dynamics in major cropping systems. Unit 7 : Soil/Land Degradation And Management Types, factors and processes of land degradation and its prevention/ remediation: identification, monitoring and management of waste lands Concept of watershed its characterization and management; Characterization of soil and land quality indicators: Interaction of soil with heavy metals and pesticides; Bioremediation; Soil pollution through industrial effluents, sewage, heavy metals. pesticides and fertilizers; Radioactive contamination of soil; Soil factors in emission of green house bases, carbon sequestration in mitigating green House effect; Risk and potential of using urban soiled waste in agriculture. Principles of soil and water conservation; Hydrologic cycle; Rainfall-runoff relationship-. Estimation of runoff and sedimentation yield; Different types of soil erosion. nature and extent of soil erosion problem in India; Soil physical properties in relation to water erosion; Soil erodibility; Universal soil loss equation and its evuation and evaluation of parameter, processes and control measures; Sand dune formation and stabilization Shelter belts and wind breaks; Soil conservation and survey; Soil moisture conservation and dry land farming; Use of mulches, grasses, tillage‘s and a forestation for soil and water conservation; Rainwater harvesting and recycling; Simulation modeling for soil and water conservation (resource management and grown & yield assessment.). Unit 8: Analytical Methods And Instrumentation Determination of soil reaction, soil organic carbon, CEC, exchangeable cation, available nutrients and soil moisture retention; Lysimeter studies; Instrumental methods flame photometry, X-ray diffraction, conductometry, thermal analysis electron microscopy; and polarizing microscopy; Modern methods of soil, plant and fertilizer analysis - AAS, ICP, UV, visible and IR spectrophotometer, potentiometer, principles and application in soil research; Nuclear magnetic resonance - spectroradiometer. infrared thermometer. Unit 9 : Agricultural Statistics Measures of central tendency and dispersion, Bionomial distribution, Chi square test. correlation and regression, t and F test; Experimental designs- radomized, latin -square, split - plot and factorial designs; Spatial statistical: variogram and kriging techniques, Crop simulation models as decision support systems, Statistical and conventional methods for yield estimation. Principles of computer use, window based statistical software’s and modem methods of information, storage,retrieval and transfer.
4. Agricultural Physics and Meteorology
PAPER–1 (B) AND PAPER - II
Section 1 Definition and scope of Agricultural Physics, Major components of Agricultural Physics (Soil Physics, Biophysics, Agricultural Meteorology, Remote Sensing, Geographic Information System and Simulation), Electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with matter. Optical and microwave remote sensing. Spectral characteristics of soil and vegetation, Spectroradiometer, Infrared thermometer, Spectral vegetation indices and their applications. Hyperspectral remote sensing, Use of remote sensing for resource management, crop water use, crop growth monitoring, land cover mapping and land use planning, drought monitoring and soil moisture availability. Principal of geographic information system and global positioning system. Geoinformatics - components and applications. Radioactivity, Radio-tracers for use in agricultural research, X-ray diffraction, Electron and polarizing microscopes, AAS, UV, visible and IR spectrophotometer, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nano-technology. Section 2 Planck’s Law of radiation, Stefan-Boltzman’s law, Wien’s displacement law, Kirchoff’s law, Beer’s law, and Lambert’s law. Solar constant, Day length, Direct and diffuse solar radiation, Ozone hole,. Convection and Conduction, Gas laws, Carioles force, Geosgrotopic and cyclostropic winds, Pressure systems, Cyclonic and anti-cyclonic motion, Thermal wind, Contour chart, Relative and specific humidity, Humidity mixing ratio, Vapour pressure deficit, Dew point, Psychrometric equation,. Vertical stability of atmosphere, Virtual and potential temperatures, Moist and dry adiabatic processes, Clouds classification, Artificial rain making, Bergeron-Findeison theory, Dew, frost, fog, mist, haze, thunderstorm and hail, Air masses and fronts, Extra-tropical cyclones, Land and sea breeze, Mountains and valley winds, Tropical cyclones. Section 3 Major soil groups of India-their characteristics and distribution, Soil profile diagnostic horizons, Physical and chemical composition of soil, Soil colloids, Role of soil organic matter in maintaining soil fertility, Soil texture analysis. Stoke’ law, Soil as a three phase disperse system. Mass-volume relationship, Bulk density, porosity and pore size distribution, Soil structure classification and structural indices and evaluation in relation to crop growth, Soil crust and seedlings emergence. Management of highly permeable, slowly permeable desurfaced and compacted soils, Soil consistency, hydration, swelling, shrinkage, hardening and cracking, Soil tilth and tillage, Zero, minimum and conventional tillage, Resource Conserving Technologies, Dynamics of soil physical environment under different cropping systems. Section 4 State of soil water, Gibb’s free energy and thermodynamics concept of soil water potential. Soil moisture characteristics and hysteresis, Darcy’s law, Theory of saturated and unsaturated flow, Soil water content measurement techniques- neutron scattering, gamma attenuation, time-domain refectometry, pressure plate and membrane apparatus, tensiometer, gypsum block and thermocouple psychrometer, Soil hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity, Infiltration rate and soil infiltrability, Estimation of Evapotranspiration, Lysimeters, Solute transport in soil and nutrient availability to crops, Irrigation water management under variable water supply, Quality of irrigation water, Effect of saline, sodic and industrial effluents on soil properties and crop growth, Water use-yield relationships, Water production functions, Simulation of soil water balance.
AGRICULTURAL PHYSICS AND METEOROLOGY
Section 5 Soil air composition, Movement of soil air, Fick’s law of diffusion, Oxygen diffusion rate, Plant growth in relation to soil aeration, Sources of soil heat, Components of soil heat balance, Thermal properties of soil and heat capacity, Thermal conductivity and diffusivity, Factors affecting soil temperature, Soil temperature measurement-thermocouples, thermistors, heat flux plate, Effect of soil temperature on plant growth including germination, root and shoot growth, Effect of soil temperature on microbial activities in nutrient transformation, Management of soil thermal environment. Section 6 Principles of soil and water conservation, Hydrologic cycle, Rainfall-runoff relationships, Sediment yield, Different types of soil erosion and extent of problem in India. Water erosion, Soil erodibility, Universal soil loss equation, Control of water erosion including gullies and ravines, Wind erosion: factors and control options, Sanddunes formation and stabilization, Shelter belts and windbreaks. Dry land farming, Use of mulches, tillage and afforestation for soil and water conservation. Rainwater harvesting and recycling, Characterization and evaluation of soil and land quality, Land capability classification, Causes of land degradation and management for prevention/restoration, Identification, monitoring and management of waste lands, Concept of watershed-its characterization and management. Section 7 Interactions in biological systems, Structure and functions in living organisms, Biomolecules, Life forms-Unicellular and multicellular, Structure of plant and animal cells, membranes and their modifications, Bioelectricity of cell membrane and measurement, Protein structure-amino acids, Lipids. Bioenergetics, Laws of thermodynamics, Transport phenomenon in biological systems. Section 8 Weather and climate, Seasonal distribution of radiation, rainfall, temperature, sunshine, wind, pressure, cyclones and anti-cyclones over India, Climatic classification (Koppen and Thornwaite), Climatology of principle weather phenomenon occurring in four main seasons of India. Indian monsoonal system, Climatic variability-recent trends, Atmospheric and agricultural droughts, Moisture availability index. Heat and cold waves. Continent, maritime and monsoonal climate, El-nino, La-nina and their impacts on Indian rainfall systems, Agro-meteorological instruments, Automatic weather station. Effect of thermal environment on growth and yield of crop, Cardinal temperatures, Thermoperiodism, photoperiodism, Vonthoff’s law, phenology of crops, Heat unit concept, Thermal use efficiency, Length of growing period determination, Contingency planning for different weather aberrations. Meteorological factors associated with incidence and development of crop pests and disease, Locust meteorology, Bioclimatologythermal zones, Role of weather- factors in animal disease and protection against weather hazards. Section 9 Micrometeorological processes near bare ground and crop surfaces. Shearing stress, molecular and eddy diffusion, force and free convection. Boundary layer, frictional velocity, roughness, length and zero plane displacement, Day and night radiations, humidity, temperature, wind and COz profiles in crop canopies, Richardson number, Reynolds analogy, Fluxes of momentum, water vapour, CO2 and heat, Inversion and its effect on smoke plum distribution, Wind breaks and shelterbelts, Extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiencies. Potential and actual evapotranspiration (ET), consumptive water use, different approaches of ET determination (empirical, energy balance, Bowen’s ratio, soil water balance, aerodynamic, eddy correlation, combination method, lysimeter, canopy temperature based). 13
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
Section 10 Crop-weather interaction models and their use in crop yield assessment, Global climate change and its impact on agriculture, Adaptation and mitigation strategies to sustain agricultural production under climate change, Crop weather calendars. Short and medium and long range weather forecasting, Agroadvisories, Meteorological satellites for weather forecast, Early warning systems for agricultural operation forecast. Section 11 Measures of central tendency and dispersion. Binomial distribution, X2 test, correlation and regression, t and F tests, Experimental designs-randomized, latin square, split-plot and factorial, Spatial statistic variogram and kriging techniques Principle of computer software, Methods of information storage, retrieval and transfer, Crop simulation model, Markov-chain probability and its application, Normal, binomial and gamma distribution.
5. Seed Science and Technology
PAPER–I (B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1 : Seed Biology Floral biology, mode of reproduction, sporogenesis, pollination, fertilization, embryogenesis, fruit and seed development. Apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony and somatic embryoids and synthetic seeds. Seed structure of monocot and dicot. Seed maturation and longevity in orthodox and recalcitrant seed. Chemical composition of seeds. Seed dormancy - types, causes and mechanisms of induction and release, factors affecting, methods to overcome dormancy and its significance in agriculture. Seed germination - requirements, physiological and biochemical changes, and role of hormones. Unit 2 : Seed Production Introduction to crop breeding methods. Variety testing, release and notification. Genetic purity : concept and factors responsible for deterioration of varieties. Maintenance breeding. Systems of seed multiplication and Seed Production Agencies. Identification of seed production areas and factors affecting it. Compact area approach in seed production. Seed production planning, equipment, input and manpower requirement. Factors affecting pollination and seed setting viz., temperature, humidity, wind velocity, insect pollinators, and supplementary pollination. Male sterility systems, self-incompatibility and their role in hybrid seed production. Principles and methods of seed production of varieties and hybrids of cereals like wheat, paddy, sorghum, pearlmillet and maize; pulses like chickpea, pigoenpea, green gram, black gram, soybean and cowpea; oilseeds like groundnut, brassica, sesame, sunflower and castor; fibre crops like cotton and jute; vegetables crops like tomato, brinjal, okra, chilli, important cole and cucurbitaceous crops; important forage legumes and grasses and seed crop management, time of harvesting and threshing/extraction methods. Seed production technology of plantation crops like coffee, tea, rubber, cocoa, cardamom and pepper. Disease free clonal propagation of crops like potato, sugarcane sweet potato, tapioca, colocasia, betel vine, fruit crops like mango, citrus, banana, guava, sapota, pineapple, grape, apple, pear, plum, peach, apricot and seed production and clonal propagation of annual and perennial flowers like rose, gladiolus, chrysanthemum, marigold, dahlia, flox and petunia.. Micro propagation. Unit 3 : Seed Processing Principles of seed processing. Seed drying principles and methods. Precleaning, grading, treatment, pelleting and packaging. Seed invigoration and enhancement treatment and their applications. Seed processing machines like cleaner cum grader, specific gravity separator, indented cyclinder, seed treater, weighing and begging machines, their operation and maintenance. Seed quality maintenance during processing. Unit 4: Seed Quality Control Seed legislation - Seeds Act 1966, Seed Rules 1969 and New Seed Bill 2004, Seed Law Enforcement. Seed certification – history, concept organization, phases and minimum certification standards. Field inspection principles and methods. Inspection at harvesting, threshing and processing. Pre-and post-harvest quality testing for genetic purity. Seed Certification Schemes, concepts and procedures. Seed Testing concepts and objectives, its role in seed quality control. Seed sampling, seed moisture testing, purity analysis, germination testing, tolerance tables. Seed testing equipments and procedures for major agrihorticulture crops. Quick viability tests. Seed vigour, its significance and testing methods. Testing for genuineness of varieties – principles and methods based on seed, seedling and plant characters,
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biochemical techniques namely electrophoresis of proteins and isoenzymes and DNA fingerprinting. International Seed Testing Association (ISTA), its role in development of seed testing procedures, rules and seed quality assurance for international seed trade. Unit 5 : Seed Storage Requirements and types of seed storage. Factors affecting seed storage and role of moisture, temperature, RH and moisture equilibrium. Viability nomographs. Seed deterioration : causes and methods of control. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes during seed ageing. Seed drying and Packaging needs. Storage structures. Controlled storage. Germplasm storage. Cryo preservation. Requirements and features of short, medium and long-term seed storage. Construction and maintenance of Seed stores. Operation and management of seed stores. Unit 6 : Seed Health Significance of seed health. Mode and mechanism of transmission of microorganismsfungi, bacteria and viruses. Procedures for seed health test and rules. Externally and internally seed - borne pathogens, mode of infection, development and spread, methods of detection of seed borne diseases. Important seed-borne diseases of cereals, oilseeds, pulses, fibre crops, vegetables and their control measures. Quarantine and international procedures of phyto-sanitary certificates. Important storage pests, their identification, monitoring and detection. ET value, nature and extent of damage, natural enemies and management. Use of pesticides, botanicals, mycotoxins for seed treatments. Carry over infestation, principles of fumigation and safe use of fumigants. Unit 7: Seed Industry Development and Marketing Trends in national and international seed industry development. International Seed Trade Federation (ISF) and Indian seed associations. Economics of seed production. Market survey, demand forecasting, pricing policies, marketing channels, planning and sales promotion. Buyer behaviour and role of Government, cooperative and private sectors in seed trade. Responsibilities of seed companies and dealers in Seed Act. Seed import and export. Unit 8 : Protection of Plant Varieties Plant Variety Protection (PVP) and its significance. Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Right Act, 2001, its essential features. International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) and its role in development of Plant breeders Rights and Seed Industry Development. Impact of PVP on seed supply system. DUS testing : principles and application. Biodiversity Act. Criteria for protection of Essentially Derived Varieties (EDVs) and Genetically modified (GM) varieties.
6. Crop Improvement
PAPER - I(B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1: Elements of Genetics Cell structure. Cell division - mitosis and meiosis. Mendelian inheritance. Dominance relationships. Gene interactions. Pleiotropy. Linkage, its detection and estimation. Recombination. Allelism and fine structure of the gene. Gene’concept. Nature of genetic material. DNA - structure, function, replication and repair. Genetic code. Gene-enzyme relationship. Transcription and RNA processing. Translation. Gene regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Genome organization and repetitive DNA. Mobile genetic elements. Extra-chromosomal inheritance. Chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes. Spontaneous and induced mutations and their molecular mechanisms. Unit 2: Genome organization and Cytogenetics of Crop Plants Chromosome structure, function and replication. Karyotype analysis. Chromosome banding techniques. In situ hybridization. Special types of chromosomes - polytene chromosomes, lampbrush chromosomes and B chromosomes. Structural changes in chromosomes - duplications, deficiencies, inversions and interchanges. Numerical changes in chromosomes - aneuploids, haploids and polyploids. Various types of cytogenetic stocks and their utility. Cytogenetic techniques for gene mapping. Wide hybridization and chromosomal manipulations for alien gene transfer. Genome organization and cytogenetics of important crop species - wheat, rice, maize, Brassica, cotton, Vigna, potato and sugarcane. Construction and use of molecular marker based chromosome maps. Comparative mapping and genome analysis. Unit 3: Botanical Classification, Description and Economic Uses of Field Crops Origin, distribution, classification, description and utilization of economic plants: cereals (wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, pearl millet, minor millets); pulses (pigeonpea, chickpea, black gram, green gram, cowpea, soybean, pea, lentil, horse gram, lab-lab, rice bean, winged bean, lathyrus, French bean, butter bean, Lima bean); oilseeds (groundnut, sesamum, castor, rapeseed mustard, sunflower, Niger, oil palm, coconut, linseed); fibre crops (cotton, jute, sunnhemp, mesta); sugar crops (sugarcane, sugarbeet); fodder and green manures; medicinal and aromatic plants. Unit 4: Reproductive Systems and Plant Breeding Crop domestication. Vavilovian laws and Centres of diversity. Early developments in plant breeding. Emergence of plant breeding as a scientific activity. Plant breeding objectives. Plant breeding accomplishments and role of national and international institutes. Role of plant introduction in crop improvement. Gametogenesis and fertilization. Modes of sexual and asexual reproduction and its relation to plant breeding methodology. Male sterility, incompatibility and apomixis and their use in plant breeding. Unit 5: Plant Breeding Methods Breeding methods for self-pollinated, cross-pollinated and clonally propagated crops. Mass selection and pure line selection. Component and transgressive breeding. Backcrossing. Single seed descent. Multilines. Recurrent selection: inter- and intra-population improvement. Development of synthetics and composites. Hybrid breeding and genetic basis of heterosis. Ideotype breeding. Mutation breeding. Unit 6: Plant Breeding for Stress Resistance and Nutritional Quality Genetic basis of resistance to diseases and insect-pests. Breeding for vertical and hortizontal resistance to diseases. Breeding for resistance to insect-pests. Genetic and physiological basis of abiotic
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
stress tolerance. Breeding for resistance to abiotic stresses (drought, heat, frost, excess water and soil nutrient deficiencies). Important quality parameters in various crops, their genetic basis, and breeding for these traits. Unit 7: Quantitative Genetics and Population Genetics for Crop Improvement Quantitative characters. Multiple factor inheritance. Polygenic variation. Breeding value, heritability. Response to selection, correlated response. Estimates of variance components and covariance among relatives. Mating designs with random and inbred parents. Estimation of gene effects and combining ability. Components of variation and their partitioning. Effects of linkage and epistasis on estimation of genetic parameters. Maternal effects. Genotype-environment interactions and stability of performance. Heterosis and its biometrical basis. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Factors affecting HWE. Linkage disequlibrium. Genetic load. Unit 8: Biotechnological Tools for Crop Improvement Plant tissue culture and its applications in crop improvement. Recombinant DNA technology. Genomic and cDNA libraries. Gene cloning strategies. DNA sequencing. Genetic transformation. Transgenics and their role in crop improvement. Types of molecular markers. DNA fingerprinting. Marker-based genetic diversity analysis. Gene tagging and pyramiding. QTL mapping. Marker-assisted selection (MAS). Genome projects and utilization of sequence formation. Unit 9: Plant Genetic Resources and their Regulatory System; Varietal Release and Seed Production Germplasm exploration, introduction, exchange, exchange, conservation, evaluation and utilization of plant genetic resources. Convention on Biological Diversity and International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Intellectual Property Rights. Biodiversity Act. Plant Variety Protection and Farmers’ Rights Act. System of variety release and notification. Types of seeds and seed chain. Seed production and certification. Unit 10: Statistical Methods and Field Plot Techniques Frequency distribution. Measures of central tendency. Probability theory and its applications in genetics. Probability distribution and tests of significance. Correlation, linear, partial and multiple regression. Genetic divergence. Multivariate analysis. Design of experiments - basic principles, completely randomized design, randomized block design and split block design. Complete and incomplete block designs. Augmented design grid and honeycomb design. Hill plots, unreplicated evaluation. Data collection, analysis and interpretation.
7. Agricultural Entomology
PAPER-I (B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1: Systematics History and development of Entomology, Evolution of insects, position of insects in the animal world, characteristics of phylum Arthropoda, structural features of important arthroped groups such as Trilobita, Chelicerata and Mandibulata, structural features of important classes of phylum Arthropoda viz. Arachnida, Crustacea, Chilopoda, Diplopoda and Hexapoda. Hierarchy of insects, species concepts. Classification of insects up to order level, habits, habitats and distinguishing features of different Order and important Families. Unit 2: Morphology Body wall, its structure, outgrowths, endoskeleton, Body regions, segmentation, sclerites and sutures. Head and head appendages, types of mouth parts, antennae, their structure and types. Thora structure, thoracic appendages and their modification. Wings, their modification and venation, Abdomen; structure abdominal appendages both in Ptoerygota and Apterygota. External genitalia, general structure and modification in important insect orders. Unit 3: Embryology, Internal Anatomy and Physiology Embryonic and post embryonic development, types of metamorphosis, physiology of ecdysis General features and types of larvae and pupae. Structure, function and physiology of Digestive, Circulatory, Respiratory, Reproductive, Nervous and Excretory systems, Sense Organs; structure and types. Insect food and nutrition; minerals, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, lipids, vitamins and their role in growth and development. Artificial diets. Unit 4: Ecology Concept of ecology, Environment and its components biotic and abiotic factors and their effects on growth, development, population dynamics, distribution and dispersal. Principle of biogeography and insects biodiversity. Biotic potential and environmental resistance. Ecosystems, agro ecosystems analysis, their characteristics and functioning. Intra and inter specific relationship; competition, predator -prey and host -parasite interactions, ecological niche. Life table studies, population models. Food chain and food web. Arthropod population monitoring and distribution, pest forescasting. Diapause and causes of pest out breaks. Unit 5: Biological Control Importance and scope of biological control, history of biological control. Biocontrol agents-parasites, predators and insect pathogens. Important Entomophagous insect Orders and Families. Ecological, biological, taxonomic, legal and economic aspects of biological control phenomena of multiple parasitism, hyperparasitism, superparasitism and their applied importance. Principles and procedures of using exotic biocontrol agents. utilization of natural biocontrol agents: conservation, habitat management and augmentation. mass multiplication techniques and economics. effectiveness evaluation techniques, Biocontrol organisations in world and India. successful cases of biological control of pests. Entomophilic pathogens: bacterial, fungi, viruses, rickettsiae. Protozoan, nematodes, Modes of transmission, methods of uses, symptoms of infection. Microbial insecticides and their formulation. Merits and demerits of microbial control. Registration procedure of bio pesticides.
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
Role of biocontrol agents and microbial insecticides in Integrated Pest Management. Unit 6: Chemical Insecticide Control and Toxicology: History, scope and principles of chemical control. Insecticides and their classification. Formulations of insecticides. Susceptibility of insects to the entry of insecticides. Physical, chemical and toxiological properties of different groups of insecticides: chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates, synthetic pyrethroids, chlord imeform, chitin, synthesis inhibitors, avermectins, nitroguandines, phenylpyrrozzoles, botanicals (natural pyrethroids, rotenone, neem products, nicotine, pongamia spp. etc). Combination insecticides. Problems of pesticide hazards and environmental pollution, safe use of pesticides, precautions and first aid treatments. Insecticides Act 1968, Registration and quality control of insecticides. Evaluation of toxicity, methods of toxicity testing, determination of LC 50, LD 50, LT 50, RL 50 etc. Pesticides residues in the environment and their dynamics of movements, methods of residue estimation. Pharmacology of insect poisons. mode of action of different groups of insecticides; neuroactive (axonal and synaptic) poisons, respiratory poisons, chitin synthesis inhibitors. Metabolism of insecticides; activative and degradative metabolism, detoxification enzymes and their role in metabolism. selectivity of insecticidal actions; insecticide resistance; mechanism, genetics and management of insecticide resistance. Unit 7: Host Plant Resistance Concept of resistance, degrees of resistance, Evaluation of plants and insects. Host habitat finding process in insects. Chemical ecology mechano and chemo receptors. Theories of host plant selection by phytophagous insects. Secondary plant substances and their defences agaisnt phytophagous insect. Basis and mechanisms of resistance. (Antixenosis, Antobiosis, Tolerance), Biotypes development and its remedial measures. Tritrophic interactions. Induced resistance. Breeding for insect resistant plant varieties. Resistance development and evaluation techniques. Genetics of Resistance; Vertical resistance, horizontal resistance, oligogenic resistance, polygenic resistance. Biotechnological approach and development of transgenic insect resistant plants, its advantages and limitations. Case histories. Insect resistance to transgenic plants and its management. Unit 8: Innovative Approaches in Pest control Behavioral control: pheromones, types of pheromones and their uses, advantages and limitations. Hormonal control; types and function of insect hormones, insect hormone mimics, advantages and limitations. Chemosterilants, Antifeedants, Attractants, Repellents; their types, methods of applications, advantages and limitations. Genetic control; concepts and methods and genetic control, methods of gene markers insect resistants plants, case histories, advantages and limitations. Potentialities of innovative appearance in IPM. Unit 9: Integrated Pest Management History, concept and principles of IPM. Components of IPM: Host plant, resistance, agronomic manipulation, mechanical and physical methods, chemical control agents, bio control agents utilization, genetic and behavioural control strategy etc. IPM strategies for field and horticultural crops. IPM case histories. Concept of damage levels, Economic threshold levels, Economic injury levels and their determination. System approach, Agro ecosystem and cropping system vs. IPM Constraints and Strategies of IPM implementation. Role of IPM in sustainable agricualture. Unit 10: Pesticide Application Equipments Types of appliances; sprayers, dusters, fog generators, smoke generators, soil injecting guns seed 20
treating drums, flame throwers, etc. Power operated sprayers and dusters. Types of nozzles and their uses. Maintenance of appliances. Air Carrier sprayers. Aerial application of pesticides, principles of aerial application, factors affecting the effectiveness of aerial application. Equipments for aerial applications. Advantages and disadvantages of aerial application. Unit 11: Pests of Field Crops and their Management Distribution, host range, biology and bionomics, nature of damage and management of arthropod pests of cereals, Oilseeds, pulse and fibre crops, sugarcane and tobacco. Polyphagous pests; locusts, termites, hairy catepillars, cut worms, white grub, Helieoverpa. Unit 12: Pests of Horticultural Crops and their Management Distribution, host range, biology and bionomics, nature of damage and management of arthropod pests of vegetable, fruit and plantation crops, spices and condiments and ornaments and medicinal plants. Unit 13: Pests of Stored Products and their Management Fundamentals of storage of grains and grain products. storage losses, sources of infestation/infection, factors influencing losses, insect and non-insect pests, their nature of damage and control. microflora in storage environment and their control. Storage structures, bulk storage and bag storage, their relative efficacy and demerits. grain drying methods and aeration. Non-insect pests (rodents, birds, mites) of stored products and their control. Integrated management of storage pests. Unit 14: Arthrpod Vectors of Plant Diseases Common arthropod vectors viz. aphids, leafhoppers, plant hoppers, whiteflies, thrips, psylids, beetles, weevils, flies, bees and mites and their relations with the plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses, mycoplasma. Mechanism of pathogen transmission : Active mechanical transmission, Biological transmission. Toxicogenic insects, mites and phytotoxemia. some important arthropod vector transmitted diseases in India and their epidemiology. Management of vector and its effect on control of diseases. Unit 15: Honey Bees and Bee-keeping Honey bees and their economic importance. bee species their behaviour, habit and habitats. Bee Keeping: bee pasturage, hives and equipments, seasonal management. Bee enemies including diseases and their control. Unit 16: Silkworms and Sericulture Silkworm species, their systematic position and salient features. Rearing techniques of mulberrymuga-eri and tassar silkworms. Nutritional requirements of silkworms. Sericulture: rearing house and appliances, silkworm breeds, principles of voltism and nioultism, seed production and its economics. Insect pests and diseases of silkworms and their management. sericulture organisation in India. Unit 17: Lac Insect Lac insect, its biology, habit and habitats. Host Trees; pruning, inoculation, lac cropping techniques, and harvesting. Enemies of lac insect and their control. Unit 18: Other Useful Insects Pollinators, biocontrol agents of weeds, soil fertility improving agents, scavengers, use of’ insects and insect products in medicines, usefulness of insects in scientific investigations, insects as food. Unit 19: Statistics and Computer Application Frequency distribution mean, mode and median. Standard, normal, bionomial and poisson’s 21
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
distribution, Sampling methods and standard errors. Correlation and Regression; Partial and multiple, tests of significance; t, F, chi- square, Duncans multiple range tests. Design of experiments: Principles of Randomised block, Completely radomised block, Latin square, Split-plot designs. Probit analysis. Use of soft ware packages like SPSS, SAS, etc. for the above tests and designs of experiments for analysis.
8. Plant Pathology
PAPER - I (B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1: Historical Development Development of phytopathology in ancient era, pre-modern era and modern era: development of science of mycology, plant bacteriology, plant virology and plant nematology: development of plant quarantine, chemical control or plant diseases and breeding for disease resistance. Unit 2: Principles of Plant Diseases Nature and classification of Plant diseases: mutual relationships between organisms: production, liberation and dissemination of inoculums: infection process: germination and entrance of the pathogen in to the host: symptomatology: external and internal: growth and reproduction of pathogens: predisposition: effect of environment and nutrition and disease development: physiologic specialization. Unit 3: Plant Disease Management General principles of disease management, physical methods, quarantine, seed certification, cultural practices, biological control, host resistance, use of chemicals, integrated disease management. Unit 4: Epidemology, Forecasting and Assessment of Losses Factors governing epidemics, artificial and natural control; of epidemics: prediction of epidemics, forecasting (warning) services, disease intensity and yield loss relationships, methods of estimation of losses. Unit 5: Disease Diagnosis Laboratory equipments, preparation of culture media, Koch’s postulates, isolation and identification, purification of cultures, maintenance and preservation: Molecular detection techniques: Enzyme -linked immunoassay (EIBA), Nucleic Acid Spot hybridization (NASH), Polymerase chain reaction (PCR),chromatography and spectrophotometry, data collection and preparation of publication. Unit 6: Plant Nematode Relationships Type of parasitism in nematodes. Nature of damage caused by various groups of Plant parasitic nematodes and mechanisms involved. Pathotypes in nematodes. Mechanisms of nematode resistance and tolerance in plants and its assessment. Physiological. Biochemical and molecular changes in plants due to nematode infections. Unit 7: Interactions of Nematodes with soil Organisms Importance of interactions (interrelatioships) of nematodes with soil organisms. Interactions of nematodes with bacteria, fungi, viruses, mycorhizae and other nematodes nematodes as vectors of viruses and other microorganisms.
PAPER - II (A) PLANT PATHOLOGY
Unit 1: History and Principles of Plant Pathology Milestones in phytopathology with particular reference to India. Major epidemics and their social
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
impacts. Historical developments of chemicals, legislative, cultural and biological protection measures including classification of plant diseases. Physiologic specialization, Koch postulates, Growth, reproduction, Survival and dispersal of plant pathogens. Factors influencing infection, colonization and development of symptoms. Unit 2: Laboratory and Analytical Techniques Preparation and sterilization of common media. Methods of isolation of pathogens. Preservation of micro organisms in pure culture. Methods of inoculation. Measurement of plant disease. molecular detection of pathogens in seeds and other planting materials: Nucleic acid probes southern, Northern and Western hybridization: ELISA, ISEM and PCR. Laboratory equipment and their use: autoclave, hot air oven, laminar flow, spectrophotometer, electrophoresis, light and electron microscopy. Incubator, ultracentrifuge, ELISA Reader. Unit 3: Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology Altered metabolism of plants under biotic and abiotic stresses. Molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis: recognition phenomenon, penetration, invasion, primary disease determinant. Enzymes and toxins in relation to plant disease. Mechanisms of resistance phytoalexins. PR proteins. Antiviral proteins. SAR. HR and active oxygen radicals. Tissue culture. Somoclonal variation and somatic hybridization. Elementary genetic engineering. Management of pathogens through satellite, antisense - RNA. Ribozymes, coat protein, hypovirulence/cross protection/useful genes and promoter technology biosafety and bioethics. Unit 4: Mycology Classification of fungi. Economic mycology, edible fungi and entomogenous fungi, Mycorrhizal associations. Cell organelles. Their morphology. Functions and chemical composition. Unit 5: Plant Bacteriology Identification and classification of bacteria. Morphology. Ultrastructure and chemical composition of prokaryotic cell in relation to function. Growth curve. Nutrition and auxotrophic mutants. Resting cells in prokaryotic, elementary bacterial genetics and variability: transformation, conjugation, transduction. Biology of extra chromosomal elements: plasmis borne genes and their expression: avr, hrp and pat genes. Bacteriopages: lytic and lysogenic cycles. Prokaryotic inhibitors and their mode of action. Economic uses of prokaryotes. Morphology , biochemical characteristics. Reproduction and life cycle of phytoplasmas and other fastidious prokaryotes. Unit 6: Plant Virology Nature composition and architecture of viruses and viroids. Properties of viruses. Variability in viruses. Satellite Viruses and satellite RNA. Assay of plant viruses including biological, physical, chemical, serological and molecular methods. Conventional and biotechnological techniques used in detection and diagnosis. Behaviour of viruses in plants including infection, replication and movement. Histopathological changes induced by viruses in plants. Inclusion bodies. Transmission of viruses: virus - vector relationships. Nomenclature and classification of viruses. Unit 7: Plant Disease Epidemiology, Forecasting & Assessment of losses Concepts in epidemiology. Development of disease in plant population. Monocyclic and polycyclic pathogens. Role of environment and meterological factors in the development of plant disease epidemics. Survey, surveillance (including through remote sensing) and prediction and forecasting of diseases. Epidemic analysis and prediction models. Crop loss assessment: critical and multiple point models, methods of estimation of losses. 24
Unit 8: Phanerogamic parasites and Non-parasitic Diseases of crop plants Diseases caused by Phanerogamic parasites and their management diseases due to unfavourable soil environment: drought and flooding stress etc. Nutritional deficiencies. Primary /secondary air pollutants and acid rain. Unit 9: Fungal Diseases of Crop Plants Fungal diseases of cereal, millets, oilseeds, pulses, fruits, vegetables, plantation, fiber, spices and ornamental crops with special reference to etiology, disease cycle, perpetuation, epidemiology and management. Post harvest diseases in transit and storage: aflatoxin and their integrated management. Unit 10: Bacterial and Viral Diseases of Crop Plants Crop diseases of cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits, plantation and fiber crops caused by bacteria, viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas and other fastidious prokaryotes. Mode of transmission and pathogen vector relationships. Epidemiology and management. Unit 11: Management of Plant diseases General principles of plant quarantine. Exotic pathogens and pathogens introduced in to India. Sanitary and phytosanitary issues under WTO. TRIPS and PRA. Genetic basis of disease resistance and pathogenicity: gene for gene hyphothesis: parasite mediated frequency -dependent selection concept QTL mapping: breeding for disease resistance. Production of disease free seeds and planting materials. Seed certification. Chemical nature and classification of fungicides and antibiotics: their bioassy and compatibility nature and classification of fungicides and antibiotics: their bioassay and compatibility with other agricultural chemicals: resistance to fungicides/ antibiotics: effect on environment. Spraying and dusting equipments, their care and maintenances. Important cultural practices and their role in disease management, solarization, integrated disease management. Microorganisms antagonistic to plant pathogens in soil, rhizosphere and phyllosphere and their use in the control of plant diseases; soil fungistasis. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria. Unit 12: Seed Pathology Introduction: Economic significance and historical developments. Infection of seeds: Term and definitions-Necrotrophs, biotrophs, etc., seed infection routes, outcome of infection. Detection of seed borne pathogens: current techniques, direct inspection, incubation methods, immunodiagnostic methods, nucleic acid based methods including PCR. Longevity of seed borne organisms: Factors affecting longevity, life span of seeds, longevity of pathogens, effect of seed storage on pathogen viability and infectivity. Seed transmission: effect of environment, soil microorganisams and host genotype on seed transmission, Control of seed borne diseases: chemical and physical seed treatment, systemic fungicides, fungicidal resistance, use of biocontrol agents. Seed certification standards, seed health testing, selection of disease free seed production areas, designated seed borne diseases in seed act, global seed trade, phytosanitary certificate under WTO and TRIPS, breeding for disease resistance, pest risk analysis. Unit 13: Biological Control of Plant Diseases and Weeds Introduction: Definition, history, scope, principles and factors affecting biological control. Merits and demerits of biological control. Pathogen and antagonist and their relationship. Sensitive stages in pathogen cycle, role of agroecosystem. Mechanisms of biolcontrol: Hyperparasistism, antibiosis, competition PGPR, Siderophores. Mycorrhizae, Biocontrol agents: Bioagents and commercial formulations, characterization. Management of classic plant diseases through different biocontrol agents. Increasing efficacy: Genetic engineering, mutagens, hybridisation. Delivery system: problems and limits. Biocontrol of weeds: Advantages of mycoherbicides, inoculative, inundative and augumentative strategies. Commercial production and distribution system. 25
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Unit 14: Host Plant Resistance Definition of resistance, immunity and tolerance, simple and compound interest diseases. Types of resistance - vertical, horizontal resistance, tolerance, durable, avoidance. Biochemical and structural resistance and others. Mechanism and inheritance of resistance to plant diseases. Defense at the perimeter, extruded chemicals, preformed internal chemicals defenses, defense triggered by invaders, recognition and compatibility phenomenon. Hypersensitivity, phyto alxins, detoxifying toxins, Stabilising selection and mathematic models on vertical and horizontal resistance, gene deployment, multiline concept, gene pyramiding, induced resistance etc. Gene - to - gene theory. Theories of disease management and boom and burst cycle. Identification of races of rusts of wheat, late blight of potato and blast of rice.
Unit 15: History and Economic Importance History and economic impor tance of nematology; Diseases caused by plant-parasitic nematodessymptomatology, biology, distribution and management of plant parasitic nematodes of economic importance (Pratylenchus, Radopholus, Hirschamiella, Meloidogyne, Globodera, Rotylenchus, Tylenchulus, Ditylenchus, Anguina, Aphelenchoides, Tylenchorhynchus, Helicotylenchus, Hoplolaimus, Scutellonema, Paratylenchus, etc.) Entomopathogenic nematodes. Unit 16: Nematode Taxonomy and Morphology Principles and concepts of taxonomy. Rules of nomenclature. Nematode phylogeny and systematic. Classification of soil and plant -parasitic nematodes and their relationships with other related phyla. Detailed classification of plant - parasitic nematodes up to generic level with emphasis on genera of economic importance. General morphology and anatomy of nematodes. Various systems: digestive,, excretory, nervous, reproductive etc. development biology of nematodes. Unit 17: Nematological Techniques Methods of extraction of nematodes from soil and plant material. Microscopy - principles and types including electron microscopes. Methods of killing, fixing, preserving; staining, mounting and measuring of nematodes. Techniques for histopathology and culturing of nematodes -plant parasitic, entomophilic and saprophytic including axenic methods. Experimental techniques for proving pathogenicity, estimation of crop losses, nernaticide screening, screening and evaluation for nematode resistance in crops. Molecular technique for nematode diagnostics. Techniques for mass culturing of nematode antagonistic bioagents. Unit 18: Nematode Ecology Ecological classification and distribution of nematodes mode of nematode dispersal. Adaptations to parasitc mode of life. Soil as environment for nematodes. Effect of biotic and abiotic factors on nematode surviva, activity reproduction. Nematode population dynamics,. Nematodeinduced plant damage and modeling, community analysis. Unit 19: Plant Nematode Relationships Types of parasitism in nematodes. Nature of damage caused by various groups of Plant parasitic nematodes and mechanisms involved. Pathotypes in nematodes. Mechanisms of nematode resistance and tolerance in plants and its assessment. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes implants due to nematode infections. Unit 20: Nematode Physiology and Cytologty Chemical composition of nematodes. Principles of nematode physiology. Physiological functions of 26
cell; organelles. Physiology of respirayion, digestion, excretion, reproduction, growth and development. Physiology of muscular, nervous and Sensory responses. Physiology of moulting, hatching and nematode survival. Chemoreception in nematodes. Nematode as biological models Caenorhabditis elegans. Cytological changes in plants due to infection including syncytia, giant cell formation and their modification etc. Unit 21: Nematode Management Principles and methods of nematode management - physical, cultural biology, chemical and legislative, Nematicides (including those of biological origin)-history, classification, formulations, application and mode of action. Host resistance for nematode management. Integrated nematode management. Role of biotechnology in nematode management. Unit 22: Interactions of Nematodes with Soil Organisms Importance of interactions (interrelationships) of nematodes with soil organisms. Interactions of nematodes with bacteria, fungi, viruses, mycorhizae and other nematodes. Nematodes as vectors of viruses and other microorganisms. Unit 23: Statistics Frequency, distribution, measures of central tendency and dispersion: mean, median, mode, standard deviation etc. population distributions normal, binomial and poisson. Correlationspartial and multiple. Tests of significance, t, F and Chi square and completely randomized, Randomized block, Latin square and split plot designs and their analysis and interpretation.
9. Plant Biochemistry and Plant Physiology
PAPER - I (B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1: Cell Organelles and Water Relations Cell organelles and their physiological functions Structure and physiological functions of cell wall, cell inclusions. Cell membrane structure and functions. Water and its role in plants, Properties and functions of water in the cell, water relations, water potential of plant cells Mechanism of water uptake by roots transport in roots, movement of water in plants, water loss from plants, energy balance, solar energy, input energy dissipation at crop canopy level. Evapotranspiration, plant factors influencing transpiration rate. Stroma, structure function - Mechanism of stomatal movement, antitranspirants. Physiology of water stress in plants. Influence of water stresses at cell, organ, plant and canopy levels. Indices for assessment of drought resistance. Unit 2: Metabolic Processes Energy and work, free energy and chemical potential, redox reactions and electrochemical potential. Enzyme classification and mechanism of action, factors affecting enzyme action. Gene expression and protein turnover. Photosynthesis, Translocation and Respiration as key processes regulating carbon metabolism and plant growth. Photosynthesis and bioproductivity. Photochemical process- Chloroplast, its structure” CAM plants and their significance. Rubisco structure and regulations, Photorespiration and its significance, C02 fixation as a diffusive process, effect of environmental factors on photosynthetic rates. Synthesis of sucrose, starch, oligo and polysaccharides. Translocations of photosynthates and its importance in sink growth. Mitochondrial respiration, growth and maintenance respiration, cyanide resistant respiration and its significance. Nitrogen metabolism. Inorganic nitrogen species (N2, N03, NH3) and their reduction, protein synthesis, nucleic acids. Sulphate uptake and reduction. Lipid metabolism- storage, protective and structural lipids. Secondary metabolites and their significance in plant defence mechanism. Unit 3: Crop Productivity and Modeling Role of crop physiology in agriculture, Crop growth and productivity Crop growth models describing yield (Duncan/Passioura), phenology-crop productivity, growth factors related to biomass - concept of growth rates- canopy photosynthesis (leaf area and net assimilation rates as determining factors). Light interception as a major function of leaf area-index, LAD canopy architecture- Light extinction coefficient relative growth rate. Net assimilation rate. Biomass and yield relations. Assimilate partitioning, yield and yield structure analysis. Concept of source and sink, factors influencing source and sink size and productivity. Environmental factors determining crop growth. Light, temperature and VPD, effect of photoperiod and thermoperiod on duration of growth stages. Ideotype concept-selection-indices for improving crop productivity. Unit 4: Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants Abiotic stresses affecting plant productivity. Basic principles of a crop improvement programme under stress, interactions between biotic and abiotic stresses. Droughtcharacteristic features, water potential in the soil- plant air continuum. Development of water deficits, energy balance concept, transpiration and it’s regulation – stomatal functions/VPD Physiological process affected by drought. Drought resistance mechanisms: Escape, dehydration postponement (Drought avoidance), Dehydration tolerance, and characteristics of resurrection plants. Osmotic adjustment Osmoprotectants, stress proteins.
PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY AND PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
Water use efficiency as a drought as a drought resistance trait. Molecualr responses to water deficit Stress perception, expression of regulatory and function genes and significance of gene products. Stress and hormones-ABA as a signaling molecule – Cytokinin as negative signal. Oxidative stress: reactive oxygen species (ROS) – role of scavenging systems (SOD, catalase etc.). High temperature stress: tolerance mechanisms- role of membrane lipids in high temperance tolerance. Functions of HSP’s chilling stress; effects on physiological processes. Crucial role of membrane lipids. Salinity: species variation in salt tolerance. Salinity effects at cellular and whole plant level, tolerance mechanisms. Breeding for salt resistance. Heavy metal stress: aluminum and cadmium toxicity in acid soils. Role of phytochelatins (heavy, metal binding proteins). Unit 5: Plant Growth Regulators and Plant Development Plant growth regulators – Hormones, endogenous growth substances and synthetic chemicals. Endogenous growth regulating substances other than hormones. Brassinosteriods, triacontanol, phenols polyamines, jasmonates, concept of death hormone. Classification, site of synthesis, biosynthetic pathways and metabolism and influence on plant growth and development by auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene. Concept of hormone action - hormone receptors and signal transduction Hormone mutants. Hormonal regulation of gene expressions at various developmental stages of plant-flowering, seed maturity, seed dormancy. Action of hormones on cellular functions: Auxins- cell elongation., retardation of abscission of plant parts, gibberellins – stem elongation, germination of dormant seeds, cytokinins- cell division, retardation of senescence. Abscisic acid- stomatal closure and induction of drought resistance, ethylene- fruit ripening, acceleration of senescence of leaves. Interaction of hormones in regulation of plant growth and development processes. Synthetic growth regulators, growth retardants, apical dominance, senescene, fruit growth, abscission. Growth and differentiation, hormonal concept of growth and differentiations. Rooting of cuttings- flowering- physiological and molecular aspects of control of reproductive growth. Apical dominance, senescence and abscission. Fruit growth and development, physiological and molecular aspects of ripening processes and improving post harvest life of fruits. Induction and breaking dormancy in seeds and buds. Synthetic growth regulators. Practical utility in agriculture and horticulture. Herbicides, classification and their mode of action. Unit 6: Mineral Nutrition Importance of mineral nutrition in plant growth. Classification and essentiality criteria. General mechanisms - concept of apparent free space and nature of bio-membranes. Dual mechanism and other concepts of ion uptake. Short distance transport-pathway from external solution (Apoplasm) to sieve across the root cortical cells-factors contributing to xylem loading. Long distance transport in xylem and phloem, xylem unloading in leaf cells. Uptake and release of mineral nutrients by foliage. Rhizosphere and root biology, root growth, influence of micro-organism in nutrient acquisition, release and uptake by plant roots. Yield and mineral nutrition-concept of nutrient use efficiency, Mineral nutrition under adverse soil situations- drought, salinity, acidity etc. Heavy metal toxicity and concept of phytoremediation. Interaction of phytohormones and nutrients. Molecular aspects- uptake and transport, role of transporter genes, genetics of nutrient uptake, identification and transfer of genes for tolerance to nutrient deficiencies, etc. Unit 7: Climate and Climate Change Climate- Analytical methods to determine long term changes in environment- Tree ring, cellulose, stable carbon isotope discrimination, stable 180 discrimination for hydrological changes. Likely changes in climate in future and its impact on crop and ecosystems. The greenhouse gases and global warning. CO 2 as an important greenhouses gas, global carbon deposits, fluxes in the sinks and sources. Approaches to contain atmospheric C02 level. Effect of elevated C02 on plant growth and development. 29
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
Methane as a green house gases. Prediction on global warning, GCA models, effects on climate and biota. High temperature and C02 interaction on plant growth and productivity, lonising radiation UV-B chlorofluro carbon (CFC)– their impact on ozone layer- ozone hole and alteration in UV-B radiation. Effects of UV-B radiation on plant ecosystem, repair and acclimation to UV-B damage. Carotenoids and their role in membrane stabilization. Air pollution, SO 2, NO, Methane, Ozone, peroxy acetyl nitrate and their effect on ecosystem. Industrial and domestic effluent- their effect, on aquatic ecosystem, plant growth and development. Unit 8: Seed Physiology Structure of seeds and their storage. Seed development patterns and source of assimilates for seed development. Pathway of movement of assimilates in developing grains of monocots and dicots. Chemical composition of seeds. Storage of carbohydrates, proteins and fats in seeds. Hydration of seeds. Physiological processes. Seed respiration, mitochondrial activity Mobilization of stored resource in seeds. Chemistry of oxidation of starch, proteins and fats. Utilization of breakdown products by embryonic axis. Control processes in mobilization of stored reserves. Role of embryonic axes. Gibberellin and aamylase and other hydrolytic activity. Seed maturation phase and desiccation damage, role of LEA proteins. Seed viability. Seed dormancy. Means to overcome seed dormancy. Unit 9: Physiology of Flowering and Reproduction Evolutionary history of flowering plants (angiosperms). Semelparous and iteroparous reproduction, monocarpic and perennial life etc. Flowering phenomenonal, effect of plant age, juvenility- transition to flowering. Flowering nature and classification of plants. Photoperiodic responses and the mechanisms in short and long day plants. Theories related to flowering. Endogenous substances and flowering. Gene expression in flowering. Control of flowering. Thermoperiodism - photo and thermoperiod. interactions. Vernalization-mechanism. Photomorphogenesis, photoreceptors, phytochrome, cryptochrome, physiology of flowering, photoperiodism and vernalization. Optimization in flowering response-to environmental features (light, temperature, stress) etc. plant reproductive physiology. Mating strategy in plants, molecular techniques to understand mating patterns, self incompatibility responses, physiological processes mediating fertilization (pollen-stigma interactions), seed and fruit development, seed and fruit abortion and means to overcome it. Molecular biology of seed development, physiological basis of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration. Physiology of heterosis. Unit 10: Physiology of Horticultural and Plantation Crop Species Growth and development of horticultural and plantation crop species. Juvenility, shoot growth, types of shoots, patterns of shoot growth, cambial growth and its regulation. Physiological aspects of pruning and dwarfing. Growth measurements. Water relations of tree species. Water uptake and transport. Concepts of transpiration ration and water use efficiency. Sexual and asexual propagation. Root stock and scion interactions. Physiology of flowering in perennial species, photoperiodism and thermoperiodism. Physiological aspects of fruit crops: mango, banana, grapes, citrus, papaya and pineapple etc. Physiological aspects of plantation crops: coffee, cardamom, coconut, pepper. Unit 11: Post-harvest Physiology Senescence and ageing in plants. Ethylene – the senescence hormone, leaf senescence. Monocarpic plant senescence. Biochemistry and molecular biology of flower senescence. Gene expression during senescence. Concept of physiological maturity of seeds -post harvest changes in biochemical constituents in field crops- loss of viability, loss of nutritive value, environmental factors influencing post -harvest deterioration of seeds. Physiological and biochemical changes during fruit ripening and storage. Senescence and post harvest life of cut flowers. Physical, physiological and chemical control of postharvest 30
PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY AND PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
deterioration of fruits, vegetables and cut flowers and its significance during storage and transport. Molecular approach in regulation of fruit ripening. Transgenic technology for improvement of shelf-life. Unit 12: Biomolecules and Biophysical Principles Scope and importance of biochemistry and molecular biology in plants. Chemical bonding in biological systems, Acids, bases and fuffers. Cell organelles. Thermodynamics and bioenergetics- concept of entropy, and free energy changes in biological reactions, Redox reactions, Role of high energy phosphates. Classification structure, chemistry, properties and function of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Membrane structure and composition. Membrane transport. Mode of action and biochemical functions of vitamins and hormones. Unit 13: Intermediary Metabolism Anabolism, catabolism and their regulation. Metabolism of carbohydrates – glycoltic pathway, HMP pathway, TCA cycle, glyoxylate pathway and gluconeogenesis. Biological oxidation- electron transfer and oxidative phosphorylation. Lipid metabolism degradation and biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols and phospholipids. Amino acid metabolism –general reactions, degradation and biosynthesis of individual amino acids. Metabolism of nucleic acids - degradation of biosynthesis of purines, pyrimidines and nucleotides. Secondary methabolites. Sulphate reduction. Unit 14: Biochemistry of Food-grains, Fruits and Vegetables: Biochemical composition of various food - grains, fruits and vegetables, Biochemistry of fruit ripening, biochemical aspects of post harvest technology, storage and preservation. Biochemical basis of quality improvement of food grains, vegetables and fruits. Unit 15: Enzymes Enzyme structure. Active site and its mapping. Classification, kinetics and mechanism of action of enzymes. Enzyme inhibition and activation. Multisubstrate reactions. Kinetic experiments to determine the mechanism of multisubstrate reactions. Coenzymes, isoenzymes and immobilized enzymes. Regulation of enzyme activity. Allosteric regulation. Isolation, prufication and measurement of enzyme activity. Enzyme utits. Ribozytnes. Enzyme engineering. Role of enzymes in industry, agriculture and medicine. Unit 16: Molecular Biology Structure of DNA and RNA Replication, transcription and translation. Regulation of protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eykaryotes. Post-transcriptional and translational modifications. Transcriptional and translation control of prokaryotes and eykaryotes. Genetic code. Mutation. DNA damage and repair. Gene expression - operon model, inducible and repressible enzymes. Mitochondrial genomes. Replication of viruses. Molecular basis of male sterility. Unit 17: Biotechnology / Genetic Engineering General principles of gene cloning, Restriction enzymes, Isolation of genes and methods of gene transfer - plasmids, and viruses as vectors. Splicing techniques. Blotting and hybridization. DNA finder and foot printing. Protoplast fusion. Application of recombinant DNA technology. DNA sequence analysis. Oligonucleotide, synthesis. Site directed mutagenesis. Transposon tagging. Basics of genome organization and mapping, genomica and functional genomics. Genomic libraries. Antisense RNA. Restriction fragment length polymorphism. RAPD, AFLP and other molecular marker techniques. Polymerasechain reaction and chromosome walking. Benefits of gene manipulation in agriculture. Transgenic plants - methods of development. Plant transformation, transformation vectors, binary vectors, concept of selectable and scoreable markers. Agrobacterium mediated transformation, ballistics, electroporation, selection of putative transgenic plants, genetic analysis, PCR, southern analysis, evaluation of transgenic plants. 31
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Unit 18: Immunology The immune system, antigens, antibodies, complement systems and antigen antibody reaction. Immunity - innate and acquired. Immune response - hunoral and cell mediated. Lymphokines and interdeukins. Immunization practices. Histocompatability antigens and transplantation. Immunological antigens and transplanataion. Immunological techniques- precipitation, electrophoresis, immunodiffusion, RIA, EILISA, immuno- fluorescence and fluorescence immunoassay, flow cytofluorimetry and florescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Avidin - biotin mediated immunoassay. Monoclonal antibodies and hybridoma technology. Western blotting. Unit 19: Techniques Principles of optical, phase contrast, fluorescence and electron microscopy, Spectrophometry, UV and Vis, fluorimetry, turbidimetry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Radioisotopic techniques – detection and measurement of radioactivity and its application in biological sciences. Flectrophoresis - general principles and application SDS - PAGE, isoelectric focusing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Chromatographic techniques such as paper, thin layer and column chromatography, GC and HPLC etc. Centrifugation - principles of sedimentation, differential centrifugation, cell fractionation. Density gradient and ultracentrifugation. Organ and tissue slice techniques. Cell disruption. Plant cell and tissue culture. Cell sorting and counting. Cryopreservation. Unit 20: Photosynthesis and Photorespiration Photosynthesis – basic equation and photosynthetic pigments. Chlorophyll. Photosystems. Photophosphorylation. Chemisomotic coupling. Carbon cycle and its regulation, C3, C4 and CAM pathways. Dark reactions. Ion fluxes and conformational changes during photosynthesis. Photorespiration. Relationship between photosynthesis, photorespiration and crop productivity. Chloroplasm morphology, structure and biochemical anatomy. Chloroplasm metabolism. Cytosolic and organelle interactions. Nature and exchange of metabolites through translocators. Seed reserve biosynthesis. Unit 21: Plant Metabolism Uptake and metabolism of mineral nutrients in plants. Nitrogen cycle. Nitrate and nitrite reduction, denitrifcation, symbiotic and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Assimilation of fixed nitrogen in plants. Genetics and mechanism of nitrogen fixation. Biochemical and physiological role of hydrogenase. Chemoautrotrophy in rhizobia and nitrifying bacteria. Growth regulation in plants. Signal transduction pathways. Cell cycle. Phytohormones. Molecular mechanism of plant growth, hormone action, auxin, gibberllins, cytokinins, ethylene, absissic acid and phenolic inhibitors. Preliminary methods of statistical analysis as applied to agricultural data – standard deviation, standard error, test, ANOVA, correlation and regression.
10. Agricultural Biotechnology
PAPER-I (B) AND PAPER-II
Section 1: Cell Structure and Function Origin of Cell, Ultrastructure of prokaryotic and cukaryotic cells. Cytoskelton. Cell wall and plasma membrane. Cell organelles including vacuoles, mitochondriaplastids, golgi apparatus, ER, peroxisomes, glyoxisomes, etc, their organization and function. Cell division. Different stages of mitosis and meiosis, regulation of cell cycle. Section 2: Biomolecules and Metabolism Structure, characterization and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, isolation and purification of enzymes, their classification, catalytic site, mechanism of action, regulation of enzyme activity, basic enzyme kinetics, inhibition, enzymes immobilization and its application. Catabolism synthesis of carbohydrate, glycolysis, HMP, citric acid cycle, purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis, metabolic regulation, bioenergetics, etc. Oxidative phosphorylation and substrate level phosphorylation, vitamins & plant hormones. Section 3: Molecular Genetics Concept of gene mutation, recombination, transformation, transduction, conjugation, transposable elements and transposition, split genes, overlapping genes and pseudogenes. Organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes and genomes including operon, exon, intron, enhancer promoter sequences and other regulatory elements, activators, repressors, co-activators, co-repressors in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, inducible gene, promoter and vectors. Section 4: Gene Expression Genetic material: structure replication and repair, transcription and translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. RNA processing and posttranscriptional modifications, post-translational modification and protein transport and their significance. DNA modification and repair structure. Finction and expression of mitochondrial and chloroplast genome. Small RNA’s Section 5: Molecular Biology Techniques Isolation and hybridization of nucleic acids. Cot analysis. Southern, northern and western blottings and hybridization. Consruction and screening of genomic and DNA libraries. Current methods of radioactive and non-radioactive labeling of proteins and nucleic acids. DNA sequencing. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA sequences (RAPD) SNPs, gene mapping Molecular breeding, genome mapping and sequencing gene tagging and targetting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, DNA synthesis, monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, ribozyme antisence RNA methodology, radiommunoassay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Section 6: Gene Cloning Restriction enzymes and their uses. Salient features and uses of most commonly used vectors i.e. plasmids, bacteriophages, phagmids, cosmids, BACs, PACs and YACs expression vectors. Cloning, subcloning strategies and transformation. Plant genetic transformation vectors. Section 7: Tissue Culture Basic techniques in cell culture and somatic cell genetics. Clonal propagation. Concept of cellular totipotency. Anther and pollen culture for haploid and double haploid production; somatoclonal and
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
gametoclonal variations. Hybrid embryo culture, somatic hybridization and cybridization. Jermplasm conservation and exchange. Application of tissue culture in crop improvement. Section 8: Plant Genetic Engineering Isolation of genes of economic importance. Gene constructs for tissue specific expression. Different methods of gene transfer to plants viz. direct and vector mediated. Potential applications of plant genetic engineering to crop improvement i.e. specific and non-specific resistance (defence) genes to disease and pest, herbicide resistance, storage protein quality, oil quality, vitamins, stress resistance and postharvest, production of secondary metabolities and alien proteins. Current status of transgenics, containment and IPR issues. Nanobiotechnology. Section 9: Molecular Biology of Photosynthesis & Nitrogen Fixation Photoregulation and phytochrome regulation of nuclear and chloroplastic gene expression. Molecular biology of light and dark reaction of photosynthesis, Rhizosphere, plant growth promoting organisms. Molecular mechanism of nitrogen fixation, nitrate reductase and genetics of nif genes. Molecular biology of various stress, viz., drought, salr, hear and cold. Signal transduction and its molecular basis. Section 10: Industrial Biotechnology Principles of fermentation processes, bioreactors and biosensors, protein engineering. Single cell proteins. Biopesticides, Phytoremediation. Microbial degradation of waste and biogas production. Bioleaching and bioremediation. Application of fermentation technology. Plant bioreactors, production of industrial compounds and molecular farming. Biofuels.
11. Agriculture Microbiology
PAPER -I (B) and PAPER –II
Section 1: History of Microbiology Evolution of microbial life. Theory of spontaneous generiation. Contributions of various scientists’ the development of different areas of microbiology. Section 2: Microbial Taxonomy Eucaryotes, prokaryotes and archaebacteria, kingdom prokaryotes and detailed classification of prokaryotes. Techniques used in identification and classification. of bacteria - numerical taxonomy, DNA base composition, nucletic acid hybridization, RNA sequencing and catalouging and serological analysis. Important groups of prokaryotes photosynthetic bacteria, chenmoautrophic bacteria, spore forming bacteria and actinomycetes. Heterotrophic bacteria - enterobacteria, nitrogen - fixing bacteria and cyanobacteria, lactic acid bacteria, halophiles, thermophiles, acidophiles and methanogens. Structure and classification of viruses, growth of viruses, lytic and lysogenic cycles, plant viruses. Section 3: Morphology and Cytology Cell structure – plrocaryotes and eucaryotes. Chemical composition, structure and function of cell wall, cytoplasmic inclusions, nuclear material and other specialized cell wall structures - endospores, cysts, beterocysts, akinites etc. Section 4: Microbial Ecology: Principles of microbial ecology and their application to different ecosystems. Microbiology of ecosystems - soil, rhizosphere, phyllosphere, water - fresh and marine, and air. Microbial interactions symbiosis,’ synergism, commenalism, parasitism, amensalism, antagonism and predation, adoption of micro - organisms to various ecosystems. Section 5: Microbial Physiology Bacterial growth and growth curve. Kinetics of growth -.continuous and batch culture. Diauxic and synchronous growth. ‘Microbial nutrition. Bacterial metabolism - aerobic and anaerobic respiration, electron transport chain, oxidative, substrate level and photo - phosphorylation. Biosynthesis of macro molecules -.bacterial cell wall, ribosomes, proteins and nucleic acids. Section 6: Microbial Genetics Replication of DNA primosomes, replisonies, gyrase and helicase. Mutations - spontaneous, induced and site directed; DNA damage and repair. Biochemical genetics - elucidation of biochemical pathways using auxotrophic mutants. Gene transfer - conjugation, transformation and transduction. plasmids and transposons. Recombinant DNA technology (RDT). Importance of RDT over conventional genetic techniques. Restriction enzymes, vectors, DNA cloning and cDNA cloning. Regulation of gene expression - operator, promoter, operon, positive and negative regulatory control, atennuation and tryptophane,operon; anti-sense RNA. Section 7: Microbial Biotechnology Industrial production of metabolites - organic acids, alcohols, amino acids, organic solvents, antibiotics, vitamins and enzymes. Types of bioreactors. Control of fermentation process - batch, feed
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
batch and continuous. Down stream processing in fermentation industry. Production of single cell proteins, hormones, biofertilizers, bio ~ pesticides, bio - pigments, bio - flavours, mushrooms and silage. Section 8: Food Microbiology Microbiology of raw and processed food. Role of microbes in food fermentation - sauerkraut, pickles, cheese, yogurt, tempeh, soysauce etc. Food preservation, contamination and spoilage. Food - borne illnesses and intoxication. Section 9: Soil Microbiology Distribution of micro - organisms in soil. Root exudates and rhizosphere effects. Manipulation of rhizosphere microflora in plant productivity’. Microbial biomass: Decomposition of plant and animal residues - cellulose, hemi - cellulose, lignin, proteins etc. Humus role in soil fertility. Transformation of nitrogen in . soil ammonification, nitrification and denitrification. Biological nitrogen fixation–symbiotic and asymbiotic. Biochemistry and genetics of nitrogen fixation. Microbial transformation of phosphorus, sulphur and minor nutrients. Mycorrhizal symbuiosis (ecto and endo) – role in agriculture and forestry. Bio-degradation of pesticides. Bio-fertilizers and their role in sustainable agriculture. Biocontrol of insect pests and plant pathogens. Bioremidation of problem soils. Plant growth promting rhizobacteria and their mode of action: Section I0: Environmental Microbiology Pollution of soil, water and air-role of microorganisms. Sources of pollution and their impact on environment. Microbiology of sewage and industrial effluents and their safe disposal. Management of solid and liquid organic wastes – composting, biogas, production and treatment of sewage and industrial effluents. Section 11: Microbiological Techniques Isolation and preservation of different types of micro - organisms. Methods of sterilization and disinifection. Optical phasae contrast, fluorescent, dark field and electon microscopy. Colorimetry, spectophotometry, centrifugation, chromatography and gel electophoresis. Chonosomal and plasmid DNA isolation and charecterization. Physical, chemical and site directed mutagens. Microbial assay of vitamins, amino acids and antibiotics. Microbilogical tests for potability of water. Methods for estimation of microbial bio-mass and nitrogen fixation. Polymerase chain reaction and its application. Section 12: Statistics Elementary principles of statistics. Mean, median, mode. Experimental designs, analysis of variance and chi-square test. Correlation and regression.
PAPER - I (B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1 : Principles and fundamentals of horticulture. orchards management nursery management and seed production. Principles of breeding of horticultural crops improvement of fruits and plantation crops. Importance of fruits and vegetable in human nutrition. Contribution of Horticulture in National Economy and exports. Programmes of development - National Horticulture Mission. Unit 2 : Growth and Development physiology of flowering, fruit set and development, parthenocarpy and seedlessness. Maturity and ripening plant growth regulators and their role. physiological basis of flowering and fruiting. Unit 3 : Improved production technology of fruits and plantation crops, high density planting. integrated nutrient and water management, fertigation precision farming in horticulture watershed management for promotion of horticulture. Protected cultivation training. pruning and canopy management. Unit 4: Importance of vegetables and spices hybrid seed production, breeding Strategies for vegetables tubers potato and spices. Biotic and abiotic stress breeding, biotechnological tools for breeding. Unit 5:
Mieropropogation, meristem culture, ovule culture in vitro pollination. Production of’ bio-agents and bio-fertilizer and green house management stionic relations and rootstock. Protected cultivation for improved productivity–vegetables and flowers.
Unit 6: Principles of floriculture and landscaping, production technology for indoor plants. Flower arrangements value addition commercial floriculture. Gardening and park management dry flowers and potted plants. Medicinal and Aromatic plants of importance and their management. Unit 7: Importance of post harvest handling, in horticultural crops, physiology of fruits, vegetables and flowers after harvest. Different method of storage,s cool chain management, processing for value addition and product diversification disease management in storage, packing and grading and packing technology. Quality assurance and food laws.
PAPER - II
A. FRUITS AND PLANTATION CROPS Unit 1: Orchard Establishment and Propagation and Nursery Management Importance, area, production and distribution of fruits and plantation crops. Planning. layout and management of progeny orchards, nurseries. Collection of mother plants, planting, care ideal propagating
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
media, containers. soil sterilization. Raising of seedlings, rootstocks, and inter tocks. Method and time of propagation of different fruit and plantation crops in different regions. Unit 2: Root stock and Nursery Management Dormancy, seed germination, seedling growth, apomixes, polyembryony root induction. role of growth regulatory and chemical. Stock and scion relationship, incompatibility propagation and hardening of different fruit and plantation crops and its commercial importance. Rejuvenation of old and unproductive orchards. Packing and transport of’ nursery plants. Unit 3 Growth and Development Dormancy, rest period, chilling requirements and heat units. Fruit bud different iation in Physiology of flowering and chemical induction of flowering. Fruit set, development fruit drop and its control parthenocarpy and seedlessness. Maturity and ripening. Biochemical changes associated with fruit ripening. Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. Role of bioregulators in fruits production. Bearing habits. Unfruitfulness alternate bearing citrus, deeline, mango malformation. Unit 4 : Fruit Breeding Principles, problems prospects of fruit breeding. Methods of improvement e.g. introduction clonal selection, hybridization, mutation breeding, polyploidy and heterosis breeding. Breeding of new stocks and scion. Crop improvement objectives. Inheritance of characters, problems and advances achieved in important fruit crops like mango citrus, banana grape, sapota, papaya, apple, pear, peach, aonla, pomegranate, coconut, arecanut, oil palm, cashew, tea coffee olive, cocoa, rubber, nutmeg clove, cinnamon, bay-leaf and other minor fruits and plantation crops. Unit 5: Fruits and Plasntation Crops Production Technology Improved production technology for fruit and plantation crops covering soil, climate. Propagation methods. varieties; planting, plant density, training and pruning. Factors related to nutrient availability, inter-relationship of elements. Organic farming. Unit 6: Production System and Management Integrated nutrient and water management, weed, disease including IPM and other orchard management practices of important fruit and plantation crops. Physiological disorders in fruits and plantation crops. Concept of high density planting, use of plastics drip irrigation fertigation cropping in hostile situation e.g. dry land and land with denuded forests, hill slopes intercropping mulching, multistory cropping, cropping in watersheds and precision farming. Unit 7 : Pollinisation Role of pollination, pollinisors, role of insect, plants and rains honey-bees in pollination of fruit crops, basics of maintaining bee colonies during flowering and off seasons: multiplication of bee colonies, honey extraction, processing and storage of honey. Unit 8 : Post Harvest Handling of Fruits and Plantation Crops Harvesting technique, maturity standards. handling of fruits and plantation crops. grading storage and transport. Cordex standards. Quality assurance system, value addition, primary processing, various products of fruits and plantation Crops. B. VEGETABLES & SPICES Unit 9 : Principles of Vegetable Production Introduction, economic nutritive value of vegetables and spices: production and productivity in India. 38
Classification of vegetables and spices. Effect of temperatures photoperiod light relative humidity on production. Organic Fanning nutrients essential for plant growth plant growth substances chemical and bio-fertilizer and their response irrigation and water requirements: crop rotation, crop succession, inter and mixed cropping, weed control, different insects nematodes and diseases and their management, role of plant growth substances. Unit 10 : Production of Vegetables and Spices Importance, origin, history area, distribution, productivity, taxonomy. Climatic and soil requirements, commercial varieties and hybrids nutritional requirements, irrigation, interculture, weed control, mulching plant protection and other cultural practices of warm and cool season crops i.e. solanaccous fruit vegetables, okra, cucurbits, kharif onion, early cauliflwer, sweet potato, cowpea, cluster bean. Indian hean, colocasia amorpholallus and amsaranthus and production of tuber crops such as potato, tapioca, diascorea, sweet potato, yams, cole crops, root crops, bulb crops, potato, pea, broad bean and leafy vegetables. Unit 11 : Biodiversity and Conservation of Vegetable Crops Biodiversity and its conservation in vegetables and spices - Genetic erosion and its consequenees - Centres of diversity, exploitation and collection germplasm maintenance. Charaetrization of landraees, wild species and other genotvpes of vegetables and spices. Unit 12 : Principles of Breeding of Vegetables and Spices Principles of vegetable breeding and importance. Genetic architecture, breeding systems, breeding methods. Host parasite relationship. Mechanism of resistance gene minining biotechnological approaches for improvement in vegetables. Unit 13 : Breeding of Self and Cross Pollination Crops Origin, distribution, cytogenetics, genetics, breeding objectives and breeding methods used for improvement of self pollinated and crop pollinated vegetable crops viz. tomato, brinjal. capsicum, garden peas, french bean, lablab bean, cowpea, clusterbean, broadbean okra. lettuce cole crops, cucurbitaceous crops, bulb crops, root crops leafy vegetable and spices (Black pepper, cardamom, nutmeg, cinnamon, clove, allspice tamarind, garcinia, vanilla. cumin, fennel, coriander and fenugreek. Unit 14 : Biotechnology in Vegetable Crops Improvement of vegetables. and spices through biotechnological tools. Application of molecular markers such as RFLP. RAPD, AFLP in vegetable improvement. Exploitation of genetic engineering for vegetable improvement and solving the problem of interspecific intergenetic barriers. Unit 15 : Principles and Techniques of Seed Production History, importance and present status of vegetable seed industries in India and world. Agronomical and genetical principles of seed production. Definition of seed and its quality. Pollination system in vegetable crops. Production and maintenance of nucleus foundation and certified seed. Economics of seed production, IPR and WTO. Seed certification & seed laws. Unit 16 : Protected Cultivation of Vegetables Objectives, importance and scope of protected cultivation of vegetable crops. Principles Regulatory structures/system used in green house and glass houses. Regulation of flowering and fruiting. Types of green houses, glass houses, hot beds, cold frames, poly houses. Different media for growing nursery under cover. Specific technology for raising tomato. sweet pepper, cucumber and other vegetables in green house. Insect, nematode and disease management in green house. Importance and type of mushroom cultivation. 39
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C. FLORICULTURE AND LAND SCAPE GARDENING Unit 17 : Principles of Floriculture and Landscaping. Importance and scope of floriculture. History and development of gardens. Factors affecting growth and development. Cultivation of ornamental trees, shrubs, climbers, ground covers, bedding and bulbous plants. Nursery management techniques. Cacti and succulents, ferns, palms and foliage plants. Introduction to commercial floriculture-traditional flowers, cut flowers and flowers production of important flower crops including cost of production. Use of plant growth regulators in floriculture, structures used in floriculture. Preparation of bonsai. Flower shows. Flower arrangements. Principles and elements of landscaping. garden features and adornments. Unit 18 : Turf Grass Management Introduction - history, value and prospects of turf grass industry. Turf grass environment. Light, temperature. water, air, and soil for turf grass. Types of grasses - specicies - combinations - planting techniques, cultural practices - mowing - rolling–fertilization. irrigation. -Pests and diseases - mixing lawns with other components. Unit 19 : Indoor Plants and Interior Scaping Importance and scope of house plants and interior scaping. Factors affecting growth and flowering of house plants. Containers and potting media used for house plants. Plant care including propagation, training, grooming, nutrition. Care and maintenance of indoor plants. Description and cultivation of various house plants. Principles of interior scaping. environmental consideration. Special gardens like dish, terrarium, hanging baskets. window boxes, miniature gardens, plant stand and vertical gardens. Unit 20 : Flower Arrangement and Value Addition Importance and scope of flower arrangement, principles. types of flower arrangements. Vases and materials used in flower arrangements for different occasions like marriages. social functions, making of bouquets, corsages, gajra, rangoli, veni, button holes and wreaths etc. Dry flower arrangements and packing. Economic considerations for flower arrangements. Unit 21 : Production Technology of Ornamentals Present status of floriculture, medicinal and aromatic plants in India and its potential in the global market. Breeding strategies for development of new cultivars of ornamental flowers and aromatic plants. Commercial production of field flowers, bulbous, foliage, pot plants, medicinal and aromatic plants. Specific problems concerning production of roses. chrysanthemum, carnation, jasmine, marigold and other minor cut flowers crops. Orchid and anthurium culture. Production of essential oil yielding flowers. Major insects, nematodes, diseases and their management. Processing and extraction of active ingredients in important medicinal plants. Unit 22 : Landscape Horticulture Principles of art and their application in landscape compositions and interior decoration. Man as the human habitat. Natural and man-made forms and features. Analysis of various types of sites and their landscape treatments. Organization of spaces. Visual aspects of plan arrangement-view. vista and axis. Principles of circulation. Garden structures. Analysis of problems and application of landscaping principles for various types of houses, educational institutions, religious places, industrial sites, country side, farm complexes, embassies, hotels and other buildings. Special problem of landscaping of terrace and roof gardens and multistory buildings. Factors affecting outdoor recreation. Selection of sites and their landscaping for various categories of tourist complexes, picnic spots and camping grounds. 40
Unit 23 : Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Importance of medicinal and aromatic plants in India and abroad. Classifications of medicinal and aromatic plants. Commercial production and processing of aromatic and medicinal plants. Improvement of medicinal and aromatic plants through breeding methods. Nursery management and seed production. Greenhouse cultivation, nutrients and water management, insect pests and diseases, extration of oil in aromatic plants, primary processing in medicinal plants. Organisational support for the promotion of medicinal and aromatic plants. D. POST HARVEST TECHNOLOGY OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS Unit 24 :Value Addition in Horticultural Crops Importance of post harvest handling and processing for enhancing shelf life, value addition and value chain management; Current status of primary and. Secondary processing of horticultural produce in India and abroad. Various method for enhancing shelf life of perisable horticultural produce. Importance of grading and packing for effective marketing and reduced losses. Factors affecting the processability of horticultural produce. Pre-harvest factors influencing the post harvest life and processing quality. Unit 25: Post Harvest Technology and Processing for Value Addition of Fruits Importance of post harvest handling in fruit and plantation crops: maturity indices for harvesting and ripening, pre-cooling, various types of storage and storage temperature. grading, packing and transportation. Reefer containers and cold chain. Different methods of storage including controlled atmosphere storage, storage disorders and use of chemicals, skin coatings, growth regulators and irradiation for control of spoilage during storage and transit. Storage structures for different crops. Role of micro-organisms, enzymes and water activity in preservation, principles and methods of preservation by heat, chemicals, drying, radiation, freezing and fermentation. Methods of preparation of different processed products, fruit juices, beverages and concentrates. Canning, fruit jams, jelly and marmalades; Food laws hazard analysis and critical control points. TQM. GMP investment analysis. Processing for Value addition, product diversification in fruits and plantation crops. Unit 26 : Post - Harvest Management of Vegetables Structure and composition of vegetables. Maturity indices, harvesting, grading methods. Physicochemical changes during ripening and storage. Physiological processes - respiration, transpiration and ethylene biosynthesis and their influence on storage quality and senescence. Pre-storage treatments for quality retention and .egulation of ripening using chemicals, Growth regulators, fungicides; Irradiation. Packages sand packing house operation; Storage systems. Pre-cooling, Low temperature Controlled Atmosphere (CA). Modified Atmosphere (MA) and Hypobolic storage. On-farm storage: Storage requirements of vegetables and mushroom; Post harvest management of mushrooms. Storage disorders; Spoilage and their control; Transportation, marketing and export requirement. Processing of vegetables, drying of vegetables, canning of vegetables, other vegetable products. Unit 27 : Processing of Horticultural Produce Product development, labeling of products, market assessment, quality management, food laws and its regulations, spoilage of product, factor affecting the spoilage. aseeptic packing of product, freeze drying and development of new products, storage conditions for processed products and enhancement of shelf life.
13. Agricultural Structures and Process Engineering
PAPER - I (B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1: Engineering Properties and Quality of Biomaterials Uniqueness of bio-materials Physical characteristics-shape, size, volume, density, porosity, surface areas, friction, rolling resistance, angle of repose. Properties of bulk particulate solids- specific surface area, mean diameter, flow rate. Aerodynamics- drag coefficient, terminal velocity. pressure drop through packet beds. Thermal properties specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity. Dielectric properties - dielectric and microwave radiation, dielectric constant, energy absorption, heating. Optical properties. transmittance. reflectance. Rheological properties - stress strain time relationship, theological models. visco-elasticity. Hurd’s theory of contact stresses. Food Quality: Composition. BIS specifications for quality of food materials, milling quality analysis, Cooking baking qualities. Determination of microbial loads, protein oil content, carbohydrates, colour, hardness, texture. Organolaptic and sensory evaluation of product quality. Nutritive value and bioavailability. Unit 2 : Post Harvest Unit Operations Grading, cleaning, washing, sorting, shelling, dehusking, decortications, milling, polishing pearling, drying EMC, water activity and psychrometry, size reduction, granulation, crystallization, filtration, evaporation, distillation, mixing, clarification, coagulation, mechanical separation, sedimentation, pressing, expelling’, leaching, extraction, palleting, extrusion. Industrial fermentation and processing. Unit 3: Process Technology and Machinery Premilling/conditioning treatments. Process technology and machinery for cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fruits. vegetables, spices. Condiments. plantation crops. animal products, sea foods. fiber crops, leather. sugar crops bio-fertilizer, animal feeds. Seed processing and technology Agricultural byproducts/residue utilization Waste disposal of food processing plants. methods and equipment. Maintenance Engineering Unit 4 : Design of Agricultural Structure and Processing Machinery Functional and structural design of structures- godown, silos, warehouses aeration systems, air blowers, livestock structure green houses and growth chambers. Design of grain cleaners, graders, dryers, parboiling plants, size reduction machines, bio-reactors, fermenters, centrifuges, eyelones heat-exchange, evaporators, filters, extrusion cookers. Heat pumps, thermicfluids, steam boilers and their accessories. Cold storage refrigeration, air conditioning, thermal load, insulation. Computer aided design application of Autocad. Unit 5: Material Handling, Packaging and Transport Bulk conveying equipment - belt conveyors, screw/auger conveyors, bucket elevators, drag/chain conveyors.
AGRICULTURAL STRUCTURES AND PROCESS ENGINEERING
Estimation of energy requirement. Damage to products, during, mechanical handling. Operational and maintenance. Horticultural and animal products grading. washing. pre cooling, mechanical handling. Packaging material characteristics and selection. Packaging techniques and equipment for liquid, power and granular material. Asceptic packaging. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Transpiration of food -bullock, trailers, trucks, rail wagons, containers. Cool/cold chain design and operation Refrigerated containers and trucks for perishable Grain mandi mechanization. Unit 6 : Storage Engineering Storage environment and its interaction with sotred product: factors/parameters influencing the shelf life of the stored product: climatograph and deterioration index. Modeling of metabolic activities and predication of storage life: quality deterioration mechanisms and their control; storage practices (including fumigation) and structures (traditional and modern) for food grains, design of bulk storage and aeration system, analysis of heat, moisture and gas transfer in bulk storage structures quality analysis of stored produce; bag storage structures, their design and management; storage of perishables - ventilated, refrigerated and controlled atmosphere storage systems and their design; BIS standards on practices, equipments and design of storage structures and systems for food grains and other commodities. Unit 7 : Basic Sciences and Allied Engineering Subjects Thermodynamics Introduction, thermodynamics properties, thermodynamic processes basic law of thermodynamics, energy equations, heat, work, heat engine. heat pump and refrigerator, steam table Heat and mass transfer Modes of heat transfer, heat exchanger. mass transfer and mass heat momentum transfer anologies, simultaneous heat and mass transfer. Engineering Mathematics Infinite series, partial deferential equation. Green’s theorem. vectors, matrices Fluid mechanics Fluid static’s, fluid dynamies continuity equation and Bernoullis theorem Agricultural Statistics measures of central tendencies, measures of dispersion multiple correlation and regression, test of significance. Unit 8 : Project Planning and Agri-business Management; Modeling, Simulation and Instrumentation; Data Structure and Computer Programming Project development. market survey and time; motion analysis. Selection of equipment. technology option, techno - economic feasibility, plant layout. Product and process design, PERT. CPM, transport model, simplex, linear and dynamic programming. Plant utilities, Plant operation and management operation Iog book. material balance and efficiency analysis, testing performance, performance indices, energy requirement and consumption. Plant sanitation hygiene effluent treatment Marketing of agricultural products, market positioning 43
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HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) and ISO certification for food processing plants. Simulation of processing operations. Simulation models, Mathematical modeling. Finite element analysis. Dimensional analysis- Model types theory law and scale. Transducers for force, torque. pressure, temperature, stress, strain, displacement, acceleration, speed, frequency, sound. vibration, flow Instruments for measurement of calorific values, gas composition using GLC dust concentration and pollution of air and water. Process controllers Computer hardware and operation systems. Data mining, acquisition. storage, structure and analysis, Introduction to programming, numerical techniques, spread-sheets, computer modeling and optimization. Database management, graphics, and Computer based instrumentation, automation. Process control software and hard wares. Internet, web page. e-marketing, e-commerce.
14. Agriculture Machinery and Energy
PAPER-1 (B) AND PAPER - II
Unit 1 Status of farm mechanization in India. Power availability on farms. Hand tools used for different kinds of farm work and materials for construction. Principle of working, constructional features and operation of animal and power operated equipment for tillage, land development, sowing, planting, fertilizer application, intercultivation, plant protection, harvesting, threshing. Unit 2 Selection of machine elements: Gears, pulleys, chains and sprockets, belts, bearings, couplings and springs. Pull, draft, unit draft and power measurements and calculation for animal and power operated implements. Dynamometers. Unit 3 Calibration of seed drills, planters, plant protection equipment. Method of testing and performance evaluation of tillage equipment, seed drills, planters, fertilizer applicators, sprayers, dusters, harvesting and threshing equipment. Farm machinery selection and management for different soils, crops and operations. Unit 4 Spark and compression ignition engines, trouble shootings, calculation of horse power, torque, speed and related parameters. Tractor: Types, clutches, transmission, differential and final drives. Power outlets: PTO, drawbar and hydraulic system. Power tiller: Operation and management. Dynamic properties of soil and their measurements. Introduction to traction devices, traction aids, tyres function, size and their selection. Slippage and sinkage of wheels. Soil compaction and control Ergonomics and safety in agriculture. Unit 5 Characteristics of the Sun, spectrum, Earth-Sun angles, solar energy measuring instruments. Solar energy collection: Flat plate collectors, concentration of collectors, solar tracking, concentrators, selective surfaces. Solar energy storage: Type of storage, sensible heat and latent heat storage, storage efficiency. Solar energy applications: Cooking, drying, cooling, refrigeration, distillation, photovoltaic conservation, SPV powered system. Unit 6 Wind energy: Generation, application, wind power equipment, storage of wind energy, wind measuring instruments. Wind machines: Types of wind mill, system of wind machines, different parts, transmission systems, wind blades, forces on the blade, control used in wind machines. Unit 7 Biomass production: Introduction, generation, method of conversion, preprocessing of biomass.
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
Biomass technology: Chemistry, physical condition, raw materials, affecting factors. Biogas plants: Types, designs, distribution and utilization, properties, uses. Briquetting, pallatization and densification of biomass. Unit 8 Geothermal energy: Generation potential, types of systems, storage, application, advantages and disadvantages. Energy sources in agriculture: Conventional and renewable energy requirements in agriculture production systems. Energy auditing: Different types of energy auditing, energy accounting and analysis.
(A) FARM MACHINERY AND POWER Unit 1: Farm Mechanization and Equipment Status of farm mechanization in India. Power availability on farm. Hand tools used for different kinds of farm work and materials for construction. Functional requirement, principle of working, constructional features and operation of animal and power operated equipment for tillage, land development, sowing, planting, fertilizer application, intercultivation, plant protection, harvesting, threshing, mowing, chaff cutting and baling. Special equipment for crops such as sugarcane, cotton, groundnut, potato and plantation crops like coconut, areca nut, cashu nut. Unit 2: Farm Machinery Design Selection of machinery elements: Gears, pulleys, chains and sprockets, belts, bearings, couplings and springs. Force analysis on agricultural tools and implements, pull, draft, unit draft and power calculation of animal and power operated implements. Design of soil working tools., sowing, planting, Fertilizer applicators, intercultivation equipment, harvesting and threshing machineries, forge harvesters, chaff cutters. Unit 3: Farm Machinery Testing, Evaluation and Management Calibration of seed drills, planters, plant protection equipment. Method of testing and performance evaluation of tillage equipment, seed drills and planters, fertilizer applicators, sprayers and dusters harvesting and threshing equipment, grain and straw combines, and special equipment such as sugarcane, cotton, rice and potato planter. Calculations of field capacity, efficiency and rates of seed, fertilizer and chemical applicators. Calculation of capacity, efficiency and losses in threshers, harvesters and chaff cutters. Farm machinery selection and management for different soils, crops and operations. Cost analysis of animal and tractor operated implements and tractors. Unit 4: Thermodynamics and Engines Various systems of spark and compression ignition engines. Operations, adjustment and trouble shooting for working of the system. Design of engine components. Calculations on horse power, torque, speed, firing arrangement and intervals, heat load and power transmission from piston to the flywheel. Unit 5: Tractor Design and Analysis Tractors: Clutches, gear trains, differential, final drives. Power outlets : P.T.O., drawbar. Trend in tractor design. Mechanical and power steering. Tractor chassis mechanics. Power tillers : Operation and management. Hitching systems and hydraulic controls for tractors. Automatic position control and draft control systems used in tractors. Various types of dynamometers. Tractor testing and test codes. 46
AGRICULTURE MACHINERY AND ENERGY
Unit 6: Ergonomics and safety Anthropometry in equipment design, physiological cost and effect of work on physiological responses and comfort. Ergonomics in design of farm tools. Safety aspects of agricultural machinery. Effect of noise and vibration on work performance. Chemical hazards and control measures. Operator’s protective gadgets. Design of tractor controls : Hand and foot controls, visual range and limitations, seat design. Unit 7 : Soil Dynamics in Tillage and Traction Dynamic properties of soil and their measurements. Rheological properties of soil, stress-strain relationship. Theories of soil failure, mechanics of tillage tools. Design parameters and performance of tillage tools. Introduction to traction devices, tyre function and size, their selection, mechanics of traction devices, traction theories slippage and sinkage of wheels, evaluation and prediction of traction performance. Soil compaction : Causes and methods of alleviation, effect on soil and crop response. (B) RENEWABLE ENERGY Unit 8: Solar Energy Solar Radiation and its measurement: Characteristics of the Sun, spectrum, Earth-Sun angles. Attenuation, solar radiation data and its measurement. Heat and mass transfer in solar energy selective surfaces and solar system materials. Solar energy collection : Flat plate collectors, concentrating collectors, solar tracking concentrators, CPC, central receiver collector. Solar energy storage: Type of storage, sensible heat and latent heat storage, material for storage and storage efficiencies. Solar energy applications: Cooking, drying, cooling and refrigeration, Solar architecture, photovoltaic conversion, SPV powered systems, solar distillation, absorption cooling, Solar refrigeration. Unit 9 : Wind Energy Generation, application, wind velocity, wind mapping. Wind power : Production, wind current, effect of height, obstacle and valley, selection of site, power curves. Wind power equipment. Storage of wind energy, Wind power plant. Wind measuring instruments and controls : Different systems of measuring and recording wind velocity, wind power, controls used in wind machines. Wind machines : Types of wind mills, systems of wind machines, different parts, power transmission systems. Wind blade: Forces on wind blade, speed range selection, selection of materials for different parts. Unit 10 : Biomass Energy Biomass Production: Introduction, generation, characterization, properties, analysis. Harvesting and coppicing. Methods of conversion. Preprocessing of biomass. Bioconversion of biomass: Conversion into alcohols, organic acids, solvents amino acids, antibiotics. Bio-photosynthesis. Biogas technology, chemistry, physical condition, raw material. Affecting factors. Biogas plants : Types of designs, distribution and utilization, properties, uses. Devices: Burners and stoves, biogas lamps, biogas scrubbing and compressing. Thermo, chemical conversion of biomass: Direct combustion, pyrolysis and gasification, Sterling engine, chemical conversion process, hydrolysis and hydro-generation. Carbonization, briquetting, pallatization and densification of biomass. Unit 11 : Management and Planning of Energy in Agriculture Energy sources in agriculture: Conventional and renewable energy equivalents, energy requirements in agriculture production system, energy requirement in different agro-based industries and in green house production system. Energy analysis: Energy ratio and specific energy value. Inflow and outflow of energy in unit agriculture operation. Village energy survey, consumption patterns, resource use pattern. Input/ output ratio, energy inflow in village ecosystem, planning for energy conservation. Questionnaire for field 47
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survey. Yardstick for energy resource analysis. Integrated energy system: Scope, planning and design of energy system, modeling, project preparation strategies. Unit 12: Energy Auditing and Conservation Energy Conservation: Status and significances, concept and thermodynamics of energy conservation, appropriate technology. Energy conservation techniques for thermal, mechanical, electrical energy. Controls for energy conservation. Energy audit: Type of energy auditing, energy accounting and analysis, energy auditing of different sectors, industrial tools, agricultural fields and electrical auditing, energy audit in agro-processing industries. Identification and ranking of energy conservation measures, implementation. Control and instruments/equipment in energy conservation. Cogeneration : Waste heat recovery, cogeneration with alternate energy system. Unit 13 : Other Alternative Sources of Energy Geothermal energy: Introduction, generation, potential, types of systems, storage, application, advantages and disadvantages. Ocean energy : Ocean Thermal Electricity Generation (OTEC): Introduction, generation, potential, system components, types, application and limitations. Ocean thermal energy system, tidal and wave energy system. Hydrogen energy: Generation potential, system components, storage, application and capabilities. MHD ( Magneto Hydro Dynamic) power : Introduction, basic principle, system components, potential, types and applications. Chemical energy source: Introduction, types, principles, types of fuel cell, application and limitations.
15. Land and Water Management Engineering and Technology
PAPER - I (B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1: Wells and Pumps Present status and scope of development of water resources. Increasing water use efficiency. Principles of surface and groundwater flow. Hydraulics of fully and partially penetrating wells. Aquifer types and parameters. Design, construction and development of irrigation wells. Water lifts, pumps and prime movers : Performance evaluation and selection of pumps. Design of centrifugal pumps. Groundwater recharge, conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. Unit 2: Open Channel Hydraulics Hydraulics of open channel flow, energy and momentum principles. Hydraulic jump and classification. Design of irrigation channels. Irrigation water measurement: velocity area method, water meters, weirs, notches, flumes, orifices etc. Water conveyance and control. Conveyance losses and lining of irrigation channels. Irrigation water delivery and distribution. Hydraulics and design of surface and pressurized irrigation systems. Irrigation efficiency and economics of different irrigation systems. Unit 3: Soil, Plant, Water and Atmosphere Relationship Water movement through soil plant atmosphere system. Estimation of evaporation and evapotranspiration, Crop coefficient and irrigation requirement. Critical stages of crop growth in relation to irrigation. Irrigation scheduling. Origin of salts in irrigation water. Quality of irrigation water and its pollution through different sources. Irrigation water. Quality of irrigation water and its pollution through different sources. Irrigation with poor quality water. Drainage: Theory of flow in saturated soil. Flow net theory and its application. Drainage investigations. Drainage characteristics of various type of soils. Water table contour maps and isobaths maps. Drainage coefficient. Design and installation of surface and subsurface drains. Interceptor and relief drains and their design. Drain pipe and accessories. Pumped drainage. Drainage requirements of crops. Drainage in relation to salinity and water table control. Unit 4: Hydrology Hydrologic cycle: precipitation, infiltration and runoff. Measurement and analysis of hydrologic data. Probability concepts. distributions and application. Rainfall fun off relationships, runoff measurement and estimation: hydrograph, unit hydrograph theory and application. Flood routing methods and calculations. Soil erosion. Soil loss measurement and estimation. Erosion control measures and their design. Gully control structures and their design. Design and construction of farm pond and reservoir. Seepage theory. Design of earthen dams and retaining walls, stability analysis of slopes. Mathematical models and simulation of hydrologic processes. Unit 5: Water Management Watershed concept, Identification and characterization of watersheds. Hydrological and geomorphological characteristics of watersheds. Land capability and irritability classification, Soil maps. Development of watershed management plans. Feasibility and economic evaluation of plans. Land leveling and grading. Land leveling machinery and equipment. Unit 6: Reclamation of ravine, waterlogged, swampy areas and polders. Salt-affected soils and their
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reclamation. Command area development organizational structures and activities. River valley projects, interstate disputes. Water rights and legal aspects. Irrigation water users association concept and responsibilities. Environmental considerations in land and water resources management. Unit 7: Basics of Soil and Water Soil and water as vital resources for agricultural production. Hydrological cycle. Soil plant water relationship. Fate of rain water received at the soil surface. Contingent crop plans and other strategies for aberrant weather conditions. Cropping patterns, alternate land use and crop diversification in rain fed areas. Unit 8: Soil Water Relationship Water retention by soil, soil moisture characteristics, field capacity, permanent wilting point, plant available water and extractable water. Soil irritability classifications, factors affecting profile water storage. Determination of soil water content, computation of soil water depletion, soil water potential and its components, hydraulic head. Field water budget water gains and water losses from soil, deep percolation beyond root zone, capillary rise. Evapotranspiration (ET), scope for economizing water, measures for reducing direct evaporation from soil and crop canopies. Unit 9: Plant Water Relationship Plant water relations : concept of plant water potential, cell water relations, plant water potential and its components, significance of osmotic adjustment, leaf diffusive resistance, canopy temperature, canopy temperature depression (CTD). Uptake and transport of water by roots. Development of crop water deficit, crop adaptation to water deficit, morpho physiological effect of water deficit. Drought tolerance, mechanisms of drought tolerance, potential drought tolerance traits and their measurements, management and breeding strategies to improve crop productivity under different patterns of drought situations of limited water supplies. Unit 10: Irrigation Water Management Management of irrigation water. History of irrigation in India. Major irrigation projects in India. Crop water requirements. Soil water depletion plant indices and climatic parameters. Crop modeling, water production factions. Methods of irrigation surface methods, overhead methods, drip irrigation and air conditioning irrigation, merits and demerits of various methods. Application and distribution efficiencies. Agronomic considerations in the design and operation of irrigation projects, characteristics of irrigation and family systems affecting irrigation management. Irrigation legislation. Irrigation strategies under different situation of water availability, optimum crop plans and cropping patterns in canal command areas. Socioeconomic aspects of on farm water management. Unit 11 : Management of Problematic Soils and Water Problem soils and their distribution in India, acidic. Ground water resources, water quality criteria and use of brackish waters in agriculture. Excess salt and salt tolerant crops. Hydrological imbalances and their corrective measures. Concept of critical water table depths for crop growth. Contribution of shallow water table to crop water requirements. Management strategies for flood prone areas crop and crop calendar for flood affected areas. Crop production and alternate use of problematic soils and fish production.
16. Home Science and Family Resources Management
PAPER–I (B) AND PAPER–II CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Part-I: Life span development and behaviour dynamics: Unit-I : Human development across the life span Unit-II : Theories of Human development and behaviour Unit-III : Children with developmental challenges Unit-IV : Methods and Techniques of assessment in Human Development Part-II: Socio cultural perspectives in Human Development Unit-I : Trends and issues in early childhood care and education Unit-II : Family dynamics Unit-III : Guidance and counseling Unit-IV : Population education and family welfare
Unit-I: Human development across the life span Major factors influencing human growth and development across life span. Principles of Human growth, and development. Conception and child birth. Development during infancy, childhood and adolescence - definition, characteristics, physical and motor development, emotional, intellectual, social,’ moral, language and personality development. Disciplinary techniques and socialization. Role of family school and peer interaction in the development of the child. Adolescence: Primary and secondary sexual characteristics. Hetrosexual relationships, Emotionality. Self-Development of identity. Adulthoodcharacteristics, socio-emotional intellectual and personality development. Adjustment during adulthood. Old age-characteristics, physical, social and emotional problems. Current issues in human development - gender differences, child abuse, family violence, fatherhood and impact of mass media on development. Unit-II: Theories of Human Development and behaviour Meaning and significance of theories of Child/ Human development with special reference to cognitive development theories – Piaget and Vygotoksy. Kothberg’s theory of Moral development. Psychoanalytic theory - Freud, Adler and Jung. Erickson’s theory of psychosocial development. Language development theory of Chomosky. Learning theories Stimulus - Response theories - Pavlov. Thorndike and Skinner; social larning theory-Bandura; personality theories - Allport and Murray: Need theory of Abraham Maslow, Ecological theory Uric, Bronfenbrenner. comparative analysis of theories and their educational and research implications. Unit-III: Children with developmental challenges: Definition and classification of exceptionality. Needs of exceptional children. Types of impairments
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- physical, visual, auditory, mental retardation, cerebral palsy and learning disabilities. The gifted, emotional and behavioural deviations. Identification of social maladjustment. Special education for children with developmental challenge - integrated v/s segregated approach, learning environment and infrastructural setting with specific reference to each category of disability. Recent development of special education in India and abroad. Unit-IV: Methods and Techniques of assessment in Human Development Assessment definition, functions, concept of measurement. Comparison of measurement techniques and their relative efficacy in measuring different aspects of human development i.e. Physical, cognitive, language, personality and socio emotional. Trends and challenges in assessment of human behaviour, ethical issues in the assessment of human development. The scientific methods and its criteria - reliability, validity, control, item analysis, assessment methods, use of objective measures and methods. Development of test / scale and standardization procedure types of scales - nominal ordinal, interval and ratio scale.
Unit-I: Trends and issues in early childhood care and education Perspective on early childhood care and development- history of ECE in India nd abroad, critical analysis and procedures for early childhood education - Montessori, open school, day care, K.G., Anganwadi, pre-basic, mobile creches etc., Behavioural analysis procedure, The Piagetian procedure, Progressive procedure, Open education, play way method comparative analysis of curriculum modlels. National and international policies and schemes for the pre-school children and their education. Administrative and management issues - organizational and administrative consideration (budget, admission tests and intake policy, class size and Teacher-child ratio, teacher’s qualities and role in child’s development - gender issues, physical aspects - building, space, equipment, , supervision. Involving parents in programmes of education and care of young children. Parent and community education - meaning need, methods and procedure. Factors affecting the use of different methods. of parent and community education. Areas of knowledge for parent education. Assessment and Monitoring of ECCE programmes. Recruiting personnel of ECCD - Training curriculum for various functionaries (orientation, refresher). Unit-II: Family dynamics Family in social context. Approaches to study family-developmental social, psychological and educational. Modern trends in Indian urban and rural amenities and changing family functions. Changing role and relationships. Influence of socio-economics status, culture, religion and role of family in maintaining mental health. Types of family crisis and coping strategies - financial, behavioural, interpersonal relationships and health. The disadvantaged family - its needs, problems and support mechanism. Unit-III: Guidance and counselling Guidance and counseling: Concepts, need and principles of guidance and conselling. Objectives of individual and group guidance. Identification, problems, strategies and approaches. Application of psychological tests. Criteria for testing and measurements. Methods and techniques in counseling children and parents. Skill and characteristics of effective counselor. Research trends in guidance and counseling in Indian and abroad and possible areas of research in future. Unit-IV: Population education and family welfare Demography and population dynamics in developed and developing countries. Indian population 52
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policy. Population education - Role of national, international and non governmental agencies. Population statistics with special reference to children and women infant mortality and morbidity. Population growth. Birth control measures. Reproductive and child health programmes. Reproductive rights of women. Family welfare services - community based assistance to family, daycare services, services for families in poverty and with problem children. Rehabilitation of juvenile delinquents. Rehabilitation and services for the aged. Development programmes at central and state level for women and children. Family laws and family courts. Agencies and organizations involved in the welfare of children, women and family. Rights of women and children. National policy for children. National commission for women.
FAMILY RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Unit-I: Resource Management and Consumer Science Interdisciplinary nature of management and systems approach to Family Resource Management. Concepts of management: Goal types and goal setting. Value types. sources of learning values and their importance to family; Standards -types and relationship with values and goals. Resources - types, characteristics, and factors affecting use. Needs and wants. Communication - importance. and components. Process of management - planning. controlling, evaluating, organizing and their application to resource use and resource development. Decision making process. types. factors affecting decisions, decision conflicts and coping strategies in resolving conflicts in the family. Family life cycle-time, energy and money demands. Application of management process to time and energy for work simplification. Fatigue - meaning, types, causes, effects and remedies. Techniques of time and motion studies and application of Mundel’s classes of change in household work agricultural and allied tasks. Household energy forms: sources, fuels and their classification. Energy crisis, its causes and implications for energy management in homes. National efforts for energy and environmental conservation. Equipment, tools and accessories for rural and urban houses, their selection, maintenance and care. Ergonomic designing improvements in making equipments worker friendly. Money: its types and function. Application of management process to money for realization of goals and raising socio-economic stats of family. Family income: types. sources and contributions, methods of handling family income Financial) planning. controlling and evaluation. Guidelines for budgeting. Engel’s law of expenditure, account keeping, investment and savings. Banking, e-banking and insurance. Credit - rural and urban credit sources. Advantages, disadvantages. selection and repayments. Credit/debit cards. Consumer problems, Consumer Protection Act. and other laws. Grading, standardization and packaging.. Fraudulent practices. Public distribution system. Consumer rights and responsibilities and consumer protection services/measures,’ Consumer organizations and their roles. Basic Economic laws - Demand, supply, consumer surplus, price mechanics in various competitions. price index, inflation, deflation, income distribution. Cost of living, standard of living, factors affecting standard of living. National Income: Methods of calculation. Taxes - types, principles and procedure of income tax calculation, preparation of income tax statement. Consumer and public utilities. Consumer cooperatives, role of media in consumer information. Market-Types of markets. their functions and pricing. E-marketing and rural super market”.marketing information systems. Sales management and product promotion. Consumer behaviour with income effect. price effect. scale of preference. consumer state of equilibrium with indifference curve. Consumer goods 53
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- types. buying motive; channels of distribution - meaning. types. advantages and disadvantages. Consumer retail services. Advertising - role, types and legislation, Price determination. International trade. world trade organization and trade related intellectual property rights (TRIPS). Right to Information Act. Concepts and Principles Human Resource management: Human resource - policy, recruitment/ selection, placement and promotion, motivation. learning concepts and principles, Importance and Scope of entrepreneurship. Basic concepts: enterprise, entrepreneurship, business enterprise and economic system, entrepreneurship development and employment promotion. characteristics of an entrepreneur. Sources of information or, project proposals and kinds or information needed. Role of government and private organization in financing. Agencies for entrepreneurship development - Role and functions of small - scale industries. KVIC, DRDA, DIC, voluntary organizations, state and central level agencies. Behavioural and managerial factors affecting entrepreneurship. Financial input and management -formulating project proposal, feasibility report, and means of finance, working capitals, calculating risk, and information on assistance schemes. Environment and Human Ecology: Man, environment and resources, micro and macro environment, family as an ecosystem, impact of environment on family life, environment and health hazards due to pollution. Different types of pollution - air, water and noise. Role of homemaker in improving home environment. Unit-II: Housing and interior space designing Identifying family housing needs and future projections. Selection of site - orientation and zoning. Factors to be considered in house planning - space requirements for various activities and room layout. Drawing house plans for different income groups and activities. Lighting, electrical and sanitary fittings and fixtures. Functional design for work areas and storage space. Space saving housing plans. Different types of houses, economic house construction. Building materials - characteristics, selection and suitability for low cost rural and urban housing. Eco friendly building materials and building designs. Advantages of owing and renting a house. House ownership. Building bye - laws. Estimating cost of building a house. Housing finance - sources and cost. Government / semi-government housing schemes / programmes. Housing problems and research needed. Role of NBO, CBRI. Acoustics and its importance in homes. Rain water harvesting. Effect of environment on planning landscaping. Importance of Interior space designing Elements and principles of art and their application in interior decoration. Design and its types. Colour - its importance in interior decoration, psychological effect of different colours, colour theories, colour schemes and their application in interior decoration. Effect of hue, value and intensity. Accessories importance, role in interior decoration, types, and placement. Furniture - types, selection, arrangement, care and maintenance. Household furnishing- types, selection, care and maintenance. Wall treatments, window types and window treatments. Floor and floor coverings. Lighting - functions, natural and artificial light - sources, types, lighting fixtures, lighting for specific areas and activities. Creating optical illusion through colour and light. Flower arrangement - selection and care of flowers, types of arrangements, application of art principles, tools and accessories used. Ergonomics - its significance and scope: Work, worker and work place relationship. Human costs of work in relation to affective, cognitive, temporal and physical components. Anthropometry and its application in designing house and its interiors and consumer products. Functional design and arrangement of work places for different occupational activities: kitchen, laundry, storage areas, office space etc. Ergonomic designing of furniture and 54
HOME SCIENCE AND FAMILY RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
equipment. Determining physiological cost of work. Posture - its importance in work, effect on health and output of work. Planning interiors for people with special needs.
Unit- Textiles and Apparel designing
Textile Science & Quality Analysis Textile fibers- processing /manufacturing, properties of cotton, silk, wool, rayon and synthetics. Blending- principles, types and technology. Textile yarns- classification, characteristics and uses. Advantages and disadvantages of shuttle less looms. projectile ,rapier, air jet and water jet looms. Woven textiles- basic and special weaves-leno, double cloth, dobby, jacquard, warp and weft figuring, terry, pile, huck-a-back. Study of damasks, brocades, carpets, shawls, weave calculations and economics of production. Comparison of woven and knitted structures. Production of specially knits and integral garments. Textile design centers and their functions. Classification of dyes and pigments. Natural dyes-importance, sources, method of dyeing. Synthetic dyes-composition, properties and application on different textiles. Basic methods and styles of printing. Printing auxiliaries. Technological advances in dyeing and printing. Assessment of colorfastness of dyed textiles. Different types of finishes and their relevance to consumers. Importance of textiles and apparel testing, standardization and quality control. Fiber testing- length, fineness, evenness and strength. Yarn testing- twist, count, cloth cover, crimp, evenness, strength and elongation. Fabric testing - fabric count, balance, weight, thickness, strength, (breaking, tearing, bursting) elongation, abrasion resistance, billing, crease, recovery, stiffness, drapability, handle, air and water permeability, thermal conductivity, flammability, qualitative and quantitative estimation of blends and mixtures in textiles. Apparel testingquality specifications and standards in cutting, sewing, supplies, finishing and packing. Apparel Designing, Manufacturing and Industrial Management Analysis of traditional and contemporary textile designs of India and other countries. Application of art principles in apparel and textile designing. Types of motifs and design repeats. Study of historic costumes in relation to fabrics, motifs and colours and other related accessories of different states of India. Fashion-History and evolution from 1900 to date influence of fashion on apparel trends. Analysis and interpretation of fashion forecasts and fashion cycle. Factors influencing apparel designing and clothing selection. Clothing needs of different age groups and for different figures types. Pattern making techniques and grading. Fitting problems. Sewing techniques and their applications in manufacturing of apparel/ garments. Machinery and equipment for apparel manufacturing. Finishing and packaging of apparels. Apparel brands and costing. Trends in production, marketing, distribution and consumption, sales promotion techniques for textiles and apparel. Textile industry in India-status of the industry over a decade with reference to cotton, silk, wool, jute, rayon and synthetics. Garments and hosiery industries. Export and import policies of textiles and apparels. Export infrastructural facilities and incentives. Techniques of retailing and merchandising of textiles and apparel industry. Need for consumer education in textiles and clothing. Status of textile and apparel industries in the global scenarioGATT/WTO, ISO 9000-2000 series and ISO 14000 series SWOT analysis, problems of industries and remedial measures.
17. Environmental Science
PAPER – I (B) AND PAPER - II
Unit 1 Definition and scope of environment science and its interrelationship with other sciences and agriculture. Origin and evolution of the earth and its environs-atmosphere: hydrosphere. Lithosphere and biosphere. Biogeochemical cycles. Components of environment - biotic, abiotic and social. Weather and climate. History and evolution of human settlement. Unit 2 Basic ecological concepts-habitat ecology, systems ecology, synecology, autecology. Ecosystem concept. Structure and functions of biotic and abiotic components. Energy in ecosystems and environment. Energy exchange and productivity-food chains and food webs-ecological pyramids, nutrient cycles and recycle pathways. Population - characteristics and measurement. Communities-habitats, niches; population dynamicsspecies and individual in the ecosystem. Recent trends in ecology. Types characteristic features, structure and function of forest, grassland, plantation, desert. Aquatic and agro ecosystem. Ecological succession - types and causes. Unit 3 Biodiversity concepts, levels and types, changes in tune and space, centres of origin, species concept. Significance of biodiversity. Plant genetic resources, exploration and collection: plant introductions; migration and utilization: IUCN classes and concept of threatened and endangered species. Principles of conservation of biological diversity insitu and ex-situ. Causes of loss of biodiversity: introduction of exotics and invasive plants. Methods of conservation, role of national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, biosphere reserves. National and global conservation measures, institutions and conventions. Indian Biodiversity Act- 2002. Biodiversity and economics with special reference to India. Biodiversity in relation to global environmental changes. Biodiversity hot spots in India and world. Forest policies and legislation in India. Role of forests in national economy. Forest types of India and their salient features. Introduction to succession. Climax and retrogression. Concept and definition of agro forestry, social forestry, community forestry and farm forestry. Benefits and constraints of agro forestry. Historical development of agro forestry and overview of global agro forestry systems. Unit 4 Composition of air. Air pollution: sources and classification of major air pollutants. Smoke, smog, photochemical smog and SPM. Methods of air pollution monitoring. Effects of air pollutants on crops. vegetation, animals and human health; acid rain; mitigation measures for combating air pollution. National and international laws and policies on air pollution. Permissible limits of air pollutants in the residential, commercial and industrial areas. Noise pollution-concept and effects. Unit 5 Soil and water pollution: sources and types of soil and water pollutants. Effects of pollutants on soil health and productivity. Radioactive pollutants, their lifetime and disposal. Point and non-point sources of water pollution, major types of water pollutants, their impacts on environment and agro-ecosystems. Pollution in Freshwater bodiesponds, lakes, rivers and wells. National and International laws and maximum permissible limits of soil and water pollutants.
Physical, chemical and biological properties of wastes. Effluent treatment processes for major industries viz: distilleries. paper and pulp, sugar, sewage and other agro-industrial wastes. Resource, product recovery, recycling and value addition to wastes. Biodegradation and bioconversion of organic wastescomposting, landfills. Vermicomposting, biogas. animal feed. mushroom cultivation etc. Use of sludge. flyash. effluents and other agro industrial wastes in agriculture. Microbial. chemical and phytoremediation processes. Microbiological and public health aspects of waste disposal. Unit 6 Climate change: Global warming and greenhouse effect, sources and sinks of green house gases, major GHGs, analytical techniques of monitoring greenhouse gases in atmosphere. Global climate changeits history and future predictions. Impact of climate change on agriculture, forestry, water resources. sea level rise, livestock. fisheries, coastal ecosystem and dynamics and pests and diseases and overall ecological processes. Climate change and food security. Contribution of agriculture and forestry to climate change. International conventions on climate change. Stratospheric Ozone layer depletion-effect of UVB radiation on plants and human health. Unit 7 Energy consumption pattern in urban and rural India. Types of renewable sources of energy. Solar energy; concepts of heat and mass transfer. design of solar thermal system and their applications in heating. cooling. distillation. drying. dehydration etc., design of solar photovoltaic systems, power generation for rural electrification-water pumping, solar ponds. Wind energy for mechanical and electrical power generation, types of wind mills. Geothermal and tidal energy. Biogas from animal and agricultural wastes; types of biogas plants, utilization of biogas for heating, cooking lighting and power generation. Characteristics of biogas slurry and its utilization. Energy from biogas. Liquid fuels from petrocrops, energy plantation crops. Concepts of producer gas; characterization of materials for producer gas, types of gasifiers. Animals draft power and its utilization in rural sector. Briquetting of agro-wastes for fuel. Potential of renewable energy sources in India, Integrated rural energy programme. Unit 8 Natural resources of India: land, soil, water and forest: their conservation and management including wildlife. Effects of deforestation on soil erosion. Land degradation. Enviromnent and rural economy. Wasteland : their extent, characteristics and reclamation. Soil and water conservation, rain water harvesting and watershed management. Desertification and biological invasion. Rain water harvesting. Mineral resources: use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources. Disaster management: floods, droughts. earthquakes. Tsunami, cyclones and landslides. Nuclear hazards. Environmental impact assessment for physical. chemical. biological and socio-economic factors. Legislative implications of EIA, environmental impacts tatement and enviroiunental auditing. Major global envirorunental issues. Human population and environment: Population growth. variation among nations. Population explosion - Family Welfare Programme. World food resources. World food problems. Environment and human health. Environmental ethics: issues and possible solutions. Environmental policies and laws in India. Public environmental awareness. Human rights. Role of information technology in environmental and human health. Industrial pollutants. Sea weeds and their utilization in agar, alginic acid, carrageenan. agarose and agaropectin production. Unit 9 Frequency distribution. Mean. median. mode and standard deviation. Nomral, binomial and Poisson 57
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distribution. Correlations - partial and multiple. Regression coefficients and multiple regression. Tests of significance I and Chi-square tests. Experimental designs basic principles, completely randomized. randomized block, latiil square and split plot designs.
PAPER - I (B) & PAPER - II
Unit 1 National Forest Policy 1894, 1952 and 1988. Indian Forest Act, 1927. Forest Conservation Act, 1980 and Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. Forests-extent, basis for classification and distribution in India. Geographical distribution and salient features of major world forest types. Role of forests in national economy - productive, protective and ameliorative, tribal and rural livelihoods. Forest types of India: distribution and types. Succession, climax and retrogression. Concepts of biomass, productivity, energy flow and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystem. Effect of global warming, pollution and acid rain on growth and regeneration of forest trees. Unit 2 Concept and definition of agroforestry, social forestry, community forestry and farm forestry. Benefits and constraints of agroforestry. Historical development of agroforestry and overview of global agroforestry systems. Classification of agroforestry systems: structural, functional, socio-economic and ecological. Diagnosis and design of agroforestry system. Land capability classification and land use. Criteria of an ideal agroforestry designproductivity, sustainability and adoptability. Multipurpose tree species and their characteristics suitable for agroforestry. Unit 3 Plant management practices in agroforestry. Tree-crop interactions: ecological and economic. Concept of complementarity, supplementarity and competition. Productivity, nutrient cycling and light, water and nutrient competition in agroforestry. Concept of allelopathy and its impact on agroforestry. Energy plantations - choice of species and management. Lopping of top-feed species such as frequency and intensity of lopping. Organic farming. Financial analysis and economic evaluation of agroforestry systems: cost benefit analysis and land equivalent ratio. Agroforestry practices and systems in different agro - ecological zones of India. Unit 4 Extent and causes of land denudation. Effects of deforestation on soil erosion, land degradation, environment and rural economy. Wastelands: their extent, characteristics and reclamation. Watershed management and its role in social, economic and ecological development. Biomass production for fuel wood, small timber, raw material for plant based cottage industries, non-wood forest products such as gums, resins & tannins, medicinal plants, essential oils, edible fruits, spices, bamboo and canes. Wood quality and wood preservation. Plywood and pulp industries. Unit 5 Forest mensuration - definition, object and scope. Methods of measuring diameter, girth, height, stem form, bark thickness, crown width and crown length and volume of trees. Volume estimation of stands, current and mean annual increment. Classification of volume tables. Forest inventory: kinds of enumeration, sampling methods, sample plots, surveys, inventory preparation and photo interpretation. Point sampling. GIS and remote sensing - concept and scope. Unit 6 Definition, object and scope of silviculture. Site factors - climatic, edaphic, physiographic, biotic
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and their influence on forest vegetation. Forest regeneration: natural and artificial. Silvicultural systems - high forest (clear felling, shelterwood and selection system) and coppice systems. Silviculture of important tree species - Populus, Eucalyptus, Dalbergia, Acacia, Tectona, Shorea, Prosopis, Casuarina, Pinus, Gmelina, Azadirachta, Diospyros, Pterocarpus, Anogeissus, Santalum, Quercus, Albizia and Bamboos. Unit 7 Seed collection, processing, storage, viability and pre-treatment. Seed dormancy and methods for breaking dormancy. Seed testing and germination tests. Seed certification. Forest nursery - need, selection and preparation of site, layout and design of nursery beds. Types of containers. Root trainers. Growing media and sowing methods. Management of nursery-shading, watering, manuring, fertilizer application, weed control, insect pest and diseases control. Planting techniques:site selection, evaluation and protection. Soil working techniques for various edaphic and climatic conditions. Planting patterns. Plant spacing, manure and fertilizer application, irrigation/moisture conservation techniques. Choice of species. Afforestation of difficult sites: saline-alkaline soils, coastal sands, lateritic soils, wetlands, ravine and sand dunes, dry and rocky areas, cold desert. Tending operations - weeding, cleaning, climber cutting, thinning - mechanical, ordinary, crown and selection thinning, improvement felling, pruning and girdling. Forest fires: causes, types, impacts and control measures. Major forest pests and weeds. Unit 8 Forest management: definition and scope. Concept of sustained yield and normal forest. Rotation. Estimation of growing stock, density and site quality. Management of evenaged and unevenaged forest. Regulation of yield in regular and irregular forests by area, volume, increment and number of trees. Working Plan. Joint Forest Management. Conservation and management of natural resources including wildlife. Forest valuation - Internal rate of return, present net worth and cost benefit analysis. Unit 9 Tree improvement: nature and extent of variations in natural population. Natural selection. Concept of seed source/ provenance. Selection of superior trees. Seed production areas, exotic trees, land races. Collection, evaluation and maintenance of germplasm. Provenance testing. Genetic gains. Tree breeding: General principles, mode of pollination and floral structure. Basics of forest genetics - inheritance, Hardyweinburg Law, genetic drift. Aims and methods of tree breeding. Seed orchard : Types, establishment, planning and management, progeny test and designs. Clonal forestry - merits and demerits. Techniques of vegetative propagation, tissue culture, mist chamber. Role of growth substances in vegetative propagation. Unit 10 Frequency distribution. Mean, median, mode and standard deviation.Normal, binomial and Poisson distribution. Correlations - partial and multiple. Regression coefficients and multiple regression. Tests of significance-F and Chi-square tests. Experimental designsbasic principles, completely randomized, randomized block, latin square and split plot designs.
19. Food Science & Technology
PAPER-I (B) AND PAPER-II
Unit 1 Introduction of Food Technology: Definition, scope and opportunities, Food industries development in the country, Food security, Nutrition security, community nutrition. Unit 2 Causes of food spoilage, sources of microbial contamination of foods, food borne illnesses, water activity and it relation to spoilage of food. Spoilage of processed products and their detection. Safety related quality management systems. Unit 3 Food attributes - color, texture, flavour, nutritive value and consumer preferences. Composition and related quality factors for processing. Factors affecting food quality, quality measurement, quality management sytems. Unit 4 Method of food preservation - heat processing, pasteurization, canning, dehydration, freezing, fermentation, irradiation and chemical additives. Refrigerated and modified atmosphere storage, aspetic preservation, hurdle technology, hydrostatic pressure technology, microwave processing etc. Unit 5 Use of non-thermal technologies (micro filtration (UF & MP) bactofugation, ultra high voltage electric fields, irradiation, thermosonication), alternate-thermal technologies (ohmic heating, dielectric heating, infrared and induction heating) & biological technologies (antibacterial enzymes, proteins & peptides) in food processing. Unit 6 Unit opreating of food processing machineries for various unit operations, Mass and energy balance in food processing. Packaging materials - properties and testing procedure, packaging of fresh and processed foods. Shelf life studies. Recent trends in packaging - aseptic, modified atmosphere. Vacuum and gas packaging etc. Nutritional labeling requirements of foods. Requirements and functions of containers. Principles of package design. Unit 7 Flavour composition of food/beverages (identification and quantitative analysis of the flavour precursors and their products. Characterization of the staling reaction using stable isotopes). Flavour composition of foods/beverages in relation with maturation and microbial activity/or the processing conditions (e g. fermented dairy products, beer, wine, honey, fruits) etc. Analysis of odour - active compounds of foods/beverages (Charm analysis). Synthesis of flavour by micro organism and plant cells. Lipid derived flavours. Investigation of The equilibrium of key flavour compounds that govern the flavour stability of beverages. Natural antioxidants constraints in spices. Unit 8 Socio-cultural, physiological and economical consideration for food appearance, domestic and export marketing. Consumer ti-ends and their impact on new product development. Product development - To
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conceive ideas, evaluation of ideas, developing idea in to products, test marketing and commercialization. Role of food in human nutrition- Nutritional disorders ‘associated with foods. Diet therapy Therapeutic Engineered Fabricated foods, organic foods, specialty foods.
PAPER - II FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Unit 9: Post Harvest Technology of Fruits and Vegetables Post harvest handling, and storage of fresh fruits and vegetables. Maturity standards, pretreatments and pre-packaging, refrigerated storage and transportation, pack house operation. Preparation of fruits and vegetables for processing. Minimally processed products. Unit 10: Processing Fruits and Vegetables Thermal processing - process time evaluation for canned products, process optimization, aseptic canning, methods for canning of different fruits and vegetables. Dehydration and associated quality changes during drying and storage of hydrated products. Solar drying. Intermediate moisture foods. Preparation and utilization of fruits and vegetables, juice in non-fermented aerated beverages. Membrane tachnology. Chemistry and manufacture of peptic role in gel formation and products like jellies and marmalades. Technology of preserve; pickles, chutneys and sauces. Nature and control of spoilage in these products. By-product utilization of fruits and vegetables processing industry. FPO and related formalities to, obtain it. Frozen fruits and vegetables–methods, IQF products, packaging, storage and thawing. Tomato products-juice, puree, paste, soup, sauce and ketchup. Other convenience foods from fruits and vegetables. Unit 11– Food Grain Processing Structure of different grains like wheat, rice, barley, oat, maize, millets etc. Milling of grains. Wheat flour/semolina and its use in traditional/nontraditional foods like breads, biscuits, cakes, doughnuts, buns, pasta goods, extruded, breakfast and snack foods. Preparation of vital wheat gluten and its utilizationInstant ready mixes. Milling and parboiling of rice: by-products of rice milling and their utilization. Processed products from rice, Pearling, malting, brewing and preparation of malted milk foods from barley. Milling of oats and its processing into flakes, porridge, oatmeal etc. Wet and dry milling of corn, manufacture of corn flakes, corn syrup, corn starch, corn steep liquor and germ oil, confectionary products Unit 12 - Legume and Oilseed Processing Structure and composition of pulses and their importance in Indian diet. Milling ad processing of pulse-germination, cooking, roasting, drying, canning and fermentation. Use in traditional products, protein concentrates and Isolates; Oilseeds; edible oil sews, composition and importance in India. Oilseed processing; Oil extraction and its processing. Production, packaging and storage of vanaspati, peanut butter, protein concentrates, isolates and thier use in high foods. Export of oilseed cakes. International market and consumer preferences for quality in cakes for use in textured vegetable proteins. Unit 13 - Food Quality Management Objectives, importance and functions of quality control. Quality systems and tools used for quality 62
FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
assurance including control charts, acceptance and auditing inspections, critical control points, reliability, recall and liability, The principles and practices of food , plant sanitation. Food and hygiene regulations. Environment and waste management. Total quality management, good managment practices. HACCP & Codex in food. International and National food laws. US-FDA/ISO-9000 etc. Food adulteration, food safety. Sensory evaluation, pawl screening, selection methods. Sensory and instrumental analysis quality control. Quality control of food at all stages & for packaging materials. Quality certification, record keeping materials, manuals and other documents.
FOOD AND NUTRITION
Unit 1: Ccommmunity Nutrition Food production and consumption trends in vatious states and in India in reletion to population. Cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits, meat, eggs, fish, poultry and milk- their nutritive value and contribution in India diets. Food security at household and national level. concept of geern, white, yellow and blue revolution. Impact of green revolution on food production and conumption. Biotechnological applications for augmentation in food production. Concept of organic foods. Assessment of community nutritional status anthropometry, diet survey, biochemical and clinical methods. Indicators/parameters. India and International Standards used to quantify malnutrition. Nutrition survellance. Nutrrition during emerrgencies like farmings, floods etc. Assessment of body composition and its importance. Major nutritional problems in India- causes, magnitude and distribution. National food and nutrition policies and programmes to combat malnutrition- the strategies, targets, progress and impact. Functional significance of malnutrition. Planning and conducting a research and impact. Functional significance of malnutrition. Planning and conducting a research project. Collection, analysis and interpretation of data report writing. Unit 4: Food Safety and Quality Control Natural, microbial and chemical toxicants, pesticide residues, common adulterants, mycotoxins and anti-nutritional factors in foods, their harmful effects on health and methods of eliminating them. Food spoilage and its prevention. Food hygiene. Sampling and specification of raw materials. Application of food standards and their specifications for foods, food products, additives, preservatives, colouring agents, emulsifying and stabilizing agents and anti oxidants. Various methods/ techniqes for the assessment of quality of different foods. Selection of sensory panel and sensory evalution of food products. Grading and marketing of standards and specification of finished products. Importance of quality control & assurance, food laws and regulation. Units 2: Macro and Micro Nutrients in Human Nutrition Body composition. Distinction between requriements and recommendations. Factors affecting requriements and formulation of recommended allowance of energy, proteins, vitamins and minerals for different age and activity group. Functions, source and utilization of carboydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, fiber and water in human body. Regulation of food intake. Nitrogen balance. Protein qulity. Amino acid requriements and amino acid imbalance. Nutrient adaptation to low intake of energy and protein. Relationship between energy and protein requlerments. Inter-relationship between vitamins, minerals and hormons. Unit 3: Nutrition during Life Cycle Nutritional reqiurements during infancy, preschool age, adolescent and adulthod. Physiological changes in body composition during pregnancy. Iactation and geriatrics. Planning of meals for differents age group considering sex. occupation and economic status. Infant and child feeding practices in India and importance of promoting healthy feeding practices, growth monitoring and immunization. 63
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
Unit 4: Therapeutic Nutrition Therapeutic nutrition-Its importance and scop. Therapeutic adaptation of normal diet. Commercial preparation for therapeutic uses. Health foods and supplements. Methods and problems of feeding patients. Etiology, symptoms and dietary management of overweight, underweight, influenza, malaria, measles, pneumonia, typhoid, tuberculosis, gout etc. Etiology, symptomis and dietary treatment of candiovascular, diabetes, digestives and renal disorders. Foods allergy. Diet followering burns. Dietary factors related to cancer. Dietary recommendation for blood donors. Nutrition and immunity. Nutrition and alcoholism. Guidelines for follow up nutrition and rehabilitation of the sick and injured Management of a dietary department. Unit 5: Laboratory Techniques in Human Nutrition Techniques for the estimation of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals. Principales of chromatography, spectrophotomentry, repirography, calorimetry and flame photometry. Role of GLC and HPLC in food analysis. Use of radioisotopes in nutrition research. Principles of animal assay and designing an animal experiment-selection of animals, physical laboratory facilities, diets and feeding.
20. Economics and Agricultural Business Management
PAPER - I(B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1 : Economic Theory Managerial economics, objectives of the firm and basic economic principles. demand and revenue analysis - types and determinants of demand; demand function and elasticities, demand estimation and forecasting; production analysis and input demand-production function. laws of returns, production elasticities and input demand; cost and supply analysis - cost concepts, cost-output relationships, cost functions and estimation, supply analysis: determination of price and output under different market structures. government interventions and pricing; pricing models: risk and uncertainty - decision making under risk and uncertainty; the national income, consumption, investment, aggregate demand, saving, inflation; economic growth; business fluctuations and stabilization policy; Basic concepts and theories of international trade. Unit 2 : Agricultural Environment Role of agriculture in Indian economy; Agricultural output - crops. livestock, poultry, fish, forestry etc.; Productivity and performance of Indian Agriculture; Agricultural inputs-seed fertilizer, plant protection, irrigation, mechanization, cattle feeds and fodder: Problems and policy changes relating to farm supplies, farm production, agro processing. agri- finance etc. in the country; linkages among sub sectors of the agribusiness system, agribusiness industries seed, fertilizer, pesticides, food, farm machinery; economic reforms arid agribusiness sector commercialization, liberalization, privatization, globalization, arid consumerism; emerging trends in agri production, agri-proccssing, agri-marketing, agri exports-imports. WTO, AOA, FTA, agri policy; cooperatives in agribusiness; agribusiness policies; procurement, buffer stocking and public distribution system, contract fanning-status, issues and challenges; regulatory and support systems for agribusiness in India. AoA- market access, domestic support and export competition. SPS measures, anti-dumping, protection tariff and non-tariff measures. Agricultural trade structure in India Unit 3: Quantitative Tools for Decision Making Time Series Analysis: Growth curves arid their estimation; Index numbers. their characteristics and construction; Econometric models; linear. The BLUE properties of least squares estimate; Problems of multicollinearity, auto-correlation and heteroseedasticity; Dummy variables. Linear programming methods - formulation of LP problems and their solutions in agriculture and allied sectors; Simplex method of solving maximization and minimization problems; transportation and assignment problems; PERT and CPM; Sensitivity analysis. Unit 4 : Organizational Behaviour and Human Resource Management The agribusiness systems, management processes, managerial skills, decision making models, management by objectives, organizational culture, managing change, leadership styles group dynamics, motivation. Human resources: environment and planning, training and development, performance appraisal, participative management. Suggested additions in the syllabus for Agri-Business Management.
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
Unit 5: Financial Management Objectives and functions of financial management, fundamentals of accounting and book-keeping; financial statements - balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement - and their analysis; agri-business financial systems in India. Unit 6: Marketing Management The concept, definition and scope of marketing management; consumer behavious; market segmentation and targeting; marketing mix; product mix; product planning and product management, marketing information system and marketing research; product promotion.
PAPER - II
(A) ECONOMICS AND AGRICULTURAL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT Unit 1 : Agricultural Development and Policies Role of agriculture in economic development; Growth and development, characteristics of developing And developed economics; Theories of development; Role of economic, technological, social, cultural, political and environmental factors; Interdependence between agricultural and industrial development; Growth models - Harrod-Domar, Neoclassical, Von Neumann, Development strategies in India; Five-year Plans and agriculture. Agricultural growth analysis - determinant of agricultural growth and its measurements; Planning models, features of planning in capitalist, socialist, neo-socialist and mixed ecnomics; Types of planning - micro level, regional, sectoral, agro-eco agricultural development; Role of NGOs and SHGs in agricultural development; Characterizing, agricultural growth, changes in cropping pattern, decomposition analysis and sources of output growth; analysis of instability; Capital formation, crop livestock insurance.’ infrastructure; Transfer of technology - constraints to technology adoption, yield gap analysis and research planning; agricultural information system. Agricultural policy analysis and reforms - energy, water, fertilizer, land, seed, labour, technology, rural infrastructure, marketing, pricing, trade etc. Concepts of food security, production oriented policies, food price policies, food subsides, food safety net, and food quality. Measurement of poverty, poverty alleviation programmes. Unit 2 : Natural Resource Management Characteristics and classification of natural resources; Sustainability issues in natural resources; Role of economics in natural resource accounting, planning, management and policy formulation; Social welfare function; Allocation of renewable and non-renewable resources (fisheries, forests, water, land etc.) under various market structures: Management strategies for major natural resources; Government Programmes for conservation* and development of natural resources. Unit 3 : Farm Business Management and Production Economics Basic principles of farm management - marginal returns, opportunity cost, cost substitution equimarginal returns, enterprises combination, time comparison, and comparative advantage Cost concepts and analysis; Farm efficiency measures: Farm financial analysis: Farm planning and budgeting; Book keeping and accountancy; Process of decision making under different knowledge situations; Risk and uncertainty in agriculture (including livestock., horticulture, fisheries, forestry etc.) -measurement and management, Diversification and insurance in agriculture and allied sectors. 66
ECONOMICS AND AGRICULTURAL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
Forms and applications of production functions - linear, quadratic, square root, Spillman, cubic, semilog, Cobb-Douglas, CES, VES, etc; Dualities between production, cost and profit functions; Derivation of supply’ and factor demand functions from production and profit functions; Optimization of resource allocation; Product relationships; Resources-enterprise organisation; Resource-use efficiency and returns to scale; Concept of frontier production function; Concept of total factor productivity; Rainbow (Green. White, Yellow. Blue etc.) revolution. Unit 4 : Agricultural Finance lmportance of agricultural finance; Rural credit structure-demand, supply, sources and forms. Estimation of credit requirement; Cost of credit/capital, Credit appraisal- 3 Rs and 3 Cs of credit; Reforms lin agricultural credit policy: Innovations in agricultural financing microfinance, kissan credit cards; Role of institutions in agri-finance -public and private sector banks; cooperative MFIs; SHGs; international financial institutions; Principles of agricultural financial management: Successes and failures of cooperative sector in India; Role of co-operatives under emerging economic scenario. Unit 5 : Agricultural Marketing and Price Analysis Marketing in a developing economy; Structure, conduct and performance analysis: Marketable and marketed surplus; Marketing functions; Processing. transportation. storage and warehousing: Forward trading, future market: and commodity Boards: Channels in marketing, price spread, and efficiency; Problems in marketing agricultural produce: - Government interventions including regulated markets. procurement, buffer stock Operations, co-operative marketing etc.: Demand and supply modelsformulation. estimation and projection: Marketed surplus models: Marketing of agricultural inputs: Market integration; Price stabilization measures and policies. (B) AGRI-BUSINESS MANAGEMENT Unit 6: Organizational Behaviour and Human Resource Management The agribusiness system management processes, planning, controlling. organizing. motivating and leading; decision making; managerial skills-. levels of managers; organizational context of decisions; decision making models; management .by objectives; organizational culture, management of organizational conflicts; managing change, -leadership styles ;group dynamics: motivation. Human resource environment and planning, job analysis and design recruitment, selection, induction and placement; human resource training and development: management development; performance appraisal and Job evaluation wage and salary administration; promotion, transfer, separation, absenteeism and turnover, employee welfare and safety; morale: personnel supervision; styles; participative management; labour management relations; negotiation and negotiating skills. Unit 7 : Financial Management Fundamentals of acccounting and book-keeping; objectives and functions of financial management: analysis of financial statements- balance sheet, income statements, cash flow statement, capital structure theories; sources of long term finance and cost of capital. concepts and components of working capital, managing working capital - cash management, dividend decision; capital budgeting, appraisal criteria; agribusiness financing system in India-money and capital markets, national, regional and global financial instiutions; rural insurance; risk management; micro-credit. Unit 8 : Marketing Management Indian marketing environment; rural marketing; agricultural marketing system, .wholesailing and retailing, consumer behaviour; the buying process; marketing mix; marketing strategy; planning marketing
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
mix; market segmentation, marketing organization, market information system, market research, marketing extension; rural retailing-, international marketing and finance. Unit 9: Production and Operations Management Agricultural productivity management; operations management of an agro industrial unit including operations system and processes; productivity of operations: work force productivity; facilities management; operations planning and control; material and supply chain management; quality management. Unit 10 : Strategic Management Corporate strategy and planning including its frame Work, strategic management including the process, elements and models, Corporate management, SWOT analysis, strategy and structure, strategic analysis, strategy and technology, strategy and leadership, total quality management, the customer resource, development of strategy, creating competitive advantage strategy, implementing and evaluation of strategy. Unit 11: Entrepreneurial Skills and New Venture Planning Enterepreneurship and small business concepts; process of business opportunity identification; project feasibility study; detailed business plan preparation, managing small enterprises; planning for growth; sickness in small enterprises. Government policy for promotion of small and tiny enterprises; rehabilitation of sick enterprises; entrepreneurship.
21. Agricultural Technology Transfer
PAPER - I (B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1: Fundamentals of Agricultural Extension and Communication Concepts of Agricultural Extension and Communication. Historical and emerging perspectives of Agricultural Extension in India and other countries. Conceptual and philosophical similarities and dissimilarities among extension education, adult education and continuing/distance education. Scope and role of Agricultural Extension/home Science Extension Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension/ Dairy Extension/Fishers Extension in Rural Development. Farming System Research and Extension (FSR&E) and participatory development approaches. National Agricultural Extension System and Networking of State development Departments, State Agricultural Universities- Indian Council of Agricultural Research. NGOs, Cooperatives and private Organizations. Human Behavioral Dimensions related to Agricultural Extension. Concepts of teaching and learning process–principles of learning as applied to agricultural extension. Understanding of basic rural institutions, social structure, culture and norms. Social and technological change processes, group dynamics Concepts and theories of rural leadership. Concept and modules of communication, credibility, fidelity, empathy and feedback in communication. Concept and stages of Innovation - decision Process. Innovation attributes and consequences of Innovations. Concept and elements of diffusion and adoption categories. Critical analysis of Extension systems of SAARC and other selected countries (USA, UK, Japan, Philippines, Israel etc.) meaning and characteristics of attitude, factors affecting attitude change; Andragoy and theories of adult learning Unit 2: Information Communication Technologies in Agricultural Extension Concept of Information Communication Technology and its role in agricultural development. Extension teaching methods and audio-visual aids; classification, selection and use. Information Communication Technologies -print and electronic media, e-mail. Internet, use of multi media, video and teleconferencing, computer-assisted instructions, touch screens. micro-computers and web technologies. Networking system of’ information, problems and prospects of Information Communication Technologies. Interpersonal and mass communication methods. Basics of agricultural .journalism, types of publications - bulletins, folders, leaflets, booklets, news-Ietters, popular and scientific articles. Information Kiosks. Agricultural Technology Information Centers (A TIC), Technology Parks, Management Information System in Agricultural Extension, Management of Agricultural Knowledge System (MAKS) and use of expert system in agricultural extension. Components of computer network, types of network such as PAN, LAN, CAN,MAN, WAN, internet work,AGRINET,e-Governance, Cyber extension Initiatives in India and other developing Countries. Extension through Virtual Mode, e-learning, Challenges and limitations in Promotion of Virtual Education and Extension: Unit 3: Agricultural Extension Managenient Concept of administration and management. Principles of administration and management, scientific management movement, classical and modem theories of management, school of management thought. Functions of management planning organizing, staffing, directing and leading, controlling. coordinating, reporting and budgeting. Monitoring and evaluation. Types and methods of administrative communication, decision-making in organization. organizational effectiveness. organizational climate, organizational
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
behaviour, organizational development. Coordination at different levels of extension management, methods of coordination. Management by Objective (MBO), Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT), Logical Frame Working (LFW) and Project Management Techniques, Personal management, scope of Agri Business Management and Institutions - National Institute of Agricultural Extension and management (MANAGE). Indian Institute of Plantation Management (IIPM) NlRD. EEI and NAARM. Monitoring, evaluation and impact analysis of extension programs. Unit 4: Research Methodology in Extension Education Research. Social research and types of research/Science and scientific approach. Characteristics of scientific methods. Theory and Fact. Selection and identification of research problems, methods of data collection- interview method and mailed questionnaires, variable-meaning and types, independent, dependent and intervening variables. Hypothesis-concept characteristics. types and testing of hypothesis. Research design - concept and types of research design, ex-post facto and experimental design, field studies. case studies and survey method. Action Research and participatory research. Measurement meaning. levels of measurement. Methods of sampling and statistical tests. Reliability and validity of tests. normal distribution. tests of significance. ANOVA, correlation and regression, scaling techniques. Processing of data, coding. - tabulation, analysis and interpretation. Writing of scientific reports, citing references. Participator approaches, PRA. RRA PLA and PTD. Concept, Cunstruct. Discriminative scale construction- Gutman’s Scalogram Analysis and HTechnique, Parametric and non-parametric statistics. Statistical Packages for analysis Unit 5 : Agricultural Human Resource Development Human resources and their importance in agricultural development. Concepts of human resource and human resource management. Training and development of human-resources. Training process (capacity building). Phases of training - pre training and post training. Developing training modules, training requirements, training methods. Lecture cum demonstration method, case method, group brain storming, syndicate method, business games, simulation exercises, in basket exercise, programmed instruction. Experiential learning techniques such as sensitivity training, T-group, transactional analysis and fish bowl exercise. Entrepreneurship development - agriclinics and agribusiness centers. Capacity Building in relation to Dairying, Poultry, Piggery. Goat and Sheep farming, cottage industries, Rabbitry, Apiculture. Sericulture, Biofertilizer, Floriculture, and Biopesticides. Evaluation of training - types and techniques of training evaluation. Motivation, stress management and organizational behaviour as facilitators of human resource development. Performance appraisal - concept and types. Training needs assessment Unit 6 : Developmental Strategies and Issues in Agricultural Extension Issues related to extension policies and developmental strategies. Developmental strategies such as Watershed Development Programmes; Technology Mission Horticulture Mission. Front Line Extension Programmes of ICAR/TAR-IVLP, NATP, NAIP, IRDP, ATMA, ITD, SREP, Research-Extension-FarmerInterface. Identification, characterization, documentation and valediction of ITKs. Privatization of extension, market led extension, production to consumption and end to end innovative approaches. Issues related to globalization and IPR. Self Help Groups - Concepts, Organisation. Mobilisation, Micro-finance and functioning of SHG groups for empowerment and sustainability. Rural, Agricultural, Animal Husbandry Dairy and Women Developmental Programmes implemented by Govt. of India. Gender Issues -Women in Agriculture and their Empowerment. International Cooperation in Agriculture - SAlC, Common wealth. FAO, US All AID. DFID and CGIAR system. Concepts of yield gaps, FLD and OFT in relation to TOT 70
AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER
programmes. Agricultural Extension in the context of enhancing productivity. Quality, Nutrition. Profitability, Income and Employment. Environmental impact of farm technology and Role of extension and environmental education, Farmers and public attitudes towards bio-technological innovations. Environmental impact of biotechnology, Extension implications in promotion of biotechnology, Concept, Types. Merits and demerits of contract farming. Public private partnership in agricultural extension service. Features of National Agricultural Policy including Agricultural Extension Policy, Report of National Farmer’s Commission.
PAPER - I(B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1: Fish and Shellfish Hatcheries and Aquatic including Seaweed Farming Systems Aquaculture practices in different parts of the world. Criteria for selection of organisms for aquaculture. Criteria for selection of sites for culture, farms, hatcheries, nurseries. grow outs. Hatchery technology for different species. Pond culture, cage culture, pen culture. recirculatory systems, aquaranching. Broodstock development, maintenance, maturation and induced breeding of cultivable species- Induced breeding, hatchery protocols, larval stages, larval feeds and rearing techniques, packaging and transportation of larvae. nursery rearing. Preparation and stocking of grow-out ponds, water and soil quality maintenance, natural and suplementary feeds, health management. Integration of aquaculture with agriculture and animal husbandry, organic aquaculture. Aquaculture practices for freshwater fish (carps, catfish, snakeheads, mahseer, trouts). Prawns, brackish water and m,.inc fish (sea bass, milkfish, mullets, rabbit fish, Cobia, breams), shrimp (Penaeus monodon and P. indicus. P semisulcatus) mussels, oysters, pearl oysters, scallops, clams, sea cucumbers. Culture of aquatic weeds including seaweeds: major seaweed species of commerce, methods of culture of seaweeds, farming of agar, algin, carrageenan yielding species in India and emerging trends in their farming in open seas and integrated with other farming system. Breeding and rearing of freshwater and marine ornamental fish. Feeding, packaging and transport of live fish. Good manufacturing practice (GMP), Responsible Aquaculture, Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) agreement. Unit 2: Fish physiology and Nutrition Nutritional requirements of cultivable fish and shellfish at larval, Juvenile and adult stages. Role of amino acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Nutritional physiology, biochemistry, bioenergetics. Diet formulations, digestibility of Feeds and their evaluation, feed additives (attractants, growth stimulants, probiotics) and binders their role in nutrition. Stability and storage properties of formulated feeds. Methods of feeding. Feed quality assessment. Feeds suitable for application in different aquaculture systems. Nutritional pathology. toxins in feeds and economic of formulated feeds. Reproductive physiology, endocrine control of growth, moulting and reproduction. Eco-physiology. Stress physiology. Unit 3: Genetics and Biotechnology Principal of fish genetics. Heredity and cytogenties of fish reproduction: inheritance of qulitative and quantitative traits in fish, biochemical and molecular genetic market selective breeding and hybridization, chromosome set manipulation and sex control in aquaculture, genetic engineering: and production of transgenic fish, fish genomes, proteomies, comparative genomies. Regulatory aspects of fish biotechnology and transgenics. Use of molecular genetic markers in management of fish. Resources, identification of resource, understanding breeding and stock structure of the resource, estimating the size of resource, identification of key habitats for the resource. Biotechnologies in fish conservation. Biotechnology in health management-- molecular (nucleic acid and antibody based) diagnostics and vaccines GMOs. Unit 4: Fish Health Management Diseases in aquaculture: parasitic, bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens of fish and shellfish. Water, soil, environmental quality and effects on fish health. Pathological changes in diseases: nutritional pathology. Disease in hatcheries and grow out systems. Epidemiology of diseases. Microbiological,
histopathological and molecular techniques. Disease surveillance and reporting. Defence systems in fishinnate and acquired immunity, inflammation and Response to diseases. Antibody and cell mediated immunity in fish and shellfish. Methods for disease control and management. Environment management, chemotherapeutic agents, host management, prophylaxis vaccines, immunostimulants, probiotics. Use and abuse of antibiotics and chemicals in health management. Fish heath and quarantine systems. seed certification, germplasm exchange. Unit 5: Aquatic Microbiology and Fish Food Organisms Bacteria, viruses. fungi, unicellular algae and protozoa in aquatic environment. Primary production, degradation of molecules in aquatic environment, water pollution and purification, physiology and biochemistry of aquatic microorganisms, their role in carbon. nitrogen, phosphorus. sulphur cycling and their impact on aquatic habitats and fish species. Role of microorganism, in fish production, fish heath and fish safety. Public health microbiology, algal blooms Shellfish toxicities. Fish food organisms- bacterioplankton, phytoplankton and zooplankton and their role in larval nutrition, nutrition and feeding in aquaculture systems. Mass culture of fish food organisms and its applications in hatcheries. Culture of microalgae, rotifers, artemia and other fish food organisms.
23. Fisheries Science
PAPER - I (B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1: Fisheries Resources Major fisheries resources of the world, global trends in production. Target and non-target fisheries resources of the Indian subcontinent and the EEZ Distribution composition status trends and dynamics of major exploited fishery resources in hill streams, rivers, reservoirs lakes. lagoons estuaries, territorial waters pelagic and demersal seas oceanic waters deep sea occanic islands, straddling/shared stocks non-conventional resources. Sport game and ornamental fisheries Major species groups which are commercially exploited their potentials, status, bionomics dynamics, trends. methods of capture. crafts. gear. tackle and yields. Issues related to capture fisheries; endangered and threatened species in situ and ex situ conservation, fisheries and biodiversity act juvenile fishing destructive gears, by -catch and discards, status and impact of exotic species, accidental introductions. guideline and policies for exotics. Unit 2: Fishery Biology Life history of economically important fish species; Food and feeding fish, methods for studying feeding habits. Reproductive biology maturity stages. fecundity. ova diameter studies, breeding cycles; Length weight relationships. Condition Index, Gonado - Somatic Index. Age and growth in fish. Methods for determination of age. Study of growth rates direct and indirect methods. Identification and classification of major groups of fish. Recruitment, growth and mortality of fish in natural water bodies. Different analytical models of fish stock assessment, their advantages and disadvantages. Study of growth curves, length weight relationships and cohort analysis. Catch per unit effort as an index of stocking abundance. Concept of maximum sustainable yield and maximum economic yield use of - remote sensing for resource mapping and forecasting. Mechanisms, methods and status of fish yield data acquisition. storage. retrieval and processing for national estimates. trend analysis management policy formulations. Concepts of MSY MEY and ecosystem -based fisheries management tools, Monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) systems for major fisheries. Modeling in fisheries management. Classical management models. Modern tools and approaches in modeling. Use of predictive models and management games. Unit 3: Aquatic Environment Various aquatic habitats and the fish faunal compositions, trophic relationships. distribution and abundance. Relationship between environment and fisheries. Tides, waves and currents. Biological occanography and marine fisheries. Limnological parameters and riverine fisheries. Influence of environmental parameters on fish abundance, distribution, resource resilience. Impact of fishing on the environment. Impact of fishing on fish stock. Impact of aquaculture other anthropogenic activities weather climate, pollution and natural disasters on fisheries resources. capture fisheries. Meteorology in relation to fisheries. Disaster management in fisheries. Productivity and fisheries. Methods for increasing productivity of water bodies (Use of thermal energy and deep sea water through artificial upwelling Use of ranching Artificial reefs FADs and their uses) Habitat degradation and impacts on fisheries pollution of water bodies and Its impact on fisheries. Bioindicators. Bioremediation. Pretected areas (sancuaries marine parks biosphere reserves). Potential fishing zones and application of GIS and remote sensing in fisheries. Unit 4: Fisheries Management Concepts and principles of Fisheries management. Fisheries acts and Iegislations, revisions and
amendments. Fisheries policies, MFRAs, other regulatory instruments of the State and Cetral Governments. Instruments and mechanisms for inland, coastal and open ocean fisheries management. Management of riverine, reservoir and lacustrine fisheries. Management of marine fisheries. Modes of fisheries management: Open access, regulated, advisory; participatory, user rights. Ecosystem approach to Fisheries management. International fishery regulations, treaties and instruments. Input control measures such as access control, size. type, number and power of boats, duration of fishing, Output control measures such as Total Allowable Catch. Catch Quotas, Licensing Technical control measures such as size limitations, closed fishing areas, closed seasons, size of nets and mesh size regulations, limited entry. Diversification in fisheries. National fisheries policies and guidelines. Impediments to informed fisheries governance. UNCLOS. FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. India’s commitment to international treaties and resolutions. Unit 5: Fishing, Practices Present status of fishing technology in India. Different types of gears, their operation and maintenance. Traditional gears and traps use in inland waters. Hooks and lines and their operation. Selectivity of fishing gears, by-catch reduction devices in trawls turtle excluder devices. Different types of crafts. their operation. Use of modern techniques and equipments for finding and capturing fish. Unit 6: Economics and Marketing Role of fisheries in Indian economy. Supply. demand. price dynamics in the fisheries sector. Domestic and export marketing of fish and fish products, trends, channels, mechanisms, regulations, trade and non-trade barriers. concerns and strategies. Modern marketing methods and channels. Cold chains, storage, value additions. domestic and international market demands. International regulations and practices affecting Indian fisheries trade. WTO and Indian fisheries scenario EEU and Indian fisheries. Issues in branding, labeling. quality concerns. consumer safety. Growth of domestic and exports markets. Market trends and diversification. Emerging consumer preferences and trade practices. Live fish trade. Fisheries co-operatives. Role of financial institutions, MPEDA,, export houses, policies and regulation. Unit 7: Fisheries Livelihood Relevance of, capture fisheries on the food, nutritional, employment, income. and livelihood securities of fisher communities. Vulnerability of fishers to changing source availability, exploitation and utilization patterns. Marginalization of fishers. small scale processors and traders due to changing scenarios of product diversification, markets and trade. lmpact of WTO and globalization on fisher communities. Impact of dams, river linking. CRZ. biodiversity bill, protected/closed area, fishing bans, closed seasons, protected man-groves, sanctuaries and parks on the fisher communities. Impact of aquaculture, other anthropogenic activities, weather, climate, pollution, and natural disasters on fisher livelihoods, employment and nutritional securities. Land and water body use issues in fisheries. Role of extension in fisheries. Mechanisms and modes of extension and their impact on capture on fisheries and fisher livelihoods. Alternative livelihood options. Management of conflicts with in sectors in fisheries. Role of communication mechanisms and strategies, information technology. GIS and remote sensing in fisher livelihoods. Women in fisheries, status, role, impact, future. Vulnerability of fishers to natural disasters and coping mechanisms in disaster management. Role of awareness, preparedness, HRD, societal, governmental and nongovernmental interventions.
24. Fish Harvest & Post-harvest Technology
PAPER – I (B) and PAPER – II
Unit 1: Craft Technology Fishing crafts of the world. Principles of design and construction. Corrosion protection. Craft materials wood marine plywood, fiberglass, reinforced plastic, aluminium, steel, ferrocement. biodeterioration and preventive measures. FAO Classification of fishing vessels. Different types of fishing vessels in India: fishing vessel statistics. General arrangements of fishing vessels. Basic principles of fishing vessel design. Stability of fishing vessels- factors affecting stability. Powering of fishing boats. Deck machinery for travlers seiners gill netters and liner: winches: net haulers line haulers, power blocks, special purpose winches. Engine installation, - types of engines for fishing vessels, four stroke cycle, two stroke cycle, selection of engine for fishing vessels. Transmission systems, reduction/reverse gear boxes. Fundamental principles of refrigeration. Modem navigation equipment navigation and fishing lights. Life saving equipment: life jacket life buoy. life raft: SART, EPIRB. Unit 2: Gear Technology Gear Materials - Netting yarns - natural fibres-classificatiron, origin, properties preservation. synthetic fibres - classification, manufacture, identification and comparative properties. Construction of netting twines. designation of netting yarns and twine, twist-coeffeient, direction yarn numbering system. Specification and characteristics of netting. Fishing accessories - floats buoys and sinkers. connectors and swivels, ground gear sheer devices, hooks. Classification of fishing gear. Fishing gear used in India - inland coastal. deep sea fishing gear. Fish behaviour in relation to fishing techniques. Factors affecting fishing gear design. Fishing gear selectivity selectively of trawls. gill nets and lines. Model testing of - fishing gear-flume tank. Structure and operation of trawls. Otter boards - principles of - operation. variation in design. Structure design variation and operation of purse seines, gillnets and trammel nets, lines and traps. Electrical fishing, harvesting machines. Selective fishing gear and practices. By catch and discards. By catch reduction devices (BRDs) and turtle excluder devices (TEDs). Unit 3: Process Biochemistry Major and minor constituents in fish, their distribution and function moisture, proteins lipids, carbohydrates. vitamins and minerals. Glycogen in fish and its functions. Structure, classification and constitution of proteins. Essential amino acids and limiting amino acids and their requirements. Seafood proteins Post mortem changes -rigor mortis autolysis auto oxidation and their significance. Lipids in fish - their structure and classification. Enzymes in fish their classification and mechanism of action. Vitamins their sources and deficiency diseases. Vitamins minerals and trace elements in fish. Toxins and toxic substances in fish. Bioaccumulation biomagnification. Biogenic amines. Role of temperature, pH water activity redox potential in fish preservation. Microbial spoilage of fish. Role of moulds in spoilage of cured processed fish products. Bacteria of public health Significance contamination and control measures. Microorganisms in frozen, canned and dried products, and their control. Unit 4: Fish Processing Technologys Factors affecting spoilage of fish, principles of fish preservation, onboard handling of fish, sanitary and phyto-sanitary requirements for maintenance of quality grading of fish, whole fish quality evaluation. Chilling and freezing of fish - Principles of chilling and freezing, methods of chilling: transportation and marketing of chilled fish. Freezing-the application of freezing systems in fish processing, changes in quality on chilled and frozen storage. Canning fish and fish products principles of canning . Modified-
FISH HARVEST & POST-HARVEST TECHNOLOGY
atmosphere packaging (MAP) of fish and fish products. Preservation of fish by curing (drying, salting and smoking) -water content, water activity (aw) and storage stability. Accelerated freeze drying (AFD). Surimi and fish-mince products- fish muscle proteins. the surimi process, fish mince. Irradiation–radiation source units, dose levels, radarpertization, radicidation, radurization. effects of - irradiation on protein. Quality assurance and management in seafood processing: defining HACCP, practical aspects of Planning and implementing HACCP systems. HACCP verification. National and international standards, ED regulation for fish export trade: hazards in sea foods: Sea food toxin, biogenie amines, heavy metals and industrial pollutants; seafood quality systems. Packaging and transportation temperature modeling and relationships in fish transportation. transportation of fish, containers and cooling- gels safety quality and spoilage of fish during transportation. Fishery products and byproducts exported from India. Packaging- aim, purpose and objectives. Packaging and transportation of fresh fish, cured fish, canned fish, frozen fish, freeze dried fish, by-products and value added products. Additives–classes of additives–preservatives–antimicrobial additives. Unit 5 : Fishery Engineering Selection of site for fish farms. Assessing water qualities and quantities. Fluid dynamtics, statics, and control. Configuration of land, topographical survey, land and soil types, chemical composition and properties of soils. Aquaculture farm layout, types of ponds. design of dykes, bunds. Drainage channels, inlet and outlet structures, sluice gates. Design and construction of finfish and shellfish hatcheries. Flow through and recirculatory water systems. Water supply, source, gravity flow, pumping, water flow requirements and water flow regulations, estimation of evaporation and seepage losses. Construction of high / Iow level reservoir to feed aquaculture farm. Water quality and waste management monitoring equipments. Aquaculture facilities and equipment. Refrigeration engineering. Machinery for handling and processing fish.
25. Statistics and Comuter Application
PAPER-I (B) and PAPER-II
Unit 1: Mathematical Methods Linear Algebra: Elements of set theory- de Morgan’s laws, functions, real and complex numbers, arithmetic, geometric and harmonic progressions, polynomial and roots, groups, rings and fields. Galois field- Fermat’s little theorem and primitive elements. Matrix Algebra: Basic terminology, vector space, linear independence, orthogonality; row and column spaces, matrix operations, determinants, rank and inverse of matrices, System of linear equations. Special matrices- idempotent, symmetric, orthogonal. Special Products of matrices- Kronecker and Hadamard product. Eigenvalues of a symmetric matrix. Generalized inverses and their applications. Calculus: Limits and continuity, differentiation of functions, Taylor’s and Maclaurin’s theorem, meanvalue theorem, partial differentiation, maxima and minima, L’Hospital rule. Integration of rational, irrational and trigonometric functions. Applications of integration. Numerical Analysis: Simple interpolation, calculus of finite differences, numerical differentiation and integration, solution of simple non-linear equations by numerical methods like Newton-Raphson Method. Linear Programming: Formulation and graphical solution, simplex method, duality, transportation and assignment problem. Unit 2: Statistical Methods and Statistical Inference Classification and tabulation of data, Graphical representation of data, Measures of central tendency and dispersion, moments, Skewness and Kurtosis, Scatter diagram. Elements of probability theory, laws of probability, mathematical expectation, Probability distributions: Binomial, Poisson, negative binomial, Normal distributions and their applications. Random sampling, Concept of sampling distributions: t, chisquare and F distributions. Tests of significance based on Z, t, Chi-square and F. Point and confidence interval estimation, Concepts of testing of hypothesis: two types of errors, level of significance and power of a test. Correlation, rank correlation. Regression analysis, partial and multiple correlations. Coefficient of determination. Concepts of multivariate analytical tools: cluster analysis, discriminant function, and principal component analysis. Non-parametric tests: sign test, Wilcoxon test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Wald Wolfowitz run test, run test for the randomness of a sequence. Units 3: Applied Statistics Concept of sampling, Sampling versus complete enumeration, Simple random sampling, Inverse sampling, Stratified random sampling, Cluster sampling and Systematic sampling, ratio and regression estimators. Basic principles of design of experiments, Uniformity trials, Analysis of variance, Completely Randomized design, Randomized complete block design, Latin square design, Factorial experiments (symmetrical as well as asymmetrical), variance stabilizing transformations, Analysis of covariance, Mendel’s laws, Linkage, Heritability, selection indices, Hardy-Weinberg law. Index numbers-their characteristics and construction. Elements of time series analysis. Unit 4: Introduction to Computers Definition of computer, its characteristics and uses. History of evolution of computers, Classifications of computers, Speed and processing power of a computer. Number systems-decimal, octal, binary and
STATISTICS AND COMUTER APPLICATION
hexadecimal. Representation of integers, fixed and floating point numbers, character representation-ASCII, EBCDIC, UNICODE. Basic components of a computer: Central Processing Unit (CPU)- the control unit, arithmetic logic unit and register. Memory-types of memories, Input and Output units. Organizing and accessing stored data-field, record, file. File organization-sequential, direct and indexed file. Multimedia-requirements and applications. Operating system (OS)functions, Windows. Unit 5: Development Tools Word Processing, Spreadsheets, Statistical data analysis and graphics using spreadsheets, Presentation. Database Management Systems (DBMS)- Database systems, advantages of databases, feature of DBMS. Programming languages: need, programming processplanning the solution through flow charts, coding the program, testing and documentation. Unit 6: Internet Tools Networking-need, basic components. Connecting computers- Local Area Networks, Wide Area Networks. TCP/IP, HTTP protocols. Value added network services-Email, on-line services, Internet etc.
There will be 30 questions, 15 from each of the sections. Attempt any 20 questions by selecting at least 10 from the major Section. (A) AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS Unit 1: Statistical Methods I Descriptive statistics. Elements of probability theory, Conditional probability, Bayes’ theorem. Random variable-discrete and continuous, Mathematical expectation, Moment generating and Characteristic functions. Laws of large numbers, Central limit theorem. Discrete probability distributions- binomial, Poisson, negative binomial and hypergeometric. Continuous probability distributions- normal, rectangular, Cauchy, exponential, gamma and beta. Sampling distributions- chi-square, t, and F. Bivariate normal distribution-conditional and marginal. Point estimation- unbiasedness, consistency, efficiency, sufficiency. Completeness, Minimum variance unbiased estimator, Cramer-Rao Inequality, Rao-Blackwell theorem and Lehman-Scheffe theorem. Methods of point estimation like maximum likelihood, method of moments, minimum chi-square. Confidence interval estimation. Testing of hypotheses-two types of errors, level of significance and power of a test. Neyman Pearson Lemma. Uniformly most powerful tests and their construction. Unbiased test, Likelihood ratio test. Tests of significance based on Z, t, chi-square and F. Unit 2: Statistical Methods II Correlation, rank correlation, correlation ratio, intra-class correlation. Regression analysis, partial and multiple correlation. Multiple regression equation, examination of residuals, model-adequacy, Selecting best regression. Order statistics. Non-parametric tests-Run, Sign, Rank, Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, MannWhitney, Cochran and Friedman’s tests. Multivariate normal distribution- Estimation of mean vector and dispersion matrix. Wishart distribution, Hotelling T2 and Mahalanobis D2, Principal component analysis. Discriminant analysis, Cluster analysis, MANOVA. Contingency tables. Log linear models. Sequential analysis- Sequential probability ratio test. Elements of stochastic processes. Unit 3: Statistical Genetics I Statistical analysis of segregation, detection and estimation of linkage for quantitative characters, 79
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
Gene and genotypic frequencies, Random mating and equilibrium in large populations, Disequilibrium due to linkages for two pairs of genes and for sex linked genes. Selections, mutation and migration, Equilibrium between forces in large population, Polymorphism, Fisher’s fundamental theorem of natural selection, Polygenic systems for quantitative characters, Concepts of breeding value, dominance. Unit 4: Statistical Genetics II Genetic variance and its partitioning, Correlation between relatives, Regular system of inbreeding, Effects of inbreeding, Genotype and environment interaction, Estimation of heritability, repeatability and genetic correlation, Path coefficient analysis, Heterosis, concepts of general and specific combining abilities, Diallel crosses, Response due to selection, Prediction of response to individual, family and combined selections, Selection for improvement. Construction of selection index. Unit 5: Design of Experiments I Linear models- Random, fixed and mixed effects. Nested and crossed classifications, Gauss-Markoff theorem. Analysis of variance. Principles of design of experiments, Uniformity trials, Completely randomized design, Randomized block designs, Latin square design, Factorial experiments: 2nand 3n series and asymmetrical factorial experiments, Confounding in 2n and 3n experiments, Split and strip-plot designs, Switch over trials, Missing plot techniques, Analysis of covariance, variance stabilizing transformations. Unit 6: Design of Experiments II Fractional replication of symmetrical factorials. Balanced incomplete block designs and their analysis with and without recovery of inter block information, Partially balanced incomplete block designs with two associate classes, lattice designs, Youden squares, Multiple comparison procedures, groups of experiments, Analysis of covariance. Sampling in field experiments. Experiments on cultivators’ fields. Unit 7: Sample Surveys I Sampling versus complete enumeration, Concept of probability sampling, Simple random sampling, Inverse Sampling, Stratified sampling, allocation in stratified sampling, collapsing of strata, Use of auxiliary information in sample surveys, Ratio and Regression methods of estimation, Cluster, multi-stage sampling with equal probability and Systematic sampling. Unit 8: Sample Surveys II Sampling with unequal probabilities with and without replacement, Sampling schemes with inclusion probabilities proportional to size. Unbiased ratio type of estimators, Double sampling and sampling on successive occasions, Inverse sampling. Non-sampling errors-sources and classification, Non-response survey techniques, imputation methods, measurement errors, Interpenetrating sub-samples. Design and organization of pilot and large-scale surveys, National sample surveys, Agricultural statistics system in the country: land use statistics, crop estimation surveys, livestock and fishery statistics. B. COMPUTER APPLICATIONS Unit 9 Computer Organization and Architecture-Boolean algebra, Number system, Computer arithmetic, Basic concepts of floating point number system, Sequential and combinational logics, Input/Output unit, Memory, ALU and Control unit, Instruction and execution cycle in CPU, Interrupts, CISC and RISC Architecture. Unit 10 Computer algorithms, Programming in C-Building blocks, Control structures, Arrays, Pointers, Dynamic memory allocation, File management, Graphics: Data StructuresLinked List, Stack, Queue, Tree, Graph, Sorting and Searching algorithms. 80
STATISTICS AND COMUTER APPLICATION
Unit 11 System Analysis and Design- Objectives, Tools, Data collection and analysis, Planning, Cost-benefit analysis, Design, Testing, refining and optimization, Implementation and evaluation: Software EngineeringRequirement analysis and specification, Coding tools and techniques, Verification and validation, Maintenance; Project Management and Control Gantt charts, PERT and CPM, CASE tools. Unit 12 Data Base Management System- Definition and features, Data models, Relational database; Logical and physical structure, Relational algebra, Relational calculus, Database design, normalization, Concurrency control, Security and integrity; Distributed Databases-Concepts, architecture, Design; Structured Query Language (SQL), PL/SQL, Views, Indexes. Unit 13 Object Oriented Programming-Encapsulation, Inheritance, Polymorphism with C++/JAVA: Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML), Building static and dynamic web pages, Client side and server side scripting, Interaction with database. Unit 14 Networking- Types of Networks, Network topology, Network Operating Systems, Network Management, Data communication and transmission, ISO-OSI reference model, TCP/IP reference model, Internet standards and services, Cryptography, Data compression, Authentication and Firewalls. Unit 15 Compilers and translators-Regular expression, Finite automata, Formal Languages, Finite state machines, Lexical analysis, Semantic analysis, Parsing algorithms, Symbol tables, Error handling, Intermediate code optimization, Machine code generation, Machine dependent optimization. Unit 16 Operating System- Process management: Inter-process communication, Process schedulingMemory management: Swapping, Virtual memory, Paging and segmentation; Device management; Deadlocks, Semaphores; File systems-Files, Directories, Security and protection mechanisms; Distributed operating systems. Unit 17 Numerical analysis- Interpolation, Numerical integration, Solution of ordinary differential equations, Solution of linear and non-linear system of equations; Modeling and Simulation-Random number generation and testing, Discrete simulation models, Simulation of stochastic events and processes, Design of simulation experiments, Analysis of data generated by simulation experiments, Validation of simulation models, Simulation languages. Linear Programming-formulation and graphical solution, simplex method, duality, transportation and assignment problems.
26. Animal Biotechnology
PAPER-I (B) AND PAPER-II
A. Animal Biotechnology Unit -1 : Cell Biology Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell architecture. Molecular organization and functions of cell membrane. Organisation and functions of the cytoplasm, cell organelles, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi complex, mitochondria, lysosomes, nucleolus and subnuclear structures. Protein secretion and targeting. Intracellular digestion. oxidative phosphorylation. Cell divison. Cell growth and differentiation. Control of proliferation and self regulation. Cell motility. Cell trafficking and signaling. Apoptosis. Unit 2 : Molecular Biology DNA replication in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Structure and functions of DNA polymerases. Molecular mechanisms of DNA repair. Synthesis and processing of different types of RNA, RNA polymerases. Protein biosynthesis. Genetics of mitochondria and plasmids. Transposons and intervening sequences. Miniasatellites and microsatellites. Molecular mechanism of spontaneous and induced mutations. Site directed mutagenesis. Recombination in bacteria, fungi and viruses. Molecular mechanisms of genetic recombination, transduction, transforamtion and conjugation. Unit 3: Gene structure and expression Organisation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome. Repeated and non-repeated DNA sequences. The structure and chemical nature of the gene. Expression of genetic information, transcription-mechanism of transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, transcription unit, regulatory sequences and enhancers, transcription factors, posttranscriptional modifications. DNA-protein interactions. Genetic code. Mechanism of translation and its control, post-translational modifications. Control of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Unit 4: Genetic Engineering and Recombinant DNA Technology Isolation and purification of DNA/RNA from prokaryotes/eukaryotes. Reverse transcription. Restriction endonucleases. Generation of DNA fragments. Cloning and expression vectors, plasmids, cosmids, phages, viruses (vaccinia, herpes, retrovirus and adenovirus) shuttle vectors. Cloning and expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts. DNA libraries, screening and characterization of DNA clones, transformation of bacterial and animal cells. Oligonucleotide synthesis. In situ mutagenesis. DNA amplification. Production of diagnostics and vaccines using r-DNA technology. Genetically modified foods products. Genetic manipulation of rumen microbes. Safety aspects of genetic engineering. Ethical issues related to use of biotechnology products. Patenting and Intellectual Property Rights.
Unit 5 : Animal Tissue culture and Hybridoma Technology Development of cell (tissue) and organ culture techniques. Nutrient requirements of mammalian cells. Media for culturing cells. Growth supplements. Primary cultures. Established cell lines. Stationary, Roller and suspension culture techniques. Large-scale production of cells using bioreactors, microcarriers and perfusion techniques. Characteriztion of maintenance of cells, karyotyping, cryopreservation and revival. Detection of contaminants in cell cultures. Isolation and culture of lymphocytes. Application of cell and organ cultures. Micromanipulation of cells. Cell cloning. Cell fusion and somatic cell hybrids. Principles and methods of hybridoma technology. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies and their application in animal health and production. Unit 6: Embryo Transfer and Related Techniques Induction of superovulation. Embryo collection and evaluation. Embryo splitting. Embryo sexing. Embryo transfer. Advantages of embryo transfer in farm animals.
In vitro fertilization. Embryo cloning, Nuclear transplantation. Production of transgenic animals and gene farming. Identification and transfer of genes influencing production and disease resistance.
Unit 7 : Techniques Quantitation of nucleic acids. Gel electrophoretic techniques. Isolation of plasmids. Basic principles and use of latest photometric, chromatographic electrophoretic and radioisotopic methods of biochemical analysis. Methods of isolation, purification and characterization of proteins, DNA and RNA. Basic principles of RIA, ELISA, PCR, RFLP and DNA fingerprinting, nucleic acid hybridization southern northern western blotting. Determination of enzymes, hormones, vitamins and other biochemical constituents with special reference to disease diagnosis in domestic animals. B. ANIMAL BIOCHEMISTRY Unit 8 Scope of Biochemistry and molecular biology in animals sciences. Structural and functional organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, viruses and bacteriophages. Compartmentalization of metabolic processes within the cell and fractionation of subcellular components. Structure and functions of biomembranes, with special reference to active transport of ions and metabolites. Extra and intracellular communication. General description of cell culture, hybridoma and animal cloning techniques. Unit 9 Structure and properties of biologically important carbohydrates including storage and structural polysaccharides, mucopolysaccharides, blood group substances, peptidoglycans and bacterial polysaccharides. Structure and properties of fatty acids, acyl glycerol, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, sterols, bile acids and prostaglandins. Basic principles of isolation, estimation and analysis of carbohydrates and lipids Unit 10 Amino acids, structure and properties. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quarternary structure of proteins. Glycoproteins, lipoproteins, nucleoproteins, fibrous and globular proteins. Structure and functions of immunoglobulins, myoglobin and hemoglobin. Physical and chemical proerpties of proteins. Structure of different types of nucleic acids. Acid base properties, sedimentation behaviour, hyperchromic effect, base sequencing and restriction analysis of DNA. Computer application in molecular biology, primer designing, sequence analysis, phylogenetic analysis. 83
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Unit 11 Major classes of enzymes, general properties, kinetics and mechanism of their action. Activation energy and transition state. Coenzymes and cofactors. Regulation of enzyme activity and enzyme inhibition. Isoenzymes and enzymes of clinical significance. Applications and scope of enzymes in bioprocess technology and genetic engineering. Unit 12 Bioenergetics, biological oxidation, respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Citric acid cycle and ATP generation. Glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and glycogenesis. Biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids. Volatile fatty acids as source of energy in ruminants. Ketogenesis and causes of ketosis in ruminants. Biosynthesis of sterols and phospholipids. Catabolism of amino acids, transamination. and deamination, urea cycle. Integration of carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Conversion of amino acids into other bioactive compounds. Biosynthesis of nutritionally non essential amino acids. Metabolism of purines and pyrimidines. Disorders of lipid, carbohydrate, nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism. Inborn errors of metabolism and scope of gene therapy in combating genetic disorders. Unit 13 : Structure and metabolic functions of water soluble and lipid soluble vitamins. Trace elements and their role in biological processes. Deficiencies and nutritional significance of vitamins and trace elements in domestic animals and poultry. General description of nature of hormones, receptors and mechanisms of their action. Metabolic functions of different hormones and associated disorders due to hypo or hyper secretions of major endocrine glands viz., pituitary, thyroid adrenal, pancreas and gonads. Unit 14 : Blood composition and biochemical constituents of erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets. Important plasma proteins and their functions. Hemoglobin in oxygen and carbon dioxide transport. Role of kidneys in acid base balance. Composition and metabolism of muscle, connective tissue, cartilage, bone, nervous tissue, adipose tissue and mammary tissue. Clinical significance of iron, iodine calcium and phosphorus metabolism in domestic animals and poultry. Biochemical tests for hepatic and renal functions. Urine composition and analysis. C) FISH BIOCHEMISTRY Unit 15: Myofibrillar proteins and collagen in fish muscles. Metabolism during starvation. Biochemical mechanisms, adaptations and functions of specialized tissues and secretions of aquatic animals like stress proteins, AFP and GFP. Biochemical altrations due to environmental pollutants and contaminants viz., WSSV infection, anti metabolites, biotoxins, heavy metals, antibiotics, pesticides, steroids and industrial xenobiotics in fish metabolism, counter current and gaseous exchange in Gill, swim bladder (oil droplets), vitellogenesis, haemocyanin, pheromones, ecdysone, moulting inhibiting hormone and esdysis in crustacean, nacre (pearl) in bivalves. Genetic and biochemical mechanisms of sex, reversal and polyploidy in fishes. Biochemical mechanism of hormonal manipulation in advancing fish maturity and reproduction. Unit 16 : Fish Nutrition Biochemical nutritional requirements of fish and shellfish. Digestion, absorption and assimilation of energy nutrients, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Mineral and vitamins in fishes and their deficiency symptoms, nutraceuticals, Probiotics and single cell protein in fish nutrition. Protein sparing effects of carbohydrates and lipids. Digestive enzymes and hormones, osmotic and ionic regulation. Nitrogen 84
metabolism and excretion (ammonotelic pathways). Acid-base regulation, improvement of carbohydrate utilization by fish. Expression of energy value of fish feed (gross energy, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, net energy), partitioning of energy, protein energy ratio. Biochemical nutrients required for reproduction, egg and sperm quality of fishes. FCR, PER, NPU, chemical score, biological value. Estimation of antinutritional factor, trypsin inhibitors, Tannin and HCN in the feed ingredients. Determination of vitamin C and carotenoids in feeds. Bomb-calorimetry. Unit 17: Processing Biochemistry Uses of fish and fishery products, surmi, kamaboko, chitin, chitosan, sutures, cod liver oils, omega3 and omega-6 faty acids, fish muscles proteins of cuttlefish, squids, shrimps scampi. Fish meal, bone meal, fish oil, etc. Biochemical alterations in muscle during post harvesting. Effects of irradiations on proteins, lipids vitamins, microbial agents, shelf life of fish products. HACCP and hazards in sea foods, toxins, biogenic amines, heavy metals and industrial pollutants, sea weeds and their utilization in agar, alginic acid, carrageenan, agarose and agaropectin production.
27. Veterinary Microbiology
PAPER-I(B) AND PAPER-II
Section 1: General Bacteriology: Milestones in the development of Microbiology, Classfication and nomenclature of bacteria. Structure, function and chemistry of bacterial nuclear apparatus. Cytoplasm. Intracellular granules. Cell wall. Cytoplasmic membrane. Mesosomes. Capsule. Flagella. Fimbrae. Endospore. Protoplasts. Spheroplasts. L-forms. Involution forms. Bacterial stains, staining and microscopy. Growth and nutritional requirements of bacteria. Bacteria enzymes. Respiration in bacteria. Carbohydrate protein, fat and nucleic acid metabolism in bacteria. Reproduction and growth phases of bacteria. Effect of chemical and physical agents and antibiotics. Bacterial variations including transduction, transformation and conjugation. Bacterial vaccines and toxins. The role of microbial toxins in the pathogenesis of diseases; Biochemical and biological characteristics of toxins produced by various bacteria. Toxin producing Gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Properties and clinical conditions produced by different bacterial toxins. Section 2: Systematic Bacteriology: Systematic study of bacteria belonging to genera Borrelia, Leptospira, Campylobacter, Pseudomonas, Brucella, Bordetella, Escherichia, Citrobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella,m Enterobacter, Proteus, Vibrio, Hae,ophilus, Pasteurella, Yersinia, Actinobacillus, Actinomyces, Fusobacterium, Moraxella, Staphylococus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Clostridium, Listeria, Erysipelothrix, Corynebacterium, Nocardia, Richettsia, Chalmydia, Mycoplasma, Acholeplasma, Spiroplasma, Anaeroplasma and Thermoplasma, Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium and Neisseria. Section 3: General Virology: Historical development of virology. Evolution, classification and nomenclature of viruses. Biophysical and biochemical characteristics of viruses. Cultivation of viruses and their growth pattern in cell culture, embryonated eggs and experimental animals. Purification and concentration of viruses. Qualitative and quantitative assay of viruses. Viral replications. Vikrus-host cell relationships. Replication strategies of animal viruses and molecular pathogenesis for selected viral. Systems latent, persistent and chronic virual infections. Study of genetic variability of animal viruses through use of monoclonal, antibodies, autoimmunikty, immunosuppression and viral mutation in persistence infections. General principles of laboratory diagnosis of viral diseases. Epidemiology and methods of spread of viral infection. Oncogenic role of viruses. Pathogenesis and pathology of viral infections. Immune mechanism in viral diseases. Interference and interferon. Viral vaccines, point of action of antiviral molecules during the replication cycle of a virus and search for new antiviral compounds, viruses and gene therapy. Chemotherapy of viral infections. Section 4: Systematic Virology: Systematic study of RNA and DNA viruses in livestock and poultry with reference to antigenicity, cultivation, pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and immunity RNA viruses: Retroviruses and lymphotropic viruses, visna and maedi,Arboviruses. Rotaviruses. Birnaviruses. Coronaviruses. Togaviruses. Paramyxoviruses. Orthomyxoviruses. Rhabdoviruses. Picornaviruses. Bunyaviruses. Arenaviruses. Arterioviruses. Calciviruses. Filoviruses. DNA viruses: Poxviruses. Herpesviruses. Iridoviruses.
Adenoviruses. Papovaviruses. Parvoviruses. Hepadnaviruses. Circoviruses. Unclassified viruses. Slow viruses Scrapie. Section 5: Mycology General characteristics of fungi. Classification and study of pathogenic fungi-Epidermophyton, Microsporum, Trichophyton, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Candida, Rhinosporidum, Contaminating fungi, Rhizopus, Mucor and Penicillium. Fungi causing mastitis, abortion and mycotoxicosis. Section 6: Immunology: Historical Perspectives. Host-parasite relationships. Antigens. Types of antigens. Properties and specificity of antigens. Factors determining antigenicity. Haptens and carriers. Heterophile antigens. Adjuvants. Mechanisms of action, classification, and their uses. Immunoglobulins - their classes and sub classes, structure and function. Allotypes. Idiotypes. Synthesis. Genes coding for Igs. Generation of diversity. Monoclonal antibodies. Purification of antibodies. Theories of antibody formation. Lymphoid organs: primary, secondary and circulation of lymphocytes, cells involved in the immune response - B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, subsets and nature of receptor. Macrophages. Dendritic reticular cells. Langerhans cells. Cellular interactions. Cell mediated immune response. Maechanism of interaction of antigen and antibody. The complement system. Classical and alternate pa;thways. Serological reactions: agglutination, precipitation, neutralization, CFT, FAT, ELISA, DIE, RIA etc, immunological methods as an aid to diagnosis such as various blotting techniques like Southern, Northern, Western blotting, Ma.jor. Histocompatibility complex: organization, nature of antigens and MHC restriction. Hypersensitivity - immediate and delayed types, and mechanism of hypersensitivity. Mechanism of immunity, autoimmunity and immunological tolerance. Section 7: Molecular Cell Biology (Vaccine & Diagnostic Technology): Role of biotechnology in diagnostics and vaccines, RNA electropherotyping. Probes - preparation of cDNA. Use of DNA probe in animal diseases diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies. Application of monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis of animal disases. Preparation of monochonal antibodies. Nucleic acid hybridization. Modern trends in vaccines. Recombinant DNA vaccines and their probable uses in animal diseases.
Veterinary Public Health
Section 1: Veterinary Public Health: Definitions : Concept of Public Health, Intersectoral approach to Human Health, Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Public Health, Human health goals, Veterinarians Participation in Public Health and justifications, Veterinary Public Health Unit - its dimensions and functions, National and International organizations related with Public and Veterinary Public Health, Rural health, Role of Public Health Veterinarians in Rural health, Health Delivery System. Section 2: Milk Hygiene Definitions. Dairy Industry and milk hygiene in India and other countries, Microbiology of milk and milk products, microbial spoilage of milk and its products, Bacteriophage, Contanination of milk and its products, Public health aspects of residues: agricultural chemicals, antibiotics and druges, toxic metals, plant toxins, mycotoxins and adultrants Milk borne diseases, Milk hygiene, Hygienic aspects of production 87
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of milk and processing and manufacture of milk products, Clean milk production, Prevention of contamination by santiation at dairy farm, collection centers, milk processing and manufacturing plants,. Pasteurization, Sterilization, Standards. Quality control tests applied to milk and milk proucts. Section 3: Meat Hygiene: Definitions, Meat industry and meat hygiene in India and other countries. Raising meat food animals and birds, their trade and transport. Hygienic aspects of slaughter, bleeding, dressing and processing and manufacture of carcass meat and meat products. Rigor mortis, Emergency and casualty slaughter. Meat microbiology. Sources of contamination, Disposal and reclamation of slaughter house wastes and by products and associated public health problems. Spoilage of meat and meat products, Preservation of meat. Meat food safety, Antemortem and post mortem examination, Inspection of poultry meat, eggs, fish and meat from game animals, Judgement, Indices of sanitary quality, National and International standards, Bacteriological, serological and biochemical tests for quality control, substitution and adultration. Section 4: Food borne infections and intoxications: Definitions, Classification of Foodborne disease, Meat borne diseases, Milk borne diseases, Infections and intoxications traced to consumption of fish, Fast/Street/ Convenience foods, Epidemiological characteristics of food borne infections and intoxications, Sources of pathogens and factors favouring for dpoisoning, Bacterial, viral, protozoan, helminthic, mycotic and chemical food poisoning, Epidemiological investigation of food borne infections and intoxications, Food specific attack rate. Odd ratio, Management of food poisoning. Section 5: Zoonoses: Definitions, Concept and classification of Zoonoses, Ecological aspects of Zoonoses, Wild animals-, cold blooded animals -,domestic animals-, and aquatic life - associated zoonoses: Vectors-, milk-, meat-, egg-, fish- and water - spread zoonoses, Occupational zoonoses, Nosocomial zoonoses, Eenozoonoses, Nationally and internationally emerging zoonoses, Epidemiology of bacterial, rickettsial, viral, parasitic and mycotic zoonoses, Principles of zoonoses management: methods of prevention, control and eradication of zoonoses. Section 6: Environmental. Hygiene: Natural sources of water. Water hygiene, Pure and wholesome water; microbial contamination and chemical pollution of water, Impurities in water, plankton, Purification and sanitization of water, Waterborne diseases, Microbiological examination of water, Potable water, Standards for drinking water. The atmosphere. Air pollutants, Airborne pathogens and air borne diseases, Ventilation, Methods of air purification. Agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, domestic and farm effluents polluting environment - and associated hazards and preventive measures. Residue analysis, Minimum permissible levels of residues. Waste - recycling, Methods of disposal of dead animals. Section 7: Epidemiology: Definition: Epizoutiology, Epidemiology, Causal,- association, Concept of infection, Theory of natural nidality, Ecological basis of diseases, Disease transmission, Epidemic process, Distribution of diseases in space and. time, Epidemiologic hypothesis, Types of epidemiological studies, Epidemiological survey, surveillance, monitoring of diseases, Experimental epidemiology, Epidemiological measurements predictive epidemiology, Epidemiologic models, Sero-epidemiology. Use of information technology and computer application in disease monitoring EpidemiologicaI investigation and evaluation of intervention measures. 88
Section 8: Experimental Animal Medicine: Occupational health and safety in the care and use of research animals. Breeding, care and management of experimental animals, Production of gnolobiotic, germrree, and specific pathogen free animals-Breeding transgenic and syngenic, animals, need for raising experimental and tailor made .animals, provisions of Animals welfare and Society for prevention of Cruellty to Animals Act. Section 9: Health Education: Health education, Communication techniques, Participatory programs to make aware agricultural workers, butchers, laboratory staff and those engaged in zoological garden, laboratory animals rearing processing of animal produce about (a) occupational hazards and (b) hazards to consumers. Section 10: Standards, Guidelines and Legislation: Defining standards/guidelines of a product and product ingredients. Food hygiene legislation, Meat food product order, Indian standards for milk and milk products, Meat products, Bureau of Indian Standards, World Trade Order, International Organization for Standards, ISO 9000, Indian Standards (IS) - 14000, Codes Alimentarius, Good Manufacturing Practices, Sanitary and phytosanitary measures, Quality assurance, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Program (HACCP), Total Quality Management to ensure safety to domestic and foreign consumers of products of animal origin. Section 11: Microbiology in Public Health: Food microbiology, Characters of food bacteria, moulds, yeast and virus. Classification of food microbes according to their requirements for growth - temperature, acidity, moisture, oxygen and salt concentration; resistance to microenvironment, Food processing and preservation methods. Pathogens Virulence factors, microbial enzymes, toxic metabolites and other molecules associated with pathogenic mechanisms. Resistance mechanism of survival in environment in and outside the host, Antigens eliciting protective and diagnostic antibodies, Microbiological, Serological, Biological and nucleotide based diagnostic methods.
28. Veterinary Pathology and Parasitology
Paper-I (B) and Paper-II
Unit I: General Veterinary Pathology Introduction, history, etiology and scope of pathology. Definition : Etiology of the disease. Predisposing factors, intrinsic and extrinsic factors responsible for the disease. Haemodynamics derangements, degenerations and necrosis. Disturbances of circulation, hyperemia, ischemia, haemorrhage, thrombosis, embolism, infraction, edema and shock. Disturbances of cell metabolism-like protein, carbohydrates, lipid and pigment metabolism, pathological calcification and ossification. Apoptosis, necrosis and gangrene. Inflammation - Definition associated with inflammatory phenomenon, etiology of inflammation, cardinal signs, pathogenesis of inflammation, chemical mediators released from injured tissues and inflammatory cells. Cellular response in inflammation, structure and function of cells associated with it. Role of humoral and cell-mediated defences. Various classification. Immunopathology. Healing and cellular regeneration capability of different body cells. Disturbances in cell growth - aplasia, hypoplasia, hyperplasia, atrophy, metaplasia and dysplasia: Neoplasms - growth, etiology, classification, morphology and behaviour of neoplasms, structure and biology of the tumour cell, tumour immunology, tissue response to tumours, spread of tumours, pathological features of various neoplasms. Unit II: General Veterinary Parasitology Standard nomenclature of animal parasitic disease (SNOAP AD). Animal - parasite associations. General classification of parasites, description of typical life-cycle patterns, mode of transmission. Overview of host parasite relationships, practical methods recommended for sustainable control of economically important parasites. Drug resistance, methods of monitoring and management of drug resistance against parasites, standard parasitic zoonoses and the emerging parasitic infections. Unit III: Animal and Poultry Diseases Important infectious diseases of animals and poultry : etiology, pathogenesis, pathology and diagnosis of prion, viral, mycoplasmal, rickettsial, clamydial, bacterial, mycotic and parasitic (protozoan, helminthic and arthropod-borne) diseases. Important non infectious (Nutritional, metabolic and production) diseases of animals and poultry : etiopathology, pathogenesis, pathology and diagnosis. Conventional and molecular techniques in diagnosis of animal and poultry diseases.
29. Dairy Chemistry & Mirobiology
PAPER- 1(B) AND PAPER- II
Unit 1 Specific compositional differences among milk from various species, factors affecting composition of milk, colostrum and abnormal milk, physical properties of milk. Salt balance and its importance in processing of milk. Unit 2 Chemistry of mill: lipids. milk proteins, lactose, minerals, vitamins and milk enzymes. biological and chemical methods of detection of milk adulteration. Unit 3 Physico-chemical characteristics of cream, butter, condensed milk and evaporated milk, dried milks, cheese and fermented milks, ice-cream and frozen products. Various chemical changes during manufacture and storage of milk and milk products. PFA. AGMARK and BIS standards for milk and milk products. Concepts of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). Total Quality Management (TQM) and HACCP. Unit 4 Microflora associated with milk and milk products and their importance Characteristics of commonly occurring microbes in milk and milk products. Types of microbes in normal and mastitic milk and importance of somatic cell count. Food poisoning, food infections, toxiinfections and other milk borne diseases. Emerging Food borne pathogens associated with milk and milk products, microbial and chemical changes in raw milk during chilling and refrigeration. Unit 5 Bacteriological aspects of processing techniques like bactofugation, separation, thermization, pasteurization sterilization and URT processing. Type of spoilage in heat treated milks. Prevention of post processing contamination. Unit 6 Microbiological quality of cream, butter, ice cream and frozen products, condensed frozen evaporated milks, dried milks, indigenous. dairy products and by-products, microbiological defect in various dairy products. National and International Microbiological Standards for milk and milk products. Unit 7 Types of starter cultures and their classification modem trends in propagation, production and preservation of starter cultures: factors associated with starter failure. Role of starters in preparation of cheese and fermented milks,
PAPER - II
(A) DAIRY CHEMISTRY Unit I Milk constituents. their normal contents and physical and chemical nature. Specific compositional differences among milk from various species: Variations in milk composition due to breed, feed, season,
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
stage of lactation and mastitis; Effect of variation in composition on market like industry; Colostrum and abnormal milk, physical properties of milk: Acid base equilibria, oxidation-reduction potential, density, viscosity. Interfacial tension. freezing point, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, refractive index. mid butter capacity, physical equilibria among milk salts; Effects of various treatments on salt equilibria: Salt balance and its importance in processing of milk: Water activity, adsorption of water on milk constituents and milk products and its effect oil shelf life: Colloids, properties and colloidal stability of milk; Emulsions, foams and gets formation, their stability and Importance in dairy processing. Lactose - structure. isomers. physical. chemical and biochemical properties. Browning mechanisms. Estimation and biosynthesis. Lactose intolerance. Significance of carbohydrates in milk and milk products. Distribution of tree elements in milk and their technological and nutritional importance, Water - soluble vitamins - molecular structure, milk and milk products, biological significance. and factors affecting, their levels. Unit 2 Levels, distribution, isolation and genetic polymorphism of different milk proteins; Casein micclles - structure, size distribution, stability and physico-chemical properties; Casein models. Amino acid composition and physico-chemical properties of different fractions of caseins: Whey proteins, denaturation of milk proteins as influenced by temperature pH and additives; Biosynthesis, structure, function and physico-chemical properties of a-lactalbumin and B-lactoglobulin, proteases, immunoglobulins, lysozme, lactoferrins, lipoproteins and fat-globule membrane proteins and their Importance; Milk protein allergenicity, Role in immune response; Chemistry of milk enzymes and their significance with reference to milk processing and milk products. Kinetics of chemical reactions and enzyme kinetics: Casein hydrolysate, co-precipitates, and whey protein concentrates-, fermented milk- and bioactive peptides. Unit 3 Milk lipids - classification, composition. structure and general physical and chemical properties Autooxidation- definition. theories. Factors affecting, preservation and measurement. Antioxidants-mechanism of reaction and estimation. Lipolysis. Fatty acids Profile, properties and factors affecting. Unsaponifable matter. Cholesterol - structure, forms, importance and level in milk Chemistry of phospholipid and their role in milk and milk products- fat -soluble vitamins - chemistry, physiological functions, levels in milk, cream. butter and ghee. Biosynthesis of milk fat. CLA biosynthesis and its nutritional and health benefits. Unit 4 Milk-adulteration detection methods: Biological and chemical; Estimation methods for antibiotics, pesticides, heavy metals, lactose, lactate, protein, total solid, fat, salt, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorous, iron, citric acid in milk and milk products. Estimation of vitamin A, total phospholipids and free fatty acids in ghee. Estimation of starch in food. Measurement of BOD and COD in dairy waste. Biological methods for detection of adulteration in milk and milk products: PCR and DNA probe based detection. Unit 5 Cream; size distribution of fat globules, creaming phenomenon, composition and properties of cream and dry cream. Chemistry of- neutralization and ripening. Butter. Mechanism of churning during butler preparation. Desi and creamery butter composition, properties, microstructure, grading, standards and defects. Ghee : differences in composition and variations in ghee and butter oil Analytical constants and factors affecting them. Differences in cow and buffalo ghee. hydrolytic and oxidative deterioration of ghee, their causes and prevention. Adulteration and methods of detection. Ghee grading: Antioxidants: natural and synthetic. physico-chemical characteristics of butter milk and ghee residue. 92
DAIRY CHEMISTRY & MIROBIOLOGY
Unit 6 Heat stability of milk as affected by various milk constituents and additives. Role of proteinprotein interaction and age gelation of UHT milk. Physical and chemical changes during preparation of concentrated milk and subsequent storage. Compositional differences between condensed and evaporated milk. Dried milk: Structure, physicochemical properties and stability of milk powder. Physical properties of instant powder. Infant food. Spoilage of milk powder and its control. Khoa : Composition and changes daring manufacture. Composition and changes during preparation chhana and paneer. Unit 7 Composition and varietal differences. Chemistry of rennin action. Influence of acidity, renneting and heat on the process of cheese manufacture. Changes during manufacture and ripening. Role and mechanism of action of stabilizers and emulsifiers. rheological properties and defects of chees. Milk clotting enzymes, from different sources - microbial, animal and plant. Theories and metabolic pathways of fermentation. Dahi, yoghurt and Acidophillus Milk. Composition and specific differences, chemical changes during formentation, flavour developmcnt. Composition of Lassi and buttermilk. Nutritional and therapeutic significance of fermented milk products and functional foods. Unit 8 Composition and physical structure, changes during ageing, freezing, hardening and defects. Role and mechanism of stabiliers and emulsifiers. Kulfi composition and differences with ice-cream. Definition of quality, quality control and assurance. Standards, statutory and voluntary organizations, PEA act, sampling, labeling, food inspectors and public inspecters and public analysts. PFA and and AOMARK, BIS. IS09000 standards for milk products. Total quality management, sensory evaluation of milk and milk products. Specifications of equipment,, calibration of glasswares and tools used in Quality control laboratory, legal requirements of packaging material, and product information.. IDF code on nutrition labeling. Isolation of milk constituents and their recombination for product development. Filled milk products. Unit 9 Molecular interactions - covalent and weak molecular interactions viz. Ionic Interaction, hydrogen bonding, vander waal interactions, hydrophobic effect, Fundamentals of statistical thermodynamics, molecular mechanics, quantum mechanics, Molecular modeling. Energy minimization and free energy calculations, molecular dynamies and simulatiun. Combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening and synthesis of functionally important groups; protein-ligand interactions - protein -protein interactions, docking and cumputational techniques for molecular prediction of molecular conformations and structures. Unit 10 Spectroscopy - UV - V is spectrophotometry, IR and ETIR fluorimetry, Circular dichroism. atomic absorption spectroscopy, ID, 21) and multidimensional NMR, Single crystal and powder X-ray crystallography. Mass Spectrormetry, MS-MS, MS-MALDl, Separation techniques: TLC, OLC, LC, LCMS, IEF, lon exchange, size cxclusion, reverse phase, hydrophobic interaction, affinity chromatography, analytical sedimentation, sedimentation equilibrium, isopyenic and isokinetic ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, Precipitation by salting out agents, biopolymers (PEO, dextran etc.), organic solvents, Two and three phase partitioning, solvent-solvent partitioning; Electrophoresis - PAGE, SDS-PAGE:, Agarose electrophoresis; Radio-tracers admn nonradio-tiaccr based detection techniques (B) DAIRY MICROBIOLOGY Unit 11 Micro-flora associated with milk and milk products and their importance-. Morphological, cultural, 93
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physiological, spoilage and pathogenic characteristics of commonly occuring microbes in milk and milk products; Newer approaches for classification of micro-organisms; Types of- microbes in norrl lat arid mastitic milk and importance of somatic cell counts: Food poisoning, food infections, toxi-infections and other milk home diseases, Emerging Food borne pathogens associated with milk and milk products; Epidemiological studies using DNA finger printing techniques like RAPD, RFLP, DGGE, TGGE, Rep-PCR etc. Sources of microbial contamination of raw milk and their relative importance in influencing quality of milk during production, collection, transportation and storage. Microbial and chemical Changes in raw milk during chilling and refrigeration. Unit 12 Bacteriological aspects of processing techniques like bactofugation, thermisation, pasteurization, sterilization, boiling. UHT, pulsed field treatment and membrane filtration of milk; Types of spoilages in heat-treated milks. Enumeration of heat resistant microbes. Germination and sporulation of bacterial spores; Prevention of post-processing contamination in heated milk. Identification of sources of contamination in heat treated milks; Heat induced damage and repair in bacterial cells, D. F & Z values for various microbes: Role of resuscitation, in recovery of heat injured microbial cells: Bacteriological grading of raw. and heattreated milk. Microbiological spoilage aspects of thermally processed milks: Role of phychrotrophic, thermoduric, thermophilic bacteria and their metabolites in milk spoilage. Unit 13 Naturally occurring preservative systems in milk like I.P’ system, Immunoglobulins, Lysozmye. Lactoferrin etc: Preservation of milk and milk products by physical (Irradiations) and chemical agents; Food grade Bipreservatives ((GRAS) viz. Nisin and other antimicrobials produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Application of bacterioeins as food grade biopreservatives in enhancing shelf life of foods; Enhancing anti-microbial potentials of LAB by recombinant DNA technology and Genetic engineering; Residues of antibiotic. detergents, sanitizers, pesticides and aflatoxins in milk, mode of action on microbes and biological consequences - as well as their detection by newer approaches like Charm test. HPLC. ELISA and other methods. Unit 14 Microbiological quality of Fat rich products Cream and Butter), Frozen dairy products (ice cream); Concentrated dairy products (Evaporated and sweetened condensed milk) and Dried Milks (Roller and Spray dried milks and Infant foods): Factors Influencing tile microbiological quality of above products during their production, processing. handling, storage and distribution; Microbial defects associated with these products and their control: Microbiological safety in relation to potential pathogons and their public health significance, National and International microbiological standards for dairy products (BIS, ICMSF. Codex Alimentarius Standards) Unit 15 Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as Starters: Types of starter cultures and their classification;. Identification of LAB based on conventional and molecular techniques such as 16S rRNA sequencing. Ribotyping, PCR and DNA finger printing: Microbiology of Starter cultures: Single and multiple strain cultures, and custom cultures; Associative growth of starter cultures; Concepts of starter growth and metabolism of lactose and citratre- Production of taste and aroma compounds by starters in fermented milk, and milk products, Changes caused by starters in milk during growth: Modem trends in propagation. production and preservation of starter cultures, Production of starter concentrates. DVS starters-. Judging of starters quality activity: Starter defects: Starter failure, Intrinsic and extrinsic factors associated with starter failure: Bacteriophages of dairy starters and their impact on dairy industry: Prevention and control of starter failures. 94
DAIRY CHEMISTRY & MIROBIOLOGY
Genetics and Molecular Biology of acid, flavour and therapeutic properties of LAB; Role of plasmids in their metabolism; Genetic manipulation of LAB for ameliorated performance; Food grade cloning and expression vectors; LAB as hosts for expression of heterologous proteins and development of food grade oral vaccines; LAB genome projects. Unit 16 Dairy products as functional/health foods; LAB as Probiotics in development of health foods; Selection ‘criteria, colonization and functional properties; Anti-bacterial and therapeutic properties of probiotic cultures: Survival and stability of Probiotics in health foods, gut and their tracking: Concept of prebiotics and Synbiotics; Genetic markers of probiotic functions and their application for mass screening Genomics of probiotic Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria; Cloning and sequencing of probiotic genes: Sequence analysis; Blast. Clustal Wind ClustalX. Pair wise and Multiple alignment; Homology and phylogenetic tree /dendrograms; LAB as nutraccutical ingredients - a source of vitamin synthesis and exopolvsaccharide production: Bioactive peptides and their role as nutraceuticals in dairy foods. Unit 17 Role of starters in the preparation of yoghurt, koumiss, kefir, cultured butter milk: and whey based beverages and other Fermented product; Therapeutic properties of fermented foods; Microbial defects in these products, safety and their prevention and control:’ Microbiology of hard semi-hard and soft varieties of cheese; Role of starter culture during preparation and ripening of cheese; Accelerated ripening of cheese; Production and use of microbial rennet substitutes; Recombinant chymosin and its application; Defects in cheese, Microbiological safety and their prevention and control. Unit 18 Micorbiological quality of indigenous dairy products viz. khoa and chhana based sweets: Burfi; peda; rasogulla, gulabjamun; kheer, kulfi, shrikh and; paneer; dahi: lassi, ghee etc. Sources of microbial contamination, their role in spoilage of these products and their Microbiological safety, Prevention and control; Role of personnel and environmental hygiene at the level of production and processing. Need for microbiological standards for assessing the quality and safety of indigenous producrs; The concept of TQMand HACCP’ implemenntation in Improvement of quality and safety of indigenous products: Current role of’ modified packaging for extending the shelf’ stability of indigenous dairy products, Antimicrobial packaging, controlled and modified atmosphere (CAP/MAP) based techonologies. Unit 19 Preparation of by products from dairy effluents by microbial fermation; Cleaning and santization of equipments, machineries and other contact surfaces used in production and processing of milk and milk products. Types of detergents and their mechanisms of soil removal from the surfaces; Efficacy of sanitizers including gaseous disinfectants and evaluation of sanitizing/disinfectant properties; Factors affecting activity of detergents and sanitizers; Built detergents, commercial detergents and combined detergentsanitizeres: Biological consequences of dairy waste disposal; Disposal of dairy effluents after microbial. treatment; BOD and COD analysis in dairy effluents: Microbiological quality of air and water used in Dairy plants. Unit 20 Microbiological aspects of quality control and quality assurance in production of milk and milk products; Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) and the relevance and Sanitary Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP): Importance of Total Quality Management (TQM) in dairy industry; Application of HACCP programme in dairy industry; Safety concerns of Biofilm formation on equipment surfaces and 95
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their control measures; Risk assessment approaches and role of predictive microbiology in dairy foods. Conventional and current methods like imepdence. ATP luminescence, pyruvate etc. in detection of’ food pathogens; Application of immunological. PCR. Real Time PCR DNA probes, Microarrays (Biochips.) and (Biosenors etc for detection of food pathogens: Biosafety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) foods.
30. Dairy Engineering and Technology
PAPER-1 (B) and Paper- II
Unit 1 Principles and Practices of production of high quality milk, standardization of milk. Centrifugal separation, clarification and bacto-fugation, pasteurization, sterilization, UHT processing and aseptic packaging units. Special milks; toned double toned, recombined, reconstituted, flavoured and filled milks cream, butter, butter oil, ghee, ice cream and frozen products, different types of cheeses and fermented milks. Unit 2 Sweetened condensed milks, evaporated milks, various indigenous dairy products and bye products. Packaging of dairy products, cleaning and sanitation in dairy plants. Unit 3 Alterative processes dairy technology; radiation, ohimic beating, microwave processing, membrane filtration technique, electrodialysis, incorporation of cereals and legumes in dairy products, biotechnological applications, retort processing, water activity, freeze drying, new product development, functional food development, quality of milk (nutritional, physicochemical and microbiological) contaminants and safety aspects, legal standards, quality systems and certifications. Unit 4 Basic principles of heat transfer. Design and selection of heat exchangers used in dairy plants. Basic principles of mass transfer and momentum transfer phenomena process equipment design. Unit 5 Constructional and design features of cream separator, clarifier, homogenizer, butter and. cheese making equipments, single and multiple effect evaporators, spray dryer, freeze dryer, drum dryer, ice cream freezers and packaging systems. Dairy plant design. Instruments for measurement of pressure, temperature, vacuum, humidity, fluid flow and liquid level, principles of automatic process control and control elements. Unit 6 Steam generation, boilers and their accessories, refrigeration and our conditioning vapour compression system elements and controls, defrosting, condensers. Design of cold storage, water softening and demineralization operations in dairy plant. Waste treatment and pollution control methods.
(A) DAIRY TECHNOLOGY Unit 1: Dairy Plant Operations Status of dairy Industry in India, recent policies governing dairy sector, raw milk preservation, physicochemical composition of milk, centrifugal separation, clarification, homogenization, thermal processing; UHT treatment, bactofugation etc. principles of production, packaging and marketing of special milk
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
Unit 2: Fat-rich & frozen dairy products Principles of production, packaging and marketing of cream, butter, butter oil, ghee. margarine. fat spreads, different kinds of ice creams, frozen desserts, kulfi, malai-ka-barf etc. Fractionation and health aspects of milk fat, cholesterol reduced and cholesterol-free dairy products, CLA and its applications Unit 3: Cheese and fermented milk products Principles of production, packaging and marketing of different kinds of unripened, ripened and processed cheeses, yoghurt, dahi, fermented milk products, shrikhand, mishidoi etc. Mechanization of cheese production, accelerated cheese ripening, probiotic dairy products Unit 4: Concentrated and dried milk products Principles of production, packaging and marketing of sweetened condensed milk, evaporated milk, UHT sterilized concentrated milk, whole milk powder, skim milk powder, malted milk powder, instantized milk powder, ice cream and cheese powders, infant and weaning foods. Unit 5: Indigenous milk products and dairy by-products Status and role of traditional dairy products in Indian Dairy Industry. Principles of production. packaging and marketing of khoa, khoa-based products, chhana, chhanabased products, paneer, rabri, kheer etc. Pollution problems associated with by-products. Principles of production, packaging and, marketing of caseins, caseinates, whey powder, whey concentrates, whey-based beverages, syrups and soups, lactose, butter milk etc. Unit 6:Packaging of dairy products & Cleaning and sanitation in dairy plants Conventional and novel packaging materials, systems and lines employed in dairy industry, special packaging methods - vacuum, shrink, aseptic etc., MAP, standards and regulations of packaging. Conventional and novel detergents and sanitizers used in dairy industry, automation and CIP, water quality, waste management, biodetergents, ultrasonic cleaning techniques. Unit 7: Advances in Dairy Technology-I Alternative processing and preservation techniques - radiation preservation, microwave heating. ohmic heating, high pressure processing etc. Membrane processing and its applications, Emulsions, foams and gels; Electrodialysis; in dairy industry, incorporation of cereals and legumes in dairy products, bakery and confectionary products, biotechnological applications in dairy processing, designer milk Unit 8:Advances in Dairy Technology-2 Retort processing, concept of water activity, rheology of dairy foods, freeze drying and its consequences, intermediate moisture foods, new product development, devclopmcnt of functional foods such as sports foods, geriatric foods, low residue diets, high Fiber foods, low cholesterol diets, low or no-sugar diets etc. Unit 9: Quality and safety aspects of dairy products Physico-chemical, microbiological and nutritional aspects of dairy products and their assessment, safety aspects with reference, to mycotoxins, antibiotics, pesticides, weedicides and heavy metals, legal standards for dairy products, quality systems such as HACCP, ISO certification etc. (B) DAIRY ENGINERING Unit 10: Heat and Mass Transfer Fourier law: Steady state heat conduction through slab, pipe wall and fin. Empirical relations for 98
DAIRY ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
convection transfer for flow through pipe and parallel plates. Condensation and boiling heat transfer. Unsteady state heat conduction in simple geometry. Analytical and numerical solutions to transient state heat transfer. Mass transfer: Molecular diffusion in solids, liquids and gases, Fick’s law, estimation of mass transfer co-efficient. Mass balance in equilibrium stage operators. Dimensional analysis-of turbulent flow. Momentum, heat and mass transfer analogies. Unit 11: Rheology and Water Activity Concept of Rheology, ideal, elastic, plastic and viscous behaviour. Viscoelastic models. Stress strain behaviour, creep and stress relaxation. Characteristics of Newtonian & nonNewtonian fluids. Water activity of foods, water sorption isotherm and water activity measurement of methods. Permeability and shelf-life prediction of dairy products. Principles of equipment planning and design in quality milk processing. Unit 12: Unit Operations in Dairy Engineering Centrifugal separation of solid, liquid and gas mixtures. Cyclone, cream separator and clarifiers. Construction and operation of butter and cheese making equipments. Size reduction of particulate solids. Homogenization, Sedimentation and settling, Filtration, Agitation and mixing. Flexible packaging and aseptic packaging. Pasteurization, Sterilization and UHT processing of milk. Process time calculations based on heat resistance of microorganisms and quality attributes of milk. Freezing of food, ice cream freezers, freezers concentration and freeze-drying Unit 13: Evaporation and Drying Equipments Material and energy balance. Design of single and multiple-effect evaporators Design of thermocompression system and MVR. Design of spray and its components. Design of drum dryer and fluidized bed dryer. Powder and energy recovery systems Unit 14: Instrumentation and Control Engineering Mechanical, electrical, magnetic, optical and other types of transducers. Instrument for measurement of pressure, temperature, radiation, humidity, vacuum, fluid flow and liquid level. Principles of automatic process control and control elements. Proportional, integral and derivative controllers. Data acquisition. Unit I5: Plant Utilities and Environmental Engineering Steam generation. Boilers and their accessories. Vapour compression refrigeration system. elements and controls, defrosting, condensers. Water softening and demineralization operations in dairy plants. Waste water treatment and pollution control laws. Unit 16: Process Equipment Design Design of vessels; corrosion mechanism & control, design of milk storage tanks, formed heads, process piping and layout. Design of heat exchangers; tubular, shelf & tube, plate heat exchanger, scrapped surface heat exchangers. Application of aerodynamic properties to pneumatic handling and conveying of food products. Unit 17: Dairy Plant Design and Project Engineering Design of milk collecting centers, chilling centers, fluid milk and multi products plants, small, medium and large plants, feasibility project report preparation, equipments for indigenous milk products.Selectin of plant and machineries.Maintanance of dairy equipments and utilities Unit 18: Dairy Process Engineering Hygienic aspects of plant and equipment design, CIP systems, batch and continuous operations, scale-up and simulation. Membrane processes, ultra filtration and reverse osmosis. 99
31. Animal Genetics & Breeding
PAPER I (B) AND PAPER -II
Unit I : Mendelian Genetics History and development of genetics. Mendelian principles - Modification in Mendelian ratios-linkage and cross over, linkage map- sex linkage- mutations, mutagenic agents, rate of mutation -multiple allelesmultiple gene inheritance - penctrance - expressivity hereditary disorders in livestock. List of major qualitative traits and their pattern of inheritance in livestock and poultry. Unit 2 : Biochemical Genetics: Polymorphism- genetic basis genetic polymorphism in isozymes, blood protiens , (Albumin, globulin. hemoglobin transferrin etc. milk proteins, K ion concentration types in sheep - Basic principles for electrophoresis- utility in parentage identification. Blood of major livestock species. Unit 3 : Cytogenetics Development in cytogcnctics - preparation of normal karyotypes- short term blood cultures; -lab, techniques - principles - preparation of metaphase chromosomes - banding (G banding. C banding, R banding, fluorescent banding. NOR etc.) Normal karyotypes of livestock species - Metacentric, submetacentic, acrocentric and telocentric chromosomes variant chromosomes- Y chromosome polymorphism - chromosome abnormalities - genetic and phenotypic effects - centric fusion (l/29 translocation in cattle, other centric fusions). Sex chromosomes, aneuploidy - mosaics and chimera free martins. Intersexuality and hermaphrodism in goat - chromosome evolution in family equidae . Chromosome compliments of Riverine and Swamp buffalo and their crosses. Unit 4 : Molecular Genetics Gene - structure of DNA - replication -protein synthesis - Operon concept - introns exons. Genome size of livestock species- basic principles of DNA extraction from blood, and other body tissues - basic principles of PCR - various types of electrophoresis - DNA sequencing - manual and automated sequencing. Molecular genetic techniques i.e. PCRRAPD, PCR RFLP, PCR-AFLP, Multiplex PCR, quantilativc PCR, SSCP, SNPs, DDRT, SSH, DNA micro array -Microsatelllites. 2D gel electrophoresis. DNA markers- major genes- K casein, B lactoglobulin, growth hormone, growth hormone receptor gene, prolactin, MHC (class Il. DRD Ill), Leptin, D) Gat, fecundity gene. etc. Milk synthesis genes, growth genes etc. Use of microsatellites for between and within breed variation - preparation of dendogram genetic distance -gene clusters. Recombinant DNA technique- international gene banks- Gene accessation No. Genomics – proteomics-genes expression-basics for Bioinformatics - important softwares. Unit 5 : Population Genetics Population - Mendelian population- Panmixic population effective population size characteristics of population -gene frequencies; genotypic frequencies- genetic equilibrium for autosomal and sex linked genes. Effectiveness of selection (complete and partial), migration, mutation (selection- mutation equililbrium, mutation equilibrium) and random genetic drifts (fixing of genes and elimination of genes). Values and means, dominance deviation - additive genetic variance, dominance and epistatic variance. Unit 6: Quantative Genetics Quantative traits - phenotypic variance - components of phenotypic variance -genotypic variance. environmental variance -genotype x environment interaction – genotype environment correlation -genetic
ANIMAL GENETICS & BREEDING
parameters - heritability, repeatability, genetic correlation - basic concept for estimation of genetic Parameters- resemblancc between relatives - vertical v/s lateral relationships -properties, of genetics, parameters -methods of estimation of genetic parameters. relative efficiency of methods uses of genetic parameters - Inheritance of threshold characters. Statistical models for estimation of genetic parameters – assumptions- additive v/s multiplicative Biometrical technique in Animal Breeding . Design applicable to Animal Breeding and their analysis. Unit 7 : Selection and Selection Experiments Selection - selection differential - intensity of selection - response to selection, realised heritability - causes for flactuation in genetic gain - basis for selection - accuracy of selection. Individual, pedigree, family and progeny based selection and their relative efficiency and accuracies. Selection experiments in poultry and livestock - long term and short term goal genetics slippage. Sire evaluation - station testing. associated herd testing and field progeny testing programmes - basic norms - sire indices, breeding values - various methods for estimation of sire Indices - BLUP For breeding values of sire - genetic gain in progeny testing programmes- Genetic divergence- genetic and environmental trends in breeding programmes- multi traits selection - tandem, independent culling and selection indicles partial, complete and restricted). multi source index – individual plus family selectionindividual pedigree selection - Osborne index. Multi stage selection. Selection for threshold characters. Unit 8 : Breeding Methods / Mating System Random mating- inbreeding-out breeding-species hybridization. Coefficient of inhbreeding-path coeffieint method-genetic and phenotype effects of inbreeding adantages and limitations of inbreedinginbreeding depression- uses of inbreeding development of inbred strains and lines. Out breeding-out crossing/cross breeding – two breed, three breed, four breed crosses rotational crossing - development of synthetic breed, hybrid vigour I heterosis -genetic and Phenotypic effects of heterosis - estimation of hctcrosis - maternal heterosis. Grading up. Species hybridization. Unit 9: Breeding strategies for Livestock and Poultry Breeds of livestock and poultry - classification - important economics traits of major breeds of livestock ‘and poultry. Habitate of different breeds in the country- population statistics. Genetic improvement programmes for cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig, poultry. Genetic gain for important ‘economic traits of livestock and poultry. Pure breeding and cross breeding programmes for cattle -selection of male and female selection indices and breeding values for males and females, Sire evaluation programmes - concept of “Interbull”. grinding, up of non descript. Cross breeding evaluation of cross bred bulls- new crossbreds developed Karanswiss, Karanfrics, Sunandini. ONBS. Molecular genetic markers - identification of QTLs from sire - daughter, sire - grand daughter and selective genotyping. Sheep and goat breeding for fibre and meat production. Selective breeding- cross breeding - selection indices - flock structure and productivity selection of - males and females- important crossbreds developed viz; Bharat Merino. Avikalin and Avivastra. Buffalo Breeding Programmes Poultry - egg type, broiler type - selection indices - Osborn Index - Intra population selection strain crossing - development of inbred lines - exploitation of heterosis - diallele crossing - poly allele crossing - SCA. GCA, recurrent selection, reciprocal recurrent selection - selection for feed efficiency (PEl, RFC) - selection for disease resistance, selection against heat stress. Alternative breeding strategy. Uses of genetic markers. 101
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Evaluation of pure breeding and cross breeding in livestock and poultry recomended exotic breeds - level of exotic inheritance. NCBBP. Pig breeding programmes. Breeding programmes,” All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Cattle, Sheep, Goat, Pig and Poultry. Unit 10 : Conservation of Genetic Resources Principal methods of conservation - insitu and exitu conservation - choosing of breeds for conservation based on population size -genetic status and risk assessment - classification of breeds according to their risk status (Extinct, Endangered, Vulnerable, Rare and Out of danger - Animal genetic data bank at global and national level. Unit 11 : Laboratory Animal Breeding Labortory animal species viz. mice, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, dog and monkey - Their chromosome numbers –genome size - major genes. Physiological, nutritional, reproduction, parameters, maintenance protocol - pedigree recording, planned mating. Nomenclature for differcnt strains, inbred lines ( SPF line, Knockout mice etc.) - Animal model for human disease, Specific utility of different laboratory species for different requirements.
32. Animal Physiology and Nutrition
PAPER - I (B) and PAPER II
Unit 1: Energy, Protein, Vitamin and Minerals Animal Cell-Organelle and its functions. Functions of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Available energy from organic nutrients. Partitioning of dietary energy, basal metabolic rate. Energy retention. Factors affecting energy utilization. Essential and critical amino acids. Protein evaluation. Metabolizable protein concept. Protein energy inter-relationship. Functions of Vitamins, deficiency, hyper-vitaminosis, requirement and sources. Minerals, functions, deficiency and toxicity. Mineral requirements of livestock, sources, inter-relationship, synergism and antagonism. Unit 2: Rumen Physiology and Nutrition Control of rumen motility, rumen environment. Development of functional rumen. Role of rumen microbes. Significance of rumen fungi - defaunation and transfaunation. Microbial fermentation in rumen. VFA production, inter conversion and utilization. Dietary proteins break down. Microbial protein synthesis. NPN compounds and their utilization. Ammonia toxicity - role of slow release urea compounds. Manipulation of rumen fermentation. Bio-hydrogenation and utilization of dietary lipids. Methanogenesis and methane inhibitors. Rumen dysfunctions. Role of protected proteins and fats. Adverse effects of over protection of dietary proteins. Naturally occurring by-pass proteins. Unit 3: Digestive Physiology and Nutrition of Non-Ruminants Comparative gastro - intestinal physiology of mono-gastric animals. Digestion and metabolism of organic nutrients in poultry and swine. Significance of minerals and vitamins in mono-gastric animals. Inter relationship in nutrient sparing activity. Unit 4: Nutrition and Reproduction Male spermatogenesis. Accessory sex glands,. semen and evaluation. Factors affecting semen production. Artificial insemination - semen collection, preservation and transportation and semen diluents. Freezing of semen. Oogenesis. Follicular development. Ovulation. Corpus Luteum. Reproductive cycles in animals. Female reproductive hormones. Energy and protein requirement of gestation. Unit 5: Nutrition and Lactation Lactation - Hormonal control of lactation and milk let-down. Maintenance and cessation of lactation. Mammary gland involution. Milk precursors and synthesis of milk constituents. Milk composition in different animals. Nutrient requirement and efficiency of milk production. Unit 6: Physiology of Growth and Nutrition Concept and definition. Growth regulation and factors affecting prenatal and post natal growth. Role of growth in production. Growth curve and growth measurement. Nutrient requirement and energetic efficiency of growth of non- ruminants and ruminants. Unit 7: Feed Evaluation, Processing, Forage Conservation and Feed Additives Physical, chemical and biological method of feed processing. Effect of processing on nutritional quality and utilization. Feed analysis and quality control. Concept of complete diet system. Alternative feed resources. Anti-nutritional factors and toxins in feeds and forages. Method of detoxification. Silage, hay making and its grading. Ration formulation, least cost ration. Feeding strategy during stress
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and nutritional calamities. Feed additives. Nutritonal role - probiotics, prebiotics and other metabolic modifiers. Unit 8: Blood and body fluids Blood, composition, constituents, coagulation. Blood groups and immunogens. Reticuloendothelial system. Body fluids, electrolytes and balance mechanisms. Body buffers and acid base balance. . Unit 9: Circulation and cardiopulmonary system Blood circulation- systemic and regional. Lymph and lymphatic circulation. Hemodynamics and biophysical principles. Heart, neural control and autoregulation. Electrocardiography. Respiration- control and regulation. Gaseous exchange and transport. Respiration in birds. Unit 10: Nervous system, special senses and Muscle physiology Nervous system, general organization and action potential generation. Synapse, neurotransmitters and impulse transmission. Spinal and brain reflexes. Autonomic nervous system. Functions of spinal cord, brain stem and cerebellum. Limbic system and cerebral cortex. Learning and memory. Pain and special senses. Skeletal muscle, contractile structures, excitation contraction coupling. Work, exercise and high altitude physiology. Unit 11: Climate and behavior physiology Physiology of climatic stress. Effect of stress on production and reproduction. Neural and hormonal regulation of body temperature in homeotherms. Mechanism of adaptation. Photoperiodicity and biological rhythms. Design of shelters/animal houses for different climatic conditions. Feeding, grazing, drinking and thermoregulatory behavior of livestock.
33. Animal Reproduction
PAPER–I(B) and PAPER–II
Unit 1 : Veterinary Gynaecology Biology of sex, development of female genitalia. Functional anatomy of female reproductive system of farm animals. Growth, puberty and sexual maturity. Reproductive cycles (oestrus cycle) in female farm animals. ogenesis and folliculogenesis. Follicular dynamics and ovulation. Transport and survival of gamtetes, fertilization, cleavage, implantation and maternal recognition of pregnancy Development of foetus and foetal membranes. Placenta - classification and functions. Gestation and Pregnancy diagnosis in farm animals. Unit 2 : Reproductive Endocrinology Reproductive hormones, classification, synthesis, chemical composition and mechanism of action. Hypothalmus, pituitary, thyrod, gonadotropic, gonadal, placental and pineal gland hormones, prostaglandins, pheromones, growth factors and hormone antagonists and their significance in animal reproduction. Hormonal assays. Hormonal regulation of male and female reproduction. Clinical uses of hormones. Unit 3 : Accidents during Gestation Pregnancy, pseudoecyesis, Ectopic pregnancy, Abnormalities of fertilization and foetal development, super fecundation and superfoetation. Abortion bacterial, vira, mycotic, protozoal, physical, toxic and miscellaneous causes; diagnosis and prevention. MDropsy of foetal membrane and foetus. Maccration, mummification, pyometra. Antepartum vagino cervical prolapse, uterine torsion and displacement of uterus. Unit 4: Veterinary Obstetrics Pelvis and and pelvimetry, parturition – signs approaching parturition, initiation and stages of parturition, induction of parturition and postpartum period. Presentation, position and posture. Causes and forms of dystocia and its treatment. Obsterical maneuvers including fetotomy and caesarean section. Post partum complication in domestic animals, retention of placenta, uterine prolapse, metritis, septie metritis. Post parturient metabolic disorders. Unit 5: Andrology Comparative anatomy of male reproductive system. Thermoregulation of testis and blood testis barrier, growth, puberty and sexual maturity. Spermatogenesis including cycle of semniferous epithelium spermatogenic and wave. Sperm morphology and ultra structure of spermatozoa, sperm transport, maturation and storage in male genital tract. Secretions of male reproductive tract including accessory glands and their role in reproduction. Sexual/mating behaviour. Semen and its composition, biochemistry of semen and sperm metabolism. Sperm abnormalities and its classification, sperm separation and spermatozoa karyo typing. Unit 6 : Male Infertility Fertility, infertility and sterility in male domestic animals. Causes and forms of male infertility. Testicular hypoplasia, cryptochid, testicular degeneration, orchitis. affections of apididymis, vas deference, penis, prepuce and accessory glands. Tumors of the male reproductive tract. Management ,and nutritional Infertility: Vices in the males. Evaluation of male for breeding soundness reproductive health status. Effect of parental drugs and vaccines on semen quality.
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
Unit 7: Frozen Semen Technology and Artificial Insemination History and development of’ artificial insemination. Advantage and disadvantage of Al and frozen semen, selection of bulls for Al purpose. management of’ breeding bulls, methods of semen collection in different domestic animals, semen evaluation including latest techniques for evaluation of motility and fertilization. Ideal extenders, extenders For liquid semen. Preservation of semen at various temperatures. processing and preservation of liquid semen. Extenders for frozen semcn, principles and techniques of semen freezing. Cold shock and ultra low temperature shock. Cryoroportectants. Semen additives. Evaluations of frozen semen. Transport and storage semen. Handling of Frozen semen. Liquid nitrogen and LN2 containers. Insemination techniques. Planning and organization of semen bank. Unit 8 : Reproductive Technology Synchronization of oestrous cycle in domestic aninials, control of ovulation. Embryo transfer technology - History advantages and disadvantages, supcrovulation, collection. evaluation. preservation and transfer of embryos. History of in vitro maturation and fertilization. Recovery of oocytes in vitro and in vivo maturation, fertilization, culture, evaluation, preservation and transfer of oocytes / embryos. Micromanipulation of embryo splitting and cloning. Production of transgenic animals. Micromanipulation of’ embryos. Sex determination and gene insertion. Establishment of laboratory for ETT. IVM. 1VF and IVC. Unit 9 : Infertility in Cows and Buffaloes Fertility, infertility and sterility. Evaluation of herd fertility. Incidence and economic role of infertility, forms of infertility, congenital and hereditary defects, infectious diseases. Pathological conditions of ovary, oviduct, uterus, cervix and vulva. Managemental causes of infertility. Hormonal causes of infertility, ancestrous, repeat breeding, cystic ovarian degeneration, sexual health control and reproductive health programmes. Breeding soundness examination of cows and buffaloes. Unit 10: Reproduction and Infertility in Ovine and Caprine Puberty, sexual maturity, breeding season. estrous cycle. Breeding and conception gestation, parturition, peri-parturicnt and obstetrical complications. synchronization of estrous cycle. Embryo transfer. Causes of infertility and their management. Unit 11 : Reproduction and Infertility in Swine Estrous cycle, synchronization of estrous cycle. Hormonal control of reproduction. Various forms of infertility in swine and their management. Various obstetrical problems and their management. Unit 12: Equine Reproduction Physiology and pathology of equine reproduction. Research techniques and methodology for the study of engine reproduction. Equine andrology. Reproductive behaviour and management of stallion. Semen collection, examination and artificial insemination. Pregnant mare behaviour. Application of modem electronic and sonographic techniques in equine reproduction. Equine infertility. Unit 13: Canine and Feline Reproduction Functional anatomy of dog and cat reproductive system, estrus cycle and endocrinology of estrus cycle and detection of optimum breeding time. Methods of pregnancy diagnosis. Contraception. Medical termination of pregnancy. Infertility in bitches disorders of estrus cycle, pseudohpregnancy, pyometra, 106
cystic endoretrial hyperplasia, tumors of reproductive tract. Reproductive bioassays and diagnostics. Difficult whelping - types and methods of handling dystocia. Caesarean section. ovario hysterectomy. Peri parturient complications. Semen collection. evaluation. techniques of artificial insemination, infertility in male including testicular tumors - cryptorchid, affections of prostrate.
34. Livestock Producton and Management
PAPER-I (B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1 : General Present status and future prospects of livestock and poultry development in India. Animal production systems in different agro-climatic zones of the country. Socioeconomic and environmental issues in relation to sustainability. of livestock production. Various livestock and poultry development programmes operative in the country. Effect of industrialization and mechanization of agriculture on livestock sector. Breeds of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pigs, equine, camels, rabbits and Poultry. and their conservation and sustainable utilization. Adaptation and production (if livestock and poultry. in tropics, deserts cold and high altitudes. Reproductive behaviour in various species of’ livestock and poultry. Behavioural problems In livestock and poultry- their causes and managemcnt. Ethical issues in animal production. Integrated and specialized crop and livestock production systems. Labour norms for livestock and poultry management operations. Maintenance of livestock records. Livestock and poultry shows. Biotechnology in animal production and management. Biosecurity and environmental considerations in animal production. Unit 2 : Breeding Management Breeding policies and strategies for livestock improvement under different agro ecological regions. Concepts of heritability, repeatability and their application in animal selection. Important methods of selection and systems of breeding in farm animals and birds. Maintenance and evaluation of breeding records. Farmer’s herd registration and performance recording. Unit 3 : Feeding Management Nutrients and their functions. Nutritional requirements and feeding managements of different categories of livestock and poultry. Formulation and compounding of rations for various categories oflivestock and poultry. Least cost ration formulation. Systems of feeding livestock and birds. Feeding standards for livestock and poultry. conversion efficiency of various categories of livestock and poultry. Processng and storage of conventional and non -conventional feed ingredients. Feed additives including antibiotics, Prebiotics and probiotics and their significance in livestock and poultry production. Agro-industrial byproducts in animal feeding. Water requirement of various categories of livestock and poultry. Unit 4: Reproduction Management Reproductive systems of farm animals and birds. Climate and nutrition atfecting reproductive Performance in farm animals. oestrous detection, synchronization. artificial insemination and pregnancy diagnosis. Causes of impaired fertility its prevention and control in farm animals. Management factors affecting reproductive efficiency. Seasonality in farm animal breeding and its management. Unit 5 : Shelter Management Housing systems. Planning and layout of animal and poultry houses. Space requirement for various categories of livestock and poultry. Housing designs for different agro-climatic regions. Macro and micro climatic changes affecting designs of animal and poultry houses. BIS standards for livestock and poultry housing. Construction of cheap animal and poultry shelters utilizing local resources. Automation in livestock farning. Disposal of livestock waste and its efficient utilization.
LIVESTOCK PRODUCTON AND MANAGEMENT
Unit 6 : Health Management Hygiene and sanitation on animal farm. Symptoms of ill health, important infectious diseases of livestock and poultry and their control. Vaccination schedules in animals and poultry. Internal and external parasites and their control. Accidental health disorders and their control. Common disinfectants used on animal farms. Diseases diagnosis and important diagnostic aids. Concept of first aid at farms. Segregation and quarantine management for large animals and birds. Quarantine act, zoonotic diseases, labour health programme. Unit 7 : Production and Management of Cattle and Buffalo Cattle and buffalo population and performance trends and factors affecting them. Care and management of cows and buffaloes under pre partum period. Care of neonate and young calves. Management strategies for reducing morbidity and mortality in calves, age at first calving, and calving intervals. Milking management and machine milk practice. Management pack-ages for quality milk production. Optimum performance indices for various livestock breeds under organized farms. Unit 8: Production and Management of other Animals Draft animals : Population dynamics of various categories of draft and work animals in India. Characteristics of draft animals. Estimating draft capacity of different species. Harnesses for various types of draft animals. Training of work animals. Feeding, care and management of draft animals. Management of camel with special reference to rearing, feeding and watering. Behavioural studies of various draft animals. Economics of draft animals vis-a-vis machine power. Sheep and goat: Selection and mating systems for improving wool, mohair, pashmina, meat and milk. Feeding practices for economic rearing. Scope of intensive milk and meat production from goat. Mutton and wool production from sheep. Low cost shelter management. Sheep and goat reproduction. Health management. Poultry : Brooding of chicks. Management of growing, laying and breeding flocks. Shelter management. Cage layer management and well being of birds. Light management. Hatchery business management. Management during stress. Chick sexing Maintenance of farm records. Health and sanitation problems. Prevention and disease control. Poultry shows. Handling care of table eggs and processing of birds for meat. Equine: Care and management of horses, donkeys and mules. their feeding. breeding systems and shelter management system. Shoeing. preparation and management of race hourses. Swine: Major breeds of swine. Mating systems for improving pork production. Feeding’ strategies for pigs. Care and management of pregnant swines and unweaned piglets.. Reproduction problems in pigs and remedial measures. Rabbit : Important fur and meat type breeds of rabbit. Housing, handling. feeding watering, breeding. management, sanitation and health care of-rabbits. Unit 9: Wild Life Management Status of wild life in India and its conservation. Ecological basis of management or wild life. Breeding and feeding of wild life in captivity. Health management. Wild life acts. Welfare issues in wild life management. Unit 10 : Forage Production and Conservation Classification of feeds and Forages. Feed and fodder resources used for feeding of livestock and poultry. Nutritive value of feeds and fodders. Conservation and preservation of feeds and fodders. Annual 109
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and perennial fodder crops. Strategies for round the year fodder production. Pasture development and management. Enrichment of poor quality roughages. Unit 11 : Economics and Marketing of Livestock and Poultry and their Products Economic principles as applied to livestock production. Production functions. Farm size resources and product combinations. Cost concepts. Resources optimization in livestock production. Maintenance and evaluation of different production records. Insurance and financing of livestock enterprises. Project formulation for setting up livestock farms. Different approaches to marketing of livestock and its products. Present status of animal fairs for livestock marketing. Market news and information. Determination of prices of livestock products. Vertical integration in livestock products industries.
35. Veterinary Pharmacology & Medicine
PAPER -I (B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1: General Pharmacology Development and scope, branches of pharmacology, terminology. Sources and nature of drugs. Pharmacopoeia and drug compendia. Drug schedules. Regulatory considerations of veterinary drugs, factors modifying drug activity. Pharmacogenetics. Pharmacodynamics: Drug structure activity relationship, Drug-receptor Interaction. Role of second messengers, drug modulation via different types of receptors. Characterization of agonists, antagonists. Pharmacokinetics: Routes of drug administration - principles - absorption. Distrlbuilon, biotransformation, oxoretion. Factors modifying drug kinetics, kinctic constants. Different models, determination of kinetic parameter and application in rational dosage regimen, interspecies scaling, Principles of therupeutics. Pharmacometrics : Organization and screening programmes and drug development. Multidimentional screening methods, bioassays. Determination of median doses - LD.-50 therapeutic indices. Types of dosa-response relationship. Unit 2: Drugs acting on the Central Nervous System Role of nouratransmitters in CNS, sedatives, hypnotics, general anacsthctics. Hypotheses and clinical stages of anaesthesia Pro- and post-anaesthetics, molecular mechanism of action of inhalant and paranteral anaesthetics. Therapeutic gases. Anticonvulsants. Tranquilizers. Neuroleptanalgesics, alpha-adrenegic agonists. Narcotic and non-nardcotic analgesics and antipyretics. Drugs affecting behaviour. Drug dependence and addiction and drug abuse. CNS stimulants. Muscle relaxants. Local anaesthetics. Unit 3 : Drugs acting on the Autonomic and Sumatic. Nervous Systems Neurohumoral transmission. Adrenergic and antiadrenorgle drugs including adrenergic neuron blockers. Cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs. Purinergic and Adenosine receptors. Dopaminorgic and antidopaminorgic agents. Nitric oxide modulators. Neuromuscular blocking agents. Ganglion stimulants and ganglion blockers. Unit 4: Drugs acting on the Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems Drugs acting on heart and blood vessels. Antihyportensive and antiarrhythmic agents. Blood coagulants and anticoagulants, thrombolytic and antiplatclct drugs. Haematinica. Haemorrhagic shock and its treatment. Expectorants, antitussivcs. Bronchodilators. Mucolytic agents. Analeptics, Unit 5 : Drugs, Acting on Digestive System Stomachics, antacids and antiulcer drugs. Carminatives and antizymotics. Emetics and antiemetics. Cathartics. Antidiarrhoeal agents. Antispasmodics. Pharmacology of rumen and rumenotoric drugs. Drugs acting on hepatobiliary system. Nutritional Pharmacology: Fat soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins. Calcium, phosphorus and other macroelements, trace elements and miscellaneous nutrients.
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
Unit 6: Drugs Acting on Uro-genital System Drugs altering fluid balance. Diuretics and antidiuretics- General principles of electrolyte- and fluid therapy. Drugs acting on uterus (oxytocies and tocolytics). Drugs used for synchronization of oestrus_ Unit 7: Endocrine Pharmacology Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. Nanpituitury gonadotropins, adrenocerticoids, sex hormones, insulin and glucagon, thyroid hormones, antithyrold agents, Calcitonin. parathormone. Unit 8: Autacolds Pharmacological effects and therapeutics of histamine, antihistarninic agents, 5-IIT and its antagonists, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, peptides and kinins, renin and angiotcnstns. Platelet activators, Anti-inflammatory drugs. Unit 9: Chemotberapy General principles. Drug allergy, hypersensitivity, mechanisms of resistance. Antiseptics and disinfectants. Chemistry, mechanism of action and thorapeutics of sulphonamides, trimetboprim and congeners. Antibiotics: Penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosidcs, macrolides, tctracycllines, polypeptides. Antifungal and other emerging antibiotics. Quinolones, nitrofurans. Antitubercular, antiviral and antinaoplastic drugs. Anthelmintios: Antinematodal, anticestodal and antitrematodal drugs, Antiprotozoans, coccidiostats. Drugs used for ectoparasite control. Drug residues, withdrawal times. Concept of Gene based therapy, prospects of disease target therapy, immunomodulators, overview of indigenous medicinal drugs and their components for therapeutic use. Unit 10 : Toxicology Terminology, classification of poisons. Toxicity rating. Principles of selective toxicity. Toxicodynamics. Toxicokiaetics. Diagnosis and treatment of poisoning (antidotal and nonantidotal). Mechanism of detoxification. Poisons causing respiratory insufticiency. Toxicology of common inorganic compounds, Toxicity of posticides, metals, non-metals and metalloids. Poisonous plants cyanogenic, nitrate and oxalate producers. Mycotoxins including ergot poisoning. VETERIMARY MEDICINE Unit 1: General Aspects Epidemiological studies, casual association, ecological basis of disease and its transmission. Disease surveillance, monitoring, forecasting, prevention and control. Geographical Information System (GIS) segregation, isolation and quarantine of animals etc. Diseases prevalence, incidence, morbidity and mortality etc. Economic impact of diseases. Animals diseases of public health importance, rural health and health delivery system. Occupational hazards. Virulence factors of pathogens, pathogenic mechanisms of microbes. Resistance mechanism of survival of microbes in and outside the host. Antigens eliclting protective and diagnostic antibodies. Various methods used for diagnostic purpose. Case history and clinical examination of animals. Application of advanced tools for disease diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. Genral systemic states like bactermia, septicemia, pyemia, toxemia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, allergy, anaphylaxis, shock, dehydration, stress, sudden death, anasarca, anaemia, pica etc. 112
VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGY & MEDICINE
Unit 2: Gastroenterology Specific conditions of organs of gastrointestinal system with special emphasis to indigestion, tympany, colic, Impaction, traumatic reticulitis/peritonitis, abomasal displacement, ascites, jaundice, hepatitis, enteritis, gastritis etc. Unit 3: Diseases of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Systems Acute heart failure. Congestive heart failure. Peripheral circulatory failure. Myocardial and valvular diseases, Epistaxis, Pulmomoary congestion and edema, emphysema, pneumonia, pleurisy, aspiration pneumonia. Unit 4: Diseases of Urinary, Nervous, Musculoskektul and Integumentary Systems Nephrosis, nephritis, pyelonephritis, cystitis, urolithiasis, uremia, cerebral anoxia, encephalitis, onccphalomalacia, meningitis , encephalomyelitis, paralysis, myopathy, ostovdystrophy, arthritis, urticaria, dermatitis., photosensitization, conjunctivitis, otitis, keratocojunctivitis, corneal ulcers, eczema alopecia. Unit 5 : Production and Deficiency Diseases Metabolic profile tests, milk lever, Downer’s cow syndrome, ke-tosis, hypomagnesaemia, diabetes, post-parturient haemoglobinuria, azoturia, fat cow syndrome, rickets, osteodystrophic fibrosa, trace mineral mid vitamin deficiency. Unit 6: Diseases caused by Physical Agents, Chemicals and Toxins Diseases caused by physical agents, inorganic and farm chemicals, phytotoxins, mycotoxins, zootaxins etc. Unlt 7: Infectious Diseases Mastitis, strangles, easeuus lymphadenitis in sheep and goats, closttidial diseases. Ulcerative lymphangitis in horses and cattle, listeriosis, leptospirosis, crysiptlas, collibacillosis, salmonellosis, pasteurellosis. Brucellosis, TB, JD, actinomyeosis, actinobacillosis, glanders, mycoptasmal disease, emerging zoonotie infections and their management and control. Hog cholera, African swine fever, leucosis, FMD, RP, PPM BMC, BSE, mucosal diseasc complex, blue tongue, influenza, rabies, visna. contagious eethyma, pox, papillomatasis, distemper. infectious canine hepatitis, Parvo virus enteries, felinc panicucopenia, equine infectious anaomia, chlamydiosis, Q-fever. Anaplasmosis. Heart water contagious opthalmia, aspergillosis, ring worm, bursattee, lymphangitis, bahesiosis, thelleriosis, coccidiosis, trypanosominsis, toxoplasmosis, Zoonosis. Major conditions produced by nematode, cestode and trermatode Infestations, Major conditions produced by arthropod parasites, Unit 8: Diseases of the Newborn Perinatal diseases, congenital defects. Physical and environmental causes of perinatal disease. Noconatal infections, critical care of newborn Unit 9 : Poultry Diseases Newcastle disease, IBD, ID, ILT. Mycoplasmosis. Coccidiosis, Salmonellosis. Necrotic enteritis ALC. Mareck’s disease, Myeotoxicosis. Avian enoephalomyolitis, Hydropericardiuim syndrome, avian influenza, psittacosis, ornilhnsia. TB, histomoniasis, spirochaetosib, trichomoniasis etc., parasitic diseases of poultry. Unit 10: Legislations and Veterinary Jurisprudence Veterinary ethics and role of veterinArian. Prevention of cruelty to animals and legal enactment of 113
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TPC laws related to domestic animals and wild life. Indian Veterinary Council Act and its role in animal welfare. Legal requirements for export and import of livestock and their products. National and international standards for milk, meat, egg and their products, Bureau of Indian standards. Codex Alimcntaries, Good manufacturing practice required for animal and veterinttry products. HACCP. Quality control, WTO. Sanitary and phytoganitary measures. Role of various International organizations in animal disease control. Toxic ferns. Venomous bites and stings and treatment. Unit 11. Environmental Toxicology Types and identification of industrial contamination and pollution residual toxicity. Impact of pesticides, fungicides, weedlcides, fertilizers on biosphere. Chemical warfare agents and radiation hazards, toxicity from food additives, preservatives. Statutory regulation on agrochamical formulations and their uses, lmmunotoxicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, embryotoxicity for toxicological evaluation. Drugs promoting growth and production- Agents used for doping and restraining of wild animals. Euthanizing agents. Water and air pollution. Chemical residues in tissues of food animals, residue analysis, maximum permissible levels of residues.
36. Veterinary Anatomy and Surgery
PAPER- I (B) AND PAPER-II
Unit 1: Veterinary surgery and Radiology Principles of Surgery. Current concepts of inflammation and its management. Disinfections and sterilization - Surgical instruments. Suture materials - suture pattern and knots. Bio implants. Pre-intra and post operative considerations. Pathophysiology of bums. Trauma and shock. Acid base and electrolyte imbalance. Fluid therapy and blood transfusion. Tissue repair and its biochemical aspects. Principles of tissue and organ transplantation. Transplantation immunity. Management of operation theatre. Abcess, cyst, haematoma, tumor, gangrene, sinus, fistula and hernia. Neurological examination. Paralysis and its treatment Care of critically ill patients. Laser surgery. Cryosurgery. Unit 2: Veterinary Anatomy and Histology Locomotive system : Axial, appendicular and visceral skeleton of domestic ruminants, horses, dogs, pig and fowl. Muscles of the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, thoracic limb and pelvic limb. Joints, ligaments and cartilage. Descriptive anatomy of the organs of digestive, resplratory, urogenitai, circulatory and nervous systems and sense organs of domestic ruminants horses, dog, pig and fowl. Microscopic structure of cell, epithelium, connective tissue, muscle and nervous tissue: Histology of the organs of digestive, respiratory. urogenital, circulatory and nervous systems. Histology of the lymphoid organs, sense organs and endocrine glands. Developmental Anatomy- Gametogenesis, fertilization, placentation, cleavage, gastrulation and organogenesis - Development of different organ systems of the body.
PAPER - ll
(A) VETERINARY SURGERY AND ANATOMY Unit 1 : Anaesthesia Anaesthesia and preanaesthetics - Local anaesthesia and techniques. Tranquilizers - Basal marcosis General anaesthesia - administration on various animals - patient monitoring during anaesthesia intravenous and inhalation anaesthesia. Neuromuscular blocking agents. Unit 2 : Rediology Production of X-rays. Radiographic techniques and Interpretation of skiagrams. soft tissue radiography and contrast media techniques of different systems. Alternate imaging techniques. Unit 3: Orthopaedic surgery and Lameness A brief survey of affactions of the back and limbs and consequent lameness in large and small animals - principles of muscle surgery - tenotomy and tenorrhaphy techniques - patellar desmotomy, study of fracture and dislocations in small and large animals. Diseases of bones - healing of fracture of
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
different bones by external and internal fixations -various affections of the joints, their diagnosis and treatment of hoof affections in the horse and cattle - Hip dysplasia in dogs. Unit 4: Surgery of Head and Neck Surgery of mouth - like cleft plate/tonsillectomy. Aural lesions and their management. Surgical drainage of the ear- Management of the skull and mandibular injuries. Affections of the nasal cavity and sinuses. Dental surgery - Surgery oesophagus. Laryngeal hemiplagia in horses - dorsal displacement of soft palate. Epiglottis entrapment, guttural pouch affections in horses - tracheotomy techniques in bovines - dehorning techniques. Common eye affections in domestic animals. Unit 5 : Thoracic and Abdominal Surgery Thoracotomy techniques - Surgical approaches to abdomen - hernia - acquired and congenital surgical affections of abdominal organs in small and large animals. Mammary tumors. Surgical affections of udder, teat and tail and their management. Spleenectomy. Surgical affections of urinary system and their management surgery of male and female reproductive organs. (B) VETERINARY ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY Unit 6 : Gross Anatomy Topographic anatomy of head, neck, thorax, abdomen and limbs of ox, horse, dog, pig. Nasal and oral cavities - thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities (both sexes) with reference to their structure and contents. Anatomy of nervous system and sense organs. Unit 7 : Histology Histology - microscopic structure of epithelium, connective tissue, muscle and nervous tissue. Histology of organs of digestive, respiratory, urogenital, circulatory and nervous systems, lymphoid organs and endocrine glands. Histological section preparation by paraffin methods. Unit 8 : Embryology Gametogenesis, fertilization, placentation, cleavage, gastrulatuon and organogenesis - Development of different organ systems of the body.
37. Poultry Science and Technology
PAPER -1 (B) and PAPER - II
Unit 1: Poultry Genetics and Breeding Definition of class, breed, variety, strain and line; Common breeds and strains of chickens, ducks, geese, guinea fowls, quails, turkeys and other species of poultry; Inheritance of qualitative and quantitative traits in poultry and their usefulness; Sex linked and sex influenced traits; Lethal and semi lethal traits in poultry and their mode of inheritance; Estimate of heritability, genetic & phenotypic correlations, their application in selection; Individual selection, family selection, mass selection, combined selection and indirect selection; Relative merits and demerits of different methods of selection; Construction of selection indices; Exploitation of additive and non-additive gene effects; Genotype and environment interaction; Diallel mating, pair mating and pen mating; Artificial insemination in poultry; Inbreeding, cross breeding and pure line breeding; Hybridization and hybrid vigour in improving economic traits and development of hybrids; Modern trends in commercial poultry breeding; Major genes and their usefulness in poultry breeding in tropics; Selection for disease resistance; Immunogenetics, biological polymorphism and usefulness in poultry breeding; Development of transgenic chicken; Molecular techniques for estimation of genetic diversity among breeds and line of poultry. Unit 2 : Poultry Nutrition Various nutrients and their role in poultry; Nutrient requirements of different species of poultry as per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and National Research Council (NRC) of the USA; Partition of energy; Estimation of metabolizable energy (ME) and true metabolizable energy (TME); Essential and critical amino acids; Evaluation of protein quality; Essential fatty acids, minerals, vitamins and their functions; Nutrient deficiency, toxicity, synergism and antagonism; Naturally occurring toxicants, their adverse effects on poultry and methods to overcome them; Different systems of feeding; Restricted and phase feeding programme; Factors influencing the feed intake; Feed ingredients and sources of various nutrients; Quality control and BIS specifications for feed ingredients; Unconventional feed stuffs and their utilization for economic feed formulation; Feed formulation for different species. Least cost feed formulation and linear programming; Non nutrient feed additives, antibiotics, anticoccidials, antimicrobials, antioxidants, colouring agents, enzymes, flavoring agents, herbs, prebiotics and probiotics. Unit 3: Poultry Physiology Homeostasis and its regulation; Regulation of feed and water intake; Feed passage rate in gastro intestinal tract in relation to digestion and absorption efficiency; Functional regulation of digestion, absorption and metabolism of nutrients; Features of endocrine glands; Endocrine control and variable factors influencing growth process; Mechanism and scope that determines and changes the sex and allows the development of left ovary and oviduct only; Physiological control of age at sexual maturity; Ovarian follicular hierarchy, atresia, ovulation, oviposition, pause, clutch size and secretion of egg components; Photoperiodism and its role in optimization of reproductive functions; Physiology of avian testes, spermatogenesis, semen ejaculation, sperm transport and storage; Fertilization mechanisms in female tract; Respiratory system mechanisms of gaseous exchange; Thermoregulatory and stress mechanisms; Physio-biochemical stress responses and remedial approaches; Embryogenesis and exogenous interventions and their impacts on physiological limits.
ARS/NET EXAMINATION SYLLABI
Unit 4: Poultry Products Technology Structure, chemical composition and nutritive value of egg; Various measures of egg quality; Factors influencing egg quality; Grading of eggs as per Agmark and USDA standards; Egg processing and methods of preservation of table eggs; Various egg products and their uses; Production of designer eggs; Hygiene and sanitation of poultry processing plant; Processing, grading and packing of dressed chicken; Preservation of poultry meat; Value added poultry meat products; Factors affecting poultry meat quality; Processing and utilization of egg and poultry processing wastes. Unit 5: Poultry Management Selection, care, storage and testing of hatching eggs; Principles and methods of incubation; Milestones in embryonic development; Photo-acceleration and embryonic growth; Factors influencing hatchability and production of quality chicks; Hatchery hygiene; Utilization and disposal of hatchery waste; Lay out of a modern hatchery; Equipments required in a modern hatchery; Single and multi stage incubators; Sexing, handling, packaging and transportation of day old chicks; Principles and methods of brooding; Brooding requirement of chicks, quails, ducklings and turkey poults; Management during growing period; Management of layers and breeders; Light management; Litter managements; Broodiness and forced moulting in layers; Management of guinea fowls, ducks, quails and turkeys; Summer and winter management; Study of poultry behaviour including cannibalism, feather pecking and peck order; Welfare measures for poultry; Farm location and site selection; Ideal designing and layout of poultry houses for different agroclimatic conditions; Environmentally controlled poultry houses; Cross-ventilation and ridge ventilation; Ammonia control in poultry houses; Type of brooders, feeders, waters, laying nests, cages etc; Automation in poultry production; Organic Farming; Backyard poultry farming system. Unit 6: Poultry Economics and Marketing Principles of economics as applied to poultry farming; Production, planning and poultry farm records including book keeping; Resources and products relationships; Cost concepts and product pricing; Criteria for resource use efficiency; Economics of scale and horizontal-vertical integration; Sources of institutional finance for poultry enterprises; Govt schemes for promotion of poultry; Poultry insurance; Project formulation for setting up of poultry farms, hatcheries and feed manufacturing units; Concept of poultry marketing; Market structure; Conduct and performance; Contract farming arrangements; Importance and concept of product packaging/branding/advertisement; Institutional support to poultry marketing; International trade in poultry under WTO regime. Unit 7: Poultry Health Management Common diseases of poultry including those of zoonotic and public health importance including bacteria, viral, fungal, protozoan, parasitic and other emerging diseases of national and international importance; Nutritional and metabolic diseases of poultry; Importance of vaccination in poultry and vaccination programme for different species of poultry; Health calendar for poultry including deworming, medication, feed and water sanitation; Principles of biosecurity for prevention of poultry diseases with major emphasis on farm hygiene, safe and hygienic disposal of poultry wastes and dead birds; Common disinfectants and their safe level of application in poultry farming.
38. Animal Product Technology
PAPER-I (B) AND PAPER-II
Unit I: Technology of Meat Products Present status and future prospect of meat, fish and poultry processing industry in India. Abattoir and poultry processing plants: layout, construction, design, organization, operation and maintenance of abattoirs, poultry and fish processing plants. Pre-slaughter care and slaugtering techniques for different animals and poultry. Ant-mortem and post-mortem inspection. Judging and grading of animals and birds on floor and on rail. Condemnation and disposal of unfit material. Disposal of slaughter house effluents. Sanitation, plant operation and maintenance. Sanitary standards for meat packing plants. Meat cutting and deboning. Adulteration and misrepresentation of meat State, municipal and other regulations pertaining to meat trade. Meat food products order. Processing and utilization of various animal and poultry byproducts, slaughter house and poultry plant offals Application of computer in abattoir operation. Processing and Preservation of meat. Retails and whole sale Cuts, Factors affecting meal quality. Quality assurance and inspection of meat products. HACCP Packaging and storage regulations- Meat quality regulations and standards. Curing smoking, freezing, canning and dehydration of meat, poultry and their products Value added meat products manufacturing. Microbial factors-influencing keeping quality of meat. Unit 2: Technology of Milk and Milk Products Milk and milk products production in India. Handling and maintenance of dairy plant equipments. Dairy plant operation; receiving, separation, clarification, pasteurization, homogenization, sterilization, storage, transport and distribution of milk- UHT milk, Toned, homogenized, fortified, reconstituted mid flavoured milks. Technology of fermented milks- Milk products processing - cream, butter, ghee, cheese, condensed milk, evaporated milk whole and skimmed milk powder, ice-cream, butter oil, khoa, channa, paneer, chcese spread and similar products. Judging and grading of milk products. Selection and use of dairy cleaner and sanitizer, inplant cleaning system. Dairy plant sanitation and waste disposal. Unit 3 : Fish Proccssing Technology Processing and Preservation of fish and Its products, Handling, canning, smoking and freezing of fresh water fish and its products. Physiological conditions and quality of fish products. Utilization of byproducts. Zoonatic diseases Unit 4 : Egg Science and Technology Structure and composition of avian eggs Factors effecting quality. Quality measurement. Preservation of eggs using oil coating, refrigeration. Thermo-stabilization Packing, storage and transportation of eggs. Technology of egg products - egg powder, albumen flakes. Industrial and food uses. Unit 5 : Biotechnology of Food of Animal Origin Role of biotechnology in productivity of livestock. Use of biotechnology in production of food additives. Use of biotechnologicaly improved enzymes in food processing industry. Consumer concerns about risks and values. Biotechnology and food safety. Future of biotechnology in India.
39. Chemical Engineering
PAPER-I (B) AND PAPER-II
Section 1 Material and energy balance. Calculations for single and multistage operations without chemical reaction and with chemical reactions. Problems involving recycle and purging. Raoult’s and Henry’s Iaws and related problems. Calculation of off gas composition for combustion processes. Dimensional analysis. Section 2 First and second law of thermodynamics. Intrinsic and extrinsic properties. Carnot cycle. Ideal and non-ideal behaviour of gases and solutions. Chemical potential. Application of Gibb’s Duhem equation. Van-Laar equation and calculation of vapour pressure. Calculation of equilibrium composition for simple homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. Single and multi-stage compression, refrigeration, vapour recompression and heat pump. Section 3 Fluid mechanics. Bernouli’s equation and its application. Flow of compressible and incompressible fluids. Navier-Stokes equation for one dimensional flow. Boundary-layer theory. Skin and form friction. Expansion and contraction losses. Free settling and hindered settling. Differential and inclined manometer, orifice meter, venturimeter, roto-meter and gas-meter. Calculations for pumping of fluids. Section 4 Principles of heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation. Fourier equation. Natural convection and forced convection. Design of different types of heat exchangers, condensers and reboilers, extended surface heat exchangers. Heat transfer in process furnaces and their design. Evaporators. Calculation of heat transfer area for single-stage and multistage operations. Section 5 Principles of diffusion. Mass transfer operations. Two film theory and without chemical reaction. Types of packing materials. Flooding and loading velocity. Plate efficiencies. Design of different types of distillation column by different methods for two components systems. Analogy between heat-mass and momentum transfer. Section 6 Principles of humidification and dehumidification. Wet bulb temperature. Dfferent types of dryers and designs of packed bed dryer and rotary dryer. Industrial cooling towers. Natural draft and forced draft. Design of chimney. Section 7 Kinetics of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. Temperature dependency of reaction velocity constant. Series and parallel reactions: their product distribution and kinetics. Isothermal, adiabatic and programmed reactors. Design of batch, semi-batch, CSTR and plug-flow reactors. Gas solid reactions. Catalysis and design of non-catalytic and catalytic gas solid reaction- Concept of non-ideal reactors.
Section 8 Principles of process control. Feed back system. Concept of Laplace transformation. Control loop and its components. Working mechanism of pneumatic, hydraulic and electronic controller. Choice of controller settings. Principles of measurement and control for temperature (including furnace temperatures). pressure and liquid level in chemical processes. Section 9 Chemical process principles for manufacture of ammonia, superphosphate, urea and mineral acids. Principles and applications of nitration, sulphonation, alkylation and hydrolysis. Principles of corrosion, and materials for construction of process equipment. Treatment of industrial effluents and water recycle. BOD and COD. Section 10 Profitability criteria: Selection of alternatives. Depreciation, cash flow, discounted cash flow, return on investment and cost estimation. Bar-chart, PERT and critical path method. Simple optimization methods viz. Lagrange’s multiplier techniques, linear programming, and general method of differentiation. Scaleup of heat exchangers and pipe lines. Design of storage vessels for pressure and vacuum. Principles of industrial management.
40. Electronics and Instrumentation
PAPER-I (B) AND PAPER-II
Section 1: Semiconductor devices PN diode, PIN diode, Zener, Varactor, shotkey and Tunnel diode, LED. BJI, JFET, MOSFET, THYRISTOR, UJT Operation characteristics and equivalent circuit. Biasing of BJT and JFET. Operating point and its stability. Section 2: Diode Applications Reatifier and filters, wave shaping and clamping. Zener diode as voltage regulator Introduction to regulated power supply. Section 3: Amplifiers and Oscillators Small singnal analysis of BJT, JFET amplifiers, cascading and cascoding, Frequency response of RC coupled amplifier. Introduction to tuned amplifier. Feed back (series and shunt), Voltage and current feedback. Oscillators, Operational amplifier and its application in analog computation, DIFF-AMP using three op-amps frequency response and compensation. Classification of amplifiers, power amplifiers, push-pull amplifiers. Section 4: Digital Electronics Transistor as switch. Logic gates, Arithmatic binary adders and subtractor, Enoder and Decoder, Controlled inverter, 1’S, 2’S, 9’S, Complement generator. Karnaught map Flip flops, Register and Counter. A/D and D/A converter Introduction to Microprocessor. Section 5: (Radio Electronics) Modulation and demodulation circuits for AM, FM, PM Transmission and reception of radio signal. Elementary antenna and propagation. Introduction to satellite and optical communication. Section 6: Basic Measurements and Laboratory Instruments Basic electrical standars, errors in measurement. Measurement of current, Voltage and power.
ELECTRONICS AND INSTRUMENTATION
Electronic voltmeter and multimeter Thermoelectronic voltmeter for true RMS measurement. AC and DC potentiomenters, Bridges, CRO, XY recorder. Digital instruments for measuring current, voltage, time, resistance and frequency. Section 7: Measurement of Non-electrical quantity Transducers, instrumentation amplifier. Signal conditioning, measurement of displacement, force, torque, pressure, strain. velocity temperature. Data acquisition, and introduction to telemetry Fiber optic sensors single mode and multimode type. Measurement of humidity absorption. Section 8: Automatic Controls Feedback principal in control systems Servo systems Self balancing potentiometers Various controller and their characteristics PLS in process control.
Appendix -1 ARS/NET DISCIPLINES AND SUB-DISCIPLINE FOR EXAMINATION- 2007
S.No. Main Discipline 1 2 3 Agronomy Agri. Chemicals and Chemistry Soil Science Sub-discipline • Agronomy • Agri. Chemistry • Agri. Chemicals/Organic Chemistry • Pedology • Soil Chemistry Fertility • Soil Physics, Soil and Water Conservation 4 Agril.Physics and Meteorology • Agri.Physics • Agril. Meteorology • Soil Physics, Soil & Water Conservation 5 6 Seed Science and Technology Crop Improvement • Seed Technology • Genetics • Plant Breeding • Economic Botany 7 8 9 Agri. Entomology Plant Pathology Plant Biochemistry and Plant Physiology 10 11 12 Agricultural Biotechnology Agri. Microbiology Horticulture • Agri. Entomology • Plant Pathology • Nematology • Biochemistry (Plant Science) • Plant Physiology • Biotechnology (Agri. Science) • Microbiology (Agri.) • Fruit Science • Vegetable Science 13 14 15 Agri. Structures & Process Engineering Agri. Machinery and Energy Land and Water Management Engineering and Technology Home Science & Family Resource Management Enviromental Science • Floriculture • Agril. Structures and Process Engineering • Farm Machinery and Power • Soil & Water Conservation Engineering • • • • Soil and Water Management Child Development Home Management/Family Resource Management Textile & Clothing
• Environmental Science
18 19 20 21
Forestry Food Science & Technology Ecnomics and Agri. Business Management Agri. Tech. Transfer
• Forestry • Food & Nutrition • Food Science & Technology • Agricultural Ecnomics • Agri. Extension • Home Science Extension • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Veterinary Extension Education Aquaculture Fish & Fishery Science Aquaculture Engineering Fish Processing Technology Agril. Statistics Computer Application in Agril. Biotechnology (Animal Science) Biochemistry (Animal Science) Veterinary Microbiology Veterinary Public Health Veterinary Parasitology Vety. Pathology Dairy Chemistry Dairy Microbiology Dairy Processing Dairy Engineering Animal Genetics & Breeding Animal Nutrition Animal Physiology Animal Reproduction & Gynaecology LPM Veterinary Pharmacology Vety. Medicine Vety. Anatomy Vety, Surgery Poultry Science Livestock Products Technology
22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
Aquaculture Fisheries Science Fish Harvest and Post Harvest Technology Statistics and Computer Application Animal Biotechnology Veterinary Microbiology Veterinary Pathology & Parasitology Dairy Chemistry & Microbiology Dairy Engineering & Technology Animal Genetics & Breeding Animal Physiology & Nutrition Animal Reproduction Livestock Production & Management Vety. Pharmacology & Medicine Vety. Anatomy & Surgery Poultry Science & Technology Animal Product Technology Chemical Engineering Electronics & Instrumentation
Published by the Chairman, Agricultural Scientists' Recruitment Board, KAB I, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012. Lasertypeset by M/s Print-O-World, 2579, Mandir Lane, Shadipur, New Delhi 110 008, and printed at M/s Chandu Press, D-97, Shakarpur, Delhi 110 092.